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Sample records for chamaecyparis lawsoniana heartwood

  1. Acute aquatic toxicity of western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis) foliage and Port Orford cedar (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana) heartwood oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duringer, Jennifer M; Swan, Laurence R; Walker, Douglas B; Craig, A Morrie

    2010-11-01

    Recently, interest has developed for using essential oils from Western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis) foliage and Port Orford cedar (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana) heartwood in commercial products such as pest repellents and cosmetics. In order to gauge the relative toxicological risk that these oils pose to freshwater and marine organisms, the acute aquatic toxicity of these oils was evaluated using OPPTS guidelines to the cladoceran Daphnia magna, the rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and the green alga Selenastrum capricornutum. For western juniper foliage oil, no toxicity was exhibited toward D. magna or O. mykiss, even at 5.0 mg/L (the highest concentration tested and limit of solubility). For toxicity to S. capricornutum using algal cell density, the 72 and 96 h EC50 value was 1.7 mg/L and the no observable effect concentration (NOEC) was 0.63 mg/L. For Port Orford cedar heartwood oil, no toxicity was exhibited toward O. mykiss or S. capricornutum, even at 5.0 mg/L (the highest concentration tested and limit of solubility). The 48-h D. magna EC50 value was 1.9 mg/L; the NOEC values for algal cell density were 1.25 mg/L (72 h) and 0.63 mg/L (96 h). In summary, this study shows that western juniper foliage and Port Orford cedar heartwood oils demonstrate little to no risk to aquatic organisms.

  2. Antioxidant activity of extracts from the bark of Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (A. Murrary) Parl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng Gao; Todd F. Shupe; Chung Y. Hse; Thomas L. Eberhardt

    2006-01-01

    The bark of Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (A. Murray) Parl. was extracted with methanol and sequentially partitioned with n-hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and deionized water. The antioxidant activities of the four extracts were evaluated using the DPPH• and ABTS+• methods. The total phenolic...

  3. Pharmacognostic study of Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (Murr. Parl.: A drug used in Homoeopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshu Rathi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The pharmacognostic profile of crude drug has a key role in standardization for quality, purity and drug identification. The present study deals with pharmacognostic evaluation of aerial part of Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (Murr. Parl. a drug used in homoeopathic system of medicine for diverse clinical uses such as terrible pain in stomach, tumors, keloid, warts and lipoma of thigh. The study includes collection, identification, macroscopy, microscopy and organoleptic characteristics of aerial part of Chamaecyparis lawsoniana. Anatomically the leaf is distinguishable into a layer of the epidermis followed by parenchymatous mesophyll and resin duct in the parenchymatous cortex. Powder microscopy shows the presence of epidermal cells, parenchymatous cells and tracheids. These observations may be used as pharmacopoeial standards for identification of Cha maecyparis lawsoniana.

  4. Ecology, pathology, and management of Port-Orford-Cedar (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald B. Zobel; Lewis F. Roth; Glenn M. Hawk

    1982-01-01

    Information about the biology, diseases, and management of Port-Orford- cedar was collected from the literature, from unpublished research data of the authors and the USDA Forest Service, conversations with personnel involved in all facets of Port-Orford-cedar management, and visits to stands throughout the range of the species. Information is summarized and presented...

  5. Sapwood Amount and its Predictive Equations for Young Hinoki Cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) Trees

    OpenAIRE

    ADU-BREDU, Stephen; HAGIHARA, Akio; 萩原, 秋男

    1996-01-01

    Sapwood, which is peripheral to heartwood in tree trunks, serves as a water conduction and storage organ, and energy is needed to maintain the living ray parenchyma cells. The sapwood amount in hinoki cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa (Sieb. et Zucc.) Endl.) was examined in relation to tree size on the basis of 14 sampled trees. The sapwood cross-sectional area was related to the over-bark stem cross-sectional area by a generalized allometric function, with an asymptotic value of 212.4 c㎡. The sa...

  6. Changes in heartwood chemistry of dead yellow-cedar trees that remain standing for 80 years or more in southeast Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, Rick G; Hennon, Paul E; Huso, Manuela; Karchesy, Joseph J

    2005-11-01

    We measured the concentrations of extractable bioactive compounds in heartwood of live yellow-cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis) trees and five classes of standing snags (1-5, averaging 4, 14, 26, 51, and 81 years-since-death, respectively) to determine how the concentrations changed in the slowly deteriorating snags. Three individuals from each of these six condition classes were sampled at four sites spanning a 260-km distance across southeast Alaska, and the influence of geographic location on heartwood chemistry was evaluated. Cores of heartwood were collected at breast height and cut into consecutive 5-cm segments starting at the pith. Each segment was extracted with ethyl acetate and analyzed by gas chromatography. Concentrations of carvacrol, nootkatene, nootkatol, nootkatone, nootkatin, and total extractives (a sum of 16 compounds) for the inner (0-5 cm from pith), middle (5-10 cm from pith), and surface (outer 1.1-6.0 cm of heartwood) segments from each core were compared within each tree condition class and within segments across condition classes. Heartwood of class 1 and 2 snags had the same chemical composition as live trees. The first concentration changes begin to appear in class 3 snags, which coincides with greater heartwood exposure to the external environment as decaying sapwood sloughs away, after losing the protective outer bark. Within core segments, the concentrations of all compounds, except nootkatene, decrease between snag classes 2 and 5, resulting in the heartwood of class 5 snags having the lowest quantities of bioactive compounds, although not different from the amounts in class 4 snags. This decline in chemical defense is consistent with heartwood of class 5 snags being less decay-resistant than heartwood of live trees, as observed by others. The unique heartwood chemistry of yellow cedar and the slow way it is altered after death allow dead trees to remain standing for up to a century with a profound impact on the ecology of forests

  7. Repellent activity of fractioned compounds from Chamaecyparis nootkatensis essential oil against nymphal Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Gabrielle; Dolan, Marc C; Peralta-Cruz, Javier; Schmidt, Jason; Piesman, Joseph; Eisen, Rebecca J; Karchesy, Joseph J

    2006-09-01

    Preliminary repellent activity of 14 natural products isolated from essential oil components extracted from the heartwood of Alaska yellow cedar, Chamaecyparis nootkatensis (D. Don) Spach., were evaluated against nymphal Ixodes scapularis Say in a laboratory bioassay and compared with technical grade N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (deet). Four hours after treatment, nootkatone and valencene-13-ol had repellent concentration (RC)50 values of 0.0458 and 0.0712% (wt:vol), respectively; two additional Alaska yellow cedar compounds, nootkatone 1 --> 10 epoxide and carvacrol had reported RC50 values of 0.0858 and 0.112%, respectively. The observed RC50 value for deet was 0.0728% (wt:vol). Although not statistically significantly more active than deet, the ability of these natural products to repel ticks at relatively low concentrations may represent a potential alternative to synthetic commercial repellents.

  8. Biological performance of Liquidambar orientalis Mill. heartwood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evren Terzi; S. Nami Kartal; Claudia Marcela Ibáñez; Coþkun Köse; Rachel Arango; Carol A. Clausen; Frederick. Green III

    2012-01-01

    New approaches for wood protection based on green technologies have increased interest in using heartwood portions of certain wood species for the effects (toxic and antioxidant properties, chelate formation, hydrophobicity) of extractives located in heartwood. This study evaluated the biological performance of heartwood of Liquidambar orientalis...

  9. Heartwood formation in four black walnut plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith Woeste; Brian Beheler

    2003-01-01

    The amount of heartwood in black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) logs can vary widely, even among trees of the same age growing at the same location. There is little published data on the genetics, physiology, and development of heartwood in hardwoods, even though the volume of heartwood in a log can significantly influence its value.

  10. Environmental drivers of sapwood and heartwood proportions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurner, Martin; Beer, Christian

    2017-04-01

    Recent advances combining information on stem volume from remote sensing with allometric relationships derived from forest inventory databases have led to spatially continuous estimates of stem, branch, root and foliage biomass in northern boreal and temperate forests. However, a separation of stem biomass into sapwood and heartwood mass has remained unsolved, despite their important differences in biogeochemical function, for instance concerning their contribution to tree respiratory costs. Although relationships between sapwood cross-sectional area and supported leaf area are well established, less is known about relations between sapwood or heartwood mass and other traits (e.g. stem mass), since these biomass compartments are more difficult to measure in practice. Here we investigate the variability in sapwood and heartwood proportions and determining environmental factors. For this task we explore an available biomass and allometry database (BAAD) and study relative sapwood and heartwood area, volume, mass and density in dependence of tree species, age and climate. First, a theoretical framework on how to estimate sap- and heartwood mass from stem mass is developed. Subsequently, the underlying assumptions and relationships are explored with the help of the BAAD. The established relationships can be used to derive spatially continuous sapwood and heartwood mass estimates by applying them to remote sensing based stem volume products. This would be a fundamental step forward to a data-driven estimate of autotrophic respiration.

  11. Silvical characteristics of Atlantic white-cedar (Chamaecyparis thyoides)

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Little

    1959-01-01

    Atlantic white-cedar ((Chamaecyparis thyoides (L.) B.S.P.) has been a highly prized species since Colonial times because of the durability and high quality of its wood. The wood has been used for many purposes: boat boards, shingles and lath, framing, house and boat finish, pails and tanks, cabin logs, posts, and poles. Good white-cedar has always...

  12. Heartwood extractives of iranian morus alba wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghifar, H.; Sheikh, A.; Khalilzadeh, M.A.; Ebadi, A.G.

    2011-01-01

    The composition and amount of hydrophilic and lipophilic extractives in heartwood of Morus alba wood in north of Iran were analysed n-Decane (50%), dodecane (9%) and limonene (11%) were main lipophilic components. Resorcinol (about 90%) is main hydrophilic phenolic compound. (author)

  13. THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF HEARTWOOD AND SAPWOOD OF EUCALYPTUS GRANDIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekir Cihad BAL

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, some of the physical propertiesof heartwood and sapwood of Eucalyptus grandisgrown in Karabucak, Turkey were determined. Thephysical properties determined were air-drieddensity, oven-dried density, basic density, shrinkage,swelling, fiber saturation point, and maximummoisture content. According to the test results, thephysical properties of the heartwood samplesdiffered from those of the sapwood samples due tothe presence of high proportion of juvenile wood inthe heartwood. It can be said that the shrinkage andswelling percentages were better for heartwood thansapwood. Air-dried density, oven-dried density, andbasic density of sapwood were higher than those ofheartwood.

  14. Comparison of bonding strengths of the sapwoods and heartwoods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... strengths formed by joining the sapwood and heartwood of chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.), oak ... nated by tar oil or epoxy resin to protect against damage .... phenol formaldehyde ... Preparation of experimental samples.

  15. Antitermitic Activities of Shisham (Dalbergia Sissoo Roxb.) Heartwood Extractives against two Termite Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbar Hassan; Mark Mankowski; Grant T. Kirker; Sohail Ahmed; Muhammad Misbah ul Haq

    2016-01-01

    Shisham (Dalbergia sissoo) heartwood extractives were investigated for antitermitic activities against Heterotermes indicola and Reticulitermes flavipes. Heartwood extractives were removed from wood shavings by soxhlet extraction using (2:1) ethanol: toluene as the solvent system. Filter paper bioassays...

  16. Use of novel compounds for pest control: insecticidal and acaricidal activity of essential oil components from heartwood of Alaska yellow cedar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panella, Nicholas A; Dolan, Marc C; Karchesy, Joseph J; Xiong, Yeping; Peralta-Cruz, Javier; Khasawneh, Mohammad; Montenieri, John A; Maupin, Gary O

    2005-05-01

    Laboratory bioassays were conducted to determine the activity of 15 natural products isolated from essential oil components extracted from the heartwood of Alaska yellow cedar, Chamaecyparis nootkatensis (D. Don) Spach., against Ixodes scapularis Say nymphs, Xenopsylla cheopis (Rothchild), and Aedes aegypti (L.) adults. Four of the compounds from the essential oil have been identified as monoterpenes, five as eremophilane sesquiterpenes, five as eremophilane sesquiterpene derivatives from valencene and nootkatone, and one as a sesquiterpene outside the eremophilane parent group. Carvacrol was the only monoterpene that demonstrated biocidal activity against ticks, fleas, and mosquitoes with LC50 values after 24 h of 0.0068, 0.0059, and 0.0051% (wt:vol), respectively. Nootkatone from Alaska yellow cedar was the most effective of the eremophilane sesquiterpenes against ticks (LC50 = 0.0029%), whereas the nootkatone grapefruit extract exhibited the greatest biocidal activity against fleas (LC50 = 0.0029%). Mosquitoes were most susceptible to one of the derivatives of valencene, valencene-13-aldehyde (LC50 = 0.0024%), after 24 h. Bioassays to determine residual activity of the most effective products were conducted at 1, 2, 4, and 6 wk after initial treatment. Residual LC50 values for nootkatone did not differ significantly at 4 wk posttreatment from the observations made at the initial 24-h treatment. The ability of these natural products to kill arthropods at relatively low concentrations represents an alternative to the use of synthetic pesticides for control of disease vectors.

  17. GC-MS Characterizations of Termiticidal Heartwood Extractives from Wood Species Utilized in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Mankowski; Blossie Boyd; Barbar Hassan; Grant T. Kirker

    2016-01-01

    Wood species that exhibit innate tolerance to wood destroying organisms such as termites are considered to be naturally durable. This durability can, in part, be due to the complex chemical compounds in the heartwood of naturally durable wood species. We examined the effects of varying concentrations of heartwood extractives on the subterranean termite, ...

  18. Effects of fertilization and thinning on heartwood area, sapwood area and growth in Scots pine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moerling, T.; Valinger, E. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Dept. of Silviculture

    1999-07-01

    In a fertilization and thinning experiment on Pinus sylvestris L. situated in northern Sweden, the effects on the amount of heartwood and sapwood were examined 12 yrs after treatment. On stem discs taken from the stump up to 75% of tree height, age, diameter, heartwood diameter and growth rings included in the heartwood were measured. Increases in heartwood area following fertilization and thinning were not statistically significant, whereas sapwood area was significantly increased by both fertilization and thinning. There was a significant positive interaction effect of fertilization and thinning on diameter under bark, sapwood area and relative heartwood area. The number of growth rings included in the heartwood at breast height was not affected by treatments. Thinned trees showed a higher needle biomass per unit of sapwood area at breast height. The results show that the possibility of affecting the amount of heartwood in individual trees by thinning and fertilization is limited. The results are discussed in relation to the pipe-model theory and the regulation of sapwood and heartwood.

  19. Unusual amount of (-)-mesquitol from the heartwood of Prosopis juliflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirmah, Peter; Dumarçay, Stéphane; Masson, Eric; Gérardin, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    A large amount of flavonoid has been extracted and isolated from the heartwood of Prosopis juliflora, an exogenous wood species of Kenya. Structural and physicochemical elucidation based on FTIR, (1)H and (13)C NMR, GC-MS and HPLC analysis clearly demonstrated the presence of (-)-mesquitol as the sole compound without any noticeable impurities. The product was able to slow down oxidation of methyl linoleate induced by AIBN. The important amount and high purity of (-)-mesquitol present in the acetonic extract of P. juliflora could therefore be of valuable interest as a potential source of antioxidants from a renewable origin.

  20. Fungi and minerals occurring in heartwood discolorations in Ouercus robur trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Przybył

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The studied Quercus robur trees were oaks protected as monuments of nature (200-350 years old and oaks growing in forest stands (200-300 years old. The most visible symptoms occurring in aboveground organs included defoliation (25-75%, dying of twigs and branches. Discoloured heartwood, obtained with an 80-cm Pressler borer, differed in colour intensity from normal wood and was divided into two groups: stained brown and dark brown. The brown-stained heartwood was a more active site, considering the number of fungi and their ability to produce enzymes (phenoloxidase, pectinase and cellulase in comparison with the dark-brown-stained heartwood. This brown-stained heartwood contained also statistically more Ca, Mg and Mn.

  1. Heartwood and sapwood in eucalyptus trees: non-conventional approach to wood quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherelli, Sabrina G; Sartori, Maria Márcia P; Próspero, André G; Ballarin, Adriano W

    2018-01-01

    This study evaluated the quality of heartwood and sapwood from mature trees of three species of Eucalyptus, by means of the qualification of their proportion, determination of basic and apparent density using non-destructive attenuation of gamma radiation technique and calculation of the density uniformity index. Six trees of each species (Eucalyptus grandis - 18 years old, Eucalyptus tereticornis - 35 years old and Corymbia citriodora - 28 years old) were used in the experimental program. The heartwood and sapwood were delimited by macroscopic analysis and the calculation of areas and percentage of heartwood and sapwood were performed using digital image. The uniformity index was calculated following methodology which numerically quantifies the dispersion of punctual density values of the wood around the mean density along the radius. The percentage of the heartwood was higher than the sapwood in all species studied. The density results showed no statistical difference between heartwood and sapwood. Differently from the density results, in all species studied there was statistical differences between uniformity indexes for heartwood and sapwood regions, making justifiable the inclusion of the density uniformity index as a quality parameter for Eucalyptus wood.

  2. Chemical characterization and extractives composition of heartwood and sapwood from Quercus faginea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Miranda

    Full Text Available Heartwood and sapwood of Quercus faginea were evaluated in relation to summative chemical composition and non-polar and polar extracts composition, including an assessment of antioxidant properties (DPPH and FRAP. Twenty trees from two sites in Portugal were analysed. Heartwood had approximately two times more solvent extractible compounds than sapwood (on average 19.0% and 9.5%. The lipophilic extractible compounds were below 1%, and most of them were polar e.g. ethanol-soluble compounds corresponded to 65% of total extractives in heartwood and 43% in sapwood. Lignin content was similar in sapwood and heartwood (28.1% and 28.6% of extractive-free wood respectively as well as the sugar composition. Site did not influence the chemical composition. The lipophilic extractible compounds from both sapwood and heartwood included mainly saturated fatty acids (23.0% and 36.9% respectively and aromatic compounds were also abundant in sapwood (22.9%. The ethanol-water extractibles had a high content of phenolic substances (558.0 and 319.4 mg GAE/g extract, respectively of heartwood and sapwood. The polyphenolic composition was similar in heartwood and sapwood with higher content of ellagitannins (168.9 and 153.5 mg tannic acid/g of extract in sapwood and heartwood respectively and very low content of condensed tannins. The antioxidant activity was very high with IC50 of 2.6 μg/ml and 3.3 μg/ml for sapwood and heartwood respectively, as compared to standard antioxidants (IC50 of 3.8 μg/ml for Trolox. The ferric reducing ability was 2.8 and 2.0 mMol Trolox equivalents/g extract of heartwood and sapwood respectively. The variability between trees was low and no differences between the two sites were found. Q. faginea showed a very good potential for cooperage and other applications for which a source of compounds with antioxidant properties is desirable.

  3. Yellow-Cedar, Callitropsis (Chamaecyparis) nootkatensis, Secondary Metabolites, Biological Activities, and Chemical Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karchesy, Joseph J; Kelsey, Rick G; González-Hernández, M P

    2018-05-01

    Yellow-cedar, Callitropsis nootkatensis, is prevalent in coastal forests of southeast Alaska, western Canada, and inland forests along the Cascades to northern California, USA. These trees have few microbial or animal pests, attributable in part to the distinct groups of biologically active secondary metabolites their tissues store for chemical defense. Here we summarize the new yellow-cedar compounds identified and their biological activities, plus new or expanded activities for tissues, extracts, essential oils and previously known compounds since the last review more than 40 years ago. Monoterpene hydrocarbons are the most abundant compounds in foliage, while heartwood contains substantial quantities of oxygenated monoterpenes and oxygenated sesquiterpenes, with one or more tropolones. Diterpenes occur in foliage and bark, whereas condensed tannins have been isolated from inner bark. Biological activities expressed by one or more compounds in these groups include fungicide, bactericide, sporicide, acaricide, insecticide, general cytotoxicity, antioxidant and human anticancer. The diversity of organisms impacted by whole tissues, essential oils, extracts, or individual compounds now encompasses ticks, fleas, termites, ants, mosquitoes, bacteria, a water mold, fungi and browsing animals. Nootkatone, is a heartwood component with sufficient activity against arthropods to warrant research focused toward potential development as a commercial repellent and biopesticide for ticks, mosquitoes and possibly other arthropods that vector human and animal pathogens.

  4. Acacia melanoxylon in Argentina: heartwood content and its relationship with site, growth and age of the trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igartúa, D.V.; Moreno, K.; Monteoliva, S.E.

    2017-11-01

    Aims of study: To characterize the wood of Acacia melanoxylon in relation to its potential use in the construction and furniture industry, here we determined the heartwood and sapwood content and distribution within the stem and analyzed their relationship with the growing site, age and growth rate of the trees. Finally, we predicted heartwood content by two easy-to-measure variables. Area of study: Buenos Aires, Argentina. Methods: 20 trees aged between 9 and 32 years were sampled in four sites. Axial sampling was carried out at four heights of the stem (base, breast height, and 30% and 50% of the total height), and the heartwood content (percentage and volume) and sapwood content (cm) determined. Results: The trees analyzed presented conical-shaped heartwood following the outline of the stem along all its commercial height. Within the stem, the highest volume of heartwood was observed at the basal region (53%) and up to 30% of total height, a feature observed in all the sites studied. The sapwood content was constant along the entire stem (2.18 cm). The age of the trees did not influence the heartwood content, whereas the environmental conditions provided by each site (heartwood/volume and heartwood/diameter growth positive ratios) did affect this feature. Research highlights: The absolute amount of heartwood was driven by growth rate, due to the forest structure of non-uniform age. The heartwood volume can be estimated through fitting linear equations (R2 0.78 - 0.89) with two easily measurable variables such as diameter at breast height and tree height.

  5. Acacia melanoxylon in Argentina: heartwood content and its relationship with site, growth and age of the trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igartúa, D.V.; Moreno, K.; Monteoliva, S.E.

    2017-01-01

    Aims of study: To characterize the wood of Acacia melanoxylon in relation to its potential use in the construction and furniture industry, here we determined the heartwood and sapwood content and distribution within the stem and analyzed their relationship with the growing site, age and growth rate of the trees. Finally, we predicted heartwood content by two easy-to-measure variables. Area of study: Buenos Aires, Argentina. Methods: 20 trees aged between 9 and 32 years were sampled in four sites. Axial sampling was carried out at four heights of the stem (base, breast height, and 30% and 50% of the total height), and the heartwood content (percentage and volume) and sapwood content (cm) determined. Results: The trees analyzed presented conical-shaped heartwood following the outline of the stem along all its commercial height. Within the stem, the highest volume of heartwood was observed at the basal region (53%) and up to 30% of total height, a feature observed in all the sites studied. The sapwood content was constant along the entire stem (2.18 cm). The age of the trees did not influence the heartwood content, whereas the environmental conditions provided by each site (heartwood/volume and heartwood/diameter growth positive ratios) did affect this feature. Research highlights: The absolute amount of heartwood was driven by growth rate, due to the forest structure of non-uniform age. The heartwood volume can be estimated through fitting linear equations (R2 0.78 - 0.89) with two easily measurable variables such as diameter at breast height and tree height.

  6. Acacia melanoxylon in Argentina: heartwood content and its relationship with site, growth and age of the trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora-Virginia Igartúa

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aims of study: To characterize the wood of Acacia melanoxylon in relation to its potential use in the construction and furniture industry, here we determined the heartwood and sapwood content and distribution within the stem and analyzed their relationship with the growing site, age and growth rate of the trees. Finally, we predicted heartwood content by two easy-to-measure variables. Area of study: Buenos Aires, Argentina. Methods: 20 trees aged between 9 and 32 years were sampled in four sites. Axial sampling was carried out at four heights of the stem (base, breast height, and 30% and 50% of the total height, and the heartwood content (percentage and volume and sapwood content (cm determined. Results: The trees analyzed presented conical-shaped heartwood following the outline of the stem along all its commercial height. Within the stem, the highest volume of heartwood was observed at the basal region (53% and up to 30% of total height, a feature observed in all the sites studied. The sapwood content was constant along the entire stem (2.18 cm. The age of the trees did not influence the heartwood content, whereas the environmental conditions provided by each site (heartwood/volume and heartwood/diameter growth positive ratios did affect this feature. Research highlights: The absolute amount of heartwood was driven by growth rate, due to the forest structure of non-uniform age. The heartwood volume can be estimated through fitting linear equations (R2 0.78 - 0.89 with two easily measurable variables such as diameter at breast height and tree height.

  7. Effects of Essential Oil from Hinoki Cypress, Chamaecyparis obtusa, on Physiology and Behavior of Flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Kyung-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Phytoncides, which are volatile substances emitted from plants for protection against plant pathogens and insects, are known to have insecticidal, antimicrobial, and antifungal activities. In contrast to their negative effects on microorganisms and insects, phytoncides have been shown to have beneficial effects on human health. Essential oil from Hinoki cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) is mostly used in commercial products such as air purifiers. However, the physiological/behavioral impact of essential oil from C. obtusa on insects is not established. In this study, we tested the effects of essential oil extracted from C. obtusa on the physiologies and behaviors of Drosophila melanogaster and Musca domestica. Exposure to essential oil from C. obtusa decreased the lifespan, fecundity, locomotive activity, and developmental success rate of D. melanogaster. In addition, both fruit flies and house flies showed strong repellent behavioral responses to the essential oil, with duration times of about 5 hours at 70 μg/ml. These results suggest that essential oil from C. obtusa can be used as a ‘human-friendly’ alternative insect repellent. PMID:26624577

  8. Tree-ring temperature reconstructions for the northeastern United States from Chamaecyparis thyoides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anchukaitis, K. J.; Pederson, N.; Pearl, J. K.; Donnelly, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    Over the last century, the northeastern United States has warmed by over 1C, with the region of strongest warming found in coastal Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island. These states are amongst the fastest warming in the entire country and the region as a whole is also warming faster than the national average. While these records all appear exceptional in the context of the last century, it is not known how these compare on longer time scales, to potential preindustrial late Holocene warm epochs, and in the context of decadal-scale variability in regional climate. Here, we develop a January through August temperature reconstruction using three Chamaecyparis thyoides (Atlantic White Cedar) chronologies in Massachusetts and Maine. The chronologies show a strong winter-spring-summer temperature signal representative of temperature variability from southern New York to northeastern Maine. The reconstruction is skillful and tracks upwards temperature trends since the early 19th century, reproducing decadal scale variability associated with warming from the 1920s through 1940s, cooling in the region from the 1940s until the 1960s, and warming since that time. No year since at least the middle of the 19th century is as warm as the Janaury through August temperatures seen in the exceptionally warm 2012. Recent modeling experiments simulate a range of decadal warming trends for the northeastern United States that is slightly higher than the reconstructed and instrumental trends. Atlantic White Cedar holds the potential to develop multicentury temperature reconstructions from this heavily-populated region.

  9. Evaluation of Fungal Deterioration in Liquidambar orientalis Mill. heartwood by FT-IR and light microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nural Yilgor; Dilek Dogu; Roderquita Moore; Evren Terzi; S. Nami Kartal

    2013-01-01

    The chemical and morphological changes in heartwood specimens of Liquidambar orientalis Mill. caused by the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor and the brown-rot fungi Tyromyces palustris and Gloeophyllum trabeum were studied by wet chemistry, FT-IR, GC-MS analyses, and photo-...

  10. Composition of the heartwood essential oil of incense cedar (Calocedrus decurrens Torr.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheeba Veluthoor; Rick G. Kelsey; M.P. Gonzalez-Hernandez; Nicholas Panella; Marc Dolan; Joe. Karchesy

    2011-01-01

    Incense cedar (Calocedrus decurrens) is a tree native to Oregon and California, perhaps best known for its aromatic wood and use in the manufacturing of pencils. The wood is also highly valued for its decorative appearance and durability in lumber, related sawmill products, and fence posts. Chemical investigations of heartwood extracts have shown...

  11. Natural decay resistance of heartwood from dead, standing yellow-cedar trees : laboratory evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney C. De Groot; Bessie Woodward; Paul E. Hennon

    2000-01-01

    Yellow-cedar trees have been mysteriously dying for more than a century in southeast Alaska. As these stems continue to stand for decades in the forest, foliage, twigs, and branches deteriorate. The sapwood in the stem degrades, leaving columns of essentially heartwood standing like ghosts in the forest until they eventually drop. To estimate the potential for...

  12. Valencene synthase from the heartwood of Nootka cypress (Callitropsis nootkatensis) for biotechnological production of valencene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekwilder, M.J.; Houwelingen, van A.M.M.L.; Cankar, K.; Dijk, van A.D.J.; Jong, de R.; Stoopen, G.M.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Achkar, J.; Sonke, Th.; Bosch, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Nootkatone is one of the major terpenes in the heartwood of the Nootka cypress Callitropsis nootkatensis. It is an oxidized sesquiterpene, which has been postulated to be derived from valencene. Both valencene and nootkatone are used for flavouring citrus beverages and are considered among the most

  13. Chemical composition and natural durability of juvenile and mature heartwood of Robinia pseudoacacia L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João V.F Latorraca

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize the properties of juvenile and mature heartwood of Robinia pseudoacacia L. (black locust. The content, the composition, and subcellular localization of heartwood extractives were studied in 14 old-grown trees from forest sites in Germany and Hungary, as well as in 16 younger trees of four clone types. Heartwood extractives (methanol and acetone extraction were analysed by HPLC-chromatography. UV microspectrophotometry was used to localize the extractives in the wood cell walls. The natural durability of juvenile and mature heartwood was analysed according to the European standard EN 350-1. Growth analyses, as well as the chemical analyses, showed that in Robinia the formation of juvenile wood is restricted to the first 10-15 years of cambial growth. In the heartwood high contents of phenolic compounds and flavonoids were present, which were in high concentrations in the cell walls of the axial parenchyma and of the vessels. In the juvenile heartwood, the content of these extractives is significantly lower than in the mature heartwood. In agree, the juvenile heartwood had a lower resistance to decay by Coniophora puteana (brown rot fungus and Coriolus versicolor (white rot fungus compared to the mature.O objetivo deste estudo foi caracterizar as propriedades da região de cerne dos lenhos juvenis e adultos de Robinia pseudoacacia L. O conteúdo, a composição, bem como a localização subcelular dos extrativos foram estudados em 14 árvores de florestas de produção na Alemanha e na Hungria, assim como em 16 árvores de quatro tipos clone. Os extrativos (metanol e acetona extração foram analisados por cromatografia-HPLC. O microespectrofotômetro de ultra violeta foi utilizado para localizar os extrativos nas paredes celulares da madeira. A durabilidade natural do lenho juvenil e adulto foi analisada de acordo com a norma europeia EN 350-1. Análises do incremento, bem como as análises qu

  14. Biologically Important Eremophilane Sesquiterpenes from Alaska Cedar Heartwood Essential Oil and Their Semi-Synthetic Derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Khasawneh, Mohammad A.; Xiong, Yeping; Peralta-Cruz, Javier; Karchesy, Joe J.

    2011-01-01

    The essential oil of Alaska cedar heartwood is known to contain compounds which contribute to the remarkable durability of this species. While previous research has identified several compounds, a complete description of this oil has not been undertaken. In this research a profile of the oil is given in which the major components are identified by GC, isolation and spectroscopic techniques. The major components of the steam distilled essential oil were identified as nootkatin, nootkatone, val...

  15. Influence of Heartwood on Wood Density and Pulp Properties Explained by Machine Learning Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Iglesias

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to develop a tool to predict some pulp properties e.g., pulp yield, Kappa number, ISO brightness (ISO 2470:2008, fiber length and fiber width, using the sapwood and heartwood proportion in the raw-material. For this purpose, Acacia melanoxylon trees were collected from four sites in Portugal. Percentage of sapwood and heartwood, area and the stem eccentricity (in N-S and E-W directions were measured on transversal stem sections of A. melanoxylon R. Br. The relative position of the samples with respect to the total tree height was also considered as an input variable. Different configurations were tested until the maximum correlation coefficient was achieved. A classical mathematical technique (multiple linear regression and machine learning methods (classification and regression trees, multi-layer perceptron and support vector machines were tested. Classification and regression trees (CART was the most accurate model for the prediction of pulp ISO brightness (R = 0.85. The other parameters could be predicted with fair results (R = 0.64–0.75 by CART. Hence, the proportion of heartwood and sapwood is a relevant parameter for pulping and pulp properties, and should be taken as a quality trait when assessing a pulpwood resource.

  16. DIMENSIONAL BEHAVIOR OF THE WOOD OF SAPWOOD AND HEARTWOOD FOR ANALYSIS OF IMAGE SUBMITTED IN DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimas Agostinho da Silva

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to verify the dimensional behavior of heartwood woodand sapwood submitted to different temperatures. It was evaluated volumetric, sectional and lineardimension reduction in heartwood and sapwood of Hymeneae courbaril L submitted to finaltemperatures of 200º, 300º, 400º, 500º, 600º, 700º, 800º and 900°C, in an electric kiln with mediumrate of heating of 1.3ºC/minute. For the measurement of the dimensions, accomplished before andafter the thermal treatments, an image analyzer (Midro-Videomat Zeiss was used. It was obtained,with base in the individual readings accomplished in the image analyzer, the rates of longitudinal andtraverse linear, longitudinal and traverse sectional and volumetric reduction. The results showed thattem- perature increase of 1000C, average reduction rate reached 2.55% and 4.24%, 5.95% and 7.21% and 8.36% in the longitudinal and traverse linear dimensions, longitudinal and traverse sectional andvolumetric, respectively, for heartwood. For sapwood the values were, respectively, 2.64% and 5.02%,6.70% and 8.17% and 9.15%. For both sapwood and heartwood the largest reduction rates occurredin temperatures between 300º and 5000C. The heartwood presented larger resistance to the action ofthe temperature, however its thermal decomposition was more pronounced than that of sapwood inthe temperature range of 200-300 0C. This behavior is similar to that of lignin in relation to cellulose.

  17. Monoterpene persistence in the sapwood and heartwood of longleaf pine stumps: assessment of differences in composition and stability under field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas L. Eberhardt; Philip M. Sheridan; Jolie M. Mahfouz

    2009-01-01

    Monoterpenes in exudates, phloem and sapwood have received considerable attention relative to the active defenses of pine trees. However, little is known about the composition and function of the heartwood monoterpenes. To address this deficiency, monoterpene contents and relative compositions were determined for sapwood and heartwood samples from longleaf pine (Pinus...

  18. Antibacterial assay-guided isolation of active compounds from Artocarpus heterophyllus heartwoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Septama, Abdi Wira; Panichayupakaranant, Pharkphoom

    2015-01-01

    Preparations from Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. (Moraceae) heartwoods are used in the traditional folk medicine for the treatment of inflammation, malarial fever, and to prevent bacterial and fungal infections. The objective of this study was to isolate pure antibacterial compounds from A. heterophyllus heartwoods. The dried and powdered A. heterophyllus heartwoods were successively extracted with the following solvents: hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol. Each of the extracts was screened for their antibacterial activities using a disc diffusion method (10 mg/disc). Their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were determined using a broth microdilution method. The extract that showed the strongest antibacterial activities was fractionated to isolate the active compounds by an antibacterial assay-guided isolation process. The ethyl acetate extract exhibited the strongest antibacterial activities against Streptococcus mutans, S. pyogenes, and Bacillus subtilis with MIC values of 78, 39, and 9.8 µg/mL, respectively. Based on an antibacterial assay-guided isolation, four antibacterial compounds: cycloartocarpin (1), artocarpin (2), artocarpanone (3), and cyanomaclurin (4) were purified. Among these isolated compounds, artocarpin exhibited the strongest antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, including S. mutans, S. pyogenes, B. subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, and S. epidermidis with MICs of 4.4, 4.4, 17.8, 8.9, and 8.9 µM, respectively, and MBCs of 8.9, 8.9, 17.8, 8.9, and 8.9 µM, respectively, while artocarpanone showed the strongest activity against Escherichia coli, a Gram-negative bacteria with MIC and MBC values of 12.9 and 25.8 µM, respectively. Only artocarpin showed inhibitory activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa with an MIC of 286.4 µM.

  19. The accumulation pattern of ferruginol in the heartwood-forming Cryptomeria japonica xylem as determined by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and quantity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Katsushi; Fujiwara, Takeshi; Hashida, Koh; Imai, Takanori; Kushi, Masayoshi; Saito, Kaori; Fukushima, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Heartwood formation is a unique phenomenon of tree species. Although the accumulation of heartwood substances is a well-known feature of the process, the accumulation mechanism remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the accumulation process of ferruginol, a predominant heartwood substance of Cryptomeria japonica, in heartwood-forming xylem. Methods The radial accumulation pattern of ferruginol was examined from sapwood and through the intermediate wood to the heartwood by direct mapping using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS). The data were compared with quantitative results obtained from a novel method of gas chromatography analysis using laser microdissection sampling and with water distribution obtained from cryo-scanning electron microscopy. Key Results Ferruginol initially accumulated in the middle of the intermediate wood, in the earlywood near the annual ring boundary. It accumulated throughout the entire earlywood in the inner intermediate wood, and in both the earlywood and the latewood in the heartwood. The process of ferruginol accumulation continued for more than eight annual rings. Ferruginol concentration peaked at the border between the intermediate wood and heartwood, while the concentration was less in the latewood compared wiht the earlywood in each annual ring. Ferruginol tended to accumulate around the ray parenchyma cells. In addition, at the border between the intermediate wood and heartwood, the accumulation was higher in areas without water than in areas with water. Conclusions TOF-SIMS clearly revealed ferruginol distribution at the cellular level. Ferruginol accumulation begins in the middle of intermediate wood, initially in the earlywood near the annual ring boundary, then throughout the entire earlywood, and finally across to the whole annual ring in the heartwood. The heterogeneous timing of ferruginol accumulation could be related to the distribution of ray parenchyma cells

  20. Port-Orford-Cedar Root Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis F. Roth; Robert D. Jr. Harvey; John T. Kliejunas

    1987-01-01

    The most serious disease of Port-Orford-cedar (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (A. Murr.) Parl.) is a root disease caused by the fungus Phytophthora lateralis. Nursery stock, ornamentals, and timber trees are subject to attack. Other species of Chamaecyparis are less susceptible than Port-Orford-cedar, and trees of other genera are not affected.

  1. Triterpenoid Components from Oak Heartwood (Quercus robur) and Their Potential Health Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Andy J; Pecio, Łukasz; Kowalczyk, Mariusz; Kontek, Renata; Gajek, Gabriela; Stopinsek, Lidija; Mirt, Ivan; Oleszek, Wiesław; Stochmal, Anna

    2017-06-14

    For centuries oak wood (Quercus robur) has been used in aging of wines and spirits, which is based on pleasant flavors given to beverages by phenolics transferred to the liquid during the maturation process. Other metabolites, such as triterpenoids, can also be released. Searching for extractable triterpenoids in oak heartwood, 12 new, 1-12, and five known, 13-17, oleanane types were isolated and characterized. Their cytotoxicities were tested against cancer cells (PC3 and MCF-7) and lymphocytes. Breast cancer cells (MCF-7) were the most affected by triterpenoids, with roburgenic acid, 4, being the most active compound (IC 50 = 19.7 μM). Selectivity was observed for compounds 1-3, 8, 9, and 16, exhibiting an IC 50 > 200 μM against lymphocytes, while active against cancer cells. A galloyl unit attached to the triterpenoid moiety was established as the key feature for such effect. These results highlight the occurrence of triterpenoids in oak heartwood and their relevance for chemoprevention of breast cancer.

  2. Cytotoxic triterpenoids isolated from sweet chestnut heartwood (Castanea sativa) and their health benefits implication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Andy J; Pecio, Łukasz; Kowalczyk, Mariusz; Kontek, Renata; Gajek, Gabriela; Stopinsek, Lidija; Mirt, Ivan; Stochmal, Anna; Oleszek, Wiesław

    2017-11-01

    For centuries wood containers have been used in aging of wines and spirits, due to the pleasant flavors they give to the beverages. Together with oak, sweet chestnut wood (Castanea sativa) have been often used for such purpose. The maturation process involves the transfer of secondary metabolites, mainly phenolics, from the wood to the liquid. At the same time, other metabolites, such as triterpenoids and their glycosides, can also be released. Searching for the extractable triterpenoids from sweet chestnut heartwood (C. sativa), two new ursane-type triterpenoid saponins named chestnoside A (1) and chestnoside B (2), together with two known oleanen-type analogs (3 and 4) were isolated and characterized. The cytotoxicity of isolated compounds was tested against two cancer cell lines (PC3 and MCF-7), and normal lymphocytes. Breast cancer cells (MCF-7) were more affected by tested compounds than prostate cancer cells (PC3). Chestnoside B (2) exhibited the strongest cytotoxicity with an IC 50 of 12.3 μM against MCF-7 cells, lower than those of positive controls, while it was moderately active against normal lymphocytes (IC 50  = 67.2 μM). These results highlight the occurrence of triterpenoid saponins in sweet chestnut heartwood and their potential for the chemoprevention of breast cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cavitation of intercellular spaces is critical to establishment of hydraulic properties of compression wood of Chamaecyparis obtusa seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaba, Satoshi; Hirai, Asami; Kudo, Kayo; Yamagishi, Yusuke; Yamane, Kenichi; Kuroda, Katsushi; Nugroho, Widyanto Dwi; Kitin, Peter; Funada, Ryo

    2016-03-01

    When the orientation of the stems of conifers departs from the vertical as a result of environmental influences, conifers form compression wood that results in restoration of verticality. It is well known that intercellular spaces are formed between tracheids in compression wood, but the function of these spaces remains to be clarified. In the present study, we evaluated the impact of these spaces in artificially induced compression wood in Chamaecyparis obtusa seedlings. We monitored the presence or absence of liquid in the intercellular spaces of differentiating xylem by cryo-scanning electron microscopy. In addition, we analysed the relationship between intercellular spaces and the hydraulic properties of the compression wood. Initially, we detected small intercellular spaces with liquid in regions in which the profiles of tracheids were not rounded in transverse surfaces, indicating that the intercellular spaces had originally contained no gases. In the regions where tracheids had formed secondary walls, we found that some intercellular spaces had lost their liquid. Cavitation of intercellular spaces would affect hydraulic conductivity as a consequence of the induction of cavitation in neighbouring tracheids. Our observations suggest that cavitation of intercellular spaces is the critical event that affects not only the functions of intercellular spaces but also the hydraulic properties of compression wood. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Capacity of Essential Oil Obtained from Sawdust of Chamaecyparis obtusa by Microwave-Assisted Hydrodistillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek K. Bajpai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species and free radicals play a major role in food deterioration. Current research is directed towards finding naturally occurring antioxidants of plant origin. In the present study, the chemical composition analysis of the essential oil obtained from sawdust of Chamaecyparis obtusa (COEO was conducted by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectroscopy (GC-MS. Further, the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of the COEO were investigated using different radical scavenging assays. The COEO obtained from the dried sawdust material using a microwave-assisted hydrodistillation technique resulted in the determination of 46 different compounds by GC-MS analysis, representing 98.94 % of total oil content. The COEO was characterised by the presence of mono- and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated mono- and sesquiterpenes, steroids, diterpenes and indole derivatives. At the highest tested concentration range, the COEO showed antioxidant capacity, i.e. the inhibition of DPPH, nitric oxide, superoxide and hydroxyl radicals of 80.16, 82.93, 72.99 and 71.62 %, respectively. Moreover, the COEO displayed concentration-dependent reducing power ability and remarkable inhibitory effect on ferric ion-induced lipid peroxidation in bovine brain extract. In addition, the COEO yielded (6.13±0.05 mg of gallic acid per g of dry mass. The present study confirms that the C. obtusa essential oil has potent antioxidant, lipid peroxidation inhibition and radical scavenging abilities; therefore, it might be used as a natural antioxidant to prevent food deterioration.

  5. Effect of gamma-ray irradiation on hybridization between Chamaecyparis obtusa S. et Z. and C. pisifera S. et Z

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeta, Takehiko

    1980-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on the interspecific hybridization between Chamaecyparis obtusa and C. pisifera was investigated, and F 1 seedlings were examined cytologically. Acute gamma irradiation and chronic gamma irradiation given throughout annual growing seasons on male flowers were effective in producing hybrids between these two species. The crossing of C. obtusa x C. pisifera was better than the reverse crossing because the pollen of C. obtusa rapidly loses its fertility, and C. pisifera blooms earlier than C. obtusa. Chronic gamma irradiation of male flowers throughout the annual growing season was slightly effective for producing the hybrids, but that of female flowers was not. Acute gamma irradiation of male flowers at the first to second telophase (300 R) was considered to be desirable for hybrid production. However, it was confirmed by cytological observation that all of the hybrids produced were triploid which had two identical genomes originated from either parent. Therefore, the unreduced male gametophytes or unreduced eggs seem to participate in the formation of the hybrids. It seems difficult to produce diploid hybrids between C. obtusa and C. pisifera. (Kaihara, S.)

  6. Increased concentrations of potassium in heartwood of trees in response to groundwater contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Yanosky, Thomas M.; Siegel, Frederic R.

    1992-03-01

    The wood of tuliptrees ( Liriodendron tulipifera L.) growing above groundwater contamination from a hazardous-waste landfill in Maryland contained elevated concentrations of potassium (K). The groundwater contamination also contained elevated concentrations of dissolved K, as well as arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chloride (Cl), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), and organic solvents. The dissolved K is derived from disposed smoke munitions. The excess K in the tuliptrees is concentrated in the heartwood, the part of the xylem most depleted in K in trees growing outside of the contamination. These data show that the uptake and translocation of K by tuliptrees can be strongly influenced by the availability of K in groundwater contamination and suggest the utility of this species as an areal indicator of groundwater contamination.

  7. Increased concentrations of potassium in heartwood of trees in response to groundwater contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroblesky, D.A.; Yanosky, T.M.; Siegel, F.R.

    1992-01-01

    The wood of tuliptrees (Liriodendron tulipifera L.) growing above groundwater contamination from a hazardous-waste landfill in Maryland contained elevated concentrations of potassium (K). The groundwater contamination also contained elevated concentrations of dissolved K, as well as arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chloride (Cl), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), and organic solvents. The dissolved K is derived from disposed smoke munitions. The excess K in the tuliptrees is concentrated in the heartwood, the part of the xylem most depleted in K in trees growing outside of the contamination. These data show that the uptake and translocation of K by tuliptrees can be strongly influenced by the availability of K in groundwater contamination and suggest the utility of this species as an areal indicator of groundwater contamination. ?? 1992 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  8. Chamaecyparis obtusa Essential Oil Inhibits Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm Formation and Expression of Virulence Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun-Sook; Kang, Sun-Young; Kim, Young-Hoi; Lee, Young-Eun; Choi, Na-Young; You, Yong-Ouk; Kim, Kang-Ju

    2015-07-01

    The emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria has caused difficulty in treating infectious diseases. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one of the most commonly recognized antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Novel antibiotics are urgently required to treat these bacteria. Raw materials derived from natural sources can be used for the development of novel antibiotics, such as Chamaecyparis obtusa (C. obtusa), which has been traditionally used in treating asthmatic disease. In this study, the antibacterial activity of the essential oil (EO) extracted from C. obtusa leaves against MRSA was investigated. MRSA growth and acid production from glucose metabolism were inhibited at concentrations greater than 0.1 mg/mL C. obtusa EO. MRSA biofilm formation was observed using scanning electron microscopy and safranin staining. C. obtusa EO inhibited MRSA biofilm formation at concentrations greater than 0.1 mg/mL. Using real-time polymerase chain reaction, mRNA expression of virulence factor genes, sea, agrA, and sarA, was observed. agrA expression was inhibited with C. obtusa EO concentrations greater than 0.2 mg/mL, whereas inhibition of sea and sarA expression was also observed at a concentration of 0.3 mg/mL. C. obtusa EO was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and GC coupled for mass spectrometry, which identified 59 constituents, accounting to 98.99% of the total EO. These findings suggest that C. obtusa EO has antibacterial effects against MRSA, which might be associated with the major components of C. obtusa EO, such as sabinene (19.06%), α-terpinyl acetate (16.99%), bornyl acetate (10.48%), limonene (8.54%), elemol (7.47%), myrcene (5.86%), γ-terpinene (4.04%), and hibaene (3.01%).

  9. A method to improve tree water use estimates by distinguishing sapwood from heartwood using Electrical Resistivity Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyot, A.; Ostergaard, K.; Lenkopane, M.; Fan, J.; Lockington, D. A.

    2011-12-01

    Estimating whole-plant water use in trees requires reliable and accurate methods. Measuring sap velocity and extrapolating to tree water use is seen as the most commonly used. However, deducing the tree water use from sap velocity requires an estimate of the sapwood area. This estimate is the highest cause of uncertainty, and can reach more than 50 % of the uncertainty in the estimate of water use per day. Here, we investigate the possibility of using Electrical Resistivity Tomography to evaluate the sapwood area distribution in a plantation of Pinus elliottii. Electric resistivity tomographs of Pinus elliottii show a very typical pattern of electrical resistivity, which is highly correlated to sapwood and heartwood distribution. To identify the key factors controlling the variation of electrical resistivity, cross sections at breast height for ten trees have been monitored with electrical resistivity tomography. Trees have been cut down after the experiment to identify the heartwood/sapwood boundaries and to extract wood and sap samples. pH, electrolyte concentration and wood moisture content have then been analysed for these samples. Results show that the heartwood/sapwood patterns are highly correlated with electrical resistivity, and that the wood moisture content is the most influencing factor controlling the variability of the patterns. These results show that electric resistivity tomography could be used as a powerful tool to identify the sapwood area, and thus be used in combination with sapflow sensors to map tree water use at stand scale. However, if Pinus elliottii shows typical patterns, further work is needed to identify to see if there are species - specific characterictics as shown in previous works (, electrolyte gradients from the bark to the heartwood). Also, patterns of high resistivity in between needles positions, which are not correlated with either wood moisture content or sapwood, appear to be artifacts. Thus, inversion methods have also to

  10. Antiplatelet effects of Rhus verniciflua stokes heartwood and its active constituents--fisetin, butein, and sulfuretin--in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun-Hyeong; Kim, Mikyung; Chang, Kyung-Hwa; Hong, Cheol Yi; Na, Chun-Soo; Dong, Mi-Sook; Lee, Dongho; Lee, Moo-Yeol

    2015-01-01

    Rhus verniciflua stokes (RVS) is known to promote blood circulation by preventing blood stasis, although the active ingredients and the underlying mechanism are unclear. Platelets are the primary cells that regulate circulation and contribute to the development of diverse cardiovascular diseases by aggregation and thrombosis. The study assessed the antiplatelet activity of RVS and sought to identify the active constituents. Pretreatment of washed platelets with RVS heartwood extract blunted the aggregatory response of platelets to collagen. In the subfractions, fisetin, butein, and sulfuretin were identified as effective inhibitors of platelet aggregation by collagen, thrombin, and adenosine-5'-diphosphate. Antiplatelet activities of all three compounds were concentration dependent, and fisetin had longer in vitro duration of action compared with butein or sulfuretin. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) mitogen-activated protein kinase activation by collagen was prevented by fisetin, whereas butein and sulfuretin failed to inhibit ERK and p38 activation was not affected by any of the compounds. Rats orally administered 100 mg/(kg·day(-1)) fisetin for 7 days were resistant to arterial thrombosis, although total extract of RVS heartwood exhibited little effect at a dose of 1000 mg/(kg·day(-1)). RVS heartwood may have cardiovascular protective activity by inhibiting platelet aggregation. The active constituents are fisetin, butein, and sulfuretin, and fisetin is orally effective against thrombosis.

  11. Valencene synthase from the heartwood of Nootka cypress (Callitropsis nootkatensis) for biotechnological production of valencene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beekwilder, Jules; van Houwelingen, Adèle; Cankar, Katarina; van Dijk, Aalt D J; de Jong, René M; Stoopen, Geert; Bouwmeester, Harro; Achkar, Jihane; Sonke, Theo; Bosch, Dirk

    2014-02-01

    Nootkatone is one of the major terpenes in the heartwood of the Nootka cypress Callitropsis nootkatensis. It is an oxidized sesquiterpene, which has been postulated to be derived from valencene. Both valencene and nootkatone are used for flavouring citrus beverages and are considered among the most valuable terpenes used at commercial scale. Functional evaluation of putative terpene synthase genes sourced by large-scale EST sequencing from Nootka cypress wood revealed a valencene synthase gene (CnVS). CnVS expression in different tissues from the tree correlates well with nootkatone content, suggesting that CnVS represents the first dedicated gene in the nootkatone biosynthetic pathway in C. nootkatensis The gene belongs to the gymnosperm-specific TPS-d subfamily of terpenes synthases and its protein sequence has low similarity to known citrus valencene synthases. In vitro, CnVS displays high robustness under different pH and temperature regimes, potentially beneficial properties for application in different host and physiological conditions. Biotechnological production of sesquiterpenes has been shown to be feasible, but productivity of microbial strains expressing valencene synthase from Citrus is low, indicating that optimization of valencene synthase activity is needed. Indeed, expression of CnVS in Saccharomyces cerevisiae indicated potential for higher yields. In an optimized Rhodobacter sphaeroides strain, expression of CnVS increased valencene yields 14-fold to 352 mg/L, bringing production to levels with industrial potential. © 2013 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Biologically Important Eremophilane Sesquiterpenes from Alaska Cedar Heartwood Essential Oil and Their Semi-Synthetic Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe J. Karchesy

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of Alaska cedar heartwood is known to contain compounds which contribute to the remarkable durability of this species. While previous research has identified several compounds, a complete description of this oil has not been undertaken. In this research a profile of the oil is given in which the major components are identified by GC, isolation and spectroscopic techniques. The major components of the steam distilled essential oil were identified as nootkatin, nootkatone, valencene, nootaktene, carvacrol, methyl carvacrol, nootkatol (2, and eremophil-1(10,11-dien-13-ol (3. The last two compounds were isolated for the first time from Alaska cedar in this research. The absolute stereochemistry at C-2 of nootkatol was shown to have the (S configuration using the Mosher ester method. Assignment of stereochemistry for valencene-13-ol (3 was established by synthesis from valencene (6. Finally, two related sesquiterpenoids were synthesized from nootkatone and valencene. These sesquiterpenoids were nootkatone-1,10-11,12-diepoxide (5 and valencene-13-aldehyde (4, respectively.

  13. Biologically important eremophilane sesquiterpenes from alaska cedar heartwood essential oil and their semi-synthetic derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasawneh, Mohammad A; Xiong, Yeping; Peralta-Cruz, Javier; Karchesy, Joe J

    2011-06-08

    The essential oil of Alaska cedar heartwood is known to contain compounds which contribute to the remarkable durability of this species. While previous research has identified several compounds, a complete description of this oil has not been undertaken. In this research a profile of the oil is given in which the major components are identified by GC, isolation and spectroscopic techniques. The major components of the steam distilled essential oil were identified as nootkatin, nootkatone, valencene, nootaktene, carvacrol, methyl carvacrol, nootkatol (2), and eremophil-1(10),11-dien-13-ol (3). The last two compounds were isolated for the first time from Alaska cedar in this research. The absolute stereochemistry at C-2 of nootkatol was shown to have the (S) configuration using the Mosher ester method. Assignment of stereochemistry for valencene-13-ol (3) was established by synthesis from valencene (6). Finally, two related sesquiterpenoids were synthesized from nootkatone and valencene. These sesquiterpenoids were nootkatone-1,10-11,12-diepoxide (5) and valencene-13-aldehyde (4), respectively.

  14. Comparative Chemical Analysis of the Essential Oil Constituents in the Bark, Heartwood and Fruits of Cryptocarya massoy (Oken Kosterm. (Lauraceae from Papua New Guinea

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    David N. Leach

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Exhaustive hydro-distillation of the bark, heartwood and fruits of Cryptocarya massoy (Lauraceae afforded pale yellow-coloured oils in 0.7, 1.2 and 1.0 % yields, respectively. Detailed chemical evaluation of these distillates using GC/MS revealed the major components in the bark and the heartwood oils to be the C-10 (5,6-dihydro-6-pentyl-2H-pyran-2-one and C-12 (5,6-dihydro-6-heptyl-2H-pyran-2-one massoia lactones, while the major fruit oil constituent was benzyl benzoate (68.3 %. The heartwood also contained trace amounts of the C-14 (5,6-dihydro-6-nonyl-2H-pyran-2-one massoia lactone (1.4 % and the saturated C-10 derivative d-decalactone (2.5 %.

  15. In vitro Antitubercular Activity of 3-Deoxysappanchalcone Isolated From the Heartwood of Caesalpinia sappan Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hoonhee; Kim, Sukyung; Mahmud, Hafij Al; Islam, Md Imtiazul; Nam, Kung-Woo; Lee, Byung-Eui; Lee, Hanna; Cho, Myoung-Lae; Shin, Heung-Mook; Song, Ho-Yeon

    2017-10-01

    Responsible for nearly 1.5 million deaths every year, the infectious disease tuberculosis remains one of the most serious challenges to global health. The emergence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and, more recently, extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis poses a significant threat in our effort to control this epidemic. New drugs are urgently needed to combat the growing threat of antimicrobial resistance. To achieve this goal, we screened approximately 500 species of medicinal plant methanol extracts and their solvent partitioned fractions for potential inhibitors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis growth. Using microdilution screening, the ethyl acetate solvent partitioned fraction from the heartwood of Caesalpinia sappan exhibited strong antitubercular activity. We isolated the active compound and identified it as 3-deoxysappanchalcone. The extracted 3-deoxysappanchalcone possessed activity against both drug-susceptible and drug-resistant strains of M. tuberculosis at MIC 50 s of 3.125-12.5 μg/mL in culture broth and MIC 50 s of 6.25-12.5 μg/mL inside macrophages and pneumocytes. 3-Deoxysappanchalcone was also found to act in partial synergy with streptomycin/ethambutol against M. tuberculosis H37Rv. 3-Deoxysappanchalcone had no cytotoxicity against the A549 cell line up to a concentration of 100 μg/mL (selectivity index > 8-32). Further studies are warranted to establish the in vivo effect and therapeutic potential of 3-deoxysappanchalcone. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Using electrical resistivity tomography to differentiate sapwood from heartwood: application to conifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyot, Adrien; Ostergaard, Kasper T; Lenkopane, Mothei; Fan, Junliang; Lockington, David A

    2013-02-01

    Estimating sapwood area is one of the main sources of error when upscaling point scale sap flow measurements to whole-tree water use. In this study, the potential use of electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) to determine the sapwood-heartwood (SW-HW) boundary is investigated for Pinus elliottii Engelm var. elliottii × Pinus caribaea Morelet var. hondurensis growing in a subtropical climate. Specifically, this study investigates: (i) how electrical resistivity is correlated to either wood moisture content, or electrolyte concentration, or both, and (ii) how the SW-HW boundary is defined in terms of electrical resistivity. Tree cross-sections at breast height are analysed using ERT before being felled and the cross-section surface sampled for analysis of major electrolyte concentrations, wood moisture content and density. Electrical resistivity tomography results show patterns with high resistivities occurring in the inner part of the cross-section, with much lower values towards the outside. The high-resistivity areas were generally smaller than the low-resistivity areas. A comparison between ERT and actual SW area measured after felling shows a slope of the linear regression close to unity (=0.96) with a large spread of values (R(2) = 0.56) mostly due to uncertainties in ERT. Electrolyte concentrations along sampled radial transects (cardinal directions) generally showed no trend from the centre of the tree to the bark. Wood moisture content and density show comparable trends that could explain the resistivity patterns. While this study indicates the potential for application of ERT for estimating SW area, it shows that there remains a need for refinement in locating the SW-HW boundary (e.g., by improvement of the inversion method, or perhaps electrode density) in order to increase the robustness of the method.

  17. Preliminary Investigation on the Useful Chemicals obtained from High-Temperature and High-Pressure Water Treatment of Hinoki (Chamaecyparis Obutus Bark

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    Hiroyuki Daimon

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of utilizing residual forest biomass to produce valuable chemicals was investigated. An outer layer of a bark of Hinoki (Chamaecyparis obutusa tree, a Japanese cypress, was used as a sample material. Experiments were carried out in a semibatch reactor apparatus that allows the study of the effect of reaction temperatures in a single run. Analysis of the products by GC-MS reveals formation of useful compounds such as furfural, some aromatic compounds (1,3-di-tert-butyl benzene and 2,4-di-tert-butyl phenol, and fatty acids (myristic acid, palmitic acid and stearic acid. Keywords: fatty acids, furfural, high temperature water treatment, hinoki, residual biomass

  18. Substantial production of drosophilin A methyl ether (tetrachloro-1,4-dimethoxybenzene) by the lignicolous basidiomycete Phellinus badius in the heartwood of mesquite ( Prosopis juliflora) trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvie, Laurence A. J.; Wilkens, Barry; Groy, Thomas L.; Glaeser, Jessie A.

    2015-04-01

    Toxic organohalogen pollutants produced as by-products of industrial processes, such as chloroform and polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins, also have significant natural sources. A substantial terrestrial source of halogenated organics originates from fungal decay of wood and leaf litter. Here we show that the lignicolous basidiomycete Phellinus badius deposits up to 30,000 mg of the halogenated metabolite drosophilin A methyl ether (DAME, tetrachloro-1,4-dimethoxybenzene) per kilogram of decayed heartwood in the mesquite Prosopis juliflora. DAME occurs as clusters of glassy crystals up to 1 mm long within the decayed heartwood. In addition, the Phellinus badius basidiocarps contain an average of 24,000 mg DAME/kg dried fruiting body, testifying to the significant translocation and accumulation of Cl accompanied by DAME biosynthesis. The high DAME concentrations attest to the substantial Cl content of the heartwood, which averages near 5,000 ppm, with Cl/K near 1:1, consistent with an inorganic chloride precursor. Phellinus badius has a circumglobal distribution in the tropics and subtropics, where it is widely distributed on hardwoods and commonly associated with decay of mesquite. There is the potential for extensive DAME formation within decayed heartwood worldwide given the extensive range of Phellinus badius and its propensity to form DAME within mesquites. Further, DAME production is not limited to Phellinus badius but occurs in a range of lignicolous basidiomycetes, suggesting a significant natural reservoir for this chloroaromatic with potential environmental implications.

  19. Temporal trends in 137Cs concentrations in the bark, sapwood, heartwood, and whole wood of four tree species in Japanese forests from 2011 to 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Shinta; Kuroda, Katsushi; Takano, Tsutomu; Suzuki, Youki; Fujiwara, Takeshi; Abe, Hisashi; Kagawa, Akira; Sugiyama, Masaki; Kubojima, Yoshitaka; Zhang, Chunhua; Yamamoto, Koichi

    2017-11-01

    To understand the changes in radiocesium ( 137 Cs) concentrations in stem woods after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, we investigated 137 Cs concentrations in the bark, sapwood, heartwood, and whole wood of four major tree species at multiple sites with different levels of radiocesium deposition from the FDNPP accident since 2011 (since 2012 at some sites): Japanese cedar at four sites, hinoki cypress and Japanese konara oak at two sites, and Japanese red pine at one site. Our previous report on 137 Cs concentrations in bark and whole wood samples collected from 2011 to 2015 suggested that temporal variations were different among sites even within the same species. In the present study, we provided data on bark and whole wood samples in 2016 and separately measured 137 Cs concentrations in sapwood and heartwood samples from 2011 to 2016; we further discussed temporal trends in 137 Cs concentrations in each part of tree stems, particularly those in 137 Cs distributions between sapwood and heartwood, in relation to their species and site dependencies. Temporal trends in bark and whole wood samples collected from 2011 to 2016 were consistent with those reported in samples collected from 2011 to 2015. Temporal variations in 137 Cs concentrations in barks showed either a decreasing trend or no clear trend, implying that 137 Cs deposition in barks is inhomogeneous and that decontamination is relatively slow in some cases. Temporal trends in 137 Cs concentrations in sapwood, heartwood, and whole wood were different among species and also among sites within the same species. Relatively common trends within the same species, which were increasing, were observed in cedar heartwood, and in oak sapwood and whole wood. On the other hand, the ratio of 137 Cs concentration in heartwood to that in sapwood (fresh weight basis) was commonly increased to more than 2 in cedar, although distinct temporal trends were not found in the other species, for

  20. Physico-mechanical properties of Spanish juniper wood considering the effect of heartwood formation and the presence of defects and imperfections

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    Javier de la Fuente-Leon

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Determining the main physical and mechanical properties of Spanish juniper wood from Soria (Spain considering the effects of heartwood formation and the presence of defects and imperfections; and comparing the resulting characteristics with similar existing data for other regional softwood species of commercial interest. Area of study: Berlanga de Duero (Soria, Castilla y León, Spain.Material and Methods: Wood physico-mechanical performance was determined by Spanish UNE standards in order to provide proper comparisons to other regional softwood species. An individual tree representing average plot characteristics was selected in all eight 10 m radius circular plots that were established well-representing the heterogeneity of this woodland. The age of every tree was determined reading the number of growth rings at the base of each sampled tree. Every physico-mechanical property was assessed at least 4 times for every wood sample type (sapwood and heartwood, whether clear or with the presence of defects of each tree. Two-way ANOVA was run to assess significant differences in the results. Post hoc all pairwise comparisons were performed using Tukey's test (p < 0.05.Research highlights: Spanish juniper wood resulted harder than other regional commercial conifers, and showed semi-heavyweight heartwood and lightweight sapwood; whereas shrinkage figures remarked its great dimensional stability. The high presence of knots within heartwood made it even heavier, harder, and more resistant to compression parallel to grain. A commercial use of this rare precious wood may contribute to juniper forests preservation in the frame of forest sustainable management plans. Key words: heartwood effect; Juniperus thurifera L.; physico-mechanical wood properties; wood classification; wood defects.

  1. In vivo evaluation of analgesic and antipyretic activities of piceatannol-rich extract from Senna garrettiana heartwood

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    Suparada Surapanthanakorn

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A methanolic extract from Senna garrettiana (S. garrettiana heartwood was prepared and then a fractionation process was performed to obtain hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and aqueous fractions. An antinociceptive screening of each fraction was carried out using the acetic acid-induced writhing in mice. Among all the fractions, the ethyl acetate fraction showed the highest activity on the writhing test. The ethyl acetate fraction was separated to obtain a piceatannol-rich extract. The S. garrettiana extract contains 11.70 % w/w and 39.16 % w/w piceatannol in the ethyl acetate fraction and the piceatannol-rich extract, respectively. The analgesic activities of the ethyl acetate fraction (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg and the piceatannol-rich extract (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg were evaluated by the acetic acid-induced writhing test, hot-plate test and formalin test. The antipyretic activity of these extracts was assessed on yeast’s-induced pyrexia in rats. The acute toxicity was also investigated. In the acute toxicity study, no lethality was observed after the oral administration of methanolic extract of S. garrettiana heartwood even at a high dose of 5 g/kg in mice. The oral administration of the ethyl acetate fraction decreased the number of writhings in a dose dependent manner with 54.9 %, 68.5 %, and 71.0 % inhibition, respectively. A similar result was also observed after the oral administration of the piceatannol-rich extract with 53.1%, 69.2% and 80.3% inhibition, respectively. In the formalin test, either the ethyl acetate fraction or the piceatannol-rich extract significantly diminished the licking time in both the early and late phases. Neither the ethyl acetate nor the piceatannol-rich extract had any effect on heat-induced pain. The ethyl acetate fraction at the same dosage range significantly decreased the rat rectal temperature at 2, 3 and 4 hrs. The piceatannol-rich extract at a dose of 20 and 40 mg/kg suppressed the rectal temperature

  2. Antibacterial Mode of Action of the Essential Oil Obtained from Chamaecyparis obtusa Sawdust on the Membrane Integrity of Selected Foodborne Pathogens

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    Vivek K. Bajpai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study examines the possible antibacterial mechanism of action of the essential oil obtained from Chamaecyparis obtusa (COEO sawdust against foodborne pathogenic bacteria. The COEO was obtained by microwave-assisted hydrodistillation of C. obtusa sawdust. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC values of COEO against the tested foodborne pathogens including Bacillus cereus ATCC 13061, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 12600, Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 43174 and Escherichia coli ATCC 43889 were found in the range from 62.5 to 500 μg/mL and from 125 to 1000 μg/mL, respectively. At the MIC concentrations, the COEO had potential inhibitory effect on the cell viability of the tested bacteria. In addition, the scanning electron microscopic analysis confirmed the inhibitory effect of COEO by revealing significant morphological alterations or rupture of the cell membranes of B. cereus ATCC 13061 and E. coli ATCC 43889. Moreover, the mode of action of COEO on the cell membrane of both Gram-positive B. cereus ATCC 13061 and Gram-negative E. coli ATCC 43889 bacteria was confirmed by marked release of extracellular adenosine 5’-triphosphate (ATP and cellular material that absorbs at 260 nm, and by efflux of potassium ions. These findings suggest that COEO holds a broad-spectrum antibacterial efficacy, confirming its influence on the membrane integrity and morphological characteristics of tested foodborne pathogens.

  3. Correlations between the anatomical traits of Gymnocladus canadensis Lam. in heartwood and sapwood of early- and latewood zones of growth rings

    OpenAIRE

    Jokanović Dušan; Vilotić Dragica; Mitrović Suzana; Miljković Danijela; Rebić Milan; Stanković Dragica; Nikolić Vesna

    2015-01-01

    This paper shows correlations between vessel characteristics and differences in growth-ring width in heartwood and sapwood. Analyzed samples were from an iron-wood tree (Gymnocladus canadensis Lam.) that grew in the Mužljanski Rit area, of the Srpska Crnja municipality in Serbia. According to previous research, it was deduced that Gymnocladus canadensis Lam. belongs to ring-porous species with big vessel lumen in the earlywood zone and thicker cell walls in...

  4. Correlations between the anatomical traits of Gymnocladus canadensis Lam. in heartwood and sapwood of early- and latewood zones of growth rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jokanović Dušan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows correlations between vessel characteristics and differences in growth-ring width in heartwood and sapwood. Analyzed samples were from an iron-wood tree (Gymnocladus canadensis Lam. that grew in the Mužljanski Rit area, of the Srpska Crnja municipality in Serbia. According to previous research, it was deduced that Gymnocladus canadensis Lam. belongs to ring-porous species with big vessel lumen in the earlywood zone and thicker cell walls in the latewood. Vessels were more numerous in the latewood zone, and the same was true for heartwood and sapwood. For both layers, sapwood possessed a few more vessels than heartwood, and a statistically significant difference was confirmed by t-test during the early phase. The greatest negative value of correlation coefficient was between the number of vessels and growth-ring width during the early phase for sapwood. The number of vessels decreased in the wider growth rings. The correlation between growth-ring width and the area of vessels had a statistically significant positive value of correlative coefficient, which means that wider growth rings had larger vessel areas in the early phase for sapwood. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 31041

  5. Bulk and molecular-level characterization of laboratory-aged biomass burning organic aerosol from oak leaf and heartwood fuels

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    C. F. Fortenberry

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The chemical complexity of biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA greatly increases with photochemical aging in the atmosphere, necessitating controlled laboratory studies to inform field observations. In these experiments, BBOA from American white oak (Quercus alba leaf and heartwood samples was generated in a custom-built emissions and combustion chamber and photochemically aged in a potential aerosol mass (PAM flow reactor. A thermal desorption aerosol gas chromatograph (TAG was used in parallel with a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS to analyze BBOA chemical composition at different levels of photochemical aging. Individual compounds were identified and integrated to obtain relative decay rates for key molecules. A recently developed chromatogram binning positive matrix factorization (PMF technique was used to obtain mass spectral profiles for factors in TAG BBOA chromatograms, improving analysis efficiency and providing a more complete determination of unresolved complex mixture (UCM components. Additionally, the recently characterized TAG decomposition window was used to track molecular fragments created by the decomposition of thermally labile BBOA during sample desorption. We demonstrate that although most primary (freshly emitted BBOA compounds deplete with photochemical aging, certain components eluting within the TAG thermal decomposition window are instead enhanced. Specifically, the increasing trend in the decomposition m∕z 44 signal (CO2+ indicates formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA in the PAM reactor. Sources of m∕z 60 (C2H4O2+, typically attributed to freshly emitted BBOA in AMS field measurements, were also investigated. From the TAG chemical speciation and decomposition window data, we observed a decrease in m∕z 60 with photochemical aging due to the decay of anhydrosugars (including levoglucosan and other compounds, as well as an increase in m∕z 60 due to the formation of

  6. Ground verification of aerial for Port-Orford-cedar root disease in Southwest Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Kanaskie; M. McWilliams; D. Overhulser; J. Prukop; R. Christian; S. Malvitch

    2002-01-01

    Port-Orford-cedar (POC) (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana) is limited in its natural range to southwest Oregon and northwest California. It is highly susceptible to the introduced root pathogen, Phytophthora lateralis, which causes a fatal root disease throughout most of its range. The disease is transmitted by movement of infested soil and water and is...

  7. Port-Orford-cedar—a poor risk for reforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Hunt; Edward J. Dimock

    1957-01-01

    Port-Orford-cedar (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (A. Murr.) Parl.) has been the most widely used introduced species in reforestation projects in western Washington and Oregon. However, as a result of two recent and unrelated occurrences, a severe early cold wave and a destructive root disease, the advisability of continued planting of Port-Orford-cedar...

  8. Methods for screening Port-Orford-cedar for resistance to Phytophthora lateralis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett M. Hansen; Paul Reeser; Wendy Sutton; Richard A. Sniezko

    2012-01-01

    Port-Orford-cedar (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (A. Murray) Parl.) (POC) is an economically and ecologically valuable tree in the forests of southwest Oregon and northern California and in the horticultural trade worldwide. Phytophthora lateralis, the aggressive, invasive cause of POC root disease, was introduced to the native...

  9. The current state of knowledge on operational sanitation measures to lower risk of Phytophthora ramorum spread and the need for further study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yana Valachovic; Dave Rizzo; Brendan Twieg

    2013-01-01

    We are working to evaluate risks associated with human spread of the sudden oak death (SOD) pathogen, Phytophthora ramorum, to currently uninfested areas in California. Port-Orford-cedar (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (A. Murray) Parl.) root disease (POC RD), caused by Phytophthora lateralis, has brought...

  10. Comparison of chemical compositions and antimicrobial activities of essential oils from three conifer trees; Pinus densiflora, Cryptomeria japonica, and Chamaecyparis obtusa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Ho; Lee, Byung-Kyu; Kim, Jong-Hee; Lee, Sang Hee; Hong, Soon-Kwang

    2009-04-01

    The chemical compositions, and antibacterial and antifungal effects of essential oils extracted from three coniferous species, Pinus densiflora, Cryptomeria japonica, and Chamaecyparis obtusa, were investigated. Gas chromatography mass analysis of the essential oils revealed that the major components and the percentage of each essential oil were 16.66% beta-phellandrene and 14.85% alpha-pinene in P. densiflora; 31.45% kaur-16-ene and 11.06% sabinene in C. japonica; and 18.75% bicyclo [2, 2, 1] heptan-2-ol and 17.41% 2-carene in Ch. obtusa. The antimicrobial assay by agar disc diffusion method showed that 2.2 microg of Ch. obtusa oil inhibited most effectively the growth of Escherichia coli ATCC 33312 and Klebsiella oxytoca ATCC 10031, whereas the C. japonica oil gave weak antimicrobial activity. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for bacterial strains were in the range of 5.45-21.8 mg/ml depending on essential oils, but most Gram-negative bacteria were resistant even at 21.8 mg oil/ml. P. densiflora oil showed the most effective antifungal activity and the MIC values for Cryptococcus neoformans B42419 and Candida glabrata YFCC 062CCM 11658 were as low as 0.545 and 2.18 mg/ml, respectively. Cryp. neoformans B42419 was the most sensitive to all essential oils in the range of 0.545-2.18 mg/ml. Our data clearly showed that the essential oils from the three conifers had effective antimicrobial activity, especially against fungi.

  11. Immunolocalization of 8-5' and 8-8' linked structures of lignin in cell walls of Chamaecyparis obtusa using monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyoto, Shingo; Yoshinaga, Arata; Tanaka, Naoyuki; Wada, Munehisa; Kamitakahara, Hiroshi; Takabe, Keiji

    2013-03-01

    Mouse monoclonal antibodies were generated against dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol- or pinoresinol-p-aminohippuric acid (pAHA)-bovine serum albumin (BSA) conjugate as probes that specifically react with 8-5' or 8-8' linked structure of lignin in plant cell walls. Hybridoma clones were selected that produced antibodies that positively reacted with dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol- or pinoresinol-pAHA-BSA and negatively reacted with pAHA-BSA and guaiacylglycerol-beta-guaiacyl ether-pAHA-BSA conjugates containing 8-O-4' linkage. Eight clones were established for each antigen and one of each clone that positively reacted with wood sections was selected. The specificity of these antibodies was examined by competitive ELISA tests using various lignin dimers with different linkages. The anti-dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol antibody reacted specifically with dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol and did not react with other model compounds containing 8-O-4', 8-8', or 5-5' linkages. The anti-pinoresinol antibody reacted specifically with pinoresinol and syringaresinol and did not react with the other model compounds containing 8-O-4', 8-5', or 5-5' linkages. The antibodies also did not react with dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol acetate or pinoresinol acetate, indicating that the presence of free phenolic or aliphatic hydroxyl group was an important factor in their reactivity. In sections of Japanese cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa), labeling by the anti-dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol antibody was found in the secondary walls of phloem fibers and in the compound middle lamellae, and secondary walls of tracheids. Weak labeling by the anti-pinoresinol antibody was found in secondary walls of phloem fibers and secondary walls and compound middle lamellae of developed tracheids. These labelings show the localization of 8-5' and 8-8' linked structure of lignin in the cell walls.

  12. Inhaled essential oil from Chamaecyparis obtuse ameliorates the impairments of cognitive function induced by injection of β-amyloid in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Donghyuck; Seol, Heejin; Yoon, Ho-Geun; Na, Ju-Ryun; Oh, Kyonyeo; Choi, Chul Yung; Lee, Dong-wook; Jun, Woojin; Youl Lee, Kwang; Lee, Jeongmin; Hwang, Kwontack; Lee, Yoo-Hyun; Kim, Sunoh

    2012-07-01

    Chamaecyparis obtusa Sieb. & Zucc., Endlicher (Cupressaceae) forest bathing or aromatherapy has been shown in various studies to have biological functions such as anticancer, antiallergies, antiinflammatory, and antioxidant activity. However, no reports exist on the pharmacological or biological activities of the essential oil of C. obtusa (EOCO) or its effects on central nervous system. The aggregation and formation of β-amyloid peptides (Aβ) into fibrils are central events in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and overproduction and aggregation of Aβ into oligomers have been known to trigger neurotoxicity. In this study, we investigated the effects of inhaled EOCO on cognitive function and neuronal apoptosis in rats intrahippocampally injected with Aβ. To model AD, 4 μg of aggregated Aβ was injected into the hippocampus. To test the effects of EOCO, behavioral performance in the Morris water maze was tested 4 days after injection. After behavioral testing, brain sections were prepared for TTC staining and TUNEL assay. Inhaled EOCO protected spatial learning and memory from the impairments induced by Aβ(1-40) injection. In addition, the behavioral deficits accompanying Aβ(1-40)-induced AD were attenuated by inhalation of EOCO. Furthermore, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and neuronal apoptosis were significantly inhibited in rats treated with Aβ(1-40) and EOCO compared to rats treated only with Aβ(1-40). EOCO suppressed both AD-related neuronal cell apoptosis and AD-related dysfunction of the memory system. Thus, the results of this study support EOCO as a candidate drug for the treatment of AD.

  13. Determination of Seed Soundness in Conifers Cryptomeria japonica and Chamaecyparis obtusa Using Narrow-Multiband Spectral Imaging in the Short-Wavelength Infrared Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Osamu; Hara, Masashi; Tobita, Hiroyuki; Yazaki, Kenichi; Nakagawa, Toshinori; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi; Uemura, Akira; Utsugi, Hajime

    2015-01-01

    Regeneration of planted forests of Cryptomeria japonica (sugi) and Chamaecyparis obtuse (hinoki) is the pressing importance to the forest administration in Japan. Low seed germination rate of these species, however, has hampered low-cost production of their seedlings for reforestation. The primary cause of the low germinability has been attributed to highly frequent formation of anatomically unsound seeds, which are indistinguishable from sound germinable seeds by visible observation and other common criteria such as size and weight. To establish a method for sound seed selection in these species, hyperspectral imaging technique was used to identify a wavelength range where reflectance spectra differ clearly between sound and unsound seeds. In sound seeds of both species, reflectance in a narrow waveband centered at 1,730 nm, corresponding to a lipid absorption band in the short-wavelength infrared (SWIR) range, was greatly depressed relative to that in adjacent wavebands on either side. Such depression was absent or less prominent in unsound seeds. Based on these observations, a reflectance index SQI, abbreviated for seed quality index, was formulated using reflectance at three narrow SWIR wavebands so that it represents the extent of the depression. SQI calculated from seed area-averaged reflectance spectra and spatial distribution patterns of pixelwise SQI within each seed area were both proven as reliable criteria for sound seed selection. Enrichment of sound seeds was accompanied by an increase in germination rate of the seed lot. Thus, the methods described are readily applicable toward low-cost seedling production in combination with single seed sowing technology. PMID:26083366

  14. Radiocesium concentrations in the bark, sapwood and heartwood of three tree species collected at Fukushima forests half a year after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Katsushi; Kagawa, Akira; Tonosaki, Mario

    2013-08-01

    Radiocesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) distribution in tree stems of Japanese cedar (aged 40-56 y), red pine (42 y), and oak (42 y) grown in Fukushima Prefecture were investigated approximately half a year after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident. Japanese cedar, red pine, and oak were selected from five sites, one site, and one site, respectively. Three trees at each site were felled, and bark, sapwood (the outer layer of wood in the stem), and heartwood (the inner layer of wood in the stem) separately collected to study radiocesium concentrations measured by gamma-ray spectrometry. The radiocesium deposition densities at the five sites were within the range of 16-1020 kBq m(-2). The radiocesium was distributed in bark, sapwood, and heartwood in three tree species, indicating that very rapid translocation of radiocesium into the wood. The concentration of radiocesium in oak (deciduous angiosperm) bark was higher than that in the bark of Japanese cedar and red pine (evergreen gymnosperms). Both sapwood and heartwood contained radiocesium, and the values were much lower than that in the bark samples. The results suggest that radiocesium contamination half a year after the accident was mainly attributable to the direct radioactive deposition. The radiocesium concentrations in the Japanese cedar samples taken from five sites rose with the density of radiocesium accumulation on the ground surface. To predict the future dynamics of radiocesium in tree stems, the present results taken half a year after the accident are important, and continuous study of radiocesium in tree stems is necessary. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of soil water decline on diurnal and seasonal variations in sap flux density for differently aged Japanese cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Tsuruta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of soil drought on transpiration are often neglected when predicting transpiration for forests in humid regions under the influence of the Asian monsoon. These effects have indeed been neglected for Japanese cypress, Chamaecyparis obtusa, a major plantation species in Japan and the surrounding area, probably because previous studies have reported no clear effects of soil drought on transpiration for Japanese cypress forests. However, a few studies have reported an apparent reduction in transpiration with soil drought for young Japanese cypress forests. It remains unclear whether such a reduction in transpiration is limited to young Japanese cypress forests or if it is not uncommon for mature Japanese cypress forests, which occupy a large area in Japan. To clarify this point, we conducted sap flux measurements in a year with soil drought on three differently aged Japanese cypress stands including mature (43 years old and relatively young (23 and 26 years old trees. In a diurnal time scale, a cross correlation analysis of sap flux density (Fd and vapor pressure deficit (VPD showed that the time lags between Fd and VPD were 1-3 h in dry soil conditions. These were larger than those of wet soil conditions (<1 h for all sample trees. Fd at a given VPD in dry soil conditions was smaller than that in wet soil conditions for all sample trees; a 28%–63% reduction in the rate of change in Fd was observed under dry soil conditions. Because our results were obtained when the non-exceedance probability of recorded monthly precipitation was 9%–18%, the results suggest the need to consider the effects of soil drought more extensively. Those effects should be considered for not only relatively young but also mature Japanese cypress when predicting diurnal and seasonal patterns of transpiration in years with soil drought, and when predicting inter-annual patterns of transpiration for Japanese cypress despite humid

  16. Analysis of commercial proanthocyanidins. Part 4: solid state (13)C NMR as a tool for in situ analysis of proanthocyanidin tannins, in heartwood and bark of quebracho and acacia, and related species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, David G; Bonnet, Susan L; Kemp, Gabre; van der Westhuizen, Jan H

    2013-10-01

    (13)C NMR is an effective method of characterizing proanthocyanidin (PAC) tannins in quebracho (Schinopsis lorentzii) heartwood and black wattle (Acacia mearnsii) bark, before and after commercial extraction. The B-rings of the constituent flavan-3-ols, catechols (quebracho) or pyrogallols (wattle), are recognized in unprocessed source materials by "marker" signals at ca. 118 or 105ppm, respectively. NMR allows the minimum extraction efficiency to be calculated; ca. 30%, and ca. 80%, for quebracho heartwood and black wattle bark, respectively. NMR can also identify PAC tannin (predominantly robinetinidin), and compare tannin content, in bark from other acacia species; tannin content decreases in the order A. mearnsii, Acacia pycnantha (87% of A. mearnsii), Acacia dealbata and Acacia decurrens (each 74%) and Acacia karroo (30%). Heartwood from an underexploited PAC tannin source, Searsia lancea, taxonomically close to quebracho, shows abundant profisetinidin and catechin PACs. NMR offers the advantage of being applicable to source materials in their native state, and has potential applications in optimizing extraction processes, identification of tannin sources, and characterization of tannin content in cultivar yield improvement programmes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Methylated Fatty Acids from Heartwood and Bark of Pinus sylvestris, Abies alba, Picea abies, and Larix decidua: Effect of Strong Acid Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Zidan Mohamed Salem

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Methylated fatty acid (FA compounds in the heartwood and bark of some softwood species, specifically Pinus sylvestris, Abies alba, Picea abies, and Larix decidua, grown in the Czech Republic were evaluated. Strong H2SO4 was used for methylation of the lipids. The highest content of lipid was found in P. abies bark (40.132 mg/g o.d. sample, and the lowest content was in A. alba wood (11.027 mg/g o.d. sample. The highest concentration of FAs was observed in L. decidua bark. The highest percentages of FAs in wood of P. sylvestris were arachidic acid and oleic acid. In bark, the highest percentages of FAs were stearic acid, palmitic acid, and oleic acid. The FAs with the highest concentrations in A. alba wood were arachidic acid, palmitic acid, pentadecanoic acid, and margarinic, and those in bark were behenic acid, lignoceric acid, and arachidic acid. P. abies wood FAs showed arachidic acid, palmitic acid, and margarinic acid, and the bark contained lignoceric acid and arachidic acid. The FAs of L. decidua wood were arachidic acid, palmitic acid, and stearic acid, and in bark they were pentacosylic acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, lignoceric acid, arachidic acid, and behenic acid. The lack of typically dominant unsaturated fatty acids (e.g. 18:1, 18:2, compared to literature values were attributed to the application of strong acid for the hydrolysis.

  18. Comparative evaluation of the anti-diabetic activity of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. heartwood in alloxan induced diabetic rats using extracts obtained by optimized conventional and non conventional extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devgan, Manish; Nanda, Arun; Ansari, Shahid Husain

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the anti-diabetic activity of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. heartwood in alloxan induced diabetic rats using extracts obtained by optimized conventional and non conventional extraction methods. Aqueous and ethanol extracts of Pterocarpus marsupium heartwood were prepared by conventional methods (infusion, decoction, maceration and percolation) and non conventional methods, such as ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE). The crude aqueous extracts were administered orally to both normal and alloxan induced male albino rats (Sprague-Dawley strain). The experimental set up consisted of 48 male albino rats divided into 6 groups: Normal control, diabetic control (sterile normal saline, 1 ml/100 g body weight), standard (gliclazide, 25 mg/1000g of body weight), groups 4-6 (crude aqueous percolation, optimized UAE and MAE extract, 250 mg/1000g of body weight). In acute treatment, the reduction of blood glucose level was statistically significant with the oral administration of UAE and percolation aqueous extracts to the hyperglycemic rats. In sub-acute treatment, the UAE aqueous extract led to consistent and statistically significant (p<0.001) reduction in the blood glucose levels. There was no abnormal change in body weight of the hyperglycemic animals after 10 days of administration of plant extracts and gliclazide. This study justifies the traditional claim and provides a rationale for the use of Pterocarpus marsupium to treat diabetes mellitus. The antidiabetic activity of Pterocarpus marsupium can be enhanced by extracting the heartwood by non conventional method of UAE.

  19. Effect of aluminum on the growth and nutrient uptake in cryptomeria japonica D.Don and Chamaecyparis obtusa Sieb. et Zucc.; Sugi oyobi hinoki no ikusei to yobun kyushu ni oyobosu aluminium no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kono, Y; Matsumura, H; Kobayashi, T [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-09-10

    Two-year-old seedlings of Sugi (Japanese cedar: Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) and Hinoki (Japanese cypress: Chamaecyparis obtusa Sieb. et Zucc.) were grown for 4 months in 1/5 Hoagland`s No.2 nutrient culture solution containing aluminum chloride in the concentration range of 0.5 to 20 mM within the pH range of 3.5 to 4.0. Aluminium supplied at or below 1 mM of Al had no effect on the mortality of these species. However, the increase Al concentration higher than 2 mM increased the mortality. While they showed significant growth reduction at or higher Al concentration of 5 mM, there were no difference in growth response to Al between the two species in this experiment. While Al contents in leaf and root significantly increased with increasing Al concentration in the solution, contents of Ca, Mg and P in leaf decreased. Roof p content in Sugi increased with the increase of Al concentration in the solution, while no such change was observed in Hinoki root. This result suggests that Al might make phosphate immobile or inviolable form in Sugi root and this might lead to the reduced translocation of P into the leaf. In contrast, Al did not interfere with the uptake of phosphate in the root, however, it might interrupt phosphate transport into leaf from root system in Hinoki. The Al concentration such as 5 mM in the root sphere induced growth reductions in Sugi and Hinoki, with no significant difference in the response between the two species. This concentration was much higher than those reported in the field crops, vegetables and/or herbs. Thus, if soil acidification will be induced by acidic deposition in future, these herbaceous plants will be influenced faster than the conifer trees. This also means that ground vegetation change will be observed earlier than the conifer decline by the soil acidification stress. 23 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Characteristics of physical properties in soil profiles under selected introduced trees in the Nature Reserve Arboretum Mlyňany, Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polláková Nora

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between introduced trees roots and soils in which they grow is the most important factor influencing the adaptation, growth and health of these trees. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify which physical soil properties enhance or limit the vitality of the studied introduced trees in the Arboretum Mlyňany. Soil properties were studied in seven soil profiles under dense monocultures of Chamaecyparis lawsoniana, Liriodendron tulipifera, Juniperus Chinensis, Thuja orientalis, Thuja plicata, Picea orientalis and Pinus nigra. The results showed that all stagnic horizons had exceeded the limit values of total porosity and bulk density, hence these horizons were compacted. Based on the soil and climatic requirements of the examined trees we conclude that the soil properties of their sites in arboretum are suitable for: Chamaecyparis lawsoniana, Liriodendron tulipifera, Thuja orientalis and Pinus nigra. Nevertheless, physical properties in profiles under Picea orientalis and Juniperus Chinensis do not permit rapid drainage of water, what is unfavourable for healthy development of these two species; while Thuja plicata demanding high moisture supply is grown on soil with high coarse porosity, a prerequisite of fast rainwater drainage. However, since none of the studied introduced trees had suffered from physiological disorders or diseases, they may be declared acclimatized well in the soil-climate conditions described in this study.

  1. Essential oil composition, adult repellency and larvicidal activity of eight Cupressaceae species from Greece against Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giatropoulos, Athanassios; Pitarokili, Danae; Papaioannou, Fotini; Papachristos, Dimitrios P; Koliopoulos, George; Emmanouel, Nickolaos; Tzakou, Olga; Michaelakis, Antonios

    2013-03-01

    The present study evaluated leaf essential oils from eight Cupresaceae species; Cupressus arizonica, Cupressus benthamii, Cupressus macrocarpa, Cupressus sempervirens, Cupressus torulosa, Chamaecyparis lawsoniana, Juniperus phoenicea, and Tetraclinis articulata for their larvicidal and repellent properties against Aedes albopictus, a mosquito of great ecological and medical importance. Based on the LC(50) values, C. benthamii essential oil was the most active (LC(50) = 37.5 mg/L) while the other tested Cupressaceae essential oils provided rather moderate toxicity against larvae (LC(50) = 47.9 to 70.6 mg/L). Under the used laboratory conditions, three of the essential oils (C. benthamii, C. lawsoniana, and C. macrocarpa) provided sufficient protection against mosquito adults, equivalent to the standard repellent "Deet" in the 0.2 mg/cm(2) dose, while C. macrocarpa assigned as the superior repellent oil in the 0.08 mg/cm(2) dose. Chemical analysis of the essential oils using gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed the presence of 125 components.

  2. Influence of electron beam irradiation on growth of Phytophthora cinnamomi and its control in substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    MigdaŁ, Wojciech; Orlikowski, Leszek B.; Ptaszek, Magdalena; Gryczka, Urszula

    2012-08-01

    Very extensive production procedure, especially in plants growing under covering, require methods, which would allow quick elimination or substantial reduction of populations of specific pathogens without affecting the growth and development of the cultivated plants. Among soil-borne pathogens, the Phytophthora species are especially dangerous for horticultural plants. In this study, irradiation with electron beam was applied to control Phytophthora cinnamomi. The influence of irradiation dose on the reduction of in vitro growth and the population density of the pathogen in treated peat and its mixture with composted pine bark (1:1), as well as the health of Chamaecyparis lawsoniana and Lavandula angustifolia plants were evaluated. Application of irradiation at a dose of 1.5 kGy completely inhibited the in vitro development of P. cinnamomi. This irradiation effect was connected with the disintegration of the hyphae and spores of the species. Irradiation of peat and its mixture with composted pine bark with 10 kGy resulted in the inhibition of stem base rot development in Ch. lawsoniana. Symptoms of the disease were not observed when the substrates were treated with 15 kGy. In the case of L. angustifolia, stem root rot was not observed on cuttings transplanted to infected peat irradiated at a dose of 10 kGy. Irradiation of the horticultural substrates did not affect plant growth.

  3. Natural durability of heartwoods from European and tropical Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-15

    Sep 15, 2009 ... 4426 Afr. J. Biotechnol. Table 1. Water salinity, average temperatures and coordinates of the test areas. City. ID. Test areas. Geographical latitude (North). Geographical longitude (East). Saltiness ratio (%). Average temperatures low and high (yearly) (0C). 61. Trabzon. 41°06'. 39°25'. 0.18. 7.9 - 24.4. 67.

  4. Effects of gamma-ray irradiation on interspecific hybridization between Chamaecyparis obtusa S. et Z. and Chamaecyparis pisifera S. et Z

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeta, Takehiko (Institute of Radiation Breeding, Omiya, Ibaraki (Japan))

    1982-03-01

    C. obtusa S. et Z. is one of the most important forest trees in Japan, and possesses high wood quality. It adapts to dry or semi-dry planting sites, but when it is planted in humid and productive soil, physiological damage is often seen, and its woods are not resistant against termite harm. On the contrary, C. pisifera S. et Z. has high adaptability to humid and productive soil, and is resistant against termite harm. In order to improve the resistance of C. obtusa against diseases and insects, an attempt to obtain a hybrid between C. obtusa and C. pisifera has been made. However, it was found to be very difficult to obtain the hybrid because of low cross compatibility. Therefore, the radiosensitivity of reproductive organs and the induction of mutation in C. obtusa and C. pisifera, the cause of interspecific incompatibility between both species, and the possibility of breaking down the incompatibility were investigated. Also, the cytological screening of the hybrids between C. obtusa and C. pisifera was made. It was considered that the acute gamma-ray irradiation from 500 to 600 R on male flowers was optimum for the hybridization of the present purpose. All of the hybrids produced in this study were triploid.

  5. Effects of gamma-ray irradiation on interspecific hybridization between Chamaecyparis obtusa S. et Z. and Chamaecyparis pisifera S. et Z

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeta, Takehiko

    1982-01-01

    C. obtusa S. et Z. is one of the most important forest trees in Japan, and possesses high wood quality. It adapts to dry or semi-dry planting sites, but when it is planted in humid and productive soil, physiological damage is often seen, and its woods are not resistant against termite harm. On the contrary, C. pisifera S. et Z. has high adaptability to humid and productive soil, and is resistant against termite harm. In order to improve the resistance of C. obtusa against diseases and insects, an attempt to obtain a hybrid between C. obtusa and C. pisifera has been made. However, it was found to be very difficult to obtain the hybrid because of low cross compatibility. Therefore, the radiosensitivity of reproductive organs and the induction of mutation in C. obtusa and C. pisifera, the cause of interspecific incompatibility between both species, and the possibility of breaking down the incompatibility were investigated. Also, the cytological screening of the hybrids between C. obtusa and C. pisifera was made. It was considered that the acute gamma-ray irradiation from 500 to 600 R on male flowers was optimum for the hybridization of the present purpose. All of the hybrids produced in this study were triploid. (Kako, I.)

  6. Influence of electron beam irradiation on growth of Phytophthora cinnamomi and its control in substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MigdaŁ, Wojciech; Orlikowski, Leszek B.; Ptaszek, Magdalena; Gryczka, Urszula

    2012-01-01

    Very extensive production procedure, especially in plants growing under covering, require methods, which would allow quick elimination or substantial reduction of populations of specific pathogens without affecting the growth and development of the cultivated plants. Among soil-borne pathogens, the Phytophthora species are especially dangerous for horticultural plants. In this study, irradiation with electron beam was applied to control Phytophthora cinnamomi. The influence of irradiation dose on the reduction of in vitro growth and the population density of the pathogen in treated peat and its mixture with composted pine bark (1:1), as well as the health of Chamaecyparis lawsoniana and Lavandula angustifolia plants were evaluated. Application of irradiation at a dose of 1.5 kGy completely inhibited the in vitro development of P. cinnamomi. This irradiation effect was connected with the disintegration of the hyphae and spores of the species. Irradiation of peat and its mixture with composted pine bark with 10 kGy resulted in the inhibition of stem base rot development in Ch. lawsoniana. Symptoms of the disease were not observed when the substrates were treated with 15 kGy. In the case of L. angustifolia, stem root rot was not observed on cuttings transplanted to infected peat irradiated at a dose of 10 kGy. Irradiation of the horticultural substrates did not affect plant growth. - Highlights: ► Electron beam irradiation is effective against soil-borne pathogens. ► Application of irradiation at dose 1.5 kGy completely inhibited in vitro development of Phytophthora cinnamomi. ► Irradiation of horticultural substrata did not influence the growth of plants.

  7. Microclimate and Modeled Fire Behavior Differ Between Adjacent Forest Types in Northern Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Pinto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Fire severity varies with forest composition and structure, reflecting micrometeorology and the fuel complex, but their respective influences are difficult to untangle from observation alone. We quantify the differences in fire weather between different forest types and the resulting differences in modeled fire behavior. Collection of in-stand weather data proceeded during two summer periods in three adjacent stands in northern Portugal, respectively Pinus pinaster (PP, Betula alba (BA, and Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (CL. Air temperature, relative humidity and wind speed varied respectively as CL < PP < BA, PP < CL < BA, and CL < BA < PP. Differences between PP and the other types were greatest during the warmest and driest hours of the day in a sequence of 10 days with high fire danger. Estimates of daytime moisture content of fine dead fuels and fire behavior characteristics for this period, respectively, from Behave and BehavePlus, indicate a CL < BA < PP gradient in fire potential. High stand density in CL and BA ensured lower wind speed and higher fuel moisture content than in PP, limiting the likelihood of an extreme fire environment. However, regression tree analysis revealed that the fire behavior distinction between the three forest types was primarily a function of the surface fuel complex, and more so during extreme fire weather conditions.

  8. Application of Proteomics to the Study of Pollination Drops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Prior

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Pollination drops are a formative component in gymnosperm pollen-ovule interactions. Proteomics offers a direct method for the discovery of proteins associated with this early stage of sexual reproduction. Methods: Pollination drops were sampled from eight gymnosperm species: Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (Port Orford cedar, Ephedra monosperma, Ginkgo biloba, Juniperus oxycedrus (prickly juniper, Larix ×marschlinsii, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas-fir, Taxus ×media, and Welwitschia mirabilis. Drops were collected by micropipette using techniques focused on preventing sample contamination. Drop proteins were separated using both gel and gel-free methods. Tandem mass spectrometric methods were used including a triple quadrupole and an Orbitrap. Results: Proteins are present in all pollination drops. Consistency in the protein complement over time was shown in L. ×marschlinsii. Representative mass spectra from W. mirabilis chitinase peptide and E. monosperma serine carboxypeptidase peptide demonstrated high quality results. We provide a summary of gymnosperm pollination drop proteins that have been discovered to date via proteomics. Discussion: Using proteomic methods, a dozen classes of proteins have been identified to date. Proteomics presents a way forward in deepening our understanding of the biological function of pollination drops.

  9. Effects of heartwood extractives on symbiotic protozoan communities and mortality in two termite species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babar Hassan; Mark E. Mankowski; Grant Kirker; Sohail Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Lower termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) are considered severe pests of wood in service, crops and plantation forests. Termites mechanically remove and digest lignocellulosic material as a food source. The ability to digest lignocellulose not only depends on their digestive physiology, but also on the symbiotic relationship between termites and their intestinal...

  10. Comparative analysis of the anatomical structure of heartwood and sapwood selected Gymnocladus canadensis Lam. trees in Srpska Crnja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilotić Dragica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the results obtained from the study of the macroscopic-microscopic structure (capillary system in the growth stem of Gymnocladus canadensis Lam. originating from North America, which grows in “Muzljanski rit” in the area of Srpska Crnja. Gymnocladus canadensis Lam. falls under the ring-porous species according to its porosity, with large tracheas in its early zone. The early zone trachea lumens, contained in the sapwood, reach dimensions of up to 160 μm, while early zone trachea lumens in the growth stem rings of the sapwood reach dimensions of up to 120 μm. Examination of the microscopic structure of this tree show good properties of the tree.

  11. Estimating Tree Height and Diameter at Breast Height (DBH from Digital Surface Models and Orthophotos Obtained with an Unmanned Aerial System for a Japanese Cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotaro Iizuka

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Methods for accurately measuring biophysical parameters are a key component for quantitative evaluation regarding to various forest applications. Conventional in situ measurements of these parameters take time and expense, encountering difficultness at locations with heterogeneous microtopography. To obtain precise biophysical data in such situations, we deployed an unmanned aerial system (UAS multirotor drone in a cypress forest in a mountainous area of Japan. The structure from motion (SfM method was used to construct a three-dimensional (3D model of the forest (tree structures from aerial photos. Tree height was estimated from the 3D model and compared to in situ ground data. We also analyzed the relationships between a biophysical parameter, diameter at breast height (DBH, of individual trees with canopy width and area measured from orthorectified images. Despite the constraints of ground exposure in a highly dense forest area, tree height was estimated at an accuracy of root mean square error = 1.712 m for observed tree heights ranging from 16 to 24 m. DBH was highly correlated with canopy width (R2 = 0.7786 and canopy area (R2 = 0.7923, where DBH ranged from 11 to 58 cm. The results of estimating forest parameters indicate that drone-based remote-sensing methods can be utilized to accurately analyze the spatial extent of forest structures.

  12. Antimicrobial activity of some Pacific Northwest woods against anaerobic bacteria and yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, W H; Karchesy, J J; Constantine, G H; Craig, A M

    2001-11-01

    Extracts of woods commonly used for animal bedding were tested for antimicrobial activity. Essential oils from Alaska cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis), western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis) and old growth Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) as well as methanol extracts of wood from these trees plus western red cedar (Thuja plicata) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) were tested for antimicrobial activity against anaerobic bacteria and yeast. The test microbes included Fusobacterium necrophorum, Clostridium perfringens, Actinomyces bovis and Candida albicans which are common to foot diseases and other infections in animals. The essential oils and methanol extracts were tested using a standardized broth assay. Only extracts of Alaska cedar and western juniper showed significant antimicrobial activity against each of the microbes tested. The essential oil of Douglas fir did show antimicrobial activity against A. bovis at the concentrations tested. The methanol extracts of the heartwood of Douglas fir and the sapwood of ponderosa pine showed no antimicrobial activity. The major chemical components of western juniper (cedrol and alpha- and beta-cedrene) and Alaska cedar (nootkatin) were also tested. In western juniper, alpha- and beta-cedrene were found to be active components. Nootkatin showed activity only against C. albicans. The inhibitory activity in Alaska cedar oil was high enough to justify further efforts to define the other chemical components responsible for the antimicrobial activity. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Termite feeding preference to four wood species after gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsumata, N.; Yoshimura, T.; Tsunoda, K.; Imamura, Y.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation at 100 kGy and at lower levels on termite resistance was examined in the laboratory by no-choice and choice feeding termite tests (Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki) using four wood species: sapwood of Cryptomeria japonica D. Don, and heartwoods of Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel) Franco, Larix kaempferi (Lambert) Carriere, and Chamaecyparis obtusa Endl. The wood consumption rates in C. japonica and P. menziesii specimens were likely to increase with increases in gamma-irradiation levels, whereas little effect of gamma irradiation was seen in L. kaempferi and C. obtusa. Similar results were obtained in the two-choice test. The current results indicated that in the two-choice test with C. formosanus, 100-kGy-irradiated C. japonica and P. menziesii, which are not rich in antitermite substances, were eaten more than other wood samples with or without gamma irradiation. However, only C. japonica showed significant difference in termite feeding activity. The mass loss in 100-kGy-irradiated C. japonica was significantly higher in the multichoice test

  14. Host heterogeneity influences the impact of a non-native disease invasion on populations of a foundation tree species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jules, Erik S.; Carroll, Allyson L.; Garcia, Andrea M.; Steenbock, Christopher M.; Kauffman, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Invasive pathogens are becoming increasingly important in forested ecosystems, yet they are often difficult to study because of their rapid transmission. The rate and extent of pathogen spread are thought to be partially controlled by variation in host characteristics, such as when host size and location influence susceptibility. Few host-pathogen systems, however, have been used to test this prediction. We used Port Orford cedar (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana), a foundation tree species in riparian areas of California and Oregon (USA), and the invasive oomycete Phytophthora lateralis to assess pathogen impacts and the role of host characteristics on invasion. Across three streams that had been infected for 13–18 years by P. lateralis, we mapped 2241 trees and determined whether they had been infected using dendrochronology. The infection probability of trees was governed by host size (diameter at breast height [DBH]) and geomorphic position (e.g., active channel, stream bank, floodplain, etc.) similarly across streams. For instance, only 23% of trees <20 cm DBH were infected, while 69% of trees ≥20 cm DBH were infected. Presumably, because spores of P. lateralis are transported downstream in water, they are more likely to encounter well-developed root systems of larger trees. Also because of this water-transport of spores, differences in infection probability were found across the geomorphic positions: 59% of cedar in the active channel and the stream bank (combined) were infected, while 23% of trees found on higher geomorphic types were infected. Overall, 32% of cedar had been infected across the three streams. However, 63% of the total cedar basal area had been killed, because the greatest number of trees, and the largest trees, were found in the most susceptible positions. In the active channel and stream bank, 91% of the basal area was infected, while 46% was infected across higher geomorphic positions. The invasion of Port Orford cedar populations by

  15. Investigating the potential of Aucoumea klaineana Pierre sapwood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SO4]=1% for sapwood (18.10%) and heartwood (19.46%) (w/w). Enzymatic hydrolysis of the pretreated wood samples displayed that sapwood and heartwood pulps released their highest sugars content under free acid pretreatment conditions.

  16. \\. Santalum album L. (sandalwood) is a small evergreen tree that ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    once in late summer and again between October and December, are small and purplish brown. Sandal trees show considerable variation with respect to the shape, size of their leaf and fruit and the extent of heartwood. The heartwood and the essential oil obtained from it are among the oldest known perfumery material and ...

  17. Understanding extractive bleed : wood extractives: distribution, properties, and classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward Burke; Norm Slavik; Tony Bonura; Dennis Connelly; Tom Faris; Arnie Nebelsick; Brent Stuart; Sam Williams; Alex C. Wiedenhoeft

    2010-01-01

    Color, odor, and natural durability of heartwood are characteristics imparted by a class of chemicals in wood known collectively extractives. Wood is converted by the tree from sapwood to heartwood by the deposition of extractives, typically many years after the growth ring undergoing this change was formed by the tree. Extractives are thus not a part of the wood...

  18. Development of wood decay in wound-initiated discolored wood of eastern red cedar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter C. Shortle; Kenneth R. Dudzik; Kevin T. Smith

    2010-01-01

    Logs of eastern red cedar, Juniperus virginiana L., with well-developed bands of light-colored wood ("included sapwood") within heartwood can be unsuitable for sawn wood products. This finding is in contrast to published information that the "included sapwood" is (1) a heartwood anomaly rather than sapwood and (2) its occurrence...

  19. Screening Analyses of Pinosylvin Stilbenes, Resin Acids and Lignans in Norwegian Conifers

    OpenAIRE

    Anne Fiksdahl; Karin Oyaas; Ingebjorg Leirset; Hanne Hovelstad

    2006-01-01

    The content and distribution of stilbenes and resin acids in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and spruce (Picea abies), sampled in central Norway, have been examined. The contents of pinosylvin stilbenes in pine heartwood/living knots were 0.2-2/2-8 % (w/w). No stilbenes could be detected in spruce (Picea abies). The resin acid contents of pine sapwood/heartwood and knots were 1-4 and 5-10 % (w/w), respectively. Minor amounts of resin acids (

  20. Dalnigrin, a neoflavonoid marker for the identification of Brazilian rosewood (Dalbergia nigra) in CITES enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kite, Geoffrey C; Green, Paul W C; Veitch, Nigel C; Groves, Madeleine C; Gasson, Peter E; Simmonds, Monique S J

    2010-07-01

    International trade in Brazilian rosewood, Dalbergia nigra (Vell.) Allemão ex Benth., is regulated by the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). One problem in enforcing these regulations is the difficulty in distinguishing the wood of D. nigra from that of a closely-related but unregulated species, Dalbergia spruceana Benth. Using LC-MS to analyse methanol extracts of xylaria specimens, we identified a chemical marker for D. nigra heartwood, and determined its structure as the neoflavonoid 6-hydroxy-7-methoxy-4-(4-methoxyphenyl)-2H-1-benzopyran-2-one (4'-O-methylmelanettin; dalnigrin), using spectroscopic techniques. Dalnigrin was present in all nine available heartwood specimens of D. nigra, but it was not detected in extracts of 59 other heartwood samples representing 15 species of Dalbergia, including D. spruceana. Five other phenolic compounds were also isolated from D. nigra heartwood and similarly identified as the neoflavonoids 3'-hydroxymelanettin, melanettin, melannein and dalbergin, and the isoflavone caviunin. In extracts of D. spruceana heartwood, pseudobaptigenin was identified by LC-MS to be a major phenolic component that was not detected in wood extracts of D. nigra. We conclude that chemical analysis, in combination with anatomical investigation, can provide persuasive evidence to support the positive identification of untreated heartwood of D. nigra. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Runoff Responses to Forest Thinning at Plot and Catchment Scales in a Headwater Catchment Draining Japanese Cypress Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined the effect of forest thinning on runoff generation at plot and catchment scales in headwater basins draining a Japanese cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) forest. We removed 58.3% of the stems (corresponding to 43.2% of the basal area) in the treated headwater basin (catc...

  2. Test Area C-80 Complex Final Range Environmental Assessment, Revision 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-14

    to intense noise might contribute to the development and aggravation of stress -related conditions such as high blood pressure, coronary disease...produced by test and training missions and their associated expendables. Noise may directly inconvenience and/or stress humans and some wildlife...Sherman’s fox squirrel Sciuris niger shermani Phragmites Phragmites australis American alligator Alligator mississippiensis White cedar Chamaecyparis

  3. Effect of root strength and soil saturation on hillslope stability in forests with natural cedar decline in headwater regions of SE Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelaide C. Johnson; Peter. Wilcock

    1998-01-01

    A natural decline in the population of yellow-cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis) is occurring in pristine southeast Alaska forests and may be the most significant forest decline in the western United States. The frequency of landslides in cedar decline areas is three times larger than in areas of healthy forest. Three regions are investigated in...

  4. A New Species of Megastigmus Dalman (Hymenoptera: Torymidae) Reared from Seeds of Atlantic White Cedar (Cupressaceae), with Notes on Infestation Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.J. Turgeon; K. Kamijo; G. DeBarr

    1997-01-01

    A new species, Megastigmus thyoides Kamijo (Hymenoptera: Torymidae), which emerged from seeds of Atlantic white cedar, Chamaecyparis thyoides (L.) B.S.P., collected in eastern United States is described and illustrated. This is the first record of this genus exploiting seeds of Cupressaceae in the Nearctic region. An average of 7% of the seeds collected from five sites...

  5. Adaptation to exploit nitrate in surface soils predisposes yellow-cedar to climate-induced decline while enhancing the survival of western redcedar: a new hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    David V. D' Amore; Paul E. Hennon; Paul G. Schaberg; Gary J. Hawley

    2009-01-01

    Yellow-cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis (D. Don) Spach) and western redcedar (Thuja plicata Donn), two valuable tree species of Pacific Northwest forests, are competitive in low productivity forests on wet, nearly saturated soils with low nitrogen (N) availability and turnover. We propose a mechanism where cedar trees survive in...

  6. Seasonal differences in freezing tolerance of yellow-cedar and western hemlock trees at a site affected by yellow-cedar decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul G. Schaberg; Paul E. Hennon; Amore, David V. D; Gary J. Hawley; Catherine H. Borer; Catherine H. Borer

    2005-01-01

    To assess whether inadequate cold hardiness could be a contributor to yellow-cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis (D. Don) Spach) decline, we measured the freezing tolerance of foliage from yellow-cedar trees in closed-canopy (nondeclining) and open-canopy (declining at elevations below 130 m) stands at three sites along an elevational gradient in the heart of the decline...

  7. PIXE (proton induced X-ray emission) analysis of caatinger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, T.M.; Futatsugawa, Shoji; Sera, Kouichiro.

    1995-01-01

    Caatinger (Mimosa acutistipula Benth), which has been a popular wood among the people in north east part of Brazil, was analyzed using PIXE (proton induced X-ray emission). The wood sample was divided into three parts, center, inner and outer side of the wood. Using the wood slice of each part, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Y, Ru and Pb were detected. When the wood slices were decomposed with nitric acid, Co and Ni were able to be determined. Two samples, non-destructive and chemically treated sample, of heartwood and sapwood showed the similar concentration of the elements. There was a discrete change of the accumulated elements between heartwood and sapwood. Most of the elements detected tended to be concentrated at sapwood, whereas Ca, Cu and Sr were concentrated at heartwood. At center part, especially, Na, Mg, Fe and Sr were accumulated. Since most of the heartwood and sapwood is dead, discrete change of the element concentration suggests some element movement across the annual ring at heartwood formation. (author)

  8. Evaluation of immunomodulatory activity of “Shirishavaleha”–An Ayurvedic compound formulation in albino rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Shyamlal Singh; Galib; Prajapati, P. K.; Ashok, B. K.; Ravishankar, B.

    2011-01-01

    The immunomodulatory activity of Shirishavaleha prepared from two different parts of Shirisha (Albizia lebbeck Benth), i.e., Twak (Bark) and Sara (Heartwood) as main ingredients was evaluated for humoral antibody formation and cell-mediated immunity in established experimental models. The study used Wistar rats of either sex weighing 200 ± 40 g, while the test drug was administered orally at a dose of 1.8 g/kg. Hemagglutination titer and body weight were recorded to assess effects on humoral immunity; immunological paw edema was assessed for cell-mediated immunity. Shirishavaleha prepared from heartwood shows significant enhancement in antibody formation, attenuation of body weight changes, and suppression of immunological paw edema, while Shirishavaleha prepared from bark shows weak immunomodulatory activity. The study therefore concludes that Shirishavaleha prepared from heartwood has significant immunomodulatory activity. PMID:22253509

  9. Evaluation of immunomodulatory activity of " Shirishavaleha"-An Ayurvedic compound formulation in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyamlal Singh Yadav

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The immunomodulatory activity of Shirishavaleha prepared from two different parts of Shirisha (Albizia lebbeck Benth, i.e., Twak (Bark and Sara (Heartwood as main ingredients was evaluated for humoral antibody formation and cell-mediated immunity in established experimental models. The study used Wistar rats of either sex weighing 200 ± 40 g, while the test drug was administered orally at a dose of 1.8 g/kg. Hemagglutination titer and body weight were recorded to assess effects on humoral immunity; immunological paw edema was assessed for cell-mediated immunity. Shirishavaleha prepared from heartwood shows significant enhancement in antibody formation, attenuation of body weight changes, and suppression of immunological paw edema, while Shirishavaleha prepared from bark shows weak immunomodulatory activity. The study therefore concludes that Shirishavaleha prepared from heartwood has significant immunomodulatory activity.

  10. Evaluation of immunomodulatory activity of "Shirishavaleha"-An Ayurvedic compound formulation in albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Shyamlal Singh; Galib; Prajapati, P K; Ashok, B K; Ravishankar, B

    2011-10-01

    The immunomodulatory activity of Shirishavaleha prepared from two different parts of Shirisha (Albizia lebbeck Benth), i.e., Twak (Bark) and Sara (Heartwood) as main ingredients was evaluated for humoral antibody formation and cell-mediated immunity in established experimental models. The study used Wistar rats of either sex weighing 200 ± 40 g, while the test drug was administered orally at a dose of 1.8 g/kg. Hemagglutination titer and body weight were recorded to assess effects on humoral immunity; immunological paw edema was assessed for cell-mediated immunity. Shirishavaleha prepared from heartwood shows significant enhancement in antibody formation, attenuation of body weight changes, and suppression of immunological paw edema, while Shirishavaleha prepared from bark shows weak immunomodulatory activity. The study therefore concludes that Shirishavaleha prepared from heartwood has significant immunomodulatory activity.

  11. Aqueous leachate from western red cedar: effects on some aquatic organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, G B; Dawson, H J; Hrutfiord, B F; Whitney, R R

    1976-01-01

    Water-soluble extractives from western red cedar heartwood, bark, and foliage were investigated for their toxicity to aquatic organisms. The heartwood lignins and bark extractives were found to be moderately toxic, but the foliage terpenes and heartwood tropolones were more toxic, causing 50% mortality to coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) fry at 0.33 and 2.7 mg/liter, respectively. Tropolones were significantly less toxic to invertebrates than to free-swimming stages of the fish tested. Fry were found to be the stage of development of coho salmon (O. kisutch) most sensitive to the tropolones, and eyed eggs the least sensitive. Sensitivity of the coho fry to tropolones was moderated by previous sublethal exposure or the presence of a chelatable cation. Results from field studies and a leaching study indicate that directly releasing cedar leachate from landfills or allowing logging debris to enter streams should be avoided. 13 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  12. Biogeochemical investigation in south eastern Andhra Pradesh: the distribution of rare earths, thorium and uranium in plants and soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raju, K.K.; Raju, A.N.

    2000-01-01

    The concentration of rare earth elements (REE), thorium and uranium were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in the plant species, Pterocarpus santalinus, P. marsupium and P. dalbergioides, and the soils on which they were growing. Higher concentrations of lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce) were observed in both plants and soils. Large amounts of thorium and uranium were found in the soil. In all tree species, the concentration of REEs were higher in the heartwood than the leaves. The heartwood of P. santalinus accumulated larger quantities of uranium (average concentration of 1.22 ppm) and thorium (mean value of 2.57 ppm) than the other two species. (orig.)

  13. Demonstration of Reduced False Alarm Rates using Simulated L-Band Polarimetric SAR Imagery of Concealed Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-14

    of Joensuu, Finland. These take the form of collections of dielectric cylinders, with detailed information concerning sapwood and heartwood dimensions...centre, and at 3km height above the minimum height of the DEM. The imaged area was 91m square, with pixels spaced at 0.5m. A Hamming weighted PSF was...correlation length was 0.1510m. Wood permittivity ranged from 2.2-i0.4 (deadwood) to 26.8-i5.3 ( sapwood ) via 6.7-i1.9 (heartwood). Total attenuation

  14. A numerical and experimental study of stress and crack development in kiln-dried wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Finn; Ormarsson, Sigurdur

    2012-01-01

    Numerical and experimental investigations were carried out on well defined log-disc samples of Norway spruce consisting of both heartwood and sapwood, with the aim of gaining more adequate knowledge of stress and fracture generation during the drying process. Use of thin discs enabled a well-controlled...... and simplified drying history of the samples to be obtained. Experiments supported by the numerical model showed the heartwood to dry below the fibre saturation point, much earlier than the sapwood, and thus to start shrinking at a much earlier stage....

  15. Ecology of Buzzards Bay: An Estuarine Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Atlantic white cedar (Chamaecyparis thyoides), highbush blueberry { Vaccinium corymbosum ), and swamp azalea {Rhododendron viscosum), occur in areas...ice left by the retreating glaciers were buried by glacial debris and outwash sands that collapsed as the ice melted, leav- ing the depressions . When...persistently saturated soils. These bogs are dominated by Sphagnum spp. or "peat" mosses and low-growing shrubs like cranberry ( Vaccinium macrocarpon

  16. Atlantic white cedar: ecology, restoration, and management: Proceedings of the Arlington Echo symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip Sheridan

    2005-01-01

    A symposium was held on the globally threatened and coastally restricted tree species, Atlantic white-cedar (Chamaecyparis thyoides (L) B.S.P.) at the Arlington Echo Outdoor Education Center, Millersville, MD, in June 2003. The theme of the symposium was “Uniting Forces for Action,” and participants in the symposium came from throughout the range of this species, from...

  17. Xeromorphic traits help to maintain photosynthesis in the perhumid climate of a Taiwanese cloud forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pariyar, Shyam; Chang, Shih-Chieh; Zinsmeister, Daniel; Zhou, Haiyang; Grantz, David A; Hunsche, Mauricio; Burkhardt, Juergen

    2017-07-01

    Previous flux measurements in the perhumid cloud forest of northeastern Taiwan have shown efficient photosynthesis of the endemic tree species Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana even under foggy conditions in which leaf surface moisture would be expected. We hypothesized this to be the result of 'xeromorphic' traits of the Chamaecyparis leaves (hydrophobicity, stomatal crypts, stomatal clustering), which could prevent coverage of stomata by precipitation, fog, and condensation, thereby maintaining CO 2 uptake. Here we studied the amount, distribution, and composition of moisture accumulated on Chamaecyparis leaf surfaces in situ in the cloud forest. We studied the effect of surface tension on gas penetration to stomata using optical O 2 microelectrodes in the laboratory. We captured the dynamics of condensation to the leaf surfaces with an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM). In spite of substantial surface hydrophobicity, the mean water film thickness on branchlets under foggy conditions was 80 µm (upper surface) and 40 µm (lower surface). This amount of water could cover stomata and prevent CO 2 uptake. This is avoided by the clustered arrangement of stomata within narrow clefts and the presence of Florin rings. These features keep stomatal pores free from water due to surface tension and provide efficient separation of plant and atmosphere in this perhumid environment. Air pollutants, particularly hygroscopic aerosol, may disturb this functionality by enhancing condensation and reducing the surface tension of leaf surface water.

  18. 75 FR 8031 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... will collect information from the permit application regarding the type, number, and identification of... hardwood trees. It attacks many healthy hardwood trees, including maple, horse chestnut, birch, popular, willow, and elm. The beetle bores into the heartwood of a host tree, eventually killing the tree. The U.S...

  19. Crown ratio influences allometric scaling in trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annikki Makela; Harry T. Valentine

    2006-01-01

    Allometric theories suggest that the size and shape of organisms follow universal rules, with a tendency toward quarter-power scaling. In woody plants, however, structure is influenced by branch death and shedding, which leads to decreasing crown ratios, accumulation of heartwood, and stem and branch tapering. This paper examines the impacts on allometric scaling of...

  20. Wood anatomy of Pleodendron costaricense (Canellaceae) from Southern Pacific, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger Moya Roque; Manuel Morales Salazar; Michael C. Wiemann; Luis Poveda Alvarez

    2007-01-01

    Pleodendron costaricense N. Zamora, Hammel & R. Aguilar (Canellaceae) is an endemic species from the southern Pacific region of Costa Rica. It is rare and is considered to be a living fossil. The wood of P. costaricense has high density (0.92 Kg/cm3, air dry) with little distinction between heartwood and sapwood. The growth rings are marked...

  1. Antioxidant activity of extracts from the wood and bark of Port OrFord cedar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng Gao; Todd F. Shupe; Thomas L. Eberhardt; Chung Y. Hse

    2007-01-01

    Heartwood, sapwood, and inner and outer bark of Port Orford cedar were extracted with methanol, and the extracts evaluated for antioxidant activity. The total phenol content (TPC) of the extracts was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method and expressed as gallic acid equivalent (GAE). Butylated hydroxytoluene was used as a positive control in the free-radical-...

  2. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    is the multi-layered bark, which acts as a protective layer against extreme weather ... In most woods, cross-sections of the logs show two more or less distinct regions based on the ... dark-colored heartwood constitute the wood of trees. The heart- wood in .... proxy9 perspective such as wood is very important. The annular.

  3. Characterizing butt-rot fungi on USA-affiliated islands in the western Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phil Cannon; Ned B. Klopfenstein; Robert L. Schlub; Mee-Sook Kim; Yuko Ota; Norio Sahashi; Roland J. Quitugua; John W. Hanna; Amy L. Ross-Davis; J. D. Sweeney

    2014-01-01

    Ganoderma and Phellinus are genera that commonly cause tree butt-rot on USA-affiliated islands of the western Pacific. These fungal genera can be quite prevalent, especially in older mangrove stands. Although the majority of infections caused by these fungi lead to severe rotting of the heartwood, they typically do not directly kill the living tissues of the sapwood,...

  4. Long-term trends in nitrogen isotope composition and nitrogen concentration in brazilian rainforest trees suggest changes in nitrogen cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hietz, Peter; Dünisch, Oliver; Wanek, Wolfgang

    2010-02-15

    Direct or indirect anthropogenic effects on ecosystem nitrogen cycles are important components of global change. Recent research has shown that N isotopes in tree rings reflect changes in ecosystem nitrogen sources or cycles and can be used to study past changes. We analyzed trends in two tree species from a remote and pristine tropical rainforest in Brazil, using trees of different ages to distinguish between the effect of tree age and long-term trends. Because sapwood differed from heartwood in delta(15)N and N concentration and N can be translocated between living sapwood cells, long-term trends are best seen in dead heartwood. Heartwood delta(15)N in Spanish cedar (Cedrela odorata) and big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) increased with tree age, and N concentrations increased with age in Cedrela. Controlling for tree age, delta(15)N increased significantly during the past century even when analyzing only heartwood and after removing labile N compounds. In contrast to northern temperate and boreal forests where wood delta(15)N often decreased, the delta(15)N increase in a remote rainforest is unlikely to be a direct signal of changed N deposition. More plausibly, the change in N isotopic composition indicates a more open N cycle, i.e., higher N losses relative to internal N cycling in the forest, which could be the result of changed forest dynamics.

  5. Changes in the distribution of radiocesium in the wood of Japanese cedar trees from 2011 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Hideki; Hirano, Yurika; Igei, Shigemitsu; Yokota, Kahori; Arai, Shio; Ito, Hirohisa; Kumata, Atsushi; Yoshida, Hirohisa

    2016-09-01

    The changes in the distribution of (137)Cs in the wood of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) trunks within three years after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNP) accident in 2011 were investigated. Thirteen trees were felled to collect samples at 6 forests in 2 regions of the Fukushima prefecture. The radial distribution of (137)Cs in the wood was measured at different heights. Profiles of (137)Cs distribution in the wood changed considerably from 2011 to 2013, and the process of (137)Cs distribution change in the wood was clarified. From 2011 to 2012, the active transportation from sapwood to heartwood and the radial diffusion in heartwood proceeded quickly, and the radial (137)Cs distribution differed according to the vertical positon of trees. From 2012 to 2013, the vertical diffusion of (137)Cs from the treetop to the ground, probably caused by the gradient of (137)Cs concentration in the trunk, was observed. Eventually, the radial (137)Cs distributions were nearly identical at any vertical positions in 2013. Our results suggested that the active transportation from sapwood to heartwood and the vertical and radial diffusion in heartwood proceeded according to the vertical position of the tree and (137)Cs distribution in the wood approached the equilibrium state within three years after the accident. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Valencene oxidase CYP706M1 from Alaska cedar (Callitropsis nootkatensis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cankar, K.; Houwelingen, van A.M.M.L.; Goedbloed, M.A.; Renirie, R.; Jong, de R.M.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Bosch, H.J.; Sonke, Th.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    (+)-Nootkatone is a natural sesquiterpene ketone used in grapefruit and citrus flavour compositions. It occurs in small amounts in grapefruit and is a major component of Alaska cedar (Callitropsis nootkatensis) heartwood essential oil. Upon co-expression of candidate cytochrome P450 enzymes from

  7. Characterizing forest root‐ and butt‐rot fungi in Yap, Palau, Pohnpei, Kosrae, Guam and Saipan [Chapter III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phil Cannon; Ned B. Klopfenstein; Mee-Sook Kim; Yuko Ota; Norio Sahashi; Robert L. Schlub; Roger Brown; Sara M. Ashiglar; Amy L. Ross-Davis; John W. Hanna

    2014-01-01

    Ganoderma and Phellinus are two common fungal genera causing butt-rot on trees growing on USA-affiliated islands of the western Pacific. Although these fungi can be quite prevalent, especially in some older mangrove stands, it appears that the majority of infections caused by these fungi leads to severe rotting of the heartwood but do not kill the living...

  8. Coast redwood live crown and sapwood

    Science.gov (United States)

    John-Pascal Berrill; Jesse L. Deffress; Jessica M. Engle

    2012-01-01

    Understanding crown rise and sapwood taper will help meet management objectives such as producing long branch-free boles for clear wood and old-growth restoration, or producing sawlogs with a high proportion of heartwood. Coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) tree crown ratio data were collected 20 years after partial harvesting in a 65-year-old second growth stand....

  9. 40 CFR 429.11 - General definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... are given, the daily maximum limitation is a value that should not be exceeded by any one effluent measurement. The 30-day limitation is a value that should not be exceeded by the average of daily measurements..., heartwood or sapwood that will not pass through a 2.54 cm (1.0 in) diameter round opening and is present in...

  10. Protecting wood fences for yard and garden

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. C. De Groot; W. C. Feist; W. E. Eslyn; L. R. Gjovik

    For maximum protection against wood decay and termites, use posts that have an in-depth preservative treatment, preferably a pressure treatment for below ground use. When selecting posts of naturally decay-resistant woods, choose posts with mostly heartwood. Horizontal rails require more protection from decay than do vertical boards. In regions of high and moderate...

  11. Online resources for the identification of North American wood decay fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessie A. Glaeser

    2012-01-01

    The ability to identify wood decay fungi is an important skill for an arborist. Knowing which fungus is colonizing a tree can be used to better assess the type, amount, and position of decay in the tree, and its subsequent effects on wood strength. Distinguishing species of fungi that colonize sapwood, heartwood, or roots can provide information to improve the quality...

  12. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 260 ... Vol 39 (1999), Influence of pre-treatments on the desorption isotherm characteristics of plaintain, Details. P-N T Johnson. Vol 24, No 1 ... Vol 42 (2002), Investigation of Musanga cecropioides heartwood as a thermal insulator for refrigerators, coolers and food flask, Abstract. SE Etuk, LE Akpabio, KE ...

  13. Intraspecific variability of European larch for wood properties: Preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paques, L.E.; Rozenberg, P. [Institut National de Recherches Agronomiques (INRA), 45 - Olivet (France). Station d`Amelioration des Arbres Forestiers

    1995-12-31

    Wood properties of several natural populations of European larch (Larix decidua Mill) were determined from samples collected in one replicate of the II. International IUFRO provenance experiment, planted in Brittany in 1959. According to provenances, proportion of heartwood ranges from 35 to 58% of basal area, basic density from 442 to 505 g/dm{sup 3} and Young modulus of elasticity from 8474 to 14522 MPa. Positive correlations between girth and heartwood proportion and between wood density and modulus of elasticity but negative correlations between ring width and both density and MOE have been found both at the individual and at the population levels. Variability between and within provenances is high for two major traits (proportion of heartwood and Young modulus of elasticity) for which a SW - NE gradient is shown. For wood density parameters including pilodyn, a greater homogeneity is observed. Besides a now largely recognized superiority for growth traits, Central European populations from the Sudetan Mountains and Central Poland would also produce wood with better properties. On the reverse, Alpine populations from the French Alps growing at low elevations have a slower growth, a denser wood with less heartwood and less strength. Used as a control, the hybrid larch origin (Larix x eurolepis) represents the best compromise for wood properties with the highest strength but an average wood density and one of the highest proportion of heartwood. These preliminary results must be confirmed from a larger set of provenances and completed with other major wood properties such as durability and shrinkage. 17 refs, 2 figs, 6 tabs

  14. Intraspecific variability of European larch for wood properties: Preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paques, L E; Rozenberg, P [Institut National de Recherches Agronomiques (INRA), 45 - Olivet (France). Station d` Amelioration des Arbres Forestiers

    1996-12-31

    Wood properties of several natural populations of European larch (Larix decidua Mill) were determined from samples collected in one replicate of the II. International IUFRO provenance experiment, planted in Brittany in 1959. According to provenances, proportion of heartwood ranges from 35 to 58% of basal area, basic density from 442 to 505 g/dm{sup 3} and Young modulus of elasticity from 8474 to 14522 MPa. Positive correlations between girth and heartwood proportion and between wood density and modulus of elasticity but negative correlations between ring width and both density and MOE have been found both at the individual and at the population levels. Variability between and within provenances is high for two major traits (proportion of heartwood and Young modulus of elasticity) for which a SW - NE gradient is shown. For wood density parameters including pilodyn, a greater homogeneity is observed. Besides a now largely recognized superiority for growth traits, Central European populations from the Sudetan Mountains and Central Poland would also produce wood with better properties. On the reverse, Alpine populations from the French Alps growing at low elevations have a slower growth, a denser wood with less heartwood and less strength. Used as a control, the hybrid larch origin (Larix x eurolepis) represents the best compromise for wood properties with the highest strength but an average wood density and one of the highest proportion of heartwood. These preliminary results must be confirmed from a larger set of provenances and completed with other major wood properties such as durability and shrinkage. 17 refs, 2 figs, 6 tabs

  15. Potential in using elemental concentrations in radial increments of old growth eastern red cedar to examine the chemical history of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guyette, R.; McGinnes, E.A. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Research examines the potential of utilizing elemental concentrations in the wood of eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) to make inferences about past changes in atmospheric and site chemistry. Crossdated growth increments from live trees and remnant wood are analyzed by neutron activation analysis (NAA) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP Scan) for elements with potential environmental information. Radial heartwood ring series from 300 to 700 years in length are analyzed in 20 year increments for 37 different elements. Evidence for minimal radial translocation of elements in the heartwood is presented. The radial concentration of elements in the bole is found to be coincident with early smelting activities. 7 references, 4 figures

  16. Experimental Investigation of Moisture Driven Fracture in Solid Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Finn; Ormarsson, Sigurdur; Olesen, John Forbes

    2010-01-01

    Solid timber products, containing both heartwood and sapwood, often have a high tendency to crack during the drying process. This can cause severe loss of material for the saw-mills, especially for products with large cross sectional dimensions. The cracks (e.g. end-cracks) arise, in some cases......, early in the drying process and close again later in the process. It can be difficult to see the closed cracks with visual grading. This may result in too high grading of the damaged material which may cause problems for customers such as building and furniture industries. Moisture content (MC) in green...... wood varies within the cross section of a timber log. The MC of heartwood, for example, is considerable lower than the MC of sapwood. Shrinkage starts at different times within different parts of the cross section, which results in a complex state of strains and stresses. The moisture related crack...

  17. Distribution of 90Sr and 137Cs in annual tree rings of Japanese cedar, Cryptomeria Japonica D. Don

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chigira, Midori; Saito, Yuko; Kimura, Kan

    1988-01-01

    The contents of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in two samples of Japanese cedar from Takao and Tsukui districts were determined in tree rings cut into segments representing steps of 5 years of growth. 90 Sr in both cedar samples and 137 Cs in the Tsukui cedar sample were determined after ashing and chemical isolation, while 137 Cs in the Takao sample was directly determined from the sample ash. The distribution of 90 Sr fallout in tree rings suggests that 90 Sr had given a rather direct effect and showed no significant translocation from sapwood to heartwood, whereas 137 Cs tends to concentrate in heartwood irrespective of the effect of the fallout. Average contents of 90 Sr and 137 Cs were 22 and 9.4 pCi/kg in the Takao sample (9.61 kg air dried) and were 23 and 12 in the Tsukui (4.71 kg air dried) in 1982. (author)

  18. Anti-inflammatory activity of Shirishavaleha: An Ayurvedic compound formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Shyamlal Singh; Galib; Ravishankar, B; Prajapati, P K; Ashok, B K; Varun, B

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of Shirishavaleha prepared from two different parts of Shirisha (Albizia lebbeck Benth.), viz. the bark (Twak) and the heartwood (Sara). The activity was screened in the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model in albino rats. The raw materials were collected and authenticated in the university and the trial formulations were prepared by following standard classical guidelines. Randomly selected animals were divided into four groups of six animals each. The test drugs were administered orally at a dose of 1.8 g/kg for 5 days. Phenylbutazone was used as the standard anti-inflammatory drug for comparison. Between the two different test samples studied, the formulation made from heartwood showed a weak anti-inflammatory activity in this model while that made from the bark produced a considerable suppression of edema after 6 h. It appears that the bark sample would be preferable for clinical use.

  19. Antibacterial activity of Artocarpus heterophyllus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M R; Omoloso, A D; Kihara, M

    2003-07-01

    The crude methanolic extracts of the stem and root barks, stem and root heart-wood, leaves, fruits and seeds of Artocarpus heterophyllus and their subsequent partitioning with petrol, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and butanol gave fractions that exhibited a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity. The butanol fractions of the root bark and fruits were found to be the most active. None of the fractions were active against the fungi tested.

  20. A preliminary study of the deterioration of alder and Douglas-fir chips in outdoor piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernest. Wright

    1954-01-01

    In the fall of 1952, E. E. Matson of the Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station learned that the Fir-Tex Insulating Board Company bf St. Helens, Oregon was considering mixing alder with Douglas-fir chips for outside storage. Since alder heartwood i s more susceptible to decay than that of Douglas-fir, the question arose whether mixing the two might...

  1. Market potential of mesquite as fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.T. Wiley; F.G. Manwiller

    1976-01-01

    The heat combustion of mesquite heartwood, aspwood, bark, and a mixture of stems and leaves was tested. The values averaged 8,657, 8,021, 7,836, and 8,123 Btu per OD pound, respectively. If an industrial plant requiring 50,000 pounds of steam per hour were located in an area averaging 25 green tons of mesquite fiber per acre, a harvest radius of about 3 miles would be...

  2. Monomeric Ellagitannins in Oaks and Sweetgum

    OpenAIRE

    Lei, Zhentian

    2002-01-01

    Ellagitannins are plant phenolics characterized by biaryl-coupled gallic acid moieties esterified to a D-glucose core. They are widely distributed through higher plants. In the case of oaks, ellagitannin concentrations in heartwood can reach up to 10% (dry wt. basis). These secondary metabolites are not only important physiologically but also influence the economic value and quality of wood products that contain them. Efforts were made to develop and validate the methods used to quantify ...

  3. Paired dating of pith and outer edge (terminus) samples from prehispanic Caribbean wooden sculptures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiona Brock; Joanna Ostapkowicz; Christopher Bronk Ramsey; Alex Wiedenhoeft; Caroline. Cartwright

    2012-01-01

    Radiocarbon dating of historical and archaeological wood can be complicated, sometimes involving issues of “inbuilt” age in slow-growing woods, and/or the possibility of reuse or long delays between felling and use of the wood. Terminus dates can be provided by dating the sapwood, or the outermost edge of heartwood, while a date from the pith can give an indication of...

  4. 3-Epiabruslactone A, a New Triterpene Lactone Isolated from Austroplenckia populnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Grácia Divina de Fátima

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A new lactonic triterpene isolated from the heartwood of Austroplenckia populnea (Celastraceae was characterized as 3alpha-hydroxyolean-12-en-29,22alpha-olide (the gamma-lactone of the 3alpha,22alpha-dihydroxyolean-12-en-29alpha-oic acid, the 3-epimer of the abruslactone A, on the basis of its spectral data, chemical transformations, and single crystal X-ray analysis.

  5. New Insights on Wood Dimensional Stability Influenced by Secondary Metabolites: The Case of a Fast-Growing Tropical Species Bagassa guianensis Aubl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Bossu

    Full Text Available Challenging evaluation of tropical forest biodiversity requires the reporting of taxonomic diversity but also the systematic characterization of wood properties in order to discover new promising species for timber industry. Among wood properties, the dimensional stability is regarded as a major technological characteristic to validate whether a wood species is adapted to commercial uses. Cell structure and organization are known to influence the drying shrinkage making wood density and microfibrils angle markers of choice to predict wood dimensional stability. On the contrary the role of wood extractive content remains unclear. This work focuses on the fast-growing tropical species Bagassa guianensis and we report herein a correlation between heartwood drying shrinkage and extractive content. Chemical extractions and shrinkage experiments were performed on separate wood twin samples to better evaluate correctly how secondary metabolites influence the wood shrinkage behaviour. Extractive content were qualitatively and quantitatively analysed using HPLC and NMR spectroscopy. We found that B guianensis heartwood has a homogeneous low shrinkage along its radius that could not be explained only by its basic density. In fact the low drying shrinkage is correlated to the high extractive content and a corrected model to improve the prediction of wood dimensional stability is presented. Additionally NMR experiments conducted on sapwood and heartwood extracts demonstrate that secondary metabolites biosynthesis occurs in sapwood thus revealing B. guianensis as a Juglans-Type heartwood formation. This work demonstrates that B. guianensis, a fast-growing species associated with high durability and high dimensional stability, is a good candidate for lumber production and commercial purposes.

  6. Sesquiterpenes and a phenylpropanoid from Cordia trichotoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Menezes, Jane Eire S A; Machado, Francisca Elane A; Lemos, Telma Leda G; Silveira, Edilberto R; Braz Filho, Raimundo; Pessoa, Otília Deusdênia L

    2004-01-01

    Two new secondary metabolites, the phenylpropanoid 3-(2',4',5'-trimethoxyphenyl)propanoic acid (1) and the sesquiterpene (+)-1beta,4beta,6alpha-trihydroxyeudesmane (2) were isolated from the heartwood of Cordia trichotoma Vell., along with the known sesquiterpenes (-)-1beta,4beta,7alpha-trihydroxyeudesmane (3) and (+)-1beta,4beta,11-trihydroxyoppositane (4). Their structures were elucidated by means of spectroscopic data interpretation, mainly 1D and 2D NMR and mass spectrometry.

  7. Some regularities in invertebrate succession in different microhabitats on pine stumps

    OpenAIRE

    Franch, Joan

    1989-01-01

    Sixty eight pine stumps felled on known dates from one to sixteen years before the moment of sampling have been studied in the San Juan de la Peña woodland (province of Huesca). Four microhabitats were distinguished: bark, subcortical space, sapwood and heartwood. The object of the study is to compare the invertebrate macrofauna succession of the different microhabitats in order to find regularities among them. The biocenosis has not been completely studied: ipidae, diptera and annelidae are ...

  8. Variation of some wood macroscopic properties along the stem of Acacia melanoxylon R. Br. adult trees in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Santos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: The aim of the study is to assess the variation of pith eccentricity, heartwood proportion, latewood percentage and basic wood density along the stem of 45-year-old A. melanoxylon trees collected in four sites of Portugal, and investigate the eventual relationship between these variables.Area of study: Sites covering littoral north, mid interior north and centre interior of Portugal.Materials and methods: Four sites and five trees per site were selected in the Acacia melanoxylon Portuguese forest.One wood sample at each of six height levels per tree was collected in order to evaluate its basic density, pith eccentricity, heartwood and latewood proportions.Main results: The high variability of the wood macroscopic properties among trees from the same site regarding to the variation of the corresponding average properties along the stem is a key characteristic of the experimental data.As a consequence, a multiple linear regression model tested was not able to properly explain the wood basic density variation of the 120 wood samples analysed. In spite of this, the following trends could be recognized: (i excluding the base level, wood basic density moderately increased with tree level; (ii latewood proportion followed similar behaviour; (iii pith eccentricity was low; (iv heartwood proportion decreased markedly with tree height, from 70% at the base to 7% at the top.Research highlights: The high basic density, the relatively low variability along the stem and the low pith eccentricity enable us to anticipate good performance as raw material for the wood industry.Key words: Acacia melanoxylon; basic density; earlywood; latewood; heartwood; sapwood; pith eccentricity.

  9. California Black Oak Drying Problems and the Bacterial Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    operations in Anderson area and to adjacent kilns by spacing stickers 18 inches apart and Georgia and wondered if bacterial tree drying softwood lumber at...on stickers in a weighted, volatile fatty acids which are the sapwood , and then from the outer, covered pile placed outdoors on the characteristic of...1. JT~~~ Figure 1 —Scanning electron micrographs of nonintected sapwood (A-B) and bacterially infected heartwood (C-D) from

  10. Natural Durability of Citharexylum spinosum and Morus alba Woods Against Three Mold Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maisa M. A. Mansour

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The natural durability of wood to mold fungi was tested under laboratory conditions with locally sourced Citharexylum spinosum and Morus alba woods. The mold fungi were Penicillium selerotigenum, Paecilomyces variotii, and Aspergillus niger. Changes in surface elemental composition were evaluated with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX and the biodeterioration of wood surfaces by scanning electron microscope (SEM. The C peak element of C. spinosum wood was affected significantly (P = 0.0004 and decreased from 49.91% in the control specimens to 47%, 40.1%, and 40% with P. selerotigenum, A. niger, and P. variotii, respectively. Also, the C peak element of M. alba heartwood significantly decreased (P < 0.0001 from 51.33% in the control specimens to 41.49%, 45.66%, and 43.66% in wood inoculated with A. niger, P. variotii, and P. selerotigenum, respectively. The elements Al and Cu were observed in high percentages with M. alba heartwood inoculated by P. variotii. The methanol extract from M. alba heartwood showed good inhibition against the growth of A. niger at a concentration of 32 μg/mL, and the methanol extract from C. spinosum wood showed remarkable inhibition against the growth of P. variotii at a concentration of 8 μg/mL. The results of this study clearly showed the changes that occur in wood samples as a result of fungal infestation.

  11. Diversity and decay ability of basidiomycetes isolated from lodgepole pines killed by the mountain pine beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, E; Kim, J-J; Lim, Y W; Au-Yeung, T T; Yang, C Y H; Breuil, C

    2011-01-01

    When lodgepole pines (Pinus contorta Douglas ex Louden var. latifolia Engelm. ex S. Watson) that are killed by the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) and its fungal associates are not harvested, fungal decay can affect wood and fibre properties. Ophiostomatoids stain sapwood but do not affect the structural properties of wood. In contrast, white or brown decay basidiomycetes degrade wood. We isolated both staining and decay fungi from 300 lodgepole pine trees killed by mountain pine beetle at green, red, and grey stages at 10 sites across British Columbia. We retained 224 basidiomycete isolates that we classified into 34 species using morphological and physiological characteristics and rDNA large subunit sequences. The number of basidiomycete species varied from 4 to 14 species per site. We assessed the ability of these fungi to degrade both pine sapwood and heartwood using the soil jar decay test. The highest wood mass losses for both sapwood and heartwood were measured for the brown rot species Fomitopsis pinicola and the white rot Metulodontia and Ganoderma species. The sap rot species Trichaptum abietinum was more damaging for sapwood than for heartwood. A number of species caused more than 50% wood mass losses after 12 weeks at room temperature, suggesting that beetle-killed trees can rapidly lose market value due to degradation of wood structural components.

  12. The O-methyltransferase PMT2 mediates methylation of pinosylvin in Scots pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paasela, Tanja; Lim, Kean-Jin; Pietiäinen, Milla; Teeri, Teemu H

    2017-06-01

    Heartwood extractives are important determinants of the natural durability of pine heartwood. The most important phenolic compounds affecting durability are the stilbenes pinosylvin and its monomethylether, which in addition have important functions as phytoalexins in active defense. A substantial portion of the synthesized pinosylvin is 3-methoxylated but the O-methyltransferase responsible for this modification has not been correctly identified. We studied the expression of the stilbene pathway during heartwood development as well as in response to wounding of xylem and UV-C treatment of needles. We isolated and enzymatically characterized a novel O-methyltransferase, PMT2. The methylated product was verified as pinosylvin monomethylether using ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography analyses. The PMT2 enzyme was highly specific for stilbenes as substrate, in contrast to caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase (CCoAOMT) and PMT1 that were multifunctional. Expression profile and multifunctional activity of CCoAOMT suggest that it might have additional roles outside lignin biosynthesis. PMT1 is not involved in the stilbene pathway and its biological function remains an open question. We isolated a new specific O-methyltransferase responsible for 3-methoxylation of pinosylvin. Expression of PMT2 closely follows stilbene biosynthesis during developmental and stress induction. We propose that PMT2 is responsible for pinosylvin methylation in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), instead of the previously characterized methyltransferase, PMT1. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  13. Variation in the Growth Traits and Wood Properties of Chinese Fir from Six Provinces of Southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjing Duan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available To determine the phenotypic variation in 700 ten-year grafted Chinese fir collected from six provinces in southern China, 10 phenotypic traits were investigated: tree height, diameter at breast height, bark thickness, volume of timber, heartwood ratio, density of wood, hygroscopicity, tracheid length, tracheid diameter, and ratio of tracheid length to tracheid diameter. Abundant phenotypic variation was found among the six populations; the phenotypic variation coefficients all exceeded 10%, and the largest was for volume of timber. Significant variation (p < 0.01 or 0.05 in traits was found among the populations, except for diameter at breast height, heartwood ratio, and tracheid diameter, while all traits differed significantly (p < 0.01 within populations. The high value of repeatability (broad-sense heritability suggested moderate genetic control of the traits. The 10 traits were strongly correlated within the entire population; strong positive correlations (p < 0.01 were observed between growth traits, and significant negative correlations (p < 0.01 or 0.05 were found between the density of wood and most other characteristics, except for heartwood ratio and ratio of tracheid length to tracheid diameter. Using diameter at breast height and density of wood as criteria, 98 relatively fast-growing genotypes with relatively high wood basic density were identified.

  14. Carbon Dioxide and Methane Formation in Norway Spruce Stems Infected by White-Rot Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari M. Hietala

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Globally, billions of tons of carbon sequestered in trees are annually recycled back to the atmosphere through wood decomposition by microbes. In Norway, every fifth Norway spruce shows at final harvest infection by pathogenic white-rot fungi in the genera Heterobasidion and Armillaria. As these fungi can mineralize all components of wood, we predicted that they have a significant carbon footprint. Gas samples taken from infected stems were analyzed for CO2 and CH4 concentrations, and wood samples from different parts of the decay columns were incubated under hypoxic (4% O2 and anoxic laboratory conditions. In spring and summer the stem concentrations of CO2 were generally two times higher in trees with heartwood decay than in healthy trees. For most of the healthy trees and trees with heartwood decay, mean stem concentrations of CH4 were comparable to ambient air, and only some Armillaria infected trees showed moderately elevated CH4. Consistently, low CH4 production potentials were recorded in the laboratory experiment. Up-scaling of CO2 efflux due to wood decay in living trees suggests that the balance between carbon sequestration and emission may be substantially influenced in stands with high frequency of advanced root and stem heartwood decay.

  15. Variation of Ring Width and Wood Density in Two Unmanaged Stands of the Mediterranean Oak Quercus faginea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicelina B. Sousa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ring width and wood density variation were studied from pith-to-bark and along the stem in two naturally regenerated stands of Quercus faginea Lam. in Portugal. Ring width was significantly different between sites, in both heartwood and sapwood rings, ranging from 1.83 mm to 2.52 mm and from 0.77 mm to 2.11 mm, respectively. Wood density was significantly different between sites only in the heartwood, i.e., 914 kg m−3 and 1037 kg m−3. Site effects were the main source of variation for ring width and wood density within the heartwood as well as for sapwood ring width, while the between-tree effects explained more the density variation within the sapwood. Wood density showed within-tree uniformity that was not affected by site. The stand characteristics such as basal area and tree age may override the environmental growth conditions. There was also a weak correlation between wood density and ring width components therefore suggesting the possibility of forestry management for both fast tree growth and high wood density.

  16. What You Smell Affects Different Components of Your Visual Attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-An Li

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available It is commonly held that different essential oils produce different effects, as reflected in various commercial advertisements. Yet, little is known about whether smelling essential oils would affect our attention and whether smelling different essential oils affects attentional components differently, due to the lack of empirical data. Here we provide such data. Participants conducted the Attention Network Test (ANT while smelling the essential oil of Chamaecyparis formosensis (Experiment 1, the wood usually used in shrine or furniture or Eucalyptus globules (Experiment 2, smelling like camphor or mint, compared with the control condition of smelling water. The order of the essential oil condition and the water condition was counterbalanced between participants. Three attention systems were measured: alertness, orienting and executive control. Results showed that Chamaecyparis formosens reduced the effect of orienting, implying that smelling this odor would prevent involuntary attentional shift by an exogenous cue. On the other hand, Eucalyptus globules produced a larger interference effect in the executive control system, suggesting a larger span of spatial attention that is associated with a positive emotion(Rowe, Hirsh, & Anderson, 2007.

  17. Mapping reference evapotranspiration from meteorological satellite data and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hwi Yao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reference evapotranspiration (ETo is an agrometeorological variable widely used in hydrology and agriculture. The FAO-56 Penman-Monteith combination method (PM method is a standard for computing ETo for water management. However, this scheme is limited to areas where climatic data with good quality are available. Maps of 10-day averaged ETo at 5 km × 5 km grid spacing for the Taiwan region were produced by multiplying pan evaporation (Epan, derived from ground solar radiation (GSR retrieved from satellite images using the Heliosat-3 method, by a fixed pan coefficient (Kp. Validation results indicated that the overall mean absolute percentage error (MAPE and normalized root-mean-square deviation (NRMSD were 6.2 and 7.7%, respectively, when compared with ETo computed by the PM method using spatially interpolated 10-day averaged daily maximum and minimum temperature datasets and GSR derived from satellite inputs. Land coefficient (KL values based on the derived ETo estimates and long term latent heat flux measurements, were determined for the following landscapes: Paddy rice (Oryza sativa, subtropical cypress forest (Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana and Chamaecyparis formosensis, warm-to-temperate mixed rainforest (Cryptocarya chinensis, Engelhardtia roxburghiana, Tutcheria shinkoensis, and Helicia formosana, and grass marsh (Brachiaria mutica and Phragmites australis. The determined land coefficients are indispensable to scale ETo in estimating regional evapotranspiration.

  18. Root-Associated Fungi Shared Between Arbuscular Mycorrhizal and Ectomycorrhizal Conifers in a Temperate Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toju, Hirokazu; Sato, Hirotoshi

    2018-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal and ectomycorrhizal symbioses are among the most important drivers of terrestrial ecosystem dynamics. Historically, the two types of symbioses have been investigated separately because arbuscular mycorrhizal and ectomycorrhizal plant species are considered to host discrete sets of fungal symbionts (i.e., arbuscular mycorrhizal and ectomycorrhizal fungi, respectively). Nonetheless, recent studies based on high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have suggested that diverse non-mycorrhizal fungi (e.g., endophytic fungi) with broad host ranges play roles in relationships between arbuscular mycorrhizal and ectomycorrhizal plant species in forest ecosystems. By analyzing an Illumina sequencing dataset of root-associated fungi in a temperate forest in Japan, we statistically examined whether co-occurring arbuscular mycorrhizal ( Chamaecyparis obtusa ) and ectomycorrhizal ( Pinus densiflora ) plant species could share non-mycorrhizal fungal communities. Among the 919 fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) detected, OTUs in various taxonomic lineages were statistically designated as "generalists," which associated commonly with both coniferous species. The list of the generalists included fungi in the genera Meliniomyces, Oidiodendron, Cladophialophora, Rhizodermea, Penicillium , and Mortierella . Meanwhile, our statistical analysis also detected fungi preferentially associated with Chamaecyparis (e.g., Pezicula ) or Pinus (e.g., Neolecta ). Overall, this study provides a basis for future studies on how arbuscular mycorrhizal and ectomycorrhizal plant species interactively drive community- or ecosystem-scale processes. The physiological functions of the fungi highlighted in our host-preference analysis deserve intensive investigations for understanding their roles in plant endosphere and rhizosphere.

  19. Radiocesium Contamination of Quercus Serrata From Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident During 2011 and 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Hideki [Graduate School of Urban Environmental Science, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Minami-Osawa, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Fukushima Prefectural Forestry Research Centre, Nishi-Shimasaka, Asaka, Koriyama, Fukushima 963-0112, Japan (Japan); Hirano, Yurika; Igei, Shigemitsu; Yokota, Kahori; Arai, Shio; Yoshida, Hirohisa [Graduate School of Urban Environmental Science, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Minami-Osawa, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Itou, Hirohisa; Murakami, Kaori; Kumata, Atsushi [Fukushima Prefectural Forestry Research Centre, Nishi-Shimasaka, Asaka, Koriyama, Fukushima 963-0112, Japan (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate time dependence of contamination by radioactive cesium in the ecosystems at Yamakiya, Kawamata, Fukushima prefecture from 2011 to 2013. The depth contamination profile of soil and the three dimensional contamination profile of cedar tree were evaluated in the cedar forest at Yamakiya, the evacuation area, 30 km northwest from Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant.The soil contamination proceeded in the depth direction within 4 7 months after the foul out, the depth concentration profiles was described linearly in logarithmic scale. The radiocesium in soil approached the depth of cedar roots within two years after the foul out. The contamination of outside of cedar tree, leaves twigs and bark in this area was in the range from 10,000 to 200,000 Bq/kgDW in August 2011. The inside contamination of cedar tree was in the rage from 500 to 10,000 Bq/kgDW, and the inside concentration of radiocesium depended on the direction and the height. The first stage of inside contamination of cedar tree was caused by the foliar and bark absorptions in 2011. The radiocesium existed particularly in heartwood and the phloem or the water vessel (sap wood) in cedar. The radiocesium concentration in heartwood depended on the height, however that in the phloem depended slightly on the height. The inside concentration of radiocesium in heartwood and sap wood closely related to the water content or distribution in wood. In this study, the relationship between transportation of water and radiocesium was discussed. (authors)

  20. Temperature development and sterilization of red pine poles during CCA treatment, elevated temperature fixation and drying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, P.; Albright, M.; Srinivasan, U.; Ung, A. [New Brunswick Univ., Fredericton, NB (Canada). Wood Science and Technology Centre

    2002-07-01

    The application of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treatment and fixation and drying under the conditions of the study to large red pine poles left for an air seasoning period of 10 months in Quebec, Canada progressively reduced the number of micro-organisms present. A large number of microfungi isolations were effected before the treatment from the sapwood and heartwood of all poles and wood decay fungi on 8 selected poles from the 20 test poles. They originated from the sapwood zone. A reduction of approximately 50 per cent in the number of microfungi isolated from the sapwood was noted after the CCA treatment. In the case of 9 of 30 poles, basidiomycetes were isolated after treatment primarily from the untreated heartwood. There were a few instances where basidiomycetes were isolated from unpenetrated sapwood (wet pockets). Temperatures of 55 to 60 degrees Celsius were achieved under moderate temperature fixation schedules (20 hours) for approximately 5 hours at full sapwood depth. Only by the end of the schedule was a temperature of 55 degrees celsius achieved at the centre of the poles. Most of the microfungi were eliminated by this temperature regime. Trichoderma was eliminated, and only one isolation of basidiomycetes was left from the heartwood of one pole. Temperatures of 55 to 60 degrees Celsius were achieved in the wood core for 9 to 10 days during kiln drying. No basidiomycete isolations remained after this exposure. In several of the poles, there was evidence of Paecilomyces variotii, a thermo-tolerant species and a number of species of Penicillium moulds. It was concluded that there was a negligible probability of decay fungi surviving the sequence of processes as described, given the effectiveness of the fixation exposure and the higher wood temperatures sustained for longer periods. 16 refs., 5 tabs., 2 figs.

  1. [Diagnosing Low Health and Wood Borer Attacked Trees of Chinese Arborvitae by Using Thermography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Wu, De-jun; Zhai, Guo-feng; Zang, Li-peng

    2015-12-01

    Water and energy metabolism of plants is very important actions in their lives. Although the studies about these actions by using thermography were often reported, seldom were found in detecting the health status of forest trees. In this study, we increase the measurement accuracy and comparability of thermo-images by creating the difference indices. Based on it, we exam the water and energy status in stem of Chinese arborvitae (Platycladus orientalis (L.) Franco) by detecting the variance of far infrared spectrum between sap-wood and heart-wood of the cross-section of felling trees and the cores from an increment borer using thermography. The results indicate that the sap rate between sapwood and heartwood is different as the variance of the vigor of forest trees. Meanwhile, the image temperature of scale leaves from Chinese arborvitae trees with different vigor is also dissimilar. The far infrared spectrum more responds the sap status not the wood percentage in comparing to the area rate between sapwood and heartwood. The image temperature rate can be used in early determining the health status of Chinese arborvitae trees. The wood borers such as Phloeosinus aubei Perris and Semanotus bifasciatus Motschulsky are the pests which usually attack the low health trees, dying trees, wilted trees, felled trees and new cultivated trees. This measuring technique may be an important index to diagnose the health and vigor status after a large number of measurements for Chinese arborvitae trees. Therefore, there is potential to be an important index to check the tree vigor and pest damage status by using this technique. It will be a key in the tending and management of ecological and public Chinese arborvitae forest.

  2. Effect of Preservative Treatment on Fungal Colonization of Teak, Redwood, and Western Red Cedar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cabrera Orozco, Yohanna; Freitag, F.; Morrell, Jeffrey J.

    Fungal flora present in preservative treated samples or non-treated samples from sapwood and heartwood of teak, western red cedar, redwood, and southern yellow pine was assessed after 6 to 18 months of exposure near Hilo, Hawaii. The objectives were to compare fungal composition and diversity...... between treated and non-treated samples, and to examine the use of molecular techniques for assessing fungal community structure in a ground-proximity-test located in Hilo, Hawaii. Fungi were recovered in culture after 6, 12, or 18 months, yielding 178 unique DNA sequences that represented 85 taxa...

  3. The feature of an accumulation and distribution of 137Cs in wood of branches ordinary from the Chernobyl NPP contamination zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewsievich, K.M.; Schasny, A.K.; Bortnik, A.V.

    1994-01-01

    Accumulation 137 Cs in trees of average age on territories with density of soil contamination from 5 up to 90 Ci/sq.km was investigated. The measurements were conducted in different components of trunk wood on bottom, average and top parts of a tree. The appreciable redistribution of 137 Cs along trunk is not found out. The most intensive accumulation of 137 Cs occurs in bast-fibre tissue and bark, least - in a heart-wood. Data on vertical and radial Cs migration detected in 1990-1992 are indicated. During these three years relative increase of gamma-activity of trunk wood occurred. 3 refs., 1 tab

  4. Double keystone bird in a keystone species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daily, G C; Ehrlich, P R; Haddad, N M

    1993-01-15

    Species in a Colorado subalpine ecosystem show subtle interdependences. Red-naped sapsuckers play two distinct keystone roles. They excavate nest cavities in fungus-infected aspens that are required as nest sites by two species of swallows, and they drill sap wells into willows that provide abundant nourishment for themselves, hummingbirds, orange-crowned warblers, chipmunks, and an array of other sap robbers. The swallows thus depend on, and the sap robbers benefit from, a keystone species complex comprised of sapsuckers, willows, aspens, and a heartwood fungus. Disappearance of any element of the complex could cause an unanticipated unraveling of the community.

  5. Distribution of 90Sr in the tree rings of a Japanese cedar exposed to the black rain from the Nagasaki atomic bomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayama, Y.; Nagai, M.; Aoki, T.; Nagatomo, T.; Okada, N.

    2006-01-01

    Cedar sample was collected at the black rain area in Nagasaki city. A clear peak of 90 Sr/Sr was observed in the 1924-1925 rings. To investigate the mobility of Sr in a cedar tree stem, strontium chloride solution was injected into a living tree, and the distribution profiles of Sr in the stem at 8 months later were determined. The strontium moves radially through the sapwood of a cedar stem but that it almost stops at the heartwood. It was concluded that the peak in the 1924-1925 rings was due to the black rain from the Nagasaki atomic bomb. (author)

  6. Feasibility of Meeting the Energy Needs of Army Bases with Self- Generated Fuels Derived from Solar Energy Plantations (Appendices D, E, F, G, and H)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-07-01

    C-0009 tO. PROGRAM ELEMENT, PROJECT, TASK AREA * WORK UNIT NUMBERS 12 REPORT DATE July l’.)76 IS. NUMBE.I OF PAGES IS. SECURITY CLASS...o of cell-wall surface area to cell-wall thickness also would be a good inoicator of the availability of the wood to microbial attack. Another...Young wood (five years old or less) consists mostly of sapwcod, and sapwood has a more open and amorphous cell structure than does heartwood. Sapwood

  7. An Update on Antitumor Activity of Naturally Occurring Chalcones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    En-Hui Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chalcones, which have characteristic 1,3-diaryl-2-propen-1-one skeleton, are mainly produced in roots, rhizomes, heartwood, leaves, and seeds of genera Angelica, Sophora, Glycyrrhiza, Humulus, Scutellaria, Parartocarpus, Ficus, Dorstenia, Morus, Artocarpus, and so forth. They have become of interest in the research and development of natural antitumor agents over the past decades due to their broad range of mechanisms including anti-initiation, induction of apoptosis, antiproliferation, antimetastasis, antiangiogenesis, and so forth. This review summarizes the studies on the antitumor activity of naturally occurring chalcones and their underlying mechanisms in detail during the past decades.

  8. Inhibition of fouling by animal growth - a study using wood constituents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, S.K.

    1983-01-01

    Inhibitory effects of constituents from Dalbergia retusa, Tectona grandis and Lophira procera heartwoods on fouling were studied in field and laboratory tests and compared with a copper paint. Lophira extract impaired fouling by barnacles and tubeworms, R-4 methoxydalbergione, obtusaquinone and lapachol didn't. Lapachol proved to be more effective than R-4 methoxydalbergione and obtusaquinone against Balanus improvisus in LD 50 -tests. Maximum inhibition of 45 Ca and 14 C uptake in the shell of Balanus improvisus was caused by lapachol. The same trend was observed in studies on alkaline phosphatase of mantel. (orig.) [de

  9. Examination as to the classification of representative tree species at Satoyama coppice forest using multiwavelength range data observed from aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setojima, M.; Imai, Y.; Funahashi, M.; Kawai, M.; Katsuki, T.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we examined the possibility of classifying representative tree species at Satoyama coppice forest based on spectral reflectance of the tree species. We used the airborne hyperspectral data observed in exhibition leaf stage at the test forest (about 3.4ha) in Tama Forest Science Garden (Hachioji, Tokyo) , where the forest type similar to that of Satoyama is preserved. The classification accuracy was verified by comparing the results of interpretation of color aerial photographs taken in spring and autumn in chronological order and the field survey. As a result, the 534-556 nm (band 6 and band 7) in the visible range and 739-762 nm (band 15 and band 16), 785nm (band 17) in the near infrared range are effective bands for classification of the species of such trees as Castanopsis sieboldii, Quercus glauca, Zelkova serrata, Quercus serrata, Cryptomeria japonica, and Chamaecyparis obutusa, which are representative trees in Satoyama coppice forest in Tama district

  10. Conifers in decorative arboretum of Botanic Garden of Petrozavodsk State University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eglacheva Arina

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The transformation that taking place during of spontaneous cultivars introduction have not taken into consideration for last 10 years. The plants introduction in the Botanic Garden PSU have a planned character in a northwest middle taiga. Decorative arboretum was laid in 2000 (Potapova, Prokhorov, 2010. By 2014, the conifers collection includes 159 specimens of 98 cultivars belonging to 28 species, 10 genera and 3 families (Cupressaceae, Pinaceae, Taxaceae. Taxa are presented as species with narrow native habitat (Microbiota decussata, Thujopsis dolabrata, Chamaecyparis pisifera, Picea omorika, and with a wide (Juniperus communis. Plants were planted gradually. Annual plant monitoring include measuring of height, width of the crown, trunk diameter, needles color, seed-bearing, damage. Based on the study was identified plants groups in growth rate, seed-bearing. The number of generative samples are increased from 17 to 53% during 2007-2014. Seed-bearing is not a constant parameter and depends on a complex of abiotic factors.

  11. AMS radiocarbon dating of wood trunks in the pumiceous deposits of the Kikai-Akahoya eruption in Yakushima Island, SW Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuno, Mitsuru; Nakamura, Toshio; Geshi, Nobuo; Kimura, Katsuhiko; Saito-Kokubu, Yoko; Kobayashi, Tetsuo

    2013-01-01

    Radiocarbon dating using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) was performed on numerous wood trunks from pumiceous deposits along the Nagata, Isso and Miyanoura rivers on the northern side of Yakushima Island, 60 km south of Kyushu Island. The obtained 14C dates were around 6.5 ka BP, which, in combination with the geological characteristics of the pumiceous deposits indicates that these specimens were buried during the Kikai-Akahoya (K-Ah) eruption from the Kikai caldera. However, the fact that they are not charred suggests that the origin of these deposits are not pyroclastic flows. Fourteen taxa (Pinus subgen. Diploxylon, Tsuga, Cryptomeria, Chamaecyparis, Myrica, Castanea, Castanopsis, Quercus subgen. Cyclobalanopsis, Trochodendron, Phellodendron, Lagerstroemia, Rhododendron, Myrsine and Symplocos) were identified through anatomical characteristics. This is the first discovery of forest species on the Yakushima Island before the devastating eruption.

  12. AMS radiocarbon dating of wood trunks in the pumiceous deposits of the Kikai-Akahoya eruption in Yakushima Island, SW Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuno, Mitsuru, E-mail: okuno@fukuoka-u.ac.jp [Department of Earth System Science, Faculty of Science, Fukuoka University, 814-0180 Fukuoka (Japan); AIG Collaborative Research Institute for International Study on Eruptive History and Informatics, Fukuoka University, 814-0180 Fukuoka (Japan); Nakamura, Toshio [Center for Chronological Research, Nagoya University, 464-8602 Nagoya (Japan); Geshi, Nobuo [Geological Survey of Japan, National Institute of Advanced Science and Technology, 305-8567 Tsukuba (Japan); Kimura, Katsuhiko [Division of Environment System Management, Faculty of Symbiotic System Science, Fukushima University, 960-1296 Fukushima (Japan); Saito-Kokubu, Yoko [Tono Geoscience Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 959-31 Jorinji, Toki, Gifu 509-5102 (Japan); Kobayashi, Tetsuo [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Kagoshima University, 890-0065 Kagoshima (Japan)

    2013-01-15

    Radiocarbon dating using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) was performed on numerous wood trunks from pumiceous deposits along the Nagata, Isso and Miyanoura rivers on the northern side of Yakushima Island, 60 km south of Kyushu Island. The obtained {sup 14}C dates were around 6.5 ka BP, which, in combination with the geological characteristics of the pumiceous deposits indicates that these specimens were buried during the Kikai-Akahoya (K-Ah) eruption from the Kikai caldera. However, the fact that they are not charred suggests that the origin of these deposits are not pyroclastic flows. Fourteen taxa (Pinus subgen. Diploxylon, Tsuga, Cryptomeria, Chamaecyparis, Myrica, Castanea, Castanopsis, Quercus subgen. Cyclobalanopsis, Trochodendron, Phellodendron, Lagerstroemia, Rhododendron, Myrsine and Symplocos) were identified through anatomical characteristics. This is the first discovery of forest species on the Yakushima Island before the devastating eruption.

  13. Reconstructing Northeastern United States temperatures using Atlantic white cedar tree rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Jessie K.; Anchukaitis, Kevin J.; Pederson, Neil; Donnelly, Jeffrey P.

    2017-11-01

    Our knowledge of climate variability in the densely populated Northeastern United States is limited to instrumental data of the last century. Most regional paleoclimate proxies reflect a mix of climate responses, which makes reconstructing historical climate a challenge. Here we analyze tree-ring chronologies from Atlantic white cedar (Chamaecyparis thyoides) as a potential regional paleotemperature proxy. We evaluate our tree-ring network for spatiotemporal climate signal strength and reconstruction skill across New England. Atlantic white cedar sites in the northern section of the species’ range exhibit positive significant annual growth relationships with local and regional temperatures. Chronologies constructed from northern sites yield skillful reconstructions of temperature that reproduce centennial, multidecadal, and interannual variability in the instrumental record, providing a novel paleotemperature record for New England.

  14. Connecting long term species changes and their water competitions in temperate forest Mt. Baegun, Rep. of Korea using hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, J.; Lee, H.; Lee, M.; Song, W.; Byeon, S.; Lee, B.; Cho, S.; Park, J.; Kim, H. S.

    2017-12-01

    Many dynamic vegetation model simulations have predicted dramatic changes in species composition of temperate forests due to climate changes and successional reasons. Especially, conifer species are expected to lose their habitats and to be replaced by broadleaf species. Similarly, our more than 15-years-long 880 permenant plots tree survey data in Mt. Baegun, Rep. of Korea, showed substantial decrease of conifer species and their productivities and increase of broadleaved species. One of main reasons for these changes in species could be attributed to the water competition among tree species in the same stand. Therefore, we investigated the differences in water uptake scheme between conifer and broadleaf species from the temperate forests of Korea using stable isotopes. Six study plots showing high competition (conifers vs. broadleaf species) based on previous vegetation survey were chosen and the species-specific water uptake depth was estimated by measuring hydrogen(δ2H) and oxygen(δ18O) ratio from the xylem sap and leaves of individual species and by comparing them with those of soil water from 5 depths, (10, 30, 50, 100 and 120 cm), which extracted by lysimeter. The collection was conducted from April 2016 to Nov 2017. The conifer species included Pinus densiflora and Chamaecyparis obtusa vs. broadleaved species included Carpinus laxiflora, Prunus sargentii, Styrax obassia, Lindera erythrocarpa and Quercus species such as Q. mongolica, Q. serrata, Q. accuticima. Preliminary results showed the stable isotope signatures of soil water was increased from 10 cm to 30 cm, and then decreased gradually until 120 cm. In addition, current dominant canopy species, Chamaecyparis obtusa absorbed majority of their water from 10 to 30 cm depth. In comparison, current mid canopy but one of upcoming dominant species, Styrax obassia's major water source was 30 cm and deeper of soil. Our results could be essential for the prediction of species composition under climate change

  15. Analysis, pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification of different fractions of Scots pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Forestry residues consisting of softwood are a major lignocellulosic resource for production of liquid biofuels. Scots pine, a commercially important forest tree, was fractionated into seven fractions of chips: juvenile heartwood, mature heartwood, juvenile sapwood, mature sapwood, bark, top parts, and knotwood. The different fractions were characterized analytically with regard to chemical composition and susceptibility to dilute-acid pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification. Results All fractions were characterized by a high glucan content (38-43%) and a high content of other carbohydrates (11-14% mannan, 2-4% galactan) that generate easily convertible hexose sugars, and by a low content of inorganic material (0.2-0.9% ash). The lignin content was relatively uniform (27-32%) and the syringyl-guaiacyl ratio of the different fractions were within the range 0.021-0.025. The knotwood had a high content of extractives (9%) compared to the other fractions. The effects of pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification were relatively similar, but without pretreatment the bark fraction was considerably more susceptible to enzymatic saccharification. Conclusions Since sawn timber is a main product from softwood species such as Scots pine, it is an important issue whether different parts of the tree are equally suitable for bioconversion processes. The investigation shows that bioconversion of Scots pine is facilitated by that most of the different fractions exhibit relatively similar properties with regard to chemical composition and susceptibility to techniques used for bioconversion of woody biomass. PMID:24641769

  16. Effects of extractives and ash on natural resistance of four woods to xylophogous termites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juarez Benigno Paes

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study tested the natural resistance of wood of four tree species to Nasutitermes corniger Motsch. xylophogous termite attack and correlate the resistance with the amount of extract and ash in the chemical composition of the tested species. The species evaluated were Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell. Brenan. var. cebil (Gris. Alts., Tabebuia aurea (Mart. Bureau., Amburana cearensis (Allem. A.C.Sm. and Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. Test samples with dimensions of 2.00 x 10.16 x 0.64 cm (radial x longitudinal x tangential were obtained at two positions (external heartwood and sapwood of each species. The samples were exposed to action of termites for 45 days in food preference assay. The content of wood extractives was obtained through the sawdust that went through sieve of 40 mesh and were retained in the 60 mesh. The natural resistance was not associated with wood extractive contents. The wood more resistant to termite attack was the Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil in the two positions (external heartwood and sapwood and Eucalyptus camaldulensis wood presented the greatest wear. The biological resistance of wood was correlated with ash content, i.e., the species with the highest levels was the most resistant to termite attack.

  17. Reactivity of syringyl and guaiacyl lignin units and delignification kinetics in the kraft pulping of Eucalyptus globulus wood using Py-GC-MS/FID.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Ana; Gominho, Jorge; Marques, António Velez; Pereira, Helena

    2012-11-01

    Eucalyptus globulus sapwood and heartwood showed no differences in lignin content (23.0% vs. 23.7%) and composition: syringyl-lignin (17.9% vs. 18.0%) and guaiacyl-lignin (4.8% vs. 5.2%). Delignification kinetics of S- and G-units in heartwood and sapwood was investigated by Py-GC-MS/FID at 130, 150 and 170°C and modeled as double first-order reactions. Reactivity differences between S and G-units were small during the main pulping phase and the higher reactivity of S over G units was better expressed in the later pulping stage. The residual lignin composition in pulps was different from wood or from samples in the initial delignification stages, with more G and H-units. S/G ratio ranged from 3 to 4.5 when pulp residual lignin was higher than 10%, decreasing rapidly to less than 1. The S/H was initially around 20 (until 15% residual lignin), decreasing to 4 when residual lignin was about 3%. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Suppressive Effects of Extract of Cedar Wood on Heat-induced Expression of Cellular Heat Shock Protein].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyakoshi, Junji; Matsubara, Eri; Narita, Eijiro; Koyama, Shin; Shimizu, Yoko; Kawai, Shuichi

    2018-01-01

     In recent years, highly antimicrobial properties of cedar heartwood essential oil against the wood-rotting fungi and pathogenic fungi have been reported in several papers. Antimicrobial properties against oral bacteria by hinokitiol contained in Thujopsis have been also extensively studied. The relation of naturally derived components and human immune system has been studied in some previous papers. In the present study, we focused on Japanese cedar, which has the widest artificial afforestation site in the country among various tree species. Extract oil was obtained from mixture of sapwood and heartwood of about 40-year cedar grown in Oguni, Kumamoto, Japan. We examined the influence of extract components from Japanese cedar woods on the expression of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) during heating, and on the micronucleus formation induced by the treatment of bleomycin as a DNA damaging agent. Cell lines used in this study were human fetal glial cells (SVGp12) and human glioma cells (MO54). Remarkable suppression of the Hsp70 expression induced by heating at 43°C was detected by the treatment of cedar extract in both SVGp12 and MO54 cells. We also found that cedar extract had an inhibitory tendency to reduce the micronucleus formation induced by bleomycin. From these results, the extract components from Japanese cedar woods would have an inhibitory effect of the stress response as a suppression of the heat-induced Hsp70 expression, and might have a reductive effect on carcinogenicity.

  19. Metabolic chemotypes of CITES protected Dalbergia timbers from Africa, Madagascar, and Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Pamela J; Chavarria, Gabriela D; Espinoza, Edgard

    2015-05-15

    The genus Dalbergia includes approximately 250 species worldwide. Of these, 58 species are of economic importance and listed under CITES. Identification of illegal transnational timber trade is a challenge because logs or boards lack the typical descriptors used for species identification such as leaves and flowers; therefore, frequently the lowest taxonomic determination of these tree byproducts is genus. In this study, we explore the use of Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART) Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (TOFMS) in making species determinations of protected Dalbergia trees from Africa, Madagascar, and Asia. Metabolic profiles were collected using DART TOFMS from the heartwood of seven species and the sapwood of 17 species of Dalbergia. Also included in this study are 85 Dalbergia heartwood samples from Madagascar that were only identified to genus. In all, 21 species comprising 235 specimens were analyzed, the metabolic chemotypes were interpreted, and the spectra were analyzed using chemometric tools. Dalbergia cochinchinensis and Dalbergia spp. from Madagascar (both CITES Appendix II) could be differentiated from each other and from the non-protected Dalbergia latifolia and Dalbergia melanoxylon. DART TOFMS is a valuable high-throughput tool useful for making phytochemical classifications of Dalbergia spp. The data produced allows the protected Dalbergias from Madagascar to be distinguished and can differentiate closely related rosewood trees. Published in 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  20. Investigations into the water flow and water conduction in spruce trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strack, S.; Unger, H.

    1988-02-01

    The water-flow systems in the xylem of healthy and ailing spruce trees, based on the distribution patterns of tritiated water (HTO), were compared. In case of the ailing tree a severely altered water-flow system was observed. Whereas in the healthy tree the injected HTO spread in the apex in a distinctly differentiated manner following the spiral pattern of the ligneous fibers, no comparable spreading pattern was detected in the ailing tree. Also the labeled water molecules distributed twice as fast in the ailing as in the healthy tree. We conclude that the water conducting cross section of the diseased tree is reduced. Indeed, heartwood formation was about 60% in the ailing as compared to 5-20% in healthy trees. The methods of determining water content in the annual rings are described. The tissue water of needles from the healthy tree showed a distinct gradation of tritium concentrations according to age. This finding suggests that there is an age specific stomatal regulation in the healthy but not in the diseased needles. Water potential measurements at various times during the vegetation period provided evidence of a tighter water budget in diseased trees; however, a chronically enhanced water stress was not evident. The role of pathological heartwood formation during the disease is discussed. (orig.) With 27 figs., 38 refs [de

  1. Antidiarrheal activity of extracts from Maytenus gonoclada and inhibition of Dengue virus by lupeol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FERNANDO C. SILVA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Diarrhea is an infectious disease caused by bacterial, virus, or protozoan, and dengue is caused by virus, included among the neglected diseases in several underdeveloped and developing countries, with an urgent demand for new drugs. Considering the antidiarrheal potential of species of Maytenus genus, a phytochemical investigation followed by antibacterial activity test with extracts of branches and heartwood and bark of roots from Maytenus gonoclada were conducted. Moreover, due the frequency of isolation of lupeol from Maytenus genus the antiviral activity against Dengue virus and cytotoxicity of lupeol and its complex with β-cyclodextrins were also tested. The results indicated the bioactivity of ethyl acetate extract from branches and ethanol extract from heartwood of roots of M. gonoclada against diarrheagenic bacteria. The lupeol showed potent activity against Dengue virus and low cytotoxicity in LLC-MK2 cells, but its complex with β-cyclodextrin was inactive. Considering the importance of novel and selective antiviral drug candidates the results seem to be promising.

  2. Effect of Drying Method on the Permeability Coefficient of Oak Wood (Quercus infactoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuboo Salehpour

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of drying method on the permeability coefficient of the oak wood (Quercus infectoria Oliv was studied. Freshly-cut logs of oak were prepared from Oureman, the east area of Kourdistan in Iran. Then, boards with nominal thickness of 6 cm were cut. The boards were dried using two methods. In the first method, the boards were air dried to the moisture content close to FSP for 45 days and then they were kiln dried using T5-D1 schedule. In the second method, the boards were dried from green condition to the final moisture content of 10% using T5-D1 schedule. Then, the permeability coefficient in the transverse and longitudinal directions in both heartwood and sapwood regions was measured, separately. Results showed that the permeability of oak boards dried by kiln drying method both in the transverse and longitudinal directions and also in the heartwood and sapwood regions was greater than that of those dried by the combined method (air drying + kiln drying.

  3. PENGARUH UMUR POHON, BONITA DAN POSISI AKSIAL BATANG TERHADAP STRUKTUR MAKROSKOPIS DAN KUALITAS KAYU JATI SEBAGAI BAHAN FURNITUR (Effect of Tree Age, Site Quality Index and Trunk Axial Position on Macroscopic Structure and Quality of Teak Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yustinus Suranto

    2015-03-01

    is an alternative solution of limited raw materials faced by furniture industry. Young wood tends to have a low-quality wood. One element for measuring wood quality is wood macroscopic structure properties. This study was aimed to determine the effect of tree age, site quality index and axial stem position on wood structures and wood quality. Thirty-six young teak trees were harvested on forest areas of Kendal Forest District, Central Java Province. Three disks were taken from each trunk, namely from the butt, middle and upper parts. Heartwood proportion and annual ring dimensions were measured based on natural color difference by using millimeter grid apparatus. Data were analyzed by using variance analysis arranged in blocked factorial and further testing were performed by using HSD Duncan. Wood quality was analyzed using determinant method which elaborated based on Z norm curve. Results showed that interaction of three factors did not affect on heart-wood proportion and growth ring dimensions. Interaction of age classes and site quality index influence significantly on heart-wood proportion and growth ring dimensions. Stem axial position significantly affects on heart-wood proportion and very significantly effect on growth ring dimensions. The lower wood position, the higher heart-wood proportion and the wider growth ring dimensions. Interaction of three factors namely class age V, site quality index 4 and middle trunk position has a highest wood quality, namely class 2, but interaction of age class V, site quality index 3 and top trunk has the lowest one, namely class 4. The use of wood-based quality will maximize the value and increase the product lifespan, thereby reducing the intensity of logging and become more environmental friendly.

  4. Dendrological Characterization as Inspection Resources of Caatinga Wood Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayssa de Medeiros Morais

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to distinguish five native forest species of the Caatinga Biome from the exotic invasive algaroba (Prosopis juliflora (Sw. DC., considering dendrologic characteristics of bark and wood, in order of providing subsidies for the inspection of the wood market in this Biome. The native species studied were jurema-preta (Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd. Poir., angico branco (Anadenanthera colubrina var. colubrina (Vell. Brenan, angico vermelho (Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil (Gris. Alts., aroeira (Myracrodruon urundeuva Allem and braúna-do-sertão (Schinopsis brasiliensis Engl.. Studied species were recognized using dendrology identification records, containing characteristics of bark, heartwood and sapwood coloration; and the organoleptic proprieties like color, smell and taste, used for safe wood logs identification. The macroscopic characteristics, organized in dichotomous key, allowed the differentiation among the species, available in logs, during inspection.

  5. Moisture imaging of a camphor tree by neutron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, Tomoko M.; Karakama, Isamu; Sakura, Tsuguo; Matsubayashi, Masashi

    1998-01-01

    Moisture distribution of a camphor tree was presented. A 23 year old camphor tree was downed at university forest and a wood disk, about 1 cm in width, was lumbered out from the breast height of the tree. The wood disk as well as a newly developing branch of the tree were irradiated with thermal neutrons at an atomic reactor installed at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The total flux of thermal neutron was 3.0 x 10 9 n/cm 2 . Water specific images of the disk and a branch were presented with high resolution, which was estimated to be about 16 μm. In the case of wood disk, moisture decreasing manner while drying was also shown through neutron image. Neutron images showed that the moisture decreasing rate in sapwood was similar to that of heartwood. (author)

  6. Toxicity to sea urchin egg development of the quinone fraction obtained from Auxemma oncocalyx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa-Lotufo L.V.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Auxemma oncocalyx Taub. belongs to the Boraginaceae family and is native to the Brazilian northeast where it is known as "pau-branco". We investigated the ability of the water soluble fraction isolated from the heartwood of A. oncocalyx to inhibit sea urchin egg development. This fraction contains about 80% oncocalyxone A (quinone fraction, a compound known to possess strong cytotoxic and antitumor activities. In fact, the quinone fraction inhibited cleavage in a dose-dependent manner [IC50 of 18.4 (12.4-27.2 µg/ml, N = 6], and destroyed the embryos in the blastula stage [IC50 of 16.2 (13.7-19.2 µg/ml, N = 6]. We suggest that this activity is due to the presence of oncocalyxone A. In fact, these quinones present in A. oncocalyx extract have strong toxicity related to their antimitotic activity.

  7. Sandalwood Research: A Global Perspective

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    S.M.C.U.P. Subasinghe

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Sandalwood is a commercially and culturally important plant species belonging to the familySantalaceae and the genus Santalum. Sandalwood oil extracted from the heartwood has been used forperfumery, medicinal, religious and cultural purposes over centuries of years. In addition to oil, the woodand its powder are used for religious, cultural and medicinal purposes especially in the Asian and Arabregions. There are around 18 sandalwood species belonging to the genus Santalum which are; S.freycinetianum, S. haleakalae, S. ellipticum, S. peniculatum, S. pyrularium, S. involutum, S. boninese, S.insulare, S. austrocaledonicum, S. yasi, S. macgregorii, S. accuminatum, S. murrayanum, S. obtusifolium,S. lanceolatum, S. fernandezianum, S. salicifolium and S. spicatum. All the sandalwood species areidentified as obligate wood hemi-parasites which means they absorb certain nutrients such as phosphatesand nitrates from the host trees via root connections called haustoria.

  8. Ficus septica plant extracts for treating Dengue virus in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan-Chieh Huang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Dengue virus types 1-4 (DENV-1-4 are positive-strand RNA viruses with an envelope that belongs to the Flaviviridae. DENV infection threatens human health worldwide. However, other than supportive treatments, no specific therapy is available for the infection. In order to discover novel medicine against DENV, we tested 59 crude extracts, without cytotoxicity, from 23 plants in vitro; immunofluorescence assay revealed that the methanol extracts of fruit, heartwood, leaves and stem from Ficus septica Burm. f. had a promising anti-DENV-1 and DENV-2 effect. However, infection with the non-envelope picornavirus, Aichi virus, was not inhibited by treatment with F. septica extracts. F. septica may be a candidate antiviral drug against an enveloped virus such as DENV.

  9. Metals determination in wood treated by synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vives, Ana Elisa Sirito de; Medeiros, Jean Gabriel da Silva; Tomazello Filho, Mario

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes the use of X-Ray fluorescence analysis for distribution and quantification of metals in the hardwood (Eucalyptus sp) and softwood (Pinus sp) treated with CCA (copper-chromium-arsenic). The sapwood/heartwood for hardwood sample and the growth-rings for softwood sample were analyzed. The samples were scanned in 320 mm steps in the vertical direction. For excitation of the elements a white beam synchrotron radiation of ∼ 320 x 180 mm was employed and for the X-ray detection a Si(Li) semiconductor detector. The elements K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn and As were determined. Fundamental parameters were used to quantify the elements concentrations. (author)

  10. Study on the natural pigments present in the Hulls of Garcinia Mangostana Linn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    San Dar Aung; Aye Aye Tun; San San Aye; Maung Maung Htay

    2005-09-01

    Garcinia mangostana Linn,(Family; Guttiferae) is known to be a rich source of bioactive molecules including flavonoids, benzophenones and lactones. A variety of xanthones have been isolated from mangosteen plants and fruits include the hull, rind heartwood and flesh. The fruit hull is used as an astringent and also used against cholera, dysentery and diarrhoea in traditional medicinal system. Petroleum ether extraction of the dried and powered fruit hulls followed by column chromatographic separation afforded two compounds, namely, gartanin (1) (0.48% in yield, mp 146-152 ) and mangostin (2) (0.97% in yield, mp (179-180). The structures of these two compounds have been identified by UV, FT-IR, NMR and EIMS. These identifications were confirmed by comparison of melting point values with reported data in the literature

  11. Plant physiology in theory and practice: an analysis of the WBE model for vascular plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Giai; Anfodillo, Tommaso

    2009-07-07

    The theoretical model of West, Brown and Enquist (hereafter WBE) proposed the fractal geometry of the transport system as the origin of the allometric scaling laws observed in nature. The WBE model has either been criticized for some restrictive and biologically unrealistic constraints or its reliability debated on the evidence of empirical tests. In this work, we revised the structure of the WBE model for vascular plants, highlighting some critical assumptions and simplifications and discuss them with regard to empirical evidence from plant anatomy and physiology. We conclude that the WBE model had the distinct merit of shedding light on some important features such as conduit tapering. Nonetheless, it is over-simplistic and a revised model would be desirable with an ontogenetic perspective that takes some important phenomena into account, such as the transformation of the inner sapwood into heartwood and the effect of hydraulic constraints in limiting the growth in height.

  12. Palaeo-adaptive properties of the xylem of Metasequoia: mechanical/hydraulic compromises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagels, Richard; Visscher, George E; Lucas, John; Goodell, Barry

    2003-07-01

    The xylem of Metasequoia glyptostroboides Hu et Cheng is characterized by very low density (average specific gravity = 0.27) and tracheids with relatively large dimensions (length and diameter). The microfibril angle in the S2 layer of tracheid walls is large, even in outer rings, suggesting a cambial response to compressive rather than tensile stresses. In some cases, this compressive stress is converted to irreversible strain (plastic deformation), as evidenced by cell wall corrugations. The heartwood is moderately decay resistant, helping to prevent Brazier buckling. These xylem properties are referenced to the measured bending properties of modulus of rupture and modulus of elasticity, and compared with other low-to-moderate density conifers. The design strategy for Metasequoia is to produce a mechanically weak but hydraulically efficient xylem that permits rapid height growth and crown development to capture and dominate a wet site environment. The adaptability of these features to a high-latitude Eocene palaeoenvironment is discussed.

  13. Palaeo‐adaptive Properties of the Xylem of Metasequoia: Mechanical/Hydraulic Compromises

    Science.gov (United States)

    JAGELS, RICHARD; VISSCHER, GEORGE E.; LUCAS, JOHN; GOODELL, BARRY

    2003-01-01

    The xylem of Metasequoia glyptostroboides Hu et Cheng is characterized by very low density (average specific gravity = 0·27) and tracheids with relatively large dimensions (length and diameter). The microfibril angle in the S2 layer of tracheid walls is large, even in outer rings, suggesting a cambial response to compressive rather than tensile stresses. In some cases, this compressive stress is converted to irreversible strain (plastic deformation), as evidenced by cell wall corrugations. The heartwood is moderately decay resistant, helping to prevent Brazier buckling. These xylem properties are referenced to the measured bending properties of modulus of rupture and modulus of elasticity, and compared with other low‐to‐moderate density conifers. The design strategy for Metasequoia is to produce a mechanically weak but hydraulically efficient xylem that permits rapid height growth and crown development to capture and dominate a wet site environment. The adaptability of these features to a high‐latitude Eocene palaeoenvironment is discussed. PMID:12763758

  14. Effect of Steaming on the Colorimetric Properties of Eucalyptus saligna Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo Calçada Guina Luís

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to homogenize the color of Eucalyptus saligna wood by means of steaming and compare the resulting color with that of Cariniana legalis wood, a species of high commercial value. To this end, two steaming curves were tested: 100% relative humidity for 12 (T1 and 24 (T2 hours at 90 °C followed by drying in a pilot-scale conventional kiln. The colorimetric parameters L*, a*, b*, C*, and h were determined according to the CIE L*a*b* color measurement system after drying. Results showed that steaming can be used for color homogenization between heartwood and sapwood. The treatment conducted for 24 hours (T2 presented the best results.

  15. Acquisition of sorption isotherms for modified woods by the use of dynamic vapour sorption instrumentation. Principles and Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, Emil Tang; Klamer, Morten; Venås, Thomas Mark

    2010-01-01

    The complex wood-water relationship has been the topic of numerous studies. Sorption isotherms – in particular – have been derived for hundreds of wood species, their sap- and heartwood sections as well as for decayed, engineered and modified wood materials. However, the traditional methods...... for obtaining sorption isotherms are very time consuming. With new dynamic vapour sorption (DVS) instrumentation, the acquisition of data for constructing sorption isotherms is suddenly dramatically lowered. Where the traditional methods often required months, data can now be obtained in a matter of days...... depending on the number of data points required. The fast data acquisition makes DVS a useful tool in studying the sorption properties of wood, and especially in studying the effect of different modification treatments on these properties. This study includes an investigation of the sorption properties...

  16. Contribution to the study of fungi in the genera Sparassis Fr. and Hericium Pers. in our forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karadžić Dragan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungi in the genera Sparassis and Hericium cause wood decay. In the forests of Serbia and Montenegro 4 species are identified in the genus Sparassis, and 3 species in the genus Hericium. These fungi develop on physiologically weakened trees, recently killed trees and branch litter (windthrows, broken trees, logs, thick branches. Especially great damage in the stands of Pinus species can be caused by the fungus Sparassis crispa. This fungus colonizes the living trees through the root and causes the brown cubical rot of wood. The rot then spreads from the root to the heartwood and gradually occupies the lower, economically the most valuable part of the tree. In the young phase, the fruiting bodies of all the identified species are edible. Sparassis crispa and Hericium erinaceus excel by their nutritive value and today (in some countries they are even artificially cultivated.

  17. CERES: a model of forest stand biomass dynamics for predicting trace contaminant, nutrient, and water effects. I. Model description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, K R; Luxmoore, R J; Begovich, C L

    1978-06-01

    CERES is a forest stand growth model which incorporates sugar transport in order to predict both short-term effects and long-term accumulation of trace contaminants and/or nutrients when coupled with the soil chemistry model (SCHEM), and models of solute uptake (DIFMAS and DRYADS) of the Unified Transport Model, UTM. An important feature of CERES is its ability to interface with the soil--plant--atmosphere water model (PROSPER) as a means of both predicting and studying the effects of plant water status on growth and solute transport. CERES considers the biomass dynamics of plants, standing dead and litter with plants divided into leaves, stems, roots, and fruits. The plant parts are divided further into sugar substrate, storage, and in the case of stems and roots, heartwood components. Each ecosystem omponent is described by a mass balance equation written as a first-order ordinary differential equation.

  18. Mechanical analysis of the strains generated by water tension in plant stems. Part II: strains in wood and bark and apparent compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alméras, Tancrède

    2008-10-01

    Tree stems shrink in diameter during the day and swell during the night in response to changes in water tension in the xylem. Stem shrinkage can easily be measured in a nondestructive way, to derive continuous information about tree water status. The relationship between the strain and the change in water tension can be evaluated by empirical calibrations, or can be related to the structure of the plant. A mechanical analysis was performed to make this relationship explicit. The stem is modeled as a cylinder made of multiple layers of tissues, including heartwood, sapwood, and inner and outer bark. The effect of changes in water tension on the apparent strain at the surface of a tissue is quantified as a function of parameters defining stem anatomy and the mechanical properties of the tissues. Various possible applications in the context of tree physiology are suggested.

  19. Dendrochemical patterns of calcium, zinc, and potassium related to internal factors detected by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kevin T.; Balouet, Jean Christophe; Shortle, Walter C.; Chalot, Michel; Beaujard, François; Grudd, Håkan; Vroblesky, Don A.; Burkem, Joel G.

    2014-01-01

    Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) provides highly sensitive and precise spatial resolution of cation content in individual annual growth rings in trees. The sensitivity and precision have prompted successful applications to forensic dendrochemistry and the timing of environmental releases of contaminants. These applications have highlighted the need to distinguish dendrochemical effects of internal processes from environmental contamination. Calcium, potassium, and zinc are three marker cations that illustrate the influence of these processes. We found changes in cation chemistry in tree rings potentially due to biomineralization, development of cracks or checks, heartwood/sapwood differentiation, intra-annual processes, and compartmentalization of infection. Distinguishing internal from external processes that affect dendrochemistry will enhance the value of EDXRF for both physiological and forensic investigations.

  20. Valencene oxidase CYP706M1 from Alaska cedar (Callitropsis nootkatensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cankar, Katarina; van Houwelingen, Adèle; Goedbloed, Miriam; Renirie, Rokus; de Jong, René M; Bouwmeester, Harro; Bosch, Dirk; Sonke, Theo; Beekwilder, Jules

    2014-03-18

    (+)-Nootkatone is a natural sesquiterpene ketone used in grapefruit and citrus flavour compositions. It occurs in small amounts in grapefruit and is a major component of Alaska cedar (Callitropsis nootkatensis) heartwood essential oil. Upon co-expression of candidate cytochrome P450 enzymes from Alaska cedar in yeast with a valencene synthase, a C. nootkatensis valencene oxidase (CnVO) was identified to produce trans-nootkatol and (+)-nootkatone. Formation of (+)-nootkatone was detected at 144±10μg/L yeast culture. CnVO belongs to a new subfamily of the CYP706 family of cytochrome P450 oxidases. Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Study of the transfer of radionuclides in trees at a forest site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barci-Funel, G.; Dalmasso, J.; Barci, V.L.; Ardisson, G.

    1995-01-01

    The transfer of radionuclides such as 137 Cs and 90 Sr from soil to trees (conifers) was studied in a forest area, the Boreon massif, 30 km north of Nice in South Eastern France. This area has been highly contaminated after the Chernobyl accident. Besides the γ-emitting fission products, the α-emitters 238 Pu and 239+240 Pu and the pure β-emitter 90 Sr were measured in different parts of the studied trees (roots, branches, twigs, etc.). As has already been reported by other authors, the radionuclide activities in the tree rings are not correlated with the fallout deposition. They were found varying according to the sap flux in the tree and higher in sapwood than in heartwood. For cesium the root absorption was found to be lower than the atmospheric deposition. Soil-to-plant concentration factors were calculated for 137 Cs, 90 Sr and 239+240 Pu

  2. Metals determination in wood treated by synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vives, Ana Elisa Sirito de [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: aesvives@unimep.br; Silva, Richard Maximiliano da Cunha [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: maxcunha@cena.usp.br; Medeiros, Jean Gabriel da Silva; Tomazello Filho, Mario [Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz]. E-mail: jeangm@esalq.usp.br; mtomazel@esalq.usp.br; Moreira, Silvana [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: Silvana@fec.unicamp.br; Zucchi, Orgheda Luiza Araujo Domingues [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas]. E-mail: olzucchi@fcfrp.usp.br; Barroso, Regina Cely [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: cely@uerj.br

    2005-07-01

    The paper describes the use of X-Ray fluorescence analysis for distribution and quantification of metals in the hardwood (Eucalyptus sp) and softwood (Pinus sp) treated with CCA (copper-chromium-arsenic). The sapwood/heartwood for hardwood sample and the growth-rings for softwood sample were analyzed. The samples were scanned in 320 mm steps in the vertical direction. For excitation of the elements a white beam synchrotron radiation of {approx} 320 x 180 mm was employed and for the X-ray detection a Si(Li) semiconductor detector. The elements K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn and As were determined. Fundamental parameters were used to quantify the elements concentrations. (author)

  3. Pterocarpus santalinus (Red Sanders an Endemic, Endangered Tree of India: Current Status, Improvement and the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AN Arunkumar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pterocarpus santalinus (Family – Fabaceae popularly known as Red Sanders is an endemic species confined to Southern parts of Eastern Ghats of India specially in Andhra Pradesh. Heartwood of Red Sanders has high demand in domestic as well as international market and the wavy grained wood is valued.  Along with its extensive use in furniture, the red dye obtained from the wood is used as colouring agent for textile, medicine and food. The heartwood can accumulate various elements and rare earth elements like strontium cadmium, zinc, copper and uranium. The wood has different uses in traditional and folklore medicines and is used for the treatment of diabetes, prickly heat, skin diseases and for various other ailments. A number of studies have been carried out to anatomically and phenotypicaly screen wavy grain at seedling stage. Morphological variability and genetic diversity studies reveal that Red Sanders harbours enormous variability. Though, macro and micro propagation protocol have been developed, further refinement is required for mass propagation. Andhra Pradesh Forest Department has also initiated different activities under tree improvement programme. Considering the wood demand, restricted distribution, slow regeneration, illegal harvest, trade and habitat destruction, the species has been categorized as endangered by International Union for Conservation of Nature and has been listed in Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora and is also classified as a “reserved tree” under the Andhra Pradesh Preservation of Private Forest Rules, 1978. To revive the past glory of this valuable species, Government agencies, farmers, entrepreneurs and policy makers have to join hands for its protection, sustainable utilization and conservation.

  4. Resíduos madeireiros do alburno de pau-rainha (Brosimum rubescens: investigação de metabólitos secundários e alguns aspectos tecnológicos Residues of sapwood of "pau-rainha" (Brosimum rubescens: investigation of secondary metabolites and some technological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willian Hayasida

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudos fitoquímicos prévios com resíduos do cerne de pau-rainha (Brosimum rubescens, identificaram um alto teor de xantiletina, uma cumarina com potencial biológico. Dando prosseguimento aos estudos com serragens desta espécie, este estudo relata a densidade básica bem como o isolamento e identificação do triterpeno 3β-acetoxi-olean-12-eno-28-al e do β- sitosterol nos extratos hexânico e metanólico do alburno da planta. A estrutura do triterpeno foi determinada com base nos espectros de RMN em 1D (¹H e 13C e 2D (HSQC e HMBC além de comparação com dados da literatura. A densidade básica encontrada para o alburno foi de 0,58 g cm-3 que, embora seja inferior a do cerne, poderá ser utilizada na confecção de vários produtos, inclusive em técnicas de marchetaria.Previous phytochemical studies on residues of pau-rainha’s heartwood (Brosimum rubescens showed a high content of xanthyletin, a coumarin with biological potential. Continuing our studies with sawdust of this species, this work relates the basic density, isolation and identification of the triterpene 3β-acetoxy-olean-12-ene-28-al and β-sitosterol in n-hexane and MeOH extracts of the plant´s sapwood. The structure of the triterpene was determined on the basis of NMR spectra in 1D (¹H and 13C and 2D (HSQC and HMBC and comparison with literature data. The basic density found for sapwood was 0.58 g cm-3, that even so is inferior the one of heartwood, could be used in the confection of some products, also in marquetry techniques.

  5. Heterobasidion annosum root and butt rot of Norway spruce, Picea abies: Colonization by the fungus and its impact on tree growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendz-Hellgren, M. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Mycology and Pathology

    1997-12-31

    Diameter growth losses associated with decay were quantified on a nationwide scale, and volume growth losses were measured in two stands. Diameter growth losses were 8-10% during a 5-year period in the nationwide study and 23% in one of the stands, whereas in the other stand, no volume losses could be attributed to decay. The effects of stump moisture content, temperature and time elapsed between felling and inoculation on the establishment of H. annosum spore infections in stumps were investigated among stumps resulting from thinnings and clear-cuttings. Furthermore, inoculations with H. annosum conidia were made between 0 hours and 4 weeks after thinning. The incidence of stump infections was lower on clear-cut areas than in thinned stands, but high enough to warrant stump treatment on clear-cuttings. A positive relation was found between heartwood moisture content and the proportion of heartwood infected, whereas the opposite relation was found for sapwood. The establishment of new conidiospore infections decreased with time, and it appeared that stumps were no longer susceptible to infection after 3 weeks had elapsed since felling. Roots of stumps and trees on forest land or former arable land were inoculated with H. annosum treated sawdust. The growth rate of H. annosum in roots of stumps was 25 cm/year, corresponding to 2.5 to 3 times the growth rate in tree roots. Previous land use did not affect the fungal rate of spread. Also, the average initial spread rate of H. annosum in naturally infected Norway spruce stems was estimated at 30 cm/year 156 refs, 9 figs

  6. Insights into intraspecific wood density variation and its relationship to growth, height and elevation in a treeline species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo, A

    2018-05-01

    The wood economics spectrum provides a general framework for interspecific trait-trait coordination across wide environmental gradients. Whether global patterns are mirrored within species constitutes a poorly explored subject. In this study, I first determined whether wood density co-varies together with elevation, tree growth and height at the within-species level. Second, I determined the variation of wood density in different stem parts (trunk, branch and twigs). In situ trunk sapwood, trunk heartwood, branch and twig densities, in addition to stem growth rates and tree height were determined in adult trees of Nothofagus pumilio at four elevations in five locations spanning 18° of latitude. Mixed effects models were fitted to test relationships among variables. The variation in wood density reported in this study was narrow (ca. 0.4-0.6 g cm -3 ) relative to global density variation (ca. 0.3-1.0 g cm -3 ). There was no significant relationship between stem growth rates and wood density. Furthermore, the elevation gradient did not alter the wood density of any stem part. Trunk sapwood density was negatively related to tree height. Twig density was higher than branch and trunk densities. Trunk heartwood density was always significantly higher than sapwood density. Negative across-species trends found in the growth-wood density relationship may not emerge as the aggregate of parallel intraspecific patterns. Actually, trees with contrasting growth rates show similar wood density values. Tree height, which is tightly related to elevation, showed a negative relationship with sapwood density. © 2018 German Society for Plant Sciences and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  7. Comparative genomics of the white-rot fungi, Phanerochaete carnosa and P. chrysosporium, to elucidate the genetic basis of the distinct wood types they colonize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Hitoshi; MacDonald, Jacqueline; Syed, Khajamohiddin; Salamov, Asaf; Hori, Chiaki; Aerts, Andrea; Henrissat, Bernard; Wiebenga, Ad; vanKuyk, Patricia A.; Barry, Kerrie; Lindquist, Erika; LaButti, Kurt; Lapidus, Alla; Lucas, Susan; Coutinho, Pedro; Gong, Yunchen; Samejima, Masahiro; Mahadevan, Radhakrishnan; Abou-Zaid, Mamdouh; de Vries, Ronald P.; Igarashi, Kiyohiko; Yadav, Jagit S.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Master, Emma R.

    2012-02-17

    Background Softwood is the predominant form of land plant biomass in the Northern hemisphere, and is among the most recalcitrant biomass resources to bioprocess technologies. The white rot fungus, Phanerochaete carnosa, has been isolated almost exclusively from softwoods, while most other known white-rot species, including Phanerochaete chrysosporium, were mainly isolated from hardwoods. Accordingly, it is anticipated that P. carnosa encodes a distinct set of enzymes and proteins that promote softwood decomposition. To elucidate the genetic basis of softwood bioconversion by a white-rot fungus, the present study reports the P. carnosa genome sequence and its comparative analysis with the previously reported P. chrysosporium genome. Results P. carnosa encodes a complete set of lignocellulose-active enzymes. Comparative genomic analysis revealed that P. carnosa is enriched with genes encoding manganese peroxidase, and that the most divergent glycoside hydrolase families were predicted to encode hemicellulases and glycoprotein degrading enzymes. Most remarkably, P. carnosa possesses one of the largest P450 contingents (266 P450s) among the sequenced and annotated wood-rotting basidiomycetes, nearly double that of P. chrysosporium. Along with metabolic pathway modeling, comparative growth studies on model compounds and chemical analyses of decomposed wood components showed greater tolerance of P. carnosa to various substrates including coniferous heartwood. Conclusions The P. carnosa genome is enriched with genes that encode P450 monooxygenases that can participate in extractives degradation, and manganese peroxidases involved in lignin degradation. The significant expansion of P450s in P. carnosa, along with differences in carbohydrate- and lignin-degrading enzymes, could be correlated to the utilization of heartwood and sapwood preparations from both coniferous and hardwood species.

  8. Effect of age on calorific value and some mechanical properties of three Eucalyptus species grown in Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulugeta Lemenih; Tsegaye Bekele [Wondo Genet College of Forestry, Shashemene (Ethiopia)

    2004-09-01

    The effect of age on calorific value, specific gravity, modulus of rupture (MOR) and modulus of elasticity (MOE) of three plantation grown Eucalyptus species in the south-central highlands of Ethiopia was investigated. The species investigated were Eucalyptus globulus Labill., E. saligna Sm. and E grandis W. Hill ex Maid. The investigation was made on sample trees taken from age sequences of stands of the three species. Calorific values were determined on sample discs taken at 4, 8, 12 and 16 m up the stems of the sample trees. Calorific values were also determined for heartwood and sapwood of each disc separately. Specific gravity, MOR and MOE were investigated on a 1 -m long sample log taken from the butt end of each sample tree. The results showed that there was no significant difference in calorific values between the three species when considering a similar age category. Similarly, there was no significant difference in calorific values between disc positions and wood types (heartwood versus sapwood) within species. However, calorific values tend to increase along the tree stem towards the treetop for each of the three species. Correlation between calorific values of each disc position and tree age was generally weak and dominantly negative for E. saligna and E. globulus, but positive for E. grandis. On the other hand, there was a weak but positive correlation between tree age and specific gravity and MOR for the three species. MOE was almost non-correlated with age. Generally, the results showed that waiting for older ages for the three Eucalyptus species may not further increase their calorific values. Hence, stands of the three Eucalyptus species can be harvested and used for fuelwood at an early age as traditionally managed on short-rotation basis. (author)

  9. Water uptake in woody riparian phreatophytes of the southwestern United States: a stable isotope study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, D.E.; Ingraham, N.L.; Smith, S.D.

    1992-01-01

    Alluvial forest associations are often dominated by woody phreatophytes, plants that are tightly linked to aquifers for water uptake. Anthropogenic hydrological alterations (e.g., water impoundment or diversion) are of clear importance to riparian ecosystem function. Because decreased frequency of flooding and depression of water tables may, in effect, sever riparian plants from their natural water sources, research was undertaken to determine water uptake patterns for the dominant native and introduced woody taxa of riparian plant communities of the southwestern United States. At floodplain study sites along the Bill Williams and lower Colorado Rivers (Arizona, USA), naturally occurring D and 18 O were used to distinguish among potential water sources. Isotopic ratios from potential uptake locations were compared to water extracted from the dominant woody taxa of the study area (Populus fremontii, Salix gooddingii, and Tamarix ramosissima) to elucidate patterns of water absorption. Isotopic composition of water obtained from sapwood cores did not differ significantly from heartwood or branch water, suggesting that heartwood water exchange, stem capacitance, and phloem sap mixing may be inconsequential in actively transpiring Salix and Populus. There was evidence for close hydrologic linkage of river, ground, and soil water during the early part of the growing season. Surface soils exhibited D enrichment due to cumulative exposure to evaporation as the growing season progressed. Isotopic ratios of water extracted from Populus and Salix did not exhibit isotopic enrichment and were not significantly different from groundwater or saturated soil water sources, indicating a phreatophytic uptake pattern. Associations of isotopic ratios with water relations parameters indicated high levels of canopy evaporation and possible use of moisture from unsaturated alluvial soils in addition to groundwater in Tamarix. (author)

  10. Postglacial vegetation history of Mitkof Island, Alexander Archipelago, southeastern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ager, Thomas A.; Carrara, Paul E.; Smith, Jane L.; Anne, Victoria; Johnson, Joni

    2010-03-01

    An AMS radiocarbon-dated pollen record from a peat deposit on Mitkof Island, southeastern Alaska provides a vegetation history spanning ˜12,900 cal yr BP to the present. Late Wisconsin glaciers covered the entire island; deglaciation occurred > 15,400 cal yr BP. The earliest known vegetation to develop on the island (˜12,900 cal yr BP) was pine woodland ( Pinus contorta) with alder ( Alnus), sedges (Cyperaceae) and ferns (Polypodiaceae type). By ˜12,240 cal yr BP, Sitka spruce ( Picea sitchensis) began to colonize the island while pine woodland declined. By ˜11,200 cal yr BP, mountain hemlock ( Tsuga mertensiana) began to spread across the island. Sitka spruce-mountain hemlock forests dominated the lowland landscapes of the island until ˜10,180 cal yr BP, when western hemlock ( Tsuga heterophylla) began to colonize, and soon became the dominant tree species. Rising percentages of pine, sedge, and sphagnum after ˜7100 cal yr BP may reflect an expansion of peat bog habitats as regional climate began to shift to cooler, wetter conditions. A decline in alders at that time suggests that coastal forests had spread into the island's uplands, replacing large areas of alder thickets. Cedars ( Chamaecyparis nootkatensis, Thuja plicata) appeared on Mitkof Island during the late Holocene.

  11. Laser incising of wood: Impregnation of columns with water-soluble dye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, N.; Ando, K.; Kitayama, S.; Nakamura, Y.

    1994-01-01

    To know whether or not laser incising is a useful pre-treatment technique in impregnating a chemical fluid into lumber, pin holes were made in columns of hinoki (Chamaecyparis obtusa Endl.), sugi (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don), karamatsu (Larix leptolepis Gordon) and douglas-fir (Pseudo-tsuga menziesii Franco) with 1.7 kW CO2 laser, and a water-soluble dye was impregnated into these columns with a local pressure impregnation device. Retentions, and lengths and widths of penetrations from each hole were measured quantitatively. Referring to the results of the preparatory experiment mentioned above, incising patterns for sugi and douglas-fir were designed, and the same water-soluble dye was impregnated into the laser-incised columns as well as into non-incised ones with the vacuum-pressure method to obtain penetrated layers with the target depths completely. As a result, a retention of 200 kg/m3 of dye could be achieved for a column of douglas-fir even if it is a species difficult to impregnate. The penetrated layer also could be formed completely at the depth of the laser incision. Therefore, it is concluded that laser incising can be used for the pre-treatment before impregnation of wood columns. (author)

  12. An increase in pectin methyl esterase activity accompanies dormancy breakage and germination of yellow cedar seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, C; Kermode, A R

    2000-09-01

    Pectin methyl esterase (PME) (EC 3.1.1.11) catalyzes the hydrolysis of methylester groups of cell wall pectins. We investigated the role of this enzyme in dormancy termination and germination of yellow cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis [D. Don] Spach) seeds. PME activity was not detected in dormant seeds of yellow cedar but was induced and gradually increased during moist chilling; high activity coincided with dormancy breakage and germination. PME activity was positively correlated to the degree of dormancy breakage of yellow cedar seeds. The enzyme produced in different seed parts and in seeds at different times during moist chilling, germination, and early post-germinative growth consisted of two isoforms, both basic with isoelectric points of 8.7 and 8.9 and the same molecular mass of 62 kD. The pH optimum for the enzyme was between 7.4 and 8.4. In intact yellow cedar seeds, activities of the two basic isoforms of PME that were induced in embryos and in megagametophytes following dormancy breakage were significantly suppressed by abscisic acid. Gibberellic acid had a stimulatory effect on the activities of these isoforms in embryos and megagametophytes of intact seeds at the germinative stage. We hypothesize that PME plays a role in weakening of the megagametophyte, allowing radicle emergence and the completion of germination.

  13. Antibacterial and antifungal effects of essential oils from coniferous trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Eui-Ju; Na, Ki-Jeung; Choi, In-Gyu; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2004-06-01

    Essential oils have potential biological effects, i.e., antibiotic, anticarcinogenic, and sedative effects during stress. In the present study, we investigated the antibacterial and antifungal effects of essential oils extracted from the coniferous species Pinus densiflora, Pinus koraiensis, and Chamaecyparis obtusa, because their biological activities have not been yet elucidated. The essential oils were quantified using gas chromatography and identified in gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis. Simultaneously, antibacterial and antifungal assays were performed using the essential oils distilled from the needles of coniferous trees. The major components and the percentage of each essential oil were: 19.33% beta-thujene in P. densiflora; 10.49% alpha-pinene in P. koraiensis; 10.88% bornyl acetate in C. obtusa. The essential oils from P. densiflora and C. obtusa have antibacterial effects, whereas essential oils from P. koraiensis and C. obtusa have antifungal effects. These results indicate that the essential oils from the three coniferous trees, which have mild antimicrobial properties, can inhibit the growth of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and fungi.

  14. Distribution of cesium-137 in Japanese forest soils. Correlation with the contents of organic carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takenaka, Chisato; Onda, Yuichi; Hamajima, Yasunori

    1998-01-01

    The spatial and vertical distributions of 137 Cs in surface soils were surveyed and analyzed then correlated with the contents of organic carbon in the hinoki (Chamaecyparis obtusa Sieb. et Zucc.) plantation forest and secondary forest dominated by red pine (Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc.) in Japan. The spatial variation of 137 Cs activity was observed in the surface soil around the red pine. The average activity of 16 samples around the tree is 42.4 Bq/kg and the standard deviation is 25.9 Bq/kg. This finding indicates the importance in the selection of a sampling site and the number of samples from the surface soils especially around a tree. For the vertical distribution of 137 Cs activity, it was found that the concentration in the surface soil is highest, 149 Bq/kg in the hinoki stand and 101 Bq/kg in the red pine stand, and decreases with depth. The relationship between 137 Cs activity and carbon content in the forest soil was investigated in two undisturbed forest stands. The relations were more precisely expressed using an exponential equation than by a linear equation. From the same forest, similar regression equations were obtained. This indicates that the distribution of 137 Cs could be characterized by the organic carbon content in an undisturbed forest. It is also suggested that the coefficient values in the regression equation help to define the movement of 137 Cs accompanying the decomposition of organic matter

  15. Contrasting microsatellite diversity in the evolutionary lineages of Phytophthora lateralis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vettraino, AnnaMaria; Brasier, Clive M; Webber, Joan F; Hansen, Everett M; Green, Sarah; Robin, Cecile; Tomassini, Alessia; Bruni, Natalia; Vannini, Andrea

    2017-02-01

    Following recent discovery of Phytophthora lateralis on native Chamaecyparis obtusa in Taiwan, four phenotypically distinct lineages were discriminated: the Taiwan J (TWJ) and Taiwan K (TWK) in Taiwan, the Pacific Northwest (PNW) in North America and Europe and the UK in west Scotland. Across the four lineages, we analysed 88 isolates from multiple sites for microsatellite diversity. Twenty-one multilocus genotypes (MLGs) were resolved with high levels of diversity of the TWK and PNW lineages. No alleles were shared between the PNW and the Taiwanese lineages. TWK was heterozygous at three loci, whereas TWJ isolates were homozygous apart from one isolate, which exhibited a unique allele also present in the TWK lineage. PNW lineage was heterozygous at three loci. The evidence suggests its origin may be a yet unknown Asian source. North American and European PNW isolates shared all their alleles and also a dominant MLG, consistent with a previous proposal that this lineage is a recent introduction into Europe from North America. The UK lineage was monomorphic and homozygous at all loci. It shared its alleles with the PNW and the TWJ and TWK lineages, hence a possible origin in a recent hybridisation event between a Taiwan lineage and PNW cannot be ruled out. Copyright © 2016 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Nutritional ecology of the formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae): feeding response to commercial wood species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Ramos, J A; Rojas, M G

    2001-04-01

    The feeding preferences of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, were tested in three separate experiments on 28 different wood species. Experiment 1 was a multiple-choice test designed to test relative preferences among 24 wood species commercially available in New Orleans, LA. Experiment 2 was a similar study designed to test relative preferences among 21 wood species shown or reported to be unpalatable to the Formosan subterranean termite. Experiment 3 was a no-choice test to examine the feeding deterrence of the 10 least preferred wood species. Preference was determined by consumption rates. Birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britton), red gum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.), Parana pine [Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) 1, sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.), pecan (Carya illinoensis Wangenh.), and northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) were the most preferred species by C. formosanus in order of consumption rate. All of these species were significantly more preferred than southern yellow pine (Pinus taeda L.), widely used for monitoring. Sinker cypress [ = old growth bald cypress, Taxodium distichum (L.)], western red cedar (Thuja plicata Donn), Alaskan yellow cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis D. Don), eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana L.), sassafras [Sassafras albidum (Nutt.)], Spanish cedar (Cedrella odorata L.), Honduras mahogany (Swietenia macrophyla King), Indian rosewood (Dalbergia latifolia Roxb.), Honduras rosewood (D. stevensonii Standl.), and morado (Machaerium sp.) induced significant feeding deterrence and mortality to C. formosanus. The last eight species produced 100% mortality after 3 mo.

  17. Different Response of Sap Flow at Different Measurement Depths after Thinning in a Japanese Cypress Plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, C. W.; Gomi, T.; Onda, Y.; Kato, H.; Sakashita, W.; Sun, X.

    2017-12-01

    Thinning experiments in forests can alter light conditions and further affect growth rate and transpiration of the remained trees. Previous studies suggested transpiration was increased one year after thinning experiment due to improved canopy light condition. On the other hand, the anatomical and morphological responses to thinning are not react immediately because of the tree adaptation to the new surrounding conditions. It has been hypothesized that lower crown is connected to the inner part of sapwood and need more years to adapt new light conditions after thinning. However, our knowledge for the relationship between tree crown development and water movement inside the trunk after several years from thinning experiment was still limited due to lack of long-term field measurement after thinning. Therefore, in this study, we aim to examine the interannual variability of water movement inside the trunk accompanied the development of tree crown after thinning experiment. To do that, we applied sap flow measurement and terrestrial LiDAR survey from 2011 to 2017 in a Japanese cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) plantation in Japan, where 50% strip thinning experiment was conducted in the end of 2011. Consequently, we found sap flow densities at different measurement depths were not always increased year by year and those may relate to the crown development after thinning.

  18. Polymerization of impregnated monomer in wood by microwave irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawase, Kaoru; Hayakawa, Kiyoshi

    1976-01-01

    The manufacturing of a wood-plastic combination (WPC) by irradiation of microwave (2,450 and 915 +- 50 MHz) or gamma-ray was carried out. After the impregnation of dry woods (Hinoki: Chamaecyparis obtusa Endl., Buna: Acer mono Maxim., and Kaede: Fagus crenata Blume) with the mixture of the vinyl monomers and chemical reagents, the monomer in wood was polymerized by irradiation. In case of polymerization with microwave (2,450 MHz) the effect of oxygen was not recognized, but in the case of gamma-ray the rate of polymerization remarkably decreased in the presence of oxygen. The polymerization of various monomers was carried out also in the air, and the conversions of styrene, methyl-, ethyl-, n-propyl-, and n-butyl-methacrylate were 51.8 -- 89.1%, but that of vinyl acetate was lower (4.3 -- 8.2%). The conversion of monomers with irradiation of 915 MHz microwave was very low (2.6 -- 33.5%). The conversion of monomers increased when toluylene diisocyanate was added in the monomers. The percentage of extraction with hot benzene of WPC (chip) decreased by the addition of toluylene diisocyanate. It was concluded from C.H.N. analyses that the reaction took place among the wood, toluylene diisocyanate and methyl methacrylate. (auth.)

  19. Growth rate and ring width variability of teak, Tectona grandis (Verbenaceae in an unmanaged forest in East Timor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicelina B. Sousa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Teak (Tectona grandis is one of the most valuable timbers in international trade and an important species for tropical forestry. Teak is found on the island of East Timor but no information is available on teak growth from this region. A pure stand planted in 1940-50 in the North of East Timor and left unmanaged was studied. Fifteen trees were sampled in October-November 2003 and stem discs taken at three height levels of its height (1.7m, 9.5m and 18.7m, and cores were collected at DBH. Transverse surfaces of the discs and cores were polished for ring identification. Core cross sections were first digitized and disc cross sections were observed under the microscope. Three randomly selected radii were analyzed in each disc. Ring width measurement and ring counting were done using image analysis software. The distinction between heartwood and sapwood was performed macroscopically by colour difference, and heartwood radius and sapwood width were measured. The relationship between stem and heartwood radius was studied for each disc and heartwood percentage by radius was determined. Radial ring width curves are presented for the different axial positions within the stem, and ring width variability was analyzed. Growth rates were calculated and age-radius relationships were estimated using cumulative growth curves. Growth rings were large and well defined in the juvenile phase, reflecting the specie’s fast-growing character. The year-to-year variation of ring width showed a similar pattern among trees. Mean ring width ranged between 4.3-7.3mm for the first 20 years and 3.3-5.1mm for 30 to 45 years. Pith eccentricity was evident in the lower part of the stem and ring wedging occurred. On average, heartwood represented 84% of the radius and sapwood contained 6 to 11 rings. The age-related variation of ring width and the occurrence in the lower part of the tree stems of eccentricity and wedging rings, highlights the importance of appropriate stand

  20. The Characteristics of Fibres within Coppiced and Non-Coppiced Rosewood (Pterocarpus erinaceus Poir. and their Aptness for Wood - and Paper - Based Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick ANTHONIO

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Rosewood (Pterocarpus erinaceus is highly priced for furniture, flooring and cabinetry for its rich hue and durability. Its coppiced wood augments the timber for regular supply and sustainable utilization. Fibre morphology from macerated slivers within its coppiced and non-coppiced stems and their utilization potential were assessed. Derived ratios for the fibres were also calculated. The axial positions (butt, middle, crown affected the fibre dimensions. Fibre length was greater for coppiced trees [i.e., 1663±11, 1488±5, 1511±10µm (for sapwood and 1498±10, 1486±9, 1394±4µm (for heartwood] than the non-coppiced [i.e., 1240±7, 1013±5, 1137±5µm (sapwood and 1094±8, 1002±2, 1041±9µm (heartwood]. In all, those for sapwoods were greater than heartwoods’. Significant differences (P˂0.05 existed between fibre lengths from the coppiced (1394±4-1663±11µm and non-coppiced trees (1002±2-1240±7µm. Fibre diameters for coppiced sapwood and heartwood were 23±1, 20±1, 22±0.8µm and 21.5±0.3, 20.7±0.5, 21.3±2µm and noncoppiced recorded 21±0.6, 20.7±0.3, 20.6±0.1µm and 21±0, 21±0.4, 21±0.8µm respectively. Their respective double wall thicknesses were 8.4±0.2, 7.2±0.2, 9.4±1µm and 8.2±0.2, 9±0.3, 9.1±0.4µm for coppiced wood, and 9.1±1, 7.8±0.1, 8.1±0.3µm and 8.5±0.3, 8±0.4, 8±1 for non-coppiced. Thus, radial stem position also influenced fibre morphology. The fibre indices [i.e., Runkel Ratio, Slenderness Ratio and Flexibility Coefficient for coppiced wood (0.6±0.06-0.85±0.06, 68±4-77±6, 56±4-64±2 respectively and non-coppiced (0.64±0.12-0.8±0, 49±1-58±4, 57±3-62±2 respectively] indicate the timber’s aptness for pulp and paper. Besides, the Wood Industry could exploit the fibre characteristics of coppiced wood also for engineering of fibre-based products and structural applications.

  1. Understanding of amount and dynamics of radioactive cesium deposited on trees in Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, Izuki; Ohte, Nobuhito; Iseda, Kohei; Tanoi, Keitaro; Hirose, Atsushi; Kobayashi, Natsuko I. [The University of Tokyo, 113-8657, 1-1-1 Yayoi Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Ishii, Nobuyoshi [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 263-8555, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi, Chiba (Japan); Ohashi, Mizue [University of Hyogo, 670-0092, 1-1-12 Shinzaike-Honcho, Himeji, Hyogo (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    The accident of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant after the earthquake and Tsunami in March 11, 2011 caused large amount of radioactive cesium ({sup 134}Cs, {sup 137}Cs) deposition onto the forest in the surrounding areas. River water from the forest area is used for food production and also for drinking water in these regions. In order to predict how radioactive Cs diffuse and discharge from the forest catchments, it is important to understand the amount and dynamics of radioactive Cs deposited on the trees. In this report, we show our preliminary results of {sup 137}Cs deposition in forest. Study was conducted in the forest at the upstream of Kami-Oguni River catchment, northern part of Fukushima Prefecture. Three plots (2 deciduous stands and 1 Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) plantation) were set in the forest. Quercus serrata and C. japonica, a representative of deciduous and evergreen tree species in this region, were chosen from each plot. Sample trees were logged in October 2012. Stem samples were collected every 2 m from above the ground to tree top and separated into bark, sapwood and heartwood. Litter traps were set in each plot and collected every month. Leaf litter was classified among species. Also, soil samples were collected in the cylinder of 5 cm in diameter and maximum 30 cm in depth from the forest floor every month. {sup 137}Cs concentration of all samples were measured by germanium semiconductor detector or NaI(Tl) scintillation counter. Deposited {sup 137}Cs was attached strongly on the bark of Q. serrata at high concentration (9-18 kBq/kg) but there were no clear relationship with tree height. In C. japonica, {sup 137}Cs concentration was about half times lower than that of Q. serrata at 0-10 m part of the tree. {sup 137}Cs concentration in wood of C. japonica was higher than Q. serrata. {sup 137}Cs concentration of sapwood was as high as that of heartwood in C. japonica, but in Q. serrata, {sup 137}Cs concentration in sapwood was

  2. 137Cs dynamics in the forest of Fukushima after the nuclear power plant accident in March 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, I.; Ohte, N.; Iseda, K.; Kobayashi, N.; Hirose, A.; Tanoi, K.

    2013-12-01

    The accident of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant after the earthquake and Tsunami in March 11th 2011, caused large amount of radioactive Cesium (137Cs) emission into the environment. In the region of Fukushima Prefecture, forest dominates more than 70 % of the land area. River water from the forest area is used for food production and also for drinking water. Thus, it is important to understand the dynamics of 137Cs deposited in the forest to predict how the radioactive Cs diffuse and discharge from the forest catchments. We measured 137Cs concentration of the tree body, litter fall, throughfall, and stemflow, in order to clarify how 137Cs deposited on the above ground biomass of the forest are transported to the forest floor. We set forest site at the upstream part of Kami-Oguni River catchment, northern part of Fukushima Prefecture. Three plots (2 deciduous stands and 1 Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) plantation stand) were set in the forest site. Quercus serrata and C. japonica, which are representative tree species, were chosen at each plot and concentration of 137Cs on the bark, sapwood and heartwood were measured every 2 m from the ground to tree top. From each plot, 137Cs concentration of leaf litter was measured among species. Water samples of throughfall and stemflow were filtered and 137Cs concentration in suspended matter was measured. 137Cs was deposited on the bark of Q. serrata at high concentration (9-18 kBq/kg) but there were no clear relationship between tree height and concentration. 137Cs concentration of the sapwood (41 Bq/kg) was relatively higher than that of the heartwood (5 Bq/kg). It was suggested that 137Cs may be absorbed from bark and/or root. The concentration of 137Cs deposited in leaf litter varied from non-detected level to above 30 kBq/kg. The concentration was higher at evergreen tree than deciduous tree. It is considered that the litter of evergreen tree was derived from leaves on the tree canopy at the time of the

  3. Antifungal activity and ultrastructural alterations in Pseudocercospora griseola treated with essential oils Atividade antifúngica e alterações ultraestruturais em Pseudocercospora griseola tratado com óleos essenciais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Mauricio Ágredo Hoyos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Pseudocercospora griseola, the etiologic agent of angular leaf spot of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, is an important disease in all bean-producing regions worldwide and may cause extremely high yield losses. The control of this disease is made more difficult by the pathogen's genetic variability and the inefficiency of fungicides. In this study, of 26 essential oils tested at different concentrations, 25 demonstrated efficiency in affecting the germination of strains 63-31 and 63-63 of the pathogen, reaching inhibition levels of between 80% and 100%. Cymbopogon citratus and Cymbopogon martinii inhibited conidia germination at all concentrations; Eugenia caryophyllata, Cinnamomum sp., Thymus vulgaris, Matricaria recutita, Cordia verbenacea, Origanum vulgare, Cymbopogon nardus, at 0.1 and 0.5%; and Zingiber officinale, Mentha arvensis, Chamaecyparis pisifera, Lavandula officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Pimpinella anisum, Ocimum selloi, Baccharis dracunculifolia, Laurus nobilis, Citrus sinensis, Melaleuca alternifolia and Eucalyptus globulus, at 0.5%. The main constituents identified were cinnamaldehyde in Cinnamomum sp.; eugenol in E. caryophyllata; trans-β-farnesene in M. recutita; pulegone in C. verbenacea; thymol in T. vulgaris; geranial and neral in C. citratus, and geraniol in C. martini. Through transmission electron microscopy (TEM, it was verified that C. citratus, C. martini and E. caryophyllata presented direct fungitoxic action on P. griseola, causing severe damage to the cellular ultrastructure of the conidia, invalidating germination. These results indicated that essential oils are a promising alternative strategy for the control of angular leaf spot in bean, representing less risk to human health and the environment.Pseudocercospora griseola, agente etiológico da mancha angular do feijoeiro comum (Phaseolus vulgaris, é uma doença importante nas regiões produtoras de feijão em todo o mundo e pode causar perdas de produtividade

  4. Hide and go seek with temperature signals of Northeastern US Tree Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, M. R.; Pederson, N.; Bishop, D. A.; Pearl, J. K.; Anchukaitis, K. J.

    2017-12-01

    Improving reconstructions of past climate is vital in providing long-term context for regional climate change. There have been only two published reconstructions of past temperatures in the northeastern U.S. (NEUS) since the 1980s, one based on Picea rubens, and one out in 2017 based upon Chamaecyparis thyoides (Atlantic white cedar; AWC). Because increased species diversity generally improves dendrohydroclimatic reconstructions and both Picea rubens and AWC have limitations as paleoproxies due to land-use and air pollution, we conducted a series of tests to ask, "Does species diversity improve reconstructions of temperature history in the northeastern United States?" The first two tests were performed on AWC and then a network of AWC and Picea rubens. Subsequent tests added groups of species or genera from a network of 230 tree-ring chronologies beginning with those having the strongest relation between warming temperatures and increased growth. PC1 of the AWC test represented 40% of the variance and showed a significant positive relation with winter temperature (r = 0.38). As additional species were included, the "winter temperature PC" accounted for less of the overall variance, ranging from 26% of the variance in test 2 to 5% by test 5. AWC is swamped by the hydroclimatic signal that dominates our network. Populations of species such as Fagus grandifolia, Fraxinus nigra, Juniperus virginiana, Liriodendron tulipifera, Pinus rigida, and Pinus strobus from our network loaded strongest with AWC on the winter temperature PC. Including multiple species accounted for almost 20% more variance in the winter temperature record than AWC alone. Although drought is a dominating influence of tree growth in this region, our results suggest that winter temperatures are recorded within NEUS tree rings. Increasing the species diversity of tree proxies has the potential for improving reconstruction of paleotemperatures in regions lacking latitudinal or altitudinal tree lines

  5. Climatic and physiological controls on the stable isotope composition of modern and ancient Cupressaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinniker, D.; Tipple, B.; Pagani, M.

    2007-12-01

    Unique and abundant secondary metabolites found in waxes and resins of the Callitroid, Cupressoid, and Taxodioid clades of the Cupressaceae family can be identified and quantified in complex mixtures of sedimentary organic compounds. This unusual feature makes it possible to study relatively simple (taxon-specific) isotope systems back in time across the broad array of environments in which these conifers are found. Work on these systems can potentially provide both robust paleoenvironmental proxies (i.e. for source water δD and growing season relative humidity) and quantitative probes into the ecophysiology of these plants in modern and ancient environments. Our research focuses on three genera representing environmental end-members of Cupressaceae - Juniperus, Thuja, and Chamaecyparis - (1) across geographic and environmental gradients in the field, and (2) in specific Holocene and late Pleistocene environmental records. The latter research focuses on peat cores from New England and Oregon and fossil packrat middens from the southwestern United States. Modern transects highlight the sensitivity of Cupressaceae to climatic variables. These include both variables during growth (relative humidity, soil moisture, etc.) and variables affecting seasonal and diurnal growth rates (temperature, winter precipitation, insolation, microhabitat, etc.). Work on ancient records has demonstrated the sensitivity of these unique taxon-specific archives to both subtle and dramatic climate shifts during the Pleistocene and Holocene. This work will result in an improved understanding of climatic and physiological controls on the stable isotopic composition of modern and ancient Cupressaceae - and by extension, other arborescent gymnosperms and C3 plants - providing a framework for understanding more complexly sourced organic inputs to sediments, coals, and petroleum prior to the advent of C4 plants. This research also has direct implications for stratigraphic stable isotope studies

  6. DETECTING FORESTS DAMAGED BY PINE WILT DISEASE AT THE INDIVIDUAL TREE LEVEL USING AIRBORNE LASER DATA AND WORLDVIEW-2/3 IMAGES OVER TWO SEASONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Takenaka

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Pine wilt disease is caused by the pine wood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and Japanese pine sawyer (Monochamus alternatus. This study attempted to detect damaged pine trees at different levels using a combination of airborne laser scanning (ALS data and high-resolution space-borne images. A canopy height model with a resolution of 50 cm derived from the ALS data was used for the delineation of tree crowns using the Individual Tree Detection method. Two pan-sharpened images were established using the ortho-rectified images. Next, we analyzed two kinds of intensity-hue-saturation (IHS images and 18 remote sensing indices (RSI derived from the pan-sharpened images. The mean and standard deviation of the 2 IHS images, 18 RSI, and 8 bands of the WV-2 and WV-3 images were extracted for each tree crown and were used to classify tree crowns using a support vector machine classifier. Individual tree crowns were assigned to one of nine classes: bare ground, Larix kaempferi, Cryptomeria japonica, Chamaecyparis obtusa, broadleaved trees, healthy pines, and damaged pines at slight, moderate, and heavy levels. The accuracy of the classifications using the WV-2 images ranged from 76.5 to 99.6 %, with an overall accuracy of 98.5 %. However, the accuracy of the classifications using the WV-3 images ranged from 40.4 to 95.4 %, with an overall accuracy of 72 %, which suggests poorer accuracy compared to those classes derived from the WV-2 images. This is because the WV-3 images were acquired in October 2016 from an area with low sun, at a low altitude.

  7. Trace metals in bulk precipitation and throughfall in a suburban area of Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, H.; Takamatsu, T.; Koshikawa, M. K.; Hosomi, M.

    Throughfall and bulk precipitation samples were collected monthly for 1.5 years over bare land and under canopies of Japanese cedar ( Cryptomeria japonica), Japanese red pine ( Pinus densiflora), Japanese cypress ( Chamaecyparis obtusa), and bamboo-leafed oak ( Quercus myrsinaefolia) in a suburban area of Japan. Samples were analyzed for dissolved Al, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Ag, In, Sn, Sb and Bi by ICP-AES and ICP-MS. The metal concentrations were higher in throughfall, especially that of C. japonica, than bulk precipitation. Enrichment ratios (ERs: ratios of metal concentrations in throughfall to those in bulk precipitation) ranged from 2.5 (Zn) to 5.3 (Ag) (3.9 on average), and ERs for slightly soluble metals were generally higher than those for easily soluble metals. Concentrations of Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn accounted for 99% of the total concentration of heavy metals in rainwater, whereas those of rare metals such as Ag, In, Sn, and Bi totaled rare metals were 0.002 and 0.010 μg l -1 for Ag, 0.001 and 0.005 μg l -1 for In, 0.062 and 0.21 μg l -1 for Sn, and 0.006 and 0.023 μg l -1 for Bi in bulk precipitation and throughfall, respectively. The metal concentrations in rainwater were negatively correlated to the volume of rainwater, indicating that washout is the main mechanism that incorporates metals into rainwater. From the enrichment factors, that is, (X/Al) rain/(X/Al) crust, metals other than Fe were shown to be more enriched in rainwater than in the Earth's crust, including those present as a result of leaching from soil dust (Mn) and from anthropogenic sources (Cu, Zn, Ag, In, Sn, Sb, and Bi).

  8. Changes in radiocesium contamination from Fukushima in foliar parts of 10 common tree species in Japan between 2011 and 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshihara, Toshihiro; Matsumura, Hideyuki; Tsuzaki, Masaharu; Wakamatsu, Takashi; Kobayashi, Takuya; Hashida, Shin-nosuke; Nagaoka, Toru; Goto, Fumiyuki

    2014-01-01

    Yearly changes in radiocesium ( 137 Cs) contamination, primarily due to the Fukushima accident of March 2011, were observed in the foliar parts of 10 common woody species in Japan (Chamaecyparis obtusa, Cedrus deodara, Pinus densiflora, Cryptomeria japonica, Phyllostachys pubescens, Cinnamomum camphora, Metasequoia glyptostroboides, Prunus × yedoensis, Acer buergerianum, and Aesculus hippocastanum). The samples were obtained from Abiko (approximately 200 km SSW of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant) during each growing season between 2011 and 2013, and the foliar parts were examined based on their year of expansion and location in each trees. The radiocesium concentrations generally decreased with time; however, the concentrations and rates of decrease varied among species, age of foliar parts, and locations. The radiocesium concentrations in the 2012 current-year foliar parts were 29%–220% of those from 2011, while those from 2013 fell to between 14% and 42% of the 2011 values. The net decontamination in the foliage was higher in evergreen species than in deciduous species. The radiocesium concentrations in the upper foliar parts were higher than those in the lower parts particularly in C. japonica. In addition, the radiocesium concentrations were higher in the current-year foliar parts than in the 1-year-old foliar parts, particularly in 2013. Thus, the influence of the direct deposition of the fallout was reduced with time, and the translocation ability of radiocesium from old to new tissues became more influential. Similar to the behavior of potassium in trees, Cs redistribution probably occurred primarily due to internal nutrient translocation mechanisms. - Highlights: • 137 Cs concentrations of foliar parts expanded in 2013 was 14–42% of those in 2011. • The rates of decrease varied with the species, sampling part, and position. • Newly expanded foliar parts contain higher 137 Cs concentrations than older parts. • 137 Cs translocation

  9. Changes in radiocesium contamination from Fukushima in foliar parts of 10 common tree species in Japan between 2011 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshihara, Toshihiro; Matsumura, Hideyuki; Tsuzaki, Masaharu; Wakamatsu, Takashi; Kobayashi, Takuya; Hashida, Shin-Nosuke; Nagaoka, Toru; Goto, Fumiyuki

    2014-12-01

    Yearly changes in radiocesium ((137)Cs) contamination, primarily due to the Fukushima accident of March 2011, were observed in the foliar parts of 10 common woody species in Japan (Chamaecyparis obtusa, Cedrus deodara, Pinus densiflora, Cryptomeria japonica, Phyllostachys pubescens, Cinnamomum camphora, Metasequoia glyptostroboides, Prunus × yedoensis, Acer buergerianum, and Aesculus hippocastanum). The samples were obtained from Abiko (approximately 200 km SSW of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant) during each growing season between 2011 and 2013, and the foliar parts were examined based on their year of expansion and location in each trees. The radiocesium concentrations generally decreased with time; however, the concentrations and rates of decrease varied among species, age of foliar parts, and locations. The radiocesium concentrations in the 2012 current-year foliar parts were 29%-220% of those from 2011, while those from 2013 fell to between 14% and 42% of the 2011 values. The net decontamination in the foliage was higher in evergreen species than in deciduous species. The radiocesium concentrations in the upper foliar parts were higher than those in the lower parts particularly in C. japonica. In addition, the radiocesium concentrations were higher in the current-year foliar parts than in the 1-year-old foliar parts, particularly in 2013. Thus, the influence of the direct deposition of the fallout was reduced with time, and the translocation ability of radiocesium from old to new tissues became more influential. Similar to the behavior of potassium in trees, Cs redistribution probably occurred primarily due to internal nutrient translocation mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of air pollution on cultivated plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spierings, F H.F.G.

    1958-01-01

    In an area, where tulips had been damaged, experimental plots with tulip varieties of different sensitivities to HF were laid out in the open and in greenhouses. It was proven that the injury decreased with increasing distance from the factory. In the same area irises were injured. But in this case the cause of the damage proved to be SO2 derived from the stove in the greenhouse. In an industrial area, where fruit trees were damaged last year, potatoes were injured in a very typical way. Varieties of this crop also showed differences in sensitivity to air pollution. During another period of 1958 air pollution of high intensity occurred in the same area, so that several crops were severely damaged. The damage of the fruit and vegetables turned out to be caused by HF. In several other areas of air pollution the cause of the damage proved to be HF or SO2. Shrubs surrounding the fields were able to prevent the spread of the gases to a small extent. In an area, where the concentration of HF in the atmosphere proved to be too low to cause damage, a conifer species, Chamaecyparis, showed a rather high content of F in the leaves. It is possible that this tree species, which keeps its green color during the whole year, continuously absorbs small quantities of fluorine and may become injured. In an area surrounding an enamel industry plants were damaged by HF. Several new cases of air pollution were investigated. In two of these, the cause of the damage to the plants proved to be hydrochloric acid.

  11. Temporal sequencing of throughfall drop generation as revealed by use of a large-scale rainfall simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanko, K.; Levia, D. F., Jr.; Iida, S.; SUN, X.; Shinohara, Y.; Sakai, N.

    2017-12-01

    Scientists have been interested in throughfall drop size and its distribution because of its importance to soil erosion and the forest water balance. An indoor experiment was employed to deepen our understanding of throughfall drop generation processes to promote better management of forested ecosystems. The indoor experiment provides a unique opportunity to examine an array of constant rainfall intensities that are ideal conditions to pick up the effect of changing intensities and not found in the fields. Throughfall drop generation was examined for three species- Cryptomeria japonica D. Don (Japanese cedar), Chamaecyparis obtusa (Siebold & Zucc.) Endl. (Japanese cypress), and Zelkova serrata Thunb. (Japanese zelkova)- under both leafed and leafless conditions in the large-scale rainfall simulator in the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Resilience (Tsukuba, Japan) at varying rainfall intensities ranging from15 to 100 mm h-1. Drop size distributions of the applied rainfall and throughfall were measured simultaneously by 20 laser disdrometers. Utilizing the drop size dataset, throughfall was separated into three components: free throughfall, canopy drip, and splash throughfall. The temporal sequencing of the throughfall components were analyzed on a 1-min interval during each experimental run. The throughfall component percentage and drop size of canopy drip differed among tree species and rainfall intensities and by elapsed time from the beginning of the rainfall event. Preliminary analysis revealed that the time differences to produce branch drip as compared to leaf (or needle) drip was partly due to differential canopy wet-up processes and the disappearance of branch drips due to canopy saturation, leading to dissimilar throughfall drop size distributions beneath the various tree species examined. This research was supported by JSPS Invitation Fellowship for Research in Japan (Grant No.: S16088) and JSPS KAKENHI (Grant No.: JP15H05626).

  12. Use of a large-scale rainfall simulator reveals novel insights into stemflow generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levia, D. F., Jr.; Iida, S. I.; Nanko, K.; Sun, X.; Shinohara, Y.; Sakai, N.

    2017-12-01

    Detailed knowledge of stemflow generation and its effects on both hydrological and biogoechemical cycling is important to achieve a holistic understanding of forest ecosystems. Field studies and a smaller set of experiments performed under laboratory conditions have increased our process-based knowledge of stemflow production. Building upon these earlier works, a large-scale rainfall simulator was employed to deepen our understanding of stemflow generation processes. The use of the large-scale rainfall simulator provides a unique opportunity to examine a range of rainfall intensities under constant conditions that are difficult under natural conditions due to the variable nature of rainfall intensities in the field. Stemflow generation and production was examined for three species- Cryptomeria japonica D. Don (Japanese cedar), Chamaecyparis obtusa (Siebold & Zucc.) Endl. (Japanese cypress), Zelkova serrata Thunb. (Japanese zelkova)- under both leafed and leafless conditions at several different rainfall intensities (15, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 100 mm h-1) using a large-scale rainfall simulator in National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Resilience (Tsukuba, Japan). Stemflow production and rates and funneling ratios were examined in relation to both rainfall intensity and canopy structure. Preliminary results indicate a dynamic and complex response of the funneling ratios of individual trees to different rainfall intensities among the species examined. This is partly the result of different canopy structures, hydrophobicity of vegetative surfaces, and differential wet-up processes across species and rainfall intensities. This presentation delves into these differences and attempts to distill them into generalizable patterns, which can advance our theories of stemflow generation processes and ultimately permit better stewardship of forest resources. ________________ Funding note: This research was supported by JSPS Invitation Fellowship for Research in

  13. Prediction of Soil Erosion Rates in Japan where Heavily Forested Landscape with Unstable Terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanko, K.; Oguro, M.; Miura, S.; Masaki, T.

    2016-12-01

    Soil is fundamental for plant growth, water conservation, and sustainable forest management. Multidisciplinary interest in the role of the soil in areas such as biodiversity, ecosystem services, land degradation, and water security has been growing (Miura et al., 2015). Forest is usually protective land use from soil erosion because vegetation buffers rainfall power and erosivity. However, some types of forest in Japan show high susceptibility to soil erosion due to little ground cover and steep slopes exceeding thirty degree, especially young Japanese cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) plantations (Miura et al., 2002). This is a critical issue for sustainable forest management because C. obtusaplantations account for 10% of the total forest coverage in Japan (Forestry Agency, 2009). Prediction of soil erosion rates on nationwide scale is necessary to make decision for future forest management plan. To predict and map soil erosion rates across Japan, we applied three soil erosion models, RUSLE (Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation, Wischmeier and Smith, 1978), PESERA (Pan-European Soil Erosion Risk Assessment, Kirkby et al., 2003), and RMMF (Revised Morgan-Morgan-Finney, Morgan, 2001). The grid scale is 1-km. RUSLE and PESERA are most widely used erosion models today. RMMF includes interactions between rainfall and vegetation, such as canopy interception and ratio of canopy drainage in throughfall. Evaporated rainwater by canopy interception, generally accounts for 15-20% in annual rainfall, does not contribute soil erosion. Whereas, larger raindrops generated by canopy drainage produced higher splash erosion rates than gross rainfall (Nanko et al., 2008). Therefore, rainfall redistribution process in canopy should be considered to predict soil erosion rates in forested landscape. We compared the results from three erosion models and analyze the importance of environmental factors for the prediction of soil erosion rates. This research was supported by the Environment

  14. Recognizing Non-Stationary Climate Response in Tree Growth for Southern Coastal Alaska, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiles, G. C.; Jarvis, S. K.; D'Arrigo, R.; Vargo, L. J.; Appleton, S. N.

    2012-12-01

    Stationarity in growth response of trees to climate over time is assumed in dendroclimatic studies. Recent studies of Alaskan yellow-cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis (D. Don) Spach) have identified warming-induced early loss of insulating snowpack and frost damage as a mechanism that can lead to decline in tree growth, which for this species is documented over the last century. A similar stress may be put on temperature-sensitive mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana (Bong.) Carrière) trees at low elevations, which in some cases show a decline in tree growth with warming temperatures. One of the challenges of using tree-ring based SAT, SST, PDO and PNA-related reconstructions for southern coastal Alaska has been understanding the response of tree-ring chronologies to the warming temperatures over the past 50 years. Comparisons of tree growth with long meteorological records from Sitka Alaska that extend back to 1830 suggest many mountain hemlock sites at low elevations are showing decreasing ring-widths, at mid elevations most sites show a steady increasing growth tracking warming, and at treeline a release is documented. The recognition of this recent divergence or decoupling of tree-ring and temperature trends allows for divergence-free temperature reconstructions using trees from moderate elevations. These reconstructions now provide a better perspective for comparing recent warming to Medieval warming and a better understanding of forest dynamics as biomes shift in response to the transition from the Little Ice Age to contemporary warming. Reconstructed temperatures are consistent with well-established, entirely independent tree-ring dated ice advances of land-terminating glaciers along the Gulf of Alaska providing an additional check for stationarity in the reconstructed interval.

  15. Carbon-14 in tree rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cain, W.F.; Suess, H.E.

    1976-01-01

    In order to investigate how reliably the carbon 14 content of tree rings reflects that of atmospheric carbon dioxide, two types of determinations were carried out: (1) carbon 14 determinations in annual rings from the beginning of this century until 1974 and (2) carbon 14 determinations in synchronous wood from the North American bristlecone pine and from European oak trees, dendrochronologically dated to have grown in the third and fourth century B.C. The first series of measurements showed that bomb-produced radiocarbon was incorporated in wood at a time when it was converted from sapwood to heartwood, whenever radiocarbon from bomb testing was present in the atmosphere. The second series showed that wood more than 2000 years old and grown on two different continents at different altitudes had, within the limits of experimental error, the same radiocarbon content. This work and other experimental evidence, obtained in part by other laboratories, show that tree rings reflect the average radiocarbon content of global atmospheric carbon dioxide accurately within several parts per mil. In rare cases, deviations of up to 10 parts per thousand may be possible. This means that a typical single radiocarbon date for wood or charcoal possesses an intrinsic uncertainty (viz., an estimated ''one-sigma error'' in addition to all the other errors) of the order of +-50 years. This intrinsic uncertainty is independent of the absolute age of the sample. More accurate dates can, in principle, be obtained by the so-called method of ''wiggle matching.''

  16. The utility of Pinus sylvestris L. in dendrochemical investigations: Pollution impact of lead mining and smelting in Darley Dale, Derbyshire, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lageard, J.G.A.; Howell, J.A.; Rothwell, J.J.; Drew, I.B.

    2008-01-01

    This research investigates atmospheric pollution from an isolated and increasingly productive lead-smelting site by examining the dendrochemistry of Pinus sylvestris growing in the local environment and at control sites. Tree increment cores and soil in the rooting environment were analysed for lead content. Inter-site comparisons of lead-in-soil suggest that contamination of the soil may be a less important pathway for lead inclusion within wood than pathways via bark or needles. Levels of lead-in-wood (up to 38 mg kg -1 ) are at the upper end of those previously reported. There is evidence of radial translocation of lead towards the heartwood and variability in intra-site dendrochemical records. Mean site lead-in-wood records can however be related to a well-documented pollution chronology and also suggest the importance of local topography in the dispersal and deposition of particulate lead. This study demonstrates that P. sylvestris can be used to estimate the scale and timing of past pollution episodes in similar environmental contexts to those investigated at Darley Dale, where precisely dated pollution chronologies are lacking. - Mean site dendrochemical records for Pinus sylvestris can be used to estimate the general scale and timing of atmospheric pollution episodes

  17. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of tree rings for dendrochemical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaumloffel, J.C.; Filby, R.H.

    1996-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was employed to determine zinc, cadmium and potassium concentrations in the growth rings of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl.) trees growing along the shores of Lake Roosevelt in Washington State, U.S.A. where mineral processing activities have resulted in high burdens of zinc and cadmium in the lake sediments. The tree growing along the contaminated waterway display elevated concentrations of zinc in its growth rings relative to a tree growing along an uncontaminated tributary of Lake Roosevelt. Cadmium concentrations in the growth rings from both sites are similar from 1988 to 1993. Water quality data indicate an increased concentration of cadmium in the lake from 1984 to 1988. The increased concentrations of cadmium in the lake water were reflected in apparent increases in concentrations of cadmium in individual rings of the tree sampled at the contaminated site. This suggests that translocation of cadmium in the sapwood of heartwood-forming species does not occur in the short term, and thus may not be a limiting factor in using trees as environmental monitors for cadmium. In addition, five-year tree ring segments were analyzed and subsequently reanalyzed as individual single-year ring segments. The analytical data obtained for the pooled individual rings are essentially the same as for the five-year segments, demonstrating the utility of NAA for dendrochemical studies. (author). 24 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Avicequinone C Isolated from Avicennia marina Exhibits 5α-Reductase-Type 1 Inhibitory Activity Using an Androgenic Alopecia Relevant Cell-Based Assay System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchy Jain

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Avicennia marina (AM exhibits various biological activities and has been traditionally used in Egypt to cure skin diseases. In this study, the methanolic heartwood extract of AM was evaluated for inhibitory activity against 5α-reductase (5α-R [E.C.1.3.99.5], the enzyme responsible for the over-production of 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT causing androgenic alopecia (AGA. An AGA-relevant cell-based assay was developed using human hair dermal papilla cells (HHDPCs, the main regulator of hair growth and the only cells within the hair follicle that are the direct site of 5α-DHT action, combined with a non-radioactive thin layer chromatography (TLC detection technique. The results revealed that AM is a potent 5α-R type 1 (5α-R1 inhibitor, reducing the 5α-DHT production by 52% at the final concentration of 10 µg/mL. Activity-guided fractionation has led to the identification of avicequinone C, a furanonaphthaquinone, as a 5α-R1 inhibitor with an IC50 of 9.94 ± 0.33 µg/mL or 38.8 ± 1.29 µM. This paper is the first to report anti-androgenic activity through 5α-R1 inhibition of AM and avicequinone C.

  19. Um panorama atual da química e da farmacologia de naftoquinonas, com ênfase na beta-lapachona e derivados An overview of the chemistry and pharmacology of naphthoquinones with emphasis on beta-lapachone and derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton N. da Silva

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Naphthoquinones have been extensively studied due to their activity as topoisomerase inhibitors. These enzymes are critical to DNA replication in cells. In addition, naphthoquinones have been shown to induce what are known as "reactive oxygen species" that can cause damage to cells. beta-Lapachone is a very important pyranaphthoquinone obtained from the heartwood of the lapacho tree, Tabebuia avellanedae Lorentz ex. Griseb. (Bignoniaceae, and other Tabebuia trees native to Central and South America and chemically from lapachol. beta-Lapachone has a diversity of useful biological activities against various cancer cell lines such as human ovarian and prostate tumors and, at lower doses is a radiosensitizer of several human cancer cell lines. It gives rise to a variety of effects in vitro including the inhibition or activation of topoisomerase I an II in a distinct manner from that of other topoisomerase inhibitors. This review intend to discuss some details of the mechanisms of quinone-induced cell damage and death, and we also summarize results of the literature indicating that b-Lapachone may take part in quinone-elicited apoptosis despite the fact that its mechanism of action in vivo and its targets are still unknown.

  20. Multi-platform metabolomics and a genetic approach support the authentication of agarwood produced by Aquilaria crassna and Aquilaria malaccensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huy Truong; Min, Jung-Eun; Long, Nguyen Phuoc; Thanh, Ma Chi; Le, Thi Hong Van; Lee, Jeongmi; Park, Jeong Hill; Kwon, Sung Won

    2017-08-05

    Agarwood, the resinous heartwood produced by some Aquilaria species such as Aquilaria crassna, Aquilaria malaccensis and Aquilaria sinensis, has been traditionally and widely used in medicine, incenses and especially perfumes. However, up to now, the authentication of agarwood has been largely based on morphological characteristics, a method which is prone to errors and lacks reproducibility. Hence, in this study, we applied metabolomics and a genetic approach to the authentication of two common agarwood chips, those produced by Aquilaria crassna and Aquilaria malaccensis. Primary metabolites, secondary metabolites and DNA markers of agarwood were authenticated by 1 H NMR metabolomics, GC-MS metabolomics and DNA-based techniques, respectively. The results indicated that agarwood chips could be classified accurately by all the methods illustrated in this study. Additionally, the pros and cons of each method are also discussed. To the best of our knowledge, our research is the first study detailing all the differences in the primary and secondary metabolites, as well as the DNA markers between the agarwood produced by these two species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Preparative separation of α- and β-santalenes and (Z)-α- and (Z)-β-santalols using silver nitrate-impregnated silica gel medium pressure liquid chromatography and analysis of sandalwood oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daramwar, Pankaj P; Srivastava, Prabhakar Lal; Priyadarshini, Balaraman; Thulasiram, Hirekodathakallu V

    2012-10-07

    The major sesquiterpene constituents of East-Indian sandalwood oil (Z)-α- and (Z)-β-santalols have shown to be responsible for most of the biological activities and organoleptic properties of sandalwood oil. The work reported here describes the strategic use of medium pressure liquid chromatography (MPLC) for the separation of both α- and β-santalenes and (Z)-α- and (Z)-β-santalols. Silver nitrate impregnated silica gel was used as the stationary phase in MPLC for quantitative separation of α- and β-santalenes and (Z)-α- and (Z)-β-santalols with mobile phases hexane and dichloromethane, respectively. The purities of α-santalene and (Z)-α-santalol obtained were >96%; however, β-santalene and (Z)-β-santalol were obtained with their respective inseparable epi-isomers. Limits of quantification (LoQ) relative to the FID detector were measured for important sesquiterpene alcohols of heartwood oil of S. album using serial dilutions of the standard stock solutions and demonstrated that the quality of the commercial sandalwood oil can be assessed for the content of individual sesquiterpene alcohols regulated by Australian Standard (AS2112-2003), International Organization for Standardization ISO 3518:2002 (E) and European Union (E. U.).

  2. Studying sulfur functional groups in Norway spruce year rings using S L-edge total electron yield spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struis, Rudolf P.W.J.; Ludwig, Christian; Barrelet, Timothee; Kraehenbuehl, Urs; Rennenberg, Heinz

    2008-01-01

    Profiles of the major sulfur functional groups in mature Norway spruce wood tissue have been established for the first time. The big challenge was the development of a method suitable for sulfur speciation in samples with very low sulfur content (< 100 ppm). This became possible by synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the sulfur L-edge in total electron yield (TEY) detection mode with thin gold-coated wood slices. Functional groups were identified using sulfur compound spectra as fingerprints. Latewood of single year rings revealed metabolic plausible sulfur forms, particularly inorganic sulfide, organic disulfide, methylthiol, and highly oxidized sulfur. Form-specific profiles with Norway spruces from three different Swiss forest sites revealed high, but hitherto little-noticed, sulfur intensities attributable to natural heartwood formation and a common, but physiologically unexpected maximum around year ring 1986 with trees from the industrialized Swiss Plateau. It is hypothesized whether it may have resulted from the huge reduction in sulfur emissions after 1980 due to Swiss policy. Comparison with total S content profiles from optical emission spectroscopy underlined the more accurate and temporally better resolved TEY data with single wood year rings and it opened novel insights into the wood cell chemistry

  3. Evolution of ellagitannins in Spanish, French, and American oak woods during natural seasoning and toasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadahía, E; Varea, S; Muñoz, L; Fernández De Simón, B; García-Vallejo, M C

    2001-08-01

    The evolution of tannins in Spanish oak heartwood of Quercus robur L., Quercus petraea Liebl.,Quercus pyrenaica Wild., and Quercus faginea Lam. was studied in relation to the processing of wood in barrel cooperage. Their evolution was compared with that of French oak of Q. robur (Limousin, France) and Q. petraea (Allier, France) and American oak of Quercus alba L. (Missouri), which are habitually used in cooperage. Two stages of process were researched: the seasoning of woods during 3 years in natural conditions and toasting. Total phenol and total ellagitannin contents and optical density at 420 nm of wood extracts were determined. The ellagitannins roburins A-E, grandinin, vescalagin, and castalagin were identified and quantified by HPLC, and the molecular weight distribution of ellagitannins was calculated by GPC. During the seasoning process the different ellagitannin concentrations decreased according to the duration of this process and in the same way as those in French and American woods. The toasting process also had an important influence on the ellagitannin composition of wood. Roburins A-E, grandinin, vescalagin, and castalagin decreased during this process in the Spanish wood species, in the same proportion as in the French and American ones. Also, the seasoning and toasting processes lead to qualitative variations in the structure of ellagitannins, especially in the molecular weight distribution, as was evidenced by GPC analysis of their acetylated derivatives.

  4. Effect of Artocarpus communis Extract on UVB Irradiation-Induced Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Hairless Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Lin Yen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Administration of antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents is an effective strategy for preventing ultraviolet (UV irradiation-induced skin damage. Artocarpus communis possesses several pharmacological activities, such as antioxidant, anticancer and anti-inflammation. However, the photoprotective activity of methanol extract of A. communis heartwood (ACM in ultraviolet irradiation-induced skin damage has not yet been investigated. The present study was performed using ultraviolet absorption, histopathological observation, antioxidant and anti-inflammation assays to elucidate the mechanism of the photoprotective activity of ACM. Our results indicated that ACM displayed a UVA and UVB absorption effect and then effectively decreased scaly skin, epidermis thickness and sunburn cells during ultraviolet irradiation in hairless mice. ACM not only decreased ultraviolet irradiation-mediated oxidative stress, including lowering the overproduction of reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation (p < 0.05, but also reduced the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin 1β. Additionally, ACM can decrease the synthesis of cytosolic phospholipase A2, cyclooxygenase, inducible nitric oxide synthase and vascular cell adhesion molecular-1 via inhibiting TNF-α-independent pathways (p < 0.05 in UVB-mediated inflammation and formation of sunburn cells. Consequently, we concluded that ACM extract has a photoprotective effect against UVB-induced oxidative stress and inflammation due to its sunscreen property, and its topical formulations may be developed as therapeutic and/or cosmetic products in further studies.

  5. Emission behaviour of wood and materials produced from wood; Emissionsverhalten von Holz und Holzwerkstoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilke, Olaf; Wiegner, Katharina; Jann, Oliver; Broedner, Doris; Scheffer, Harald [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany)

    2012-03-15

    In this project, eight Oriented Strand Boards (OSB) and seven plywood boards from DIY stores were tested in emission test chambers according to the AgBB scheme's specifications. In addition, 17 OSBs manufactured in a pilot plant were tested to investigate the effect of production parameters on VOC emission. The use of antioxidants in OSB production was also tested. The main objective of the investigation was to find potential solutions for reducing VOC emissions from timber materials. The emissions from pine wood were investigated on six sapwood or heartwood samples from different trunk sections of freshly felled pine. The project's results show that, due to their high aldehyde and terpene emissions, some types of commercially available OSB and plywood did not meet the AgBB scheme's requirements. By using antioxidants in OSB production it was possible to reduce aldehyde emissions (especially hexanal and unsaturated higher aldehydes) to one third. However, this caused an increase in terpene emissions. (orig.)

  6. Effect of Thermo-Treatment on the Physical and Mechanical, Color, Fungal Durability of Wood of Tectona Grandis and Gmelina Arborea from Forest Plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Diego MÉNDEZ-MEJÍAS

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of thermo-treatment (THT at 4 temperatures on the density, shrinking, mass loss, moisture absorption, color, durability in terms of resistance to decay, flexural strength, tensile adhesion of glue line and the infrared spectrum of the wood of Tectona grandis and Gmelina arborea. Sapwood, heartwood and radial and tangential grain patterns were studied. The results showed that the THT temperature decreases the density, the percentage of moisture absorption, the modulus of elasticity and modulus of rupture in the flexure test and the tensile adhesion of glue line. The percentage of shrinking and durability presented irregular behavior relative to the THT temperature. The percentage of mass loss increased with increasing THT temperature in both species. The total color change (∆E* of thermo-treated wood (THTwood also increased with increasing THT temperature. Sapwood of T. grandis and G. arborea, having clearer shades, showed a more noticeable color change compared to hardwood; however, no significant differences were obtained between some of the THT temperatures.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.24.1.17545

  7. Towards a complete characterisation of guaiacwood oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissandié, Loïc; Viciana, Stéphane; Brevard, Hugues; Meierhenrich, Uwe J; Filippi, Jean-Jacques

    2018-05-01

    Guaiacwood oil is a common perfume ingredient used in modern compositions for its suave woody-rosy scent. This essential oil is a byproduct of the timber industry obtained by hydrodistillation of the heartwood of Bulnesia sarmientoi, a tree native from Latin America. Despite being widely used in perfumery, guaiacwood oil has been poorly described in the past. This study aims at giving an in-depth characterisation of its chemical composition as well as disclosing the odorant compounds responsible for its characteristic fragrance. Our methodology was based on a combination of fractionation and analytical techniques, including comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry and preparative capillary-gas chromatography. The entire analytical work led to the isolation of 20 constituents among which 14 have never been reported so far in natural extracts. Each isolated compound was fully characterised by spectroscopic methods. Finally, the accurate knowledge of the chemical composition permitted the identification of the odour-active constituents by gas chromatography-olfactometry. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The utility of Pinus sylvestris L. in dendrochemical investigations: pollution impact of lead mining and smelting in Darley Dale, Derbyshire, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lageard, J G A; Howell, J A; Rothwell, J J; Drew, I B

    2008-05-01

    This research investigates atmospheric pollution from an isolated and increasingly productive lead-smelting site by examining the dendrochemistry of Pinus sylvestris growing in the local environment and at control sites. Tree increment cores and soil in the rooting environment were analysed for lead content. Inter-site comparisons of lead-in-soil suggest that contamination of the soil may be a less important pathway for lead inclusion within wood than pathways via bark or needles. Levels of lead-in-wood (up to 38mgkg(-1)) are at the upper end of those previously reported. There is evidence of radial translocation of lead towards the heartwood and variability in intra-site dendrochemical records. Mean site lead-in-wood records can however be related to a well-documented pollution chronology and also suggest the importance of local topography in the dispersal and deposition of particulate lead. This study demonstrates that P. sylvestris can be used to estimate the scale and timing of past pollution episodes in similar environmental contexts to those investigated at Darley Dale, where precisely dated pollution chronologies are lacking.

  9. Radiation technique in density and strength testing of coniferous structural timber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzbenski, W.; Krzosek, S.

    1998-01-01

    The control process of intermediate and final wood products manufacturing is more and more frequently assisted by flow detectors. In radiation devices cesium isotope 137 Cs is replaced by less harmful americium 241 Am. Americium 241 Am was used in the measuring device made in The Academy of Mining and Metallurgy in Cracow. The device was applied in Warsaw Agricultural University (SGGW) in research on Polish structural timber. Negative influence of anatomical defects (knots, compression wood, resinasis, slope of grain, decay) was estimated by gammascopy method. Botanical species (pine, spruce), position in a stem (sapwood, heartwood), anatomical direction (radial, tangential) and moisture content were taken into account. The method of determination a critical place in timber were density is the lowest value (what is an obligatory criterion of stress graded structural timber according to EN standards) was developed. The practical implementation of the method can be reached when sawmills producing structural timber (especially for export) will be more interested in using miniaturized isotope densitometers. (author)

  10. Flood Stress as a Technique to Assess Preventive Insecticide and Fungicide Treatments for Protecting Trees against Ambrosia Beetles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M. Ranger

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ambrosia beetles tunnel into the heartwood of trees where they cultivate and feed upon a symbiotic fungus. We assessed the effectiveness of flood stress for making Cercis canadensis L. and Cornus florida L. trees attractive to attack as part of insecticide and fungicide efficacy trials conducted in Ohio and Virginia. Since female ambrosia beetles will not begin ovipositing until their symbiotic fungus is established within the host, we also assessed pre-treatment of trees with permethrin, azoxystrobin, and potassium phosphite on fungal establishment and beetle colonization success. Permethrin reduced attacks on flooded trees, yet no attacks occurred on any of the non-flooded trees. Fewer galleries created within flooded trees pre-treated with permethrin, azoxystrobin, and potassium phosphite contained the purported symbiotic fungus; foundress’ eggs were only detected in flooded but untreated trees. While pre-treatment with permethrin, azoxystrobin, and potassium phosphite can disrupt colonization success, maintaining tree health continues to be the most effective and sustainable management strategy.

  11. RETENTION AND PENETRATION OF CCA IN WOOD OF FIRST AND SECOND ROTATION OF Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Lúcia Agostini Valle

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050989292This study aimed to evaluate the retention and penetration of copper chrome arsenate (CCA type C as well as some wood properties of two rotations of two natural hybrid of Eucalyptus urophylla S. T. Blake, aiming their use as treated wood. The study was conducted with material from commercial plantations, with 63 months of age. For the wood characterization, the relationship sapwood-heartwood, the basic density and the size of fibers and vessels were evaluated. For the evaluation of treated wood, the penetration and retention of copper chrome arsenate (CCA type C were determined. Four trees per rotation and genetic material were used, which subsequently were split into three logs, in a total of 12 logs for each treatment. The preservative treatment was performed using the full cell process in autoclave using CCA solution with 2% concentration of active ingredients. The treatment process used was effective under the conditions required by the NBR 9480, with retention values ​​higher than the minimum required by the standard, which is 6.5 kg/m3 of CCA per treated wood, and in addition, provided deep penetration and regular condom in sapwood of all timber treated. There are no restrictions on the use of wood from the first and second rotation for preservative treatment, based on the properties evaluated. There was no correlation between the type C CCA retention and wood properties evaluated.

  12. Differentiating Agar wood Oil Quality Using Artificial Neural Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurlaila Ismail; Nor Azah Mohd Ali; Mailina Jamil; Saiful Nizam Tajuddin; Mohd Nasir Taib

    2013-01-01

    Agar wood oil is well known as expensive oil extracted from the resinous of fragrant heartwood. The oil is getting high demand in the market especially from the Middle East countries, China and Japan because of its unique odor. As part of an on-going research in grading the agar wood oil quality, the application of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is proposed in this study to analyze agar wood oil quality using its chemical profiles. The work involves of selected agar wood oil from low and high quality, the extraction of chemical compounds using GC-MS and Z-score to identify of the significant compounds as input to the network. The ANN programming algorithm was developed and computed automatically via Matlab software version R2010a. Back-propagation training algorithm and sigmoid transfer function were used to optimize the parameters in the training network. The result obtained showed the capability of ANN in analyzing the agar wood oil quality hence beneficial for the further application such as grading and classification for agar wood oil. (author)

  13. Phytomonitoring of chlorinated ethenes in trees: a four-year study of seasonal chemodynamics in planta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmer, Matt A; Holmes, Amanda J; Burken, Joel G

    2014-09-16

    Long-term monitoring (LTM) of groundwater remedial projects is costly and time-consuming, particularly when using phytoremediation, a long-term remedial approach. The use of trees as sensors of groundwater contamination (i.e., phytoscreening) has been widely described, although the use of trees to provide long-term monitoring of such plumes (phytomonitoring) has been more limited due to unexplained variability of contaminant concentrations in trees. To assess this variability, we developed an in planta sampling method to obtain high-frequency measurements of chlorinated ethenes in oak (Quercus rubra) and baldcypress (Taxodium distichum) trees growing above a contaminated plume during a 4-year trial. The data set revealed that contaminant concentrations increased rapidly with transpiration in the spring and decreased in the fall, resulting in perchloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE) sapwood concentrations an order of magnitude higher in late summer as compared to winter. Heartwood PCE and TCE concentrations were more buffered against seasonal effects. Rainfall events caused negligible dilution of contaminant concentrations in trees after precipitation events. Modeling evapotranspiration potential from meteorological data and comparing the modeled uptake and transport with the 4 years of high frequency data provides a foundation to advance the implementation of phytomonitoring and improved understanding of plant contaminant interactions.

  14. Neuroinhibitory meroterpenoid compounds from Cordia oncocalyx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Taynara S; Silva, Ana Karine O; Quintela, Amanda L; Francisco das Chagas Pinto, L; Canuto, Kirley M; Braz-Filho, Raimundo; Fonseca, Maria Júlia S; Luna-Costa, Angélica Maria; Paz, Iury A; Nascimento, Nilberto Robson F; Silveira, Edilberto R; Pessoa, Otilia Deusdênia L

    2017-11-01

    Five new meroterpenoid compounds designed as rel-10β,11β-epoxy-2,11-dimethoxy-8α-hydroxy-8aβ-methyl-5α,6,7,8,8a,9,10,10aβ-octahydro-1,4-anthracendione (1), rel-10β,11β-epoxy-8α,5-dihydroxy-2-methoxy-8aβ-methyl-5,6,7,8,8a,9,10,10aβ-octahydro -1.4-anthracendione (2), rel-1,4,8α-trihydroxy-5-furanyl-2-methoxy-8aβ-methyl-6,7,8, 8a,9,10-hexahydro-10-anthracenone (3), rel-10α,11α-epoxy-8α,11β-dihydroxy-8aβ-methyl-5β,6,7,8,8a,9,10,10aβ-octahydro-1,4-anthracenediol (4) and rel-1,4,8α-trihydroxy-5-carboxyethyl-2-methoxy-8aβ-methyl-6,7,8,8a,9,10-hexahydro-10-anthra-cenone (5), besides seven (6-12) known compounds were isolated from the heartwood and sapwood ethanol extracts of Cordia oncocalyx. Moreover, the main isolated compounds were screened using the electrically driven mice vas deferens bioassay, which has a rich pharmacological receptors diversity. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Trees, chemistry, and prehistory in the American Southwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, S.R.; Shelley, P.H.; Antweiler, Ronald C.; Taylor, Howard E.

    1999-01-01

    At least 200 000 trees were used in the building construction in Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, from about (AD) 850-1150. A large portion of these construction timbers were transported 50 km or more and the harvesting location(s) is not known. We argue that a feasible method for determining the wood source areas is to chemically characterize the possible source areas using modern wood and then attempt to match the prehistoric timbers to the modern signatures. This paper establishes the feasibility of this method. ICP-AES was employed to obtain element concentration values for 29 elements, from 62 trees, on three bedrock types. We conclude that it is possible to isolate the variation due to lithology if one controls for wood type (bark, sapwood, heartwood). In addition, ICP-MS was used for the analysis of a small sample of ancient wood. Data from these determinations are presented and the results indicate that the elemental variation is consistent with the most current model of wood use practices in Chaco Canyon. The methods pioneered here should be broadly applicable for determining wood source areas.

  16. A reassessment of carbon content in wood: variation within and between 41 North American species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamlom, S.H.; Savidge, R.A.

    2003-01-01

    At present, 50% (w/w) carbon is widely promulgated as a generic value for wood; however, the literature yields few data and indicates that very little research has actually been done. C contents in heartwood of forty-one softwood and hardwood species were determined. C in kiln-dried hardwood species ranged from 46.2% to 49.97% (w/w), in conifers from 47.21% to 55.2%. The higher C in conifers agrees with their higher lignin content (∼30%, versus ∼20% for hardwoods). Wood-meal samples drilled from discrete early wood and late wood zones of seven of the forty-one species were also investigated. C contents of early woods were invariably higher than those in corresponding late woods, again in agreement with early wood having higher lignin content. Further investigation was made into freshly harvested wood of some species to determine how much volatile C is present, comparing oven-dried wood meal with wood meal dried at ambient temperature over a desiccant. C contents of oven-dried woods were significantly lower, indicating that all past data on C content in oven-dried or kiln-dried woods may be inaccurate in relation to the true C content of forests. We conclude that C content varies substantially among species as well as within individual trees. Clearly, a 50% generic value is an oversimplification of limited application in relation to global warming and the concept of 'carbon credits'. (author)

  17. ANATOMICAL PROPERTIES OF Shorea mujongensis P.S. Ashton, A CRITICALLY ENDANGERED SPECIES OF DIPTEROCARPS FROM KALIMANTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Listya Mustika Dewi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Wood anatomy of Shorea mujongensis P.S. Ashton was investigated in order to ensure this species belongs to yellow meranti group. Such study is very important since this species is already listed in the red list of IUCN and classified as critically endangered species. The microscopic slides were prepared according to the Johansen's method, while the anatomical features observed according to the IAWA  List. The results show that S. mujongensis wood exhibit brown heartwood, light brown sapwood, rough texture, straight grain sometimes interlocked and somewhat rough. The main microscopic characters are growth rings indistinct; vessel diffuse, mostly solitary, rounded to oval; simple perforation plate and alternate intervessel pits; parenchyma scanty paratracheal to thin vasicentric; axial intercellular canals in long tangential line, radial intercellular canal and vasicentric tracheids present; rays uniseriate and multiseriate, prismatic crystal in procumbent cells; fiber length 1,294 µm, diameter 26 µm and wall thickness 4µm. Macroscopic and microscopic observation of S. mujongensis wood confirms the species belongs to yellow meranti group. The assesment on fiber dimensions and derived values of the wood fibers classified the wood into class quality II. It indicates that this species is moderately favorable as raw material for pulp and paper manufacture.

  18. ANATOMICAL PROPERTIES AND FIBER DIMENSION OF PRICKLY ACACIA (Acacia nilotica L. FROM BALURAN NATIONAL PARK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krisdianto Krisdianto

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Acacia nilotica (L. Willd. ex. Delile growing in Baluran National Park has dramatically altered the ecological balance of grasslands and thereby threatens the existence of local biodiversity. Prickly acacia is able to spread rapidly and remains uncontrollable. Baluran National Park authorization has been struggling to control this prickly acacia trees. One possible action that can be taken to encounter this problem is allowing wood based industries, and local people take advantages of this nilotica timber utilization. This paper studies the anatomical properties and fiber dimensions of nilotica timber and discusses the possible utilization of  nilotica timber.   This timber is characterized by dark brown heartwood which is clearly distinct from reddish brown color of sapwood. The denser cell wall shows attractively streaked in tangential surfaces. The length of  wood fiber decreases from pith toward periphery portion. Longitudinally, higher stem has shorter fiber. Nilotica wood has second class quality of fiber, which means its fiber is moderately thick with narrow lumen diameter. Due to small log diameter and branches, the nilotica timber is not recommended for construction material. The timber is suitable for carved and turnery products. Nilotica timber is suitable for charcoal manufacture and fuel wood due to its high calorific value.

  19. Low VOC drying of lumber and wood panel products. Progress report number 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooda, U.; Banerjee, S. [Inst. of Paper Science and Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Ingram, L.; Conners, T. [Mississippi State Univ., MS (United States)

    1998-10-01

    This project is based on the finding that brief microwave or RF-treatment of wood under low-headspace conditions leads to the release of VOCs. On occasion the authors have found that prolonged irradiation increases turpentine yield much more than anticipated from a simple mass balance; i.e., more pinene appeared to be released than was present in the wood in the first place. If taken at face value, this suggests that brief low-headspace irradiation removes VOCs, while prolonged exposure creates it. While seemingly improbable, this could follow if dielectric heating exposed regions of wood that were otherwise inaccessible to the solvent used for extraction (unlikely), or if the irradiation induced depolymerization of terpene dimers or higher polymers. In this report the authors attempt to identify the conditions that lead to this apparent enhancement of terpene yield, by constructing relationships between yield and irradiation parameters. The tentative conclusions are that this enhancement only occurs with relatively wet heartwood, and only under prolonged irradiation. An additional conclusion is that continuing analyses of twelve trees in the MSU forest confirm that the absence of a significant seasonal influence on turpentine content. An apparatus for permeability testing has been constructed, and work is underway.

  20. Analysis of tree samples from an acidic and a limed environment by means of PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pernestaal, K.; Li, Hong-Ko; Jonsson, B.; Haellgren, J.-E.

    1991-01-01

    Three tree core samples of Norway spruce (Picea Abies) have been analysed by PIXE. The concentration profiles for 17 elements heavier than sodium have been determined by means of one PIXE measurement every 2 mm along the samples. The samples were collected at Faexboda, an experimental area north of Uppsala where artificially acidified and limed environmental experiments are made. One sample from each of an acidified, a limed and a reference area has been collected. The main interest is focused on potassium, calcium, manganese, iron, copper and zinc. All three samples have about the same concentration profile in the heartwood. Large differences are observed in the sapwood. In the sample from the limed area the calcium content is much higher and the iron and chromium contents are lower than in the sample from the reference area. In the sample from the acidified area the calcium and potassium contents are lower and the manganese, iron and chromium contents are much higher than in the sample from the reference area. The observed concentration profiles of trace elements in trees indicate that changes in the environment due to acidification can be quantified at an early stage by means of PIXE. (author)

  1. Atmospheric Direct Uptake and Long-term Fate of Radiocesium in Trees after the Fukushima Nuclear Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahara, Yasunori; Ohta, Tomoko; Ogawa, Hideki; Kumata, Atsushi

    2014-11-01

    Large areas of forests were radioactively contaminated by the Fukushima nuclear accident of 2011, and forest decontamination is now an important problem in Japan. However, whether trees absorb radioactive fallout from soil via the roots or directly from the atmosphere through the bark and leaves is unclear. We measured the uptake of radiocesium by trees in forests heavily contaminated by the Fukushima nuclear accident. The radiocesium concentrations in sapwood of two tree species, the deciduous broadleaved konara (Quercus serrata) and the evergreen coniferous sugi (Cryptomeria japonica), were higher than that in heartwood. The concentration profiles showed anomalous directionality in konara and non-directionality in sugi, indicating that most radiocesium in the tree rings was directly absorbed from the atmosphere via bark and leaves rather than via roots. Numerical modelling shows that the maximum 137Cs concentration in the xylem of konara will be achieved 28 years after the accident. Conversely, the values for sugi will monotonously decrease because of the small transfer factor in this species. Overall, xylem 137Cs concentrations will not be affected by root uptake if active root systems occur 10 cm below the soil.

  2. A method for reconstructing the development of the sapwood area of balsam fir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyea, M R; Margolis, H A; Gagnon, R R

    1990-09-01

    Leaf area is commonly estimated as a function of sapwood area. However, because sapwood changes to heartwood over time, it has not previously been possible to reconstruct either the sapwood area or the leaf area of older trees into the past. In this study, we report a method for reconstructing the development of the sapwood area of dominant and codominant balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.). The technique is based on establishing a species-specific relationship between the number of annual growth rings in the sapwood area and tree age. Because the number of annual growth rings in the sapwood of balsam fir at a given age was found to be independent of site quality and stand density, the number of rings in sapwood (NRS) can be predicted from the age of a tree thus: NRS = 14.818 (1 - e(-0.031 age)), unweighted R(2) = 0.80, and NRS = 2.490 (1 - e(-0.038 age)), unweighted R(2) = 0.64, for measurements at breast height and at the base of the live crown, respectively. These nonlinear asymptotic regression models based only on age, were not improved by adding other tree variables such as diameter at breast height, diameter at the base of the live crown, total tree height or percent live crown.

  3. Annual Growth Bands in Hymenaea courbaril

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westbrook, J A; Guilderson, T P; Colinvaux, P A

    2004-02-09

    One significant source of annual temperature and precipitation data arises from the regular annual secondary growth rings of trees. Several tropical tree species are observed to form regular growth bands that may or may not form annually. Such growth was observed in one stem disk of the tropical legume Hymenaea courbaril near the area of David, Panama. In comparison to annual reference {Delta}{sup 14}C values from wood and air, the {Delta}{sup 14}C values from the secondary growth rings formed by H. courbaril were determined to be annual in nature in this one stem disk specimen. During this study, H. courbaril was also observed to translocate recently produced photosynthate into older growth rings as sapwood is converted to heartwood. This process alters the overall {Delta}{sup 14}C values of these transitional growth rings as cellulose with a higher {Delta}{sup 14}C content is translocated into growth rings with a relatively lower {Delta}{sup 14}C content. Once the annual nature of these growth rings is established, further stable isotope analyses on H. courbaril material in other studies may help to complete gaps in the understanding of short and of long term global climate patterns.

  4. SIFAT DASAR DAN POTENSI KEGUNAAN KAYU JABON MERAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mody Lempang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out to examine basic properties (anatomical structure, chemical, physical and mechanical of jabon merah wood (Anthocephalus macrophyllus (Roxb. Havil taken from natural forest in Luwu Timur District South Sulawesi Province. Potential uses of wood were determined by considering those properties and wood uses which the local inhabitants have currently employed. Results revealed that jabon merah heartwood is yellowish rather tend to red in colour and not clearly distinct from the sapwood, texture is rather fine and even, grain is straight and sometimes rather interlocked, wood surface is rather glossy, rather smooth to smooth in touch, and moderate in hardness. Fiber is remarkably long with very thin wall thickness. High in cellulose and extractive, moderate in lignin and low in pentose content. Moderate in specific gravity (0.48, very low in shrinkage and classified in wood strength class III. Potential uses are for light construction material under roof, cheap furniture, handicraft, measuring and drawing instruments, pencil, box and stick of matches, toothpick, spoon and handles of ice cream, moulding, wood composites, pulp and paper, pallet, packing box and concrete forms.Keywords: Anatomical, chemical, mechanical, uses of wood, jabon merah

  5. In vitro wood decay of teak (Tectona grandis by Rigidoporus cf. microporus (Meripiliaceae, Polyporales, Basidiomycota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sarmiento S

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of exotic species like teak for industry demands has increased over the last decades in Central America, however its vulnerability to decay by saprophytic fungi has not been well studied. Among these fungi, Rigidoporus spp. have been described as white rotters of dead hardwoods and conifers worldwide. In Costa Rica, R. microporus has been found growing on teak stumps. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of this white rot fungus on the chemical, mechanical and physical properties of teak wood from trees of different ages. Six and ten year old sapwood and heartwood samples were used in the assays. Severe anatomical damage and the highest weight and resistance losses were observed on 6 yr. old sapwood samples. There was an increase in the quantity of soluble materials in 1% NaOH (relative values and lignin content in all the samples analyzed, after 3 months exposure and up to the end of the experiment. Mass loss reduction and increased resistance of wood to compressive strength parallel to the grain were related to both the type of wood and the age of the tree. Knowledge of the potential damage that this fungus can cause to teak wood might help in a better selection of wood and developing more effective protection measures against decay in the field or in construction wood.

  6. Seedling regeneration on decayed pine logs after the deforestation events caused by pine wilt disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Fukasawa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Coarse woody debris (CWD forms an important habitat suitable for tree seedling establishment, and the CWD decay process influences tree seedling community. In Japan, a severe dieback of Pinus densiflora Sieb. & Zucc. caused by pine wilt disease (PWD damaged huge areas of pine stands but creates huge mass of pine CWD. It is important to know the factors influencing seedling colonization on pine CWD and their variations among geographical gradient in Japan to expect forest regeneration in post-PWD stands. I conducted field surveys on the effects of latitude, climates, light condition, decay type of pine logs, and log diameter on tree seedling colonization at ten geographically distinct sites in Japan. In total, 59 tree taxa were recorded as seedlings on pine logs. Among them, 13 species were recorded from more than five sites as adult trees or seedlings and were used for the analyses. A generalized linear model showed that seedling colonization of Pinus densiflora was negatively associated with brown rot in sapwood, while that of Rhus trichocarpa was positively associated with brown rot in heartwood. Regeneration of Ilex macropoda had no relationships with wood decay type but negatively associated with latitude and MAT, while positively with log diameter. These results suggested that wood decay type is a strong determinant of seedling establishment for certain tree species, even at a wide geographical scale; however, the effect is tree species specific.

  7. Phytopatological monitoring of Inonotus rickii and GPS-GIS applications, Rome, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moriondo M

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Plant disease management may be improved by collecting, storing, manipulating, analysing and displaying epidemiological information using a Geographic Information System (GIS, a useful tool to evaluate plant disease problems in a spatial context. In this study, GIS analysis was applied along with global positioning systems (GPS to integrate field data-collected with the spatial distribution of the pathogen Inonotus rickii. This pathogen provokes a decay of sapwood/heartwood and cankers, determining a progressive crown dieback and structural weakness of the trees, therefore increasing risk of branch breaks and tree failures. It is widespread in tropical and subtropical countries and it has already been recorded in many areas in Rome on Acer negundo, Albizia julibrissin, Koelreuteria paniculata, Celtis australis and Platanus x acerifolia. A survey was carried out in different boulevards of A. negundo and A. julibrissin with the aim of evaluating disease symptoms such as sparse foliage, dead twigs and branches, wood decay and presence of fungal structures. In this survey, I. rickii was recorded also on Robinia pseudoacacia, which is a new host. The study allowed to obtain thematic maps showing the spatial distribution of all infected trees, as well as the presence of anamorph and/or teleomorph structures of the fungus. Moreover, a map representing the incidence of the pathogen in different boulevards was obtained. The usefulness of GIS analysis in studies aimed to support and refine management strategies for disease control in urban trees is discussed.

  8. Relationship Between Wood Color Parameters Measured by the CIELab System and Extractive and Phenol Content in Acacia mangium and Vochysia guatemalensis from Fast-Growth Plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Tenorio

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The heterogeneity of color distribution between sapwood and heartwood limits the market for wood from fast-growth plantations of tropical species. Wood color is associated with wood extractives contents. This study presents the relationship between wood color parameters measured by the CIELab color system and total amount of extractives and phenolic-type extractives in ethanol-toluene and hot water extracts of wood from two fast-growth plantation species. The results demonstrated that the difference in sapwood and hardwood color in Vochysia guatemalensis and Acacia mangium is caused by lower concentrations of extractives in sapwood of both species. Additionally, variations in total extractive and phenolic content have different effects on the color parameters (L*, a* and b* of both species studied. In Vochysia guatemalensis wood, parameter L* decreases as total extractive and phenolic content increases; however, parameter a* increases as the content of extractives and phenols increases. In Acacia mangium, the amount of phenols showed no relationship with the color parameters. The ethanol-toluene total extractive content, however, shows a relationship with several color parameters. An increase in the content of total extractives in water and ethanol-toluene increases parameter a*, but decreases parameter L*.

  9. Insights from the pollination drop proteome and the ovule transcriptome of Cephalotaxus at the time of pollination drop production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirone-Davies, Cary; Prior, Natalie; von Aderkas, Patrick; Smith, Derek; Hardie, Darryl; Friedman, William E; Mathews, Sarah

    2016-05-01

    Many gymnosperms produce an ovular secretion, the pollination drop, during reproduction. The drops serve as a landing site for pollen, but also contain a suite of ions and organic compounds, including proteins, that suggests diverse roles for the drop during pollination. Proteins in the drops of species of Chamaecyparis, Juniperus, Taxus, Pseudotsuga, Ephedra and Welwitschia are thought to function in the conversion of sugars, defence against pathogens, and pollen growth and development. To better understand gymnosperm pollination biology, the pollination drop proteomes of pollination drops from two species of Cephalotaxus have been characterized and an ovular transcriptome for C. sinensis has been assembled. Mass spectrometry was used to identify proteins in the pollination drops of Cephalotaxus sinensis and C. koreana RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) was employed to assemble a transcriptome and identify transcripts present in the ovules of C. sinensis at the time of pollination drop production. About 30 proteins were detected in the pollination drops of both species. Many of these have been detected in the drops of other gymnosperms and probably function in defence, polysaccharide metabolism and pollen tube growth. Other proteins appear to be unique to Cephalotaxus, and their putative functions include starch and callose degradation, among others. Together, the proteins appear either to have been secreted into the drop or to occur there due to breakdown of ovular cells during drop production. Ovular transcripts represent a wide range of gene ontology categories, and some may be involved in drop formation, ovule development and pollen-ovule interactions. The proteome of Cephalotaxus pollination drops shares a number of components with those of other conifers and gnetophytes, including proteins for defence such as chitinases and for carbohydrate modification such as β-galactosidase. Proteins likely to be of intracellular origin, however, form a larger component of drops

  10. Late Glacial-Holocene Pollen-Based Vegetation History from Pass Lake, Prince of Wales Island, Southeastern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ager, Thomas A.; Rosenbaum, Joseph G.

    2009-01-01

    A radiocarbon-dated history of vegetation development since late Wisconsin deglaciation has been reconstructed from pollen evidence preserved in a sediment core from Pass Lake on Prince of Wales Island, southeastern Alaska. The shallow lake is in the south-central part of the island and occupies a low pass that was filled by glacial ice of local origin during the late Wisconsin glaciation. The oldest pollen assemblages indicate that pine woodland (Pinus contorta) had developed in the area by ~13,715 cal yr B.P. An abrupt decline in the pine population, coinciding with expansion of alder (Alnus) and ferns (mostly Polypodiaceae) began ~12,875 yr B.P., and may have been a response to colder, drier climates during the Younger Dryas climatic interval. Mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana) began to colonize central Prince of Wales Island by ~11,920 yr B.P. and was soon followed by Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis). Pollen of western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) began to appear in Pass Lake sediments soon after 11,200 yr B.P. The abundance of western hemlock pollen in the Pass Lake core during most of the Holocene appears to be the result of wind transport from trees growing at lower altitudes on the island. The late Holocene pollen record from Pass Lake is incomplete because of one or more unconformities, but the available record suggests that a vegetation change occurred during the late Holocene. Increases in pollen percentages of pine, cedar (probably yellow cedar, Chamaecyparis nootkatensis), and heaths (Ericales) suggest an expansion of muskeg vegetation occurred in the area during the late Holocene. This vegetation change may be related to the onset of cooler, wetter climates that began as early as ~3,774 yr B.P. in the region. This vegetation history provides the first radiocarbon-dated Late Glacial-Holocene terrestrial paleoecological framework for Prince of Wales Island. An analysis of magnetic properties of core sediments from Pass Lake suggests that unconformities

  11. Lignin Contribution to the Global Carbon Pool: Investigating the Abiotic Modification of Lignin by Reactive Oxygen Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waggoner, Derek Charles

    Evidence suggests that reactive oxygen species (ROS), largely generated through photochemical processes, are important in transforming the chemical composition of the large pool of terrestrially-derived dissolved organic matter (DOM) exported from land to water annually. However, due to the challenges inherent in isolating the effects of individual ROS on DOM composition, the role of ROS in the photochemical alteration of DOM remains poorly characterized. The main focus of the studies within this dissertation aim to more thoroughly characterize the alterations to lignin, used as an analog for terrestrial DOM, resulting from reactions with ROS. To investigate the possibility that the alteration of lignin, through reactions involving ROS, could lead to the production of compounds not recognized as having terrestrial origin, lignin-derived DOM was prepared from a sample of Atlantic white cedar (Chamaecyparis thyoides) and used for a number of studies. Lignin-derived DOM was independently exposed to hydroxyl radical (•OH) generated by Fenton reaction, singlet oxygen (1O2) produced using the photosensitizer Rose Bengal, and superoxide (O2-•) via stable potassium superoxide solution, under controlled laboratory conditions to accentuate how each ROS is responsible for the alteration of lignin. Advanced analytical techniques including high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS), were employed to characterize alteration to lignin taking place following various ROS treatments. Results of these studies have shown distinct differences in the types of new compounds observed from exposure to each ROS as well as ROS reactivity. The alteration of lignin to compounds not typically associated with terrestrial DOM has been demonstrated upon exposure to ROS. It is also suggested that ROS could selectively react with different fractions of lignin like compounds based

  12. Cross-Cultural Analysis of Medicinal Plants commonly used in Ethnoveterinary Practices at South Waziristan Agency and Bajaur Agency, Federally Administrated Tribal Areas (FATA), Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Muhammad Abdul; Adnan, Muhammad; Khan, Amir Hasan; Sufyan, Muhammad; Khan, Shahid Niaz

    2018-01-10

    having higher F ic values (above 90). Moreover, the current investigation reported new ethnoveterinary uses of medicinal plants from South Waziristan Agency, which were Sideroxylon mascatense, Raphanus sativus, Salix babylonica, Solanum nigrum, Sophora mollis, Taraxacum campylodes and Tulipa stellata. On the other hand from Bajaur Agency, Boerhavia erecta, Celtis australis, Chamaecyparis obtusa var. obtuse, Eryngium biehersteinianum, Gossypium arboreum, Narcissus tazetta, Opuntia littoralis, Streblus asper were reported with new ethnoveterinary uses. The current study has an important contribution towards the preservation of indigenous plants' based knowledge. Several plants are carrying important ethnoveterinary uses being practiced by the local people mostly against the gastrointestinal disorders in both regions. Importantly, the cross-cultural approach has reported some new traditional uses of plants against livestock's diseases. Hence, this is an opportunity to investigate such plants phytopharmacologically and toxicologically for the discovery of new drug sources. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of tree thinning and skidding trails on hydrological connectivity in two Japanese forest catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Vicente, Manuel; Sun, Xinchao; Onda, Yuichi; Kato, Hiroaki; Gomi, Takashi; Hiraoka, Marino

    2017-09-01

    Land use composition and patterns influence the hydrological response in mountainous and forest catchments. In plantation forest, management operations (FMO) modify the spatial and temporal dynamics of overland flow processes. However, we found a gap in the literature focussed on modelling hydrological connectivity (HC) in plantation forest under different FMO. In this study, we simulated HC in two steep paired forest subcatchments (K2 and K3, 33.2 ha), composed of Japanese cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa Endl.) and Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) plantations (59% of the total area) against a tree thinning intensity of 50% at different time. Additionally, construction of new skidding trails and vegetation recovery was simulated on five thinning-based scenarios that covered a 40-month test period (July 2010 - October 2013). As a future scenario, six check-dams located in the main streams were proposed to reduce sediment and radionuclide delivery. An updated version of Borselli's index of runoff and sediment connectivity was run, using the D-infinity flow accumulation algorithm and exploiting three 0.5-m resolution digital elevation models. On the basis of the pre-FMO scenario, HC increased at catchment scale owing to tree thinning and the new skidding trails. This change was more noticeable within the area affected by the FMO, where HC increased by 11.4% and 10.5% in the cypress and cedar plantations in K2 respectively and by 8.8% in the cedar plantation in K3. At hillslope plot and stream scales, the evolution in the values of HC was less evident, except the increment (by 5.4%) observed in the streams at K2 after the FMO. Progressive vegetation recovery after the FMO triggered a slight reduction of connectivity in all compartments of both subcatchments. Forest roads and especially skidding trails presented the highest values of HC, appearing as the most efficient features connecting the different vegetation patches with the stream network. The spatial

  14. Microwave sensing of tree trunks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezova, Jana; Mertens, Laurence; Lambot, Sebastien

    2015-04-01

    The main subject of this research is the observation of the inner part of living tree trunks using ground-penetrating radar (GPR). Trees are everyday part of human life and therefore it is important to pay attention to the tree conditions. The most obvious consequence of the poor tree condition is dead or injury caused by falling tree. The trunk internal structure is divided into three main parts: heartwood, sapwood and bark, which make this medium highly anisotropic and heterogeneous. Furthermore, the properties of the wood are not only specie-dependent but also depend on genetic and on environmental conditions. In urban areas the main problem for the stability of the trees relies in the apparition of decays provoked by fungi, insect or birds. This results in cavities or decreasing of the support capacity of the tree. GPR has proved itself to be a very powerful electromagnetic tool for non-destructive detection of buried objects. Since the beginning of the 20th century it has been used in several different areas (archaeology, landmine detection, civil engineering, ...). GPR uses the principle of the scattering of the electromagnetic waves that are radiated from a transmitting antenna. Then the waves propagate through the medium and are reflected from the object and then they are received by a receiving antenna. The velocity of the scattered signal is determined primarily by the permittivity of the material. The optimal functionality of the GPR was investigated using the numerical simulation tool gprMax2D. This tool is based on a Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) numerical model. Subsequently, the GPR functionality was tested using the laboratory model of a decayed tree trunk. Afterwards, the results and lessons learnt in the simplified tests will be used in the processing of the real data and will help to achieve deeper understanding of them. The laboratory model of the tree trunk was made by plastic or carton pipes and filled by sand. Space inside the model

  15. Metagenomic profiling reveals lignocellulose degrading system in a microbial community associated with a wood-feeding beetle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin D Scully

    Full Text Available The Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophoraglabripennis is an invasive, wood-boring pest that thrives in the heartwood of deciduous tree species. A large impediment faced by A. glabripennis as it feeds on woody tissue is lignin, a highly recalcitrant biopolymer that reduces access to sugars and other nutrients locked in cellulose and hemicellulose. We previously demonstrated that lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose are actively deconstructed in the beetle gut and that the gut harbors an assemblage of microbes hypothesized to make significant contributions to these processes. While lignin degrading mechanisms have been well characterized in pure cultures of white rot basidiomycetes, little is known about such processes in microbial communities associated with wood-feeding insects. The goals of this study were to develop a taxonomic and functional profile of a gut community derived from an invasive population of larval A. glabripennis collected from infested host trees and to identify genes that could be relevant for the digestion of woody tissue and nutrient acquisition. To accomplish this goal, we taxonomically and functionally characterized the A. glabripennis midgut microbiota through amplicon and shotgun metagenome sequencing and conducted a large-scale comparison with the metagenomes from a variety of other herbivore-associated communities. This analysis distinguished the A. glabripennis larval gut metagenome from the gut communities of other herbivores, including previously sequenced termite hindgut metagenomes. Genes encoding enzymes were identified in the A. glabripennis gut metagenome that could have key roles in woody tissue digestion including candidate lignin degrading genes (laccases, dye-decolorizing peroxidases, novel peroxidases and β-etherases, 36 families of glycoside hydrolases (such as cellulases and xylanases, and genes that could facilitate nutrient recovery, essential nutrient synthesis, and detoxification. This community

  16. Non-destructive analysis and detection of internal characteristics of spruce logs through X computerized tomography; Detection et analyse non destructive de caracteristiques internes de billons d'epicea commun (PICEA ABIES (L.) KARST) par tomographie a rayons X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longuetaud, F

    2005-10-15

    Computerized tomography allows a direct access to internal features of scanned logs on the basis of density and moisture content variations. The objective of this work is to assess the feasibility of an automatic detection of internal characteristics with the final aim of conducting scientific analyses. The database is constituted by CT images of 24 spruces obtained with a medical CT scanner. Studied trees are representative of several social status and are coming from four stands located in North-Eastern France, themselves are representative of several age, density and fertility classes. The automatic processing developed are the following. First, pith detection in logs dealing with the problem of knot presence and ring eccentricity. The accuracy of the localisation was less than one mm. Secondly, the detection of the sapwood/heart-wood limit in logs dealing with the problem of knot presence (main source of difficulty). The error on the diameter was 1.8 mm which corresponds to a relative error of 1.3 per cent. Thirdly, the detection of the whorls location and comparison with an optical method. Fourthly the detection of individualized knots. This process allows to count knots and to locate them in a log (longitudinal position and azimuth); however, the validation of the method and extraction of branch diameter and inclination are still to be developed. An application of this work was a variability analysis of the sapwood content in the trunk: at the within-tree level, the sapwood width was found to be constant under the living crown; at the between-tree level, a strong correlation was found with the amount of living branches. A great number of analyses are possible from our work results, among others: architectural analysis with the pith tracking and the apex death occurrence; analysis of radial variations of the heart-wood shape; analysis of the knot distribution in logs. (author)

  17. Non-destructive analysis and detection of internal characteristics of spruce logs through X computerized tomography; Detection et analyse non destructive de caracteristiques internes de billons d'epicea commun (PICEA ABIES (L.) KARST) par tomographie a rayons X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longuetaud, F

    2005-10-15

    Computerized tomography allows a direct access to internal features of scanned logs on the basis of density and moisture content variations. The objective of this work is to assess the feasibility of an automatic detection of internal characteristics with the final aim of conducting scientific analyses. The database is constituted by CT images of 24 spruces obtained with a medical CT scanner. Studied trees are representative of several social status and are coming from four stands located in North-Eastern France, themselves are representative of several age, density and fertility classes. The automatic processing developed are the following. First, pith detection in logs dealing with the problem of knot presence and ring eccentricity. The accuracy of the localisation was less than one mm. Secondly, the detection of the sapwood/heart-wood limit in logs dealing with the problem of knot presence (main source of difficulty). The error on the diameter was 1.8 mm which corresponds to a relative error of 1.3 per cent. Thirdly, the detection of the whorls location and comparison with an optical method. Fourthly the detection of individualized knots. This process allows to count knots and to locate them in a log (longitudinal position and azimuth); however, the validation of the method and extraction of branch diameter and inclination are still to be developed. An application of this work was a variability analysis of the sapwood content in the trunk: at the within-tree level, the sapwood width was found to be constant under the living crown; at the between-tree level, a strong correlation was found with the amount of living branches. A great number of analyses are possible from our work results, among others: architectural analysis with the pith tracking and the apex death occurrence; analysis of radial variations of the heart-wood shape; analysis of the knot distribution in logs. (author)

  18. Effects of Ultrasound Treatment on Physiochemical Properties and Antimicrobial Activities of Whey Protein-Totarol Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shuang; Shi, Ce; Wang, Cuina; Guo, Mingruo

    2017-10-01

    Totarol is a natural antimicrobial compound extracted from the heartwood of Podocarpus totara, a conifer native to New Zealand. The effects of whey protein-totarol nanoparticles treated with ultrasound on the physiochemical properties and the growth of Staphylococcus aureus were investigated. The particle size of whey protein-totarol nanoparticles was reduced by ultrasound treatment from 31.24 ± 5.31 to 24.20 ± 4.02 nm, and the size distribution was also narrowed by the treatment. Viscosity and modulus data indicated that the flow behaviors of whey protein-totarol nanoparticles seemed to be Newtonian and exerted a typical viscoelastic fluid at protein content of 15% (w/v). Rheological properties were more insensitive to ultrasonic time. Time-killing assays, agar diffusion tests, the cell membrane damage analysis, and microstructure were exploited to study the antibacterial properties of whey protein-totarol nanoparticles. The MIC of whey protein-totarol nanoparticles after ultrasound treatment decreased from 4 to 2 μg/mL compared with that without ultrasound treatment. Whey protein-totarol nanoparticles treated with ultrasound resulted in a significant (P whey protein-totarol nanoparticles were 12 and 36 mm for untreated and treated with ultrasound, respectively. The cell membrane damages and the microstructure changes also proved that whey protein-totarol nanoparticles treated with ultrasound had strong antibacterial activities against S. aureus and that the antibacterial effectiveness enhanced with the increasing of ultrasonic time. These findings suggested that whey protein-totarol nanoparticles treated with ultrasound were more effective against S. aureus than untreated nanoparticles.

  19. Genomics-Based Discovery of Plant Genes for Synthetic Biology of Terpenoid Fragrances: A Case Study in Sandalwood oil Biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celedon, J M; Bohlmann, J

    2016-01-01

    Terpenoid fragrances are powerful mediators of ecological interactions in nature and have a long history of traditional and modern industrial applications. Plants produce a great diversity of fragrant terpenoid metabolites, which make them a superb source of biosynthetic genes and enzymes. Advances in fragrance gene discovery have enabled new approaches in synthetic biology of high-value speciality molecules toward applications in the fragrance and flavor, food and beverage, cosmetics, and other industries. Rapid developments in transcriptome and genome sequencing of nonmodel plant species have accelerated the discovery of fragrance biosynthetic pathways. In parallel, advances in metabolic engineering of microbial and plant systems have established platforms for synthetic biology applications of some of the thousands of plant genes that underlie fragrance diversity. While many fragrance molecules (eg, simple monoterpenes) are abundant in readily renewable plant materials, some highly valuable fragrant terpenoids (eg, santalols, ambroxides) are rare in nature and interesting targets for synthetic biology. As a representative example for genomics/transcriptomics enabled gene and enzyme discovery, we describe a strategy used successfully for elucidation of a complete fragrance biosynthetic pathway in sandalwood (Santalum album) and its reconstruction in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). We address questions related to the discovery of specific genes within large gene families and recovery of rare gene transcripts that are selectively expressed in recalcitrant tissues. To substantiate the validity of the approaches, we describe the combination of methods used in the gene and enzyme discovery of a cytochrome P450 in the fragrant heartwood of tropical sandalwood, responsible for the fragrance defining, final step in the biosynthesis of (Z)-santalols. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Non-destructive analysis and detection of internal characteristics of spruce logs through X computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longuetaud, F.

    2005-10-01

    Computerized tomography allows a direct access to internal features of scanned logs on the basis of density and moisture content variations. The objective of this work is to assess the feasibility of an automatic detection of internal characteristics with the final aim of conducting scientific analyses. The database is constituted by CT images of 24 spruces obtained with a medical CT scanner. Studied trees are representative of several social status and are coming from four stands located in North-Eastern France, themselves are representative of several age, density and fertility classes. The automatic processing developed are the following. First, pith detection in logs dealing with the problem of knot presence and ring eccentricity. The accuracy of the localisation was less than one mm. Secondly, the detection of the sapwood/heart-wood limit in logs dealing with the problem of knot presence (main source of difficulty). The error on the diameter was 1.8 mm which corresponds to a relative error of 1.3 per cent. Thirdly, the detection of the whorls location and comparison with an optical method. Fourthly the detection of individualized knots. This process allows to count knots and to locate them in a log (longitudinal position and azimuth); however, the validation of the method and extraction of branch diameter and inclination are still to be developed. An application of this work was a variability analysis of the sapwood content in the trunk: at the within-tree level, the sapwood width was found to be constant under the living crown; at the between-tree level, a strong correlation was found with the amount of living branches. A great number of analyses are possible from our work results, among others: architectural analysis with the pith tracking and the apex death occurrence; analysis of radial variations of the heart-wood shape; analysis of the knot distribution in logs. (author)

  1. Polyphenolic profile as a useful tool to identify the wood used in wine aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Miriam; Fernández de Simón, Brígida; Cadahía, Estrella; Esteruelas, Enrique; Muñoz, Angel Ma; Hernández, Ma Teresa; Estrella, Isabel

    2012-06-30

    Although oak wood is the main material used in cooperage, other species are being considered as possible sources of wood for the production of wines and their derived products. In this work we have compared the phenolic composition of acacia (Robinia pseudoacacia), chestnut (Castanea sativa), cherry (Prunus avium) and ash (Fraxinus excelsior and F. americana) heartwoods, by using HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS/MS (some of these data have been showed in previous paper), as well as the changes that toasting intensity at cooperage produce in each polyphenolic profile. Before toasting, each wood shows a different and specific polyphenolic profile, with both qualitative and quantitative differences among them. Toasting notably changed these profiles, in general, proportionally to toasting intensity and led to a minor differentiation among species in toasted woods, although we also found phenolic markers in toasted woods. Thus, methyl syringate, benzoic acid, methyl vanillate, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, 3,4,5-trimethylphenol and p-coumaric acid, condensed tannins of the procyanidin type, and the flavonoids naringenin, aromadendrin, isosakuranetin and taxifolin will be a good tool to identify cherry wood. In acacia wood the chemical markers will be the aldehydes gallic and β-resorcylic and two not fully identified hydroxycinnamic compounds, condensed tannins of the prorobinetin type, and when using untoasted wood, dihydrorobinetin, and in toasted acacia wood, robinetin. In untoasted ash wood, the presence of secoiridoids, phenylethanoid glycosides, or di and oligolignols will be a good tool, especially oleuropein, ligstroside and olivil, together verbascoside and isoverbascoside in F. excelsior, and oleoside in F. americana. In toasted ash wood, tyrosol, syringaresinol, cyclolovil, verbascoside and olivil, could be used to identify the botanical origin. In addition, in ash wood, seasoned and toasted, neither hydrolysable nor condensed tannins were detected. Lastly, in chestnut wood, gallic

  2. Neutron activation studies of trace elements in tree rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tout, R.E.; Gilboy, W.B.; Spyrou, N.M.

    1977-01-01

    The levels of twelve elements most of which are either considered essential to plant growth or have been detected in air filter samples in an air pollution survey have been monitored in three transverse sections of trees, two elms (ring-porous trees) and one cedar (a conifer). An irradiation time of 10 minutes and a waiting time of 1 minute were selected followed by a 10-minute count. The activated samples were placed on a specially shaped perspex disc situated on a 45-cm 3 Ge(Li) detector. The gamma-ray spectra were subsequently analysed on a 6600 computer, using the library program 'SAMPO' to which subroutines have been added for peak identification and for calculating the mass of elements present. All irradiations were carried out using a thermal neutron flux of 1.5x10 12 ncm -2 sec -1 . Two dimensional distributions of the elements around the tree rings of the section and radially from ring to ring, have been obtained to see if tree rings can be analysed for use as a record of historical pollution. Definite movement of most of these elements between the two main parts of the xylem has occured in all three trees. This makes it seem unlikely that any pollution products taken up from the atmosphere would be retained in the same ring in which they were originally accumulated. Exceptions may occur in the sapwood rings, where a few elements, especially Cl, show directional peaks which do not persist in the heartwood. (T.G.)

  3. Comparative evaluation of the effect of sweet orange oil-diesel blend on performance and emissions of a multi-cylinder compression ignition engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, S. M. Ashrafur; Hossain, F. M.; Van, Thuy Chu; Dowell, Ashley; Islam, M. A.; Rainey, Thomas J.; Ristovski, Zoran D.; Brown, Richard J.

    2017-06-01

    In 2014, global demand for essential oils was 165 kt and it is expected to grow 8.5% per annum up to 2022. Every year Australia produces approximately 1.5k tonnes of essential oils such as tea tree, orange, lavender, eucalyptus oil, etc. Usually essential oils come from non-fatty areas of plants such as the bark, roots, heartwood, leaves and the aromatic portions (flowers, fruits) of the plant. For example, orange oil is derived from orange peel using various extraction methods. Having similar properties to diesel, essential oils have become promising alternate fuels for diesel engines. The present study explores the opportunity of using sweet orange oil in a compression ignition engine. Blends of sweet orange oil-diesel (10% sweet orange oil, 90% diesel) along with neat diesel fuel were used to operate a six-cylinder diesel engine (5.9 litres, common rail, Euro-III, compression ratio 17.3:1). Some key fuel properties such as: viscosity, density, heating value, and surface tension are presented. Engine performance (brake specific fuel consumption) and emission parameters (CO, NOX, and Particulate Matter) were measured to evaluate running with the blends. The engine was operated at 1500 rpm (maximum torque condition) with different loads. The results from the property analysis showed that sweet orange oil-diesel blend exhibits lower density, viscosity and surface tension and slightly higher calorific value compared to neat diesel fuel. Also, from the engine test, the sweet orange oil-diesel blend exhibited slightly higher brake specific fuel consumption, particulate mass and particulate number; however, the blend reduced the brake specific CO emission slightly and brake specific NOX emission significantly compared to that of neat diesel.

  4. Brazilwood, sappanwood, brazilin and the red dye brazilein: from textile dyeing and folk medicine to biological staining and musical instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapson, R W; Bain, C L

    2015-01-01

    Brazilin is a nearly colorless dye precursor obtained from the heartwood of several species of trees including brazilwood from Brazil, sappanwood from Asia and the Pacific islands, and to a minor extent from two other species in Central America, northern South America and the Caribbean islands. Its use as a dyeing agent and medicinal in Asia was recorded in the 2(nd) century BC, but was little known in Europe until the 12(th) century AD. Asian supplies were replaced in the 16(th) century AD after the Portuguese discovered vast quantities of trees in what is now Brazil. Overexploitation decimated the brazilwood population to the extent that it never fully recovered. Extensive environmental efforts currently are underway to re-create a viable, sustainable population. Brazilin is structurally similar to the better known hematoxylin, thus is readily oxidized to a colored dye, brazilein, which behaves like hematein. Attachment of the dye to fabric is by hydrogen bonding or in conjunction with certain metallic mordants by coordinative bonding. For histology, most staining procedures involve aluminum (brazalum) for staining nuclei. In addition to textile dyeing and histological staining, brazilin and brazilein have been and still are used extensively in Asian folk medicine to treat a wide variety of disorders. Recent pharmacological studies for the most part have established a scientific basis for these uses and in many cases have elucidated the biochemical pathways involved. The principal use of brazilwood today is for the manufacture of bows for violins and other stringed musical instruments. The dye and other physical properties of the wood combine to produce bows of unsurpassed tonal quality.

  5. Clinical and Preclinical Cognitive Function Improvement after Oral Treatment of a Botanical Composition Composed of Extracts from Scutellaria baicalensis and Acacia catechu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesfin Yimam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dementia and cognitive impairment have become the major concerns worldwide due to a significantly aging population, increasing life span and lack of effective pharmacotherapy. In light of limited pharmaceutical drug choices and the socioeconomic implications of these conditions, the search for safe and effective alternatives from natural sources has gained many attractions within the medical food and dietary supplement industry. Two polyphenol extracts derived from roots of Scutellaria baicalensis and heartwoods of Acacia catechu containing free-B-ring flavonoids and flavans, respectively, were combined into a proprietary blend called UP326. A similar bioflavonoid composition, UP446, has been reported with modulation of pathways related to systemic inflammation. To test the effect of UP326 on memory and learning, a radial arm water maze (RAWM and contextual fear conditioning (CF were utilized in aged F344 rats fed with UP326 at doses of 3, 7, and 34 mg/kg for 11 weeks. The 7 and 34 mg/kg dosage groups had significantly fewer errors than aged vehicle control animals and their performance was equivalent to young animal controls. In a separate human clinical trial, test subjects orally given 300 mg of UP326 BID for 30 days showed marked improvement in speed and accuracy of processing complex information in computer tasks and reduced their standard deviation of performance compared to baseline and the placebo group. This data suggest that UP326 may help maintain memory, sustain speed of processing, and reduce the number or memory errors as we age.

  6. Thermal Pretreatment of Wood for Co-gasification/co-firing of Biomass and Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ping [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Howard, Bret [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Hedges, Sheila [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Morreale, Bryan [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Van Essendelft, Dirk [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Berry, David [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2013-10-29

    Utilization of biomass as a co-feed in coal and biomass co-firing and co-gasification requires size reduction of the biomass. Reducing biomass to below 0.2 mm without pretreatment is difficult and costly because biomass is fibrous and compressible. Torrefaction is a promising thermal pretreatment process and has the advantages of increasing energy density, improving grindability, producing fuels with more homogenous compositions and hydrophobic behavior. Temperature is the most important factor for the torrefaction process. Biomass grindability is related to cell wall structure, thickness and composition. Thermal treatment such as torrefaction can cause chemical changes that significantly affect the strength of biomass. The objectives of this study are to understand the mechanism by which torrefaction improves the grindability of biomass and discuss suitable temperatures for thermal pretreatment for co-gasification/co-firing of biomass and coal. Wild cherry wood was selected as the model for this study. Samples were prepared by sawing a single tangential section from the heartwood and cutting it into eleven pieces. The samples were consecutively heated at 220, 260, 300, 350, 450 and 550⁰C for 0.5 hr under flowing nitrogen in a tube furnace. Untreated and treated samples were characterized for physical properties (color, dimensions and weight), microstructural changes by SEM, and cell wall composition changes and thermal behaviors by TGA and DSC. The morphology of the wood remained intact through the treatment range but the cell walls were thinner. Thermal treatments were observed to decompose the cell wall components. Hemicellulose decomposed over the range of ~200 to 300⁰C and resulted in weakening of the cell walls and subsequently improved grindability. Furthermore, wood samples treated above 300⁰C lost more than 39% in mass. Therefore, thermal pretreatment above the hemicelluloses decomposition temperature but below 300⁰C is probably sufficient to

  7. Stem sapwood permeability in relation to crown dominance and site quality in self-thinning fire-origin lodgepole pine stands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Douglas E B; Silins, Uldis; Lieffers, Victor J

    2003-08-01

    Stem sapwood hydraulic permeability, tree leaf area, sapwood basal area, earlywood to latewood ratio of annual rings, radial variation in hydraulic permeability and stem hydraulic capacity were examined in dominant (D), codominant (CD) and suppressed (SP) lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.) trees growing on medium and poor sites. Hydraulic permeability on a sapwood area basis (ks) was lower in suppressed trees (0.71 x 10(-12) m2) compared to dominants (1.97 x 10(-12) m2) and codominants (1.79 x 10(-12) m2), and higher on medium than on poor sites. The leaf/sapwood area ratio (S) varied with crown dominance position (D > CD > SP) but not by site type. Leaf specific conductivity (kL) did not vary between crown classes or site types. The relationship between leaf area and stem hydraulic supply capacity (Q*) was strong, but differed among crown classes. Dominant trees and trees from the medium sites had a greater proportion of earlywood in outer rings of sapwood than suppressed trees. Sapwood permeability declined from the cambium to the sapwood-heartwood boundary in all samples, but the decline was more gradual in dominant trees compared to codominant and suppressed trees; differences in the radial variation in sapwood permeability may be related to differences in S. Sapwood permeability is positively related to crown dominance, whereas subdominant (CD and SP) trees have greater Q* in relation to leaf area, leading us to propose that this may give subdominant trees a survival advantage, slowing self-thinning.

  8. ANATOMICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIESOF BISBUL WOOD (Diospyros blancoi A.DC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krisdianto Krisdianto

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Ebony (Diospyros sp.  is a heavy hardwood that is  popularly known as blackwood. Diospyros consists of over 300 species spread throughout tropics area and about 100 species occur in Indonesia. Bisbul wood (Diospyros btancoi A.DC. is one species of  streaked ebony that is locally known as 'buah mentega'.  The anatomical and physical properties of  bisbul  were studied to collect information  for wood identification  and to support appropriate use of the timber. Anatomical properties were studied from microtome sectioned samples, which have been coloured by safranin and mounted by entellan, while fiber dimensions  were studied from macerated samples.  Physical properties  of  bisbul wood studied include moisture content, density and percentage of volumetric shrinkage. Moisture content and density were studied from 20 x 20 x 20 mm samples based on wet and oven dry condition. Volumetric shrinkage was measured from dimension changes in radial, tangential and longitudinal shrinkage of 20 x 20 x 40 mm samples. The samples were measured in wet and oven dry conditions. The main anatomical characteristics to identify bisbul wood were black wood with pinkish streaked, heavy and very hard,  very fine texture, even, lustrous surface and glossy, distinct growth ring, small size of vessels, apotracheal parenchyma forming reticulate pattern. The average moisture content was 59.86 ± 2.84%,  the density average was 0.74 ± 0.04 gr/cm3  and volumetric shrinkage was 10.41±0.70%.   The higher the stem, the more moisture  content and the lower the density will be. Sapwood density was lower and had more moisture  content than heartwood. The black pinkish heavy wood, bisbul was recommended to be used for carvings, sculpture, souvenir and luxuryinterior products.

  9. Respiratory potential in sapwood of old versus young ponderosa pine trees in the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruyn, Michele L; Gartner, Barbara L; Harmon, Mark E

    2002-02-01

    Our primary objective was to present and test a new technique for in vitro estimation of respiration of cores taken from old trees to determine respiratory trends in sapwood. Our secondary objective was to quantify effects of tree age and stem position on respiratory potential (rate of CO2 production of woody tissue under standardized laboratory conditions). We extracted cores from one to four vertical positions in boles of +200-, +50- and +15-year-old Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws. trees. Cores were divided into five segments corresponding to radial depths of inner bark; outer, middle and inner sapwood; and heartwood. Data suggested that core segment CO2 production was an indicator of its respiratory activity, and that potential artifacts caused by wounding and extraction were minimal. On a dry mass basis, respiratory potential of inner bark was 3-15 times greater than that of sapwood at all heights for all ages (P sapwood at all heights and in all ages of trees, outer sapwood had a 30-60% higher respiratory potential than middle or inner sapwood (P sapwood. For all ages of trees, sapwood rings produced in the same calendar year released over 50% more CO2 at treetops than at bases (P sapwood volume basis, sapwood of younger trees had higher respiratory potential than sapwood of older trees. In contrast, the trend was reversed when using the outer-bark surface area of stems as a basis for comparing respiratory potential. The differences observed in respiratory potential calculated on a core dry mass, sapwood volume, or outer-bark surface area basis clearly demonstrate that the resulting trends within and among trees are determined by the way in which the data are expressed. Although these data are based on core segments rather than in vivo measurements, we conclude that the relative differences are probably valid even if the absolute differences are not.

  10. Canker and decline caused by Neofusiccocum parvum on Acacia melanoxylon in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidoti A

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the spring of 2012, in reforested areas of Peloritani Mountains (Sicily, Italy a severe dieback of Acacia melanoxylon R. Brown was observed. The main symptoms on both young and adults plants consisted of elongated cankers on the trunks and epicormic shoots, wilt of the canopy and dieback interested mostly aged trees. The woody tissues showed browning beyond the cankers. Sapwood and heartwood appeared decayed with a brown to gray-greenish discoloration. One fungal species was consistently isolated from infected woody tissues, which was morphologically attributed to Neofusiccocum sp. The sequencing of the ITS regions of a representative isolate allowed to identify (99% similarity the species Neofusiccocum parvum (Pennycook & Samuels Crous, Slippers and Phillips, teleomorph Botryosphaeria parva Pennycook & Samuels. The pathogenicity tests have reproduced symptoms similar to those observed in the field. N. parvum is the aetiologic agent of mortality of australian blackwood observed in Sicily and to our knowledge this is the first report of this fungus on Acacia melanoxylon. It is a generalist pathogen, cosmopolitan, present in many temperate areas, Mediterranean and subtropical. The older Peloritani Mountains populations of australian blackwood seem particularly susceptible to the pathogen, the latter favored by the lack of silvicultural interventions that generate interspecific and intraspecific competition, as well as the increase and spread of the fungus. To minimize the consequential damage is necessary to adopt sanitation measures that would lower the fungal inoculum and program substitutions of this exotic species with others that have multiple functions suited to environments (e.g., Chestnut or encouraging the establishment and development of native species, such as the holm oak and shrub.

  11. Durabilidad natural de madera de Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden de plantaciones de rápido crecimiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Böthig

    2011-05-01

    parece afectar la vulnerabilidad a las termites del E. grandis cultivado en la región norte u oeste de Uruguay. Hasta el momento, los resultados de campo sugieren mejor desempeño para el sitio II que para el sitio I. Sin embargo, aún es muy pronto para extraer conclusiones válidas de los ensayos de doble capa o de estacas. La durabilidad natural podría estar relacionada con la densidad. Otros estudios son necesarios para extraer conclusiones certeras al respecto.AbstractOne of the fast growing species cultivated in Uruguay of major economical importance is Eucalyptus grandis. Physical and mechanicalproperties of juvenile and mature wood from different regions have been reported. However, since no scientific data of natural durability of this specie has been reported, natural durability of E. grandis from two sites (Rivera and Río Negro was evaluated. Two sixteen years old plantations, originated by seed of same source, were sampled. Natural durability of outer and inner heartwood was studied following EN 350-1 methods. Populus deltoides x euroamericana cv I-214 was tested as reference specie. EN 113 laboratory tests for fungal decay (Gloeophyllum trabeum, Trametes versicolor and Serpula lacrymans and EN 118 for termites resistance (Reticulitermes spp. were performed. Field stakes, double layer and fungal cellar tests were established. They are still on course and partial results are reported below in this paper. Upon basic density radial profiles, it wasfound that outer heartwood was not mature wood, but can be assumed as transition wood. In general, E. grandis heartwood showed higher durability than Populus hybrid. E. grandis appeared moderately or seriously attacked by Reticulitermes spp. E. grandis juvenile wood can be classified according EN 350-1, as “Moderately Durable” against the brown rotter G. trabeum, whereas transition wood can be described as “Durable”.

  12. Towards a better understanding of long-term wood-chemistry variations in old-growth forests: A case study on ancient Pinus uncinata trees from the Pyrenees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hevia, Andrea; Sánchez-Salguero, Raúl; Camarero, J Julio; Buras, Allan; Sangüesa-Barreda, Gabriel; Galván, J Diego; Gutiérrez, Emilia

    2018-06-01

    Dendrochemical studies in old forests are still underdeveloped. Old trees growing in remote high-elevation areas far from direct human influence constitute a promising biological proxy for the long-term reconstructions of environmental changes using tree-rings. Furthermore, centennial-long chronologies of multi-elemental chemistry at inter- and intra-annual resolution are scarce. Here, we use a novel non-destructive method by applying Micro X-ray fluorescence (μXRF) to wood samples of old Pinus uncinata trees from two Pyrenean high-elevation forests growing on acidic and basic soils. To disentangle ontogenetic (changes in tree age and diameter) from environmental influences (e.g., climate warming) we compared element patterns in sapwood (SW) and heartwood (HW) during the pre-industrial (1700-1849) and industrial (1850-2008) periods. We quantified tree-ring growth, wood density and relative element concentrations at annual (TRW, tree-ring) to seasonal resolution (EW, earlywood; LW, latewood) and related them to climate variables (temperature and precipitation) and volcanic eruptions in the 18th and 19th centuries. We detected differences for most studied elements between SW and HW along the stem and also between EW and LW within rings. Long-term positive and negative trends were observed for Ca and K, respectively. Cl, P and S showed positive trends during the industrial period. However, differences between sites were also notable. Higher values of Mg, Al, Si and the Ca/Mn ratio were observed at the site with acidic soil. Growing-season temperatures were positively related to growth, maximum wood density and to the concentration of most elements. Peaks in S, Fe, Cl, Zn and Ca were linked to major volcanic eruptions (e.g., Tambora in 1815). Our results reveal the potential of long-term wood-chemistry studies based on the μXRF non-destructive technique to reconstruct environmental changes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Vegetation dielectric characterization using an open-ended coaxial probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrovic, A.; Roy, A.; Royer, A.; Boone, F.; Pappas, C.; Filali, B.

    2017-12-01

    The detection of freeze/thaw (F/T) physical state of soil is one of the main objectives of the SMAP mission as well as one of the secondary objectives of the SMOS mission. Annual F/T cycles have substantial impacts on surface energy budgets, permafrost conditions, as well as forest water and carbon dynamics. It has been shown that spaceborne L-band passive radiometry is a promising tool to monitor F/T due to the substantial differences between the permittivity of water and ice at these frequencies. However, the decoupling of the signal between soil and vegetation components remains challenging for all microwave remote sensing applications at various spatial scales. Radiative transfer models in the microwave domain are generally poorly parameterized to consider the non-negligible contribution of vegetation. The main objective of this research is to assess the skill of a recently developed Open-Ended Coaxial Probe (OECP) to measure the complex microwave permittivity of vegetation and soils and to derive a relation between the impact of vegetation on the microwave signal and the vegetation permittivity that could serve as a validation tool for soil models especially in frozen state. Results show that the OECP is a suitable tool to infer the radial profile of the complex permittivity in L-band of trees. A clear distinction can be made between the dielectric characterization of the sapwood where the permittivity is high because of the high permittivity of water but decrease with depth, and the heartwood where the permittivity is low and relatively constant. The seasonal cycle of the F/T state of the vegetation can also be observed since it is strongly correlated with the permittivity of the wood. The permittivity of a tree over the winter season is very low and homogenous since the permittivity of ice is significantly lower than water and the sap flow is negligible. The fluctuation of the frozen and thawed permittivity for different tree species was evaluated, focusing

  14. Experiments based on blue intensity for reconstructing North Pacific temperatures along the Gulf of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Rob; D'Arrigo, Rosanne; Andreu-Hayles, Laia; Oelkers, Rose; Wiles, Greg; Anchukaitis, Kevin; Davi, Nicole

    2017-08-01

    Ring-width (RW) records from the Gulf of Alaska (GOA) have yielded a valuable long-term perspective for North Pacific changes on decadal to longer timescales in prior studies but contain a broad winter to late summer seasonal climate response. Similar to the highly climate-sensitive maximum latewood density (MXD) proxy, the blue intensity (BI) parameter has recently been shown to correlate well with year-to-year warm-season temperatures for a number of sites at northern latitudes. Since BI records are much less labour intensive and expensive to generate than MXD, such data hold great potential value for future tree-ring studies in the GOA and other regions in mid- to high latitudes. Here we explore the potential for improving tree-ring-based reconstructions using combinations of RW- and BI-related parameters (latewood BI and delta BI) from an experimental subset of samples at eight mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana) sites along the GOA. This is the first study for the hemlock genus using BI data. We find that using either inverted latewood BI (LWBinv) or delta BI (DB) can improve the amount of explained temperature variance by > 10 % compared to RW alone, although the optimal target season shrinks to June-September, which may have implications for studying ocean-atmosphere variability in the region. One challenge in building these BI records is that resin extraction did not remove colour differences between the heartwood and sapwood; thus, long term trend biases, expressed as relatively warm temperatures in the 18th century, were noted when using the LWBinv data. Using DB appeared to overcome these trend biases, resulting in a reconstruction expressing 18th-19th century temperatures ca. 0.5 °C cooler than the 20th-21st centuries. This cool period agrees well with previous dendroclimatic studies and the glacial advance record in the region. Continuing BI measurement in the GOA region must focus on sampling and measuring more trees per site (> 20) and compiling

  15. Improvement of non-key traits in radiata pine breeding programme when long-term economic importance is uncertain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongjun; Dungey, Heidi; Yanchuk, Alvin; Apiolaza, Luis A

    2017-01-01

    Diameter at breast height (DBH), wood density (DEN) and predicted modulus of elasticity (PME) are considered as 'key traits' (KT) in the improvement in radiata pine breeding programmes in New Zealand. Any other traits which are also of interest to radiata pine breeders and forest growers are called 'non-key traits' (NKTs). External resin bleeding (ERB), internal checking (IC), number of heartwood rings (NHR) are three such non-key traits which affect wood quality of radiata pine timber. Economic importance of the KTs and NKTs is hard to define in radiata pine breeding programmes due to long rotation period. Desired-gain index (DGIs) and robust selection were proposed to incorporate NKTs into radiata pine breeding programme in order to deal with the uncertainty of economic importance. Four desired-gain indices A-D were proposed in this study. The desired-gain index A (DGI-A) emphasized growth and led to small decrease in ERB and small increase in IC and NHR. The expected genetic gains of all traits in the desired-gain index B (DGI-B) were in the favourable directions (positive genetic gains in the key traits and negative genetic gains in the non-key traits). The desired-gain index C (DGI-C) placed emphasis on wood density, leading to favourable genetic gain in the NKTs but reduced genetic gains for DBH and PME. The desired-gain index D (DGI-D) exerted a bit more emphasis on the non-key traits, leading large favourable reduction in the non-key traits and lower increase in the key traits compared with the other DGIs. When selecting both the key traits and the non-key traits, the average EBVs of six traits were all in the same directions as the expected genetic gains except for DBH in the DGI-D. When the key traits were measured and selected, internal checking always had a negative (favourable) genetic gain but ERB and NHR had unfavourable genetic gain in the most of time. After removing some individuals with high sensitivity to the change of economic weights, robust

  16. Improvement of non-key traits in radiata pine breeding programme when long-term economic importance is uncertain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjun Li

    Full Text Available Diameter at breast height (DBH, wood density (DEN and predicted modulus of elasticity (PME are considered as 'key traits' (KT in the improvement in radiata pine breeding programmes in New Zealand. Any other traits which are also of interest to radiata pine breeders and forest growers are called 'non-key traits' (NKTs. External resin bleeding (ERB, internal checking (IC, number of heartwood rings (NHR are three such non-key traits which affect wood quality of radiata pine timber. Economic importance of the KTs and NKTs is hard to define in radiata pine breeding programmes due to long rotation period. Desired-gain index (DGIs and robust selection were proposed to incorporate NKTs into radiata pine breeding programme in order to deal with the uncertainty of economic importance. Four desired-gain indices A-D were proposed in this study. The desired-gain index A (DGI-A emphasized growth and led to small decrease in ERB and small increase in IC and NHR. The expected genetic gains of all traits in the desired-gain index B (DGI-B were in the favourable directions (positive genetic gains in the key traits and negative genetic gains in the non-key traits. The desired-gain index C (DGI-C placed emphasis on wood density, leading to favourable genetic gain in the NKTs but reduced genetic gains for DBH and PME. The desired-gain index D (DGI-D exerted a bit more emphasis on the non-key traits, leading large favourable reduction in the non-key traits and lower increase in the key traits compared with the other DGIs. When selecting both the key traits and the non-key traits, the average EBVs of six traits were all in the same directions as the expected genetic gains except for DBH in the DGI-D. When the key traits were measured and selected, internal checking always had a negative (favourable genetic gain but ERB and NHR had unfavourable genetic gain in the most of time. After removing some individuals with high sensitivity to the change of economic weights

  17. Preparation and analysis of carbonization products from Sugi (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) wood; Sugi (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) zai no tanka seiseibutsu no chosei to bunseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsui, T.; Matsushita, Y.; Sugamoto, K.; Tokuda, Y. [Miyazaki University, Miyazaki (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Kodama, K.; Nakata, K.; Oda, M.; Yamauchi, H. [Miyazaki Prefectural Institute of Industrial Technology, Miyazaki (Japan)

    2000-01-10

    The material balance of carbonization products (wood-gas, wood-vinegar, wood-tar and charcoal) prepared from the sapwood and the heartwood of Sugi (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) at various temperatures was determined. The evolution of both carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide mainly occurred at the carbonization temperature below 600 degree C and that of hydrogen and methane at 600-800 degree C. Total yield of the wood-vinegar and the wood-tar was almost constant at 500-800 degree C. On the other hand, the yield of the charcoal decreased because of the evolution of the wood gas with an increase in carbonization temperature. The wood-vinegars prepared at the temperature over 400 degree C were found to consist of carboxylic acids such as acetic acid and propionic acid, methanol, acetone, furans, alkylphenols, guaiacols, cyclotene and maltol by capillary gas chromatography. Since the constituent varieties and contents of the wood-vinegars prepared at both 400 degree C and 800 degree C were very similar each other, the wood-vinegar of Sugi wood chiefly produced below 400 degree C. FT-IR spectra of the charcoals showed the generation of carbonyl and olefin groups at 300-400 degree C and then the formation of aromatic rings along with the disappearance of carbonyl groups over 600 degree C. The production of radical species in the charcoals carbonized at 300-600 degree C was observed by ESR, on the contrary, the charcoals carbonized over 700 degree C were inactive. The specific surface area and the pore volume of the charcoal of Sugi sapwood increased with an increase in carbonization temperature. The pH of charcoal-dispersed aqueous solution increased with an increase in carbonization temperature. The high adsorptive activity of the charcoal carbonized at 400 degree C for ammonia gas and that at 800 degree C for hydrogen sulfide gas seemed to be dependent on acidic and basic properties of the charcoals, respectively. (author)

  18. Experiments based on blue intensity for reconstructing North Pacific temperatures along the Gulf of Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Wilson

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Ring-width (RW records from the Gulf of Alaska (GOA have yielded a valuable long-term perspective for North Pacific changes on decadal to longer timescales in prior studies but contain a broad winter to late summer seasonal climate response. Similar to the highly climate-sensitive maximum latewood density (MXD proxy, the blue intensity (BI parameter has recently been shown to correlate well with year-to-year warm-season temperatures for a number of sites at northern latitudes. Since BI records are much less labour intensive and expensive to generate than MXD, such data hold great potential value for future tree-ring studies in the GOA and other regions in mid- to high latitudes. Here we explore the potential for improving tree-ring-based reconstructions using combinations of RW- and BI-related parameters (latewood BI and delta BI from an experimental subset of samples at eight mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana sites along the GOA. This is the first study for the hemlock genus using BI data. We find that using either inverted latewood BI (LWBinv or delta BI (DB can improve the amount of explained temperature variance by > 10 % compared to RW alone, although the optimal target season shrinks to June–September, which may have implications for studying ocean–atmosphere variability in the region. One challenge in building these BI records is that resin extraction did not remove colour differences between the heartwood and sapwood; thus, long term trend biases, expressed as relatively warm temperatures in the 18th century, were noted when using the LWBinv data. Using DB appeared to overcome these trend biases, resulting in a reconstruction expressing 18th–19th century temperatures ca. 0.5 °C cooler than the 20th–21st centuries. This cool period agrees well with previous dendroclimatic studies and the glacial advance record in the region. Continuing BI measurement in the GOA region must focus on sampling and measuring more trees per

  19. Characteristics of initial deposition and behavior of radiocesium in forest ecosystems of different locations and species affected by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsu, Masabumi; Kaneko, Shinji; Ohashi, Shinta; Kuroda, Katsushi; Sano, Tetsuya; Ikeda, Shigeto; Saito, Satoshi; Kiyono, Yoshiyuki; Tonosaki, Mario; Miura, Satoru; Akama, Akio; Kajimoto, Takuya; Takahashi, Masamichi

    2016-01-01

    After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, information about stand-level spatial patterns of radiocesium initially deposited in the surrounding forests was essential for predicting the future dynamics of radiocesium and suggesting a management plan for contaminated forests. In the first summer (approximately 6 months after the accident), we separately estimated the amounts of radiocesium ("1"3"4Cs and "1"3"7Cs; Bq m"−"2) in the major components (trees, organic layers, and soils) in forests of three sites with different contamination levels. For a Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) forest studied at each of the three sites, the radiocesium concentration greatly differed among the components, with the needle and organic layer having the highest concentrations. For these cedar forests, the proportion of the "1"3"7Cs stock in the aboveground tree biomass varied from 22% to 44% of the total "1"3"7Cs stock; it was 44% in highly contaminated sites (7.0 × 10"5 Bq m"−"2) but reduced to 22% in less contaminated sites (1.1 × 10"4 Bq m"−"2). In the intermediate contaminated site (5.0–5.8 × 10"4 Bq m"−"2), 34% of radiocesium was observed in the aboveground tree biomass of the Japanese cedar stand. However, this proportion was considerably smaller (18–19%) in the nearby mixed forests of the Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) and deciduous broad-leaved trees. Non-negligible amounts of "1"3"4Cs and "1"3"7Cs were detected in both the sapwood and heartwood of all the studied tree species. This finding suggested that the uptake or translocation of radiocesium had already started within 6 months after the accident. The belowground compartments were mostly present in the organic layer and the uppermost (0–5 cm deep) mineral soil layer at all the study sites. We discussed the initial transfer process of radiocesium deposited in the forest and inferred that the type of initial deposition (i.e., dry versus wet radiocesium deposition

  20. Toxicity effect of Auxemma oncocalyx fraction and its active principle oncocalyxone A on in vitro culture of caprine secondary follicles and in vitro oocyte maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Leiva-Revilla

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Crude extract of the heartwood of Auxemma oncocalyx (A. oncocalyx and its main component i.e., Oncocalyxone A (onco A, have elevated antioxidant and anti-tumoral activity, but studies on the action of these drugs regarding folliculogenesis are lacking. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of A. oncocalyx and onco A on the in vitro culture of isolated secondary follicles and on the in vitro maturation of oocytes from caprine antral follicles grown in vivo. Isolated secondary follicles were randomly distributed in six groups; the non-cultured control was immediately fixed upon isolation. The remaining follicles were cultured for 7 days in ?-MEM+ alone (control or supplemented with DMSO, doxorrubicin, A. oncocalyx or onco A. After culture, follicles were evaluated for antrum formation, growth rate, apoptosis (TUNEL and cellular proliferation (PCNA, as well as gene expression of Bcl2 and Bax. Additionally, cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs were aspirated and allocated into five treatments for in vitro maturation: control, cultured only in maturation base medium (TCM 199+; or supplemented with DMSO; DXR; A. oncocalyx or onco A. After in vitro maturation, oocyte chromatin configuration and viability were assessed. After 7 days of culture, there was a reduction (P < 0.05 in the percentage of morphologically intact follicles, antrum formation, growth rate and number of PCNA positive granulosa cells in DXR treatment compared to the other treatments. In the DXR treatment a higher percentage (P < 0.05 of TUNEL positive follicles and higher (P < 0.05 relative BAX:BCL2 mRNA ratio’s were observed. After in vitro maturation of the COCs DXR, A. oncocalyx and onco A treatments had a greater (P < 0.05 percentage of abnormal oocytes and a lower (P < 0.05 percentage of viable oocytes as compared with the control group. However, only DXR and onco A treatments increased (P < 0.05 the percentage of alive oocytes with

  1. Resistência natural da madeira de Corymbia maculata (Hook. K.D.Hill & L.A.S. Johnson a fungos e cupins xilófagos, em condições de laboratório Wood natural resistance of Corymbia maculata (Hook. K.D.Hill & L.A.S Johnson to wood destroying fungi and termites, under laboratory tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juarez Benigno Paes

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa teve o objetivo de avaliar a resistência natural da madeira de Corymbia maculata a fungos e a cupins xilófagos, em condições de laboratório. De peças radiais (tábuas que continham o cerne e o alburno intactos foram retirados corpos-de-prova de 2,00 x 2,00 x 1,00 cm, com a menor dimensão na direção tangencial (ensaio com fungos, e de 2,54 x 2,00 x 0,64 cm, com a maior dimensão na direção das fibras (ensaio com cupins, em quatro posições na direção medula-casca. As amostras foram submetidas à ação dos fungos Postia placenta, Neolentinus lepideus e Polyporus fumosus por 12 semanas, ou à ação de cupins do gênero Nasutitermes por 30 dias. Constatou-se que a resistência da madeira ao apodrecimento foi dependente da posição na direção medula-casca e dos fungos utilizados. As amostras retiradas nas posições mais externas do tronco foram mais deterioradas que as internas. Dentro de cada posição, os fungos causaram deterioração semelhante à madeira, exceto para a posição mais externa (alburno, em que o fungo P. fumosus causou menos deterioração que os demais. De modo geral, a madeira de C. maculata foi altamente resistente (posições internas ou resistente (posições externas aos fungos ensaiados. Somente para o fungo N. lepideus a posição mais externa foi moderadamente resistente. Quanto aos cupins, a resistência da madeira não foi afetada pela posição na direção medula-casca e apresentou uma baixa perda de massa para as posições analisadas. Além disto, os cupins causaram somente desgaste superficial à madeira, e morreram durante o ensaio, o que permitiu classificar a madeira de C.maculata como resistente aos cupins ensaiados.This research evaluated the natural resistance of Corymbia maculata wood to wood-destroying fungi and termites, under laboratory tests. Radial pieces (boards, containing intact heartwood and sapwood were transformed into test samples measuring 2.00 x 2.00 x 1.00 cm

  2. Trees Containing Built-In Pulping Catalysts - Final Report - 08/18/1997 - 08/18/2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pullman, G.; Dimmel, D.; Peter, G.

    2000-08-18

    Several hardwood and softwood trees were analyzed for the presence of anthraquinone-type molecules. Low levels of anthraquinone (AQ) and anthrone components were detected using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy and sensitive selected-ion monitoring techniques. Ten out of seventeen hardwood samples examined contained AQ-type components; however, the levels were typically below {approximately}6 ppm. No AQs were observed in the few softwood samples that were examined. The AQs were more concentrated in the heartwood of teak than in the sapwood. The delignification of pine was enhanced by the addition of teak chips ({approximately}0.7% AQ-equivalence content) to the cook, suggesting that endogenous AQs can be released from wood during pulping and can catalyze delignification reactions. Eastern cottonwood contained AQ, methyl AQ, and dimethyl AQ, all useful for wood pulping. This is the first time unsubstituted AQ has been observed in wood extracts. Due to the presence of these pulping catalysts, rapid growth rates in plantation settings, and the ease of genetic transformation, eastern cottonwood is a suitable candidate for genetic engineering studies to enhance AQ content. To achieve effective catalytic pulping activity, poplar and cottonwood, respectively, require {approximately}100 and 1000 times more for pulping catalysts. A strategy to increase AQ concentration in natural wood was developed and is currently being tested. This strategy involves ''turning up'' isochorismate synthase (ICS) through genetic engineering. Isochorismate synthase is the first enzyme in the AQ pathway branching from the shikimic acid pathway. In general, the level of enzyme activity at the first branch point or committed step controls the flux through a biosynthetic pathway. To test if the level of ICS regulates AQ biosynthesis in plant tissues, we proposed to over-express this synthase in plant cells. A partial cDNA encoding a putative ICS was available from the random

  3. Radial variation in sap velocity as a function of stem diameter and sapwood thickness in yellow-poplar trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wullschleger, Stan D.; King, Anthony W.

    2000-04-01

    Canopy transpiration and forest water use are frequently estimated as the product of sap velocity and cross-sectional sapwood area. Few studies, however, have considered whether radial variation in sap velocity and the proportion of sapwood active in water transport are significant sources of uncertainty in the extrapolation process. Therefore, radial profiles of sap velocity were examined as a function of stem diameter and sapwood thickness for yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.) trees growing on two adjacent watersheds in eastern Tennessee. The compensation heat pulse velocity technique was used to quantify sap velocity at four equal-area depths in 20 trees that ranged in stem diameter from 15 to 69 cm, and in sapwood thickness from 2.1 to 14.8 cm. Sap velocity was highly dependent on the depth of probe insertion into the sapwood. Rates of sap velocity were greatest for probes located in the two outer sapwood annuli (P1 and P2) and lowest for probes in closest proximity to the heartwood (P3 and P4). Relative sap velocities averaged 0.98 at P1, 0.66 at P2, 0.41 at P3 and 0.35 at P4. Tree-specific sap velocities measured at each of the four probe positions, divided by the maximum sap velocity measured (usually at P1 or P2), indicated that the fraction of sapwood functional in water transport (f(S)) varied between 0.49 and 0.96. There was no relationship between f(S) and sapwood thickness, or between f(S) and stem diameter. The fraction of functional sapwood averaged 0.66 +/- 0.13 for trees on which radial profiles were determined. No significant depth-related differences were observed for sapwood density, which averaged 469 kg m(-3) across all four probe positions. There was, however, a significant decline in sapwood water content between the two outer probe positions (1.04 versus 0.89 kg kg(-1)). This difference was not sufficient to account for the observed radial variation in sap velocity. A Monte-Carlo analysis indicated that the standard error in

  4. Pollution and Climate Effects on Tree-Ring Nitrogen Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savard, M. M.; Bégin, C.; Marion, J.; Smirnoff, A.

    2009-04-01

    BACKGROUND Monitoring of nitrous oxide concentration only started during the last 30 years in North America, but anthropogenic atmospheric nitrogen has been significantly emitted over the last 150 years. Can geochemical characteristics of tree rings be used to infer past changes in the nitrogen cycle of temperate regions? To address this question we use nitrogen stable isotopes in 125 years-long ring series from beech specimens (Fagus grandifolia) of the Georgian Bay Islands National Park (eastern Ontario), and pine (Pinus strobus) and beech trees of the Arboretum Morgan near Montreal (western Quebec). To evaluate the reliability of the N stable isotopes in wood treated for removal of soluble materials, we tested both tree species from the Montreal area. The reproducibility from tree to tree was excellent for both pine and beech trees, the isotopic trends were strongly concordant, and they were not influenced by the heartwood-sapwood transition zone. The coherence of changes of the isotopic series observed for the two species suggests that their tree-ring N isotopic values can serve as environmental indicator. RESULTS AND INTERPRETATION In Montreal and Georgian Bay, the N isotopes show strong and similar parallel agreement (Gleichlaufigkeit test) with the climatic parameters. So in fact, the short-term isotopic fluctuations correlate directly with summer precipitation and inversely with summer and spring temperature. A long-term decreasing isotope trend in Montreal indicates progressive changes in soil chemistry after 1951. A pedochemical change is also inferred for the Georgian Bay site on the basis of a positive N isotopic trend initiated after 1971. At both sites, the long-term ^15N series correlate with a proxy for NOx emissions (Pearson correlation), and carbon-isotope ring series suggest that the same trees have been impacted by phytotoxic pollutants (Savard et al., 2009a). We propose that the contrasted long-term nitrogen-isotope changes of Montreal and

  5. Resistência natural de nove madeiras do semi-árido brasileiro a fungos xilófagos em condições de laboratório Natural resistance of nine woods of Brazilian semi-arid region to wood-destroying fungi under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juarez Benigno Paes

    2004-04-01

    macrocarpa (P. placenta, Tabebuia aurea (N. lepideus and Senna siamea (P. placenta and N. lepideus, was affected by pith-to-bark position, not been associated to density wood. The Tabebuia impetiginosa wood and the heartwood of Myracrodruon urundeuva and Schinopsis brasiliensis showed the greatest resistance to the tested fungi. The natural resistance disparity, except in Myracrodruon urundeuva and Schinopsis brasiliensis, has not been associated to content of soluble substances in hot-water present in the wood of each species studied.

  6. Estudo comparativo da madeira de Mimosa ophthalmocentra Mart. ex Benth e Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd. Poir. (Fabaceae-Mimosoideae na caatinga nordestina Comparative study of Mimosa ophthalmocentra Mart. ex Benth and Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd. Poir. (Fabaceae-Mimosoideae wood in the caatinga of Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazaro Benedito da Silva

    2011-06-01

    ênquima escasso e menor percentagem de raios.Due to the economic importance of the wood of Mimosa L. species in Northeastern Brazil's caatinga and to the fact that Mimosa ophtalmocentra Mart. ex Benth. ("jurema-de-imbira" is confused with Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd. Poir. ("jurema-preta" and vice versa, this research aimed to present new data related to the anatomy and basic density of the wood of both species; to contribute to the taxonomic study for differentiating them; to identify anatomical characters of the wood relating them to the caatinga environment; and to present the energetic potential that they possess. The anatomical study and wood density determination were carried out with samples at dbh level and with two branches of individuals within the municipalities of Serra Talhada and Sertânia (Pernambuco. The species both differed in bark type, color of heartwood and sapwood, besides the different anatomical characteristics found in the wood. Mimosa ophtalmocentra has distinct growth layers consisting of parenchyma lines containing crystals, scarce parenchyma and smaller quantity of rays. Mimosa tenuiflora, on the other hand, also has growth layers, but without crystals, axial parenchyma vasicentric, confluent and in bands, and greater percentage of rays. Both species have some wood elements with anatomical characteristics typical of representatives of Mimosa, contributing therefore to a better taxonomic understanding of the genus. Based on wood anatomical parameters and elevated basic density (> 0.84 g/cm³, the conclusion was reached that both species have great perspectives for the production of fuel alcohol and charcoal since juvenile wood age. Because Mimosa ophthalmocentra has scarce parenchyma and fewer rays, it shows greater energetic potential than Mimosa tenuiflora.