Sample records for chamaedoreeae supports eocene

  1. A dated phylogeny of the palm tribe Chamaedoreeae supports Eocene dispersal between Africa, North and South America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuenca-Navarro, Argelia; Lange, Conny Bruun Asmussen; Borchsenius, Finn


    The palm tribe Chamaedoreeae reaches its higher diversity in Central America, however, its distribution ranges from the north eastern part of Mexico to Bolivia with a disjunction to the Mascarene Islands in the Indian Ocean. The disjunct distribution of Chamaedoreeae is generally considered a res...

  2. Asian monsoons in a late Eocene greenhouse world (United States)

    Licht, A.; van Cappelle, M.; Abels, H. A.; Ladant, J.-B.; Trabucho-Alexandre, J.; France-Lanord, C.; Donnadieu, Y.; Vandenberghe, J.; Rigaudier, T.; Lécuyer, C.; Terry, D., Jr.; Adriaens, R.; Boura, A.; Guo, Z.; Soe, Aung Naing; Quade, J.; Dupont-Nivet, G.; Jaeger, J.-J.


    The strong present-day Asian monsoons are thought to have originated between 25 and 22 million years (Myr) ago, driven by Tibetan-Himalayan uplift. However, the existence of older Asian monsoons and their response to enhanced greenhouse conditions such as those in the Eocene period (55-34 Myr ago) are unknown because of the paucity of well-dated records. Here we show late Eocene climate records revealing marked monsoon-like patterns in rainfall and wind south and north of the Tibetan-Himalayan orogen. This is indicated by low oxygen isotope values with strong seasonality in gastropod shells and mammal teeth from Myanmar, and by aeolian dust deposition in northwest China. Our climate simulations support modern-like Eocene monsoonal rainfall and show that a reinforced hydrological cycle responding to enhanced greenhouse conditions counterbalanced the negative effect of lower Tibetan relief on precipitation. These strong monsoons later weakened with the global shift to icehouse conditions 34 Myr ago.

  3. Silica burp in the Eocene ocean (United States)

    McGowran, Brian


    The Eocene was a time of greatly increased silica accumulation in the ocean, and the peak was in the early middle Eocene at about 50 Ma. The responsible geohistorical configuration included the following elements: extensive volcanism about 4 m.y. earlier, as part of the Chron 24 plate reorganization; early Eocene warming, with deep weathering to high latitudes and accumulation of the released silica in a sluggish ocean; and sharp cooling in the earliest middle Eocene, stimulating oceanic upwelling and biosilicification. It is possible, on the evidence of carbon and oxygen isotopic patterns, that the trigger for the exhalation of silica was a reverse greenhouse effect.

  4. Eocene diversification of crown group rails (Aves: Gruiformes: Rallidae.

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    Juan C García-R

    Full Text Available Central to our understanding of the timing of bird evolution is debate about an apparent conflict between fossil and molecular data. A deep age for higher level taxa within Neoaves is evident from molecular analyses but much remains to be learned about the age of diversification in modern bird families and their evolutionary ecology. In order to better understand the timing and pattern of diversification within the family Rallidae we used a relaxed molecular clock, fossil calibrations, and complete mitochondrial genomes from a range of rallid species analysed in a Bayesian framework. The estimated time of origin of Rallidae is Eocene, about 40.5 Mya, with evidence of intrafamiliar diversification from the Late Eocene to the Miocene. This timing is older than previously suggested for crown group Rallidae, but fossil calibrations, extent of taxon sampling and substantial sequence data give it credence. We note that fossils of Eocene age tentatively assigned to Rallidae are consistent with our findings. Compared to available studies of other bird lineages, the rail clade is old and supports an inference of deep ancestry of ground-dwelling habits among Neoaves.

  5. Diversity of cingulate xenarthrans in the middle-late Eocene of Northwestern Argentina

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    Martín R. Ciancio


    Full Text Available The study of Paleogene mammals of intermediate and low latitudes has increased in the last decades and has been clearly demonstrated their importance in the comprehension of the evolution and faunistic changes outside Patagonia. The study of these faunas permits establishing new comparisons among contemporaneous faunistic associations, completing the distributional patterns, and evaluating evolutionary changes in the lineages in relation to climatic conditions prevailing in each of the different regions. In this work we study the diversity of Dasypodidae recovered from the Geste Formation (Northwestern Argentina. Bearing levels of Geste Formation were referred alternatively to a Barrancan subage of Casamayoran SALMA (middle Eocene, Lutetian–Bartonian or a Mustersan SALMA (middle–late Eocene, Bartonian–Priabonian on faunistic comparations with their equivalent in Patagonia, although absolute isotopic data indicates ca. 37–35 Ma (late Eocene, Priabonian. We described the following taxa of Dasypodidae: (i Dasypodinae Astegotheriini: cf. Astegotherium sp., ?Prostegotherium sp., Parastegosimpsonia cf. P. peruana; (ii Dasypodinae indet.; (iii Euphractinae Euphractini: Parutaetus punaensis sp. nov.; (iv Dasypodidae incertae sedis: Pucatherium parvum, Punatherium catamarcensis gen. et sp. nov. In comparison with other beds bearing Eocene cingulate faunas from Northwestern Argentina, Geste Formation presents the greatest diversity of dasypodids. This association is consistent with a late Eocene age and shows a taxonomic and biogeographic relevant features given by a unique specific composition: (i it differs from that known for contemporaneous faunas from Southern latitudes and younger associations from more tropical areas; (ii it includes genera with close affinities to those distant areas; (iii it presents unique taxa typical from Eocene units exposed at Northwestern Argentina. This highlights the evolutionary and biogeographic meaning of the

  6. Pre-Eocene rocks of Java, Indonesia (United States)

    Ketner, Keith B.; Kastowo; Modjo, Subroto; Naeser, C.W.; Obradovich, J.D.; Robinson, Keith; Suptandar, Tatan; Wikarno


    The exposed pre-Eocene rocks of Java can be divided into two compound units for purposes of reconnaissance mapping and structural interpretation: a sedimentary sequence and melange. The sedimentary sequence consists of moderately deformed and little-metamorphosed conglomerate, sandstone, mudstone, claystone, chert, and limestone. The melange consists of a chaotic mechanical mixture of rocks identical to those of the sedimentary sequence and their metamorphic equivalents, such as schist, phyllite, quartzite, and marble. In addition, it contains a large proportion of quartz porphyry and smaller amounts of granite, basalt, gabbro, peridotite, pyroxenite, and serpentinite. The sedimentary sequence is at least partly of Early Cretaceous age and the melange is of Early Cretaceous to very early Paleocene age. They are overlain unconformably by Eocene rocks. The presence in the melange of blocks of quartz porphyry and granite is not easily reconcilable with current plate tectonic concepts in which the sites of formation of melange and plutonic rocks should be hundreds of kilometres apart.

  7. Nummulite biostratigraphy of the Eocene succession in the Bahariya Depression, Egypt: Implications for timing of iron mineralization (United States)

    Afify, A. M.; Serra-Kiel, J.; Sanz-Montero, M. E.; Calvo, J. P.; Sallam, E. S.


    In the northern part of the Bahariya Depression (Western Desert, Egypt) the Eocene carbonate succession, unconformably overlying the Cretaceous deposits, consists of three main stratigraphic units; the Naqb, Qazzun and El Hamra formations. The Eocene carbonates are relevant as they locally host a large economic iron mineralization. This work revises the stratigraphic attribution of the Eocene formations on the basis of larger benthic foraminifers from both carbonate and ironstone beds. Eight Nummulites species spanning the late Ypresian - early Bartonian (SBZ12 to SBZ17) were identified, thus refining the chronostratigraphic framework of the Eocene in that region of Central Egypt. Moreover, additional sedimentological insight of the Eocene carbonate rocks is presented. The carbonate deposits mainly represent shallow marine facies characteristic of inner to mid ramp settings; though deposits interpreted as intertidal to supratidal are locally recognized. Dating of Nummulites assemblages from the youngest ironstone beds in the mines as early Bartonian provides crucial information on the timing of the hydrothermal and meteoric water processes resulting in the formation of the iron ore mineralization. The new data strongly support a post-depositional, structurally-controlled formation model for the ironstone mineralization of the Bahariya Depression.

  8. Eustatic variations during the Paleocene-Eocene greenhouse world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluijs, A.; Brinkhuis, H.; Crouch, E.M.; John, C.M.; Handley, L.; Munsterman, D.; Bohaty, S.M.; Zachos, J.C.; Reichart, G.-J.; Schouten, S.; Pancost, R.D.; Damsté, J.S.S.; Welters, N.L.D.; Lotter, A.F.; Dickens, G.R.


    We reconstruct eustatic variations during the latest Paleocene and earliest Eocene (∼58-52 Ma). Dinoflagellate cysts, grain size fractions, and organic biomarkers in marine sections at four sites from three continents indicate an increased distance to the coast during the Paleocene-Eocene thermal ma

  9. Early Eocene birds from La Borie, southern France

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourdon, Estelle; Mourer-Chauviré, Cécile; Laurent, Yves


    The Early Eocene locality of La Borie is located in the village of Saint-Papoul, in southern France. These Eocene fluvio-lacustrine clay deposits have yielded numerous vertebrate remains. Mammalian taxa found in the fossiliferous levels indicate an age near the reference level MP 8–9, which corre...

  10. Early Eocene birds from La Borie, southern France

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    Estelle Bourdon


    Full Text Available The early Eocene locality of La Borie is located in the village of Saint-Papoul, in southern France. These Eocene flu-vio-lacustrine clay deposits have yielded numerous vertebrate remains. Mammalian taxa found in the fossiliferous levels indicate an age near the reference level MP 8–9, which corresponds to the middle Ypresian, early Eocene. Here we provide a detailed description of the avian remains that were preliminarily reported in a recent study of the vertebrate fauna from La Borie. A maxilla, a quadrate, cervical vertebrae, a femur and two tibiotarsi are assigned to the giant ground bird Gastornis parisiensis (Gastornithidae. These new avian remains add to the fossil record of Gastornis, which is known from the late Paleocene to middle Eocene of Europe, early Eocene of Asia and early Eocene of North America. Gastornis parisiensis differs from the North American Gastornis giganteus in several features, including the more ventral position of the narial openings and the slender orbital process of quadrate. Two tibiotarsi and one tarsometatarsus are assigned to a new genus and species of Geranoididae, Galligeranoides boriensis gen. et sp. nov. So far, this family was known only from the early and middle Eocene of North America. The fossils from La Borie constitute the first record of the Geranoididae in Europe. We show that Gastornis coexisted with the Geranoididae in the early Eocene of both Europe (La Borie and North America (Willwood Formation. The presence of Geranoididae and the large flightless bird Gastornis on either side of the present-day North Atlantic provides further evidence that a high-latitude land connection existed between Europe and North America in the early Eocene.

  11. The demise of the early Eocene greenhouse - Decoupled deep and surface water cooling in the eastern North Atlantic (United States)

    Bornemann, André; D'haenens, Simon; Norris, Richard D.; Speijer, Robert P.


    Early Paleogene greenhouse climate culminated during the early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO, 50 to 53 Ma). This episode of global warmth is subsequently followed by an almost 20 million year-long cooling trend leading to the Eocene-Oligocene glaciation of Antarctica. Here we present the first detailed planktic and benthic foraminiferal isotope single site record (δ13C, δ18O) of late Paleocene to middle Eocene age from the North Atlantic (Deep Sea Drilling Project Site 401, Bay of Biscay). Good core recovery in combination with well preserved foraminifera makes this site suitable for correlations and comparison with previously published long-term records from the Pacific Ocean (e.g. Allison Guyot, Shatsky Rise), the Southern Ocean (Maud Rise) and the equatorial Atlantic (Demerara Rise). Whereas our North Atlantic benthic foraminiferal δ18O and δ13C data agree with the global trend showing the long-term shift toward heavier δ18O values, we only observe minor surface water δ18O changes during the middle Eocene (if at all) in planktic foraminiferal data. Apparently, the surface North Atlantic did not cool substantially during the middle Eocene. Thus, the North Atlantic appears to have had a different surface ocean cooling history during the middle Eocene than the southern hemisphere, whereas cooler deep-water masses were comparatively well mixed. Our results are in agreement with previously published findings from Tanzania, which also support the idea of a muted post-EECO surface-water cooling outside the southern high-latitudes.

  12. Studies in neotropical paleobotany. XIV. A palynoflora from the middle Eocene Saramaguacan formation of Cuba (United States)

    Graham, A.; Cozadd, D.; Areces-Mallea, A.; Frederiksen, N.O.


    An assemblage of 46 fossil pollen and spore types is described from a core drilled through the middle Eocene Saramaguacan Formation, Camaguey Province, eastern Cuba. Many of the specimens represent unidentified or extinct taxa but several can be identified to family (Palmae, Bombacaceae, Gramineae, Moraceae, Myrtaceae) and some to genus (Pteris, Crudia, Lymingtonia?). The paleo-climate was warm-temperate to subtropical which is consistent with other floras in the region of comparable age and with the global paleotemperature curve. Older plate tectonic models show a variety of locations for proto-Cuba during Late Cretaceous and later times, including along the norther coast of South America. More recent models depict western and central Cuba as two separate parts until the Eocene, and eastern Cuba (joined to northern Hispaniola) docking to central Cuba also in the Eocene. All fragments are part of the North American Plate and none were directly connected with northern South America in late Mesozoic or Cenozoic time. The Saramaguacan flora supports this model because the assemblage is distinctly North American in affinities, with only one type (Retimonocolpites type 1) found elsewhere only in South America.

  13. Cool-water Eocene-Oligocene carbonate sedimentation on a paleobathymetric high, Kangaroo Island, southern Australia (United States)

    James, Noel P.; Matenaar, Joanne; Bone, Yvonne


    The Kingscote Limestone is a thin, biofragmental ~ 41 m thick Paleogene subtropical to cool-temperate carbonate interpreted to have accumulated in a seaway developed between a series of mid-shelf islands. It is a pivotal section that allows interpretation of a region in which there is little exposure of early Cenozoic shelf sediments. Sedimentation occurred on part of the shelf along the northern margin of an extensive Eocene embayment that evolved into a narrow Oligocene ocean following collapse of the Tasman Gateway. Eocene strata are subtropical echinoid-rich floatstones with conspicuous bryozoans, and mollusks, together with large and small benthic foraminifers. Numerous echinoid rudstone storm deposits punctuate the succession. Correlation with coeval Eocene strata across southern Australia supports a regional facies model wherein inner neritic biosiliceous spiculitic sediments passed outboard into calcareous facies. The silica was derived from land covered by a thriving subtropical forest and attendant deep weathering. Oligocene rocks are distinctively cooler cyclic cross-bedded bryozoan rudstones and floatstones with a similar benthic biota but dominated by bryozoans and containing no large benthic foraminifers. These deposits are interpreted as flood-dominated tidal subaqueous dunes that formed in a flood-tide dominated inter-island strait. Omission surfaces at the top of the Eocene and at the top of most Oligocene cycles are Fe-stained hardgrounds that underwent extensive multigeneration seafloor and meteoric diagenesis prior to deposition of the next cycle. Cycles in the Kingscote Limestone, although mostly m-scale and compositionally distinct are similar to those across the region and point to a recurring cycle motif controlled by icehouse eustasy and local paleogeography.

  14. Primate tarsal bones from Egerkingen, Switzerland, attributable to the middle Eocene adapiform Caenopithecus lemuroides

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    Erik R. Seiffert


    Full Text Available The middle Eocene species Caenopithecus lemuroides, known solely from the Egerkingen fissure fillings in Switzerland, was the first Paleogene fossil primate to be correctly identified as such (by Ludwig Rütimeyer in 1862, but has long been represented only by fragmentary mandibular and maxillary remains. More recent discoveries of adapiform fossils in other parts of the world have revealed Caenopithecus to be a biogeographic enigma, as it is potentially more closely related to Eocene adapiforms from Africa, Asia, and North America than it is to any known European forms. More anatomical evidence is needed, however, to provide robust tests of such phylogenetic hypotheses. Here we describe and analyze the first postcranial remains that can be attributed to C. lemuroides—an astragalus and three calcanei held in the collections of the Naturhistorisches Museum Basel that were likely recovered from Egerkingen over a century ago. Qualitative and multivariate morphometric analyses of these elements suggest that C. lemuroides was even more loris-like than European adapines such as Adapis and Leptadapis, and was not simply an adapine with an aberrant dentition. The astragalus of Caenopithecus is similar to that of younger Afradapis from the late Eocene of Egypt, and parsimony and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses that include the new tarsal data strongly support the placement of Afradapis and Caenopithecus as sister taxa to the exclusion of all other known adapiforms, thus implying that dispersal between Europe and Africa occurred during the middle Eocene. The new tarsal evidence, combined with previously known craniodental fossils, allows us to reconstruct C. lemuroides as having been an arboreal and highly folivorous 1.5–2.5 kg primate that likely moved slowly and deliberately with little or no capacity for acrobatic leaping, presumably maintaining consistent powerful grasps on branches in both above-branch and inverted postures.

  15. Postcranial materials of Pondaung mammals (middle Eocene, Myanmar)


    Egi, Naoko; Tsubamoto, Takehisa; Nishimura, Takeshi; SHIGEHARA , Nobuo


    Diversity of the Pondaung mammalian fauna (middle Eocene Myanmar) has been explored based on the dental materials. In this paper, we provided photos of skeletal materials of a rodent, carnivores, artiodactyls, and perissodactyls. Postcranial morphology of the endemic Pondaung mammals are compared with those of related fossil species from North America and Europe, revealing additional postcranial diversity in Eocene carnivorans, dichobunid artiodactyls, ruminants, and chalicotherioid perissoda...

  16. Late Paleocene-early Eocene carbon isotope stratigraphy from a near-terrestrial tropical section and antiquity of Indian mammals (United States)

    Samanta, A.; Sarkar, A.; Bera, M. K.; Rai, Jyotsana; Rathore, S. S.


    Late Paleocene to early Eocene (~56 to 51 Ma) interval is characterized by five distinct transient warming (hyperthermal) events (Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM), H1/ETM2/ELMO, H2, I1 and I2) in a super greenhouse globe associated with negative carbon isotope excursions (CIEs). Although well-documented marine records exist at different latitudes, terrestrial PETM sections are rare. In particular, almost no terrestrial records of either the PETM or early Eocene hyperthermals (EEHs) are yet available from the tropics. Further, evolution of modern order of mammals near the PETM has been recorded in many northern continents; however, the response of mammals in the tropics to these warming events is unknown. A tropical terrestrial record of these hyperthermal/CIE events, encompassing the earliest modern order mammal bearing horizon from India, can therefore be vital in understanding climatic and biotic evolution during the earliest Cenozoic time. Here, for the first time, we report high resolution carbon isotope ( δ 13C) stratigraphy, nannofossil, and Sr isotope ratio of marine fossil carbonate from the Cambay Shale Formation of Western India. The record shows complete preservation of all the above CIE events, including the PETM, hitherto unknown from the equatorial terrestrial records. δ 13C chemostratigraphy further suggests that at least the present early Eocene mammal-bearing horizon, recently discovered at Vastan, does not support the `out of India' hypothesis of earliest appearance of modern mammals and subsequent dispersal to the Holarctic continents.

  17. Late Paleocene–early Eocene carbon isotope stratigraphy from a near-terrestrial tropical section and antiquity of Indian mammals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Samanta; A Sarkar; M K Bera; Jyotsana Rai; S S Rathore


    Late Paleocene to early Eocene (∼56 to 51 Ma) interval is characterized by five distinct transient warming (hyperthermal) events (Paleocene–Eocene thermal maximum (PETM), H1/ETM2/ELMO, H2, I1 and I2) in a super greenhouse globe associated with negative carbon isotope excursions (CIEs). Although well-documented marine records exist at different latitudes, terrestrial PETM sections are rare. In particular, almost no terrestrial records of either the PETM or early Eocene hyperthermals (EEHs) are yet available from the tropics. Further, evolution of modern order of mammals near the PETM has been recorded in many northern continents; however, the response of mammals in the tropics to these warming events is unknown. A tropical terrestrial record of these hyperthermal/CIE events, encompassing the earliest modern order mammal bearing horizon from India, can therefore be vital in understanding climatic and biotic evolution during the earliest Cenozoic time. Here, for the first time, we report high resolution carbon isotope (13C) stratigraphy, nannofossil, and Sr isotope ratio of marine fossil carbonate from the Cambay Shale Formation of Western India. The record shows complete preservation of all the above CIE events, including the PETM, hitherto unknown from the equatorial terrestrial records. 13C chemostratigraphy further suggests that at least the present early Eocene mammal-bearing horizon, recently discovered at Vastan, does not support the `out of India' hypothesis of earliest appearance of modern mammals and subsequent dispersal to the Holarctic continents.

  18. Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum and the Opening of the Northeast Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storey, Michael; Duncan, Robert A.; Swisher, III, Carl C.


    The Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM) has been attributed to a sudden release of carbon dioxide and/or methane. 40Ar/39Ar age determinations show that the Danish Ash-17 deposit, which overlies the PETM by about 450,000 years in the Atlantic, and the Skraenterne Formation Tuff, representing.......3 million years ago, marked by the eruption of mid-ocean ridge basalt-like flows. These correlations support the view that the PETM was triggered by greenhouse gas release during magma interaction with basin-filling carbon-rich sedimentary rocks proximal to the embryonic plate boundary between Greenland...

  19. Antarctic birds (Neornithes during the Cretaceous-Eocene times

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    C. Tambussi


    Full Text Available Antarctic fossil birds can be confidently assigned to modern orders and families, such as a goose-like anseriform, two loon-like and a seriema-like, all recorded before the K/T boundary at the López de Bertodano Fomation. Also, the discovery of a ratite and a phororhacids from the uppermost levels of the Submeseta Allomember (Late Eocene, suggests that West Antarctica was functional to dispersal routes obligate terrestrial birds. Representatives of Falconiformes Polyborinae, Ciconiiformes, Phoenicoteriformes, Charadriiformes, Pelagornitidae and Diomedeidae constitute the non-penguin avian assemblages of the Eocene of La Meseta Formation. Fifthteen Antarctic species of penguins have been described including the oldest penguin of West Antarctica, Croswallia unienwillia. The Anthropornis nordenskjoeldi Biozone (36.13 and 34.2 Ma, Late Eocene is characterized by bearing one of the highest frequencies of penguin bones and the phospatic brachiopod Lingula., together with remains of Gadiforms, sharks and primitive mysticete whales. Anthropornis nordenskjoeldi, Delphinornis gracilis, D. arctowski, Archaeospheniscus lopdelli, and Palaeeudyptes antarcticus are exclusively of the La Meseta Formation. Anthropornis nordenskjoeldi was evidently the largest penguin recorded at the James Ross Basin, whereas Delphinornis arctowski is the smallest, and include one of the worldwide highest morphological and taxonomic penguin diversity living sympatrically. The progressive climate cooling of the Eocene could have affected the penguin populations, because of climatic changes linked with habitat availability and food web processes. However, there is not available evidence about Antarctic penguins' evolution after the end of the Eocene.

  20. Large amplitude variations in carbon cycling and terrestrial weathering during the latest Paleocene and earliest Eocene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slotnick, B.S.; Dickens, G.R.; Nicolo, M.J.; Hollis, C.J.; Crampton, J.S.; Strong, C.P.; Zachos, J.C.; Sluijs, A.; Lourens, L.; Lauretano, V.


    Global temperatures rose ~6°C from the late Paleocene ca. 58 Ma to the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO) ca. 52–50 Ma. Superimposed, were certainly two geologically brief (< 200 kyr) intervals of extreme warming, the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM) and Eocene thermal maximum 2 (ETM-2 or H

  1. Derived, still living cockroach genus Cariblattoides (Blattida: Blattellidae) from the Eocene sediments of Green River in Colorado, USA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter Vr(s)ansk(y); Lubomir Vidli(c)ka; Fedor (C)iampor Jr; Finnegan Marsh


    Cariblattoides labandeirai sp.n.from the Eocene sediments of Green River in Colorado,USA bear only two plesiomorphies,but also several significant autapomorphies within the advanced and highly derived living cockroach genus.Thus,Cariblattoides with extant occurrence in the Caribbean and South America was historically common in the Nearctic,and represents important evidence for the occurrence of derived living genera of cockroaches ~50 Ma ago.Generally,the vast majority of living genera were absent during the Palaeocene,thus the diversification of most living cockroach lineages near the Palaeocene/Eocene boundary must have been extremely rapid.Females of living C.suave,the type species,have identical (sophisticated) coloration of pronotum,but the most related living taxa are C.piraiensis and C.fontesi from Brazil (supported by phylogenetical analysis).

  2. Scaled biotic disruption during early Eocene global warming events

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    S. J. Gibbs


    Full Text Available Late Paleocene and early Eocene hyperthermals are transient warming events associated with massive perturbations of the global carbon cycle, and are considered partial analogues for current anthropogenic climate change. Because the magnitude of carbon release varied between the events, they are natural experiments ideal for exploring the relationship between carbon cycle perturbations, climate change and biotic response. Here we quantify marine biotic variability through three million years of the early Eocene that include five hyperthermals, utilizing a method that allows us to integrate the records of different plankton groups through scenarios ranging from background to major extinction events. Our long time-series calcareous nannoplankton record indicates a scaling of biotic disruption to climate change associated with the amount of carbon released during the various hyperthermals. Critically, only the three largest hyperthermals, the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 (ETM2 and the I1 event, show above-background variance, suggesting that the magnitude of carbon input and associated climate change needs to surpass a threshold value to cause significant biotic disruption.

  3. High bat (Chiroptera) diversity in the Early Eocene of India (United States)

    Smith, Thierry; Rana, Rajendra S.; Missiaen, Pieter; Rose, Kenneth D.; Sahni, Ashok; Singh, Hukam; Singh, Lachham


    The geographic origin of bats is still unknown, and fossils of earliest bats are rare and poorly diversified, with, maybe, the exception of Europe. The earliest bats are recorded from the Early Eocene of North America, Europe, North Africa and Australia where they seem to appear suddenly and simultaneously. Until now, the oldest record in Asia was from the Middle Eocene. In this paper, we report the discovery of the oldest bat fauna of Asia dating from the Early Eocene of the Cambay Formation at Vastan Lignite Mine in Western India. The fossil taxa are described on the basis of well-preserved fragments of dentaries and lower teeth. The fauna is highly diversified and is represented by seven species belonging to seven genera and at least four families. Two genera and five species are new. Three species exhibit very primitive dental characters, whereas four others indicate more advanced states. Unexpectedly, this fauna presents strong affinities with the European faunas from the French Paris Basin and the German Messel locality. This could result from the limited fossil record of bats in Asia, but could also suggest new palaeobiogeographic scenarios involving the relative position of India during the Early Eocene.

  4. New taxa of Tanyderidae (Diptera) from Eocene Baltic amber. (United States)

    Krzeminski, Wiesław; Krzeminska, Ewa; Kania, Iwona; Ross, Andrew J


    Macrochile hornei sp. nov. from Baltic amber (Upper Eocene) is described and illustrated. Podemacrochile gen. nov. is described with Podemacrochile baltica (Podenas, 1997) as type species. A key to the genera and species of Tanyderidae known from Baltic amber is presented. PMID:24583815

  5. Rapid Middle Eocene temperature change in western North America (United States)

    Methner, Katharina; Mulch, Andreas; Fiebig, Jens; Wacker, Ulrike; Gerdes, Axel; Graham, Stephan A.; Chamberlain, C. Page


    Eocene hyperthermals are among the most enigmatic phenomena of Cenozoic climate dynamics. These hyperthermals represent temperature extremes superimposed on an already warm Eocene climate and dramatically affected the marine and terrestrial biosphere, yet our knowledge of temperature and rainfall in continental interiors is still rather limited. We present stable isotope (δ18O) and clumped isotope temperature (Δ47) records from a middle Eocene (41 to 40 Ma) high-elevation mammal fossil locality in the North American continental interior (Montana, USA). Δ47 paleotemperatures of soil carbonates delineate a rapid +9/-11 °C temperature excursion in the paleosol record. Δ47 temperatures progressively increase from 23 °C ± 3 °C to peak temperatures of 32 °C ± 3 °C and subsequently drop by 11 °C. This hyperthermal event in the middle Eocene is accompanied by low δ18O values and reduced pedogenic carbonate concentrations in paleosols. Based on laser ablation U/Pb geochronology of paleosol carbonates in combination with magnetostratigraphy, biostratigraphy, stable isotope, and Δ47 evidence, we suggest that this pronounced warming event reflects the Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum (MECO) in western North America. The terrestrial expression of northern hemisphere MECO in western North America appears to be characterized by warmer and wetter (sub-humid) conditions, compared to the post-MECO phase. Large and rapid shifts in δ18O values of precipitation and pedogenic CaCO3 contents parallel temperature changes, indicating the profound impact of the MECO on atmospheric circulation and rainfall patterns in the western North American continental interior during this transient warming event.

  6. Seasonal variability in Arctic temperatures during the early Eocene (United States)

    Eberle, J. J.; Fricke, H. C.; Humphrey, J.; Hackett, L.; Newbrey, M.; Hutchison, H.


    As a deep time analog for today’s rapidly warming Arctic region, early Eocene (~53 Ma) rocks on Ellesmere Island, Arctic Canada (~79° N.) preserve evidence of lush swamp forests inhabited by turtles, alligators, primates, tapirs, and hippo-like Coryphodon. Although the rich flora and fauna of the early Eocene Arctic imply warmer, wetter conditions that at present, quantitative estimates of Eocene Arctic climate are rare. By analyzing oxygen isotope ratios of biogenic phosphate from mammal, fish, and turtle fossils from a single locality on central Ellesmere Island, we provide estimates of early Eocene Arctic temperature, including mean annual temperature (MAT) of ~ 8° C, mean annual range in temperature (MART) of ~ 16.5° C, warm month mean temperature (WMMT) of 16 - 19° C, and cold month mean temperature (CMMT) of 0 - 1° C. Our seasonal range in temperature is similar to the range in estimated MAT obtained using different proxies. In particular, unusually high estimates of early Eocene Arctic MAT and sea surface temperature (SST) by others that are based upon the distribution of branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether (GDGT) membrane lipids in terrestrial soil bacteria and marine Crenarchaeota fall within our range of WMMT, suggesting a bias towards summer values. Consequently, caution should be taken when using these methods to infer MAT and SST that, in turn, are used to constrain climate models. From a paleontologic perspective, our temperature estimates verify that alligators and tortoises, by way of nearest living relative-based climatic inference, are viable paleoclimate proxies for mild, above-freezing year-round temperatures. Although in both of these reptiles, past temperature tolerances were greater than in their living descendants.

  7. Modeling the influence of a reduced equator-to-pole sea surface temperature gradient on the distribution of water isotopes in the Early/Middle Eocene (United States)

    Speelman, Eveline N.; Sewall, Jacob O.; Noone, David; Huber, Matthew; der Heydt, Anna von; Damsté, Jaap Sinninghe; Reichart, Gert-Jan


    Proxy-based climate reconstructions suggest the existence of a strongly reduced equator-to-pole temperature gradient during the Azolla interval in the Early/Middle Eocene, compared to modern. Changes in the hydrological cycle, as a consequence of a reduced temperature gradient, are expected to be reflected in the isotopic composition of precipitation (δD, δ 18O). The interpretation of water isotopic records to quantitatively reconstruct past precipitation patterns is, however, hampered by a lack of detailed information on changes in their spatial and temporal distribution. Using the isotope-enabled version of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) atmospheric general circulation model, Community Atmosphere Model v.3 (isoCAM3), relationships between water isotopes and past climates can be simulated. Here we examine the influence of an imposed reduced meridional sea surface temperature gradient on the spatial distribution of precipitation and its isotopic composition in an Early/Middle Eocene setting. As a result of the applied forcings, the Eocene simulation predicts the occurrence of less depleted high latitude precipitation, with δD values ranging only between 0 and -140‰ (compared to Present-day 0 to -300‰). Comparison with Early/Middle Eocene-age isotopic proxy data shows that the simulation accurately captures the main features of the spatial distribution of the isotopic composition of Early/Middle Eocene precipitation over land in conjunction with the aspects of the modeled Early/Middle Eocene climate. Hence, the included stable isotope module quantitatively supports the existence of a reduced meridional temperature gradient during this interval.

  8. Insights into the Tectonic Evolution of the North American Cordilleran Hinterland from Detrital Zircon Double Dating of the Eocene Elko Formation (United States)

    Canada, A.; Cassel, E. J.; Smith, M. E.; Stockli, D. F.; Jicha, B. R.; Singer, B. S.


    The North American Cordilleran hinterland, from eastern Nevada to western Utah, is the product of Mesozoic crustal thickening and eventual orogen collapse. In NE Nevada, the Eocene Elko Formation represents ~10 Myr of high-elevation (up to 3.5 km) lacustrine deposition within a Paleogene orogenic plateau interior, prior to Neogene extensional collapse. Detrital zircon U-Pb and (U-Th)/He (ZHe) double dating from the Elko Formation constrains the timing and magnitude of tectonic-scale processes as well as the evolution of hinterland paleohydrology and magmatism. Eocene maximum depositional ages from detrital zircon are largely consistent with new single crystal sanidine 40Ar/39Ar ages for Elko Formation tuff beds. U-Pb-He double dating of Eocene sediments supports several phases of exhumation and surface uplift in the hinterland. ZHe ages, combined with U-Pb geochronology, clast assemblages, and paleocurrent analysis suggest a significant amount of detritus from the Roberts Mountain Allochthon (RMA) and back-arc plutons was transported to the Elko Basin during the middle Eocene. Detrital zircons sourced from the RMA record progressive unroofing and are characterized by Archean-Paleoproterozoic crystallization ages and Mesoproterozoic-Triassic cooling ages. The preponderance of Precambrian ZHe ages during the middle-late Eocene and the absence of reset ZHe ages throughout the basin imply that sediment burial did not exceed depths of >6 km during the Phanerozoic. Double dating of several grains from a sandstone below the base of the lacustrine section also confirms the presence of volcanic detritus derived from the Challis volcanic field of central Idaho 400 kilometers to the northeast. Lag time analysis permits discrimination of syndepositional volcanic grains from grains derived from rapidly exhumed sources. Lag time analysis (excluding volcanic grains) indicates that several source areas west of the Elko Basin have undergone major exhumation during the late Eocene.

  9. Antarctic glaciation caused ocean circulation changes at the Eocene-Oligocene transition. (United States)

    Goldner, A; Herold, N; Huber, M


    Two main hypotheses compete to explain global cooling and the abrupt growth of the Antarctic ice sheet across the Eocene-Oligocene transition about 34 million years ago: thermal isolation of Antarctica due to southern ocean gateway opening, and declining atmospheric CO2 (refs 5, 6). Increases in ocean thermal stratification and circulation in proxies across the Eocene-Oligocene transition have been interpreted as a unique signature of gateway opening, but at present both mechanisms remain possible. Here, using a coupled ocean-atmosphere model, we show that the rise of Antarctic glaciation, rather than altered palaeogeography, is best able to explain the observed oceanographic changes. We find that growth of the Antarctic ice sheet caused enhanced northward transport of Antarctic intermediate water and invigorated the formation of Antarctic bottom water, fundamentally reorganizing ocean circulation. Conversely, gateway openings had much less impact on ocean thermal stratification and circulation. Our results support available evidence that CO2 drawdown--not gateway opening--caused Antarctic ice sheet growth, and further show that these feedbacks in turn altered ocean circulation. The precise timing and rate of glaciation, and thus its impacts on ocean circulation, reflect the balance between potentially positive feedbacks (increases in sea ice extent and enhanced primary productivity) and negative feedbacks (stronger southward heat transport and localized high-latitude warming). The Antarctic ice sheet had a complex, dynamic role in ocean circulation and heat fluxes during its initiation, and these processes are likely to operate in the future.

  10. Late Middle Eocene primate from Myanmar and the initial anthropoid colonization of Africa. (United States)

    Chaimanee, Yaowalak; Chavasseau, Olivier; Beard, K Christopher; Kyaw, Aung Aung; Soe, Aung Naing; Sein, Chit; Lazzari, Vincent; Marivaux, Laurent; Marandat, Bernard; Swe, Myat; Rugbumrung, Mana; Lwin, Thit; Valentin, Xavier; Zin-Maung-Maung-Thein; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques


    Reconstructing the origin and early evolutionary history of anthropoid primates (monkeys, apes, and humans) is a current focus of paleoprimatology. Although earlier hypotheses frequently supported an African origin for anthropoids, recent discoveries of older and phylogenetically more basal fossils in China and Myanmar indicate that the group originated in Asia. Given the Oligocene-Recent history of African anthropoids, the colonization of Africa by early anthropoids hailing from Asia was a decisive event in primate evolution. However, the fossil record has so far failed to constrain the nature and timing of this pivotal event. Here we describe a fossil primate from the late middle Eocene Pondaung Formation of Myanmar, Afrasia djijidae gen. et sp. nov., that is remarkably similar to, yet dentally more primitive than, the roughly contemporaneous North African anthropoid Afrotarsius. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that Afrasia and Afrotarsius are sister taxa within a basal anthropoid clade designated as the infraorder Eosimiiformes. Current knowledge of eosimiiform relationships and their distribution through space and time suggests that members of this clade dispersed from Asia to Africa sometime during the middle Eocene, shortly before their first appearance in the African fossil record. Crown anthropoids and their nearest fossil relatives do not appear to be specially related to Afrotarsius, suggesting one or more additional episodes of dispersal from Asia to Africa. Hystricognathous rodents, anthracotheres, and possibly other Asian mammal groups seem to have colonized Africa at roughly the same time or shortly after anthropoids gained their first toehold there.

  11. Multiple early Eocene hyperthermals: Their sedimentary expression on the New Zealand continental margin and in the deep sea (United States)

    Nicolo, Micah J.; Dickens, Gerald R.; Hollis, Christopher J.; Zachos, James C.


    The Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM) ca. 55.5 Ma was a geologically brief interval characterized by massive influx of isotopically light carbon, extreme changes in global climate, and profound variations in Earth system processes. An outstanding issue is whether it was an isolated event, or the most prominent example of a recurring phenomenon. Recent studies of condensed deep-sea sections support the latter, but this finding remains uncertain. Here we present and discuss lithologic and carbon isotope records across two lower Eocene outcrops on South Island, New Zealand. The PETM manifests as a marl-rich horizon with a significant negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE). Above, in sediment deposited between 54 and 53 Ma, are four horizons with similar though less pronounced expressions. Marl beds of all five horizons represent increased terrigenous sedimentation, presumably linked to an accelerated hydrological cycle. Five corresponding clay-rich horizons and CIEs are found in deep-sea records, although the lithologic variations represent carbonate dissolution rather than siliciclastic dilution. The presence of five intervals with similar systemic responses in different environments suggests a mechanism that repeatedly injected large masses of 13 C-depleted carbon during the early Eocene.

  12. Late Eocene impact microspherules - Stratigraphy, age and geochemistry (United States)

    Keller, G.; D'Hondt, S. L.; Orth, C. J.; Gilmore, J. S.; Oliver, P. Q.; Shoemaker, E. M.; Molina, E.


    The stratigraphy, faunal changes, and geochemistry of deep-sea sediments associated with late Eocene microtektite and microspherule layers are reported. Microprobe analyses of major element compositions of microspherules show that, although there is some compositional overlap in all three late Eocene layers as well as with the Pleistocene Australasian and Ivory Coast microtektites, each microspherule population has characteristic compositional features. All three microspherule layers are associated with decreased carbonate, possibly due to a sudden productivity change, increased dissolution as a result of sea-level and climate fluctuations, or impact events. A discovery of microtektites in the Gl. cerroazulensis Zone off the New Jersey coast extends the North American strewn field from the Caribbean to the northwest Atlantic.

  13. Asian Eocene monsoons as revealed by leaf architectural signatures (United States)

    Spicer, Robert A.; Yang, Jian; Herman, Alexei B.; Kodrul, Tatiana; Maslova, Natalia; Spicer, Teresa E. V.; Aleksandrova, Galina; Jin, Jianhua


    The onset and development of the Asian monsoon systems is a topic that has attracted considerable research effort but proxy data limitations, coupled with a diversity of definitions and metrics characterizing monsoon phenomena, have generated much debate. Failure of geological proxies to yield metrics capable of distinguishing between rainfall seasonality induced by migrations of the Inter-tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) from that attributable to topographically modified seasonal pressure reversals has frustrated attempts to understand mechanisms underpinning monsoon development and dynamics. Here we circumvent the use of such single climate parameter metrics in favor of detecting directly the distinctive attributes of different monsoon regimes encoded in leaf fossils. Leaf form adapts to the prevailing climate, particularly under the extreme seasonal stresses imposed by monsoons, so it is likely that fossil leaves carry a unique signature of past monsoon regimes. Leaf form trait spectra obtained from fossils from Eocene basins in southern China were compared with those seen in modern leaves growing under known climate regimes. The fossil leaf trait spectra, including those derived from previously published fossil floras from northwestern India, were most similar to those found in vegetation exposed to the modern Indonesia-Australia Monsoon (I-AM), which is largely a product of seasonal migrations of the ITCZ. The presence of this distinctive leaf physiognomic signature suggests that although a monsoon climate existed in Eocene time across southern Asia the characteristics of the modern topographically-enhanced South Asia Monsoon had yet to develop. By the Eocene leaves in South Asia had become well adapted to an I-AM type regime across many taxa and points to the existence of a pervasive monsoon climate prior to the Eocene. No fossil trait spectra typical of exposure to the modern East Asia monsoon were seen, suggesting the effects of this system in southern

  14. Climate directly influences Eocene mammal faunal dynamics in North America. (United States)

    Woodburne, Michael O; Gunnell, Gregg F; Stucky, Richard K


    The modern effect of climate on plants and animals is well documented. Some have cautioned against assigning climate a direct role in Cenozoic land mammal faunal changes. We illustrate 3 episodes of significant mammalian reorganization in the Eocene of North America that are considered direct responses to dramatic climatic events. The first episode occurred during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), beginning the Eocene (55.8 Ma), and earliest Wasatchian North American Land Mammal Age (NALMA). The PETM documents a short (<170 k.y.) global temperature increase of approximately 5 degrees C and a substantial increase in first appearances of mammals traced to climate-induced immigration. A 4-m.y. period of climatic and evolutionary stasis then ensued. The second climate episode, the late early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO, 53-50 Ma), is marked by a temperature increase to the highest prolonged Cenozoic ocean temperature and a similarly distinctive continental interior mean annual temperature (MAT) of 23 degrees C. This MAT increase [and of mean annual precipitation (MAP) to 150 cm/y) promoted a major increase in floral diversity and habitat complexity under temporally unique, moist, paratropical conditions. Subsequent climatic deterioration in a third interval, from 50 to 47 Ma, resulted in major faunal diversity loss at both continental and local scales. In this Bridgerian Crash, relative abundance shifted from very diverse, evenly represented, communities to those dominated by the condylarth Hyopsodus. Rather than being "optimum," the EECO began the greatest episode of faunal turnover of the first 15 m.y. of the Cenozoic. PMID:19666605

  15. Hydrocarbon potential of Middle Eocene carbonates, Sirt Basin, Libya (United States)

    Swei, Giuma H.; Tucker, Maurice E.


    Deposition of Middle Eocene carbonates in the Sirt Basin in Libya has been the subject of considerable study in recent years because of the importance of sediments of this age as hydrocarbon reservoirs. The Gialo Formation is an important gas-producing reservoir in the Assumood, Sahl and other nearby fields. The gas which is generated from the gas-prone Sirt Shale source rock of the northern Ajdabiya Trough probably migrated in to the Assumood Ridge from the northeast through late Cretaceous, Paleocene and early Eocene carbonates, before being trapped beneath the Augila Shale (Upper Eocene) which is the principal regional seal in the area. This integrated study has enhanced our understanding of reservoir heterogeneity and hydrocarbon potential of the Gialo carbonates and should lead to improved exploration in the future. Reservoir quality in the Gialo Formation is a function of grain types, pore types, grain size, sorting, cementation and compaction, and predicting areas of high reservoir quality has proved difficult; exploration should be oriented to positioning wells into the main trend of the mid-ramp, nummulite accumulation. Different nummulite facies can be reservoirs depending on their diagenetic history. A diagenetic reduction in porosity must be distinguished from a lack of porosity resulting from an unfavourable depositional environment, so that exploration alternatives can be assessed. This integrated study has demonstrated the presence of suitable reservoir rocks, hydrocarbon traps and the close proximity of potential source rocks. These features should encourage further hydrocarbon exploration in the area.

  16. New Eocene damselflies and first Cenozoic damsel-dragonfly of the isophlebiopteran lineage (Insecta: Odonata). (United States)

    Garrouste, Romain; Nel, André


    The study of a new specimen of Petrolestes hendersoni from the Eocene Green Formation allows a more precise description of the enigmatic damselfly and the diagnosis of the Petrolestini. Petrolestes messelensis sp. nov. is described from the Eocene Messel Formation in Germany, extending the distribution of the Petrolestini to the European Eocene. The new damsel-dragonfly family Pseudostenolestidae is described for the new genus and species Pseudostenolestes bechlyi, from the Eocene Messel Formation. It is the first Cenozoic representative of the Mesozoic clade Isophlebioptera. PMID:26624314

  17. Late Eocene-Oligocene Te Kuiti Group at Mount Roskill, Auckland, New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edbrooke, S.W.; Crouch, E.M.; Morgans, H.E.G.; Sykes, R. [Institute of Geology and Nuclear Sciences, Lower Hutt (New Zealand)


    A 592 m deep water bore drilled at Mount Roskill in central Auckland, New Zealand, produced the first record of the Te Kuiti Group in Central Auckland. The group comprised erosionally truncated Glen Massey Formation beneath the Waitemata Group, a complete section through Mangakotuku Formation, and an incomplete Waikato Coal Measures section. Drilling stopped in Waikato Coal Measures, probably less than 30 m short of Paleozoic or Mesozoic basement. Vitrinite reflectance measurements indicate a lignite rank for coal fragments collected from the coal measures, and suggest a maximum burial depth of c. 800 m. Six Te Kuiti Group samples examined for palynomorphs and foraminifers gave ages ranging from Runangan to early Whaingaroan and show a transition from a predominantly terrestrial late Eocene environment to a shallow marine setting in the early Oligocene. Results support the suggestion that the southern limit to the Northland Allochthon lies north of Auckland.

  18. Exploring Terrestrial Temperature Changes during the Early Eocene Hyperthermals (United States)

    Snell, K. E.; Clyde, W. C.; Fricke, H. C.; Eiler, J. M.


    The Early Eocene is marked by a number of rapid global warming events called hyperthermals. These hyperthermals are associated with negative carbon isotope excursions (CIE) in both marine and terrestrial records. Multiple theories exist to explain the connection of these hyperthermals with the CIEs and each theory predicts different responses by the climate system. Characterizing the timing, duration and magnitude of temperature change that is associated with these hyperthermals is important for determining whether the hyperthermals are all driven by the same underlying climate dynamics or perhaps differ from one another in cause and climatic consequences. In the simplest case, all share a common underlying mechanism; this predicts that the associated temperature changes scale in a predictable way with the magnitude of the CIE (and perhaps exhibit other similarities, such as the relative amplitudes of marine and terrestrial temperature change). To our knowledge, however, the only hyperthermal with paleotemperature data from land is the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM). Here we present preliminary carbonate clumped isotope paleotemperature estimates for Early Eocene hyperthermal ETM2/H2 from paleosol carbonates from the Bighorn Basin in Wyoming, USA. We compare the results to existing clumped isotope paleotemperature estimates for the PETM in the Bighorn Basin. Temperatures recorded by paleosol carbonates (which likely reflect near-peak summer ground temperatures) prior to each CIE are ~30°C and increase to ~40-43°C during the apex of each CIE. Following both CIEs, temperatures drop back to pre-CIE values. In the case of ETM2/H2, temperatures begin to rise again immediately, possibly in association with a later hyperthermal, though further work needs to be done to establish this with certainty. These preliminary data suggest that both the absolute values and the magnitudes of temperature changes associated with the PETM and ETM2/H2 are similar; the

  19. Climatic conditions governing extensive Azolla bloom during the Middle Eocene (United States)

    Dekker, Rolande; Speelman, Eveline N.; Barke, Judith; Konijnendijk, Tiuri; Sinninge Damste, Jaap S.; Reichart, Gert-Jan


    Enormous amounts of intact mega- and microspores from the free floating aquatic fern Azolla were found in sediments recovered during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program expedition 302, indicating that Azolla grew and reproduced in situ in the Eocene Arctic Ocean. In general, the Early/Middle Eocene is characterized by enhanced greenhouse conditions with elevated sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the Arctic (~10°C), while tropical sea surface temperatures (SSTs) were only a little warmer than today (with a mean annual temperature (MAT) of 32-34 °C) (Pearson et al., 2007). The consequently reduced temperature gradient between the equator and the poles and the presence of freshwater at the North Pole as indicated by the presence of the freshwater fern Azolla (Brinkhuis et al., 2006) provide important boundary conditions for understanding the hydrological cycle and latent heat transport during this interval. Here we reconstruct variations in SST and mean annual air temperature using the TEX86 and MBT temperature proxies for the Azolla interval. Sediments from around the Arctic Basin have been analyzed, including samples from Alaska, the Mackenzie Basin, Greenland (IODP core 913b), and Denmark. Furthermore, a high resolution sea surface temperature record for the Azolla interval has been constructed from sediment samples from the Lomonosov Ridge, showing a cyclic signal. Model experiments have shown that the here confirmed low equator-to-pole temperature gradient modulated the hydrological cycle. Since the growth of Azolla is restricted to low salinity conditions, changes in the hydrological cycle are proposed to coincide with the cyclic occurrence of Azolla throughout the interval. To confirm the overlapping presence of high quantities of Azolla and increased precipitation, changes in the hydrogen cycle are reconstructed by creating a high resolution hydrogen isotope record throughout the interval. By performing compound specific analyses (δD) on terrestrial derived

  20. Recognition of Early Eocene global carbon isotope excursions using lipids of marine Thaumarchaeota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoon, P.L.; Heilmann-Clausen, C.; Schultz, B.P.; Sluijs, A.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Schouten, S.


    The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM; similar to 56 Ma) and Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 (ETM2; similar to 53 Ma) are geological short (<200,000 years) episodes of extreme global warming and environmental change. Both the PETM and ETM2 are associated with the injection of C-13-depleted carbon into

  1. Recognition of Early Eocene global carbon isotope excursions using lipids of marine Thaumarchaeota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoon, P.L.; Heilmann-Clausen, C.; Pagh Schultz, B.; Sluijs, A.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Schouten, S.


    The Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM; ∼56 Ma) and Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 (ETM2; ∼53 Ma) are geological short (<200,000 years) episodes of extreme global warming and environmental change. Both the PETM and ETM2 are associated with the injection of 13C-depleted carbon into the ocean–atmosphere

  2. Earliest record of the fossil snake Palaeophis from the Paleocene/Eocene boundary in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Hans Viborg; Cuny, Gilles Guy Roger; Rasmussen, Arne Redsted;


    Abstract. – The earliest record of Palaeophis ever found in Denmark is here based on vertebrae described from the Paleocene/Eocene Stolleklint Clay of the Isle of Mors (northern Denmark). Although much smaller, they appear quite similar to the Eocene vertebra described from the Fur Formation in t...

  3. Pronounced zonal heterogeneity in Eocene southern high-latitude sea surface temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douglas, P.M.J.; Affek, H.P.; Ivany, L.C.; Houben, A.J.P.; Sijp, W.P.; Sluijs, A.; Schouten, S.; Pagani, M.


    Paleoclimate studies suggest that increased global warmth during the Eocene epoch was greatly amplified at high latitudes, a state that climate models cannot fully reproduce. However, proxy estimates of Eocene near-Antarctic sea surface temperatures (SSTs) have produced widely divergent results at s

  4. Aridification in continental Asia after the Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum (MECO)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.E. Bosboom; H.A. Abels; C. Hoorn; B.C.J. van den Berg; Z. Guo; G. Dupont-Nivet


    Global climate cooling from greenhouse to icehouse conditions occurred across an enigmatic transitional interval during the Eocene epoch characterized by incipient polar ice-sheet formation as well as short-lived warming events, of which the Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum (MECO) is most noticeable.

  5. Astronomical pacing of late Palaeocene to early Eocene global warming events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lourens, L.J.; Sluijs, A.; Kroon, D.; Zachos, J.C.; Thomas, E.; Röhl, U.; Bowles, J.; Raffi, I.


    At the boundary between the Palaeocene and Eocene epochs, about 55 million years ago, the Earth experienced a strong global warming event, the Palaeocene–Eocene thermal maximum. The leading hypothesis to explain the extreme greenhouse conditions prevalent during this period is the dissociation of 1,

  6. Early Eocene cyclicity at the Wilkes Land Margin, Antarctica: Orbital forcing and environmental response (United States)

    Roehl, U.; Bijl, P.; Jiménez, F.; Pross, J.; Contreras, L.; Tauxe, L.; Bohaty, S. M.; Bendle, J.; Brinkhuis, H.; IODP Expedition 318 Scientists


    The early Eocene Greenhouse interval (~56-49 Ma) was punctuated by multiple transient global warming events, or hyperthermals - the most prominent of which was the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM). Additional thermal maxima identified in Eocene records exhibit negative carbon isotope excursions (CIEs), carbonate dissolution horizons, and biotic perturbations, although of reduced magnitude and duration relative to the PETM. Many hyperthermals have been identified or postulated in the early Eocene, but it is unclear which of these events are normal carbon-cycle variations that occurred at orbital frequencies and which are exceptional events outside the normal range of Eocene carbon-cycle variability. Here we present a high-resolution cyclostratigraphy for a new early Eocene drillcore from the Wilkes Land Margin in direct proximity to the Antarctic continent (Site U1356 drilled during IODP Expedition 318). Site U1356 was situated in a mid-shelf setting during the early Eocene and is characterized by a superb magnetostratigraphy and a robust biostratigraphic age control. Our investigation includes XRF core scanning and ICP-MS data as well as bulk organic carbon isotope ratios (delta13Corg) in combination with the concentration of the total organic carbon (TOC). The early Eocene at Site U1356 consists of well developed cyclic claystones including the interval of magnetochron C24 which is ideal to re-evaluate the early Eocene part of the Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale (GPTS) and to provide new insights into the environmental responses as well as orbital configuration of early Eocene climatic cycles.

  7. Episodic fresh surface waters in the Eocene Arctic Ocean (United States)

    Brinkhuis, Henk; Schouten, Stefan; Collinson, Margaret E.; Sluijs, Appy; Damsté, Jaap S. Sinninghe; Dickens, Gerald R.; Huber, Matthew; Cronin, Thomas M.; Onodera, Jonaotaro; Takahashi, Kozo; Bujak, Jonathan P.; Stein, Ruediger; van der Burgh, Johan; Eldrett, James S.; Harding, Ian C.; Lotter, André F.; Sangiorgi, Francesca; Cittert, Han Van Konijnenburg-Van; de Leeuw, Jan W.; Matthiessen, Jens; Backman, Jan; Moran, Kathryn; Expedition 302 Scientists


    It has been suggested, on the basis of modern hydrology and fully coupled palaeoclimate simulations, that the warm greenhouse conditions that characterized the early Palaeogene period (55-45Myr ago) probably induced an intensified hydrological cycle with precipitation exceeding evaporation at high latitudes. Little field evidence, however, has been available to constrain oceanic conditions in the Arctic during this period. Here we analyse Palaeogene sediments obtained during the Arctic Coring Expedition, showing that large quantities of the free-floating fern Azolla grew and reproduced in the Arctic Ocean by the onset of the middle Eocene epoch (~50Myr ago). The Azolla and accompanying abundant freshwater organic and siliceous microfossils indicate an episodic freshening of Arctic surface waters during an ~800,000-year interval. The abundant remains of Azolla that characterize basal middle Eocene marine deposits of all Nordic seas probably represent transported assemblages resulting from freshwater spills from the Arctic Ocean that reached as far south as the North Sea. The termination of the Azolla phase in the Arctic coincides with a local sea surface temperature rise from ~10°C to 13°C, pointing to simultaneous increases in salt and heat supply owing to the influx of waters from adjacent oceans. We suggest that onset and termination of the Azolla phase depended on the degree of oceanic exchange between Arctic Ocean and adjacent seas.

  8. A Phororhacoid bird from the Eocene of Africa (United States)

    Mourer-Chauviré, Cécile; Tabuce, Rodolphe; Mahboubi, M'hammed; Adaci, Mohammed; Bensalah, Mustapha


    The bird fossil record is globally scarce in Africa. The early Tertiary evolution of terrestrial birds is virtually unknown in that continent. Here, we report on a femur of a large terrestrial new genus discovered from the early or early middle Eocene (between ˜52 and 46 Ma) of south-western Algeria. This femur shows all the morphological features of the Phororhacoidea, the so-called Terror Birds. Most of the phororhacoids were indeed large, or even gigantic, flightless predators or scavengers with no close modern analogs. It is likely that this extinct group originated in South America, where they are known from the late Paleocene to the late Pleistocene (˜59 to 0.01 Ma). The presence of a phororhacoid bird in Africa cannot be explained by a vicariant mechanism because these birds first appeared in South America well after the onset of the mid-Cretaceous Gondwana break up (˜100 million years old). Here, we propose two hypotheses to account for this occurrence, either an early dispersal of small members of this group, which were still able of a limited flight, or a transoceanic migration of flightless birds from South America to Africa during the Paleocene or earliest Eocene. Paleogeographic reconstructions of the South Atlantic Ocean suggest the existence of several islands of considerable size between South America and Africa during the early Tertiary, which could have helped a transatlantic dispersal of phororhacoids.

  9. Eocene Podocarpium (Leguminosae from South China and its biogeographic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingqing eXu


    Full Text Available Podocarpium A. Braun ex Stizenberger is one of the most common legumes in the Neogene of Eurasia, including fossil fruits, seeds, leaves, and possible flower and pollen grains. This genus is not completely consistent with any extant genera according to gross morphological characters and poorly preserved cuticular structures reported in previous studies. The fossil pods collected from the coal-bearing series of the Changchang Basin of Hainan Island and Maoming Basin of Guangdong, South China, are examined by morphologically comparative work, with special reference to venation patterns and placental position. These distinctive features, as well as the ovule development of pods from different growing stages and the epidermal structure of the pods, as distinguished from previous records lead to the conclusion that these fossils can be recognized as a new species of Podocarpium, P. eocenicum sp. nov. This new discovery indicates that Podocarpium had arrived in South China by the Eocene. Investigation on the fossil records of this extinct genus shows that P. eocenicum is the earliest and lowest latitude fossil data. The possible occurrence pattern of this genus is revealed as follows: Podocarpium had distributed in the South China at least in the middle Eocene, and then migrated to Europe during the Oligocene; in the Miocene this genus reached its peak in Eurasia, spreading extensively across subtropical areas to warm temperate areas; finally, Podocarpium shrank rapidly and became extinct in Eurasia during the Pliocene.

  10. Reconstruction of the Eocene Arctic Ocean Using Ichthyolith Isotope Analyses (United States)

    Gleason, J. D.; Thomas, D. J.; Moore, T. C.; Waddell, L. M.; Blum, J. D.; Haley, B. A.


    Nd, Sr, O and C isotopic compositions of Eocene fish debris (teeth, bones, scales), and their reduced organic coatings, have been used to reconstruct water mass composition, water column structure, surface productivity and salinities of the Arctic Ocean Basin at Lomonosov Ridge between 55 and 44 Ma. Cleaned ichthyolith samples from IODP Expedition 302 (ACEX) record epsilon Nd values that range from -5.7 to -7.8, distinct from modern Arctic Intermediate Water (-10.5) and North Atlantic Deep Water. These Nd values may record some exchange with Pacific/Tethyan water masses, but inputs from local continental sources are more likely. Sr isotopic values are consistent with a brackish-to-fresh water surface layer (87Sr/86Sr = 0.7079-0.7087) that was poorly mixed with Eocene global seawater (0.7077-0.7078). Leaching experiments show reduced organic coatings to be more radiogenic (>0.7090) than cleaned ichthyolith phosphate. Ichthyolith Sr isotopic variations likely reflect changes in localized river input as a function of shifts in the Arctic hydrologic cycle, and 87Sr/86Sr values might be used as a proxy for surface water salinity. Model mixing calculations indicate salinities of 5 to 20 per mil, lower than estimates based on O isotopes from fish bone carbonate (16 to 26 per mil). Significant salinity drops (i.e., 55 Ma PETM and 48.5 Ma Azolla event) registered in oxygen isotopes do not show large excursions in the 87Sr/86Sr data. Carbon isotopes in fish debris record a spike in organic activity at 48.5 Ma (Azolla event), and otherwise high-productivity waters between 55 and 44 Ma. The combined Sr-Nd-O-C isotopic record is consistent with highly restricted basin-wide circulation in the Eocene, indicative of a highly stratified water column with anoxic bottom waters, a "fresh" water upper layer, and enhanced continental runoff during warm intervals until the first appearance of ice rafted debris at 45 Ma.

  11. Radiative forcing by forest and subsequent feedbacks in the early Eocene climate

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    U. Port


    Full Text Available Using the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology Earth System Model, we investigate the forcing of forests and the feedback triggered by forests in the pre-industrial climate and in the early Eocene climate (about 54 to 52 million years ago. Other than the interglacial, pre-industrial climate, the early Eocene climate was characterised by high temperatures which led to almost ice-free poles. We compare simulations in which all continents are covered either by dense forest or by bare soil. To isolate the effect of soil albedo, we choose either bright soils or dark soils, respectively. Considering bright soil, forests warm in both, the early Eocene climate and the current climate, but the warming differs due to differences in climate feedbacks. The lapse-rate and water-vapour feedback is stronger in early Eocene climate than in current climate, but strong and negative cloud feedbacks and cloud masking in the early Eocene climate outweigh the stronger positive lapse-rate and water-vapour feedback. In the sum, global mean warming is weaker in the early Eocene climate. Sea-ice related feedbacks are weak in the almost ice-free climate of the early Eocene leading to a weak polar amplification. Considering dark soil, our results change. Forests cools stronger in the early Eocene climate than in the current climate because the lapse-rate and water-vapour feedback is stronger in the early Eocene climate while cloud feedbacks and cloud masking are equally strong in both climates. The different temperature change by forest in both climates highlights the state-dependency of vegetation's impact on climate.

  12. First record of eocene bony fishes and crocodyliforms from Canada's Western Arctic.

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    Jaelyn J Eberle

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Discovery of Eocene non-marine vertebrates, including crocodylians, turtles, bony fishes, and mammals in Canada's High Arctic was a critical paleontological contribution of the last century because it indicated that this region of the Arctic had been mild, temperate, and ice-free during the early - middle Eocene (∼53-50 Ma, despite being well above the Arctic Circle. To date, these discoveries have been restricted to Canada's easternmost Arctic - Ellesmere and Axel Heiberg Islands (Nunavut. Although temporally correlative strata crop out over 1,000 km west, on Canada's westernmost Arctic Island - Banks Island, Northwest Territories - they have been interpreted as predominantly marine. We document the first Eocene bony fish and crocodyliform fossils from Banks Island. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We describe fossils of bony fishes, including lepisosteid (Atractosteus, esocid (pike, and amiid, and a crocodyliform, from lower - middle Eocene strata of the Cyclic Member, Eureka Sound Formation within Aulavik National Park (∼76°N. paleolat.. Palynology suggests the sediments are late early to middle Eocene in age, and likely spanned the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These fossils extend the geographic range of Eocene Arctic lepisosteids, esocids, amiids, and crocodyliforms west by approximately 40° of longitude or ∼1100 km. The low diversity bony fish fauna, at least at the family level, is essentially identical on Ellesmere and Banks Islands, suggesting a pan-High Arctic bony fish fauna of relatively basal groups around the margin of the Eocene Arctic Ocean. From a paleoclimatic perspective, presence of a crocodyliform, gar and amiid fishes on northern Banks provides further evidence that mild, year-round temperatures extended across the Canadian Arctic during early - middle Eocene time. Additionally, the Banks Island crocodyliform is consistent with the phylogenetic hypothesis of a Paleogene divergence

  13. Paleocene–Eocene warming and biotic response in the epicontinental West Siberian Sea


    Frieling, J.; Iakovleva, A.I.; Reichart, G.-J.; Aleksandrova, G.N.; Gnibidenko, Z.N.; Schouten, S.; A. Sluijs


    We present a Paleocene–Eocene (ca. 60–52 Ma) sea-surface temperature record from sediments deposited in the epicontinental West Siberian Sea. TEX86 paleothermometry indicates long-term late Paleocene (~17 °C ca. 59 Ma) to early Eocene (26 °C at 52 Ma) sea-surface warming, consistent with trends previously observed for the Southern Ocean and deep oceans. Photic zone and seafloor anoxia developed as temperatures rose by 7 °C to ~27 °C during the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM). Based on...

  14. Geologic History of Eocene Stonerose Fossil Beds, Republic, Washington, USA

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    George E. Mustoe


    Full Text Available Eocene lakebed sediments at Stonerose Interpretive Center in Republic, Washington, USA are one of the most important Cenozoic fossil sites in North America, having gained international attention because of the abundance and diversity of plant, insect, and fish fossils. This report describes the first detailed geologic investigation of this unusual lagerstätten. Strata are gradationally divided into three units: Siliceous shale that originated as diatomite, overlain by laminated mudstone, which is in turn overlain by massive beds of lithic sandstone. The sedimentary sequence records topographic and hydrologic changes that caused a deep lake to become progressively filled with volcaniclastic detritus from earlier volcanic episodes. The location of the ancient lake within an active graben suggests that displacements along the boundary faults were the most likely trigger for changes in depositional processes.

  15. Taxonomy, affinities, and paleobiology of the tiny metatherian mammal Minusculodelphis, from the early Eocene of South America (United States)

    Oliveira, Édison Vicente; Zimicz, Natalia; Goin, Francisco J.


    With less than 3 g of estimated body mass, the early Eocene Minusculodelphis minimus Paula Couto (Mammalia, Metatheria, Jaskhadelphyidae) is one of the smallest mammals, living or extinct. It has alternatively been regarded as a didelphid or a derorhynchid "ameridelphian," or even as an eometatherian marsupial. Here, we describe a new species of Minusculodelphis coming from the same locality (Itaboraí Quarry, Brazil) and age (Itaboraian age) of the type species of the genus. It differs from M. minimus in its larger size and several dental characters. The new species offers data on the upper dentition and femur, which are unknown in the type species. Compared to other Paleogene metatherians, Minusculodelphis shows closer relationships with Jaskhadelphys, from the early Paleocene of Tiupampa, Bolivia, as well as with Kiruwamaq, from the late Eocene-early Oligocene of Perú. A cladistic analysis places all three genera within the family Jaskhadelphyidae (Metatheria, Order indet.), which includes small to tiny, insectivorous-like metatherians. We argue that insectivory (soft insects) is the best-supported diet for both species of Minusculodelphis, and that the most probable microhabitat for them was the understorey or leaf litter of tropical, rain forested environments.

  16. When Indian crabs were not yet Asian - biogeographic evidence for Eocene proximity of India and Southeast Asia

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    Klaus Sebastian


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The faunal and floral relationship of northward-drifting India with its neighboring continents is of general biogeographic interest as an important driver of regional biodiversity. However, direct biogeographic connectivity of India and Southeast Asia during the Cenozoic remains largely unexplored. We investigate timing, direction and mechanisms of faunal exchange between India and Southeast Asia, based on a molecular phylogeny, molecular clock-derived time estimates and biogeographic reconstructions of the Asian freshwater crab family Gecarcinucidae. Results Although the Gecarcinucidae are not an element of an ancient Gondwana fauna, their subfamily Gecarcinucinae, and probably also the Liotelphusinae, evolved on the Indian Subcontinent and subsequently dispersed to Southeast Asia. Estimated by a model testing approach, this dispersal event took place during the Middle Eocene, and thus before the final collision of India and the Tibet-part of Eurasia. Conclusions We postulate that the India and Southeast Asia were close enough for exchange of freshwater organisms during the Middle Eocene, before the final Indian-Eurasian collision. Our data support geological models that assume the Indian plate having tracked along Southeast Asia during its move northwards.

  17. Stable isotope and calcareous nannofossil assemblage record of the late Paleocene and early Eocene (Cicogna section) (United States)

    Agnini, Claudia; Spofforth, David J. A.; Dickens, Gerald R.; Rio, Domenico; Pälike, Heiko; Backman, Jan; Muttoni, Giovanni; Dallanave, Edoardo


    We present records of stable carbon and oxygen isotopes, CaCO3 content, and changes in calcareous nannofossil assemblages across an 81 m thick section of upper Paleocene-lower Eocene marine sedimentary rocks now exposed along the Cicogna Stream in northeast Italy. The studied stratigraphic section represents sediment accumulation in a bathyal hemipelagic setting from approximately 57.5 to 52.2 Ma, a multi-million-year time interval characterized by perturbations in the global carbon cycle and changes in calcareous nannofossil assemblages. The bulk carbonate δ13C profile for the Cicogna section, once placed on a common timescale, resembles that at several other locations across the world, and includes both a long-term drop in δ13C and multiple short-term carbon isotope excursions (CIEs). This precise correlation of widely separated δ13C records in marine sequences results from temporal changes in the carbon composition of the exogenic carbon cycle. However, diagenesis has likely modified the δ13C record at Cicogna, an interpretation supported by variations in bulk carbonate δ18O, which do not conform to expectations for a primary signal. The record of CaCO3 content reflects a combination of carbonate dilution and dissolution, as also inferred at other sites. Our detailed documentation and statistical analysis of calcareous nannofossil assemblages show major differences before, during and after the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. Other CIEs in our lower Paleogene section do not exhibit such a distinctive change; instead, these events are sometimes characterized by variations restricted to a limited number of taxa and transient shifts in the relative abundance of primary assemblage components. Both long-lasting and short-lived modifications to calcareous nannofossil assemblages preferentially affected nannoliths or holococcoliths such as Discoaster, Fasciculithus, Rhomboaster/Tribrachiatus, Sphenolithus and Zygrhablithus, which underwent distinct variations in

  18. Southern ocean warming, sea level and hydrological change during the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum


    Sluijs, A.; Bijl, P.K; Schouten, S.; U. Röhl; Reichart, G.-J.; Brinkhuis, H.


    A brief (~150 kyr) period of widespread global average surface warming marks the transition between the Paleocene and Eocene epochs, ~56 million years ago. This so-called "Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum" (PETM) is associated with the massive injection of 13C-depleted carbon, reflected in a negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE). Biotic responses include a global abundance peak (acme) of the subtropical dinoflagellate Apectodinium. Here we identify ...

  19. Eocene relatives of cod icefishes (Perciformes: Notothenioidei) from Seymour Island, Antarctica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bieńkowska-Wasiluk, Małgorzata; Bonde, Niels Christensøn; Møller, Peter Rask;


    Fragmentary skull bones and vertebra from the Upper Eocene La Meseta Formation on Seymour (Marambio) Island, Antarctic Peninsula have been described as gadiform fishes, informally named “Mesetaichthys”. Here we describe jaws as Mesetaichthys jerzmanskae n. g. and n. sp., and refer this taxon to t...... of notothenioids in connection with the deterioration of the climate in Antarctica during the Late Eocene-Oligocene is discussed....

  20. Cyclocarya cf. paliurus (Batal.) Iljinskaja (Juglandaceae) from the Hunchun Formation (Eocene), Jilin Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tong-Xing SUN; Albert G. ABLAEV; Yu-Fei WANG; Cheng-Sen LI


    The leaflet architecture of Cyclocarya cf. paliurus (Batal.) Iljinskaja from the Hunchun Formation (Middle Eocene) shows similarity to that of modern C. paliurus (Batal.) Iljinskaja and the specimen is the oldest fossil record in Europe and Asia. The distributions of C. cf. paliurus and other fossil records,such as Glyptostrobus, Metasequoia, Nyssa, and Liquidambar, in Hunchun flora show that it would have been a warmer-temperature to subtropical climate in Hunchun District during the Eocene period.

  1. Middle Eocene (Bartonian) Nummulites perforatus bank from the Transylvanian Basin, Romania: an example from a classical occurrence (United States)

    Szabolcs Attila, Kövecsi; Lóránd, Silye; György, Less; Sorin, Filipescu


    Giant uni-cellulars, Nummulites lived in stable oligotrophic environments throughout the Eocene of the Tethys forming large accumulations called "banks" (Arni, 1965), which were identified on the top of the Cǎpusu Formation, Transylvanian Basin (Popescu, 1978). The studied outcrop is located near Cǎpusu village, Cluj County where we studied two sections (CA1, CA2). They consist of medium to coarse grained sands with abundant Nummulites perforatus (A and B forms). Sporadically specimens of Nummulites beaumonti are also present. According to the larger foraminiferal zonation of Serra-Kiel et al. (1998) the studied nummlitic bank is referred to the SBZ 17 Zone (early Bartonian). Specimens were recovered from 6 samples, about 2 kg each, prepared by standard methods. In section CA1 the A/B ratio ranges between 42/1 and 117/1 while in section CA2 the A/B ratio varies between 27/1 and 52/1. The higher A/B ratio suggests that the original Nummulites assemblages was winnowed in situ. By contrast, the lower A/B ratio indicates that the original assemblage was supposedly selectively winnowed (Ainger, 1985), but they are in situ (Seddighi et al., 2015). This interpretation is supported by the fact, that in all samples the Nummulites specimens (both A and B form) are bioeroded and abraded, which indicates a shallow water environment with high hydrodynamic activity (Racey, 2001; Papazzoni, 2008). Based on our observations the studied nummulitic accumulations consist mostly of monospecific assemblages, and they form a bank. The identified biofabrics, the A/B ratio of the assemblages and the presence of both A and B forms support this interpretation. The presence of the abraded Nummulites tests further suggest that the studied deposits were sedimented in a shallow water environment with high hydrodynamic activity, probably in a wave dominant setting. References: Aigner, T. 1982. Event-stratification in nummulite accumulations and in shell beds from the Eocene of Egypt. In

  2. A structural intermediate between triisodontids and mesonychians (Mammalia, Acreodi) from the earliest Eocene of Portugal (United States)

    Tabuce, Rodolphe; Clavel, Julien; Antunes, Miguel Telles


    A new mammal, Mondegodon eutrigonus gen. et sp. nov., is described from the earliest Eocene locality of Silveirinha, Portugal. This species shows dental adaptations indicative of a carnivorous diet. M. eutrigonus is referred to the order Acreodi and considered, along with the early Paleocene North American species Oxyclaenus cuspidatus, as a morphological intermediate between two groups of ungulate-like mammals, namely, the triisodontids and mesonychians. Considering that triisodontids are early to early-late Paleocene North American taxa, Mondegodon probably belongs to a group that migrated from North America towards Europe during the first part of the Paleocene. Mondegodon could represent thus a relict genus, belonging to the ante-Eocene European mammalian fauna. The occurrence of such a taxon in Southern Europe may reflect a period of isolation of this continental area during the Paleocene/Eocene transition. In this context, the non-occurrence of closely allied forms of Mondegodon in the Eocene North European mammalian faunas is significant. This strengthens the hypothesis that the mammalian fauna from Southern Europe is characterized by a certain degree of endemism during the earliest Eocene. Mondegodon also presents some striking similarities with an unnamed genus from the early Eocene of India which could represent the first Asian known transitional form between the triisodontids and mesonychians.

  3. Arctic Ocean circulation during the anoxic Eocene Azolla event (United States)

    Speelman, Eveline; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap; März, Christian; Brumsack, Hans; Reichart, Gert-Jan


    The Azolla interval, as encountered in Eocene sediments from the Arctic Ocean, is characterized by organic rich sediments ( 4wt% Corg). In general, high levels of organic matter may be caused by increased productivity, i.e. extensive growth of Azolla, and/or enhanced preservation of organic matter, or a combination of both. Anoxic (bottom) water conditions, expanded oxygen minimum zones, or increased sedimentation rates all potentially increase organic matter preservation. According to plate tectonic, bathymetric, and paleogeographic reconstructions, the Arctic Ocean was a virtually isolated shallow basin, with one possible deeper connection to the Nordic Seas represented by a still shallow Fram Strait (Jakobsson et al., 2007), hampering ventilation of the Arctic Basin. During the Azolla interval surface waters freshened, while at the same time bottom waters appear to have remained saline, indicating that the Arctic was highly stratified. The restricted ventilation and stratification in concert with ongoing export of organic matter most likely resulted in the development of anoxic conditions in the lower part of the water column. Whereas the excess precipitation over evaporation maintained the freshwater lid, sustained input of Nordic Sea water is needed to keep the deeper waters saline. To which degree the Arctic Ocean exchanged with the Nordic Seas is, however, still largely unknown. Here we present a high-resolution trace metal record (ICP-MS and ICP-OES) for the expanded Early/Middle Eocene section capturing the Azolla interval from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 302 (ACEX) drilled on the Lomonosov Ridge, central Arctic Ocean. Euxinic conditions throughout the interval resulted in the efficient removal of redox sensitive trace metals from the water column. Using the sedimentary trace metal record we also constrained circulation in the Arctic Ocean by assessing the relative importance of trace metal input sources (i.e. fluvial, eolian, and

  4. Highly fractionated Late Eocene (~ 35 Ma) leucogranite in the Xiaru Dome, Tethyan Himalaya, South Tibet (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-Chao; Wu, Fu-Yuan; Ding, Lin; Liu, Xiao-Chi; Wang, Jian-Gang; Ji, Wei-Qiang


    The Xiaru dome is located in the middle section of the North Himalayan Gneiss Domes belt in southern Tibet. The leucogranite, which crops out in the core of the Xiaru dome, is a typical medium-grained garnet + tourmaline + muscovite leucogranite. U-(Th)-Pb dating of zircon and monazite from the leucogranite yielded ages of approximately 35 Ma. This finding supports a growing body of evidence indicating that an extensive magmatic event occurred during the late Eocene in the Himalayas. This leucogranite is strongly peraluminous with A/CNK values of 1.08-1.52 and characterized by evolved geochemical composition with high contents of SiO2 and alkali elements; low levels of CaO, MgO, TiO2, and FeOT; enriched large-ion lithophile elements (such as Rb); and depleted of high-field-strength elements (such as Nb, Zr, and Hf). The non-CHARAC (CHarge-And-Radius-Controlled) trace element behaviors, which are typical of a highly fractionated granite system, were recorded in the whole rock and the accessory minerals of the Xiaru leucogranite. Furthermore, the magmatic zircon overgrowths have extremely high content of Hf, consistent with those from the highly fractionated aqueous-like fluid system. In addition, whole-rock geochemical fractionation trends were observed, which can be explained by crystal fractionation of biotite, K-feldspar, zircon, xenotime, and monazite. These geochemical features indicate that the Xiaru leucogranite is a typical highly fractionated granite. The geochronological and geochemical features of the inherited zircons from the Xiaru leucogranite show a close affinity to those of the country rocks, suggesting a certain degree of assimilation from the country rocks during melt ascent and emplacement. Although a restricted range of εHf(t) values from - 12.8 to - 6.6 with Hf TDM2 model ages of 1.2-1.6 Ga was obtained from the late Eocene zircons, it is invalid to constrain the source of the parental magma due to the strong fractionation and assimilation

  5. Sea surface salinity of the Eocene Arctic Azolla event using innovative isotope modeling (United States)

    Speelman, E. N.; Sewall, J. O.; Noone, D.; Huber, M.; Sinninghe Damste, J. S.; Reichart, G. J.


    With the realization that the Eocene Arctic Ocean was covered with enormous quantities of the free floating freshwater fern Azolla, new questions regarding Eocene conditions facilitating these blooms arose. Our present research focuses on constraining the actual salinity of, and water sources for, the Eocene Arctic basin through the application of stable water isotope tracers. Precipitation pathways potentially strongly affect the final isotopic composition of water entering the Arctic Basin. Therefore we use the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM3), developed by NCAR, combined with a recently developed integrated isotope tracer code to reconstruct the isotopic composition of global Eocene precipitation and run-off patterns. We further addressed the sensitivity of the modeled hydrological cycle to changes in boundary conditions, such as pCO2, sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and sea ice formation. In this way it is possible to assess the effect of uncertainties in proxy estimates of these parameters. Overall, results of all runs with Eocene boundary conditions, including Eocene topography, bathymetry, vegetation patterns, TEX86 derived SSTs and pCO2 estimates, show the presence of an intensified hydrological cycle with precipitation exceeding evaporation in the Arctic region. Enriched, precipitation weighted, isotopic values of around -120‰ are reported for the Arctic region. Combining new results obtained from compound specific isotope analyses (δD) on terrestrially derived n-alkanes extracted from Eocene sediments, and model outcomes make it possible to verify climate reconstructions for the middle Eocene Arctic. Furthermore, recently, characteristic long-chain mid-chain ω20 hydroxy wax constituents of Azolla were found in ACEX sediments. δD values of these C32 - C36 diols provide insight into the isotopic composition of the Eocene Arctic surface water. As the isotopic signature of the runoff entering the Arctic is modelled, and the final isotopic composition of

  6. Water isotopes and the Eocene. A tectonic sensitivity study (United States)

    Legrande, A. N.; Roberts, C. D.; Tripati, A.; Schmidt, G. A.


    The early Eocene (54 Million years ago) is one of the warmest periods in the last 65 Million years. Its climate is postulated to have been the result of enhanced greenhouse gas concentration, with CO2 roughly 4 times pre-industrial and methane 7 times pre-industrial concentrations. One interesting feature of this period to emerge recently is the intermittent presence of fossilized Azolla, a type of freshwater fern, in the Arctic Ocean. Synchronous (within dating error) with this appearance were major changes in the restriction of the Arctic Ocean and the other global oceans. We investigate this time period using the Goddard Institute for Space Studies ModelE-R, a fully coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model that incorporates water isotopes throughout the hydrologic cycle, making it an ideal model to test hypotheses of past climate change and to compare to paleoclimate proxy data. We assess the impact of tectonic variability by using minimal and maximal levels of restriction for the Arctic Ocean seaways. We find that the modulation of connectivity of these basins dramatically alters global salinity distribution, leading to large changes in ocean circulation. Greater restriction of the Arctic Basin is associated with fresh and relatively warmer conditions. The same mechanisms responsible for this redistribution of salt also change the global distribution of water isotopes, and can alias (water isotope) proxy climate signals of warmth.

  7. Middle Eocene seagrass facies from Apennine carbonate platforms (Italy) (United States)

    Tomassetti, Laura; Benedetti, Andrea; Brandano, Marco


    Two stratigraphic sections located in the Latium-Abruzzi (Monte Porchio, Central Apennines, Central Italy) and in the Apulian carbonate platform (S. Cesarea-Torre Tiggiano, Salento, Southern Italy) were measured and sampled to document the sedimentological characteristic and the faunistic assemblages of Middle Eocene seagrass deposits. The faunistic assemblages are dominated by porcellaneous foraminifera Orbitolites, Alveolina, Idalina, Spiroloculina, Quinqueloculina, Triloculina and abundant hooked-shaped gypsinids, associated with hooked red algae and green algae Halimeda. Fabiania, rotaliids and textulariids as well as nummulitids are subordinated. The samples were assigned to Lutetian (SBZ13-16) according to the occurrence of Nummulites cf. lehneri, Alveolina ex. gr. elliptica, Idalina berthelini, Orbitolites complanatus, Slovenites decastroi and Medocia blayensis. At Santa Cesarea reticulate nummulites occur in association with Alveolina spp. and Halkyardia minima marking the lower Bartonian (SBZ17). Three main facies associations have been recognised: I) larger porcellaneous foraminiferal grainstones with orbitolitids and alveolinids deposited into high-energy shallow-water settings influenced by wave processes that reworked the sediments associated with a seagrass; II) grainstone to packstone with small porcellaneous foraminifera and abundant permanently-attached gypsinids deposited in a more protected (e.g., small embayment) in situ vegetated environment; III) bioclastic packstone with parautochthonous material reworked from the seagrass by rip currents and accumulated into rip channels in a slightly deeper environment. The biotic assemblages suggest that the depositional environment is consistent with tropical to subtropical vegetated environments within oligotrophic conditions.


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    Ivan Jurković


    Full Text Available The geological setting is dominated by Eocene (48.7 Ma syncollisional granitoids in the form of a small pluton in the Motajica Mt. and in the form of numerous sills and dykes in the Prosara Mt. Microelement paragenesis of these magmatites, pegmatites, greisens and quartz veins are distinguished by U, Th, Ce, Y, P, Nb, Ta, B, Li, F, Be, Sn, Mo, W, Fe, Cu, Pb. These elements and 87Sr/86Sr and 18O isotopic values indicate the mantle origin of magma contaminated by relatively sterile lithospheric rocks. The most probable hypothesis of such a hybrid magma formation is the "slab break-off model". Deep erosion of Motajica granitoid pluton opened its acrobatholitic and epibatholitic level with numerous, but small pegmatite deposits (beryllites, tourmalinites, emeraldites and sylexites with piezoelectric quartz. Greisenization marked by strong silicification and muscovitization affected less than 1% of pluton. It is characterized by minor and accessory molybdenite, wolframite, huebnerite, scheelite, fluorite. Hydrothermal occurrences, galena and Fe minerals have only a mineralogical significance. Economically significant are numerous autochthonous kaolin deposits formed in Pliocene-Pleistocene time. Prosara apomagmatic granitoids, exclusively granite dykes are metallogenetically sterile.

  9. Late Eocene stable isotope stratigraphy of North Atlantic IODP Site U1411: Orbitally paced climatic heartbeat at the close of the Eocene greenhouse (United States)

    Coxall, Helen; Bohaty, Steve; Wilson, Paul; Liebrand, Diederik; Nyberg, Anna; Holmström, Max


    Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 342 drilled sediment drifts on the Newfoundland margin to recover high-resolution records of North Atlantic ocean-climate history and track the evolution of the modern climate system through the Late Cretaceous and Early Cenozoic. An early Paleogene deep-sea benthic stable isotope composite record from multiple Exp. 342 sites is currently in development and will provide a key reference section for investigations of Atlantic and global climate dynamics. This study presents initial results for the late Eocene slice of the composite from Site U1411, located at mid depth (˜2850m Eocene paleodepth) on the Southeast Newfoundland Ridge. Stable oxygen (δ18O) and carbon (δ13C) isotope ratios were measured on 640 samples hosting exceptionally well-preserved epifaunal benthic foraminifera obtained from the microfossil-rich uppermost Eocene clays at 4cm spacing. Sedimentation rates average 2-3 cm/kyr through the late Eocene, such that our sampling resolution is sufficient to capture the dominant Milankovitch frequencies. Late Eocene Site U1411 benthic δ18O values (1.4 to 0.5‰ VPDB) are comparable to the Pacific and elsewhere in the Atlantic at similar depths; however, δ13C is lower by ˜0.5 ‰ with values intermediate between those of the Southern Labrador Sea to the north (-1 to 0) and mid latitude/South Atlantic (0.5 to 1.5) to the south, suggesting poorly ventilated bottom waters in the late Eocene North Atlantic and limited production of North Atlantic deep water. Applying the initial shipboard magneto-biostratigraphic age framework, the Site U1411 benthic δ13C and δ18O records display clear cyclicity on orbital timescales. Spectral analysis of the raw unfiltered datasets identifies eccentricity (400 and 100 kyr), obliquity (40 kyr) and precession (˜20 kyr) signals imprinted on our time series, revealing distinct climatic heart beats in the late Eocene prior to the transition into the 'ice house'.

  10. The oldest African bat from the early Eocene of El Kohol (Algeria) (United States)

    Ravel, Anthony; Marivaux, Laurent; Tabuce, Rodolphe; Adaci, Mohammed; Mahboubi, Mohammed; Mebrouk, Fateh; Bensalah, Mustapha


    The Afro-Arabian Paleogene fossil record of Chiroptera is very poor. In North Africa and Arabia, this record is limited, thus far, to a few localities mainly in Tunisia (Chambi, late early Eocene), Egypt (Fayum, late Eocene to early Oligocene), and Sultanate of Oman (Taqah, early Oligocene). It consists primarily of isolated teeth or mandible fragments. Interestingly, these African fossil bats document two modern groups (Vespertilionoidea and Rhinolophoidea) from the early Eocene, while the bat fossil record of the same epoch of North America, Eurasia, and Australia principally includes members of the "Eochiroptera." This paraphyletic group contains all primitive microbats excluding modern families. In Algeria, the region of Brezina, southeast of the Atlas Mountains, is famous for the early Eocene El Kohol Formation, which has yielded one of the earliest mammalian faunas of the African landmass. Recent fieldwork in the same area has led to the discovery of a new vertebrate locality, including isolated teeth of Chiroptera. These fossils represent the oldest occurrence of Chiroptera in Africa, thus extending back the record of the group to the middle early Eocene (Ypresian) on that continent. The material consists of an upper molar and two fragments of lower molars. The dental character association matches that of "Eochiroptera." As such, although very fragmentary, the material testifies to the first occurrence of "Eochiroptera" in Algeria, and by extension in Africa. This discovery demonstrates that this basal group of Chiroptera had a worldwide distribution during the early Paleogene.

  11. Sonora, Mexico, source for the Eocene Poway Conglomerate of southern California (United States)

    Abbott, Patrick L.; Smith, T. E.


    Alluvial-fan conglomerates of the Eocene Poway Group are composed largely of exotic rhyolite and dacite clasts derived from far to the east of their Eocene depositional site. Remnants of the Upper Jurassic bedrock source of the Poway rhyolite clasts may yet be exposed in hills in Sonora, Mexico. For this study, pieces of bedrock were taken from hills 13 km west of El Plomo in Sonora. Clasts texturally and mineralogically similar to the Sonoran bedrock were collected from the apex of the Eocene alluvial fan in San Diego County, California Nine couplets of bedrock and conglomerate clast samples (textural twins) were analyzed for 16 trace elements selected for their wide range of behaviors during magmatic and alteration processes. Statistical comparisons of the trace-element data, by using the standard error-of-the-difference method, show that there are no significant differences between the two populations. These data strongly suggest that the rhyolitic bedrock hills west of El Plomo were part of the source terrane for the Eocene conglomerate in San Diego. The latitudinal separation between bedrock source and the site of deposition is only the 2° created by the opening of the Gulf of California This implies that any boundary separating a paleomagnetically efined, Baja-Borderland terrane from the craton since Eocene time was at least 100 km east of the Gulf of California in northernmost Sonora.

  12. Biostratigraphy of a Paleocene-Eocene Foreland Basin boundary in southern Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoqiao Wan; Xi Wang; Luba F.Jansa


    This study of the Paleocene-Eocene boundary within a foreland basin of southern Tibet,which was dominated by a carbonate ramp depositional environment, documents more complex environmental conditions than can be derived from studies of the deep oceanic environment. Extinction rates for larger foraminiferal species in the Zongpu-1 Section apply to up to 46% of the larger foraminiferal taxa.The extinction rate in southern Tibet is similar to rates elsewhere in the world, but it shows that the Paleocene fauna disappeared stepwise through the Late Paleocene, with Eocene taxa appearing abruptly above the boundary. A foraminifera turnover was identified between Members 3 and 4 of the Zongpu Formation-from the Miscellanea-Daviesina assemblage to an Orbitolites-Alveolina assemblage. The Paleocene and Eocene boundary is between the SBZ 4 and SBZ 5, where it is marked by the extinction of Miscellanea miscella and the first appearance of Alveolina ellipsodalis and a large number of Orbitolites.Chemostratigraphically, the δ13C values from both the Zongpu-1 and Zongpu-2 Sections show three negative excursions in the transitional strata, one in Late Paleocene, one at the boundary, and one in the early Eocene. The second negative excursion of δ13C, which is located at the P-E boundary, coincides with larger foraminifera overturn. These faunal changes and the observed δ13C negative excursions provide new evidence on environmental changes across the Paleocene-Eocene boundary in Tibet.

  13. Fossil plant stomata indicate decreasing atmospheric CO2 prior to the Eocene-Oligocene boundary (United States)

    Steinthorsdottir, Margret; Porter, Amanda S.; Holohan, Aidan; Kunzmann, Lutz; Collinson, Margaret; McElwain, Jennifer C.


    A unique stratigraphic sequence of fossil leaves of Eotrigonobalanus furcinervis (extinct trees of the beech family, Fagaceae) from central Germany has been used to derive an atmospheric pCO2 record with multiple data points spanning the late middle to late Eocene, two sampling levels which may be earliest Oligocene, and two samples from later in the Oligocene. Using the inverse relationship between the density of stomata and pCO2, we show that pCO2 decreased continuously from the late middle to late Eocene, reaching a relatively stable low value before the end of the Eocene. Based on the subsequent records, pCO2 in parts of the Oligocene was similar to latest Eocene values. These results suggest that a decrease in pCO2 preceded the large shift in marine oxygen isotope records that characterizes the Eocene-Oligocene transition and that when a certain threshold of pCO2 change was crossed, the cumulative effects of this and other factors resulted in rapid temperature decline, ice build up on Antarctica and hence a change of climate mode.

  14. New protocetid whale from the middle eocene of pakistan: birth on land, precocial development, and sexual dimorphism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip D Gingerich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Protocetidae are middle Eocene (49-37 Ma archaeocete predators ancestral to later whales. They are found in marine sedimentary rocks, but retain four legs and were not yet fully aquatic. Protocetids have been interpreted as amphibious, feeding in the sea but returning to land to rest. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two adult skeletons of a new 2.6 meter long protocetid, Maiacetus inuus, are described from the early middle Eocene Habib Rahi Formation of Pakistan. M. inuus differs from contemporary archaic whales in having a fused mandibular symphysis, distinctive astragalus bones in the ankle, and a less hind-limb dominated postcranial skeleton. One adult skeleton is female and bears the skull and partial skeleton of a single large near-term fetus. The fetal skeleton is positioned for head-first delivery, which typifies land mammals but not extant whales, evidence that birth took place on land. The fetal skeleton has permanent first molars well mineralized, which indicates precocial development at birth. Precocial development, with attendant size and mobility, were as critical for survival of a neonate at the land-sea interface in the Eocene as they are today. The second adult skeleton is the most complete known for a protocetid. The vertebral column, preserved in articulation, has 7 cervicals, 13 thoracics, 6 lumbars, 4 sacrals, and 21 caudals. All four limbs are preserved with hands and feet. This adult is 12% larger in linear dimensions than the female skeleton, on average, has canine teeth that are 20% larger, and is interpreted as male. Moderate sexual dimorphism indicates limited male-male competition during breeding, which in turn suggests little aggregation of food or shelter in the environment inhabited by protocetids. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Discovery of a near-term fetus positioned for head-first delivery provides important evidence that early protocetid whales gave birth on land. This is consistent with skeletal

  15. Variability of the planktonic foraminifera community across the Eocene/Oligocene boundary, Fuente Caldera Section, Baetic Ranges (Spain) (United States)

    Legarda-Lisarri, A.


    During the Eocene/Oligocene transition, in a massive extinction event that took place about 33.7 million years ago, the current high resolution study analyzes qualitatively and quantitatively the community structure of the planktonic foraminifera that were preserved in the hemipelagic sediments of the Tethys Sea. The sampled section of the Fuente Caldera column, located in the Baetic mountain ranges, spans a register of 396,551.7 years. Based in the identification of 27 species, that belong to 13 genera and 2 families of foraminifera, there have been found three biozones of Gonzalvo Zonation (Gonzalvo, 2002) in the studied stratigraphic interval: Turborotalia cocoaensis and Cribrohantkenina lazzarii Biozones (Rupelian), and Paragloborotalia increbescens (Priabonian). The planktonic foraminifera associations variability patterns are defined by paleoecologic indexes (diversity index, high and low latitude species index and planktonic and benthic foraminifera index), by geochemical proxies: δ18O and δ13C and by 'Q' Mode Factor Analysis. They prove that the deposition environment is outer platform and also, they suggest that the studied area in the Tethys Sea underwent many thermal pulses, during which some species extinct or appear. In the first extinction event the species Turborotalia cocoaensis and Turborotalia cunialensis became extinct. In the second one, Hantkenina alabamensis, Hantkenina brevispina, Cribrohantkenina lazzarii and Pseudohastigerina micra became extinct while a succession occured; Globigerina officinalis, Globoturborotalita anguliofficinalis and Tenuitellinata angustiumbilicata appeared. The cooling event that finished in the Lower Oligocene was the biggest of these pulses, which was extremely abrupt and corresponds to the Oi-1 event that was described by Miller (Miller, 1991). All this evidences that the planktonic foraminifera extinction in the Upper Eocene was a gradual and fast event, what is supported by the Factor Analysis application. Key

  16. Calcareous nannoplankton and diatoms from the Eocene/Pliocene sediments, Fayoum depression, Egypt (United States)

    Zalat, Abdelfattah A.


    Different assemblages of calcareous nannofossil and diatom taxa are detected in samples collected from sections at Shaqluf, Siela and Qaret El Faras in the Fayoum area. Five calcareous nannoplankton biozones are recorded: the Middle Eocene Discoaster tanii nodifer Zone, the Discoaster saipanensis Zone; the early, Late Eocene Chiasmolithus oamaruensis Zone; the Late Eocene Isthmolithus recurvus Zone and the Early Pliocene Reticulofenestra pseudoumbilicus Zone. Diatoms are recorded for the first time in the sections studied. The gradual changes in diatom composition from marine to brackish, ending with a well-developed, freshwater flora at the top of the Pliocene Shaqluf section, indicate changes in the palaeoecological conditions in the area during that time. In the Pliocene Siela and Qaret El Faras sections, all the identified diatom taxa belong to the freshwater assemblage together with some brackish water forms. The predominance of freshwater diatoms suggests that these taxa were introduced to the area with the sediments of the Palaeonile river during the Late Pliocene.

  17. Insight Into Climate Variations Of The Early Middle Eocene: High-Resolution Benthic Stable Isotope Data From Site 1408, Newfoundland Ridge


    Wu, Fei


    The middle Eocene is a transitional period from the greenhouse early Eocene to the ice-house Eocene-Oligocene Transition. Due to lack of high-resolution records, the details of this long-term cooling trend are not clear. Low-resolution atmospheric CO2 records suggest declining, but highly variable levels during the middle Eocene which might have driven transient climate variations. However, high-resolution stable isotope records are lacking to document the true climate patterns over this peri...

  18. Increasing restriction of the Egyptian shelf during the Early Eocene? - New insights from a southern Tethyan carbonate platform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Höntzsch, S.; Scheibner, C.; Guasti, E.; Kuss, J.; Marzouk, A.M.; Rasser, M.W.


    The evolution of the isolated Galala carbonate platform has been studied intensively with respect to the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) and the strong climatic variability from the Late Paleocene to the Early Eocene. In this study, we compare the results of different approaches which deal w

  19. Temperature and salinity changes associated with the Paleocene-Eocene Carbon Isotope Excursion along the mid Atlantic margin (United States)

    Makarova, M.; Miller, K. G.; Wright, J. D.; Rosenthal, Y.; Babila, T. L.


    The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) was an abrupt warming event, characterized by a global temperature increase of about 5-8°C and associated with the Carbon Isotope Excursion (CIE) of ~2.5-4‰ in marine environments. Here we evaluate temperature and salinity changes across the Paleocene/Eocene boundary in the Millville New Jersey coastal plain core (ODP Leg 174AX) using two independent temperature proxies (the organic paleothermometer TEX86 and Mg/Ca ratio of planktonic foraminifera) and δ18O of planktonic foraminifera. Paleotemperature estimates show warming of 5-7°C during the CIE, though different temperature calibrations provide a broad range of absolute temperatures. We argue that the temperature calibration of TEXL 86 provides the best temperature estimate (warming from 23°C to 30°C) because it is the only one that yields realistic salinities, whereas the TEXH 86 calibration yields extremely high sea surface salinities (~48 psu in the latest Paleocene). In contrast to the previous studies, use of the correct calibration effectively eliminates any temperature increase prior to the CIE suggesting that temperature was not the trigger for the massive release of carbon. A salinity decrease of at least ~4 psu was associated with the onset of the CIE/PETM. This implies freshening of surface and thermocline waters supports the hypothesis of an enhanced hydrological cycle. We conclude that our results are consistent with the hypothesis of Appalachian Amazon river system development and increased river runoff to the New Jersey continental margin during the PETM.

  20. Ancient DNA from the extinct South American giant glyptodont Doedicurus sp. (Xenarthra: Glyptodontidae) reveals that glyptodonts evolved from Eocene armadillos. (United States)

    Mitchell, Kieren J; Scanferla, Agustin; Soibelzon, Esteban; Bonini, Ricardo; Ochoa, Javier; Cooper, Alan


    Glyptodonts were giant (some of them up to ~2400 kg), heavily armoured relatives of living armadillos, which became extinct during the Late Pleistocene/early Holocene alongside much of the South American megafauna. Although glyptodonts were an important component of Cenozoic South American faunas, their early evolution and phylogenetic affinities within the order Cingulata (armoured New World placental mammals) remain controversial. In this study, we used hybridization enrichment and high-throughput sequencing to obtain a partial mitochondrial genome from Doedicurus sp., the largest (1.5 m tall, and 4 m long) and one of the last surviving glyptodonts. Our molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that glyptodonts fall within the diversity of living armadillos. Reanalysis of morphological data using a molecular 'backbone constraint' revealed several morphological characters that supported a close relationship between glyptodonts and the tiny extant fairy armadillos (Chlamyphorinae). This is surprising as these taxa are among the most derived cingulates: glyptodonts were generally large-bodied and heavily armoured, while the fairy armadillos are tiny (~9-17 cm) and adapted for burrowing. Calibration of our phylogeny with the first appearance of glyptodonts in the Eocene resulted in a more precise timeline for xenarthran evolution. The osteological novelties of glyptodonts and their specialization for grazing appear to have evolved rapidly during the Late Eocene to Early Miocene, coincident with global temperature decreases and a shift from wet closed forest towards drier open woodland and grassland across much of South America. This environmental change may have driven the evolution of glyptodonts, culminating in the bizarre giant forms of the Pleistocene. PMID:27158910

  1. Large-amplitude variations in carbon cycling and terrestrial weathering during the latest Paleocene and earliest Eocene: The record at Mead Stream, New Zealand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slotnick, B.S.; Dickens, G.R.; Nicolo, M.J.; Hollis, C.J.; Crampton, J.S.; Zachos, J.C.; Sluijs, A.


    The late Paleocene to early Eocene was marked by major changes in Earth surface temperature and carbon cycling. This included at least two, and probably more, geologically brief (<200-k.yr.) intervals of extreme warming, the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM) and the Eocene thermal maximum-2 (E

  2. Igneous geology of the Carlin trend, Nevada: The importance of Eocene magmatism in gold mineralization (United States)

    Ressel, Michael Walter, Jr.

    Igneous rocks of five ages are present in the Carlin trend, Nevada, and include: (1) Paleozoic basalt of the Roberts Mountains allochthon, (2) the Jurassic (˜158 Ma) Goldstrike intrusive complex, which includes the Goldstrike diorite laccolith and abundant dikes and sills, (3) a Cretaceous (112 Ma) granite stock, (4) lavas and intrusions of the Emigrant Pass volcanic field and widespread epizonal plugs and dikes of Eocene (˜40-36 Ma) age that range from rhyolite through basalt, and (5) Miocene (15 Ma) rhyolite lava and tuff. Jurassic and Eocene igneous rocks are by far the most important volumetrically and are spatially associated with nearly all ore deposits of the Carlin trend. This study focuses on the field relations, isotopic dating, and geochemistry of Eocene dikes that intrude sedimentary rocks in many deposits of the Carlin trend, because they are the youngest pre-mineral rocks and have simpler alteration histories than other host rocks. In the Beast, Genesis, Deep Star, Betze-Post, Rodeo-Goldbug, Meikle-Griffin, and Dee-Storm deposits, Eocene dikes are altered, commonly mineralized, and locally constitute ore. Gold-bearing dikes and sedimentary rocks have similar ore mineralogy, including arsenian pyrite, marcasite, and arsenopyrite, with late barite and stibnite. At Beast, as much as half the ore is hosted in a 37.3 Ma rhyolite dike. Post-gold alunite is ˜18.6 Ma. At Meikle and Griffin, porphyritic dacite dikes yield concordant U/Pb zircon and 40Ar/39Ar biotite emplacement ages of ˜39.2 Ma, and illite from the same QSP-altered dacite, with as much 9 ppm Au, yields similar, although imprecise 40Ar/39Ar ages. Thus, gold mineralization at these deposits closely followed emplacement of Eocene dikes. Carlin-type gold deposits in northeastern Nevada have been variously interpreted as partly syngenetic with Paleozoic carbonate rocks, products of Mesozoic contraction and metamorphism with or without significant magmatism, and of Tertiary age and related or

  3. Early Eocene perturbed parameter simulations: multiple methods of proxy-model comparison (United States)

    Sagoo, N.; Valdes, P. J.; Flecker, R.


    Geological proxy data for the early Eocene, ~55 million years ago, indicate widespread greenhouse conditions across the Earth. High latitude early Eocene temperature estimates inferred from a variety of proxy data are much warmer than their modern counterparts (~10-20°C), whilst low latitude early Eocene temperature estimates where available (~30-35°C) are only slightly warmer than their modern equivalent. This implies a reduced pole to equator temperature gradient during the early Eocene. Climate models are unable to simulate the low latitudinal temperature gradients seen in the early Eocene. The mechanisms for transporting and maintaining heat at high latitudes in order to achieve these reduced gradients are still uncertain although several hypotheses have been proposed. We are interested in reducing this model-data discrepancy by considering both climate model and proxy data uncertainty. A comprehensive study by Murphy et al. 20041 identified a subset of 29 parameters within the UK Hadley centre climate model (HadCM3) whose values cannot be accurately determined from observations. These 29 parameters were identified as being responsible for controlling key physical characteristics of sub-grid scale atmospheric and surface processes by modelling experts. Using a subset of 12 of the uncertain parameters identified by Murphy et al. 2004, we have run climate model experiments perturbing these parameters singly and jointly, within a realistic range, in order to understand the spectrum of climates that result. We use the model, FAMOUS (Fast Met Office/UK Universities Simulator), a low resolution emulator of HadCM3 for our experiments. The relatively low computing time of FAMOUS makes it ideal for long paleoclimate studies. We use an early Eocene paleogeography and run our simulations at 560 ppm, (2 x pre-industrial CO2.) The solar constant for the early Eocene is set to 1359.5 Wm-2. The climate proxy dataset (terrestrial and marine) available for the early Eocene is

  4. Stratigraphy and paleoenvironment of the Danish Eocene Azolla event (United States)

    Heilmann-Clausen, Claus; Beyer, Claus; Snowball, Ian


    Spores (massulae and megaspores) of the freshwater fern Azolla are recorded in several Danish Eocene outcrops and boreholes. The Azolla-bearing interval is 0.5 - ca. 3 m thick and occurs within the L2 Bed, a unit in the lower part of the hemipelagic, bathyal Lillebælt Clay Formation deposited in the central and eastern parts of the North Sea Basin. Intervals of organic-rich clay, usually including two distinctive, black sapropels, are present in the lower part of Bed L2, indicating a generally reduced oxygen content in the bottom waters during this time, with at least two episodes of severe, basinwide stagnation. The oxygen-deficit points to reduced circulation and/or enhanced marine productivity in the North Sea Basin. Azolla occurs in the upper part of this mainly organic-rich interval. The frequency of Azolla spores relative to marine dinoflagellate cysts fluctuates within the interval. The Azolla interval has previously been correlated to levels near the Ypresian/Lutetian transition in Belgium, based on dinoflagellate stratigraphy. Calibration of a new magnetostratigraphic study of the lower Lillebælt Clay with the dinoflagellate biostratigraphy suggests that Bed L2 spans the upper part of Chron 22r, C22n and lower part of C21r. The Azolla pulse spans the upper part of C22n and lowermost part of C21r. The combined bio-magnetostratigraphy from Denmark allows a detailed comparison with published data from the northern part of the Norwegian-Greenland Sea (ODP Hole 913B). The correlation confirms earlier assumptions, which were based on biostratigraphy alone, that the marine Azolla pulse in the two areas, and therefore probably over the whole Norwegian-Greenland Sea - North Sea region, is of the same age. An ongoing palynological study of the L2 Bed has so far revealed no indication for freshwater episodes or brackish waters in the basin during the Azolla pulse, except perhaps for Azolla itself. It is, therefore, suggested that the Azolla spores were transported

  5. A stromatolite exhibiting both biogenic and abiogenic growth phases from the Eocene Green River Formation (United States)

    Frantz, C. M.; Petryshyn, V. A.; Corsetti, F. A.; Bhartia, R.; Salas, E. C.; Nealson, K. H.


    The microstructure of microdigitate carbonate stromatolites from the Rife Bed of the Eocene Green River Formation (located near Rock Springs, Wyoming) alternates between calcite fans and micrite. Chemical and petrographic analysis of the stromatolites suggests the different microstructures result from significantly different growth regimes, potentially involving the biogenicity of the microfabrics. The calcite fan fabric is generally considered an abiogenic fabric. The micrite fabric, on the other hand, contains grains trapped at angles well beyond the angle of repose, suggesting the presence of a sticky substance (hypothesized to be microbial mats) during formation. Magnetic susceptibility has been recently developed by Petryshyn et al as a biosignature using the premise that microbial mats can trap very fine grains (including magnetic grains, ubiquitous in terrestrial environments) past the angle of repose while abiogenic structures with the same topography cannot. In these stromatolites, micritic layers have a greater magnetic susceptibility than calcite fan layers, consistent with the petrographic results. In addition, organic material was mapped within the stromatolites using deep-UV native fluorescence spectroscopy, a new technique that highlights π bond-containing organic molecules and avoids problems with mineral fluorescence inherent in other fluorescent techniques. Distinct organic features were present in the micritic layers and absent in the calcite fan layers. Attempts were made to identify the specific organic compounds mapped using organic extractions and traditional Raman spectroscopy. While trace amounts of organic compounds were detected in bulk organic extractions from the stromatolite, specific compounds could not be successfully correlated to deep-UV signatures. Strong calcite fluorescence prevented the detection of organic compounds using visible Raman scattering. Thus, at the time of abstract submission the organic material present had not

  6. An abyssal carbonate compensation depth overshoot in the aftermath of the Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (United States)

    Penman, Donald E.; Turner, Sandra Kirtland; Sexton, Philip F.; Norris, Richard D.; Dickson, Alexander J.; Boulila, Slah; Ridgwell, Andy; Zeebe, Richard E.; Zachos, James C.; Cameron, Adele; Westerhold, Thomas; Röhl, Ursula


    During the Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) about 56 million years ago, thousands of petagrams of carbon were released into the atmosphere and ocean in just a few thousand years, followed by gradual sequestration over approximately 200,000 years. If silicate weathering is one of the key negative feedbacks that removed this carbon, a period of seawater calcium carbonate saturation greater than pre-event levels would be expected during the event's recovery phase. In marine sediments, this should be recorded as a temporary deepening of the depth below which no calcite is preserved -- the calcite compensation depth (CCD). Previous and new sedimentary records from sites that were above the pre-PETM CCD show enhanced carbonate accumulation following the PETM. A new record from an abyssal site in the North Atlantic that lay below the pre-PETM CCD shows a period of carbonate preservation beginning about 70,000 years after the onset of the PETM, providing the first direct evidence for an over-deepening of the CCD. This record confirms an overshoot in ocean carbonate saturation during the PETM recovery. Simulations with two earth system models support scenarios for the PETM that involve a large initial carbon release followed by prolonged low-level emissions, consistent with the timing of CCD deepening in our record. Our findings indicate that sequestration of these carbon emissions was most likely the result of both globally enhanced calcite burial above the CCD and, at least in the North Atlantic, an over-deepening of the CCD.

  7. Early Eocene hyperthermals record orbitally controlled changes in high latitude climates (United States)

    Galeotti, S.; DeConto, R. M.; Lanci, L.; Pagani, M.; Rohl, U.; Westerhold, T.; Zachos, J. C.


    The Late Paleocene to Early Eocene records a succession of short-term (104 yr) negative carbon isotope excursions (CIEs) in marine carbonates and organic carbon. Available data indicate that at least three of these episodes, including the Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) at ca. 55.5, the Eocene Thermal Maximum (ETM)2 at ca. 53.5 Ma and the ETM3 at ca. 52 Ma, were associated with rapid warming, and widespread marine carbonate dissolution forced by shoaling of the carbonate lysocline and lowering of the carbonate saturation state. Large temperature raises associated with decreased δ13C values in both terrestrial and oceanic records and concomitant acidification of oceanic waters implies that hyperthermals were caused by the addition of massive amounts of 13C-depleted greenhouse gases (CH4 and/or CO-2) into the atmosphere and subsequent sequestration by oceanic waters. Cyclostratigraphic analyses of marine sequences provided evidence that CIEs and associated carbonate dissolution episodes were linked to orbital changes in insolation. Here we show grounds that Early Eocene hyperthermals are part of a continuum of δ13C anomaly and carbonate dissolution episodes and are triggered by long-term orbitally-controlled changes in local climates at high latitudes.

  8. Eocene prevalence of monsoon-like climate over eastern China reflected by hydrological dynamics (United States)

    Wang, Dehai; Lu, Shicong; Han, Shuang; Sun, Xiaoyan; Quan, Cheng


    Hydrological dynamics of sedimentary basins are essential for understanding regional climatic pattern in the geological past. In previous qualitative studies lithologically depending on the occurrence of featured sedimentary rocks, the Eocene climate of China had been subdivided into three latitudinal zones, with one subtropical high-controlled arid zone throughout middle China, and two humid zones respectively in the north and south. However, recent advances on mammalian fauna distribution, plant fossil-based quantitative paleoclimatic reconstruction, and modeling experiment jointly suggest that the relatively humid monsoonal climate might have prevailed over the territory. Here we examine and compare sedimentary sequences of 10 Eocene sections across eastern China, and hence the lake level fluctuations, to discuss the nature of climate type. Our results show that, instead of the categorically zonal pattern, the hydroclimate dynamics is intensified landward. This is demonstrated by the fact that, in contrast to the wide developed coal layers around the periphery, evaporites are growingly occurred endocentrically to the central part of middle China. However, although we have had assumed that all evaporites are indicator of extreme aridity, the highly oscillated climate in the central part of middle China was humid in the majority of the Eocene, distinct from permanent arid as seen in deserts or steppe along modern horse latitude. From the upcountry distribution pattern of the Eocene hydrological dynamics, it appears that the relatively dry climate in central China was caused by the impact of continentality or rain shadow effect under monsoonal, or monsoon-like climate.

  9. Astrochronology of extreme global warming events during the early Eocene greenhouse climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lauretano, V.


    The early Eocene represents an ideal case study to analyse the impact of enhanced global warming on the ocean-atmosphere system and the relationship between carbon cycling and climate. During this time interval, the Earth’s surface experienced a long-term warming trend that culminated in a period of

  10. Climate, carbon cycling and marine ecology during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frieling, J.


    The Paleocene and Eocene are characterized by strong greenhouse climates. Atmospheric CO2 concentrations and global temperatures were much higher than today. The period from 60 to 50 million years ago (Ma) is marked by a gradual warming trend of ~8 ºC in the deep ocean. The interval from 56 to 50 Ma

  11. Early Eocene climatic optimum: Environmental impact on the North Iberian continental margin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Payros, A.; Ortiz, S.; Millán, I.; Arostegi, J.; Orue-Etxebarria, X.; Apellaniz, E.


    The early Eocene climatic optimum, which constituted the peak of the long-term early Cenozoic global warming, had a significant impact on the environmental evolution of terrestrial and oceanic areas. Surprisingly, however, its influence on continental margins is poorly known. New insights are provid

  12. Coeval Eocene blooms of the freshwater fern Azolla in and around Arctic and Nordic seas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barke, J.; Burgh, A.H.P. van der; Konijnenburg-van Cittert, J.H.A. van; Collinson, M.E.; Pearce, M.A.; Bujak, J.; Heilman-Clausen, C.; Lotter, A.F.; Speelman, E.N.; Kempen, M.M.L. van; Reichart, G.-J.; Brinkhuis, H.


    For a short time interval (c. 1.2 Myr) during the early middle Eocene (~ 49 Myr), the central Arctic Ocean was episodically densely covered by the freshwater fern Azolla, implying sustained freshening of surface waters. Coeval Azolla fossils in neighboring Nordic seas were thought to have been sourc

  13. Salinity of the Eocene Arctic Ocean from oxygen isotope analysis of fish bone carbonate (United States)

    Waddell, Lindsey M.; Moore, Theodore C.


    Stable isotope analysis was performed on the structural carbonate of fish bone apatite from early and early middle Eocene samples (˜55 to ˜45 Ma) recently recovered from the Lomonosov Ridge by Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 302 (the Arctic Coring Expedition). The δ18O values of the Eocene samples ranged from -6.84‰ to -2.96‰ Vienna Peedee belemnite, with a mean value of -4.89‰, compared to 2.77‰ for a Miocene sample in the overlying section. An average salinity of 21 to 25‰ was calculated for the Eocene Arctic, compared to 35‰ for the Miocene, with lower salinities during the Paleocene Eocene thermal maximum, the Azolla event at ˜48.7 Ma, and a third previously unidentified event at ˜47.6 Ma. At the Azolla event, where the organic carbon content of the sediment reaches a maximum, a positive δ13C excursion was observed, indicating unusually high productivity in the surface waters.

  14. Palaeoecological and palaeoclimatological implications of the Eocene Northern Hemisphere Azolla phenomenon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barke, J.


    The high abundances and cyclic distribution of remains of the freshwater fern Azolla in early middle Eocene sediments from the Arctic Ocean have previously been related to episodic surface water freshening, which was speculated to be orbitally modulated. Our integrated palynological and cyclostratig

  15. Orbitally forced Azolla blooms And Middle Eocene Arctic hydrology: Clues from palynology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barke, J.; Abels, H.A.; Sangiorgi, F.; Greenwood, D.R.; Sweet, A.R.; Donders, T.; Reichart, G.-J.; Lotter, A.F.; Brinkhuis, H.


    The high abundances and cyclic distribution of remains of the freshwater fern Azolla in early-Middle Eocene sediments from the Arctic Ocean have previously been related to episodic surface-water freshening, which was speculated to be orbitally modulated. Our integrated palynological and cyclostratig

  16. Macrofauna associations and formation of shell concentrations in the Early Eocene Roda Formation (southern Pyrenees, Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinius, A.W.


    The invertebrate macrofauna (mainly molluscs) of the Early Eocene Roda Formation (southern Pyrenees, Spain) is reported and classified in seven biofacies associations, representing ecologically related groups of macro-invertebrates of shallow marine fan-delta environments ranging in depth from inter

  17. Changes in the hydrological cycle in tropical East Africa during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Handley, L.; O'Halloran, A.; Pearson, P.N.; Hawkins, E.; Nicholas, C.J.; Schouten, S.; McMillan, I.K.; Pancost, R.D.


    The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), at ca. 55.8 Ma, is one of the most studied instances of past greenhouse gas-induced global warming. As such, it provides a rich opportunity to examine the impact of such global change on local climates. The effects of increased continental and sea surface

  18. A new libelluloid family from the Eocene Green River Formation (Colorado, USA) (Odonata, Anisoptera). (United States)

    Zeiri, Asma; Nel, Andre; Garrouste, Romain


    The new family Urolibellulidae is proposed for the new genus and species Urolibellula eocenica, based on a fossil dragonfly from the Eocene Green River Formation (USA). This new taxon is considered as the sister group of the extant Libellulidae. As the oldest libellulid dragonfly is dated from the Turonian, the Urolibellulidae should also be at least Late Cretaceous. PMID:26624363

  19. A small galliform bird from the Lower Eocene Fur Formation, northwestern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindow, Bent Erik Kramer; Dyke, Gareth John


    A pair of fossilized imprints of feet represent the first published galliform (landfowl) specimen from the Lower Eocene Fur Formation of northwest Denmark. The specimen is referable to Galliformes due to the presence of a distinctly asymmetric trochlea metatarsi III. The specimen appears distinct...

  20. Magnetotactic bacterial response to Antarctic dust supply during the Palaeocene-Eocene thermal maximum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larrasoaña, J.C.; Roberts, A.P.; Chang, L.; Schellenberg, S.A.; Fitz Gerald, J.D.; Norris, R.D.; Zachos, J.C.


    Distinct magnetic properties of marine sediments that record the Palaeocene–Eocene thermal maximum (PETM) have been suggested to be due to a bacterial magnetofossil signal that is linked to enhanced weathering conditions during the PETM. We document the dominance of bacterial magnetite in deep-sea s

  1. Descent toward the Icehouse: Eocene sea surface cooling inferred from GDGT distributions (United States)

    Inglis, Gordon N.; Farnsworth, Alexander; Lunt, Daniel; Foster, Gavin L.; Hollis, Christopher J.; Pagani, Mark; Jardine, Phillip E.; Pearson, Paul N.; Markwick, Paul; Galsworthy, Amanda M. J.; Raynham, Lauren; Taylor, Kyle. W. R.; Pancost, Richard D.


    The TEX86 proxy, based on the distribution of marine isoprenoidal glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether lipids (GDGTs), is increasingly used to reconstruct sea surface temperature (SST) during the Eocene epoch (56.0-33.9 Ma). Here we compile published TEX86 records, critically reevaluate them in light of new understandings in TEX86 palaeothermometry, and supplement them with new data in order to evaluate long-term temperature trends in the Eocene. We investigate the effect of archaea other than marine Thaumarchaeota upon TEX86 values using the branched-to-isoprenoid tetraether index (BIT), the abundance of GDGT-0 relative to crenarchaeol (%GDGT-0), and the Methane Index (MI). We also introduce a new ratio, %GDGTRS, which may help identify Red Sea-type GDGT distributions in the geological record. Using the offset between TEX86H and TEX86L (ΔH-L) and the ratio between GDGT-2 and GDGT-3 ([2]/[3]), we evaluate different TEX86 calibrations and present the first integrated SST compilation for the Eocene (55 to 34 Ma). Although the available data are still sparse some geographic trends can now be resolved. In the high latitudes (>55°), there was substantial cooling during the Eocene (~6°C). Our compiled record also indicates tropical cooling of ~2.5°C during the same interval. Using an ensemble of climate model simulations that span the Eocene, our results indicate that only a small percentage (~10%) of the reconstructed temperature change can be ascribed to ocean gateway reorganization or paleogeographic change. Collectively, this indicates that atmospheric carbon dioxide (pCO2) was the likely driver of surface water cooling during the descent toward the icehouse.

  2. Depositional and diagenetic signatures of Late Eocene Oligocene sediments, South Carolina (United States)

    Segall, M. P.; Siron, D. L.; Colquhoun, D. J.


    Surficial and near-surface soils of the South Carolina Coastal Plain reflect a variety of lithologies and depositional environments that are difficult to differentiate because of intense leaching and abrupt or laterally inconsistent facies changes. Binocular microscopic examination, scanning electron microscopic/energy dispersive X-ray (SEM/EDX) observations, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses indicate that onshore Late Eocene to Late Oligocene Barnwell Group sediments are transitional facies ranging from high-energy fluvial deposits to offshore siliciclastic shelf sands. Interfingering of the units results in alternation of mineralogic signatures within a low-gradient fluvial/transitional/marine depositional system. Late Eocene and Early Oligocene offshore sediments were deposited in a mixed carbonate-siliciclastic, middle- to outer-shelf environment that was subjected to periods of erosion or non-deposition during transgressive events. Detrital and diagenetic characteristics of the onshore kaolinite-enriched, Late Oligocene Upland Unit sediments reflect deposition in a high- to low-energy fluvial system. Differentiation between these uppermost sediments and the underlying low-energy fluvial deposits of the Late Eocene Tobacco Road Sand is based on distinctive hydroxy-interlayered vermiculite (HIV) signatures. Intervals of HIV-enrichment are coincident with accumulations of carbonaceous material and identified as paleosols; these "soils" are used to infer offshore transgressive periods. Onshore sediments of the Late Eocene Dry Branch Formation contain high concentrations of smectite and flocculated, relatively poorly crystallized kaolinite flakes reflective of marine depositional conditions. At the base of this unit, authigenic Ca-minerals (Ca-zeolites and calcite) and quartz lepispheres (opal-CT) form coatings on and between sand grains. Late Eocene siliceous microfossils that contribute to opal-CT formation are identified in southwestern North Atlantic

  3. Early Eocene rodents (Mammalia) from the Subathu Formation of type area (Himachal Pradesh), NW sub-Himalaya, India: Palaeobiogeographic implications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Smita Gupta; Kishor Kumar


    Based on isolated upper cheek teeth, two new early Eocene rodents (Subathumys solanorius gen. et sp. nov. and Subathumys globulus gen. et sp. nov.) and three others (Birbalomys cf. sondaari, Birbalomys sp., cf. Chapattimys sp.) are recorded from the lower–middle part of the Subathu Formation of the type area in Himachal Pradesh, northwestern sub-Himalaya (India). The new rodents exhibit morphological features most similar to the unified ctenodactyloid family Chapattimyidae (including Yuomyidae), which is also represented in the assemblage from the upper part (middle Eocene) of the Subathu Formation. The associated lower cheek teeth are provisionally described as three indeterminate chapattimyid taxa. The new Subathu rodents are somewhat younger than the previously documented early Eocene assemblages from the Indian subcontinent, and are chronologically intermediate between the early Eocene ailuravines from Gujarat in the western peninsular India and the middle Eocene chapattimyids from northwestern India and Pakistan. They suggest that chapattimyids originated in the sub-Himalayan region during the Ypresian, which is earlier than previously believed. The absence of ailuravines in this as well as younger rodent assemblages from the subcontinent seems to suggest that ailuravines (Ischyromyidae), within a relatively short time after their appearance in the peninsular India in the early Eocene, may have been replaced by the indigenous chapattimyids. The co-occurrence in the early Eocene Subathu assemblage of three or more chapattimyids indicates their early radiation and dominance during the early and middle Eocene. This record of rodents opens the possibility of recovery of other small mammal remains in older levels of the Subathu Formation, which will be important for understanding linkage with early Eocene faunas from peninsular India, Europe and North America.

  4. Geology, alteration, age, and origin of iron oxide-apatite deposits in Upper Eocene quartz monzonite, Zanjan district, NW Iran (United States)

    Nabatian, Ghasem; Ghaderi, Majid; Corfu, Fernando; Neubauer, Franz; Bernroider, Manfred; Prokofiev, Vsevolod; Honarmand, Maryam


    Iron oxide-apatite deposits are present in Upper Eocene pyroxene-quartz monzonitic rocks of the Zanjan district, northwestern Iran. Mineralization occurred in five stages: (1) deposition of disseminated magnetite and apatite in the host rock; (2) mineralization of massive and banded magnetite ores in veins and stockwork associated with minor brecciation and calcic alteration of host rocks; (3) deposition of sulfide ores together with potassic alteration; (4) formation of quartz and carbonate veins and sericite, chlorite, epidote, silica, carbonate, and tourmaline alteration; and (5) supergene alteration and weathering. U-Pb dating of monazite inclusions in the apatite indicates an age of 39.99 ± 0.24 Ma, which is nearly coeval with the time of emplacement of the host quartz monzonite, supporting the genetic connection. Fluid inclusions in the apatite have homogenization temperatures of about 300 °C and oxygen isotopic compositions of the magnetite support precipitation from magmatic fluids. Late-stage quartz resulted from the introduction of a cooler, less saline, and isotopically depleted fluid. The iron oxide-apatite deposits in the Tarom area of the Zanjan district are typical of a magmatic-hydrothermal origin and are similar to the Kiruna-type deposits with respect to mineral assemblages, fabric and structure of the iron ores, occurrence of the ore bodies, and wall rock alteration.

  5. Peatlands, methane cycling and hyperthermals on the East Antarctic continent in the early Eocene. (United States)

    Bendle, J. A.; Toney, J. L.; Seki, O.; Krishnan, S.; Pagani, M.; Inglis, G.; Pancost, R. D.; Bijl, P.; Bohaty, S. M.; Schouten, S.; Pross, J.; Contreras, L.; Brinkhuis, H.; Roehl, U.; Jamieson, S.


    The high temperature, high pCO2 world of the early Eocene (ca.55 to 49 Ma) greenhouse may be an analogue for the future response of the biosphere and global carbon cycle, if anthropogenic, atmospheric CO2 forcing continues unabated. Here we present an early Eocene record inferring that orbital-scale changes in peatland extent and methanogenesis in coastal wetlands on Antarctica played an important role in the carbon cycle of this greenhouse world. Terrestrial biomarkers were analyzed from IODP Expedition 318 - Site U1356A, situated along the Wilkes Land margin of East Antarctica. The bacterial-derived, C31 (17αβ,21ββ) homohopane within a relatively immature hopane assemblage from Site U1356A, suggests that wetland environments were present on the Antarctica continent in the early Eocene. The timing of the fluctuations in the concentrations and the molecular structure - the ββ/(αβ+ββ) ratio - indicate that the extent of these wetlands fluctuated in response to external, orbital forcing. The compound-specific carbon isotope values (δ13C) of hopanes are consistently 5 to 10 permil lower than those of the higher plant n-alkanes, which suggests that the bacterial precursor organisms were likely a mixture of heterotrophs and methanotrophs. The longer term trends and apparently orbitally-paced hyperthermals observed in the biomarker measurements (including compound specific δ13C and δD) are consistent with changes in the TEXH86 sea-surface temperature proxy and suggest an important link between regional temperatures, the hydrological cycle and methanogenesis in wetlands on the early Eocene, Antarctic continent. For confirmation we are comparing the biomarker data with model outputs and additional palynological analyses. As well as exploring new biomarker data from other early Eocene sites to determine if the orbitally-driven expansion of peatlands along the Wilkes Land margin, East Antarctica applies to wider Eocene coastal environments, or if the peatland

  6. Insights into the early Eocene hydrological cycle from an ensemble of atmosphere–ocean GCM simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Carmichael


    Full Text Available Recent studies, utilising a range of proxies, indicate that a significant perturbation to global hydrology occurred at the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM; ~56 Ma. An enhanced hydrological cycle for the warm early Eocene is also suggested to have played a key role in maintaining high-latitude warmth during this interval. However, comparisons of proxy data to General Circulation Model (GCM simulated hydrology are limited and inter-model variability remains poorly characterised, despite significant differences in simulated surface temperatures. In this work, we undertake an intercomparison of GCM-derived precipitation and P-E distributions within the EoMIP ensemble (Lunt et al., 2012, which includes previously-published early Eocene simulations performed using five GCMs differing in boundary conditions, model structure and precipitation relevant parameterisation schemes. We show that an intensified hydrological cycle, manifested in enhanced global precipitation and evaporation rates, is simulated for all Eocene simulations relative to preindustrial. This is primarily due to elevated atmospheric paleo-CO2, although the effects of differences in paleogeography/ice sheets are also of importance in some models. For a given CO2 level, globally-averaged precipitation rates vary widely between models, largely arising from different simulated surface air temperatures. Models with a similar global sensitivity of precipitation rate to temperature (dP/dT display different regional precipitation responses for a given temperature change. Regions that are particularly sensitive to model choice include the South Pacific, tropical Africa and the Peri-Tethys, which may represent targets for future proxy acquisition. A comparison of early and middle Eocene leaf-fossil-derived precipitation estimates with the GCM output illustrates that a number of GCMs underestimate precipitation rates at high latitudes. Models which warm these regions, either via elevated

  7. Primary Study on Quantitative Reconstruction of Middle-Late Eocene Climate in Jianghan Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    This paper reports our primary effort in the quantitative reconstruction of paleoclimate based on the thrine in phytoecology of the affinity parent plants in the stratigraphic pollen records. The Eocene pollen data come from our former study on the Mingjia borehole 1 in the Jianghan basin. The fluctuating trend in the parameter curve of climate shows that the climate in the Middle Eocene in the Jianghan basin was more or less comparable with that of the present 22°-26°N, characteristic of a humid, semi-humid central-southern subtropical climate. The annual temperature at that time dropped by 1 ℃-4 ℃ in the Late Eocene, approximately equal to that of the present 23°-28°N of northern-central subtropical climate. However, the climate composite at that time, characterized by higher temperature, small annual range and big fluctuation in precipitation, was quite different from the present one. The average temperature in January in the Middle Eocene, higher than that of today, ranged between 5 ℃ and 9 ℃, indicating that no effect of winter monsoon occurred in the Middle Eocene, though such an effect may have occurred occasionally in the Late Eocene. Major temperature decline is recognized at the depth of 2 100 m in the borehole, as was indicated by the decline in average January temperature, the increase in annual range, and the increase in the deciduous broad-leaved types of trees in the spore-pollen assemblage. The sharp fluctuation in the annual precipitation, usually raging from 300 to 1 700 mm, was favorable for the migration and accumulation of salty deposit. When the precipitation was lower than 1 000 mm, ephemera shrub increased at the same depth as that of the salty deposit. It is, therefore, deduced that the formation of the salty deposit was attributed mainly to the dry and hot environment in the high mountains and deep basins. The small annual precipitation and the intense fluctuation are favorable for the sustainable accumulation of the salts

  8. Fossil plants indicate that the most significant decrease in atmospheric CO2 happened prior to the Eocene-Oligocene boundary (United States)

    Steinthorsdottir, Margret; Porter, Amanda; Holohan, Aidan; Kunzmann, Lutz; Collinson, Margaret; McElwain, Jennifer


    A unique stratigraphic sequence of fossil leaves of Eotrigonobalanus furcinervis (extinct trees of the beech family, Fagaceae) from central Germany was utilized to derive an atmospheric pCO2 record with multiple data points spanning the late middle to late Eocene, two sampling levels which may be earliest Oligocene, and two samples from later in the Oligocene. Using the stomatal proxy, which relies on the inverse relationship between pCO2 and leaf stomatal density, we show that a ~40% decrease in pCO2 preceded the large shift in marine oxygen isotope records that characterizes the Eocene-Oliogocene climate transition. The results endorse the theory that pCO2 drawdown was the main forcer of the Eocene-Oligocene climate change, and a 'tipping point' was reached in the latest Eocene, triggering the plunge of the Earth System into icehouse conditions.

  9. The Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum (MECO) in the high latitudes of the North Atlantic: Temperature and Biotic change


    M. Polling; Houben, A. J. P.; Firth, J; Coxall, H.; J. S. Eldrett; Schouten, S.; Reichart, G.-J.; Brinkhuis, H.


    Increasingly high resolution isotope- and novel organic geochemical proxy records have revealed that the long-term cooling trend of the middle Eocene was interrupted by a warming phase designated the Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum (MECO). It is suggested to represent an increase in sea surface temperatures of about 4°C, lasting approximately 400 kyr. The temperature evolution of the MECO is notably well-documented in the Southern Ocean. However, records of temperature- and biotic change durin...

  10. Reconstruction of the Arctic Ocean environment during the Eocene Azolla interval using geochemical proxies and climate modeling. Geologica Ultraiectina (331)


    Speelman, E. N.


    With the realization that the Arctic Ocean was covered with enormous quantities of the aquatic floating fern Azolla 49 Myrs ago, new questions regarding the Eocene conditions facilitating these blooms arose. This dissertation describes the reconstruction of paleo-environmental conditions facilitating the large-scale occurrence of the freshwater fern Azolla in the Early/Middle Eocene Arctic and how this bloom might have affected global climate. Comparison of organic geochemical analyses of Eoc...

  11. An exceptionally preserved Eocene shark and the rise of modern predator–prey interactions in the coral reef food web


    Fanti, Federico; Minelli, Daniela; Conte, Gabriele Larocca; Miyashita, Tetsuto


    Background Following extreme climatic warming events, Eocene Lagerstätten document aquatic and terrestrial vertebrate faunas surprisingly similar to modern counterparts. This transition in marine systems is best documented in the earliest teleost-dominated coral reef assemblage of Pesciara di Bolca, northern Italy, from near the end of the Eocene Climatic Optimum. Its rich fauna shows similarities with that of the modern Great Barrier Reef in niche exploitation by and morphological disparity ...

  12. Occurence and preservation of Eocene squamariacean and coralline rhodoliths: Eau, Tonga: Chapter 9 in Paleoalgology: contemporary research and applications (United States)

    Buchbinder, Binyamin; Halley, Robert B.; Toomey, Donald F.; Nitecki, Matthew H.


    A widespread rhodolith facies occurs within middle Eocene limestones of Eua, Tonga (Fig. 1). These limestones, first described by Hoffmeister (1932), represent a portion of a broad, early Tertiary platform that developed in the Tonga area prior to disruption and uplift by later Tertiary plate movements (Kroenke and Tongilava 1975). Algal rhodoliths form beds several meters thick within Eocene limestones and occur at localities several kilometers apart along the length of Eua.

  13. Environmental impact and magnitude of paleosol carbonate carbon isotope excursions marking five early Eocene hyperthermals in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming


    Abels, Hemmo A.; Lauretano, Vittoria; van Yperen, Anna E.; Hopman, Tarek; Zachos, James C.; Lourens, Lucas J.; Gingerich, Philip D.; Gabriel J Bowen


    Transient greenhouse warming events in the Paleocene and Eocene were associated with the addition of isotopically light carbon to the exogenic atmosphere–ocean carbon system, leading to substantial environmental and biotic change. The magnitude of an accompanying carbon isotope excursion (CIE) can be used to constrain both the sources and amounts of carbon released during an event and also to correlate marine and terrestrial records with high precision. The Paleocene–Eocene ...

  14. Low palaeoelevation of the northern Lhasa terrane during late Eocene: Fossil foraminifera and stable isotope evidence from the Gerze Basin


    Yi Wei; Kexin Zhang; Garzione, Carmala N.; Yadong Xu; Bowen Song; Junliang Ji


    The Lhasa terrane is a key region for understanding the paleoelevation of the southern Tibetan Plateau after India-Asia collision. The Gerze Basin, located in the northern part of the Lhasa terrane, is a shortening-related basin. We discovered Lagena laevis (Bandy) fossils in upper Eocene strata of the Gerze Basin. This type of foraminifera is associated with lagoon and estuarine environments, indicating that the northern part of the Lhasa terrane was near sea level during the late Eocene. We...

  15. Petrology of upper Eocene-Oligocene plutonic rocks of Moalleman Damghan area (United States)

    Kohansal, Reza; Zolfaghari, Seddigheh; Hashem Emami, Mohammad


    The plutonic rocks of this area include cryptodoms, hypoabyssal plutonic bodies and dikes which intruded in to the late Lutetian- late Eocene rocks. The hypoabyssal plutonic rocks in Moalleman are classified in to two main groups: - Acidic rocks, including microgranite to microgranodiorite. - Intermediate rocks, including microquartzmonzodiorite to microquartzdiorite of hypoabyssal type. Presence of fine-grained mafic xenoliths with abundant biotite, amphibole and pyroxene in the intermediate rocks may be considered as an evidence of the role of mantle melting occurrence in the formation of these rocks. Occurrence of a felsitic texture, showing a high differentiation coefficient and existence of large quarts which are embayed, rounded and infiltered by material, and finally turmalinization in the acidic rocks due to Boron metasomatism suggest the role of crust in the formation of afore mentioned rocks as well. In some acidic rocks plagioclases show oscillatory zoning. This phenomenon along with the fact that biotite granites in these rocks crystallized before crystallization of quarts and after crystallization of alkali feldspar suggest that the crystallization of these rocks accomplished in the presence of 2 percent water, pertitic texture in some feldspars of the intermediate rocks this conclusion. Supports on the basis of the geochemical studies most of the hypoabyssal rocks of Moalleman area fall in subalkaline- calcoalkaline fields. Variation of immobile incompatible trace elements versus differentiation coefficient and the situation of samples in winkler diagram show the role of crustal- melting in the formation of acidic rocks. Trace element content of some rocks (e.g. Cu and Sm) with in this group show mantle specification, while some other rocks (e.g. Zr, Th, Hf) show crustal specification. The intermediate rocks of the study area therefore, indicate a hybridization of magmas from both the mantle and crust. Study of the temperature and water vapour

  16. Fine structure of the late Eocene Ir anomaly in marine sediments (United States)

    Asaro, F.


    The Late Eocene Ir abundance profile in deep sea cores from Ocean Drilling Program Leg 113 Hole 689B on the Maude Rise off of Antarctica was studied with 410 samples continuously in 10 cm increments and measured with the Iridium Coincidence (ICS). The ICS was subsequently modified to measure 13 other elements simultaneously with the Ir. The abundance profiles of these elements were then determined in the Late Eocene Massignano section in central Italy with 250 samples (encompassing roughly 2 million years of accumulation) which were collected about every 5 cm in about 2 cm increments. These studies augmented a previous one (which included many elements) of deep sea cores from Deep Sea Drilling Project Site 592 on the Lord Howe Rise in the Tasman Sea between Australia and New Zealand. In the latter study, 50 samples (encompassing roughly 0.7 million years of accumulation) were collected continuously in 10 cm increments. The results from these studies are discussed.

  17. Atmospheric pCO2 Reconstructed across the Early Eocene Hyperthermals (United States)

    Cui, Y.; Schubert, B.


    Negative carbon isotope excursions (CIEs) are commonly associated with extreme global warming. The Early Eocene is punctuated by five such CIEs, the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM, ca. 55.8 Ma), H1 (ca. 53.6 Ma), H2 (ca. 53.5 Ma), I1 (ca. 53.3 Ma), and I2 (ca. 53.2 Ma), each characterized by global warming. The negative CIEs are recognized in both marine and terrestrial substrates, but the terrestrial substrates exhibit a larger absolute magnitude CIE than the marine substrates. Here we reconcile the difference in CIE magnitude between the terrestrial and marine substrates for each of these events by accounting for the additional carbon isotope fractionation by C3 land plants in response to increased atmospheric pCO2. Our analysis yields background and peak pCO2 values for each of the events. Assuming a common mechanism for each event, we calculate that background pCO2 was not static across the Early Eocene, with the highest background pCO2 immediately prior to I2, the last of the five CIEs. Background pCO2 is dependent on the source used in our analysis with values ranging from 300 to 720 ppmv provided an injection of 13C-depleted carbon with δ13C value of -60‰ (e.g. biogenic methane). The peak pCO2 during each event scales according to the magnitude of CIE, and is therefore greatest during the PETM and smallest during H2. Both background and peak pCO2 are higher if we assume a mechanism of permafrost thawing (δ13C = -25‰). Our reconstruction of pCO2 across these events is consistent with trends in the δ18O value of deep-sea benthic foraminifera, suggesting a strong link between pCO2 and temperature during the Early Eocene.

  18. Background- versus event-level biotic variability: Hyperthermals of the late Paleocene and early Eocene (United States)

    Gibbs, S.; Murphy, B. H.; Pälike, H.


    The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) was an abrupt global warming event 55 million years ago (Ma) which has received much attention in recent years as an analogue for anthropogenic carbon emissions. We now know that the PETM was not unique, but was perhaps the most extreme of a number of abrupt carbon cycle perturbations throughout the late Paleocene and early Eocene. These inferred transient warming events, or ‘hyperthermals’, all have characteristic negative carbon isotope excursions (CIE). Unlike the PETM, it is currently unclear whether there was a significant biotic response to these additional CIEs, and if so, whether the amplitude of response varied systematically with excursion magnitude. Here, we present high-resolution nannofossil records from a two million year interval spanning the Paleocene-Eocene boundary at Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1209 in the paleo-subequatorial Pacific. This interval, from ~55 to 53 Ma, includes the PETM, a second hyperthermal named the Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 (ETM2 or ‘Elmo’), and a further number of smaller excursions. These data allow us to look for common biotic signatures and to document the level of assemblage variability relative to the inferred levels of environmental change associated with each CIE. We use this dataset as a case-study for investigating different statistical means of quantifying and comparing biotic responses to background and event-level perturbation. Preliminary analyses suggest that, as expected, the PETM exhibited the greatest level of assemblage variability, well above background levels, followed in order of CIE magnitude by the ETM2. Several of the smaller excursions have no significant assemblage variability above background levels, pointing to a critical threshold level of environmental perturbation.

  19. Tropical climate, ecology and hydrology during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum


    Frieling, J.; Reichart, G.-J.; Schouten, S.; Bijl, P.K; Bankole, S.I.; Schrank, E.; A. Sluijs


    The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) plays a key role in the paleoclimate research, as it represents an imperfect analogue to future warming. The PETM was a geologically brief (~170 kyr) episode of extreme global warming. A pronounced negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE) in sedimentary components and deep sea carbonate dissolution reflect massive and rapid carbon input at that time. Documentation of this period is extensive for the high and mid latitudes, but the tropics remain virt...

  20. Palaeoecological and palaeoclimatological implications of the Eocene Northern Hemisphere Azolla phenomenon


    Barke, J


    The high abundances and cyclic distribution of remains of the freshwater fern Azolla in early middle Eocene sediments from the Arctic Ocean have previously been related to episodic surface water freshening, which was speculated to be orbitally modulated. Our integrated palynological and cyclostratigraphical analysis of the recovered ‘Azolla interval’ in Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Core 302-M0004A-11X resulted in the recognition of two clear periodicities: a dominant ~1.2 m cyclic...

  1. Micro-halocline enabled nutrient recycling may explain extreme Azolla event in the Eocene Arctic Ocean


    Kempen, Monique M. L.; Smolders, Alfons J. P.; Lamers, Leon P. M.; Roelofs, Jan G. M.


    In order to understand the physicochemical mechanisms that could explain the massive growth of Azolla arctica in the Eocene Arctic Ocean, we carried out a laboratory experiment in which we studied the interacting effects of rain and wind on the development of salinity stratification, both in the presence and in the absence of a dense Azolla cover. Additionally, we carried out a mesocosm experiment to get a better understanding of the nutrient cycling within and beneath a dense Azolla cover in...

  2. New fossil bee flies (Diptera : Bombylioidea) in the Lowermost Eocene amber of the Paris Basin


    A. Nel; Ploëg, G. de


    A new genus and two new species of bee flies are described from the Lowermost Eocene amber of the Paris basin: Paradolichomyia eocenica n. gen, n. sp. (Bombyliidae: Toxophorinae) and Proplatypygus matilei n. sp. (Mythicomyiidae). Paradolichomyia eocenica n. gen, n. sp. represents the oldest fossil record of Bombyliidae. It is closely related to the two modern genera Dolichomyia WIEDEMANN 1830 and Zaclava HULL 1973 (Toxophorinae: Systropodini). This discovery suggests that the present Gondwana...

  3. Lower Paleogene Tectonostratigraphy of Balochistan: Evidence for Time-Transgressive Late Paleocene-Early Eocene Uplift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William C. Clyde


    Full Text Available Analysis of lithofacies, paleoflow directions, and sandstone petrography of upper Paleocene-lower Eocene paralic and continental sediments exposed along the transpressional suture zone of the western margin of the Indian plate indicate that the process of deformation and uplift of the carbonate shelf in this area had started by late Paleocene time. This tectonic uplift and deformation is documented by: (1 an overall shallowing upward synorogenic sequence of sediments, (2 proximal conglomerate facies (consisting of lower Paleocene and Mesozoic clasts dominating in the western part of the study area and distal facies of sandstone and shale dominating in the eastern part of the study area, (3 the existence of an unconformity of late Paleocene-early Eocene age in the Quetta and Kalat regions, (4 paleocurrent directions in deltaic and fluvial deposits indicating southeastward flowing sediment dispersal paths during late Paleocene-early Eocene time, which is opposite to that found in the late Cretaceous, suggesting a reversal in the depositional slope of the Cretaceous shelf, and (5 petrographic study of sandstones indicating a collision suture/fold thrust belt provenance. This episode of uplift and deformation could be the result of India-Arabian transpression with associated ophiolite obduction or, more likely, to represent the local response to initial India-Asia contact. The unroofing pattern and uplift geometry of the western Indian shelf suggests that this tectonism first started in the southern part of the study area (Kalat-Khuzdar area during the late Paleocene-early Eocene and proceeded northward in a time-transgressive fashion.

  4. Biomarker characteristics of the Turonian–Eocene succession, Belayim oilfields, central Gulf of Suez, Egypt


    W.Sh. El Diasty; A.A. Abo Ghonaim; A.R. Mostafa; S.Y. El Beialy; Edwards, K. J.


    This study assesses the hydrocarbon source rocks of the Belayim oilfields, central Gulf of Suez, Egypt. Detailed geochemical methods, including liquid chromatography, gas chromatography and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, are used to characterize organic-rich facies of the Turonian–Eocene deposits. Crude oil samples are analyzed using C7 and stable carbon isotopes, in addition to analysis of the extracts, in order to throw light on the organic matter source, composition, and thermal mat...

  5. Trace fossils from Eocene turbiditic deposits: A case study from the Slovak-Moravian Carpathians


    Starek Dušan; Šimo Vladimír


    Well exposed, poorly bioturbated turbiditic sandstones of the Kýčera Beds (Zlín Formation; Eocene) in the Bieščary Quarry contain the deep-sea Nereites ichnofacies. The trace fossils Ophiomorpha rudis, Halopoa annulata and Scolicia strozzii are mainly common in thick-bedded sandstone packages. They represent the Ophiomorpha rudis ichnosubfacies. Paleodiction strozzii, Nereites irregularis, and Zoophycos brianteus occur in a series of thin- to medium bedded fine grained turbiditic sandstones i...

  6. Early Eocene fossils suggest that the mammalian order Perissodactyla originated in India


    ROSE Kenneth D.; Holbrook, Luke T.; Rana, Rajendra S.; Kumar, Kishor; Jones, Katrina E; Ahrens, Heather E; Missiaen, Pieter; Sahni, Ashok; Smith, Thierry


    Cambaytheres (Cambaytherium, Nakusia and Kalitherium) are recently discovered early Eocene placental mammals from the Indo-Pakistan region. They have been assigned to either Perissodactyla (the clade including horses, tapirs and rhinos, which is a member of the superorder Laurasiatheria) or Anthracobunidae, an obscure family that has been variously considered artiodactyls or perissodactyls, but most recently placed at the base of Proboscidea or of Tethytheria (Proboscidea+Sirenia, superorder ...

  7. The Eocene Oligocene Transition: productivity bloom or short-circuit in fishes?


    Zill, Michelle Elizabeth


    The Eocene-Oligocene Transition (EOT) from 35-33 Ma, centered at 33.9 million years ago (Ma), marks the transition from a Greenhouse to an Icehouse earth. It is associated with the appearance of bulk-feeding whales, and the widespread increase in opal sedimentation in the earliest Oligocene, and has been interpreted to record the initiation of a highly productive Southern Ocean ecosystem. We measured accumulation rates of pelagic fish teeth and shark denticles (ichthyoliths) in a global arra...

  8. Carbon isotope excursions in paleosol carbonate marking five early Eocene hyperthermals in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming


    H. A. Abels; Lauretano, V.; A. van Yperen; T. Hopman; Zachos, J.C.; L. J. Lourens; Gingerich, P. D.; G. J. Bowen


    Transient greenhouse warming events in the Paleocene and Eocene were associated with the addition of isotopically-light carbon to the exogenic atmosphere–ocean carbon pool, leading to substantial environmental and biotic change. The magnitude of an accompanying carbon isotope excursion (CIE) can be used to constrain both the sources and amounts of carbon released during an event, as well as to correlate marine and terrestrial records with high precision. The ...

  9. Tectonic rotations and internal structure of Eocene plutons in Chuquicamata, northern Chile (United States)

    Somoza, R.; Tomlinson, A. J.; Zaffarana, C. B.; Singer, S. E.; Puigdomenech Negre, C. G.; Raposo, M. I. B.; Dilles, J. H.


    A paleomagnetic and AMS study on Eocene plutonic complexes in the Calama area, northern Chile, reveals high-temperature, high-coercivity magnetizations of dominantly thermoremanent origin and magnetic fabrics controlled by magnetite. The paleomagnetic results indicate that ~ 43 Ma plutons underwent clockwise tectonic rotation, whereas adjacent ~ 39 Ma plutons did not undergo discernible rotation. This points to a middle Eocene age for the younger tectonic rotations associated with the Central Andean Rotation Pattern in the Chuquicamata-Calama area. The petrofabric in these rocks formed under conditions ranging from purely magmatic (i.e. before full crystallization) to low-temperature solid-state deformation. AMS and paleomagnetism suggest that the plutonic bodies were formed by progressive amalgamation of subvertical magma sheets spanning multiple magnetic polarity chrons. The parallelism between magmatic and tectonic foliations suggests that regional tectonic stress controlled ascent, emplacement and rock deformation during cooling. In this context, we suggest that magma ascent and emplacement in the upper crust likely exploited Mesozoic structures which were locally reactivated in the Eocene.

  10. Cranial asymmetry in Eocene archaeocete whales and the evolution of directional hearing in water. (United States)

    Fahlke, Julia M; Gingerich, Philip D; Welsh, Robert C; Wood, Aaron R


    Eocene archaeocete whales gave rise to all modern toothed and baleen whales (Odontoceti and Mysticeti) during or near the Eocene-Oligocene transition. Odontocetes have asymmetrical skulls, with asymmetry linked to high-frequency sound production and echolocation. Mysticetes are generally assumed to have symmetrical skulls and lack high-frequency hearing. Here we show that protocetid and basilosaurid archaeocete skulls are distinctly and directionally asymmetrical. Archaeocete asymmetry involves curvature and axial torsion of the cranium, but no telescoping. Cranial asymmetry evolved in Eocene archaeocetes as part of a complex of traits linked to directional hearing (such as pan-bone thinning of the lower jaws, mandibular fat pads, and isolation of the ear region), probably enabling them to hear the higher sonic frequencies of sound-producing fish on which they preyed. Ultrasonic echolocation evolved in Oligocene odontocetes, enabling them to find silent prey. Asymmetry and much of the sonic-frequency range of directional hearing were lost in Oligocene mysticetes during the shift to low-frequency hearing and bulk-straining predation.

  11. Eocene seasonality and seawater alkaline earth reconstruction using shallow-dwelling large benthic foraminifera (United States)

    Evans, David; Müller, Wolfgang; Oron, Shai; Renema, Willem


    Intra-test variability in Mg/Ca and other (trace) elements within large benthic foraminifera (LBF) of the family Nummulitidae have been investigated using laser-ablation inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS). These foraminifera have a longevity and size facilitating seasonal proxy retrieval and a depth distribution similar to 'surface-dwelling' planktic foraminifera. Coupled with their abundance in climatically important periods such as the Paleogene, this means that this family of foraminifera are an important but under-utilised source of palaeoclimatic information. We have calibrated the relationship between Mg/Ca and temperature in modern Operculina ammonoides and observe a ˜2% increase in Mg/Ca °C-1. O. ammonoides is the nearest living relative of the abundant Eocene genus Nummulites, enabling us to reconstruct mid-Eocene tropical sea surface temperature seasonality by applying our calibration to fossil Nummulites djokdjokartae from Java. Our results indicate a 5-6 °C annual temperature range, implying greater than modern seasonality in the mid-Eocene (Bartonian). This is consistent with seasonal surface ocean cooling facilitated by enhanced Eocene tropical cyclone-induced upper ocean mixing, as suggested by recent modelling results. Analyses of fossil N. djokdjokartae and Operculina sp. from the same stratigraphic interval demonstrate that environmental controls on proxy distribution coefficients are the same for these two genera, within error. Using previously published test-seawater alkaline earth metal distribution coefficients derived from an LBF of the same family (Raitzsch et al., 2010) and inorganic calcite, with appropriate correction systematics for secular Mg/Casw variation (Evans and Müller, 2012), we use our fossil data to produce a more accurate foraminifera-based Mg/Casw reconstruction and an estimate of seawater Sr/Ca. We demonstrate that mid-Eocene Mg/Casw was ≲2 molmol, which is in contrast to the model most

  12. Drilling disturbance and constraints on the onset of the Paleocene/Eocene boundary carbon isotope excursion in New Jersey (United States)

    Pearson, P. N.; Thomas, E.


    The onset of the Paleocene/Eocene thermal maximum (PETM) and associated carbon isotope excursion (CIE; about 56 million years ago) was geologically abrupt but it is debated whether it took thousands of years or was effectively instantaneous. A significant new record of the onset of the CIE was published by Wright and Schaller (2013) who claimed that it could be resolved across 13 annual layers in a drill core through the Marlboro Clay at Millville, New Jersey (Ocean Drilling Program Leg 174X). Supporting evidence of similar layering was also reported from another New Jersey drill site, Wilson Lake B, and a photograph of the Marlboro Clay in outcrop. Such a short duration would imply an instantaneous perturbation of the atmosphere and surface ocean, and the impact of a comet or asteroid as the likely cause. However it was suggested by Pearson and Nicholas (2014) from the published photographs that the layers in the Marlboro Clay could be artifacts of drilling disturbance (so-called "biscuiting", wherein the formation is fractured into layers or "biscuits" and drilling mud is injected in between). Here we report new observations on the cores which support that interpretation, including concentric grooves on the surfaces of the biscuits caused by spinning in the bit, micro-fracturing at their edges, and injected drilling mud. We re-interpret the outcrop evidence as showing joints rather than sedimentary layers. We argue that foraminifer concentrations in the sediments are far too high for the layers to be annually deposited in turbid waters at depths of 40-70 m, indicating that the onset of the CIE in the Marlboro Clay likely took on the order of millennia, not years. Re-coring of Millville to minimize drilling disturbance and allow a higher resolution study of the carbon isotope excursion is highly desirable.

  13. Drilling disturbance and constraints on the onset of the Paleocene-Eocene boundary carbon isotope excursion in New Jersey (United States)

    Pearson, P. N.; Thomas, E.


    The onset of the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM) and associated carbon isotope excursion (CIE; approx. 56 Mya) was geologically abrupt, but it is debated whether it took thousands of years or was effectively instantaneous. Wright and Schaller (2013) published a significant new record of the onset of the CIE, and claimed that it could be resolved across 13 annual layers in a drill core through the Marlboro clay at Millville, New Jersey (Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 174X). Supporting evidence for similar layering was reported from another New Jersey drill site, Wilson Lake B, and a photograph of the Marlboro clay in outcrop (Wright and Schaller, 2014). Such a short duration would imply an instantaneous perturbation of the atmosphere and surface ocean and the impact of a comet or asteroid as the likely cause. However, Pearson and Nicholas (2014) suggested, based on the published core photographs, that the layers in the Marlboro clay cores could be artifacts of drilling disturbance, so-called biscuiting, wherein the formation is fractured into layers or biscuits and drilling mud is injected in between the layers. (We now prefer the term core discing following Kidd, 1978.) Here we report new observations on the cores which support that interpretation, including concentric grooves on the surfaces of the core discs caused by spinning in the bit, micro-fracturing at their edges, and injected drilling mud. We re-interpret the limited outcrop evidence as showing joints rather than sedimentary layers. We argue that foraminifer concentrations in the sediments are far too high for the layers to have been annually deposited in turbid waters at depths of 40-70 m, indicating that the onset of the CIE in the Marlboro clay likely took on the order of millennia, not years (Zeebe et al., 2014). Re-coring of Millville aimed at minimizing drilling disturbance to allow a higher-resolution study of the carbon isotope excursion is highly desirable.

  14. Metasequoia glyptostroboides and its Utility in Paleoecological Reconstruction of Eocene High Latitude Forests (United States)

    Williams, C. J.; LePage, B. A.; Vann, D. R.; Johnson, A. H.


    Abundant fossil plant remains are preserved in the Eocene-aged deposits of the Buchanan Lake formation on Axel Heiberg Island, Nunavut, Canada. Intact leaf litter, logs, and stumps preserved in situ as mummified remains present an opportunity to determine forest composition, structure, and productivity of a Taxodiaceae-dominated forest that once grew north of the Arctic Circle (paleolatitude 75-80° N). We excavated 37 tree stems for dimensional analysis from mudstone and channel-sand deposits. Stem length ranged from 1.0 m to 14.8 m (average = 3.2 m). Stem diameter ranged from less than 10 cm to greater than 75 cm (average = 32.2 cm). All stem wood was tentatively identified to genus as Metasequoia sp. The diameters and parabolic shape of the preserved tree trunks indicate that the Metasequoia were about 39 m tall across a wide range of diameters. The allometric relationships we derived for modern Metasequoia (n=70) allowed independent predictions of Metasequoia height given the stand density and stump diameters of the fossil forest. The two height estimates of 40 and 40.5 m match the results obtained from measurements of the Eocene trees. We used stump diameter data (n =107, diameter > 20 cm) and an uniform canopy height of 39 m to calculate parabolic stem volume and stem biomass for a 0.22 ha area of fossil forest. Stem volume equaled 2065 m3 ha-1 and stem biomass equaled 560 Mg ha-1 . In the Eocene forest, as determined from length of stems that were free of protruding branches and from 7 exhumed tree tops, the uppermost 9 m of the trees carried live branches with foliage. In living conifers, branch weights and the amount of foliage carried by branches are well correlated with branch diameters measured where the branch joins the main stem. To determine the biomass in branches and foliage in the Eocene forest, we used relationships derived from large modern Metasequoia. Based on the regression of branch weight v. branch diameter (r2 = 0.97) and foliar biomass v

  15. The Eocene Arctic Azolla bloom: environmental conditions, productivity and carbon drawdown. (United States)

    Speelman, E N; Van Kempen, M M L; Barke, J; Brinkhuis, H; Reichart, G J; Smolders, A J P; Roelofs, J G M; Sangiorgi, F; de Leeuw, J W; Lotter, A F; Sinninghe Damsté, J S


    Enormous quantities of the free-floating freshwater fern Azolla grew and reproduced in situ in the Arctic Ocean during the middle Eocene, as was demonstrated by microscopic analysis of microlaminated sediments recovered from the Lomonosov Ridge during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 302. The timing of the Azolla phase (approximately 48.5 Ma) coincides with the earliest signs of onset of the transition from a greenhouse towards the modern icehouse Earth. The sustained growth of Azolla, currently ranking among the fastest growing plants on Earth, in a major anoxic oceanic basin may have contributed to decreasing atmospheric pCO2 levels via burial of Azolla-derived organic matter. The consequences of these enormous Azolla blooms for regional and global nutrient and carbon cycles are still largely unknown. Cultivation experiments have been set up to investigate the influence of elevated pCO2 on Azolla growth, showing a marked increase in Azolla productivity under elevated (760 and 1910 ppm) pCO2 conditions. The combined results of organic carbon, sulphur, nitrogen content and 15N and 13C measurements of sediments from the Azolla interval illustrate the potential contribution of nitrogen fixation in a euxinic stratified Eocene Arctic. Flux calculations were used to quantitatively reconstruct the potential storage of carbon (0.9-3.5 10(18) gC) in the Arctic during the Azolla interval. It is estimated that storing 0.9 10(18) to 3.5 10(18) g carbon would result in a 55 to 470 ppm drawdown of pCO2 under Eocene conditions, indicating that the Arctic Azolla blooms may have had a significant effect on global atmospheric pCO2 levels through enhanced burial of organic matter. PMID:19323694

  16. Eocene climate and Arctic paleobathymetry: A tectonic sensitivity study using GISS ModelE-R (United States)

    Roberts, C. D.; Legrande, A. N.; Tripati, A. K.


    The early Paleogene (65-45 million years ago, Ma) was a ‘greenhouse’ interval with global temperatures warmer than any other time in the last 65 Ma. This period was characterized by high levels of CO2, warm high-latitudes, warm surface-and-deep oceans, and an intensified hydrological cycle. Sediments from the Arctic suggest that the Eocene surface Arctic Ocean was warm, brackish, and episodically enabled the freshwater fern Azolla to bloom. The precise mechanisms responsible for the development of these conditions remain uncertain. We present equilibrium climate conditions derived from a fully-coupled, water-isotope enabled, general circulation model (GISS ModelE-R) configured for the early Eocene. We also present model-data comparison plots for key climatic variables (SST and δ18O) and analyses of the leading modes of variability in the tropical Pacific and North Atlantic regions. Our tectonic sensitivity study indicates that Northern Hemisphere climate would have been very sensitive to the degree of oceanic exchange through the seaways connecting the Arctic to the Atlantic and Tethys. By restricting these seaways, we simulate freshening of the surface Arctic Ocean to ~6 psu and warming of sea-surface temperatures by 2°C in the North Atlantic and 5-10°C in the Labrador Sea. Our results may help explain the occurrence of low-salinity tolerant taxa in the Arctic Ocean during the Eocene and provide a mechanism for enhanced warmth in the north western Atlantic. We also suggest that the formation of a volcanic land-bridge between Greenland and Europe could have caused increased ocean convection and warming of intermediate waters in the Atlantic. If true, this result is consistent with the theory that bathymetry changes may have caused thermal destabilisation of methane clathrates in the Atlantic.

  17. Paleolimnology of Lake Tubutulik, an iron-meromictic Eocene Lake, eastern Seward Peninsula, Alaska (United States)

    Dickinson, Kendell A.


    Sideritic lacustrine mudstone was found in drill core from a uranium deposit in the Death Valley area in the eastern part of the Seward Peninsula, Alaska. The precursor sediments for this rock were deposited in an unusual "iron-meromictic" Eocene lake, herein named Lake Tubutulik, which occupied part of the Boulder Creek basin, a structural graben that is probably a southern extension of the larger Death Valley basin. The Boulder Creek basin is bounded on the west by granite of the Late Cretaceous Darby Pluton, on the east by Precambrian to Paleozoic metasedimentary rocks. The lake basin was formed by basaltic flows that dammed the river valley of the ancestral Tubutulik River in early Eocene time. Lake Tubutulik contained a nearshore facies of fine-grained organic mud and an offshore facies of laminated sideritic mud. The offshore (profundal) laminated mudstone consists of alternating layers of authigenic siderite and detrital layers containing mostly quartz and clay minerals. Both lacustrine facies contain turbidities. The lacustrine sediments graded laterally into an onshore facies of colluvial and fluvial sandstone, paludal mudstone, and coal. The ancient lake apparently occupied a small deep basin in a tectonically active area of high relief. Meromixus was probably stabilized by reduced iron and bicarbonate dissolved in the monimolimnion. The intensity of meromixus decreased as the lake became shallower from sediment filling. The source of the iron, abundant in the monimolimnion of Lake Tubutulik, was probably the Eocene basalt. Based on carbon isotope analysis of the siderite, the dissolved bicarbonate in the profundal facies was largely inorganic. Sideritic carbon in one sample from the onshore paludal facies has an isotopic signature ( δ13C = +16.9) consistent with residual carbon formed during methanogenic fermentation.

  18. Palaeocology of coal-bearing Eocene sediments in central Anatolia (Turkey) based on quantitative palynological data

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    Akkiraz, M.S.; Kayseri, M.S.; Akgun, F. [Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Geological Engineering


    In this study, the lignite-bearing Yoncali formation between Yozgat and Sorgun, in central Anatolia has been palynologically examined. Based on 37 outcrop samples, quantitative palynological studies recognized 64 genera and 136 palynoflora species in the palynological assemblage, which indicated a Middle-Late Eocene age. This paper also presents a quantitative palaeovegetation and palaeoclimate reconstruction for the Middle-Upper Eocene coal occurrences of Central Anatolia on the basis of palynomorph assemblages. The diversified floral and ecological characteristics of the pollen taxa indicates that the Middle-Upper Eocene formations in central Anatolia were characterized by the presence of a complex mangrove swamp with contributions by Nypa, Pelliciera, Avicennia, Diporites tszkaszentgydrgyi and dinoflagellate cysts which reflect warm climatic conditions. Lowland-riparian and montane elements are characterized by the dominance of Myricaceae, Symplocaceae, Icacinaceae, Quercus, Pinus and Castanea. Swamp-freshwater elements are represented by Sparganjaceae, Nymphaceae, Taxodjaceae, Cupressaceae and Nyssa as well as fern spores such as Osmundaceae and Gleicheniaceae. The calculations were performed with the help of the 'Coexistence Approach' method to climatically evaluate palynoflora from the Yozgat-Sorgun area. The obtained results have been compared to data derived from the application of the Coexistence Approach to other, already published Central Anatolian palynofloras of the same age. The results of the climatic inferences suggest that the palaeoclimatic conditions were in the megathermal zone, megatherm/mesotherm intermediate zone whereas mesothermic conditions prevailed in the montane region. Likewise, the results of mean annual range of temperatures indicate the influence of the Indian ocean, which enabled the development of the mangroves.

  19. A new Eocene catostomid (Teleostei: Cypriniformes) from northeastern China and early divergence of Catostomidae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG; Mee-mann


    A new Eocene catostomid genus and species,Plesiomyxocyprinus arratiae, is described from Huadian, Jilin Province, northeastern China. The materials include a nearly complete skeleton, dozens of pharyngeal bones with teeth, and a number of disarticulated bones. The new articulated specimen is large-sized and deep-bodied, with an estimated standard length of ca. 300 mm and body depth of 156 mm or about half of its standard length. The assignment of the fish to the Catostomidae is based on its falciform pharyngeal bone with one row of numerous (more than 50) compressed teeth, and the bone is much smaller than in cyprinids, especially given the size of the fish. The new fish distinguishes itself from all known catostomids (both extinct and extant) in its long anal fin with four unbranched and 17-18 branched rays, and its extremely short caudal peduncle that is only about one fourth of its depth. Plesiomyxocyprinus arratiae resembles the Eocene-Oligocene transpacific-distributed Amyzon in many general skeletal characters. However, it shows a few characters uniquely shared with the Recent catostomid Myxocyprinus asiaticus. Those include a very long dorsal fin with about 50 branched fin rays, the end of dorsal fin rays being close to the caudal fin base, and anal rays stretching posteriorly beyond the base of caudal fin. It is the first fossil catostomid that shows a close relationship to the endemic Myxocyprinus now living in the Yangtze River and Minjiang River, China. The discovery of Plesiomyxocyprinus arratiae, along with two previously described possible catostomid genera Jianghanichthys and Vasnetzovia, may indicate that the divergence of the Catostomidae started much earlier, in the middle Eocene or earlier, on the western side of the Pacific than on its eastern side.

  20. A new Eocene catostomid (Teleostei: Cypriniformes) from northeastern China and early divergence of Catostomidae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Juan; CHANG Meemann


    A new Eocene catostomid genus and species, Plesiomyxocyprinus arratiae, is described from Huadian, Jilin Province, northeastern China. The materials include a nearly complete skeleton, dozens of pharyngeal bones with teeth, and a number of disarticulated bones. The new articulated specimen is large-sized and deep-bodied, with an estimated standard length of ca. 300 mm and body depth of 156 mm or about half of its standard length. The assignment of the fish to the Catostomidae is based on its falciform pharyngeal bone with one row of numerous (more than 50) compressed teeth, and the bone is much smaller than in cyprinids, especially given the size of the fish. The new fish distinguishes itself from all known catostomids (both extinct and extant) in its long anal fin with four unbranched and 17-18 branched rays, and its extremely short caudal peduncle that is only about one fourth of its depth. Plesiomyxocyprinus arratiae resembles the Eocene-Oligocene transpacific-distributed Amyzon in many general skeletal characters. However, it shows a few characters uniquely shared with the Recent catostomid Myxocyprinus asiaticus. Those include a very long dorsal fin with about 50 branched fin rays, the end of dorsal fin rays being close to the caudal fin base, and anal rays stretching posteriorly beyond the base of caudal fin. It is the first fossil catostomid that shows a close relationship to the endemic Myxocyprinus now living in the Yangtze River and Minjiang River, China. The discovery of Plesiomyxocyprinus arratiae, along with two previously described possible catostomid genera Jianghanichthys and Vasnetzovia, may indicate that the divergence of the Catostomidae started much earlier, in the middle Eocene or earlier, on the western side of the Pacific than on its eastern side.

  1. Frequency, magnitude and character of hyperthermal events at the onset of the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Lauretano


    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO was preceded by a series of short-lived global warming events, known as hyperthermals. Here we present high-resolution benthic stable carbon and oxygen isotope records from ODP Sites 1262 and 1263 (Walvis Ridge, SE Atlantic between ∼54 and ∼52 million years ago, tightly constraining the character, timing, and magnitude of six prominent hyperthermal events. These events, that include Eocene Thermal Maximum (ETM 2 and 3, are studied in relation to orbital forcing and long-term trends. Our findings reveal an almost linear relationship between δ13C and δ18O for all these hyperthermals, indicating that the eccentricity-paced co-variance between extreme perturbations in the exogenic carbon pool and deep-sea temperatures persisted during the onset of the EECO, in accord with previous observations for the Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM and ETM2. The covariance of δ13C and δ18O during H2 and I2, which are the second pulses of the "paired" hyperthermal events ETM2-H2 and I1-I2, deviates with respect to the other events. This could relate to a relatively higher contribution of an isotopically heavier source of carbon, such as peat or permafrost, and/or to climate feedbacks/local changes in circulation. Finally, the δ18O records of the two sites show a systematic offset with on average 0.2‰ heavier values for the shallower Site 1263, which we link to a slightly heavier (e.g. more saline isotope composition of the intermediate water mass reaching the northeastern flank of the Walvis Ridge compared to that of the deeper northwestern water mass at Site 1262.

  2. Paleolimnology of Lake Tubutulik, an iron-meromictic Eocene Lake, eastern Seward Peninsula, Alaska (United States)

    Dickinson, K.A.


    Sideritic lacustrine mudstone was found in drill core from a uranium deposit in the Death Valley area in the eastern part of the Seward Peninsula, Alaska. The precursor sediments for this rock were deposited in an unusual "iron-meromictic" Eocene lake, herein named Lake Tubutulik, which occupied part of the Boulder Creek basin, a structural graben that is probably a southern extension of the larger Death Valley basin. The Boulder Creek basin is bounded on the west by granite of the Late Cretaceous Darby Pluton, on the east by Precambrian to Paleozoic metasedimentary rocks. The lake basin was formed by basaltic flows that dammed the river valley of the ancestral Tubutulik River in early Eocene time. Lake Tubutulik contained a nearshore facies of fine-grained organic mud and an offshore facies of laminated sideritic mud. The offshore (profundal) laminated mudstone consists of alternating layers of authigenic siderite and detrital layers containing mostly quartz and clay minerals. Both lacustrine facies contain turbidities. The lacustrine sediments graded laterally into an onshore facies of colluvial and fluvial sandstone, paludal mudstone, and coal. The ancient lake apparently occupied a small deep basin in a tectonically active area of high relief. Meromixus was probably stabilized by reduced iron and bicarbonate dissolved in the monimolimnion. The intensity of meromixus decreased as the lake became shallower from sediment filling. The source of the iron, abundant in the monimolimnion of Lake Tubutulik, was probably the Eocene basalt. Based on carbon isotope analysis of the siderite, the dissolved bicarbonate in the profundal facies was largely inorganic. Sideritic carbon in one sample from the onshore paludal facies has an isotopic signature (??13C = +16.9) consistent with residual carbon formed during methanogenic fermentation. ?? 1988.

  3. Ironstone deposits hosted in Eocene carbonates from Bahariya (Egypt)-New perspective on cherty ironstone occurrences (United States)

    Afify, A. M.; Sanz-Montero, M. E.; Calvo, J. P.


    This paper gives new insight into the genesis of cherty ironstone deposits. The research was centered on well-exposed, unique cherty ironstone mineralization associated with Eocene carbonates from the northern part of the Bahariya Depression (Egypt). The economically important ironstones occur in the Naqb Formation (Early Eocene), which is mainly formed of shallow marine carbonate deposits. Periods of lowstand sea-level caused extensive early dissolution (karstification) of the depositional carbonates and dolomitization associated with mixing zones of fresh and marine pore-water. In faulted areas, the Eocene carbonate deposits were transformed into cherty ironstone with preservation of the precursor carbonate sedimentary features, i.e. skeletal and non-skeletal grain types, thickness, bedding, lateral and vertical sequential arrangement, and karst profiles. The ore deposits are composed of iron oxyhydroxides, mainly hematite and goethite, chert in the form of micro- to macro-quartz and chalcedony, various manganese minerals, barite, and a number of subordinate sulfate and clay minerals. Detailed petrographic analysis shows that quartz and iron oxides were coetaneous and selectively replaced carbonates, the coarse dolomite crystals having been preferentially transformed into quartz whereas the micro-crystalline carbonates were replaced by the iron oxyhydroxides. A number of petrographic, sedimentological and structural features including the presence of hydrothermal-mediated minerals (e.g., jacobsite), the geochemistry of the ore minerals as well as the structure-controlled location of the mineralization suggest a hydrothermal source for the ore-bearing fluids circulating through major faults and reflect their proximity to centers of magmatism. The proposed formation model can contribute to better understanding of the genetic mechanisms of formation of banded iron formations (BIFs) that were abundant during the Precambrian.

  4. New fauna of archaeocete whales (Mammalia, Cetacea) from the Bartonian middle Eocene of southern Morocco (United States)

    Gingerich, Philip D.; Zouhri, Samir


    Six genera and species of archaic whales are present in a new fauna from the Aridal Formation at Gueran in the Sahara Desert of southwestern Morocco. Three of the archaeocete species represent semiaquatic Protocetidae and three species are fully aquatic Basilosauridae. Protocetids are characteristic of Lutetian lower middle Eocene strata, and basilosaurids are characteristic of Priabonian late Eocene beds. Similar representation of both families is restricted to intervening Bartonian strata and indicative of a late middle Eocene age. Archaeocetes from Gueran include (1) a small protocetid represented by a partial humerus, teeth, and vertebrae; (2) a middle-sized protocetid represented by a partial innominate and proximal femur; (3) the very large protocetid Pappocetus lugardi represented by teeth, a partial innominate, and two partial femora; (4) a new species of the small basilosaurid Chrysocetus represented by a dentary, teeth, humeri, and many vertebrae; (5) a new species of the larger basilosaurid Platyosphys (resurrected as a distinct genus) represented by a partial braincase, tympanic bulla, and many vertebrae; and (6) the large basilosaurid Eocetus schweinfurthi represented by teeth, a tympanic bulla, and lumbar vertebrae. The Gueran locality is important geologically because it constrains the age of a part of the Aridal Formation, and biologically because it includes a diversity of archaic whales represented by partial skeletons with vertebrae in sequence and by forelimb and hind limb remains. With further collecting, Gueran archaeocete skeletons promise to clarify the important evolutionary transition from foot-powered swimming in Protocetidae to the tail-powered swimming of Basilosauridae and all later Cetacea.

  5. Palaeo-altimetry of the late Eocene to Miocene Lunpola basin, central Tibet. (United States)

    Rowley, David B; Currie, Brian S


    The elevation history of the Tibetan plateau provides direct insight into the tectonic processes associated with continent-continent collisions. Here we present oxygen-isotope-based estimates of the palaeo-altimetry of late Eocene and younger deposits of the Lunpola basin in the centre of the plateau, which indicate that the surface of Tibet has been at an elevation of more than 4 kilometres for at least the past 35 million years. We conclude that crustal, but not mantle, thickening models, combined with plate-kinematic solutions of India-Asia convergence, are compatible with palaeo-elevation estimates across the Tibetan plateau. PMID:16467830

  6. Penguin response to the Eocene climate and ecosystem change in the northern Antarctic Peninsula region (United States)

    Jadwiszczak, Piotr


    Eocene Antarctic penguins are known solely from the La Meseta Formation (Seymour Island, James Ross Basin). They are most numerous and taxonomically diverse (at least ten species present) within strata formed at the end of this epoch, which is concomitant with a significant cooling trend and biotic turnover prior to the onset of glaciation. Moreover, all newly appeared taxa were small-bodied, and most probably evolved in situ. Interestingly, some chemical proxies suggest enhanced nutrient upwelling events that coincided with obvious changes in the record of La Meseta penguins.

  7. Coralgal facies of the Upper Eocene-Lower Oligocene limestones in Letca-Rastoci area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Prica


    Full Text Available In this paper are described the coralgal facies identified in the Upper Eocene-Lower Oligocene limestone succession (Cozla Formation outcropping in two quarries at Letca and Rastoci (Sălaj district, Romania. In the studied profiles the coral and algae limestones are interlayered with bioclastic limestones with foraminifera. On the top of relatively deep water deposits, coral and algae crusts and dendritic corals coated by algae were deposited. The environment registered a gradual deepening, the deposits being completely immersed, while bioclastic limestones with foraminifera were recurrently formed. This cycle is repeated, the whole succession being caracterized by several such “parasequences”.

  8. Subfamily Limoniinae Speiser, 1909 (Diptera, Limoniidae from Baltic amber (Eocene: the genus Elephantomyia Osten Sacken, 1860.

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    Iwona Kania

    Full Text Available A revision of the genus Elephantomyia Osten Sacken (Diptera: Limoniidae from Baltic amber (Eocene is presented. Four species--E. baltica Alexander, E. brevipalpa Loew, E. longirostris Loew, and E. pulchella Loew--are redescribed and documented with photographs and drawings. In addition, two new species of the genus are described: Elephantomyia bozenae sp. nov., and Elephantomyia irinae sp. nov. All these fossil species are placed within the subgenus Elephantomyia. A key to the extinct species of Elephantomyia is provided, and the genus' ecological pattern and evolutionary aspects are discussed.

  9. Paleocene-Early Eocene larger foraminiferal biostratigraphy of Yemen and Oman (United States)

    Di Carlo, M.; Serra-Kiel, J.; Pignatti, J.


    The Paleogene larger foraminiferal biostratigraphy is today rather well assessed for the Tethyan domain. In order to contribute to the full integration of the Middle-East in the widely employed Shallow Benthic Zonation, a preliminary report on the Paleocene-Early Eocene larger foraminiferal assemblages from Yemen and Oman is provided here. The sections investigated in Yemen range in age from the Upper Cretaceous to the Oligocene. The Paleogene of Yemen is widely affected by dolomitization and only by analyzing over 1,700 thin sections from 60 stratigraphic sections (mainly from Hadramaut and Socotra) it has been possible to adequately investigate the fossil assemblages. In contrast, the deposits from northern Oman are characterized by rich and extraordinarily well-preserved Paleocene-Lower Eocene larger foraminiferal assemblages. This preliminary report focuses mainly on the Paleocene-Early Eocene deposits of the Umm-er-Radhuma formation. The Paleocene-Lower Eocene assemblages are characterized by strong affinities with northern Somalia. Hyaline forms such as Daviesina khatiyahi, Miscellanea gr. rhomboidea/dukhani, M. miscella, Saudia, Sakesaria, Lockhartia, Ranikothalia, Dictyokathina largely prevail in SBZ 3-4 deposits. Nummulites, Ranikothalia and Daviesina ruida characterize the Lower Ypresian. Subordinately, porcelaneous forms such as "Taberina" daviesi and conical agglutinated (Daviesiconus) also occur; alveolinids (such as Alveolina vredenburgi and A. decipiens) are relatively abundant in the basal Lower Ypresian of Socotra. In contrast to the coeval deposits from Yemen, the Paleocene section of Oman (Wadi Duqm, Abat-Tiwi platform) yields very well-preserved larger foraminiferal assemblages and agglutinated and porcelaneous forms are well represented. The occurrence of abundant Globoreticulina paleocenica is noteworthy along with an as yet undescribed Lacazinella species. The co-occurrence of Coskinon sp., "Plumokathina dienii", Dictyoconus turriculus and

  10. Two new parrots (Psittaciformes) from the Lower Eocene Fur Formation of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waterhouse, David; Lindow, Bent Erik Kramer; Zelenkov, Nikita;


    Two new fossil psittaciform birds from the Lower Eocene ‘Mo Clay' (Fur Formation) of Denmark (c. 54 Ma) are described. An unnamed specimen is assigned to the extinct avian family of stem-group parrots, Pseudasturidae (genus and species incertae sedis), while a second (Mopsitta tanta gen. et sp. nov.......) is the largest fossil parrot yet known. Both specimens are the first fossil records of these birds from Denmark. Although the phylogenetic position of Mopsitta is unclear (it is classified as family incertae sedis), this form is phylogenetically closer to Recent Psittacidae than to other known Palaeogene...... psittaciforms and may, therefore, represent the oldest known crowngroup parrot....

  11. Taphonomy and abundance of birds from the Lower Eocene Fur Formation of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyke, Gareth; Lindow, Bent Erik Kramer


    The pattern, pace and extent of the evolutionary radiation of modern birds (Neornithes) by the end-Cretaceous (65 Ma) has long been debated. Well-dated, taphonomically understood and phylogenetically constrained fossil birds from both sides of the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary are required...... to quantify the shape of this radiation, but have largely been lacking. Here we report on a large collection of fossil birds from the Lower Eocene of Denmark (ca. 54 Ma) that includes three-dimensionally preserved, articulated specimens from carbonate concretions as well as skeletal imprints and...

  12. Integrated stratigraphy of a shallow marine Paleocene-Eocene boundary section, MCBR cores, Maryland (USA) (United States)

    Self-Trail, J. M.; Robinson, M. M.; Edwards, L. E.; Powars, D. S.; Wandless, G. A.; Willard, D. A.


    An exceptional Paleocene-Eocene boundary section occurs in a cluster of six short (Marlboro Clay. Sediment samples were analyzed for carbon and oxygen isotopes, percent calcium carbonate, calcareous nannofossils, planktic and benthic foraminifera, dinoflagellates, pollen, and lithology. A well-defined carbon isotope excursion (CIE) documents a gradual negative shift in δ13C values that starts below the lithologic break between the Aquia Formation and the Marlboro Clay. A benthic foraminifer extinction event, reduction of calcareous nannofossil assemblages, and change in core color from gray to alternating gray and pink also occurs within the CIE transition. These alternating changes in color coincide with cyclic peaks in the carbon isotope and percent calcium carbonate curves, where gray color corresponds to a positive shift in carbon isotope values and to a corresponding increase in percent benthic and planktic foraminifera. The upper third of the Marlboro Clay is barren of all calcareous microfossil material, although the presence of foraminiferal molds and linings proves that deposition occurred in a marine environment. Co-occurrence of the dinoflagellates Apectodinium augustum and Phthanoperidinium crenulatum at the top of the Marlboro Clay suggests that the Marlboro Clay at Mattawoman Creek is truncated. This is corroborated by the absence in the Marlboro of specimens of the calcareous nannofossil Rhomboaster-Discoaster assemblage, which is restricted to early Eocene Zone NP9b. Based on planktic/benthic foraminifera ratios, deposition of sediments at Mattawoman Creek occurred predominantly in an inner neritic environment, at water depths between 25-50 m. Occasional deepening to approximately 75m (middle neritic environment) occurred in the early Eocene, as represented by the basal Marlboro Clay. The planktic/benthic ratio, however, could also be affected by surface productivity and/or river runoff. The gradual shift up-section in core color from gray to

  13. Paleocene-Eocene transition at Naqb Assiut, Kharga Oasis, Western Desert, Egypt: Stratigraphical and paleoenvironmental inferences (United States)

    El-Dawy, Moustafa, Hassan; Obaidalla, Nageh Abdelrahman; Mahfouz, Kamel Hussien; Abdel Wahed, Samar Adel


    This work depends on the study of the lower part of the Esna Formation which encompasses the Paleocene-Eocene (P-E) transition in Egypt as well as at Naqb Assiut section, Kharga Oasis, Western Desert. The Paleocene/Eocene (P/E) boundary is represented by El Dababiya Quarry Member which consists of five distinctive beds (nos. 1-5) at the GSSP. On the other hand, at Naqb Assiut section this boundary is only represented by the upper two beds (nos. 4&5), whereas, the lower three beds (nos. 1-3) are missing due to a hiatus. This hiatus is marked by the occurrence of an irregular surface contains pebbles and phosphatic materials. This hiatus may be related to the echo of Sryian Arc Orogeny at the P/E time. Biostratigraphically; four planktonic foraminiferal zones are defined from base to top as: Acarinina soldadoensis/Globanomalina pseudomenardii and Morozovella velascoensis (late Paleocene), Acarinina sibaiyaensis and Pseudohastigerina wilcoxensis/Morozovella velascoensis (early Eocene). The Acarinina sibaiyaensis Zone which represents the P//E/boundary is characterized by the occurrence of intrazonal hiatus at it's lower part. The benthonic foraminiferal taxa contain abundant representatives of Midway-type fauna (∼91% of the whole assemblages), beside few Velasco-type faunal ones (∼9%), indicating an outer neritic (150-200 m) water depth of deposition during the P-E transition. Quantitative analysis and composition of benthonic foraminiferal assemblages are indicative for various environmental changes around the P/E boundary. They reflected a high diversity, increase of epifaunal taxa, and low-intermediate productivity conditions, which indicates a well-ventilated bottom water and oligo - to mesotrophic conditions during the late Paleocene age. Rapid extinction of about 18% of the entire benthonic foraminiferal species started at the P/E boundary, where the last occurrence of Angulogavelinella avnimelechi is pronounced at the base of this boundary. There is a

  14. Reconstruction of Middle Eocene - Late Oligocene Southern Ocean paleoclimate through calcareous nannofossils and stable isotopes (United States)

    Villa, Giuliana; Fioroni, Chiara; Persico, Davide; Pea, Laura; Bohaty, Steve


    The transition from the ice free early Paleogene world to the glaciated conditions of the early Oligocene has been matter of discussion in the last years. This transition has not been monotonic but punctuated by numerous transient cooling and warming events. Here we present a summary of recent studies based on Nannofossil response to climatic changes during the Eocene and Oligocene. Collected data issue from high latitudes ODP Sites 748, 738, 744, 689 and 690. Based on a detailed revision of the biostratigraphy carried out through quantitative analysis, we conducted paleoecological studies on calcareous nannofossils through the late middle Eocene to the - late Oligocene interval to identify abundance variations of selected taxa in response to changes in sea surface temperature (SST) and trophic conditions. The nannofossil-based interpretation has been compared with detailed oxygen and carbon stable isotope stratigraphy confirming the climate variability in the Southern Ocean for this time interval. We identify the Middle Eocene Climatic optimum (MECO) event, related with the regional exclusion of Paleogenic warm-water taxa from the Southern Ocean, followed by the progressive cooling trend particularly emphasized during the cooling events at about 39 Ma, 37 Ma and 35.5 Ma. In the earliest Oligocene, marked changes in calcareous nannofossil assemblages are strikingly associated with the Oi-1 event recorded in perfect accordance with the oxygen isotope records. For most of the Oligocene we recorded a cold phase, while a warming trend is detected in the late Oligocene. In addiction, a marked increase of taxa thriving in eutrophic conditions coupled with a decrease in oligotrophic taxa, suggests the presence of a time interval (from about 36 Ma to about 26 Ma) with prevailing eutrophic conditions that correspond to an increase of the carbon stable isotope curve. This interval well corresponds with the clay mineral concentration that shows at Site 738 a higher

  15. Suckers (Fish, Catostomidae) from the Eocene of China ac-count for the family's current disjunct distributions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Unequivocal Eocene suckers from China are for the first time reported here. This discovery demonstrates that catostomids of the Eocene Epoch (some 55-35 Ma ago) are scattered widely on mainland Asia as well as western North America. The present day disjunct distribution pattern of catostomids, with 68 extant species widespread in North America and the northern part of Middle America and only two in the restricted areas of Asia, is the result of their post-Eocene decline in Asia due to the competitive pressure from cyprinids, their Late Cenozoic radiation in North America, and the vicariant and dispersal events triggered by the changed biogeographic landscape. All of these prove to be a historical product of the geological, biological, and climatic changes throughout the Cenozoic.

  16. A dynamic climate and ecosystem state during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum: inferences from dinoflagellate cyst assemblages on the New Jersey Shelf

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    A. Sluijs


    Full Text Available Late Paleocene and Early Eocene climates and ecosystems underwent significant change during several transient global warming phases, associated with rapidly increasing atmospheric carbon concentrations, of which the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM; ~55.5 Ma is best studied. While biotic response to the PETM as a whole (~170 kyrs has been relatively well documented, variations during the PETM have been neglected. Here we present organic dinoflagellate cyst (dinocyst distribution patterns across two stratigraphically expanded PETM sections from the New Jersey Shelf, Bass River and Wilson Lake. Many previously studied sites show a uniform abundance of the thermophilic and presumably heterotrophic taxon Apectodinium that spans the entire carbon isotope excursion (CIE of the PETM. In contrast, the New Jersey sections show large variations in abundances of many taxa during the PETM, including the new species Florentinia reichartii that we formally propose. We infer paleoecological preferences of taxa that show temporal abundance peaks, both qualitative and absolute quantitative, from empirical as well as statistical information, i.e., principle (PCA and canonical correspondence analyses (CCA. In the CCAs, we combine the dinocyst data with previously published environmental proxy data from these locations, such as TEX86 paleothermometry, magnetic susceptibility and sedimentary size fraction. The combined information supports previous inferences that sea level rose during the PETM, but also indicates a (regional increase in fresh-water runoff that started ~10 kyr after the onset of the CIE, and perhaps precession-paced cycles in sea surface productivity. The highly variable dinocyst assemblages of the PETM contrast with rather stable Upper Paleocene assemblages, which suggests that carbon input caused a dynamic climate state, at least regionally.

  17. Multiproxy record of abrupt sea-surface cooling across the Eocene-Oligocene transition in the Gulf of Mexico


    Wade, B.S.; Houben, A. J. P.; Quaijtaal, W.; Schouten, S.; Rosenthal, Y.; Miller, K.G.; Katz, M E; Wright, J.D. (ed.); Brinkhuis, H.


    The Eocene-Oligocene transition (EOT; ca. 33–34 Ma) was a time of pronounced climatic change, marked by the establishment of continental-scale Antarctic ice sheets. The timing and extent of temperature change associated with the EOT is controversial. Here we present multiproxy EOT climate records (~15–34 k.y. resolution) from St. Stephens Quarry, Alabama, USA, derived from foraminiferal Mg/Ca, d18O, and TEX86. We constrain sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) in the latest Eocene and early Oligoce...

  18. The maar lake of Mahenge (Tanzania) - unique evidence of Eocene terrestrial environments in sub-Sahara Africa


    Kaiser, T M; J. Ansorge; G. Arratia; V. Bullwinkel; G. F. Gunnell; P. S. Herendeen; Jacobs, B; Jens Mingram; C. Msuya; A. Musolff; Rudolf Naumann; Schulz, E.; De Wilde, V.


    Recent excavations at the Eocene maar lake of Mahenge (Tanzania) by a German/Tanzanian team produced more than 1,900 fossil vertebrate, plant and trace fossils, among which fishes (51 %) make up the largest part, followed by plant remains (36 %). Surface outcrops of lacustrine sediments suggest that the Eocene crater lake was about 400 m in diameter. A 3.8 meter long section of lacustrine deposits has been documented, among which are 1.1 meter of basal lacustrine sediments that never before h...

  19. Implications of an enigmatic Late Permian to Early Triassic detrital zircon population in Eocene sediments of Nagaland (United States)

    Aitchison, J. C.


    Age spectra from some recent detrital zircon investigations of younger sedimentary units in the Tethyan Himalayan Series in eastern parts of the Himalayan orogenic system have indicated the existence an enigmatic Late Permian to Early Triassic magmatic source. Data from mature passive margin sedimentary rocks of the Tethyan Himalayan Series have revealed this hitherto unreported zircon population in samples from both east of Xigaze and south of Zedong in southern Tibet. Such zircons might not have been detected before simply because most detrital zircon studies involving Himalayan rocks examined strata in which grains of this age would not have been present. Alternatively, it may be that this population is restricted to eastern outcrops of the Tethyan Himalayan Series. Several models have been proposed in order to explain this zircon population with the most recent work favouring a rift-fill interpretation with the zircons being sourced from the Lhasa terrane. However, the various models proposed are not fully supported by other geological constraints and/or involve paleogeographies that present intractable source to sink gradient issues. Our investigations of sedimentary rocks in Nagaland including Eocene sediments of both the Disang and Phokphur formations reveal the presence of a similar Late Permian to Early Triassic detrital zircon population. Notably, unlike the Lhasa terrane detrital sediments of nearby Eurasian margin units in this region similarly aged sedimentary rocks in the Indo-Burman range do not contain this population. Other zircon populations in the Nagaland samples are consistent with pre-Gondwana break-up (i.e. pre Cretaceous) paleogeography and suggest derivation from western Australia. Age-correlative zircon populations have been reported recently from detrital zircon investigations of sediments on the North West Shelf of Western Australia and a similar source is inferred for the Nagaland zircons.

  20. Insights into Ocean Acidification During the Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum from Boron Isotopes at Southern Ocean Site 738 (United States)

    Moebius, I.; Hoenisch, B.; Friedrich, O.


    The Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum (MECO) is a ~650-kyr interval of global warming, with a brief ~50 ky long peak warming interval, and an abrupt termination. Deep sea and surface ocean temperature evolution across this interval are fairly well constrained, but thus far we have little understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the gradual warming and rapid recovery. Carbonate mass accumulation rates suggest a shoaling of the carbonate compensation depth, and studies on alkenones indicate increasing atmospheric CO2 levels during the MECO. This suggests an increase in surface ocean CO2, and consequently ocean acidification. However, the severity and timing of the proposed ocean acidification with respect to the onset, peak warming and the termination are currently not well resolved. The boron isotopic composition (δ11B) recorded in planktic foraminifer shells offers an opportunity to infer oceanic pH across this interval. We are working on a boron isotope reconstruction from Southern Ocean IODP site 738 and South Atlantic IODP site 1263, covering 42.0 to 38.5 Ma. These sites are characterized by good carbonate preservation and well-defined age models have been established. Additionally, ecology, nutrient content and bottom-water oxygenation have been shown to change significantly across the event towards a more eutrophic, periodically oxygen-depleted environment supporting different biological communities. We selected the planktic foraminifera species Acarinina spinuloinflata for this study because it is symbiont-bearing, suggesting a near-surface habitat and little vertical migration in the water column, and because of its abundance in the samples. δ11B data will be translated to surface ocean pH and atmospheric pCO2 will be approximated to refine knowledge about the carbon cycle during this time. Parallel analysis of two core sites will help to evaluate the tenacity of the data.

  1. Evolution and biogeography of the slipper orchids: Eocene vicariance of the conduplicate genera in the Old and New World Tropics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Yan Guo

    Full Text Available Intercontinental disjunctions between tropical regions, which harbor two-thirds of the flowering plants, have drawn great interest from biologists and biogeographers. Most previous studies on these distribution patterns focused on woody plants, and paid little attention to herbs. The Orchidaceae is one of the largest families of angiosperms, with a herbaceous habit and a high species diversity in the Tropics. Here we investigate the evolutionary and biogeographical history of the slipper orchids, which represents a monophyletic subfamily (Cypripedioideae of the orchid family and comprises five genera that are disjunctly distributed in tropical to temperate regions. A relatively well-resolved and highly supported phylogeny of slipper orchids was reconstructed based on sequence analyses of six maternally inherited chloroplast and two low-copy nuclear genes (LFY and ACO. We found that the genus Cypripedium with a wide distribution in the northern temperate and subtropical zones diverged first, followed by Selenipedium endemic to South America, and finally conduplicate-leaved genera in the Tropics. Mexipedium and Phragmipedium from the neotropics are most closely related, and form a clade sister to Paphiopedilum from tropical Asia. According to molecular clock estimates, the genus Selenipedium originated in Palaeocene, while the most recent common ancestor of conduplicate-leaved slipper orchids could be dated back to the Eocene. Ancestral area reconstruction indicates that vicariance is responsible for the disjunct distribution of conduplicate slipper orchids in palaeotropical and neotropical regions. Our study sheds some light on mechanisms underlying generic and species diversification in the orchid family and tropical disjunctions of herbaceous plant groups. In addition, we suggest that the biogeographical study should sample both regional endemics and their widespread relatives.

  2. Micro-halocline enabled nutrient recycling may explain extreme Azolla event in the Eocene Arctic Ocean. (United States)

    van Kempen, Monique M L; Smolders, Alfons J P; Lamers, Leon P M; Roelofs, Jan G M


    In order to understand the physicochemical mechanisms that could explain the massive growth of Azolla arctica in the Eocene Arctic Ocean, we carried out a laboratory experiment in which we studied the interacting effects of rain and wind on the development of salinity stratification, both in the presence and in the absence of a dense Azolla cover. Additionally, we carried out a mesocosm experiment to get a better understanding of the nutrient cycling within and beneath a dense Azolla cover in both freshwater and brackish water environments. Here we show that Azolla is able to create a windproof, small-scale salinity gradient in brackish waters, which allows for efficient recycling of nutrients. We suggest that this mechanism ensures the maintenance of a large standing biomass in which additional input of nutrients ultimately result in a further expansion of an Azolla cover. As such, it may not only explain the extent of the Azolla event during the Eocene, but also the absence of intact vegetative Azolla remains and the relatively low burial efficiency of organic carbon during this interval. PMID:23166833

  3. Micro-halocline enabled nutrient recycling may explain extreme Azolla event in the Eocene Arctic Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique M L van Kempen

    Full Text Available In order to understand the physicochemical mechanisms that could explain the massive growth of Azolla arctica in the Eocene Arctic Ocean, we carried out a laboratory experiment in which we studied the interacting effects of rain and wind on the development of salinity stratification, both in the presence and in the absence of a dense Azolla cover. Additionally, we carried out a mesocosm experiment to get a better understanding of the nutrient cycling within and beneath a dense Azolla cover in both freshwater and brackish water environments. Here we show that Azolla is able to create a windproof, small-scale salinity gradient in brackish waters, which allows for efficient recycling of nutrients. We suggest that this mechanism ensures the maintenance of a large standing biomass in which additional input of nutrients ultimately result in a further expansion of an Azolla cover. As such, it may not only explain the extent of the Azolla event during the Eocene, but also the absence of intact vegetative Azolla remains and the relatively low burial efficiency of organic carbon during this interval.

  4. Palaeoclimatic evolution during Eocene and its influence on oil shale mineralisation, Fushun basin, China (United States)

    Meng, Qingtao; Liu, Zhaojun; Bruch, Angela A.; Liu, Rong; Hu, Fei


    The Fushun basin is a small, explored, coal and oil shale-bearing, Cenozoic fault basin in the Liaoning Province, northeast China. The basin mainly consists of Eocene swamp to lacustrine deposits of the Guchengzi to Xilutian Formation, and contains the biggest opencast oil shale mine in Asia. This mine has provided an ideal opportunity to undertake palaeoclimate reconstruction in this basin based on a single geological profile and the analyses of 93 samples, using various approaches, namely field geological observation, clay mineralogical and geochemical (Sr/Ba, Sr/Cu, stable C and O isotope) analyses, all of which were compared with palaeobotanical data. The Eocene climate of Fushun basin evolved from warm temperate to north subtropical, and generally changed from warm humid to subhumid-semiarid. Paleoclimatic and geochemical parameters shows that the very warm and humid climate during Jijuntun Formation increased the initial productivity of lake water, and caused a steady stratification of the lake water, then caused oxygen lack in the bottom of water. Productivity of the lake provides the mean origin of organic matters for oil shale formation, and steady anoxic environment is beneficial for the conservation of organic matters.

  5. Fossils and Fossil Climate: The Case for Equable Continental Interiors in the Eocene (United States)

    Wing, Scott L.; Greenwood, David R.


    There are many methods for inferring terrestrial palaeoclimates from palaeontological data, including the size and species diversity of ectothermic vertebrates, the locomotor and dental adaptations of mammals, characteristics of leaf shape, size, and epidermis, wood anatomy, and the climatic preferences of nearest living relatives of fossil taxa. Estimates of palaeotemperature have also been based on stable oxygen isotope ratios in shells and bones. Interpretation of any of these data relies in some way on uniformitarian assumptions, although at different levels depending on the method. Most of these methods can be applied to a palaeoclimatic reconstruction for the interior of North America during the early Eocene, which is thought to be the warmest interval of global climate in the Cenozoic. Most of the data indicate warm equable climates with little frost. Rainfall was variable, but strong aridity was local or absent. The inferred palaeoclimate is very different from the present climate of the region and from model simulations for the Eocene. This suggests that models fail to incorporate forcing factors that were present at that time, that they treat the heat regime of continents unrealistically, and/or that model inputs such as sea surface temperature gradients or palaeotopography are incorrect.

  6. Description of a Well Preserved Fetus of the European Eocene Equoid Eurohippus messelensis.

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    Jens Lorenz Franzen

    Full Text Available The early Middle Eocene locality of Grube Messel, near Darmstadt (Germany, is famous for its complete vertebrate skeletons. The degree of preservation of soft tissues, such as body silhouettes, internal organs and gut contents, is frequently remarkable. The present specimen was analyzed for remnants of the reproductive system. Classic anatomy and osteology and high-resolution micro-x-ray were applied to describe the fetus of the European Eocene equoid Eurohippus messelensis. Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM was used for determination of soft tissue remnants. The fetus is the earliest and best-preserved fossil specimen of its kind. The postcranial fetal skeleton is almost complete and largely articulated, allowing the conclusion that the pregnant mare was in late gestation. The apparent intrauterine position of the fetus is normal for the phase of pregnancy. Death of mare and fetus were probably not related to problems associated with parturition. Soft tissue interpreted as the uteroplacenta and a broad uterine ligament are preserved due to bacterial activity and allow considerations on the evolutionary development of the structures.

  7. Flat meridional temperature gradient in the early Eocene in the subsurface rather than surface ocean (United States)

    Ho, Sze Ling; Laepple, Thomas


    The early Eocene (49-55 million years ago) is a time interval characterized by elevated surface temperatures and atmospheric CO2 (refs ,), and a flatter-than-present latitudinal surface temperature gradient. The multi-proxy-derived flat temperature gradient has been a challenge to reproduce in model simulations, especially the subtropical warmth at the high-latitude surface oceans, inferred from the archaeal lipid-based palaeothermometry, . Here we revisit the interpretation by analysing a global collection of multi-proxy temperature estimates from sediment cores spanning millennia to millions of years. Comparing the variability between proxy types, we demonstrate that the present interpretation overestimates the magnitude of past climate changes on all timescales. We attribute this to an inappropriate calibration, which reflects subsurface ocean but is calibrated to the sea surface, where the latitudinal temperature gradient is steeper. Recalibrating the proxy to the temperatures of subsurface ocean, where the signal is probably formed, yields colder -temperatures and latitudinal gradient consistent with standard climate model simulations of the Eocene climate, invalidating the apparent, extremely warm polar sea surface temperatures. We conclude that there is a need to reinterpret -inferred marine temperature records in the literature, especially for reconstructions of past warm climates that rely heavily on this proxy as reflecting subsurface ocean.

  8. Global vegetation distribution and terrestrial climate evolution at the Eocene-Oligocene transition (United States)

    Pound, Matthew; Salzmann, Ulrich


    The Eocene - Oligocene transition (EOT; ca. 34-33.5 Ma) is widely considered to be the biggest step in Cenozoic climate evolution. Geochemical marine records show both surface and bottom water cooling, associated with the expansion of Antarctic glaciers and a reduction in the atmospheric CO2 concentration. However, the global response of the terrestrial biosphere to the EOT is less well understood and not uniform when comparing different regions. We present new global vegetation and terrestrial climate reconstructions of the Priabonian (late Eocene; 38-33.9 Ma) and Rupelian (early Oligocene; 33.9-28.45 Ma) by synthesising 215 pollen and spore localities. Using presence/absence data of pollen and spores with multivariate statistics has allowed the reconstruction of palaeo-biomes without relying on modern analogues. The reconstructed palaeo-biomes do not show the equator-ward shift at the EOT, which would be expected from a global cooling. Reconstructions of mean annual temperature, cold month mean temperature and warm month mean temperature do not show a global cooling of terrestrial climate across the EOT. Our new reconstructions differ from previous global syntheses by being based on an internally consistent statistically defined classification of palaeo-biomes and our terrestrial based climate reconstructions are in stark contrast to some marine based climate estimates. Our results raise new questions on the nature and extent of terrestrial global climate change at the EOT.

  9. Ecological Turnover of Shallow Water Carbonate Producers Following the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (United States)

    Weiss, A.; Martindale, R. C.


    Modern coral reef ecosystems are under threat from global climate change (and associated, synergistic stresses) and local environmental degradation. Therefore, it is important for ecologists to understand how ecosystems adapt and recover from climate change. The fossil record provides excellent case studies of similar events, such as the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM). Although Paleocene and Eocene shallow water carbonates have not received the same degree of attention as the deep-water record, the PETM provides an opportunity to study the role of alternative stable states in maintaining the health and diversity of shallow water carbonate environments. It is generally accepted that during the PETM there is a transition from reef systems to foraminiferal shoals as the dominant shallow water carbonate producers. In fact, previous work has documented this interval as one of the major metazoan reef collapses of the Phanerozoic. This study fills an important gap in the shallow-water PETM record by quantitatively measuring the changes in carbonate production and ecology of 15 localities as they shift from coral reefs to foraminiferal shoal. The quantitative and semi-quantitative analysis is accomplished by using data from the PaleoReefs database and a simple carbonate production calculation to estimate the productivity of the shallow water system. Ecological data are gathered through a literature review of the localities. The results of this study will enable a better understanding of how modern reefs may react to global climate and environmental change.

  10. Organic petrology and coalbed gas content, Wilcox Group (Paleocene-Eocene), northern Louisiana (United States)

    Hackley, P.C.; Warwick, P.D.; Breland, F.C.


    Wilcox Group (Paleocene-Eocene) coal and carbonaceous shale samples collected from four coalbed methane test wells in northern Louisiana were characterized through an integrated analytical program. Organic petrographic analyses, gas desorption and adsorption isotherm measurements, and proximate-ultimate analyses were conducted to provide insight into conditions of peat deposition and the relationships between coal composition, rank, and coalbed gas storage characteristics. The results of petrographic analyses indicate that woody precursor materials were more abundant in stratigraphically higher coal zones in one of the CBM wells, consistent with progradation of a deltaic depositional system (Holly Springs delta complex) into the Gulf of Mexico during the Paleocene-Eocene. Comparison of petrographic analyses with gas desorption measurements suggests that there is not a direct relationship between coal type (sensu maceral composition) and coalbed gas storage. Moisture, as a function of coal rank (lignite-subbituminous A), exhibits an inverse relationship with measured gas content. This result may be due to higher moisture content competing for adsorption space with coalbed gas in shallower, lower rank samples. Shallower ( 600??m) coal samples containing less moisture range from under- to oversaturated with respect to their CH4 adsorption capacity.

  11. Cool-water carbonates in an Eocene palaeoestuary, Norseman Formation, Western Australia (United States)

    Clarke, Jonathan D. A.; Bone, Yvonne; James, Noel P.


    Numerous palaeovalleys formed extensive drowned estuaries during Eocene transgressions along the southwestern part of the southern margin of Australia. The Tertiary sediments of the Cowan palaeovalley have been extensively drilled, revealing deposition of the Norseman Formation during the Middle Eocene Tortachilla transgression. Initial deposition occurred during transgression of the valley to form a drowned estuary. Sediments consisted of coarse-grained muddy, lithic, iron and glauconite-rich sands and gravels of mixed carbonate and quartz. Pure carbonates accumulated during the highstand, produced by a typical shallow temperate water assemblage of bryozoans, coralline algae, echinoids and molluscs and were swept into shoals by strong tidal currents. Minor "tropical" components in the form of large benthic foraminifers and dasycladacean algae are present. Coarse bryozoan and trough cross-bedded carbonate sands accumulated in the margins of the estuary and fine bryozoan sands in the deeper parts. Rhodoliths accumulated to form shoals in sheltered localities. The Spencer Gulf and Gulf St. Vincent of South Australia provide close modern analogues to the Cowan palaeovalley and the Norseman Formation. Modern carbonate sediments off Esperance on the south coast of Western Australia contain "tropical" faunal elements within an otherwise temperate skeletal assemblage and also provide a modern analogue. The Norseman Formation thus provides an excellent example of cool-water carbonate deposition in near-shore, tide-dominated environments. This study complements and contrasts existing cool-water shelf facies models based on Tertiary carbonates deposited on deep shelves elsewhere in southern Australia.

  12. Mineralogy and geochemistry of xenoliths in the Eocene volcanic rocks from southwest of Jandaq

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    Samineh Rajabi


    Full Text Available The Eocene volcanic rocks from the southwest of the Jandaq (Kuh-e-Godar-e-Siah, Central-East Iran micro-continent are andesitic basalt and andesite in composition. These rocks contain xenoliths with granulitic mineralogy. Mineral assemblage of these xenoliths is plagioclase + phlogopite + corundum + sillimanite + chlorite + phengite with granublastic, poiklioblastic and foliated textures in the pick metamorphic condition. Thermometry of phlogopite in these xenoliths suggests the average temperature 782oC. The characteristics of the xenoliths are consistent with the granolitic facies metamorphism of the Al-saturated Si-undersaturated crustal sediments at the lower crust condition. Melting of these granulites forms the magma which crystallized the S-type granitoids. Differentiation and crystallization of this magma causes the S-type granite formation. Therefore, the S-type granites in the study area are probably generated from melting of the granulites parts of which brought to the surface as xenoliths by Eocene magmatism in south of the Jandaq (Kuh-e-Godar-e-Siah. S-type granites in the study area are located along the Doruneh, Chupanan and Aeirakan faults in the Aeirakan area and Jandaq ophiolite. These granites are the source of uranium, thorium and uranium ore in southwest of the Aeirakan mountain.

  13. Biomarker characteristics of the Turonian–Eocene succession, Belayim oilfields, central Gulf of Suez, Egypt

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    W.Sh. El Diasty


    Full Text Available This study assesses the hydrocarbon source rocks of the Belayim oilfields, central Gulf of Suez, Egypt. Detailed geochemical methods, including liquid chromatography, gas chromatography and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, are used to characterize organic-rich facies of the Turonian–Eocene deposits. Crude oil samples are analyzed using C7 and stable carbon isotopes, in addition to analysis of the extracts, in order to throw light on the organic matter source, composition, and thermal maturity. The source rocks are mainly derived from algae and bacteria deposited under normal saline and reducing palaeoenvironmental conditions, with a minimal contribution from terrestrial organic and mainly clay-poor source rocks. This is evidenced by the n-alkane distribution, the pristane/phytane, homohopane, gammacerane index, the high concentration of cholestane, the presence of the C30 n-propylcholestanes and low diasteranes ratios. The source rock extracts range from immature to marginally mature, based on biomarker maturity-related parameters. A similar scenario is envisaged from the crude oil samples which showed a partial positive correlation with the source rocks of the Eocene Thebes Formation, and the Upper Cretaceous Brown Limestone. Our data suggest that Turonian–Santonian Matulla Formation samples may signify the presence of some oil in the study area.


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    Full Text Available Penguins have peculiar modifications in their skeletal anatomy as a consequence of their extremely specialized diving habit. Morphological specialization is particularly evident in the forelimb. However, the kinematics of the pectoral girdle appears to be key to the locomotion of penguins. Penguin scapulae have an unusual morphology among birds. Modern penguins have a very large (especially broad scapula, whereas this bone is long but narrower in basal fossil species. The recent finding of an incomplete scapula with a singular acromion in the Upper Eocene Submeseta Allomember of the La Meseta Formation in the Antarctic Peninsula reveals a scapula proportionally narrower than those of modern penguins but similar to that of Waimanu and possibly other Eocene species. Osteological comparisons and muscular dissections of modern penguins show that the most striking feature is the curvature of the acromion, and the consequent enlargement of the facies articularis clavicularis. The configuration of the acromion and the corpus scapula reflects a lack of functional optimization in terms of the resistance to forces transverse to the body axis. The scapula´s general morphology suggests it belonged to a medium to large-sized penguin species with no so specialized diving skills. 


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    Full Text Available Original biostratigraphic and sedimentologic data concerning the type-section of the Albidona Formation (Liguride Complex, Southern Apennines, Italy are presented and discussed. Since its definition in 1962, this lithostratigraphic unit has been the object of controversial interpretations in terms of age attribution and paleotectonic significance. Based on cross-observations performed on calcareous nannofossils and palynomorphs, we conclude that the Albidona Formation must be assigned to the Eocene and, based on these evidences, we make a review of the previous biostratigraphic literature. We further recognise four different turbidite systems (named A to D, bounded by minor stratigraphic hiatuses, that are characterised by different sedimentary facies assemblages and petrofacies. The overall vertical arrangement demonstrates that the Albidona Formation was deposited in a tectonically mobile basin during a phase of deformation that is older than the apenninic deformation and must be likely referred to the alpine tectonics of the Calabrian arc. Moreover, the relationship with the underlying folded unit suggests for the Albidona Formation the significance of an episutural deposit relevant to a Paleogene deformation that affected the older units of the Liguride Complex. By considering stratigraphic and sedimentological features, we suggest a correlation of the Albidona Formation with analogue turbidite suites cropping out in the Apennines, discussing their significance in the context of the Eocene tectonic paroxysm in the Mediterranean area.

  16. Evidence for a rapid release of carbon at the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum. (United States)

    Wright, James D; Schaller, Morgan F


    The Paleocene/Eocene thermal maximum (PETM) and associated carbon isotope excursion (CIE) are often touted as the best geologic analog for the current anthropogenic rise in pCO2. However, a causal mechanism for the PETM CIE remains unidentified because of large uncertainties in the duration of the CIE's onset. Here, we report on a sequence of rhythmic sedimentary couplets comprising the Paleocene/Eocene Marlboro Clay (Salisbury Embayment). These couplets have corresponding δ(18)O cycles that imply a climatic origin. Seasonal insolation is the only regular climate cycle that can plausibly account for δ(18)O amplitudes and layer counts. High-resolution stable isotope records show 3.5‰ δ(13)C decrease over 13 couplets defining the CIE onset, which requires a large, instantaneous release of (13)C-depleted carbon. During the CIE, a clear δ(13)C gradient developed on the shelf with the largest excursions in shallowest waters, indicating atmospheric δ(13)C decreased by ~20‰. Our observations and revised release rate are consistent with an atmospheric perturbation of 3,000-gigatons of carbon (GtC). PMID:24043840

  17. Molecular composition and paleobotanical origin of Eocene resin from northeast India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arka Rudra; Suryendu Dutta; Srinivasan V Raju


    The molecular composition of fossil resins from early to middle Eocene coal from northeast India, has been analyzed for the first time to infer their paleobotanical source. The soluble component of fossil resin was analyzed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The resin extracts are composed of cadalene-based C15 sesquiterpenoids and diagenetically altered triterpenoids. The macromolecular composition was investigated using pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC–MS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The major pyrolysis products are C15} bicyclic sesquiterpenoids, alkylated naphthalenes, benzenes and a series of C17–C34 -alkene--alkane pairs. Spectroscopic analysis revealed the dominance of aliphatic components. The presence of cadalene-based sequiterpenoids confirms the resin to be Class II or dammar resin, derived from angiosperms of Dipterocarpaceae family. These sesquiterpenoids are often detected in many SE Asian fluvio-deltaic oils. Dipterocarpaceae are characteristic of warm tropical climate suggesting the prevalence of such climate during early Eocene in northeast India.

  18. Dynamic, Large-Magnitude CCD Changes in the Atlantic During the Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum (United States)

    Kordesch, W.; Bohaty, S. M.; Palike, H.; Wilson, P. A.; Edgar, K. M.; Agnini, C.; Westerhold, T.; Roehl, U.


    The Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum (MECO; ~40.1 Ma) is a transient global warming event that abruptly reversed the long-term Eocene cooling trend. The primary driving mechanism(s) must be linked to a CO2 increase; however, geochemical modeling experiments show that prevailing hypotheses are incompatible with the paleoclimate record. To further examine changes in deep-sea carbonate burial, we identify the MECO for the first time at ODP Site 929 (Equatorial Atlantic; ~3935 m paleodepth) and present new lithological and geochemical data for this site, including benthic foraminiferal stable isotopes (δ18O and δ13C), XRF scanning data, and an orbitally tuned age model. We combine these records with data from a suite of Atlantic sites to form a depth transect between ~2-4 km (DSDP Site 523, ODP Site 1260 and 1263, IODP Site U1404) representing the first detailed record of carbonate dissolution in the Atlantic spanning the MECO. This compilation reveals dissolution at water depths as shallow as ~2 km (>1 km shallower than previous estimates) with multiple and discrete short-lived (acidification decoupled from deep-sea δ18O and δ13C records, indicating that these events must not have been driven directly by changes in temperature or carbon burial/storage - potentially reconciling some of the data-model discrepancies.

  19. The Potential of Eocene Shale of Nanggulan Formation as a Hydrocarbon Source Rock

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    S. Winardi


    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v8i1.152In western Indonesia, Eocene shale is generally considered as a potential source rock. The Nanggulan Formation outcropping at Kulonprogo Yogyakarta consists of a shale interval of Eocene in age. Analysis of its organic material content, kerogen type, and maturity level were conducted to know its potential. The laboratory analysis of eleven samples were done to measure its TOC content. Samples with TOC > 0.5% then were analyzed to measure its Rv and TAI. Maturity level was also calculated by TTI from burial history model. The result of analysis shows there are various TOC contents and seven samples of them are categorized into a good-excellent class (TOC > 1%. Kerogen content of those samples is type III (non fluorescene amorphous-humic kerogen. One sample has a good indication of hydrocarbon formation (PY = 9.0 mg HC/g rock. Unfortunately thermal maturity level of the samples is immature (highest Rv 0.39, Tmax 422oC, and TAI 2. Otherwise, TTI calculation result from subsurface burial history modelling indicates that some areas are mature having reached gas window since 0.4 mya, especially in the area which had been influenced by a volcanic intrusion at Oligocene (28.5 mya. Therefore, the Nanggulan Formation shale has a potential capacity as a source rock with some limitation in maturity level.

  20. Subtropical Arctic Ocean temperatures during the Palaeocene/Eocene thermal maximum (United States)

    Sluijs, A.; Schouten, S.; Pagani, M.; Woltering, M.; Brinkhuis, H.; Damste, J.S.S.; Dickens, G.R.; Huber, M.; Reichart, G.-J.; Stein, R.; Matthiessen, J.; Lourens, L.J.; Pedentchouk, N.; Backman, J.; Moran, K.; Clemens, S.; Cronin, T.; Eynaud, F.; Gattacceca, J.; Jakobsson, M.; Jordan, R.; Kaminski, M.; King, J.; Koc, N.; Martinez, N.C.; McInroy, D.; Moore, T.C., Jr.; O'Regan, M.; Onodera, J.; Palike, H.; Rea, B.; Rio, D.; Sakamoto, T.; Smith, D.C.; St John, K.E.K.; Suto, I.; Suzuki, N.; Takahashi, K.; Watanabe, M. E.; Yamamoto, M.


    The Palaeocene/Eocene thermal maximum, ???55 million years ago, was a brief period of widespread, extreme climatic warming, that was associated with massive atmospheric greenhouse gas input. Although aspects of the resulting environmental changes are well documented at low latitudes, no data were available to quantify simultaneous changes in the Arctic region. Here we identify the Palaeocene/Eocene thermal maximum in a marine sedimentary sequence obtained during the Arctic Coring Expedition. We show that sea surface temperatures near the North Pole increased from ???18??C to over 23??C during this event. Such warm values imply the absence of ice and thus exclude the influence of ice-albedo feedbacks on this Arctic warming. At the same time, sea level rose while anoxic and euxinic conditions developed in the ocean's bottom waters and photic zone, respectively. Increasing temperature and sea level match expectations based on palaeoclimate model simulations, but the absolute polar temperatures that we derive before, during and after the event are more than 10??C warmer than those model-predicted. This suggests that higher-than-modern greenhouse gas concentrations must have operated in conjunction with other feedback mechanisms-perhaps polar stratospheric clouds or hurricane-induced ocean mixing-to amplify early Palaeogene polar temperatures. ?? 2006 Nature Publishing Group.

  1. A new genus and species of Heroini (Perciformes: Cichlidae from the early Eocene of southern South America

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    Patricia Alano Perez


    Full Text Available The Lumbrera Formation is the uppermost unit of the Salta Group, which crops out in northwestern Argentina. The paleoenvironment of the Lumbrera Formation is interpreted as a perennial lake deposited under temperate climatic conditions during the early to middle Eocene. Its fossil content is made up of palynomorphs, insects, crocodiles, turtles, lizards, and mammals, besides an ichthyofauna formed by cichlids, poeciliids and dipnoans. †Plesioheros chauliodus is described based on a single individual from this formation, which was fossilized as a lateral view impression (missing anal and caudal fins. It can be distinguished from other cichlids by a moderately deep body, enlarged anterior dentary teeth bearing subapical cusp, a low abdominal vertebral count (10, five canal openings in the dentary, and XI + 12 dorsal-fin rays. A phylogenetic analysis, using the matrix by Kullander (1998, recovered †Plesioheros within Heroini. This species was recovered most closely related to Australoheros and to the deep-bodied South American heroins. The occurrence of an Eocene Heroini, as well as of other cichlid lineages in the same stratigraphical level, is evidence of an ancient diversification in this family. This ancient age supports the hypothesis that the Cichlidae originated on Gondwana.A Formação Lumbrera é a unidade do topo do Grupo Salta, aflorante na região noroeste da Argentina. O paleoambiente da Formação Lumbrera tem sido interpretado como um lago perene depositado sob um clima temperado durante o início do Eoceno. Seu conteúdo fóssil é formado por palinomorfos, insetos, crocodilos, tartarugas, lagartos, mamíferos, além de uma ictiofauna que inclui ciclídeos, poeciliídeos e dipnóicos. †Plesioheros chauliodus é descrito com base em um único indivíduo coletado nesta formação, preservado como impressão em vista lateral (faltando as nadadeiras anal e caudal. Ele pode ser distinguido de outros ciclídeos por um corpo

  2. Environmental impact and magnitude of paleosol carbonate carbon isotope excursions marking five early Eocene hyperthermals in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abels, H.A.; Lauretano, V.; van Yperen, Anna E.; Hopman, Tarek; Zachos, J.C.; Lourens, L.J.; Gingerich, P.D.; Bowen, G.J.


    Transient greenhouse warming events in the Paleocene and Eocene were associated with the addition of isotopically light carbon to the exogenic atmosphere–ocean carbon system, leading to substantial environmental and biotic change. The magnitude of an accompanying carbon isotope excursion (CIE) can b

  3. The Middle and Upper Eocene sections of the Omsk trough, West Siberian Platform: Palynological, stratigraphic, hydrologic, and climatic aspects (United States)

    Zaporozhets, N. I.; Akhmetiev, M. A.


    The thorough analysis and correlation of Middle-Upper Eocene sections in the Omsk trough (southern West Siberian Platform) recovered by Borehole 9 in its axial part near the Chistoozernoe Settlement (Novosibirsk region) and Borehole 8 on the southern limb near the Russkaya Polyana Settlement (southern Omsk region) revealed hiatuses at the base and top of the Russkaya Polyana Beds, a lithostratigraphic unit defined in the Lyulinvor Formation based on its substantially fine-grained composition and poor siliceous microplankton fossil remains. The overlying Tavda Formation (Middle-Upper Eocene) is traditionally accepted to consist of two subformations. The last formation was deposited in the West Siberian inner sea isolated from the Arctic basin. Particular attention is paid to eustatic sea level fluctuation especially during the period marked by accumulation of Azolla Beds under considerable desalination of surface waters in the basin. The curve of variations in the open sea factor based on the quantitative ratio between organic-walled phytoplankton fossils and higher plant palynomorphs is correlated with the modified version of the wellknown Vail curve. It is established that the West Siberian sea level experienced a brief rise in the terminal late Eocene prior to its complete desiccation at the Eocene-Oligocene transition because of global regression in response to glaciation in Antarctica.

  4. The freshwater fern Azolla (Azollaceae) from Eocene Arctic and Nordic Sea sediments: New species and their stratigraphic distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Burgh, J.; Collinson, M.E.; van Konijnenburg-van Cittert, J.H.A.; Barke, J.; Brinkhuis, H.


    Three new species of the freshwater fern Azolla are described from Eocene marine deposits of the Arctic and Nordic seas, bringing the total number of species now documented from these areas to five. Azolla arctica Collinson et al., Azolla jutlandica Collinson et al., Azolla nova sp. nov. and Azolla

  5. Reconstruction of the Arctic Ocean environment during the Eocene Azolla interval using geochemical proxies and climate modeling. Geologica Ultraiectina (331)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speelman, E.N.


    With the realization that the Arctic Ocean was covered with enormous quantities of the aquatic floating fern Azolla 49 Myrs ago, new questions regarding the Eocene conditions facilitating these blooms arose. This dissertation describes the reconstruction of paleo-environmental conditions facilitatin


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    Full Text Available The Eocene transgressive deposits of the Acıgöl, Burdur and Isparta basins are the best exposed of the SW Turkey and shed light on one of the outstanding problems of the tectono-sedimentary evolution during paleotectonic and neotectonic period. In the present paper we describe a tectonic model of the progressive foreland migration of the allochthonous units such as Lycian and Antalya nappes, initialemplacement onto stable carbonate platform in the Early Oligocene, carrying piggy-back basins and incorporating from alluvial fan to deep-marine deposits recognized in these terrigenous successions.In general, the facies and structural observations on the overall Mid-Late Eocene clastic sequences, outcropping in behind the Lycian nappes, indicate: i the alluvial fan to shallow marine settings of the Başçeşme Fm in Acıgöl, ii the Varsakyayla Fm in Burdur and iii proximal to distal flysch facies trend of the Kayıköy Fm in Isparta. The collected data allow us to hypothesize that the Mid-Late Eocene tectono-sedimentary history was characterized by a terrigenous clastics, probably lying on the constructing tectonic edifice and then deformed and covered by a piggy-back like sequence. Thetectono-sedimentary evolution of the Eocene transgressive in SW Turkey has been probably developed through a progressive migration towards the foreland basin.

  7. A high resolution study of trace elements and stable isotopes in oyster shells to estimate central asian middle eocene seasonality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bougeois, L.; de Rafélis, M.; Reichart, G.-J.; de Nooijer, L.J.; Nicollin, F.; Dupont-Nivet, G.


    Modern Asian climate is characterized by strong seasonality caused by the duality between monsoon-dominated conditions in southeastern Asia and semi-arid to arid conditions in Central Asia. Eocene high-resolution proxy records which enable the reconstruction of the onset and magnitude of changes in

  8. A high resolution study of trace elements and stable isotopes in oyster shells to estimate Central Asian Middle Eocene seasonality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bougeois, L.; de Rafelis, M.; Reichart, G.-J.; de Nooijer, L.J.; Nicollin, F.; Dupont-Nivet, G.


    Modern Asian climate is characterized by strong seasonality caused by the duality between monsoon-dominated conditions in southeastern Asia and semi-arid to arid conditions in Central Asia. Eocene high-resolution proxy records which enable the reconstruction of the onset and magnitude of changes in

  9. Multiproxy record of abrupt sea-surface cooling across the Eocene-Oligocene transition in the Gulf of Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wade, B.S.; Houben, A.J.P.; Quaijtaal, W.; Schouten, S.; Rosenthal, Y.; Miller, K.G.; Katz, M.E.; Wright, J.D.; Brinkhuis, H.


    The Eocene-Oligocene transition (EOT; ca. 33–34 Ma) was a time of pronounced climatic change, marked by the establishment of continental-scale Antarctic ice sheets. The timing and extent of temperature change associated with the EOT is controversial. Here we present multiproxy EOT climate records (∼

  10. Multiproxy record of abrupt sea-surface cooling across the Eocene-Oligocene transition in the Gulf of Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wade, B.S.; Houben, A.J.P.; Quaijtaal, W.; Schouten, S.; Rosenthal, Y.; Miller, K.G.; Katz, M.E.; Wright, J.D.; Brinkhuis, H.


    The Eocene-Oligocene transition (EOT; ca. 33–34 Ma) was a time of pronounced climatic change, marked by the establishment of continental-scale Antarctic ice sheets. The timing and extent of temperature change associated with the EOT is controversial. Here we present multiproxy EOT climate records (~

  11. Weiwoboidae fam.nov.of 'Higher' Fulgoroidea (Hemiptera:Fulgoromorpha) from the Eocene Deposits of Yunnan,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Qibin; Jacek SZWEDO; HUANG Diying; Adam STROI(N)SKI


    A new family of so-called 'higher' planthoppers,Weiwoboidae fam.nov.,from the Lower Eocene of Yunnan is described.A new monotypic genus,Weiwoboa gen.nov.,with Weiwoboa meridiana also described and illustrated.The characters of tegmen venation of the new family,its evolution,and supposed relationships are briefly discussed.

  12. Internal structure and environmental reconstruction of eocene transitional fan-delta deposits, monllobat-castigaleu formations, Southern Pyrenees, Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, S. van der


    A detailed study has been made of a part (500 × 200 × 15 m) of the Eocene Monllobat Formation. The conglomeratic bottomset—foreset—topset build up of a small fan-delta passes into sand- and mudstone layers. Ultimately the sandstone layers wedge into the mudstone due to concave-upwards basal surfaces

  13. Eocene sea retreat out of Asia: paleogeography, controlling mechanisms and environmental impacts (United States)

    Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume; Bosboom, Roderic; Proust, Jean-Noël; Mandic, Oleg; Villa, Giuliana; Grothe, Arjan; Stoica, Marius; Guo, Zhaojie; Krijgsman, Wout; Yang, Wei; Bougeois, Laurie; Aminov, Jovid; Ormukov, Cholponbec; Huang, Wentao


    The sediments of the Central Asian basins include the remnants of the easternmost extent of a large epicontinental sea. Before it retreated westward and eventually separated as the Paratethys Sea following the Eocene-Oligocene transition (EOT), this shallow marine sea extended across the Eurasian continent from the Mediterranean Tethys in the west to the Tarim Basin in western China in the east. However, the paleogeography and the timing of the westward retreat of the proto-Paratethys Sea are too poorly constrained to identify its proposed controlling mechanisms and paleoenvironmental impacts. The sea supposedly entered Central Asia in the Cretaceous and five third-order marine incursions have been recognized from the Cretaceous-Paleogene sedimentary record, of which the last two transgressions are documented here. We studied the sea retreat in the Tarim Basin in western China, the Alai Valley and Ferghana Basin in southern Kyrgyzstan and the Afghan-Tajik Basin in south-western Tajikistan. Integrated bio-magnetostratigraphic dating shows that the sea retreated westward from the Tarim Basin in stepwise fashion. The major fourth transgression occurred during the Lutetian, after which the sea retreated from the southwest Tarim Basin paleodepocenter at ~41 Ma (base C18r). The last and fifth transgression was restricted to the westernmost margin of the Tarim basin and occurred during latest Bartonian-early Priabonian (base C17n.3n-base C16n.1n). At the level of precision of our dating, each of these marine incursions is apparently synchronous across the Tarim Basin suggesting rapid regional transgression/regression cycles in these shallow epicontinental basins with limited diachroneity. The shallow marine near-shore sediments of these last two transgressions can be convincingly correlated by litho- and biostratigraphy across Central Asia, showing for the first time that the sea may have largely retreated from Central Asia in the late Eocene. The lack of apparent

  14. A Backarc Basin Origin for the Eocene Volcanic Rocks North of Abbas Abad, East of Shahrud, Northeast Iran (United States)

    Khalatbari Jafari, M.; Mobasher, K.; Davarpanah, A.; Babaie, H.; La Tour, T.


    The region in northeastern Iran, bordered by the Miami fault and the Doruneh fault, mainly exposes the Eocene volcanic and Tertiary sedimentary rocks and sporadic outcrops of pre- Jurassic metamorphic rocks such as gneiss and mica-schist. We have divided the volcanic and volcanic-sedimentary rocks into six main units: E1 through the youngest E6. North of Abbas Abad, the Lower Eocene is conglomerate, sandstone, and red shale with lenses of nummulite-bearing limestone at the base, and dacitic lava (E1) at the top. The nummulites give an Early Eocene age for the limestone lenses. The E2 unit includes vesicular basalt, intercalated, intraformational conglomerate, and lenses of nummulite-bearing limestone. E3 is volcanic- sedimentary, and is made of green tuff, tuffite, shale, and nummulite bearing limestone. E4 includes basalt and vesicular trachy-basalt, and E5 is mostly sedimentary, made of tan marl, sandstone, shale, and lenses of Middle Eocene nummulite-bearing limestone. The E6 unit is the most extensive, with at least three levels of nummulite-bearing limestone lenses which give a Middle to Early Eocene age. The volcanic rocks of the E6 unit include few hundred meters of epiclastic to hyaloclastic breccia, with intercalations of lava at the base. These are overlain by four horizons of aphyric olivine basalt and basalt, and phyric trachy-andesite and trachy-basalt. The volume of the aphyric lavas decreases, and that of the phyric lavas increases upsection. The Eocene volcanic sequence is covered by turbidite; the marl washings give an Eocene-Oligocene age range. Chondrite-normalized multi-element plots indicate enrichment of the Eocene Abbas Abad volcanic rocks in the LILE elements, with variable ratios of La/Yb (4.36-19.33) and La/Sm (3.10-7.91). These plots show a gentle slope, and the volcanic rocks in the E1 to E4 units are less enriched than those in the E6 unit, probably reflecting the difference in the original source for the melt. The multi-element plots

  15. Recognition of Early Eocene global carbon isotope excursions using lipids of marine Thaumarchaeota (United States)

    Schoon, Petra L.; Heilmann-Clausen, Claus; Pagh Schultz, Bo; Sluijs, Appy; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Schouten, Stefan


    The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM; ˜56 Ma) and Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 (ETM2; ˜53 Ma) are geological short (CIE) and massive dissolution of deep sea carbonate. However, the magnitude of these CIEs vary with the type of fossil matter, i.e. multiple carbonate phases, bulk organic matter, and terrestrial and marine biomarker lipids, making it difficult to constrain the actual CIE in atmospheric and oceanic carbon pools. Here we analyzed the stable carbon isotopic composition (δ13C) of glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraether lipids (GDGTs) derived from marine Thaumarchaeota in sediments deposited during the PETM in the North Sea Basin and ETM2 in the Arctic Ocean. The δ13C values of these lipids are potentially directly recording variations in δ13C dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and can thus provide a record of marine δ13C DIC across both these Eocene carbon cycle perturbations. Reconstructed pre-CIE δ13CDIC values are slightly lower (0.5-1‰) than modern day values, possibly because Thaumarchaeotal lipids are not only derived from surface waters but also from 13C-depleted subsurface waters. Their values decrease by ˜3.6 (±0.3) ‰ and ˜2.5 (±0.7)‰ during the PETM and ETM2, respectively. The CIE in crenarchaeol for ETM2 is higher than that in marine calcite from other locations, possibly because of the admixture of deep water 13C-depleted CO2 generated by the euxinic conditions that developed occasionally during ETM2. However, the reconstructed PETM CIE lies close to the CIE inferred from marine calcite, suggesting that the δ13C record of crenarchaeol may document changes in marine DIC during the PETM in the North Sea Basin. The δ13C of thaumarchaeotal lipids may thus be a novel tool to reconstruct the δ13C of DIC in sediments that are devoid of carbonates, but relatively rich in organic matter, such as shallow marine coastal settings.

  16. Upper Paleocene-Lower Eocene biostratigraphy of Darb Gaga, Southeastern Kharga Oasis Western Desert, Egypt (United States)

    Ouda, Khaled; Berggren, William A.; Abdel Sabour, Ayman


    Paleontological studies on the Upper Paleocene-Lower Eocene succession at Darb Gaga, southeastern Kharga Oasis, Western Desert, Egypt document the changes associated with the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), such as 1) a radical alteration of the relative and absolute abundance of planktonic foraminifera; 2) a massive occurrence of the excursion planktonic foraminiferal taxa; 3) a widespread deposition of calcarenite yielding atypical (extremely high) faunal abundance associated with the younger phase of warming; and 4) a concentration of coprolites associated with the middle phase of warming. We also document the Lowest Occurrence (LO) of dimorphic larger benthic and excursion foraminifera during the earlier phase of warming at Darb Gaga, as recorded in Bed 1 of the Dababiya Quarry Member. The absence of these faunas in Bed 1 at Dababiya (the GSSP for the P/E Boundary) is likely to be due to both intense deficiency in dissolved oxygen and massive carbonate dissolution. Only remains (fish remains) of faunas that can tolerate the toxicity produced by low oxygen conditions are found in the stratigraphic record of this (oldest) phase at Dababiya. The Dababiya Quarry Member (DQM) at Darb Gaga reflects the unfolding of the sedimentary and biotic changes associated with the PETM global warming at, and following, the Paleocene/Eocene boundary on the southern Tethys platform. The changes began with a rapid increase in bottom and "intermediate" water temperature. The temperature increase was accompanied by removal of oxygen during the early and middle stages of warming. This led to the absence of both subbotinids and calcareous benthic foraminifera in the early and second coprolite-bearing phases (Beds 2 and 3 of the DQM). Dissolution seems to have no role during these stages as shown by the unusual abundance and good preservation of the warm-tolerant Ac. sibaiyaensis. This species reaches its maximum abundance in Bed 2 where it exhibits a broad range of size (63

  17. The Eocene Arctic Azolla phenomenon: species composition, temporal range and geographic extent. (United States)

    Collinson, Margaret; Barke, Judith; van der Burgh, Johan; van Konijnenburg-van Cittert, Johanna; Pearce, Martin; Bujak, Jonathan; Brinkhuis, Henk


    Azolla is a free-floating freshwater fern that is renowned for its rapid vegetative spread and invasive biology, being one of the world's fastest growing aquatic macrophytes. Two species of this plant have been shown to have bloomed and reproduced in enormous numbers in the latest Early to earliest Middle Eocene of the Arctic Ocean and North Sea based on samples from IODP cores from the Lomonosov Ridge (Arctic) and from outcrops in Denmark (Collinson et al 2009 a,b Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 155,1-14; and doi:10.1016/j.revpalbo.2009.12.001). To determine the geographic and temporal extent of this Azolla phenomenon, and the spatial distribution of the different species, we have examined samples from 15 additional sites using material from ODP cores and commercial exploration wells. The sites range from the Sub-Arctic (Northern Alaska and Canadian Beaufort Mackenzie Basin) to the Nordic Seas (Norwegian-Greenland Sea and North Sea Basin). Our data show that the Azolla phenomenon involved at least three species. These are distinguished by characters of the megaspore apparatus (e.g. megaspore wall, floats, filosum) and the microspore massulae (e.g. glochidia fluke tips). The Lomonosov Ridge (Arctic) and Danish occurrences are monotypic but in other sites more than one species co-existed. The attachment to one another and the co-occurrence of megaspore apparatus and microspore massulae, combined with evidence that these spores were shed at the fully mature stage of their life cycle, shows that the Azolla remains were not transported over long distances, a fact which could not be assumed from isolated massula fragments alone. Our evidence, therefore, shows that Azolla plants grew on the ocean surfaces for approximately 1.2 million years (from 49.3 to 48.1 Ma) and that the Azolla phenomenon covered the area from Denmark northwards across the North Sea Basin and the whole of the Arctic and Nordic seas. Apparently, early Middle Eocene Northern Hemisphere middle

  18. Climatic and floral change during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum in the Bighorn Basin (Invited) (United States)

    Wing, S. L.


    The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) is an interval of global warming lasting ~150 ka that occurred at the start of the Eocene, ~55.8 Ma. Globally, temperature rose 4-8 °C in association with carbon cycle changes attributed to the release of >5,000 Pg of C into the ocean-atmosphere system. Fossil plants from the PETM in the Bighorn Basin, northwestern Wyoming, show that latest Paleocene forests contained palms, deciduous taxodiaceous conifers, and a variety of deciduous and evergreen angiosperms, many belonging to lineages with north temperate distributions. Mean annual temperature (MAT) for the latest Paleocene inferred from leaf margin analysis is ~18 °C. Early and mid-PETM floras have a completely different composition. They lack conifers and broad-leaved deciduous taxa with north temperate distributions, and are dominated by palms, legumes, and other angiosperm taxa with living relatives in the dry tropical forests of Central and South America. Leaf margin analysis gives an MAT of ~23 °C. Floras of this type are known from a stratigraphic interval ~30 m thick that also produces geochemical and mammalian faunal indicators of the PETM. Floras from late PETM or earliest post-PETM time are composed largely of species that had been present in the latest Paleocene, with a few new species that are common in the early Eocene. The inferred MAT is ~18 °C. Leaf size data suggest that the PETM was drier than the immediately preceding and following times. Floral data from the Bighorn Basin indicate that the magnitude of temperature change in this mid-latitude continental interior was similar to that inferred for the surface ocean. Evidence for dryness or seasonal dryness during the PETM has been observed in sections in northern Spain as well as in Wyoming, raising the possibility of widespread water stress in the middle northern latitudes. Change in floral composition during the PETM is consistent with regional extinction in mid-latitude populations of plants

  19. Carbon isotope excursions in paleosol carbonate marking five early Eocene hyperthermals in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming

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    H. A. Abels


    Full Text Available Transient greenhouse warming events in the Paleocene and Eocene were associated with the addition of isotopically-light carbon to the exogenic atmosphere–ocean carbon pool, leading to substantial environmental and biotic change. The magnitude of an accompanying carbon isotope excursion (CIE can be used to constrain both the sources and amounts of carbon released during an event, as well as to correlate marine and terrestrial records with high precision. The Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM is well documented, but CIE records for the subsequent warming events are still rare especially from the terrestrial realm. Here, we provide new CIE records for two of the smaller hyperthermal events, I1 and I2, in paleosol carbonate, as well as two additional records of ETM2 and H2 in the Bighorn Basin. Stratigraphic comparison of this expanded, high-resolution terrestrial carbon isotope record to the deep-sea benthic foraminifera records from ODP Sites 1262 and 1263, Walvis Ridge, in the southern Atlantic Ocean corroborates that the Bighorn Basin fluvial sediments record global atmospheric change. The stratigraphic thicknesses of the eccentricity-driven hyperthermals in these archives are in line with precession-forcing of the 7 m thick fluvial overbank-avulsion sedimentary cycles. Using the CALMAG bulk oxide mean annual precipitation proxy, we reconstruct similar or slightly wetter than background soil moisture contents during the four younger hyperthermals, in contrast to drying observed during the PETM. Soil carbonate CIEs vary in magnitude proportionally with the marine CIEs for the four smaller early Eocene hyperthermals. This relationship breaks down for the PETM, with the soil carbonate CIE ~ 2–4‰ less than expected if all five linearly relate to marine CIEs. If the PETM CO2 forcing was similar but scaled to the younger hyperthermals, photosynthetic isotope fractionation or soil environmental factors are needed to explain this anomaly. We

  20. Terrestrial astronomical age model for Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 and H2 hyperthermal events (United States)

    Abels, Hemmo; Lourens, Lucas; Gingerich, Philip


    Knowledge of the duration and the rates of onset and recovery of early Paleogene hyperthermal events is crucial for understanding Earth's system response to massive input of greenhouse gases into the exogenic carbon pool. The second largest hyperthermal, Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 (ETM2), and its immediate successor H2 occur around 54 million years ago. Relative chronologies have been constructed for ETM2 and H2 in deep-sea records at Walvis Ridge in the southern Atlantic Ocean (Stap et al. 2009). Here, we construct an independent astronomical age model for these hyperthermals in terrestrial successions in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming (Abels et al. 2012). We first generated parallel carbon isotope records of the ETM2-H2 interval in the Creek Star Hill, West Branch, and Purple Butte sections located between 1 and 3 km of the previously analyzed Upper Deer Creek (UDC) section. The carbon isotope patterns in the three new sections mimic both in time and magnitude the ETM2-H2 carbon isotope patterns from the UDC section. This confirms the reproducibility of the carbon isotope time series in these floodplain successions. The four sections were subsequently correlated by lateral tracing of distinctive paleosol horizons representing time lines at the sub-precession time scale. The correlation was confirmed by overbank-avulsion sedimentation cycles coevally occurring in the four sections. The constructed stratigraphic fence panel allows disentangling local fluvial variability in sedimentation from the regional signal. Coeval overbank-avulsion cyclicity at the precession time scale (Abels et al. 2013) are then used to construct an astronomical age model for the ETM2-H2 hyperthermal events. References Abels, H.A., W.C. Clyde, P.D. Gingerich, F.J. Hilgen, H.C. Fricke, G.J. Bowen, L.J. Lourens, 2012. Terrestrial carbon isotope excursions and biotic change during Palaeogene hyperthermals. Nature Geoscience 5, 326-329. Abels, H.A., M.J. Kraus, P.D. Gingerich, 2013. Precession

  1. Palynological Response to Middle Eocene Climate Variability in the North Atlantic Ocean: IODP Expedition 342, Newfoundland Ridge, Offshore Canada (United States)

    Willard, D. A.


    Proxy records from Eocene hyperthermals provide evidence for rates and magnitudes of environmental changes associated with these events, as well as their impacts on terrestrial and marine ecosystems. The Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum (MECO) occurred ~40 Million years ago (Ma) and lasted ~500,000 years, and previous research has documented changes in marine and terrestrial biotas during and after this event. Cores collected in sediment drifts on Newfoundland Ridge off the coast of eastern Canada during IODP Expedition 342 recovered expanded sections of the middle Eocene, with sedimentation rates of 1-2 cm/kyr. We present results from pollen, palynofacies, and dinocyst analyses from Sites 1408 (41.438'N, 49.786'W, 3022 mwd), 1409 (41.296'N, 49.233'W, 3501 mwd), and 1410 (41.328'N, 49.170'W, 3387 mwd), spanning an interval that includes the MECO. Palynological assemblages are well preserved throughout the middle Eocene at Sites 1408 and 1410, whereas carbonate-rich samples from Site 1409 were completely barren of palynomorphs. Substantial variability in dinocyst species composition and diversity, pollen assemblages, and organic palynofacies were observed within the MECO event. Fluctuations in concentrations of opaque organic matter, insect fragments, and pollen and spores from terrestrial vegetation reflect changes in terrigenous influx, intensity of the hydrologic cycle, and source vegetation. Dinocyst assemblage shifts are correlated with changes in productivity, nutrient supply, and salinity. Integration of palynological data with other proxies will provide further insights into correlations between increased terrigenous input and eutrophication, leads and lags between terrestrial and marine responses to climate fluctuations, and environmental stability during the Middle Eocene.

  2. Formation conditions of paleovalley uranium deposits hosted in upper Eocene-lower Oligocene rocks of Bulgaria (United States)

    Vinokurov, S. F.; Strelkova, E. A.


    The uranium deposits of Bulgaria related to the Late Alpine tectonomagmatic reactivation are subdivided into two groups: exogenic-epigenetic paleovalley deposits related to the basins filled with upper Eocene-lower Oligocene volcanic-sedimentary rocks and the hydrothermal deposits hosted in the coeval depressions. The geological and lithofacies conditions of their localization, the epigenetic alteration of rocks, mineralogy and geochemistry of uranium ore are exemplified in thoroughly studied paleovalley deposits of the Maritsa ore district. Argumentation of the genetic concepts providing insights into both sedimentation-diagenetic and exogenic-epigenetic mineralization with development of stratal oxidation zones is discussed. A new exfiltration model has been proposed to explain the origin of the aforementioned deposits on the basis of additional analysis with consideration of archival factual data and possible causes of specific ningyoite uranium ore composition.

  3. Groundwater pollution risk mapping for the Eocene aquifer of the Oum Er-Rabia basin, Morocco (United States)

    Ettazarini, Said


    Sustainable development requires the management and preservation of water resources indispensable for all human activities. When groundwater constitutes the main water resource, vulnerability maps therefore are an important tool for identifying zones of high pollution risk and taking preventive measures in potential pollution sites. The vulnerability assessment for the Eocene aquifer in the Moroccan basin of Oum Er-Rabia is based on the DRASTIC method that uses seven parameters summarizing climatic, geological, and hydrogeological conditions controlling the seepage of pollutant substances to groundwater. Vulnerability maps were produced by using GIS techniques and applying the “generic” and “agricultural” models according to the DRASTIC charter. Resulting maps revealed that the aquifer is highly vulnerable in the western part of the basin and areas being under high contamination risk are more extensive when the “agricultural” model was applied.

  4. Spicules of Litistidic sponges from the upper Eocene Verhivtsevska depression (Miiddle Dniprean

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    Ivanova T.A.


    Full Text Available For the first time a taxonomic composition of lithistid sponges which are lived in the Late Eocene basin of Verchovtzev depression Ukrainian Shield is supposed by the spicules morphological analysis. There are sponges of ten geneses and seven families presented in paleocoenosis, but families Theonellidae (geneses Lerouxia, Rhagadinia andPlinthosellidae (genusPlinthosella are dominated. Threenewmorphospeciesof spicules aredescribed: Phyllotriaenapartita T.A.Ivanova morphosp.n., Ph. araneola T.A.Ivanova, morphosp.n., Tetracrepides semiornatus T.A.Ivanova, morphosp.n. Their stratigraphical meaning is determined. These spicules are characteristic for the Obuchovian Suite and would be used as the paleontological criterion of the Obuchovian Suite determination in geological sections of the Middle Dnieper region.

  5. Early Eocene fossils suggest that the mammalian order Perissodactyla originated in India. (United States)

    Rose, Kenneth D; Holbrook, Luke T; Rana, Rajendra S; Kumar, Kishor; Jones, Katrina E; Ahrens, Heather E; Missiaen, Pieter; Sahni, Ashok; Smith, Thierry


    Cambaytheres (Cambaytherium, Nakusia and Kalitherium) are recently discovered early Eocene placental mammals from the Indo-Pakistan region. They have been assigned to either Perissodactyla (the clade including horses, tapirs and rhinos, which is a member of the superorder Laurasiatheria) or Anthracobunidae, an obscure family that has been variously considered artiodactyls or perissodactyls, but most recently placed at the base of Proboscidea or of Tethytheria (Proboscidea+Sirenia, superorder Afrotheria). Here we report new dental, cranial and postcranial fossils of Cambaytherium, from the Cambay Shale Formation, Gujarat, India (~54.5 Myr). These fossils demonstrate that cambaytheres occupy a pivotal position as the sister taxon of Perissodactyla, thereby providing insight on the phylogenetic and biogeographic origin of Perissodactyla. The presence of the sister group of perissodactyls in western India near or before the time of collision suggests that Perissodactyla may have originated on the Indian Plate during its final drift toward Asia. PMID:25410701

  6. Palaeoenvironment of Eocene prodelta in Spitsbergen recorded by the trace fossil Phycosiphon incertum

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    Francisco Javier Rodríguez-Tovar


    Full Text Available Ichnological, sedimentological and geochemical analyses were conducted on the Eocene Frysjaodden Formation in order to interpret palaeoenvironment prodelta sediments in the Central Basin of Spitsbergen. Phycosiphon incertum is the exclusive ichnotaxon showing differences in size, distribution, abundance and density, and relation to laminated/bioturbated intervals. Large P. incertum mainly occur dispersed, isolated and randomly distributed throughout the weakly laminated/non-laminated intervals. Small P. incertum occur occasionally in patches of several burrows within laminated intervals or as densely packed burrows in thin horizons in laminated intervals or constituting fully bioturbated intervals that are several centimetres thick. Ichnological changes are mainly controlled by oxygenation, although the availability of benthic food cannot be discarded. Changes in oxygenation and rate of sedimentation can be correlated with the registered variations in the Bouma sequence of the distal turbiditic beds within prodeltal shelf sediments.

  7. Earth Pressure at rest of Søvind Marl – a highly overconsolidated Eocene clay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbech, Gitte Lyng; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl


    with a constant rate of strain were conducted on Søvind Marl in the Danish Continuous Loading Oedometer Apparatus, which enables test water to be applied at 200 kPa, and measures the horizontal stresses via pressure gauges placed in a stiff oedometer ring. The horizontal and vertical stresses were measured from......The present study evaluated earth pressure at rest, K0, in highly overconsolidated Eocene clay called Søvind Marl, which exhibits extremely high plasticity indices of up to 300%, a highly fissured structure, and preconsolidation stresses up to 6,800 kPa. Continuous Loading Oedometer (CLO) tests...... in situ stresses to various stress levels to estimate continuous K0 development in this highly overconsolidated clay. The normally consolidated earth pressure at rest was found for two different sample ages of Søvind Marl to be between 0.42 and 0.68. Results indicated the overconsolidated K0 reached...

  8. Isotopic compositions and probable origins of organic molecules in the Eocene Messel shale (United States)

    Hayes, J. M.; Takigiku, Ray; Ocampo, Ruben; Callot, Enry J.; Albrecht, Pierre


    It is shown here that the carbon isotopic compositions of biomarkers from the Eocene Messel shale, accumulated 47 + or - 2 million years ago in anaerobic waters at the bottom of a lake, allow identification of specific sources for some materials and reconstruction of carbon flows within the lake and its sediments. The C-13 content of organic matter synthesized by lacustrine primary producers can be estimated from the observed C-13 content of the geoporphyrins derived from their chlorophylls. Total organic material in the shale is depleted in C-13 by six parts per thousand relative to that input. This difference cannot be explained by selective loss of components enriched in C-13, nor, as shown by isotopic compositions of other biomarkers, by inputs from land plants surrounding the lake or from methanogenic bacteria.

  9. Dinocyst taphonomy, impact craters, cyst ghosts, and the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM) (United States)

    Edwards, Lucy E.


    Dinocysts recovered from sediments related to the Chesapeake Bay impact structure in Virginia and the earliest Eocene suboxic environment in Maryland show strange and intriguing details of preservation. Features such as curled processes, opaque debris, breakage, microborings and cyst ghosts, among others, invite speculation about catastrophic depositional processes, rapid burial and biological and chemical decay. Selected specimens from seven cores taken in the coastal plain of Virginia and Maryland show abnormal preservation features in various combinations that merit illustration, description, discussion and further study. Although the depositional environments described are extreme, many of the features discussed are known from, or could be found in, other environments. These environments will show both similarities to and differences from the extreme environments here.

  10. Environmental forcing of terrestrial carbon isotope excursion amplification across five Eocene hyperthermals (United States)

    Bowen, G. J.; Abels, H.


    Abrupt changes in the isotope composition of exogenic carbon pools accompany many major episodes of global change in the geologic record. The global expression of this change in substrates that reflect multiple carbon pools provides important evidence that many events reflect persistent, global redistribution of carbon between reduced and oxidized stocks. As the diversity of records documenting any event grows, however, discrepancies in the expression of carbon isotope change among substrates are almost always revealed. These differences in magnitude, pace, and pattern of change can complicate interpretations of global carbon redistribution, but under ideal circumstances can also provide additional information on changes in specific environmental and biogeochemical systems that accompanied the global events. Here we evaluate possible environmental influences on new terrestrial records of the negative carbon isotope excursions (CIEs) associated with multiple hyperthermals of the Early Eocene, which show a common pattern of amplified carbon isotope change in terrestrial paleosol carbonate records relative to that recorded in marine substrates. Scaling relationships between climate and carbon-cycle proxies suggest that that the climatic (temperature) impact of each event scaled proportionally with the magnitude of its marine CIE, likely implying that all events involved release of reduced carbon with a similar isotopic composition. Amplification of the terrestrial CIEs, however, does not scale with event magnitude, being proportionally less for the first, largest event (the PETM). We conduct a sensitivity test of a coupled plant-soil carbon isotope model to identify conditions that could account for the observed CIE scaling. At least two possibilities consistent with independent lines of evidence emerge: first, varying effects of pCO2 change on photosynthetic carbon isotope discrimination under changing background pCO2, and second, contrasting changes in regional

  11. Biomarker Constraints on Arctic Surface Water Conditions During the Middle Eocene (United States)

    Speelman, E. N.; Reichart, G.; Brinkhuis, H.; Sinninghe Damste, J. S.; de Leeuw, J. M.; van Kempen, M.


    Through analyses of unique microlaminated sediments of Arctic drill cores, recovered from the Lomonosov Ridge in the central Arctic Ocean during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 302, it has been shown that enormous quantities of the free floating freshwater fern \\textit {Azolla} grew and reproduced in situ in the Arctic Ocean during the middle Eocene (Brinkhuis et al., Nature, 2006).The presence of the freshwater fern Azolla, both within the Arctic Basin and in all Nordic seas, suggests that at least the sea surface waters were frequently dominated by fresh- to brackish water during an interval of at least 800 kyr. However, to which degree the Arctic Basin became fresh and what the consequences of these enormous Azolla blooms were for regional and global nutrient cycles is still largely unknown. Comparing samples of extant Azolla, including its nitrogen fixing symbionts, with samples from the Arctic Azolla interval revealed the presence of a group of highly specific biomarkers. These biomarkers are closely related to similar organic compounds that have been suggested to play a crucial role in the biogeochemistry of nitrogen fixing bacteria. This finding, therefore, potentially implies that this symbioses dates back to at least the middle Eocene. Furthermore, this particular symbiosis was probably crucial in triggering basin wide Azolla blooms. We now aim to measure compound specific stable hydrogen isotope values of these biomarkers which should provide insight into the degree of mixing between high salinity (isotopically heavy) deeper and low salinity surface water (isotopically light). The results of these compound specific isotope analyses will be extrapolated using calibrations from controlled growth experiments and subsequently evaluated using climate modeling experiments.

  12. Southern ocean warming, sea level and hydrological change during the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum

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    A. Sluijs


    Full Text Available A brief (~150 kyr period of widespread global average surface warming marks the transition between the Paleocene and Eocene epochs, ~56 million years ago. This so-called "Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum" (PETM is associated with the massive injection of 13C-depleted carbon, reflected in a negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE. Biotic responses include a global abundance peak (acme of the subtropical dinoflagellate Apectodinium. Here we identify the PETM in a marine sedimentary sequence deposited on the East Tasman Plateau at Ocean Drilling Program (ODP Site 1172 and show, based on the organic paleothermometer TEX86, that southwest Pacific sea surface temperatures increased from ~26 °C to ~33°C during the PETM. Such temperatures before, during and after the PETM are >10 °C warmer than predicted by paleoclimate model simulations for this latitude. In part, this discrepancy may be explained by potential seasonal biases in the TEX86 proxy in polar oceans. Additionally, the data suggest that not only Arctic, but also Antarctic temperatures may be underestimated in simulations of ancient greenhouse climates by current generation fully coupled climate models. An early influx of abundant Apectodinium confirms that environmental change preceded the CIE on a global scale. Organic dinoflagellate cyst assemblages suggest a local decrease in the amount of river run off reaching the core site during the PETM, possibly in concert with eustatic rise. Moreover, the assemblages suggest changes in seasonality of the regional hydrological system and storm activity. Finally, significant variation in dinoflagellate cyst assemblages during the PETM indicates that southwest Pacific climates varied significantly over time scales of 103 – 104 years during this event, a finding comparable to similar studies of PETM successions from the New Jersey Shelf.

  13. Eocene Kashmar granitoids (NE Iran): Petrogenetic constraints from U-Pb zircon geochronology and isotope geochemistry (United States)

    Shafaii Moghadam, Hadi; Li, Xian-Hua; Ling, Xiao-Xiao; Santos, Jose F.; Stern, Robert J.; Li, Qiu-Li; Ghorbani, Ghasem


    Kashmar granitoids outcrop for ~ 100 km along the south flank of the Sabzevar ophiolite (NE Iran) and consist of granodiorite and monzogranite along with subordinate quartz monzonite, syenogranite and aplitic dikes. These granitoids intruded Early to Middle Eocene high-K volcanic rocks and can spatially be grouped into eastern and western granitoids. Five samples of granite have identical zircon U-Pb ages of ca. 40-41 Ma. The granitoids have quite high K2O (~ 1.3-5.3 wt.%) and Na2O (~ 1.1-4.6 wt.%) with SiO2 ranging between ~ 62 and 77 wt.%. They are metaluminous to peraluminous, calc-alkaline and I-type in composition. Their chondrite-normalized REE patterns are characterized by LREE enrichment and show slight negative Eu anomalies. Kashmar granitoids have low whole rock εNd (- 0.43 to - 2.3), zircon εHf values (- 1.9 to + 7.2), and somewhat elevated δ18O (+ 6.1 to + 8.7‰) in the range of I-type granites. The Kashmar granitoids show Early Neoproterozoic zircon second-stage Hf and bulk rock Nd model ages at ca. 500-1000 Ma (associated with ca. 640 Ma old inherited zircons). Bulk rock Nd-Sr isotopic modeling suggests that 10-20% assimilation of Cadomian lower crust by juvenile mantle melts and then fractional crystallization (AFC process) can explain the Sr-Nd isotopic compositions of Kashmar granitoids. Kashmar granitoids are products of crustal assimilation by mantle melts associated with extension above the subducting Neotethyan Ocean slab beneath SW Eurasia. Similar subduction-related extension was responsible for the flare-up of Eocene-Oligocene magmatism across Iran, associated with core complex formation in central Iran.

  14. Preliminary study of uranium favorability of the Wilcox and Claiborne Groups (Eocene) in Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilbert, W.P.; Templain, C.J.


    Rocks of the Wilcox and Claiborne Groups crop out in the Texas Gulf Coastal Plain and are represented by a series of sands and shales which reflect oscillation of the strandline. The Wilcox Group (lower Eocene), usually undifferentiated in Texas, consists of very fine sands and clays and abundant lignite. The Claiborne Group (middle Eocene) comprises, in ascending order, Carrizo Sand, Reklaw Formation (clay), Queen City Sand, Weches Formation (clay), Sparta Sand, Cook Mountain Formation (clay), and Yegua Formation (sand). Fluvial systems of the Wilcox and Claiborne Groups exist in east Texas and trend perpendicular to the present coastline. In central Texas, sand bodies are parallel to the present coastline and are strand-plain, barrier-bar systems. Since the time of deposition of the Queen City Sand, a significant fluvial sand buildup occurred in the area of the present Rio Grande embayment where the marine clays pinch out. Known occurrences of mineral matter in the Wilcox and Claiborne (up to the Yegua) are limited to lignite (particularly in the Wilcox), cannel coal in the upper Claiborne, and hydrocarbons throughout. No uranium mineralization is known, and no uranium is likely to be discovered in the Claiborne and Wilcox. Approximately 50 surface samples and many gamma-ray logs showed no significant anomalies. The sands are very good potential host rocks, but no uranium source was discovered. During deposition of the Wilcox and Claiborne Groups, there was no volcanism to serve as a source of uranium (as with the prolific occurrences in the younger rocks of south Texas); also, Precambrian crystalline rocks in the Llano uplift were not exposed.

  15. The Jianchuan Basin, Yunnan: Implications on the Evolution of SE Tibet During the Eocene (United States)

    Gourbet, L.; Mahéo, G.; Leloup, P. H.; Jean-Louis, P.; Sorrel, P.; Eymard, I.; Antoine, P. O.; Sterb, M.; Wang, G.; Cao, K.; Chevalier, M. L.; Lu, H.


    The Jianchuan basin, Yunnan Province, China, is the widest continental Cenozoic sedimentary basin in the southeastern Tibetan plateau. It is located ~10 km east of the Red River fault zone. Climatic simulations and palaeoenvironment studies suggest that SE Asia has experienced a variable intensity monsoon system for 40 Ma. Because sediments can record deformation, climate and environment changes, the Jianchuan basin provides the opportunity to assess the relative role of climate and tectonics on the Tibetan plateau formation. Sediments consist of floodplain siltites, massive fluvial sandstone, few carbonate levels, coal and volcanosedimentary deposits. U/Pb dating of zircons from dykes, volcanodetrital deposits and lava flows respectively cutting and interbedded within the sediments was performed by in-situ LA-ICPMS. All ages range from 38 to 35 Ma. Such absolute dating is confirmed by palaeontological evidence. Dental remains of Zaisanamynodonwere found in coal deposits. This giant Rhino lived in Asia during the Ergilian (late Eocene). Our data allow us to propose a revised stratigraphy for the Jianchuan basin: contrary to what was suggested by previous studies, i.e. a continuous sedimentation from the Paleocene to the Miocene, nearly no sedimentation occurred after 34 Ma. Combined with a sedimentological analysis, the data indicate that during the late Eocene, the Jianchuan area was covered by a large (>15 km) braided river system that coexisted with local transient lakes, in a moderate-slope and semi-arid environment. This major sedimentation event was followed by a period of more humid conditions that may be related to an intensification of the monsoon. The end of the sedimentation seems to be contemporaneous with the Ailao Shan-Red River fault activation. The new stratigraphy has also implications for regional studies that need robust age constraints, for example for reconstructing palaeoelevation or provenance of sediments.

  16. Tectono-climatic implications of Eocene Paratethys regression in the Tajik basin of central Asia (United States)

    Carrapa, Barbara; DeCelles, Peter G.; Wang, Xin; Clementz, Mark T.; Mancin, Nicoletta; Stoica, Marius; Kraatz, Brian; Meng, Jin; Abdulov, Sherzod; Chen, Fahu


    Plate tectonics and eustatic sea-level changes have fundamental effects on paleoenvironmental conditions and bio-ecological changes. The Paratethys Sea was a large marine seaway that connected the Mediterranean Neotethys Ocean with Central Asia during early Cenozoic time. Withdrawal of the Paratethys from central Asia impacted the distribution and composition of terrestrial faunas in the region and has been largely associated with changes in global sea level and climate such as cooling associated with the Eocene/Oligocene transition (EOT). Whereas the regression has been dated in the Tarim basin (China), the pattern and timing of regression in the Tajik basin, 400 km to the west, remain unresolved, precluding a test of current paleogeographic models. Here we date the Paratethys regression in Tajikistan at ca. 39 million years ago (Ma), which is several million years older than the EOT (at ca. 34 Ma) marking the greenhouse to icehouse climate transition of the Cenozoic. Our data also show a restricted, evaporitic marine environment since the middle-late Eocene and establishment of desert like environments after ca. 39 Ma. The overall stratigraphic record from the Tajik basin and southern Tien Shan points to deposition in a foreland basin setting by ca. 40 Ma in response to active tectonic growth of the Pamir-Tibet Mountains at the same time. Combined with the northwestward younging trend of the regression in the region, the Tajik basin record is consistent with northward growth of the Pamir and suggests significant tectonic control on Paratethys regression and paleoenvironmental changes in Central Asia.

  17. Basalt of Summit Creek: Eocene Magmatism Associated with Farallon Slab Break Off (United States)

    Kant, L. B.; Tepper, J. H.; Eddy, M. P.


    In the Pacific Northwest the Early-Middle Eocene was a time of widespread magmatism and tectonic reorganization that included accretion of the Siletzia terrane, Challis volcanism, and establishment of the modern Cascade arc. Although individual events are well documented our knowledge of the underlying tectonic framework is incomplete. To better understand the tectonic changes that occurred during this interval we studied the ~48 Ma Basalt of Summit Creek (BSC), a 1500m section of lavas located south of Mt. Rainier that erupted during the critical time period between the docking of Siletzia and the initiation of the modern Cascade arc. The BSC consists mainly of tholeiitic basalts (wt. % SiO2 = 45.54-63.45, Mg# = 0.68-0.30) with EMORB traits (La/YbN = 1.2-5.9; 206Pb/204Pb = 19.005-19.102; 207Pb/204Pb = 15.538-15.593; 208Pb/204Pb = 38.560-38.714). These lavas lack arc signatures (e.g., HFSE depletions) but overlap in elemental and isotopic composition with oceanic basalts of the Crescent Formation (part of Siletzia) located ~100 km to the west. We suggest that emplacement of lavas that lack arc traits in what was the forearc was a response to break off of the Farallon slab, which occurred as a result of the accretion of Siletzia at ~49 Ma (Wells et al., 2014). Break off opened a gap in the subducted slab, allowing upwelling and subsequent decompression melting. BSC lavas are consistent in age, location and composition with this model. After break off subduction resumed outboard of Siletzia, initiating the Cascade arc. Thus, BSC provides evidence of Farallon slab break off and furthers our understanding of the tectonic transition from widespread magmatism of the Early-Middle Eocene to the Cascade arc.

  18. Taphonomy of the fossil insects of the middle Eocene Kishenehn Formation

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    Dale E. Greenwalt


    Full Text Available The lacustrine oil shales of the Coal Creek Member of the Kishenehn Formation in northwestern Montana comprise a relatively unstudied middle Eocene fossil insect locality. Herein, we detail the stratigraphic position of the fossiliferous unit, describe the insect fauna of the Coal Creek locality and document its bias towards very small but remarkably pre-served insects. In addition, the depositional environment is examined and the mineral constituents of the laminations that comprise the varves of the Kishenehn oil shale are defined. Fifteen orders of insects have been recorded with the majority of all insects identified as aquatic with the families Chironomidae (Diptera and Corixidae (Hemiptera dominant. The presence of small aquatic insects, many of which are immature, the intact nature of >90% of the fossil insects and the presence of Daphnia ephippia, all indicate that the depositional environment was the shallow margin of a large freshwater lake. The fossil insects occur within fossilized microbial mat layers that comprise the bedding planes of the oil shale. Unlike the fossiliferous shales of the Florissant and Okanagan Highlands, the mats are not a product of diatomaceous algae nor are diatom frustules a component of the sediments or the varve structure. Instead, the varves are composed of very fine eolian siliciclastic silt grains overlaid with non-diatomaceous, possibly cyanobacteria-derived microbial mats which contain distinct traces of polyaromatic hydrocarbons. A distinct third layer composed of essentially pure calcite is present in the shale of some exposures and is presumably derived from the seasonal warming-induced precipitation of carbonate from the lake’s waters. The Coal Creek locality presents a unique opportunity to study both very small middle Eocene insects not often preserved as compression fossils in most Konservat-Lagerstätte and the processes that led to their preservation.

  19. Geochemical and geological control on filling history of Eocene reservoirs, Maracaibo Basin, Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberdi, M.; Maguregui, J.; Toro, C.; Marquina, M. [Intevep S.A., Caracas (Venezuela)


    Crude oils of Eocene fluvio-deltaic reservoirs in {open_quotes}Bloque V{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}Centro Lago{close_quotes} fields in the center of the Maracaibo Lake show many differences in composition, which are due to stratigraphically and structurally controlled reservoir geometry and a low rate of in-reservoir mixing of at least two successive petroleum charges. Oils produced from the top of structural highs contain 18(H) oleanane, higher Pr/Ph and C{sub 23-3}/C{sub 24-4} ratios, a lower proportion of DBT/P compounds, and clearly different fingerprint patterns in the C{sub 6}-C{sub 15} range, than those observed in oils produced from the lower parts of the structures. These compositional differences suggest that two source rocks, or two distinctive organic facies within the same Cretaceous La Luna Formation, generated and filled vertically poorly connected Eocene reservoirs. On the other hand, saturate-biomarkers ratios, triaromatics (C{sub 21}/C{sub 21}+C{sub 28}), n-paraffins (n-C{sub 20}/n-C{sub 29}) and n-heptane index suggest that oils in upper reservoirs are slightly less mature than oils in lower reservoirs and, consequently filled the structure first. Additional evidence from formation water analysis and tectonic basin evolution allow us to interpret at least two petroleum pulses from Cretaceous source rocks during Upper Miocene to present day kitchens located in the Andes foredeep at the southeast of the study area.

  20. Eocene age of the Baranowski Glacier Group at Red Hill, King George Island, West Antarctica

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    Mozer Anna


    Full Text Available Radiometric and geochemical studies were carried out at Red Hill in the southern part of King George Island (South Shetland Islands, northern Antarctic Peninsula on the Bransfield Strait coast. The rock succession at Red Hill has been determined to represent the Baranowski Glacier Group that was previously assigned a Late Cretaceous age. Two formations were distinguished within this succession: the lower Llano Point Formation and the upper Zamek Formation. These formations have stratotypes defined further to the north on the western coast of Admiralty Bay. On Red Hill the Llano Point Formation consists of terrestrial lavas and pyroclastic breccia; the Zamek Formation consist predominantly of fine to coarse tuff, pyroclastic breccia, lavas, tuffaceous mud-, silt-, and sandstone, locally conglomeratic. The lower part of the Zamek Formation contains plant detritus (Nothofagus, dicotyledonous, thermophilous ferns and numerous coal seams (vitrinitic composition that confirm the abundance of vegetation on stratovolcanic slopes and surrounding lowlands at that time. Selected basic to intermediate igneous rocks from the succession have been analysed for the whole-rock K-Ar age determination. The obtained results indicate that the Red Hill succession was formed in two stages: (1 from about 51–50 Ma; and (2 46–42 Ma, i.e. during the Early to Middle Eocene. This, in combination with other data obtained from other Baranowski Glacier Group exposures on western coast of Admiralty Bay, confirms the recently defined position of the volcano-clastic succession in the stratigraphic scheme of King George Island. The new stratigraphic position and lithofacies development of the Red Hill succession strongly suggest its correlation with other Eocene formations containing fossil plants and coal seams that commonly occur on King George Island.

  1. Decreased Temperate but not Polar Fish Productivity Across the Eocene-Oligocene Transition: Insights from Ichthyoliths (United States)

    Zill, M.; Sibert, E. C.; Norris, R. D.


    The Eocene-Oligocene Transition (EOT, 38-28 Ma) was a period of global cooling and increased nutrient delivery to the ocean. It is associated with the onset of permanent ice sheet on Antarctica, and the beginning of a highly productive polar ecosystem, dominated by diatoms and favoring short, efficient food chains. In a highly efficient, large phytoplankton-dominated ecosystem, we would expect to see higher abundances of consumers, as fewer trophic steps means more carbon available to upper trophic level groups. Here we use the accumulation rate of ichthyoliths (fish teeth and dermal scales) to measure the relative export production of fish through this time period of changing climate. Records from the South Atlantic gyre (DSDP Site 522) the South Pacific Gyre (DSDP Site 596) and the Southern Ocean (DSDP Site 689) show a 50% reduction in ichthyolith accumulation rate in the vicinity the Eocene Oligocene boundary. However, this drop in fish production occurs just after the E/O in the Atlantic, 4 million years before the E/O in the Pacific and 6 million years prior to the E/O in the Southern Ocean. Since the EOT is generally associated with an increase in productivity and diatom blooms in the Southern Ocean and tropical Pacific, we would expect that the abundance of fish would increase across the transition. Our results are surprisingly the inverse of this expectation, and suggest that the transition from greenhouse to icehouse did not produce increase in forage fish or even a response of any kind during the climatological transition into the icehouse world. Indeed, it seems that ichthyolith accumulation rate and primary productivity are not perfectly linked, and it may be that ichthyolith accumulation is responding more to another factor, such as ocean temperature or prey availability that is not linked to the increased diatom production during the EOT.

  2. Stable isotope and calcareous nannofossil assemblage records for the Cicogna section: toward a detailed template of late Paleocene and early Eocene global carbon cycle and nannoplankton evolution

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    C. Agnini


    Full Text Available We present records of stable carbon and oxygen isotopes, CaCO3 content, and changes in calcareous nannofossil assemblages across an 81 m thick section of upper Paleocene-lower Eocene marine sedimentary rocks now exposed along Cicogna Stream in northeast Italy. The studied stratigraphic section represents sediment accumulation in a bathyal hemipelagic setting from approximately 57.5 to 52.2 Ma, a multi-million-year time interval characterized by perturbations in the global carbon cycle and changes in calcareous nannofossil assemblages. The bulk carbonate δ13C profile for the Cicogna section, once placed on a common time scale, resembles that at several other locations across the world, and includes both a long-term drop in δ13C, and multiple short-term carbon isotope excursions (CIEs. This precise correlation of widely separated δ13C records in marine sequences results from temporal changes in the carbon composition of the exogenic carbon cycle. However, diagenesis has likely modified the δ13C record at Cicogna, an interpretation supported by variations in bulk carbonate δ18O, which do not conform to expectations for a primary signal. The record of CaCO3 content reflects a combination of carbonate dilution and dissolution, as also inferred at other sites. Our detailed documentation and statistical analysis of calcareous nannofossil assemblages show major differences before, during and after the Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum. Other CIEs in our lower Paleogene section do not exhibit such a distinctive change; instead, these events are sometimes characterized by variations restricted to a limited number of taxa and transient shifts in the relative abundance of primary assemblage components. Both long-lasting and short-lived modifications to calcareous nannofossil assemblages preferentially affected nannoliths or holococcoliths such as Discoaster, Fasciculithus, Rhomboaster/Tribrachiatus, Spenolithus and Zygrhablithus, which underwent

  3. Stable isotope and calcareous nannofossil assemblage records for the Cicogna section: toward a detailed template of late Paleocene and early Eocene global carbon cycle and nannoplankton evolution (United States)

    Agnini, C.; Spofforth, D. J. A.; Dickens, G. R.; Rio, D.; Pälike, H.; Backman, J.; Muttoni, G.; Dallanave, E.


    We present records of stable carbon and oxygen isotopes, CaCO3 content, and changes in calcareous nannofossil assemblages across an 81 m thick section of upper Paleocene-lower Eocene marine sedimentary rocks now exposed along Cicogna Stream in northeast Italy. The studied stratigraphic section represents sediment accumulation in a bathyal hemipelagic setting from approximately 57.5 to 52.2 Ma, a multi-million-year time interval characterized by perturbations in the global carbon cycle and changes in calcareous nannofossil assemblages. The bulk carbonate δ13C profile for the Cicogna section, once placed on a common time scale, resembles that at several other locations across the world, and includes both a long-term drop in δ13C, and multiple short-term carbon isotope excursions (CIEs). This precise correlation of widely separated δ13C records in marine sequences results from temporal changes in the carbon composition of the exogenic carbon cycle. However, diagenesis has likely modified the δ13C record at Cicogna, an interpretation supported by variations in bulk carbonate δ18O, which do not conform to expectations for a primary signal. The record of CaCO3 content reflects a combination of carbonate dilution and dissolution, as also inferred at other sites. Our detailed documentation and statistical analysis of calcareous nannofossil assemblages show major differences before, during and after the Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum. Other CIEs in our lower Paleogene section do not exhibit such a distinctive change; instead, these events are sometimes characterized by variations restricted to a limited number of taxa and transient shifts in the relative abundance of primary assemblage components. Both long-lasting and short-lived modifications to calcareous nannofossil assemblages preferentially affected nannoliths or holococcoliths such as Discoaster, Fasciculithus, Rhomboaster/Tribrachiatus, Spenolithus and Zygrhablithus, which underwent distinct variations in

  4. Tectonic accretion and underplating of mafic terranes in the Late Eocene intraoceanic fore-arc of New Caledonia (Southwest Pacific): geodynamic implications


    Cluzel, Dominique; Aitchison, Jonathan C.; Picard, Christian


    This paper deals with the tectonic events that result in the accretion of mafic terranes in the fore-arc region and a close juxtaposition of ultramafic rocks, low grade and high-grade mafic terranes in many collisional orogens. The example is taken from New Caledonia where tectonic accretion, subduction, underplating and obduction of mafic terranes took place during the late Eocene in an intra-oceanic forearc setting. The late Eocene tectonic complex comprised three major terranes: an overlyi...

  5. Porosity and sonic velocity depth trends of Eocene chalk in Atlantic Ocean: Influence of effective stress and temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awedalkarim, Ahmed; Fabricius, Ida Lykke


    . This indicates pore-filling cementation via an activation energy mechanism. We proposed a predictive equation for porosity reduction with burial stress. This equation is relevant for basin analysis and hydrocarbon exploration to predict porosity if sonic velocity data for subsurface chalk is available.......We aimed to relate changes in porosity and sonic velocity data, measured on water-saturated Eocene chalks from 36 Ocean Drilling Program drill sites in the Atlantic Ocean, to vertical effective stress and thermal maturity. We considered only chalk of Eocene age to avoid possible influence...... of geological age on chalk compaction trends. For each depth, vertical effective stresses as defined by Terzaghi and by Biot were calculated. We used bottom-hole temperature data to calculate the time–temperature index of thermal maturity (TTI) as defined by Lopatin. Porosity and compressional wave velocity...

  6. Metre-scale cyclicity in Middle Eocene platform carbonates in northern Egypt: Implications for facies development and sequence stratigraphy (United States)

    Tawfik, Mohamed; El-Sorogy, Abdelbaset; Moussa, Mahmoud


    The shallow-water carbonates of the Middle Eocene in northern Egypt represent a Tethyan reef-rimmed carbonate platform with bedded inner-platform facies. Based on extensive micro- and biofacies documentation, five lithofacies associations were defined and their respective depositional environments were interpreted. Investigated sections were subdivided into three third-order sequences, named S1, S2 and S3. Sequence S1 is interpreted to correspond to the Lutetian, S2 corresponds to the Late Lutetian and Early Bartonian, and S3 represents the Late Bartonian. Each of the three sequences was further subdivided into fourth-order cycle sets and fifth-order cycles. The complete hierarchy of cycles can be correlated along 190 km across the study area, and highlighting a general "layer-cake" stratigraphic architecture. The documentation of the studied outcrops may contribute to the better regional understanding of the Middle Eocene formations in northern Egypt and to Tethyan pericratonic carbonate models in general.

  7. Evidence for Tibetan Plateau Uplift in Qaidam Basin before Eocene-Oligocene Boundary and Its Climatic Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei Junling; Sun Zhiming; Wang Xisheng; Zhao Yue; Ge Xiaohong; Guo Xinzhuan; Li Haibing; Si Jialiang


    Geometry analysis of the Hongsanhan (红三旱) Section in the northwestern Qaidam basin illustrates the typical growth strata in the Xiaganchaigou (下干柴沟) Formation. The age and sedimentation rates of the Xiaganchaigou and the Shangganchaigou (上干柴沟) formations were determined by the high-resolution magnetostratigraphy. This result shows that the growth strata began to form at ca. 38.0 Ma and increased sedimentation rates occurred at ca. 37.0 Ma. The uplift of the Tibetan plateau before the Eocene-Oligocene boundary is confirmed, which enables us to better understand the relationship between climatic changes and the tectonic uplift. This uplift event could have resuited in the regional drying by blocking the moisture and contributed to the Eocene-Oligocene boundary global cooling event due to the declining atmospheric CO2 concentrations by increased weathering of the mountains.

  8. Did the continent and sea have different temperatures in the northern Antarctic Peninsula during the Middle Eocene?

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    A.L. Cione


    Full Text Available The Seymour Island beds include a remarkable representation of the continental flora and fauna and marine fauna of Eocene in southern high latitudes. We suggest that, at least during the deposition of the best sampled unit, the Cucullaea I Allomember of the La Meseta Alloformation in the Seymour Island area, a cold temperate terrestrial environment co-existed with relatively warmer temperatures in the adjacent shallow shelf sea. This is suggested by the fish and invertebrate fauna and could have been due to the presence of warmer waters of a current reaching the region from the north. The temperature drop proposed for the time of deposition of the uppermost part of the La Meseta Formation (Submeseta Allomember appears to correspond to the global drop of the end of the Eocene and beginning of Oligocene and not to the establishment of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current.

  9. Basin Evolution of the Cretaceous-Early Eocene Xigaze Forearc, Southern Tibet (United States)

    Orme, D. A.; Carrapa, B.; Kapp, P. A.; Gehrels, G. E.; Reiners, P. W.


    An understanding of the processes which control the evolution of forearc basins is important for deciphering the tectonic development of a convergent margin prior to continent-continent suturing. This study presents sedimentologic, modal petrographic and geo-thermochronologic data from the Xigaze forearc basin, preserved along ~ 600 km of the Indus-Yarlung Suture Zone in southern Tibet. From late Cretaceous to early Cenozoic time, subduction of Neo-Tethyan oceanic crust beneath the southern margin of Asia accommodated the northward motion of the Indian craton and formed the Xigaze forearc basin. Following collision with India in the early Cenozoic, the basin transitioned from predominantly marine to non-marine sedimentation and was subsequently uplifted to a mean elevation of 5000 m. Thus, the sedimentary record in the Xigaze forearc preserves information regarding the tectonic evolution of the Indo-Asia continental margin prior to and following collision. We present new measured sections and geo-thermochronologic data from Early Cretaceous to Early Eocene clastic and carbonate sedimentary rocks, preserved in two previously unexplored regions of the forearc, (1) at its western most extent, northwest of Saga, and (2) north of Lhatse. In turn, we compare our results with previously published data in order to synthesize our current understanding of forearc evolution. Strata preserved in the Lhaste region record an initial shallow marine phase of forearc sedimentation (Aptian), but quickly transition to deep marine slope and distal fan turbidite facies (Albian-Campanian). In contrast, facies preserved in the Saga region record a younger shoaling upward marine sequence (Maastrichtian-Ypresian), with the uppermost ~ 400 m consisting of fluvial channel sandstones and red-green paleosols. Facies and depositional environments in the Saga region are highly variable along strike, with turbidites, shelf limestones, estuarine siliciclastics and thick paleosols sequences all

  10. Salinity of the Early and Middle Eocene Arctic Ocean From Oxygen Isotope Analysis of Fish Bone Carbonate (United States)

    Waddell, L. M.; Moore, T. C.


    Plate tectonic reconstructions indicate that the Arctic was largely isolated from the world ocean during the early and middle Eocene, with exchange limited to shallow, and possibly intermittent, connections to the North Atlantic and Tethys (via the Turgay Strait). Relative isolation, combined with an intensification of the hydrologic cycle under an Eocene greenhouse climate, is suspected to have led to the development of a low- salinity surface water layer in the Arctic that could have affected deep and intermediate convection in the North Atlantic. Sediment cores recently recovered from the Lomonosov Ridge by the IODP 302 Arctic Coring Expedition (ACEX) allow for the first assessment of the salinity of the Arctic Ocean during the early and middle Eocene. Stable isotope analysis performed on the structural carbonate of fish bone apatite from ~30 samples between the ages of ~55 and ~44 myr yielded δ18O values between -6.84‰ and -2.96‰ VPDB, with a mean value of -4.89‰. From the δ18O values we calculate that the Arctic Ocean was probably brackish during most of the early and middle Eocene, with an average salinity of 19 to 24‰. Negative excursions in the δ18O record (Azolla event at ~49 Ma, and a third previously unidentified event at ~46 Ma. During the PETM, low salinities developed under conditions of increased regional precipitation and runoff associated with extreme high latitude warmth and possible tectonic uplift in the North Atlantic. During the other two low-salinity events, sea level was lowered by ~20-30 m, implying a possible severing of Arctic connections to the world ocean. The most positive δ18O value (-2.96‰) occurs at ~45 Ma, the age of the youngest dropstone discovered in the ACEX sediments, and may therefore correspond to a climatic cooling rather than a high salinity event.

  11. The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum: new data from the microfossil turnover at the Zumaia section, Spain.


    Alegret, L.; Ortiz, S.; Orue-etxebarria, X.; Bernaola, G.; Baceta, J.I.; Monechi, S; E. Apellaniz; Pujalte, V.


    The benthic foraminiferal turnover and extinction event (BEE) associated with the negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE) across the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) is analyzed in the Zumaia section (Spain), one of the most complete and expanded deep-water sequences known worldwide. New biostratigraphic, paleoecologic, and paleoenvironmental data on benthic foraminifera are correlated to information on planktic foraminiferal and calcareous nannofossil turnover in order to evalua...

  12. Stable isotope paleoclimatology of the earliest Eocene using kimberlite-hosted mummified wood from the Canadian Subarctic

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    B. A. Hook


    Full Text Available The recent discovery of well-preserved mummified wood buried within a subarctic kimberlite diamond mine prompted a paleoclimatic study of the early Eocene "hothouse" (ca. 53.3 Ma. At the time of kimberlite eruption, the Subarctic and Artic were warm and humid producing a temperate rainforest biome well north of the Arctic Circle. Previous studies have estimated mean annual temperatures in this region were 4–20 °C in the early Eocene, using a variety of proxies including leaf margin analysis, and stable isotopes (δ18O of fossil cellulose. Here, we examine stable isotopes of tree-ring cellulose at subannual to annual scale resolution, using the oldest viable cellulose found to date. We use mechanistic models and transfer functions to estimate earliest Eocene temperatures using mummified cellulose, which was well preserved in the kimberlite. Multiple samples of Piceoxylon wood within the kimberlite were crossdated by tree-ring width. Multiple proxies are used in combination to tease apart likely environmental factors influencing the tree physiology and growth in the unique extinct ecosystem of the Polar rainforest. Calculations of interannual variation in temperature over a multidecadal time-slice in the early Eocene are presented, with a mean temperature estimate of 11.4 °C (1σ = 1.8 °C based on δ18O. Dual-isotope spectral analysis suggests that multidecadal climate cycles similar to the modern Pacific Decadal Oscillation likely drove temperature and cloudiness trends on 20–30 year timescales.

  13. Fossil associations from the middle and upper Eocene strata of the Pamplona Basin and surrounding areas (Navarre, western Pyrenees)


    Astibia, H.; Tosquella Angrill, Josep


    Fossil associations from the middle and upper Eocene (Bartonian and Priabonian) sedimentary succession of the Pamplona Basin are described. This succession was accumulated in the western part of the South Pyrenean peripheral foreland basin and extends from deep-marine turbiditic (Ezkaba Sandstone Formation) to deltaic (Pamplona Marl, Ardanatz Sandstone and Ilundain Marl formations) and marginal marine deposits (Gendulain Formation). The micropalaeontological content is high. It is do...

  14. Ichnology and sedimentology of deep-marine clastic systems, Middle Eocene, Ainsa-Jaca basin, Spanish Pyrenees.


    Heard, T. G.


    Despite considerable research into the characterisation of the architectural elements of submarine fans, few studies have attempted the full integration of ichnology and sedimentology. In this thesis, a quantitative analysis of trace fossils from the Early-Middle Eocene deep-marine clastic systems, Ainsa-Jaca basin, Spanish Pyrenees, shows that trace fossils are powerful discriminators of deep-marine fan and related environments. Sixteen fan and related environments have been recognised in th...

  15. A large mimotonid from the Middle Eocene of China sheds light on the evolution of lagomorphs and their kin


    Łucja Fostowicz-Frelik; Chuankui Li; Fangyuan Mao; Jin Meng; Yuanqing Wang


    Mimotonids share their closest affinity with lagomorphs and were a rare and endemic faunal element of Paleogene mammal assemblages of central Asia. Here we describe a new species, Mimolagus aurorae from the Middle Eocene of Nei Mongol (China). This species belongs to one of the most enigmatic genera of fossil Glires, previously known only from the type and only specimen from the early Oligocene of Gansu (China). Our finding extends the earliest occurrence of the genus by at least 10 million y...

  16. Middle Eocene Nummulites and their offshore re-deposition: A case study from the Middle Eocene of the Venetian area, northeastern Italy (United States)

    Bassi, Davide; Nebelsick, James H.; Puga-Bernabéu, Ángel; Luciani, Valeria


    The Middle Eocene Calcari nummulitici formation from northeastern Italy, Venetian area, represents a shallow-marine carbonate ramp developed on the northern Tethyan margin. In the Monti Berici area, its main components are larger foraminifera and coralline red algal communities that constitute thick carbonate sedimentary successions. Middle ramp and proximal outer ramp environments are recognized using component relationships, biofacies and sedimentary features. The middle-ramp is characterized by larger flattened-lenticular Nummulites on palaeohighs between which rhodoliths formed. Larger Nummulites palaeohighs containing Nummulites millecaput, Nummulites crassus, Nummulites discorbinus and Nummulites cf. gizehensis developed more basin-wards. The following relatively quiet environments of basin-wards of the palaeohighs represent areas of maximum carbonate production. The transition between the distal middle- and the proximal outer-ramp settings is marked in the study area by a large erosional surface which is interpreted to have been formed as a result of an erosive channel body filled in by deposits re-sedimented from shallower depths. These off-shore re-sedimented channelized deposits, ascribed to the Shallow Benthic Zone SBZ 15, lying on hemipelagic marls (planktonic foraminiferal zone E9 (P11)) allow for a biostratigraphic correlation to the Late Lutetian. The studied deposits, represented by packstone to rudstones, were displaced whilst still unlithified. The Lutetian-Bartonian regression along with the local tectonic activity promoted the production of a high amount of biogenic shallow-water carbonates mainly produced in the Mossano middle-ramp settings. These prograded towards the basinal areas with high-sedimentation rate of carbonate deposits characterized by the larger Nummulites rudstones. Such high amounts of sediment led to sediment instability which potentially could be mobilized either by return currents due to occasional major storms or by

  17. Maastrichtian-Early Eocene litho-biostratigraphy and palægeography of the northern Gulf of Suez region, Egypt (United States)

    Scheibner, C.; Marzouk, A. M.; Kuss, J.


    The Maastrichtian-Lower Eocene sediments on both sides of the northern Gulf of Suez can be subdivided into eight formal formations (including one group) and one informal formation that are described in detail. These lithostratigraphic units reflect three different environmental regimes of deposition or non-deposition. The first regime is characterised by uplift and erosion or non-deposition resulting mostly from the uplift of the Northern Galala/Wadi Araba structure, a branch of the Syrian Arc Foldbelt. The shallow water carbonate platform and slope deposits of the Late Campanian-Maastrichtian St Anthony Formation and the Paleocene-Lower Eocene Southern Galala and Garra Formations represent the second regime and are found north and south of the Northern Galala/Wadi Araba High. The third regime is represented by basinal chalks, marls and shales of the Maastrichtian Sudr Formation and of the Paleocene-Eocene Dakhla, Tarawan and Esna Formations, the Dakhla/Tarawan/Esna informal formation and the Thebes Group. The distribution and lateral interfingering of the above mentioned environmental regimes reflect different vertical movements, changing basin morphology, sea level changes and progradation of shallow water sediments and is illustrated on 11 palæogeographic maps.

  18. Eocene high-latitude temperature gradients over time and space based on d18O values of fossil shark teeth (United States)

    Zeichner, S. S.; Kim, S.; Colman, A. S.


    Early-Mid Eocene (56.0-33.9Mya) is characterized by a temperate Antarctic climate and shallower latitudinal temperature gradients than those in present day. The warmer waters off the coast of the Antarctic Peninsula provided suitable habitats for taxa (i.e., sharks) that live today at lower latitudes. Stable isotope analysis of Eocene shark teeth provides a proxy to understand high latitude temperature gradients. However, shark ecology, in particular migration and occupation of tidal versus pelagic habitats, must be considered in the interpretation of stable isotope data. In this study, we analyze d18OPO4 values from the enameloid of Striatolamia (synonymized with Carcharias) shark teeth from the La Meseta formation (Seymour Island, Antarctica) to estimate paleotemperature in Early-Mid Eocene Antarctica, and assess the impact of ecology versus environmental signals on d18OPO4 values. We compare the ranges and offsets between our measured shark tooth d18OPO4 and published bivalve d18OCO3 values to test whether shark teeth record signals of migration across latitudinal temperature gradients, or instead reflect seasonal and long-term temporal variation across La Meseta stratigraphic units.

  19. A new conception on the formation of the first bend of Yangtze River: its relations with Eocene magmatic activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Based on field observations, the author proposes a new understanding on the formation of the first bend of the Yangtze River. The relationship between the formation of the first bend of the Yangtze River and Eocene magmatic activity is expounded, suggesting that the first bend of the Yangtze River is the result from choking of the strong magmatic activity in Eocene. As a result, the upstream became a natural reservoir, whose riverside between Mt. Yulong and Mt. Haba was burst,guiding Jinshajiang River running eastward. At the same time, the drastic uplift of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau led to the deep dissection of the river cut down the channel, resulting in the formation of the Tiger Leaping Gorge. The magnitude of uplift in the study area (located in the eastern of the Tibetan Plateau) is calculated. Taking Mt. Yulong as a base, the magnitude of lift is 3,300 m from Eocene to Pliocene, adding 700 m since Pleistocene, totaling up to 4,000 m or so.

  20. Low palaeoelevation of the northern Lhasa terrane during late Eocene: Fossil foraminifera and stable isotope evidence from the Gerze Basin (United States)

    Wei, Yi; Zhang, Kexin; Garzione, Carmala N.; Xu, Yadong; Song, Bowen; Ji, Junliang


    The Lhasa terrane is a key region for understanding the paleoelevation of the southern Tibetan Plateau after India-Asia collision. The Gerze Basin, located in the northern part of the Lhasa terrane, is a shortening-related basin. We discovered Lagena laevis (Bandy) fossils in upper Eocene strata of the Gerze Basin. This type of foraminifera is associated with lagoon and estuarine environments, indicating that the northern part of the Lhasa terrane was near sea level during the late Eocene. We speculate that these foraminifera were transported inland by storm surges to low elevation freshwater lakes during times of marine transgressions. This inference is consistent with the relatively positive δ18O values in carbonate from the same deposits that indicate low palaeoelevations close to sea level. Considering the palaeoelevation results from the nearby Oligocene basins at a similar latitude and the volcanic history of the Lhasa terrane, we infer that large-magnitude surface uplift of the northern Lhasa terrane occurred between late Eocene and late Oligocene time. PMID:27272610

  1. A large mimotonid from the middle Eocene of China sheds light on the evolution of lagomorphs and their kin. (United States)

    Fostowicz-Frelik, Łucja; Li, Chuankui; Mao, Fangyuan; Meng, Jin; Wang, Yuanqing


    Mimotonids share their closest affinity with lagomorphs and were a rare and endemic faunal element of Paleogene mammal assemblages of central Asia. Here we describe a new species, Mimolagus aurorae from the Middle Eocene of Nei Mongol (China). This species belongs to one of the most enigmatic genera of fossil Glires, previously known only from the type and only specimen from the early Oligocene of Gansu (China). Our finding extends the earliest occurrence of the genus by at least 10 million years in the Paleogene of Asia, which closes the gap between Mimolagus and other mimotonids that are known thus far from middle Eocene or older deposits. The new species is one of the largest known pre-Oligocene Glires. As regards duplicidentates, Mimolagus is comparable with the largest Neogene continental leporids, namely hares of the genus Lepus. Our results suggest that ecomorphology of this species was convergent on that of small perissodactyls that dominated faunas of the Mongolian Plateau in the Eocene, and probably a result of competitive pressure from other Glires, including a co-occurring mimotonid, Gomphos. PMID:25818513

  2. Orbitally-forced Azolla blooms and middle Eocene Arctic hydrology; clues from palynology (United States)

    Barke, Judith; Abels, Hemmo A.; Sangiorgi, Francesca; Greenwood, David R.; Sweet, Arthur R.; Donders, Timme; Lotter, Andre F.; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Brinkhuis, Henk


    The presence of high abundances of the freshwater fern Azolla in the early Middle Eocene central Arctic Ocean sediments recovered from the Lomonosov Ridge during IODP Expedition 302, have been related to the presence of a substantial freshwater cap. Azolla massulae, belonging to the newly described Eocene species Azolla arctica Collinson et al., have been found over at least a ~4 m-thick interval. There are strong indications that Azolla has bloomed and reproduced in situ in the Arctic Ocean for several hundreds of thousands of years. Possible causes for the sudden demise of Azolla at ~48.1 Ma include salinity changes due to evolving oceanic connections or sea-level change. Distinct cyclic fluctuation in the Azolla massulae abundances have previously been related to orbitally forced climate changes. In this study, we evaluate the possible underlying forcing mechanisms for these freshwater cycles and for the eventual demise of Azolla in an integrated palynological and cyclostratigraphical approach. Our results show two clear periodicities of ~1.3 and ~0.7 m in all major aquatic and terrestrial palynomorph associations, which we can relate to obliquity (41 ka) and precession (~21 ka), respectively. Cycles in the abundances of Azolla, freshwater-tolerant dinoflagellate cysts, and swamp vegetation pollen show co-variability in the obliquity domain. Their strong correlation suggests periods of enhanced rainfall and runoff during Azolla blooms, possibly associated with increased summer season length and insolation during obliquity maxima. Cycles in the angiosperm pollen record are in anti-phase with the Azolla cycles. We interpret this pattern as edaphically drier conditions on land and reduced associated runoff during Azolla lows, possibly corresponding to obliquity minima. The precession signal is distinctly weaker than that for obliquity, and is mainly detectable in the cold-temperate Larix and bisaccate conifer pollen abundances, which is interpreted as a response to

  3. High resolution taxonomic study of the late Eocene (~34 Ma) Florissant palynoflora, Colorado, USA (United States)

    Bouchal, J. M.


    The Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument is located in Teller County in central Colorado, at approximate latitude 38°54'N and longitude 105°13'. The lithologies of the Florissant Formation consist of coarse-grained arkosic and volcanoclastic sandstones and conglomerates, finer shale, and tuffaceus mudstone and siltstone. It is divided into six units, mostly of lacustrine and fluvial origin with volcanic sediments interfingering and topping the strata. Volcanic units have been dated using the 40Ar/39Ar single-crystal method, giving an absolute age of ca. 34 Ma for the upper fossiliferous sedimentary unit. This pinpoints the formation of the Florissant sediments at the end of the Eocene, providing fruitful insight into the changing palaeoecosystem of the region at the dawn of the Oligocene. The formation is very well known for its rich fossil insect fauna and well preserved plant macrofossils found in the shale units, and the silicified tree stumps occurring in the lower mudstone unit. The sample used for this study originates from the upper shale unit, the fifth unit from the base of the formation. Previous studies on the plant macrofossils, mesofossils and the palynoflora have shown that during the late Eocene the surroundings of Florissant palaeo-lake were covered by diverse mixed broad-leaved evergreen/deciduous and needle-leafed forests. Until now pollen from the Florissant Formation has mostly been described according to conventional morphological nomenclature, using light microscopy (LM) only. In this study the same individual pollen grains are investigated using both LM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), by means of single grain technique. This provides best exploitable results concerning a more detailed resolution regarding taxonomy and more accurate identifications. The main goal of this study is to compile a well resolved taxonomic species list based on the palynoflora, to clarify the generic and species diversity of selected families (e

  4. Paleoenvironmental reconstruction of the Early Eocene Wind River Formation in the Wind River Basin, Wyoming (United States)

    Hyland, E.; Fan, M.; Sheldon, N. D.


    Terrestrial basin systems provide important information on paleoclimatic, paleoecological, and paleoenvironmental factors and how they control and respond to global changes and spatio-temporal heterogeneity. Examining these dynamics is crucial for times of major global change like the broad-scale climatic trends (warm/wet/high-CO2 conditions) of the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO). As most climatic records of such events are derived from global marine datasets, regional terrestrial studies such as these provide a better model for understanding ecological responses and the localized effects of events like the EECO. The formation of the Wind River Basin (northwestern Wyoming) has been studied for decades, but its regional climatic, environmental, and ecological dynamics have been largely overlooked. Recent work in other contemporaneous sites in the Green River Basin has suggested that the dynamics and rapidity of climate change in terrestrial interiors during the EECO may have been significantly different than what is indicated by the marine record, so to address these issues on a more regional scale we examined paleosols preserved in the fluvial, basin-margin Wind River Formation preserved near Dubois, Wyoming. Field identification of the paleosols indicated a suite that includes primarily Inceptisols and Alfisols; most exhibited significant redoximorphic features and Bg horizons that indicate a ponded floodplain paleoenvironment, while others contained deep Bk horizons (>100 cm) consistent with more well-drained, but still sub-humid to humid conditions. Based on the identification of these well-developed soil features, along with distinct horizonation and root development, paleosols were robustly correlated and sampled throughout the Formation, and environmental descriptors were assigned. To further examine the question of regional terrestrial climate/environmental change, whole rock geochemistry (XRF) samples from paleosol depth profiles were analyzed for use

  5. Chicxulub Impact, Yucatan Carbonate Platform, Cretaceous-Paleogene Boundary and Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (United States)

    Fucugauchi, J. U.; Perez-Cruz, L. L.


    Chicxulub formed 66 Ma ago by an asteroid impact on the Yucatan carbonate platform, southern Gulf of Mexico. Impact produced a 200 km diameter crater, platform fracturing, deformation and ejecta emplacement. Carbonate sedimentation restarted and crater was covered by up to 1 km of sediments. Drilling programs have sampled the Paleogene sediments, which record the changing sedimentation processes in the impact basin and platform. Here, results of a study of the Paleocene-Eocene sediments cored in the Santa Elena borehole are used to characterize the K/Pg and PETM. The borehole reached a depth of 504 m and was continuously cored, sampling the post-impact sediments and impact breccias, with contact at 332 m. For this study, we analyzed the section from ~230 to ~340 m, corresponding to the upper breccias and Paleocene-Eocene sediments. The lithological column, constructed from macroscopic and thin-section petrographic analyses, is composed of limestones and dolomitized limestones with several thin clay layers. Breccias are melt and basement clast rich, described as a suevitic unit. Section is further investigated using paleomagnetic, rock magnetic, X-ray fluorescence geochemical and stable isotope analyses. Magnetic polarities define a sequence of reverse to normal, which correlate to the geomagnetic polarity time scale from chrons 29r to 26r. The d13 C values in the first 20 m interval range from 1.2 to 3.5 %0 and d18 O values range from -1.4 to -4.8 %0. Isotope values show variation trends that correlate with the marine carbon and oxygen isotope patterns for the K-Pg boundary and early Paleocene. Positive carbon isotopes suggest relatively high productivity, with apparent recovery following the K-Pg extinction event. Geochemical data define characteristic trends, with Si decreasing gradually from high values in the suevites, low contents in Paleocene sediments with intervals of higher variability and then increased values likely marking the PETM. Variation trends are

  6. Sequence stratigraphic analysis of Eocene Rock Strata, Offshore Indus, southwest Pakistan (United States)

    Khan, Natasha; Rehman, Khaista; Ahmad, Sajjad; Khokher, Jamil; Hajana, M. Iqbal; Hanif, M.


    In this study, seismic data from two wells (Pak G2-1 and Indus Marine-1C) and age diagnostic larger benthic foraminifera (LBF) within drill cuttings has been used for the first time to identify depositional sequences within the carbonates in the Offshore Indus Basin, Pakistan. The Offshore Indus is tectonically categorized as a passive continental margin where carbonates occur as shelf carbonates in the near offshore and on volcanic seamounts in deeper waters. Seismic data analysis has indicated the presence of minor faults and carbonate buildups above the igneous basement in the south. Patterns of the seismic reflections enabled definition of three seismic facies units identified as: Unit 1 basement, represented by chaotic, moderate amplitude reflection configuration; while parallel bedding and the drape of overlying strata is typical character of Unit 2, carbonate mound facies. The younger Miocene channels represent Unit 3. The diagnosis of Alveolina vredenburgi/cucumiformis biozone confirmed the Ilerdian (55-52 Ma) stage constituting a second order cycle of deposition for the Eocene carbonates (identified as Unit 2). The carbonate succession has been mainly attributed to an early highstand system tract (HST). The environmental conditions remained favorable leading to the development of keep-up carbonates similar to pinnacle buildups as a result of aggradation during late transgressive system tract and an early HST. The carbonate sequence in the south (Pak G2-1) is thicker and fossiliferous representing inner to middle shelf depths based on fauna compared to the Indus Marine-1C in the north, which is devoid of fossils. Three biozones (SBZ 5, SBZ 6 and SBZ 8) were identified based on the occurrence of LBF. The base of the SBZ 5 zone marks the larger foraminifera turnover and the Paleocene-Eocene (P-E) boundary. The LBF encountered in this study coincides with earlier findings for the P-E boundary. Our findings indicate that the entire Ilerdian stage ranges from 55

  7. Productivity response of calcareous nannoplankton to Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 (ETM2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dedert


    Full Text Available The Early Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 (ETM2 at ~53.7 Ma is one of multiple hyperthermal events that followed the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, ~56 Ma. The negative carbon excursion and deep ocean carbonate dissolution which occurred during the event imply that a substantial amount (103 Gt of carbon (C was added to the ocean-atmosphere system, consequently increasing atmospheric CO2(pCO2. This makes the event relevant to the current scenario of anthropogenic CO2 additions and global change. Resulting changes in ocean stratification and pH, as well as changes in exogenic cycles which supply nutrients to the ocean, may have affected the productivity of marine phytoplankton, especially calcifying phytoplankton. Changes in productivity, in turn, may affect the rate of sequestration of excess CO2 in the deep ocean and sediments. In order to reconstruct the productivity response by calcareous nannoplankton to ETM2 in the South Atlantic (Site 1265 and North Pacific (Site 1209, we employ the coccolith Sr/Ca productivity proxy with analysis of well-preserved picked monogeneric populations by ion probe supplemented by analysis of various size fractions of nannofossil sediments by ICP-AES. The former technique of measuring Sr/Ca in selected nannofossil populations using the ion probe circumvents possible contamination with secondary calcite. Avoiding such contamination is important for an accurate interpretation of the nannoplankton productivity record, since diagenetic processes can bias the productivity signal, as we demonstrate for Sr/Ca measurements in the fine (<20 μm and other size fractions obtained from bulk sediments from Site 1265. At this site, the paleoproductivity signal as reconstructed from the Sr/Ca appears to be governed by cyclic changes, possibly orbital forcing, resulting in a 20–30% variability in Sr/Ca in dominant genera as obtained by ion probe. The ~13 to 21

  8. Geochronological and taxonomic revisions of the middle Eocene Whistler Squat Quarry (Devil's Graveyard Formation, Texas) and implications for the early Uintan in Trans-Pecos Texas. (United States)

    Campisano, Christopher J; Kirk, E Christopher; Townsend, K E Beth; Deino, Alan L


    The Whistler Squat Quarry (TMM 41372) of the lower Devil's Graveyard Formation in Trans-Pecos Texas is a middle Eocene fossil locality attributed to Uintan biochronological zone Ui1b. Specimens from the Whistler Squat Quarry were collected immediately above a volcanic tuff with prior K/Ar ages ranging from ∼47-50 Ma and below a tuff previously dated to ∼44 Ma. New 40Ar/39Ar analyses of both of the original tuff samples provide statistically indistinguishable ages of 44.88±0.04 Ma for the lower tuff and 45.04±0.10 Ma for the upper tuff. These dates are compatible with magnetically reversed sediments at the site attributable to C20r (43.505-45.942 Ma) and a stratigraphic position above a basalt dated to 46.80 Ma. Our reanalysis of mammalian specimens from the Whistler Squat Quarry and a stratigraphically equivalent locality significantly revises their faunal lists, confirms the early Uintan designation for the sites, and highlights several biogeographic and biochronological differences when compared to stratotypes in the Bridger and Uinta Formations. Previous suggestions of regional endemism in the early Uintan are supported by the recognition of six endemic taxa (26% of mammalian taxa) from the Whistler Squat Quarry alone, including three new taxa. The revised faunal list for the Whistler Squat Quarry also extends the biostratigraphic ranges of nine non-endemic mammalian taxa to Ui1b.

  9. At the root of the early penguin neck: a study of the only two cervicodorsal spines recovered from the Eocene of Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Jadwiszczak


    Full Text Available The spinal column of early Antarctic penguins is poorly known, mainly due to the scarcity of articulated vertebrae in the fossil record. One of the most interesting segments of this part of the skeleton is the transitional series located at the root of the neck. Here, two such cervicodorsal series, comprising reinterpreted known material and a new specimen from the Eocene of Seymour Island (Antarctic Peninsula, were investigated and contrasted with those of modern penguins and some fossil bones. The new specimen is smaller than the counterpart elements in recent king penguins, whereas the second series belonged to a large-bodied penguin from the genus Palaeeudyptes. It had been assigned by earlier researchers to P. gunnari (a species of “giant” penguins and a Bayesian analysis—a Bayes factor approach based on size of an associated tarsometatarsus—strongly supported such an assignment. Morphological and functional studies revealed that mobility within the aforementioned segment probably did not differ substantially between extant and studied fossil penguins. There were, however, intriguing morphological differences between the smaller fossil specimen and the comparative material related to the condition of the lateral excavation in the first cervicodorsal vertebra and the extremely small size of the intervertebral foramen located just prior to the first “true” thoracic vertebra. The former feature could have resulted from discrepancy in severity of external pneumatization. Both fossils provided valuable insights into the morphology and functioning of the axial skeleton in early penguins.

  10. High resolution cyclostratigraphy of the early Eocene – new insights into the origin of the Cenozoic cooling trend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Westerhold


    Full Text Available Here we present a high-resolution cyclostratigraphy based on X-ray fluorescence (XRF core scanning data from a new record retrieved from the tropical western Atlantic (Demerara Rise, ODP Leg 207, Site 1258. The Eocene sediments from ODP Site 1258 cover magnetochrons C20 to C24 and show well developed cycles. This record includes the missing interval for reevaluating the early Eocene part of the Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale (GPTS, also providing key aspects for reconstructing high-resolution climate variability during the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO. Detailed spectral analysis demonstrates that early Eocene sedimentary cycles are characterized by precession frequencies modulated by short (100 kyr and long (405 kyr eccentricity with a generally minor obliquity component. Counting of both the precession and eccentricity cycles results in revised estimates for the duration of magnetochrons C21r through C24n. Our cyclostratigraphic framework also corroborates that the geochronology of the Eocene Green River Formation (Wyoming, USA is still questionable mainly due to the uncertain correlation of the "Sixth Tuff" to the GPTS.

    Right at the onset of the long-term Cenozoic cooling trend the dominant eccentricity-modulated precession cycles of ODP Site 1258 are interrupted by strong obliquity cycles for a period of ~800 kyr in the middle of magnetochron C22r. These distinct obliquity cycles at this low latitude site point to (1 a high-latitude driving mechanism on global climate variability from 50.1 to 49.4 Ma, and (2 seem to coincide with a significant drop in atmospheric CO2 concentration below a critical threshold between 2- and 3-times the pre-industrial level (PAL. The here newly identified orbital configuration of low eccentricity in combination with high obliquity amplitudes during this ~800-kyr period and the crossing of a critical pCO2 threshold may have led to the formation of the first ephemeral

  11. Eocene lake basins in Wyoming and Nevada record rollback of the Farallon flat-slab beneath western North America (United States)

    Smith, M. E.; Cassel, E. J.; Jicha, B. R.; Singer, B. S.; Carroll, A.


    Numerical and conceptual models of flat-slab rollback predict broad initial dynamic subsidence above the slab hinge then uplift and volcanism triggered by the advection of asthenosphere beneath the overriding plate. These predicted surface effects provide a viable but largely untested explanation for lake basin formation in Cordilleran-type orogenies. We argue that the hydrologic closure of both the foreland (early Eocene) and hinterland (late Eocene) of the North American Cordillera were caused by a trenchward-migrating wave of dynamic and thermal topography resulting from progressive removal of the Farallon flat-slab. Two major episodes of hydrologic drainage closure are recorded by Eocene terrestrial strata in the western United States. The first occurred in the retroarc foreland during the early Eocene, and resulted in the deposition of the Green River Fm. The second occurred in the hinterland during the late Eocene and resulted in accumulation of the Elko Fm. In both regions, lake strata overlie fluvial strata and become progressively more evaporative up-section, and are overlain by volcaniclastic strata. Both successions were then truncated by regional unconformities that extend until the Oligocene. We interpret these stratigraphic successions to record trenchward propagation of a regional topographic wave, caused by slab rollback. Migration of the slab-hinge initially caused dynamic subsidence and initiation of lacustrine deposition. Regional surface uplift followed, and was associated with scattered volcanism. Uplift promoted formation of endorheic basins and ultimately the development of regional unconformities. The height of the uplift can be roughly approximated by the preserved thickness of lacustrine and other nonmarine deposits at both locations (0.2-1.0 km). The 40Ar/39Ar and U-Pb geochronology of Green River Fm ash beds indicate that this surface topographic wave migrated trenchward (SW) across the foreland from 53 to 47 Ma at a velocity of ~6 cm

  12. Seymour Island/Marambio Drilling Project: Drilling 40Ma (Campanian to Eocene) of high latitude Southern Hemisphere climate history. (United States)

    Viereck-Gotte, Lothar; Francis, Jane E.; Vaughan, Alan P. M.; Mohr, Barbara A. R.; Marenssi, Sergio A.; Pekar, Stephen F.


    The aim of this project is to core a key geological section in the Antarctic Peninsula region. The James Ross Basin, east of the Antarctic Peninsula, contains the best high-latitude section in the world that spans more than 40 million years of geological history from the mid-Cretaceous to the mid-Cenozoic (~80-34Ma). More than 6500m of marine and estuarine sediments were deposited during the filling of the James Ross back-arc basin. The sedimentary succession is extremely fossiliferous, yielding diverse invertebrate, vertebrate and plant fossil assemblages, allowing detailed reconstructions and integration of both terrestrial and marine systems. The sequence also contains a key global reference section for the Cretaceous-Palaeocene extinction event at high latitudes. The sequence contains key intervals that provide details about past polar climates: Mid-Late Cretaceous Thermal Maximum (~80Ma) when tropical floras grew at ~65°S and greenhouse temperatures reached their peak across the globe; a possible phase of high-latitude glaciation within greenhouse times during the latest Cretaceous; the Cretaceous-Palaeocene extinction event at 65Ma; the Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum episode of rapid global warming at 55Ma (possibly an unconformity in Seymour Island but this can be better established in a drill core); early Eocene hothouse climates; a cooling phase during the Eocene, and the first signs of global cooling in the latest Eocene. Although the sedimentary sequence is reasonably well known from surface outcrop and a stratigraphy has been established, the unconsolidated and weathered nature of the outcrop prohibits high resolution studies. Drill cores will provide more consolidated sediments that can be logged and sampled at high resolution and provide an extremely detailed picture of environmental and climate evolution through this transition from greenhouse to icehouse climates. Three drill cores are planned in this time interval using a land-based rig with

  13. The Paleocene - Eocene Thermal Maximum: Temperature and Ecology in the Tropics (United States)

    Frieling, J.; Gebhardt, H.; Adekeye, O. A.; Akande, S. O.; Reichart, G. J.; Middelburg, J. J. B. M.; Schouten, S.; Huber, M.; Sluijs, A.


    Various records across the Paleocene - Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) have established approximately 5 °C of additional surface and deep ocean warming, superimposed on the already warm latest Paleocene. The PETM is further characterized by a global negative stable carbon isotope excursion (CIE), poleward migration of thermophilic biota, ocean acidification, increased weathering, photic zone euxinia and intensified hydrological cycle. Reconstructed temperatures for the PETM in mid and high-latitudes regularly exceed modern open marine tropical temperatures. Constraints on absolute tropical temperatures are, however, limited. We studied the PETM in a sediment section from the Nigerian sector of the Dahomey Basin, deposited on the shelf near the equator. We estimate sea surface temperatures by paired analyses of TEX86, and Mg/Ca and δ18O of foraminifera from the Shagamu Quarry. These show Palaeocene temperatures of ~33 °C and SSTs rose by 4 °C during the PETM based on TEX86. During the PETM, intermittent photic zone euxinia developed based on the presence of the biomarker isorenieratane. Interestingly, during peak warmth, dinoflagellate cyst abundances and diversity are remarkably low. From our new data and evidence from modern dinoflagellate experiments, we conclude that thermal stress was the main driver for this observation. We derive that endothermal and most ectothermal nektonic and planktonic marine eukaryotic organisms could not have lived in the surface waters in this part of the tropics during the PETM.

  14. Halophilic archaea cultivated from surface sterilized middle-late eocene rock salt are polyploid.

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    Salla T Jaakkola

    Full Text Available Live bacteria and archaea have been isolated from several rock salt deposits of up to hundreds of millions of years of age from all around the world. A key factor affecting their longevity is the ability to keep their genomic DNA intact, for which efficient repair mechanisms are needed. Polyploid microbes are known to have an increased resistance towards mutations and DNA damage, and it has been suggested that microbes from deeply buried rock salt would carry several copies of their genomes. Here, cultivable halophilic microbes were isolated from a surface sterilized middle-late Eocene (38-41 million years ago rock salt sample, drilled from the depth of 800 m at Yunying salt mine, China. Eight unique isolates were obtained, which represented two haloarchaeal genera, Halobacterium and Halolamina. We used real-time PCR to show that our isolates are polyploid, with genome copy numbers of 11-14 genomes per cell in exponential growth phase. The ploidy level was slightly downregulated in stationary growth phase, but the cells still had an average genome copy number of 6-8. The polyploidy of halophilic archaea living in ancient rock salt might be a factor explaining how these organisms are able to overcome the challenge of prolonged survival during their entombment.

  15. Long-term legacy of massive carbon input to the Earth system: Anthropocene versus Eocene. (United States)

    Zeebe, Richard E; Zachos, James C


    Over the next few centuries, with unabated emissions of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2), a total of 5000 Pg C may enter the atmosphere, causing CO2 concentrations to rise to approximately 2000 ppmv, global temperature to warm by more than 8(°)C and surface ocean pH to decline by approximately 0.7 units. A carbon release of this magnitude is unprecedented during the past 56 million years-and the outcome accordingly difficult to predict. In this regard, the geological record may provide foresight to how the Earth system will respond in the future. Here, we discuss the long-term legacy of massive carbon release into the Earth's surface reservoirs, comparing the Anthropocene with a past analogue, the Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, approx. 56 Ma). We examine the natural processes and time scales of CO2 neutralization that determine the atmospheric lifetime of CO2 in response to carbon release. We compare the duration of carbon release during the Anthropocene versus PETM and the ensuing effects on ocean acidification and marine calcifying organisms. We also discuss the conundrum that the observed duration of the PETM appears to be much longer than predicted by models that use first-order assumptions. Finally, we comment on past and future mass extinctions and recovery times of biotic diversity.

  16. Late Eocene pollen records and palaeoenvironmental changes in northern Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The Eocene palaeovegetation landscape and palaeoclimate reconstructed from the pollen records in the Jiuquan Basin, northwest China provide some important information on the early uplift of the Tibetan Plateau and the origin and evolution of the aridification in northwest China. The records show the arid-semiarid scrubs with open forest palynofloras controlled by the subtropical high existed in northwest China during the 40.2-33.4 Ma. Four pollen assemblages are found: Nitrariadites-Cheno-podipollis-Pinaceae assemblage (40.2-37.9 Ma) is followed by Chenopodipollis-Nitrariadites assemblage (37.9-34.6 Ma), Pinuspollenites & Abietineaepollenites-Chenopodipollis assemblage (34.6-33.9 Ma), and Chenopodipollis-Nitrariadites assemblage (33.9-33.4 Ma). The percentage of thermophilic types is in anti-correlation with that of the dry types, which means the palaeoclimate is relatively warmwet or cold-dry during most of that time. Such aridity may be related to the water vapor reduction and the planetary wind system movement northward in response to the cooling caused by small-ephemeral icesheets.

  17. New marsupial (Mammalia from the Eocene of Antarctica, and the origins and affinities of the Microbiotheria

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    F.J. Goin


    Full Text Available We describe and comment on an isolated upper molar belonging to Woodburnodon casei gen. et sp. nov. (Mammalia, Marsupialia, Microbiotheria, Woodburnodontidae fam. nov., from the Eocene of the La Meseta Fm (TELM 5 or Cucullaea I Member, Marambio (Seymour Island, Antarctic Peninsula. With a body mass estimated between 900 to 1,300 g (depending on the type of equation and the possible molar locus of the type specimen, it represents the largest known Microbiotheria, living or extinct. Besides its size, other diagnostic features include a proportionally large metacone, reduced or absent para- and metaconules, and an unusual labial notch between stylar cusps C and D. Woodburnodon casei is an undoubted Microbiotheria; however, its reference to the Microbiotheriidae is discarded: almost all its morphological characters are plesiomorphic when compared with South American microbiotheriids, even with respect to the oldest representatives of this family. This suggests (a a quite ancient and southern origin for Woodburnodon and its ancestors, and (b that the origins and initial radiation of the Microbiotheria may have occurred from a generalized peradectoid. The new taxon, here referred to the new family Woodburnodontidae, constitutes the second microbiotherian known from these Antarctic levels and age; this confirms the association of representatives of this order within a common, Andean-Patagonian-Antarctic biogeographic region, already present since the Late Cretaceous. Microbiotherians stand as the plesiomorphic sister-group of Bonapartheriiform marsupials, the latter including Glasbius and allied taxa.

  18. The Upper Eocene crustose coralline algal pavement in the Colli Berici, north-eastern Italy

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    Davide Bassi


    Full Text Available A crustose coralline algal pavement, identified in Upper Eocene (Priabonian shallow water, middleramp carbonates in north-eastern Italy (Colli Berici, Southern Alps, represents a rare example of this facies.The crustose pavement consists of a coralline crust bindstone with a wackestone-packstone matrix, and is characterised by the dominance of crustose coralline thalli composed primarily of melobesioids (Lithothamnion and Mesophyllum and mastophoroids (Spongites, Lithoporella, Neogoniolithon. In places the coralline bindstone can be seen to develop from isolated encrusting-to-foliose thalli which bifurcate and join to form an open framework interbedded with matrix debris from crusts. Various forms of rhodoliths occur commonly within this facies. The largest discoidal rhodoliths (up to 12 cm of large diameter show an inner arrangement consisting of loosely packed laminar (encrusting-to-foliose coralline thalli with a high percentage of constructional voids (50-63%. Accessory components are represented by larger hyaline perforated foraminifera such as nummulitids and orthophragminids. This facies formed in a ramp palaeoenvironment characterised by relatively low hydrodynamic energy and low rates of sedimentation. Channelised structures present within the facies were formed by return currents which swept the middle ramp creating such distal structures. Further toward the distal middle-ramp the return currents decreased in energy and discharged nutrients allowing the mesotrophic crustose coralline algal pavement to develop.

  19. Palaeocommunities, diversity and sea-level change from middle Eocene shell beds of the Paris Basin (United States)

    Dominici, Stefano; Zuschin, Martin


    The middle Eocene, a time of global transition from greenhouse to icehouse climate, was approached through high-resolution stratigraphy at a few classic localities of the Paris Basin. Quantitative data on the distribution of molluscan species abundance, collected at 12 different shell beds representative of the middle Lutetian and the lower Bartonian, formed the basis for a palaeoecological study. The succession can be subdivided into a hierarchy of depositional sequences, interpreted as the product of relative sea-level change. Abundance distributions are better correlated with 5th-order depositional sequences than geographic locality, suggesting that sea-level played an important role in the distribution of palaeocommunities. Rarefied diversities were measured and compared with analogous data from modern tropical and warm-temperate intertidal and subtidal communities. The palaeoecological analysis shows that sea-level variation is responsible for a major change in the upper part of the middle Lutetian, leading from high-diversity subtidal to low-diversity intertidal and shallow subtidal palaeocommunities. The study did not confirm that the stage-level drop in species richness documented in this basin is related to the global climatic deterioration. Instead, the global climatic signal might be obscured in the Paris Basin by facies control.

  20. Fauna and paleoecological setting of the La Meseta Formation (Eocene), Antarctica

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    Feldmann, R.M.; Wiedman, L.A.; Zinsmeister, W.J.


    The La Meseta Formation, an Eocene sandstone from Seymour Island, Palmer Peninsula, Antarctica, has yielded a diverse fossil assemblage of body and trace fossils representative of a cool temperate, littoral to shallow sublittoral habitat. Over 61 taxa of macroinvertebrates, excluding gastropod body fossils, and more than 18 ichnogenera collected from the La Meseta represent the largest, most comprehensive and most diverse assemblage of Paleogene fossils from Antarctica. Included in the body fossil assemblage are species representative of at least 26 taxa of bivales, four taxa of echinoids, two of crinoids, two of ophiuroids, two of asteroids, one inarticulate and four articulate brachiopods, two barnacles, six decapod crustaceans, two cyclostome and two cheilostome bryozoans, a scaphopod and one coral. The traces include several burrow forms characteristic of the Skolithos ichnofacies of Seilacher (1967), several halo and rind burrows, gastropod predation borings, and abundant examples of teredid bivalve borings in lithified wood.Autecological analyses of the preserved organisms and environmental interpretations of the ichnogenera indicate a littoral to very shallow sublittoral environment of deposition, generally above wave base, for the la Meseta Sandstone. Modern congeneric descendants of the body fossils are known to inhabit both deep water and shallow water habitats. Of the 20 extant genera of bivalves reported from the La Meseta, 19 generally occur only in cool temperate habitats. Only one genus is known to occur south of 60/sup 0/. Most of the shallow water forms are known from cool temperate, austral regimes.

  1. Trace fossils from Eocene turbiditic deposits: A case study from the Slovak-Moravian Carpathians

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    Starek Dušan


    Full Text Available Well exposed, poorly bioturbated turbiditic sandstones of the Kýčera Beds (Zlín Formation; Eocene in the Bieščary Quarry contain the deep-sea Nereites ichnofacies. The trace fossils Ophiomorpha rudis, Halopoa annulata and Scolicia strozzii are mainly common in thick-bedded sandstone packages. They represent the Ophiomorpha rudis ichnosubfacies. Paleodiction strozzii, Nereites irregularis, and Zoophycos brianteus occur in a series of thin- to medium bedded fine grained turbiditic sandstones intercalated with mudstone shales. They belong to the Paleodictyon–Nereites ichnosubfacies. The sedimentological interpretation of the turbidity facies and the distribution of the trace fossils suggest that the recognized ichnosubfacies probably express a non-bathymetric facies trend from channel axis, levee to overbank or inter-channel/interlobe areas of a deep sea fan. The distribution and preservation of trace fossils depend mostly on lithology, sedimentation rate, erosion and amalgamation of beds in the proximal mid fan areas, bulldozing effect during colonization as well as on the hardly quantified effect of bottom oxygenation and supply of nutrients.

  2. Decline of coral reefs during late Paleocene to early Eocene global warming

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    C. Scheibner


    Full Text Available Since the 1980s the frequency of warming events has intensified and simultaneously widespread coral bleaching, and enhanced coral mortality have been observed. Yet, it remains unpredictable how tropical coral reef communities will react to prolonged adverse conditions. Possibly, coral reef systems are sufficiently robust to withstand continued environmental pressures. But if coral mortality increases, what will platform communities of the future look like? The co-evolution of early Paleogene carbonate platforms and palaeoclimate may provide insight. Here we document the impact of early Paleogene global warming on shallow-water carbonate platforms in the Tethys. Between 59 and 55 Ma, three discrete stages in platform development can be identified Tethys-wide: during the first stage carbonate platforms mainly consisted of coralgal reefs; during the second – transitional – stage coralgal reefs thrived only at middle latitudes and gave way to larger foraminifera as dominant carbonate producer in low latitudes; finally, during the third stage, newly developing larger foraminifera lineages completely took over the role as main carbonate-producing organisms in low to middle latitudes. We postulate that rising temperatures led to a stepwise demise of Paleocene coral reefs, giving way to an unprecedented expansion of larger foraminifera, dominating Tethyan platforms during the early Eocene.

  3. Late Eocene pollen records and palaeoenvironmental changes in northern Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MIAO YunFa; FANG XiaoMin; SONG ZhiChen; WU FuLi; HAN WenXia; DAI Shuang; SONG ChunHui


    The Eocene palaeovegetation landscape and palaeoclimate reconstructed from the pollen records in the Jiuquan Basin, northwest China provide some important information on the early uplift of the Tibetan Plateau and the origin and evolution of the aridification in northwest China. The records show the arid-semiarid scrubs with open forest palynofloras controlled by the subtropical high existed in northwest China during the 40.2-33.4 Ma. Four pollen assemblages are found: Nitrariadites-Chenopodipollis-Pinaceae assemblage (40.2-37.9 Ma) is followed by Chenopodipollis-Nitrariadites assemblage (37.9-34.6 Ma), Pinuspollenites & Abietineaepollenites-Chenopodipollis assemblage (34.6-33.9Ma), and Chenopodipollis-Nitrariadites assemblage (33.9-33.4 Ma). The percentage of thermophilic types is in anti-correlation with that of the dry types, which means the palaeoclimate is relatively warm-wet or cold-dry during most of that time. Such aridity may be related to the water vapor reduction and the planetary wind system movement northward in response to the cooling caused by small-ephemeral ice-sheets.

  4. Environmental changes during the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum in Spitsbergen as reflected by benthic foraminifera

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    Jenö Nagy


    Full Text Available The study deals with environmental changes during the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM and its background conditions in Spitsbergen through analysis of benthic foraminiferal assemblages (FA in a section drilled in the Paleogene Central Basin. The impact of this extreme global warming occurs here in prodelta shelf mudstones composing the lower part of the Gilsonryggen Member (Frysjaodden Formation. The start of the PETM perturbation is marked by a faunal turnover, in which the medium-diversity circumpolar Reticulophragmium assemblage was replaced by a low-diversity Trochammina fauna. During the hyperthermal period, benthic foraminiferal diversity decreased severely, while the dominance of small-sized taxa with epifaunal morphology strongly increased. This low-diversity fauna occurs in sediments with a reduced thorium/uranium ratio (proxy for oxygenation and kaolinite enrichment (proxy for high humidity. The faunal changes were thus caused by the combined effects of hypoxic and hyposaline conditions in a stratified water column, due to extreme warming with its accompanying intensified hydrologic cycle. The PETM acme coincides with the maximum flooding surface (MFS of the Gilsonryggen depositional sequence, composed of the Gilsonryggen Member and the overlying Battfjellet and Aspelintoppen formations. The transgressive phase of the sequence was initiated by local tectonics, while the eustatic sea-level rise of the PETM was superimposed on this transgression.To access the supplementary material for this article, please see supplementary files under Article Tools online.

  5. Increased precipitation and weathering across the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum in central China (United States)

    Chen, Zuoling; Ding, Zhongli; Yang, Shiling; Zhang, Chunxia; Wang, Xu


    Global warming during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) ˜55.5 million years ago (Ma) was associated with a massive release of carbon to the ocean-atmosphere system, as evidenced by a prominent negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE) and widespread dissolution of marine carbonates. The paleohydrologic response to the PETM warming has been studied worldwide; however, relevant records of environmental perturbation in Asia are lacking so far. Here we extend the record of this event in central China, a subtropical paleosetting, through geochemical and mineralogical analyses of lacustrine sediments. Geochemical indicators of authigenic carbonates—including molar Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios—suggest an overall increased precipitation across the PETM, compatible with the disappearance of authigenic dolomite and the appearance of kaolinite in the strata. The relatively humid conditions persisted long after the carbon-cycle perturbation had stopped, implying that the transient hyper-greenhouse warming might have forced the regional climate system into a new climate state that was not easily reversed. Additionally, a gradual increase in chemical index of alteration (CIA) and the appearance of kaolinite are associated with the PETM, indicating an intensified silicate weathering and pedogenesis in the watershed in response to warmer and more humid climate. Our results corroborate the theory that an accelerated continental chemical weathering served as a negative feedback to sequester carbon and lower the atmospheric greenhouse-gas levels during the PETM.

  6. The anamorphic genus Monotosporella (Ascomycota) from Eocene amber and from modern Agathis resin. (United States)

    Sadowski, Eva-Maria; Beimforde, Christina; Gube, Matthias; Rikkinen, Jouko; Singh, Hukam; Seyfullah, Leyla J; Heinrichs, Jochen; Nascimbene, Paul C; Reitner, Joachim; Schmidt, Alexander R


    The anamorphic fungal genus Monotosporella (Ascomycota, Sordariomycetes) has been reco-vered from a piece of Early Eocene Indian amber, as well as from the surface of extant resin flows in New Caledonia. The fossil fungus was obtained from the Tarkeshwar Lignite Mine of Gujarat State, western India, and was part of the biota of an early tropical angiosperm rainforest. The amber inclusion represents the second fossil record of Sordariomycetes, as well as the first fossil of its particular order (either Savoryellales or Chaetosphaeriales). The fossil fungus is distinguished from extant representatives by possessing both short conidiophores and small two-septate pyriform conidia, and is described as Monotosporella doerfeltii sp. nov. Inside the amber, the anamorph is attached to its substrate, which is likely the degraded thallus of a cladoniform lichen. The extant New Caledonian species is assigned to Monotosporella setosa. It was found growing on semi-solidified resin flows of Agathis ovata (Araucariaceae), and is the first record of Monotosporella from modern resin substrates. PMID:23063189

  7. Model simulations of early westward flow across the Tasman Gateway during the early Eocene (United States)

    Sijp, Willem P.; von der Heydt, Anna S.; Bijl, Peter K.


    The timing and role in ocean circulation and climate of the opening of Southern Ocean gateways is as yet elusive. Recent micropalaeontological studies suggest the onset of westward throughflow of surface waters from the SW Pacific into the Australo-Antarctic Gulf through a southern shallow opening of the Tasman Gateway from 49-50 Ma onwards, a direction that is counter to the present-day eastward-flowing Antarctic Circumpolar Current. Here, we present the first model results specific to the early-to-middle Eocene where, in agreement with the field evidence, southerly shallow opening of the Tasman Gateway indeed causes a westward flow across the Tasman Gateway. As a result, modelled estimates of dinoflagellate biogeography are in agreement with the recent findings. Crucially, in this situation where Australia is still situated far south and almost attached to Antarctica, the Drake Passage must be sufficiently restricted to allow the prevailing easterly wind pattern to set up this southerly restricted westward flow. In contrast, an open Drake Passage, up to 517 m deep, leads to an eastward flow, even when the Tasman Gateway and the Australo-Antarctic gulf are entirely contained within the latitudes of easterly wind.

  8. Productivity feedback did not terminate the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM

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    A. Torfstein


    Full Text Available The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM occurred approximately 55 million years ago, and is one of the most dramatic abrupt global warming events in the geological record. This warming was triggered by the sudden release of thousands of gigatons of carbon into the atmosphere and is widely perceived to be the best analogue for current anthropogenic climate change. Yet, the mechanism of recovery from this event remains controversial. A massive increase in the intensity of the marine biological pump (''productivity feedback'' has been suggested to cause a drawdown of atmospheric CO2 and subsequent carbon sequestration in the ocean. A re-evaluation of the ''productivity feedback hypothesis'', based on biogenic barium mass accumulation rates (Ba-MARs for a site in the Southern Ocean, finds that any increase in export production lagged the initial carbon release by at least ~70 000 years. This implies that export production did not rapidly remove excess carbon from the atmosphere, and renders the most likely mechanism for carbon removal to be silicate weathering, at much slower rates than previously assumed.

  9. Constraints on ocean circulation at the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum from neodymium isotopes

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    A. N. Abbott


    Full Text Available Global warming during the Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM ~55 million years ago (Ma coincided with a massive release of carbon to the ocean–atmosphere system, as indicated by carbon isotopic data. Previous studies have argued for a role for changing ocean circulation, possibly as a trigger or response to climatic changes. We use neodymium (Nd isotopic data to reconstruct short high-resolution records of deep-water circulation across the PETM. These records are derived by reductively leaching sediments from seven globally distributed sites and comparing data with published data from fossil fish debris to reconstruct past deep ocean circulation across the PETM. The Nd data for the leachates are interpreted to be consistent with previous studies that have used fish teeth and benthic foraminiferal δ13C to constrain regions of convection. There is some evidence from combining Nd isotope and δ13C records that the three major ocean basins may not have had substantial exchanges of deep waters. If the isotopic data are interpreted within this framework, then the observed pattern may be explained if the strength of overturning in each basin varied distinctly over the PETM, resulting in differences in deep-water aging gradients between basins. Results are consistent with published interpretations from proxy data and model simulations that suggest modulation of overturning circulation had an important role for global recovery of the ocean–atmosphere system after the PETM.

  10. Expansion and diversification of high-latitude radiolarian assemblages in the late Eocene linked to a cooling event in the Southwest Pacific

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    K. M. Pascher


    Full Text Available The Eocene was characterised by "greenhouse" climate conditions that were gradually terminated by a long-term cooling trend through the middle and late Eocene. This long-term trend was determined by several large-scale climate perturbations that culminated in a shift to "ice-house" climates at the Eocene–Oligocene Transition. Geochemical and micropaleontological proxies suggest that tropical-to-subtropical sea-surface temperatures persisted into the late Eocene in the high-latitude Southwest Pacific Ocean. Here, we present radiolarian microfossil assemblage and foraminiferal oxygen and carbon stable isotope data from Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP Sites 277, 280, 281 and 283 from the middle Eocene to early Oligocene (~ 40–33 Ma to identify oceanographic changes in the Southwest Pacific across this major transition in Earth's climate history. The Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum at ~ 40 Ma is characterised by a negative shift in foraminiferal oxygen isotope values and a radiolarian assemblage consisting of about 5 % of low latitude taxa Amphicraspedum prolixum group and Amphymenium murrayanum. In the early late Eocene at ~ 37 Ma, a positive oxygen isotope shift can be correlated to the Priabonian Oxygen Isotope Maximum (PrOM event – a short-lived cooling event recognized throughout the Southern Ocean. Radiolarian abundance, diversity, and preservation increase during the middle of this event at Site 277 at the same time as diatoms. The PrOM and latest Eocene radiolarian assemblages are characterised by abundant high-latitude taxa. These high-latitude taxa also increase in abundance during the late Eocene and early Oligocene at DSDP Sites 280, 281 and 283 and are associated with very high diatom abundance. We therefore infer a~northward expansion of high-latitude radiolarian taxa onto the Campbell Plateau towards the end of the late Eocene. In the early Oligocene (~ 33 Ma there is an overall decrease in radiolarian abundance and diversity at

  11. The pCO2 estimates of the late Eocene in South China based on stomatal density of Nageia Gaertner leaves

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    X.-Y. Liu


    Full Text Available late Eocene pCO2 concentration is estimated based on the species of Nageia maomingensis Jin et Liu from the late Eocene of Maoming Basin, Guangdong Province. This is the first paleoatmospheric estimates for the late Eocene of South China using stomatal data. Studies of stomatal density (SD and stomatal index (SI with N. motleyi (Parl. De Laub., the nearest living equivalent species of the fossil, indicate that the SD inversely responds to atmospheric CO2 concentration, while SI has almost no relationships with atmospheric CO2 concentration. Therefore, the pCO2 concentration is reconstructed based on the SD of the fossil leaves in comparison with N. motleyi. Results suggest that the mean CO2 concentration was 391.0 ± 41.1 ppmv or 386.5 ± 27.8 ppmv during the late Eocene, which is significantly higher than the CO2 concentrations documented from 1968 to 1955 but similar to the values for current atmosphere indicating that the Carbon Dioxide levels during that the late Eocene at that time may have been similar to today.

  12. Petrology and petrogenesis of the Eocene Volcanic rocks in Yildizeli area (Sivas), Central Anatolia, Turkey (United States)

    Doğa Topbay, C.; Karacık, Zekiye; Genç, S. Can; Göçmengil, Gönenç


    Yıldızeli region to the south of İzmir Ankara Erzincan suture zone is situated on the large Sivas Tertiary sedimentary basin. After the northern branch of the Neotethyan Ocean was northerly consumed beneath the Sakarya Continent, a continent - continent collision occurred between the Anatolide- Tauride platform and Pontides and followed a severe intermediate magmatism during the Late Cretaceous- Tertiary period. This created an east-west trending volcanic belt along the whole Pontide range. In the previous studies different models are suggested for the Eocene volcanic succession such as post-collisional, delamination and slab-breakoff models as well as the arc model for its westernmost parts. We will present our field and geochemical data obtained from the Yıldızeli and its surroundings for its petrogenesis, and will discuss the tectonic model(s) on the basis of their geochemical/petrological aspects. Cenozoic volcanic sequences of Yıldızeli region which is the main subject of this study, overlie Pre-Mesozoic crustal meta-sedimentary group of Kırşehir Massif, Ophiolitic mélange and Cretaceous- Paleocene? flysch-like sequences. In the northern part of Yıldızeli region, north vergent thrust fault trending E-W seperates the ophiolitic mélange complex from the Upper Cretaceous-Paleocene and Tertiary formations. Volcano-sedimentary units, Eocene in age, of the Yıldızeli (Sivas-Turkey) which are intercalated with sedimentary deposits related to the collision of Anatolide-Tauride and a simultaneous volcanic activity (i.e. the Yıldızeli volcanics), exposed throughout a wide zone along E-W orientation. Yıldızeli volcanics consist of basalts, basaltic-andesites and andesitic lavas intercalated flow breccias and epiclastic, pyroclastic deposits. Basaltic andesite lavas contain Ca-rich plagioclase + clinopyroxene ± olivine with minor amounts of opaque minerals in a matrix comprised of microlites and glass; andesitic lavas are generally contain Ca

  13. Biomarker and molecular isotope approaches to deconvolve the terrestrial carbon isotope record: modern and Eocene calibrations (United States)

    Diefendorf, A. F.; Freeman, K. H.; Wing, S.; Currano, E. D.


    Climate, biome, and plant community are important predictors of carbon isotope patterns recorded in leaves and leaf waxes. However, signatures recorded by terrestrial organic carbon and lipids that have mixed floral sources (e.g., n-alkanes) potentially reflect both plant community changes and climate. More taxonomically specific proxies for plants (i.e., di- and tri-terpenoids for conifers and angiosperms, respectively), can help to resolve the relative influences of changing community and climate, provided differences in biomarker production and lipid biosynthetic fractionation among plants can be better constrained. We present biomarker abundance and carbon isotope values for lipids from leaves, branches and bark of 44 tree species, representing 21 families including deciduous and evergreen conifers and angiosperms. n-alkane production differs greatly between conifer and angiosperm leaves. Both deciduous and evergreen angiosperms make significantly more n-alkanes than conifers, with n-alkanes not detected in over half of the conifers in our study. Terpenoid abundances scale strongly with leaf habit: evergreen species have significantly higher abundances. We combine these relative differences in lipid production with published estimates of fluxes for leaf litter from conifer and angiosperm trees to develop a new proxy approach for estimating paleo plant community inputs to ancient soils and sediments. To test our modern calibration results, we have evaluated n-alkanes and terpenoids from laterally extensive (~18 km) carbonaceous shales and mudstones in Eocene sediments (52.6 Ma) at Fifteenmile Creek in the Bighorn Basin (WY, USA). Our terpenoid-based proxy predicts on average a 40% conifer community, which is remarkably close in agreement with a fossil-based estimate of 36%. n-alkane carbon isotope fractionation (leaf-lipid) differs among plant types, with conifer n-alkanes about 2-3‰ 13C enriched relative to those in angiosperms. Since conifer leaves are

  14. Palaeoskapha sichuanensis gen. Et sp. Nov. (Menispermaceae) from the Eocene Relu Formation in western Sichuan, West China%Palaeoskapha sichuanensis gen. et sp. nov. (Menispermaceae) from the Eocene Relu Formation in western Sichuan, West China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Frédéric M. B. JACQUES; GUO Shuang-Xing


    Palaeoskapha sichuanensis gen. et sp. nov. of Menispermaceae is described here for the first time based on a well preserved fossil fruit. The specimen was found in the Relu Formation of western Sichuan, West China. The specimen, straight, boat-shaped endocarp with large ventral condyle, clearly belongs to the tribe Tinosporeae. The wide aperture of the double condyle, combined with a whole shape not deeply invaginated, indicates a genus different from what was already known to science for this tribe. This fossil widens the distribution of the tribe during Eocene from North America and Europe to Asia, where it was formerly unknown.

  15. Do Magnetic Minerals Record Paleoprecipitation? Insights from Paleocene-Eocene Paleosols in the Bighorn Basin, WY (United States)

    Maxbauer, D.; Feinberg, J. M.; Fox, D. L.; Clyde, W.


    The magnetic mineralogy of soils and paleosols is a rich archive of paleoclimatic information. However, efforts to quantify parameters such as mean annual precipitation (MAP) or temperature using environmental magnetism are still in their infancy. Inherent in any magnetic paleoclimate proxy is a fundamental understanding of how the concentration, grain size distribution, and composition of iron oxides and oxyhydroxides formed during pedogenesis reflect the climatic conditions that prevailed during soil formation. The influence of diagenetic processes on magnetic minerals, particularly for paleosols in pre-Quaternary systems, may compromise our ability to recover a climatic signal due to mineral alterations or incomplete preservation. Here, we evaluate the rock magnetic properties of non-loessic paleosols across the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, ~55.5 Ma) in the Bighorn Basin, WY. Our study compares data from nine paleosol layers sampled from outcrop, exposed to surficial weathering, as well as the equivalent paleosol layers sampled from drill core, all of which are preserved below a pervasive oxidative weathering front and presumably unweathered. Despite variation in magnetic properties within paleosol layers, there is no clear change in magnetic mineralogy that we can attribute to surficial weathering. Further, common measures of magnetic enhancement in susceptibility and remanence show similar trends across the PETM, in both core and outcrop, when compared to estimates of MAP from geochemical weathering indices. Taken together, our record suggests that the magnetic minerals preserved in ancient paleosols retain at least qualitative information about paleoprecipitation and could be an important source of information for paleoclimatic studies. Further work to improve our understanding of the relative preservation of various pedogenic components in paleosols will ultimately determine their viability as quantitative indicators of paleoclimate.

  16. Uranium favorability of late Eocene through Pliocene rocks of the South Texas Coastal Plain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quick, J.V.; Thomas, N.G.; Brogdon, L.D.; Jones, C.A.; Martin, T.S.


    The results of a subsurface uranium favorability study of Tertiary rocks (late Eocene through Pliocene) in the Coastal Plain of South Texas are given. In ascending order, these rock units include the Yegua Formation, Jackson Group, Frio Clay, Catahoula Tuff, Oakville Sandstone, and Goliad Sand. The Vicksburg Group, Anahuac Formation, and Fleming Formation were not considered because they have unfavorable lithologies. The Yegua Formation, Jackson Group, Frio Clay, Catahoula Tuff, Oakville Sandstone, and Goliad Sand contain sandstones that may be favorable uranium hosts under certain environmental and structural conditions. All except the Yegua are known to contain ore-grade uranium deposits. Yegua and Jackson sandstones are found in strand plain-barrier bar systems that are aligned parallel to depositional and structural strike. These sands grade into shelf muds on the east, and lagoonal sediments updip toward the west. The lagoonal sediments in the Jackson are interrupted by dip-aligned fluvial systems. In both units, favorable areas are found in the lagoonal sands and in sands on the updip side of the strand-plain system. Favorable areas are also found along the margins of fluvial systems in the Jackson. The Frio and Catahoula consist of extensive alluvial-plain deposits. Favorable areas for uranium deposits are found along the margins of the paleo-channels where favorable structural features and numerous optimum sands are present. The Oakville and Goliad Formations consist of extensive continental deposits of fluvial sandstones. In large areas, these fluvial sandstones are multistoried channel sandstones that form very thick sandstone sequences. Favorable areas are found along the margins of the channel sequences. In the Goliad, favorable areas are also found on the updip margin of strand-plain sandstones where there are several sandstones of optimum thickness.

  17. Transient dwarfism of soil fauna during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (United States)

    Smith, J.J.; Hasiotis, S.T.; Kraus, M.J.; Woody, D.T.


    Soil organisms, as recorded by trace fossils in paleosols of the Willwood Formation, Wyoming, show significant body-size reductions and increased abundances during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM). Paleobotanical, paleopedologic, and oxygen isotope studies indicate high temperatures during the PETM and sharp declines in precipitation compared with late Paleocene estimates. Insect and oligochaete burrows increase in abundance during the PETM, suggesting longer periods of soil development and improved drainage conditions. Crayfish burrows and molluscan body fossils, abundant below and above the PETM interval, are significantly less abundant during the PETM, likely because of drier floodplain conditions and lower water tables. Burrow diameters of the most abundant ichnofossils are 30-46% smaller within the PETM interval. As burrow size is a proxy for body size, significant reductions in burrow diameter suggest that their tracemakers were smaller bodied. Smaller body sizes may have resulted from higher subsurface temperatures, lower soil moisture conditions, or nutritionally deficient vegetation in the high-CO2 atmosphere inferred for the PETM. Smaller soil fauna co-occur with dwarf mammal taxa during the PETM; thus, a common forcing mechanism may have selected for small size in both above- and below-ground terrestrial communities. We predict that soil fauna have already shown reductions in size over the last 150 years of increased atmospheric CO2 and surface temperatures or that they will exhibit this pattern over the next century. We retrodict also that soil fauna across the Permian-Triassic and Triassic-Jurassic boundary events show significant size decreases because of similar forcing mechanisms driven by rapid global warming.

  18. Evidence of Late Palaeocene-Early Eocene equatorial rain forest refugia in southern Western Ghats, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Prasad; A Farooqui; S K M Tripathi; R Garg; B Thakur


    Equatorial rain forests that maintain a balance between speciation and extinction are hot-spots for studies of biodiversity. Western Ghats in southern India have gained attention due to high tropical biodiversity and endemism in their southern most area. We attempted to track the affinities of the pollen flora of the endemic plants of Western Ghat area within the fossil palynoflora of late Palaeocene-early Eocene (∼55–50 Ma) sedimentary deposits of western and northeastern Indian region. The study shows striking similarity of extant pollen with twenty eight most common fossil pollen taxa of the early Palaeogene. Widespread occurrences of coal and lignite deposits during early Palaeogene provide evidence of existence of well diversified rain forest community and swampy vegetation in the coastal low lying areas all along the western and northeastern margins of the Indian subcontinent. Prevalence of excessive humid climate during this period has been seen as a result of equatorial positioning of Indian subcontinent, superimposed by a long term global warming phase (PETM and EECO) during the early Palaeogene. The study presents clear evidence that highly diversified equatorial rain forest vegetation once widespread in the Indian subcontinent during early Palaeogene times, are now restricted in a small area as a refugia in the southernmost part of the Western Ghat area. High precipitation and shorter periods of dry months seem to have provided suitable environment to sustain lineages of ancient tropical vegetation in this area of Western Ghats in spite of dramatic climatic changes subsequent to the post India-Asia collision and during the Quaternary and Recent times.

  19. Fluvial response to abrupt global warming at the Palaeocene/Eocene boundary. (United States)

    Foreman, Brady Z; Heller, Paul L; Clementz, Mark T


    Climate strongly affects the production of sediment from mountain catchments as well as its transport and deposition within adjacent sedimentary basins. However, identifying climatic influences on basin stratigraphy is complicated by nonlinearities, feedback loops, lag times, buffering and convergence among processes within the sediment routeing system. The Palaeocene/Eocene thermal maximum (PETM) arguably represents the most abrupt and dramatic instance of global warming in the Cenozoic era and has been proposed to be a geologic analogue for anthropogenic climate change. Here we evaluate the fluvial response in western Colorado to the PETM. Concomitant with the carbon isotope excursion marking the PETM we document a basin-wide shift to thick, multistoried, sheets of sandstone characterized by variable channel dimensions, dominance of upper flow regime sedimentary structures, and prevalent crevasse splay deposits. This progradation of coarse-grained lithofacies matches model predictions for rapid increases in sediment flux and discharge, instigated by regional vegetation overturn and enhanced monsoon precipitation. Yet the change in fluvial deposition persisted long after the approximately 200,000-year-long PETM with its increased carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere, emphasizing the strong role the protracted transmission of catchment responses to distant depositional systems has in constructing large-scale basin stratigraphy. Our results, combined with evidence for increased dissolved loads and terrestrial clay export to world oceans, indicate that the transient hyper-greenhouse climate of the PETM may represent a major geomorphic 'system-clearing event', involving a global mobilization of dissolved and solid sediment loads on Earth's surface.

  20. Transition of Eocene whales from land to sea: evidence from bone microstructure.

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    Alexandra Houssaye

    Full Text Available Cetacea are secondarily aquatic amniotes that underwent their land-to-sea transition during the Eocene. Primitive forms, called archaeocetes, include five families with distinct degrees of adaptation to an aquatic life, swimming mode and abilities that remain difficult to estimate. The lifestyle of early cetaceans is investigated by analysis of microanatomical features in postcranial elements of archaeocetes. We document the internal structure of long bones, ribs and vertebrae in fifteen specimens belonging to the three more derived archaeocete families--Remingtonocetidae, Protocetidae, and Basilosauridae--using microtomography and virtual thin-sectioning. This enables us to discuss the osseous specializations observed in these taxa and to comment on their possible swimming behavior. All these taxa display bone mass increase (BMI in their ribs, which lack an open medullary cavity, and in their femora, whereas their vertebrae are essentially spongious. Humeri and femora show opposite trends in microanatomical specialization in the progressive independence of cetaceans from a terrestrial environment. Humeri change from very compact to spongious, which is in accordance with the progressive loss of propulsive role for the forelimbs, which were used instead for steering and stabilizing. Conversely, hind-limbs in basilosaurids became strongly reduced with no involvement in locomotion but display strong osteosclerosis in the femora. Our study confirms that Remingtonocetidae and Protocetidae were almost exclusively aquatic in locomotion for the taxa sampled, which probably were shallow water suspended swimmers. Basilosaurids display osseous specializations similar to those of modern cetaceans and are considered more active open-sea swimmers. This study highlights the strong need for homologous sections in comparative microanatomical studies, and the importance of combining information from several bones of the same taxon for improved functional

  1. A middle Eocene mesoeucrocodylian (Crocodyliformes) from the Kaninah Formation, Republic of Yemen (United States)

    Stevens, Nancy J.; Hill, Robert V.; Al-Wosabi, Mohammed; Schulp, Anne; As-Saruri, Mustafa; Al-Nimey, Fuad; Jolley, Lea Ann; Schulp-Stuip, Yvonne; O'Connor, Patrick


    During the Cenozoic, the Arabian Plate separated from continental Africa and assumed a closer geographical relationship with Eurasia. As such, the vertebrate fossil record of the Arabian Peninsula has great potential for documenting faunal interchanges that occurred as a result of such tectonic events, with a shift from a primarily Afro-Arabian fauna in the Palaeogene to a more cosmopolitan fauna in the Neogene. Understanding of the sequence and timing of this faunal interchange has long been hampered by a lack of palaeontological data. Recently recovered fossils from the Middle Eocene Kaninah Formation of Yemen constitute the earliest Palaeogene record of continental vertebrates from the Arabian Peninsula, thereby offering a rare glimpse at the region's post- -Cretaceous fauna. Here we describe fossil materials from the Kaninah Formation, a collection of dental and postcranial elements representing a mesoeucrocodylian crocodyliform of unclear affinities. The specimen exhibits ziphodont tooth morphology along with a biserial paravertebral shield and polygonal gastral osteoderms, consistent with certain mesoeucrocodylians (e.g., ziphodontan notosuchians). Yet the associated fragmentary anterior caudal vertebra, although badly abraded, preserves morphology suggestive of procoely. This vertebral type in combination with the dental and osteoderm morphology is much more taxonomically restrictive and consistent with the suite of characters exhibited by atoposaurids, a finding that would significantly extend that clade through the Cretaceous/Palaeogene boundary. Alternatively, given the relative paucity of information from the region during the Palaeogene, the combination of characteristics of the Kaninah crocodyliform may reflect a novel or poorly known form exhibiting previously unrecognised character mosaicism. We take a conservative approach, and refer the Kaninah specimen to Mesoeucrocodylia, Atoposauridae (?) pending discovery of more complete material. New fossils

  2. Deep-sea ecosystem response to the Middle Eocene Climate Optimum (MECO) in the North Atlantic Ocean (United States)

    Bunzel, Dorothea; Schmiedl, Gerhard; Friedrich, Oliver


    We investigated the benthic foraminiferal diversity and species composition from North Atlantic IODP Site U1408 in order to document changes in deep-water circulation and organic matter fluxes across the Middle Eocene Climate Optimum (MECO). Site U1408 was drilled at a present water depth of 3022 m southeast of the coast of Newfoundland. The benthic foraminiferal faunas are characterized by generally high species diversity suggesting favorable environmental conditions throughout the studied interval. Among a total of 193 benthic foraminiferal taxa the most dominant genera include Nuttallides, Oridorsalis, Cibicidoides, Pullenia, Anomalinoides, Globocassidulina and Gyroidinoides. Increased abundances of elongate-cylindrical infaunal species suggest approximately 460 ka duration of the MECO (from around 40.19 to 39.73 Ma) and the presence of slightly less ventilated bottom waters and elevated food availability during this time interval. The duration of the MECO also coincides with the presence of the planktonic foraminifer Orbulinoides beckmanni, which therefore is used as an Eocene biostratigraphy marker defining the end of the warm interval with its Last Appearance Datum. Changes in the benthic foraminiferal fauna probably reflect the onset of deep-water formation in the northern North Atlantic Ocean as response to the long-term climatic cooling trend of the middle Eocene. The intensification of deep-water currents and increased influence of cold and well-ventilated deep-water masses is reflected by increased importance of the Nuttallides truempyi-fauna. Superimposed on this long-term faunal trend are changes in the distribution of Globocassidulina subglobosa at a period of approximately 200 ka suggesting an eccentricity forcing of deep-water formation and associated food quality at the sea floor.

  3. Lacustrine 87Sr/86Sr as a tracer to reconstruct Milankovitch forcing of the Eocene hydrologic cycle (United States)

    Baddouh, M'bark; Meyers, Stephen R.; Carroll, Alan R.; Beard, Brian L.; Johnson, Clark M.


    The Green River Formation (GRF) provides one of the premier paleoclimate archives of the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (∼50 Ma), representing the apex of the early Cenozoic greenhouse climate. Rhythmic lake-level variability expressed in the GRF has inspired numerous hypotheses for the behavior of the Eocene hydrologic cycle, including its linkage to astronomical forcing, solar variability, and the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). However, the lack of sufficient proxy data to document atmospheric water-mass transport and the geographic pattern of evaporation/precipitation/runoff has made it difficult to discriminate between different models for astronomical forcing. Variable 87Sr/86Sr ratios of bedrock that encompass the GRF provide an opportunity to reconstruct the spatial expression of the Eocene hydrologic cycle and its linkage to lake level. Here Sr isotope data from the Wilkins Peak Member, a rhythmic succession that has been demonstrated to record Milankovitch forcing of lake levels, indicate that high lake levels reflect an increased proportion of runoff from less radiogenic rocks west of the basin, eliminating a number of the existing astronomical-forcing hypotheses. The 87Sr/86Sr variability is consistent with a change in mean ENSO state, which is predicted by climate models to be linked to orbital-insolation. Thus, the 87Sr/86Sr data reveal a coupling of high frequency (ENSO) and low frequency (astronomical) climate variability, and also predict the existence of sizable astronomically-forced alpine snowpack during the last greenhouse climate. More broadly, this study demonstrates the utility of 87Sr/86Sr as a powerful tool for reconstructing the deep-time hydrologic cycle.

  4. Late Cretaceous-early Eocene counterclockwise rotation of the Fueguian Andes and evolution of the Patagonia-Antarctic Peninsula system (United States)

    Poblete, F.; Roperch, P.; Arriagada, C.; Ruffet, G.; Ramírez de Arellano, C.; Hervé, F.; Poujol, M.


    The southernmost Andes of Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego present a prominent arc-shaped structure: the Patagonian Bend. Whether the bending is a primary curvature or an orocline is still matter of controversy. New paleomagnetic data have been obtained south of the Beagle Channel in 39 out of 61 sites. They have been drilled in Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous sediments and interbedded volcanics and in mid-Cretaceous to Eocene intrusives of the Fuegian Batholith. The anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility was measured at each site and the influence of magnetic fabric on the characteristic remanent magnetizations (ChRM) in plutonic rocks was corrected using inverse tensors of anisotropy of remanent magnetizations. Normal polarity secondary magnetizations with west-directed declination were obtained in the sediments and they did not pass the fold test. These characteristic directions are similar to those recorded by mid Cretaceous intrusives suggesting a remagnetization event during the normal Cretaceous superchron and describe a large (> 90°) counterclockwise rotation. Late Cretaceous to Eocene rocks of the Fueguian Batholith, record decreasing counterclockwise rotations of 45° to 30°. These paleomagnetic results are interpreted as evidence of a large counterclockwise rotation of the Fueguian Andes related to the closure of the Rocas Verdes Basin and the formation of the Darwin Cordillera during the Late Cretaceous and Paleocene. The tectonic evolution of the Patagonian Bend can thus be described as the formation of a progressive arc from an oroclinal stage during the closure of the Rocas Verdes basin to a mainly primary arc during the final stages of deformation of the Magallanes fold and thrust belt. Plate reconstructions show that the Antarctic Peninsula would have formed a continuous margin with Patagonia between the Early Cretaceous and the Eocene, and acted as a non-rotational rigid block facilitating the development of the Patagonian Bend.

  5. Living on the edge: The oxygen isotope record of Eocene Basins at the margin of the Cenozoic North American plateau (United States)

    Methner, Katharina; Mulch, Andreas; Chamberlain, Page


    Topography has a strong impact on atmospheric circulation and precipitation patterns and is a key element in reconstructing the dynamics of mountain building processes. The topographic evolution of the world's major orogens remains one of the most important questions when discussing the interactions among tectonics, climate, and Earth surface processes. Here, we focus on the spatial and temporal development of topography and relief in the western North American Cordillera and how changes in the topography may have affected precipitation patterns and vice versa. In this context, we sampled more than 20 sections in Eocene to Oligocene terrestrial (intermontane?) basins (Chumstick, Swauk, and Chuckanut) in western and central Washington (USA) to the W and E of the modern Cascades. Oxygen isotope analysis of pedogenic carbonate in these sections allows us to reconstruct the isotopic composition of ancient soilwater or groundwater, and ultimately precipitation. Oxygen isotope measurements of pedogenic concretions and calcic horizons interestingly yield uniformly low δ18O values of 10 to 13‰ SMOW despite the proximity of all sections to the Pacific moisture source. These extremely low oxygen isotope values can result from (1) highly 18O-depleted meteoric waters (soil- or groundwater), (2) burial diagenesis at moderate temperatures and interaction with 18O-depleted (ground)water, and (3) high burial temperatures and and exchange with basins brines. Vitrinite reflectance data and preservation of primary soil structures such as rootlets, root casts, burrows, or even preserved wood fragments clearly show that some of the low-d18O sections were not affected by high degrees of burial diagenesis. Thus, we believe that the primary isotopic signal of ancient soil- or groundwater is preserved at least in parts (if not in all) of these basins. Low δ18O values of pedogenic carbonate require highly 18O-depleted meteoric water, which in turn, would require high elevation either at

  6. A new find of the fossil Cyclosorus from the Eocene of South China and its paleoclimatic implication. (United States)

    Naugolnykh, Serge V; Wang, Li; Han, Meng; Jin, Jian-Hua


    The thelypteroid ferns are widely distributed across tropical regions around the world, but information about their fossil representatives is scarce. A new species, Cyclosorus scutum Naugolnykh, Wang, Han et Jin was discovered from the Eocene Changchang Formation of Hainan Island, South China, and is described on the basis of sterile and fertile leaves, sori, sporangia and spores preserved in situ. Discovery of this new species clearly shows that climatic conditions of that time in this area were humid, i.e. warm and wet.

  7. Microfossil evidence for trophic changes during the Eocene-Oligocene transition in the South Atlantic (ODP Site 1263, Walvis Ridge) (United States)

    Bordiga, M.; Henderiks, J.; Tori, F.; Monechi, S.; Fenero, R.; Legarda-Lisarri, A.; Thomas, E.


    The biotic response of calcareous nannoplankton to environmental and climatic changes during the Eocene-Oligocene transition was investigated at a high resolution at Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1263 (Walvis Ridge, southeast Atlantic Ocean) and compared with a lower-resolution benthic foraminiferal record. During this time interval, global climate, which had been warm under high levels of atmospheric CO2 (pCO2) during the Eocene, transitioned into the cooler climate of the Oligocene, at overall lower pCO2. At Site 1263, the absolute nannofossil abundance (coccoliths per gram of sediment; N g-1) and the mean coccolith size decreased distinctly after the E-O boundary (EOB; 33.89 Ma), mainly due to a sharp decline in abundance of large-sized Reticulofenestra and Dictyococcites, occurring within a time span of ~ 47 kyr. Carbonate dissolution did not vary much across the EOB; thus, the decrease in abundance and size of nannofossils may reflect an overall decrease in their export production, which could have led to variations in the food availability for benthic foraminifers. The benthic foraminiferal assemblage data are consistent with a global decline in abundance of rectilinear species with complex apertures in the latest Eocene (~ 34.5 Ma), potentially reflecting changes in the food source, i.e., phytoplankton. This was followed by a transient increased abundance of species indicative of seasonal delivery of food to the sea floor (Epistominella spp.; ~ 33.9-33.4 Ma), with a short peak in overall food delivery at the EOB (buliminid taxa; ~ 33.8 Ma). Increased abundance of Nuttallides umbonifera (at ~ 33.3 Ma) indicates the presence of more corrosive bottom waters and possibly the combined arrival of less food at the sea floor after the second step of cooling (Step 2). The most important changes in the calcareous nannofossil and benthic communities occurred ~ 120 kyr after the EOB. There was no major change in nannofossil abundance or assemblage composition at


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    Full Text Available The organic walled dinoflagellate cyst Pseudorhombodinium cinguloindentatum gen. et sp. n. is formally described from the Upper Eocene of Sicily, Italy. It consists of a brown coloured, circumcavate wetzelielloid cyst with marked V-shaped cingular indentations in the pericyst. The proposed generic name refers to similarities existing in the overall morphology with the genus Rhombodinium Gocht. However, substantial differences in archeopyle styling, in the disposition of antapical horns, and in the amount of cingular indentation, advocate the erection of the new genus Pseudorhombodinium. 

  9. Integrating South Pacific carbon cycling and climate history from Late Paleocene to Middle Eocene: an upper slope transect from eastern New Zealand (United States)

    Slotnick, B. S.; Dickens, G. R.; Hollis, C. J.; Crampton, J. S.; Strong, C.; Zachos, J. C.; Hines, B. R.; Philips, A.


    The Late Paleocene to Middle Eocene was characterized by prominent variations in global carbon cycling, which operated on both long (>10e6) and short (CIEs) occur through this interval, although it is not clear if they are hyperthermals. In addition, strata from the late Early Eocene has lower carbonate contents than were measured in beds that span the numerous yet distinct clay-rich Early Eocene hyperthermals, an indication that the flux of carbonate to the seafloor decreased, either because of lower surface water carbonate production or because of extreme shoaling of the lysocline. Overall, these records are broadly correlative to preliminary records from other Clarence Valley sections and can be correlated to the paleotemperature record from Canterbury Basin to the south.

  10. Climatic and Oceanographic Changes Across the Eocene-Oligocene Boundary: Results From South Atlantic ODP Site 1090 (United States)

    Pusz, A. E.; Thunell, R. C.; Scher, H. D.; Barbeau, D. L.; Miller, K. G.; Wright, J. D.


    The Eocene-Oligocene (E-O) boundary is marked by one of the largest climate transitions of the past 50 Ma. The Oi-1 event is characterized by a 1.0‰ increase in benthic foraminiferal δ 18O that occurred at ca. 33.5 Ma. This δ 18O shift has mainly been attributed to large-scale Antarctic ice- sheet growth, whereas deep-water temperature change during Oi-1 remains unresolved. However, recent studies have suggested that this event and its precursor (EOT-1) require the presence of significant ice sheets in Antarctica and the Northern Hemisphere, a eustatic lowering of ~150 meters, and ice-volume storage that is ~2.0 to 2.5 times that of modern ice sheets. We examined the δ 18O and δ 13C of the benthic foraminifera Cibicidoides from South Atlantic ODP site 1090 during Oi-1 at a 10 ka resolution. The benthic δ 18O record from site 1090 shows an overall ~1.5‰ step-wise increase composed primarily of a 0.5‰ shift at ca. 33.8 Ma followed by an even larger 1.0‰ shift at ca. 33.5 Ma, similar to the punctuated shift across the E-O transition documented at sites 1218, 522, and St. Stephens Quarry. Our benthic foraminiferal δ 13C record for site 1090 displays a 1.0‰ increase associated with Oi-1 that is coeval with the δ 18O change. In addition, we analyzed planktonic foraminiferal δ 18O and δ 13C (Subbotina) across this interval. Our planktonic δ 18O data show a transient (<200 kyr) increase of 1.5‰ at 34.0 Ma that we attribute to a change in the structure of the thermocline. A planktonic foraminiferal δ 13C decrease at ca. 34.1 Ma supports the interpretation of a stronger thermocline with a coeval drop in the vertical carbon isotope gradient between the thermocline-dwelling planktonic and deep-dwelling benthic foraminifera. Additional planktonic and benthic foraminiferal stable isotope data from South Atlantic ODP site 1265 across the E-O interval should help determine the cause of the planktonic foraminiferal δ 18O and δ 13C changes. We also

  11. Reconstructing Changes in Deep Ocean Temperature and Global Carbon Cycle during the Early Eocene Warming Trend: High-Resolution Benthic Stable Isotope Records from the SE Atlantic. (United States)

    Lauretano, V.; Zachos, J. C.; Lourens, L. J.


    From the late Paleocene to the early Eocene, Earth's surface temperatures generally rose, resulting in an increase of at least 5°C in the deep ocean and culminating in the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO). This long-term warming was punctuated by a series of short-lived global warming events known as "hyperthermals", of which the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) represents the most extreme example. At least two other short-term episodes have been identified as hyperthermals: the ETM2 (or Elmo event) at about 53.7 Myr and the ETM3 (or X-event) at about 52.5 Myr. These transient events are marked by prominent carbon isotope excursions (CIEs), recorded in marine and continental sedimentary sequences and driven by fast and massive injections of 13C-depleted carbon into the ocean-atmosphere system. Recently, evidence has indicated the presence of a regular series of hyperthermal events following the peak in temperatures of the EECO. However, continuous records are needed to investigate short- and long- term changes in the climate system throughout the Early Eocene warming trend. Here, we present new high-resolution benthic stable isotope records of the Early Eocene from ODP Site 1263, (Walvis Ridge, SE Atlantic). The carbon and oxygen records document changes in deep-sea temperature and global carbon cycle encompassing the Early Eocene hyperthermal events and the EECO interval. The transition phase to the post-EECO events is distinct by the decoupling of carbon and oxygen isotopes on the long-term scale. Spectral and wavelet analyses suggest the influence of orbital forcing, specifically long and short eccentricity cycles.

  12. Global Carbon Cycle Perturbations and Implications for Arctic Hydrology during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (United States)

    Cui, Y.; Kump, L.; Diefendorf, A. F.; Freeman, K. H.


    The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM; ca. 55.9 Ma) was an interval of geologically abrupt global warming lasting ~200 ka. It has been proposed as an ancient analogue for future climate response to CO2 emission from fossil fuel burning. The onset of this event is fueled by a large release of 13C-depleted carbon into the ocean-atmosphere system. However, there is a large discrepancy in the magnitude of the carbon isotope excursion (CIE) between marine and terrestrial records. Here we present new organic geochemical data and stable carbon isotope records from n-alkanes and pristane extracted from core materials representing the most expanded PETM section yet recovered from a nearshore marine early Cenozoic succession from Spitsbergen. The low hydrogen index and oxygen index indicate that organic matter has been thermally altered, consistent with n-alkanes that do not show a clear odd-over-even predominance as reflected by the low and constant carbon preference index. The δ13C records of long chain n-alkanes from core BH9-05 track the δ13C recorded in total organic carbon, but are ~3% more negative prior to the CIE, ~4.5% more negative during the CIE, and ~4% more negative after the CIE. An orbital age model derived from the same core suggests the CIE from n-alkanes appears more abruptly onset than the bulk organic carbon, indicating possibly climate-induced modification to the observed feature in n-alkanes. In addition, the carbon isotope values of individual long-chain (n-C27 to n-C31) n-alkanes tend to become less negative with increasing chain length resulting in the smallest magnitude CIEs in longer chain lengths (i.e. n-C31) and the largest magnitude CIEs in shorter chain lengths (i.e. n-C27). We are currently considering the effect of plant community and paleoclimate on the observed pattern of CIE in n-alkanes to evaluate carbon cycle perturbations and Arctic hydrology changes during the PETM. One interpretation of these patterns is that there was an

  13. Geology and geochemistry of the Eocene zeolite bearing volcaniclastic sediments of Metaxades, Thrace, Greece

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    Tsirambides, A.


    Full Text Available The Eocene zeolite-bearing volcaniclastic sediments (Ca-rich clinoptilolite 51 % on average of Metaxades, Thrace, Greece, are studied in terms of geology and chemical composition. The alternating formations along a vertical profile in the Metaxades main quarry face are: Discrete horizons of zeolite-bearing volcaniclastic tuffs, zeolite-bearing volcaniclastic tuffs including pebbles, zeolite-bearing volcaniclastic tuffs including thin silica-rich layers, and a calc-clayey horizon. A positive correlation is observed between MgO and CaO in the volcaniclastic tuffs including silica-rich layers. Sr, Rb and Ba are the most abundant trace elements in alllayers; among them, Sr is found to correlate positively with zeolite. The enrichment of sorne trace elements is mainly attributed to mineral abundances, mineral chemistry or leaching processes. The zeolite-bearing volcaniclastic sediments of Metaxades represent an inhomogeneous sequence, which was deposited in a shallow marine environment under turbulent to quiet sedimentary conditions.Los sedimentos eocenos volcanoclásticos con zeolita (51% de media de clinoptilolita rica en Ca de Metaxades, Tracia, Grecia, se estudian desde el punto de vista geológico y de su composición química. Las formaciones alternantes que se pueden observar en un corte vertical en la cantera principal de Metaxades son: horizontes aislados de tufos volcanoclásticos con zeolita y con delgadas capas ricas en sílice, y un horizonte calco-arcilloso. Se observa una correlación positiva entre MgO y CaO en los tufss volcanoclásticos que presentan capas ricas en sílice. El Sr, el Rb y el Ba son los elementos traza más abundantes en todos los horizontes. Entre ellos, el Sr presenta una correlación positiva con la zeolita. El enriquecimiento en algunos elementos traza se atribuye esencialmente a las abundancias de los minerales, la química mineral, o a fenómenos de lixivinción. Los sedimentos volcanoclásticos con zeolita de

  14. Petrogenesis of eocene lava flows from the chagai arc, Balochistan, Pakistan and its tectonic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Eocene Lava flows occur in the northwestern part of an EW trending subduction related-magmatic belt known as Chagai arc in the Western part of Pakistan. The volcanism in this arc was initiated during the Late Cretaceous, which intermittently continued up to the Quaternary period. In the regional geotectonic context this arc belongs to the Tethyan convergence zone and was believed to have formed due to the northward subduction of Arabian oceanic plate below the southern margin of Afghan micro plate and hence considered as an Andean type arc. Although Bocene volcaniclastic rock occurs throughout the Chagai arc but the lava flows only crop out in a NW-SE elongated (1 km x 6 kIn) area in the northwestern part of the Chagai arc. These lava flows are represented by two discrete cycles of eruptions found towards the top of the lower pyroclastic sequence of Saindak Formation of Ecocene age. The older flow is about 100 m thick and extends for 2 km whereas the younger flow is 700 metre thick and extends for more than 6 km. The lava flows are mainly represented by amigdaloidal basaltic-andesites (55.50- 54.53 wt. % SiO/sub 2/) and andesites (57.40-62.79 wt. % SiO/sub 2/) with minor basalt (51.88 wt. % SiO/sub 2/) and dacite (67.81 wt. % SiO/sub 2/). The main textures exhibited by these flows are hypocrystalline, porphyritic, cummulophyric, vitrophyric and sub pilotaxitic. Large phenocrysts ( < 1 mm - 4mm) of plagioclase (An-38-58) and pyroxene are embedded in a micro to criptocrystalline groundmass having the same minerals with devitrified volcanic glass. The phenocrysts groundmass ratio is 35:65. Apatite, hematite, ilmenite and magnetite are common accessory mineral. Petrochemical studies reveal that these volcanics belong to medium to low K-calc- alkaline series. They have low Mg = (39-50), and higher FeO (total)/MgO (1.81-2.78) ratios, which suggest that parent magma of these rock suites was not directly derived from a partially melted mantle source but fractionated in

  15. Resilient terrestrial ecosystems at the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (Invited) (United States)

    Wing, S.


    The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) was an interval of global warming lasting ~200 ka that began ~56 Ma. Global temperature rose 5-8 °C in association with the emission of thousands of Pg of carbon into the ocean-atmosphere system. PETM rocks and fossils are extensively exposed in the SE Bighorn Basin of Wyoming, where the event is represented by ~40 m of fluvial rocks. Fossil plants demonstrate a rapid and nearly complete turnover in floral composition that also suggests a change in the structure of vegetation. Floras collected from the last ~50 ka of the Paleocene are composed of Platanaceae (sycamores), Betulaceae (birches), Fagaceae (oaks), Lauraceae (laurels), Juglandaceae (walnuts), Cercidiphyllaceae (katsura), Taxodiaceae (dawn redwood), and Arecaceae (palms), among others. Many of these families are most diverse and abundant today in temperate to subtropical, mid-latitude forests. During the body of the carbon isotope excursion (CIE) associated with the PETM fossil floras have a completely different composition. All of the latest Paleocene plant types are absent, except for palms, and instead the floras are dominated by Fabaceae (bean family). Other taxa include Sapindaceae (soapberry), Annonaceae (paw-paw), and Hernandiaceae. Where living relatives are known, they live in dry tropical forests of Central and South America. This floral composition is maintained through the ~30 m of section representing the ~110 ka-long body of the CIE, the same interval characterized by dwarfed mammalian faunas. During the recovery phase of the CIE most of the latest Paleocene plants returned to the area of study, although some new taxa appeared, apparently coming in from Europe or Asia. The distinctive PETM floral types are not seen after the recovery phase of the CIE. Change in floral composition during the PETM apparently represents regional extirpations of populations of plants that preferred warm, mesic conditions, and northward range extensions of plants that

  16. Space-time distribution of ignimbrite volcanism in the southern SMO: From Eocene to Pliocene (United States)

    Nieto-Obregon, J.; Aguirre-Diaz, G. J.


    A distinct variation in the age of the ignimbrites of the Sierra Madre Occidental (SMO) is observed in the southern portion, which includes the area between Tepic, Nayarit (-105° W) and Aguascalientes, Ags (-102° W). Older, high-grade ignimbrites are Eocene and occur as scattered outcrops. These are in turn covered by a widespread and voluminous sequence of high-grade ignimbrites and silicic to intermediate lavas that ranges in age from Middle Oligocene to Middle Miocene. The peak of this ignimbrite volcanism was at about 21 Ma to 22 Ma, but there is evidence showing that it initiated since about 30 Ma and ended at about 17.5 Ma. This ignimbrite and lava sequence is in turn covered by another series of lavas, predominantly mafic to intermediate, in the southern part of the area. This latest volcanism represents the initiation of the Mexican Volcanic Belt. Ignimbrite volcanism apparently initiated at the NE part of the study area, and migrated to the SW with time, that is from the area Presa Calles to the valley of Bolaños. Isotopic ages reported on these rocks, cluster in various groups reflecting the time evolution of volcanism. Rocks older than 30 Ma tend to occur on the raised blocks of Sierra de El Laurel and Northern Sierra de Morones, in the eastern part of the area. The interval from 30 to 20 Ma comprises a discontinuous set of ages that are concentrated in the blocks of Southern Sierra de Morones, Tlaltenango, Bolaños and the area around Cinco Minas-San Pedro Analco-Hostotipaquillo. An apparent gap of ages occurs between 12 to 18 Ma, followed by a predominantly mafic volcanism scattered mainly to the south of the area, that represents the transition of SMO to MVB. Finally mafic volcanism of the MVB of 3 to 4 Ma is present in the south, in the area excavated on the vicinity of Rio Grande de Santiago. A similar migration pattern has been reported in general for the whole SMO by Aguirre-Diaz and Labarthe-Hernandez (2003), from NE Chihuahua to SW Nayarit

  17. The middle Eocene climatic optimum (MECO): A multiproxy record of paleoceanographic changes in the southeast Atlantic (ODP Site 1263, Walvis Ridge) (United States)

    Boscolo Galazzo, F.; Thomas, E.; Pagani, M.; Warren, C.; Luciani, V.; Giusberti, L.


    The middle Eocene climatic optimum (MECO, ~40 Ma) was a transient period of global warming that interrupted the secular Cenozoic cooling trend. We investigated the paleoceanographic, paleoenvironmental, and paleoecological repercussions of the MECO in the southeast Atlantic subtropical gyre (Ocean Drilling Program Site 1263). TEX86 and δ18O records support an ~4°C increase in surface and deepwater temperatures during the MECO. There is no long-term negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE) associated with the early warming, consistent with other sites, and there is no short-term negative CIE (~50 kyr) during the peak of the MECO, in contrast to what has been observed at some sites. This lack of a CIE during the peak of the MECO at Site 1263 could be due to poor sediment recovery or geographic heterogeneity of the δ13C signal. Benthic and planktic foraminiferal mass accumulation rates markedly declined during MECO, indicating a reduction of planktic foraminiferal production and export productivity. Vertical δ13C gradients do not indicate major changes in water column stratification, and there is no biomarker or micropaleontological evidence that hypoxia developed. We suggest that temperature dependency of metabolic rates could explain the observed decrease in foraminiferal productivity during warming. The kinetics of biochemical reactions increase with temperature, more so for heterotrophs than for autotrophs. Steady warming during MECO may have enhanced heterotroph (i.e., foraminiferal) metabolic rates, so that they required more nutrients. These additional nutrients were not available because of the oligotrophic conditions in the region and the lesser response of primary producers to warming. The combination of warming and heterotroph starvation altered pelagic food webs, increased water column recycling of organic carbon, and decreased the amount of organic carbon available to the benthos.

  18. A Giant Arctic Freshwater Pond at the end of the Early Eocene; Implications for Ocean Heat Transport and Carbon Cycling (United States)

    Brinkhuis, H.; Schouten, S.; Collinson, M. E.; Sluijs, A.; Sinninghe-Damste, J. S.; Dickens, G. R.; Huber, M.; Cronin, T. M.; Bujak, J. P.; Stein, R.; Eldrett, J. S.; Harding, I. C.; Sangiorgi, F.


    In the last decades remains of the free-floating, fresh water fern Azolla have been found in unusually high abundances in basal middle Eocene (~48.5 Ma) marine sediments deposited in all Nordic seas. While generally taken to signal some `freshwater input', their source and significance were not determined. Through palynological and organic geochemical analyses of unique cores obtained from unprecedented Arctic Ocean drilling (IODP 302 - ACEX) we show that the brackish surface conditions that prevailed in the Arctic Ocean through the late Paleocene and early Eocene culminated in the deposition of laminated organic rich deposits yielding huge amounts of remains of Azolla. This, plus e.g., low diversity dinoflagellate assemblages, and concomitant low BIT values, indicates in-situ Azolla growth, and that the surface of the Arctic Ocean episodically resembled a giant fresh water pond over an interval altogether lasting ~800,000 years. The Arctic Basin thus constituted the main source of the freshwater pulses found elsewhere, reaching as far south as the southern North Sea.TEX86-derived surface temperatures were 13-14°C before and after the Azolla interval and only 10°C during the event, which may be related to obstruction of pole ward ocean heat transport and/or increased carbon burial.

  19. Paleogeography of the Upper Rhine Graben (URG) and the Swiss Molasse Basin (SMB) from Eocene to Pliocene (United States)

    Berger, Jean-Pierre; Reichenbacher, Bettina; Becker, Damien; Grimm, Matthias; Grimm, Kirsten; Picot, Laurent; Storni, Andrea; Pirkenseer, Claudius; Derer, Christian; Schaefer, Andreas


    Twenty paleogeographic maps are presented for Middle Eocene (Lutetian) to Late Pliocene times according to the stratigraphical data given in the companion paper by Berger et al. this volume. Following a first lacustrine-continental sedimentation during the Middle Eocene, two and locally three Rupelian transgressive events were identified with the first corresponding with the Early Rupelian Middle Pechelbronn beds and the second and third with the Late Rupelian ≪ Serie Grise ≫ (Fischschiefer and equivalents). During the Early Rupelian (Middle Pechelbronn beds), a connection between North Sea and URG is clearly demonstrated, but a general connection between North Sea, URG and Paratethys, via the Alpine sea, is proposed, but not proved, during the late Rupelian. Whereas in the southern URG, a major hiatus spans Early Aquitanian to Pliocene times, Early and Middle Miocene marine, brackish and freshwater facies occur in the northern URG and in the Molasse Basin (OMM, OSM); however, no marine connections between these basins could be demonstrated during this time. After the deposition of the molasse series, a very complex drainage pattern developed during the Late Miocene and Pliocene, with a clear connection to the Bresse Graben during the Piacenzian (Sundgau gravels). During the Late Miocene, Pliocene and Quaternary sedimentation persisted in the northern URG with hardly any interruptions. The present drainage pattern of the Rhine river (from Alpine area to the lower Rhine Embayment) was not established before the Early Pleistocene.

  20. Onset of the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum in the southern Pacific Ocean (DSDP Site 277, Campbell Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Hollis


    Full Text Available Re-examination of a sediment core collected by the Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP Site 277 on the western margin of the Campbell Plateau, Southwest Pacific Ocean (paleolatitude of ∼ 65° S, has identified an intact Paleocene–Eocene (P–E boundary overlain by a 34 cm-thick record of the initial phase of the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM within nannofossil chalk. The upper part of the PETM is truncated, either due to drilling disturbance or a sedimentary hiatus. An intact record of the onset of the PETM is indicated by a gradual decrease in δ13C values over 20 cm, followed by a 14 cm interval in which δ13C is 2‰ lighter than uppermost Paleocene values. After accounting for effects of diagenetic alteration, we use δ18O and Mg/Ca values from foraminiferal tests to determine that intermediate and surface waters warmed by ∼ 6° at the onset of the PETM prior to the full development of the negative δ13C excursion. After this initial warming, sea temperatures were relatively stable through the PETM, but declined abruptly across the unconformity that truncates the event at this site. Mg/Ca analysis of foraminiferal tests indicate peak intermediate and surface water temperatures of ∼ 19 and ∼ 32 °C, respectively. These temperatures may be influenced by enhanced poleward ocean heat transport during the PETM and surface water values may also be biased towards warm season temperatures.

  1. Quantified abundance of magnetofossils at the Paleocene–Eocene boundary from synchrotron-based transmission X-ray microscopy (United States)

    Wang, Huapei; Wang, Jun; Chen-Wiegart, Yu-chen Karen; Kent, Dennis V.


    The Paleocene–Eocene boundary (∼55.8 million years ago) is marked by an abrupt negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE) that coincides with an oxygen isotope decrease interpreted as the Paleocene–Eocene thermal maximum. Biogenic magnetite (Fe3O4) in the form of giant (micron-sized) spearhead-like and spindle-like magnetofossils, as well as nano-sized magnetotactic bacteria magnetosome chains, have been reported in clay-rich sediments in the New Jersey Atlantic Coastal Plain and were thought to account for the distinctive single-domain magnetic properties of these sediments. Uncalibrated strong field magnet extraction techniques have been typically used to provide material for scanning and transmission electron microscopic imaging of these magnetic particles, whose concentration in the natural sediment is thus difficult to quantify. In this study, we use a recently developed ultrahigh-resolution, synchrotron-based, full-field transmission X-ray microscope to study the iron-rich minerals within the clay sediment in their bulk state. We are able to estimate the total magnetization concentration of the giant biogenic magnetofossils to be only ∼10% of whole sediment. Along with previous rock magnetic studies on the CIE clay, we suggest that most of the magnetite in the clay occurs as isolated, near-equidimensional nanoparticles, a suggestion that points to a nonbiogenic origin, such as comet impact plume condensates in what may be very rapidly deposited CIE clays. PMID:26420869

  2. A Case for the Rapid Release of Carbon during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum Carbon Isotope Excursion (United States)

    Wright, J. D.; Schaller, M. F.


    The Paleocene/Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) and associated Carbon Isotope Excursion (CIE) are often touted as the best geologic analog for the current anthropogenic rise in pCO2. However, a causal mechanism for the PETM CIE remains unidentified because of large uncertainties in the duration of the CIE's onset. Here, we report on a sequence of rhythmic sedimentary couplets comprising the Paleocene/Eocene Marlboro Clay (Salisbury Embayment). These couplets have corresponding δ18O cycles that imply a climatic cause. We have counted over 650 couplets at two different sites precluding orbital- and millennial-scale forcing for their origin. %CaCO3 decreases from ~6 to Marlboro Clay' sediments and its δ13C excursion record the initial release of carbon into the atmosphere, invasion into the surface waters, and only the initial mixing into the deep ocean. Therefore, the recovery observed in the Marlboro Clay is not equivalent to the 'recovery' observed in the open ocean records in either its timing or root cause.

  3. Artiodactyls from the Pondaung Formation (Myanmar): new data and reevaluation of the South Asian Faunal Province during the Middle Eocene (United States)

    Métais, Grégoire; Soe, Aung Naing; Marivaux, Laurent; Beard, K. Christopher


    Although Asia is thought to have played a critical role in the radiation of artiodactyls, the fossil record of stem selenodonts (“dichobunoids”) remains dramatically poor in tropical Asian regions. In this study, we report a new dichobunid genus and species Cadutherium kyaukmagyii and a new basal ruminant genus and species Irrawadymeryx pondaungi, from the late Middle Eocene Pondaung Formation, Central Myanmar. Although the scarcity of the present material prevents any attempts to investigate the phylogenetic relationships of Cadutherium with contemporaneous forms from other Holarctic landmasses, this new form shed new light on the diversity of these small rabbit-like ungulates during a key period of their evolutionary history. Reexamination of the small-bodied artiodactyls from Pondaung leads us to propose new identifications of certain published specimens and, in turn, to investigate the temporal and geographic distribution of taxa recognized in the Pondaung Formation. Although fragmentary, these potential new taxa reveal an unsuspected diversity of small forms among artiodactyls of Pondaung. This addition to the Eocene record of dichobunoids and early ruminants provides further insight in the diversity of dental patterns among small artiodactyls from the Pondaung Formation and attests to the antiquity of these groups in Southeast Asia.

  4. A new late Eocene Bicornucythere species (Ostracoda, Crustacea) from Myanmar, and its significance for the evolutionary history of the genus. (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Tatsuhiko; Suzuki, Hisashi; Soe, Aung-Naing; Htike, Thaung; Nomura, Ritsuo; Takai, Masanaru


    The ostracode genus Bicornucythere (Ostracoda, Crustacea) is abundant in modern-day eutrophic marine bays, and is widely distributed in estuaries and inner bays throughout East Asia, including in China, Korea, Japan, and the Russian Far East. The evolutionary history of Bicornucythere is poorly understood. Here, we report on a new species of Bicornucythere (Bicornucythere concentrica sp. nov.) from the upper Eocene Yaw Formation in the Central Myanmar Basin. The oldest previously known Bicornucythere taxon, Bicornucythere secedens, was reported from lower Miocene strata in India, although a molecular phylogeny suggests that the genus first appeared in the Late Cretaceous. Bicornucythere concentrica sp. nov. is at least 10.9 million years older than the earliest known B. secedens. The new species occurs with Ammonia subgranulosa, a benthic foraminifer, an association that is representative of brackish water conditions in modern Asian bays. Our findings indicate that extant genera have inhabited Asian bays since the late Eocene. The paleobiogeography of Bicornucythere indicates that the taxon was dispersed onto Indian coasts during the collision between the Indian and Eurasian plates.

  5. Lithofacies and biofacies characteristics and whales skeletons distribution in the Eocene rock units of Fayoum Area, Egypt (United States)

    Gameil, M.; Al Anbaawy, M.; Abdel Fattah, M.; Abu El-Kheir, G.


    At Wadi Al Hitan area, rapid lateral and vertical variation is observed among the exposed middle and upper Eocene rock units. The tradionally known formations (Gehannam, Briket Qaroun, Qasr El-Sagha formations) interfinger laterally and not chronologically stacked above each other in most areas. Fine siltstones and claystones characterize the Gehannam Formation, sandstones and calcareous sandstones are characteristic for Briket Qaroun Formation, dark gray claystones are attributed to Garet El-Naqb Formation and interbedded claystones are attributed to Qasr El-Sagha Formation, irrespective of their stratigraphic position. Within these formations large numbers of marine vertebrate and invertebrate fossils exist at different stratigraphic levels. Whales are classified into four species belonging to four genera, these include Basilosaurus isis, Dorudon atrox, Saghacetus Osiris and Anclacetus simonsi. Basilosaurus isis and Dorudon atrox are the most common whale species exist in these formations. No major break in sedimentation has been described within the Eocene formations in Fayoum region. Only a well marked low sea stand is indicated at the top of the Gehannam Formation where it overlain by Birket Qaroun Formation.

  6. The preliminary results of larger foraminifera analysis from the Paleocene-Early Eocene of Southern Yemen, based on museums collections (United States)

    Zakrevskaya, E.


    The recent work is based on collections, which were sampled in 1980-th by soviet geologists and preserving now in funds of Vernadsky State Geological Museum. They include litological samples with larger foraminifera (LF) and separated tests of LF from Paleogene of Atag area and Hadramaut plateau (Souternn Yemen). The planctonic foraminifera are very rare in considered samples. According to lithological and foraminiferal composition all samples (about 100 numbers) are divided into three parts. The first one includes the LF tests, washed from sandy marls and shales of wells. The second unit represented by bioclastic limestones, partly silicified and dolomitized and rare marls, collected from the exposed sections. These units belong to Umm er Radhuma formation, which in Yemen dated by Paleocene-Eocene (Pignatti et al., 1998) or only Eocene (Ismail and Boukhary, 2008). The third, Lower Eocene unit in collections (Jeza formation) represented mainly by non carbonatic, gypsiferous argillaceous papery shales and marls. The most lower, marly part of section is opened by wells. The LF assemblages from marls of wells include the next rotaliids in lower part: Lokhartia lobulata Sander, L. haimei spirahordata Sander, L. cf. conditi Smout, Rotalia sp., Diktiokathina sp. The rests of Saudia tests are rare. In upper part Kathina erki (Sirel), Rotalia dukhani Smout and first small nummulites are marked. The lasts belong to Nummulites deserti group, having smaller protoconch and more compressed spire. Due to absence of true Eocene forms we consider these assemblages as paleocenic. The next association, represented by abundant Lockhartia sp., Lockhartia diversa Smout, Sakesaria sp. and rare Daviesina khatyahi Smout, Operculina cf. ornata Hott. and established in hard limestones of Umm er Radhuma formation, identified as transitional from Paleocene to Eocene (Lower Ilerdian). In marls and shales, alternated with limestones in upper part of this formation the middle Ilerdian assemblage

  7. Orbital control on carbon cycle alterations and hyperthermal events in a cooling world: the late Early to Mid Eocene record at Possagno (southern Alps, Italy) (United States)

    Galeotti, Simone; Sprovieri, Mario; Moretti, Matteo; Rio, Domenico; Fornaciari, Eliana; Giusberti, Luca; Agnini, Claudia; Backman, Jan; Lanci, Luca; Luciani, Valeria


    The late Early Eocene to Middle Eocene ~50-45 Million years ago (Ma) time interval in the middle bathyal, pelagic/hemipelagic succession of the Western Tethys Possagno section (southern Alps, Veneto), contains several episodes of negative carbon isotope excursions (CIEs) and concomitant dissolution of carbonates. These episodes are superimposed on a long term global climate cooling that started at about 51 Ma following the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO). Spectral analysis indicates that CIEs and dissolution events are paced by orbital forcing, confirming the global significance of previous finding on the same interval from Western and Southern Atlantic and Equatorial Pacific sites. The frequency and magnitude of CIEs through time is controlled by long-term modulations of orbital parameters, including long eccentricity (400 kyr) and a 1.2 million year modulation. Highest frequency of events - at the orbital scale - is observed across the EECO, which provides an observational basis to validate theoretical models predicting a threshold effect resulting from orbital forcing superimposed on gradually changing mean global boundary conditions. The observation of the 1.2 million year beat (long-term modulation of obliquity) together with previously published observation of enhanced obliquity (41 kyr) forcing across major CIEs and dissolution intervals indicates that high latitude feedbacks to orbital forcing played a fundamental role in the emplacement of the hyperthermals. The observed orbital forcing signature closely match that of early Eocene hyperthermals, suggesting similar driving processes.

  8. Fossil and modern sponge fauna of southern Australia and adjacent regions compared: interpretation, evolutionary and biogeographic significance of the late Eocene ‘soft’ sponges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Łukowiak, M.


    The late Eocene ‘soft’ sponge fauna of southern Australia is reconstructed based on disassociated spicules and is used to interpret the paleoecology and environmental context of shallow marine communities in this region. The reconstructed sponge association was compared with coeval sponge assemblage

  9. Environmental- and sea-level change revealed by dinoflagellate cysts during the Eocene-Oligocene transition at St. Stephens Quarry, Alabama, USA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quaijtaal, W.; Wade, B.S.; Schouten, S.; Houben, A.J.P.; Rosenthal, Y.; Miller, K.G.; Brinkhuis, H.


    The Eocene-Oligocene transition (EOT, ~34 Myr ago) represents the final transition from the early Paleogene “Greenhouse” into the present “Icehouse” by the initiation of Antarctic glaciation. The EOT is recorded in deep-sea benthic foraminiferal oxygen isotope (δ18O) records as two increasing steps,

  10. Warming, euxinia and sea level rise during the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum on the Gulf Coastal Plain: implications for ocean oxygenation and nutrient cycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluijs, A.; van Roij, L.; Harrington, G.J.; Schouten, S.; Sessa, J.A.; LeVay, L.J.; Reichart, G.-J.; Slomp, C.P.


    The Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum(PETM, ?56 Ma) was a ?200 kyr episode of globalwarming, associated with massive injections of 13C-depletedcarbon into the ocean–atmosphere system. Although climatechange during the PETM is relatively well constrained,effects on marine oxygen concentrations and nut

  11. Warming, euxinia and sea level rise during the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum on the Gulf Coastal Plain: implications for ocean oxygenation and nutrient cycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluijs, A.; van Roij, L.; Harrington, G.J.; Schouten, S.; Sessa, J.A.; LeVay, L.J.; Reichart, G.-J.; Slomp, C.P.


    The Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, ~ 56 Ma) was a ~ 200 kyr episode of global warming, associated with massive injections of 13C-depleted carbon into the ocean–atmosphere system. Although climate change during the PETM is relatively well constrained, effects on marine oxygen concentrations

  12. New diversity among the Trochodendraceae from the Early/Middle Eocene Okanogan Highlands of British Columbia, Canada, and northeastern Washington State, United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pigg, Kathleen B.; Dillhoff, Richard M.; DeVore, Melanie L.; Wehr, Wesley C.


    Newly recognized fossil infructescences and leaves of the Trochodendraceae are described from the Early/ Middle Eocene McAbee and One Mile Creek sites of British Columbia, Canada, and Republic, eastern Washington State, United States. Trochodendron drachukii Pigg, Dillhoff, DeVore, & Wehr sp. nov.,

  13. Modeling the influence of a reduced equator-to-pole sea surface temperature gradient on the distribution of water isotopes in the Early/Middle Eocene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speelman, E.N.; Sewall, J.O.; Noone, D.; Huber, M.; Heydt, A.S. von der; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Reichart, G.-J.


    Proxy-based climate reconstructions suggest the existence of a strongly reduced equator-to-pole temperature gradient during the Azolla interval in the Early/Middle Eocene, compared to modern. Changes in the hydrological cycle, as a consequence of a reduced temperature gradient, are expected to be re

  14. Modeling the influence of a reduced equator-to-pole sea surface temperature gradient on the distribution of water isotopes in the Eocene (United States)

    Speelman, E. N.; Sewall, J. O.; Noone, D. C.; Huber, M.; Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.; Reichart, G.


    Proxy-based climate reconstructions suggest the existence of a strongly reduced equator-to-pole temperature gradient during most of the Early Eocene. With the realization that the Eocene Arctic Ocean was covered with enormous quantities of the free floating freshwater fern Azolla, new questions related to Eocene (global) hydrological cycling facilitating these blooms arose. Changes in hydrological cycling, as a consequence of a reduced temperature gradient, are expected to be most clearly reflected in the isotopic composition (D, 18O) of precipitation. The interpretation of water isotopic records to quantitatively estimate past precipitation patterns is, however, hampered by the lack of detailed information on changes in their spatial and temporal distribution. Using the isotope-enabled global circulation model, Community Atmosphere Model v.3 (isoCAM3), relationships between water isotopes and past climates can be simulated. Here we examine the influence of a reduced meridional sea surface temperature gradient on the spatial distribution of precipitation and its isotopic composition in an Eocene setting. Overall, our combination of Eocene climate forcings, with superimposed TEX86-derived SST estimates and elevated pCO2 concentrations, produces a climate that agrees well with proxy data in locations around the globe. It shows the presence of an intensified hydrological cycle with precipitation exceeding evaporation in the Arctic region. The Eocene model runs with a significantly reduced equator-to-pole temperature gradient in a warmer more humid world predict occurrence of less depleted precipitation, with δD values ranging only between 0 and -140‰ (as opposed to the present-day range of 0 to -300‰). Combining new results obtained from compound specific isotope analyses on terrestrially derived n-alkanes extracted from Eocene sediments, and model calculations, shows that the model not only captures the main features, but reproduces isotopic values

  15. Crustal structure in the Elko-Carlin Region, Nevada, during Eocene gold mineralization: Ruby-East Humboldt metamorphic core complex as a guide to the deep crust (United States)

    Howard, K.A.


    The deep crustal rocks exposed in the Ruby-East Humboldt metamorphic core complex, northeastern Nevada, provide a guide for reconstructing Eocene crustal structure ???50 km to the west near the Carlin trend of gold deposits. The deep crustal rocks, in the footwall of a west-dipping normal-sense shear system, may have underlain the Pin??on and Adobe Ranges about 50 km to the west before Tertiary extension, close to or under part of the Carlin trend. Eocene lakes formed on the hanging wall of the fault system during an early phase of extension and may have been linked to a fluid reservoir for hydrothermal circulation. The magnitude and timing of Paleogene extension remain indistinct, but dikes and tilt axes in the upper crust indicate that spreading was east-west to northwest-southeast, perpendicular to a Paleozoic and Mesozoic orogen that the spreading overprinted. High geothermal gradients associated with Eocene or older crustal thinning may have contributed to hydrothermal circulation in the upper crust. Late Eocene eruptions, upper crustal dike intrusion, and gold mineralization approximately coincided temporally with deep intrusion of Eocene sills of granite and quartz diorite and shallower intrusion of the Harrison Pass pluton into the core-complex rocks. Stacked Mesozoic nappes of metamorphosed Paleozoic and Precambrian rocks in the core complex lay at least 13 to 20 km deep in Eocene time, on the basis of geobarometry studies. In the northern part of the complex, the presently exposed rocks had been even deeper in the late Mesozoic, to >30 km depths, before losing part of their cover by Eocene time. Nappes in the core plunge northward beneath the originally thicker Mesozoic tectonic cover in the north part of the core complex. Mesozoic nappes and tectonic wedging likely occupied the thickened midlevel crustal section between the deep crustal core-complex intrusions and nappes and the overlying upper crust. These structures, as well as the subsequent large

  16. The Paleocene-Eocene "Greenhouse" Arctic Ocean paleoenvironment: Implications from biomarker results from IODP Expedition 302 (ACEX) (United States)

    Weller, P.; Stein, R.


    In order to reconstruct the long-term Cenozoic climate history of the central Arctic Ocean and its role in earth's transition from Paleogene greenhouse to the Neogene icehouse conditions, IODP Expedition 302 (Arctic Ocean Coring Experiment ACEX) visited the Lomonosov Ridge in August 2004. Here, we present new data of organic-geochemical compounds determined in ACEX sediment samples to identify organic matter sources and biomarker proxies to decipher processes controlling organic-carbon accumulation and their paleo- environmental significance. Of special interest was the reconstruction of organic carbon composition, preservation and accumulation (i.e. high productivity vs. anoxia vs. terrigenous input) during periods of extreme global warmth and proposed increased freshwater discharge in the early Cenozoic. Specific source-related biomarkers (e.g. n-alkanes, fatty acids, isoprenoids, carotenoids, steranes/sterenes, hopanes/hopenes, hopanoic acids, aromatic terpenoids, benzohopanes, long-chain alkenones, organic sulfur compounds) and Rock-Eval parameters were determined in the ACEX sediment samples, ranging from the late Paleocene to the middle Miocene in age. The records show highly variable TOC-contents and a large variety and variability of compounds derived from marine, terrestrial and bacterial origin. The distribution of hopanoic acid isomers was dominated by compounds with the biological 17 beta (H), 21 beta (H) configuration indicating a low level of maturity, which was in good agreement with the data from Rock-Eval pyrolysis. Based on the biomarker data, the terrestrial organic matter supply was significantly enriched during the late Paleocene and part of the early Eocene, whereas n-alkanes and n-fatty acids in samples from the PETM and Elmo events as well as the middle Eocene indicate increased aquatic contributions. Furthermore samples from the middle Eocene were characterized by the occurrence of long-chain alkenones, high proportions of lycopane and high

  17. Nature and melting processes of the lithosphere beneath the North-East Qiangqtang terrane, Central Tibet, during Eocene times. (United States)

    Goussin, Fanny; Guillot, Stéphane; Schulmann, Karel; Cordier, Carole; Oliot, Emilien; Replumaz, Anne; Roperch, Pierrick; Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume


    At the time of the collision with India (~55Ma), the southern margin of Asia was a composite continental domain resulting from an already long history of successive accretions of different terranes having different rheologies. Knowledge about the structure, composition and thermal state of the Tibetan lithosphere through time is thus fundamental to understand the respective contributions of pre-Cenozoïc and Cenozoïc tectonics in the building of the Plateau to its present-day elevations. We focused on the boundary between the Qiangtang terrane to the south, and the Songpan-Ganze terrane to the north. We jointly studied deep crustal xenoliths and associated (ultra-)potassic magmatism from the Eocene basins of Nangqian and Xialaxiu (Qinghai Province, China), north of the Qiangtang terrane. The aims were to retrieve the composition and the thermal state of the lower crust during Eocene times, to study the behavior of the lower crust and lithospheric mantle of the Eastern Qiangtang terrane and the adjacent Songpan-Ganze terrane at the time of the collision, and the link with the magmatic activity. Crustal xenoliths are of two types: biotite-rich, amphibole bearing metasediments; and garnet-bearing quartzo-feldspathic gneisses. Such assemblages are typical of very high-grade amphibolite and granulite facies metamorphism; further study should allow us to quantify the pressures and temperatures those rocks experienced until the time they were sampled by their host lavas. Major element geochemistry places the c.a. 51-49 Ma (Spurlin et al., 2005) Xialaxiu volcanic field in a fairly differentiated (SiO2~65-70 wt%) high-K field of the calc-alcaline series. Trace element analysis suggests a strong crustal contamination of the primary mantellic melts. C.a. 38-37 Ma (Spurlin et al., 2005) Nangqian magmatic bodies span across the alkaline series, with high to extreme (K2O~6wt%) values. Complex major and trace element patterns, coupled with high-resolution microprobe data on

  18. Middle Eocene paleocirculation of the southwestern Atlantic Ocean, the anteroom to an ice-house world: evidence from dinoflagellates (United States)

    Raquel Guerstein, G.; Daners, Gloria; Palma, Elbio; Ferreira, Elizabete P.; Premaor, Eduardo; Amenábar, Cecilia R.; Belgaburo, Alexandra


    Middle Eocene dinoflagellate cyst organic walled assemblages from sections located in the Antarctic Peninsula, Tierra del Fuego, Santa Cruz province and south of Chile are mainly represented by endemic taxa, which are also dominant in several circum - Antarctic sites located southern 45° S. Some members of this endemic Antarctic assemblage, including especies of Enneadocysta, Deflandrea, Vozzhennikovia, and Spinidinium, have been recognised in sites along the Southwest Atlantic Ocean Shelf at Colorado (˜38° S), Punta del Este (˜36° S) and Pelotas (˜30° S) basins. Northern 30° S, at Jequitinhonha (˜17oS) and Sergipe (˜11° S) basins, there is no evidence of the endemic Antarctic members, except for Enneadocysta dictyostila, recorded in very low proportion. Based on its positive correlation with CaCO3 percentages we assume that this species is the unique member of the endemic assemblage apparently tolerant to warm surface waters. Previous research developed in the Tasman area has related the presence of endemic taxa at mid- latitudes to a strong clockwise subpolar gyre favoured by the partial continental blockage of the Tasmanian Gateways and the Drake Passage. In this work we propose that the dinoflagellate cyst distribution along the South Atlantic Ocean Shelf can be explained by a similar dynamical mechanism induced by a cyclonic subpolar gyre on the South Atlantic Ocean. The western boundary current of this gyre, starting on the west Antarctic continental slope, would follow a similar path to the present Malvinas Current on the Patagonian slope. Modelling and observational studies at the Patagonian shelf-break have shown that a cyclonic western boundary current promotes upwelling and intrusion of cold oceanic waters to the shelf and intensifies the northward shelf transport. In a similar way we hypothesize that during the Middle Eocene the western boundary current of a proto-Weddell Gyre transported the circum-antarctic waters and the endemic components

  19. Eocene-Oligocene proto-Cascades topography revealed by clumped (Δ47) and oxygen isotope (δ18O) geochemistry (Chumstick Basin, WA, USA) (United States)

    Methner, Katharina; Fiebig, Jens; Wacker, Ulrike; Umhoefer, Paul; Chamberlain, C. Page; Mulch, Andreas


    The topography of the present-day Washington Cascades impacts atmospheric circulation and precipitation patterns in the Pacific Northwest, introducing a pronounced orographic rain shadow in the lee of the mountain range. The temporal development of Cascade topography, however, remains largely unconstrained for the early Cenozoic. Based on coupled carbonate clumped isotope (Δ47) and oxygen isotope (δ18O) measurements we reconstruct δ18O values of Eocene groundwater (δ18Owater) in the Chumstick basin (central Washington), today located in the Cascade rain shadow. Δ47 (paleo)thermometry indicates a systematic change in basin burial temperatures from 110°C to 70°C depending on burial depth in the basin. These data are in good agreement with low-T thermochronological and vitrinite reflectance data, and further constrain the basin burial and exhumation history. In concert with field observations, microstructural analysis, and δ18O values of the analyzed carbonates, we suggest that the Δ47 temperatures and δ18O values reflect open-system carbonate cement recrystallization in meteoric-derived groundwaters during early burial diagenesis. Assuming open-system behavior, reconstructed mean δ18Owater values of ~ -7‰ (middle Eocene) to -9‰ (late Eocene/early Oligocene) are consistent with a low-elevation origin of the corresponding meteoric waters that permeated the sandstone/conglomerate members of the Eocene sedimentary units. In light of the paleogeographic setting of the Chumstick basin, the reconstructed δ18Owater values agree well with Pacific-derived moisture that did not experience strong rainout. The absence of a rain shadow effect therefore permits only moderate Eocene/Oligocene elevations at least for the southern part of the Washington proto-Cascades.

  20. Early Eocene carbon isotope excursions: Evidence from the terrestrial coal seam in the Fushun Basin, Northeast China (United States)

    Chen, Zuoling; Ding, Zhongli; Tang, Zihua; Wang, Xu; Yang, Shiling


    A series of transient global warming events between 56 and 50 Ma are characterized by a pronounced negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE). However, the documents of these hyperthermals, such as Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 and H2 events, have come chiefly from marine sediments, and their expression in terrestrial organic carbon is still poorly constrained. Here we yield a high-resolution carbon isotope record of terrestrial organic material from the Fushun Basin, which displays four prominent CIEs with magnitudes larger than 2.5‰. Based on age constraint and comparisons with deep-sea records, our data provide the first evidence of the four hyperthermals in coal seams and suggest a global significance of these events. Moreover, the difference of CIE magnitudes between marine and terrestrial records shows a significant linear correlation with the marine carbonate CIE, implying that these events are likely attributable to recurring injections of 13C-depleted carbon from submarine methane hydrates and/or permafrost.

  1. Evidence of a giant helmeted frog (Australobatrachia, Calyptocephalellidae) from Eocene levels of the Magallanes Basin, southernmost Chile (United States)

    Otero, Rodrigo A.; Jimenez-Huidobro, Paulina; Soto-Acuña, Sergio; Yury-Yáñez, Roberto E.


    The fossil record of frogs from South America has improved dramatically in recent years. Here we describe a distal fragment of a large-sized humerus recovered from the middle-to-upper Eocene of southernmost Chile. The large distally located ventral condyle, and the presence of two epicondyles (radial and ulnar) confirm its identity as an anuran humerus. Comparisons with humeri from extant and fossil South American neobatrachians suggest a phylogentic affinity to calyptocephalellids (Australobatrachia). If correct, the new fossil represents the first occurrence of this family in high latitudes of South America and the first amphibian recovered from the Magallanes (=Austral) Basin. The humerus also represents evidence for one of the largest frogs known to date from anywhere in the world. Such exceptional body size may reflect an unusually hot and damp palaeoenvironment.

  2. Cocos sahnii Kaul: A Cocos nucifera L.-like fruit from the Early Eocene rainforest of Rajasthan, western India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anumeha Shukla; Rakesh C Mehrotra; Jaswant S Guleria


    Cocos sahnii Kaul, a fossil palm fruit, is validated and described from the Fuller’s earth deposits of Kapurdi village of Rajasthan considered as Early Eocene in age. The fossil best resembles the genus Cocos, particularly Cocos nucifera L., which is now a common coastal element thriving in highly moist conditions. The recovery of this coconut-like fruit, along with earlier described evergreen taxa from the same formation, suggests the existence of typical tropical, warm and humid coastal conditions during the depositional period. The present arid to semi-arid climatic conditions occurring in Rajasthan indicate drastic climate change in the region during the Cenozoic. The possible time for the onset of aridity in the region which caused the total eradication of semi-evergreen to evergreen forests is discussed, as well as the palaeobiogeography of coconuts.

  3. An occurrence of the protocetid whale "Eocetus" wardii in the middle Eocene Piney Point Formation of Virginia (United States)

    Weems, R.E.; Edwards, L.E.; Osborne, J.E.; Alford, A.A.


    Two protocetid whale vertebrae, here referred to “Eocetus” wardii, have been recovered from the riverbed of the Pamunkey River in east-central Virginia. Neither bone was found in situ, but both were found with lumps of lithified matrix cemented to their surfaces. Most of this matrix was removed and processed for microfossils. Specimens of dinoflagellates were successfully recovered and this flora clearly demonstrates that both vertebrae came from the middle Eocene Piney Point Formation, which crops out above and below river level in the area where the bones were discovered. These vertebrae are the oldest whale remains reported from Virginia and are as old as any cetacean remains known from the western hemisphere.

  4. New tropical carcharhinids (chondrichthyes, carcharhiniformes) from the late Eocene early Oligocene of Balochistan, Pakistan: Paleoenvironmental and paleogeographic implications (United States)

    Adnet, S.; Antoine, P.-O.; Hassan Baqri, S. R.; Crochet, J.-Y.; Marivaux, L.; Welcomme, J.-L.; Métais, G.


    New selachians (sharks and rays) have been collected from several late Eocene and early Oligocene marine localities in the Bugti Hills (Balochistan, Pakistan). Two new species of Requiem sharks (close to the Recent "Bull shark") are described : Carcharhinus balochensis and Carcharhinus perseus. The rest of the fauna is notable for the strong representation of Carcharhiniformes. These selachian faunas represent a unique tropical association for the Oligocene period and one of the first modern tropical selachian faunas, with modern taxa such as the two new species of "Bull sharks", Negaprion sp. and one of the first occurrences of Sphyrna sp. Moreover, these faunas permit paleoenvironmental interpretation of adjacent land masses. The relatively modern aspect of these faunas, compared with other contemporaneous and younger selachian associations from Atlantic and Mediterranean seas, suggests biogeographic isolation of selachian communities living in eastern and western parts of the Tethys before its final closure during the early-middle Miocene.

  5. New retroplumid crabs (Crustacea, Brachyura, Retroplumidae Gill, 1894) from the Eocene of Huesca (Aragón, Spain). (United States)

    Artal, Pedro; Van Bakel, Barry W M; Fraaije, René H B; Jagt, John W M


    Two new brachyurans assignable to the family Retroplumidae Gill, 1894, Serrablopluma diminuta n. gen., n. sp., and Gaudipluma bacamortensis n. gen., n. sp., from the Eocene of northern Spain (Huesca, Aragón), substantially enlarge our current knowledge of the morphological diversity of the family. The material, with well-preserved ventral surfaces, permits the erection of two new genera that can be referred to the family with confidence on the basis of the general carapace shape, narrow front, a reduced last pair of pereiopods and characteristic thoracic sternum (broad, trapezoidal sternites 3, 4, subrectangular sternites 5-7, sternite 8 conspicuously reduced and inclined). Serrablopluma diminuta n. gen., n. sp. co-occurs with two other retroplumids in the most diverse fossil assemblage of that family known to date.

  6. Palynology of Waikato Coal Measures (Late Eocene-Late Oligocene) from the Raglan area, North Island, New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pocknall, D.T.


    Spore-pollen assemblages from Waikato Coal Measures in the Kawhia-Raglan region, North Island, indicate that the coal measures, which rest on basement, are time transgressive and young to the southwest. The climate was predominantly cool to warm temperate, in accord with other climatic reconstructions for the Late Eocene-Late Oligocene period elsewhere in New Zealand, with brassi beech being the dominant component in the forests of the region. One new genus, Gemmapollis, is erected to accommodate tricolporate pollen with thickened colpi margins and gemmate/verrucate surface sculpture. Five new species are described. These are Monosulcites subverrucatus, Gemmapollis raglanensis, Rhoipites aequatorius, R. karamuensis, and Sparsipollis acuminatus. One species, Polypodiaceoisporites papuanus, has been recombined, a revised description is given for Nothofagidites waipawaensis, and a new name is proposed for Rhoipites pilatus. The following taxa are recorded and/or illustrated from New Zealand for the first time - Polypodiaceoisporites papuanus, Tricolpites discus, Cupanieidites reticularis, Santalumidites cainozoicus, and Corsinipollenites oculus noctis.

  7. A new avian fauna from the early-middle Eocene Lillebælt Clay Formation of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindow, Bent Erik Kramer

    Climate Optimum, a period of elevated temperatures resulting from rapid greenhouse warming. Comparison of the new bird fauna with the recently revised fauna from the older (54 mya) Fur Formation of Denmark, represents a unique opportunity to investigate the effect of the prehistoric greenhouse warming......A number of hitherto undescribed fossil bird remains have been recovered from the Lillebælt Clay Formation of central Denmark, which is early-middle Eocene in age (~50 to 43 mya). The core of the material consists of fossils acquired through the Danish ‘Danekræ' fossil treasure trove legislation....... Almost two-thirds of the fossils are isolated skulls preserved three-dimensionally in clay ironstone concretions; bird fossils of this age and degree of preservation are extremely rare in an international context. A preliminary investigation has revealed the presence of at least one odontopterygid...

  8. Frequency modulation reveals the phasing of orbital eccentricity during Cretaceous Oceanic Anoxic Event II and the Eocene hyperthermals (United States)

    Laurin, Jiří; Meyers, Stephen R.; Galeotti, Simone; Lanci, Luca


    Major advances in our understanding of paleoclimate change derive from a precise reconstruction of the periods, amplitudes and phases of the 'Milankovitch cycles' of precession, obliquity and eccentricity. While numerous quantitative approaches exist for the identification of these astronomical cycles in stratigraphic data, limitations in radioisotopic dating, and instability of the theoretical astronomical solutions beyond ∼50 Myr ago, can challenge identification of the phase relationships needed to constrain climate response and anchor floating astrochronologies. Here we demonstrate that interference patterns accompanying frequency modulation (FM) of short eccentricity provide a robust basis for identifying the phase of long eccentricity forcing in stratigraphic data. One- and two-dimensional models of sedimentary distortion of the astronomical signal are used to evaluate the veracity of the FM method, and indicate that pristine eccentricity FM can be readily distinguished in paleo-records. Apart from paleoclimatic implications, the FM approach provides a quantitative technique for testing and calibrating theoretical astronomical solutions, and for refining chronologies for the deep past. We present two case studies that use the FM approach to evaluate major carbon-cycle perturbations of the Eocene and Late Cretaceous. Interference patterns in the short-eccentricity band reveal that Eocene hyperthermals ETM2 ('Elmo'), H2, I1 and ETM3 (X; ∼52-54 Myr ago) were associated with maxima in the 405-kyr cycle of orbital eccentricity. The same eccentricity configuration favored regional anoxic episodes in the Mediterranean during the Middle and Late Cenomanian (∼94.5-97 Myr ago). The initial phase of the global Oceanic Anoxic Event II (OAE II; ∼93.9-94.5 Myr ago) coincides with maximum and falling 405-kyr eccentricity, and the recovery phase occurs during minimum and rising 405-kyr eccentricity. On a Myr scale, the event overlaps with a node in eccentricity

  9. Sand dispersal in the southeastern Austral Basin, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina: Outcrop insights from Eocene channeled turbidite systems (United States)

    Torres Carbonell, Pablo J.; Olivero, Eduardo B.


    We made a detailed facies analysis of well exposed Eocene foredeep and wedge-top successions in the SE Austral Basin of eastern Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, contributing to a better understanding of its patterns of sand dispersal. The analysis reveals that these successions constitute portions of turbidite systems with recurrent facies associations, interpreted as channel, channel-margin and levée depositional elements. The channel facies, paleocurrents and interpreted paleogeography suggest that the studied successions form the transfer zone of the turbidite systems that fed the foreland basin. We hypothesize that the SE Austral Basin, which forms the transition between the Austral and Malvinas Basins, acted as an east-west conduit for sediments sourced at the Fuegian Andes and transported to a deeper depositional zone in the SW Malvinas Basin. The fill of the channels in the transfer zone involved a large amount of turbidity flows, which in addition to the evidence of levée confinement in the studied deposits suggests that the sandier portion of the flows was able to reach the depositional zone, were mostly unconfined (sheeted) sand bodies may have formed. In addition, overbank sand bodies were deposited within the transfer zone, associated to processes of flow overspill. Both types of sand bodies constitute potential reservoirs in this hydrocarbon producing basin, implying that the Eocene SE Austral Basin, and the ultimate zone of deposition in the SW Malvinas Basin may constitute major prospects for hydrocarbon exploration. The proposed model define a new perspective for future research on the sedimentologic and stratigraphic evolution of the SE portion of the Austral Basin.

  10. An Ocean Acidification Pulse in the Pre-onset Carbon Isotope Excursion Preceding the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (United States)

    Robinson, M. M.; Self-Trail, J. M.; Willard, D. A.; Stassen, P.; Spivey, W.


    The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM; ~55.5 Ma) is recognized globally in marine sediments by a carbonate dissolution zone, the extinction or turnover of benthic taxa, and a radiation of planktic excursion taxa, all accompanied by a rapid-onset, negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE). The cause and nature of the massive carbon release leading to this extreme climate event remains under debate. Regardless of cause, the environmental and ecosystem changes centered on the PETM are the subject of much study because they provide an analog to modern deteriorating conditions associated with the ongoing rise in atmospheric carbon dioxide. We present evidence from sediments of the South Dover Bridge core, deposited on the U.S. mid-Atlantic shelf, for an ocean acidification event in the latest Paleocene that coincides with a relatively small (-2‰) negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE) that precedes the larger (-4‰) Paleocene-Eocene CIE onset. Planktic foraminifers during this pre-onset event (POE) show post-deposition dissolution in which the coarsely cancellate and muricate wall textures characteristic of many Late Paleocene species have been dissolved away, leaving smooth, thin-walled specimens often with collapsed chambers. In addition, we document biotic responses in benthic, planktic, and terrestrial communities to the POE, including shifts in foraminifer and pollen assemblages and adaptations in calcareous nannofossil species in response to environmental perturbations. A complete recovery is evident between the POE and CIE in both the carbon isotopic signal and in the biotic response, providing additional evidence not only for a pulsed carbon release, but also for a more rapid rate of carbon release than is suggested by a single pulse over a longer period of time. The timing, nature and magnitude of ecological changes during the less extreme POE shallow water acidification event may help to define the ecological tipping point of shallow marine ecosystems.

  11. Sudden intrusion of corrosive bottom water into the South Atlantic during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (United States)

    Meissner, K. J.; Alexander, K.; Bralower, T. J.


    The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum, ˜55 million years before present, was a period of rapid warming marked by a negative carbon isotope excursion and widespread dissolution of seafloor carbonate. These changes have been attributed to a massive release of carbon into the exogenic carbon cycle, and thus, the event provides an analog for future climate and environmental changes given the current anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Previous attempts to constrain the amount of carbon released have produced widely diverging results, between 2000 and 10,000 gigatons carbon (GtC). Sediment records indicate that acidification of deep waters was generally more extensive and severe in the Atlantic and Caribbean regions, with more modest changes in the Southern and Pacific Oceans. Here we compare simulations integrated with the UVic Earth System Climate Model with reconstructions of temperature and dissolution to present a mechanism that might explain the observed spatial differences and to constrain the total mass of carbon released. Due to the late Paleocene topography, highly corrosive waters accumulate in the deep North Atlantic before the PETM in our simulations. Several thousand years into the event, deep ocean warming destabilizes the North Atlantic water column and triggers deep water formation. This causes the corrosive bottom water to spill over an equatorial sill into the South Atlantic and through the Southern and Pacific Oceans, progressively gaining alkalinity. The simulated pattern of sediment dissolution along the path taken by this corrosive water is consistent with most dissolution estimates made from CaCO3 measurements in the Paleocene-Eocene sediment record. We find two scenarios that agree best with proxy data: a carbon release of 7000 GtC in combination with pre-event atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations of 840 ppm and a carbon release of 7000-10,000 GtC with pre-event CO2 concentrations of 1680 ppm.

  12. The time-space distribution of Eocene to Miocene magmatism in the central Peruvian polymetallic province and its metallogenetic implications (United States)

    Bissig, Thomas; Ullrich, Thomas D.; Tosdal, Richard M.; Friedman, Richard; Ebert, Shane


    Eocene to late Miocene magmatism in the central Peruvian high-plain (approx. between Cerro de Pasco and Huancayo; Lats. ˜10.2-12°S) and east of the Cordillera Occidental is represented by scattered shallow-level intrusions as well as subaerial domes and volcanic deposits. These igneous rocks are calc-alkalic and range from basalt to rhyolite in composition, and many of them are spatially, temporally and, by inference, genetically associated with varied styles of major polymetallic mineralization. Forty-four new 40Ar- 39Ar and three U/Pb zircon dates are presented, many for previously undated intrusions. Our new time constraints together with data from the literature now cover most of the Cenozoic igneous rocks of this Andean segment and provide foundation for geodynamic and metallogenetic research. The oldest Cenozoic bodies are of Eocene age and include dacitic domes to the west of Cerro de Pasco with ages ranging from 38.5 to 33.5 Ma. South of the Domo de Yauli structural dome, Eocene igneous rocks occur some 15 km east of the Cordillera Occidental and include a 39.34 ± 0.28 Ma granodioritic intrusion and a 40.14 ± 0.61 Ma rhyolite sill, whereas several diorite stocks were emplaced between 36 and 33 Ma. Eocene mineralization is restricted to the Quicay high-sulfidation epithermal deposit some 10 km to the west of Cerro de Pasco. Igneous activity in the earliest Oligocene was concentrated up to 70 km east of the Cordillera Occidental and is represented by a number of granodioritic intrusions in the Milpo-Atacocha area. Relatively voluminous early Oligocene dacitic to andesitic volcanism gave rise to the Astabamba Formation to the southeast of Domo de Yauli. Some stocks at Milpo and Atacocha generated important Zn-Pb (-Ag) skarn mineralization. After about 29.3 Ma, magmatism ceased throughout the study region. Late Oligocene igneous activity was restricted to andesitic and dacitic volcanic deposits and intrusions around Uchucchacua (approx. 25 Ma) and felsic

  13. A petrologic study of the Teanaway Basalt: Eocene slab window volcanism in central WA (United States)

    Roepke, E.; Tepper, J. H.; Ivener, D.


    The Teanaway Basalt (TB) includes subaerial basalt to andesite flows, mafic to felsic tuffs, and rhyolite domes in the Central Cascades of Washington State. These volcanics overlie the extensive ~47 Ma Teanaway Dike Swarm (TDS) that cuts the underlying Swauk Formation. This study focuses on the tectonic setting of eruption and geochemical variations relating to geography and stratigraphy within the TB. The western-most area of the TB, Easton Ridge (ER), is compared with the eastern-most area of the TB, Liberty Ridge (LR) - 40 km to the east of ER. The bimodal TB consists predominantly of basaltic andesite and andesite (45.3-63.1 wt% SiO2) with subordinate rhyolite (75.9-79.4 wt% SiO2). The mafic rocks classify as primarily medium-K tholeiites (0.1-3.0 wt% K2O), but a few samples classify as alkaline. Enrichment in LILE and depletion in HFSE on spidergrams are indicative of an arc setting. However, compared with the modern Cascade Arc, the TB is distinctly higher in Fe2O3T (8.8-17.1 wt%) and TiO2 (1.1-2.7 wt%), and distinctly lower in Al2O3 (11.2-14.6) and K2O, with a similar range of Mg #s (0.15-0.48). Most tectonic discrimination plots characterize the TB as MORB, but some indicate an arc or within-plate setting. Preliminary Pb isotopic data (206Pb/204Pb = 19.13-19.19, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.62-15.64, and 208Pb/204Pb = 38.78-38.90) indicate the TB and TDS are more enriched than Cascade Arc rocks in 206Pb/204Pb and 208Pb/204Pb. Overall, these geochemical data are consistent with a model in which asthenospheric mantle ascending through a slab window interacts with mantle wedge that has previously acquired arc chemical traits. The existence of a slab window in this region during the mid-Eocene is compatible with plate reconstructions and evidence of extension that have been attributed to subduction of the Resurrection-Kula ridge (Haeussler et al., 2003). Harker plots show lavas at LR are generally more enriched than those at ER in Fe2O3T (11.9-17.1 wt% vs 8.8-15.7 wt%) Mn

  14. Arctic Climate and Terrestrial Vegetation Responses During the Middle to Late Eocene and Early Oligocene: Colder Winters Preceded Cool-Down. (United States)

    Greenwood, D. R.; Eldrett, J.


    The late Eocene to early Oligocene is recognized as an interval of substantial change in the global climate, with isotopic proxies of climate indicating a significant drop in sea surface temperatures. Other studies have shown, however that at middle latitudes that terrestrial mean annual temperature did not change significantly over this interval, and that the major change was likely a shift towards a greater range of seasonal temperatures; colder winters and warmer summers. Previous analyses of high latitude (Arctic) middle Eocene climate using both leaf physiognomic analysis and qualitative analysis of identified nearest living relatives of terrestrial floras indicated upper microthermal environments (mean annual temp. or MAT ca 10°C but perhaps as high as 15°C, coldest month mean temp. or CMMT ca 0°C) for Axel Heiberg Island in the Arctic Archipelago, but did not address precipitation nor provide data on the Eocene-Oligocene transition in the Arctic. Presented here are new estimates of temperature and precipitation (annual and season amounts) for the Arctic based on NLR analysis of terrestrial plant palynomorphs (spores and pollen) from the ODP 913B and 985 cores from near Greenland. The record of climate for the Greenland cores show a similar climate in the middle Eocene to that previously estimated for Axel Heiberg Island further to the west, with MAT 10- 15°C but with CMMT >5°C. Precipitation was high (mean annual precip. or MAP >180 cm/yr), although with large uncertainties attached to the estimate. The climate proxy record for the late Eocene to early Oligocene shows a lack of change in MAT and MAP over the time interval. Consistent with other published records at middle latitudes, however, winter temperatures (as CMMT) show greater variability leading up to the E-O boundary, and consistently cooler values in the early Oligocene (CMMT 5°C). Plant groups sensitive to freezing such as palms and the floating water fern Azolla were present in the warm

  15. Warming, euxinia and sea level rise during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum on the Gulf Coastal Plain: implications for ocean oxygenation and nutrient cycling (United States)

    Sluijs, A.; van Roij, L.; Harrington, G. J.; Schouten, S.; Sessa, J. A.; LeVay, L. J.; Reichart, G.-J.; Slomp, C. P.


    The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, ~ 56 Ma) was a ~ 200 kyr episode of global warming, associated with massive injections of 13C-depleted carbon into the ocean-atmosphere system. Although climate change during the PETM is relatively well constrained, effects on marine oxygen concentrations and nutrient cycling remain largely unclear. We identify the PETM in a sediment core from the US margin of the Gulf of Mexico. Biomarker-based paleotemperature proxies (methylation of branched tetraether-cyclization of branched tetraether (MBT-CBT) and TEX86) indicate that continental air and sea surface temperatures warmed from 27-29 to ~ 35 °C, although variations in the relative abundances of terrestrial and marine biomarkers may have influenced these estimates. Vegetation changes, as recorded from pollen assemblages, support this warming. The PETM is bracketed by two unconformities. It overlies Paleocene silt- and mudstones and is rich in angular (thus in situ produced; autochthonous) glauconite grains, which indicate sedimentary condensation. A drop in the relative abundance of terrestrial organic matter and changes in the dinoflagellate cyst assemblages suggest that rising sea level shifted the deposition of terrigenous material landward. This is consistent with previous findings of eustatic sea level rise during the PETM. Regionally, the attribution of the glauconite-rich unit to the PETM implicates the dating of a primate fossil, argued to represent the oldest North American specimen on record. The biomarker isorenieratene within the PETM indicates that euxinic photic zone conditions developed, likely seasonally, along the Gulf Coastal Plain. A global data compilation indicates that O2 concentrations dropped in all ocean basins in response to warming, hydrological change, and carbon cycle feedbacks. This culminated in (seasonal) anoxia along many continental margins, analogous to modern trends. Seafloor deoxygenation and widespread (seasonal) anoxia likely

  16. Calibration of the B/Ca proxy in symbiont-bearing planktonic foraminifera for application to the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (United States)

    Haynes, L.; Hoenisch, B.; Eggins, S.; Holland, K.; Rosenthal, Y.


    During the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), rapid surface ocean acidification is indicated by a large decrease in the B/Ca ratios of planktic foraminiferal calcite, which is a proxy for the surface ocean carbonate system [1]. However, due to uncertainty in the effects of past seawater chemistry (e.g, different [Mg], [Ca], and [B]) on B/Ca, modern calibrations cannot be used to estimate the magnitude of acidification during this critical period. In addition, recent inorganic and sediment trap studies have respectively documented the controls of growth rate and light levels on B/Ca [2,3]. To extend the application of the B/Ca proxy to the PETM, we have conducted culturing experiments in O. universa, G. ruber, and G. sacculifer in which we simulated changes in pH and total DIC under Paleogene seawater conditions- high [Ca], low [Mg], and low [B]. We have further investigated the effects of variable light intensity (a control on symbiont activity), [Ca]seawater, and [B]seawater on the proxy. Results from O. universa confirm that B/Ca decreases with increasing DIC, decreasing pH, and decreasing [B]seawater, supporting a [B(OH)4-]/DIC control on the proxy [4]. In contrast, neither low light nor [Ca]seawater have a measurable effect on B/Ca, implying that influences of these parameters over the PETM were likely negligible. Critically, B/Ca appears to be more sensitive to pH at very low [B(OH)4-]/DIC in comparison to modern calibrations. Using estimates of surface ocean pH from boron isotopes, new calibrations can explain a larger proportion of the observed B/Ca excursion over the PETM. However, simulation of a large DIC pulse is necessary to explain the full excursion. New data will be presented from species that are more sensitive to pH, such as G. ruber and G. sacculifer, which will illuminate the range of responses of B/Ca to ocean acidification during the Paleogene. [1] Penman et al. 2014. Paleoceanography 29. [2] Uchikawa et al. 2015. GCA 150. [3] Babila et

  17. Apatite fission track evidence for the Cretaceous-Cenozoic cooling history of the Qilian Shan (NW China) and for stepwise northeastward growth of the northeastern Tibetan Plateau since early Eocene (United States)

    Qi, Bangshen; Hu, Daogong; Yang, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Yaoling; Tan, Chengxuan; Zhang, Peng; Feng, Chengjun


    Apatite fission track (AFT) data from hinterland of the Qilian Shan at the northeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau suggest this range has experienced northeastward propagation of surface uplift since early Eocene and that crustal shortening occurred in the Qilian Shan before the late Miocene. Thermochronometry data indicate that the Qilian Shan experienced a three-stage cooling history, including: (1) rapid initial cooling during Cretaceous; (2) a stage of slow cooling during late Cretaceous-early Eocene; and (3) rapid stepwise cooling in a southwestern-northeastern orientation since early Eocene. Cretaceous rapid cooling may be a record of the Lhasa block and Eurasian collision. Early Cretaceous denudation was followed by tectonic and quasi-isothermal quiescence that continued until early Eocene. Early Eocene rapid cooling in the South Qilian Shan may be the first far-field response in the Qilian Shan to the collision and convergence of the Indian and Eurasian continents. From late Eocene to middle Miocene, crustal shortening propagated into the Central Qilian Shan and North Qilian Shan and produced surface uplift of the entire Qilian Shan region before the late Miocene. This study provides a better understanding of the tectonic evolution of the Qilian Shan and when the far-field stress from the India-Eurasia collision into the northeastern Tibetan Plateau began.

  18. Revisiting carbonate chemistry controls on planktic foraminifera Mg / Ca: implications for sea surface temperature and hydrology shifts over the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum and Eocene-Oligocene transition (United States)

    Evans, David; Wade, Bridget S.; Henehan, Michael; Erez, Jonathan; Müller, Wolfgang


    Much of our knowledge of past ocean temperatures comes from the foraminifera Mg / Ca palaeothermometer. Several nonthermal controls on foraminifera Mg incorporation have been identified, of which vital effects, salinity, and secular variation in seawater Mg / Ca are the most commonly considered. Ocean carbonate chemistry is also known to influence Mg / Ca, yet this is rarely examined as a source of uncertainty, either because (1) precise pH and [CO32-] reconstructions are sparse or (2) it is not clear from existing culture studies how a correction should be applied. We present new culture data of the relationship between carbonate chemistry and Mg / Ca for the surface-dwelling planktic species Globigerinoides ruber and compare our results to data compiled from existing studies. We find a coherent relationship between Mg / Ca and the carbonate system and argue that pH rather than [CO32-] is likely to be the dominant control. Applying these new calibrations to data sets for the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) and Eocene-Oligocene transition (EOT) enables us to produce a more accurate picture of surface hydrology change for the former and a reassessment of the amount of subtropical precursor cooling for the latter. We show that pH-adjusted Mg / Ca and δ18O data sets for the PETM are within error of no salinity change and that the amount of precursor cooling over the EOT has been previously underestimated by ˜ 2 °C based on Mg / Ca. Finally, we present new laser-ablation data of EOT-age Turborotalia ampliapertura from St. Stephens Quarry (Alabama), for which a solution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) Mg / Ca record is available (Wade et al., 2012). We show that the two data sets are in excellent agreement, demonstrating that fossil solution and laser-ablation data may be directly comparable. Together with an advancing understanding of the effect of Mg / Casw, the coherent picture of the relationship between Mg / Ca and pH that we outline

  19. Single-layer burial joints vs single-layer uplift joints in Eocene chalk from the Beer Sheva syncline in Israel (United States)

    Bahat, Dov


    The single-layer (s.l.) joints that occur in the Lower Eocene chalks near Beer Sheva, Israel, developed during the burial history of the rock, whereas the s.l. joints in adjacent Middle Eocene chalks developed during the uplift stage. Characteristically, s.l. burial joints occur in orthogonal cross-fold and strike sets, and as conjugate sets. They precede normal faults and multi-layer joints, and they do not exhibit strike rotation, en échelon segmentation or fracture interaction with each other. These joints are generally closed, and during subsidence older beds fracture first. On the other hand, s.l. uplift joints do not occur in orthogonal or conjugate sets. They are post strike-slip faulting, contemporaneous with multi-layer joints, and exhibit strike rotation, en échelon segmentation and often interact with each other. They are occasionally opened up to several millimetres, and during uplift younger beds fracture first.

  20. Nutritional Support (United States)

    Nutritional support is therapy for people who cannot get enough nourishment by eating or drinking. You may need ... absorb nutrients through your digestive system You receive nutritional support through a needle or catheter placed in your ...

  1. Environmental impact and magnitude of paleosol carbonate carbon isotope excursions marking five early Eocene hyperthermals in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming (United States)

    Abels, Hemmo A.; Lauretano, Vittoria; van Yperen, Anna E.; Hopman, Tarek; Zachos, James C.; Lourens, Lucas J.; Gingerich, Philip D.; Bowen, Gabriel J.


    Transient greenhouse warming events in the Paleocene and Eocene were associated with the addition of isotopically light carbon to the exogenic atmosphere-ocean carbon system, leading to substantial environmental and biotic change. The magnitude of an accompanying carbon isotope excursion (CIE) can be used to constrain both the sources and amounts of carbon released during an event and also to correlate marine and terrestrial records with high precision. The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) is well documented, but CIE records for the subsequent warming events are still rare, especially from the terrestrial realm.Here, we provide new paleosol carbonate CIE records for two of the smaller hyperthermal events, I1 and I2, as well as two additional records of Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 (ETM2) and H2 in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, USA. Stratigraphic comparison of this expanded, high-resolution terrestrial carbon isotope history to the deep-sea benthic foraminiferal isotope records from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) sites 1262 and 1263, Walvis Ridge, in the southern Atlantic Ocean corroborates the idea that the Bighorn Basin fluvial sediments record global atmospheric change. The ˜ 34 m thicknesses of the eccentricity-driven hyperthermals in these archives corroborate precession forcing of the ˜ 7 m thick fluvial overbank-avulsion sedimentary cycles. Using bulk-oxide mean-annual-precipitation reconstructions, we find soil moisture contents during the four younger hyperthermals that are similar to or only slightly wetter than the background, in contrast with soil drying observed during the PETM using the same proxy, sediments, and plant fossils.The magnitude of the CIEs in soil carbonate for the four smaller, post-PETM events scale nearly linearly with the equivalent event magnitudes documented in marine records. In contrast, the magnitude of the PETM terrestrial CIE is at least 5 ‰ smaller than expected based on extrapolation of the scaling relationship established

  2. The Eocene Rusayl Formation, Oman, carbonaceous rocks in calcareous shelf sediments: Environment of deposition, alteration and hydrocarbon potential

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    Dill, H.G.; Wehner, H.; Kus, J. [Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources, P.O. Box 510163, D-30631 Hannover (Germany); Botz, R. [University Kiel, Geological-Paleontological Department, Olshausenstrasse 40-60, D-24118 Kiel (Germany); Berner, Z.; Stueben, D. [Technical University Karlsruhe, Institute for Mineralogy and Geochemistry, Fritz-Haber-Weg 2, D-76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Al-Sayigh, A. [Sultan Qaboos University, Geological Dept. PO Box 36, Al-Khod (Oman)


    Paralic carbonaceous series intercalated among calcareous shelf sediments have seldom been investigated. During the early Eocene, calcareous and siliciclastic sediments were deposited on a wide shelf in front of low-reliefed hinterland in the Al Khawd region in NE Oman. The siliciclastic-calcareous sediments originated from strongly reworked debris of the Arabic Shield. The underlying Semail Ophiolite did not act as a direct source of debris but provided some heat to increase the maturity of carbonaceous rocks and modify the isotope signal of the calcareous minerals in the Rusayl Formation. A multidisciplinary approach involving sedimentology, mineralogy, chemistry, coal petrography and paleontology resulted in the establishment of nine stratigraphic lithofacies units and provides the reader with a full picture from deposition of the mixed carbonaceous-calcareous-siliciclastic rocks to the most recent stages of post-depositional alteration of the Paleogene formations. The calcareous Jafnayn Formation (lithofacies unit I) developed in a subtidal to intertidal regime, influenced episodically by storms. Deepening of the calcareous shelf towards younger series was ground to a halt by paleosols developing on a disconformity (lithofacies unit II) and heralding the onset of the Rusayl Formation. The stratigraphic lithofacies units III and IV reflect mangrove swamps which from time to time were flooded through washover fans from the open sea. The presence of Spinozonocolpites and the taxon Avicennia, which today belong to a coastal marsh vegetational community, furnish palynological evidence to the idea of extensive mangrove swamps in the Rusayl Formation [El Beialy, S.Y., 1998. Stratigraphic and palaeonenvironmental significance of Eocene palynomorphs from the Rusayl Shale Formation, Al Khawd, northern Oman. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 102, 249-258]. During the upper Rusayl Formation (lithofacies units V through VII) algal mats episodically flooded by marine

  3. Warming and environmental changes in the eastern North Sea Basin during the Palaeocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum as revealed by biomarker lipids


    Schoon, P. L.; Heilmann-Clausen, C.; Schultz, B.P.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Schouten, S.


    Analysis of sediments deposited at different latitudes around the world during the Palaeocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM; ~56 Ma) have revealed a globally profound warming phase, regionally varying from 5–8 °C. Such records from Europe have not yet been obtained. We studied the variations in sea surface and continental mean annual air temperatures (SST and MAT, respectively) and the distribution patterns and stable carbon isotopes of higher plant derived n-alkanes in two proximal PETM secti...

  4. Integrated stratigraphy of the Eocene Wilkes Land Margin, Antarctica; preliminary results from IODP Expedition 318: dinoflagellate cyst and TEX86 results


    Bijl, P.K; Bendle, J.A.; J. Pross; Schouten, S.; Röhl, U.; Stickley, C.E.; Olney, M.; Tauxe, L.; S. M. Bohaty; Brinkhuis, H.; Escutia, C.


    IODP Leg 318 recovered sediment cores from the Antarctic Wilkes Land Margin dating back into the early Eocene, the warmest time interval of the Cenozoic era. These cores provide a first insight into environmental dynamics of an ice-free Antarctica. The onboard and postcruise studies have resulted in a well-constrained age model, and the multidisciplinary biogeochemical and micropaleontological data allows detailed paleoecological interpretations. Here we present the results of a high-resoluti...

  5. Apatite fission-track evidence for regional exhumation in the subtropical Eocene, block faulting, and localized fluid flow in east-central Alaska (United States)

    Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Bacon, Charles R.; O'Sullivan, Paul B.; Day, Warren C.


    The origin and antiquity of the subdued topography of the Yukon–Tanana Upland (YTU), the physiographic province between the Denali and Tintina faults, are unresolved questions in the geologic history of interior Alaska and adjacent Yukon. We present apatite fission-track (AFT) results for 33 samples from the 2300 km2 western Fortymile district in the YTU in Alaska and propose an exhumation model that is consistent with preservation of volcanic rocks in valleys that requires base level stability of several drainages since latest Cretaceous–Paleocene time. AFT thermochronology indicates widespread cooling below ∼110 °C at ∼56–47 Ma (early Eocene) and ∼44–36 Ma (middle Eocene). Samples with ∼33–27, ∼19, and ∼10 Ma AFT ages, obtained near a major northeast-trending fault zone, apparently reflect hydrothermal fluid flow. Uplift and erosion following ∼107 Ma magmatism exposed plutonic rocks to different extents in various crustal blocks by latest Cretaceous time. We interpret the Eocene AFT ages to suggest that higher elevations were eroded during the Paleogene subtropical climate of the subarctic, while base level remained essentially stable. Tertiary basins outboard of the YTU contain sediment that may account for the required >2 km of removed overburden that was not carried to the sea by the ancestral Yukon River system. We consider a climate driven explanation for the Eocene AFT ages to be most consistent with geologic constraints in concert with block faulting related to translation on the Denali and Tintina faults resulting from oblique subduction along the southern margin of Alaska.

  6. Eocene volcanism during the incipient stage of Izu–Ogasawara Arc: Geology and petrology of the Mukojima Island Group, the Ogasawara Islands.


    Kanayama, Kyoko; Umino, Susumu; Ishizuka, Osamu


    The Ogasawara Islands mainly comprise Eocene volcanic strata formed when the Izu-Ogasawara-Mariana Arc began. We present the first detailed volcanic geology, petrography and geochemistry of the Mukojima Island Group, northernmost of the Ogasawara Islands, and show that the volcanic stratigraphy consists of arc tholeiitic rocks, ultra-depleted boninite-series rocks, and less-depleted boninitic andesites, which are correlatable to the Maruberiwan, Asahiyama and Mikazukiyama Formations on the Ch...

  7. Colemanus keeleyorum (Braconidae, Ichneutinae s. l.: a new genus and species of Eocene wasp from the Green River Formation of western North America

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    J. Fisher


    Full Text Available A new genus and species of Ichneutinae s. l., Colemanus keeleyorum Fisher, is described from the Eocene Green River Formation in Colorado, USA. Colemanus was placed on a phylogenetic hypothesis using morphological data. Using a parsimony criterion, Colemanus is placed within Proteropini (Ichneutinae s. l.. Reconstructions of well-preserved regions (mesosomal dorsum and wings are included. A previously described species from lower Oligocene Baltic amber is transferred to Colemanus, resulting in the new combination C. contortus (Brues, 1933.

  8. Eocene Granitoids of the Okhotsk Complex in Sakhalin Island, Russian Far East: Petrogenesis and tectonic implications from zircon U-Pb ages, geochemical and Sr-Nd isotopic characteristics (United States)

    Liao, Jia Ping; Alexandrov, Igor; Jahn, Bor-ming


    Hokkaido. The geochemical and isotopic characteristics are also comparable for granitic rocks from the two islands. The granitoids from Sakhalin show arc geochemical characteristics, and their isotopic signatures suggest a generation by partial melting of sources rich in juvenile (mantle-derived) component. In fact, the source nature of the granitoids is quite similar to the Eocene and Miocene granitoids of Hokkaido. However, the Okhotsk granitoids with transitional characteristics between I- and A- granite types were probably generated in more complicated magmatic processes or tectonic regime, making it more ambiguous to define their petrogenesis and tectonic setting. Since the Okhotsk Complex was emplaced in the Ozersk accretionary terrain in southern Sakhalin, we infer that the granitic magmatism was probably related to a tectonic transition from a subduction phase to a strike-slip phase and recorded a signature of supra-subduction, post-accretionary and strike-slip processes. Thus, the age of 42-44 Ma may hint an important period of tectonic change in southern Sakhalin. (Supported by RFBR Research Project No15-55-52035, Russia and MOST 104-2913-M-002-005, Taiwan) Key words: Sakhalin, granitoids, accretionary orogen, Sr-Nd isotopes, Okhotsk Complex

  9. Environmental perturbations at the early Eocene ETM2, H2, and I1 events as inferred by Tethyan calcareous plankton (Terche section, northeastern Italy) (United States)

    D'Onofrio, Roberta; Luciani, Valeria; Fornaciari, Eliana; Giusberti, Luca; Boscolo Galazzo, Flavia; Dallanave, Edoardo; Westerhold, Thomas; Sprovieri, Mario; Telch, Sonia


    Several early Eocene hyperthermals have been recently investigated and characterized in terms of temperature anomalies and oceanographic changes. The effects of these climatic perturbations on biotic communities are much less constrained. Here we present new records from the Terche section (northeastern Italy) that, for the first time, integrates data on planktic foraminifera and calcareous nannofossils across three post-Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum negative carbon isotope excursions (CIEs). The biomagnetostratigraphic framework generated at Terche allows us to confidently relate such CIEs to the Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 (ETM2), H2, and I1 events. Each of these events coincides with lithological anomalies characterized by significantly lower calcium carbonate content (marly units, MUs). We interpret these MUs as mainly linked to an effect of increased terrigenous dilution, as dissolution proxies do not display significant variations. Calcareous plankton assemblages change significantly across these events and radiolarians increase. Observed changes suggest that transient warming and environmental perturbations, though more intense during ETM2, occurred during each of the three investigated perturbations. Variations among calcareous plankton suggest increase in surface-water eutrophication with respect to the pre-event conditions, coupled with a weakening of the upper water-column thermal stratification. Higher nutrient discharge was related to intensification of the hydrological cycle as a consequence of the warmer climate. These conditions persisted during the early CIE recovery, implying slower recovery rates for the environment and biota than for the carbon cycle.

  10. The calc-alkaline and adakitic volcanism of the Sabzevar structural zone (NE Iran): Implications for the Eocene magmatic flare-up in Central Iran (United States)

    Moghadam, Hadi Shafaii; Rossetti, Federico; Lucci, Federico; Chiaradia, Massimo; Gerdes, Axel; Martinez, Margarita Lopez; Ghorbani, Ghasem; Nasrabady, Mohsen


    A major magmatic flare-up is documented along the Bitlis-Zagros suture zone in Eocene-Oligocene times. The Cenozoic magmatism of intraplate Central Iran is an integrant part of this tectono-magmatic scenario. The Cenozoic magmatism of the Sabzevar structural zone consists of mostly intermediate to felsic intrusions and volcanic products. These igneous rocks have calc-alkaline and adakitic geochemical signatures, with nearly coincident zircon U-Pb and mica Ar-Ar ages of ca. 45 Ma. Adakitic rocks have quite low HREE and high Sr/Y ratio, but share most of their geochemical features with the calc-alkaline rocks. The Sabzevar volcanic rocks have similar initial Sr, Nd and Pb isotope ratios, showing their cogenetic nature. Nd model ages cluster tightly around ~ 0.2-0.3 Ga. The geochemistry of the Sabzevar volcanic rocks, along with their isotopic signatures, might strangle that an upper mantle source, metasomatized by slab-derived melts was involved in generating the Sabzevar calc-alkaline rocks. A bulk rock trace element modeling suggests that amphibole-plagioclase-titanite-dominated replenishment-fractional crystallization (RFC) is further responsible for the formation of the middle Eocene Sabzevar adakitic rocks. Extensional tectonics accompanied by lithospheric delamination, possibly assisted by slab break-off and melting at depth was responsible for the Eocene formation of the Sabzevar magmatic rocks and, more in general, for the magmatic "flare-up" in Iran.

  11. Dextral strike-slip along the Kapıdağ shear zone (NW Turkey): evidence for Eocene westward translation of the Anatolian plate (United States)

    Türkoğlu, Ercan; Zulauf, Gernold; Linckens, Jolien; Ustaömer, Timur


    The northern part of the Kapıdağ Peninsula (Marmara Sea, NW Turkey) is affected by the E-W trending Kapıdağ shear zone, which cuts through calc-alkaline granitoids of the Ocaklar pluton resulting in mylonitic orthogneiss. Macroscopic and microscopic shear-sense indicators, such as SC fabrics, shear bands, σ-clasts and mica fish, unequivocally suggest dextral strike-slip for the Kapıdağ shear zone. Based on petrographic data, deformation microfabrics of quartz and feldspar, and the slip systems in quartz, the dextral shearing should have been active at T = 500-300 °C and P < 5 kbar. Published K-Ar and 39Ar-40Ar cooling ages of hornblende and biotite suggest that cooling below 500-300 °C occurred during the Eocene (ca. 45-ca. 35 Ma), meaning that the Kapıdağ shear zone should have been active during Middle to Late Eocene times. The differential stress related to the shearing was <50 MPa as is indicated by the size of recrystallized quartz grains. Based on the new and published data, it is concluded that the westward movement of the Anatolian plate might have been active almost continuously from the Middle Eocene until recent times.

  12. Dextral strike-slip along the Kapıdağ shear zone (NW Turkey): evidence for Eocene westward translation of the Anatolian plate (United States)

    Türkoğlu, Ercan; Zulauf, Gernold; Linckens, Jolien; Ustaömer, Timur


    The northern part of the Kapıdağ Peninsula (Marmara Sea, NW Turkey) is affected by the E-W trending Kapıdağ shear zone, which cuts through calc-alkaline granitoids of the Ocaklar pluton resulting in mylonitic orthogneiss. Macroscopic and microscopic shear-sense indicators, such as SC fabrics, shear bands, σ-clasts and mica fish, unequivocally suggest dextral strike-slip for the Kapıdağ shear zone. Based on petrographic data, deformation microfabrics of quartz and feldspar, and the slip systems in quartz, the dextral shearing should have been active at T = 500-300 °C and P < 5 kbar. Published K-Ar and 39Ar-40Ar cooling ages of hornblende and biotite suggest that cooling below 500-300 °C occurred during the Eocene (ca. 45-ca. 35 Ma), meaning that the Kapıdağ shear zone should have been active during Middle to Late Eocene times. The differential stress related to the shearing was <50 MPa as is indicated by the size of recrystallized quartz grains. Based on the new and published data, it is concluded that the westward movement of the Anatolian plate might have been active almost continuously from the Middle Eocene until recent times.

  13. Marine and terrestrial biotic response to climate variability across the Paleocene-Eocene boundary in the Mid-Atlantic region, USA (United States)

    Willard, D. A.; Aleman, W.; Edwards, L. E.; Farmer, J. R.; Self-Trail, J.


    Late Paleocene to early Eocene continental margin sediments provide an opportunity to examine rates and patterns of change in terrestrial and marine ecoystems during an interval of rapid global warming and increasing atmospheric carbon concentrations. We present Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM) multiproxy data from a core obtained in 2007 from South Dover Bridge, Talbot County, Maryland. In it, we identified an apparently conformable Paleocene-Eocene contact at the Aquia Formation/Marlboro Clay boundary based on nannofossil, dinocyst, and pollen assemblages. A CaCO3 dissolution zone persists through the lower 91 cm of the Marlboro Clay. Terrestrial palynomorph concentration increases sharply at the base (Marlboro contact. Marlboro Clay sediment above the dissolution zone contains a unique nannofossil assemblage that is restricted to this unit and is indicative of the PETM both regionally and globally. The re-occurrence of calcareous nannofossil species in the upper Marlboro that disappeared at the base of the dissolution zone suggests a return to normal oceanic conditions. Comparison of multi-proxy data from this high-sedimentation site with other PETM records is important to improve our understanding of the pattern and timing of vegetation, phytoplankton, and marine responses to climate variability associated with the PETM, both regionally and globally.

  14. Tectonically driven late Paleocene (57.9-54.7 Ma) transgression and climatically forced latest middle Eocene (41.3-38.0 Ma) regression on the Indian subcontinent (United States)

    Singh, B. P.; Singh, Y. Raghumani; Andotra, D. S.; Patra, A.; Srivastava, V. K.; Guruaribam, Venus; Sijagurumayum, Umarani; Singh, G. P.


    Cenozoic era was the turning point in the geological history of the Indian subcontinent when India experienced maximum isolation before it collided with Asia and there occurred a great mountain building activity shaping the Himalaya. In the Cenozoic era, the sedimentation commenced in the late Paleocene (∼57.9 Ma) in the pericratonic basins of the western India as well as the foreland basins of the Himalaya that marks the beginning of a major transgression on the Indian subcontinent. Till now, it is not sure whether this transgression was forced by tectonics or climate. We have interpreted that the primary driver for this transgression was the tectonics that marks the beginning of the India-Asia convergence. A major regression of similar magnitude occurred during latest middle Eocene (41.3-38.0 Ma) that corresponds to global sea-level fall. This regression is global and can be identified even in the Cenozoic basins developed within the African plate. It is interpreted that this regression was driven by the global cooling during latest middle Eocene/late Eocene possibly associated with the nucleation of the Antarctica ice-sheets coupled with the uplift of the Himalaya.

  15. Terrestrial records of Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 (ETM2 / H1 / Elmo) and H2 in the Bighorn Basin (USA) (United States)

    Abels, H. A.; Clyde, W. C.; Gingerich, P. D.; Hilgen, F. J.; Fricke, H. C.; Bowen, G. J.; Lourens, L. J.


    Late Paleocene and early Eocene hyperthermal events are short-lived periods of rapid greenhouse warming related to massive increases in the concentration of atmospheric CO2. Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 (ETM2; also known as the Elmo event or H1) is the second largest of these events after the PETM and is followed after ~100 kyr by the smaller H2 event. ETM2 has only been documented in a few high-resolution marine successions and suggested in one low-resolution terrestrial record. Thus the impact of ETM2 on continental climates and biotas remains largely unknown. Recently, we located two successive negative carbon isotope excursions (CIEs) of ~3.8 and ~2.8 per mille in paleosol carbonate in the floodplain sedimentary record of the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming (USA). The C24r/C24n magnetochron boundary is pinpointed above the base of the larger CIE in our paleomagnetic results (Fig. 1). This stratigraphic position and the pattern and magnitude of the events indicate that the CIEs are the ETM2/H1 and H2 events, respectively. Mammal finds in the McCullough Peaks area where we documented the CIEs indicate that the Wa4-Wa5 biozone boundary occurs well below ETM2. If rapid faunal turnover at the Wa4-Wa5 boundary (known as 'biohorizon B') involved extinction of Ectocion and Haplomylus and the first appearance of Bunophorus, as commonly assumed, then faunal turnover at biohorizon B cannot be explained by greenhouse warming at the ETM2 hyperthermal event. Our new terrestrial carbon isotope record of ETM2/H1 and H2 reveals, when placed in an astronomically-calibrated timeframe, a very similar pattern to records recovered from marine successions. The magnitudes of the ongoing CIEs are similar to those found in western India that has been tentatively linked to ETM2. Also, the CIEs of PETM, ETM2, and H2 in paleosol carbonate records from the Bighorn Basin seem to scale linearly with CIEs in marine carbonate records from the same events.

  16. Variability in climate and productivity during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum in the western Tethys (Forada section) (United States)

    Giusberti, L.; Boscolo Galazzo, F.; Thomas, E.


    The Forada section (northeastern Italy) provides a continuous, expanded deep-sea record of the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) in the central-western Tethys. We combine a new, high-resolution, benthic foraminiferal assemblage record with published calcareous plankton, mineralogical and biomarker data to document climatic and environmental changes across the PETM, highlighting the benthic foraminiferal extinction event (BEE). The onset of the PETM, occurring ˜ 30 kyr after a precursor event, is marked by a thin, black, barren clay layer, possibly representing a brief pulse of anoxia and carbonate dissolution. The BEE occurred within the 10 cm interval including this layer. During the first 3.5 kyr of the PETM, several agglutinated recolonizing taxa show rapid species turnover, indicating a highly unstable, CaCO3-corrosive environment. Calcareous taxa reappeared after this interval, and the next ˜9 kyr were characterized by rapid alternation of peaks in abundance of various calcareous and agglutinated recolonizers. These observations suggest that synergistic stressors, including deepwater CaCO3 corrosiveness, low oxygenation, and high environmental instability caused the extinction. Combined faunal and biomarker data (BIT index, higher plant n-alkane average chain length) and the high abundance of the mineral chlorite suggest that erosion and weathering increased strongly at the onset of the PETM, due to an overall wet climate with invigorated hydrological cycle, which led to storm flood events carrying massive sediment discharge into the Belluno Basin. This interval was followed by the core of the PETM, characterized by four precessionally paced cycles in CaCO3 %, hematite %, δ13C, abundant occurrence of opportunistic benthic foraminiferal taxa, and calcareous nannofossil and planktonic foraminiferal taxa typical of high-productivity environments, radiolarians, and lower δDn-alkanes. We interpret these cycles as reflecting alternation between an overall

  17. Benthic foraminifera at the Paleocene/Eocene thermal maximum in the western Tethys (Forada section): variability in climate and productivity (United States)

    Giusberti, L.; Boscolo Galazzo, F.; Thomas, E.


    The Forada section (northeastern Italy) provides a continuous, expanded deep-sea record of the Paleocene/Eocene thermal maximum (PETM) in the central-western Tethys. We combine a new, high resolution, benthic foraminiferal assemblage record with published calcareous plankton, mineralogical and biomarker data to document climatic and environmental changes across the PETM, highlighting the benthic foraminiferal extinction event (BEE). The onset of the PETM, occurring ~ 30 kyr after a precursor event, is marked by a thin, black, barren clay layer, possibly representing a brief pulse of anoxia and carbonate dissolution. The BEE occurred within the 10 cm interval including this layer. During the first 3.5 kyr of the PETM several agglutinated recolonizing taxa show rapid species turnover, indicating a highly unstable, CaCO3-corrosive environment. Calcareous taxa reappeared after this interval, and the next ~ 9 kyr were characterized by rapid alternation of peaks in abundance of various calcareous and agglutinant recolonizers. These observations suggest that synergistic stressors including deep water CaCO3-corrosiveness, low oxygenation, and high environmental instability caused the extinction. Combined faunal and biomarker data (BIT index, higher plant n-alkane average chain length) and the high abundance of the mineral chlorite suggest that erosion and weathering increased strongly at the onset of the PETM, due to an overall wet climate with invigorated hydrological cycle, which led to storm flood-events carrying massive sediment discharge into the Belluno Basin. This interval was followed by the core of the PETM, characterized by four precessionally paced cycles in CaCO3%, hematite%, δ13C, abundant occurrence of opportunistic benthic foraminiferal taxa, as well as calcareous nannofossil and planktonic foraminiferal taxa typical of high productivity environments, radiolarians, and lower δDn-alkanes. We interpret these cycles as reflecting alternation between an

  18. Outpacing the Anthropocene: New Constraints for the Rate of Carbon Release at the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (United States)

    Wright, J. D.; Schaller, M. F.


    The Paleocene/Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) Carbon Isotope Excursion (CIE) is linked to benthic foraminiferal extinction and excursion taxa in planktonic foraminifera and calcareous nannofossils. Previous studies have used integrated bio-magneto-stratigraphies, cycle counting, and extraterrestrial 3He accumulation rates to produce a range of estimates for the duration of the initial onset of the PETM CIE between 750 years to 30 kyr. Durations for the total release time (onset to initiation of recovery) range from 45 to 95 kyr. Uncertainty in the timing of the onset of the PETM CIE prevents the identification of a causal mechanism, and hence understanding the biological responses. Recent work on the Paleocene/Eocene Marlboro Clay has unveiled the presence of regular couplets (~2 cm) expressed in multiple cores and exposures throughout the Atlantic Coastal Plain. Specifically, the Millville and newly recovered Wilson Lake B cores contain 750 and 660 layers through the CIE, respectively. These couplets have corresponding oxygen stable isotope cycles, arguing for a climatic origin. Orbital and millennial periodicities are far too long to explain the ~750 layers identified in the Millville core. Seasonal insolation is the only regular climate cycle that can plausibly account for the observed δ18O amplitudes (~1‰, with some cycles up to 2‰) and layer counts. Seasonal freshwater input can also augment the cyclic oscillations in δ18O, but the majority of the variability is most plausibly ascribed to temperature. Wilson Lake B and Millville have total δ13C excursions of -5 and -4.5‰ respectively, as well as highly expanded sections of the PETM CIE. In the Millville core, high-resolution, bulk stable isotope records show a 3.5‰ δ13C decrease over 12 layers across the PETM CIE onset. Concomitant with this δ13C decrease is a sharp drop in CaCO3. Decreases in both proxies require a large, sudden release of isotopically light carbon. The couplet chronology indicates

  19. Evidence for a warm ice-free environment on the high latitude Antarctic coast (78°S) during the Middle to Late Eocene (United States)

    Levy, R. H.; Bohaty, S. M.; Harwood, D. M.; Sangiorgi, F.; Willmott, V.; Talarico, F.; MacLeod, K. G.


    Much of Antarctica's Cenozoic geological record is hidden beneath the thick ice sheets and fringing ice shelves that cover the continent. Glacial erratics of sedimentary rocks present in coastal moraines at Minna Bluff and Mount Discovery, McMurdo Sound, western Ross Sea, Antarctica contain middle and late Eocene plant and marine fossils that were deposited in a range of marine settings along the Antarctic coastline. This suite of sedimentary rocks were likely deposited at the margin of a narrow (c. 100 km wide), relatively deep (up to 1000 m) marine seaway that was bound by the proto-Transantarctic Mountains to the west and a topographic high to the east. Although these Eocene ';';McMurdo Erratics'' lack stratigraphic integrity, they are significant as they offer a rare glimpse into Antarctica's climate during global greenhouse conditions at high latitudes (c. 78°S). Fossils recovered from the rocks are diverse and include marine and terrestrial palynomorphs, diatoms, molluscs, wood, leaves and other macrofauna and flora. Geochemical temperature proxies derived from the sedimentary rocks include organic biomarkers (TEX86) and fish tooth δ18O that indicate coastal sea surface temperatures were at least 15°C in the late Middle Eocene. While rare lonestones occur in several sandstone erratics, we find no conclusive evidence for glaciation at the coast. The fossil-bearing coastal moraines also contain a suite of igneous and metamorphic erratics that are comparable to lithological units exposed in the Transantarctic Mountains between the Skelton and Mulock glaciers. This suggests that the Eocene erratics were eroded from the north-eastern portion of a large sub-glacial basin behind Minna Bluff and/or from grabens in a basement high immediately south-east of Minna Bluff. Importantly, the northeastward extension of this basement high is a target for stratigraphic drilling during the proposed ANDRILL Coulman High Project. Drilling on the Coulman High has an excellent

  20. 40Ar/39Ar geochronology and geochemical reconnaissance of the Eocene Lowland Creek volcanic field, west-central Montana (United States)

    Dudas, F.O.; Ispolatov, V.O.; Harlan, S.S.; Snee, L.W.


    We report geochronological and geochemical data for the calc-alkalic Lowland Creek volcanic field (LCVF) in westcentral Montana. 40Ar/ 39Ar age determinations show that the LCVF was active from 52.9 to 48.6 Ma, with tuff-forming eruptions at 52.9 ?? 0.14 and 51.8 ?? 0.14 Ma. These dates span the age range of vigorous Eocene igneous activity in the Kamloops-Absaroka-Challis belt. The LCVF evolved upward from basal rhyolites (SiO 2>71 wt%) to dacites and andesites (SiO 2 > 62 wt%). Compositional change parallels a transition from early explosive volcanism to late effusive activity. Four geochemical components can be detected in the rocks. A component with 206Pb/204Pb 18.3 and epsilon;Nd>-9 contain a third component; and an andesite with low Nd content and epsilon;Nd near-9 probably contains a fourth component. The first three components probably derive from the lower and middle crust, whereas the fourth is probably from the lithospheric mantle. ?? 2010 by The University of Chicago.

  1. A size-specific record of diatom-bound organic carbon isotopes over the Eocene/Oligocene boundary (United States)

    Heureux, Ana; Rickaby, Ros; Hermoso, Michael; Lee, Renee


    Marine diatoms, ubiquitous silicifying photosynthetic algae, are major contributors to marine primary production in the modern ocean. In all primary producers, the enzyme Rubisco catalyzes the fixation of carbon from CO2. Due to the low concentration and slow diffusion rates of CO2 as a substrate in naturally buffered seawater, most marine algae have evolved mechanisms for concentrating CO2 around the Rubisco enzyme. The efficiency of these carbon concentration mechanisms may be reflected in the carbon isotopes of organic matter preserved within sedimentary nannofossils, and is hypothesized to change in response to ambient CO2 concentration. As a first order investigation into the relationship between carbon concentration related to cell size and isotopic fractionation of carbon into organic matter, or ɛp, in response to changes in CO2, we have created a novel record from IODP site 1090 in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean, spanning the marked temperature and gradual pCO2 decline across the Eocene/Oligocene boundary. Using size microseparation of diatom silica and established cleaning techniques to isolate organic material trapped inside the diatom frustules, this record provides a size fraction-specific account of ɛp from marine diatoms. Comparing these individual records with the bulk diatom record from this site elucidates the potential effects of size related carbon concentration on trends in ɛp across the E/O boundary and may reveal further insight into the magnitude of CO2 decline.

  2. Fossil nothofagaceous leaves from the Eocene of western Antarctica and their bearing on the origin, dispersal and systematics of Nothofagus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Fossil leaves resembling Nothofagaceae have been investigated from the Eocene of western Antarctica and a new form genus Nothofagofolia is proposed for these kinds of fossils. Some new specimens belonging to this form genus are described. They were collected from the Fossil Hill locality of Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, South Shetland Islands, western Antarctica. Two new species, two new combinations and an unnamed species are reported. A number of published Nothofagus leaf fossils from the same locality are discussed and revised. As a result of these studies of Nothofagus leaf morphology, we conclude that (1) Nothofagus probably originated in high latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere during the middle-late Late Cretaceous and diversified, dispersed gradually to the lower latitudes of the same hemisphere; (2) leaf morphological characters are significant for the systematics of the family Nothofagaceae, especially at the intrageneric level; and (3) extant species of Nothofagus known from southern temperate areas have more primitive leaf morphological characters and lower leaf ranks than those from tropical mountains as well as those of the Fagaceae and Betulaceae.

  3. Eocene-Pliocene time scale and stratigraphy of the Upper Rhine Graben (URG) and the Swiss Molasse Basin (SMB) (United States)

    Berger, Jean-Pierre; Reichenbacher, Bettina; Becker, Damien; Grimm, Matthias; Grimm, Kirsten; Picot, Laurent; Storni, Andrea; Pirkenseer, Claudius; Schaefer, Andreas


    We present a general stratigraphic synthesis for the Upper Rhine Graben (URG) and the Swiss Molasse Basin (SMB) from Eocene to Pliocene times. The stratigraphic data were compiled both from literature and from research carried out by the authors during the past 6 years ; an index of the stratigraphically most important localitites is provided. We distinguish 14 geographical areas from the Helvetic domain in the South to the Hanau Basin in the North. For each geographical area, we give a synthesis of the biostratigraphy, lithofacies, and chronostratigraphic ranges. The relationships between this stratigraphic record and the global sea-level changes are generally disturbed by the geodynamic (e.g., subsidence) evolution of the basins. However, global sea-level changes probably affected the dynamic of transgression regression in the URG (e.g., Middle Pechelbronn Beds and Serie Grise corresponding with sea-level rise between Ru1/Ru2 and Ru2/Ru3 sequences, respectively) as well as in the Molasse basin (regression of the UMM corresponding with the sea-level drop at the Ch1 sequence). The URGENT-project (Upper Rhine Graben evolution and neotectonics) provided an unique opportunity to carry out and present this synthesis. Discussions with scientists addressing sedimentology, tectonics, geophysics and geochemistry permitted the comparison of the sedimentary history and stratigraphy of the basin with processes controlling its geodynamic evolution. Data presented here back up the palaeogeographic reconstructions presented in a companion paper by the same authors (see Berger et al. in Int J Earth Sci 2005).

  4. Large sedimentary aquifer systems functioning. Constraints by classical isotopic and chemical tools, and REE in the Eocene sand aquifer, SW France (United States)

    Petelet-Giraud, E.; Negrel, P. J.; Millot, R.; Guerrot, C.; Brenot, A.; Malcuit, E.


    Large sedimentary aquifer systems often constitute strategic water resources for drinking water supply, agriculture irrigation and industry, but can also represent an energetic resource for geothermal power. Large water abstractions can induce complete modification of the natural functioning of such aquifer systems, e.g. with seepage between aquifer layers that can lead to water quality degradation. These large aquifer systems thus require rational water management at the sedimentary basin scale in order to preserve both water quantity and quality. In addition to hydrogeological modelling mainly dealing with water quantity, chemical and isotopic methods were applied to evidence the spatial variability of water characteristics and to turn this into better understanding of hydrosystems functioning. The large Eocene Sand aquifer system of the Adour-Garonne sedimentary basin was studied through various hydrological, chemical and isotopic tools. This system extends over 116,000 km2 (one-fifth of the French territory, located in the South west part). The aquifer being artesian in the west of the district and confined with piezometric levels around 250-m depth in the east. The ‘Eocene Sands’, composed of sandy Tertiary sediments alternating with carbonate deposits, is a multi-layer system with high permeability and a thickness of several tens of metres to a hundred metres..The Eocene Sand aquifer system comprises at least five aquifers: Paleocene, Eocene infra-molassic sands (IMS), early Eocene, middle Eocene, and late Eocene. According to δ18O and δ2H values and estimated 14C ages, both present-day recharge (mainly located in the north of the area) and old recharge (16-35 ky) can be evidenced. High spatial variability was evidenced within a same aquifer layer, with temporal variability over one hydrological cycle limited to a few points located in the recharge areas. These results and especially the very old waters recharged under colder climate combined with the

  5. Fault dating in the Canadian Rocky Mountains: Evidence for late Cretaceous and early Eocene orogenic pulses (United States)

    van der Pluijm, B.A.; Vrolijk, P.J.; Pevear, D.R.; Hall, C.M.; Solum, J.


    Fault rocks from the classic Rocky Mountain foreland fold-and-thrust belt in south-western Canada were dated by Ar analysis of clay grain-size fractions. Using X-ray diffraction quantification of the detrital and authigenic component of each fraction, these determinations give ages for individual faults in the area (illite age analysis). The resulting ages cluster around 72 and 52 Ma (here called the Rundle and McConnell pulses, respectively), challenging the traditional view of gradual forward progression of faulting and thrust-belt history of the area. The recognition of spatially and temporally restricted deformation episodes offers field support for theoretical models of critically stressed wedges, which result in geologically reasonable strain rates for the area. In addition to regional considerations, this study highlights the potential of direct dating of shallow fault rocks for our understanding of upper-crustal kinematics and regional tectonic analysis of ancient orogens. ?? 2006 Geological Society of America.

  6. Magnetofossils as Biomarkers of Environmental Change: A Multiproxy Example from the Paleocene-Eocene Continental Shelves of North America (Invited) (United States)

    Lippert, P. C.


    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are prokaryotic organisms that biomineralize chemically pure and morphologically distinctive magnetite or greigite particles. These particles are easily detected using a variety of non-destructive rock magnetic techniques such as low-temperature demagnetization, magnetic hysteresis, and ferromagnetic resonance experiments, analyses of coercivity spectra and first order reversal curves, and transmission electron microscopy. Extant forms of MTB commonly live in the oxic-anoxic transition zone of aquatic environments where dissolved oxygen and sulfide are low and bioavailable iron is high. These environments include suboxic sediments and seasonally stratified estuaries and freshwater lakes. Most magnetofossils are removed from the geologic record by reductive dissolution with burial under steady-state redox conditions. Increases in sedimentation rate or nutrient supply and productivity, however, lead to nonsteady redox conditions and suboxic sediments at depth that fosters magnetite preservation. Thus, the restrictive ecological niche occupied by MTB, as well as their preservation as magnetofossils, potentially make them useful biomarkers for environmental change. Paleocene-Eocene (P-E) boundary sections along the North American continental margins provide a unique record with which to evaluate MTB as environmental biomarkers. During the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), mean annual temperatures and deep and surface ocean temperatures at all latitudes rose by 5-8°C in response to the release of massive quantities of isotopically light carbon to the oceans and atmosphere. These super greenhouse conditions fostered dramatic changes to the hydrologic cycle, which is most evident in coastal records of the PETM, where sedimentation rates increased by an order of magnitude at the onset of the event. We present new and previously published rock magnetic data from the Wilson Lake and Bass River subtropical P-E boundary records in New

  7. Major perturbations in the global carbon cycle and photosymbiont-bearing planktic foraminifera during the early Eocene (United States)

    Luciani, Valeria; Dickens, Gerald R.; Backman, Jan; Fornaciari, Eliana; Giusberti, Luca; Agnini, Claudia; D'Onofrio, Roberta


    A marked switch in the abundance of the planktic foraminiferal genera Morozovella and Acarinina occurred at low-latitude sites near the start of the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO), a multi-million-year interval when Earth surface temperatures reached their Cenozoic maximum. Stable carbon and oxygen isotope data of bulk sediment are presented from across the EECO at two locations: Possagno in northeast Italy and Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) Site 577 in the northwest Pacific. Relative abundances of planktic foraminifera are presented from these two locations, as well as from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1051 in the northwest Atlantic. All three sections have good stratigraphic markers, and the δ13C records at each section can be correlated amongst each other and to δ13C records at other locations across the globe. These records show that a series of negative carbon isotope excursions (CIEs) occurred before, during and across the EECO, which is defined here as the interval between the J event and the base of Discoaster sublodoensis. Significant though ephemeral modifications in planktic foraminiferal assemblages coincide with some of the short-term CIEs, which were marked by increases in the relative abundance of Acarinina, similar to what happened across established hyperthermal events in Tethyan settings prior to the EECO. Most crucially, a temporal link exists between the onset of the EECO, carbon cycle changes during this time and the decline in Morozovella. Possible causes are manifold and may include temperature effects on photosymbiont-bearing planktic foraminifera and changes in ocean chemistry.

  8. First known feeding trace of the eocene bottom-dwelling fish Notogoneus osculus and its paleontological significance.

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    Anthony J Martin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Green River Formation (early Eocene, about 42-53 Ma at and near Fossil Butte National Monument in Wyoming, USA, is world famous for its exquisitely preserved freshwater teleost fish in the former Fossil Lake. Nonetheless, trace fossils attributed to fish interacting with the lake bottom are apparently rare, and have not been associated directly with any fish species. Here we interpret the first known feeding and swimming trace fossil of the teleost Notogoneus osculus Cope (Teleostei: Gonorynchidae, which is also represented as a body fossil in the same stratum. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A standard description of the trace fossil, identified as Undichna cf. U. simplicatas, was augmented by high-resolution digital images and spatial and mathematical analyses, which allowed for detailed interpretations of the anatomy, swimming mode, feeding behavior, and body size of the tracemaker. Our analysis indicates that the tracemaker was about 45 cm long; used its caudal, anal, and pelvic fins (the posterior half of its body to make the swimming traces; and used a ventrally oriented mouth to make overlapping feeding marks. We hypothesize that the tracemaker was an adult Notogoneus osculus. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results are the first to link a specific teleost tracemaker with a trace fossil from the Green River Formation, while also interpreting the size and relative age of the tracemaker. The normal feeding and swimming behaviors indicated by the trace fossil indicate temporarily oxygenated benthic conditions in the deepest part of Fossil Lake, counter to most paleoecological interpretations of this deposit. Lastly, our spatial and mathematical analyses significantly update and advance previous approaches to the study of teleost trace fossils.

  9. Nazca-South America interactions and the late Eocene-late Oligocene flat-slab episode in the central Andes (United States)

    O'Driscoll, Leland J.; Richards, Mark A.; Humphreys, Eugene D.


    The most prominent features of the Andean range are the Altiplano and Puna plateaus, which were constructed by crustal shortening and uplift over the past ˜45 Myr. The early construction of these plateaus may have controlled subsequent growth of the orogen. Proposed models have suggested that an abrupt acceleration in relative motion between the Nazca plate and the South American plate at ˜30 Ma may have led to compression of the continent. However, the major plate motion change occurred at 25-23 Ma, and paleomagnetic rotations and crustal shortening of the Andean forearc require that the Arica Bend formed prior to about 25 Ma. Inferred history of flat-slab subduction along the Altiplano section of the Andean margin and the structure of the adjacent South American cratonic shield combine to suggest an alternate scenario, based partly upon geodynamic models of oceanic-continental plate interactions in subduction zones. We propose that central Andean tectonism may have been controlled by two distinct regimes of subduction: (1) oblique subduction along the central Andean margin during the late Eocene and Oligocene accompanied by downdip alignment with the center of the Amazonian Shield (flat-slab activity in this phase of orogenesis may have been caused by a combination of cratonic root enhanced tectonics and oceanic plateau subduction) and (2) an abrupt transition to trench-normal subduction after ˜25 Ma toward the more distal São Francisco Craton was accompanied by a return to normal angle subduction. Similar interactions are hypothesized to have occurred during the Laramide Orogeny in western North America.

  10. Eocene extension in Idaho generated massive sediment floods into Franciscan trench and into Tyee, Great Valley, and Green River basins (United States)

    Dumitru, Trevor A.; Ernst, W.G.; Wright, James E.; Wooden, Joseph L.; Wells, Ray E.; Farmer, Lucia P.; Kent, Adam J.R.; Graham, Stephan A.


    The Franciscan Complex accretionary prism was assembled during an ∼165-m.y.-long period of subduction of Pacific Ocean plates beneath the western margin of the North American plate. In such fossil subduction complexes, it is generally difficult to reconstruct details of the accretion of continent-derived sediments and to evaluate the factors that controlled accretion. New detrital zircon U-Pb ages indicate that much of the major Coastal belt subunit of the Franciscan Complex represents a massive, relatively brief, surge of near-trench deposition and accretion during Eocene time (ca. 53–49 Ma). Sediments were sourced mainly from the distant Idaho Batholith region rather than the nearby Sierra Nevada. Idaho detritus also fed the Great Valley forearc basin of California (ca. 53–37 Ma), the Tyee forearc basin of coastal Oregon (49 to ca. 36 Ma), and the greater Green River lake basin of Wyoming (50–47 Ma). Plutonism in the Idaho Batholith spanned 98–53 Ma in a contractional setting; it was abruptly superseded by major extension in the Bitterroot, Anaconda, Clearwater, and Priest River metamorphic core complexes (53–40 Ma) and by major volcanism in the Challis volcanic field (51–43 Ma). This extensional tectonism apparently deformed and uplifted a broad region, shedding voluminous sediments toward depocenters to the west and southeast. In the Franciscan Coastal belt, the major increase in sediment input apparently triggered a pulse of massive accretion, a pulse ultimately controlled by continental tectonism far within the interior of the North American plate, rather than by some tectonic event along the plate boundary itself.

  11. Organic petrology and geochemistry of Eocene Suzak bituminous marl, north-central Afghanistan: Depositional environment and source rock potential (United States)

    Hackley, Paul C.; Sanfilipo, John


    Organic geochemistry and petrology of Eocene Suzak bituminous marl outcrop samples from Madr village in north-central Afghanistan were characterized via an integrated analytical approach to evaluate depositional environment and source rock potential. Multiple proxies suggest the organic-rich (TOC ∼6 wt.%) bituminous marls are ‘immature’ for oil generation (e.g., vitrinite Ro  1) indicating organic input from marine algae and/or bacterial biomass, and sterane/hopane ratios are low (0.12–0.14). Monoaromatic steroids are dominated by C28clearly indicating a marine setting. High gammacerane index values (∼0.9) are consistent with anoxia stratification and may indicate intermittent saline-hypersaline conditions. Stable C isotope ratios also suggest a marine depositional scenario for the Suzak samples, consistent with the presence of marine foraminifera including abundant planktic globigerinida(?) and rare benthic discocyclina(?) and nummulites(?). Biomarker 2α-methylhopane for photosynthetic cyanobacteria implies shallow photic zone deposition of Madr marls and 3β-methylhopane indicates presence of methanotrophic archaea in the microbial consortium. The data presented herein are consistent with deposition of Suzak bituminous marls in shallow stratified waters of a restricted marine basin associated with the southeastern incipient or proto-Paratethys. Geochemical proxies from Suzak rock extracts (S content, high polar content, C isotopes, normal (αααR) C27–29 steranes, and C29/C30 and C26/C25 hopane ratios) are similar to extant data from Paleogene oils produced to the north in the Afghan-Tajik Basin. This observation may indicate laterally equivalent strata are effective source rocks as suggested by previous workers; however, further work is needed to strengthen oil-source correlations.

  12. Sub-MIlankovitch millennial and decadal cyclicity in Middle Eocene deep-marine laminated sediments, Ainsa Basin, Spanish Pyrenees (United States)

    Scotchman, J. I.; Pickering, K. T.; Robinson, S. A.


    James I. Scotchman1, Kevin T. Pickering1 & Stuart A. Robinson1 1Department of Earth Sciences, UCL (University College London), Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT, U.K. Climate variability on the scale of millennia has become conspicuous within Quaternary records with far fewer such records existing within the pre-Pleistocene geological record. We identify millennial and decadal cyclicity in deep-marine siliciclastic (turbiditic and hemipelagic) sediments from a core in the middle Eocene Ainsa Basin, Spanish Pyrenees. Outcrop spectral gamma-ray data from laterally adjacent and age-equivalent strata to the core, together with a re-analysis of bioturbation data from the core, identifies the three main Milankovitch orbital periods. From this data, we derive a robust sediment accumulation rate for these sediments of 27.5 cm/kyr. Spectral analysis of data from high-resolution multi-element XRF scanning of a ~10 m-thick stratigraphic interval of fine-grained laminated sediments reveals the presence of various high-frequency cycles mainly above the 99% confidence level. Applying our derived sediment accumulation rate yields sub-Milankovitch millennial-scale cycles (~5,400, ~2,800, and ~1,000 yr) and decadal (~90, ~50, and ~30 yr) cycles split between allogenic and authigenic deposition. These cycles are manifest in the core as grain-size variations. The ~5,400 and ~2,800 yr cycles, recorded by elemental (Al, K, Ca and Fe) and element/Al ratios (Si/Al, Ca/Al and Zr/Al) are interpreted as representing climatically-driven variation in sediment supply to the deep-marine Ainsa basin. Higher-frequency decadal cycles are coincident with well-known Gleissberg solar cycles or possible multiples of the 11-year Schwabe cycle although how these cycles are expressed within these sediments remains unclear.

  13. Geology and geochronology of the Tana Basin, Ethiopia: LIP volcanism, super eruptions and Eocene-Oligocene environmental change (United States)

    Prave, A. R.; Bates, C. R.; Donaldson, C. H.; Toland, H.; Condon, D. J.; Mark, D.; Raub, T. D.


    New geological and geochronological data define four episodes of volcanism for the Lake Tana region in the northern Ethiopian portion of the Afro-Arabian Large Igneous Province (LIP): pre-31 Ma flood basalt that yielded a single 40Ar/39Ar age of 34.05 ± 0.54 / 0.56 Ma; thick and extensive felsic ignimbrites and rhyolites (minimum volume of 2- 3 ×103 km3) erupted between 31.108 ± 0.020 / 0.041 Ma and 30.844 ± 0.027 / 0.046 Ma (U-Pb CA-ID-TIMS zircon ages); mafic volcanism bracketed by 40Ar/39Ar ages of 28.90 ± 0.12 / 0.14 Ma and 23.75 ± 0.02 / 0.04 Ma; and localised scoraceous basalt with an 40Ar/39Ar age of 0.033 ± 0.005 / 0.005 Ma. The felsic volcanism was the product of super eruptions that created a 60-80 km diameter caldera marked by km-scale caldera-collapse fault blocks and a steep-sided basin filled with a minimum of 180 m of sediment and the present-day Lake Tana. These new data enable mapping, with a finer resolution than previously possible, Afro-Arabian LIP volcanism onto the timeline of the Eocene-Oligocene transition and show that neither the mafic nor silicic volcanism coincides directly with perturbations in the geochemical records that span that transition. Our results reinforce the view that it is not the development of a LIP alone but its rate of effusion that contributes to inducing global-scale environmental change.

  14. Seismic-reflection imaging of Tertiary faulting and related post-Eocene deformation 20 km North of Memphis, Tennessee (United States)

    Williams, R.A.; Stephenson, W.J.; Odum, J.K.; Worley, D.M.


    Other than the Crittenden County fault zone (CCFZ), little is known about the seismic hazard from earthquake faults within 50 km of Memphis, Tennessee, a city that contains a large inventory of older buildings that are vulnerable to moderate and strong earthquake ground shaking. To address this lack of knowledge about faulting near Memphis, we acquired a 4.5 km long Mini-Sosie seismic-reflection profile across the boundary between the loess-covered bluffs and modern Mississippi River flood plain in Meeman-Shelby Forest State Park north of Memphis. We imaged a previously unknown reverse/thrust fault that displaces Paleozoic and Cretaceous rocks and upwarps Tertiary deposits on the floodplain portion of the profile about 25 km north of downtown Memphis. The Paleozoic and Cretaceous rocks are vertically faulted about 70 and 40 m, respectively, in an up-to-the-west sense of displacement. The fault displacement apparently terminates in the basal portion of the Paleocene section and causes only an upwarping of the overlying deposits. The overlying Paleocene and Eocene deposits, which are probably the youngest deposits imaged, are upwarped about 50-60 m with the same sense of displacement as the underlying older units. The sense of displacement, amplitude, and appearance of the fault in the seismic data are very similar to that observed in the seismic reflection images of the CCFZ 15 km west of this profile. Although we have imaged this new fault in only one location, its proximity to Memphis and similarities to the CCFZ, leads us to speculate that it may be a parallel structure to the CCFZ and thus warrants further study. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Makah Formation; a deep-marginal-basin sequence of late Eocene and Oligocene age in the northwestern Olympic Peninsula, Washington (United States)

    Snavely, P. D.; Niem, A.R.; MacLeod, N.S.; Pearl, J.E.; Rau, W.W.


    The Makah Formation of the Twin River Group crops out in a northwest-trending linear belt in the northwesternmost part of the Olympic Peninsula, Wash. This marine sequence consists of 2800 meters of predominantly thin-bedded siltstone and sandstone that encloses six distinctive newly named members--four thick-bedded amalgamated turbidite sandstone members, an olistostromal shallow-water marine sandstone and conglomerate member, and a thin-bedded water-laid tuff member. A local unconformity of submarine origin occurs within the lower part of the Makah Formation except in the central part of the study area, where it forms the contact between the older Hoko River Formation and the Makah. Foraminiferal faunas indicate that the Makah Formation ranges in age from late Eocene (late Narizian) to late Oligocene (Zemorrian) and was deposited in a predominantly lower to middle bathyal environment. The Makah Formation is part of a deep-marginalbasin facies that crops out in the western part of the Olympic Peninsula, in southwesternmost Washington and coastal embayments in northwestern Oregon, and along the central part of the coast of western Vancouver Island. On the basis of limited subsurface data from exploratory wells, correlative deep-marginal-basin deposits underlie the inner continental shelf of Oregon and the continental shelf (Tofino basin) along the southwestern side of Vancouver Island. Directional structures in the Makah Formation indicate that the predominantly lithic arkosic sandstone that forms the turbidite packets was derived from the northwest. A possible source of the clastic material is the dioritic, granitic, and volcanic terranes in the vicinity of the Hesquiat Peninsula and Barkley Sound on the west coast of Vancouver Island. Vertical and lateral variations of turbidite facies suggest that the four packets of sandstone were formed as depositional lobes on an outer submarine fan. The thin-bedded strata between the turbidite packets have characteristics of

  16. Chemosystematics and diagenesis of terpenoids in fossil conifer species and sediment from the Eocene Zeitz formation, Saxony, Germany (United States)

    Otto, Angelika; Simoneit, Bernd R. T.


    The biomarker contents of three fossil conifer species ( Athrotaxis couttsiae, Taxodium balticum, Pinus palaeostrobus) and the clay sediment from the Eocene Zeitz formation, Germany, have been analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Triterpenoids of the oleanane, ursane and lupane series and aliphatic wax lipids are the major compounds in the total extracts of the sediment indicating a major angiosperm input. In contrast, diterpenoids (abietanes, phenolic abietanes, pimaranes, isopimaranes, kauranes, phyllocladanes, totaranes) and lignin degradation products are predominant in the conifer fossil extracts. Polar diterpenoids (ferruginol and derivatives, dehydroabietic acid) are preserved as major compounds in the conifers, accompained by saturated and aromatic diterpenoid products. The extracts of the fossil conifer species show characteristic biomarker patterns and contain terpenoids of chemosystematic value. The terpenoid composition of the fossil conifers is similar to that of related modern species. Phenolic abietanes (ferruginol, 6,7-dehydroferruginol, hydroxyferruginols, sugiol) which are known from modern species of the Cupressaceae and Podocarpaceae are the major terpenoids in shoots of Athrotaxis couttsiae and a cone of Taxodium balticum (both Cupressaceae). Sesquiterpenoids characteristic for Cupressaceae (cuparene, α-cedrene) are also present in Athrotaxis. Abietane-type acids (dehydroabietic acid, abietic acid) and saturated abietanes [fichtelite, 13α(H)-fichtelite] predominate in the extracts of a Pinus palaeostrobus cone and phenolic abietanes are not detectable. A diagenetic pathway for the degradation of abietic acid is proposed based on the presence of abietane-type acids and a series of their presumed degradation products in the Pinus cone. The formation of diagenetic products from the phenolic abietanes is also discussed.

  17. A new interpretation of the two-step δ18O signal at the Eocene-Oligocene boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. Dijkstra


    Full Text Available The most marked step in the global climate transition from "Greenhouse" to "Icehouse" Earth occurred at the Eocene-Oligocene (E–O boundary, 33.7 Ma. Evidence for climatic changes comes from many sources, including the marine benthic δ18O record, showing an increase by 1.2–1.5‰ at this time. This positive excursion is characterised by two steps, separated by a plateau. The increase in δ18O values has been attributed to rapid glaciation of the Antarctic continent, previously ice-free. Simultaneous changes in the δ13C record are indicative of a greenhouse gas control on climate. Previous studies show that a decline in pCO2 beyond a certain threshold value may have initiated the growth of a Southern Hemispheric ice sheet. These studies were not able to conclusively explain the remarkable two-step profile in δ18O. Furthermore, they did not address the potential role of changes in ocean circulation in the E–O transition. Here a new interpretation of the δ18O signal is presented, based on model simulations using a simple coupled 8-box-ocean, 4-box-atmosphere model with an added land ice component. The model was forced with a slowly decreasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration. It is argued that the first step in the δ18O represents a shift in meridional overturning circulation from a Southern Ocean to a bipolar source of deep-water formation, which is associated with a cooling of the deep sea. This shift can be initiated by a small density perturbation in the model, although there is also a parameter regime for which the shift occurs spontaneously. The second step in the δ18O profile occurs due to a rapid glaciation of the Antarctic continent. This new interpretation is a robust outcome of our model and is in good agreement with proxy data.

  18. The onset of the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum, including the K/X event, at Branch Stream, Clarence Valley, New Zealand (United States)

    Slotnick, B. S.; Dickens, G. R.; Hollis, C. J.; Crampton, J. S.; Strong, P.; Dallanave, E.; Philips, A.


    The Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO), lasting from ~53-50 Ma, has been characterized as the warmest sustained interval through the Cenozoic. It was comprised of a broad temperature maximum with elevated atmospheric pCO2, noticeable shifts in carbon cycling, and a variety of faunal and floral changes. This included one, and likely additional, brief (CIEs) have been coupled to massive fluxes of 13C-depleted carbon into the exogenic system and global climate change. However, much about EECO remains unknown because of a lack of detailed and coupled proxy records; we are currently generating useful records to better characterize lithological and geochemical signatures of EECO. Here, we help rectify this problem by presenting a new lithologic and carbon isotopic record for a ~84-m-thick section of early Eocene upper slope calcareous-rich sediments, now lithified and exposed along Branch Stream, New Zealand. Comparison of new carbon isotopic and lithologic records of this greatly expanded section to nearby Mead Stream identifies multiple negative CIEs in short succession and generally more marl during lowermost EECO (~53.3-51.7 Ma), with the most prominent of these equating to the K/X event. The early Eocene lithologic and δ13C records at Branch and Mead Streams are remarkably similar to each other, with the following distinctions: sequences at Branch Stream are thicker and generally have a wider range of δ13C across CIEs. Both expanded sections are marked by terrigenous dilution, best explained by enhanced seasonal precipitation, elevated greenhouse-gas concentrations, and likely global warming. These data indicate lowermost EECO can be described as a time with a general δ13C low superimposed by a series of short-term climate perturbations.

  19. Petrogenesis of Paleocene-Eocene porphyry deposit-related granitic rocks in the Yaguila-Sharang ore district, central Lhasa terrane, Tibet (United States)

    Zhao, Junxing; Li, Guangming; Evans, Noreen J.; Qin, Kezhang; Li, Jinxiang; Zhang, Xia'nan


    The Paleocene-Eocene ore deposits in the Gangdese Metallogenic Belt, Tibet, are thought to have been formed during the main period of India-Asia continental collision. This paper reports the whole-rock major element, trace element, and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic compositions and zircon trace element contents of volcanic and intrusive rocks from the Paleocene Yaguila skarn Pb-Zn-Ag deposit and adjacent Eocene Sharang porphyry Mo deposit in the central Lhasa terrane, Tibet. Geochemical signatures and Nd-Hf isotopic compositions indicate that the Yaguila Cretaceous rhyolitic rocks were formed by the melting of ancient continental crust, whereas the Paleocene causative granite porphyry may have resulted from the interaction between mantle-derived and crustal-derived materials when continental collision was initiated. The dramatic increase of εNd(t) values between emplacement of the granite porphyry and later porphyritic biotite granite suggests a greater involvement of mantle materials during the crystallization of the barren biotite granite stock. The post-ore Miocene granodiorite porphyry has a similar geochemical signature to the Sharang Miocene dykes, suggesting they were both generated from melting of enriched lithospheric mantle. Nd-Hf mixing calculations indicate an increasing contribution of mantle materials in Paleocene to Eocene intrusions, consistent with the regional tectonic model of Neo-Tethyan oceanic slab roll-back and break-off. Zircons from both the Yaguila and Sharang ore-related porphyries have higher Ce anomalies than those from the barren granitoids, suggesting that Mo mineralization was closely related to highly oxidized and differentiated magma. The fertile intrusions in the Yaguila-Sharang district contain EuN/EuN∗ values from 0.3 to 0.6, higher than the non-mineralized intrusions. The processes of early crystallization of plagioclase and/or SO2-degassing from underlying magma can explain the observed negative Eu anomalies in zircon.

  20. Wasatchian-Bridgerian (Eocene) paleoecology of the western interior of North America: changing paleoenvironments and taxonomic composition of omomyid (Tarsiiformes) primates. (United States)

    Gunnell, G F


    Many changes in mammalian faunas occurred across the early (Wasatchian) to middle (Bridgerian) Eocene boundary as documented in the fossil record from the Western Interior of North America. One of the more striking changes took place within the tarsiiform primate family Omomyidae. In the early Eocene, omomyids were dominated, both in abundance and diversity, by the subfamily Anaptomorphinae. In the middle Eocene, the subfamily Omomyinae dominated in abundance, while both subfamilies were nearly equally diverse. Examination of a series of paleoecological indicators including leaf-margin analysis, cenogram analysis, ecological diversity analysis of trophic structure, the distribution and development of ancient soil horizons (paleosols), and the distribution of lacustrine and fluvial facies in the Bighorn and southern Green River basins of Wyoming reveals factors that may have influenced the composition of omomyid primates. Subtle but important changes occurred in paleoclimates with mean annual temperatures reaching Cenozoic maximums at the end of the Wasatchian into the early Bridgerian. Both land mammal ages were typified by subtropical, closed forested conditions, but the Bridgerian was probably more humid and wetter than the Wasatchian. Paleohabitats most commonly sampled in the Wasatchian of the Bighorn Basin are proximal and distal floodplains, while those of the Bridgerian in the southern Green River Basin are lake margins and proximal floodplains. Changes in paleoclimate may have triggered a wave of omomyine immigration near the end of the Wasatchian with omomyines entering into habitats previously occupied by anaptomorphines. Lake margin and proximal floodplain habitats are those most commonly occupied by omomyines in the Bridgerian with anaptomorphines being more common in basin margin and distal floodplain areas not commonly sampled. Omomyine immigration and sampling of differing paleohabitats are two possible explanations for the changes documented in

  1. Integrated stratigraphy of the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum in the New Jersey Coastal Plain: Toward understanding the effects of global warming in a shelf environment (United States)

    Stassen, Peter; Thomas, Ellen; Speijer, Robert P.


    In the New Jersey Coastal Plain, a silty to clayey sedimentary unit (the Marlboro Formation) represents deposition during the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM). This interval is remarkably different from the glauconitic sands and silts of the underlying Paleocene Vincentown and overlying Eocene Manasquan Formation. We integrate new and published stable isotope, biostratigraphic, lithostratigraphic and ecostratigraphic records, constructing a detailed time frame for the PETM along a depth gradient at core sites Clayton, Wilson Lake, Ancora and Bass River (updip to downdip). The onset of the PETM, marked by the base of the carbon isotope excursion (CIE), is within the gradual transition from glauconitic silty sands to silty clay, and represented fully at the updip sites (Wilson Lake and Clayton). The CIE “core” interval is expanded at the updip sites, but truncated. The CIE “core” is complete at the Bass River and Ancora sites, where the early part of the recovery is present (most complete at Ancora). The extent to which the PETM is expressed in the sediments is highly variable between sites, with a significant unconformity at the base of the overlying lower Eocene sediments. Our regional correlation framework provides an improved age model, allowing better understanding of the progression of environmental changes during the PETM. High-resolution benthic foraminiferal data document the change from a sediment-starved shelf setting to a tropical, river-dominated mud-belt system during the PETM, probably due to intensification of the hydrologic cycle. The excellent preservation of foraminifera during the PETM and the lack of severe benthic extinction suggest there was no extreme ocean acidification in shelf settings.

  2. Large-scale displacement along the Altyn Tagh Fault (North Tibet) since its Eocene initiation: Insight from detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology and subsurface data (United States)

    Cheng, Feng; Jolivet, Marc; Fu, Suotang; Zhang, Changhao; Zhang, Qiquan; Guo, Zhaojie


    Marking the northern boundary of the Tibetan plateau, the Altyn Tagh fault plays a crucial role in accommodating the Cenozoic crustal deformation affecting the plateau. However, its initiation time and amount of offset are still controversial despite being key information for the understanding of Tibet evolution. In this study, we present 1122 single LA-ICP-MS detrital zircon U-Pb ages obtained from 11 Mesozoic to Cenozoic sandstone samples, collected along two sections in the northwestern Qaidam basin (Eboliang and Huatugou). These data are combined with new 3D seismic reflection profiles to demonstrate that: (1) from the Paleocene to early Eocene, the Eboliang section was approximately located near the present position of Anxi, 360 ± 40 km southwest from its current location along the Altyn Tagh fault, and sediments were mainly derived from the Altyn Tagh Range. At the same period, the Huatugou section was approximately located near the present position of Tula, ca. 360 km southwest from its current location along the Altyn Tagh fault, and the Eastern Kunlun Range represented a significant sediment source. (2) Left-lateral strike-slip movement along the Altyn Tagh fault initiated during the early-middle Eocene, resulting in northeastward displacement of the two sections. (3) By early Miocene, the intensive deformation within the Altyn Tagh Range and northwestern Qaidam basin strongly modified the drainage system, preventing the materials derived from the Altyn Tagh Range to reach the Eboliang and the Huatugou sections. The post-Oligocene clastic material in the western Qaidam basin is generally derived from local sources and recycling of the deformed Paleocene to Oligocene strata. From these data, we suggest enhanced tectonic activity within the Altyn Tagh Range and northwestern Qaidam basin since Miocene time, and propose an early-middle Eocene initiation of left-lateral strike-slip faulting leading to a 360 ± 40 km offset along the Altyn Tagh fault.

  3. Black shale formation during the Latest Danian Event and thePaleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum in central Egypt: Two of a kind?


    Schulte, P; Schwark, L.; Stassen, P.; Kouwenhoven, T.J.; Bornemann, A; Speijer, R.P.


    The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM; similar to 55.8 Ma) is considered as the most severe of a series of transient warming events ("hyperthermals") that occurred during the Early Paleogene. However, the extent and magnitude of environmental changes during the short-lived warming events pre- and post-dating the PETM are still poorly constrained. In this study, we focus on the Latest Danian Event (LDE, similar to 61.7 Ma) and compare it to the PETM. We present high-resolution micropaleon...

  4. Geochemistry and Geochronology of Eocene Plutons in Northeastern Washington: A Test of Farallon Slab Rollback as a Cause of the Challis Event (United States)

    Caulfield, L.; Tepper, J. H.


    The causes of widespread magmatism and extension that affected the Pacific Northwest during the Eocene "Challis Event" are poorly understood. Two models that have been advanced to explain this activity are passage of a slab window (e.g., Haeussler et al., 2011) and rollback of the subducting Farallon slab following accretion of Siletzia (Schmandt and Humphreys, 2011). Both scenarios would have resulted in widespread magmatism but with different temporal patterns. Based on reconstructed plate motion vectors magmatism related to a slab window should produce a younging-to-the-NW pattern whereas magmatism associated with slab rollback should young to the S or SW. Existing dates on Eocene igneous units in NE Washington appear to show an overall younging to the SW, consistent with the slab rollback model. However, many of these dates (mainly K-Ar) have large uncertainties so we are conducting a U-Pb dating and geochemical survey of Eocene plutons across the region. An initial set of zircon U-Pb ages (by LA-MC-ICP-MS) from five intrusions in east-central WA range from 50.7 - 46.7 Ma and young to the SW, a trend similar to that observed among Eocene rocks in the Idaho Batholith (Gaschnig et al., 2013). To further investigate this pattern we are dating an additional ten plutonic units that define a ~100 km SW-NE transect through NE WA. From NE to SW the units in this transect are (with dates from WA DNR mapping) as follows: Sheppard granite (undated), Herron Creek intrusion (51.4 +/- 1.9 Ma), Mt. Bonaparte pluton (52.8 +/- 2.6 Ma), Daisy Trail granite (49.9 +/- 0.3 Ma), Swimptkin Creek pluton (48.2 +/- 1.2 Ma), Moses pluton (48.6 +/- 1.2 Ma), Keller Butte granite (52.9 +/- 0.4 Ma), Johnny George plutonic complex (49.9 +/- 0.45 Ma), Manilla Creek (undated), and Swawilla Basin pluton (58.8 +/- 2.2 Ma). Results of this study should lead to a better understanding of the cause(s) of Challis magmatism and specifically its relationship to the ~50-48 Ma accretion of Siletzia.

  5. Origin of opal-ct in lower eocene tallahatta formation, mississippi, usa and pleistocene barind clay formation in bangladesh: A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opal-CT mineral in the lower Eocene Tallahatta formation in Mississippi. USA and the Pleistocene Barind clay formation in Bangladesh is of volcanogenic origin. X-ray diffraction patterns of claystones in the former indicated more ordered condition on the older sediments than those of the latter, which may be due to higher burial temperatures and longer time interval for transformation from volcanic ash to opal-CT of the former. Glass shards, present in the latter sediments, were not identified in the former, which may be due to transformation of glass shards of volcanic ash to opal-Cr over the time. (author)

  6. Supportive Care. (United States)

    Olsen, Pia Riis; Lorenzo, Rosalía


    This chapter takes its point of departure in psychosocial aspects of supportive care in adolescent and young adult cancer care. The purpose is to describe some of the challenges that these young people face following a cancer diagnosis and guide healthcare professionals in how to provide care that improves the quality of life. In most hospitals and healthcare systems, adolescents and young adults are cared for and treated in settings for children or adults. Accordingly, healthcare professionals may lack attention to and knowledge about what characterize young peoples' life situation, their special needs and how to meet them. The topics we include in the chapter are the following: the youth friendly environment, social support and social network, parents, information during a psychosocial crisis event, the use of HEADSS, peer support, fertility, body image and self-esteem, after treatment and future challenges and palliative and end of life care. PMID:27595353

  7. Supporting ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    maximilien brice


    Eighteen feet made of stainless steel will support the barrel ATLAS detector in the cavern at Point 1. In total, the ATLAS feet system will carry approximately 6000 tons, and will give the same inclination to the detector as the LHC accelerator.

  8. Magnitude of the carbon isotope excursion at the Paleocene Eocene thermal maximum: The role of plant community change (United States)

    Smith, Francesca A.; Wing, Scott L.; Freeman, Katherine H.


    Carbon-isotope measurements ( δ13C) of leaf-wax n-alkanes from the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, reveal a negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE) of 4-5‰, which is 1-2‰ larger than that observed in marine carbonate δ13C records. Reconciling these records requires either that marine carbonates fail to record the full magnitude of the CIE or that the CIE in plants has been amplified relative to the marine. Amplification of the CIE has been proposed to result from an increase in available moisture that allowed terrestrial plants to increase 13C-discrimination during the PETM. Leaf physiognomy, paleopedology and hydrogen isotope ratios of leaf-wax lipids from the Bighorn Basin, however, all suggest that rather than a simple increase in available moisture, climate alternated between wet and dry during the PETM. Here we consider two other explanations and test them quantitatively with the carbon isotopic record of plant lipids. The "marine modification" hypothesis is that the marine carbonate record was modified by chemical changes at the PETM and that plant lipids record the true magnitude of the CIE. Using atmospheric CO 2δ13C values estimated from the lipid record, and equilibrium fractionation between CO 2 and carbonate, we estimate the expected CIE for planktonic foraminifera to be 6‰. Instead, the largest excursion observed is about 4‰. No mechanism for altering marine carbonate by 2‰ has been identified and we thus reject this explanation. The "plant community change" hypothesis is that major changes in floral composition during the PETM amplified the CIE observed in n-alkanes by 1-2‰ relative to marine carbonate. This effect could have been caused by a rapid transition from a mixed angiosperm/conifer flora to a purely angiosperm flora. The plant community change hypothesis is consistent with both the magnitude and pattern of CIE amplification among the different n-alkanes, and with data from fossil plants

  9. Methane and environmental change during the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM): Modeling the PETM as a multistage event (United States)

    Carozza, D. A.; Mysak, L. A.


    The Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM), approximately 55 million years ago, was a period of intense climate and environmental change that was associated with the release of unprecedented amounts of light carbon to the ocean-atmosphere system. This event is documented by large negative carbon isotope excursions (CIEs) in oceanic and terrestrial environments, by an abrupt shoaling of the lysocline and calcite compensation depth, and by significant increases in average global temperature. Due to its 13C-depleted isotopic composition and strong atmospheric radiative forcing, methane is thought to have played a pivotal role during the PETM. Recent high-resolution geochemical records indicate that the PETM has a more complex structure than was apparent in earlier records. In particular, ocean sediment cores indicate that the PETM CIE was composed of three notable excursions separated by two 20-ky periods of negligible del13C change. Moreover, a 3-ky warming period that occurred prior to the PETM CIE has indicated that the carbon release that caused the initial CIE may not have produced the initial warming, as was previously postulated and modeled.In this study, we couple an atmospheric methane box model to a box model of the global carbon cycle, which is tuned to the background state of the PETM, in order to constrain the carbon emission and assess the role of methane. The initial 4 ky of the PETM are modeled as two separate stages involving: 1) a gradual warming with little or no lysocline shoaling or CIE, and 2) an abrupt warming, lysocline shoaling, and a CIE. For each stage, a range of atmospheric and oceanic emission scenarios representing different amounts, rates, and isotopic content of emitted carbon are simulated, and then compared to the sedimentary record. The sensitivity of the results to changes in climate sensitivity, global temperature change, lysocline shoaling, CIE, and background carbon dioxide concentration, among other variables, is tested. We

  10. Oligocene and Miocene arc volcanism in northeastern California: evidence for post-Eocene segmentation of the subducting Farallon plate (United States)

    Colgan, J.P.; Egger, A.E.; John, D.A.; Cousens, B.; Fleck, R.J.; Henry, C.D.


    axis of the modern arc in northeastern California, suggesting that the Cascade arc south of modern Mount Shasta migrated west during the Late Miocene and Pliocene, while the arc north of Mount Shasta remained in essentially the same position. We interpret these patterns as evidence for an Eocene to Miocene tear in the subducting slab, with a more steeply dipping plate segment to the north, and an initially more gently dipping segment to the south that gradually steepened from the Middle Miocene to the present.

  11. High Precision U/Pb Geochronology of Eocene-Miocene South American Land Mammal Ages at Gran Barranca, Argentina (United States)

    Dunn, R. E.; Kohn, M. J.; Madden, R. H.; Strömberg, C. E.; Carlini, A. A.


    Constraining the ages and duration of Cenozoic South American Land Mammal Ages (SALMAs) has been based on 40Ar/39Ar dating and magnetic polarity stratigraphy. At Gran Barranca (68.7°W, 45.7°S) - South America’s most important site and sequence for constraining SALMAs -uncertainties of ~ 1 Myr persist. To better constrain the ages of mammalian and plant assemblages and stable isotope stratigraphies, we employed high-precision (±50 kyr) single-crystal zircon U/Pb dating. These results generally confirm previous chronologies, but change the timing or duration of some SALMAs at Gran Barranca by 0.5-1 Myr. We collected 23 tuffs from six members of the Sarmiento Formation that contain 7 successive formally recognized SALMAs spanning the middle Eocene through the early Miocene. These strata include the type faunas for the Barrancan, Mustersan and Colhuehuapian SALMAs. Zircons were separated and chemically treated using standard techniques, spiked with EARTHTIME ET535, and analyzed for U-Pb ratios at Boise State University. Simpson’s Y, a prominent marker tuff within the Barrancan SALMA, yielded a date of ˜40.0 Ma. The Rosado Tuff, in the Rosado Member, contains Mustersan SALMA age mammals and yields a date of ˜38.3 Ma. Two tuffs in the Lower Puesto Almendra Member (Bed 10 and the Kay Tuff, stratigraphically above a Mustersan SALMA mammal assemblage) yielded ages of ˜37.0 and ˜36.9 Ma respectively. The Big Mammal Tuff at the base of the Colhuehuapian SALMA is ˜20.9 Ma, and the MMZ24.5 Tuff between the Colhuehuapian and Pinturan SALMAs is ˜19.1 Ma. Together with published magnetostratigraphy, these U/Pb dates have the following implications: (a) The known duration of the Barrancan SALMA is shortened by ~ 1 Myr and spans 40.5-39.0 Ma, (b) The Mustersan SALMA at Gran Barranca is between ˜38.3 and ˜37.0 Ma, (c) The Colhuehuapian SALMA must fall between ˜20.9 and ˜19.8 Ma, and (d) the fossil levels referred to the Pinturan SALMA are bracketed between ˜19.1 and

  12. Nahcolite and halite deposition through time during the saline mineral phase of Eocene Lake Uinta, Piceance Basin, western Colorado (United States)

    Johnson, Ronald C.; Brownfield, Michael E.


    Halite and the sodium bicarbonate mineral nahcolite were deposited during the saline phase of Eocene Lake Uinta in the Piceance Basin, western Colorado. Variations in the area of saline mineral deposition through time were interpreted from studies of core and outcrop. Saline minerals were extensively leached by groundwater, so the original extent of saline deposition was estimated from the distribution of empty vugs and collapse breccias. Vugs and breccias strongly influence groundwater movement, so determining where leaching has occurred is an important consideration for in-situ oil shale extraction methods currently being developed. Lake Uinta formed when two smaller fresh water lakes, one in the Uinta Basin of eastern Utah and the other in the Piceance Basin of western Colorado, expanded and coalesced across the Douglas Creek arch, an area of comparatively low subsidence rates. Salinity increased shortly after this expansion, but saline mineral deposition did not begin until later, after a period of prolonged infilling created broad lake-margin shelves and a comparatively small deep central lake area. These shelves probably played a critical role in brine evolution. A progression from disseminated nahcolite and nahcolite aggregates to bedded nahcolite and ultimately to bedded nahcolite and halite was deposited in this deep lake area during the early stages of saline deposition along with rich oil shale that commonly shows signs of slumping and lateral transport. The area of saline mineral and rich oil shale deposition subsequently expanded, in part due to infilling of the compact deep area, and in part because of an increase in water flow into Lake Uinta, possibly due to outflow from Lake Gosiute to the north. Finally, as Lake Uinta in the Piceance Basin was progressively filled from north to south by volcano-clastic sediment, the saline depocenter was pushed progressively southward, eventually covering much of the areas that had previously been marginal shelves

  13. Pervasive Crustal Melting on a Regional Scale: Sr-Nd Isotopic Evidence from Eocene Intrusions in NE Washington (United States)

    Loewen, M. W.; Tepper, J. H.; Asmerom, Y.


    During the Eocene the Pacific Northwest was the site of a short-lived but voluminous and geochemically diverse magmatic episode, commonly termed the Challis event. To investigate the origins of this event we have measured whole rock Sr and Nd isotopic compositions of 12 plutonic and hypabyssal samples, ranging from basalt to two-mica granite, collected along a 250 km transect across NE Washington. This transect crosses the 0.706 line (Armstrong 1977), the boundary between dominantly Mesozoic crust to the west and older crust to the east. The results reveal a wide spread in isotopic compositions (87Sr/86Srm = 0.7041 - 0.7262; ɛNdm = +3.8 to -18.5) with no systematic relationship between isotopic composition and bulk composition (e.g., MgO). This decoupling of isotopic composition and bulk chemistry suggests mixing between mantle and crustal melts was of minimal importance, and that these rocks are dominantly of crustal origin. The range in ɛNdm also indicates melting of crustal sources that varied considerably in age. Samples with ɛNdm > +2 range from basalt (13 wt.% MgO) to two-mica granite (0.3 wt.% MgO). Such juvenile ɛNdm in a two-mica granite precludes significant involvement of ancient metasedimentary material and implies rapid intracrustal differentiation of a mantle-derived source, which may have been deep arc crust of Mesozoic age. At the other end of the spectrum, samples with ɛNdm Monzonite and attributed to melting of late Archean to Early Proterozoic crust (Whitehouse et al. 1992). Other samples analyzed in this study are broadly similar in isotopic composition (ɛNdm = +1 to -8; 87Sr/86Srm = 0.706-0.709) to rocks of the Colville Igneous Province and probably formed by melting of Proterozoic arc crust (Morris 2000). Geographic variability in Sr-Nd data indicates that isotopically distinct crustal domains are juxtaposed laterally and/or vertically, in some cases on a small scale. The sample with the highest 87Sr/86Srm (0.7262; ɛNdm = -13.3) is a

  14. A New Look at the Paleocene/Eocene Thermal Maximum in New Jersey: Dicing and Slicing the Stratigraphic Record (United States)

    Wright, J. D.; Miller, K. G.; Aubry, M.; Browning, J. V.; Harris, A. D.; Godfrey, L. V.; Babila, T.; Cramer, B. S.


    We correlated eight onshore sites (Clayton, Wilson Lake, Sea Girt, Ancora, Millville, Double Trouble, Island Beach, and Bass River) in the New Jersey coastal plain spanning the Paleocene/Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), using carbon isotopic stratigraphy constrained by nannofossil biostratigraphy. Coastal plain records are correlated to astronomical and He-3 chronologies in deep sea sites, which suggests high coastal plain sedimentation rates (5 to >10 cm/kyr). We recognize 6 PETM intervals from older to younger: 1) a precursor δ13C increase at Wilson Lake and Ancora that occurs within the silts of the Vincentown Formation; 2) the Carbon Isotopic Excursion (CIE) decrease of 5-7 per mil which occurs in at least 1 sharp step (Marlboro Clay Member; 3) a longer interval (~20-30 kyr) of decreasing values; 3) a "boxcar" interval of universally low and constant δ13C values that lasted 30-40 kyr; 4) an exponential interval of recovery to δ13C values that were 1-2% lower than pre-CIE values over 40 kyr (He-3) to 65 kyr (astronomical) that marks the top of the Marlboro Clay; and 5) a distinct sequence E0 of the Vincentown Formation whose base appears to be a regional if not global sea level lowering. There is also likely a sequence boundary at or immediately below the precursor δ13C, though the significance of this is unclear. The basal E0 sequence boundary completely truncates the Marlboro Clay (CIE through recovery interval) at Island Beach and Double Trouble, truncates the recovery interval at Sea Girt, Ancora, and Bass River, and partially truncates the recovery at Wilson Lake, which dates the sea-level fall as ~100 kyr younger than the CIE. The CIE to recovery interval thus occurs within one sequence named Eα, and is likely bracketed by regional if not global sea-level falls. The dicing and slicing of the PETM interval is due to erosion associated with the E0 sequence boundary and emphasizes that integrated isotope stratigraphy is necessary to parse out complex

  15. Extreme warming, photic zone euxinia and sea level rise during the Paleocene/Eocene Thermal Maximum on the Gulf of Mexico Coastal Plain; connecting marginal marine biotic signals, nutrient cycling and ocean deoxygenation (United States)

    Sluijs, A.; van Roij, L.; Harrington, G. J.; Schouten, S.; Sessa, J. A.; LeVay, L. J.; Reichart, G.-J.; Slomp, C. P.


    The Paleocene/Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, ~56 Ma) was a ~200 kyr episode of global warming, associated with massive injections of 13C-depleted carbon into the ocean-atmosphere system. Although climate change during the PETM is relatively well constrained, effects on marine oxygen and nutrient cycling remain largely unclear. We identify the PETM in a sediment core from the US margin of the Gulf of Mexico. Biomarker-based paleotemperature proxies (MBT/CBT and TEX86) indicate that continental air and sea surface temperatures warmed from 27-29 °C to ~35 °C, although variations in the relative abundances of terrestrial and marine biomarkers may have influenced the record. Vegetation changes as recorded from pollen assemblages supports profound warming. Lithology, relative abundances of terrestrial vs. marine palynomorphs as well as dinoflagellate cyst and biomarker assemblages indicate sea level rise during the PETM, consistent with previously recognized eustatic rise. The recognition of a maximum flooding surface during the PETM changes regional sequence stratigraphic interpretations, which allows us to exclude the previously posed hypothesis that a nearby fossil found in PETM-deposits represents the first North American primate. Within the PETM we record the biomarker isorenieratane, diagnostic of euxinic photic zone conditions. A global data compilation indicates that deoxygenation occurred in large regions of the global ocean in response to warming, hydrological change, and carbon cycle feedbacks, particularly along continental margins, analogous to modern trends. Seafloor deoxygenation and widespread anoxia likely caused phosphorus regeneration from suboxic and anoxic sediments. We argue that this fuelled shelf eutrophication, as widely recorded from microfossil studies, increasing organic carbon burial along continental margins as a negative feedback to carbon input and global warming. If properly quantified with future work, the PETM offers the opportunity to

  16. Supporting members (United States)

    Life Supporting Members L. Thomas Aldrich Thomas D. Barrow Hugh J . A. Chivers Allan V. Cox Samuel S. Goldich Pembroke J. Hart A. Ivan Johnson Helmut E. Landsberg Paolo Lanzano Murli H. Manghnani L. L. Nettleton Charles B. Officer Hyman Orlin Ned A. Ostenso Erick O. Schonstedt Waldo E. Smith Athelstan Spilhaus A. F. Spilhaus, Jr. John W. Townsend, Jr. James A. Van Allen Leonard W. Weis Charles A. Whitten J. Tuzo Wilson

  17. Evidence for seagrass meadows and their response to paleoenvironmental changes in the early Eocene (Jafnayn Formation, Wadi Bani Khalid, N Oman) (United States)

    Tomás, Sara; Frijia, Gianluca; Bömelburg, Esther; Zamagni, Jessica; Perrin, Christine; Mutti, Maria


    The recognition and understanding of vegetated habitats in the fossil record are of crucial importance in order to investigate paleoecological responses and indirectly infer climate and sea-level changes. However, the low preservation potential of plants and macroalgae hampers a direct identification of these environments in the geological past. Here we present sedimentological and paleontological evidences as tool to identify the presence of different seagrass-vegetated environments in the shallow marine settings of the lower Eocene Jafnayn platform of Oman and their responses to paleoenvironmental changes. The studied lower Eocene deposits consist of well bedded, nodular packstones dominated by encrusting acervulinid and alveolinid foraminifera passing upward to an alternance of packstones with echinoids and quartz grains and grainstones rich in Orbitolites, smaller miliolid foraminifera and quartz grains. The presence of seagrass is inferred by the occurrence of encrusting acervulinids and soritid Orbitolites, as well as by their test morphologies together with further sedimentological criteria. The clear shift observed in the faunal assemblages and sedimentary features may be related to a major reorganization of the carbonate system passing from a carbonate platform to a ramp-like platform with increased terrigenous sedimentation. Heterotroph tubular acervulinids and oligotroph alveolinids of the carbonate platform were replaced upward by more heterotroph organisms such as large, discoidal Orbitolites and smaller miliolids, most likely due to enhanced nutrient levels which would have led to a change of phytal substrate, from cylindrical-leaf dominated grasses into flat-leafed ones.

  18. Evidence for Late Eocene emplacement of the Malaita Terrane, Solomon Islands: Implications for an even larger Ontong Java Nui oceanic plateau (United States)

    Musgrave, Robert J.


    Most tectonic models for the Solomon Islands Arc invoke a Miocene collision with the Ontong Java Plateau (OJP) to halt cessation of Pacific Plate subduction, initiate Australian Plate subduction, and emplace the Malaita Terrane, which shares the characteristic basement age and geochemistry of OJP. Existing paleomagnetic evidence, however, required the Malaita Terrane to have been fixed to the arc from at least the Late Eocene. New sampling has yielded a paleomagnetic pole from Aptian-Albian limestones and mudstones that falls between the apparent polar wander paths for the Australian Plate and OJP, confirming the extended period of residence of the Malaita Terrane on the arc. Arc-derived turbidities within Late Eocene through Miocene limestones on Malaita and Santa Isabel, and related clasts in broadly contemporary sandstones and conglomerates on Santa Isabel, also attest to early emplacement. Modeling the emplacement at 35 Ma satisfies both the paleomagnetic data and the sediment provenance. Continuing the reconstruction to 125 Ma leaves the Malaita Terrane far from OJP at the time of plateau formation. OJP is now understood to have formed as part of a larger Ontong Java Nui, also comprising the Hikurangi and Manihiki plateaus, separated by spreading during the Cretaceous. Restoring the separation of the known elements, and invoking an additional triple junction, unites the (now largely subducted) Malaita Terrane with the rest of Ontong Java Nui. Subduction of substantial areas of the Ontong Java Nui plateau, with little geological signal other than a reduction in arc volcanism, is a corollary.

  19. Weddellian marine/coastal vertebrates diversity from a basal horizon (Ypresian, Eocene of the Cucullaea I Allomember, La Meseta formation, Seymour (Marambio Island, Antarctica

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    Marcelo A. Reguero


    Full Text Available The La Meseta Formation crops out in Seymour/Marambio Island, Weddell Sea, northeast of the Antarctic Peninsula and contains one of the world's most diverse assemblages of Weddellian marine/coastal verte-brates of Early Eocene (Ypresian age. The La Meseta Formation is composed of poorly consolidated, marine sandstones and siltstones which were deposited in a coastal, deltaic and/or estuarine environment. It includes marine invertebrates and vertebrates as well as terrestrial vertebrates and plants. The highly fossiliferous basal horizon (Cucullaeashell bed, Telm 4 of Sadler 1988 of the CucullaeaI Allomember is a laterally extensive shell bed with sandy matrix. The fish remains, including 35 species from 26 families, of the Ypresian Cucullaeabed represent one of the most abundant and diverse fossil vertebrate faunas yet recorded in southern latitudes. Stratigraphic distribution and phylogenetic relationships of the Weddellian sphenisciforms are consistent with a first radiation of this group in the Early Eocene. The first inquestionable archaeocete from Antarctica is recorded in this unit and is referred to a new taxon.

  20. Oligocene sivaladapid primate from the Bugti Hills (Balochistan, Pakistan) bridges the gap between Eocene and Miocene adapiform communities in Southern Asia. (United States)

    Marivaux, Laurent; Welcomme, Jean-Loup; Ducrocq, Stéphane; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques


    A new species of Guangxilemur (Sivaladapidae, Adapiformes) is described from the early Oligocene Chitarwata Formation (Bugti Member) of the Bugti Hills, Sulaiman geological Province, Balochistan, Pakistan. Guangxilemur singsilai n. sp. provides further diagnostic morphological characters from its newly described upper and lower dentitions, confirming its intermediate phylogenetic position between Eocene and Miocene Asian sivaladapid adapiforms. G. singsilai possesses moderately developed shearing and puncturing molar features and maintains lingual cusps on upper molars as in Eocene hoanghoniines; in contrast, it possesses a typical molariform P(4) as in Miocene sivaladapines. The important paleogeographic changes that have affected South Asia during the Tertiary (related to the collision between the Indian and Eurasian Plates) have played a critical role in reforming circulation and climatic differentiation. The presence in Pakistan of an unique and well-diversified Oligocene primate fauna, clearly demonstrates that South Asia maintained favourable environmental conditions during the middle Caenozoic global climatic deterioration that coincides with drastic changes in faunal structure on the whole Holarctic Province, including the extinction of adapiform primates.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaşar EREN


    Full Text Available In the Çamardı region, the Nigde Massif consist of Palaeozoic-Mesozoic marble, gneiss, quartzite and amhibolite. The high-grade metamorphic rocks of massif are cut by the Cretaceous Üçkapılı granodiorite. These basement rocks were overlain by the cover rocks of Paleocene-Eocene age that display very low grade metamorphism. The Paleocene-Eocene cover units underwent at least three phases of deformation, as designated D1, D2- and D3 which D1- affected both the basement and cover, polyphase folding and low-grade metamorphism due to closing of the Ulukısla basin. The poly-phase deformation also resulted in the wide spread development extensional vein sets generally in mesoscopic scale. Most of the veins are filled with the fibrous minerals. The fibrous veins are mostly sintaxial, antitaxial and ataxial veins. The mineral fibres have curved shape indicating the rotational progressive deformations. Structural analysis of mineral fibres, shows that the maximum elongation direction (X- axis of deformation elipsoid has northeast-southwest trend, during the D1- event. With the other structural features, the tectonic transport of cover units most probaply developed from northeast to the southwest. Due to rotational progressive deformation during the D2- event, the maksimum elongation direction appears to rotate to north-northwest – south-southwest direction with an anticlockwise sense.

  2. Response of the Pacific inter-tropical convergence zone to global cooling and initiation of Antarctic glaciation across the Eocene Oligocene Transition (United States)

    Hyeong, Kiseong; Kuroda, Junichiro; Seo, Inah; Wilson, Paul A.


    Approximately 34 million years ago across the Eocene-Oligocene transition (EOT), Earth’s climate tipped from a largely unglaciated state into one that sustained large ice sheets on Antarctica. Antarctic glaciation is attributed to a threshold response to slow decline in atmospheric CO2 but our understanding of the feedback processes triggered and of climate change on the other contents is limited. Here we present new geochemical records of terrigenous dust accumulating on the sea floor across the EOT from a site in the central equatorial Pacific. We report a change in dust chemistry from an Asian affinity to a Central-South American provenance that occurs geologically synchronously with the initiation of stepwise global cooling, glaciation of Antarctica and aridification on the northern continents. We infer that the inter-tropical convergence zone of intense precipitation extended to our site during late Eocene, at least four degrees latitude further south than today, but that it migrated northwards in step with global cooling and initiation of Antarctic glaciation. Our findings point to an atmospheric teleconnection between extratropical cooling and rainfall climate in the tropics and the mid-latitude belt of the westerlies operating across the most pivotal transition in climate state of the Cenozoic Era.

  3. An outer ramp to basin plain transect: Interacting pelagic and calciturbidite deposition in the Eocene-Oligocene of the Tuscan Domain, Adria Microplate (Italy) (United States)

    Ielpi, Alessandro; Cornamusini, Gianluca


    The interaction of ramps, basin plains and turbidite systems on the scale of tens of km has been rarely observed in fossil examples. Deep marine Eocene-Oligocene beds are exposed in the axial zone of the Chianti Mountains, Italy, and compose a regionally continue stratigraphic succession known as the Scaglia Toscana Formation. The formation was deposited in the Tuscan Domain of the Adria Microplate. This research aims at depicting its depositional architecture and evolution in the type area. Stratigraphic and sedimentologic analyses were performed on a ca. 25 km-long transect that includes depositional systems sectioned both in the down- and along-dip directions. Shaly-carbonate deposits compose a complex of interacting ramps, basin plains and turbidite floor fan systems. Ramp deposits accumulated above the lysocline and in oxic conditions. Basin plain beds were deposited below the lysocline and were subject to episodes of oxygen depletion. Turbidity flows fed elongate fan lobes characterized by poor channelisation. The basin palaeogeography hampered the development of slope apron turbidite systems. The Eocene-Oligocene geodynamic setting of the Tuscan Domain was characterized by the evolution of a peripheral bulge and by the early structuring of a foredeep basin. Syn-sedimentary tectonism acted a primary role in the basin-scale arrangement. However other mechanisms also contributed to the local facies distribution, including the disposition of sediment-source areas and intrabasinal confinement morphologies, as well as relative oscillations of the depositional surface with respect to the lysocline and oxycline.

  4. A biogenic origin for anomalous fine-grained magnetic material at the Paleocene-Eocene boundary at Wilson Lake, New Jersey (United States)

    Lippert, Peter C.; Zachos, James C.


    The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum, which occurred ˜55.5 Ma, was caused by a massive release of carbon, as indicated by an ˜3‰ negative carbon isotope excursion recorded in the marine, atmospheric, and terrestrial reservoirs. One suggested source for the carbon, a cometary impactor, is based on the sudden appearance and high concentration of single-domain (SD) magnetite in Paleocene-Eocene (P-E) boundary cores from the North Atlantic continental margin. We evaluate the potential sources of SD magnetite at the P-E boundary by presenting new magnetic hysteresis, low-temperature magnetic remanence, and transmission electron microscopy data from the North Atlantic coastal ocean. Our results show a similar increase in SD material but demonstrate that the magnetic material has a biogenic origin. These findings indicate that the high concentrations of SD magnetite immediately above the P-E boundary are the result of unusual accumulations and/or preservation of magnetotactic bacteria. Such bacteria typically occupy the oxic-anoxic transition zone near the sediment-water interface or in the water column. The high abundances of SD magnetite in sediments from across the shelf may be an artifact of nonsteady state redox conditions and exceptional preservation of SD magnetite. It may also indicate that the oxic-anoxic redox boundary shifted into the water column. The latter explanation implies transient eutrophy of the coastal ocean in this region, most likely due to seasonally enhanced runoff, and increased stratification and nutrient loading.

  5. Late Paleocene-middle Eocene benthic foraminifera on a Pacific seamount (Allison Guyot, ODP Site 865): Greenhouse climate and superimposed hyperthermal events (United States)

    Arreguín-Rodríguez, Gabriela J.; Alegret, Laia; Thomas, Ellen


    We investigated the response of late Paleocene-middle Eocene (~60-37.5 Ma) benthic foraminiferal assemblages to long-term climate change and hyperthermal events including the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) at Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 865 on Allison Guyot, a seamount in the Mid-Pacific Mountains. Seamounts are isolated deep-sea environments where enhanced current systems interrupt bentho-pelagic coupling, and fossil assemblages from such settings have been little evaluated. Assemblages at Site 865 are diverse and dominated by cylindrical calcareous taxa with complex apertures, an extinct group which probably lived infaunally. Dominance of an infaunal morphogroup is unexpected in a highly oligotrophic setting, but these forms may have been shallow infaunal suspension feeders, which were ecologically successful on the current-swept seamount. The magnitude of the PETM extinction at Site 865 was similar to other sites globally, but lower diversity postextinction faunas at this location were affected by ocean acidification as well as changes in current regime, which might have led to increased nutrient supply through trophic focusing. A minor hyperthermal saw less severe effects of changes in current regime, with no evidence for carbonate dissolution. Although the relative abundance of infaunal benthic foraminifera has been used as a proxy for surface productivity through bentho-pelagic coupling, we argue that this proxy can be used only in the absence of changes in carbonate saturation and current-driven biophysical linking.

  6. New stable isotope records from the Atlantic Ocean for the Paleocene to Eocene interval (DSDP Site 401): What do they tell us? (United States)

    Bornemann, André; D'Haenens, Simon; Speijer, Robert P.


    The early Paleogene is characterized by a greenhouse climate mode, which is punctuated by at least two short-termed hyperthermal events (duration marking the end of the EECO at Site 401. However, this increase is less apparent in the surface waters compared to the deep-sea. The planktic foraminiferal long-term record from Site 401 is largely similar to those reported from the Pacific Ocean. Oxygen and carbon isotope data display the typical gradient between the surface dwelling morozovellids and acarininids, the subsurface/thermocline dwelling taxa like subbotinids and hantkeninids, and the benthics. The gradient is more pronounced during the Paleocene and the middle Eocene, suggesting an attenuation of water-column stratification during the early Eocene. High-resolution sampling of the biozone NP11 shows a well developed cyclicity in sediment color, which is also reflected in the CaCO3 contents. Darker, less carbonate-rich horizons are also characterized by four bulk-rock and benthic foraminiferal negative isotope excursions of both carbon and oxygen. The stratigraphic position of these shifts within NP11 suggest that one of these excursions may represent the Elmo event (for more information see also abstract by D'haenens et al., EGU2010-10446).


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The Eocene lignite-bearing sediments of the Cankiri-Corum Basin exposed in the Central Anatolia, werepalynologically examined. The Cankiri-Corum Basin was formed between the Kirsehir and Sakarya Continents as a collisionalbasin during Tertiary times. Samples were collected from Corum-Amasya area which is located in the northern part of thesuture zone.Thirty samples from the Celtek Formation have been investigated palynologically. The lignite horizon in this formationhas yielded pollen and spore-dominated palynofloras. The total palynoassemblage contains at least 100 species; among themare biostratigraphically significant taxa such as Baculatisporites gemmatus, Triatriopollenites excelsus, Triporopollenitesconstatus, Compositoipollenites rhizophorus, Caryapollenites circulus, Proxapertites operculatus, Microfoveolatosporispseudodentatus and Monocolpopollenites crassiexinus, which allow the assemblage to be dated as Middle-?Late Eocene. Thelignite seams of the Celtek Formation are interpreted to have been deposited in mires adjacent to the lakes and / or flood plainsin dense lowland vegetation.Stratigraphic miospore data recovered from the Armutlu Formation, the Corum-Amasya area, are represented by 59genera and 133 species. The botanical affinities of the miospores from the Armutlu Formation, suggest that the Middle-?LateEocene vegetation of this area comprises a mangrove association with Nypa-like palms, Verbenaceae, Theaceae, a fresh wateraquatic habitat with Nymphaceae, Sparganiaceae, Typhaceae, an arborescent vegetation with Juglandaceae, Sapotaceae, Oleaceae,Fabaceae, Icacinaceae and other palms (Aracaceae). The Restionaceae, represented by Milfordia pollen, is mainly in coastalplain to brackish-water paleoenvironment. The Middle-?Late Eocene mangrove record of the Comm-Amasya area whichcomprises the typical elements of the present Atlantic mangrove (Pelliciera) and the elements of the present Indo-Pacificmangrove (Nypa, Avicennia type marina, Avicennia type

  8. Early Eocene hyperthermal events ETM2, H2 and I1 as recorded by Tethyan planktic foraminifera in the Terche section (northernastern Italy) (United States)

    D'Onofrio, Roberta; Luciani, Valeria; Giusberti, Luca; Fornaciari, Eliana; Sprovieri, Mario


    In the last years, several transient episodes of extreme warming, the so-called hyperthermals, have been recognized in addition to the well-know Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM; ~55.5 Ma), superimposed on the long-term Paleocene-early Eocene warming trend peaking in the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO). To the present, perturbations produced by hyperthermals are well documented in terms of isotopic variations whereas their influence on the biota is still largely unexplored. The Terche section, located in the Venetian Pre-Alps (northeastern Italy), is an expanded latest Paleocene-lower Eocene succession deposited in a bathyal setting of a continental margin of the central-western Tethys. This section is particularly suitable to study post-PETM hyperthermals because it contains three well-exposed and expanded marly-clayey units (MUs) corresponding to intervals of negative carbon isotope excursions (CIEs). Calcareous plankton biostratigraphy allow us to refer them to the hyperthermals ETM2 (or H1; ~53.7 Ma), H2 (~53.6 Ma) and I1(~53.3 Ma). Here we present the first detailed quantitative analysis of planktic foraminiferal assemblages across these early Eocene hyperthermals events. Quantitative analysis of planktic foraminiferal genera shows a long-term trend of variation upon which higher frequency variations are superimposed. We interpret such long-term variation as the response to the long-term warming trend since it highlights a slight increase of the warm indicators, such as the acarininids, and decrease of the cold form subbotinids. The high frequency variations, instead, closely related to the CIEs and to the MUs, record a pronounced increase in acarininids (up to 68%) and a parallel marked decline in the abundances of subbotinids and other component of planktic foraminiferal assemblages. The MUs are also associated with an increase of the eutrophic radiolarians. This aspect, together with the dominance of acarininids, can be interpreted as a

  9. Supporting ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia


    Eighteen feet made of stainless steel will support the barrel ATLAS detector in the cavern at Point 1. In total, the ATLAS feet system will carry approximately 6000 tons, and will give the same inclination to the detector as the LHC accelerator. The installation of the feet is scheduled to finish during January 2004 with an installation precision at the 1 mm level despite their height of 5.3 metres. The manufacture was carried out in Russia (Company Izhorskiye Zavody in St. Petersburg), as part of a Russian and JINR Dubna in-kind contribution to ATLAS. Involved in the installation is a team from IHEP-Protvino (Russia), the ATLAS technical co-ordination team at CERN, and the CERN survey team. In all, about 15 people are involved. After the feet are in place, the barrel toroid magnet and the barrel calorimeters will be installed. This will keep the ATLAS team busy for the entire year 2004.

  10. Paleocene-Eocene δ13C of marine and terrestrial organic matter: implications for the magnitude of total organic carbon hyperthermal isotope excursions (United States)

    Sluijs, A.; Dickens, G. R.


    A series of "hyperthermals" occurred during the Late Paleocene and Early Eocene (~58-50 Ma). These transient global warming events were characterized by prominent negative excursions in the stable carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) of carbon-bearing phases, and widespread dissolution of deep-sea carbonate; they were almost certainly geologically brief intervals of rapid and massive injection of 13C-depleted carbon into the combined ocean-atmosphere-biosphere system. However, the carbon masses involved remain the source of considerable debate, in part because the carbon isotope excursions (CIEs) are expressed differently, depending on the substrate analyzed and the location. For example, the CIE across the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM; ~56 Ma), now measured in numerous phases at over 100 locations, ranges between 2 - 8 %, even after discounting sections with truncated records. Three factors might cause individual carbon isotope records to differ in shape and magnitude from changes in the global exogenic carbon cycle during hyperthermal events: (i) Changes in the isotope composition of the proximal carbon source (e.g., DIC); (ii) Changes in isotope fractionation through physiological response to ecological change; and (iii) Changes in the relative abundance of components with different δ13C. All three factors likely influence the magnitude of the CIE in many records across hyperthermal events. Here, we discuss how the third factor impacts the δ13C of total organic carbon (TOC) in a shallow marine sequence. Over the past years, bulk organic δ13C, BIT index and palynomorph records have been published for the late Paleocene-early Eocene interval at IODP Hole 4A on Lomonosov Ridge, Arctic Ocean. These records show a long-term -3 % decrease in TOC and a long-term increase in the proportion of marine organic carbon; they also show a rapid -5.5 % CIE in TOC and the proportion of marine organic carbon across the PETM. After correcting for long-term variations in

  11. Southern high-latitude terrestrial climate change during the Paleocene–Eocene derived from a marine pollen record (ODP Site 1172, East Tasman Plateau

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    L. Contreras


    Full Text Available Reconstructing the early Paleogene climate dynamics of terrestrial settings in the high southern latitudes is important to assess the role of high-latitude physical and biogeochemical processes in the global climate system. However, whereas a number of high-quality Paleogene climate records has become available for the marine realm of the high southern latitudes over the recent past, the long-term evolution of coeval terrestrial climates and ecosystems is yet poorly known. We here explore the climate and vegetation dynamics on Tasmania from the middle Paleocene to the early Eocene (60.7–54.2 Ma based on a sporomorph record from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP Site 1172 on the East Tasman Plateau. Our results show that three distinctly different vegetation types thrived on Tasmania under a high-precipitation regime during the middle Paleocene to early Eocene, with each type representing different temperature conditions: (i warm-temperate forests dominated by gymnosperms that were dominant during the middle and late Paleocene; (ii cool-temperate forests dominated by southern beech (Nothofagus and araucarians across the middle/late Paleocene transition interval (~59.5 to ~59.0 Ma; and (iii paratropical forests rich in ferns that were established during and in the wake of the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM. The transient establishment of cool-temperate forests lacking any frost-sensitive elements (i.e., palms and cycads across the middle/late Paleocene transition interval indicates markedly cooler conditions, with the occurrence of frosts in winter, on Tasmania during that time. The integration of our sporomorph data with previously published TEX86-based sea-surface temperatures from ODP Site 1172 documents that the vegetation dynamics on Tasmania were closely linked with the temperature evolution in the Tasman sector of the Southwest Pacific region. Moreover, the comparison of our season-specific climate estimates for the sporomorph

  12. Southern high-latitude terrestrial climate change during the Paleocene-Eocene derived from a marine pollen record (ODP Site 1172, East Tasman Plateau) (United States)

    Contreras, L.; Pross, J.; Bijl, P. K.; O'Hara, R. B.; Raine, J. I.; Sluijs, A.; Brinkhuis, H.


    Reconstructing the early Paleogene climate dynamics of terrestrial settings in the high southern latitudes is important to assess the role of high-latitude physical and biogeochemical processes in the global climate system. However, whereas a number of high-quality Paleogene climate records has become available for the marine realm of the high southern latitudes over the recent past, the long-term evolution of coeval terrestrial climates and ecosystems is yet poorly known. We here explore the climate and vegetation dynamics on Tasmania from the middle Paleocene to the early Eocene (60.7-54.2 Ma) based on a sporomorph record from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1172 on the East Tasman Plateau. Our results show that three distinctly different vegetation types thrived on Tasmania under a high-precipitation regime during the middle Paleocene to early Eocene, with each type representing different temperature conditions: (i) warm-temperate forests dominated by gymnosperms that were dominant during the middle and late Paleocene; (ii) cool-temperate forests dominated by southern beech (Nothofagus) and araucarians across the middle/late Paleocene transition interval (~59.5 to ~59.0 Ma); and (iii) paratropical forests rich in ferns that were established during and in the wake of the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM). The transient establishment of cool-temperate forests lacking any frost-sensitive elements (i.e., palms and cycads) across the middle/late Paleocene transition interval indicates markedly cooler conditions, with the occurrence of frosts in winter, on Tasmania during that time. The integration of our sporomorph data with previously published TEX86-based sea-surface temperatures from ODP Site 1172 documents that the vegetation dynamics on Tasmania were closely linked with the temperature evolution in the Tasman sector of the Southwest Pacific region. Moreover, the comparison of our season-specific climate estimates for the sporomorph assemblages from ODP

  13. Southern high-latitude terrestrial climate change during the Palaeocene-Eocene derived from a marine pollen record (ODP Site 1172, East Tasman Plateau) (United States)

    Contreras, L.; Pross, J.; Bijl, P. K.; O'Hara, R. B.; Raine, J. I.; Sluijs, A.; Brinkhuis, H.


    Reconstructing the early Palaeogene climate dynamics of terrestrial settings in the high southern latitudes is important to assess the role of high-latitude physical and biogeochemical processes in the global climate system. However, whereas a number of high-quality Palaeogene climate records has become available for the marine realm of the high southern latitudes over the recent past, the long-term evolution of coeval terrestrial climates and ecosystems is yet poorly known. We here explore the climate and vegetation dynamics on Tasmania from the middle Palaeocene to the early Eocene (60.7-54.2 Ma) based on a sporomorph record from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1172 on the East Tasman Plateau. Our results show that three distinctly different vegetation types thrived on Tasmania under a high-precipitation regime during the middle Palaeocene to early Eocene, with each type representing different temperature conditions: (i) warm-temperate forests dominated by gymnosperms that were dominant during the middle and late Palaeocene (excluding the middle/late Palaeocene transition); (ii) cool-temperate forests dominated by southern beech (Nothofagus) and araucarians that transiently prevailed across the middle/late Palaeocene transition interval (~ 59.5 to ~ 59.0 Ma); and (iii) paratropical forests rich in ferns that were established during and in the wake of the Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM). The transient establishment of cool-temperate forests lacking any frost-sensitive elements (i.e. palms and cycads) across the middle/late Palaeocene transition interval indicates markedly cooler conditions, with the occurrence of frosts in winter, on Tasmania during that time. The integration of our sporomorph data with previously published TEX86-based sea-surface temperatures from ODP Site 1172 documents that the vegetation dynamics on Tasmania were closely linked with the temperature evolution in the Tasman sector of the Southwest Pacific region. Moreover, the

  14. Kinematics of the Tengchong Terrane in SE Tibet from the late Eocene to early Miocene: Insights from coeval mid-crustal detachments and strike-slip shear zones (United States)

    Xu, Zhiqin; Wang, Qin; Cai, Zhihui; Dong, Hanwen; Li, Huaqi; Chen, Xijie; Duan, Xiangdong; Cao, Hui; Li, Jing; Burg, Jean-Pierre


    It is generally believed that the extrusion of SE Tibet was bounded by the dextral Gaoligong and the sinistral Ailaoshan-Red River strike-slip shear zones from the Oligocene to early Miocene. This study integrates field mapping, structural analysis and geochronology in western Yunnan (China), where foliated Precambrian basement rocks and late Cretaceous to early Eocene plutons are exposed to the west of the Gaoligong shear zone. We found that late Eocene to early Miocene flat-lying ductile shear zones were kinematically related to steeply dipping strike-slip shear zones. Four elongated gneiss domes (Donghe, Guyong, Yingjiang and Sudian) are cored by high-grade metamorphic rocks and pre-kinematic granite plutons, and bounded by top-to-NE detachments and NE-trending dextral strike-slip shear zones. Zircon U-Pb ages from LA-ICP-MS analysis and 40Ar/39Ar ages of micas and hornblende demonstrate that the flat-lying Donghe Detachment (> 35-15 Ma) and the Nabang dextral strike-slip shear zone (41-19 Ma) were sites of prolonged, mostly coeval ductile deformation from amphibolite to greenschist facies metamorphism. The Gaoligong shear zone experienced dextral shearing under similar metamorphic conditions between 32 and 10 Ma. Consistent 40Ar/39Ar ages of hornblende from the three shear zones indicate their contemporaneity at mid-crustal depth, causing the rapid exhumation and SW-ward extrusion of the Tengchong Terrane. The strain geometry and shear zone kinematics in the Tengchong Terrane are interpreted with folding of the anisotropic lithosphere around a vertical axis, i.e., the northeast corner of the Indian Plate since 41 Ma. The newly discovered NE-trending Sudian, Yingjiang, and Lianghe strike-slip shear zones are subordinate ductile faults accommodating the initially rapid clockwise rotation of the Tengchong Terrane. The detachments caused mid-crustal decoupling and faster SW-ward extrusion below the sedimentary cover, whereas the strike-slip shear zones accommodated

  15. Macrocrystal phlogopite Rb-Sr dates for the Ekati property kimberlites, Slave Province, Canada: evidence for multiple intrusive episodes in the Paleocene and Eocene (United States)

    Creaser, Robert A.; Grütter, Herman; Carlson, Jon; Crawford, Barbara


    New Rb-Sr age determinations using macrocrystal phlogopite are presented for 27 kimberlites from the Ekati property of the Lac de Gras region, Slave Province, Canada. These new data show that kimberlite magmatism at Ekati ranges in age from at least Late Paleocene (˜61 Ma) to Middle Eocene time (˜45 Ma). Older, perovskite-bearing kimberlites from Ekati extend this age range to Late Cretaceous time (˜74 Ma). Within this age range, emplacement episodes at ˜48, 51-53, 55-56 and 59-61 Ma can be recognized. Middle Eocene kimberlite magmatism of the previously dated Mark kimberlite (˜47.5 Ma) is shown to include four other pipes from the east-central Ekati property. A single kimberlite (Aaron) may be younger than the 47.5 Ma Mark kimberlite. The economically important Panda kimberlite is precisely dated in this study to be 53.3±0.6 Ma using the phlogopite isochron method, and up to six additional kimberlites from the central Ekati property have Early Eocene ages indistinguishable from that of Panda, including the Koala and Koala North occurrences. Late Paleocene 55-56 Ma kimberlite magmatism, represented by the Diavik kimberlite pipes adjacent to the southeastern Ekati property, is shown to extend onto the southeastern Ekati property and includes three, and possibly four, kimberlites. A precise eight-point phlogopite isochron for the Cobra South kimberlite yields an emplacement age of 59.7±0.4 Ma; eight other kimberlites from across the Ekati property have similar Late Paleocene Rb-Sr model ages. The addition of 27 new emplacement ages for kimberlites from the Ekati property confirms that kimberlite magmatism from the central Slave Province is geologically young, despite ages ranging back to Cambrian time from elsewhere in the Slave Province. With the available geochronologic database, Lac de Gras kimberlites with the highest diamond potential are currently restricted to the 51-53 and 55-56 Ma periods of kimberlite magmatism.

  16. Chemical abrasion-SIMS (CA-SIMS) U-Pb dating of zircon from the late Eocene Caetano caldera, Nevada (United States)

    Watts, Kathryn E.; Coble, Matthew A.; Vazquez, Jorge A.; Henry, Christopher D.; Colgan, Joseph P.; John, David A.


    Zircon geochronology is a critical tool for establishing geologic ages and time scales of processes in the Earth's crust. However, for zircons compromised by open system behavior, achieving robust dates can be difficult. Chemical abrasion (CA) is a routine step prior to thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) dating of zircon to remove radiation-damaged parts of grains that may have experienced open system behavior and loss of radiogenic Pb. While this technique has been shown to improve the accuracy and precision of TIMS dating, its application to high-spatial resolution dating methods, such as secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), is relatively uncommon. In our efforts to U-Pb date zircons from the late Eocene Caetano caldera by SIMS (SHRIMP-RG: sensitive high resolution ion microprobe, reverse geometry), some grains yielded anomalously young U-Pb ages that implicated Pb-loss and motivated us to investigate with a comparative CA and non-CA dating study. We present CA and non-CA 206Pb/238U ages and trace elements determined by SHRIMP-RG for zircons from three Caetano samples (Caetano Tuff, Redrock Canyon porphyry, and a silicic ring-fracture intrusion) and for R33 and TEMORA-2 reference zircons. We find that non-CA Caetano zircons have weighted mean or bimodal U-Pb ages that are 2–4% younger than CA zircons for the same samples. CA Caetano zircons have mean U-Pb ages that are 0.4–0.6 Myr older than the 40Ar/39Ar sanidine eruption age (34.00 ± 0.03 Ma; error-weighted mean, 2σ), whereas non-CA zircons have ages that are 0.7–1.3 Myr younger. U-Pb ages do not correlate with U (~ 100–800 ppm), Th (~ 50–300 ppm) or any other measured zircon trace elements (Y, Hf, REE), and CA and non-CA Caetano zircons define identical trace element ranges. No statistically significant difference in U-Pb age is observed for CA versus non-CA R33 or TEMORA-2 zircons. Optical profiler measurements of ion microprobe pits demonstrate consistent depths of ~ 1.6

  17. Relative humidity across the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum via combined hydrogen-oxygen isotope paleohygrometry (Invited) (United States)

    McInerney, F. A.; Bloch, J. I.; Secord, R.; Wing, S. L.; Kraus, M. J.; Boyer, D. M.


    The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) presents an opportunity to characterize continental hydrologic changes during rapid and extreme global warming. The Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, USA, has long been recognized for the PETM sequences preserved there and sits in an ideal location for recording hydrologic changes in the interior of North America. The southeast Bighorn Basin is of particular interest because it contains not only alluvial paleosols and vertebrate fossils, but also macrofloral remains from the PETM. The carbon isotope excursion associated with this event is preserved in this part of the Basin in leaf wax lipids, tooth enamel, and bulk organic matter. To characterize the hydrologic changes that occurred during the PETM we are applying a suite of isotopic, paleobotanical and paleopedological approaches to sections in the southeast Bighorn Basin. Reported here are results from the combined hydrogen and oxygen isotope analysis aimed at reconstructing relative humidity. Oxygen isotope ratios (δ18O) of biogenic apatite from mammalian tooth enamel and fish scales vary with environment, physiology and diet. Because mammals are homeothermic, they primarily track surface water values with predictable physiological offsets. Hydrogen isotope ratios (δD) of leaf-wax lipids (long-chain n-alkanes) reflect both meteoric water δD values and additional D-enrichment caused by evapotranspiration. The enrichment factor between water δD and n-alkane δD can therefore be used as a proxy for relative humidity (RH). In this study, δ18O of surface water is estimated using the δ18O of Coryphodon tooth enamel. We use these δ18O values to estimate surface water δD values using the Global Meteoric Water Line (δD = 8δ18O + 10). We then calculate relative humidity from n-alkane δD values using a Craig-Gordon type isotopic model for D-enrichment caused by transpiration from leaves. Results of the combined hydrogen-oxygen isotope paleohygrometer indicate a general rise in

  18. Comparison of vitrified and unvitrified Eocene woody tissues by TMAH thermochemolysis – implications for the early stages of the formation of vitrinite

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    Huggett William W


    Full Text Available Abstract Samples of vitrified and unvitrified Eocene woody plant tissues collected from the Fossil Forest site, Geodetic Hills, Axel Heiberg Island, have been characterized by TMAH thermochemolysis. All samples are gymnosperm-derived, are of very low maturity and all share the same post-depositional geologic history. Differences in the distributions of products observed from vitrified and unvitrified samples suggest that vitrification of woody tissue is associated with modification of the lignin C3 side chain, following loss of all or most of the carbohydrate present in the precursor woody tissues. The key driver of vitrification appears to be physical compression of the tissue following biological removal of cellulosic materials.

  19. First fossil record of Discocephalinae (Insecta, Pentatomidae): a new genus from the middle Eocene of Río Pichileufú, Patagonia, Argentina (United States)

    Petrulevičius, Julián F.; Popov, Yuri A.


    Abstract A new genus and species of Discocephalini, Acanthocephalonotum martinsnetoi gen. n. et sp. n. is described from Río Pichileufú, middle Eocene of Patagonia, Argentina at palaeolatitude ~ 46°S. The new species is the first fossil representative of the Discocephalinae. This taxon is extant in equatorial to subtropical America, and some species reach warm temperate latitudes (Buenos Aires province). The new genus is distinguished from the other genera of Discocephalini by the combination of these characters: interocular width greater than head length; head massive and quadrangular with the anterior margin almost straight; juga touching each other; labrum thick and curved; triangular ante-ocular process extending beyond the eye; broad spine-like antero-lateral process of the pronotum; pronotum explanate and bean shaped; scutellum triangular with a circular tongue reaching the anterior side of abdominal segment 7; and wings well developed with membrane just surpassing end of abdomen. PMID:25061387

  20. Integrated borehole and outcrop study for documentation of sea level cycles within the Early Eocene Naredi Formation,western Kutch,India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Urbashi; Sarkar; Santanu; Banerjee; P.K.Saraswati


    A combined micropalaeontological and sedimentological investigation of the Early Eocene Naredi Formation (thickness varying between 20 m and 60 m) reveals a complete third-order cycle and six fourth-order sea level cycles. Within the third-order cycle the foraminiferal abundance and diversity gradually increase upwards and reach their maximum values at about 41 m thickness above the base of the formation and subsequently decrease upward and finally give way upward to an unfossiliferous zone at the topmost part. Within a fourth-order cycle foraminiferal abundance and diversity exhibit a similar increasing and decreasing pattern. Bounded between two unconformities the Naredi Formation represents a sequence. A highly fossiliferous Assilinabearing limestone interval represents the maximum flooding zone which separates the transgressive systems tract at the base from the highstand systems tract at the top.

  1. Temperature-Metabolism Linkage and the Effects on Marine Biota: Evidence Across the Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum in the South-East Atlantic (United States)

    Boscolo Galazzo, F.; Thomas, E.; Pagani, M.; Warren, C.; Luciani, V.; Giusberti, L.


    The Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum (MECO; ~40 Ma) stands out as a middle-term (~500 kyr) interval of warming, interrupting the long-term cooling starting in the latest early Eocene.To characterize oceanographic and biotic changes related to the MECO, we performed a multiproxy investigation at Site 1263 (Walvis Ridge; 28°31.98'S, 02°46.77'E, 2 Km paleodepth), which has a continuous record, not affected by carbonate dissolution. We coupled surface to bottom oxygen and carbon stable isotopes, TEX86, and biotic records from biomarker and micropaleontological analysis to first document both MECO climate change and its effects in an open ocean, SE Atlantic setting. Benthic foraminiferal, coarse fraction and fine fraction accumulation rates were used as proxies for benthic, planktic foraminiferal and nannoplankton productivity, and the abundance of crenarchaeol, biomarker of widespread archaeal nitrifiers, to infer ammonia utilization rates. Our records show an uniform, surface-to-deep warming during MECO at mid southern latitudes. In parallel, benthic and planktic foraminiferal productivity decreased markedly, whereas rates of ammonia consumption increased, while primary productivity and water column stratification appear unchanged. We ascribe these biotic changes to MECO warming, due to the temperature-dependency of metabolic rates, particularly of heterotrophic respirators (e.g., O'Connor et al., 2009). Increased oceanic temperature would have altered pelagic food webs, increasing heterotrophs metabolic rates, thus food needs. Therefore planktic foraminiferal populations declined, and organic matter remineralization in the water-column, i.e., ammonia production, increased. The carbon flux to the sea-floor decreased, starving benthic foraminifera. A decrease in organic carbon export and burial, if widespread in oligotrophic open-ocean areas, would have been important to sustain pCO2rise during the early phase of MECO. References: O'Connor et al., 2009. PLoSBiol, doi

  2. Massive and permanent decline of symbiont bearing morozovellids and δ13C perturbations across the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum at the Possagno section (Southern Alps of northeastern Italy) (United States)

    Luciani, V.; Backman, J.; Fornaciari, E.; Giusberti, L.; Agnini, C.; D'Onofrio, R.


    The Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO) records the highest prolonged global temperatures over the past 70 Ma. Understanding the causes and timing of Eocene climate change remains a major challenge in Cenozoic paleoceanography, which includes the biotic response to climate variability and the changes among planktic foraminiferal assemblages across the EECO. The symbiont bearing and shallow dwelling genera Morozovella and Acarinina were important calcifiers in the tropical-subtropical early Paleogene oceans but almost completely disappeared at about 38 Ma, near the Bartonian/Priabonian boundary. We show here that morozovellids record a first critical step across the EECO through a major permanent decline in relative abundance from the Tethyan Possagno section and ODP Site 1051 in the western subtropical North Atlantic. Possible causes may include increased eutrophication, weak water column stratification, changes in ocean chemistry, loss of symbiosis and possible complex interaction with other microfossil groups. Relative abundances of planktic foraminiferal taxa at Possagno parallel negative shifts in both δ13C and δ18O of bulk sediment from Chron C24r to basal Chron C20r. The post-EECO stable isotopic excursions towards lighter values are of modest intensity. Significant though ephemeral modifications in the planktic foraminiferal communities occur during these minor isotopic excursions. These modifications are marked by pronounced increases in relative abundance of acarininids, in a manner similar to their behaviour during pre-EECO hyperthermals in the Tethyan settings, which suggest a pronounced biotic sensitivity to climate change of planktic foraminifera even during the post-EECO interval.

  3. Massive and permanent decline of symbiont bearing morozovellids and δ13C perturbations across the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum at the Possagno section (Southern Alps of northeastern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Luciani


    Full Text Available The Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO records the highest prolonged global temperatures over the past 70 Ma. Understanding the causes and timing of Eocene climate change remains a major challenge in Cenozoic paleoceanography, which includes the biotic response to climate variability and the changes among planktic foraminiferal assemblages across the EECO. The symbiont bearing and shallow dwelling genera Morozovella and Acarinina were important calcifiers in the tropical-subtropical early Paleogene oceans but almost completely disappeared at about 38 Ma, near the Bartonian/Priabonian boundary. We show here that morozovellids record a first critical step across the EECO through a major permanent decline in relative abundance from the Tethyan Possagno section and ODP Site 1051 in the western subtropical North Atlantic. Possible causes may include increased eutrophication, weak water column stratification, changes in ocean chemistry, loss of symbiosis and possible complex interaction with other microfossil groups. Relative abundances of planktic foraminiferal taxa at Possagno parallel negative shifts in both δ13C and δ18O of bulk sediment from Chron C24r to basal Chron C20r. The post-EECO stable isotopic excursions towards lighter values are of modest intensity. Significant though ephemeral modifications in the planktic foraminiferal communities occur during these minor isotopic excursions. These modifications are marked by pronounced increases in relative abundance of acarininids, in a manner similar to their behaviour during pre-EECO hyperthermals in the Tethyan settings, which suggest a pronounced biotic sensitivity to climate change of planktic foraminifera even during the post-EECO interval.

  4. Zircon U-Pb dating of Maherabad porphyry copper-gold prospect area: evidence for a late Eocene porphyry-related metallogenic epoch in east of Iran

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    Azadeh Malekzadeh Shafaroudi


    Full Text Available Eastern Iran has great potential for porphyry copper deposits, as a result of its past subduction zone tectonic setting that lead to extensive alkaline to calc-alkaline magmatic activity in Tertiary time. Maherabad is the first porphyry Cu-Au prospecting area which is discovered in eastern Iran. This is related to a succession o f monzonitic to dioritic porphyries stocks that were emplaced within volcanic rocks. Monzonitic porphyries have basic role in mineralization. Hydrothermal alteration zones are well developed including potassic, sericitic-potassic, quartz-sericite-carbonate-pyrite, quartz-carbonate-pyrite, silicified-propylitic, propylitic, carbonate and silicified zones. Mineralization occurs as Disseminated, stockwork and hydrothermal breccia. Based on early stage of exploration, Cu is between 179- 6830 ppm (ave. 3200 ppm and Au is up to 1000 ppb (ave. 570 ppb. This prospect is gold- rich porphyry copper deposit. Laser-ablation U-Pb dating of two samples from ore-related intrusive rocks indicate that these two monzonitic porphyries crystallized at 39.0 ± 0.8 Ma to 38.2 ± 0.8 Ma, within a short time span of less than ca. 1 Ma during the middle Eocene. This provides the first precise ages for metallogenic episode of porphyry-type mineralization. Also, the initial 87Sr/86Sr and (143Nd/144Ndi was recalculated to an age of 39 Ma. Initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios for monzonitic rocks are 0.7047-0.7048. The (143Nd/144Ndi isotope composition are 0.512694-0.512713. Initial ε Nd isotope values 1.45-1.81. Based on isotopic data the magma had originated beyond the continental crust. The study will be used for tectonic-magmatic setting and evolution of eastern Iran. Keywords: Lut block, Middle Eocene, Zircon, Geochronology, Laser ablation ICP-MS,

  5. Organic carbon cycling in deep-sea benthic ecosystem across the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum: Implication from ostracodes at Deep Sea Drilling Project Site 401, North Atlantic (United States)

    Yamaguchi, T.; Norris, R. D.; Bornemann, A.


    An ecological function of marine benthos is to change contents of oxygen and organic matters in sediments. There has been much interest in how global environmental changes affect ecological functions of marine communities and the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) that has been held up as a past analog to future environmental change. During the PETM, deep-sea benthic foraminifers decreased their body-size and increased their productivity, metabolic rates, and food consumption in response to abruptly increasing temperature and surface water productivity. This implies an increased organic carbon flux between foraminifera and sediments during the event. Here we find that marine ostracodes, multicellular benthos, experienced a reduction in species diversity and individual longevity in response to PETM warming. However, our results, based upon ostracode communities from the upper Paleocene to the lower Eocene sediments at DSDP Site 401, outer Bay of Biscay, show that reduced valve-sizes were probably caused by rapid growth due to higher bottom water temperature. Estimates of body volume, temperature, valve abundances, and sedimentation rates suggest a decline in lifetime metabolic rate, respiration, food consumption, and biomass flux in the ostracode community during and after the PETM. These declines suggest that changes in the benthic ecosystem structure such as food-web and reduction of organic carbon flux between the community and the sediment during the PETM and its afterward. The reduced ostracode carbon flux contrasts the benthic foraminiferal signal. The latter shows an increase in the organic carbon flux between sediment and benthic foraminifer and they switched their community composition towards lower oxygen contents or higher organic matter supply.

  6. Eocene to late Oligocene history of crustal shortening within the Hoh Xil Basin and implications for the uplift history of the northern Tibetan Plateau (United States)

    Staisch, Lydia M.; Niemi, Nathan A.; Clark, Marin K.; Chang, Hong


    The timing and magnitude of deformation across the northern Tibetan Plateau are poorly constrained but feature prominently in geodynamic models of the plateau's evolution. The Fenghuoshan fold and thrust belt, located in the Hoh Xil Basin, provides a valuable record of the Cenozoic deformation history of the northern Tibetan Plateau. Here we integrate fault gouge geochronology, low-temperature thermochronology, geologic mapping, and a balanced cross section to resolve the deformation history of Hoh Xil Basin. Chronologic data suggest that deformation initiated in the mid-Eocene continued until at least 34 Ma and ceased by 27 Ma. The balanced cross section resolves 34 ± 12 km upper crustal shortening (24 ± 9%). We explore whether the observed Cenozoic shortening can account for the modern elevation and lithospheric thickness in the northern Tibetan Plateau. For a range of reasonable preshortening conditions, we conclude that the observed shortening alone cannot achieve modern crustal and mantle lithospheric thicknesses or modern elevation without either the removal of lithospheric mantle, the influx of lower crustal material, or some combination of these processes. Our results, along with previous studies, suggest that crustal shortening propagated into the northern Tibetan Plateau shortly after the onset of the Indo-Asian collision. The small magnitude of shortening and the late Oligocene cessation of deformation in the northern Tibetan Plateau raise questions of how and where the remaining Indo-Asian convergence was accommodated between Eocene to mid-Miocene time, prior to the approximately late Miocene establishment of the deformation patterns observed in the present day.

  7. Tracing climatic conditions during the deposition of late Cretaceous-early Eocene phosphate beds in Morocco by geochemical compositions of biogenic apatite fossils (United States)

    Kocsis, L.; Gheerbrant, E.; Mouflih, M.; Cappetta, H.; Yans, J.; Ulianov, A.; Amaghzaz, M.


    Morocco's Western Atlantic coast was covered by shallow seas during the late Cretaceous-early Eocene when large amount of phosphate rich sediments were deposited. This time interval envelops a major part of the last greenhouse period and gives the opportunity to study the event's characteristics in shallow water settings. These phosphate deposits are extremely rich in vertebrate fossils, while other types of fossils are rare or often poorly preserved. Hence the local stratigraphy is based on the most abundant marine vertebrate fossils, on the selachian fauna (sharks and rays). Our geochemical investigations were also carried out on these remains, though in some cases frequently found coprolites were involved as well. The main goal of our study was to test whether stable isotope compositions (δ18OPO4, δ13C) of these fossils reflect any of the hyperthermal events and/or the related perturbations in the carbon cycle during the early Paleogene (Lourens et al. 2005) and whether these geochemical signals can be used to refine the local stratigraphy. Additionally, the samples were analyzed for trace element composition in order to better assess local taphonomy and burial conditions. The samples came from two major phosphate regions, the Ouled Abdoun and the Ganntour Basins and they were collected either directly on the field during excavations (Sidi Chennane) or were obtained from museum collections with known stratigraphical position (Sidi Daoui, Ben Guerrir). The phosphate oxygen isotopic compositions of shark teeth display large range across the entire series (18.5-22.4 ) which can partly be related to the habitat of sharks. For instance the genus Striatolamnia often yielded the highest δ18O values indicating possible deep water habitat. Despite the large variation in δ18O values, a general isotope trend is apparent. In the Maastrichtian after a small negative shift, the δ18O values increase till the Danian from where the trend decrease till the Ypresian. The

  8. Adakitic magmatism in post-collisional setting: An example from the Early-Middle Eocene Magmatic Belt in Southern Bulgaria and Northern Greece (United States)

    Marchev, Peter; Georgiev, Stoyan; Raicheva, Raya; Peytcheva, Irena; von Quadt, Albrecht; Ovtcharova, Maria; Bonev, Nikolay


    Post-collisional (56.0-40.4 Ma) adakitic magmatism in the Rhodope Massif and the Kraishte region, including W. Srednogorie, in South Bulgaria followed the collision of the Rhodope and Pelagonian Massifs. It forms a 250 km NW trending belt which continues into the 1000 km long belt of Eocene magmatism in northern Turkey and Iran. The rocks are represented by felsic subvolcanic dykes and sills in the Kraishte and plutons in the Rhodopes. Here, we synthesize new chemical (whole-rock major and trace elements, and Sr and Nd isotopes) and LA-ICP/MS mineral and U-Pb zircon age data along with published similar data in order to constrain the genesis of this magmatism and the early Cenozoic geodynamic evolution of the central Balkan Peninsula. The rocks display typical subduction-related characteristics with enrichment in LILE and LREE and depletion in HFSE (Nb, Ta and Ti). In the Kraishte and western Srednogorie Zones these are calc-alkaline to high-K calc-alkaline rhyolites, displaying a typical adakitic signature, i.e. high La/Yb and Sr/Y ratios. The studied Rhodope Massif rocks are predominantly high-K calc-alkaline and subordinate calc-alkaline granites and granodiorites with a minor amount of tonalites. Petrographically, they are H2O- and accessory-rich (allanite, epidote, titanite, apatite) rocks, showing geochemical affinities from non-adakitic tonalites and mafic granodiorites to adakitic granodiorites and granites. Similarity of Sr and Nd isotopic compositions of the Kraishte subvolcanic and Rhodope intrusive adakitic rocks with the neighboring and coeval NW Anatolian basaltic to dacitic volcanics and plutons suggests that the most likely source for the South Bulgarian adakitic rocks is the subduction-enriched depleted lithospheric mantle. The nearby and contemporaneous East Serbian alkaline basalts are isotopically and compositionally different and, probably, originate from an OIB-like mantle source. Subsequent fractionation within an isotopically similar lower

  9. Large amplitude variations in global carbon cycling and terrestrial weathering from the late Paleocene through the early Eocene: carbon isotope and terrigenous accumulation records at Mead Stream, New Zealand (United States)

    Slotnick, B. S.; Dickens, G. R.; Nicolo, M.; Hollis, C. J.; Crampton, J. S.; Zachos, J. C.


    Global temperatures rose ~6°C from the late Paleocene ca. 58 Ma to the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO) ca. 52 - 50 Ma. Superimposed on this were at least two geologically brief (CIEs) and clay-rich horizons (marls), the latter caused by excess terrigenous dilution. 283 new samples were collected, mostly between ETM-2 and the EECO; these were analyzed for carbonate content, lithology, and bulk carbonate carbon isotopes. Five marl-rich beds occur in upper Paleocene and lowermost Eocene strata. These mark the known and suspected hyperthermals: PETM, ETM-2, H-2, I-1 and I-2. Above is a greatly expanded (100 m-thick) unit represented by a series of marl beds which correlates to the EECO. Carbonate contents are generally 60-90% throughout the studied interval, with lows being marls. Similar to findings elsewhere, there is an overall long-term drop in δ13C from the late Paleocene to early Eocene. This is punctuated by multiple short-term CIEs of variable magnitude (PETM: 2.5‰; ETM-2: 1.0‰; H-2: 0.2‰; I-1: 0.6%). The EECO is a series of negative CIEs with magnitudes ranging between 0.2 - 0.6‰. Of these, the K/X/ETM-3 event (another suspected hyperthermal) is the most pronounced (0.6‰). The late Paleocene-early Eocene δ13C record at Mead Stream is remarkably similar to other records generated at deep-sea sites, except that lows in δ13C span intervals of relatively high sedimentation (terrigenous dilution) rather than intervals of relatively low sedimentation (carbonate dissolution). We suggest that over ~6 million years, there was a series of short-term climate perturbations, each characterized by massive carbon input and greater continental weathering. The suspected link involves global warming and enhanced seasonality in precipitation.

  10. A land micro-mammal fauna from the Early Eocene marine Egem deposits (NP12, Belgium) and the first occurrence of the peradectid marsupial Armintodelphys outside North America


    Smith, T.; Smith, R


    Dental remains of land mammals are sometimes discovered in shallow marine Paleogene deposits of the North Sea Basin. Such is the case for eleven specimens we describe here from the Early Eocene Egemkapel Clay Member in the middle part of the Tielt Formation, found in Ampe quarry at Egem in Northwestern Belgium. The small fauna consists of 6 taxa, including the neoplagiaulacid multituberculate Ectypodus, the erinaceomorph insectivore Macrocranion, the nyctitheriid Leptacodon, an eochiropteran ...

  11. Benthic foraminifera biofacies-analysis and stable isotopes of the Middle Eocene to Oligocene successions in the southern North Sea Basin. Tools for stratigraphy and for reconstruction of the extreme climates.


    De Man, Ellen


    Tijdens het Paleogeen (65 tot 23 Miljoen jaar geleden) vinden er een aan tal klimaatsveranderingen plaats die qua oorsprong en omvang uniek blijken t e zijn in de recente geschiedenis van de Aarde. Vanaf het Vroeg Eoceen, éé n van de warmste periodes op Aarde, koelde het klimaat geleidelijk aan af tot min imum waarden. De zogenaamde Oi-1 afkoelingsfase luidde hierbij de overgang in van de Eocene broeikasperiode naar de Oligocene ijstijdperiode. Naast deze graduele afkoelingstrend vonde...

  12. Insights into the dolomitization process and porosity modification in sucrosic dolostones, Avon Park Formation (Middle Eocene), East-Central Florida, U.S.A.

    KAUST Repository

    Maliva,, Robert G.


    The Avon Park Formation (middle Eocene) in central Florida, U.S.A., contains shallow-water carbonates that have been replaced by dolomite to varying degrees, ranging from partially replaced limestones, to highly porous sucrosic dolostones, to, less commonly, low-porosity dense dolostones. The relationships between dolomitization and porosity and permeability were studied focusing on three 305-m-long cores taken in the City of Daytona Beach. Stable-isotope data from pure dolostones (mean δ 18O = +3.91% V-PDB) indicate dolomite precipitation in Eocene penesaline pore waters, which would be expected to have been at or above saturation with respect to calcite. Nuclear magnetic log-derived porosity and permeability data indicate that dolomitization did not materially change total porosity values at the bed and formation scale, but did result in a general increase in pore size and an associated substantial increase in permeability compared to limestone precursors. Dolomitization differentially affects the porosity and permeability of carbonate strata on the scale of individual crystals, beds, and formations. At the crystal scale, dolomitization occurs in a volume-for-volume manner in which the space occupied by the former porous calcium carbonate is replaced by a solid dolomite crystal with an associated reduction in porosity. Dolomite crystal precipitation was principally responsible for calcite dissolution both at the actual site of dolomite crystal growth and in the adjoining rock mass. Carbonate is passively scavenged from the formation, which results in no significant porosity change at the formation scale. Moldic pores after allochems formed mainly in beds that experienced high degrees of dolomitization, which demonstrates the intimate association of the dolomitization process with carbonate dissolution. The model of force of crystallization-controlled replacement provides a plausible explanation for key observations concerning the dolomitization process in the

  13. Paleomagnetic evidence for a pre-early Eocene (˜ 50 Ma) bending of the Patagonian orocline (Tierra del Fuego, Argentina): Paleogeographic and tectonic implications (United States)

    Maffione, Marco; Speranza, Fabio; Faccenna, Claudio; Rossello, Eduardo


    The southernmost segment of the Andes of southern Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego forms a ˜ 700 km long orogenic re-entrant with an interlimb angle of ˜ 90° known as Patagonian orocline. No reliable paleomagnetic evidence has been gathered so far to assess whether this great orogenic bend is a primary arc formed over an articulated paleomargin, or is due to bending of a previously less curved (or rectilinear) chain. Here we report on an extensive paleomagnetic and anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) study carried out on 22 sites (298 oriented cores), predominantly sampled in Eocene marine clays from the external Magallanes belt of Tierra del Fuego. Five sites (out of six giving reliable paleomagnetic results) containing magnetite and subordinate iron sulphides yield a positive fold test at the 99% significance level, and document no significant rotation since ˜ 50 Ma. Thus, the Patagonian orocline is either a primary bend, or an orocline formed after Cretaceous-earliest Tertiary rotations. Our data imply that the opening of the Drake Passage between South America and Antarctica (probably causing the onset of Antarctica glaciation and global climate cooling), was definitely not related to the formation of the Patagonian orocline, but was likely the sole consequence of the 32 ± 2 Ma Scotia plate spreading. Well-defined magnetic lineations gathered at 18 sites from the Magallanes belt are sub-parallel to (mostly E-W) local fold axes, while they trend randomly at two sites from the Magallanes foreland. Our and previous AMS data consistently show that the Fuegian Andes were characterized by a N-S compression and northward displacing fold-thrust sheets during Eocene-early Miocene times (50-20 Ma), an unexpected kinematics considering coeval South America-Antarctica relative motion. Both paleomagnetic and AMS data suggest no significant influence from the E-W left-lateral Magallanes-Fagnano strike-slip fault system (MFFS), running a few kilometres south of our

  14. A new paleomagnetic Paleocene-Eocene apparent polar wandering path derived from magnetostratigraphies: correlations for faunal and floral development at high latitude. (United States)

    Moreau, M.; Besse, J.; Fluteau, F.


    The development of endemic warm-climate flora and fauna at high latitudes in both hemispheres attests to the global warming that affected the Earth at the end of the Paleocene and the beginning of the Eocene. Nonetheless, the presence of these species at very high latitudes is also conditional on insolation, and the presence of tropical flora and fauna at very high paleomagnetic paleolatitudes, well north of the Arctic Circle, remains intriguing. We thus reappraise paleomagnetic data in a new way, defining an apparent geomagnetic polar wander path (APWP) from the beginning of the Paleocene to the middle of the mid-Eocene (65-42Ma) using a selection of magnetostratigraphies published over the last 25 years. Six series of VGPs are sufficiently long and of high enough quality to be retained; they originate from Gubbio (Italy) and from leg 74 for the African plate; from the Aix en Provence (France) and Basque (Spain) basins for Europe; from leg 171B for North America, and from leg 121 for Australia. For each site, a VGP (virtual geomagnetic pole) is defined for each magnetic anomaly and then transferred using classical kinematic parameters onto Africa selected as the single reference frame. The successive mean geomagnetic poles for each anomaly (hence perfectly synchronous) are then calculated in order to define the APWP. This shows a loop with two cusps at anomalies 26-25 (61-56 Ma) and 24-23 (56-51 Ma); the corresponding mean poles differ according to McFadden and McElhinny (1990), whereas the end poles relating to anomalies 29-27 (65.5-61 Ma) and 22-19 (51-42.5 Ma) are identical. The plate movements inferred from this loop, possibly related to an episode of true polar wander, are shown to be in agreement with the climatic and paleoenvironmental data and suggests a migration of flora and fauna which is synchronous with migration of the pole, rather than an adaptation of these species to the polar obscurity.

  15. Coal geology of the Paleocene-Eocene Calvert Bluff Formation (Wilcox Group) and the Eocene Manning Formation (Jackson Group) in east-central Texas; field trip guidebook for the Society for Organic Petrology, Twelfth Annual Meeting, The Woodlands, Texas, August 30, 1995 (United States)

    Warwick, Peter D.; Crowley, Sharon S.


    The Jackson and Wilcox Groups of eastern Texas (fig. 1) are the major lignite producing intervals in the Gulf Region. Within these groups, the major lignite-producing formations are the Paleocene-Eocene Calvert Bluff Formation (Wilcox) and the Eocene Manning Formation (Jackson). According to the Keystone Coal Industry Manual (Maclean Hunter Publishing Company, 1994), the Gulf Coast basin produces about 57 million short tons of lignite annually. The state of Texas ranks number 6 in coal production in the United States. Most of the lignite is used for electric power generation in mine-mouth power plant facilities. In recent years, particular interest has been given to lignite quality and the distribution and concentration of about a dozen trace elements that have been identified as potential hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. As pointed out by Oman and Finkelman (1994), Gulf Coast lignite deposits have elevated concentrations of many of the HAPs elements (Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Hg, Mn, Se, U) on a as-received gm/mmBtu basis when compared to other United States coal deposits used for fuel in thermo-electric power plants. Although regulations have not yet been established for acceptable emissions of the HAPs elements during coal burning, considerable research effort has been given to the characterization of these elements in coal feed stocks. The general purpose of the present field trip and of the accompanying collection of papers is to investigate how various aspects of east Texas lignite geology might collectively influence the quality of the lignite fuel. We hope that this collection of papers will help future researchers understand the complex, multifaceted interrelations of coal geology, petrology, palynology and coal quality, and that this introduction to the geology of the lignite deposits of east Texas might serve as a stimulus for new ideas to be applied to other coal basins in the U.S. and abroad.

  16. Depositional Model for the Middle Eocene Oberlin Sand in Northwest Oberlin Field and Adjacent Areas, Allen Parish, Louisiana: A Well-log and Seismic Analysis (United States)

    McVey, Timothy Keith

    The depositional environment of the middle to late Eocene Oberlin sand of Northwest Oberlin Field and Pilgrim Church Field in central Allen Parish, Louisiana, was investigated. The depositional environment of the Oberlin sand has been interpreted from observations of spontaneous potential log signatures, conventional core reports, paleontological reports, shape of isochore maps, coherency extraction attribute, amplitude extraction attribute, and multiple seismic and subsurface cross sections. Focus is centered on the juxtaposition of component sand bodies and their proximity to the interdistributary and prodelta environments. Sand bodies include distributary channels, distributary mouth bars, crevasse subdeltas and shelfal bars and are interpreted to be the products of lower deltaic and shelf processes. The results of this study are based on seismic analysis, display techniques and subsurface maps calibrated to well logs, models, and recognition criteria of modern and ancient depositional environments previously described in the regional literature. The integration of all available data provides an objective and systematic approach detailing the origin, lateral extent, geometry and architecture of the Oberlin sand in the lower deltaic plain and shelf environments. The results of this study may be applicable to similar age sands on trend with the study area. Understanding of sand component types of the lower deltaic and shelf environments is vital to exploration success and development optimization of hydrocarbon bearing reservoirs.

  17. Metamorphic conditions and CHIME monazite ages of Late Eocene to Late Oligocene high-temperature Mogok metamorphic rocks in central Myanmar (United States)

    Maw Maw Win; Enami, Masaki; Kato, Takenori


    The high temperature (T)/pressure (P) regional Mogok metamorphic belt is situated in central Myanmar, and is mainly composed of pelitic gneisses, amphibolites, marbles, and calc-silicate rocks. The garnet-biotite-plagioclase-sillimanite-quartz assemblage and its partial system suggest equilibrium P/T conditions of 0.6-1.0 GPa/780-850 °C for the peak metamorphic stage, and 0.3-0.5 GPa/600-680 °C for the exhumation and hydration stage. Monazite grains show complex compositional zoning consisting of three segments-I, II, and III. Taking into consideration the monazite zoning and relative misfit curves, the calculated chemical Th-U-total Pb isochron method (CHIME) monazite age data (284 spot analyses) indicated four age components: 49.3 ± 2.6-49.9 ± 7.9, 37.8 ± 1.0-38.1 ± 1.7, 28.0 ± 0.8-28.8 ± 1.6, and 23.7 ± 1.3 Ma (2σ level). The ages of the Late Eocene and Late Oligocene epochs were interpreted as the peak metamorphic stage of upper-amphibolite and/or granulite facies and the postdated hydration stage, respectively.

  18. First multilocus and densely sampled timetree of trevallies, pompanos and allies (Carangoidei, Percomorpha) suggests a Cretaceous origin and Eocene radiation of a major clade of piscivores. (United States)

    Santini, Francesco; Carnevale, Giorgio


    Carangoid fishes (trevallies, pompanos, jacks, dolphinfishes, cobias and remoras) include about 159 species of marine fishes found in tropical and temperate waters worldwide (Froese and Pauly, 2014). Many carangoids are powerful swimmers and active piscivores in and around coral-reef ecosystems. Some carangoid lineages, such as dolphinfishes, have evolved a pelagic lifestyle, while remoras spend their adult life attached to cetaceans, sharks, manta rays and large teleosts, feeding off skin parasites or leftovers from their host's meals. In spite of their taxonomic diversity, ecological dominance, economic importance to humans, and a rich fossil record dating to the Paleogene, relatively little is currently known about the tempo of evolution of this group. Here we present the results of the first time calibration study of carangoid fishes. Using a fossil-calibrated molecular timetree that includes 133 species of carangoids (∼85% of extant species), we show that this group originated in the Late Cretaceous and that several major lineages were already present before the K-Pg extinction. All major clades were in existence by the end of the Eocene, even though significant diversification has continued to occur throughout the history of this group. PMID:25450104

  19. Abrupt turnover in calcareous-nannoplankton assemblages across the Paleocene/Eocene Thermal Maximum: implications for surface-water oligotrophy over the Kerguelen Plateau, Southern Indian Ocean (United States)

    Jiang, Shijun; Wise, Sherwood W., Jr.


    Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Core Section 183-1135A-25R-4 from the Kerguelen Plateau in the Indian Ocean sector of the Southern Ocean represents only the second complete, expanded sequence through the Paleocene/Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM; ~55 Ma) recovered from Antarctic waters. Calcareous nannoplankton at this site underwent an abrupt, fundamental turnover across the PETM as defined by a carbon isotope excursion. Although Chiasmolithus, Discoaster, and Fasciculithus exponentially increase in abundance at the onset, the former abruptly drops but then rapidly recovers, whereas the latter two taxa show opposite trends due to surface-water oligotrophy. These observations confirm previous results from ODP Site 690 on Maud Rise. The elevated pCO2 that accompanied the PETM caused a shoaling of the lysocline and carbonate compensation depth, leading to intensive dissolution of susceptible holococcoliths and poor preservation of the assemblages. Similarities and contrasts between the results of this study and previous work from open-ocean sites and shelf margins further demonstrate that the response to the PETM was consistent in open-ocean environments, but could be localized on continental shelves where nutrient regimes depend on the local geologic setting and oceanographic conditions.

  20. Supercritical bedforms in deep-marine lower-slope, base-of-slope and proximal basin-floor setting, Middle Eocene Ainsa Basin, Spanish Pyrenees (United States)

    Pickering, K. T.


    There is an increasing appreciation that seafloor gradients in many ancient deep-marine clastic environments are likely to have been steep enough to promote upper flow regime (Froude Number >1) processes and deposits. This issue was addressed by Komar (1971) who concluded that for a reasonable friction factor, f = 0.02, turbidity currents would be supercritical on slopes > 0.5°, a value exceeded on many basin-margin slopes and on the upper parts of submarine fans. Many deep-water depositional systems, therefore, probably contain significant volumes of deposits that have been misinterpreted using the classic Bouma Ta-Te divisions for a waning flow rather than as upper flow-regime (supercritical) bedforms. Using outcrop examples from lower-slope, base-of-slope and proximal basin-floor settings in the Middle Eocene Ainsa Basin, Spanish Pyrenees, linked with recent experimental and theoretical work, this paper considers the range of deposits that can be reinterpreted as upper-flow regime bedforms in what might be termed "supercritical clastic systems". Such sedimentary structures involve a very wide range of grain sizes and include discontinuous and irregular sandwaves, backset (upstream-inclined) bedding in mounded gravels and sands and scour-and-fill structures. Irrespective of varying relative base level in the staging area for such flows, supercritical clastic systems show complex facies relationships. Komar, P.D. 1971. Hydraulic jumps in turbidity currents. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 82, 1477-1488.

  1. Down the Rabbit Hole: toward appropriate discussion of methane release from gas hydrate systems during the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum and other past hyperthermal events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. Dickens


    Full Text Available Enormous amounts of 13C-depleted carbon rapidly entered the exogenic carbon cycle during the onset of the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM, as attested to by a prominent negative carbon isotope (δ13C excursion and deep-sea carbonate dissolution. A widely cited explanation for this carbon input has been thermal dissociation of gas hydrate on continental slopes, followed by release of CH4 from the seafloor and its subsequent oxidation to CO2 in the ocean or atmosphere. Increasingly, papers have argued against this mechanism, but without fully considering existing ideas and available data. Moreover, other explanations have been presented as plausible alternatives, even though they conflict with geological observations, they raise major conceptual problems, or both. Methane release from gas hydrates remains a congruous explanation for the δ13C excursion across the PETM, although it requires an unconventional framework for global carbon and sulfur cycling, and it lacks proof. These issues are addressed here in the hope that they will prompt appropriate discussions regarding the extraordinary carbon injection at the start of the PETM and during other events in Earth's history.

  2. Reconstructing Atmospheric CO2 Through The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum Using Stomatal Index and Stomatal Density Values From Ginkgo adiantoides (United States)

    Barclay, R. S.; Wing, S. L.


    The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) was a geologically brief interval of intense global warming 56 million years ago. It is arguably the best geological analog for a worst-case scenario of anthropogenic carbon emissions. The PETM is marked by a ~4-6‰ negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE) and extensive marine carbonate dissolution, which together are powerful evidence for a massive addition of carbon to the oceans and atmosphere. In spite of broad agreement that the PETM reflects a large carbon cycle perturbation, atmospheric concentrations of CO2 (pCO2) during the event are not well constrained. The goal of this study is to produce a high resolution reconstruction of pCO2 using stomatal frequency proxies (both stomatal index and stomatal density) before, during, and after the PETM. These proxies rely upon a genetically controlled mechanism whereby plants decrease the proportion of gas-exchange pores (stomata) in response to increased pCO2. Terrestrial sections in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, contain macrofossil plants with cuticle immediately bracketing the PETM, as well as dispersed plant cuticle from within the body of the CIE. These fossils allow for the first stomatal-based reconstruction of pCO2 near the Paleocene-Eocene boundary; we also use them to determine the relative timing of pCO2 change in relation to the CIE that defines the PETM. Preliminary results come from macrofossil specimens of Ginkgo adiantoides, collected from an ~200ka interval prior to the onset of the CIE (~230-30ka before), and just after the 'recovery interval' of the CIE. Stomatal index values decreased by 37% within an ~70ka time interval at least 100ka prior to the onset of the CIE. The decrease in stomatal index is interpreted as a significant increase in pCO2, and has a magnitude equivalent to the entire range of stomatal index adjustment observed in modern Ginkgo biloba during the anthropogenic CO2 rise during the last 150 years. The inferred CO2 increase prior to the

  3. 40Ar-39Ar laser dating of ductile shear zones from central Corsica (France): Evidence of Alpine (middle to late Eocene) syn-burial shearing in Variscan granitoids (United States)

    Di Vincenzo, Gianfranco; Grande, Antonietta; Prosser, Giacomo; Cavazza, William; DeCelles, Peter G.


    -situ ages at ~ 34 Ma, but a hump-shaped age spectrum, with maximum ages of ~ 35 Ma and intermediate- to high-temperature steps as young as ~ 33-32 Ma. Results indicate that the studied samples consist of an earlier celadonite-poor white mica with a minimum age of ~ 46 Ma, overgrown by a synshear high-celadonite white mica, developed at greater depth between ~ 37 and 35 Ma; faint late increments in shearing occurred at ≤ 33-32 Ma, when white mica incipiently re-equilibrated during exhumation. Results suggest that ductile shearing with a dominant strike-slip component pervasively deformed the Corsican basement complex during the emplacement and progressive thickening of the Alpine orogenic wedge and broaden the extent of the domain affected by the Alpine tectonometamorphic events. Integration of petrological modeling and geochronological data shows that the Variscan basement of central Corsica, close to the Alpine nappes, was buried during the late Eocene by ≥ 18 km of Alpine orogenic wedge and foreland deposits. Our results, combined with previously published apatite fission-track data, imply an overburden removal ≥ 15 km from the late Eocene (Priabonian) to the early Miocene (Aquitanian), pointing to a minimum average exhumation rate of 1.3-1.5 mm/a.

  4. Geochronology and geochemistry of Eocene-aged volcanic rocks around the Bafra (Samsun, N Turkey) area: Constraints for the interaction of lithospheric mantle and crustal melts (United States)

    Temizel, İrfan; Arslan, Mehmet; Yücel, Cem; Abdioğlu, Emel; Ruffet, Gilles


    40Ar-39Ar age, whole-rock chemical, and Sr-Nd isotope data are presented for the post-collisional, Eocene (51.3-44.1 Ma)-aged volcanic rocks from the Bafra (Samsun) area in the western part of the Eastern Pontides (N Turkey) aiming to unravel their sources and evolutionary history. The studied Eocene volcanic rocks can be divided into two groups: analcime-bearing (tephritic lava flows and dykes) and analcime-free (basaltic to trachytic lava flows and basaltic dykes). The analcime-bearing volcanic rocks have a fine-grained porphyritic texture with clinopyroxene phenocrysts, whereas analcime-free volcanic rocks show a variety of textures including hyalo-microlitic microgranular porphyritic, intersertal, trachytic, fluidal, and glomeroporphyritic. The volcanic rocks also show evidence of mineral-melt disequilibrium textures such as sieved, rounded, and corroded plagioclases, partially melted and dissolved clinopyroxenes and poikilitic texture. Petrochemically, the parental magmas of the volcanic rocks evolved from alkaline to calc-alkaline lava suites and include high-K and shoshonitic compositions. They display enrichments in light rare earth and large ion lithophile elements such as Sr, K, and Rb, as well as depletions in high field strength elements such as Nb, Ta, Zr, and Ti, resembling subduction-related magmas. The analcime-bearing and -free volcanic rocks share similar incompatible element ratios and chondrite-normalised rare rearth element patterns, indicating that they originated from similar sources. They also have relatively low to moderate initial 87Sr/86Sr (0.7042-0.7051), high positive εNd(t) values (+ 0.20 to + 3.32), and depleted mantle Nd model ages (TDM1 = 0.63-0.93 Ga, TDM2 = 0.58-0.84 Ga). The bulk-rock chemical and Sr-Nd isotope features as well as the high Rb/Y and Th/Zr, but low Nb/Zr and Nb/Y ratios, indicate that the volcanic rocks were derived from a lithospheric mantle source that had been metasomatised by slab-derived fluids. Trace element

  5. Multiple embryos in the Lepidocyclina pustulosa group as possible indicators of palaeoenvironmental conditions: The case of the Late Eocene Toluviejo Formation (Sinú Domain, Caribbean, Colombia (United States)

    Baumgartner-Mora, Claudia; Baumgartner, Peter O.; Rincón Martínez, Daniel; Salazar Ortiz, Edward A.


    The Middle-Late Eocene Toluviejo Formation of the Sinú-San Jacinto folded belt (Caribbean, Colombia) contains 15-75 m thick, grey, massive limestone sequences that are interbedded with terrigenous nearshore to offshore mudstones to quartzose sandstones and conglomerates. The formation accumulated in a transitional continent-ocean setting, probably on oceanic crust. We studied over 80 polished thin sections under light microscopy and cathodoluminescence (CL) to analyse carbonate microfacies and Larger Benthic Foraminifera (LBF). The overall facies distribution is 3-fold: (1) Facies close to the shoreline are dominated by low diversity operculinid assemblages, rich in detrital elements. (2) Shallow offshore facies are characterized by round lepidocyclinids, associated with, and often encrusted by, corallinacean algae, Sporolithon and structureless microbial crusts. The matrix is rich in carbonate/detrital mud and sand-sized detritals. (3) Distal offshore facies on structural highs show abundance of flat, current-sorted lepidoclinids without a noticeable detrital component. Facies 1 and 2 are clearly under the influence of suspension- and dissolved-nutrient input, probably carried offshore by freshwater lids of river plumes. Facies (2) contains abundant specimens of the Lepidocyclina pustulosa group of which the macrospheric forms show complicated embryonic apparatuses, which suppose double or multiple embryos. Detailed observation under CL allows to count up to 6-8 embryos, often seen aligned in the equatorial plane. The embryonic apparatus occupies often more than half of the diameter of specimens. The tendency towards large, very flat embryonic apparatuses (diameter measured in axial cuts up to 2,5 mm for a thickness of 0.2-0.3 mm) is closely correlated with abundant coralgal and microbial encrustations, oxide-stained carbonate/detrital mud and probably some preserved organic matter. The presence of multiple embryos has been reported by several authors and has

  6. Magnetic minerals as recorders of weathering, diagenesis, and paleoclimate: A core-outcrop comparison of Paleocene-Eocene paleosols in the Bighorn Basin, WY, USA (United States)

    Maxbauer, Daniel P.; Feinberg, Joshua M.; Fox, David L.; Clyde, William C.


    Magnetic minerals in paleosols hold important clues to the environmental conditions in which the original soil formed. However, efforts to quantify parameters such as mean annual precipitation (MAP) using magnetic properties are still in their infancy. Here, we test the idea that diagenetic processes and surficial weathering affect the magnetic minerals preserved in paleosols, particularly in pre-Quaternary systems that have received far less attention compared to more recent soils and paleosols. We evaluate the magnetic properties of non-loessic paleosols across the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (a short-term global warming episode that occurred at 55.5 Ma) in the Bighorn Basin, WY. We compare data from nine paleosol layers sampled from outcrop, each of which has been exposed to surficial weathering, to the equivalent paleosols sampled from drill core, all of which are preserved below a pervasive surficial weathering front and are presumed to be unweathered. Comparisons reveal an increase in magnetization in outcrops compared with core equivalents, which is principally driven by secondary hematite production. Authigenic hematite production in outcrops presents a complication for goethite-hematite based paleoprecipitation proxies where estimates will be biased toward drier climate regimes. The occurrence of low coercivity minerals is more consistent between core and outcrop. However, we propose an alteration process for pedogenic magnetite that is observed in both core and outcrop, where pedogenic magnetite becomes progressively oxidized leading to higher mean coercivities and broader coercivity distributions compared to modern pedogenic magnetite. This combination of diagenetic processes and surface weathering influences the magnetic properties of paleosols. Despite these changes, magnetic enhancement ratios from B-horizons correlate with independent MAP estimates from geochemical proxies, which suggests that paleoprecipitation information is preserved. Future

  7. Pressure-temperature-time-deformation path of kyanite-bearing migmatitic paragneiss in the Kali Gandaki valley (Central Nepal): Investigation of Late Eocene-Early Oligocene melting processes (United States)

    Iaccarino, Salvatore; Montomoli, Chiara; Carosi, Rodolfo; Massonne, Hans-Joachim; Langone, Antonio; Visonà, Dario


    Kyanite-bearing migmatitic paragneiss of the lower Greater Himalayan Sequence (GHS) in the Kali Gandaki transect (Central Himalaya) was investigated. In spite of the intense shearing, it was still possible to obtain many fundamental information for understanding the processes active during orogenesis. Using a multidisciplinary approach, including careful meso- and microstructural observations, pseudosection modelling (with PERPLE_X), trace element thermobarometry and in situ monazite U-Th-Pb geochronology, we constrained the pressure-temperature-time-deformation path of the studied rock, located in a structural key position. The migmatitic gneiss has experienced protracted prograde metamorphism after the India-Asia collision (50-55 Ma) from ~ 43 Ma to 28 Ma. During the late phase (36-28 Ma) of this metamorphism, the gneiss underwent high-pressure melting at "near peak" conditions (710-720 °C/1.0-1.1 GPa) leading to kyanite-bearing leucosome formation. In the time span of 25-18 Ma, the rock experienced decompression and cooling associated with pervasive shearing reaching P-T conditions of 650-670 °C and 0.7-0.8 GPa, near the sillimanite-kyanite transition. This time span is somewhat older than previously reported for this event in the study area. During this stage, additional, but very little melt was produced. Taking the migmatitic gneiss as representative of the GHS, these data demonstrate that this unit underwent crustal melting at about 1 GPa in the Eocene-Early Oligocene, well before the widely accepted Miocene decompressional melting related to its extrusion. In general, kyanite-bearing migmatite, as reported here, could be linked to the production of the high-Ca granitic melts found along the Himalayan belt.

  8. Paleomagnetic and rock magnetic study of IODP Site U1408 in the Northwest Atlantic - toward the high-resolution relative paleointensity estimate during the middle Eocene (United States)

    Yamamoto, Y.; Yamazaki, T.; Oda, H.


    We have conducted paleomagnetic and rock magnetic measurements on the sedimentary sections recovered from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Site U1408 in the Northwest Atlantic, off Newfoundland. The measurements were done on u-channel samples using a pass-through superconducting rock magnetometer in a manner that remanent magnetizations (natural, anhysteretic and isothermal remanent magnetizations: NRM, ARM and IRM) were subjected to stepwise alternating field (AF) demagnetizations up to 80 mT and are measured with 1 cm spacing at each step.The characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) was resolved after AF demagnetization of 20-30 mT for most of the studied interval. As a result, we could identify several polarity reversals which were able to be correlated with the geomagnetic polarity time scale by Gradstein et al. (2012) (Geologic Time Scale 2012), with referring the shipboard biostratigraphy (Norris et al., 2014). The interval at ~ 33-157 mcd (meter composite depth) was interpreted to cover the Chrons C18n.1n to C20n with missing Chron C19n because of the somewhat ambiguous magnetic signals at the interval at ~ 70-110 mcd. The correlation provided an age model inferring sedimentation rate of about 2-4 cm/kyr during these chrons.There is the interval that shows relatively constant ARM and IRM intensities as well as ratios of ARM to IRM (ARM/IRM): the interval at ~ 37-90 mcd resulted in ARM intensity of 0.2-0.4 A/m, IRM intensity of 1-2 A/m and ARM/IRM of 0.17-0.20. This interval corresponds to the Chron C18 and the estimated sedimentation rate of the interval is ~ 2 cm/kyr. It is expected that high-resolution relative paleointensity estimate during the middle Eocene is potentially possible. We will report a preliminary estimate.

  9. Paleocene-Early Eocene uplift of the Altyn Tagh Mountain: Evidence from detrital zircon fission track analysis and seismic sections in the northwestern Qaidam basin (United States)

    Wang, Yadong; Zheng, Jianjing; Zheng, Youwei; Liu, Xingwang; Sun, Guoqiang


    Most existing tectonic models suggest that the deformation and uplift of the northern Tibetan Plateau is the latest crustal response to the collision of the India Plate and Eurasian Plate. The tectonic evolution of Altyn Tagh Mountain (hereafter called simply the "Altyn Tagh"), on the northern margin of the Tibetan Plateau, has attracted considerable scientific attention. In this study, we use fission track age dates of detrital zircons from the northwestern Qaidam basin together with sedimentary observations to understand more fully the Cenozoic tectonic uplift of the Altyn Tagh. Detrital zircons from five borehole samples distributed in different folds in the northwestern Qaidam basin yielded ages mainly ranging from 88.5 to 49.2 Ma, older than their sedimentary deposition ages (43.8-22 Ma). The binomial distribution in grain age fitted peaks was generally dominated by one young peak, P1, which varied from 73.6 to 47.2 Ma. A thinning of the Cenozoic Lulehe Formation (53.5-43.8 Ma) stretched from the inner Qaidam basin to the slopes of the Altyn Tagh in the seismic sections of the northwestern Qaidam basin. Based on magnetostratigraphic dating, there was a hiatus in sedimentation in the Qaidam basin between 65 Ma and 54 Ma; this was confirmed by seismic profiles and borehole data, which show an unconformity between the Mesozoic Quanyagou Formation and the Lulehe Formation. Combined with an analysis of provenance, the detrital zircon young peak age and the sedimentary record revealed that the most significant regional uplift of the Altyn Tagh occurred during the Paleogene-Early Eocene, almost coinciding with the collision of the Indian and Eurasian plates between 65 Ma and 44 Ma.

  10. Constraints on the duration of the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum by orbitally-influenced fluvial sediment records of the northern Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, USA (United States)

    van der Meulen, Bas; Abels, Hemmo; Meijer, Niels; Gingerich, Philip; Lourens, Lucas


    The addition of major amounts of carbon to the exogenic carbon pool caused rapid climate change and faunal turnover during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) around 56 million years ago. Constraints are still needed on the duration of the onset, main body, and recovery of the event. The Bighorn Basin in Wyoming provides expanded terrestrial sections spanning the PETM and lacking the carbonate dissolution present in many marine records. Here we provide new carbon isotope records for the Polecat Bench and Head of Big Sand Coulee sections, two parallel sites in the northern Bighorn Basin, at unprecedented resolution. Cyclostratigraphic analysis of these fluvial sediment records using descriptive sedimentology and proxy records allows subdivision into intervals dominated by avulsion deposits and intervals dominated by overbank deposits. These sedimentary sequences alternate in a regular fashion and are related to climatic precession. Correlation of the two, 8-km-spaced sections shows that the avulsion-overbank cycles are laterally consistent. The presence of longer-period alternations, related to modulation by the 100-kyr eccentricity cycle, corroborates the precession influence on the sediments. Sedimentary cyclicity is then used to develop a floating precession-scale age model for the PETM carbon isotope excursion (CIE). We find a CIE body encompassing 95 kyrs aligning with marine cyclostratigraphic age models. The duration of the CIE onset is estimated at 5 kyrs, but difficult to determine because sedimentation rates vary at the sub-precession scale. The CIE recovery starts with a 2 to 4 per mille step and lasts 40 or 90 kyrs, depending on what is considered the carbon isotope background state.

  11. Facies transition and depositional architecture of the Late Eocene tide-dominated delta in northern coast of Birket Qarun, Fayum, Egypt (United States)

    Abdel-Fattah, Zaki A.


    Late Eocene successions in the Fayum Depression display notable facies transition from open-marine to brackish-marine realms. Stratigraphic and sedimentologic characteristics of the depositional facies are integrated with ichnological data for the recognition of four facies associations (FA1 to FA4). The transition from open-marine sandstones (FA1) to the brackish-marine deposits (FA2) heralds a transgressive - regressive dislocation. The shallowing- and coarsening-upward progradation from the basal prodelta mudstone-dominated facies (FA2a) to deltafront heterolithics (FA2b) and sandstone facies (FA2c) are overlain by finning-upward delta plain deposits which are expressed by the delta plain mudstone (FA2d) and erosive-based distributary channel fills (FA4). Prodelta/deltfront deposits of FA2 are arranged in thinning- and coarsening-upward parasequences which are stacked in a shallowing-upward progressive cycle. Shallow-marine fossiliferous sandstones (FA3) mark the basal part of each parasequence. Stratigraphic and depositional architectures reflect a tide-dominated delta rather than an estuarine and incised valley (IV) model. This can be evinced by the progressive facies architecture, absence of basal regional incision or a subaerial unconformity and the stratigraphic position above a maximum flooding surface (MFS), in addition to the presence of multiple tidally-influenced distributary channels. Stratigraphic and depositional characteristics of the suggested model resemble those of modern tide-dominated deltaic systems. Accordingly, this model contributes to our understanding of the depositional models for analogous brackish-marine environments, particularly tide-dominated deltas in the rock record.

  12. A new basal caniform (Mammalia: Carnivora from the middle Eocene of North America and remarks on the phylogeny of early carnivorans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susumu Tomiya

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite a long history of research, the phylogenetic origin and initial diversification of the mammalian crown-group Carnivora remain elusive. Well-preserved fossil materials of basal carnivorans are essential for resolving these issues, and for constraining the timing of the carnivoran origin, which constitutes an important time-calibration point in mammalian phylogenetics. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A new carnivoramorphan from the middle Eocene of southern California, Lycophocyon hutchisoni, is described. The new taxon exhibits stages of dental and basicranial evolution that are intermediate between earlier carnivoramorphans and the earliest representatives of canoid carnivorans. The evolutionary affinity of the new taxon was determined by a cladistic analysis of previously-published and newly-acquired morphological data for 30 Paleogene carnivoramorphans. The most-parsimonious trees identified L. hutchisoni as a basal caniform carnivoran, and placed (1 Tapocyon robustus, Quercygale angustidens, "Miacis" sylvestris, "M." uintensis, and "M." gracilis inside or outside the Carnivora, (2 nimravids within the Feliformia, and (3 the amphicyonid Daphoenus outside the crown-group Canoidea. Parsimony reconstructions of ancestral character states suggest that loss of the upper third molars and development of well-ossified entotympanics that are firmly fused to the basicranium (neither condition is observed in L. hutchisoni are not associated with the origin of the Carnivora as traditionally thought, but instead occurred independently in the Caniformia and the Feliformia. A discriminant analysis of the estimated body weight and dental ecomorphology predicted a mesocarnivorous diet for L. hutchisoni, and the postcranial morphology suggests a scansorial habit. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Lycophocyon hutchisoni illuminates the morphological evolution of early caniforms leading to the origin of crown-group canoids. Considerable uncertainty

  13. Sequence Stratigraphic Model and Its Petroleum Geological Significance of Upper Part of Middle Eocene Series and Upper Eocene Series in Dongying Depression%东营凹陷中始新统上部-上始新统层序地层模式及其石油地质意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯有良; 潘元林; 郑和荣


    By identifying sequence boundary generated by base level cycle, the author have reloghizcd fled four sequencesin upper part of middle Eocene series and upper Eocene series of Dongying depression. Every sequence has similargenesis and system tract trait. Lowstand system tract (LST) developed braided fluvial, incised channel - turbidityfans,fan deltas,abandoned deltas and subfan . Lacustrine expanding system tract (EST) developed lacustrine sys-tem, consisted of deep mudstone, oil shale, dolomite and shallow lacustrine, destroyed deltas and meanderingstreams. Lacustrine retreating system tract (RST) developed shallow lacustrine, fluvial- delta system, and fandelta system. Because sequence developed in different sites of the basin, the sequence shows three kinds of sequencestyle: A, deep lacustrine - delta environment sequence style distributing below structure break. B, incised channel- shallow lacustrine environment sequence style distributing upward structure break. C, fluvial - flooding plain se-quence environment style distributing beyond lacustrine. Based on comprehensive research, this paper has built upthe genetic model of upper part of middle Eocene series and upper Eocene series in Dongying depression . The modelindicates that sequence generation was controlled by third cycle of base level as a function of tectonic movement andclimate. Because water volume of lake is finite, tilting and faulting redistributes the lake water toward increasedaccommodation space area, base level fell to generate lowstand system tract characterized by incised channel andturbidity fan. In the inactive epoch faulting of, base level, affected by climate, rise rapidly to generate lacustrineexpanding system tract characterized by lacustrine facies spreading. When the lake level recovering to the situationbefore faulting, base level arrived at summit and began to fall, because faulting made topography steep, sedimenta-ry supplied enough, lacustrine retreating system tract

  14. Mid-Eocene alluvial-lacustrine succession at Gebel El-Goza El-Hamra (Shabrawet area, NE Eastern Desert, Egypt): Facies analysis, sequence stratigraphy and paleoclimatic implications (United States)

    Wanas, H. A.; Sallam, E.; Zobaa, M. K.; Li, X.


    This study aims to provide the depositional facies, sequence stratigraphic and paleoclimatic characteristics of the Mid-Eocene (Bartonian) continental succession exposed at Gebel El-Goza El-Hamra (Shabrawet Area, NE Eastern Desert, Egypt). The studied succession consists of siliciclastic rocks followed upward by carbonate rocks. Detailed field observation and petrographic investigation indicate accumulation in floodplain-dominated alluvial and shallow lacustrine systems. The floodplain-dominated alluvial facies (45 m thick) is composed mainly of carbonate nodules-bearing, mottled mudrock with subordinate sandstone and conglomerate beds. The conglomerate and pebbly sandstone bodies interpreted as ephemeral braided channel deposits. The massive, laminated, planner cross-bedded, fine- to medium-grained sandstone bodies interlayered within mudstone reflect sheet flood deposits. The mudrocks associated with paleosols represent distal floodplain deposits. The shallow lacustrine facies (15 m thick) is made up of an alternation of marlstone, micritic limestone, dolostone and mudrock beds with charophytes and small gastropods. Both the alluvial and lacustrine facies show evidence of macro-and micro-pedogenic features. Pollen assemblages, stable δ18O and δ13C isotopes, and paleopedogenic features reflect prevalence of arid to semi-arid climatic conditions during the Bartonian. The sequence stratigraphic framework shows an overall fining-upward depositional sequence, consisting of Low- and High-accommodation Systems Tracts (LAST, HAST), and is bounded by two sequence boundaries (SB-1, SB-2). Conglomerate and pebbly sandstone deposits (braided channel and sheet flood deposits) of the lower part of the alluvial facies reflect a LAST. Mudrock and silty claystone facies (distal floodplain deposits) of the upper part of alluvial facies and its overlying lacustrine facies correspond to a HAST. The LAST, HAST and SB were formed during different accommodation-to-sediment supply (A

  15. Lithospheric bending of the Tengchong Terrane from late Eocene to early Miocene: New extrusion mechanism of SE Tibet during the Indo-Asian collision (United States)

    Xu, Zhiqin; Wang, Qin; Cai, Zhihui; Dong, Hanwen; Li, Huaqi; Chen, Xijie; Duan, Xiangdong; Cao, Hui; Li, Jing; Burg, Jean-Pierre


    It is generally believed that the extrusion of SE Tibet was bounded by the dextral Gaoligong and the sinistral Ailaoshan-Red River strike-slip shear zones from the Oligocene to early Miocene. This study integrates field mapping, structural analysis and geochronology in western Yunnan (China), where foliated Precambrian basement rocks and late Cretaceous to early Eocene plutons are exposed to the west of the Gaoligong shear zone. We found that the Tengchong Terrane was neither rigid nor vertically coherent during its southward extrusion and clockwise rotation. The Tengchong Terrane consists of four elongated gneiss domes (Donghe, Guyong, Yingjiang and Sudian) that are cored by high-grade metamorphic rocks and pre-kinematic granite plutons, and bounded by top-to-NE detachments and NE-trending dextral strike-slip shear zones. Zircon U-Pb ages from LA-ICP-MS analysis and 40Ar/39Ar ages of micas and hornblende demonstrate that the flat-lying Donghe Detachment (>35-15 Ma) and the Nabang dextral strike-slip shear zone (41-19 Ma) were sites of prolonged, mostly coeval ductile deformation from amphibolite to greenschist facies metamorphism. The Gaoligong shear zone experienced dextral shearing under similar metamorphic conditions between 32 and 10 Ma. Coeval activation of the flat-lying detachments and strike-slip shear zones resulted in fast exhumation and SW-ward extrusion of the basement rocks and granite plutons of the Tengchong Terrane. The Tengchong Terrane can be regarded as vertically plunging folds formed by lithospheric bending around the proto-Eastern Himalayan syntaxis since 41 Ma. The intense clockwise rotation of the Tengchong Terrane was accommodated by strike slip along the Sudian, Yingjiang, Lianghe and Nabang shear zones before 35 Ma, and the subsequent localized movement along the Nabang and Gaoligong strike-slip shear zones until the early Miocene. This deformation geometry indicates the importance of mid-crustal detachments in accommodating the large

  16. Lower Eocene alluvial paleosols (Willwood Formation, Northwest Wyoming, U.S.A.) and their significance for paleoecology, paleoclimatology, and basin analysis (United States)

    Bown, T.M.; Kraus, M.J.


    The lower Eocene Willwood Formation of northwest Wyoming is a 700 m thick accumulation of alluvial floodplain and channel mudstones and sandstones, nearly all of which show paleopedogenic modifications. Pedogenesis of Willwood sandstones is indicated by taproot and vertebrate and invertebrate bioturbation, early local cementation by calcium carbonate, and thin illuviation cutans on clastic grains. Pedogenesis in Willwood mudstones is indicated by plant bioturbation, insect and other invertebrate burrow casts and lebensspuren; free iron, aluminum, and manganese mobilization, including hydromorphic gleying; sesquioxide and calcareous glaebule formation in lower parts of the solum; presence of clay-rich and organic carbon-rich zones; and well differentiated epipedons and albic and spodic horizons. Probable A horizons are also locally well developed. Occurrence of variegated paleosol units in thick floodplain mudstone deposits and their association with thin, lenticular, and unconnected fluvial sandstones in the Willwood Formation of the central and southeast Bighorn Basin suggest that these soils formed during times of rapid sediment accumulation. The tabular geometry and lateral persistence of soil units as well as the absence of catenization indicate that Willwood floodplains were broad and essentially featureless. All Willwood paleosols were developed on alluvial parent materials and are complex in that B horizons of younger paleosols were commonly superimposed upon and mask properties of suspected A and B horizons of the next older paleosols. The soils appear to be wet varieties of the Spodosol and Entisol groups (aquods and ferrods, and aquents, respectively), though thick, superposed and less mottled red, purple, and yellow paleosols resemble some ultisols. Most Willwood paleosols resemble warm temperate to subtropical alluvial soils that form today under alternating wet and dry conditions and (or) fluctuating water tables. The up-section decrease in frequency

  17. Plant-derived terpenoids as paleovegetation proxies: evaluation of the proxy with Paleocene and Eocene megafloras and plant biomarkers in the Bighorn Basin, USA (United States)

    Diefendorf, A. F.; Freeman, K. H.; Wing, S. L.


    Plant terpenoids (defense compounds synthesized from the 5-carbon building block isoprene) have a long history of use as geochemical plant biomarkers, and potentially can be used to reconstruct changes in the abundances of major land plant groups in rocks and sediments that do not preserve plant megafossils or pollen. Pentacyclic triterpenoids are synthesized almost exclusively by angiosperms whereas conifers produce the tricyclic diterpenoids. Many previous studies have focused on the use of di- to triterpenoid ratios to reconstruct floral changes in the geologic past, however few studies have compared terpenoid-based paleoflora proxies to pollen or megafossils. Prior reconstructions also did not take into account differences in biomarker production between plant functional types, such as deciduous and evergreen plants, which can be quite large. To investigate the use of terpenoids as paleoflora proxies, we examined sediments from the Bighorn Basin (Wyoming, USA) where ancient megafloras have been studied in detail. We analyzed di- and triterpenoid abundances as well as plant leaf waxes (n-alkanes) and other biomarkers in a total of 75 samples from 15 stratigraphic horizons from the late Paleocene (62 Ma) to early Eocene (52.5 Ma). By comparing terpenoid ratios with abundances estimated from plant megafossils, we can evaluate the utility of terpenoids as paleovegetation proxies. In nearly all samples, angiosperm triterpenoids are significantly lower in abundance than conifer diterpenoids. This contrasts with leaf fossil data that indicate paleofloras were dominated by angiosperms in both abundance and diversity. Traditional use of terpenoid paleovegetation proxies would therefore significantly overestimate the abundance of conifers, even when accounting for plant production differences. To determine if this overestimate is related to the loss of angiosperm triterpenoids (rather than enhanced production of diterpenoids in the geologic past), we compared angiosperm

  18. MSUD Family Support Group (United States)

    ... Group The MSUD Family Support Group is a non-profit 501 (c)(3) organization for those with MSUD ... Family Support Group is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization with no paid staff. Funds are needed ...

  19. Computer Supported Collaborative Research


    Hinze-Hoare, Vita


    Although the areas of Human Computer Interaction (HCI), Computer Supported Collaborative Work (CSCW), and Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) are now relatively well established, the related field of Computer Supported Collaborative Research (CSCR) is newly proposed here. An analysis of the principles and issues behind CSCR is performed leading to a full definition and specification of the CSCR domain is provided with a view to setting up an e-laboratory designed to support...

  20. Nutrition support in hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kondrup, Jens


    Nutrition support in hospitals is becoming an area of focus because of the evidence showing improved clinical outcome with nutrition support, its status as a human rights issue and its integration into quality assurance.......Nutrition support in hospitals is becoming an area of focus because of the evidence showing improved clinical outcome with nutrition support, its status as a human rights issue and its integration into quality assurance....

  1. Culture and Social Support (United States)

    Kim, Heejung S.; Sherman, David K.; Taylor, Shelley E.


    Social support is one of the most effective means by which people can cope with stressful events. Yet little research has examined whether there are cultural differences in how people utilize their social support networks. A review of studies on culture and social support presents evidence that Asians and Asian Americans are more reluctant to…

  2. On rationally supported surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, Jens; Juttler, B.; Sir, Z.


    We analyze the class of surfaces which are equipped with rational support functions. Any rational support function can be decomposed into a symmetric (even) and an antisymmetric (odd) part. We analyze certain geometric properties of surfaces with odd and even rational support functions. In partic...

  3. A high-resolution benthic stable-isotope record for the South Atlantic: Implications for orbital-scale changes in Late Paleocene-Early Eocene climate and carbon cycling (United States)

    Littler, Kate; Röhl, Ursula; Westerhold, Thomas; Zachos, James C.


    The Late Paleocene and Early Eocene were characterized by warm greenhouse climates, punctuated by a series of rapid warming and ocean acidification events known as “hyperthermals”, thought to have been paced or triggered by orbital cycles. While these hyperthermals, such as the Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), have been studied in great detail, the background low-amplitude cycles seen in carbon and oxygen-isotope records throughout the Paleocene-Eocene have hitherto not been resolved. Here we present a 7.7 million year (myr) long, high-resolution, orbitally-tuned, benthic foraminiferal stable-isotope record spanning the late Paleocene and early Eocene interval (∼52.5-60.5 Ma) from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1262, South Atlantic. This high resolution (∼2-4 kyr) record allows the changing character and phasing of orbitally-modulated cycles to be studied in unprecedented detail as it reflects the long-term trend in carbon cycle and climate over this interval. The main pacemaker in the benthic oxygen-isotope (δ18O) and carbon-isotope (δ13C) records from ODP Site 1262, are the long (405 kyr) and short (100 kyr) eccentricity cycles, and precession (21 kyr). Obliquity (41 kyr) is almost absent throughout the section except for a few brief intervals where it has a relatively weak influence. During the course of the Early Paleogene record, and particularly in the latest Paleocene, eccentricity-paced negative carbon-isotope excursions (δ13C, CIEs) and coeval negative oxygen-isotope (δ18O) excursions correspond to low carbonate (CaCO3) and coarse fraction (%CF) values due to increased carbonate dissolution, suggesting shoaling of the lysocline and accompanied changes in the global exogenic carbon cycle. These negative CIEs and δ18O events coincide with maxima in eccentricity, with changes in δ18O leading changes in δ13C by ∼6 (±5) kyr in the 405-kyr band and by ∼3 (±1) kyr in the higher frequency 100-kyr band on average. However, these

  4. Supported employment, supported education, and career development. (United States)

    Mueser, Kim T; Cook, Judith A


    Two articles in the current issue of the Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal bring into focus the important question of the importance of work, and in particular meaningful employment, in people with a serious mental illness. Gewurtz, Cott, Rush, and Kirsh (see record 2012-34112-003) present findings from a change in policy in Canada for the funding of vocational services for people with a serious mental illness from a fee-for-service model to an outcomes-based model, with reimbursement based on successful competitive job placement and retention, irrespective of job type and consumer preference. The results indicated increased rates of competitive work, mainly in entry-level jobs, but they also raised questions as to whether the narrow focus on job attainment may have been at the cost of less career development and ultimately less meaningful work for the consumers. Baksheev, Allott, Jackson, McGorry, and Killackey (see record 2012-34112-002) found that a combined supported employment and education program for people with a first episode of psychosis led to higher rates of employment and class completion than usual services. The analysis presented in this report showed that no individual consumer characteristics other than program assignment (supported employment and education vs. usual services) predicted vocational or educational outcomes. The findings underscore the potency of supported employment, and suggest that combining it with educational services may be fruitful for people who have recently experienced an episode of psychosis. These findings raise several questions that will be touched on in this editorial, including: Why are career development and supported education important? What have we learned about supported education? What are the current gaps in our knowledge about supported education? PMID:23276233

  5. Supported microporous ceramic membranes (United States)

    Webster, E.; Anderson, M.


    A method for the formation of microporous ceramic membranes onto a porous support includes placing a colloidal suspension of metal or metal oxide particles on one side of the porous support and exposing the other side of the porous support to a drying stream of gas or a reactive gas stream so that the particles are deposited on the drying side of the support as a gel. The gel so deposited can be sintered to form a supported ceramic membrane useful for ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, or molecular sieving having mean pore sizes less than 100 Angstroms. 4 figures.

  6. The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) in the Dababiya Quarry Section, Egypt: New evidence for environmental changes from mineralogical and geochemical data (United States)

    Schulte, P.; Scheibner, C.; Speijer, R. P.


    In the Dababiya Quarry section, the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) consists of a succession of five characteristic beds that can be traced throughout eastern Egypt. The base of these beds defines the Global boundary Stratotype Section and and Point (GSSP) of the Eocene. Previous studies of mineralogical and geochemical proxies have suggested a period of euxinic conditions from the onset of the PETM up to the beginning of the recovery phase (Aubry et al., 2007). Dupuis et al. (2003) described prominent mineralogical changes (increase of illite and chlorite-smectite mixed layers) that occurred contemporaneous to the maximum negative carbon isotope values. A sea-level fall immediately preceding the onset of the PETM, followed by a sea-level rise and enhanced upwelling during the PETM is postulated in Egypt (Speijer and Wagner, 2002). However, a detailed study of the Dababiya Quarry beds, and specifically their element geochemistry, is currently lacking. Therefore, we investigated the Dababiya Quarry section by X-ray diffractometry (XRD; bulk rock and clay mineralogy) as well as by X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF; major and trace elements and rare earth elements, REE) to detail the succession of environmental events during the PETM. (i) The absence of carbonate (as low as event bed 1 indicates severe carbonate dissolution. A sharp short-lived increase in siliciclastic detritus (PETM) as well as an increase of chlorite and illite as well as well-crystallized smectite suggest deposition during low sea-level and increased weathering rates. Event bed 1 is also strongly deprived in REEs and shows high Zr/Rb ratios, indicative for input of coarse siliciclastic detritus. (ii) Subsequently, during the peak phase of the PETM, i.e. during the maximum negative shift of the Carbon Isotope Excursion ("CIE"), a short-lived period of pronounced anoxic sedimentary conditions is indicated by sediment lamination, absence of benthic life, elevated TOC, trace metal enrichment

  7. Application of Clinopyroxene Chemistry to Interpret the Physical Conditions of Ascending Magma, a Case Study of Eocene Volcanic Rocks in the Ghohrud Area (North of Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sayari


    Full Text Available Introduction Volcanic rocks with a porphyritic texture have experienced two crystallization stages. The first is slow, resulting in phenocrysts, and the second, which took place at, or near the surface, or during intrusion into a cooler body of rock, result in a groundmass of glass, or fine crystals. The pressure and temperature history of a magma during crystallization is recorded in the chemical composition of the phenocrysts during both stages. These phenocrysts provide valuable data about the physicochemical conditions of the parent magma during the process of crystallization. The composition of clinopyroxene (cpx reflects not only the chemical condition and therefore the magmatic series, but also the physical conditions, i.e., temperature and pressure of a magma at the time when clinopyroxene crystallized. The Ghohrud area lies in the middle part of the Urumieh-Dokhtar Magmatic Arc , which is part of a much larger magmatic province extending in a vast region of convergence between Arabia and Eurasia north of the Zagros-Bitlis suture zone (Dilek et al., 2010. In the Ghohrud area, north of Isfahan, exposed Eocene volcanic rocks belong to the first pulse of Cenozoic volcanism of Iran (Sayari, 2015, ranging in composition from andesitic basalt to basalt. The basaltic rocks of the Ghohrud area are composed mainly of plagioclase phenocrysts surrounded by smaller crystals of clinopyroxene in a groundmass of microlites, glass and opaques. In this study, the clinopyroxene and plagioclase of these rocks were analyzed in order to estimate the physicochemical conditions of the parent magmas. Results Clinopyroxene and plagioclase phenocrysts of nineteen samples were analyzed with the electron microprobe. The chemical compositions of the clinopyroxenes were used to estimate both the chemical evolution and temperature and pressure conditions of the magmas during crystallization, using SCG, a specialized software for clinopyroxene thermobarometry (Sayari

  8. Decision support basics

    CERN Document Server

    Power, Daniel J


    This book is targeted to busy managers and MBA students who need to grasp the basics of computerized decision support. Some of the topics covered include: What is a DSS? What do managers need to know about computerized decision support? And how can managers identify opportunities to create innovative DSS? Overall the book addresses 35 fundamental questions that are relevant to understanding computerized decision support.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈祚伶; 丁仲礼


    The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum ( PETM) is an extreme carbon perturbation and global warming event,which was superimposed on the long-term Early Cenozoic warming trend. The PETM is characterized by an abrupt and large negative excursion ( - 2‰ ~ - 6‰) of carbon isotope compositions of marine and terrestrial sedimentary materials. Paleotemperature proxies suggest an increase in global surface temperature of approximately 5 ~6℃ ,and a coincident decrease in temperature gradient between high-latitudes and low-latitudes. This event is correlative with a global accelerated hydrological cycle and large-scale biotic turnover and vertebrate mammalian migrations. Based on carbon isotope records and computer simulations, the amount of carbon totally released to the exogenic carbon cycle system is estimated to be comparable with the anticipative carbon amount that would be released to the atmosphere by burns of fossil fuels. Therefore, a comprehensive study of this event is potentially helpful to the projection of the environmental and ecological impacts induced by human activity in the future. In this paper, we overviewed the recent progresses of studies on the event, particularly focusing on the triggering mechanisms, estimation of released total carbon, and the climatic and ecological impacts.Of all mechanisms put forward, large-scale dissociation of methane hydrate is the reliable hypothesis. It is likely that increased temperature before PETM event led to hydrate instability and thus to an enhanced emission of methane, imposing a strong positive feedback that would made dissociation of more methane hydrate along continental slope, and then caused the PETM event. Because of pervasive dissolution of deep sea sedimentary carbonate and severe acidification of ocean, the real magnitude of carbon isotope excursion may be embodied in terrestrial carbon isotope records(ca. -6‰)rather than the ocean archives(ca. -2. 5%o).The -6‰ of CIE(carbon isotope excursion

  10. Cenozoic Uplift, Erosion and Dynamic Support of Madagascar (United States)

    Stephenson, Simon; White, Nicky


    The physiography of Madagascar is characterised by high-elevation but low-relief topography; 42% of the landscape is above 500 m in elevation. Eocene (marine) nummulitic (marine) limestones at elevations of ˜400 m above sea level and newly dated, emergent 125 ka coral reefs suggest that Madagascar has experienced differential vertical motions during Cenozoic times. Malagasy rivers are often deeply incised and contain steepened reaches, implying that they have responded to changes in regional uplift rate. However, low temperature thermochronology and 10Be derived erosion rates suggest that both Cenozoic and Recent average denudation rates have been low. Extensive laterite-capped, low-relief surfaces also suggest that there have been long periods of tectonic quiescence. In contrast, the modern landscape is characterised by erosional gullies (i.e. lavaka), with very high local erosion rates. To bridge the gap between this disparate evidence, we inverted 2566 longitudinal river profiles using a damped non-negative, least-squares linear inversion to determine the history of regional uplift. We used a simplified version of the stream power erosional law. River profiles were extracted from the 3 arc-second Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital elevation model. Calibration of the stream power erosional law is based upon Cenozoic limestones and new radiometrically dated marine terraces. The residual misfit between observed and calculated river profiles is small. Results suggest that Malagasy topography grew diachronously by 1-2 km over the last 15-20 Ma. Calculated uplift and denudation are consistent with independent observations. Thus drainage networks contain coherent signals that record regional uplift. The resultant waves of incision are the principal trigger for modern erosional processes. Admittance calculations, the history of basaltic volcanism and nearby oceanic residual age-depth measurements all suggest that as much as 0.8 - 1.1 km of Cenozoic uplift

  11. Supported Employment in Spain. (United States)

    Verdugo, Miguel Angel; Borja, F.; de Urries, Jordan; Bellver, Fernando; Martinez, Salvador


    Supported employment is growing in Spain, assisted by models from other countries and national legislation. The Spanish Association of Supported Employment is providing a framework for program development. The field must deal with the lack of systematic evaluation and with funding problems. (SK)

  12. Indications for nutritional support.


    Carpentier, Y A


    In this review different types of patients who usually require nutritional support are considered and recommendations made as to when nutritional support should be started, how long it should be continued, and which substrates should be preferentially used by which route.

  13. Biology Curriculum Support Document. (United States)

    North Carolina Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh.

    This biology curriculum supplement includes the North Carolina Standard Course of Study Goals, helpful resources, and suggested activities supported by inquiry-based laboratory activities. Contents include a detailed description of content which provides the goals and standards being sough), a materials list for inquiry support labs and…

  14. Rebirth through supported employment. (United States)

    Strickler, David C


    In this column, the author describes how supported employment was a conduit for employment for him, and allowed for a remarkable journey of recovery, involving discovery and empowerment, incorporation, purpose, and belonging. After two decades of unemployment or underemployment, he began to see that work was possible through supported education at college, where he excelled. Federal and state grants paid for two thirds of his college education. He periodically met with a vocational rehabilitation counselor, who was very encouraging. He also had a case manager through a private psychiatric organization who provided support. The author concludes that the root of his problems was the lack of supports to help him become incorporated into society-a lack that ushered in a host of problems, probably similar to what others experience. When supports were given, many of those symptoms disappeared.

  15. An Appalachian Amazon? Magnetofossil evidence for the development of a tropical river-like system in the mid-Atlantic United States during the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (United States)

    Kopp, Robert E.; Schumann, Dirk; Raub, Timothy D.; Powars, David S.; Godfrey, Linda V.; Swanson-Hysell, Nicholas L.; Maloof, Adam C.; Vali, Hojatollah


    On the mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain of the United States, Paleocene sands and silts are replaced during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) by the kaolinite-rich Marlboro Clay. The clay preserves abundant magnetite produced by magnetotactic bacteria and novel, presumptively eukaryotic, iron-biomineralizing microorganisms. Using ferromagnetic resonance spectroscopy and electron microscopy, we map the magnetofossil distribution in the context of stratigraphy and carbon isotope data and identify three magnetic facies in the clay: one characterized by a mix of detrital particles and magnetofossils, a second with a higher magnetofossil-to-detrital ratio, and a third with only transient magnetofossils. The distribution of these facies suggests that suboxic conditions promoting magnetofossil production and preservation occurred throughout inner middle neritic sediments of the Salisbury Embayment but extended only transiently to outer neritic sediments and the flanks of the embayment. Such a distribution is consistent with the development of a system resembling a modern tropical river-dominated shelf.

  16. Phylogeny of the Ampelocissus-Vitis clade in Vitaceae supports the New World origin of the grape genus. (United States)

    Liu, Xiu-Qun; Ickert-Bond, Stefanie M; Nie, Ze-Long; Zhou, Zhuo; Chen, Long-Qing; Wen, Jun


    The grapes and the close allies in Vitaceae are of great agronomic and economic importance. Our previous studies showed that the grape genus Vitis was closely related to three tropical genera, which formed the Ampelocissus-Vitis clade (including Vitis, Ampelocissus, Nothocissus and Pterisanthes). Yet the phylogenetic relationships of the four genera within this clade remain poorly resolved. Furthermore, the geographic origin of Vitis is still controversial, because the sampling of the close relatives of Vitis was too limited in the previous studies. This study reconstructs the phylogenetic relationships within the clade, and hypothesizes the origin of Vitis in a broader phylogenetic framework, using five plastid and two nuclear markers. The Ampelocissus-Vitis clade is supported to be composed of five main lineages. Vitis includes two described subgenera each as a monophyletic group. Ampelocissus is paraphyletic. The New World Ampelocissus does not form a clade and shows a complex phylogenetic relationship, with A. acapulcensis and A. javalensis forming a clade, and A. erdvendbergiana sister to Vitis. The majority of the Asian Ampelocissus species form a clade, within which Pterisanthes is nested. Pterisanthes is polyphyletic, suggesting that the lamellate inflorescence characteristic of the genus represents convergence. Nothocissus is sister to the clade of Asian Ampelocissus and Pterisanthes. The African Ampelocissus forms a clade with several Asian species. Based on the Bayesian dating and both the RASP and Lagrange analyses, Vitis is inferred to have originated in the New World during the late Eocene (39.4Ma, 95% HPD: 32.6-48.6Ma), then migrated to Eurasia in the late Eocene (37.3Ma, 95% HPD: 30.9-45.1Ma). The North Atlantic land bridges (NALB) are hypothesized to be the most plausible route for the Vitis migration from the New World to Eurasia, while intercontinental long distance dispersal (LDD) cannot be eliminated as a likely mechanism. PMID:26545592

  17. Stop smoking support programs (United States)

    Smokeless tobacco - stop smoking programs; Stop smoking techniques; Smoking cessation programs; Smoking cessation techniques ... It is hard to quit smoking if you are acting alone. Smokers may have a ... of quitting with a support program. Stop smoking programs ...

  18. IT Supporting Strategy Formulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterbergh, J.M.I.M.


    This overview approaches information and communication technology (ICT) for competitive intelligence from the perspective of strategy formulation. It provides an ICT architecture for supporting the knowledge processes producing relevant knowledge for strategy formulation. To determine what this arch

  19. Editorial: Support (November 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dru Lavigne


    Full Text Available What is your first thought when you encounter the term "open source support"? A programmer typing the answer to a question using a chat utility? Hours spent scouring the Internet for a working configuration sample? Contacting a support engineer at a commercial call centre? If you find it difficult to think about a support engineer, you're not alone. Actuate's recently published 2007 Open Source Survey of senior personnel from financial services, Telco, and public sector organizations across North America and Europe indicates that 46.3% of respondents cite the lack of availability of long term support as a major barrier to their company's adoption of open source technologies.

  20. Pelvic Support Problems (United States)

    ... nonsurgical ways to obtain symptom relief? • What are Kegel exercises? • Can surgery correct pelvic support problems? • Glossary ... your overall health and possibly your prolapse symptoms. • Kegel exercises—These exercises strengthen the muscles that surround ...

  1. Hemodynamic Support in Sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Yildiz


    Full Text Available Sepsis is called systemic inflammatory response syndrome due to infection. When added to organs failure and perfusion abnormality is defined in severe sepsis, Hypotension that do not respond to fluid therapy is as defined septic shock. Fluid resuscitation is a most important parts of the treatment in patients with septic shock. Ongoing hypotension that despite of the adequate fluid therapy, vasopressor support initiation is required. Sepsis and septic shock, hemodynamic support is often understood as the hemodynamic support. The different approaches to the development of methods to track and objective comes up. Patients with severe sepsis and septic shock should be follow in the intensive care unit and rapid fluid replacement and effectual hemodynamic support should be provided.

  2. [Support in addictology: hydrotherapy]. (United States)

    Hibou, Alain; Bordeau, Annick; Pean, Isabelle; Rouland, Elina; Charpentier, Maud


    Hydrotherapy is a corporal mediation treatment used with patients with addictions by the Mayenne centre for addiction support therapy and prevention. A demonstration of the benefit of hydrotherapy for these patients through a patient's case.

  3. Chromatography resin support (United States)

    Dobos, James G.


    An apparatus and method of using an improved chromatography resin support is disclosed. The chromatography support platform is provided by a stainless steel hollow cylinder adapted for being inserted into a chromatography column. An exterior wall of the stainless steel cylinder defines a groove for carrying therein an "O"-ring. The upper surface of the stainless steel column is covered by a fine stainless steel mesh welded to the edges of the stainless steel cylinder. When placed upon a receiving ledge defined within a chromatography column, the "O"-ring provides a fluid tight seal with the inner edge wall of the chromatography cylinder. The stainless ste