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Sample records for cham leaves bignoniaceae

  1. Bignoniaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, van C.G.G.J.

    1974-01-01

    Trees, shrubs, lianas, very rarely herbaceous (extra-Mal.); twigs often lenticellate and nodes with gland fields; spines very rare (extra-Mal.). Stipules absent. Leaves simple or mostly compound (digitate or impari-1-4-pinnate), (in Mal.) decussate, rarely in whorls of 3-4, often provided with gland

  2. PHARMACOGNOSTIC AND PHYSICO- CHEMICAL EVALUATION OF LEAVES OF TECOMA GAUDICHAUDI DC (BIGNONIACEAE)

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    Kedar K.A; S. R. CHAUDHARI; A. Srinivasa Rao

    2013-01-01

    Tecoma gaudichaudi DC (Family Bignoniaceae) is a small tree of height 9-12m. and various Tecoma species are attractive to bees, butterflies or birds. Present study focuses on determination of some quantitative microscopical factors of leaves of Tecoma gaudichaudi DC includes Stomatal no., vein islet no etc. Under physicochemical standards various parameters were checked, such as ash value, acid insoluble ash value and moisture content etc. It helps in to check purity of crude drug. Ultimately...

  3. Volatile and non-volatile compounds and antimicrobial activity of Mansoa difficilis (Cham.) Bureau and K. Schum. (Bignoniaceae)

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    Guilhon, Giselle Maria Skelding Pinheiro; Silva, Elisangela Sarmento da; Santos, Lourivaldo da Silva [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Fac. de Quimica; Zoghbi, Maria das Gracas Bichara [Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi, Belem, PA (Brazil). Coordenacao de Botanica; Araujo, Isabella Santos [Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana (UEFS), Feira de Santana, BA (Brazil); Uetanabaro, Ana Paula Trovatti, E-mail: giselle@ufpa.br [Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz (UESC), Ilheus, BA (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Essential oil from the leaves of Mansoa difficilis was analyzed by GC/MS. Oct-1-en-3-ol (49.65%) was the major compound, but diallyl di- and trisulfide were also present (0.85 and 0.37%, respectively), justifying the garlic-like odor of the crushed leaves. The hexane and methanol extracts of the leaves and stems afforded as main constituents a mixture of linear hydrocarbons, spinasterol, stigmasterol, ursolic and oleanolic acids, two apigenin derivatives and verbascoside. The hexane and methanol extracts of leaves were tested for antimicrobial activity against ten microorganisms. The hexane extract was active against both Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. (author)

  4. Floral visitors and reproductive strategies in five melittophilous species of Bignoniaceae in Southeastern Brazil

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    Yuriko A. N. Pinto Yanagizawa; Rita de Cassia Sindrônia Maimoni-Rodella

    2007-01-01

    In order to evaluate the pollination strategies of Bignoniaceae, the floral biology and the floral visitors in five species, three cerrado shrubs (Arrabidaea brachypoda (DC.) Bor., Jacaranda decurrens Cham., and Jacaranda oxyphylla Cham.), and two lianas from the border of a semideciduous seasonal forest (Arrabidaea samydoides (Cham.) Sandw., and Arrabidaea triplinervia H. Baill.) were studied in Botucatu, São Paulo State, Southeastern Brazil. The flowering periods were partially overlapping,...

  5. Evaluation of antihyperglycemic activity of methanolic Tecomaria capensis Thunb. (Bignoniaceae) leaves extract in alloxan induced hyperglycemic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saini NK; Singhal M

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antihyperglycemic activity of Tecomaria capensis (T. capensis) Thunb. (Bignoniaceae) methanolic leaves extract (TCLE) using blood glucose level in normal fasted rats, glucose tolerance test and alloxan induced hyperglycemia models. Methods: TCLE (100, 300, 1 000 and 2 000 mg/kg body wt.) was given to rats orally to observe acute toxicity, and observed for 14 d. TCLE 200 and 400 mg/kg, and glibenclamide 0.6 mg/kg were given orally in all models. Results: Results demonstrated that the no mortality was reported even after 14 d. This indicates that the methanol extract is safe up to a single dose of 2 000 mg/kg body weight. TCLE (200 and 400 mg/kg p.o.) exhibited remarkable blood glucose lowering effect in blood glucose level in normal fasted rats, glucose tolerance and alloxan induced hyperglycemia model. Cholesterol and triglyceride also decreased in alloxan induced hyperglycemia model. Conclusions: The results of this study exhibites that methanol extract of T. capensis possesses antihypergycemic activity and it may prove to be effective for the treatment of hyperglycemia.

  6. Análise farmacognóstica das folhas de Arrabidaea chica (Humb. & Bonpl. B. Verlt., Bignoniaceae Pharmacognostic analysis of Arrabidaea chica (Humb. & Bonpl. B. Verlt. Leaves, Bignoniaceae

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    Mauro Sérgio Marques Alves

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Arrabidaea chica (Humb. & Bonpl. B. Verlt. é uma Bignoniaceae amplamente utilizada na medicina popular como anti-inflamatório e adstringente, e para várias doenças como cólicas intestinais, diarréias, anemias e enfermidades da pele. Devido as suas propriedades biológicas e a produção de corante a espécie passou a ser utilizada pela indústria cosmética. A utilização de produtos naturais de origem vegetal implica no controle de qualidade farmacobotânico e em ensaios de pureza que compõem as especificações técnicas da espécie. Para isso foi realizada a descrição anatômica das folhas jovens e maduras de A. chica a partir de observações realizadas ao microscópio óptico, a partir de cortes histológicos. As folhas são hipoestomáticas e dorsiventrais com mesofilo heterogêneo. No pecíolo, a epiderme é uniestratificada contendo tricomas e dotada de cutícula delgada. Os testes farmacopéicos incluíram a determinação da distribuição granulométrica do pó da planta, determinação do teor de umidade e de cinzas totais, além da abordagem fitoquímica da tintura, visando estabelecer parâmetros para seu controle de qualidade.Arrabidaea chica (Humb. & Bonpl. B. Verlt. is a Bignoniaceae widely used in the popular medicine as anti-inflammatory and astringent agent, and for some illnesses as intestinal colic, diarrhoeas, anaemia and diseases of the skin. Its biological properties and dye biosynthesis lead the species to be used in the cosmetic industry. The use of natural products of vegetal origin implies in pharmacognostic quality control and purity assays that compose the technical specifications of the material. Therefore, the anatomical description of mature and young leaves of A. chica was carried through the use of optic microscopy on histological preparations. The leaves are hipostomatic and dorsiventral with heterogeneous mesophile. In petiole, the epidermis is unistratified, it contains trachoma and it is endowed

  7. Estudo farmacobotânico das folhas de Tocoyena formosa (Cham. & Schltdl. K.Schum. (Rubiaceae Pharmacobotanical study of the leaves of Tocoyena formosa (Cham. & Schltdl. K.Schum. (Rubiaceae

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    Victor Peçanha de Miranda Coelho

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo um estudo farmacobotânico das folhas de Tocoyena formosa (Cham. & Schltdl. K. Schum., espécie usada na medicina popular do Nordeste do Brasil no tratamento das dores reumáticas. Realizaram-se estudos morfológicos para a identificação da espécie e para a morfodiagnose macroscópica. Cortes paradérmicos e transversais do pecíolo e da lâmina foliar, à mão livre, foram corados com safranina ou com uma mistura de safranina e azul de astra para a morfodiagnose microscópica. A lâmina foliar é subcoriácea, oblongo-lanceolada a elíptica, densamente tomentosa na face abaxial. T. formosa possui folhas hipoestomáticas, com estômatos do tipo paracítico; epiderme unisseriada com células de paredes poligonais; mesofilo dorsiventral com idioblastos cristalíferos, esparsos, isolados ou aos pares, no estrato superior do parênquima paliçádico; tricomas simples são evidentes na epiderme, em ambas faces. A vascularização é formada por dois feixes assessórios na posição adaxial e um feixe central em arco com as terminações invaginadas, na porção proximal do pecíolo, ou em forma de "V-fechado" na porção distal e na nervura principal. A morfologia das estruturas vegetativas e reprodutivas associada à anatomia do mesofilo e do sistema vascular, em conjunto, são caracteres distintivos para esta espécie.This work constitutes a pharmacobotanical study of Tocoyena formosa (Cham. & Schltdl. K. Schum., a species used in folk medicine for rheumatic pains in Northeastern Brazil. The botanical identification and macroscopical morphodiagnosis were carried out by morphological studies. The microscopical morphodiagnosis were realized byparadermic and transversal cuts of the leaves (blades and petiole and stained with safranin or mixture of safranin and astrablue. The blade leaf is subcoriaceous and oblong-lanceolate to elliptic, densely tomentose in the abaxial surface. T. formosa has hypostomatic leaves

  8. Evaluation of anti-nociceptive activity of methanolic extract of Tecomaria capensis Thunb. (Bignoniaceae) leaves in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saini NK; Singhal M

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the anti-nociceptive activity of Tecomaria capensis (T. capensis) leaves extract (TCLE) using different models in rats by acetic acid induced writhing test, (b) tail-flick test (c) tail-clip test. Methods:TCLE (100, 300, 1 000 and 2 000 mg/kg body wt.) was given to rats orally to observe acute toxicity for 14 d. Then test drug TCLE were given at dose of 100, 200 and 500 mg/kg p.o. and standard drug aspirin were given at a dose of 100 mg/kg p.o. Results: No mortality was reported even after 14 d. This indicates that the methanol extract is safe up to a single dose of 2 000 mg/kg body weight. TCLE (100, 200 and 500 mg/kg p.o.) significantly inhibited abdominal constrictions (writhing) induced by acetic acid and increased the latency period in the tail flick and tail clip test. TCLE at the dose of 500 mg/kg showed significant anti-nociceptive activity compared to standard aspirin. Discussions:The results of this study show that methanol extract of T. capensis possesses anti-nociceptive activity which may be mediated by the central and peripheral mechanisms.

  9. Insecticidal Properties of a Highly Potent Wax Isolated from Dolichandra cynanchoides Cham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Napal, Georgina; Carpinella, María C; Palacios, Sara M

    2016-08-11

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of an ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Dolichandra cynanchoides Cham. (Bignoniaceae) led to the isolation of a natural wax with anti-insect activity against Spodoptera frugiperda (Noctuidae) and Epilachna paenulata (Coleptera). The compound was identified spectroscopically as an ester of a C27 fatty acid and a C25 alcohol, pentacosyl heptacosanoate (1). The effective doses of 1 for 50% feeding inhibition (ED50) of S. frugiperda and E. paenulata were 0.82 and 8.53 µg/cm², respectively, in a choice test, while azadirachtin showed ED50 of 0.10 and 0.59 µg/cm², respectively. In a no-choice test, both insects refused to feed on leaves treated with 1 at doses of 0.1 µg/cm² or greater inhibiting larval growth and dramatically reducing survival. The lethal doses 50 (LD50) of 1 were 0.39 and 0.68 µg/cm² for S. frugiperda and E. paenulata, respectively. These results indicate that 1 has potential for development as botanical insecticides. Similar esters might be obtainable in large quantities as many edible crops produce wax esters that are discarded during food processing. Research on these materials could lead to the detection of similar waxes with insecticidal activity.

  10. Insecticidal Properties of a Highly Potent Wax Isolated from Dolichandra cynanchoides Cham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Napal, Georgina; Carpinella, María C; Palacios, Sara M

    2016-01-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of an ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Dolichandra cynanchoides Cham. (Bignoniaceae) led to the isolation of a natural wax with anti-insect activity against Spodoptera frugiperda (Noctuidae) and Epilachna paenulata (Coleptera). The compound was identified spectroscopically as an ester of a C27 fatty acid and a C25 alcohol, pentacosyl heptacosanoate (1). The effective doses of 1 for 50% feeding inhibition (ED50) of S. frugiperda and E. paenulata were 0.82 and 8.53 µg/cm², respectively, in a choice test, while azadirachtin showed ED50 of 0.10 and 0.59 µg/cm², respectively. In a no-choice test, both insects refused to feed on leaves treated with 1 at doses of 0.1 µg/cm² or greater inhibiting larval growth and dramatically reducing survival. The lethal doses 50 (LD50) of 1 were 0.39 and 0.68 µg/cm² for S. frugiperda and E. paenulata, respectively. These results indicate that 1 has potential for development as botanical insecticides. Similar esters might be obtainable in large quantities as many edible crops produce wax esters that are discarded during food processing. Research on these materials could lead to the detection of similar waxes with insecticidal activity. PMID:27529199

  11. Insecticidal Properties of a Highly Potent Wax Isolated from Dolichandra cynanchoides Cham

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    Georgina Díaz Napal

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Bioassay-guided fractionation of an ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Dolichandra cynanchoides Cham. (Bignoniaceae led to the isolation of a natural wax with anti-insect activity against Spodoptera frugiperda (Noctuidae and Epilachna paenulata (Coleptera. The compound was identified spectroscopically as an ester of a C27 fatty acid and a C25 alcohol, pentacosyl heptacosanoate (1. The effective doses of 1 for 50% feeding inhibition (ED50 of S. frugiperda and E. paenulata were 0.82 and 8.53 µg/cm2, respectively, in a choice test, while azadirachtin showed ED50 of 0.10 and 0.59 µg/cm2, respectively. In a no-choice test, both insects refused to feed on leaves treated with 1 at doses of 0.1 µg/cm2 or greater inhibiting larval growth and dramatically reducing survival. The lethal doses 50 (LD50 of 1 were 0.39 and 0.68 µg/cm2 for S. frugiperda and E. paenulata, respectively. These results indicate that 1 has potential for development as botanical insecticides. Similar esters might be obtainable in large quantities as many edible crops produce wax esters that are discarded during food processing. Research on these materials could lead to the detection of similar waxes with insecticidal activity.

  12. Caracterização anatômica e química de folhas de Jacaranda puberula (Bignoniaceae presente na Mata Atlântica Anatomical and chemical characterization of Jacaranda puberula (Bignoniaceae leaves present in Mata Atlântica

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    Maria Bernadete Gonçalves Martins

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A espécie Jacaranda puberula (Bignoniaceae é conhecida popularmente como "carobinha" sendo utilizada na medicina popular em comunidades tradicionais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar a caracterização anatômica e química das folhas de J. puberula. Para a análise anatômica utilizou-se a microscopia de luz e microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV. Para a análise química utilizou-se a Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Eficiência (CLAE. O mesofilo é dorsiventral, a epiderme unisseriada com cutícula espessa, tricomas glandulares do tipo peltado e tricomas tectores em ambas as faces da epiderme, parênquima clorofiliano com duas a três camadas de células paliçádicas e quatro a cinco camadas de células formando o parênquima lacunoso, de tamanho pequeno, com muitos espaços intercelulares, hipoestomática com nervura pinada. Os estudos através de MEV evidenciaram a epiderme recoberta com cera epicuticular e glândulas peltadas com maior incidência na epiderme da face abaxial, constituídas por oitos células secretoras apicais. A análise cromatográfica do extrato etanólico evidenciou a presença de fitoquinóides e flavonóides.Jacaranda puberula is popularly known as "carobinha" and is used in medical practices of many folk communities. The objective of this work was the anatomical and chemical characterization of Jacaranda puberula (Bignoniaceae leaves. The anatomical analysis was carried through light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. For the chemical analysis it was used High Perfomance Liquid Chromatografy (HPLC. Cross and paradermic sections of leaf showed the presence of uniseriate epidermal cells covered by a thick cuticle layer. There are peltate gland trichomes of multicellular type and no gland trichomes (tectores. It was observed that the faces of mesophyll are distinctly. Two to three layers of palisades cells form chlorophylian parenchyma and lacunary parenchyma is formed of four to five layers

  13. Aqueous Stem Bark Extract of Stereospermum Kunthianum (Cham, Sandrine Petit) Protects Against Generalized Seizures in Pentylenetetrazole and Electro-Convulsive Models in Rodents

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    Ching, F. P.; Omogbai, E. K. I.; Otokiti, I O

    2009-01-01

    Stereospermum kunthianum, Cham Sandrine Petit (Bignoniaceae) known in English as pink jacaranda is used in traditional medicine to treat an array of ailments including febrile convulsions in infants and young children by the rural dwellers in Nigeria. This study examined the anticonvulsant activity of its aqueous stem bark extract (100 – 400mg/kg) against maximal electroshock and pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in rodents. Phenobarbitone and ethosuximide were used as reference anticonvuls...

  14. Estudo farmacognóstico das raízes de Jacaranda decurrens Cham. (carobinha

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    T.B. Oliveira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho estabelece parâmetros farmacognósticos para as raízes de Jacaranda decurrens Cham., Bignoniaceae, conhecida na medicina popular como carobinha. Características morfológicas e histológicas, prospecção fitoquímica, teor de cinzas e de açúcares redutores são descritos. Encontrou-se presença de esteróides/triterpenos, açúcares redutores, amido, mucilagem e saponinas. O teor de cinzas totais foi de 2,21%, e insolúveis em ácido de 0,63%; a umidade, de 6,42% e o teor de açúcares redutores foi de 2,77%.

  15. The distribution of iridoids in Bignoniaceae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Poser, Gilsane Lino; Schripsema, Jan; Henriques, Amelia T.;

    2000-01-01

    The distribution of iridoids among the tribes of Bignoniaceae is shown. In the present work, 18 species from the tribes Bignonieae and Tecomeae as well as one from Eccremocarpae have been investigated. These data combined with those obtained through a literature review were analysed and showed th...

  16. Antimicrobial potentials of some plant species of the Bignoniaceae family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binutu, O A; Lajubutu, B A

    1994-09-01

    The methanol extracts of the leaves and stem bark of four Bignoniaceae plants Jacaranda mimosifolia D. Dol., Tecoma stans Linn., Tabebuia rosea (Bertol) D.C., and Crescentia cujete Linn. were studied for their antimicrobial activity using a wide range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. Extracts of both the leaves and stem bark of majority of plant species studied showed variable but remarkable broad spectrum antimicrobial activity. However, methanol extracts of Tecoma stans leaves was found to be effective against only Candida albicans at the concentrations employed. It was observed that the extracts of stem bark generally showed better antimicrobial activity than those of the leaves and some organisms were selectively more sensitive to the extracts than others. Preliminary phytochemical screening of these plants revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids, quinones and traces of saponins. The antimicrobial activity observed are discussed in relation to the chemical constituents reportedly isolated from these plants and their traditional uses. PMID:7604753

  17. Does the essential oil of Lippia sidoides Cham. (pepper-rosmarin) affect its endophytic microbial community?

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    da Silva, Thais Freitas; Vollú, Renata Estebanez; Jurelevicius, Diogo; Alviano, Daniela Sales; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; Seldin, Lucy

    2013-01-01

    Background Lippia sidoides Cham., also known as pepper-rosmarin, produces an essential oil in its leaves that is currently used by the pharmaceutical, perfumery and cosmetic industries for its antimicrobial and aromatic properties. Because of the antimicrobial compounds (mainly thymol and carvacrol) found in the essential oil, we believe that the endophytic microorganisms found in L. sidoides are selected to live in different parts of the plant. Results In this study, the endophytic microbial...

  18. Pharmacological studies of Cordia salicifolia Cham in normal and diabetic rats

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    Siqueira Vera Lúcia Dias

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The anti-obesity, appetite suppressant, diuretic and hipolipidemic effect of dried powdered leaves of Cordia salicifolia Cham (CS were investigated. CS (20 mg.kg-1.day-1 dissolved in water was daily administered by gavage during 13 days. In contrast with the popular use as anti-obesity, appetite suppressant and diuretic, no effect were detected. However, hipolipidemic effect was observed in normal and alloxan-diabetic rats.

  19. Constituintes químicos e avaliação do potencial antiinflamatório e antioxidante de extratos das folhas de Chomelia obtusa Cham. & Schltdl. (Rubiaceae Chemical constituents and anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities evaluation of the leaves extracts of Chomelia obtusa Cham. & Schltdl. (Rubiaceae

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    Michely Pereira de Barros

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical investigation of Chomelia obtusa leaves led to the isolation of four triterpenes (3-O-β-D-quinovopyranosyl-28-O-β-D-glycopyranosyl quinovic acid, 3-O-β-D-quinovopyranosyl-28-O-β-D-glycopyranosyl cincholic acid, and a mixture of ursolic and oleanolic acids, two flavonoids (3-O-β-D-glycopyranosyl quercetin, 3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6-β-D-galactopyranoside] quercetin, besides bornesitol and a mixture of 3,5- and 4,5-O-dicaffeoyl quinic acids. The structures of the isolated compounds were assigned on the basis of spectroscopic data, including two-dimensional NMR methods. The anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of the crude methanolic extract and of its fractions were evaluated. This is the first report on the chemical and biological investigation of the Chomelia genus.

  20. Chemical constituents and anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities evaluation of the leaves extracts of Chomelia obtusa Cham. and Schltdl. (Rubiaceae); Constituintes quimicos e avaliacao do potencial antiinflamatorio e antioxidante de extratos das folhas de Chomelia obtusa Cham. e Schltdl. (Rubiaceae)

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    Barros, Michely Pereira de; Santin, Silvana Maria de Oliveira; Costa, Willian Ferreira da; Vidotti, Gentil Jose; Sarragiotto, Maria Helena [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: mhsarragiotto@uem.br; Souza, Maria Conceicao de [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar Aparecida [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacia e Farmacologia

    2008-07-01

    The phytochemical investigation of Chomelia obtusa leaves led to the isolation of four triterpenes (3-O-{beta}-D-quinovopyranosyl-28-O-{beta}-D-glycopyranosyl quinovic acid, 3-O-{beta}-D-quinovopyranosyl-28-O-{beta}-D-glycopyranosyl cincholic acid, and a mixture of ursolic and oleanolic acids), two flavonoids (3-O-{beta}-D-glycopyranosyl quercetin, 3-O-[{alpha}-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1{yields}6)-{beta}-D-galactopyranoside] quercetin), besides bornesitol and a mixture of 3,5- and 4,5-O-dicaffeoyl quinic acids. The structures of the isolated compounds were assigned on the basis of spectroscopic data, including two-dimensional NMR methods. The anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of the crude methanolic extract and of its fractions were evaluated. This is the first report on the chemical and biological investigation of the Chomelia genus. (author)

  1. Antiinflammatory activity of aqueous extract of Stereospermum kunthianum (cham, sandrine petit stem bark in rats

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    Ching F

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Stereospermum kunthianum, Cham, Sandrine Petit (family: Bignoniaceae is used in traditional medicine to treat bronchitis, pneumonia and coughs, gastritis, wounds, rheumatic arthritis, ulcers, dysentery, leprosy and venereal diseases in humans. The antiinflammatory activity of the aqueous extract of the stem bark was investigated with experimental animal models using the carrageenan-induced paw oedema, leucocytes migration and granuloma air pouch tests in rats. The extract (100, 200 or 400 mg/kg at 3 h post-treatment caused a significant (p< 0.05 reduction in the paw oedema in rats. The effect of the extract was most pronounced at the dose of 400 mg/kg and was higher than that of indomethacin (10 mg/kg. The extract (400 mg/kg caused a significant (p< 0.05 reduction in the number of recruited leucocytes and it′s inhibition of peritoneal exudate formation was comparable to that of indomethacin at a dose of 10 mg/kg. The exudate formation inhibited by 400 mg/kg of the extract in the granuloma air pouch test was comparatively less to that of indomethacin at a dose of 10 mg/kg. The findings of the study indicate that the aqueous extract of Stereospermum kunthianum stem bark possesses antiinflammatory activity which is probably related to the inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis. This is a possible rationale for its folkloric use as an antiinflammatory agent.

  2. Morfoanatomia de Memora nodosa (Silva Manso Miers, Bignoniaceae Morpho-anatomy of Memora nodosa (Silva Manso Miers, Bignoniaceae

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    Leonice M. F. Tresvenzol

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Memora nodosa (Silva Manso Miers, Bignoniaceae, é uma planta do Cerrado utilizada popularmente como cicatrizante de úlceras e feridas externas (folhas e caules. O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar morfologicamente essa espécie e fazer o estudo anatômico de suas folhas. O estudo morfológico foi realizado à vista desarmada e com o auxílio de microscópio estereoscópico. Para o estudo anatômico as folhas foram seccionadas e as lâminas histológicas confeccionadas de acordo com as técnicas convencionais. Memora nodosa é um arbusto com folhas opostas cruzadas, recompostas, bipinadas, imparipinadas, com foliólulos pequenos, lanceolados, verde-escuros e brilhantes. A inflorescência é racemosa com flores infundibuliformes e corola amarelo-ouro; glândulas nectaríferas são observadas no terço superior do cálice; androceu com quatro estames férteis, didínamos e um estaminódio reduzido; gineceu com estilete terminal, ovário súpero, assentado sobre um disco nectarífero. O fruto é do tipo cápsula septífraga achatada, com sementes aladas. Anatomicamente a lâmina do foliólulo é hipoestomática com estômatos predominantemente paracíticos. O parênquima paliçádico é pluriestratificado, ocupando cerca de dois terços do mesofilo dorsiventral. Tricomas glandulares e tectores são observados, em maior número, nas folhas jovens.Memora nodosa (Silva Manso Miers, Bignoniaceae, is a Brazilian Savannah plant, popularly used as external wound and ulcer healing (leaves and stems. The goal of this research was to perform the morphological study of M. nodosa species and the anatomical study of its leaves. The morphological study was done to the naked eye and with the aid of a stereoscopic microscope. For the anatomical study leaves were sectioned and histological slides made in accordance with conventional techniques. Memora nodosa is a shrub with decussate leaves recomposed, bipinnate, imparipinnate with small leaflets

  3. Microsporogênese e etapas da ontogenia do gametófito masculino de Tabebuia ochracea (Cham.) Standley (Bignoniaceae) Microsporogenesis and the early male gametophyte development of Tabebuia ochraceae (Cham.) Standley (Bignoniaceae)

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    BITTENCOURT JR, NELSON S.

    1996-01-01

    Foram analisadas as etapas da ontogenia do gametófito masculino e da parede da antera de Tabebuia ochracea. O método de formação da parede do microsporângio é do tipo Dicotiledôneo. O tecido esporogênico, em cada microsporângio, visto em secção transversal, organiza-se em uma fileira celular em forma de ferradura. O tapete é do tipo secretor e possui origem dual. O tapete interno diferencia-se precocemente em relação ao tapete externo. As duas camadas tapetais são estruturalmente dimórficas, ...

  4. A new species of Amphitecna (Bignoniaceae) endemic to Chiapas, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz-Rodriguez, Andres Ernesto; Burelo Ramos, Carlos Manuel; Gomez-Dominguez, Héctor

    2016-01-01

    Amphitecna loreae Ortiz-Rodr. & Burelo, sp. nov. (Bignoniaceae), a new species endemic to the karst rainforest in southern Mexico, is described and illustrated. The new species differs from the other species of Amphitecna by the combination of cauliflorous inflorescences, larger flowers, buds rounded at apex, and globose-ellipsoid rather than acuminate fruits. A key to the Mexican species of Amphitecna is presented.

  5. A new species of Amphitecna (Bignoniaceae) endemic to Chiapas, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Rodriguez, Andres Ernesto; Burelo Ramos, Carlos Manuel; Gomez-Dominguez, Héctor

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Amphitecna loreae Ortiz-Rodr. & Burelo, sp. nov. (Bignoniaceae), a new species endemic to the karst rainforest in southern Mexico, is described and illustrated. The new species differs from the other species of Amphitecna by the combination of cauliflorous inflorescences, larger flowers, buds rounded at apex, and globose-ellipsoid rather than acuminate fruits. A key to the Mexican species of Amphitecna is presented. PMID:27489485

  6. A new species of Amphitecna (Bignoniaceae) endemic to Chiapas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Rodriguez, Andres Ernesto; Burelo Ramos, Carlos Manuel; Gomez-Dominguez, Héctor

    2016-01-01

    Amphitecna loreae Ortiz-Rodr. & Burelo, sp. nov. (Bignoniaceae), a new species endemic to the karst rainforest in southern Mexico, is described and illustrated. The new species differs from the other species of Amphitecna by the combination of cauliflorous inflorescences, larger flowers, buds rounded at apex, and globose-ellipsoid rather than acuminate fruits. A key to the Mexican species of Amphitecna is presented. PMID:27489485

  7. Evaluation of Safety of Arrabidaea chica Verlot (Bignoniaceae), a Plant with Healing Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemelli, Tiago Farret; Prado, Lismare da Silva; Santos, Franciele Souza; de Souza, Ana Paula; Guecheva, Temenouga Nikolova; Henriques, João Antonio Pêgas; Ferraz, Alexandre de Barros Falcão; Corrêa, Dione Silva; Dihl, Rafael Rodrigues; Picada, Jaqueline Nascimento

    2015-01-01

    Arrabidaea chica Verlot (Bignoniaceae) has been used as a medicinal herb to treat anemia, hemorrhage, inflammation, intestinal colic, hepatitis, and skin infections in the Brazilian Amazon region. Studies have demonstrated the healing properties of extracts obtained from A. chica leaves, which contain anthocyanins and flavonoids. However, few investigations have assessed the safe use of this plant species. In this study, mutagenic and genotoxic effects of a crude aqueous extract, a butanolic fraction, and aqueous waste from A. chica leaves were evaluated using the Salmonella/microsome assay in TA98, TA97a, TA100, TA102, and TA1535 strains and the alkaline comet assay in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell culture with and without metabolic activation. The crude aqueous extract, butanolic fraction, and aqueous waste were not mutagenic in any of the Salmonella typhimurium strains tested, and showed negative responses for genotoxicity in CHO cells. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis indicated the presence of phenolic acids and flavonoids such as rutin and luteolin. The lack of mutagenic/genotoxic effects might be due to phytochemical composition with high concentrations of known anti-inflammatory compounds. Thus, the crude aqueous extract, butanolic fraction, and aqueous waste from A. chica leaves do not appear to pose short-term genotoxic risks.

  8. Aqueous stem bark extract of Stereospermum kunthianum (Cham, Sandrine Petit) protects against generalized seizures in pentylenetetrazole and electro-convulsive models in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, F P; Omogbai, E K I; Otokiti, I O

    2009-01-01

    Stereospermum kunthianum, Cham Sandrine Petit (Bignoniaceae) known in English as pink jacaranda is used in traditional medicine to treat an array of ailments including febrile convulsions in infants and young children by the rural dwellers in Nigeria. This study examined the anticonvulsant activity of its aqueous stem bark extract (100 - 400mg/kg) against maximal electroshock and pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in rodents. Phenobarbitone and ethosuximide were used as reference anticonvulsant drugs for comparison. Stereospermum kunthianum extract (200 - 400mg/kg, i.p.) remarkably protected (76.9% and 84.6 % respectively) the rats against electroshock-induced seizures. However, the extract (200- 400mg/kg) when administered orally showed a comparatively less effect (33.3% and 55.6% respectively) to the intraperitoneally administered extract in the maximal electroshock test. The extract (100-400mg/kg, i.p.) significantly delayed (pbark extract of Stereospermum kunthianum produces its antiseizure effect by enhancing GABAergic neurotransmission and/or action in the brain. The results indicate that the aqueous extract possesses anticonvulsant activity in rodents and therefore tend to suggest that the shrub may be used as a natural supplementary remedy in the management, control and/or treatment of childhood convulsions. It can be concluded that the aqueous stem bark extract possesses anticonvulsant activity and therefore lend pharmacological credence to the traditionally claimed use in the treatment of childhood convulsions.

  9. Domacios y nectarios extraflorales en Bignoniáceas: componentes vegetales de una interacción mutualística Domatia and extrafloral nectaries in Bignoniaceae: two components of a mutualistic interaction

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    Ana M Gonzalez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Las plantas presentan relaciones mutualísticas con insectos a cambio del control de sus herbívoros u hongos patógenos; por medio de los domacios les ofrecen albergue y mediante la secreción de néctar de nectarios extraflorales les brindan alimento. Se examinó la anatomía foliar en 52 especies de Bignoniaceae con microscopía óptica y electrónica de barrido, con el objetivo de describir los domacios y los nectarios extraflorales. Los domacios presentes son de dos tipos: mechones de pelos y bolsillos, siendo un carácter taxonómico útil en varias especies. Los nectarios extraflorales se encuentran en todas las especies, ubicándose en diversas posiciones: a lo largo de la vena media, asociados a los domacios o agrupados en campos glandulares, que pueden ser foliares o interpeciolares. Las Bignoniaceae presentan simultáneamente domacios y nectarios extraflorales en sus hojas, los cuales se describen como componentes vegetales de un probable mecanismo de defensa indirecta.Plants have mutualistic relationships with insects in two ways: through domatia provide housing of predators, and extrafloral nectaries secreting nectar and provide food in exchange for control of herbivores or fungal pathogens. The foliar anatomy of 52 species of Bignoniaceae was examined by light and scanning electron microscopy, in order to describe the different types of domatia and extrafloral nectaries. Two types of domatia were observed: small hair-tufts and pockets; the presence and type of domatia represents important taxonomic characters in Bignoniaceae. Extrafloral nectaries are found in all studied species. They are located in different positions: along the midvein, associated with domatia, or grouped in glandular fields, either in leaf or interpetiolar. The Bignoniaceae have simultaneously domatia and extrafloral nectaries on their leaves, these features are described as plant components in a probable mechanism of indirect defense.

  10. Organic fertilization affecting pests and production of Lippia sidoides Cham. (Verbenacea

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    G.L.D. Leite

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to study the effect of four levels of organic fertilization (0, 3, 6 and 9 kg m-2 to produce the essential oil of Lippia sidoides Cham. (Verbenacea and its pests. A higher number of red mite Tetranychus sp. (Acari: Tetranychiidae was observed on the abaxial face of the median and basal leaves of L. sidoides plants with eight weeks of age cultivated with 6 kg m-2 of organic fertilization. On the other hand, the smallest number of this mite was noted in control (0 kg m-2. L. sidoides cultivated with 6 kg m-2 of organic fertilization produced a greater quantity of essential oil. The highest number of mealy bug Phenacoccus sp. (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae was observed on the apical leaves (both leaf surfaces of L. sidoides plants with nine and ten weeks of age cultivated with 3 kg m-2 of organic fertilization. No significant effect of the organic fertilization on Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae was detected. However, a greater number of this aphid and of its predator Scymnus sp. (Coleoptera: Coccinelidae was observed on the abaxial face of the bottom leaves of L. sidoides plants with eight weeks of age. The dose of organic fertilization recommended for the production of essential oil of L. Sidoides is 6 kg m-2, however, one must pay attention to the fact this dosage favors the attack by Tetranychus sp.. And, when needed, pulverization must always be directed to the lower surface of the leaf.

  11. Sistema reprodutivo de Sparattosperma leucanthum (Vell.) K. Schum. (Bignoniaceae) The reproductive system of a Sparattosperma leucanthum (Vell.) K. Schum. (Bignoniaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Leandro Pereira Polatto; Valter Vieira Alves Júnior

    2009-01-01

    Sparattosperma leucanthum (Vell.) K. Schum. (Bignoniaceae) é uma árvore polinizada por mamangavas, apesar de outros visitantes florais explorarem néctar ou pólen das flores sem exercerem benefício reprodutivo. Neste estudo, focalizaram-se aspectos do sistema de polinização, além de inferir se o espaçamento interplantas encontrado na área amostral e a quantidade de flores produzidas por árvore limitavam ou não a polinização por xenogamia em S. leucanthum. Assim, foram realizados testes reprodu...

  12. Photosynthesis, Growth and Development of Tabebuia avellanedae Lor. ex Griseb. (Bignoniaceae in Flooded Soil

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    Viviane M. Davanso

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Morphological, anatomical and ecophysiological modifications caused by flooding in the growth and development of Tabebuia avellanedae Lor. ex Griseb. (Bignoniaceae were studied and correlated with tolerance to the excess of water in the soil. Three-month-old plants, grown in a greenhouse, underwent a period of 56 days of flooding and a post-flooding period. Photosynthesis rate and growth decreased in T. avellanedae when flooding duration increased. Though not much tolerant, plant adapted itself to short flooding periods. This relative tolerance was probably due to the capacity of T. avellanedae in developing structures which lessened flooding effects and promoted internal diffusion of oxygen from the aerial part to the roots, such as stem fissures, superficial roots and hypertrophied lenticels in the roots. As there was no great variation in the internal anatomy of T. avellanedae leaves and roots, metabolic alterations might have helped in the survival of the species during flooding.Foram estudadas as modificações morfo-anatômicas e ecofisiológicas que o alagamento provoca em Tabebuia avellanedae Lor. ex Griseb. (Bignoniaceae, correlacionando-as com sua capacidade de tolerar o excesso de água no solo. Plantas com três meses de idade, crescendo em casa de vegetação, foram submetidas a 56 dias de alagamento e a um período de pós-alagamento. A taxa fotossintética e o crescimento de T. avellanedae decresceram conforme aumentou o tempo de alagamento, mas mesmo não sendo altamente tolerante, a espécie foi capaz de se adaptar a curtos períodos de alagamento. Esta relativa tolerância provavelmente se deve à capacidade apresentada por T. avellanedae de desenvolver estruturas que amenizam os efeitos do alagamento, promovendo a difusão interna de oxigênio da parte aérea para as raízes, tais como rachaduras caulinares, raízes superficiais e lenticelas hipertrofiadas nas raízes. Como não houve acentuada variação na anatomia interna

  13. Anthelmintic and cytotoxic activities of extracts of Markhamia obtusifolia Sprague (Bignoniaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nchu, F; Githiori, J B; McGaw, L J; Eloff, J N

    2011-12-29

    The anthelmintic activity of Markhamia obtusifolia Sprague (Bignoniaceae) leaf extracts was evaluated against the ruminant gastrointestinal nematode parasite Trichostrongylus colubriformis (Nematoda: Strongylida) using the in vitro egg hatch test. Also, the cytotoxic activity of aqueous extracts of M. obtusifolia was evaluated in cell line cytotoxicity assays. The results indicated that the effective concentration (EC(50)) for the water extract of M. obtusifolia leaves (0.46 mg/mL; Confidence Interval [CI] 0.3-0.5mg/mL) was significantly lower than the EC(50) for the acetone extract of M. obtusifolia (0.8 mg/mL; CI 0.7-1mg/mL). Aqueous extracts were twice as potent as the acetone extracts. The EC(90) (0.2mg/mL; CI 0.1-0.02) for thiabendazole (positive control) was significantly lower than the EC(90) for the water extract of M. obtusifolia (10.7 mg/mL; CI 8.3-13.7 mg/mL). In the cytotoxicity bioassay, the lethal concentration (LC(50)) for the aqueous extract of M. obtusifolia was 0.476 mg/mL, which was relatively high (low toxicity) in comparison to the highly toxic berberine (LC(50)=9.80 μg/mL). The current study showed that M. obtusifolia plant extracts possess anthelmintic activity and are relatively non-cytotoxic, thus providing support for their use in traditional veterinary practices.

  14. Complete Chloroplast Genome of Tanaecium tetragonolobum: The First Bignoniaceae Plastome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Gonçalves Nazareno

    Full Text Available Bignoniaceae is a Pantropical plant family that is especially abundant in the Neotropics. Members of the Bignoniaceae are diverse in many ecosystems and represent key components of the Tropical flora. Despite the ecological importance of the Bignoniaceae and all the efforts to reconstruct the phylogeny of this group, whole chloroplast genome information has not yet been reported for any members of the family. Here, we report the complete chloroplast genome sequence of Tanaecium tetragonolobum (Jacq. L.G. Lohmann, which was reconstructed using de novo and referenced-based assembly of single-end reads generated by shotgun sequencing of total genomic DNA in an Illumina platform. The gene order and organization of the chloroplast genome of T. tetragonolobum exhibits the general structure of flowering plants, and is similar to other Lamiales chloroplast genomes. The chloroplast genome of T. tetragonolobum is a circular molecule of 153,776 base pairs (bp with a quadripartite structure containing two single copy regions, a large single copy region (LSC, 84,612 bp and a small single copy region (SSC, 17,586 bp separated by inverted repeat regions (IRs, 25,789 bp. In addition, the chloroplast genome of T. tetragonolobum has 38.3% GC content and includes 121 genes, of which 86 are protein-coding, 31 are transfer RNA, and four are ribosomal RNA. The chloroplast genome of T. tetragonolobum presents a total of 47 tandem repeats and 347 simple sequence repeats (SSRs with mononucleotides being the most common and di-, tri-, tetra-, and hexanucleotides occurring with less frequency. The results obtained here were compared to other chloroplast genomes of Lamiales available to date, providing new insight into the evolution of chloroplast genomes within Lamiales. Overall, the evolutionary rates of genes in Lamiales are lineage-, locus-, and region-specific, indicating that the evolutionary pattern of nucleotide substitution in chloroplast genomes of flowering

  15. Biomedical properties and potentiality of Lippia microphylla Cham. and its essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyne Rolim Braun Sim and otilde;es

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Lippia microphylla Cham. (Verbanaceae is an endemic underexploited Brazilian vegetal. This work reviewed the biological potentialities of Lippia microphylla, emphasizing the properties of essential oils (EOs and analyzed scientific indicators about genus Lippia and L. microphylla. Databases from 1948 to the present were searched and a software (Vantage Point 7.1 associated with Derwent Innovation Index was used to identify the indicators of the genus Lippia, and biological activities and compounds in the L. macrophylla species. Ethnopharmacological records report use of L. microphylla leaves to treat gastrointestinal disorders, influenza, bronchitis, cough, nasal congestion and sinusitis during vaporization, whose aromatic volatile oils are rich in monoterpenes, especially cineole, terpineol and thymol. Other EOs have larvicidal activity on Aedes aegypti larvae, and antifungal, antibacterial and cytotoxic and antitumor action on human and murine cancer cells. Brazil is the country with more articles about Lippia species, but it deposited only 9 patents since 1993. Most of the publications about L. microphylla are concentrated in food and chemical sciences. This bioprospection helps to choice areas of interest for capital investment and to give support for Brazilian Institutions to establish cooperation and improve technological impact at the point of view of creation and innovation. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2015; 4(3.000: 256-263

  16. The Cham's First Highland Sovereign: Po Romé (r. 1627-1651

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    William Noseworthy

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available From 1627 to 1651, a member of the highland Austronesian Churu peoples, Po Romé, ruled over the lowland Austronesian Cham peoples' kingdom of Panduranga (now Khánh Hòa, Bình Thuận, andNinh Thuận provinces in Việt Nam. Po Romé has been referred to as the 'Charlemagne' of Cham studies (Bruckmayr, 2013, indicative of his importance in larger understandings of the Cham and their role in Southeast Asian history. The Cham have generally been understood as a lowland people who brought highland peoples into their cultural sphere through conquest and trade. Scott (2009 has recently critiqued such simplistic presentations of the 'civilizing' of the highlands, and argued for a more nuanced understanding of highland identity. However, one conspicuous absence in Scott's portrayal is an examination of highland-lowland relations through the biographies of figures such as Po Romé. I argue that an examination of Po Romé's life and its ethnographic and historiographic contexts deepens our understanding of upland peoples and Cham history.

  17. Fruit biometry and seed germination of Syagrus romanzoffiana (Cham. Glassm

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    Flora Goudel

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Syagrus romanzoffiana (Cham. Glassm. is a species native to Brazil that is of ecological and aesthetic importance. This study aims to describe the biometric characteristics of S. romanzoffiana fruits and to assess the effects that treatments meant to overcome dormancy and partial drying have on seed germination. For biometric characterization, each repetition consisted of 50 fruits from eight clusters (total, 400 fruits. To evaluate methods for overcoming dormancy, seeds representative of populations were treated by perforation of the operculum; perforation of the operculum and immersion in water for 24 hours; cracking; exposure to fire for three minutes; and non-removal of fibers. There was also a control group. In a second experiment, seeds were partially dried. We determined the proportional moisture content of newly harvested seeds (20.2% and dried them down to moisture contents of 15.5% and 12.7%. All seeds were subjected to a germination test at 30ºC. The fruits showed biometric variations, with an average of 21.7 mm in longitudinal diameter and 19.7 mm in polar diameter, and a fresh mass of 5.61 g, of which 59.29% was pulp. The highest germination rates and vigor to overcome dormancy occurred after the operculum was perforated and the seeds were soaked in water for 24 hours. The results of the partial drying treatments did not differ sufficiently to discourage dormancy in any significant manner.

  18. Estudo fitoquímico e avaliação alelopática de Memora peregrina - "ciganinha" - Bignoniaceae, uma espécie invasora de pastagens em Mato Grosso do Sul Phytochemical study and evaluation of allelopathy in Memora peregrina, 'ciganinha', Bignoniaceae, an invading species in pastures in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Ferreira Grassi

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Memora peregrina (local name: 'ciganinha' - Bignoniaceae is a weed that often invades pastures in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso do Sul. From its leaves and subterranean parts, the following compounds were isolated: allantoin (20.7 w/w in subterranean parts, the iridoid 6beta-hydroxyipolamiide, hyperin, 3'-O-methylhyperin, 4-hydroxy-N-methylproline, beta-sitosterol, alpha-amirin and beta-amirin, and lupeol. Allantoin exhibited an activity of inducing germination in seeds of Lactuca sativa used as a biological model, and the iridoid showed moderate activity in the larval development of Anagasta kuehniella. These results, associated with this plant's behavior, are suggestive of the occurrence of adaptive and competitive strategies in relation to other plant species.

  19. Phyto chemical study and evaluation of allelopathy in Memora peregrina, 'ciganinha', Bignoniaceae, an invading species in pastures in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil; Estudo fitoquimico e avaliacao alelopatica de Memora peregrina - 'ciganinha' - Bignoniaceae, uma especie invasora de pastagens em Mato Grosso do Sul

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassi, Rafaela Ferreira [Mato Grosso do Sul Univ., Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Resende, Ubirazilda Maria [Mato Grosso do Sul Univ., Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia; Silva, Walciane da; Macedo, Maria Ligia Rodrigues [Mato Grosso do Sul Univ., Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Naturais; Butera, Ana Paola; Tulli, Elayne de Oliveira; Saffran, Francis Paes; Siqueira, Joao Maximo de [Mato Grosso do Sul Univ., Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacia-Bioquamica]. E-mail: jmaximo@nin.ufms.br

    2005-04-01

    Memora peregrina (local name: 'ciganinha' - Bignoniaceae) is a weed that often invades pastures in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso do Sul. From its leaves and subterranean parts, the following compounds were isolated: allantoin (20.7 w/w in subterranean parts), the iridoid 6{beta}-hydroxyipolamiide, hyperin, 3'-O-methylhyperin, 4-hydroxy-N-methylproline, {beta}-sitosterol, {alpha}-amirin and {beta}-amirin, and lupeol. Allantoin exhibited an activity of inducing germination in seeds of Lactuca sativa used as a biological model, and the iridoid showed moderate activity in the larval development of Anagasta kuehniella. These results, associated with this plant's behavior, are suggestive of the occurrence of adaptive and competitive strategies in relation to other plant species. (author)

  20. Biologia floral e polinização de Arrabidaea conjugata (Vell.) Mart. (Bignoniaceae) Floral and pollination biology of Arrabidaea conjugata (Vell.) Mart. (Bignoniaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Célia Rodrigues Correia; Maria Célia B. Pinheiro; Heloísa Alves de Lima

    2005-01-01

    O trabalho aborda a biologia floral, a atividade forrageira dos visitantes florais (polinizadores e pilhadores), os eventos fenológicos e o sistema de reprodução de Arrabidaea conjugata (Vell.) Mart. (Bignoniaceae), em área de vegetação de restinga, município de Maricá, Rio de Janeiro, no período 1997 a 2000. A espécie estudada tem flores com antese diurna, lilases, tubulosas, hermafroditas, odoríferas e oferecem néctar como recurso floral. O néctar é secretado por um disco localizado na base...

  1. Estabelecimento de alecrim-pimenta in vitro In vitro establishment of Lippia sidoides Cham

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa S da Costa

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available O alecrim-pimenta (Lippia sidoides Cham. é um arbusto nativo da região do semi-árido do nordeste brasileiro, cujo óleo essencial possui elevado valor comercial devido aos seus constituintes majoritários, o timol e o carvacrol, de potente propriedade antimicrobiana e anti-séptica. Avaliou-se os efeitos de concentrações e tempos de imersão em hipoclorito de sódio, de meios de cultivo e da utilização de antibiótico e antioxidantes no estabelecimento in vitro de alecrim-pimenta. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Foram avaliadas as concentrações 0,2; 0,4; 0,6 e 0,8% de hipoclorito de sódio e 8; 12; 16 e 20 minutos de imersão, em esquema fatorial 4 x 4; as concentrações 0; 50; 100; 150 e 200 mg L-1 do antibiótico cefatoxima sódica; os meios-de-cultura MS, B5 e WPM; e o efeito de antioxidantes (PVP: 0,5 e 2 g L-1; e carvão ativado: 3 e 12 g L-1. A concentração de 0,8% de hipoclorito de sódio proporcionou um número significativamente maior (pLippia sidoides Cham. is a native shrub from the semi-arid region of Northeast Brazil. Its essential oil has high commercial value, due to the major compounds thymol and carvacrol, which have strong antimicrobial and antiseptic properties. The effect of concentrations and immersion time in sodium hypochlorite, culture media, the use of antibiotic and antioxidants on in vitro establishment of L. sidoides were evaluated. The assays were conducted in a completely randomized design. We evaluated the concentrations 0.2; 0.4; 0.6 and 0.8% of sodium hypochlorite and 8; 12; 16 and 20 minutes of immersion, in a 4 x 4 factorial scheme; the concentrations 0; 50; 100; 150 and 200 mg L-1 of cefotaxime sodium; the medium cultures MS, B5 and WPM; and the effect of antioxidants (PVP: 0.5 and 2 g L-1; and activated charcoal: 3 and 12 g L-1. The concentration of 0.8% of sodium hypochlorite resulted in a significantly higher (p<0.01 number of leaves per shoot: 1

  2. Variation in plant defenses of Didymopanax vinosum (Cham. & Schltdl. Seem. (Apiaceae across a vegetation gradient in a Brazilian cerrado

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    Pais Mara Patrícia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerrado vegetation is composed of a mosaic of vegetation types, from campo sujo, dominated by herbs; campo cerrado and cerrado sensu stricto, with shrubby vegetation; to cerradão, with trees forming a denser forest. This physiognomic mosaic is related to differences in the water availability in the soil. Cerrado plants are considered physically and chemically well defended against herbivores, but there are no studies showing how plants allocate investment to various types of defensive mechanisms in different habitat physiognomies. The defensive mechanisms and the nutritional traits of a cerrado plant, Didymopanax vinosum (Cham. & Schltdl. Seem. (Apiaceae, were compared along a vegetation gradient. Toughness, as well as water, nitrogen, cellulose, lignin, and tannin contents were measured in young and mature leaves of D. vinosum collected in campo cerrado, cerrado sensu stricto (s.s. and cerradão. Plants from cerrado s.s. and cerradão were of better nutritional quality but also had higher tannin contents than campo cerrado plants. Some type of compensation mechanism could have been selected to provide an optimum investment in defense, according to limitations imposed by water deficits in the habitat.

  3. La cura chamánica: una interpretación psicosocial

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    Pelcastre-Villafuerte Blanca

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo constituye básicamente un análisis teórico de la cura chamánica en el que se propone la comunicación como base del proceso de curación, descrito este último a partir de los actos comunicativos, con énfasis en la interpretación de los elementos simbólicos. Se da cuenta de la dimensión en la cual se inscribe este proceso, la modalidad lingüística que se emplea, el tipo de relación que se establece entre el/la chamán, el/la paciente y el grupo, la manera como se construye una realidad simbólica compartida, la visión de mundo del chamán y el efecto que tiene sobre las personas. Se toma el enfoque psicosocial como marco interpretativo y se propone una explicación en términos de la fundación de un acto comunicativo como escenario donde se construye una realidad simbólica, constituida por la cura propiamente, a la que ingresa el paciente en cada sesión. Se analiza la visión mágica del chamanismo y su influencia sobre el proceso salud-enfermedad.

  4. Social network analysis of cattle movement in Kampong Cham, Kampong Speu and Takeo, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poolkhet, C; Kasemsuwan, S; Seng, S; Keartha, C; Sokmao, C; Shin, M; Kalpravidh, W; Hinrichs, J

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study is to provide insight the network of cattle movement in Kampong Cham, Kampong Speu and Takeo, Cambodia. A cross-sectional study was carried out from July 2014 to August 2014, using questionnaires. It was implemented with 435 interviewees (24.4%, 24.6% and 51.0% from Kampong Cham, Kampong Speu and Takeo, respectively) using one-step snowball sampling. The findings suggest that the key players in all three provinces are producers who raise their cattle as backyard animals. In all three provinces the key players in spreading disease are probably the middlemen, collectors, brokers or traders. The network of cattle movement is presented as a strong component of varying size in each location. In this network we found three cut-points in both Kampong Cham and Kampong Speu. The network in each province indicates a random pattern of node distribution. The results of our study are useful to relevant authorities and researchers to understand the spread of infectious diseases into different areas. The middlemen, collectors, brokers and traders need to be controlled as first priority in order to reduce the magnitude of the spread of disease. PMID:27012718

  5. Caracterização botânica e química de Rudgea viburnoides (Cham. Benth., (Rubiaceae Morphological and chemical diagnosis of Rudgea viburnoides (Cham. Benth., (Rubiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M.S. Alves

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Congonha, congonha-de-bugre e bugre são nomes populares atribuídos a várias espécies medicinais, incluindo Rudgea viburnoides (Cham. Benth. (Rubiaceae, cujas folhas são utilizadas na medicina popular como diuréticas, hipotensoras, antireumáticas e depurativas do sangue. Esta espécie vem sendo comercializada como porangaba e utilizada em regimes de emagrecimento, substituindo Cordia ecalyculata Vell. (Boraginaceae. Neste estudo, foram determinadas as características botânicas, fisico-químicas e químicas para R. viburnoides com o objetivo de auxiliar sua identificação taxonômica e o controle de qualidade de produtos preparados com esta planta. Uma amostra referência foi coletada e submetida à caracterização macroscópica, microscópica e organoléptica, determinação de cinzas totais e umidade, prospecção fitoquímica e determinação dos perfis cromatográficos em CCD. Amostras de R. viburnoides podem ser reconhecidas pela epiderme pilosa com marcantes estrias cuticulares, estômatos paracíticos, presença de idioblastos com ráfides no mesofilo e pela configuração em arco dos tecidos vasculares da nervura de primeira ordem, caracteres ausentes em C. ecalyculata. A presença de cistólitos e canais mucilaginosos na medula diferem prontamente C. ecalyculata de R. viburnoides. A análise por CCD evidenciou a presença de flavonóides e saponinas. Amostras adquiridas no comércio e submetidas aos mesmos ensaios permitiram validar os métodos propostos e confirmaram a ampla comercialização de R. viburnoides em Minas Gerais.Congonha, congonha-de-bugre and bugre are popular names for several medicinal plant species, including Rudgea viburnoides (Cham. Benth. (Rubiaceae, whose leaves are widely used in popular medicine as diuretic, hypotensive, antirheumatic, and blood depurative. This species has been commercialized as porangaba, and used for diet purposes in substitution of Cordia ecalyculata Vell. (Boraginaceae. This study

  6. "PhD Comics" author Jorge Cham on the power of procrastination

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefania Pandolfi

    2015-01-01

    From Tuesday, 22 to Friday, 25 September, Jorge Cham visited CERN. The PHD Movie 2 was screened in the Main Auditorium  and the cartoonist also took part in one of the Researchers' Night events.    Jorge Cham in the CERN Control Centre. On the first day, the author of the comic strip Piled Higher and Deeper (PhD Comics) visited the CERN Control Centre, the Synchrocyclotron, the CMS Service Cavern and the ATLAS control room. On Thursday, he had a busy afternoon, starting with signing copies of his books and then giving a talk entitled “The Power of Procrastination” in a packed Main Auditorium. He made the audience laugh by narrating his experience as a graduate student in robotics at Stanford University, recounting how he started drawing PhD Comics and how it rapidly became popular in universities all over the world. He then analysed the frustrations and anxieties commonly experienced by any graduate student, causing...

  7. Chemical review and studies related to species from the genus Tynanthus (Bignoniaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Colombi Cansian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Species from the Bignoniaceae Family, including the genus Tynanthus, are very prevalent in the tropical Americas, with specimens found in a large part of the Brazilian territory. These plants are commonly used in traditional medicine for several purposes, and some studies have described their chemical structure, in addition to other reports related to some species from this genus. This review aimed to gather information from published works concerning species of the genus Tynanthus, as well as to detect flaws in research related to these plants, which may have great biological and pharmaceutical importance. Also, this review points out some common chemical characteristics of these species, providing information that may help new researchers to improve their knowledge about these plants.

  8. A genomic approach for isolating chloroplast microsatellite markers for Pachyptera kerere (Bignoniaceae)1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, Jessica N. C.; Nazareno, Alison G.; Lohmann, Lúcia G.

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: In this study, we developed chloroplast microsatellite markers (cpSSRs) for Pachyptera kerere (Bignoniaceae) to investigate the population structure and genetic diversity of this species. Methods and Results: We used Illumina HiSeq data to reconstruct the chloroplast genome of P. kerere by a combination of de novo and reference-guided assembly. We then used the chloroplast genome to develop a set of cpSSRs from intergenic regions. Overall, 24 primer pairs were designed, 21 of which amplified successfully and were polymorphic, presenting three to nine alleles per locus. The unbiased haploid diversity per locus varied from 0.207 (Pac28) to 0.817 (Pac04). All but one locus amplified for all other taxa of Pachyptera. Conclusions: The markers reported here will serve as a basis for studies to assess the genetic structure and phylogeographic history of Pachyptera. PMID:27672522

  9. A genomic approach for isolating chloroplast microsatellite markers for Pachyptera kerere (Bignoniaceae)1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, Jessica N. C.; Nazareno, Alison G.; Lohmann, Lúcia G.

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: In this study, we developed chloroplast microsatellite markers (cpSSRs) for Pachyptera kerere (Bignoniaceae) to investigate the population structure and genetic diversity of this species. Methods and Results: We used Illumina HiSeq data to reconstruct the chloroplast genome of P. kerere by a combination of de novo and reference-guided assembly. We then used the chloroplast genome to develop a set of cpSSRs from intergenic regions. Overall, 24 primer pairs were designed, 21 of which amplified successfully and were polymorphic, presenting three to nine alleles per locus. The unbiased haploid diversity per locus varied from 0.207 (Pac28) to 0.817 (Pac04). All but one locus amplified for all other taxa of Pachyptera. Conclusions: The markers reported here will serve as a basis for studies to assess the genetic structure and phylogeographic history of Pachyptera.

  10. Antimicrobial activity of Aegiphila sellowiana Cham., Lamiaceae, against oral pathogens Atividade antimicrobiana de Aegiphila sellowiana Cham., Lamiaceae, contra patógenos orais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcele A. Ferreira

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of Aegiphila sellowiana Cham., Lamiaceae, against oral pathogens is reported. The Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs for inhibiting the microorganisms growth were determined using the broth microdilution method from the CLSI M7-A7 protocol. Chlorhexidine was used as the positive control. The ethanol crude extract of the aerial parts of A. sellowiana exhibited activity against the microorganisms tested in this work; however, the activity decreased after partition with n-hexane, dichloromethane, and ethyl acetate. Among the tested fractions, the n-hexane fraction was found to be the most effective against the evaluated oral pathogens. GC-MS analysis of this latter fraction revealed that fatty acids esters, steroids, and aliphatic sesquiterpene hydrocarbons are its major constituents. These compounds may be responsible for the activity of the n-hexane fraction, but other chemical constituents of the dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and hydroalcoholic fraction may potentialize their activities in the crude extract.A atividade antimicrobiana de Aegiphila sellowiana Cham., Lamiaceae, contra patógenos da cavidade bucal foi avaliada empregando-se o método de microdiluição em caldo, segundo o protocolo CLSI M7-A7, utilizando-se clorexidina como controle positivo. O extrato etanólico bruto das partes aéreas de A. sellowiana, obtido por maceração, exibiu atividade contra os microrganismos testados neste trabalho, entretanto, os valores de CIM (concentração inibitória mínima aumentaram após a partição com n-hexano, diclorometano e acetato de etila. Entre as frações testadas, a fração n-hexânica foi a mais efetiva contra os patógenos bucais avaliados, com valores de CIM entre 140 e 350 µg/mL-1. Dados obtidos por CG-EM revelaram que ésteres de ácidos graxos, esteróides e hidrocarbonetos sesquiterpênicos alifáticos são os constituintes majoritários desta fração. Embora esses compostos possam ser os

  11. Characterization of microsatellites identified by next-generation sequencing in the Neotropical tree Handroanthus billbergii (Bignoniaceae) 1

    OpenAIRE

    Morillo, Eduardo; Buitron, Johanna; Limongi, Ricardo; Vignes, Helene; Argout, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: We developed microsatellite (simple sequence repeat [SSR]) markers in the Neotropical tree Handroanthus billbergii (Bignoniaceae), to be applied in assessment of genetic diversity in this species as a reference for inferring the impact of dry forest fragmentation in Ecuador. Methods and Results: Using next-generation sequencing, we detected a total of 26,893 putative SSRs reported here. Using an ABI 3500xl sequencer, we identified and characterized a set of polymorphic m...

  12. Biologia floral e polinização de Arrabidaea conjugata (Vell. Mart. (Bignoniaceae Floral and pollination biology of Arrabidaea conjugata (Vell. Mart. (Bignoniaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Célia Rodrigues Correia

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho aborda a biologia floral, a atividade forrageira dos visitantes florais (polinizadores e pilhadores, os eventos fenológicos e o sistema de reprodução de Arrabidaea conjugata (Vell. Mart. (Bignoniaceae, em área de vegetação de restinga, município de Maricá, Rio de Janeiro, no período 1997 a 2000. A espécie estudada tem flores com antese diurna, lilases, tubulosas, hermafroditas, odoríferas e oferecem néctar como recurso floral. O néctar é secretado por um disco localizado na base do gineceu e é acumulado em câmara nectarífera. Os grãos de pólen são liberados gradativamente, prolongando-se a fase de doação de pólen. As abelhas Euglossa cordata Linnaeus, Centris analis Fabricius e C. tarsata Smith são os polinizadores da espécie. Destaca-se pilhagem primária de néctar, por abelhas, e secundária, por borboletas e beija-flor. A espécie é auto-incompatível, apresentando baixos índices de formação de frutos em condições naturais (Frutos/Flores = 12,2%. Foi registrado padrão de floração "cornucópia", entre os meses de dezembro a março (estação quente/chuvosa, com pico em janeiro. As sementes são anemocóricas e liberadas gradativamente na estação fria e seca.This work deals with the floral biology, the foraging activities of floral visitors (pollinators and robbers, phenology and reproductive system of Arrabidaea conjugata (Vell. Mart. (Bignoniaceae in the "restinga" of Maricá, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 1997 to 2000. The flowers display daytime anthesis and last only one day. These attractive pink flowers are tubular, hermaphroditic, odoriferous and produce nectar as the floral reward. The nectar is secreted by a nectariferous disk concealed within a chamber. The pollen grains are gradually released throughout anthesis, extending the pollen presentation phase. The bees Euglossa cordata Linnaeus, Centris analis Fabricius and C. tarsata Smith are the pollinator species. Primary and secondary

  13. Sistema reprodutivo do Ipê-Branco: Tabebuia roseo-alba (Ridley Sandwith (Bignoniaceae Breeding system of the White Trumpet Tree: Tabebuia roseo-alba (Ridley Sandwith (Bignoniaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Gandolphi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Estudos sobre sistemas reprodutivos têm indicado o predomínio da autoincompatibilidade de ação tardia (AIT em Bignoniaceae, embora poucas espécies tenham sido investigadas e ocorram outros tipos de sistemas reprodutivos na família. O presente estudo objetivou determinar o sistema reprodutivo de T. roseo-alba através de experimentos de polinizações controladas, análise histológica dos eventos posteriores à polinização, verificação do desenvolvimento in situ dos tubos polínicos e testes de germinação de sementes. Apesar de os tubos polínicos penetrarem e fecundarem a maioria dos óvulos em pistilos autopolinizados, o aborto de 100% dos mesmos foi verificado e, embora sua abscisão tenha ocorrido entre o quarto e o sexto dia após o início da antese, observou-se um ligeiro crescimento dos óvulos e do ovário precedendo a abscisão, porém inferior ao crescimento nos pistilos submetidos à polinização cruzada. A endospermogênese inicial e a formação do tubo proembriônico também foram mais lentas nos pistilos autopolinizados. A longevidade dos pistilos autopolinizados foi maior que a de pistilos não polinizados, e a taxa de germinação de sementes foi de 93%, sendo todas as sementes monoembriônicas. Os resultados demonstram que T. roseo-alba é espécie auto-estéril, destituída de poliembrionia e que apresenta AIT pós-zigótica.Breeding system studies have indicated the predominance of late-acting self-incompatibility (LSI in Bignoniaceae, despite the relatively few species investigated, and the occurrence of other kinds of breeding systems in this family. This study aimed to determine the breeding system in T. roseo-alba by means of controlled experimental pollination, histological analysis of post-pollination events, and studies of pistil longevity, in situ pollen tube growth and seed germination. Despite pollen tube penetration and fertilization of most ovules of selfed pistils, 100% of these pistils aborted

  14. La medida desde la medicina tradicional: el caso de una comunidad Embera Chamí

    OpenAIRE

    Higuita, Carolina; Díaz, Luz

    2011-01-01

    En este trabajo se esbozan los principales elementos teóricos y metodológicos que constituyeron el proyecto de investigación titulado “La medida desde la medicina tradicional: el caso de una comunidad Embera Chamí” que se desarrolló en el marco de la práctica pedagógica de la Licenciatura en Educación Básica con énfasis en Matemáticas de la Universidad de Antioquia. El proyecto se realizó con los estudiantes de los grados cuarto y quinto del Centro Educativo Rural Indigenista la María, perten...

  15. Chemical constiuents from Richardia grandiflora (Cham. & Schltdl. Steud. (Rubiaceae Constituintes químicos de Richardia grandiflora (Cham. & Schltdl. Steud. (Rubiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Cláudia de A. Tomaz

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Amongst the different forms of therapy to prevent and cure illnesses, plants have been, undoubtedly, the most utilized ones since the beginning of mankind. Brazil has a great diversity on plants that possess non-researched medicinal potential and are promising sources of therapeutic and pharmacological innovations. The Rubiaceae family is considered the biggest one of the order Gentianales, presenting around 637 genera and 10,700 species. Richardia grandiflora (Cham. & Schltdl. Steud., known popularly as "ervanço", "poaia" or "ipeca-mirim", has ethnopharmacological indications to use as decoction against hemorrhoids and as vermifuge. Aiming at contributing to the chemotaxonomic study of the family Rubiaceae and considering the absence of data in literature about the chemical constitution of the species Richardia grandiflora, the latter was submitted to a phytochemical study to isolate its chemical constituents, through usual chromatographic methods, and after identifying them by means of spectroscopic methods such as ¹H and 13C NMR, with the add of two-dimensional techniques, besides comparison with literature data. Five constituents were isolated through this first phytochemical study with R. grandiflora: a mixture of the steroids beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol, o-hydroxy-benzoic acid, m-methoxy-p-hydroxy-benzoic acid and phaeophitin A, all of them isolated for the first time from the genus Richardia.Dentre as diversas formas de terapia para a prevenção e cura de doenças, as plantas foram, indubitavelmente, as mais amplamente utilizadas desde o início da humanidade. O Brasil tem grande diversidade de plantas com potenciais medicinais, ainda não pesquisados, e que são promissoras fontes de inovações terapêuticas e farmacológicas. A família Rubiaceae, considerada a maior da ordem Gentianales, possui cerca de 637 gêneros e 10.700 espécies. Richardia grandiflora (Cham. & Schltdl. Steud., conhecida popularmente como ervanço, poaia

  16. Nectar robbing positively influences the reproductive success of Tecomella undulata (Bignoniaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vineet Kumar; Barman, Chandan; Tandon, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    The net consequence of nectar robbing on reproductive success of plants is usually negative and the positive effect is rarely produced. We evaluated the influence of nectar robbing on the behaviour of pollinators and the reproductive success of Tecomella undulata (Bignoniaceae) in a natural population. Experimental pollinations showed that the trees were strictly self-incompatible. The three types of floral colour morphs of the tree viz. red, orange and yellow, lacked compatibility barriers. The pollinators (Pycnonotus cafer and Pycnonotus leucotis) and the robber (Nectarinia asiatica) showed equal preference for all the morphs, as they visited each morph with nearly equal frequency and flower-handling time. The sunbirds caused up to 60% nectar robbing, mostly (99%) by piercing through the corolla tube. Although nectar is replenished at regular intervals, insufficient amount of nectar compelled the pollinators to visit additional trees in bloom. Data of manual nectar robbing from the entire tree showed that the pollinators covered lower number of flowers per tree (5 flowers/tree) and more trees per bout (7 trees/bout) than the unrobbed ones (19 flowers/tree and 2 trees bout). The robbed trees set a significantly greater amount of fruits than the unrobbed trees. However, the number of seeds in a fruit did not differ significantly. The study shows that plant-pollinator-robber interaction may benefit the self-incompatible plant species under conditions that increases the visits of pollinators among the compatible conspecifics in a population.

  17. Nectar robbing positively influences the reproductive success of Tecomella undulata (Bignoniaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineet Kumar Singh

    Full Text Available The net consequence of nectar robbing on reproductive success of plants is usually negative and the positive effect is rarely produced. We evaluated the influence of nectar robbing on the behaviour of pollinators and the reproductive success of Tecomella undulata (Bignoniaceae in a natural population. Experimental pollinations showed that the trees were strictly self-incompatible. The three types of floral colour morphs of the tree viz. red, orange and yellow, lacked compatibility barriers. The pollinators (Pycnonotus cafer and Pycnonotus leucotis and the robber (Nectarinia asiatica showed equal preference for all the morphs, as they visited each morph with nearly equal frequency and flower-handling time. The sunbirds caused up to 60% nectar robbing, mostly (99% by piercing through the corolla tube. Although nectar is replenished at regular intervals, insufficient amount of nectar compelled the pollinators to visit additional trees in bloom. Data of manual nectar robbing from the entire tree showed that the pollinators covered lower number of flowers per tree (5 flowers/tree and more trees per bout (7 trees/bout than the unrobbed ones (19 flowers/tree and 2 trees bout. The robbed trees set a significantly greater amount of fruits than the unrobbed trees. However, the number of seeds in a fruit did not differ significantly. The study shows that plant-pollinator-robber interaction may benefit the self-incompatible plant species under conditions that increases the visits of pollinators among the compatible conspecifics in a population.

  18. Self-sterility in the hexaploid Handroanthus serratifolius (Bignoniaceae, the national flower of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Ferreira Alves

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Polyploidization is common among angiosperms and might induce typically allogamous plants to become autogamous (self-compatible, relying on sexual self-fertilization or apomictic (achieving asexual reproduction through seeds. This work aimed to determine whether neopolyploidy leads to the breakdown of the self-incompatibility system in the hexaploid non-apomictic species Handroanthus serratifolius (Vahl S. Grose, through analyses of its floral biology, pollination biology and breeding system. Although anthesis lasted for three days, increasing the overall floral display, receptivity decreased as of the second day. Centridini and Euglossini bees were the main pollinators, and low nectar availability (1.95 ± 1.91 µl/flower might have obliged them to visit multiple flowers. We observed low reproductive efficacy. That might be explained by self-sterility and by the great number of flowers per individual, which could increase the frequency of geitonogamy. Ovule penetration by the pollen tubes in self-pollinated pistils with posterior abscission indicated late-acting self-incompatibility in H. serratifolius, as observed in other diploid Bignoniaceae species, although inbreeding depression cannot be excluded. The self-sterility found in the monoembryonic, hexaploid individuals studied here contrasts with the results for other neopolyploid Handroanthus and Anemopaegma species, which are often autogamous and apomictic. Our results suggest that neopolyploidy is not the main factor leading to self-fertility in Handroanthus.

  19. Genetic diversity in natural populations of Jacaranda decurrens Cham. determined using RAPD and AFLP markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca W. Bertoni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Jacaranda decurrens (Bignoniaceae is an endemic species of the Cerrado with validated antitumoral activity. The genetic diversity of six populations of J. decurrens located in the State of São Paulo was determined in this study by using molecular markers for randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP. Following optimization of the amplification reaction, 10 selected primers generated 78 reproducible RAPD fragments that were mostly (69.2% polymorphic. Two hundred and five reproducible AFLP fragments were generated by using four selected primer combinations; 46.3% of these fragments were polymorphic, indicating a considerable level of genetic diversity. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA using these two groups of markers indicated that variability was strongly structured amongst populations. The unweighted pair group method with arithmatic mean (UPGMA and Pearson's correlation coefficient (RAPD -0.16, p = 0.2082; AFLP 0.37, p = 0.1006 between genetic matrices and geographic distances suggested that the population structure followed an island model in which a single population of infinite size gave rise to the current populations of J. decurrens, independently of their spatial position. The results of this study indicate that RAPD and AFLP markers were similarly efficient in measuring the genetic variability amongst natural populations of J. decurrens. These data may be useful for developing strategies for the preservation of this medicinal species in the Cerrado.

  20. Experimental results for the extraction of essential oil from Lippia sidoides cham. using pressurized carbon dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousa EMBD.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The odoriferous species Lippia sidoides Cham. is abundant in the Brazilian Northeast. Its essential oil possesses antiseptic activity due to the presence of thymol. In this work, thermodynamic and kinetic data were experimentally determined for the CO2 + L. sidoides system. Solubility was determined using the dynamic method at pressures of 66.7 and 78.5 bar and temperatures of 283.15, 288.15, 293.15, 295.15, and 298.15 K. SFE kinetic data were obtained at 288.15 K and 66.7 bar. The composition of the multicomponent solute mixture was determined by GC-MS and compared to the composition of both the volatile oil obtained by steam distillation and the oleoresin obtained using ethanol. The SFE process yield was higher than the yield of either the steam distillation or the ethanol extraction. The solubilities were correlated using the Peng-Robinson equation of state with one binary interaction parameter for the attractive term, considering the essential oil as a pseudo-component. Sovová?s model quantitatively described the overall extraction curve.

  1. Lipoxygenase activity and sanguinarine production in cell suspension cultures of California poppy (Eschscholtzia californica CHAM.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollárová, R; Oblozinský, M; Kováciková, V; Holková, I; Balazová, A; Pekárová, M; Hoffman, P; Bezáková, L

    2014-08-01

    In this study we investigated the influence of biotic elicitor (phytopathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea) and abiotic elicitors (methyljasmonate [MJ] and salicylic acid [SA]) on lipoxygenase (LOX) activity and sanguinarine production in cell suspension cultures of California poppy (Eschscholtzia californica CHAM.). We have observed different time effects of elicitors (10, 24, 48 and 72 h) on LOX activity and production of sanguinarine in in vitro cultures. All elicitors used in the experiments evidently increased the LOX activity and sanguinarine production in contrast to control samples. The highest LOX activities were determined in samples elicitated by MJ after 48 h and 72 h and the lowest LOX activities (in contrast to control samples) were detected after biotic elicitation by Botrytis cinerea. These activities showed about 50% lower level against the activities after MJ elicitation. The maximal amount of sanguinarine was observed after 48 h in MJ treated cultures (429.91 mg/g DCW) in comparision with control samples. Although all elicitors affect the sanguinarine production, effect of SA and biotic elicitor on sanguinarine accumulation in in vitrocultures was not so significant than after MJ elicitation. PMID:25158577

  2. Anxiolytic effects of Dolichandrone falcata Seem., Bignoniaceae, stem-bark in elevated plus maze and marble burying test on mice Efeitos ansiolíticos das cascas de Dolichandrone falcata Seem., Bignoniaceae, em teste do labirinto em cruz elevada e teste de esconder esferas, em camundongos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal B Badgujar

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Dolichandrone falcata Seem., Bignoniaceae, is a deciduous tree commonly known as Medshingi in local areas of Toranmal region of Maharashtra, India. Its bark paste is applied on fractured or dislocated bones, used as a fish poison; bark juice is used in cases of menorragia and leucorrhoea. The leaves of the plant have afforded chrysin-7-rutinoside. The present study was carried out to investigate the anxiolytic effects of methanol extract (DFBM, ethyl acetate extract (DFBEA and isolated compound DFB (V+VI of D. falcata stem-bark using animal models. Anxiolytic effects were studied by elevated plus maze (EPM and marble burying test (MBT assay. The crude dried DFBM and DFBEA extract was prepared in doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg whereas DFB (V+VI compound was prepared in doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg and were administered orally to mice for evaluation of anxiolytic activity. DFBEA 400 and DFB (V+VI 200 mg/kg produced highly significant (p Dolichandrone falcata Seem., Bignoniaceae, é uma árvore do tipo decidua, comumente conhecida como "Medshingi" na da região Toranmal de Maharashtra, na Índia. Uma pasta da casca é aplicada em fraturas ou luxação dos ossos e usada como veneno de peixe; o suco da casca é usada em casos de menorragia e leucorréia. Das folhas da planta foi isolado crisina-7-rutinoside. O presente estudo foi realizado para investigar os efeitos ansiolíticos do extrato metanólico (DFBM, acetato de etila (DFBEA e compostos isolados DFB (V + VI de D. falcata utilizando a casca do tronco em modelos animais. Os efeitos ansiolíticos foram estudados por labirinto em cruz elevada (EPM e o ensaio de esconder esferas de mármore (MBT. Os extratos bruto e seco DFBM DFBEA foram preparados em doses de 100, 200 e 400 mg/kg, enquanto que o composto DFB (V + VI foi preparado em doses de 50, 100 e 200 mg/kg e foram administrados em camundongos para avaliação da atividade ansiolítica. DFBEA 400 and DFB (V+VI 200 mg/kg produziram efeitos

  3. Characterization of microsatellites identified by next-generation sequencing in the Neotropical tree Handroanthus billbergii (Bignoniaceae)1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morillo, Eduardo; Buitron, Johanna; Limongi, Ricardo; Vignes, Helene; Argout, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: We developed microsatellite (simple sequence repeat [SSR]) markers in the Neotropical tree Handroanthus billbergii (Bignoniaceae), to be applied in assessment of genetic diversity in this species as a reference for inferring the impact of dry forest fragmentation in Ecuador. Methods and Results: Using next-generation sequencing, we detected a total of 26,893 putative SSRs reported here. Using an ABI 3500xl sequencer, we identified and characterized a set of polymorphic markers in 23 individuals belonging to three populations of H. billbergii. Conclusions: We report a set of 30 useful SSR markers for H. billbergii and a large list of potential microsatellites for developing new markers for this or related species. PMID:27213123

  4. A Study of the Hồi giáo Religion in Vietnam: With a Reference to Islamic Religious Practices of Cham Bani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuko Yoshimoto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines Hồi giáo, a state-recognized religion translated as “Islam” in Vietnam, and will focus on the Islamic religious practices of the Cham Bani, one of two groups of Muslims in Vietnam. While it is recognized that diverse Islamic religious practices have taken root in various areas, there is a tendency to view religious practices such as the Quran recital, Ramadan, Salat, and so on, with a sweeping uniformity. As such, regardless of how “unorthodox” they are, the people who engage in such practices within society are regarded, or classified, as Muslim. The Cham Bani have also been described as an unorthodox Muslim sect, on the basis of its syncretic religious practices. However, the Cham Bani practitioners see themselves as neither Muslim nor members of the Islam community, and consider that they have experienced a different evolution of Islamic religious elements. Is it possible to equate Hồi giáo with Islam and its followers with Muslim? This paper examines these questions through observations of the self-recognition, as well as the actual conditions of Islamic practices among the Cham Bani, especially the rituals that are observed during Ramadan. It reveals the possibility that Vietnam’s state-recognized religious sect of “Islam” and its “Muslim” followers are polythetic in nature and differ from the conventional definitions of Islam and Muslim, based on a monothetic classification.

  5. The safety of Homnawakod herbal formula containing Aristolochia tagala Cham. in Wistar rats

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    Tripatara Pinpat

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A dried root of Aristolochia tagala Cham. (ATC is often used in Thai traditional medicine as an antipyretic, anti-inflammatory agent, muscle relaxant, appetite-enhancing agent, and analeptic. Homnawakod, an important herbal recipe, originally contains ATC in its formula, however, some Aristolochia species have been reported to cause nephrotoxicity due to aristolochic acid (AA and its derivatives, resulting in ATC removal from all formulae. Therefore, this study investigates the chemical profiles of ATC, the original (HNK+ATC and the present Homnawakod Ayurved Siriraj Herbal Formulary™ (HNK, and investigates whether they could cause nephrotoxicity or aggravate LPS-induced organ injuries in vivo. Methods HPLC and LC/MS were used for chemical profile study. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into groups in which the rats were intragastrically administered distilled water (2 groups, ATC (10 or 30 mg/kg, HNK+ATC (540 or 1,620 mg/kg, or HNK (1,590 mg/kg for 21 days. A positive control group was administered with single dose 100 mg/kg standard AA-I intragastrically at day 1. Serum creatinine and urea were measured at baseline and at 7, 14 and 21 days of the treatment. On day 22, a model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced endotoxemia was used. One-way and two-way analyses of variance were performed and a P value of less than 0.05 was considered to be significant. Results The similarity of the HPLC chromatograms of HNK+ATC and HNK could suggest that the qualities of both formulae are nearly the same in terms of chemical profile. The amount of AA-I found in ATC is 0.24%w/w. All experimental groups exhibited similar levels of serum urea at baseline and 7 and 14 days of the treatment. At 21 days, rats received AA exhibited a significant increase in serum urea, whereas the others did not exhibit such toxicity. On day 22, there were no significant changes in LPS-induced renal and liver dysfunction, or LPS-induced mean arterial

  6. A contribution to the pollination ecology of Tabebuia pulcherrima (Bignoniaceae) in a sandbank area of the south of Santa Catarina State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Afonso Inácio Orth; Maurício Lenzi; Dalzemira Anselmo da Silva Souza

    2004-01-01

    Studies on pollination mechanisms in Bignoniaceae have show some evidence of co-evolution with its pollen vectors. Floral biology and flower visitors of Tabebuia pulcherrima were investigated in a sandbank area. Flower phenology, the nectar production, pollen/ovule ratio, and identification of the flower visitors, as well as their behavior, were studied. Tabebuia pulcherrima displays typical melitophilous flowers, due to its morphology, diurnal anthesis and day-long nectar secretion. In the m...

  7. Taking Leave?

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    Planning a holiday? Then if you're a member of the personnel, you'll need to use the Laboratory's new leave system that will be put in place on 1 October. Leave allocations don't change - you are entitled to just as much holiday as before - but instead of being credited annually, your leave will be credited on a monthly basis, and this information will be communicated on your salary slip. The reason for the change is that with the various new leave schemes such as Recruitment by Saved Leave (RSL) and the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP), a streamlined procedure was required for dealing with all kinds of leave. In the new system, each member of the personnel will have leave accounts to which leave will be credited monthly from the payroll and debited each time an absence is registered in the CERN Electronic Document Handling system (EDH). Leave balances will appear on monthly pay slips, and full details of leave transactions and balances will be available through EDH at all times. As the leave will be c...

  8. Nematicidal isochromane glycoside from Kigelia pinnata leaves

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    Olubunmi ATOLANI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic nematicides such as oxamyl and carbofuran play significant roles in the management of plant-parasitic nematodes. However, their negative environmental impacts have it imperative to search for safer alternatives. As part of our contribution in the search for bio-nematicides, compounds from plant extract were screened for possible potent nematicidal agent. A new isochromane carboxylic acid glycoside, isolated from the leaves of Kigelia pinnata (Lam. Benth (Bignoniaceae was evaluated for its nematicidal activity. The structure of the proposed compound was characterized by various spectroscopic methods, which included UV, FTIR, 1D-, and 2D-NMR, FAB-MS, TOF-ESI-MS and TOF-ESI-MS/MS (TANDEM. The in vitro experiment conducted on the glycoside against Meloidogyne incognita juveniles and eggs indicated an induced mortality. Its activity can be compared favourably with oxamyl, when tested at 0.1 mg/mL concentration. At four hours of observation, no significant difference (P < 0.05 between oxamyl and the glycoside was observed. The present data sustains that natural glycoside is a promising oxamyl alternate for controlling nematode-induced plant root knots and may contribute to integrated pest management.

  9. La cura chamánica: una interpretación psicosocial The shamanic cure: a psychological interpretation

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    Blanca Pelcastre-Villafuerte

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo constituye básicamente un análisis teórico de la cura chamánica en el que se propone la comunicación como base del proceso de curación, descrito este último a partir de los actos comunicativos, con énfasis en la interpretación de los elementos simbólicos. Se da cuenta de la dimensión en la cual se inscribe este proceso, la modalidad lingüística que se emplea, el tipo de relación que se establece entre el/la chamán, el/la paciente y el grupo, la manera como se construye una realidad simbólica compartida, la visión de mundo del chamán y el efecto que tiene sobre las personas. Se toma el enfoque psicosocial como marco interpretativo y se propone una explicación en términos de la fundación de un acto comunicativo como escenario donde se construye una realidad simbólica, constituida por la cura propiamente, a la que ingresa el paciente en cada sesión. Se analiza la visión mágica del chamanismo y su influencia sobre el proceso salud-enfermedad.The present paper is basically a theoretical analysis of the shamanic cure, which proposes communication as the basis of the healing process. This process is described as a communicative act focusing on the interpretation of symbolic elements. The context is the social dimension in which the process is inscribed, the linguistic mode employed, and the type of relationship established between the shaman, the patient and the people. We also recount the way in which a shared symbolic reality is built, and how the shaman's world view has important effects on people. The interpretative framework is the psychosocial focus and an explanation is offered in terms of the establishment of a communicative act as a scenario in which the symbolic reality is constructed, and in itself constitutes the cure into which the patient enters every session. The magical vision of shamanism is analyzed and its influence on the health-illness process.

  10. Avaliação in vivo do efeito hipocolesterolêmico e toxicológico preliminar do extrato bruto hidroalcoólico e decocção da Vitex megapotamica (Spreng Moldenke (V. montevidensis Cham. Evaluation of prospective hypocholesterolemic effect and preliminary toxicology of crude extract and decoction from Vitex megapotamica (Spreng Moldenke (V. montevidensis Cham. in vivo

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    Anna Paula Brandt

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available As doenças cardiovasculares (DC estão, de modo geral, associadas a elevados níveis séricos de lipídeos, atingindo homens e mulheres, sem distinção de idade. Entre as propriedades atribuídas pela medicina popular à Vitex megapotamica (Spreng Moldenke (V. montevidensis Cham -Tarumã estão a de reduzir os níveis séricos de colesterol e triglicerídeo. O principal objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o potencial hipocolesterolêmico e hipolipidêmico da V. megapotamica, bem como fazer um estudo toxicológico preliminar. Para tanto, foi realizada indução hiperlipidêmica usando um modelo que preconiza o emprego de propiltiuracil 1,25 mg/300 g de peso e colesterol 200 mg/kg de peso, aplicados via oral em ratos machos pesando 300 ± 10 g. Foi administrado, por via oral, aos animais hiperlipidêmicos previamente induzidos 300 mg/kg de extrato hidroalcoólico das folhas de V. megapotamica ou 300 mL da decocção da casca da planta. Após o final de cada tratamento, o perfil lipídico foi ensaiado, bem como os níveis de glicose, quando relevante. Nossos resultados confirmaram o efeito hipolipidêmico do extrato hidroalcoólico e da decocção pela redução dos níveis séricos de colesterol e triacilglicerol nas concentrações, via e forma utilizadas. Além disso, foi possível verificar que não houve lesão cardíaca, hepática ou renal pelo extrato e decocção utilizados nas avaliações toxicológicas preliminares ensaiadas.The cardiovascular diseases are, in general, associated with high levels of serum lipids which have high incidence in middle-age men and women. Among other properties characterized by popular medicine, the Vitex megapotamica (Spreng Moldenke (V. montevidensis Cham - Tarumã, decreases the serum cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels. The main proposition of the present study was to evaluate the hypocholesterolemic and hipolipidaemic potential of V. megapotamica and to analyze the preliminary toxicity. It was an

  11. HUMEDAD CRÍTICA Y REPELENCIA AL AGUA EN ANDISOLES COLOMBIANOS BAJO COBERTURA DE Pinus patula Schltdl y Cham CRITICAL MOISTURE AND WATER REPELLENCY OF COLOMBIAN ANDISOLS COVERED WITH Pinus patula Schltdl and Cham

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Francisco Jaramillo Jaramillo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available En un lote con Andisoles bajo cobertura de Pinus patula Schltdl y Cham se ubicaron 4 transectos sobre los cuales se hizo un muestreo horizontal cada 5 cm, en 4 profundidades, con el fin de establecer si había una zona de transición de humedad crítica en el suelo que estuviera controlando la presencia de repelencia al agua en él. Se hicieron determinaciones de WDPT en el campo y luego en muestras secadas a 35 °C, en laboratorio. En cada condición se determinó el contenido gravimétrico de humedad a cada muestra y se relacionaron estos contenidos con su correspondiente WDPT. Los suelos presentaron altos contenidos de humedad, tanto en campo, como secos a 35 °C. La mayoría de los sitios fueron humectables en campo pero, al secar las muestras a 35 °C, la mayoría de ellas, en las tres primeras profundidades, se tornaron fuertemente repelentes al agua. Ambas propiedades tuvieron una alta variabilidad. En algunas profundidades de varios transectos fue posible definir, precariamente, zonas críticas de humedad para la repelencia al agua pero, al tratar de generalizar esta zona para todo el perfil del transecto, no fue posible definirla.In a stand with Andisoles planted with Pinus patula Schltdl and Cham, 4 transects were established for horizontal sampling every 5 cm in 4 depths to establish whether there was a transition zone for critical humidity in the soil that could determine the presence of water repellency in it. Determinations of WDPT were made in the field and later on samples dried at 35 °C in the laboratory. For each condition, the gravimetric content of humidity of each sample was determined and these contents were compared to their corresponding WDPT. The soils presented high humidity contents, both in the field and when dried at 35 °C. Most of the sites were humidified in the field, but upon drying the samples at 35 °C, the majority of them from the first three pit depths became strongly water repellent. Both properties were

  12. EFFECTS OF LIGHT AND TEMPERATURE ON Tabebuia serratifolia (Vahl Nich,Tabebuia chrysotricha (Mart. ex DC. Standl. AND Tabebuia roseo-alba (Ridl Sand – Bignoniaceae SEED GERMINATION

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    Débora Leonardo dos Santos

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Tabebuia serratifolia, Tabebuia chrysotricha and Tabebuia roseo-alba (Bignoniaceae, are an important ornamental and wood trees in Brasil. The effects of light and temperature in the  germination of Tabebuia serratifolia, Tabebuia chrysotricha and Tabebuia roseo-alba seeds were studied in the present work. The results indicated that the species present light insensitive seeds the and optimum temperature was between 20° and 30°C, the maximum temperature between 35° and 40°C and minimal temperature between 10° and 15°C for Tabebuia chrysotricha and Tabebuia roseo-alba and below 10°C for Tabebuia serratifolia.

  13. Comparison of growth traits between abundant and uncommon forms of a non-native vine, Dolichandra unguis-cati (Bignoniaceae) in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Buru, Joshua C.; Dhileepan, Kunjithapatham; Osunkoya, Olusegun O.; Firn, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Cat’s claw creeper vine, Dolichandra unguis-cati (L.) Lohmann (syn. Macfadyena unguis-cati (L.) Gentry) (Bignoniaceae), is a major environmental weed in Australia. Two distinct forms of this weed (‘long’ and ‘short’ pod), with differences in leaf morphology and fruit size, occur in Australia. The long pod form has only been reported in less than fifteen localities in the whole of south-east Queensland, while the short pod form is widely distributed in Queensland and New South Wales. This stud...

  14. Estruturas secretoras em cipó-d'alho (Mansoa standleyi (Steyerm. A. H. Gentry, Bignoniaceae: ocorrência e morfologia Secretory structures in cipó-d'alho (Mansoa standleyi (Steyerm. A. H. Gentry, Bignoniaceae: occurrence and morphology

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    Raimunda Conceição Vilhena-Potiguara

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Espécies de Mansoa são denominadas de "cipó-d'alho", por exalarem odor de alho das partes vegetativas e reprodutivas. Contudo, dados sobre morfologia e distribuição das estruturas secretoras presentes em Mansoa são escassos e ausentes para M. standleyi. O presente trabalho objetivou caracterizar a ocorrência e morfologia das estruturas secretoras do eixo vegetativo aéreo de M. standleyi. Para tanto, amostras da lâmina foliolar e de regiões nodais foram fixadas e submetidas às técnicas histológicas e de microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Testes histoquímicos, com os respectivos controles foram aplicados nas estruturas secretoras em fase secretora. Indivíduos de formigas e moscas, que visitavam a espécie foram amostrados, preservados e identificados por entomólogo. As estruturas secretoras do eixo vegetativo aéreo de M. standleyi estão representadas por tricomas glandulares dos tipos pateliformes e peltados. Todos com desenvolvimento assincrônico e presentes nas regiões nodais e lâmina foliolar, principalmente nas partes mais jovens. Nas regiões nodais, os tricomas formam um complexo secretor e, na lâmina foliolar, estão dispersos. As análises histoquímicas revelaram que os tricomas pateliformes são de fato nectários extraflorais e que os tricomas peltados, apresentam uma fração de alcaloides. Os visitantes das glândulas nodais correspondem a formigas Crematogaster (Formicidae e Ectatomma brunea (Vespoidea, Formicidae e moscas Oxysarcodexia (Sarcophagidae, subfamília Utitidae (Ulidiidae. Mansoa standleyi possui as estruturas secretoras do eixo vegetativo aéreo semelhantes às citadas pela literatura para Bignoniaceae, sendo esta a primeira vez, que um nectário extrafloral é descrito para a espécie.Species of Mansoa are called "cipó-d'alho" because of the smell of garlic that wafts from their vegetative and reproductive parts. Since data on the morphology and occurrence of their secretory structures are

  15. Leaving Iraq?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    It has been three years since the war in Iraq began, but the situation in the country, especially the security, has not improved much. Meanwhile, the world is wondering when U.S. troops will leave, and the American public appears to be getting impatient with the seemingly endless casualty reports. Some groups have held

  16. Nutrientes afetando as mudas de alecrim-pimenta (Lippia sidoides Cham. e seus artrópodes Nutrients affecting "alecrim-pimenta" (Lippia sidoides Cham. seedlings and their arthropods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.W.S. Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da omissão de nutrientes nas mudas de Lippia sidoides Cham. (Verbenaceae e seu possível efeito sobre os seus artrópodes, sendo os tratamentos: 1 testemunha; 2 completo 1 adubado com N, P, K, S, B, Cu, e Zn + calagem (C1; 3 completo 2: C1 sem calagem + Ca e Mg como sulfato (C2; 4 C1 sem calagem; 5 C1 sem N; 6 C1 sem P; 7 C1 sem K; 8 C1 sem S; 9 C1 sem B; 10 C1 sem Cu; 11 C1 sem Zn; 12 C2 sem Ca e 13 C2 sem Mg. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições. O Tetranychus sp. (Acari: Tetranychidae atacou mais os tratamentos 3, 6, 9 e 13 e os maiores danos nos tratamentos 6 e 13. A maior população de Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae foi encontrada nos tratamentos 5, 6, 7, 8, 11 e 13, colonizando preferencialmente o tratamento 4. O Phenacoccus sp. (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae foi encontrado em maior número nos tratamentos 4 e 9 e Insignorthezia insignis (Browne (Hemiptera: Ortheziidae em 13. Foram mais notados adultos de Bemisa tabaci (Genn. (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae nos tratamentos 5, 7, 8 e 13 e ninfas nos três últimos tratamentos. Em geral, os tratamentos 1, 5 e 10 são os menos atacados por artrópodes. Dirigir a pulverização, quando necessário, sempre para a face inferior da folha.The aim of this work was to evaluate nutrient omission effect on Lippia sidoides Cham. (Verbenacea seedlings, as well as its possible effect on their arthropods. Treatments were: 1 control; 2 complete 1: fertilized with N, P, K, S, B, Cu, and Zn + lime (C1; 3 complete 2: C1 without lime + Ca and Mg as sulphate (C2; 4 C1 without lime; 5 C1 without N; 6 C1 without P; 7 C1 without K; 8 C1 without S; 9 C1 without B; 10 C1 without Cu; 11 C1 without Zn; 12 C2 without Ca; and 13 C2 without Mg. The experimental design was completely randomized, with four replicates. Tetranychus sp. (Acari: Tetranychidae predominantly attacked treatments 3, 6, 9 and 13, and the greatest damages were detected

  17. Chemical Composition and Allelopathyc Activity of Essential Oil of Lippia sidoides Cham Composición química y actividad alelopática del aceite esencial de Lippia sidoides Cham

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    Cláudia Araújo Marco

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The allelopathy is a process for which products of the secondary metabolism, as terpenes phenolic, of a certain vegetal intervene significantly, generally of antagonistic form, in the development of other species of plants. The objective of this work was to chemically characterize the essential oil of Lippia sidoides Cham. growing in the Cariri cearense region, Brazil, and evaluate the allelopathyc effect of this oil on the germination of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L., arugula (Eruca sativa Mill., and cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L., in pre-plantation application. The monoterpene thymol (84.90% has been identified as the principal constituent in the essential oil. The experiment was done in randomized complete block, in 4 x 3 factorial; being used four essential oil combinations applied in three different species in pre-plantation applications. Emergence velocity index (EVI, germination percentage and mean time to germination (MTG, had been analyzed through daily counting carried out until the 14th day after sowing. Through qualitative analysis performed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS were identified seven chemical constituents representing 97.82% of essential oil of L. sidoides, being that the constituent present in greater concentration in oil was the thymol (84.90%. Could be verified the occurrence of the negative allelopathyc effect of lettuce crop, because its present low EVI and greater MTG, for the other vegetable species there were no allelopathic effect.La alelopatía es un proceso mediante el cual productos metabólicos secundarios, tales como terpenos fenoles, producidos por una planta en particular interfieren significativamente, y de manera antagónica, en el desarrollo de otras especies vegetales. Nuestros objetivos fueron caracterizar químicamente el aceite esencial de Lippia sidoides Cham., cultivada en la región de Cariri Ceará, y evaluar el efecto alelopático del aceite aplicado en pre-siembra en

  18. Lluvia de semillas y emergencia de plántulas de Pinus patula Schl. et Cham. en Zacualtipán, Hidalgo.

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo Aguilar, Ofelia

    2013-01-01

    La presente investigación es un aporte para entender el comportamiento de la repoblación de Pinus patula Schl. et Cham. en el ejido La Mojonera, Zacualtipán, Hidalgo. Se eligieron dos sitios de una hectárea cada uno. En el primero se aplicó el método de árboles padres (SCM), mientras que el segundo se mantuvo en condición natural (SSM). Para estimar la lluvia de semillas, emergencia y supervivencia de plántulas, así como el número de semillas viables almacenadas en el reservorio del suelo, ca...

  19. Estimating the Burden of Leptospirosis among Febrile Subjects Aged below 20 Years in Kampong Cham Communities, Cambodia, 2007-2009.

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    Sopheak Hem

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is an emerging but neglected public health challenge in the Asia/Pacific Region with an annual incidence estimated at 10-100 per 100,000 population. No accurate data, however, are available for at-risk rural Cambodian communities.We conducted anonymous, unlinked testing for IgM antibodies to Leptospira spp. on paired sera of Cambodian patients <20 years of age between 2007-2009 collected through active, community-based surveillance for febrile illnesses in a convenience sample of 27 rural and semi-rural villages in four districts of Kampong Cham province, Cambodia. Leptospirosis testing was done on paired serological samples negative for Dengue, Japanese encephalitis and Chikungunya viruses after random selection. Convalescent samples found positive while initial samples were negative were considered as proof of acute infection. We then applied a mathematical model to estimate the risk of fever caused by leptospirosis, dengue or other causes in rural Cambodia.A total of 630 samples are coming from a randomly selected subset of 2358 samples. IgM positive were found on the convalescent serum sample, among which 100 (15.8% samples were IgM negative on an earlier sample. Seventeen of these 100 seroconversions were confirmed using a Microagglutination Test. We estimated the probability of having a fever due to leptospirosis at 1. 03% (95% Credible Interval CI: 0. 95%-1. 22% per semester. In comparison, this probability was 2. 61% (95% CI: 2. 55%, 2. 83% for dengue and 17. 65% (95% CI: 17. 49%, 18. 08% for other causes.Our data from febrile cases aged below 20 years suggest that the burden of leptospirosis is high in rural Cambodian communities. This is especially true during the rainy season, even in the absence of identified epidemics.

  20. Method of Paths Coverage at SA Level Based on E-CHAM%基于扩展CHAM的SA级路径覆盖方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐士华; 吕莉媛; 赵磊

    2011-01-01

    化学抽象机形式化语言(CHAM)通过把化学反应和抽象机的概念有机地结合来描述系统状态的变化,以此来指导分析和测试.针对软件体系结构(SA)中构件的概念,采用CHAM对SA中的构件进行建模,并据此导出该构件的标号迁移系统(LTS),以表示该构件与其它构件之间的行为交互,并根据选取的测试覆盖准则,生成基于此构件的LTS中的所有测试路径.最后以B/S体系结构为例,通过实验验证了该方法在生成DB构件的测试路径上是可行的.%Chemical Abstract machine(CHAM) language describes system states diversification by combining chemical reaction and concept of Abstract machine.For this reason,description of CHAM can be employed in guiding analysis and testing.This paper uses CHAM to model components of software architecture(SA),and then derives labelled transition system(LTS) of this component to show interactive of component's behaviors.According to the selected coverage criteria,we derive all testing paths based on the LTS of the component.Finally,regarding Browser/Server(B/S) architecture as an example,the experiments on generating testing paths of DB component is shown feasible.

  1. A contribution to the pollination ecology of Tabebuia pulcherrima (Bignoniaceae in a sandbank area of the south of Santa Catarina State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afonso Inácio Orth

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Studies on pollination mechanisms in Bignoniaceae have show some evidence of co-evolution with its pollen vectors. Floral biology and flower visitors of Tabebuia pulcherrima were investigated in a sandbank area. Flower phenology, the nectar production, pollen/ovule ratio, and identification of the flower visitors, as well as their behavior, were studied. Tabebuia pulcherrima displays typical melitophilous flowers, due to its morphology, diurnal anthesis and day-long nectar secretion. In the morning, the nectar volume is smaller, which is associated with a higher frequency of visitors. The pollen/ovule ratio indicates facultative xenogamy. We collected 88 insects on the flowers, 52% of which were bees; the rest were wasps, flies, ants end beetles. The most abundant species were Niltonia virgilii (42%, Bombus morio (20% and Xylocopa brasilianorum (18%. According to their frequency, abundance and visiting behavior, Bombus morio and Niltonia virgilii were considered to be the potencial pollinators of T. pulcherrima and Epicharis dejeanii, a secondary pollinator. The carpenter bee Xylocopa brasilianorum is a nectar robber of T. pulcherrima. The flowers of T. pulcherrima are an important food source for the entomofauna of the restinga, offering nectar and pollen as floral rewards.

  2. Anatomia foliar de ipê-branco (Tabebuia roseo alba (Ridl. Sand. – Bignoniaceae, proveniente do cultivo ex vitro e in vitro = Ex vitro and in vitro leaf anatomy of Tabebuia roseo alba (Ridl. Sand. – Bignoniaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Caravita Abbade

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo comparar a estrutura interna de folhas de ipêbranco cultivadas in vitro e ex vitro. Para as avaliações anatômicas foram utilizadas folhas do primeiro nó de ramos, da base para o ápice, com 30 dias de cultivo in vitro e de plantas de campo. O estudo anatômico foi feito por meio das secções transversais e paradérmicas das folhas. As folhas apresentam epiderme uniestratificada e mesofilo dorsiventral. São hipostomáticas e apresentam tricomas em todas as faces. Folhas de plantas cultivadas ex vitro, quando comparadas com in vitro, tiveram espessura do limbo foliar, nervura central da epiderme adaxial e abaxial e os parênquimas paliçádico e esponjoso maiores. Em folhas oriundas do cultivo in vitro, a cutícula e o esclerênquima são ausentes. Folhas de plantas cultivadas ex vitro apresentaram menor número de estômatos e maior número de tricomas, quando comparadas com o cultivo in vitro. Os estômatos de folhas cultivadas in vitro são maiores que os de folhas ex vitro.Considering the importance of knowledge of anatomical structures in the protocol definition for the micropropagation of the ipê-branco, this study compared the in vitro and ex vitro internal structure of leaves. For anatomical evaluations, the first leaf in vitro with 30 days of growth and adult plants were used. The anatomical study of leaves was based on microscope examination from cross-sectional and paradermic sections from the leaf blade. The leaf structures from plants ex vitro show uniseriate skin, and mesophyll with dorsiventral organization. They are hipostomatics and trichome is present in all faces. Leaves ex vitro was thicker that culture in vitro in limb, central nervure, epidermis and palisade and spongious parenchyma. In leaves in vitro, cuticle and sclerenchyma are absent. Leaves of ex vitro presented minor numbers of stomata and greater number of trichromes when compared with culture in vitro. Stomata of in vitro are

  3. To leave or not to leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchan, James

    2016-06-22

    Lies, damned lies and Brexit statistics. It's not been a good month for anyone espousing evidence-based policy and politics after the chair of the Commons health committee switched from Leave to Remain, citing misuse of data by the Leave campaign. PMID:27332589

  4. CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS, ANTI-INFLAMMATORY, AND FREE-RADICAL SCAVENGING ACTIVITIES OF Guettarda viburnoides CHAM. & SCHLTDL. (RUBIACEAE)

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Augusta Naressi; Daniele Domingos Manholer; Franciele Queiroz Ames; Ciomar Aparecida Bersani-Amado; Anelise Samara Nazari Formagio; Zefa Valdivina Pereira; Willian Ferreira da Costa; Debora Cristina Baldoqui; Maria Helena Sarragiotto

    2015-01-01

    Chemical investigation of Guettarda viburnoides (leaves) led to the isolation of ursolic acid, uncaric acid, secoxyloganin, and grandifloroside, along with a mixture of quercetin-3-O-β-D-galactopyranoside and quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, and of β-sitosterol and stigmasterol. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated on the basis of their NMR data. The crude extract, ethyl acetate fraction, aqueous-methanol fraction, and grandifloroside showed significant DPPH free-radical...

  5. Leaving home in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rikke Skovgaard

    2015-01-01

    The paper focuses on ethnic differences in the timing and patterns of leaving the parental home. Leaving home is a key transition in the life course of the individual, and extensive research has been conducted on the timing and patterns of leaving it. However, ethnic differences in these patterns...

  6. Análise fitoquímica e atividade antimicobacteriana de extratos metanólicos de Jacaranda cuspidifolia Mart. (Bignoniaceae Phytochemical analysis and antimycobacterial activity of methanol extracts from Jacaranda cuspidifolia Mart. (Bignoniaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L.A. Arruda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Jacaranda cuspidifolia Mart., conhecida popularmente como "caroba", "jacarandá" ou "bolacheira", é utilizada medicinalmente para o tratamento da sífilis e da gonorréia. A atividade antimicobacteriana dessa espécie foi avaliada em ensaios in vitro com os extratos metanólicos das cascas e folhas, segundo o Método Analítico Alamar Blue (MABA. Os valores de concentração inibitória mínima para os extratos metanólicos das cascas e das folhas de J. cuspidifolia foram iguais a CIM = 250 μg mL-1 para ambos os extratos. A análise fitoquímica, por Cromatografia em Camada Delgada de gel de sílica, dos extratos metanólicos das cascas e folhas revelou a presença de taninos, flavonóides, terpenos, cumarinas e esteróides. A análise dos perfis dos extratos metanólicos por Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Eficiência de Fase Reversa registrou a presença de compostos fenólicos derivados do verbascosídeo sugerindo a provável responsabilidade pela ação antimicobacteriana.Jacaranda cuspidifolia Mart., popularly known as "caroba", "jacaranda" or "bolacheira", is used as medicine for the treatment of syphilis and gonorrhea. The antimycobacterial activity of this species was assessed by means of in vitro assays with methanol extracts of barks and leaves according to the Microplate Alamar Blue Assay (MABA. The minimal inhibitory concentration values for methanol extracts of barks and leaves from J. cuspidifolia were MIC = 250 μg mL-1 for both extracts. Phytochemical analysis, by Thin Layer Chromatography on silica gel, of methanol extracts of barks and leaves revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, terpenes, cumarins and steroids. Analysis of the profiles of methanol extracts by High Performance Liquid Chromatography - Reversed Phase recorded the presence of phenolic compounds derivatives of verbascoside, suggesting their probable responsibility for the antimycobacterial action.

  7. Effect of adding flours from marolo fruit (Annona crassiflora Mart and jerivá fruit (Syagrus romanzoffiana Cham Glassm on the physicals and sensory characteristics of food bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Pablo da SILVA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The marolo (Annona crassiflora Mart. and jerivá (Syagrus romanzoffiana Cham Glassm fruits grow in the Cerrado biome, and have important sensory and nutritional characteristics. These fruits are eaten fresh or processed and embedded in ice cream, candy, juices, and liquors. However, their use is very limited and is localized exclusively to their native region. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of these fruits in food consumer products to improve the nutritional patterns of consumers and extend knowledge thereof. To do this, different levels (0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% of flour derived from the marolo and jerivá fruits were incorporated into food bars, which were then characterized in terms of their physical of the texture (TPA, porosity, color and sensorial properties. The food bars enriched with marolo and jerivá flours had an intense yellow color and increased hardness relative to the control bars; the porosity of the bars progressively decreased as the amount of flour added increased. The sensorial analysis in the snack bars developed added with the fruits flour no was influence by incorporation this component, showed good averages for the scores evaluated.

  8. Anatomia das raízes de Bacopa salzmanii (Benth. Wettst. Ex Edwall e Bacopa Monnierioides (Cham. Robinson (Scrophulariaceae em ambientes aquático e terrestre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bona Cleusa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho enfoca a anatomia das raízes de Bacopa salzmanii (Benth. Wettst. Ex Edwall e B. monnierioides (Cham. Robinson e suas adaptações aos ambientes aquático e terrestre. Foram analisadas raízes adventícias das duas espécies, coletadas no Município de Bonito e no Pantanal do Mato Grosso do Sul. As análises foram feitas do ápice à base da raiz, enfatizando a origem e desenvolvimento dos tecidos. O meristema apical apresenta a mesma estrutura nas duas espécies e não sofre alterações marcantes com a mudança do ambiente. Todos os tecidos se originam de três camadas distintas, na região do promeristema. A endoderme jovem é meristemática e dá origem ao córtex. O aerênquima é abundante e os septos podem conter espessamento em fi. A exoderme é unisseriada e composta por células curtas e longas. A coifa das duas espécies é pouco desenvolvida e apresenta estrutura semelhante nos dois ambientes.

  9. Negative leave balances

    CERN Document Server

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel entitled to annual leave and, where appropriate, saved leave and/or compensatory leave are requested to take note of the new arrangements described below, which were recommended by the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) at its meeting on 1Â September 2005 and subsequently approved by the Director-General. The changes do not apply to members of the personnel participating in the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) or the Part-time Work as a pre-retirement measure, for whom the specific provisions communicated at the time of joining will continue to apply. Â Negative balances in annual leave, saved leave and/or compensatory leave accounts at the end of the leave year (30th September) and on the date on which bonuses are credited to the saved leave account (31st December): Where members of the personnel have a leave account with a negative balance on 30Â September and/or 31Â December, leave will automatically be transferred from one account to another on the relevant dates i...

  10. Negative leave balances

    CERN Document Server

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel entitled to annual leave and, where appropriate, saved leave and/or compensatory leave are requested to take note of the new arrangements described below, which were recommended by the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) at its meeting on 1 September 2005 and subsequently approved by the Director-General. The changes do not apply to members of the personnel participating in the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) or the Part-time Work as a pre-retirement measure, for whom the specific provisions communicated at the time of joining will continue to apply.  Negative balances in annual leave, saved leave and/or compensatory leave accounts at the end of the leave year (30th September) and on the date on which bonuses are credited to the saved leave account (31st December): Where members of the personnel have a leave account with a negative balance on 30 September and/or 31 December, leave will automatically be transferred from one account to another on the relevant dates in or...

  11. Pathogenesis-related protein expression in the apoplast of wheat leaves protected against leaf rust following application of plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naz, Rabia; Bano, Asghari; Wilson, Neil L; Guest, David; Roberts, Thomas H

    2014-09-01

    Leaf rust (Puccinia triticina) is a major disease of wheat. We tested aqueous leaf extracts of Jacaranda mimosifolia (Bignoniaceae), Thevetia peruviana (Apocynaceae), and Calotropis procera (Apocynaceae) for their ability to protect wheat from leaf rust. Extracts from all three species inhibited P. triticina urediniospore germination in vitro. Plants sprayed with extracts before inoculation developed significantly lower levels of disease incidence (number of plants infected) than unsprayed, inoculated controls. Sprays combining 0.6% leaf extracts and 2 mM salicylic acid with the fungicide Amistar Xtra at 0.05% (azoxystrobin at 10 μg/liter + cyproconazole at 4 μg/liter) reduced disease incidence significantly more effectively than sprays of fungicide at 0.1% alone. Extracts of J. mimosifolia were most active, either alone (1.2%) or in lower doses (0.6%) in combination with 0.05% Amistar Xtra. Leaf extracts combined with fungicide strongly stimulated defense-related gene expression and the subsequent accumulation of pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins in the apoplast of inoculated wheat leaves. The level of protection afforded was significantly correlated with the ability of extracts to increase PR protein expression. We conclude that pretreatment of wheat leaves with spray formulations containing previously untested plant leaf extracts enhances protection against leaf rust provided by fungicide sprays, offering an alternative disease management strategy.

  12. CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS, ANTI-INFLAMMATORY, AND FREE-RADICAL SCAVENGING ACTIVITIES OF Guettarda viburnoides CHAM. & SCHLTDL. (RUBIACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Augusta Naressi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Chemical investigation of Guettarda viburnoides (leaves led to the isolation of ursolic acid, uncaric acid, secoxyloganin, and grandifloroside, along with a mixture of quercetin-3-O-β-D-galactopyranoside and quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, and of β-sitosterol and stigmasterol. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated on the basis of their NMR data. The crude extract, ethyl acetate fraction, aqueous-methanol fraction, and grandifloroside showed significant DPPH free-radical scavenging activities with IC50 ranging from 18.92 to 26.47 µg mL-1. The topical administration of the crude extract and fractions markedly reduced the croton oil-induced mice ear edema in 67.0%-99.0%. Inhibition of tissue MPO activity was also observed, which demonstrated an anti-inflammatory effect of the G. viburnoides species.

  13. Papilomavirus Humanos con Hiperplasia Epitelial Focal en la Población escolar indígena Embera-Chamí de Cristianía, municipio de Jardín, Antioquia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Inés Sánchez

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available

    La Hiperplasia Epitelial Focal (HEF o enfermedad de Heck es una enfermedad de la mucosa oral, con alta prevalencia entre comunidades indígenas. Esta enfermedad ha sido relacionada con
    Papilomavirus humanos (PVH genotipos 13 y 32. Anteriormente se
    encontró una alta prevalencia de esta enfermedad entre la comunidad indígena Embera-Chamí del municipio de Antioquia (1. El objetivo de este estudio fue establecer la asociación entre la infección por PVH y el desarrollo de HEF en esta comunidad.

     

     

  14. Tibouchina pulchra (Cham.) Cogn., a native Atlantic Forest species, as a bio-indicator of ozone: Visible injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tibouchina pulchra saplings were exposed to carbon filtered air (CF), ambient non-filtered air (NF) and ambient non-filtered air + 40 ppb ozone (NF + O3) 8 h per day during two months. The AOT40 values at the end of the experiment were 48, 910 and 12,895 ppb h-1, respectively, for the three treatments. After 25 days of exposure (AOT40 = 3871 ppb h-1), interveinal red stippling appeared in plants in the NF + O3 chamber. In the NF chamber, symptoms were observed only after 60 days of exposure (AOT40 = 910 ppb h-1). After 60 days, injured leaves per plant corresponded to 19% in NF + O3 and 1% in the NF treatment; and the average leaf area injured was 7% within the NF + O3 and 0.2% within the NF treatment. The extent of leaf area injured (leaf injury index) was mostly explained by the accumulated exposure of ozone (r2 = 0.89; p < 0.05). - Tibouchina pulchra, a tropical species widely used in Brazilian landscapes as an ornamental tree, is a potential sensitive bio-indicator of ozone air pollution

  15. Anatomia foliar de Tabebuia serratifolia (Vahl Nich. (Bignoniaceae propagadas in vitro, in vivo e durante a aclimatização Leaf anatomy of Tabebuia serratifolia (Vahl Nich. (Bignoniaceae propagated in vitro, in vivo and during the acclimatization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Dousseau

    2008-12-01

    medicinal and ornamental interest. One used seedlings maintained for 43 days in growth chamber, with 20, 40, 60 and 80 days of acclimatization and seedlings after 90 days of cultivation in vivo. Seedlings were obtained from culture of embryos in half BAD and transplanted to tubes containing plantmax®, for aclimatização in nursery house under 50% of shad. In the same conditions of the acclimatization the seedlings in vivo were produced. Transversal and paradermal sections were prepared using the usual microthecniques. The results showed that the seedlings in vitro have the leaf tissue little differed and the stomata are open and bigger, demanding greater cares in the initial stage of acclimatization. At 60 days of acclimatization the new leaves produced have some anatomical aspects that can originate higher photosynthetic efficiency and better water regulation capacity of the plants.

  16. Men on Parental Leave

    OpenAIRE

    Trutnovská, Aneta

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is based on the scientific literature related to the topic, and interviews with specific men on parental leave to point out, in particular, on the grounds that affect men, to the decision to become a full-time father, find out how these families work, and also to point out responses or opinions around which these men often encounter. The theoretical part is devoted to male parental leave in terms of its relation to the children, the themes taking on parental leave, the ...

  17. Isolation of verbascoside and validation of method to standardize the crude extract of the aerial parts of Buddleja stachyoides Cham. and Schltdl. (Scrophulariaceae); Isolamento do verbacosideo e validacao de metodo analitico para padronizacao do extrato bruto das partes aereas de Buddleja stachyoides Cham. and Schltdl. (Scrophulariaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Daniella M.S. de; Miguel, Marilis D.; Kalegari, Milena; Miguel, Obdulio G.; Moreira, Thais F., E-mail: dani_mso@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Departamento de Farmacia

    2014-04-15

    Phenylpropanoid glycoside verbascoside was isolated and identified from the ethyl acetate fraction of the aerial parts of Buddleja stachyoides Cham. and Schltdl. by {sup 1}H-NMR. A method using high-performance liquid chromatography has been developed and validated for determination of verbascoside in alcoholic crude extract of the aerial parts of B. stachyoides. Analysis was performed on a Phenomenex® Gemini-NX C18 analytical column (250 mm × 4.6 mm; 5 μm) using a mobile phase (pump A - aqueous solution containing H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (0.01 M), H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} (0.4%), and (C{sub 2}H{sub 5}){sub 2}NH (0.4%); pump B - methanol:aqueous (95:5) solution containing H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (0.05 M), H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} (2%), and (C{sub 2}H{sub 5}){sub 2}NH (0.2%); pump C - acetonitrile:aqueous (90:10) solution containing H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (0.05 M) and H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} (2%)) and a diode array detector at 325 nm. The method was validated in accordance with ANVISA guidelines and may be applied to quality control of herbal medicine with aerial parts of B. stachyoides. (author)

  18. Falling for Clay Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernan, Christine

    2002-01-01

    Describes an art project that integrated science and art education. Explains that students create ceramic bowls by using real leaves. Discusses the process of creating the ceramic bowls, including how to glaze the bowls. Includes a list of materials. (CMK)

  19. Die akute Myoperikarditis als Chamäleon - Fallpräsentation eines jungen Patienten // Heterogenous Aetiology of Myopericarditis – A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudczak J

    2015-01-01

    , beziehungsweise einer Myokardbiopsie. Die Myoperikarditis ist ein Chamäleon unter den kardialen Krankheitsbildern und kann sich unterschiedlichst präsentieren: von oligo-/asymptomatisch bis hin zum kardiogenen Schock. Akut lebensbedrohliche Differentialdiagnosen müssen ausgeschlossen werden.br Anhand einer akuten viralen Myoperikarditis bei einem jungen Mann mit benignem Verlauf werden die Komplexität der Erkrankung, die Schwierigkeit, die richtige Diagnose zu stellen, allfällige Komplikationen und die Prognose herausgearbeitet.

  20. TRAVEL AND HOME LEAVE

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    Administrative procedures for : Travel to the home station and home leave (hl) Additional travel to the home station (at) Travel to the home station and home leave for family reasons (hlf) As part of the process of simplifying administrative procedures, HR and AS Divisions have devised a new, virtually automatic procedure for payment of travel expenses to the home station. The changes are aimed at rationalising administrative procedures and not at reducing benefits. The conditions of eligibility are unchanged. The new procedure, which will be operational with effect from 1st June 2002, will greatly simplify the administrative processing of claims for travel expenses and the recording of home leaves. Currently, requests for payment are introduced manually into the Advances and Claims system (AVCL) by divisional secretariats. All travel to the home station starting prior to 1st June 2002 will be processed according to the existing system whereas that starting on 1st June and after will be processed accordi...

  1. Caracterização farmacobotânica das espécies de Sambucus (Caprifoliaceae utilizadas como medicinais no Brasil: Parte II. Sambucus australis Cham. & Schltdl. Pharmacobotany of Sambucus species (Caprifoliaceae, used in traditional medicine in Brazil: Part II. Sambucus australis Cham. & Schltdl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Nunes

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Sambucus australis Cham. & Schltdl. (sabugueiro-do-rio-grande, Caprifoliaceae é uma planta medicinal descrita apenas na primeira edição da Farmacopéia Brasileira. A espécie é nativa no Brasil, e suas flores são utilizadas na medicina popular, na forma de infusão ou decocção, como diuréticas, antipiréticas, antiinflamatórias, laxativo leve e no tratamento de doenças do aparelho respiratório. Visando elaborar uma monografia farmacopéica atualizada e comparativa com a de Sambucus nigra L., de origem européia, foram estabelecidos os caracteres botânicos macro e microscópicos, através da metodologia clássica utilizada em morfoanatomia vegetal. São características macroscópicas: flores morfologicamente monoclinas; corola de sete a dez milímetros de diâmetro; pétalas com cinco, raro quatro nervuras paralelas; estames curtos e longos; gineceu em regra com cinco lóculos. São características microscópicas: cutícula espessa e estriada; ausência de idioblastos de areia cristalina de oxalato de cálcio; estômatos anomocíticos; brácteas anfiestomáticas; sépalas hipoestomáticas; pétalas anfi-hipoestomáticas; células epidérmicas da face abaxial de sépalas e pétalas retilíneas a sinuosas; células epidérmicas do filete alongadas e de paredes retilíneas; tricomas tectores e glandulares de diferentes tipos; brácteas, sépalas e pétalas com mesofilo homogêneo; sistema vascular representado por feixes colaterais ou agrupamentos de elementos xilemáticos; presença de gotas lipídicas em todas as peças.Sambucus australis Cham. & Schltdl. (sabugueiro-do-rio-grande, Caprifoliaceae is a medicinal plant described only in the first edition of Brazilian Pharmacopoeia. This species is native to Brazil, and its flowers are used in the folk medicine, with diuretic purpose, antipiretic, anti-inflammatory, mild laxative and to treat respiratory diseases, on infusions or decoctions forms. Aiming at elaborating an updated

  2. Immunomodulatory activity of extracts from Cordia superba Cham. and Cordia rufescens A. DC. (Boraginaceae, plant species native from Brazilian Semi-arid Atividade imunomoduladora de extratos de Cordia superba Cham. and Cordia rufescens A. DC. (Boraginaceae, espécies de plantas nativas do semi-árido brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernando Oliveira Costa

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The family Boraginaceae is widely distributed in Brazil and in the Northeastern region some species are popularly used to treat symptoms of rheumatism, painful menstruation and dyspepsia. In this work we studied Cordia superba Cham. and C. rufescens A. DC., native from Brazilian Semi-arid region, in order to investigate their immunomodulatory activity. Six extracts were prepared from aerial parts of C. superba and C. rufescens. The cytotoxicity was evaluated using splenocytes from BALB/c mice. The immunomodulatory activity was determined by in vitro assays using activated mouse macrophages and lymphocytes. Peritoneal macrophages obtained from BALB/c mice were stimulated with IFN-gamma and LPS in the presence/absence of the samples. The NO production was measured indirectly through Griess method. Three samples inhibited the production of nitric oxide in values near 50% at a concentration of 100 µg/mL. To evaluate the effects of the extracts on lymphocytes, splenocytes from BALB/c mice were incubated with the samples and concanavalin A. Proliferation inhibition was determined by analysis of ³H-thymidine uptake. Samples from the two species had a strong inhibitory activity on lymphocyte proliferation and IL-2 production. Two chloroform extracts prepared from aerial parts of C. rufescens had the lowest IC50 values (7.6 and 11.0 µg/mL.A família Boraginaceae é amplamente distribuída no Brasil e na região nordeste algumas espécies são usadas popularmente no tratamento de reumatismo, dores menstruais e dispepsias. Neste trabalho foram estudadas as espécies Cordia superba Cham. and C. rufescens A. DC., nativas da região semi-árida brasileira, objetivando investigar a atividade imunomoduladora. Seis extratos foram preparados a partir de partes aéreas das espécies. A citotoxicidade foi avaliada usando culturas de esplenócitos de camundongos BALB/c. A atividade imunomoduladora foi determinada por ensaios in vitro usando macrófagos e linf

  3. Does Leave Work?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heleen van Luijn; Saskia Keuzenkamp

    2004-01-01

    More and more people have to combine work and care responsibilities, and work part-time or use daycare and after-school care facilities to help them do so. The Work and Care Act, which came into force on 1 December 2001, combined all the existing schemes - such as parental and maternity leave - and

  4. Leaves: Nature's Solar Collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isabelle, Aaron D.; de Groot, Cornelis

    2009-01-01

    One of the most captivating things about plants is the way they capture the Sun's energy, but this can be a difficult topic to cover with elementary students. Therefore, to help students to make a concrete connection to this abstract concept, this series of solar-energy lessons focuses on leaves and how they act as "solar collectors." As students…

  5. REMINDER: Saved Leave Scheme (SLS)

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Transfer of leave to saved leave accounts Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'* annual and compensatory leave (excluding saved leave accumulated in accordance with the provisions of Administrative Circular No 22B) can be transferred to the saved leave account at the end of the leave year (30 September). We remind you that unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of the leave year accounts is transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. Therefore, staff members have no administrative steps to take. In addition, the transfer, which eliminates the risk of omitting to request leave transfers and rules out calculation errors in transfer requests, will be clearly shown in the list of leave transactions that can be consulted in EDH from October 2003 onwards. Furthermore, this automatic leave transfer optimizes staff members' chances of benefiting from a saved leave bonus provided that they ar...

  6. Negotiating leave in the workplace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Lotte

    2014-01-01

    In Denmark leave entitlement is not only regulated by law but is also part of the various collective agreements established in the respective occupational sectors and at the local workplace level. Consequently, Danish fathers have very different leave entitlements, depending on the sector, branch...... men’s negotiations of parental leave at work place level and secondly, to explore and discuss how Danish fathers construct leave practices – and individual male identities – in the workplace....

  7. Saved Leave Scheme (SLS) : Simplified procedure for the transfer of leave to saved leave accounts

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2001-01-01

    As part of the process of streamlining procedures, the HR and AS Divisions have jointly developed a system whereby annual and compensatory leave will henceforth be automatically transferred1) to saved leave accounts. Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'2) annual and compensatory leave (excluding saved leave accumulated in accordance with the provisions of Administrative Circular No. 22 B) can be transferred to the saved leave account at the end of the leave year (30 September). Previously, every person taking part in the scheme has been individually issued with a form for the purposes of requesting the transfer of leave to the leave account and the transfer has then had to be done manually by HR Division. To streamline the procedure, unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of of the leave-year accounts will henceforth be transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. This simplification is in the ...

  8. REMINDER Saved Leave Scheme (SLS) : Transfer of leave to saved leave accounts

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2002-01-01

    Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'*) annual and compensatory leave (excluding saved leave accumulated in accordance with the provisions of Administrative Circular No. 22B) can be transferred to the saved leave account at the end of the leave year (30 September). We remind you that, since last year, unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of the leave-year accounts is transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. Therefore, staff members have no administrative steps to take. In addition, the transfer, which eliminates the risk of omitting to request leave transfers and rules out calculation errors in transfer requests, will be clearly shown in the list of leave transactions that can be consulted in EDH from October 2002 onwards. Furthermore, this automatic leave transfer optimizes staff members' chances of benefiting from a saved leave bonus provided that they are still participants in the schem...

  9. Negotiating leave in the workplace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Lotte

    In Denmark leave entitlement is not only regulated by law but is also part of the various collective agreements established in the respective occupational sectors and at the local workplace level. Consequently, Danish fathers have very different leave entitlements, depending on the sector, branch...... and workplace in which they are employed. The paper focuses on fathers’ negotiations of parental leave in three large Danish work places, offering men different opportunities for leave. With a focus on the differences in the work place contexts/opportunities for leave, the aim of the paper is firstly to explore...... men’s negotiations of parental leave at work place level and secondly, to explore and discuss how Danish fathers construct leave practices – and individual male identities – in the workplace....

  10. Freezing injury in potato leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumaran, N P; Weiser, C J

    1972-11-01

    Time-temperature profiles of freezing leaves from frost-resistant (Solanum acaule Bitt.) and frost-susceptible (Solanum tuberosum L. subsp. tuberosum Hawkes) types of potatoes did not reveal any major differences. The pattern of change in resistance of leaves to low voltage, low frequency current during freezing was different in the frost-resistant and susceptible leaves. In tissue sections from both types of leaves, cells freeze extracellularly at cooling velocities lower than 5 C per minute. Cells from leaves of resistant plants showed a higher osmotic pressure but not a higher water permeability than those from susceptible plants. The extent of injury caused by even very slow freezing was greater than that caused by equivalent isopiestic desiccation, particularly in susceptible leaves. The higher osmotic pressure in cells of leaves from resistant plants can account for the greater desiccation resistance but not for the frost resistance observed. PMID:16658217

  11. Water isotopologues in leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuntz, M.; Ogée, J.; Farquhar, G. D.; Cernusak, L. A.; Peylin, P.; Bariac, T.

    2007-12-01

    Leaf water isotope enrichment is a cornerstone of a variety of isotopic applications. It imprints on different substances such as atmospheric CO2, O2, and plant organic matter. But different applications use enrichment in different parts of the leaf and weighted by different fluxes. For example, leaf organic matter is determined by the assimilation-weighted average bulk water enrichment. Atmospheric CO2 and O2 are determined by the enrichment near the evaporating sites, either weighted by the one-way CO2 flux from the stomata to the atmosphere or by electron transport, resp. These applications of leaf water enrichment are used from the leaf level up to global scales. It is therefore essential to understand the time course of leaf water enrichment at both the evaporating sites and in the mesophyll but also to asses the suitability of simple models such as the Craig & Gordon (1965) steady-state prediction or the Dongmann et al. (1974) non-steady-state model. We describe here advection and diffusion of water isotopologues in leaves in the non-steady state. We first show how this relates to earlier non-steady state bulk leaf water enrichment models. The adv.-diff. model compares very well with observations of bulk mesophyll water during the whole diel cycle. It compares well with the enrichment at the evaporative sites during the day but shows some deviations at night. It is clear that night-time stomatal conductance should be measured in the future. However, varying mesophyll water volume did not seem critical for a good prediction. In addition, observations of single diurnal cycles do not constrain the effective length in the mesophyll. Finally, we show when simpler models of leaf water enrichment are suitable for applications of leaf water isotopes once weighted with the appropriate gas exchange flux. We then present a two-dimensional adv.-diff. description of leaf water enrichment along monocot leaves. The model reproduces well all published measurements along

  12. Starch metabolism in leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orzechowski, Sławomir

    2008-01-01

    Starch is the most abundant storage carbohydrate produced in plants. The initiation of transitory starch synthesis and degradation in plastids depends mainly on diurnal cycle, post-translational regulation of enzyme activity and starch phosphorylation. For the proper structure of starch granule the activities of all starch synthase isoenzymes, branching enzymes and debranching enzymes are needed. The intensity of starch biosynthesis depends mainly on the activity of AGPase (adenosine 5'-diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase). The key enzymes in starch degradation are beta-amylase, isoamylase 3 and disproportionating enzyme. However, it should be underlined that there are some crucial differences in starch metabolism between heterotrophic and autotrophic tissues, e.g. is the ability to build multiprotein complexes responsible for biosynthesis and degradation of starch granules in chloroplasts. The observed huge progress in understanding of starch metabolism was possible mainly due to analyses of the complete Arabidopsis and rice genomes and of numerous mutants with altered starch metabolism in leaves. The aim of this paper is to review current knowledge on transient starch metabolism in higher plants. PMID:18787712

  13. REMINDER Saved Leave Scheme (SLS) : Simplified procedure for the transfer of leave to saved leave accounts

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2001-01-01

    As part of the process of streamlining procedures, the HR and AS Divisions have jointly developed a system whereby annual and compensatory leave will henceforth be automatically transferred1) to saved leave accounts. Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'2)Previously, every person taking part in the scheme has been individually issued with a form for the purposes of requesting the transfer of leave to the leave account and the transfer has then had to be done manually by HR Division. To streamline the procedure, unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of the leave-year accounts will henceforth be transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. This simplification is in the interest of all parties concerned. This automatic transfer procedure has a number of advantages for participants in the SLS scheme. First, staff members will no longer have to take any administrative steps. Secondly, the new proced...

  14. Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Octacosanol from the Leaves of Sabicea grisea var. grisea in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliano Barreto

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sabicea species are used in the Amazon for treatment of fever and malaria, which suggests that its chemical constituents may have some effect on pain and inflammation. Phytochemical analysis of the hexane fraction obtained from the crude ethanol extract from Sabicea grisea var. grisea Cham. & Schltdl (Rubiaceae, an endemic plant in Brazil, resulted in the isolation of octacosanol. This study investigated the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of the octacosanol in different experimental models. The crude ethanolic extract and hexane fraction obtained from the leaves of S. grisea produced an inhibition of acetic acid-induced pain. Moreover, octacosanol isolated from the hexane fraction produced a significant inhibition of pain response elicited by acetic acid. Pre-treatment with yohimbine, an alpha 2-adrenergic receptor antagonist, notably reversed the antinociceptive activity induced by octacosanol in the abdominal constriction test. Furthermore, mice treated with octacosanol did not exhibit any behavioral alteration during the hot plate and rota-rod tests, indicating non-participation of the supraspinal components in the modulation of pain by octacosanol with no motor abnormality. In the formalin test, octacosanol did not inhibit the licking time in first phase (neurogenic pain, but significantly inhibited the licking time in second phase (inflammatory pain of mice. The anti-inflammatory effect of octacosanol was evaluated using carrageenan-induced pleurisy. The octacosanol significantly reduced the total leukocyte count and neutrophils influx, as well as TNF-α levels in the carrageenan-induced pleurisy. This study revealed that the mechanism responsible for the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of the octacosanol appears to be partly associated with an inhibition of alpha 2-adrenergic transmission and an inhibition of pathways dependent on pro-inflammatory cytokines. Finally, these results demonstrated that the

  15. Research Progress on Chemical Constituents and Bioactivities of Macfadyena unguis-cati (Bignoniaceae)%紫威科植物猫爪藤化学成分与生物活性研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐晓辉; 童庆宣; 明艳林

    2012-01-01

    紫威科植物猫爪藤常被用作装饰植物,其自然群落主要分布在热带美洲的一些国家,在其它国家移植或归化的猫爪藤因被认为具有生物入侵危害而备受关注.然而,在原产地的一些国家或地区民间则将其作为药物治疗许多病症,如炎症、风湿病、痢疾、性病、疟疾、毒蛇咬伤等.近年来,这些国家的研究者就此对猫爪藤进行了较多的化学成分和药理作用的相关研究,本文主要综述了这方面的研究进展,以期使人们进一步了解猫爪藤具有药用价值的一面,从而引导和促进对其进行开发和利用而不要简单的当作有害入侵物种来进行对待.%Macfadyena unguis-cati (L. ) (Bignoniaceae) is an ornamental climbing plant,widespread in Egypt,America and Western India. It has received much concern for its invasion danger when it was transplanted in non-native countries. However.it has been widely used in folk medicine for anti-in? ammatory,antimalarial,dysentery,rheumatism, antivenereal.as well as against snakebite in native country. Tin's review covers research advances on chemical constituents and biological activities of M. unguis-cati in recent years. It aims at making peoples recognize medicinal properties of M. unguis-cati,and thus exploit and utilize it.

  16. Key Obama officials leave administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-01-01

    Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar is one of the latest members of the Obama administration to announce that he is leaving his position near the start of President Obama's second term in office. Salazar, who has served as interior secretary since January 2009, intends to leave the department by the end of March, the department noted on 16 January. Salazar joins a number of other key officials who are planning to leave the administration. They include Environmental Protection Agency administrator Lisa Jackson, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration administrator Jane Lubchenco, and U.S. Geological Survey director Marcia McNutt.

  17. New statement of leave format

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Following the communication of the Standing Concertation Committee published in Weekly Bulletin No. 18-19 of 27 April 2009, the current statement of leave on monthly pay slips has been replaced with the EDH Leave Transactions report that displays the up-to-date situation of individual leave balances at all times. The report is available on EDH. Additionally, the layout of the pay slip has been modernised. The new version of the pay slip will be send out from September 2009 onwards. Finance and Purchasing Department, Personnel Accounting Human Resources Department, Organisation and Procedures General Infrastructure Services Department, Administrative Information Services

  18. 46 CFR 310.8 - Leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (7) days. (3) Annual leave shall not exceed thirty (30) days. (4) Christmas and Easter leave shall..., as authorized by the school, not to exceed four (4) months. (2) Christmas and Easter leave and...

  19. Influencia de cinco tipos de embalagens na germinaçao e no vigor de sementes de Angico - Parapiptadenia rigida (Benth)Brenan, Caixeta - Tabebuia cassinoides (Lam)Dc. e caroba-Jacaranda micrantha Cham. armazenadas em câmara fria e a temperatura ambiente

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Adson

    2013-01-01

    O presente trabalho foi conduzido no Laboratório de Silvicultura do Departamento de Silvicultura e Manejo da Universidade Federal do Paraná, com o intuito de apresentar informações que permitam estudar a viabilidade de lotes de sementes de angico vermelho -Parapiptadenia rigida (Benth.) Brenan, caixeta -Tabebuia cassinoides (Lam.) DC. Caroba – Jacaranda micrantha Cham., através de um armazenamento adequado. Após uma secagem inicial, em estufa a 42ºC por períodos de 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 e 8 ...

  20. PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF NERIUM OLEANDER LEAVES AND MOMORDICA CHARANTIA LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santhi R

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The developing countries mostly rely on traditional medicines. The traditional medicine involves the use of different plant extracts or the bioactive constituents. This type of study provides the health application at affordable cost. This study such as ethnomedicine keenly represents one of the best avenues in searching new economic plants for medicine. In keeping this view in mind the present investigation is carried out in Nerium oleander and Momordica charantia leaves. Qualitative phytochemical analysis of these two plants confirms the presence of various phytochemicals like carbohydrates, cholesterol, protein, amino acid, alkaloid, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, cardiac glycosides, terpenoids, and phlobatinins in their aqueous leaf extracts leaves followed by ethanol, ethyl acetate, diethyl ether and chloroform. The results suggest that the phytochemical properties of the leaves for curing various ailments and possess potential antioxidant properties.

  1. Anatomia foliar de ipê-branco (Tabebuia roseo Alba (Ridl. Sand. – Bignoniaceae, proveniente do cultivo ex vitro e in vitro - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i3.1937 Ex vitro and in vitro leaf anatomy of Tabebuia roseo alba (Ridl. Sand. – Bignoniaceae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i3.1937

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia de Oliveira

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo comparar a estrutura interna de folhas de ipê-branco cultivadas in vitro e ex vitro. Para as avaliações anatômicas foram utilizadas folhas do primeiro nó de ramos, da base para o ápice, com 30 dias de cultivo in vitro e de plantas de campo. O estudo anatômico foi feito por meio das secções transversais e paradérmicas das folhas. As folhas apresentam epiderme uniestratificada e mesofilo dorsiventral. São hipostomáticas e apresentam tricomas em todas as faces. Folhas de plantas cultivadas ex vitro, quando comparadas com in vitro, tiveram espessura do limbo foliar, nervura central da epiderme adaxial e abaxial e os parênquimas paliçádico e esponjoso maiores. Em folhas oriundas do cultivo in vitro, a cutícula e o esclerênquima são ausentes. Folhas de plantas cultivadas ex vitro apresentaram menor número de estômatos e maior número de tricomas, quando comparadas com o cultivo in vitro. Os estômatos de folhas cultivadas in vitro são maiores que os de folhas ex vitroConsidering the importance of knowledge of anatomical structures in the protocol definition for the micropropagation of the ipê-branco, this study compared the in vitro and ex vitro internal structure of leaves. For anatomical evaluations, the first leaf in vitro with 30 days of growth and adult plants were used. The anatomical study of leaves was based on microscope examination from cross-sectional and paradermic sections from the leaf blade. The leaf structures from plants ex vitro show uniseriate skin, and mesophyll with dorsiventral organization. They are hipostomatics and trichome is present in all faces. Leaves ex vitro was thicker that culture in vitro in limb, central nervure, epidermis and palisade and spongious parenchyma. In leaves in vitro, cuticle and sclerenchyma are absent. Leaves of ex vitro presented minor numbers of stomata and greater number of trichromes when compared with culture in vitro. Stomata of in vitro are

  2. Watch out for the leaves!

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2013-01-01

    Now that autumn is here, dead leaves falling from the trees form a colourful carpet that is pleasing to the eye. However, the reality is less pleasant for pedestrians, since these leaves increase the risk of slipping and falling, especially when the ground is wet.   These conditions are also hazardous for two- and four-wheeled vehicles, whose grip on the ground can be severely reduced, thereby increasing the risk of them skidding out of control. Cyclists are among the most vulnerable road users when faced with these hazards. It is therefore essential to be alert to the dangers, which can be lessened by taking a few simple precautions such as moderating your speed and wearing suitable shoes. We also invite you to notify the Service Desk if you notice a road or pavement where there is a high concentration of dead leaves. The CERN Roads and Drainage Service will then ensure that the leaves are cleared in order to reduce the risk of accidents in the area.

  3. How to leave your job.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurden, Dean

    2016-08-10

    'Leaving a job is never a decision you should take lightly,' says Nick Simpson, CEO of health recruitment agency MSI Group. 'Every nursing professional has things about their job they find frustrating and daily tasks they may not necessarily enjoy doing, but it's important to consider the positive aspects of your current role before you make a decision.' PMID:27507390

  4. Carnivorous leaves from Baltic amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowski, Eva-Maria; Seyfullah, Leyla J; Sadowski, Friederike; Fleischmann, Andreas; Behling, Hermann; Schmidt, Alexander R

    2015-01-01

    The fossil record of carnivorous plants is very scarce and macrofossil evidence has been restricted to seeds of the extant aquatic genus Aldrovanda of the Droseraceae family. No case of carnivorous plant traps has so far been reported from the fossil record. Here, we present two angiosperm leaves enclosed in a piece of Eocene Baltic amber that share relevant morphological features with extant Roridulaceae, a carnivorous plant family that is today endemic to the Cape flora of South Africa. Modern Roridula species are unique among carnivorous plants as they digest prey in a complex mutualistic association in which the prey-derived nutrient uptake depends on heteropteran insects. As in extant Roridula, the fossil leaves possess two types of plant trichomes, including unicellular hairs and five size classes of multicellular stalked glands (or tentacles) with an apical pore. The apices of the narrow and perfectly tapered fossil leaves end in a single tentacle, as in both modern Roridula species. The glandular hairs of the fossils are restricted to the leaf margins and to the abaxial lamina, as in extant Roridula gorgonias. Our discovery supports current molecular age estimates for Roridulaceae and suggests a wide Eocene distribution of roridulid plants. PMID:25453067

  5. Smoking Leaves Lasting Marks on DNA: Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_161060.html Smoking Leaves Lasting Marks on DNA: Study Changes related to disease found in more ... cigarettes can leave a lasting imprint on human DNA, altering more than 7,000 genes in ways ...

  6. Aspectos epidemiológicos e clínico-patológicos comparados da intoxicação por Arrabidaea bilabiata (Bignoniaceae em búfalos e bovinos Comparative epidemiological, clinical and pathological aspects of poisoning by Arrabidaea bilabiata (Bignoniaceae in buffalo and cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Hubinger Tokarnia

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Através de estudo experimental, verificou-se que, embora o quadro clínico-patológico seja essencialmente o mesmo, o búfalo é pelo menos duas vezes mais resistente que o bovino à ação tóxica de Arrabidaea bilabiata (Sprague Sandw. Os experimentos demonstraram também, que as folhas novas desta planta são duas vezes (em outubro, fim da época de seca ou uma vez e meio (em maio, fim da época de chuva mais tóxicas do que as folhas maduras, e que a planta é mais tóxica em outubro. Esses dados indicam que a menor incidência de intoxicação por plantas do grupo das que causam morte súbita, em búfalos na Amazônia, deva-se, em parte, à maior resistência dessa espécie animal. Também parece importante a coincidência do habitat preferencial dos búfalos (várzea com o habitat de A. bilabiata, planta menos tóxica que Palicourea marcgravii St.Hil., encontrada em terra firme que é o habitat preferido pelos bovinos.Experiments showed that the clinical and pathological pictures were essentially the same, but the buffalo was at least twice more resistant than the bovine to the toxic effect of Arrabidaea bilabiata (Sprague Sandw. It was also shown that the young leaves are twice (October, end of the dry season or one and a half (May, end of the rainy season more toxic than the mature leaves, and that the plant is more toxic in October. These data indicate that the smaller incidence of poisoning by plants of the group that causes sudden death in buffaloes in the Amazon Region is, in part, due to the greater resistance of this animal species to the toxic action of the plant. Also important seems to be the coincidence of the preferential habitat of the buffalo (flooded areas with the habitat of A. bilabiata, less toxic than Palicourea marcgravii St.Hil. which is a plant of the non-flooded areas, the preferential habitat of cattle.

  7. Resource capture by single leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, S.P.

    1992-05-01

    Leaves show a variety of strategies for maximizing CO{sub 2} and light capture. These are more meaningfully explained if they are considered in the context of maximizing capture relative to the utilization of water, nutrients and carbohydrates reserves. There is considerable variation between crops in their efficiency of CO{sub 2} and light capture at the leaf level. Understanding of these mechanisms indicate some ways in which efficiency of resource capture could be level cannot be meaningfully considered without simultaneous understanding of implications at the canopy level. 36 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  8. RECRUITMENT FINANCED BY SAVED LEAVE (RSL PROGRAMME)

    CERN Document Server

    Division du Personnel; Tel. 73903

    1999-01-01

    Transfer to the saved leave account and saved leave bonusStaff members participating in the RSL programme may opt to transfer up to 10 days of unused annual leave or unused compensatory leave into their saved leave account, at the end of the leave year, i.e. 30 September (as set out in the implementation procedure dated 27 August 1997).A leave transfer request form, which you should complete, sign and return, if you wish to use this possibility, has been addressed you. To allow the necessary time for the processing of your request, you should return it without delay.As foreseen in the implementation procedure, an additional day of saved leave will be granted for each full period of 20 days remaining in the saved leave account on 31 December 1999, for any staff member participating in the RSL programme until that date.For part-time staff members participating in the RSL programme, the above-mentioned days of leave (annual, compensatory and saved) are adjusted proportionally to their contractual working week as...

  9. Morfologia e anatomia das plântulas de Tabebuia avellanedae Lor. ex Griseb e T. chrysotricha (Mart. ex Dc. Standl. (Bignoniaceae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i2.1649 Seedlings morphology and anatomy of Tabebuia avellanedae Lor. ex Griseb and T. chrysotricha (Mart. ex Dc. Standl. (Bignoniaceae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i2.1649

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antonio Souza

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available As plântulas de Tabebuia avellanedae Lor. ex Griseb. (ipê-roxo e T. chrysotricha (Mart. ex DC. Standl. (ipê-amarelo, espécies arbóreas que ocorrem no Estado do Paraná, foram estudadas morfoanatomicamente. As plântulas foram obtidas de sementes coletadas no campus da Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Paraná, Brasil. As seções anatômicas foram feitas a mão livre e coradas com azul de astra e safranina. As plântulas são fanerocotiledonares e epigéias. A raiz é axial e pentarca/heptarca em ,em>T. avellanedae e tetrarca/hexarca em T. chrysotricha. A zona de transição ocorre no hipocótilo. O mesofilo cotiledonar é homogêneo em T. avellanedae e heterogêneo em T. chrysotricha. Os eofilos são folhas simples e dorsiventrais e os metafilos de tirodendros são compostos digitados e isobilaterais. Eofilos e metafilos são hipostomáticos, com complexos estomáticos anomocíticos e tricomas glandulares e tectoresSeedlings of Tabebuia avellanedae Lor. ex Griseb. (“ipê-roxo” and T. chrysotricha (Mart. ex DC. Standl. (“ipê-amarelo”, arboreal species that occurr in the state of Paraná, southern Brazil, are morphologically and anatomically studied. Seedlings were obtained from seeds collected at the Universidade Estadual de Maringá, state of Paraná. Anatomical sections were handmade and stained with astra blue and safranin. Seedlings are phanerocotylar and epigeal. The root is axial and pentarch-heptarch in T. avellanedae and tetrarch-hexarch in T. chrysotricha. The root-shoot transition region occurs in the hypocotyl. Mesophyll cotyledonous is homogeneous in T. avellanedae and heterogeneous in T. chrysotricha. Eophylls are simple and dorsiventral leaves and metaphylls are compound and isobilateral. Eophylls and metaphylls are hypostomatic with anomocytic stomatal complexes and glandular and non-glandular trichomes

  10. Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics Database: CHAM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Hydrographic and Impairment Statistics (HIS) is a National Park Service (NPS) Water Resources Division (WRD) project established to track certain goals created in...

  11. Role of leaves in phototropism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, S L; Leopold, A C

    1966-05-01

    Experiments with green seedlings of sunflower (Helianthus annuns L.) indicate the existence of a phototropic mechanism which involves the leaves or cotyledons, and which can produce an asymmetry of auxin content without the involvement of lateral auxin transport, the classic explanation of phototropism in etiolated seedlings. The basic lines of evidence for the leaf-mediated tropism are: 1) darkening of one cotyledon will cause curvature of the stem toward the lighted cotyledon: 2) the darkened cotyledon sustains an enhanced growth rate in the stem below it: 3) conversely, light suppresses the growth-stimulating effects of a single cotyledon: and 4) more diffusible auxin is obtained from the stem below darkened cotyledons than below lighted ones.

  12. Determination of the phenolic content and antioxidant potential of crude extracts and isolated compounds from leaves of Cordia multispicata and Tournefortia bicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia Da Silva, Thiago B; Souza, Vivian Karoline T; Da Silva, Ana Paula F; Lyra Lemos, Rosangela P; Conserva, Lucia M

    2010-01-01

    In this work, the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of extracts and four flavonoids isolated from leaves of two Boraginaceae species (Cordia multispicata Cham. and Tournefortia bicolor Sw.) were evaluated using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, DPPH free radical scavenging and inhibition of peroxidation of linoleic acid by FTC method. For comparison, ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol and BHT were used. In general, extracts from T. bicolor (68.8 +/- 0.001 to > 1000 mg/g) showed higher phenolic content than C. multispicata (66.1 +/- 0.009 to 231 +/- 0.07 mg/g), and also scavenged radicals (IC(50) 12.8 +/- 2.5 to 437 +/- 3.5 mg/L) and inhibited lipid peroxide formation (IC(50) 51.2 +/- 2.29 to 89 +/- 0.59 mg/L). For these extracts a good correlation between the phenolic content and antioxidant activity was observed, suggesting that T. bicolor is richer in phenolic compounds and that it could serve as a new source of natural antioxidants or nutraceuticals with potential applications. Chromatographic procedures monitored by antioxidant assays afforded seven compounds, which were identified by spectral analyses (IR, MS and 1D and 2D NMR) and comparison with reported data as being trans-phytol (1), taraxerol (2), 3,7,4'-trimethoxyflavone (3), 5,3'-dihydroxy-3,7,4'-trimethoxyflavone (4), quercetin (5), tiliroside (6), and rutin (7). Compounds (4-7) were also evaluated and were effective as DPPH quenching (IC(50) 7.7 +/- 3.6 to 79.3 +/- 3.4 mg/L) and as inhibition of lipid peroxidation (IC(50) 80.1 +/- 0.98 to 88.7 +/- 3.62 mg/L). This is the first report on the total phenolic content, radical-scavenging and antioxidant activities of these species.

  13. Sweet potato leaves for growing pigs

    OpenAIRE

    An, Le

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present studies was to evaluate the potential of using sweet potato leaves (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) as a protein source in diets for growing pigs. A number of sweet potato varieties were evaluated with respect to the biomass yield of the leaves, stems and tubers under different leaf harvesting intervals and defoliation techniques with the aim of selecting the best varieties for forage production. The biomass yields of leaves, stems and tubers were found to vary according to v...

  14. Fathers on Parental Leave in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinicke, Kenneth; Cybulski, Franz Wilhelm; Drews, Lea Vedel;

    2005-01-01

    In the article it is argued that contemporary fatherhood and masculinity differ increasingly from hegemonic masculinity according to which men are primarily responsible for ensuring the financial basis of the family. The article “Fathers on Parental Leave in Denmark”, based on interviews with 15 ......, parental leave and domestic affairs. The article also demonstrates that the issue of parental leave may cause a conflict of interest between an employer and en employee although the majority of employers in this study emphasize that parental leave is unproblematic for them....

  15. A new class of non-leaves

    CERN Document Server

    Souza, Fábio S

    2011-01-01

    We give examples of open smooth manifolds that cannot be leaves of any Riemannian foliation of arbitrary codimension on a compact manifold. We also present a new class of non-leaves of C^0 codimension one foliations, simply connected manifolds of dimension at least 5 that are non-periodic in homotopy, namely in their 2-dimensional homotopy groups.

  16. When and Why Dropouts Leave High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stearns, Elizabeth; Glennie, Elizabeth J.

    2006-01-01

    Teens may leave school because of academic failure, disciplinary problems, or employment opportunities. In this article, the authors test whether the reasons dropouts leave school differ by grade level and age. We compare dropout rates and reasons across grade levels and ages for all high school students, ethnic groups, and gender groups. Across…

  17. INTRODUCTION OF A NEW LEAVE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    CERN Document Server

    DIVISION HR

    2000-01-01

    The introduction of new leave rules (arising from the RSL, PRP and other programs) has made the present leave management system rather complicated and difficult to manage. It has therefore been decided to replace it with a more flexible and adaptable system, which will come into force on 1st October 2000. Henceforth, days of leave will be credited monthly instead of annually. Members of the personnel will have round-the-clock direct access to more detailed, confidential information regarding their various kinds of leave. They will also receive a personal monthly statement with their pay slips. The new system does not require any amendment of the regulations, except with respect to the frequency of leave calculations (monthly instead of annual). I. Main characteristics of the new leave system1. The main feature of the new system is the creation of accounts to which leave will be credited or debited as appropriate. Depending on their circumstances, members of the personnel may have up to four individual leave a...

  18. INTRODUCTION OF A NEW LEAVE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    CERN Multimedia

    DIVISION HR; TEL. 74474

    2000-01-01

    The introduction of new leave rules (arising from the RSL, PRP and other programmes) has made the present leave management system rather complicated and difficult to manage. It has therefore been decided to replace it with a more flexible and adaptable system, which will come into force on 1st October 2000. Henceforth, days of leave will be credited monthly instead of annually. Members of the personnel will have round-the-clock direct access to more detailed, confidential information regarding their various kinds of leave. They will also receive a personal monthly statement with their pay slips. The new system does not require any amendment of the regulations, except with respect to the frequency of leave calculations (monthly instead of annual). I. Main characteristics of the new leave system 1. The main feature of the new system is the creation of accounts to which leave will be credited or debited as appropriate. Depending on their circumstances, members of the personnel may have up to four individual leav...

  19. INTRODUCTION OF A NEW LEAVE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    CERN Document Server

    HR Division

    2000-01-01

    The introduction of new leave rules (arising from the RSL, PRP and other programmes) has made the present leave management system rather complicated and difficult to manage. It has therefore been decided to replace it with a more flexible and adaptable system, which will come into force on 1st October 2000. Henceforth, days of leave will be credited monthly instead of annually. Members of the personnel will have round-the-clock direct access to more detailed, confidential information regarding their various kinds of leave.They will also receive a personal monthly statement with their pay slips. The new system does not require any amendment of the regulations, except with respect to the frequency of leave calculations (monthly instead of annual). I. Main characteristics of the new leave system 1. The main feature of the new system is the creation of accounts to which leave will be credited or debited as appropriate. Depending on their circumstances, members of the personnel may have up to four individual leave...

  20. A Feminist Perspective on Parental Leave Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallee, Margaret W.

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on the ways that three feminist theories--liberal feminism, cultural feminism, and feminist poststructuralism--might be used to craft parental leave policies. After examining each theory in detail, the article concludes by offering one example of an ideal parental leave policy that combines the best features of each theory to…

  1. 20 CFR 638.532 - Annual leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... regardless of the date of enrollment provided that the student was not AWOL or on administrative leave without pay from the date of enrollment. Accrual time shall begin on the day the student departs for a... only once per year of enrollment. (e) Students shall not be charged annual leave for travel time to...

  2. Efeito alelopático de sabugueiro e capim-limão na germinação de picão-preto e soja = Allelophatic effect of Sambucus australis Cham. and Schltdl. and Cymbopogon citratus (DC Stapf. in the germination of Bidens pilosa L. and soybeans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Maria Teixeira Fortes

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available As plantas invasoras são constantes e diminuem a produtividade das culturas por competirem por espaço, nutrientes e água. Dessa forma, os agricultores adotam, em grande escala, produtos químicos eficientes no controle da lavoura e com alta toxicidade ao meioambiente. Existem, no entanto, formas alternativas para o controle de invasoras, por meio de aleloquímicos presentes em algumas plantas, dentre elas, as medicinais. Este trabalho tem como objetivo analisar as propriedades alelopáticas dos extratos das plantas medicinais Cymbopogon citratus (DC Stapf. e Sambucus australis Cham. and Schltdl. em inibir a germinação de Bidens pilosa L., sem interferir na germinação de Glycine max L. Merrill. Os extratos foram obtidos triturandose 200 g de folhas com 1 L de água destilada. As sementes foram mantidas em B.O.D. à temperatura de 25°C, com fotoperíodo de 12h de luz. Nas condições em que foram realizados os experimentos, constatou-se que o extrato de capim-limão inibiu a germinação de picão-preto sem que este inibisse a germinação da soja, enquanto o extrato de sabugueiro inibiu a germinação de picão-preto e a germinação da soja. Assim, indica-se a utilização do capim-limão, como um herbicida natural para o picão-preto.Agriculture has been suffering adaptations throughout time, from hard hand labor to the most advanced sowing and harvesting techniques. Invasive plants are a constant, diminishing productivity by competing for space, nutrients, and water. Therefore, farmers have adopted, on alarge scale, the use of efficient synthetic chemicals, which are highly toxic to the environment, in order to control plant production. However, there are other alternative means to control those competitors: using allelochemicals present in some plants, such as medicinal ones. The objective of this paper is to analyze allelophatic properties of the medicinal plants Cymbopogon citratus (DC Stapf. and Sambucus australis Cham. and Schltdl

  3. 5 CFR 630.308 - Scheduling of annual leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scheduling of annual leave. 630.308... AND LEAVE Annual Leave § 630.308 Scheduling of annual leave. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b... for advance scheduling of annual leave in paragraph (a) of this section shall not apply to an...

  4. Labour Supply Responses to Paid Parental Leave

    OpenAIRE

    Karimi, Arizo; Lindahl, Erica; Skogman Thoursie, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Women account for the majority of parental leave take-up, which is likely one of the major reasons for the gender gap in income and wages. Consequently, many countries exert effort to promote a more gender equal division of parental leave. Indeed, the last decades have seen an increase in fathers’ take-up of parental leave benefits, but the gender earnings gap has remained fairly constant. In this paper we re-evaluate the labour supply responses of both mothers and fathers to three major refo...

  5. Laser induced fluorescence of some plant leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser induced fluorescence (LIF) is successfully used as a technique for remote detection of spectral characteristics of some plants. A pulsed nitrogen laser at 337.1 nm is used to excite cotton, corn and rice leaves. The fluorescence spectrum is detected in the range from 340 nm to 820 nm. It is found that, these plant leaves have common fluorescence maxima at 440 nm, 685 nm and 740 nm. plant leaves are also found to be identifiable by the ratio of the fluorescence intensity at 440 nm to that at 685 nm. The present technique can be further used as a means of assessing, remotely, plant stresses. 5 fig

  6. Phytochemical and antifungal activities of Uvaria. chamae leaves and roots, Spondias mombin leaves and bark and Combretum racemosum leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okwuosa, O M T B; Chukwura, E I; Chukwuma, G O; Okwuosa, C N; Enweani, I B; Agbakoba, N R; Chukwuma, C M; Manafa, P O; Umedum, C U

    2012-12-01

    The effects of crude and dilutions of aqueous, methanolic and n-hexane extracts of Uvaria chamae (roots and leaves), Spondias mombin (leaves and bark) and Combretum racemosum (Leaves), on pathogenic candida albicans and aspergillus niger was studied. The aim was to contribute to the search for a cheaper, conventional cure for both fungi. Phytochemical analysis revealed varying degrees of alkaloids, glycosides, saponin, lipid and oil, tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids and acids. Agar diffusion method was used for anti fungal assay. Minimum inhibitory concentration (mic) used was 10 mg/ml of extract and dilutions of the non polar solvents of 10 (-1) and 10(-2) was used. Results showed that none of the plant parts was active against aspergillus niger. Combretum racemosum had no antifungal effect on tested organisms as well as the different dilutions. However crude methanolic extract of uvaria (roots and leaves), spondias ( bark and leaves ), and n-hexane extracts of uvaria (leaves and roots), produced anti candidal effects with diameters in this order 14.67 +/- 0.72mm, 10.67 +/- 0.52 mm, 11.00 +/- 0.47 mm, 15.00 +/- 0.47 mm, and 14.67 +/- 0.72 mm respectively. Some of the plant parts especially uvaria had zones of inhibition at a confidence limit comparable with control drug which is ketoconazole and it had inhibitory effects at a diameter of 20.06 +/- 0.40 mm. PMID:23678643

  7. Early School Leaving: Reasons and Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika GYÖNÖS

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Early school leaving represents a loss of potential that has effects on both social and economic scale (reduced social cohesion, lower financial incomes, increase of social allocations. Early school leaving has various reasons that can be either social or economic. Due to the average statistics of the 27 countries of the European Union, in 2008 78,5% of the populations of these countries went to school regularly, whereas the same statistics applied for Romania showed an extent of 78,3%. The statistics of early school leaving showed some 14, 9% in the countries of the EU, whereas in Romania this index was higher (15, 9%. Sequel to some analyses we can state that there is a strong relationship between the variables named participation in education and early school leaving; more than that, there is a strong relationship between the extent of school studies completion and the rate of unemployment.

  8. Analysis of the chemical composition of the essential oils extracted from Lippia lacunosa Mart. and Schauer and Lippia rotundifolia Cham. (Verbenaceae) by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitao, Suzana G.; Barbosa, Ymira Galico [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Fac. de Farmacia; Oliveira, Danilo R. de; Leitao, Gilda G. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Nucleo de Pesquisas de Produtos Naturais]. E-mail: sgleitao@pharma.ufrj.br; Suelsen, Valeria; Martino, Virginia [Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina). Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquimica; Bizzo, Humberto R.; Lopes, Daise [EMBRAPA Agroindustria de Alimentos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Viccini, Lyderson F.; Salimena, Fatima R.G.; Peixoto, Paulo H.P. [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (UFJF), Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Biolgicas

    2008-07-01

    Lippia lacunosa and L. rotundifolia (Verbenaceae) are two Brazilian species of complex taxonomic delimitation. The composition of the essential oils from leaves and flowers of these plants was investigated by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The major components of the essential oils of flowers and leaves of L. lacunosa were: myrcene (14.7% and 11.9%), myrcenone (45.2% and 64.2%), Z-ocimenone (5.7% and 5.2%), and E-ocimenone (14.7% and 4.1%), respectively; whereas in L. rotundifolia (flowers and leaves) were ..-pinene (8.7% and 1.8%), myrcene (5.1% and 3.6%), limonene (26.0% and 7.9 %), cis-pinocamphone (4.5% and 3.1%) and myrtenal (22.3% and 16.7%), respectively. The essential oils from L. lacunosa exhibited a strong and pleasant mango aroma, which was related to the presence of myrcene and myrcenone. The marked differences in the chemical composition of their essential oils may represent a powerful tool for the botanical classification. (author)

  9. Analysis of the chemical composition of the essential oils extracted from Lippia lacunosa Mart. and Schauer and Lippia rotundifolia Cham. (Verbenaceae) by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippia lacunosa and L. rotundifolia (Verbenaceae) are two Brazilian species of complex taxonomic delimitation. The composition of the essential oils from leaves and flowers of these plants was investigated by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The major components of the essential oils of flowers and leaves of L. lacunosa were: myrcene (14.7% and 11.9%), myrcenone (45.2% and 64.2%), Z-ocimenone (5.7% and 5.2%), and E-ocimenone (14.7% and 4.1%), respectively; whereas in L. rotundifolia (flowers and leaves) were ..-pinene (8.7% and 1.8%), myrcene (5.1% and 3.6%), limonene (26.0% and 7.9 %), cis-pinocamphone (4.5% and 3.1%) and myrtenal (22.3% and 16.7%), respectively. The essential oils from L. lacunosa exhibited a strong and pleasant mango aroma, which was related to the presence of myrcene and myrcenone. The marked differences in the chemical composition of their essential oils may represent a powerful tool for the botanical classification. (author)

  10. Intra-Household Allocation of Parental Leave

    OpenAIRE

    Gobbi, Paula Eugenia; Parys, Juliane; Schwerhoff, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    We introduce childcare sharing in a collective model of household behavior to investigate which factors make spouses increase or decrease their share of parental leave. The concern about future consumption motivates parents to invest in their human capital and to limit their leave duration. Using relative income and the age difference between spouses as distribution factors, we cannot reject Pareto efficiency in childcare sharing. Higher relative incomes and larger age differences shift the c...

  11. Acute Toxicity of Justicia gendarussa Burm. Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Juheini Amin; Berna Elya

    2010-01-01

    Acute Toxicity of Justicia gendarussa Burm. Leaves. Preminelary experiment showed that ethanolic extract ofgandarusa leaves (Justicia gendarussa Burm.) could decreased uric acid blood level on rats. The aim of this experimentwas to determine of the value LD50 and liver function based on activities of aminotransferase. Animals test which wereused in this experiment were 50 males and 50 females white mice. They were divided into 5 groups. Group 1 as controlgroup was given aquadest. Group 2-5 we...

  12. Morphology and anatomy of Justicia acuminatissima leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Christina S. Verdam; Débora T. Ohana; Maria Gracimar P. Araújo; Fernanda Guilhon-Simplicio; Maria Sílvia de Mendonça; Maria de M. Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Justicia acuminatissima (Miq.) Bremek., Acanthaceae, is a subshrub found in northern Brazil, where it is widely used by the population of this region as an anti-inflammatory medicine. Despite this popular use, there is no pharmacognostical data to support the correct identification of this species. We therefore performed a morpho-anatomical, histochemical and phytochemical analysis of the leaves of this species, using well-known methods. The leaves are simple, exstipulate, green on the surfac...

  13. Short-Term Saved Leave Scheme

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    As announced at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) on 26 June 2007 and in http://Bulletin No. 28/2007, the existing Saved Leave Scheme will be discontinued as of 31 December 2007. Staff participating in the Scheme will shortly receive a contract amendment stipulating the end of financial contributions compensated by save leave. Leave already accumulated on saved leave accounts can continue to be taken in accordance with the rules applicable to the current scheme. A new system of saved leave will enter into force on 1 January 2008 and will be the subject of a new implementation procedure entitled "Short-term saved leave scheme" dated 1 January 2008. At its meeting on 4 December 2007, the SCC agreed to recommend the Director-General to approve this procedure, which can be consulted on the HR Department’s website at the following address: https://cern.ch/hr-services/services-Ben/sls_shortterm.asp All staff wishing to participate in the new scheme a...

  14. Short-Term Saved Leave Scheme

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    As announced at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) on 26 June 2007 and in http://Bulletin No. 28/2007, the existing Saved Leave Scheme will be discontinued as of 31 December 2007. Staff participating in the Scheme will shortly receive a contract amendment stipulating the end of financial contributions compensated by save leave. Leave already accumulated on saved leave accounts can continue to be taken in accordance with the rules applicable to the current scheme. A new system of saved leave will enter into force on 1 January 2008 and will be the subject of a new im-plementation procedure entitled "Short-term saved leave scheme" dated 1 January 2008. At its meeting on 4 December 2007, the SCC agreed to recommend the Director-General to approve this procedure, which can be consulted on the HR Department’s website at the following address: https://cern.ch/hr-services/services-Ben/sls_shortterm.asp All staff wishing to participate in the new scheme ...

  15. Chemical constituents of Arrabidaea samydoides (Bignoniaceae); Constituintes quimicos de Arrabidaea samydoides (Bignoniaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pauletti, Patricia Mendonca; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: bolzaniv@iq.unesp.br; Young, Maria Claudia Marx [Instituto de Botanica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Fisiologia e Bioquimica de Plantas

    2003-10-01

    Chemical investigation of Arrabidaea samydoides resulted in the isolation of the flavone chrysin; five triterpenes: lupeol, ursolic acid, 3{beta},16{alpha}-dihydroxy-urs-12-ene, uvaol, and erythrodiol; and two sterols: sitosterol and stigmasterol. The structures of these compounds were established by spectroscopic analysis. This paper deal with the first phytochemical study of Arrabidaea samydoides. (author)

  16. Cadmium accumulation in leaves of leafy vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldantoni, Daniela; Morra, Luigi; Zaccardelli, Massimo; Alfani, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Leafy vegetables have a relatively high potential for Cd uptake and translocation, and are thus considered Cd accumulators. For this reason, leaves and roots of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and endive (Cichorium endivia L.) plants, grown on different agricultural soils in Campania region (southern Italy), subjected to different fertilisation treatments (unfertilisation, compost amendment and mineral fertilisation), were analysed for Cd concentrations. Moreover, to clarify if the highest concentrations found are linked to older and inedible or to younger and edible leaves, external and internal endive leaves were separately analysed. All the leafy vegetables analysed showed on average 2-fold higher Cd concentrations in leaves than in roots. Leaf Cd concentrations in both lettuce and endive plants significantly differed among fertilisation treatments, with values highest in the plants grown on mineral fertilised soils. Apart from the soil fertilisation treatments, however, Cd leaf concentrations were often higher (up to 4-fold) than the threshold deduced by the EU 420/2011 Regulation, although the plants grew on unpolluted soils. Anyway, external leaves of endive plants showed significantly higher concentrations than internal leaves (in some cases the values were 3-fold higher), partly reassuring on the consumption of the younger leaves. Moreover, this study points out two major drawbacks in the Italian and European regulatory frameworks: (1) metal concentration (as total and/or available fraction) limits in agricultural soils are lacking; (2) metal concentration thresholds (currently existing only for Cd and Pb in crops) reported in the EU 420/2011 Regulation, expressed on the fresh weight basis rather than on the dry weight basis, appear not suitable.

  17. Maize Leaves Turn Away from Neighbors1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddonni, Gustavo Angel; Otegui, María Elena; Andrieu, Bruno; Chelle, Michael; Casal, Jorge J.

    2002-01-01

    In commercial crops, maize (Zea mays) plants are typically grown at a larger distance between rows (70 cm) than within the same row (16–23 cm). This rectangular arrangement creates a heterogeneous environment in which the plants receive higher red light (R) to far-red light (FR) ratios from the interrow spaces. In field crops, the hybrid Dekalb 696 (DK696) showed an increased proportion of leaves toward interrow spaces, whereas the experimental hybrid 980 (Exp980) retained random leaf orientation. Mirrors reflecting FR were placed close to isolated plants to simulate the presence of neighbors in the field. In addition, localized FR was applied to target leaves in a growth chamber. During their expansion, the leaves of DK696 turned away from the low R to FR ratio signals, whereas Exp980 leaves remained unaffected. On the contrary, tillering was reduced and plant height was increased by low R to FR ratios in Exp980 but not in DK696. Isolated plants preconditioned with low R/FR-simulating neighbors in a North-South row showed reduced mutual shading among leaves when the plants were actually grouped in North-South rows. These observations contradict the current view that phytochrome-mediated responses to low R/FR are a relic from wild conditions, detrimental for crop yield. PMID:12427985

  18. Uptake of perfluoroalkyl acids in the leaves of coniferous and deciduous broad-leaved trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huanhuan; Liu, Wei; He, Xin; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Qian

    2015-07-01

    Analytical methods for determining perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in leaves were developed to quantify a suite of analytes in both coniferous and deciduous broad-leaved trees. Sodium hydroxide-methanol and solid-phase extraction was selected as the extracting and cleanup strategy for PFAA analysis. Ten perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) and 4 perfluorosulfonic acids (PFSAs) were monitored in 7 kinds of leaves grown in the urban areas of Dalian, China. The results show that coniferous tree leaves take up more PFAAs than broad-leaved tree leaves, with the highest amount of 150 ng/g in pine needles. Leaf PFCA levels were much higher than PFSAs level. Short carbon-chain PFCAs with 3 to 6 perfluorinated carbons account for approximately 40% to 80% of the total leaf PFAAs, where uptake decreased with increasing carbon chain length. Temporal observation of leaf PFAAs revealed no significant variation of concentrations in the leaves over a weekly interval and the absence of significant seasonal change in pine needles and sophora. The present study provides some evidence for the accumulation of PFAAs in leaves, which is valuable for understanding their environmental behavior and the development of alternative bioindicator.

  19. University Students Leaving Relationships (USLR): Scale Development and Gender Differences in Decisions to Leave Romantic Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendy, Helen M.; Can, S. Hakan; Joseph, Lauren J.; Scherer, Cory R.

    2013-01-01

    The University Students Leaving Relationships scale was developed to identify student concerns when contemplating dissolution of romantic relationships. Participants included 1,106 students who rated the importance of issues when deciding to leave relationships. Factor analysis produced three dimensions: Missing the Relationship, Social…

  20. Rendering Falling Leaves on Graphics Hardware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Balsa

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest in simulating natural phenomena in computer graphics applications. Animating natural scenes in real time is one of the most challenging problems due to the inherent complexity of their structure, formed by millions of geometric entities, and the interactions that happen within. An example of natural scenario that is needed for games or simulation programs are forests. Forests are difficult to render because the huge amount of geometric entities and the large amount of detail to be represented. Moreover, the interactions between the objects (grass, leaves and external forces such as wind are complex to model. In this paper we concentrate in the rendering of falling leaves at low cost. We present a technique that exploits graphics hardware in order to render thousands of leaves with different falling paths in real time and low memory requirements.

  1. Causes and Consequences of a Father's Child Leave: Evidence from a Reform of Leave Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    Many OECD countries have implemented policies to induce couples to share parental leave. This paper investigates how responsive intra-household leave-sharing is to changes in economic incentives. To investigate this fundamental question, we are forced to look at one of the Nordic countries which...... are the most progressive when it comes to family-friendly policies. An extensive reform of child leave schemes in Denmark affected couples differently depending on whether the parents where employed in the same or in different parts of the public sector. Based on a difference-in-differences strategy......, I find that economic incentives are very important for intra-household leave-sharing. Increasing the couples' after tax income by $9 per day of leave which is transferred from the mother to the father is found to lead to a one day transfer. This corresponds to a supply elasticity close to unity....

  2. 38 CFR 21.342 - Leave accounting policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leave accounting policy. 21.342 Section 21.342 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS.... Chapter 31 Leaves of Absence § 21.342 Leave accounting policy. (a) Amount of leave. A veteran pursuing...

  3. IAEA inspectors to leave North Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: IAEA inspectors in Nyongbyon, DPRK, are making arrangements to leave the country. This is in response to DPRK officials confirming directly to the inspectors that they should leave the country immediately and that the DPRK has decided not to respond to the IAEA Director General's letter urging them to allow inspectors to remain at the Nyongbyon nuclear site. The inspectors are scheduled to depart the DPRK on 31 December. 'This is a country in defiance of its international obligations,' Dr. ElBaradei said, 'It sets a dangerous precedent for the integrity of the non-proliferation regime.' (IAEA)

  4. Studying chromium biosorption using arabica coffee leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Carlos Florez García

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This work was aimed at providing an alternative for removing heavy metals such as chromium from waste water (effluent from the leather industry and galvanoplasty (coating with a thin layer of metal by electrochemical means, using coffee leaves as bio- mass. Using arabica coffee (Castle variety leaves led to 82% chromium removal efficiency for 1,000 mg/L synthetic dissolutions in 4 pH dissolution operating conditions, 0 rpm agitation, 0.149 mm diameter biomass particle size and 0.85 g/ml biomass / dissolution volume ratio.

  5. Maternity leave duration and postpartum mental and physical health: implications for leave policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagher, Rada K; McGovern, Patricia M; Dowd, Bryan E

    2014-04-01

    This study examines the association of leave duration with depressive symptoms, mental health, physical health, and maternal symptoms in the first postpartum year, using a prospective cohort design. Eligible employed women, eighteen years or older, were interviewed in person at three Minnesota hospitals while hospitalized for childbirth in 2001. Telephone interviews were conducted at six weeks (N = 716), twelve weeks (N = 661), six months (N = 625), and twelve months (N = 575) after delivery. Depressive symptoms (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale), mental and physical health (SF-12 Health Survey), and maternal childbirth-related symptoms were measured at each time period. Two-stage least squares analysis showed that the relationship between leave duration and postpartum depressive symptoms is U-shaped, with a minimum at six months. In the first postpartum year, an increase in leave duration is associated with a decrease in depressive symptoms until six months postpartum. Moreover, ordinary least squares analysis showed a marginally significant linear positive association between leave duration and physical health. Taking leave from work provides time for mothers to rest and recover from pregnancy and childbirth. Findings indicate that the current leave duration provided by the Family and Medical Leave Act, twelve weeks, may not be sufficient for mothers at risk for or experiencing postpartum depression. PMID:24305845

  6. A Custom——Leaving a Tip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宗友

    2005-01-01

    Leaving a tip in a restaurant has become a custom in most countries. The word “tip” came from the Latin word “Gratis”, meaning free. Tips are defined as small gifts of money for service in addition to the payment due.

  7. Cardanols from leaves of Rhus thyrsiflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, K; Masaoud, M; Schmidt, J

    2001-07-01

    A mixture of 3-substituted alkyl- and alkenylphenols including nine new compounds (cardanols) was isolated from leaves of the Yemenian plant Rhus thyrsiflora (Anacardiaceae) and identified by GC-MS. The position of the double bond in the compounds bearing a monolefinic side chain was determined by their typical MS fragmentation patterns after hydroxylation and trimethylsilylation. PMID:11488469

  8. Epicuticular waxes and glaucousness of Encephalartos leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osborne, R; Stevens, JF

    1996-01-01

    The epicuticular leaf waxes from four glaucous and four non-glaucous species of Encephalartos were examined by GC-mass spectrometry and SEM techniques. The four glaucous-leaved species, E. horridus, E. lehmannii, E. princeps and E. trispinosus, all occurring in xeric conditions in the Eastern Cape P

  9. Glycosides from the Leaves of Ilex latifolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUYANG,Ming-An(欧阳明安); OUYANG,Ming-An

    2001-01-01

    Nine new triterpenoid saponins: lafifolosides I-Q and three known conpouds: Kudinoside A, cis-roseoside, and kaenmpferol-3-O-a-L-rhamnopyranosyl ( 1→6 )-O-β-D-glucopyanoside were isolated from the leaves of ;lex latifolia.Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic and chemical methods.

  10. Fungi colonizing dead leaves of herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kowalik

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The material was collected from the Botanical Garden and the Collegium Medicum Medicinal Plant Garden of the Jagiellonian University in Krakow. The investigated species were: lemon balm (Mellisa officinalis L., common lavender (Lavendula angustifolia Mill., horsemint (Mentha longifolia L., sage (Salvia officinalis L., sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L., and wild marjoram (Origanum vulgare L.. The aim of the investigation was to identify fungi causing the death of leaf tissues of herbs from the mint family Lamiaceae. In mycological investigations, 180 fragments of each plant leaves (1,080 dead leaf fragments in total were placed in a 2% PDA medium. Over 970 colonies of fungi belonging to 48 species were isolated from the dead leaf tissues of the six herb species. Alternaria alternata (toxin-producing, Epicoccum nigrum and Sordaria fimicola were the most frequently isolated. The largest numbers of colonies and species of fungi were isolated from horsemint, while the lowest numbers were from wild marjoram leaves. It was shown that the death of leaves of selected herb species from the Lamiaceae family was caused by various fungi. The results of the mycological analysis confirmed the diversity of species colonizing the leaves of the herbs.

  11. Sabbatical Leave: Who Gains and How Much?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Oranit B.; Eden, Dov; Westman, Mina; Cohen-Charash, Yochi; Hammer, Leslie B.; Kluger, Avraham N.; Krausz, Moshe; Maslach, Christina; O'Driscoll, Michael; Perrewe, Pamela L.; Quick, James Campbell; Rosenblatt, Zehava; Spector, Paul E.

    2010-01-01

    A rigorous quasi-experiment tested the ameliorative effects of a sabbatical leave, a special case of respite from routine work. We hypothesized that (a) respite increases resource level and well-being and (b) individual differences and respite features moderate respite effects. A sample of 129 faculty members on sabbatical and 129 matched controls…

  12. Extraction of radioactive cesium from tea leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive contamination of foodstuffs attributed to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster has become a social problem. This study investigated the extraction of radioactive cesium from the contaminated leaves to the tea. The green tea was brewed twice reusing the same leaves to study the difference in extraction of cesium between the first and second brew. Moreover, the extraction of cesium was studied in correlation to brewing time. The concentration of radioactive cesium was determined with gamma spectrometry, and the concentration of caffeine was determined with absorption spectrometry. About 40% of cesium was extracted from leaves in the first brew, and about 80% was extracted in the second brew. The extraction of cesium increased over time, and it reached about 80% after 10 minutes brew. The ratio of radioactive cesium to caffeine decreased linearly over time. This study revealed that the extraction of cesium was higher for the second brew, and a rapid increase in extraction was seen as the tea was brewed for 6 minutes and more. Therefore, the first brew of green tea, which was brewed within 5 minutes, contained the least extraction of radioactive cesium from the contaminated leaves. (author)

  13. Early school leaving and lifelong guidance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plant, Peter; Oomen, Annemarie

    Early school leaving (ESL) is costly for the individual, for society and for the economy. Not just in economic terms, but also in terms of low self esteem, and the risk of social exclusion. More, and, in particular, better education can lead to positive outcomes, in relation to employment, level...

  14. Furanoheliangolides from leaves of Neurolaena macrocephala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passreiter, C M; Stöber, S; Ortega, A

    2000-01-01

    Six sesquiterpene lactones, two new (3 and 6) and four known (1, 2, 4 and 5) were isolated from the leaves of the Mexican Neurolaena macrocephala (Asteraceae). The furanoheliangolide 6, containing 4beta,5-dihydro-9alpha-hydroxy-atripliciolide as basic structure, was found for the first time in nature. The chemotaxonomic importance of this phytochemical work is discussed. PMID:11204181

  15. Talking Leaves, Vol 2. No. 2

    OpenAIRE

    Center for Research on Education, Diversity & Excellence

    1998-01-01

    Talking Leaves, Winter 1998 Articles: Language Learning and Academic Achievement Making the Transition from Spanish to English Instruction The Role of Language in the Classroom Newcomers Sociocultural Context of Hawaiian Language Revival and Learning Two-Way Immersion Effects of Sheltered Instruction on the Achievement of ELLs

  16. The Biology of Ageing in Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, John; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes laboratory procedures for observing the progressive change deciduous leaves undergo prior to abscission. Outlines the starch test, sugar test, extraction and chromatography of pigments, and experimental results. States that obtained results enable the events of leaf senescence to be correlated with the carbohydrate economy of a tree in…

  17. Ladybugs and Lettuce Leaves. Teachers' Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Tracy; And Others

    This is a guide for use with "Ladybugs and Lettuce Leaves" activity cards which are activities for elementary school students (grades 4 to 6) focusing on gardening. It includes educational objectives for each topic as well as lists of vocabulary words, comments, questions for discussion, additional activities, and resources. An interdisciplinary…

  18. Occupational exposures and sick leave during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette Lausten; Thulstrup, Ane Marie; Juhl, Mette;

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to investigate associations between work postures, lifting at work, shift work, work hours, and job strain and the risk of sick leave during pregnancy from 10–29 completed pregnancy weeks in a large cohort of Danish pregnant women. Methods Data from 51 874 pregnancies i...

  19. Leave no trace in the outdoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    The essential guide for enjoying the outdoors without harming the environment. - Details the seven core principles of Leave No Trace ethics and practices - Covers hiking, campfires, food storage, and personal hygiene - Endorsed by the USDI National Park Service, Bureau of Land Management, Fish & Wildlife Service, U.S. Geological Survey, and the USDA Forest Service

  20. Talking Leaves, Volume 3, No. 2

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Talking Leaves, Spring 1999 Articles: Significance of Everyday Language Sociocultural Perspectives on Professional Development Parents as Experts Sheltered Instruction Evaluation that Informs School Reform On the Threshhold of Language Revitalization Rural Children of Appalaichian Descent Leading for Diversity New Directions in American Indian and Alaskan Native Reseacrh

  1. Produção de mudas de carobinha (Jacaranda decurrens Cham. em sistema de imersão temporária com biorreatores do tipo R.I.T.A. "Carobinha" seedling production in a temporary immersion system with R.I.T.A. bioreactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Nascimento

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi averiguar a melhor densidade de explantes e o melhor tipo de sistema de cultivo visando desenvolver um protocolo de micropropagação de baixo custo para a Carobinha. Foram realizados experimentos de multiplicação in vitro com quatro tipos de frascos: R.I.T.A. (50 explantes/frasco, erlenmayer, (50 explantes/frasco, potes tipo maionese (6 explantes/frasco e cubetas (1 explante/frasco. O co-cultivo de explantes, tanto em meio sólido quanto em meio líquido (R.I.T.A., promoveu maiores taxas de explantes com brotação e de sobrevivência. O sistema de imersão temporária proporcionou melhores índices de desenvolvimento, brotação, sobrevivência e altura dos explantes. Concluímos que biorreatores podem ser utilizados eficientemente para a micropropagação de carobinha.The aim of this study was to identify the best explant density and the best cultivation system with the goal of developing a micropropagation protocol of low cost for "carobinha" (Jacaranda decurrens CHAM.. Experiments of in vitro multiplication were carried out using four flask types: R.I.T.A. (50 explants/flask, Erlenmeyer (50 explants/flask, mayonnaise pots (6 explants/flask and cuvettes (1 explant/flask. The co-cultivation of explants, in both solid and liquid medium (R.I.T.A., led explants to show higher sprouting and survival rates. The temporary immersion system provided better rates of development, sprouting, survival and height of explants. We concluded that bioreactors may be efficiently used for the micropropagation of "carobinha".

  2. Don’t leave your baggage unattended

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    “Don’t leave your baggage unattended” is a familiar request to anyone who travels by air, but it’s good advice wherever you may be.    At CERN, if an unattended bag is found anywhere on the site, the Fire and Rescue service will be called to evacuate the area, maintain a security perimeter for as long as necessary, and attempt to identify the owner. If the owner cannot be found in a reasonable amount of time, there’s a very strong chance that the bag will be destroyed. You can take two simple steps to avoid this fate: Don’t leave your baggage unattended;   Make sure that your contact details are clearly visible on the bag or suitcase so that, should you find yourself separated from it, you can easily be reunited.

  3. On the Motion of Falling Leaves

    CERN Document Server

    Razavi, Pedram

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the motion of falling leaves through modeling using papers and the corresponding data collected from more than four thousands experiments. Two series of experiments were designed in order to study the relationship between different parameters which can affect different paths of motion in leaves. In the first series of experiments, the shapes of the potential paths that falling papers can take were investigated as a whole. A new classification scheme was derived from these experiments, categorizing the motion of falling sheets of paper based on the deviation from the original point of release and the shape of the path they take on their descending journey. We believe this new classification scheme can be very useful with potential applications in various fields such as biology, meteorology, etc.; it can also build a foundation for further experiments. The second set of experiments was focused on the dynamics and shape of the motion of the falling paper itself. It was observed from these...

  4. Texture and Wettability of Metallic Lotus Leaves

    CERN Document Server

    Frankiewicz, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces with the self-cleaning behavior of lotus leaves are sought for drag reduction and phase change heat transfer applications. These superrepellent surfaces have traditionally been fabricated by random or deterministic texturing of a hydrophobic material. Recently, superrepellent surfaces have also been made from hydrophilic materials, by deterministic texturing using photolithography, without low-surface energy coating. Here, we show that hydrophilic materials can also be made superrepellent to water by chemical texturing, a stochastic rather than deterministic process. These metallic surfaces are the first analog of lotus leaves, in terms of wettability, texture and repellency. A mechanistic model is also proposed to describe the influence of multiple tiers of roughness on wettability and repellency. This demonstrated ability to make hydrophilic materials superrepellent without deterministic structuring or additional coatings opens the way to large scale and robust manufacturing of sup...

  5. Morphology and anatomy of Justicia acuminatissima leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Christina S. Verdam

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Justicia acuminatissima (Miq. Bremek., Acanthaceae, is a subshrub found in northern Brazil, where it is widely used by the population of this region as an anti-inflammatory medicine. Despite this popular use, there is no pharmacognostical data to support the correct identification of this species. We therefore performed a morpho-anatomical, histochemical and phytochemical analysis of the leaves of this species, using well-known methods. The leaves are simple, exstipulate, green on the surfaces, and pubescent, with a lanceolate shape, crenate margin, pinnate venation and decussate phyllotaxy. The parenchyma is palisade and spongy, and its vascular system is bilateral. Glandular and non-glandular trichome and cystoliths were also detected. There are diacytic stomata on both the adaxial and abaxial surfaces of epidermis. Histochemical tests revealed the presence of phenolic compounds, amide and protein. Phytochemical tests showed the presence of coumarins, tannins, catechins, saponins and steroids.

  6. Photosynthetic carbon monoxide metabolism by sugarcane leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kortschak, H.P.; Nickell, L.G.

    1973-01-01

    The photosynthetic carbon monoxide metabolism by sugarcane was studied to determine whether substantial quantities of CO are removed from the air by fields in Hawaii. Leaves metabolized low CO concentrations photosynthetically, with sucrose as an end product. Rates of uptake were of the order of 10/sup -4/ power mg/d sq m/hr. This was to low to be significant in removing CO from the atmosphere.

  7. Texture and wettability of metallic lotus leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankiewicz, C.; Attinger, D.

    2016-02-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces with the self-cleaning behavior of lotus leaves are sought for drag reduction and phase change heat transfer applications. These superrepellent surfaces have traditionally been fabricated by random or deterministic texturing of a hydrophobic material. Recently, superrepellent surfaces have also been made from hydrophilic materials, by deterministic texturing using photolithography, without low-surface energy coating. Here, we show that hydrophilic materials can also be made superrepellent to water by chemical texturing, a stochastic rather than deterministic process. These metallic surfaces are the first analog of lotus leaves, in terms of wettability, texture and repellency. A mechanistic model is also proposed to describe the influence of multiple tiers of roughness on wettability and repellency. This demonstrated ability to make hydrophilic materials superrepellent without deterministic structuring or additional coatings opens the way to large scale and robust manufacturing of superrepellent surfaces.Superhydrophobic surfaces with the self-cleaning behavior of lotus leaves are sought for drag reduction and phase change heat transfer applications. These superrepellent surfaces have traditionally been fabricated by random or deterministic texturing of a hydrophobic material. Recently, superrepellent surfaces have also been made from hydrophilic materials, by deterministic texturing using photolithography, without low-surface energy coating. Here, we show that hydrophilic materials can also be made superrepellent to water by chemical texturing, a stochastic rather than deterministic process. These metallic surfaces are the first analog of lotus leaves, in terms of wettability, texture and repellency. A mechanistic model is also proposed to describe the influence of multiple tiers of roughness on wettability and repellency. This demonstrated ability to make hydrophilic materials superrepellent without deterministic structuring or additional

  8. Academic Study Leave or Sabbatical: Contested Concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Sally Sambrook

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide clarification of the concepts of academic study leave and the sabbatical, which are somewhat contested in the increasingly complex, managerialist and performative higher education context. A critical review of academic literature is employed to help clarify our understanding of the concepts, but also to identify potential contradictions. In addition, examples are provided, drawn from university web pages. The analysis identifies similarities and differe...

  9. Norsesquiterpenoids from the leaves of Croton tiglium

    OpenAIRE

    Bu, Wei; Shi, Yan-Ni; Yan, Yong-Ming; Lu, Qing; Liu, Guang-Ming; Li, Yan; Cheng, Yong-Xian

    2012-01-01

    Two new compounds, badounoids A (1) and B (2), together with 13 known norsesquiterpenes, were isolated from the leaves of Croton tiglium L. The structures of the new compounds were established by means of spectroscopic methods. The absolute configuration of badounoid B was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. All the known compounds were isolated from Croton plants for the first time which added a new chemical facet for this genus. The selected compounds were evaluated for...

  10. [Polyphenolic glycosides from Cistus creticus L. leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetzos, C; Mitaku, S; Hotellier, F; Harvala, A

    1989-01-01

    Five flavonoids: kaempferol 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, quercetin 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, quercetin 3-O-beta-D-rutinoside, myricetin 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside, myricetin 3-O-beta-D-galactopyranoside and one coumarin: esculin have been isolated from the leaves of Cistus creticus. Their structures have been elucidated on the basis of their spectral data mainly mass spectrometry (DCI) and 1H NMR. PMID:2637651

  11. PHYTOCHEMICALANALYSIS OF CINNAMOMUM TAMALA OF LEAVES EXTRACT

    OpenAIRE

    Prakash Solanki

    2014-01-01

    Cinnamomoum tamala is found in tropical and sub tropical Himalaya and in some other places. Phytochemical analysis of the plant extracts were done to screen their active constituents. Cinnamomum tamala is the member of Lauraceae family and its leaves are most popularly used as spice in Insian food. Along with spice, it is associates with many medicinal value such as antioxidant, antidiabetic, antifungal etc. The phytochemicals are important in human health this is because ...

  12. Studies on Photosynthetic Characteristics of Plum Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Many photosynthetic characteristics of three plum varieties were studied with a infrared CO2 analyzer. Results showed that plums belong to light-loving species,having a relative high light compensation point (75~ 80μmol · m-2 · s-1 ), In natural light range from none to 1400μmol · m-2s-1PAR,the light response curve of plum as a hyperbo and the net photosynthetic rate(Pn) in leavs increased with PA elevation. Pn of plum tree was 20 to 22.50mg CO2 · dm-1 · h-1 at 1380μmol · m-2 · s-1 PAR,indicating that plum was typi cal C3-type fruit tree. Diurnal change in Pn was a bimoal curve with the highest photosynthetic rate arising at about 10:00 a. m. indicated the clear“none-rest”characteristic in plum leaves. Among three varieties. SuiLi3 had the shortest“none-rest“time followed by JiLin6 and NuXinLi. Seasonal change in Pn was a bi modal curve with the first period of high Pn in late June and the second in late August. Pn in leaves decreased visibly in period of drought in Spring and Summer.

  13. Phytochemical analysis of Camellia sinensis Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq. A. L

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants possess an important source of pharmacological effects that acts as new anti-infections, antioxidant and anti-cancer agents. The most important bioactive constituents of plants are steroids, terpenoids, carotenoids, flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins and glycosides which serve a valuable starting material for drug development. Tea (Camellia sinensis is consumed worldwide and is second only to water in its popularity as a beverage. It has ascribed many health benefits viz reduction of cholesterol, protection against cardio – vascular diseases and cancer. By concerning all these studies, we have traced out the presence of phytochemical in Camellia sinensis leave. The phytochemical analysis showed the presence alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids and tannins by changing the colour of medium when treated with respective reagents. One gram of Camellia sinensis leaves extract contained 0.7 grams of phenolic compounds. While flavonoid content was 14 mg/gram of Camellia sinensis leave extract. one gram of leaf extracts contained 0.11 gram of reducing power. The methanolic extract of Camellia sinensis showed the presence of various functional groups when run through Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy. The methanolic extract of Camellia sinensis showed the antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis, and Enterococcus sp. It reveals the highest zone of inhibition around the bacterial colonies when compared with standard antibiotics Erythromycin, Tetracycline and Ampicillin.

  14. Acute Toxicity of Justicia gendarussa Burm. Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juheini Amin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Acute Toxicity of Justicia gendarussa Burm. Leaves. Preminelary experiment showed that ethanolic extract ofgandarusa leaves (Justicia gendarussa Burm. could decreased uric acid blood level on rats. The aim of this experimentwas to determine of the value LD50 and liver function based on activities of aminotransferase. Animals test which wereused in this experiment were 50 males and 50 females white mice. They were divided into 5 groups. Group 1 as controlgroup was given aquadest. Group 2-5 were treated by ethanolic extract of gandarusa leaves with dosage 4, 8, 16, and 32g/kg bw. The LD50 value was determined by the amount of death in group during 24 hours after giving a single dose oftest substance. The result showed that the highest dose was practically non toxic with LD50 value of 31.99 g/kg bw(male groups and 27.85 g/kg bw (female groups. Measurement of aminotransferase activity was done by usingcolorimetric method. The result of ANOVA analysis for liver function showed that the giving test substance 4 g/kg bw–16 g/kg bw was not significantly different between treated groups and control group.

  15. The Length of Maternity Leave and Family Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beuchert-Pedersen, Louise Voldby; Humlum, Maria Knoth; Vejlin, Rune Majlund

    We study the relationship between the length of maternity leave and the physical and psychological health of the family. Using a reform of the parental leave scheme in Denmark that increased the number of weeks of leave with full benefit compensation, we estimate the effect of the lenght of mater......We study the relationship between the length of maternity leave and the physical and psychological health of the family. Using a reform of the parental leave scheme in Denmark that increased the number of weeks of leave with full benefit compensation, we estimate the effect of the lenght...... complement the existing evidence on maternity leave expansions that tends to find limited effects on children's later deveopmental, educational, and labor market outcomes. Our results suggest that any beneficial effects of increasing the lenght of maternity leave are greater for low-resource families....

  16. Causal effects of paternity leave on children and parents

    OpenAIRE

    Cools, Sara; Jon H. Fiva; Lars J. Kirkebøen

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we use a parental leave reform directed towards fathers to identify the causal effects of paternity leave on children’s and parents’ outcomes. We document that paternity leave causes fathers to become more important for children’s cognitive skills. School performance at age 16 increases for children whose father is relatively higher educated than the mother. We find no evidence that fathers’ earnings and work hours are affected by paternity leave. Contrary to expectation, mother...

  17. Determinants of sick-leave duration : A tool for managers?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flach, P.A.; Krol, B.; Groothoff, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    AIMS: To provide managers with tools to manage episodes of sick-leave of their employees, the influence of factors such as age, gender, duration of tenure, working full-time or part-time, cause and history of sick-leave, salary and education on sick-leave duration was studied. METHOD: In a cross-sec

  18. Why Band Directors Leave: From the Mouths of Maestros

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheib, John W.

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the results of a survey conducted by the author asking music teachers why they leave their jobs. The author compiled an e-mail survey and sent it to instrumental music teachers who were making plans to leave their jobs for new positions or to leave the music education profession entirely. In order to widen the pool of…

  19. Self-Funded Leave and Life Role Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furbish, Dale S.

    2009-01-01

    Self-funded leave is an employee benefit that provides a time resource to those who wish to develop interests and other life roles. Semistructured interviews were used for this qualitative study to explore the motivations for enrolling in the self-funded leave program, how the leave contributed to work-life balance through development of other…

  20. 29 CFR 825.207 - Substitution of paid leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substitution of paid leave. 825.207 Section 825.207 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY... FMLA leave. Employers may not discriminate against employees on FMLA leave in the administration...

  1. STUDY OF ORGANIC ACIDS IN ALMOND LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenchyk L.V.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Almond (Amygdalus communis is a stone fruit, from the Rosaceae family, closest to the peach. It is spread throughout the entire Mediterranean region and afterwards to the Southwestern USA, Northern Africa, Turkey, Iran, Australia and South Africa. It is sensitive to wet conditions, and therefore is not grown in wet climates. Iran is located in the semi-arid region of the world. Because of its special tolerance to water stress, almond is one of the main agricultural products in rainfed condition in Iran. Almond leaves have been investigated for their phenolic content and antioxidant activity. It was found that total antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds exhibited variations according to season, plant organ (leaf and stem and variety. Analysis of previous research on almonds focused on investigating compounds mostly in seeds and phenolic compounds in leaves, but organic acids in leaves have not been studied. Aim of this study was investigation of organic acids in leaves of almond variety which is distributed in Razavi Khorasan province of Iran. Materials and Methods. In August 2012 almond leaves were collected in Iran, dried and grinded. The study of qualitative composition and quantitative determination of carboxylic acids in almond leaves was carried out by gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. For determination organic acids content, to 50 mg of dried plant material in 2 ml vial internal standard (50 μg of tridecane in hexane was added and filled up with 1.0 ml of methylating agent (14 % BCl3 in methanol, Supelco 3-3033. The mixture was kept in a sealed vial during 8 hours at 65 °C. At this time fatty oil was fully extracted, and hydrolyzed into its constituent fatty acids and their methylation was done. At the same time free organic and phenolcarbonic acids were methylated too. The reaction mixture was poured from the plant material sediment and was diluted with 1 ml of distilled water. To extract methyl

  2. Gender codes why women are leaving computing

    CERN Document Server

    Misa, Thomas J

    2010-01-01

    The computing profession is facing a serious gender crisis. Women are abandoning the computing field at an alarming rate. Fewer are entering the profession than anytime in the past twenty-five years, while too many are leaving the field in mid-career. With a maximum of insight and a minimum of jargon, Gender Codes explains the complex social and cultural processes at work in gender and computing today. Edited by Thomas Misa and featuring a Foreword by Linda Shafer, Chair of the IEEE Computer Society Press, this insightful collection of essays explores the persisting gender imbalance in computing and presents a clear course of action for turning things around.

  3. Flavonoids from leaves of Mauritia flexuosa

    OpenAIRE

    Djalma M. Oliveira; Ezequias P. Siqueira; Yule R. F. Nunes; Betania B Cota

    2013-01-01

    The chromatographic fractionation of the Mauritia flexuosa L. f., Arecaceae, leaves extract, a plant known by the name of buriti palm tree, resulted in the isolation of six flavonoids: tricin-7-O-rutinoside, apigenin-6-C-arabinoside, 8-C-glucoside (isoschaftoside), kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (nicotiflorine), quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (rutin), luteolin-8-C-glucoside (orientin) and luteolin-6-C-glucoside (isoorientin). The flavonoids were found out and previously reported as constituents of the ...

  4. Use of leaves for drinking water

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Cláudia

    2011-01-01

    The use of leaves for drinking water is a widespread tool-use behavior among chimpanzees. Although this tool-use behavior is widely described as the use of leaf sponges, it can actually be found in three different forms: leaf sponges, leaf-folding, and leaf spoons. Among the chimpanzee community of Bossou, we can observe all three forms, albeit in different frequencies. Here I describe the longitudinal record of manufacture and use of leaf tools for drinking water, highlighting the learning p...

  5. Take It, Leave It, Fold It

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elias, Camelia

    2008-01-01

    This introduction to the volume sets the tone for a reading experience of Federman's works. Since the early 60s, Raymond Federman has been one of the most important American writers. In his highly experimental fictions, in works that bear such titles as Take It or Leave It, Double or Nothing......, and The Twofold Vibrations, he has explored cultural and personal memory, invented intricate narrative strategies, and above all has given readers an experience that exceeds the ordinary. Creating situations that make one really think and really laugh is a tall order for any writer. But Federman did it. He is one...

  6. ANTIOXIDANT EFFECT OF MAJORANA HORTENSIS LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palaniswamy Radha

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Free radicals can be generated in the biological systems in the form of reactive oxygen species which are harmful and these are removed by the antioxidant system in the body. Antioxidants protect us from free radicals that cause tissue damage, neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. Plants are a rich source of antioxidants. In the present study, Majorana hortensis, commonly called majoram was chosen as the candidate plant to determine the antioxidant potential. The enzymic activity and non-enzymic levels of the fresh leaves was determined proving the plant to be a potent source of antioxidants.

  7. Terpenoid constituents from leaves of Guarea kunthiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcez, Fernanda R.; Garcez, Walmir S.; Bazzo, Rita de Cassia [Mato Grosso do Sul Univ., Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: frgarcez@nin.ufms.br; Silva, Ana Francisca G. da [Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul, Mundo Novo, MS (Brazil). Unidade Universitaria de Mundo Novo; Resende, Ubirazilda M. [Mato Grosso do Sul Univ., Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia

    2004-10-01

    From leaves of Guarea kunthiana one new kaurene diterpene (ent-kaur-16-en-2-one) was isolated along with eight known diterpenes (ent-kaur-16-ene, ent-3{alpha}- and 3{beta}-hydroxykaur-16-ene, kolavelool, kolavenol, kolavenal, ent-13-epi-manoyloxide and (-)-nephthenol), four sesquiterpenes (alismol, alismoxide, spathulenol and 4{beta},10{alpha}-aromadendranediol), polyprenol-12 and {alpha}- and {delta}-tocopherols. Kolavenal is reported for the first time as a natural product, as well as the occurrence of cembrane- and ent-kaurane-type diterpenes in the Meliaceae. (author)

  8. Evolutionary biology. Chewed leaves reveal ancient relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennisi, E

    2000-07-14

    On page 291, researchers describe a new beetle fossil based not on traces of the insect skeleton but on the distinctive gouges the beetles left when they munched on 11 ginger leaves many millions of years ago. The chew marks of the newly described Cephaloleichnites strongi prove that leaf beetles underwent rapid evolution and diversification more than 65 million years ago, possibly taking advantage of (and perhaps influencing) the rapid diversification among flowering plants occurring at the same time. What's more, C. strongi represents the earliest known rolled-leaf beetle species, hundreds of which today still prefer just one of the ginger- and heliconia-like plants in the Zingiberales order.

  9. Chemical constituents of Breynia glauca leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butsarakham Supudompol

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available From the leaves of Breynia glauca, eight compounds including friedelin (1, 3-oxo- 4,5-sitosterone (2, friedelan-3β-ol (3, β-sitosterol (4, kaempferol (5, arbutin (6, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (7 and quercetion-3-O-glucoside (8 were isolated. The presence of these compounds supports the traditional use of this plant as a detoxifying agent. In addition, all of these chemical constituents were tested for antiviral potential against herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, but were found to be inactive at 50 μg/ml.

  10. 29 CFR 825.310 - Certification for leave taken to care for a covered servicemember (military caregiver leave).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... may take leave to care for the covered servicemember in a continuous block of time or on an... is sufficient certification for an employee entitled to take FMLA leave to care for a covered... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certification for leave taken to care for a...

  11. Parental Leave and Children's Schooling Outcomes: Quasi-Experimental Evidence from a Large Parental Leave Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Danzer, Natalia; Lavy, Victor

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the question whether long-term human capital outcomes are affected by the duration of maternity leave, i.e. by the time mothers spend at home with their newborn before returning to work. Employing RD and difference-in-difference approaches, this paper exploits an unanticipated reform in Austria which extended the maximum duration of paid and job protected parental leave from 12 to 24 months for children born on July 1, 1990 or later. We use test scores from the Austria...

  12. Biophotonic in situ sensor for plant leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conejo, Elian; Frangi, Jean-Pierre; Rosny, Gilles de

    2010-04-01

    Knowledge of the water concentration of plants can be helpful in several environmental and agricultural domains. There are many methods for the determination of water content in plant leaves; however, most of them give a relative moisture level or an analytical measure after a previous calibration procedure. Even for other biochemical compounds such as dry matter or chlorophyll, the measurement techniques could be destructive. For this reason, a nondestructive method has been developed to measure the biochemical compounds of a plant leaf, using an infrared spectroscopy technique. One important advantage is the simplicity of the device (RAdiometre portatif de Mesure In Situ, RAMIS) and its capability to perform measurements in situ. The prototype is a leaf-clip configuration and is made of LEDs at five wavelengths (656, 721, 843, 937, and 1550 nm), and a silicon/germanium photosensor. To compute the water content of vegetative leaves, the radiative transfer model PROSPECT was implemented. This model can accurately predict spectral transmittances in the 400 nm to 2500 nm spectral region as a function of the principal leaf biochemical contents: water, dry matter, and chlorophyll. Using the transmittance measured by RAMIS into an inversion procedure of PROSPECT: A Model of Leaf Optical Properties Spectra, we are able to compute the values of water contents that show an agreement with the water contents measured directly using dry weight procedures. This method is presented as a possibility to estimate other leaf biochemical compounds using appropriate wavelengths.

  13. [Chemical constituents of Sapium sebiferum leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Li; Tian, Hua; Lv, Pei-jun; Wang, Jia-ping; Wang, Yi-fen

    2015-04-01

    Chemical constituents of ethyl acetate extract of Sapium sebiferum leaves were isolated and purified by various chromatographic methods, including column chromatographies over silica gel, macroporous adsorption resin, and Sephadex LH-20, as well as preparative TLC and semi preparative HPLC. As a results, 15 compounds were separated from Sapium sebiferum leaves and their structures were examined by spectral analysis including NMR and MS data and identified as( + )-(7R,7'R,7"S,7'"S,8S,8'S,8"S,8'"S)-4", 4"'-dihydroxy-3,3',3",3',5,5'-hexamethoxy-7,9';7',9-diepoxy-4,8";4',8'"-bisoxy-8,8'-dineo-lignan-7",7"',9",9"'-tetraol(1) ,1-(4'- hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-2-[4"-(3-hydroxypropyl) -2", 6"-dimethoxyphenoxy] propane-1, 3-diol (2), Thero-2, 3-bis-(4-hydroxy-3- methoxypheyl)-3-methoxy-propanol(3) , threo-5-hydroxy-3,7-dimethoxyphenyl propane-8,9-diol (4), boropinol B (5), threo-8S-7-methoxysyringylglycerol(6), 5-hydroxymethylfurfural(7), 5-( methoxy-methyl)-1H-pyrrole-2-carbaldehyde (8), quercetin (9) , kaempferol (10), ethyl gallate(11), coniferaldehyde(12), vanillin(13), 7-hydroxy-6-methoxy-2H-1-henzopyran-2-one(14),and 1-heptacosanol (15). All compounds except for compounds 9-11,14 were separated from this plant for the first time. PMID:26281591

  14. Antipsychotic Potentials of Ocimum sanctum Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renu Kadian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to evaluate the antipsychotic potential of Ocimum sanctum in experimental animal models. Male Wistar rats (180-220 g and albino mice (25-30 g were used for the study. The antipsychotic effect of the Ocimum sanctum was evaluated on haloperidol induced catalepsy, cooks pole climbing apparatus, locomotor activity on actophotometer, ketamine induced stereotype behavior. Different groups of rats were fed orally with a specially prepared diet containing various concentrations (2% w/w, 4% w/w and 8% w/w of Ocimum sanctum leaves paste (OCLP for 15 consecutive days. Further, the biochemical estimations were done by estimating brain dopamine levels. The OCLP produced significant dose dependent potentiation of haloperidol (1mg/kg, i.p. induced catalepsy in rats, significantly increased the time taken by the rat to climb the pole in dose dependent manner, significantly decreased the locomotor activity. The OCLP significantly decreased ketamine (50 mg/kg, i.p. induced stereotyped behavior in a dose dependent manner. Ocimum sanctum leaves paste (OCLP significantly decreased the brain dopamine levels. The results suggest that OCLP posse’s antipsychotic activity. Further neurochemical investigation can explore the mechanism of action of the plant drug with respect to anti-dopaminergic functions and help to establish the plant as an antipsychotic agent.

  15. Environmental controls over methanol emission from leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Harley

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Methanol is found throughout the troposphere, with average concentrations second only to methane among atmospheric hydrocarbons. Proposed global methanol budgets are highly uncertain, but all agree that at least 60% of the total source arises from the terrestrial biosphere and primary emissions from plants. However, the magnitude of these emissions is also highly uncertain, and the environmental factors which control them require further elucidation.

    Using a temperature-controlled leaf enclosure, we measured methanol emissions from leaves of six plant species by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry, with simultaneous measurements of leaf evapotranspiration and stomatal conductance. Rates of emission at 30°C varied from 0.2 to 38 μg g (dry mass−1 h−1, with higher rates measured on young leaves, consistent with the production of methanol via pectin demethylation in expanding foliage. On average, emissions increased by a factor of 2.3 for each 10°C increase in leaf temperature. At constant temperature, emissions were also correlated with co-varying incident photosynthetic photon flux density and rates of stomatal conductance. The data were analyzed using the emission model developed by Niinemets and Reichstein (2003a, b, with the incorporation of a methanol production term that increased exponentially with temperature. It was concluded that control of emissions, during daytime, was shared by leaf temperature and stomatal conductance, although rates of production may also vary diurnally in response to variations in leaf growth rate in expanding leaves. The model, which generally provided reasonable simulations of the measured data during the day, significantly overestimated emissions on two sets of measurements made through the night, suggesting that production rates of methanol were reduced at night, perhaps because leaf growth was reduced or possibly through a direct effect of light on production

  16. Environmental controls over methanol emission from leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Harley

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Methanol is found throughout the troposphere, with average concentrations second only to methane among atmospheric hydrocarbons. Proposed global methanol budgets are highly uncertain, but all agree that at least 60% of the total source arises from the terrestrial biosphere and primary emissions from plants. However, the magnitude of these emissions is also highly uncertain, and the environmental factors which control them require further elucidation.

    Using a temperature-controlled leaf enclosure, we measured methanol emissions from leaves of six plant species by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry, with simultaneous measurements of leaf evapotranspiration and stomatal conductance. Rates of emission at 30°C varied from 0.3 to 38 μg g (dry mass−1 h−1, with higher rates measured on young leaves, consistent with the production of methanol via pectin demethylation in expanding foliage. On average, emissions increased by a factor of 2.4 for each 10°C increase in leaf temperature. At constant temperature, emissions were also correlated with co-varying incident photosynthetic photon flux density and rates of stomatal conductance. The data were analyzed using the emission model developed by Niinemets and Reichstein (2003a, b, with the incorporation of a methanol production term that increased exponentially with temperature. It was concluded that control of emissions, during daytime, was shared by leaf temperature and stomatal conductance, although rates of production may also vary diurnally in response to variations in leaf growth rate in expanding leaves. The model, which generally provided reasonable simulations of the measured data during the day, significantly overestimated emissions on two sets of measurements made through the night, suggesting that production rates of methanol were reduced at night, perhaps because leaf growth was reduced or possibly through a direct effect of light on production

  17. Nonthermal neutrinos from supernovae leaving a magnetar

    CERN Document Server

    Horiuchi, Shunsaku; Takami, Hajime; Ando, Shin'ichiro; Sato, Katsuhiko

    2008-01-01

    Under the fossil field hypothesis of the origin of magnetar magnetic fields, the magnetar inherits its magnetic field from its progenitor. We show that during the supernova of such a progenitor, protons may be accelerated to \\lesssim 100 GeV at the supernova shock. Inelastic nuclear collisions of these protons produce a flash of high-energy neutrinos arriving a few hours after thermal (10 MeV) neutrinos. The neutrino flash is characterized by energies \\lesssim 1 GeV and durations \\lesssim a few hours, depending on the progenitor: those from smaller type Ibc progenitors are typically shorter in duration compared to those from larger type II progenitors. A Galactic core-collapse supernova leaving behind a magnetar remnant will yield up to \\sim 140 neutrino induced muon events in a Super-Kamiokande sized neutrino detector, providing a means of probing supernova models and the presence of strong magnetic fields in the stellar interior.

  18. Green leaves as indicator for air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green leaves of Ficus (Ficus penegalensis) and Neem (Azadirachta indica) were analyzed for their trace metals (Pb, Zn and Cd) contents. The samples were collected and washed according to metal analysis standardization. Solutions of the samples for analysis were obtained by wet-digestion method using nitric perchloric acid mixture. The trace elements lead, zinc and cadmium were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopic technique (AAS) for the 18 samples collected from Khartoum (Sharia elneel), Omdurman (Ombadda) and Khartoum North (Kadaro) as heavy-traffic, low-traffic areas and distal area, respectively. The species Ficus and Neem samples were collected each randomly from such areas. The samples were taken from the tips, mids and bottoms of each tree. (Author)

  19. Modeling Leaves Based on Real Image

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAOYu-kun; LIYun-feng; ZHUQing-sheng; LIUYin-bin

    2004-01-01

    Plants have complex structures. The shape of a plant component is vital for capturing the characteristics of a species. One of the challenges in computer graphics is to create geometry of objects in an intuitive and direct way while allowing interactive manipulation of the resulting shapes. In this paper,an interactive method for modeling leaves based on real image is proposed using biological data for individual plants. The modeling process begins with a one-dimensional analogue of implicit surfaces,from which a 2D silhouette of a leaf is generated based on image segmentation. The silhouette skeleton is thus obtained. Feature parameters of the leaf are extracted based on biologically experimental data, and the obtained leaf structure is then modified by comparing the synthetic result with the real leaf so as to make the leaf structure more realistic. Finally, the leaf mesh is constructed by sweeps.

  20. Role of Leaves in Phototropism 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Shue-Lock; Leopold, A. C.

    1966-01-01

    Experiments with green seedlings of sunflower (Helianthus annuns L.) indicate the existence of a phototropic mechanism which involves the leaves or cotyledons, and which can produce an asymmetry of auxin content without the involvement of lateral auxin transport, the classic explanation of phototropism in etiolated seedlings. The basic lines of evidence for the leaf-mediated tropism are: 1) darkening of one cotyledon will cause curvature of the stem toward the lighted cotyledon: 2) the darkened cotyledon sustains an enhanced growth rate in the stem below it: 3) conversely, light suppresses the growth-stimulating effects of a single cotyledon: and 4) more diffusible auxin is obtained from the stem below darkened cotyledons than below lighted ones. PMID:16656329

  1. PHARMACOGNOSTICAL PROFILE OF PAEDERIA FOETIDA LINN. LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Kumar Chellappan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The leaves of Paederia foetida Linn. (P. foetida are commonly known as skunk vine or Chinese fever vine, are used for various ailments medicinally throughout Asia and other tropical parts of the world by traditional healers. The plant is mainly used for arthritis and rheumatic disorders. The whole plant shows tonic, astringent and antiphlogistic actions and has been used in tenesmus. This present work presents a detailed pharmacognostical study of the leaf of the crude drug P. foetida. The samples were studied using procedures of light, confocal microscopy, WHO recommended physico-chemical determinations and authentic phytochemical procedures. The physico-chemical, morphological and histological parameters presented in this study may be proposed as parameters to establish the authenticity of P. foetida and may possibly help to differentiate the drug from its adulterants.

  2. Sabbatical leave: who gains and how much?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Oranit B; Eden, Dov; Westman, Mina; Cohen-Charash, Yochi; Hammer, Leslie B; Kluger, Avraham N; Krausz, Moshe; Maslach, Christina; O'Driscoll, Michael; Perrewé, Pamela L; Quick, James Campbell; Rosenblatt, Zehava; Spector, Paul E

    2010-09-01

    A rigorous quasi-experiment tested the ameliorative effects of a sabbatical leave, a special case of respite from routine work. We hypothesized that (a) respite increases resource level and well-being and (b) individual differences and respite features moderate respite effects. A sample of 129 faculty members on sabbatical and 129 matched controls completed measures of resource gain, resource loss, and well-being before, during, and after the sabbatical. Among the sabbatees, resource loss declined and resource gain and well-being rose during the sabbatical. The comparison group showed no change. Moderation analysis revealed that those who reported higher respite self-efficacy and greater control, were more detached, had a more positive sabbatical experience, and spent their sabbatical outside their home country enjoyed more enhanced well-being than others.

  3. Evolutionary biology. Chewed leaves reveal ancient relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennisi, E

    2000-07-14

    On page 291, researchers describe a new beetle fossil based not on traces of the insect skeleton but on the distinctive gouges the beetles left when they munched on 11 ginger leaves many millions of years ago. The chew marks of the newly described Cephaloleichnites strongi prove that leaf beetles underwent rapid evolution and diversification more than 65 million years ago, possibly taking advantage of (and perhaps influencing) the rapid diversification among flowering plants occurring at the same time. What's more, C. strongi represents the earliest known rolled-leaf beetle species, hundreds of which today still prefer just one of the ginger- and heliconia-like plants in the Zingiberales order. PMID:10917840

  4. Flavonoids from leaves of Mauritia flexuosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djalma M. de Oliveira

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The chromatographic fractionation of the Mauritia flexuosa L. f., Arecaceae, leaves extract, a plant known by the name of buriti palm tree, resulted in the isolation of six flavonoids: tricin-7-O-rutinoside, apigenin-6-C-arabinoside, 8-C-glucoside (isoschaftoside, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (nicotiflorine, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (rutin, luteolin-8-C-glucoside (orientin and luteolin-6-C-glucoside (isoorientin. The flavonoids were found out and previously reported as constituents of the Arecaceae family plants, but the occurrence of C-glucoside flavonoids, in the species being analyzed, is described for the first time on this study. The structural elucidations of all of the isolated compounds were performed by means of the comparison of their spectral data (¹H and 13C NMR, UV and ESI-MS with those ones of the literature.

  5. Anatomical structure of moss leaves and their photosynthetic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Krupa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The photosynthetic activity of the leaf area unit increases depending on the degree of differentiation of the anatomical structure of the leaves of six chosen moss species. There is a correlation between the leaf area and the degree of differentiation of the anatomical structure resulting in enlargement of the area of contact of the assimilating cells with air. The leaves of Catharinea undulata having a one-layer blade and provided with several lamellae show a higher photosynthesis per 1 cm2 of their surface than the one-layer leaves of Mniurnm or Funaria. Aloina leaves are the smallest in area among those of the moss species discussed, however, their photosynthetic rate is almost 4.5 times higher than in Funaria leaves. By analogy to the structure of leaves and their function in vascular, plants, these changes and correlations may be considered as attempts of primeval adaptation of mosses to terrestrial conditions of living.

  6. Determination of Antioxidants in Oil Palm Leaves (Elaeis guineensis)

    OpenAIRE

    Ng M. Han; Choo Y. May

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Previous findings on the occurrence of water soluble antioxidants in palm oil has brought to the question on whether these compounds is also present in other parts of the oil palm; namely its leaves. Approach: It is now believed that the water soluble antioxidants are also present in other biomass of the oil palm, namely, the leaves. This study reported on the determination of the water soluble antioxidants in oil palm leaves. Results: The results showed the analyses of the...

  7. Antimicrobial activity of extracts from Tamarindus indica L. leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Julio Cesar Escalona-Arranz; Renato Péres-Roses; Imilci Urdaneta-Laffita; Miladis Isabel Camacho-Pozo; Jesús Rodríguez-Amado; Irina Licea-Jiménez

    2010-01-01

    Tamarindus indica L. leaves are reported worldwide as antibacterial and antifungal agents; however, this observation is not completely accurate in the case of Cuba. In this article, decoctions from fresh and sun dried leaves, as well as fluid extracts prepared with 30 and 70% ethanol-water and the pure essential oil from tamarind leaves were microbiologically tested against Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomona ae...

  8. Chemical composition on cacao leaves infected by viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustafa, M.; Delilah, M.; Syafrul, L.; Suryadi

    1980-09-01

    Chemical analysis on cacao leaves that have chlorosis spots caused by cacao swollen shoot viruses were carried out. It can be shown that leaves with chlorosis spots contain less chlorophyl and lipides than those without, but both do not show any significant difference in the concentration of water, glucose, saccharides, amino acid and proteins. It can be concluded that transport systems in the infected leaves are good so that the water and saccharides distribution in them are not disturbed.

  9. Leaving street life : How can centres assist street children in leaving the street life?

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, Linnea

    2015-01-01

    This is qualitative study about Kenyan street children. The aim of this study is to get a better understanding of the pull and push factors towards the street and towards rehabilitation centres. The question formulation is; How can rehabilitation centres assist street children in leaving the street life? 25 former street children have been interviewed in a combination of focus group and individual interviews. The theoretical framework that is used for the analysis is elucidation the perspecti...

  10. Hepatoprotective effect of feeding celery leaves mixed with chicory leaves and barley grains to hypercholesterolemic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Abd El-Mageed, Nehal M.

    2011-01-01

    Celery, chicory leaves, and barley grains are valuable in weight loss diets and regulate lipid metabolism. They may reduce risk of fatty liver. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of diet supplementation with celery, chicory, and barley powder on liver enzymes and blood lipids in rats fed with cholesterol-enriched diet. This study used four groups of rats fed with 3% cholesterol were supplemented diet to induce hypercholesterolemia and one group was fed on cholesterol-free basal...

  11. Leaving rates and reasons for leaving in an Engineering faculty in South Africa: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Pocock

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a case study undertaken at the Faculty of Engineering of the University of KwaZulu-Natal to determine the leaving rates from the faculty both by a cohort analysis (over the existence of the university from 2005 to 2010 and by a 1-year population balance over the whole faculty in 2009. Students who had left the faculty who could have continued were identified from the population balance and interviewed to determine the common reasons for leaving. The cohort analysis showed that from 2005 through to 2008, the leaving rate from first-year cohorts was reduced year on year (from over 22% to below 14%. This reduction coincided with stabilisation of the faculty after a merger process and increased academic support. In 2009, however, an increase in the proportion of first-year students who left (to over 17% was identified, which may be linked to the entry of students who had taken the new National Senior Certificate in South African high schools. The population balance over the year 2009 showed an academic exclusion rate of approximately 6% of the total undergraduate student body, and, more significantly, an academic leaving rate of about 14% of the total student body. The exclusion rate remained fairly static across three semesters whilst voluntary leavers increased over the same period. An analysis and interviews with a sample of the students who left showed that financial reasons played a significant role in these rates, with 49% of non-academically excluded students having financial difficulties, and that a significant proportion of students continue their studies at universities of technology. Although this is a case study within one institution, it is hoped that the findings can inform the current debate surrounding increasing throughput in Science and Engineering within the country.

  12. 后金融危机时代工会在劳资博弈中的制度进路——来自南海本田停工事件的启示二%Research on the System Approach of Trade Unions in Game of Labor and Capital of the Post-financial Crisis Era——Inspiration from the Stoppage of CHAM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡健晖

    2012-01-01

    2010年南海本田停工事件为中国工会制度建设方向的调整带来一定的启示。新生代工人的权利觉醒,改革三十多年的经济成就以及保障民生的战略理念都成为工会大有可为的利好因素。加强基层工会的建制保障,切实维护工会的经济职能,建立多元化工会组织,这些可以成为工会制度建设上的新探索。%Nanhai,the labor stoppages of CHAM(China Hoda Auto Parts Manufacture) in 2010 brings some inspiration on adapting the direction of the building system to trade union.The new generation of workers' rights awakening and the economic success of 30years' reform and the strategies to protect people's wellbeing become the favorable factors to trade union.To strengthen forming of basic trade union,to safeguard the economic functions of trade union,to establish a diversified organization of trade union,all these can be the new explorations for the construction of trade unionism.

  13. Work-family balance after childbirth: the association between employer-offered leave characteristics and maternity leave duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guendelman, Sylvia; Goodman, Julia; Kharrazi, Martin; Lahiff, Maureen

    2014-01-01

    Early return to work after childbirth has been increasing among working mothers in the US. We assessed the relationship between access to employer-offered maternity leave (EOML) (both paid and unpaid) and uptake and duration of maternity leave following childbirth in a socio-economically diverse sample of full-time working women. We focus on California, a state that has long provided more generous maternity leave benefits than those offered by federal maternity leave policies through the State Disability Insurance program. The sample included 691 mothers who gave birth in Southern California in 2002-2003. Using weighted logistic regression, we examined the EOML-maternity leave duration relationship, controlling for whether the leave was paid, as well as other occupational, personality and health-related covariates. Compared with mothers who were offered more than 12 weeks of maternity leave, mothers with <6 weeks of EOML and those offered 6-12 weeks had five times higher odds of returning to work within 12 weeks; those offered no leave had six times higher odds of an early return. These relationships were similar after controlling for whether the leave was paid and after controlling for other occupational and health characteristics. Access to and duration of employer-offered maternity leave significantly determine timing of return to work following childbirth, potentially affecting work-family balance. Policy makers should recognize the pivotal role of employers in offering job security during and after maternity leave and consider widening the eligibility criteria of the Family and Medical Leave Act. PMID:23504130

  14. Pharmacognostical analysis of Naringi crenulata leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Subramanian Sampathkumar; N Ramakrishnan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To analyse the pharmacognostical characters of an important medicinal plant Naringi crenulataMethods: The Pharmacognostic studies were carried out in terms of organoleptic or morphological characters, macroscopic studies, physico-chemical evaluation, phytochemical screening and fluorescence analysis of powdered crude drug were carried out. Results: The phytochemical studies of the ethanolic extract showed the presence of tannins, phenols, flavonoids, saponin, quinine, protein, lipid and Triterpenoid, Alkaloids Anthraquinones were not detected. The physico-chemical analysis of the leaves revealed a composition of 19.46% total ash value, 15.24% alcohol soluble extractive value, 61.02% water soluble extractive value, 51.49% acid insoluble ash value and 56.69% crude fibre content. Conclusions:These studies provide referential information for correct identification and standardization ofNaringi crenulata. On the basis of various pharmacognostic parameters and the determination of these characters will aid future investigators in their pharmacological analysis of this species and the presence of phytocompounds, may be of use for developing plant based drugs for various ailments. (N. crenulata) (Roxb.) Nicols.

  15. ANTIDIARRHOEAL ACTIVITY OF LEAVES OF ACORUS CALAMUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayur D. Kapadia et al

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In developing countries, the majority of people living in rural areas almost exclusively use traditional medicines to treat all sorts of diseases including diarrhea. Many plants namely Andrographis paniculata, Acacia catechu, Acacia chandra, Terminalia chebula, Pterocarpus marsapium, Cassia auriculata etc. available in india are used in traditional folklore medicine for the treatment of diarrhea. Diarrhoea is a comman cause of illness resulting in high mortality in developing countries worldwide distribution of diarrhoea accounts for more than 5-8 millions deaths each year. It thus becomes important to identify and evaluate scientifically the antidiarrhoeal effects of leaves of Acorus calamus against castor oil induced dirrhoea. Methanolic Extract was studied for antidiarrhoeal potential using wistar rats and loperamide as a standard. Extracts were administered orally to test animals. Stools were collected upto 4 hrs in transparent plastic dishes of uniform weight. Urine was drained off by gravity every 15 mins. during the 4 hrs. diarrhoeal free period, acute diarrhoea and late diarrhoeal excretions were noted. Gastrointestinal motility test also performed. Methanolic extract showed promising antidiarrhoeal activity which valid its traditional claim. Methanolic extract (400mg/kg showed control wet feaces (0.98±0.35 and more diarrhoeal period.

  16. Phytotoxins from the leaves of Ruta graveolens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Amber L; Meepagala, Kumudini M; Oliva, Anna; Aliotta, Giovanni; Duke, Stephen O

    2004-06-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the ethyl acetate extract of Ruta graveolens (common rue) leaves led to the isolation of the furanocoumarins 5-methoxypsoralen (5-MOP), 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP), and the quinolone alkaloid graveoline as phytotoxic constituents. Graveoline and 8-MOP substantially inhibited growth of Lactuca sativa (lettuce) seedlings and reduced chlorophyll content at 100 microM; this effect was not due to a direct effect on chlorophyll synthesis. Radical growth of L. sativa was inhibited by 10 microM 8-MOP. Graveoline inhibited growth of Lemna paucicostata (duckweed) at 100 microM. This is the first report of the phytotoxic activity of graveoline. Growth of Agrostis stolonifera (bentgrass) was inhibited by 5-MOP at 30 microM. All three compounds substantially reduced cell division in Allium cepa (onion) at or below 100 microM. None of the compounds caused significant cellular leakage of Cucumis sativus (cucumber) cotyledon disks at 100 microM. All three compounds inhibit plant growth, at least partially through inhibition of cell division.

  17. Defensive Sesquiterpenoids from Leaves of Eupatorium adenophorum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石伟; 骆世洪; 黎胜红

    2012-01-01

    The invasive plant Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng has caused great economic loss in China, and is gravely threatening the native biodiversity and ecosystem. The plant has been phytochemically investigated for the defen- sive chemical substances in its leaves. Three active sesquiterpenoids were isolated and identified, which include a new sesquiterpenoid (1), and two known sesquiterpenoids (2, 3). Their structures were established by spectroscopic studies such as 1D- and 2D-NMR and MS analyses. Meanwhile, the antifeedant activities of these compounds against two generalist plant-feeding insects, Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera exigua, were carried out. Com- pound 1 showed significant antifeedant activity against S. exigua with ECs0 = 7.46 μg/cm^2, while compounds 2 and 3 were more active against H. armigera (EC50=2.57 and 3.04 μg/cm^2 respectively). These findings suggest a de- fensive role of sesquiterpenoids in E. adenophorum against herbivores.

  18. Antioxidant activity of Aquilaria malaccensis (thymelaeaceae leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.W.N Huda

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical and antioxidant activity of Aquilaria malaccensis leaves were investigated. The sequential maceration extraction methods utilizing solvents with different polarities namely hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol yielded the corresponding crude extract. The extracts were subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening and revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavanoids, triterpenoids, steroids and saponins. The phytochemical screening suggests that flavanoids present in this species might provide a great value of antioxidant activity. Preliminary screenings of the free radical scavenging activity on the extracts of the plants with 2, 2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH were tested and showed positive result. Quarcetine was used as reference standard. The extracts exhibited strong antioxidant activity radical scavenging activity with IC 50 value of 8.0 Χ 10 2 μg/ml, 1.6 Χ 10 2 μg/ml, 1.4 Χ 10 2 μg/ml, 30.0 μg/ml and 3.33 μg/ ml for hexane, DCM, ethyl acetate, methanol and quarcetine respectively.

  19. Maltose Biochemistry and Transport in Plant Leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Andreas P.M.

    2008-04-25

    Transitory starch builds up in photosynthesizing leaves during the day and is then degraded each night. It has recently been shown through mutant analysis and genetically engineered plants that transitory starch is required for maximal rates of photosynthesis, especially in high carbon dioxide atmospheres. Understanding the pathway by which carbon is exported from chloroplasts at night is limited. Previous work has shown that starch conversion to sucrose at night involves maltose export from chloroplasts. This pathway for carbon export from chloroplasts normally does not occur during the day. The regulation of maltose formation, the transporters that allow export of maltose from the chloroplast, and the cytosolic reactions by which maltose is converted to sucrose remain obscure. Genomic and biochemical approaches are proposed here to address maltose metabolism and transport. The research will cover three areas (1) how are hydrolytic and phosphorylytic starch degradation regulated, (2) how is maltose exported from chloroplasts, and (3) how is maltose converted to sucrose in the cytosol? It is expected that this research will lead to new insights about photosynthesis at high carbon dioxide levels, how carbon is partitioned in plants, and how partitioning can be altered to adapt plants to human needs.

  20. 25 CFR 38.12 - Leave system for education personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Leave system for education personnel. 38.12 Section 38.12 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION EDUCATION PERSONNEL § 38.12 Leave system for education personnel. (a) Full-time school-term employees. Employees on a full-time...

  1. Life-history strategies affect aphid preference for yellowing leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holopainen, Jarmo K; Semiz, Gürkan; Blande, James D

    2009-10-23

    According to the nutrient-translocation hypothesis, yellowing tree leaves are colonized by aphids at the end of the growing season owing to improved availability of nutrients in the phloem sap after chlorophyll degradation. We measured aphid densities on potted Betula pendula seedlings in a field site where a small proportion of foliage rapidly turned yellow before normal autumn coloration as a consequence of root anoxia. The number of adults and nymphs of the birch-feeding specialist aphids Euceraphis betulae, Betulaphis brevipilosa and Callipterinella tuberculata were counted from leaves on each of the 222 plants. Aphids were detected on 19 per cent of green leaves and on 41 per cent of yellow leaves. There was no indication of aphid avoidance of yellow leaves, and the number of winged (alate) viviparous E. betulae adults and their nymphs were significantly higher on yellow leaves than on green leaves, while the numbers of apterous B. brevipilosa and C. tuberculata did not differ between the leaf colour types. Our result suggests that only aphid species with alate generation during colour change can take advantage of yellowing leaves. This may explain the exceptional abundance of E. betulae compared with other aphid species on birches. PMID:19535364

  2. Identifying employees at risk for job loss during sick leave

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flach, Peter A.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Bultmann, Ute

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the associations between medical, work-related, organizational and sociodemographic factors and job loss during sick leave in a Dutch population of 4132 employees on sick leave. Methods: Data were assessed by occupational health physicians (OHPs) on sociodemographic, medical, wor

  3. Seasonal Variations of the Flavonoid Content from Ginkgo biloba Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobstein, A; Rietsch-Jako, L; Haag-Berrurier, M; Anton, R

    1991-10-01

    An HPLC method for the separation and the quantitative determination of flavonol glycosides, acylflavonol glycosides, and biflavones in crude leaf extracts from GINKGO BILOBA is described. The results, expressed in percentage of rutine, kaempferol P-coumaroyl glucorhamnoside, and bilobetin showed a higher amount of acylflavonol glycosides in buds, of flavonol glycosides in spring leaves, and of biflavones in autumn leaves.

  4. 20 CFR 416.215 - You leave the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false You leave the United States. 416.215 Section... Eligible § 416.215 You leave the United States. You lose your eligibility for SSI benefits for any month during all of which you are outside of the United States. If you are outside of the United States for...

  5. 5 CFR 630.605 - Computation of home leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 630.605 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE... table: Home Leave-Earning Table Months of service abroad Earning rate (days for each 12 months) 15 10 5... 10 5 (b) When an employee moves between different home leave-earning rates during a month of...

  6. Leaves as composites of latent developmental and evolutionary shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Across plants, leaves exhibit profound diversity in shape. As a single leaf expands, its shape is in constant flux. Additionally, plants may also produce leaves with different shapes at successive nodes. Because leaf shape can vary in many different ways, theoretically the effects of distinct proces...

  7. Chemical analysis of Ginkgo biloba leaves and extracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van T.A.

    2002-01-01

    The chemical analysis and quality control of Ginkgo leaves and extracts is reviewed. Important constituents present in the medicinally used leaves are the terpene trilactones, i.e., ginkgolides A, B, C, J and bilobalide, many flavonol glycosides, biflavones, proanthocyanidins, alkylphenols, simple p

  8. Antioxidant Activity of Leaves and Fruits of Iranian Conifers

    OpenAIRE

    Emami, S.A.; J Asili; Mohagheghi, Z.; Hassanzadeh, M. K.

    2007-01-01

    Cupressus semipervirens var. horizontalis, Cupressus semipervirens var. semipervirens, Cupressus semipervirens cv. Cereifeormis, Juniperus communis subsp. hemisphaerica, Juniperus excelsa subsp. excelsa, Juniperus excelsa subsp. polycarpos, Juniperus foetidissima, Juniperus oblonga, Juniperus sabina, Platycladus orientalis and Taxus baccata are Iranian conifers. The antioxidant activity of leaves and fruits of these 11 different taxons were evaluated. The leaves of both male and female, and f...

  9. Predicting Turnover: Validating the Intent to Leave Child Welfare Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Charles; Schudrich, Wendy Zeitlin; Lawrence, Catherine K.; Claiborne, Nancy; McGowan, Brenda G.

    2014-01-01

    A number of proxies have been used in child welfare workforce research to represent actual turnover; however, there have been no psychometric studies to validate a scale specifically designed for this purpose. The Intent to Leave Child Welfare Scale is a proxy for actual turnover that measures workers' intention to leave. This scale was…

  10. Gravitropism in leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mano, Eriko; Horiguchi, Gorou; Tsukaya, Hirokazu

    2006-02-01

    In higher plants, stems and roots show negative and positive gravitropism, respectively. However, current knowledge on the graviresponse of leaves is lacking. In this study, we analyzed the positioning and movement of rosette leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana under light and dark conditions. We found that the radial positioning of rosette leaves was not affected by the direction of gravity under continuous white light. In contrast, when plants were shifted to darkness, the leaves moved upwards, suggesting negative gravitropism. Analysis of the phosphoglucomutase and shoot gravitropism 2-1 mutants revealed that the sedimenting amyloplasts in the leaf petiole are important for gravity perception, as is the case in stems and roots. In addition, our detailed physiological analyses revealed a unique feature of leaf movement after the shift to darkness, i.e. movement could be divided into negative gravitropism and nastic movement. The orientation of rosette leaves is ascribed to a combination of these movements.

  11. Determination of Antioxidants in Oil Palm Leaves (Elaeis guineensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ng M. Han

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Previous findings on the occurrence of water soluble antioxidants in palm oil has brought to the question on whether these compounds is also present in other parts of the oil palm; namely its leaves. Approach: It is now believed that the water soluble antioxidants are also present in other biomass of the oil palm, namely, the leaves. This study reported on the determination of the water soluble antioxidants in oil palm leaves. Results: The results showed the analyses of the antioxidants in oil palm leaves. Conclusion: This study is thus conducted to trace the availability of these antioxidants in the leaves of the oil palm of the Elaeis guineensis variety.

  12. PHARMACOGNOSTICAL EVALUATIONS OF THE LEAVES OF ZIZIPHUS MAURITIANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Kumar Singh et al.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Ziziphus mauritiana belongs to family Rhamnaceae and commonly known as Indian jujube or ber. The leaves are alternate and elliptic. Flowers are small and bisexual. The leaves are about 2.5 – 3.2 cm long. Commercially it is cultivated in China & India. Ziziphus mauritiana is small to medium sized spiny tree. The chemical compositions of the leaves are proteins & amino acids, flavonoids, alkaloids, glycosides, terpenoides, saponins, fibers, tannins and phenolic compounds. Leaves are used in the treatment of diarrhoea, gastric disorder, fever, liver damage and pulmonary disorders. The present work deals to summarize the Pharmacognostical studies like ash value, extractive value, moisture content, volatile matters, crude fibers, phytochemical test, fluorescence analysis and micro chemical test. The alcoholic and aqueous extract of Ziziphus mauritiana leave shows hepatoprotective, antioxidant and other important pharmacological activities. The results of above parameters show the clue for more medicinal properties of Ziziphus mauritiana.

  13. Determination of elements in citrus leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In many agricultural stations and farms most of the problems encountered generally reduce to questions of diminished yield. This may be due to a number of factors, including soil exhaustion and the application of fertilizers of unsuitable formula. The chemical impoverishment of the soil is due to the leaching-out phenomenon, i- e. the washing out of bases, and to the ''exportation'' of fertilizer elements in the form of crops in years when nothing has been returned to the soil. These losses have a particularly adverse effect if the parent rock does not contain sufficient mineral reserves to compensate for them by a slow alteration process. Such impoverishment is revealed by soil and foliar analyses. The authors have attempted to determine the content in citrus plants of the following elements: Mn, P, Cu, Cl and K (the latter on three samples only). After collection, the samples are treated by Bransolten's method (Rapport de Recherche TRICO № 15/1968), dried for at least 12 hours at 105°C, followed by pulverization of the leaves, after which the determination is carried out. The determination of Mn and Cl is very simple, as is that of Cu. The latter is determined by activation with slow neutrons in order to avoid Zn formation. The phosphorus content is determined by measuring the beta-radiation emitted by the radioactive elements. In this case particular precautions must be taken to ensure that the same layer is used for the samples and the standards, since beta-radiation is absorbed by these layers. For the K and Na determinations thermal neutrons are used for activation and a Ge(Li) detector for measurement of the gamma-spectra. Because of the high resolution of the detector, the two elements can be determined without separation. (author)

  14. Proteome analysis of muscadine grape leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheikh M Basha

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Sheikh M Basha1, Ramesh Katam1, Hemanth Vasanthaiah1, Frank Matta21Center for Viticulture and Small Fruit Research, Florida A and M University, Tallahassee, FL, USA; 2Plant and Soil Science Department, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS, USAAbstract: Muscadine grapes are native to the southeastern United States and are used for making wine and consumed as fresh fruit. Grape berries, as ‘sink organs,’ rely on the use of available carbohydrate resources produced by photosynthesis to support their development and composition. A high throughput two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE was conducted on muscadine (Vitis rotundifolia grape leaf proteins to document complexity in their composition and to determine protein identity and function for enhancing photosynthetic efficiency of muscadine grape. 2-DE resolved muscadine leaf proteins into >258 polypeptides with pIs between 3.5 and 8.0 and molecular weight between 12,000 to 15,0000 Daltons. The consistently expressed proteins were excised and subjected to sequencing. Homology search of protein sequences showed 84% identity with Viridi plantae database. Identity of some of these proteins included RuBisCO, glutamine synthetase, pathogenesis-related protein, glyoxisomal malate dehydrogenase, ribonucleoprotein, chloroplast precursor, oxygen evolving enhancer protein. Comparative analysis of 10 muscadine cultivars showed quantitative differences in expression of 39 polypeptides among these genotypes. The results suggested that the polypeptide composition of muscadine grape leaf is complex, and polypeptide number and amount vary widely among muscadine genotypes, and these variations may be responsible for differences in their physiology, berry and stress tolerance characteristics.Keywords: grapevine, leaves, muscadine, proteins, sequencing, 2-DE

  15. 0144 Sick leave patterns as predictors of disability pension or long-term sick leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stapelfeldt, Christina; Vinther Nielsen, Claus; Trolle Andersen, Niels;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The public health care sector is challenged by high sick leave rates among home-care personnel. This group also has a high probability of being granted a disability pension. We studied whether a workplace-registered frequent short-term sick leave spell pattern was an early indicator of...... future disability pension or future long-term sick leave among eldercare workers. METHOD: 2774 employees' sick leave days were categorised: 0-2 and 3-17 short (1-7 days) spells, 2-13 mixed short and long (8+ days) spells, and long spells only. Disability pension and long-term sick leave were subsequently...... pattern was not associated with a significantly increased RR compared with a non-frequent short-term pattern. The risk of long-term sick leave was significantly increased (1.35-1.64 (95% CI: 1.12-2.03) for all sick leave patterns beyond 0-2 short spells. CONCLUSIONS: Sick leave length was a better...

  16. A biochemical model of photosynthesis for mango leaves: evidence for the effect of fruit on photosynthetic capacity of nearby leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, L; Le Roux, X; Sinoquet, H; Jaffuel, S; Jannoyer, M

    2003-04-01

    Variations in leaf nitrogen concentration per unit mass (Nm) and per unit area (Na), mass-to-area ratio (Ma), total nonstructural carbohydrates (Ta), and photosynthetic capacity (maximum carboxylation rate, electron transport capacity, rate of phosphate release in triose phosphate utilization and dark respiration rate) were studied within the digitized crowns of two 3-year-old mango trees (Mangifera indica L.) on La Réunion Island. Additional measurements of Nm, Na, Ma, Ta and photosynthetic capacities were performed on young, fully expanded leaves of 11-year-old mango trees. Leaves of similar gap fractions were taken far from and close to developing fruits. Unlike Nm, both Na and Ta were linearly correlated to gap fraction. Similar relationships were found for all leaves whatever their age and origin, except for Ta, for which we found a significant tree effect. Photosynthetic capacity was nonlinearly correlated to Na, and a unique relationship was obtained for all types of leaves. Photosynthetic acclimation to light was mainly driven by changes in Ma, but allocation of total leaf N between the different photosynthetic functions also played a substantial role in acclimation to the lowest irradiances. Leaves close to developing fruits exhibited a higher photosynthetic capacity than other leaves, but similar Ta. Our data suggest that Ta does not control photosynthetic capacity in mango leaves. We used the data to parameterize a biochemically based model of photosynthesis and an empirical stomatal conductance model, allowing accurate predictions of net photosynthesis of leaves in field-grown mango trees.

  17. Paid Educational Leave and Self-Directed Learning: Implications for Legislation on the Learning Leave Scheme in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jeong Rok; Park, Cho Hyun; Jo, Sung Jun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purposes of this study are to explore paid educational leave (PEL), self-directed learning (SDL) and the relationship between them; and to identify the implications for legislation on the learning leave scheme in South Korea. Design/Methodology/Approach: The research method of the study is a literature review. Articles were identified…

  18. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using extracts of Artocarpus Lakoocha fruit and its leaves, and Eriobotrya Japonica leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) synthesis is demonstrated successfully using fresh young leaves of Artocarpus Lakoocha (A. Lakoocha), fruit pulp of A. Lakoocha and loquat (Eriobotrya Japonica) leaves. We have also compared green synthesis with chemical assisted tri-n-octyl-phosphine (TOP) stabilized gold nanoparticles. Samples were characterized with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and UV-Visible spectroscopy. TEM images have shown that the average size of the particles is 15.06, 36.8 and 25.08 nm for A. Lakoocha fruits, A. Lakoocha leaves and loquat leaves assisted gold nanoparticles, respectively. Hydrogen tetrachloroaurate is reduced and AuNPs are stabilized by phenols, hydroxyls and carboxyls groups such as terpenoids, flavonoids, tannins etc, present in young leaves and fruit extracts. It was observed that green synthesis using botanical extracts is a cost effective and non- toxic way for nanoparticle preparation. (paper)

  19. Primers for Phylogeny Reconstruction in Bignonieae (Bignoniaceae Using Herbarium Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre R. Zuntini

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: New primers were developed for Bignonieae to enable phylogenetic studies within this clade using herbarium samples. Methods and Results: Internal primers were designed based on available sequences of the plastid ndhF gene and the rpl32-trnL intergenic spacer region, and the nuclear gene PepC. The resulting primers were used to amplify DNA extracted from herbarium materials. High-quality data were obtained from herbarium samples up to 53 yr old. Conclusions: The standardized methodology allows the inclusion of herbarium materials as alternative sources of DNA for phylogenetic studies in Bignonieae.

  20. Constituintes químicos de Arrabidaea samydoides (Bignoniaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauletti Patrícia Mendonça

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical investigation of Arrabidaea samydoides resulted in the isolation of the flavone chrysin; five triterpenes: lupeol, ursolic acid, 3b,16a-dihydroxy-urs-12-ene, uvaol, and erythrodiol; and two sterols: sitosterol and stigmasterol. The structures of these compounds were established by spectroscopic analysis. This paper deal with the first phytochemical study of Arrabidaea samydoides.

  1. Phloem unloading in developing leaves of sugar beet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physiological and transport data support a symplastic pathway for phloem unloading in developing leaves of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. Klein E, multigerm). The sulfhydryl inhibitor parachloromercuribenzene sulfonic acid (PCMBS) inhibited uptake of [14C]-sucrose added to the free space of developing leaves, but did not affect import of [14C]-sucrose during steady-state 14CO2 labeling of a source leaf. The passively-transported xenobiotic sugar, [14C]-L-glucose did not readily enter mesophyll cells when supplied through the cut end of the petiole of a sink leaf as determined by whole leaf autoradiography. In contrast, [14C]-L-glucose translocated through the phloem from a mature leaf, rapidly entered mesophyll cells, and was evenly distributed between mesophyll and veins. Autoradiographs of developing leaves following a pulse of 14CO2 to a source leaf revealed rapid passage of phloem translocated into progressively higher order veins as the leaf developed. Entry into V order veins occurred during the last stage of import through the phloem. Import into developing leaves was inhibited by glyphosate (N-phosphomethylglycine), a herbicide which inhibits the aromatic amino acid pathway and hence protein synthesis. Glyphosate also stopped net starch accumulation in sprayed mature leaves, but did not affect export of carbon from treated leaves during the time period that import into developed leaves was inhibited

  2. Phytochemical, proximate and elemental analysis of acalypha wilkesiana leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Kingsley

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Acalypha wilkesiana,commonly called Irish petticoat, is native to the south pacific islands andbelongs to the family Euphorbiaceae. Apart from its use as a vegetable, theplant is also used in traditional medicine as a diuretic plant and is eaten inthe management of hypertension. In this study, three samples (ethanol extract,aqueous extract and dried powder of Acalypha wilkesiana leaves were analyzedfor the presence of phytochemicals according to standard methods. Apart fromflavonoids, steroids, anthraquinones and phytate, all the phytochemicals testedfor are present in the three samples. This qualitative analysis showed thepresence of flavonoids only in the ethanol extract and powdered leave, steroidsonly in the ethanol extract, anthraquinones and phytate in the aqueous extractand powdered leave only. Proximate analysis revealed the presence of ash [4.16%(aqueous extract,13.98% (ethanol extract and 13.65% (powdered leaves],moisture [66.0% (aqueous extract, 30.89% (ethanol extract and 12.0% (powderedleaves], total lipid [1.75% (aqueous extract, 4.25% (ethanol extract and2.20% (powdered leaves], as well as fiber, crude protein and energy, whileelemental analysis revealed the presence of sodium [0.0086% (aqueous extract,0.024% (ethanol extract and 0.015% (powdered leaves], potassium [0.49%(aqueous extract, 1.36% (ethanol extract and 1.44% (powdered leaves], aswell as chloride and calcium. The various phytochemical compounds detected areknown to have beneficial use in industries and medical sciences, and alsoexhibit physiological activity.

  3. An experimental study on drying kinetics of some herbal leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaya, Ahmet; Aydin, Orhan [Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey)

    2009-01-15

    In this study, thin-layer drying characteristics of some herbal leaves, mainly nettle and mint leaves, are investigated experimentally in a convective drier. Effects of the drying air parameters including temperature, velocity and relative humidity on the total drying time are determined. Initially, sorption isotherms of the dried leaves are determined for different temperatures and equilibrium relative humidity (e.r.h.). Experiments are conducted for air temperatures at 35, 45 and 55 C, velocities at 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 m/s and, relative humidity values at 40%, 55% and 70%. In the ranges that covered, the values of the moisture diffusivity D{sub eff} are obtained between 1.744 x 10{sup -9} and 4.992 x 10{sup -9} m{sup 2}/s for nettle leaves and 1.975 x 10{sup -9} and 6.172 x 10{sup -9} m{sup 2}/s for mint leaves from the Fick's diffusion model. Using D{sub eff}, the value of E{sub a} is determined assuming the Arrhenius-type temperature relationship, which varies from 79.873 to 109.003 kJ/mol for nettle leaves and 66.873 to 71.987 kJ/mol for mint leaves. (author)

  4. Thermochemical characterization of banana leaves as a potential energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The chemical composition of semi-dried banana leaves are similar to the other biomass. • The semi-dried leaves present high release of energy under inert and oxidant atmosphere. • The energy released on pyrolysis and combustion can be used to dry the wet banana leaves. • The thermochemical conversion processes can reduce the waste volume significantly. • The banana leaves have potential to use as biomass through combustion and pyrolysis process. - Abstract: Wet and semi-dried banana leaves were characterized through elemental and proximate analyses, lignocellulosic fraction and thermogravimetric analysis (TG/DTG), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and high heating value analysis to assess their use as biomass in generating energy through combustion; they were also assessed to determine the potential of obtaining value-added products through pyrolysis. The wet banana leaves had high moisture content of 74.7%. The semi-dried samples exhibited 8.3% moisture, 78.8% volatile solids, 43.5% carbon and a higher heating value of 19.8 MJ/kg. The nitrogen and sulfur contents in the banana leaves were very low. The semi-dried and wet leaves had hemicellulose and lignin contents close to other biomass fuels, and the semi-dried leaves had the lowest cellulose content, of 26.7%. The wet and semi-dried samples showed the same thermal events in oxidizing and inert atmospheres, but with distinctly different mass loss and energy release intensities. The chemical characteristics and the thermal behavior demonstrated by the semi-dried samples indicate their potential for use as biomass, with results similar to other agro-industrial wastes currently used

  5. Structural modification induced by air pollutants in Plantago lanceolata leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Neta GOSTIN

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Some structural parameters of Plantago lanceolata leaves, which may be considered as biomarkers, were investigated, in order to establish what modifications occur under the pollutants action. The material was represented by leaves of different ages collected from sites with different pollution degrees of the Ceahlau Mountain.External symptoms such as necrotic areas were observed on plants leaves exposed to air pollution. The leaf structure of the analyzed species show some dark deposits in the assimilatory cells, especially from palisade parenchyma. The necrotic areas shows hypertrophied assimilatory cells with thick walls and tannin deposits. Solid deposits are present on both on upper and lower epidermis.

  6. [Improvement on microwave technology of extracting polysaccharide from yacon leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing-wei; Liu, Jian; Yang, Yong; Zheng, Ming-min; Rong, Ting-zhao

    2007-11-01

    According to the extraction ratio of polysaccharide in yacon leaves, the comparison between microwave extraction and traditional hot water extraction was conducted, and the two-factor and three-level experiment on the microwave extraction of polysaccharide from yacon leaves was investigated. The result showed that the extraction ratio of polysaccharide by using microwave extraction was better than that by using traditional hot water extraction. Moreover, according to the result of variance analysis and multiple comparison, the optimum conditions for extraction of polysaccharide by using microwave technology from yacon leaves were as follows: 280W microwave power for 2 times and 15 minutes at every time. PMID:18323219

  7. PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF AGAVE SISALANA PERRINE LEAVES (WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mwandogo O. Chigodi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical properties of the methanolic, Ethyl acetate and Hexane extract of the Agave sisalana Perrine leaves were investigated to evaluate the chemical properties. The phytochemical screening revealed that Tannins, Cardiac glycosides, Reducing sugars, Saponins, Flavonoids, Phlobatannins, Steroids, Terpenoids, and Coumarins were present in the three extracts of A. sisalana Perrine leaves while, Alkaloids were present only in the methanolic and Ethyl acetate extracts. Anthraquinones and Emodins were present only in methanolic extract, while Anthocyanins were absent in all the three extracts. The study revealed that A. sisalana Perrine leave juice (waste has potential Phytochemical compounds which could be investigated for antimicrobial activities for treatment of pathogenic organisms

  8. Ozone injury increases infection of geranium leaves by Botrytis cinerea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manning, W.J.; Feder, W.A.; Perkins, I.

    1970-04-01

    Detached and attached, inoculated and noninoculated, ozone-injured and noninjured leaves from the lower, middle, and terminal regions of plants of geranium cultivars Enchantress and White Mountain were observed for infection by Botrytis cinerea. Previous exposure to ozone did not appreciably influence the susceptibility of leaves of either geranium cultivar to infection by B. cinerea, unless there was visible ozone injury. Ozone-injured, necrotic tissues on older attached and detached geranium leaves of both cultivars served as infection courts for B. cinerea. 14 references, 1 table.

  9. MORPHOLOGICAL AND ANATOMICAL RESEARCH OF LEAVES OF FEIJOA SELLOWIANA BERG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Vdovenko-Martynova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Feijoa leaves gathered from Feijoa sellowiana Berg. of Myrtaceae family on the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus were the object of this research. Establishment of morphological and anatomical features for diagnosis of feijoa leaves was the purpose of this work. Using macro- and microscopic analysis methods we have determined external and microdiagnostic features which can be used for development of authenticity of the feijoa leaves active parts.

  10. Transcriptome phase distribution analysis reveals diurnal regulated biological processes and key pathways in rice flag leaves and seedling leaves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenying Xu

    Full Text Available Plant diurnal oscillation is a 24-hour period based variation. The correlation between diurnal genes and biological pathways was widely revealed by microarray analysis in different species. Rice (Oryza sativa is the major food staple for about half of the world's population. The rice flag leaf is essential in providing photosynthates to the grain filling. However, there is still no comprehensive view about the diurnal transcriptome for rice leaves. In this study, we applied rice microarray to monitor the rhythmically expressed genes in rice seedling and flag leaves. We developed a new computational analysis approach and identified 6,266 (10.96% diurnal probe sets in seedling leaves, 13,773 (24.08% diurnal probe sets in flag leaves. About 65% of overall transcription factors were identified as flag leaf preferred. In seedling leaves, the peak of phase distribution was from 2:00am to 4:00am, whereas in flag leaves, the peak was from 8:00pm to 2:00am. The diurnal phase distribution analysis of gene ontology (GO and cis-element enrichment indicated that, some important processes were waken by the light, such as photosynthesis and abiotic stimulus, while some genes related to the nuclear and ribosome involved processes were active mostly during the switch time of light to dark. The starch and sucrose metabolism pathway genes also showed diurnal phase. We conducted comparison analysis between Arabidopsis and rice leaf transcriptome throughout the diurnal cycle. In summary, our analysis approach is feasible for relatively unbiased identification of diurnal transcripts, efficiently detecting some special periodic patterns with non-sinusoidal periodic patterns. Compared to the rice flag leaves, the gene transcription levels of seedling leaves were relatively limited to the diurnal rhythm. Our comprehensive microarray analysis of seedling and flag leaves of rice provided an overview of the rice diurnal transcriptome and indicated some diurnal regulated

  11. Monocot leaves are eaten less than dicot leaves in tropical lowland rain forests: correlations with toughness and leaf presentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grubb, P.J.; Jackson, R.V.; Barberis, I.M.;

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims: In tropical lowland rain forest (TLRF) the leaves of most monocots differ from those of most dicots in two ways that may reduce attack by herbivores. Firstly, they are tougher. Secondly, the immature leaves are tightly folded or rolled until 50-100 % of their final length. It...... leaves against herbivorous insects in tropical lowland rain forest, and that the relative importance varies widely with species. The difficulties of establishing unequivocally the roles of leaf toughness and leaf folding or rolling in a given case are discussed. Key words: anti-herbivore defences, dicots......, herbivory, leaf folding, leaf rolling, leaf toughness, monocots, palms, tropical rain forest...

  12. Iridoids and phenylpropanoid glucosides from Agalinis communis (Cham. & Schlecht) D'Arcy and Scoparia ericacea Cham. (Scrophulariaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Poser, Gilsane Lino; Henriques, Amélia T.; Schripsema, Jan;

    1996-01-01

    In this work we report the isolation of iridoid glucosides from two species of Scrophulariaceae. From the aerial parts of Scoparia ericacea geniposidic acid, geniposide, scandoside methylester, shanzhiside methylester, caryoptoside and the phenylpropanoid glucoside verbascoside were isolated...

  13. Palaeophytochemical Constituents of Cretaceous Ginkgo coriacea Florin Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    You-Xing Zhao; Cheng-Sen Li; Xiao-Dong Luo; Yu-Fei Wang; Jun Zhou

    2006-01-01

    Chemical investigation of the organic solvent extract of Cretaceous Ginkgo coriacea Florin leaves by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LC-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), analogous to those from extant leaves of Ginkgo biloba L., led to the detection of a group of natural flavonoids and other volatiles. The similarity of the chemical constituents in these two species of Ginkgo suggest that the secondary metabolism of extant G. biloba is close to that of the Cretaceous species. The remaining natural products may be one explanation why the leaves of the Cretaceous G. coriacea have been preserved morphologically in fossilization. The detection of flavonoids suggests that the leaves of G. coriacea experienced a mild post-depositional environment during their fossilization. This appears to be the oldest occurrence of flavonoids in plant fossils.

  14. Anti-diabetes constituents in leaves of Smallanthus sonchifolius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Zheng; He, Fan; Kang, Ting-Guo; Dou, De-Qiang; Gai, Kuo; Shi, Yu-Yuan; Kim, Young-Ho; Dong, Feng

    2010-01-01

    The inhibitory effect of smallanthaditerpenic acids A, B, C and D previously isolated from leaves of Smallanthus sonchifolius (yacon) on alpha-glucosidase were examined and their IC50 were determined to be 0.48 mg/mL, 0.59 mg/mL, 1.00 mg/mL, and 1.17 mg/mL respectively. In addition, a rapid, reliable RP-HPLC method for the analysis of chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and smallanthaditerpenic acids A and C in yacon leaves was established, and the variation in their contents in leaves from plants cultivated in different places and collected at different times of the year were compared. The established analytical method for determining smallanthaditerpenic acids A and C, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid presented good results and could be used as a method for the quality control of S. sonchifolius leaves. PMID:20184030

  15. PHARMACOGNOSTICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION ON LEAVES OF CASSIA OBTUSIFOLIA LINN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sufiyan Ahmad

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the macroscopical and microscopical studies on leaves of Cassia obtusifolia Linn. Some distinct and different characters were observed with section of young thin leaves. The anatomy of the leaves was studied by taking transverse section of midrib. The chloroplasts are much more concentrated in the palisade layer of the mesophyll. There is only one large vascular bundle in the midrib. The midrib was stained with toluidine blue. This helps to resolve the vascular tissues with greater certainty. The xylem and phloem were also observed. Powder microscopical examination showed the presence of parenchyma cells, xylem fibres and starch grain. Physiochemical parameter and preliminary phytochemical study of the leaves powder were also carried out.

  16. A new triterpene saponin from the leaves of Ilex kudincha

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Jian Zuo; Yi Mei Zeng; Yue Hu; He Meng; Zhen Hui Wang; Jin Hui Wang

    2009-01-01

    A new compound, kudinoside LZ_2 (1), was isolated from the leaves of Ilex kudincha. Its structure was elucidated by the combination of one- and two-dimensional NMR analysis, HR-ESI-MS, CD spectrum measurement and chemical evidences.

  17. A New Pregnane Glycoside from Fermented Leaves of Agave americana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A new minor pregnane glycoside was isolated from the fermented leaves of Agave americana. Its structure was elucidated as (20S)-5α-pregnane-3β, 20-diol 20-O-β-D-glucopyrano- side (1) by spectral methods.

  18. Variation of arbutin content in Bergenia sp. leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Galambosi, B.; Galambosi, Zs.; Siivari, J.; Siivari, K.; Sankelo, T.; Shikov, A.

    2007-01-01

    The common garden perennial, Bergenia, should be utilized as a special new crop for raw material production in the cosmetic industry, producing arbutin. Under open field and full sun conditions, the arbutin contents of Bergenia leaves have not changed significantly.

  19. Regenerative properties of Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl. Leaves cultured in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kukułczanka

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The regenerative properties of Saintpaulia ionantha leaves ware investigated in culture in vitro. The leaves acquire this ability after the end of growth. Restitution regeneration was found to be polar and the sequence in organogenesis of roots and buds was different than on a peat-sand substratum. NAA inhibits growth of isolated leaves and stimulates callus and root development. Kinetin abolishes the polarity of regeneration, stimulates leaf growth, initiates formation of numerous buds and inhibits rhizogenesis. The interaction of kinetin with NAA or IAA in dependence on the order in which these substances are applied stimulates in various extents the growth of isolated leaves and callus, and bud and root formation.

  20. 29 CFR 825.301 - Designation of FMLA leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...., if the employee is incapacitated, the employee's spouse, adult child, parent, doctor, etc., may... alternative caregiver for the seriously-ill son or daughter if the leave had been designated timely....

  1. Preparation and properties of waste tea leaves particleboard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Jin-shu; Li Jian-zhang; Fan Yong-ming; Ma Hong-xia

    2006-01-01

    Urea-formaldehyde (UF) adhesive is the main source of formaldehyde emission from UF-bonded boards. The components in waste tea leaves can react with formaldehyde to serve as a raw material in the production of low formaldehyde emission boards. In our study, waste tea leaves and UF adhesive were employed in the preparation of waste tea leaves particleboard (WTLB). An orthogonal experimental method was applied to investigate the effects of process parameters on formaldehyde emission and mechanical properties of WTLB. The results indicated that: 1) waste tea leaves had the ability to abate formaldehyde emission from boards; and 2) density of the WTLB was a significant factor affecting its modulus of rupture (MOR), modulus of elasticity (MOE) and internal bonding (IB).

  2. Nurse manager job satisfaction and intent to leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warshawsky, Nora E; Havens, Donna S

    2014-01-01

    An electronic survey was used to collect data from 291 nurse managers working in U.S. hospitals. Seventy percent were satisfied or very satisfied with their jobs and 68% were either likely or very likely to recommend nursing management as a career choice. Seventy-two percent of these nurse managers were also planning to leave their positions in the next 5 years. The four most common reasons reported for intent to leave included burnout, career change, retirement, and promotion. Burnout was the most common reason cited by the entire sample but the fourth most common reason for leaving cited by those nurse managers who were planning to leave and also satisfied or very satisfied with their positions. Recommendations for nursing leaders include evaluating the workload of nurse managers, providing career counseling, and developing succession plans. PMID:24689156

  3. Early risk assessment of long-term sick leave among patients in primary health care : risk factors, assessment tools, multidisciplinary intervention, and patients’ views on sick leave conclusion

    OpenAIRE

    von Celsing, Anna-Sophia

    2016-01-01

    Background. Long-term sick leave is one of the main risk factors for permanent exit out of the labour market. The longer the duration of sickness absence, the less likely sick leave conclusion. Objectives and Methods. The aims were to analyse possible determinants of sick leave conclusion and their relative impacts, to analyse the properties of two models for the assessment of sick leave conclusion, to study the impact of a multidisciplinary vocational intervention for sick leave conclusion i...

  4. Antioxidant properties of cell wall polysaccharides of Stevia rebaudiana leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Mediesse Kengne Francine; Woguia Alice Louise; Fogue Souopgui Pythagore; Atogho-Tiedeu Barbara; Simo Gustave; Thaddée Boudjeko

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine the total phenolic and protein contents, and the antioxidant activities of cell wall polysaccharide fractions of Stevia rebaudiana leaves. Methods: Three different polysaccharide-enriched fractions, namely FPE (extract with 50 mmol/ L ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid), FPK (extract with 0.05 mol/L KOH) and FH (extract with 4 mol/L KOH) were extracted from Stevia rebaudiana leaves. The antioxidant activity of these fractions was evaluated based on thei...

  5. Maternal employment, breastfeeding, and health: Evidence from maternity leave mandates

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Baker; Kevin S. Milligan

    2007-01-01

    Public health agencies around the world have renewed efforts to increase the incidence and duration of breastfeeding. Maternity leave mandates present an economic policy that could help achieve these goals. We study their efficacy focusing on a significant increase in maternity leave mandates in Canada. We find very large increases in mothers' time away from work post-birth and in the attainment of critical breastfeeding duration thresholds. However, we find little impact on the self-reported...

  6. Pharmacognostical Standardisation and Antidiabetic activity of Artocarpus Heterophyllus Leaves Lam.

    OpenAIRE

    Nazli Shahin; Sanjar Alam; Mohammad Ali

    2012-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to focus on the hypoglycemic effect of the leaves of Artocarpus heterophyllus in normal and streptozocin induced diabetic rats. The Plant was subjected to pharmacognostic, physico-chemical and phytochemical evaluations which will assist in standardization for authenticity, quality and identification of the herbal products. Treatment with extract of the leaves at dose 250 mg/kg to diabetic rats resulted in significant reduction of serum glucose, total ...

  7. Antipyretic Activity of Peperomia pellucida Leaves in Rabbit

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Alam; RAHMAN, Moizur; Islam, Shariful

    2008-01-01

    Antipyretic effects of petroleum ether and ethyl acetate soluble fractions of ethanol extract of the leaves of Peperomia pellucida (Linn.) HBK (Fam. Piperaceae) were investigated. Intraperitoneal administration of boiled milk at a dose of 0.5 ml/kg body weight in albino rabbit leads to pyrexia. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of petroleum ether and ethyl acetate soluble fractions of ethanol extract of the leaves of P. pellucida at a dose of 80 mg/kg body weight significantly reduced the...

  8. Study of Antioxidant Activity of Juglans regia leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FARHAD HATAMJAFARI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the antioxidant activity for Juglans regia leaves. The Methanol extract from Iranian Juglans regia leaves that grow in Karaj and Tonekabon regions was examined. In addition, total amount of DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radical scavenging activities and reductive power of crude extracted its different fractions were determined. The antioxidant activity data by DPPH has been compared in both regions.

  9. Secondary Metabolites from Leaves of Manilkara subsericea (Mart.) Dubard

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda Borges de Almeida; Caio Pinho Fernandes; Wanderson Romao; Gabriela Vanini; Helber Barcelos Costa; Hildegardo Seibert França; Marcelo Guerra Santos; José Carlos Tavares Carvalho; Deborah Quintanilha Falcão; Leandro Rocha

    2015-01-01

    Background: Manilkara subsericea (Sapotaceae) is a species widely spread in the sandbanks of Restinga de Jurubatiba National Park (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). It is commonly known as “maçaranduba”, “maçarandubinha” and “guracica”, being used in this locality as food, and timber. However, M. subsericea remains almost unexplored regarding its chemical constituents, including secondary metabolites from the leaves. Objective: Identify the chemical constituents from the leaves of M. subsericea. Mater...

  10. Phenolic Profile of Leaves and Drupes of Ten Olive Varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Georgios MITSOPOULOS; Papageorgiou, Vasiliki; Michael KOMAITIS; Marianna HAGIDIMITRIOU

    2016-01-01

    Leaves and drupes of the olive varieties "Koroneiki", "Lianolia Kerkyras", "Mastoidis", "Arbequina", "Adramytini", "Megaritiki", "Gaidourelia", "Kalamata", "Konservolia" and "Chalkidiki" were collected at different seasons during 2008 and 2009 and investigated by HPLC for their phenolic profile and the concentration of the phenolic compounds present. The phenolic compounds identified in 2008 new season leaves were, in declining concentration order, oleuropein, 7-O-glucoside of luteolin and ru...

  11. Diuretic activity of leaves of Garcinia cambogia in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mathew, Githa E.; B Mathew; Shaneeb, M M; B Nyanthara

    2011-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to establish the diuretic activity of ethanol and aqueous extract of dried leaves of Garcinia cambogia in rats. Aqueous and ethanol extracts of leaves were administered to experimental rats orally at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg and compared with furosemide (20 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) as the standard. The parameters measured for diuretic activity were total urine volume, urine concentration electrolytes such as sodium, potassium and chloride have been evaluate...

  12. Efficacy of leaves (drumstick, mint and curry leaves) powder as natural preservatives in restructured chicken block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najeeb, A P; Mandal, P K; Pal, U K

    2015-05-01

    The use of natural preservatives to increase the shelf-life of meat products is promising as they possess antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. Earlier, a highly acceptable restructured chicken slice without the addition of extra fat was developed in the same laboratory which was acceptable up to 10th day of storage under refrigeration and spoilage was mainly due to oxidation. Hence, the present study was planned to determine the efficacy of certain plant leaves' (drumstick, mint and curry leaves) powder at 1 % level as natural preservatives to enhance the shelf life of restructured chicken slices under refrigerated storage. The quality attributes of the products containing different natural preservativs were compared with the control and reference products. The control product contained no preservative and the reference product contained BHT (200 ppm) only. Incorporation of the leaf powders at 1 % level did not show any significant differences for both cooking yield (99.5-99.6 %) and proximate composition (moisture 72.2-72.3 %, protein 19.2-19.4 %, fat 4.2-4.3 % and total ash 2.3-2.4 %) of the restructured chicken slices compared to both control and reference products during storage. All products containing leaf powders showed significantly (P BHT added products. Yeast and mould were not detected in any of the products throughout the storage period. Sensory evaluation scores showed that the restructured chicken slices incorporated with the leaf powders were as acceptable as the reference product and rated good to very good for appearance, flavor, juiciness and overall acceptability. Restructured chicken slices with the leaf powders could be safely stored without much loss in quality up to 20 days under refrigeration. PMID:25892820

  13. Features of a chemical composition of dry leaves of Steviavebaudiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Borisovna Krasina

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This work is dedicated to the study of a chemical composition of dry leaves of Stevia. Dry leaves of Stevia contain diterpene glycosides that contribute to their sweet taste, which makes possible the use of Stevia as a sugar substitute in a production of flour confectionery products. The evaluation of amino acid composition of dried leaves of Stevia showed that their composition includes 7 essential amino acids, among them the limiting amino acid is valine.During experimental researches it was established that they are containing in a sufficient quantity water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins in their composition. We have studied the effect of processing conditions on the degree of milling of dry leaves of Stevia. It was revealed that the pressure of 5 MPa in the contact zone of the working elements do not guarantee a product with a desired degree of milling. Milling of dried leaves of Stevia at a pressure equal to 10 MPa, allows achieving a high degree of size reduction with a simultaneous formation of the main physical and chemical characteristics of amilledproduct. It was established that granulometric composition of dry leaves of Stevia, obtained by milling in a rotor-roller disintegrator, presents the highest content of particles with a size from 5 to 30 μm, ensuring high consumer properties of the obtained biologically active additives (BAA.

  14. Fathers’ Experience of Shared Parental Leave in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Chronholm

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the introduction of the Swedish parental leave reform in 1974, fathers have had the same rights to use parental leave as mothers. Between 2000 and 2003, a research project at the Department of Sociology, University of Gothenburg, focused on fathers who had taken more than four months of paid parental leave. The approach of the study was mainly qualitative, based upon a combination of a survey and interviews. A majority of the fathers who answered the questionnaire had been the main caregivers for their children during their parental leave. During the interviews many of the men described their mothers as role models for their fatherhood. The men also described their own partner as both anxious to get back to her work after her own parental leave period and convinced of the importance of a nurturing father. An early decision to take part of the parental leave probably made it easier for the men to reach workplace agreements. Most of the men described themselves as both nurturing fathers and as sharing housework equally. They stressed the importance of being alone with their child during a long period, to be able to develop a deep relationship with their child.

  15. FTIR Spectroscopic Study of Broad Bean 3iseased Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to indentify diseased leaves of broad bean by vibra- tional spectroscopy. [Method] In this paper, broad bean rust, fusarium rhizome rot, broad bean zonate spot, yellow leaf curl virus and normal leaves were studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy combined with chemometrics. [Result] The spectra of the samples were similar, only with minor differences in absorption inten- sity of several peaks. Second derivative analyses show that the significant difference of all samples was in the range of 1 200-700 cm2. The data in the range of 1 200- 700 cm' were selected to evaluate correlation coefficients, hierarchical cluster analy- sis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA). Results showed that the correla- tion coefficients are larger than 0.928 not only between the healthy leaves, but also between the same diseased leaves. The values between healthy and diseased leaves, and among diseased leaves, are all declined. HCA and PCA yielded about 73.3% and 82.2% accuracy, respectively. [Conclusion] This study demonstrated that FTIR techniques might be used to detect crop diseases.

  16. Detecting red blotch disease in grape leaves using hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrubeoglu, Mehrube; Orlebeck, Keith; Zemlan, Michael J.; Autran, Wesley

    2016-05-01

    Red blotch disease is a viral disease that affects grapevines. Symptoms appear as irregular blotches on grape leaves with pink and red veins on the underside of the leaves. Red blotch disease causes a reduction in the accumulation of sugar in grapevines affecting the quality of grapes and resulting in delayed harvest. Detecting and monitoring this disease early is important for grapevine management. This work focuses on the use of hyperspectral imaging for detection and mapping red blotch disease in grape leaves. Grape leaves with known red blotch disease have been imaged with a portable hyperspectral imaging system both on and off the vine to investigate the spectral signature of red blotch disease as well as to identify the diseased areas on the leaves. Modified reflectance calculated at spectral bands corresponding to 566 nm (green) and 628 nm (red), and modified reflectance ratios computed at two sets of bands (566 nm / 628 nm, 680 nm / 738 nm) were selected as effective features to differentiate red blotch from healthy-looking and dry leaf. These two modified reflectance and two ratios of modified reflectance values were then used to train the support vector machine classifier in a supervised learning scheme. Once the SVM classifier was defined, two-class classification was achieved for grape leaf hyperspectral images. Identification of the red blotch disease on grape leaves as well as mapping different stages of the disease using hyperspectral imaging are presented in this paper.

  17. ALUMINUM CONTENT OF TEA LEAVES AND FACTORS AFFECTING THE UPTAKE OF ALUMINUM FROM SOIL INTO TEA LEAVES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Numerous studies indicated that aluminum, the most abundant metallic element within the lithosphere, was considered to be related to some human diseases especially the Alzheimer's disease. Tea, economically an important beverage in the world, has been found to contain higher concentration of aluminum than many other drinks and foods. Therefore, tea would be a potentially important source of dietary aluminum. In order to understand the sources of aluminum in tea leaves and factors related with aluminum content of tea leaves, an experiment was designed to investigate the relationships of aluminum in tea leaves with leaf age, soil properties and forms of aluminum in soils. The results showed that there were great distinctions in the concentration of aluminum in tea leaves with different leaf age (Alold leaf> Almature leaf> Alyoung leaf). Moreover, soil pH was the major factor controlling the uptake of aluminum from soil into tea leaves. Furthermore, the content of aluminum in tea leaves was better predicated by the soluble aluminum extracted by 0. 02mol/L CaCl2.

  18. Abscisic acid biosynthesis in leaves and roots of Xanthium strumarium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creelman, R.A.; Gage, D.A.; Stults, J.T.; Zeevaart, J.A.D.

    1987-11-01

    Research on the biosynthesis of abscisic acid (ABA) has focused primarily on two pathways: (a) the direct pathway from farnesyl pyrophosphate, and (b) the indirect pathway involving a carotenoid precursor. The authors have investigated which biosynthetic pathway is operating in turgid and stressed Xanthium leaves, and in stressed Xanthium roots using long-term incubations in /sup 18/O/sub 2/. It was found that in stressed leaves three atoms of /sup 18/O from /sup 18/O/sub 2/ are incorporated into the ABA molecule, and that the amount of /sup 18/O incorporated increases with time. One /sup 18/O atom is incorporated rapidly into the carboxyl group of ABA, whereas the other two atoms are very slowly incorporated into the ring oxygens. The fourth oxygen atom in the carboxyl group of ABA is derived from water. ABA from stressed roots of Xanthium incubated in /sup 18/O/sub 2/ shows a labeling pattern similar to that of ABA in stressed leaves, but with incorporation of more /sup 18/O into the tertiary hydroxyl group at C-1' after 6 and 12 hours than found in ABA from stressed leaves. It is proposed that the precursors to stress-induced ABA are xanthophylls, and that a xanthophyll lacking an oxygen function at C-6 plays a crucial role in ABA biosynthesis in Xanthium roots. In turgid Xanthium leaves, /sup 18/O is incorporated into ABA to a much lesser extent that it is in stressed leaves, whereas exogenously applied /sup 14/C-ABA is completely catabolized within 48 hours. This suggests that ABA in turgid leaves is either (a) made via a biosynthetic pathway which is different from the one in stressed leaves, or (b) has a half-life on the order of days as compared with a half-life of 15.5 hours in water-stressed Xanthium leaves. Phaseic acid showed a labeling pattern similar to that of ABA, but with an additional /sup 18/O incorporated during 8'-hydroxylation of ABA to phaseic acid.

  19. Discrimination of Five Citrus Diseased Leaves by FTIR Spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xingxiang; ZHAO; Gang; LIU; Weixing; LI; Xiaohua; Wang; Jianming; HAO; Xiangping; ZHOU

    2014-01-01

    In this paper,citrus brown spot,huanglongbing,canker,fuliginous,Cercospora sp. and healthy leaves were studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy( FTIR) combined with statistical analysis. The results showed that the spectra of the samples were similar,whereas there were obvious differences in the second derivatives of infrared spectra in the range of 1 500- 700 cm- 1. The correlative analysis were evaluated,results showed that the correlation coefficients were larger than 0. 918 between healthy leaves,and between the same diseased leaves. However,the values were all decreased between healthy and diseased leaves,and among different diseased leaves. The preprocessed original,first derivative and second derivative spectra in the range of 1 200- 700 cm- 1were chosen to evaluated principal component analysis( PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis( HCA),respectively. The performance of the overall accuracy of PCA was 92.5%,which were better than original dataset and first derivative dataset. HCA by selecting second derivative dataset yield about 90% accuracy. This study proved that FTIR spectroscopy could be detected citrus diseases quickly and accurately.

  20. Diversity of fungi colonizing leaves of Rhododendron (Rhododendron L. cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Kierpiec-Baran

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Rhododendrons (Rhododendron L. are shrubs whose attractiveness is determined by their multi-coloured flowers and evergreen leaves. Necroses visible on the leaves of rhododendron cuttings diminish the suitability of nursery material for marketing. These symptoms are most frequently caused by fungi. The investigations were conducted in 2010–2011 in an ornamental shrub nursery to identify fungi colonizing the phyllosphere of rhododendron cuttings and causing leaf necroses. The material for analysis consisted of leaves of 11 rhododendron cultivars. 550 leaves were collected from 110 half-year-old cuttings for mycological analysis. Over 350 fungal colonies belonging to 15 species were isolated from the leaves of rhododendron cuttings. The dominants included: Pestalotiopsis sydowiana, Trichoderma koningii and Alternaria alternata. The influents included: Aspergillus brasiliensis, Mucor hiemalis f. hiemalis, Epicoccum nigrum, Sordaria fimicola and Umbelopsis isabellina. A large majority of the fungi preferred the phyllosphere environment of Yakushima rhododendron (R. yakushimanum cultivars ‘Sneezy’ and ‘Golden Torch’ as well as of the large-flowered cultivars ‘Flautando’, ‘Dominik’, and ‘Simona’. The phyllosphere of the large-flowered cultivars ‘Bernstein’, ‘Nova Zembla’, and ‘Goldbuckett’ was a reservoir for many fungal colonies and fungi species. The cultivars less susceptible to colonization by fungi and the most promising for planting in green areas and home gardens are the large-flowered cultivars ‘Bernstein’, ‘Nova Zembla’, ‘Goldbuckett’, ‘Rasputin’, and ‘Roseum Elegans’.

  1. Drying kinetics of dill leaves in a convective dryer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motevali, A.; Younji, S.; Chayjan, R. Amiri; Aghilinategh, N.; Banakar, A.

    2013-01-01

    Thin layer drying characteristics of dill leaves under fixed, semi-fluidized, and fluidized bed conditions were studied at air temperatures of 30, 40, 50, and 60°C. In order to find a suitable drying curve, 12 thin layer-drying models were fitted to the experimental data of the moisture ratio. Among the applied mathematical models, the Midilli et al. model was the best for drying behavior prediction in thin layer drying of dill leaves. To obtain the optimum network for drying of dill leaves, various numbers of multilayer feed-forward neural networks were made and tested with different numbers of hidden layers and neurons. The best neural network feed-forward back-propagation topology for the prediction of drying of dill leaves (moisture ratio and drying rate) was the 3-45-2 structure with the training algorithm trainlm and threshold functions logsig and purelin. The coefficient of determination for this topology for training, validation, and testing patterns was 0.9998, 0.9981, and 0.9990, respectively. Effective moisture diffusivity of dill leaves during the drying process in different bed types was found to be in the range from 7.10 10-12 to 1.62 10-10 m2 s-1. Also, the values of activation energy were determined to be between 75.435 and 80.118 kJ mol-1

  2. Antioxidant Activity of Leaves and Fruits of Iranian Conifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Emami

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cupressus semipervirens var. horizontalis, Cupressus semipervirens var. semipervirens, Cupressus semipervirens cv. Cereifeormis, Juniperus communis subsp. hemisphaerica, Juniperus excelsa subsp. excelsa, Juniperus excelsa subsp. polycarpos, Juniperus foetidissima, Juniperus oblonga, Juniperus sabina, Platycladus orientalis and Taxus baccata are Iranian conifers. The antioxidant activity of leaves and fruits of these 11 different taxons were evaluated. The leaves of both male and female, and fruits of these plants were collected from different areas of the country. Methanol extract of leaves and fruits of these taxons were prepared. Antioxidant activity of each extracts was measured using two different tests of the ferric thiocyanate method and thiobarbituric acid. Results indicated that the methanol extracts of leaves, of male and female, and fruits of all these species (27 samples possessed antioxidant activity when tested with both methods. The antioxidant activity was then compared with those of α-tocopherol (a natural antioxidant and butylated hydroxytoluene (a synthetic antioxidant. Methanol extract of fruits of C. semipervirens cv. Cereifeormis showed the highest antioxidant activity while the methanol extract of leaves of C. semipervirens var. semipervirens possessed the lowest antioxidant activity. However, our finding showed that most of the tested extracts were showing strong antioxidant activity even higher than α-tocopherol.

  3. GPs' negotiation strategies regarding sick leave for subjective health complaints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsen, Stein Tore; Malterud, Kirsti; Werner, Erik L.;

    2015-01-01

    GPs (31 men, 17 women; age 32–65), participating in a course dealing with diagnostic practice and assessment of sickness certifi cates related to patients with subjective health complaints. Results: TheGPs identified some specific strategies that they claimed to apply when dealing with the question......Objectives: To explore general practitioners ’(GPs’) specific negotiation strategies regarding sick-leave issues with patientssuffering from subjective health complaints. Design: Focus-group study. Setting: Nine focus-group interviews in three citiesin different regions of Norway. Participants: 48...... of sick leave for patientswith subjective health complaints. The first step would be to build an alliance with the patient by complying with the wish for sick leave, and at the same time searching for information to acquire the patient’s perspective. This position would become the basis for the main goal...

  4. Antimicrobial activity of extracts from Tamarindus indica L. leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Escalona-Arranz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tamarindus indica L. leaves are reported worldwide as antibacterial and antifungal agents; however, this observation is not completely accurate in the case of Cuba. In this article, decoctions from fresh and sun dried leaves, as well as fluid extracts prepared with 30 and 70% ethanol-water and the pure essential oil from tamarind leaves were microbiologically tested against Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomona aeruginosa and Candida albicans. Aqueous and fluid extracts were previously characterized by spectrophotometric determination of their total phenols and flavonoids, while the essential oil was chemically evaluated by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS. Experimental data suggest phenols as active compounds against B. subtilis cultures, but not against other microorganisms. On the other hand, the essential oil exhibited a good antimicrobial spectrum when pure, but its relative low concentrations in common folk preparations do not allow for any good activity in these extracts.

  5. Antimicrobial activity of extracts from Tamarindus indica L. leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalona-Arranz, Julio César; Péres-Roses, Renato; Urdaneta-Laffita, Imilci; Camacho-Pozo, Miladis Isabel; Rodríguez-Amado, Jesús; Licea-Jiménez, Irina

    2010-07-01

    Tamarindus indica L. leaves are reported worldwide as antibacterial and antifungal agents; however, this observation is not completely accurate in the case of Cuba. In this article, decoctions from fresh and sun dried leaves, as well as fluid extracts prepared with 30 and 70% ethanol-water and the pure essential oil from tamarind leaves were microbiologically tested against Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomona aeruginosa and Candida albicans. Aqueous and fluid extracts were previously characterized by spectrophotometric determination of their total phenols and flavonoids, while the essential oil was chemically evaluated by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). Experimental data suggest phenols as active compounds against B. subtilis cultures, but not against other microorganisms. On the other hand, the essential oil exhibited a good antimicrobial spectrum when pure, but its relative low concentrations in common folk preparations do not allow for any good activity in these extracts.

  6. Mangrove leaves (Rhizophora mangle) as environmental contamination biomonitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sometimes, plants growing in contaminated sediments by trace metals can not avoid absorption of these metals, but only to limit its translocation, so that the accumulated metals in their tissues will have different levels of concentrations. Some trace metals (copper, zinc, manganese, among others) are essential for plants, although they are toxic at high concentrations, damaging its growth, production or quality. The aim of this work from is to verify the presence of metals such as copper, manganese and iron in mangrove leaves (Rhizophora mangle) collected in some beaches of the Northeast of Brazil (such as: Maceio, Sao Jose da Coroa Grande, Japaratinga, Croa do Gore, Ponta das Pedras). Leaves' metals content (extracted by adding acids) were determined by a fast sequential atomic absorption spectrometer (SpectrAA-220FS/VARIAN). The results showed that there are more Fe and Mn in mangrove leaves than in other metals comparing with all study areas (Fe > Mn > Co > Zn > Cu). (author)

  7. Pharmacognostical studies on the leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour Spreng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaliappan Nirmala

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour Spreng belonging to the family Lamiaceae commonly known as Karpuravalli, Omavalli in Tamil, Patta ajavayin, Patharcur in Hindi, Country borage in English is a large succulent aromatic perennial herb. It is highly aromatic pubescent herb with distinctive smelling leaves. The plant is distributed throughout in India, cultivated in the gardens. The leaves of this plant have been used in malarial fever, hepatopathy, renal and vesical calculi, cough, chronic asthma, hiccough, bronchitis, anthelmintic, colic and convulsions. This paper deals with the micro morphological studies carried out on the leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus one of the WHO accepted parameter for identification of medicinal plants. For the better understanding of structural details Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM also employed.

  8. Genetic variation in alkaloid accumulation in leaves of Nicotiana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo SUN; Fen ZHANG; Guo-jun ZHOU; Guo-hai CHU; Fang-fang HUANG; Qiao-mei WANG; Li-feng JIN; Fu-cheng LIN; Jun YANG

    2013-01-01

    Alkaloids are plant secondary metabolites that are widely distributed in Nicotiana species and contribute greatly to the quality of tobacco leaves. Some alkaloids, such as nornicotine and myosmine, have adverse effects on human health. To reduce the content of harmful alkaloids in tobacco leaves through conventional breeding, a genetic study of the alkaloid variation among different genotypes is required. In this study, alkaloid profiles in leaves of five Nicotiana tabacum cultivars and Nicotiana tomentosiformis were investigated. Six alkaloids were identified from al six genotypes via gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Significant differences in alkaloid content were ob-served both among different leaf positions and among cultivars. The contents of nornicotine and myosmine were positively and significantly correlated (R2=0.881), and were also separated from those of other alkaloids by clustering. Thus, the genotype plays a major role in alkaloid accumulation, indicating a high potential for manipulation of alkaloid content through traditional breeding.

  9. Photosynthesis rate in moss leaves of various anatomical structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Krupa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of measurements of the rate of gas exchange in the leaves of mosses the value of the compensation and of the light saturation of photosynthesis points was determined. These points differentiate mosses into photo- and sciophilous ones.Moss species such as: Mnium punctatum, Catherinea undulata, Polytrichum juniperinum, Funaria hygrometrica, Polytrichum piliferum, Aloina rigida were also classified according to differences in the anatomical structure of their leaves. The morphological characters of the anatomical structure of leaves and their chlorophyll content are connected with photosynthetic activity. There is a correlation between the leaf surface and the degree of differentiation of the anatomical structure. This results in an enlargement of the contact surface of the cells assimilating from the air, and this in turn is associated with an increase in the photosynthetic activity per leaf surface area unit.

  10. Antimicrobial activity of extracts from Tamarindus indica L. leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalona-Arranz, Julio César; Péres-Roses, Renato; Urdaneta-Laffita, Imilci; Camacho-Pozo, Miladis Isabel; Rodríguez-Amado, Jesús; Licea-Jiménez, Irina

    2010-07-01

    Tamarindus indica L. leaves are reported worldwide as antibacterial and antifungal agents; however, this observation is not completely accurate in the case of Cuba. In this article, decoctions from fresh and sun dried leaves, as well as fluid extracts prepared with 30 and 70% ethanol-water and the pure essential oil from tamarind leaves were microbiologically tested against Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomona aeruginosa and Candida albicans. Aqueous and fluid extracts were previously characterized by spectrophotometric determination of their total phenols and flavonoids, while the essential oil was chemically evaluated by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). Experimental data suggest phenols as active compounds against B. subtilis cultures, but not against other microorganisms. On the other hand, the essential oil exhibited a good antimicrobial spectrum when pure, but its relative low concentrations in common folk preparations do not allow for any good activity in these extracts. PMID:20931087

  11. Antimicrobial activity of extracts from Tamarindus indica L. leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalona-Arranz, Julio César; Péres-Roses, Renato; Urdaneta-Laffita, Imilci; Camacho-Pozo, Miladis Isabel; Rodríguez-Amado, Jesús; Licea-Jiménez, Irina

    2010-01-01

    Tamarindus indica L. leaves are reported worldwide as antibacterial and antifungal agents; however, this observation is not completely accurate in the case of Cuba. In this article, decoctions from fresh and sun dried leaves, as well as fluid extracts prepared with 30 and 70% ethanol-water and the pure essential oil from tamarind leaves were microbiologically tested against Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomona aeruginosa and Candida albicans. Aqueous and fluid extracts were previously characterized by spectrophotometric determination of their total phenols and flavonoids, while the essential oil was chemically evaluated by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). Experimental data suggest phenols as active compounds against B. subtilis cultures, but not against other microorganisms. On the other hand, the essential oil exhibited a good antimicrobial spectrum when pure, but its relative low concentrations in common folk preparations do not allow for any good activity in these extracts. PMID:20931087

  12. Pharmacognostical and Phytochemical Investigation on Leaves of Ficus microcarpa Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravichandra V D

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Ficus microcarpa Linn. (Syn: Ficus nitidas; Family: Moraceae grows in Tropical and Subtropical regions of India, used for variety of purpose in traditional medicine. The usefulness of this plant is described in many folk books including Ayurveda and different biologically active phytoconstituents were isolated from plant. But no reports are available on morph anatomy, and phytochemical studies, hence present attempt was undertaken to investigate the microscopically and preliminary phytochemical and Physico-chemical studies on the leaves of Ficus microcarpa. The study reveals the leaves are variable, coriaceous, oblong, elliptic to broadly elliptic or obovate. The transverse section of the leaves shows presence of epidermis, sponge parenchyma, bicollateral vascular bundles, nonglandular, glandular trichome and spiral vessels. The powder microscopy revealed the presence of anomocytic stomata, glandular trichome, covering trichome and prismatic calcium oxalate crystals. Physicochemical parameters like ash value, extractive value and phytochemical screening with different reagents showed the presence of fluorescence compounds, steroids, triterpenoids, phenols, tannins and flavonoids.

  13. Computational Approach to Seasonal Changes of Living Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Tang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a computational approach to seasonal changes of living leaves by combining the geometric deformations and textural color changes. The geometric model of a leaf is generated by triangulating the scanned image of a leaf using an optimized mesh. The triangular mesh of the leaf is deformed by the improved mass-spring model, while the deformation is controlled by setting different mass values for the vertices on the leaf model. In order to adaptively control the deformation of different regions in the leaf, the mass values of vertices are set to be in proportion to the pixels' intensities of the corresponding user-specified grayscale mask map. The geometric deformations as well as the textural color changes of a leaf are used to simulate the seasonal changing process of leaves based on Markov chain model with different environmental parameters including temperature, humidness, and time. Experimental results show that the method successfully simulates the seasonal changes of leaves.

  14. Mangrove leaves (Rhizophora mangle) as environmental contamination biomonitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Vivianne L.B. de; Santos, Suzana O.; Fonseca, Cassia K.L.; Paiva, Ana Claudia de; Silva, Waldecy A. da, E-mail: vlsouza@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: suzirecifeusa@hotmail.com, E-mail: cassia.kellen@hotmail.com, E-mail: acpaiva@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: waldecy@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Sometimes, plants growing in contaminated sediments by trace metals can not avoid absorption of these metals, but only to limit its translocation, so that the accumulated metals in their tissues will have different levels of concentrations. Some trace metals (copper, zinc, manganese, among others) are essential for plants, although they are toxic at high concentrations, damaging its growth, production or quality. The aim of this work from is to verify the presence of metals such as copper, manganese and iron in mangrove leaves (Rhizophora mangle) collected in some beaches of the Northeast of Brazil (such as: Maceio, Sao Jose da Coroa Grande, Japaratinga, Croa do Gore, Ponta das Pedras). Leaves' metals content (extracted by adding acids) were determined by a fast sequential atomic absorption spectrometer (SpectrAA-220FS/VARIAN). The results showed that there are more Fe and Mn in mangrove leaves than in other metals comparing with all study areas (Fe > Mn > Co > Zn > Cu). (author)

  15. An event history analysis of union joining and leaving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttigieg, Donna M; Deery, Stephen J; Iverson, Roderick D

    2007-05-01

    This article examines parallel models of union joining and leaving using individual-level longitudinal panel data collected over a 5-year period. The authors utilized objective measures of joining and leaving collected from union and organizational records and took into account time by using event history analysis. The results indicated that union joining was negatively related to procedural justice and higher performance appraisals and positively related to partner socialization and extrinsic union instrumentality. Conversely, members were most likely to leave the union when they perceived lower procedural justice, where there was no union representative present in the workplace, and where they had individualistic orientations. The authors discuss the implications of these findings for theory and practice for trade unions. PMID:17484562

  16. Nutritional Composition of Water Spinach (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.) Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar, K. J.; Hassan, L. G.; Dangoggo, S. M.; Ladan, M. J.

    Analyses of the nutritional composition of water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) Forsk leaves were carried out using standard methods of food analysis. The proximate composition as well as mineral elements were determined. The leaves were found on dry weight basis to have high moisture (72.83±0.29%), ash (10.83±0.80%), crude lipid (11.00±0.50%), crude fibre (17.67±0.35%) and available carbohydrate (54.20±0.68%), but low in crude protein content (6.30±0.27%). The leaves also have energy value (300.94±5.31 kcal/100 g) that is within the range reported in some Nigerian leafy vegetables. The mineral element contents were high with remarkable concentration of K (5,458.33±954.70 mg/100 g) and Fe (210.30±2.47 mg/100 g). Also the leaves content moderate concentrations of Na (135.00±2.50 mg/100 g), calcium (416.70±5.77 mg/100 g), Magnesium (301.64±12.69 mg/100 g) and P (109.29±0.55 mg/100 g), with low Cu (0.36±0.01 mg/100 g), Mn (2.14±0.22 mg/100 g) and Zn (2.47±0.27 mg/100 g) contents. Comparing the mineral content with recommended dietary allowance, it was showed that the plant leaves is good sources of K, Mn and Fe for all categories of people, while Mg is adequate enough for adult female and children. From the result, Ipomoea aquatica Forsk leaves could be used for nutritional purposes, due to the amount and diversity of nutrients it contains.

  17. Funding child rearing: child allowance and parental leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J R

    1996-01-01

    This article proposes two financing plans to address what the author identifies as the two primary concerns in the child care field: (1) a child allowance for poor and near-poor households to address the child care problems of low-income families, and (2) a program of voluntary parental leave, available to all parents at child birth or adoption, to ensure the adequacy of infant care. The child allowance plan would cover the first three children in families up to 175% of the poverty level (more than 22 million children) at an annual cost of $45 billion. The author suggests that the allowance could be financed by redirecting funds from existing income support (for example, Aid to Families with Dependent Children), tax credit, and tax deduction programs. Financing the parental leave program would require new revenues, generated by an employee-paid increase in payroll tax totaling 3.5%. Each employee's contributions would create a parental leave account (PLA). Families could use the funds in these accounts to cover the cost of a one-year leave from work after the birth or adoption of a child. If families did not have enough dollars in their accounts to cover the cost of the leave, the federal government would extend a low-interest loan to them, which they would have to pay back. The amount individuals receive through Social Security would be adjusted upward or downward according to the balances in their parental leave accounts at retirement. The author suggests that both proposals would help parents balance work and family obligations and protect parental freedom of choice over the care and upbringing of their children.

  18. Characterization of untreated and treated male and female date palm leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Sheshi female and male date palm leaves were treated with NaOH concentrations. ► Male leaves have lower mechanical properties and improved when treated by NaOH 2%. ► Female leaves have higher thermal stability. ► There are different properties for different types of date leaves. ► Leaves can be used as reinforcements for thermoplastic materials. -- Abstract: This paper describes the characterization of male and female date palm leaves from two different cultivars, Sheshi female and unknown male leaves. Characterization was done for both untreated and NaOH treated date palm leaves by infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscopic techniques. To our knowledge, the difference in specious reaction to the treatment type of date palm fiber has not been investigated earlier. These leaves were treated with different concentrations of NaOH, 0.5%, 1%, 2% and 5% (w/w). The results from this investigation indicate that female leaves have better tensile properties which deteriorate with the increase of the alkali. The male leaves have lower tensile properties than female leaves and their mechanical properties are improved slightly by NaOH treatment. Female leaves have more pores than male leaves, this was proved and calculated by image analysis. Untreated female leaves have higher thermal stability (353 °C) than male leaves (343 °C). Both can be used as reinforcements in thermoplastic matrix materials whose processing temperatures are below 300 °C.

  19. Isolation of Astilbin from Leaves of Cratoxylum Arborescens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phytochemicals studies was conducted on the leaves of Cratoxylum arborescens that has been collected from Post Brooke, Gua Musang, Kelantan, Malaysia. Traditionally, latex of the stem bark of C. arborescens is being used for the treatment of wound. Extraction of leaves of C. arborescens using organic solvents followed by purification using standard procedure of purification yielded known compound, astilbin. This compound was identified by NMR spectral data using various 2D-techniques and comparison with the literature data. Reports showed that this compound has a unique immunosuppressive activity, a selective inhibition against activated T lymphocytes. This characteristic of astilbin is beneficial for the treatment of human immune diseases. (author)

  20. Aroma transition from rosemary leaves during aromatization of olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Yılmazer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aroma profile of aromatized olive oil was determined in this study. The primary objective was to investigate the transition of major aroma compounds from rosemary and olive fruit during the kneading step of olive oil production by response surface methodology. For this purpose, temperature, time, and amount of rosemary leaves were determined as independent variables. The results indicated that temperature and time did not affect the transition of target compounds, but rosemary leaves addition had a strong influence on transition, especially for characteristic aroma compounds of this herb. Adequacies of developed models were found to be high enough to predict each aromatic component of interest.

  1. Cassava leaves as protein source for pigs in Central Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the studies described in this thesis was to evaluate the use of cassava leaves as protein sources for pigs when used at high levels in the diet, either in fresh form or with simplified methods of processing. In twenty cassava varieties taken from the upper part of the plant at the root harvesting, the crude protein varied from 23.7 to 29.5 % in DM and the HCN from 610 to 1840 mg/kg DM. Chopping, washing and wilting the leaves are simple ways to process the. There was a 58% reductio...

  2. Flavonol Glycosides from the Leaves of Allium macrostemon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakane, Risa; Iwashina, Tsukasa

    2015-08-01

    Twelve flavonoids were isolated from Allium macrostemon leaves. Five compounds were identified as kaempferol 3,7-di-O-glucoside (1), kaempferol 3,4'-di-O-glucoside (2), quercetin 3-O-glucoside (3), kaempferol 3-0-glucoside (4) and isorhamnetin 3-O-glucoside (5) by UV spectra, LC-MS, acid hydrolysis and HPLC comparisons with authentic standards. Other flavonoids were characterized as kaempferol glycosides (6-8, 10 and 11) and quercetin glycosides (9 and 12). Other compounds, such as steroidal saponins, have been already found from the bulbs of A. macrostemon. However, flavonoids were reported for the first time from the leaves. PMID:26434122

  3. Family and Medical Leave Act; Definition of Spouse. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) is revising the definition of spouse in its regulations on the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) as a result of the decision by the United States Supreme Court holding section 3 of the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) unconstitutional. The new definition replaces the existing definition, which contains language from DOMA that refers to "a legal union between one man and one woman.'' The new definition permits Federal employees with same-sex spouses to use FMLA leave in the same manner as Federal employees with opposite-sex spouses. PMID:27066615

  4. Bioethanol production from Ficus religiosa leaves using microwave irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Miri; Griess, Ofir; Pulidindi, Indra Neel; Perkas, Nina; Gedanken, Aharon

    2016-07-15

    A microwave assisted feasible process for the production of bioethanol from Ficus religiosa leaves was developed. Under the process conditions (8 min. microwave irradiation, 1 M HCl), 10.1 wt% glucose yield was obtained from the leaves. Microwave based hydrolysis process yielded higher glucose content (10.1 wt%) compared to the conventional hydrothermal process (4.1 wt%). Upon fermentation of the hydrolysate using Baker's yeast, 3 wt% (dry wt. basis) of bioethanol was produced. PMID:27064733

  5. Analysis of ayurvedic medicinal leaves by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of 15 elements were determined in medicinally important ayurvedic medicinal leaves. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was employed for the determination of the elements viz. Na, K, Br, Sm, Cr, Zn, Th, Rb, Sr, Fe, La, Co, Ce, Cs and Eu. The samples were neutron irradiated at 100 kW TRIGA -Mainz nuclear reactor and the induced activities were measured by gamma ray spectrometry using an efficiency calibrated high resolution high purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The concentrations of these elements in the medicinal leaves and their medicinal importance are discussed. (author)

  6. Fungal diversity on fallen leaves of Ficus in northern Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-kai WANG; Kevin D. HYDE; Kasem SOYTONG; Fu-cheng LIN

    2008-01-01

    Fallen leaves of Ficus altissima, F. virens, F. benjamina, F. fistulosa and F. semicordata, were collected in Chiang Mai Province in northern Thailand and examined for fungi. Eighty taxa were identified, comprising 56 anamorphic taxa, 23 ascomycetes and 1 basidiomycete. Common fungal species occurring on five host species with high frequency of occurrence were Beltraniella nilgirica, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Ophioceras leptosporum, Periconia byssoides and Septonema harknessi. Colletotrichum and Stachybotrys were also common genera. The leaves of different Ficus species supported diverse fungal taxa, and the fungal assemblages on the different hosts showed varying overlap. The fungal diversity of saprobes at the host species level is discussed.

  7. Fungal diversity on fallen leaves of Ficus in northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Kai; Hyde, Kevin D; Soytong, Kasem; Lin, Fu-Cheng

    2008-10-01

    Fallen leaves of Ficus altissima, F. virens, F. benjamina, F. fistulosa and F. semicordata, were collected in Chiang Mai Province in northern Thailand and examined for fungi. Eighty taxa were identified, comprising 56 anamorphic taxa, 23 ascomycetes and 1 basidiomycete. Common fungal species occurring on five host species with high frequency of occurrence were Beltraniella nilgirica, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Ophioceras leptosporum, Periconia byssoides and Septonema harknessi. Colletotrichum and Stachybotrys were also common genera. The leaves of different Ficus species supported diverse fungal taxa, and the fungal assemblages on the different hosts showed varying overlap. The fungal diversity of saprobes at the host species level is discussed. PMID:18837113

  8. Administrative circular n°3 (Rev. 2) – Home leave, travel to home station and assimilated leave and travel

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Administrative Circular No. 3 (Rev. 2) entitled “Home leave, travel to the home station and assimilated leave and travel”, approved by the Director-General following discussion at the Standing Concertation Committee meeting of 11 October 2012 and entering into force on 1 January 2013, is available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department.   This circular is applicable to employed members of the personnel. It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular No. 3 (Rev. 1) entitled “Travel to the home station and home leave” of June 2002. The circular was revised in order to take into account the new status of Associate Member State and the fact that henceforth, home stations may be situated on territory outside of Europe. It is proposed to introduce a new system of determination of the benefits (Travel expenses, travel time and distance indemnity) granted in the context of home leave and supplementary journeys to the home station.  For t...

  9. Improving Tenderness of Spent Layer Hens Meat Using Papaya Leaves (Carica papaya)

    OpenAIRE

    H. O. Abdalla, N. N. A. Ali, F. S. Siddig and S. A. M. Ali*

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments were performed to study the use of papaya leaves as a meat tenderizer. The first experiment was to evaluate the effect of papaya dry leaves added to hen’s diet before slaughter. Spent hens (n=48) were used, half of them were fed a concentrate ration containing10% dried papaya leaves powder (DPLP) while others received layer ration (Control), for 10 days. The second experiment involved a comparison between papaya leaves juice (PLJ), fresh papaya leaves (FPL) and vinegar soluti...

  10. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION AND ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LEAVES

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasa U; Amrutia Jay N; Katharotiya Reena; Moses Semuel Rajan

    2011-01-01

    Petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and aqueous extracts of leaves of Moringa oleifera were screened for various bioactive constituents like glycosides, carbohydrates, tannins, flavonoids, triterpenoids and alkaloids. The chloroform and methanol extracts were evaluated for anthelmintic activity on adult Indian earthworms Pheritima postuma using Piperazine citrate and Rajah Pravartani Vati (Ayurvedic preparation) as a reference standards. The results obtained indicated that the chloroform ex...

  11. "Hello, Goodbye": Exploring the Phenomenon of Leaving Teaching Early

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Aubrey Scheopner

    2012-01-01

    High teacher attrition rates hinder schools in their ability to provide quality instruction. This study seeks to understand why teachers leave early in their careers (within the first 5 years) using a mixed methods approach that combined 50 in-depth interviews with 15 public and 10 Catholic school teachers in the United States who left early with…

  12. Chromatographic profiles of Ginkgo biloba leaves and selected products

    Science.gov (United States)

    An LC-DAD-ESI/MS method was developed to obtain chromatographic profiles for the flavonoids and terpene lactones of Ginkgo biloba leaves and selected G. biloba products. The method was used to identify 46 glycosylated flavonols and flavones, 3 free flavonol aglycones, catechin, 10 biflavones, a dihy...

  13. Dose-response relation between physical activity and sick leave

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Proper, K.I.; Heuvel, S.G. van den; Vroome, E.M. de; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Beek, A.J. van der

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the dose-response relation between moderate and vigorous physical activity and sick leave in a working population. Methods: Data were used from three large Dutch databases: two continuous, cross sectional surveys among a representative sample of the Dutch population and one

  14. Methyl carnosate, an antibacterial diterpene isolated from Salvia officinalis leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climati, Elisa; Mastrogiovanni, Fabio; Valeri, Maria; Salvini, Laura; Bonechi, Claudia; Mamadalieva, Nilufar Zokirzhonovna; Egamberdieva, Dilfuza; Taddei, Anna Rita; Tiezzi, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    Ethanolic extracts of Salvia officinalis leaves demonstrated antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus. Fractionation of the extracts led to the isolation of the most active antibacterial compound, which, from spectroscopic and LC-MS evidence, was proved to be the diterpene, methyl carnosate.

  15. Leave or Stay? Battered Women's Decision after Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinseok; Gray, Karen A.

    2008-01-01

    Battered women's reasons for staying with or leaving their male partners are varied and complex. Using data from the Domestic Violence Experience in Omaha, Nebraska, a discrete-time hazard model was employed to examine a woman's decision based on four factors: financial independence, witness of parental violence, psychological factors, and the…

  16. Dengue fever treatment with Carica papaya leaves extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nisar Ahmad; Hina Fazal; Muhammad Ayaz; Bilal Haider Abbasi; Ijaz Mohammad; Lubna Fazal

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of the current study is to investigate the potential of Carica papaya leaves extracts against Dengue fever in 45 year old patient bitten by carrier mosquitoes. For the treatment of Dengue fever the extract was prepared in water. 25 mL of aqueous extract of C. papaya leaves was administered to patient infected with Dengue fever twice daily i.e. morning and evening for five consecutive days. Before the extract administration the blood samples from patient were analyzed. Platelets count (PLT), White Blood Cells (WBC) and Neutrophils (NEUT) decreased from 176×103/μL, 8.10×10 3/μL, 84.0% to 55×10 3/μL, 3.7×10 3/μL and 46.0%. Subsequently, the blood samples were rechecked after the administration of leaves extract. It was observed that the PLT count increased from 55×103/μL to 168×10 3/μL, WBC from 3.7×10 3/μL to 7.7×10 3/μL and NEUT from 46.0% to 78.3%. From the patient feelings and blood reports it showed that Caricapapaya leaves aqueous extract exhibited potential activity against Dengue fever. Furthermore, the different parts of this valuable specie can be further used as a strong natural candidate against viral diseases.

  17. McCallen Professional Research and Teaching Leave Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCallen, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-10-16

    This end of assignment report for a Professional Research and Teaching (PRT) Leave award includes the attached assessment of success by the host organization, University of California Davis (UCD). The following summarizes the accomplishments and attached are a selection of documented items.

  18. Toxicological Studies of Hydromethanolic Leaves Extract of Grewia crenata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AN Ukwuani

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The acute and sub-chronic oral toxicity studies of hydro-methanolic extracts of Grewia crenata leaves were evaluated in rats. The extract at a single dose of 5000 mg/kg did not produce treatment related signs of toxicity or mortality in any of the animals tested during 14 days observation period. Therefore, LD 50 of this plant was estimated to be more than 5000 mg/kg. Phytochemical screening of the leaves extract revealed the plant to contain saponins, steroids, flavonoids, anthraquinones and glycosides. In the repeated dose 28days oral toxicity study, administration of 900, 1800, 2700 and 3600 mg/kg of body weight G. crenata leaves extracts revealed no significantly difference (p<0.05 in the hematological parameter except for reduced platelet and increased differential blood count shown in some of the treated groups. Analysis of serum liver enzymes, uric acid, total protein, albumin, cholesterol, electrolytes and creatinine revealed no significant (P<0.05 changes in the extract treated groups compared to control group. However, significant differences (P<0.05 were seen in glucose, urea and bilirubin of the treated groups when compared to the control group. These results suggest that the sub-chronic administration of hydro-methanolic leaves extracts of Grewia crenata has no marked acute and sub-chronic toxic effect in rats.

  19. 48 CFR 752.7031 - Leave and holidays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Leave and holidays. 752.7031 Section 752.7031 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT... States (less language training) and the actual days overseas beginning on the date of departure from...

  20. Kaempferol and quercetin glycosides from Rubus idaeus L. leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudej, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Quercetin 3-0-beta-D-glucoside (I), quercetin and kaempferol 3-0-beta-D-galactosides (II, III), kaempferol 3-0-beta-L-arabinopyranoside (IV), kaempferol 3-0-beta-D-(6''-E-p-coumaroyl)-glucoside (tiliroside) (V) and methyl gallate (VI) were isolated from Rubus idaeus L. subspecies culture of Norna leaves and fully characterized.

  1. Antioxidant Potential and Oil Composition of Callistemon viminalis Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zubair

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate the antioxidant potential and oil composition of Callistemon viminalis leaves. GC-MS analysis of the n-hexane extract revealed the presence of 40 compounds. Leaves contained appreciable levels of total phenolic contents (0.27–0.85 GAE mg/g and total flavonoid contents (2.25–7.96 CE mg/g. DPPH radical scavenging IC50 and % inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation were found to be in the ranges of 28.4–56.2 μg/ml and 40.1–70.2%, respectively. The haemolytic effect of the plant leaves was found in the range of 1.79–4.95%. The antioxidant activity of extracts was also studied using sunflower oil as an oxidative substrate and found that it stabilized the oil. The correlation between the results of different antioxidant assays and oxidation parameters of oil indicated that leaves' methanolic extract, exhibiting higher TPC and TFC and scavenging power, was also more potent for enhancing the oxidative stability of sunflower oil.

  2. Physiological responses of plant leaves to atmospheric ammonia and ammonium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, J.; Soares, A.

    Misting of leaves of several plant species with 3 mM aqueous NH +4 at pH 5, or fumigation with 3000 μg m -3 gaseous NH 3 for 1 h, elicits similar biochemical and physiological changes in the species tested. The enzyme glutamine synthetase (GS) was shown to increase its activity in all species, while that of nitrate reductase (NR) was inhibited, at least in those species which possessed the ability to induce foliar NR. At the same time there were marked changes in organic anion concentrations, with malate and citrate in particular being reduced in concentration, following either NH +4 or NH 3 application to leaves. The changes in organic anions are also discussed in the light of pH regulation by the cell. A stimulation of photosynthesis was also evident when leaves were treated with either NH 3 or NH +4. It is argued that, because of the differences in solution chemistry of the two ammonia forms, the aqueous form applied at pH 5 and the gaseous form being an alkali in solution, these changes can only have occurred through the ability of the leaves to readily assimilate both forms of the ammonia. The biochemical changes might have potential as markers for the onset of physiological perturbation by atmospheric ammonia pollution, particularly changes in organic acid concentration; their use in an index of pollution stress is briefly discussed.

  3. Bad Behavior : Delinquency, Arrest and Early School Leaving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ward, Shannon; Williams, J.; van Ours, Jan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the effects of delinquency and arrest on school leaving using information on males from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997. We use a multivariate mixed proportional hazard framework in order to account for common unobserved confounders and reverse causality.

  4. Einstein's Tea Leaves and Pressure Systems in the Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Amit; Marshall, John

    2010-01-01

    Tea leaves gather in the center of the cup when the tea is stirred. In 1926 Einstein explained the phenomenon in terms of a secondary, rim-to-center circulation caused by the fluid rubbing against the bottom of the cup. This explanation can be connected to air movement in atmospheric pressure systems to explore, for example, why low-pressure…

  5. Predicting stay/leave behavior among volleyball referees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Yperen, N.W.

    1998-01-01

    This study aimed to predict stay/leave behavior among volleyball referees. The predictor variables reflect commitment aspects from the literature: attraction, perceived lack of alternatives, personal investments, and feelings of obligation to remain. Intent to quit was assumed to mediate the link be

  6. Physical Education, Liberal Education and the Leaving Certificate Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulcahy, D. G.

    2012-01-01

    This article considers the conceptualization of physical education as a Leaving Certificate Examination subject and the place of physical education in a liberal education. Special attention is given to the conceptual evolution of physical education and its intrinsic educational values and to the developments in the idea of a liberal education over…

  7. "Who Leaves?" Teacher Attrition and Student Achievement. Working Paper 23

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Donald; Grossman, Pamela; Lankford, Hamilton; Loeb, Susanna; Wyckoff, James

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes attrition patterns among teachers in New York City public elementary and middle schools and explores whether teachers who transfer among schools, or leave teaching entirely, are more or less effective than those who remain. We find that the first-year teachers who are less effective in improving student math scores have higher…

  8. Thermal Degradation of Flavonol Glycosides in Noni Leaves During Roasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shixin Deng

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Noni leaves have been used for a variety of health benefits for thousands of years. Noni leaf tea, a commercial product made by a roasting process, is attracting more attention due to its potential health benefits. Flavonoids appear to be some of the predominant constituents in noni leaves. As flavonoids exist mostly in the forms of glycosides or polymers, degradation to corresponding metabolites is usually needed for bio-absorption. This study investigates the effects of thermal treatment (non-aqueous roasting on flavonoids in noni leaves. Rutin and kaempferol glycoside contents decreased dramatically as roasting time and/or temperature increased, while quercetin and kaempferol aglycones were produced. A quantitative comparison demonstrated that quercetin and kaempferol concentrations were 3.74 and 6.28 times greater in noni leaf tea than in raw noni leaves, respectively. These findings indicate that the roasting process for the noni leaf tea could induce the degradation of flavonol glycosides, and produce their aglycone metabolites, which in turn, may lead to more beneficial bioactivities and bioavailability.

  9. 42 CFR 31.6 - Personnel absent without leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Personnel absent without leave. 31.6 Section 31.6 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS MEDICAL CARE FOR CERTAIN PERSONNEL OF THE COAST GUARD, NATIONAL OCEAN SURVEY, PUBLIC...

  10. Cassava leaves as protein source for pigs in Central Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the studies described in this thesis was to evaluate the use of cassava leaves as protein sources for pigs when used at high levels in the diet, either in fresh form or with simplified methods of processing. In twenty cassava varieties taken from the upper part of the plant at the root

  11. Dengue fever treatment with Carica papaya leaves extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nisar; Fazal, Hina; Ayaz, Muhammad; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Mohammad, Ijaz; Fazal, Lubna

    2011-08-01

    The main objective of the current study is to investigate the potential of Carica papaya leaves extracts against Dengue fever in 45 year old patient bitten by carrier mosquitoes. For the treatment of Dengue fever the extract was prepared in water. 25 mL of aqueous extract of C. papaya leaves was administered to patient infected with Dengue fever twice daily i.e. morning and evening for five consecutive days. Before the extract administration the blood samples from patient were analyzed. Platelets count (PLT), White Blood Cells (WBC) and Neutrophils (NEUT) decreased from 176×10(3)/µL, 8.10×10(3)/µL, 84.0% to 55×10(3)/µL, 3.7×10(3)/µL and 46.0%. Subsequently, the blood samples were rechecked after the administration of leaves extract. It was observed that the PLT count increased from 55×10(3)/µL to 168×10(3)/µL, WBC from 3.7×10(3)/µL to 7.7×10(3)/µL and NEUT from 46.0% to 78.3%. From the patient feelings and blood reports it showed that Carica papaya leaves aqueous extract exhibited potential activity against Dengue fever. Furthermore, the different parts of this valuable specie can be further used as a strong natural candidate against viral diseases.

  12. Three new megastigmanes from the leaves of Annona muricata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushige, Ayano; Matsunami, Katsuyoshi; Kotake, Yaichiro; Otsuka, Hideaki; Ohta, Shigeru

    2012-04-01

    Three new megastigmanes (1-3), named annoionols A and B (1, 2) and annoionoside (3), were isolated from the leaves of Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae) together with 14 known compounds (4-17). Among the known compounds, annoionol C (4) was isolated from a natural source for the first time. The structures of all compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic and chemical analyses.

  13. Pharmacognostical Investigation and Physicochemical Analysis of Celastrus paniculatus Willd. Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kalaskar Mohan G.; Saner Sachin Y.; Pawar Manohar V.; Rokade Dipak L; Surana Sanjay J

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Celastrus paniculatus Willd. is an important Indian medicinal plant and widely used in the treatment of the verity of disease and well explored scientifically for their pharmacological properties. The current study was therefore carried out to provide requisite pharmacognostic details about the plant. Methods: Pharmacognostic investigation of the fresh, powdered and anatomical sections of the leaves of Celastrus paniculatus Willd. was carried out to determine its morphological, anatomical, and phytochemical diagnostic features. Quantitative diagnostic characteristics, physicochemical properties and quantitative phytochemical measures were established. Results: The morphology of leave reveled, leaves are alternate, acute, acuminate or obtuse, rounded with cuncate base,; margin is finely crenate, venation is reticulate. The microscopy reveals the dorsiventral type of leave, with anomocytic stomata, covering (lower epidermis) and glandular (upper epidermis) trichomes. The collateral vascular bundle crowned with sclerenchymatous fiber, ideoblast of calcium oxalate. The Quantitative diagnostic characteristics such as leaf constant were measured. Physicochemical properties such as ash, extractive values and fluorescence analysis were established. Quantitative phytochemical revealed presence of carbohydrates, fixed oil, glycosides, cumarines, tannins, flavonoids, saponins, steroids and triterpenoids. Conclusion: The results of the study could be useful in setting some diagnostic indices for the identification and preparation of a monograph of the plant.

  14. Phenolic Profile of Leaves and Drupes of Ten Olive Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios MITSOPOULOS

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Leaves and drupes of the olive varieties "Koroneiki", "Lianolia Kerkyras", "Mastoidis", "Arbequina", "Adramytini", "Megaritiki", "Gaidourelia", "Kalamata", "Konservolia" and "Chalkidiki" were collected at different seasons during 2008 and 2009 and investigated by HPLC for their phenolic profile and the concentration of the phenolic compounds present. The phenolic compounds identified in 2008 new season leaves were, in declining concentration order, oleuropein, 7-O-glucoside of luteolin and rutin whereas for those collected in 2009 the main phenolic compounds were oleuropein, rutin, 4-O-glucoside of luteolin and 7-O-glucoside of apigenin. In September - December 2009 collected leaves, oleuropein presented the higher concentration followed by 7-O-glucoside of luteolin, 4-O-glucoside of luteolin and rutin. Regarding green and black drupes for both years, the main phenolic compounds were oleuropein, verbascoside and rutin. Verbascoside was only found in drupes whereas the 7-O-glucoside of apigenin only in leaves. Εach tissue, for both years, had a similar phenolic profile in all varieties.

  15. Phospholipid signaling responses in salt-stressed rice leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Darwish; C. Testerink; M. Khalil; O. El-Shihy; T. Munnik

    2009-01-01

    Salinity is one of the major environmental factors limiting growth and productivity of rice plants. In this study, the effect of salt stress on phospholipid signaling responses in rice leaves was investigated. Leaf cuts were radiolabeled with 32 P-orthophosphate and the lipids extracted and analyzed

  16. Caregiver Leave-Taking in Spain: Rate, Motivations, and Barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogero-García, Jesús; García-Sainz, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to (1) determine the rate of (full- and part-time) caregiver leave-taking in Spain, (2) identify the reasons conducive to a more intense use of this resource, and (3) ascertain the main obstacles to its use, as perceived by caregivers. All 896 people covered by the sample were engaging in paid work and had cared for dependent adults in the last 12 years. This resource, in particular the full-time alternative, was found to be a minority option. The data showed that legal, work-related, and family and gender norm issues are the four types of factors that determine the decision to take such leaves. The most significant obstacles to their use are the forfeiture of income and the risk of losing one's job. Our results suggest that income replacement during a leave would increase the take-up of these resources. Moreover, enlargement of public care services would promote the use of leave as a free choice of caregivers. PMID:26808617

  17. Gender Inequality and the Family and Medical Leave Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prohaska, Ariane; Zipp, John F.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we use feminist theories of the state to examine why the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) has had relatively little impact on increasing men's caregiving after the birth or adoption of a child. An analysis of witness testimonies and of the language of the proposed bill at three different stages of its development revealed that…

  18. Photosynthesis in Plants with Non-Green Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartak, Rehka

    2006-01-01

    Enquiry based learning is an important tool in science teaching. Students of Class XI (16-17 years old) were asked to hypothesise on the role of different pigments found in plants with non-green leaves. The majority hypothesised that these plants were devoid of chlorophylls and some other pigments performed the function of photosynthesis. Their…

  19. Antimicrobial Activity of UV-Induced Phenylamides from Rice Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Lin Park

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Rice produces a wide array of phytoalexins in response to pathogen attacks and UV-irradiation. Except for the flavonoid sakuranetin, most phytoalexins identified in rice are diterpenoid compounds. Analysis of phenolic-enriched fractions from UV-treated rice leaves showed that several phenolic compounds in addition to sakuranetin accumulated remarkably in rice leaves. We isolated two compounds from UV-treated rice leaves using silica gel column chromatography and preparative HPLC. The isolated phenolic compounds were identified as phenylamide compounds: N-trans-cinnamoyltryptamine and N-p-coumaroylserotonin. Expression analysis of biosynthetic genes demonstrated that genes for arylamine biosynthesis were upregulated by UV irradiation. This result suggested that phenylamide biosynthetic pathways are activated in rice leaves by UV treatment. To unravel the role of UV-induced phenylamides as phytoalexins, we examined their antimicrobial activity against rice fungal and bacterial pathogens. N-trans-Cinnamoyltryptamine inhibited the growth of rice brown spot fungus (Bipolaris oryzae. In addition to the known antifungal activity to the blast fungus, sakuranetin had antimicrobial activity toward B. oryzae and Rhizoctonia solani (rice sheath blight fungus. UV-induced phenylamides and sakuranetin also had antimicrobial activity against rice bacterial pathogens for grain rot (Burkholderia glumae, blight (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae and leaf streak (X. oryzae pv. oryzicola diseases. These findings suggested that the UV-induced phenylamides in rice are phytoalexins against a diverse array of pathogens.

  20. Water leaving polarization signal measured from space. Is it possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piskozub, Jacek; Freda, Wlodzimierz

    2016-04-01

    Improvements in optical techniques for measuring linear polarization have renewed interest in using them to study ocean waters. However, some questions needed answering. Is there any useful information about ocean water optical properties in the polarization signal? Is it possible to discern it from polarization caused by atmospheric Rayleigh scattering polarization reflected by the sea surface and by the reflection itself? Will the signal be still detectable from the top of the atmosphere? We have recently answered affirmatively to the first question, showing that useful information about in-water single scattering albedo can be derived from the degree of polarization of water leaving radiation [1]. This information, can be combined with reflectance measurements to calculate for example the backscattering ratio of sea water components. Thus, at least in theory, optical remote sensing could be used to get information about the angular distribution of scattering. To answer the second and third questions, we have performed experiments [2] and used Monte Carlo modelling to study the water leaving polarization through a realistic (Cox-Munk distribution) sea surface. The results are promising, at least in some directions (mostly 90 degrees of azimuth angle from the sun blink). We also performed Monte Carlo calculations with a realistic atmosphere with both Rayleigh and aerosol scattering. The (new and unpublished) results show the polarization signal of water leaving can be also discerned from the top of the atmosphere making satellite remote sensing of ocean leaving polarization a realistic possibility. [1] Piskozub J. and Freda W, 2013, Signal of single scattering albedo in water leaving polarization, J. Europ. Opt. Soc.-Rapid, 8, 13055, http://dx.doi.org/10.2971/jeos.2013.13055 [2] Freda W., J. Piskozub, H. Toczek, 2015, Polarization imaging over sea surface - a method for measurements of Stokes components angular distribution, J. Eur. Opt. Soc.-Rapid, 10, 15060

  1. NEMATICIDAL ACTIVITY OF ALSTONIA BOONEI AND BRIDELIA FERRUGINEA LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olatunji, Gabriel Ademola

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Chemical environmental hazards warrant researches on green chemistry. Screen house and field studies were conducted to investigate the natural nematicidal potential of Alstonia boonei and Bridelia ferruginea leaves. The leaves were extracted successively using n- hexane, ethyl acetate and ethanol; the crude extracts were tested on Meloidogyne incognita that infects Corchorus olitorius in a 9 x 4 x 3 factorial experiment. In the Screen house and field, Alstonia boonei ethanol extracts (ALSB/EtOH caused a significant (p<0.05 increase in plant height and number of leaves which compared significantly with that of reference standard carbofuran, whereas Alstonia boonei ethyl acetate extract (ALSB/EtOAc and Bridelia ferruginea ethyl acetate extract (BRDF/EtOAc influenced the production of higher number of branches which was similar to that of carbofuran. Nematodes were significantly (p<0.05 absent in the soil and root of plants that received the highest concentrations (75% and 50% of ALSB/EtOH, ALSB/EtOAc and Bridelia ferruginea ethanol extracts. Corchorus olitorius plants that received carbofuran and ALSB/EtOH flowered significantly earlier than plants treated with aqueous extracts of Alstonia boonei and Bridelia ferruginea, which also produced significantly (p<0.05 lower plant height, fewer leaves, fewer branches and had nematodes in their root and soil at harvest. Phytochemical screening of plant extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, anthraquinones, tannins and saponins. The extracts of the leaves of A. boonei and B. ferruginea were nematicidal and appear to hold promise as natural, biodegradable and environmentally friendly alternative crop protectants against Meloidogyne incognita.

  2. Ozone stimulates apoplastic antioxidant systems in pumpkin leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranieri, A.; D`Urso, G.; Soldatini, G.F. [1st. Chimica Agraria, Pisa (Italy); Nali, C.; Lorenzini, G. [Sez. Patologia Vegetale, Dept. CDSL, Pisa (Italy)

    1996-07-01

    The phytotoxiticity of ozone is due to its high oxidant capacity and to its ability to generate toxic molecular species. It is well known that intracellular peroxidases play an important role in eliminating toxic forms of oxygen but little evidence has been reported on the role of peroxidases in the apoplastic compartment. The detoxification systems located in the foliar extracellular matrix and in the intracellular fluid of sensitive pumpkin plants (Cucurbita pepo L. cv. Ambassador) exposed to ozone (150 ppb, 5 days, 6 h day{sup -1}) in a fumigation chamber, were analyzed. The analyses were carried out on both young and mature leaves. Ascorbate peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.11) was found in the extracellular matrix of the pumpkin tissues. Its activity increased in both young and mature leaves as a consequence of the treatment, while at intracellular levels its effect was most prominent in mature leaves. Analysis of the ascorbic-dehydroascorbic acid system revealed an enhancement of the pool content in the extracellular matrix of both kinds of leaves as a consequence of fumigation, while at the intracellular level small variations were found. Very little variation was observed in the glutathione pool as a consequence of fumigation. The analysis of a lipid peroxidation marker, malondialdehyde, showed the significant effect of ozone on membrane lipids. Following fumigation, the free phenols in the extracellular matrix decreased in both young and mature leaves, while the free and glycoside-bound phenols of the intracellular fluid showed little increase. The results support the hypothesis that ozone stimulates the antioxidant systems mainly in the apoplast and that ascorbic peroxidase activity, ascorbic acid levels and cell wall stiffening are the most influenced parameters. (au)

  3. Proteomic Analysis of Strawberry Leaves Infected with Colletotrichum fragariae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianping Fang; Huasheng Ma; Songlin Raun

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the defense mechanisms used by anthracnose-resistant strawberries against Colletotrichum infection is important for breeding purposes.To characterize cell responses to Colletotrichum infection,proteomes from strawberry seedling leaves that had or had not been infected with Colletotrichum fragariae were characterized at different time points post infection by 2-DE and by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS/MS and database-searching protein identification.Mass spectrometry identified 49 differentially expressed proteins with significant intensity differences (> 1.5-fold,p <0.05) in mock-and C.fragariae-infected leaves at least at one time point.Notably,2-DE analysis revealed that C.fragariae infection increased the expression of well-known and novel pathogen-responsive proteins whose expression patterns tended to correlate with physiological changes in the leaves.Quantitative real-time PCR was used to examine the transcriptional profiles of infected and uninfected strawberry leaves,and western blotting confirmed the induction of β-1,3-glucanase and a lowmolecular-weight heat shock protein in response to C.fragariae infection.During the late phase of infection,proteins involved in the Calvin cycle and glycolysis pathway had suppressed expression.The abundance changes,putative functions,and participation in physiological reactions for the identified proteins produce a pathogenresponsive protein network in C.fragariae-infected strawberry leaves.Together,these findings increase our knowledge of pathogen resistance mechanisms,especially those found in non-model plant species.

  4. Validation of sick leave measures: self-reported sick leave and sickness benefit data from a Danish national register compared to multiple workplace-registered sick leave spells in a Danish municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stapelfeldt Christina Malmose

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous validation studies of sick leave measures have focused on self-reports. Register-based sick leave data are considered to be valid; however methodological problems may be associated with such data. A Danish national register on sickness benefit (DREAM has been widely used in sick leave research. On the basis of sick leave records from 3,554 and 2,311 eldercare workers in 14 different workplaces, the aim of this study was to: 1 validate registered sickness benefit data from DREAM against workplace-registered sick leave spells of at least 15 days; 2 validate self-reported sick leave days during one year against workplace-registered sick leave. Methods Agreement between workplace-registered sick leave and DREAM-registered sickness benefit was reported as sensitivities, specificities and positive predictive values. A receiver-operating characteristic curve and a Bland-Altman plot were used to study the concordance with sick leave duration of the first spell. By means of an analysis of agreement between self-reported and workplace-registered sick leave sensitivity and specificity was calculated. Ninety-five percent confidence intervals (95% CI were used. Results The probability that registered DREAM data on sickness benefit agrees with workplace-registered sick leave of at least 15 days was 96.7% (95% CI: 95.6-97.6. Specificity was close to 100% (95% CI: 98.3-100. The registered DREAM data on sickness benefit overestimated the duration of sick leave spells by an average of 1.4 (SD: 3.9 weeks. Separate analysis on pregnancy-related sick leave revealed a maximum sensitivity of 20% (95% CI: 4.3-48.1. The sensitivity of self-reporting at least one or at least 56 sick leave day/s was 94.5 (95% CI: 93.4 – 95.5 % and 58.5 (95% CI: 51.1 – 65.6 % respectively. The corresponding specificities were 85.3 (95% CI: 81.4 – 88.6 % and 98.9 (95% CI: 98.3 – 99.3 %. Conclusions The DREAM register offered valid measures of sick

  5. Child-Care in Norway: Use of Parental Leave by Fathers

    OpenAIRE

    Naz, Ghazala

    2011-01-01

    An important feature of parental leave in Norway is that it allows significant sharing of leave between parents. Parents may take 54 weeks of leave and receive 80 per cent of previous earnings or 44 weeks of leave with 100 per cent of earnings, up to a ceiling amount. Nine weeks of total leave are, however, reserved for the mother and six weeks for the father and, as a general rule, these weeks cannot be transferred to the other parent. The remaining parental leave can be shared between paren...

  6. Displacement of carbon-14 labelled amino acids from leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The displacement of amino acids from nature leaves was investigated. The amino acids (Ala, Asn, Asp, Glu, Gln, Val, Leu, Lys, Ser, Pro) were applied on the leaves in L-form, uniformly labelled with 14C, and the type and direction of displacement have been observed. Most of the studies have been carried out on bush beans aged 3 to 4 weeks. The experiments were carried out in climatic chambers; in one case, barley plants just reaching maturity were used. In order to find out whether the applied amino acids were also displaced in their original form, freeze-dried plants were extracted and the 14C activity of the various fraction was determined. The radioactivity of some free amino acids was determined after two-dimensional separation by thin film chromatography. (orig./HK)

  7. Phenolic Compounds Analysis of Root, Stalk, and Leaves of Nettle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semih Otles

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Types of nettles (Urtica dioica were collected from different regions to analyze phenolic compounds in this research. Nettles are specially grown in the coastal part. According to this kind of properties, nettle samples were collected from coastal part of (Mediterranean, Aegean, Black sea, and Marmara Turkey. Phenolic profile, total phenol compounds, and antioxidant activities of nettle samples were analyzed. Nettles were separated to the part of root, stalk, and leaves. Then, these parts of nettle were analyzed to understand the difference of phenolic compounds and amount of them. Nettle (root, stalk and leaves samples were analyzed by using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode-Array Detection (HPLC-DAD to qualitative and quantitative determination of the phenolic compounds. Total phenolic components were measured by using Folin-Ciocalteu method. The antioxidant activity was measured by using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl which is generally used for herbal samples and based on single electron transfer (SET.

  8. ANTI-FUNGAL POTENTIAL OF LEAVE EXTRACTS OF MURRAYA KOENIGII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishra Manoj Kumar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Shade dried leaves of Murraya koenigii Linn. (Rutaceae was extracted successfully using soxhlet apparatus using petroleum ether (PE, benzene (BZ, chloroform (CF, acetone (AT, ethanol 95% (EN and water (AQ. Essential oil was also isolated from the fresh leaves. Qualitative phytochemical screening showed presence of essential oil, phenolic compounds, glycogides, amino acids, resins and alkaloids. The extracts and essential oil were tested against four fungi. Zone of Inhibition was measured using the Disc Diffusion Plate Method. DW extract has no antifungal activity. AT extract was most active against Aspergillus niger, BZ extract was most active against Alternaria solani and Helminthosporium solani. EN extract was most active against Penicillium notatum. The essential oil also possesses moderate antifungal activity.

  9. Clinorotation affects mesophyll photosynthetic cells in leaves of pea seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamchuk, N I

    1998-07-01

    Experiments with autotrophs in altered gravity condition have a grate significant for development of space biology. The main results of investigation in the photosynthetic apparatus state under microgravity condition have based on the experiments with maturity plants and their differentiated cells. The structural and functional organization of photosynthetic cells in seedlings is poor understandable still. Along with chloroplasts preserving a native membrane system in palisade parenchyma cells of the 29-day pea plant leaves in microgravity, chloroplasts with fribly packed or damaged granae, whose thylakoids appeared as vesicles with an electrontransparent content, were also observed. The investigation of preceding process induced these effects have a sense. That is why, the goal of our experiments was to perform the study of a structural organization of the photosynthetic cells of 3-d pair of pea seedlings leaves under the influence of clinorotation.

  10. PHANTASTICA regulates development of the adaxial mesophyll in Nicotiana leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHale, Neil A; Koning, Ross E

    2004-05-01

    Initiation and growth of leaf blades is oriented by an adaxial/abaxial axis aligned with the original axis of polarity in the leaf primordium. To investigate mechanisms regulating this process, we cloned the Nicotiana tabacum ortholog of PHANTASTICA (NTPHAN) and generated a series of antisense transgenics in N. sylvestris. We show that NSPHAN is expressed throughout emerging blade primordia in the wild type and becomes localized to the middle mesophyll in the expanding lamina. Antisense NSPHAN leaves show ectopic expression of NTH20, a class I KNOX gene. Juvenile transgenic leaves have normal adaxial/abaxial polarity and generate leaf blades in the normal position, but the adaxial mesophyll shows disorganized patterns of cell division, delayed maturation of palisade, and ectopic reinitiation of blade primordia along the midrib. Reversal of the phenotype with exogenous gibberellic acid suggests that NSPHAN, acting via KNOX repression, maintains determinacy in the expanding lamina and sustains the patterns of cell proliferation critical to palisade development.

  11. Morpho anatomical studies of leaves of Abutilon indicum (linn.) sweet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramadoss Karthikeyan; PannemVenkatesh; Nesepogu Chandrasekhar

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the pharmacognostic parameters of the leaves of Abutilon indicum (Linn.) Sweet which will assist in standardization, quality assurance, purity and sample identification of the species. Methods: The pharmacognostic studies were carried out in terms of organoleptic, microscopic, powder microscopic, leaf constants and fluorescence analysis. Results:Macroscopic study showed that the leaf shape -cordate, Size -2-4 cm long, Colour - Green, Odour -Characteristic, Taste -Characteristic, Surface - Smooth, Apex -Acute to acuminate, Lamina-Simple, Cordate, Reticulate, Dentate, Margin-Crenate-Dentate. The microscopic features of leaves were observed as covering trichomes, glandular trichome, vascular bundles, crystals, stomata ,mucilage secretory cells adaxial epidermis, palisade mesophyll, spongy mesophyll and lateral vein. Further the study was evaluated leaf constants, powder microscopy and fluorescence study of leaf powder. Conclusion: Various pharmacognostic characters observed in this study help in the identification and standardization of Abutilon indicum (Linn.) Sweet.

  12. Antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of Abroma augusta Lnn. leaves extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FK Saikot; Alam Khan; MF Hasan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity of acetone extract of leaves ofAbroma augusta. Methods: Disc diffusion method was used to demonstrate antibacterial and antifungal activities. Cytotoxicity was determined against brine shrimp nauplii. In addition, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined using serial dilution technique to determine antibacterial potency. Results: The extract showed significant antibacterial activities against three gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus megaterium and Staphylococcus aureus) and four gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella sonnei and Salmonella typhi) bacteria. The antifungal activity was found strong against five fungi (Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, Rhizopus oryzae and Aspergillus fumigatus). In cytotoxicity determination, LC50 of the extract against brine shrimp nauplii was 7.06μg/ml. Conclusions: The Abroma leaves extract may be consider as a potent antimicrobial and cytotoxic agent for further advance research.

  13. "Essential oils of Heracleum Persicum Desf.ex Fischer leaves "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojab F

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The leaves of Heracleum persicum Desf ex Fischer (Syn. H glabrascens Boiss. & Hohen, H. prbescens Rech. (Fam Apiaceae were collected in July - Auguest 1993 from kandavan area in north of Tehran. The oil was extracted by hydrodistillation (0.13% from leaves and was analyzed by GC, GC/CS and 1H-NMR. The major component was trans - anethole (82.8% Other components were β - pinene, p-cymene and terpinolene (monoterpenes , α- caryophylene, α- bergamotene, α- farnesene, zingiberene, spathulenol (sesqiterpenes. Cis - anethole, stragole, 2,5-dimethyl styrene (aromatic compounds, and β- springene ( an aliphatic and hydrocarbonic diterpene . It is concluded that this oil is a source of trans - anethole .

  14. Evaluation of antioxidant activities of Hippophae rhamnoides Linn leaves extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JavidAli; BashirAhmad

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the antioxidant activity of aqueous, methanol, ethanol, acetone, ethyl acetate, chloroform and n-hexane extracts of Hippophae rhamnoides (H. rhamnoides) leaves. Methods: Antioxidant activity was evaluated by using in-vitro antioxidant assays model 1, 1’-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging activity. The antioxidant activities were compared with standard antioxidant agents such as ascorbic acid. Results: The antioxidant activities (% inhibition) of all the tested extracts were increased in the order i.e. menthol > ethanol > aqueous > acetone > chloroform > ethyl acetate > n-hexane. The methanol extract EC50 (µg/mL) value was compatible with vitamin C (standard). The antioxidant activity of H. rhamnoides leaves extracts increased in a dose dependent manner. Conclusions: It was observed that H. rhamnoides was a potential resource of antioxidants and thus could put off numerous radical linked diseases.

  15. Identification of phenylpropanoids in fig (Ficus carica L.) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Toru; Okiura, Aya; Saito, Keita; Kohno, Masahiro

    2014-10-15

    In this study, the phenylpropanoid composition and antioxidant activity of identified components in fig (Ficus carica L.) leaves were examined. Known polyphenols rutin, isoschaftoside, isoquercetin, and chlorogenic acid were identified. Furthermore, caffeoylmalic acid (CMA) was the most abundant polyphenol and was identified for the first time. CMA exhibited antioxidant activity similar to that of vitamin C or catechin. Psoralen and bergapten were identified as known furanocoumarins, with psoralen being the most abundant. Moreover, psoralic acid glucoside (PAG) was identified for the first time. As a precursor of psoralen, PAG content was equivalent to the psoralen content in moles. Notably, the content of these compounds varied between the five fig varieties, and the furanocoumarin and PAG contents varied more than that of the polyphenols. Further investigations concerning the influence of CMA and PAG on human health are necessary to elucidate functionalities of fig leaves.

  16. Antioxidant and Anticancer Constituents from the Leaves of Liriodendron tulipifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Fei Kang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen compounds were extracted and purified from the leaves of Liriodendron tulipifera. These compounds include aporphines, oxoaporphine, coumarin, sesquiterpene lactone, benzenoids, cyclitol and steroids. (+-Norstephalagine (2 (an aporphine and scopoletin (8 (a coumarin were isolated from Liriodendron tulipifera leaves from the first time. The identified compounds were screened for their antiradical scavenging, metal chelating and ferric reducing power activities. The results have showed that these compounds have antioxidative activity. The study has also examined the chemopreventive property of the isolated compounds against human melanoma cells A375. The results shown that (−-anonaine (1, (−-liridinine (3, (+-lirinidine (6, lysicamine (7 and epitulipinolide diepoxide (9 significantly inhibited the proliferation of melanoma cells. These results revealed that these compounds have antioxidative activity and chemopreventive activity in skin melanoma cells.

  17. Investigation of in Vitro Anthelmintic activity of Azadirachta Indica Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAQUE RABIU

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aqueous extract of Azadirachta Indica Leaves was investigated for anthelmintic activity using earthworms (Pheretima posthuma, tapeworms (Raillietina spiralis and roundworms (Ascaridiagalli. Various concentrations (10-70 mg/ml of plant extract were tested in the bioassay. Piperazine citrate (10 mg/ml was used as reference standard drug whereas distilled water as control. Determination of paralysis time and death time of the worms were recorded. Extract exhibited significant anthelmintic activity at the concentration of 40 mg/ml. The result shows that aqueous extract possesses vermicidal activity and found to be effective as an anthelmintic. Therefore, the anthelmintic activity of the aqueous extract of Azadirachta Indica Leaves has been reported

  18. Pharmacognostical Standardisation and Antidiabetic activity of Artocarpus Heterophyllus Leaves Lam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazli Shahin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was carried out to focus on the hypoglycemic effect of the leaves of Artocarpus heterophyllus in normal and streptozocin induced diabetic rats. The Plant was subjected to pharmacognostic, physico-chemical and phytochemical evaluations which will assist in standardization for authenticity, quality and identification of the herbal products. Treatment with extract of the leaves at dose 250 mg/kg to diabetic rats resulted in significant reduction of serum glucose, total cholesterol, whereas significant increased level of high density lipoprotein was observed.The present study clearly demonstrated that the plant is having potential hypoglycemic activity which may be beneficial for the management and treatment of diabetes mellitus.

  19. Antibacterial Constituents of Hainan Morinda citrifolia (Noni) Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei-Min; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Jing-Jing; Wang, Zhi-Rong; Wang, Yu; Hao, Wang-Jun; Huang, Wu-Yang

    2016-05-01

    Noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) is an edible and medicinal plant distributed in Hainan, China. The antibacterial activities of the extracts of water (WE), petroleum ether (PEE), ethyl acetate (EAE), chloroform (CE), and n-butanol (BE) were assayed by the disk diffusion method. The results showed that the extracts from Noni leaves possessed antibacterial effects against Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, and Staphylococcus aureus. Among 5 different extracts, the BE produced the best antibacterial activity. The samples were first extracted by ethanol, and the primary compounds in the BE fraction of ethanol extract was further isolated and identified. Six phenolic compounds, including 5, 15-dimethylmorindol, ferulic acid, p-hydroxycinamic acid, methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate, methyl ferulate, and methyl 4-hydroxycinnamate, were identifiedby NMR. The results indicated that the phenolic compounds might significantly contribute to antibacterial activities of Noni leaves.

  20. Oriented cell division shapes carnivorous pitcher leaves of Sarracenia purpurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Kenji; Fujita, Hironori; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi; Tsukaya, Hirokazu; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu

    2015-01-01

    Complex morphology is an evolutionary outcome of phenotypic diversification. In some carnivorous plants, the ancestral planar leaf has been modified to form a pitcher shape. However, how leaf development was altered during evolution remains unknown. Here we show that the pitcher leaves of Sarracenia purpurea develop through cell division patterns of adaxial tissues that are distinct from those in bifacial and peltate leaves, subsequent to standard expression of adaxial and abaxial marker genes. Differences in the orientation of cell divisions in the adaxial domain cause bifacial growth in the distal region and adaxial ridge protrusion in the middle region. These different growth patterns establish pitcher morphology. A computer simulation suggests that the cell division plane is critical for the pitcher morphogenesis. Our results imply that tissue-specific changes in the orientation of cell division underlie the development of a morphologically complex leaf. PMID:25774486

  1. Evaluation of antioxidant activities of Hippophae rhamnoides Linn leaves extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javid Ali

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the antioxidant activity of aqueous, methanol, ethanol, acetone, ethyl acetate, chloroform and n-hexane extracts of Hippophae rhamnoides (H. rhamnoides leaves. Methods: Antioxidant activity was evaluated by using in-vitro antioxidant assays model 1, 1’-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging activity. The antioxidant activities were compared with standard antioxidant agents such as ascorbic acid. Results: The antioxidant activities (% inhibition of all the tested extracts were increased in the order i.e. menthol > ethanol > aqueous > acetone > chloroform > ethyl acetate > n-hexane. The methanol extract EC50 (µg/mL value was compatible with vitamin C (standard. The antioxidant activity of H. rhamnoides leaves extracts increased in a dose dependent manner. Conclusions: It was observed that H. rhamnoides was a potential resource of antioxidants and thus could put off numerous radical linked diseases.

  2. Research on Phosphatases of Belladona Leaves and Their Purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Khorsand

    1957-01-01

    Full Text Available Through experimentation with several leaves it has been possible for us to point out the existance of two different acid phosphatases. We have studied in more detail the phosphatases of belldon a leaves (Atropa Belladona L. Solanacees. The great part of the phosphatase activity is water extractable. We have compared the activity of the soluble fraction with that not directly extractable by means of water. The insoluble fraction could not be solubilized in a satisfaetC'fY m.anner.The digestion by papaine produced a slight solubilizing effect; on the other hand salt solutions, neutral or alkaline, or water glycerol mixtures had no solubilizing effect on the enzyme, It has been possible to demonstrate the existence of two different phosphatases in the insoluble fraction: the first of the type II,

  3. Increasing the Length of Parents' Birth-Related Leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    2010-01-01

    Investments in children are generally seen as investments in the future economy. In this study I focus on time investments in children as I investigate the long-term educational effects on children of increasing parents' birth-related leave from 14 to 20 weeks using a natural experiment from 1984...... in Denmark. The causal effect of the reform is identified using regression discontinuity design to compare a population sample of children born shortly before and shortly after the reform took effect. Results indicate that increasing parents' access to birth-related leave has no measurable effect on children......'s long-term educational outcomes. Mothers' incomes and career opportunities are slightly positively affected by the reform....

  4. What make them leave and where do they go?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulriksen, Lars; Madsen, Lene Møller; Holmegaard, Henriette Tolstrup

    2015-01-01

    This chapter presents the results of a quantitative analysis of national data covering Danish students who in the period 1995-2009 completed an uppersecondary school programme and entered a higher-education science, technology, engineering or mathematics (STEM) programme. The analysis focuses...... on identifying variables that change the hazard ratio for (1) entering a STEM programme and (2) leaving a STEM programme without completing it. Finally, the chapter explores (3) the destinations of students who leave a STEM higher-education programme. It is found that there has been no change in the relative...... chance of a male or female student entering a STEM programme. The results suggest that female students are more affected by achieving a high grade-point average and by the educational background of their parents than are the male students. The relative risk of non-completion is higher for women than...

  5. Diuretic activity of leaves of Garcinia cambogia in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Githa E Mathew

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to establish the diuretic activity of ethanol and aqueous extract of dried leaves of Garcinia cambogia in rats. Aqueous and ethanol extracts of leaves were administered to experimental rats orally at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg and compared with furosemide (20 mg/kg, intraperitoneally as the standard. The parameters measured for diuretic activity were total urine volume, urine concentration electrolytes such as sodium, potassium and chloride have been evaluated . The rats treated with ethanol extract of Garcinia cambogia and aqueous extract of Garcinia cambogia in a dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg showed higher urine output when compared to the respective control. Both ethanol and aqueous extracts have showed a significant dose-dependent increase in the excretion of electrolytes when compared to the control group.

  6. Life-history strategies affect aphid preference for yellowing leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Holopainen, Jarmo K.; Semiz, Gürkan; Blande, James D

    2009-01-01

    According to the nutrient-translocation hypothesis, yellowing tree leaves are colonized by aphids at the end of the growing season owing to improved availability of nutrients in the phloem sap after chlorophyll degradation. We measured aphid densities on potted Betula pendula seedlings in a field site where a small proportion of foliage rapidly turned yellow before normal autumn coloration as a consequence of root anoxia. The number of adults and nymphs of the birch-feeding specialist aphids ...

  7. 12 hour shifts: nurse burnout, job satisfaction & intention to leave

    OpenAIRE

    Dall'Ora, C.; Griffiths, P.; J. Ball

    2015-01-01

    Job satisfaction and burnout in the nursing workforce are global concerns. Not only do job satisfaction and burnout affect the quality and safety of care, but job satisfaction is also a factor in nurses’ decisions to stay or leave their jobs. Shift patterns may be an important aspect influencing wellbeing and satisfaction among nurses. Many hospitals worldwide are moving to 12-hour shifts in an effort to improve efficiency and cope with nursing shortages. But what is the effect of these work ...

  8. MEMORY ENHANCING ACTIVITIES OF FICUS RELIGIOSA LEAVES IN RODENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Wangkhem Bandana Devi; Sengottuvelu S.; Haja Shrief S.; Lalitha V; Sivakumar T.

    2011-01-01

    Ficus religiosa, a sacred tree to both Hindus and Buddhists, is recognized for its medicinal as well as religious purposes in India. The ethanolic extract prepared from the leaves of Ficus religiosa was studied for memory enhancing activities in Wistar albino rats and Swiss albino mice. The present study was carried out on five models such as Elevated-Plus Maze, Step through passive avoidance test, Sodium nitrite intoxication, Hebb-Williams Maze and Radial Arm Maze to evaluate learning and me...

  9. Onward Migration : The Transnational Trajectories of Iranians Leaving Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Onward migration is an understudied process whereby people leave their country of origin, settle in a second country for a period of time, and then migrate on to a third country. This dissertation explores the transnational trajectories of one specific group of onward migrants. These are highly educated people who moved from Iran to Sweden as refugees following the Iranian Revolution in 1979. Then, after settling in Sweden for a period of time they subsequently moved on to London, England. Me...

  10. Effects of gravity on transpiration of plant leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Hiroaki; Kitaya, Yoshiaki

    2009-04-01

    To clarify effects of gravity on the water vapor exchange between plants and the ambient air, we evaluated the transpiration rate of plant leaves at 0.01, 1.0, and 2.0 g for 20 s each during parabolic airplane flights. The transpiration rates of a strawberry leaf and a replica leaf made of wet cloth were determined using a chamber method with humidity sensors. Absolute humidity at 3 and 8 mm below the lower surface of leaves was measured to evaluate the effect of gravity on humidity near leaves and estimate their transpiration rate. The transpiration rate of the replica leaf decreased by 42% with decreasing gravity levels from 1.0 to 0.01 g and increased by 31% with increasing gravity levels from 1.0 to 2.0 g. Absolute humidity near the intact strawberry leaf was 5 g m(-3) at ambient absolute humidity of 2.3 g m(-3) and gravity of 1.0 g. The absolute humidity increased by 2.5 g m(-3) with decreasing gravity levels from 1.0 to 0.01 g. The transpiration rate of the intact leaf decreased by 46% with decreasing gravity levels from 1.0 to 0.01 g and increased by 32% with increasing gravity levels from 1.0 to 2.0 g. We confirmed that the transpiration rate of leaves was suppressed by retarding the water vapor transfer due to restricted free air convection under microgravity conditions.

  11. Dammarane-type saponins from steamed leaves of Panax Notoginseng

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Qing; Lv, Jun-Jiang; Xu, Min; Wang, Dong; Zhu, Hong-Tao; Yang, Chong-Ren; Zhang, Ying-Jun

    2011-01-01

    Four new dammarane-type triterpenoid saponins, namely notoginsenosides SFt1-SFt4 (1–4) were isolated from the steamed leaves of Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F. H. Chen (Araliaceae), together with 17 known saponins. Their structures were established on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analyses and acidic hydrolysis. The known ginsenosides Rk2 and Rh3 were obtained from P. notoginseng for the first time. All of these new saponins showed no in vitro cytotoxicity against five human cancer cell li...

  12. PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF LEAVES OF JATROPHA CURCAS PLANT

    OpenAIRE

    Ahirrao R.A.; Patel M.R.; Pokal D.M.; Patil J.K.; Suryawanshi H. P.

    2011-01-01

    The various extract of leaves Jatropha curcas Linn. belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae were investigated for its physicochemical and phytochemical screening. Ash value (total ash, acid insoluble ash and water soluble ash), extractive values, Loss on drying were studied dry weight. Ash content analysis was showed total ash, acid insoluble ash and water soluble ash [7.40 %, 4.42 % and 6.12 % respectively]. The moisture content was found to be 1.70 %. Preliminary phytochemical analysis test s...

  13. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION AND ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasa U

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and aqueous extracts of leaves of Moringa oleifera were screened for various bioactive constituents like glycosides, carbohydrates, tannins, flavonoids, triterpenoids and alkaloids. The chloroform and methanol extracts were evaluated for anthelmintic activity on adult Indian earthworms Pheritima postuma using Piperazine citrate and Rajah Pravartani Vati (Ayurvedic preparation as a reference standards. The results obtained indicated that the chloroform extract was more potent compared to other extracts.

  14. Antioxidant Activity of Pistacia vera Fruits, Leaves and Gum Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Sajadi Tabassi, Sayyed Abolghasem; Milani Moghadam, Negar; Rashedinia, Marzieh; Mehri, Soghra

    2012-01-01

    The side effects of synthetic antioxidants have been considered in different studies. Accordingly, there is an increasing interest toward the use of natural substances instead of the synthetic ones. In this study, the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Pistacia vera leaves and fruits as well as hydroalcoholic extract of gum were tested for a possible antioxidant activity using in vitro methods. Deoxyribose assay, erythrocyte membrane lipid peroxidation and liver misrosomal non- enzymatic lipid...

  15. Management of Sick Leave due to Musculoskeletal Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Faber, Elske

    2007-01-01

    textabstractMusculoskeletal disorders are a common problem that may lead to func-Ational limitations and (work) disability. It is not clear yet how improvement in Apain or functional limitations is related to return to work after an episode of sick Aleave. Furthermore, several physicians are involved in the treatment and man-Aagement of a patient is on sick leave. In the Netherlands a strict separation be-Atween treating physicians and occupational physicians exists, whereby the treating Aphy...

  16. Antimicrobial and antipathogenic activity of Fallopia japonica leaves alcoholic extract

    OpenAIRE

    Ioana-Cristina Marinaş; Elisabeta-Irina Geană; Eliza Oprea; Carmen Chifiriuc; Veronica Lazăr

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study consists in the investigation of the antimicrobial and antiphatogenic activity of ethanol extracts obtain from F. japonica leaves. Total phenolic content was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method, while their phenolic composition was specified by HPLC. In vitro antimicrobial activity of various concentrations ranging from 6.25 to 200 μL/mL of alcoholic (ethanol 70%) extract of F. japonica were analyzed on different clinical and reference bacterial strains (Staphylococcus a...

  17. Phenolic Compounds Analysis of Root, Stalk, and Leaves of Nettle

    OpenAIRE

    Semih Otles; Buket Yalcin

    2012-01-01

    Types of nettles (Urtica dioica) were collected from different regions to analyze phenolic compounds in this research. Nettles are specially grown in the coastal part. According to this kind of properties, nettle samples were collected from coastal part of (Mediterranean, Aegean, Black sea, and Marmara) Turkey. Phenolic profile, total phenol compounds, and antioxidant activities of nettle samples were analyzed. Nettles were separated to the part of root, stalk, and leaves. Then, these parts ...

  18. Phenylpropanoid glycosides from the leaves of Paulownia coreana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Kyu; Si, Chuan-Ling; Bae, Young-Soo

    2008-02-15

    Study on the water soluble fraction from the leaves of Paulownia coreana led to the isolation of verbascoside (1), isoverbascoside (2), campneoside II (3), and a new phenylpropanoid glycoside, (R,S)-7-hydroxy-7-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-ethyl-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1 --> 3)-beta-d-(6-O-caffeoyl)-glucopyranoside (4). The structures of these compounds were established on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. PMID:18266154

  19. MEMORY ENHANCING ACTIVITIES OF FICUS RELIGIOSA LEAVES IN RODENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wangkhem Bandana Devi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Ficus religiosa, a sacred tree to both Hindus and Buddhists, is recognized for its medicinal as well as religious purposes in India. The ethanolic extract prepared from the leaves of Ficus religiosa was studied for memory enhancing activities in Wistar albino rats and Swiss albino mice. The present study was carried out on five models such as Elevated-Plus Maze, Step through passive avoidance test, Sodium nitrite intoxication, Hebb-Williams Maze and Radial Arm Maze to evaluate learning and memory parameters. Scopolamine (1mg/kg, i.p was used as inducing agent in Elevated-plus maze, Step through passive avoidance test and sodium nitrite (95mg/kg, s.c was used as inducing agent in Sodium nitrite intoxication model. Piracetam (200mg/kg, i.p was used as standard nootropic agent for all the models except for Sodium nitrite intoxication; Mentat was used as positive control for Sodium nitrite intoxication model. The ethanolic extract of Ficus religiosa leaves significantly improved memory and reversed the amnesia induced by scopolamine and hypoxia induced by sodium nitrite. The ethanolic extract of Ficus religiosa leaves (100 mg/kg was comparable to that of piracetam (200 mg/kg and Mentat (100mg/kg. From the results of the present study it is concluded that the leaf extract of Ficus religiosa might possess anti-amnesic as well as nootropic properties. Also the major active constituents present in its leaves such as amino acids may be responsible for these activities.

  20. Pharmacognostical studies of leaves of Combretum albidum G. Don

    OpenAIRE

    Zalke, Ashish S.; Duraiswamy, B.; Gandagule, Upendra B.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Combretum albidum Don belonging to family Combretaceae is an unexplored medicinal plant in the Indian medicinal system. According to ethnobotanical information, the leaves are used in the treatment of peptic ulcer and its fruits are used in diarrhoea and dysentery. Stem bark is used in the treatment of jaundice and skin diseases. The problem encountered in standardisation of this medicinal plant is its identification by source. Materials and Methods: The pharmacognostical stud...

  1. CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS FROM THE LEAVES OF MAGNOLIA DENUDATA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG DU; MING-LEI WANG; RUO-YUN CHEN; DE-QUAN YU

    2001-01-01

    20 compounds were isolated from the leaves of Magnolia denudata including 16 lignans, which (16) andβ-sitosterol (20), the other 15 compounds were obtained from this species for the first time. The absolute configurations of 3 compounds (1, 4,10) were determined by CD spectroscopy for the first time. The anti-inflammatory activities of compounds 1, 2 and 16 were assessed and 2 was shown to have significant inhibition effect on mice hind-paw edema induced by carrageenan.

  2. Investigation of in Vitro Anthelmintic activity of Cinnamomum Camphor Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    HAQUE RABIUL; MONDAL SUBHASISH; GHOSH PARAG

    2011-01-01

    The aqueous extract of Cinnamomum camphorLeaves was investigated for anthelmintic activity using earthworms(Pheretima posthuma), tapeworms (Raillietina spiralis) and roundworms (Ascaridia galli). Various concentrations (10-70 mg/ml) of plant extract were tested in the bioassay. Piperazine citrate (10 mg/ml) was used as reference standard drug whereas distilled water as control.Determination of paralysis time and death time of the worms were recorded. Extract exhibited significant anthelmintic...

  3. EARLY SCHOOL LEAVING IN RURAL AREAS OF EUROPE AND SPAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogeli Santamaría Luna

    2015-12-01

    In this short article will present data and sources, but above all be evident that the low presence of rural factor in education and that the rural / urban divide still exists. Referencians Europe cited Spain and the start of the indicators of quality of life and early school leaving is estimated in Spain, rural or not, 2020 in relation to the proposed European Territorial Agenda 2020 target of 15%. Besides conclusions and proposals to be referred.

  4. Clerodane diterpenes from leaves of Casearia sylvestris Swartz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Andre G. dos; Perez, Carla C.; Tininis, Aristeu G.; Bolzani, Vanderlan da S.; Cavalheiro, Alberto J. [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: albjcava@iq.unesp.br

    2007-09-15

    Ethanolic extracts of the leaves of Casearia sylvestris yielded a novel clerodane diterpene, 15-hydroxy-3-cleroden-2-one, together with the known diterpenes (-)-hardwickiic acid, reported for the first time from this species, and casearins B and G, previously isolated from C. sylvestris. The structures of all four compounds were determined by spectrometric analysis. The new clerodane diterpene and (-)-hardwickiic acid contain structural features that are completely different from the highly oxygenated casearins and casearvestrins isolated from C. sylvestris. (author)

  5. Infection process of Phakopsora gossypii in cotton leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo Araujo; Antonia Mirian Nogueira de Moura Guerra; Paulo Geraldo Berger; Fabrício de Ávila Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tropical rust caused by the biotrophic fungus Phakopsora gossypii is an emerging disease in cotton that has caused significant yield losses of crop/cotton cultivated in Brazil. Considering the current importance of tropical rust and the need to obtain additional basic information about its causal agent to better control this disease, the present study aimed to determine the infection process of P. gossypii in cotton leaves using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Thirty-day-old plan...

  6. A new glycoside from the leaves of Neoalsomitra integrifoliola

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Min Su; Jing Qu; You Cai Hu; Shi Shan Yu; Wen Zhao Tang; Yun Bao Liu; Shuang Gang Ma; De Quan Yu

    2008-01-01

    A new ionone glycoside (6R,9R)-blumenyl α-L-rhanmopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-gluco-pyranoside (1),together with a new natural product 2-methoxyl-4-trans-propenyl-phenol α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranoside (2),was isolated from the leaves of Neoalsomitra integrifoliola.Their structures were elucidated by chemical and spectral analysis.Compound 1 showed weak anti-inflammatory and low-level antioxidant activities.

  7. Optimization of extraction of phenolics from leaves of Ficus virens *

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xiao-Xin; Wu, Xiao-Bing; Chai, Wei-ming; Feng, Hui-ling; Shi, Yan; Zhou, Han-tao; Chen, Qing-Xi

    2013-01-01

    In this research, the conditions for extraction of phenolics from leaves of Ficus virens were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). The extraction abilities of phenolics (EAP) and flavonoids (EAF), the 2,2-diphenyl-1-pierylhydrazyl (DPPH) free-radical scavenging potential, and the ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) were used as quality indicators. The results of single-factor experiments showed that temperature, ethanol concentration, extraction time, and the number of ext...

  8. Acetogenins in Annona muricata L. (annonaceae) leaves are potent molluscicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, J De S; De Carvalho, J M; De Lima, M R F; Bieber, L W; Bento, Edson De S; Franck, X; Sant'ana, A E G

    2006-03-01

    An ethanolic extract of the leaves of Annona muricata was shown to be toxic to adult forms of the snail Biomphalaria glabrata (LC50 9.32 microg mL(-1)) and to larvae of the brine shrimp Artemia salina (LC50 0.49 microg mL(-1)). Activity-guided fractionation of the extract gave rise to a sample with high molluscicidal activity that contained the acetogenins, annonacin (90%), isoannonacin (6%) and goniothalamicin (4%).

  9. NORARTCCARPETIN, FLAVONE DERIVATIVE FROM LEAVES OF ARTOCARPUS FRETESSI

    OpenAIRE

    Soekamto, Nunuk H.; La Nafie; F.W, Emilio L.Ghisalberti

    2007-01-01

    Artocarpus is one of main genus of Moraceae family. This plant has been used as traditional drug for long time. A research on exploration of compounds in leaves of Artocarpus fretessi (maumbi) has been done. Norartocarpetin (1), together with mulberrin (2) and mulberrokromen (3) were isolated from Artocarpus fretessi (Moraceae). The structure of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of physical and spectroscopic data. Compounds (1) is precursor of compound (2) and (3) in the biogen...

  10. Isolation and identification of phenolic compounds from Gynura divaricata leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Chunpeng Wan; Yanying Yu; Shouran Zhou; Shuge Tian; Shuwen Cao

    2011-01-01

    Background: Phenolic constituents were the principle bioactivity compounds exist in Gynura divaricata, little phenolic compounds were reported from the plant previously. Materials and Methods: 60% ethanol extract from the leaves of Gynura divaricata were isolated and purified by column chromatography of Silica gel, ODS and Sephadex LH-20, the structures of the isolated compounds were identified by UV, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and MS spectroscopic techniques. Additionally, a high-performance liquid chr...

  11. RESEARCH OF PHENOLIC COMPLEX OF LEAVES OF MESPILUS GERMANICA L.

    OpenAIRE

    N. N. Vdovenko-Martynova

    2014-01-01

    Leaves of Mespilus germanica L. from Rosaceae family gathered in Kabardino Balkaria regions and in Botanical garden of Pyatigorsk Medical and Pharmaceutical Institute. The purpose of the study is examination of phenolic compounds in the raw materieals under analysis. Qualitative composition and quantitative identification of phenolic compounds in the air-dry raw materials of samples under study was done using qualitative reactions and high performance liquid chromatography method (HPLC). 13 c...

  12. Phenolic acids in leaves of Secamone afzelii (Rhoem.) Schult. (Asclepiadaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Nowak; Sławomir Kawka

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of the sets of free and liberated by hydrolysis phenolic acids in the leaves of, Secamone afzelii (Rhoem.) Schult. was conducted by 2D-TLC and RP-HPLC methods. Sixteen phenolic acids were identified: chlorogenic, gallic, protocatechuic, homoprotacatechuic, caffeic, gentysic, α-resorcylic, p-hydroxyphenylacetic, p-hydroxybenzoic, p-coumaric, o-hydroxyphenylacetic, syryngic, vanillic, synapic, ferulic and salicylic. By means of the RP-HPLC the contents of major phenolic acids was d...

  13. Three new compounds from the leaves of Acanthopanax senticosus Harms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi

    2010-01-01

    Three new compounds named (2E)prenyl benzoate-4-O-α-L-arabinopyranosyl (1→6) β-D-glucopyranoside (1), 7-methoxy-8-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl coumarin (2), and 3,4'-dihydroxy-3'-methoxy benzenepentanoic acid (3) were isolated from the leaves of Acanthopanax senticosus Harms. The structures of new compounds were determined by means of 2D NMR experiments and chemical methods.

  14. PHARMACOGNOSTIC EVALUATION OF LEAVES OF ALANGIUM SALVIIFOLIUM LINN

    OpenAIRE

    D. Saravanan; J. Padmavathy; M.J. Parimala; I. Aparna Lakshmi; Ch. Praveen

    2011-01-01

    The leaves of Alangium salviifolium Linn (Family: Alangiaceae) was a reputed drug mentioned in the ancient books of Ayurveda and Siddha for the treatment of epilepsy, jaundice and hepatitis. The investigation was carried out to study the pharmacognostical characteristics of the plant material. The various parameters like macro-morphology, micro-morphology, quantitative microscopy, physicochemical profile, TLC profile, preliminary phytochemical screening and the salient diagnostic features are...

  15. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF FLAVONOID FROM ANREDERA CORDIFOLIA (TEN) STEENIS LEAVES

    OpenAIRE

    Ratna Djamil; Wahyudi PS; Wahono S; M. Hanafi

    2012-01-01

    A flavonoid 8-Glucopyranosyl-4’,5,7-trihydroxyflavone, have been isolated from the methanol extract of leaves of Anredera cordifolia (Basellaceae). The structures of these compounds were established based on spectroscopic evidence, including UV, IR, 1HNMR dan13CNMR spectra.Antioxidant activity test by using DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) method from the isolated compounds showed antioxidant DPPH radical scavenging their IC50 values were 68,07μg/mL.

  16. Chemical Composition of Essential Oil from Marrubium Vulgare L. Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Bayir, Burcu; Gündüz, Hatice; Usta, Tuba; Şahin, Esma; Özdemir, Zeynep; Kayır, Ömer; Sen, Özkan; Akşit, Hüseyin; Elmastaş, Mahfuz; Erenler, Ramazan

    2014-01-01

    – The essential oils are significant for pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic industries. Marrubium vulgare L. has been used as a traditional medicine to treat the various illnesses. The chemical composition of the essential oil from leaves of Marrubium vulgare L.was obtained by steam distillation using the Clevenger apparatus. The oil was analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The main constituent of the oil was α-pinene (28.85%)

  17. COMPARISON OF RNA EXTRACTION METHODS FOR Passiflora edulis SIMS LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANNY CAROLYNE DA LUZ

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Functional genomic analyses require intact RNA; however, Passiflora edulis leaves are rich in secondary metabolites that interfere with RNA extraction primarily by promoting oxidative processes and by precipitating with nucleic acids. This study aimed to analyse three RNA extraction methods, Concert™ Plant RNA Reagent (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA, TRIzol® Reagent (Invitrogen and TRIzol® Reagent (Invitrogen/ice -commercial products specifically designed to extract RNA, and to determine which method is the most effective for extracting RNA from the leaves of passion fruit plants. In contrast to the RNA extracted using the other 2 methods, the RNA extracted using TRIzol® Reagent (Invitrogen did not have acceptable A260/A280 and A260/A230 ratios and did not have ideal concentrations. Agarose gel electrophoresis showed a strong DNA band for all of the Concert™ method extractions but not for the TRIzol® and TRIzol®/ice methods. The TRIzol® method resulted in smears during electrophoresis. Due to its low levels of DNA contamination, ideal A260/A280 and A260/A230 ratios and superior sample integrity, RNA from the TRIzol®/ice method was used for reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, and the resulting amplicons were highly similar. We conclude that TRIzol®/ice is the preferred method for RNA extraction for P. edulis leaves.

  18. Robinia pseudoacacia leaves improve soil physical and chemical properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Babar; KHAN; Abdukadir; Ablimit; Rashed; MAHMOOD; Muhammad; QASIM

    2010-01-01

    The role of the leaves of Robinia pseudoacacia L., which is widely distributed in the arid lands, on improving soil physical and chemical properties was analyzed at various incubation periods. The incubated soils added with 0, 25, 50 and 75 g Robinia pseudoacacia leaves were tested after consecutive incubation intervals of 6, 8 and 10 months and the different soil parameters were measured. The results showed the increases in organic matter (OM), extractable K, cation exchange capacity (CEC), aggregate stability and water holding capacity, but the decreases in pH value and bulk density after 6 months’ incubation. The gradual decrease in change rates of soil properties indicated less microbial population and organic residual mineralization under acidic conditions, which were resulted from fast decomposition of leaves after the first 6 months incubation. The increases in soil organic matter content, extractable K, CEC, aggregate stability and water holding capacity and the decreases in soil pH and bulk density provide favorable conditions for crop’s growth.

  19. Sulfur compounds identification and quantification from Allium spp. fresh leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Gîtin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pyruvic acid concentration is a critical factor in determining Allium spp. pungency. This study was initiated to accurately measure the background pyruvic acid levels in Romanian Allium spp. From the pungency point of view, all analyzed plant varieties in this study are considered low pungent cultivars based on the enzymatically produced pyruvate level (between 42 μmol/g and 222 μmol/g fresh wt. Chromatographic analysis was carried out for the different varieties of the most popular fresh leaves (Allium cepa var. “Diamant”, Allium cepa var. “Rubiniu”, and Allium ursinum L. in order to identify the sulfur compounds. The thin layer chromatography analysis led to the identification of allicin, with Rf = 0.377–0.47, as an important sulfur compound. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the leaves' extracts detected disulfides as the major sulfur compounds. Principal component analysis was performed to establish the differences in plant composition. These studies suggest the potential good uses of the fresh leaves of Romanian Allium spp. as condiment, ingredient, or preservative in the food industry.

  20. Polyphenol profile and antioxidant activity of extracts from olive leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetla Yancheva

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The compounds, derivatives of olive leaves have a high antioxidant activity. The content of the total phenolic compounds (TPC, antioxidant activity (AOA and HPLC polyphenol profile of methanol extracts from the leaves of the olive cultivars Chondrolia Halkidiki, Kalamon, Koroneiki grown in the nursery (in vivo and in vitro plants of Chondrolia Halkidiki were compared. The results obtained for TPC varied between 9.2±0.5 mgGAE*gDW-1 and 16.4±0.5 mgGAE*gDW-1 . Antioxidant capacity was determined by four methods DPPH, ABTS, FRAP and CUPRAC. The highest results for TPC and AOA were achieved for the leaves of Chondrolia Halkidiki grown in vitro. A high correlation between the results gained from the TPC and AOA was established. Conducted HPLC analysis revealed the presence of 3,4- dihydroxybenzoic, caffeic, sinapic and ferulic acids and quercetin, hesperidin and luteolin and the quercetin glycosides rutin and hyperoside.

  1. Isolation and culture of protoplast from leaves of Lactuca sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witool Chaipakdee

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Protoplasts were isolated from leaves of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. seedlings after in vitro germination for 25, 30, 40 and 50 days. The leaves were stripped and incubated in various combinations of cellulase and pectinase. Protoplasts were cultured on MS medium containing various kinds and concentrations of plant growth regulators in different culture systems including liquid media, hanging, drop culture and solid media. Results revealed that the highest number of viable protoplasts, 14.1x105 cells per gram of fresh weight, was obtained from 30 day-old leaves of lettuce seedlings and isolated by using 2% cellulase in combination with 1% pectinase. Liquid MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l NAA and 0.5 mg/l BA promoted the highest cell division up to 17.67%. First division of protoplasts was observed at 4 days after culture and microcolony formation occurred at the 4th week after culturing. Unfortunately, neither callus formation nor plantlet regeneration were obtained.

  2. Pathway of phloem unloading in tobacco sink leaves. [Nicotiana tabacum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turgeon, R.

    1987-04-01

    Phloem unloading in transition sink leaves of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) was analyzed by quantitative autoradiography. Source leaves were labeled with /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ and experimental treatments were begun approximately 1 h later when label had entered the sink leaves. Autoradiographs were prepared from rapidly frozen, lyophilized sink tissue at the beginning and end of the treatments and the amount of label in veins and in surrounding cells was determined by microdensitometry. Photoassimilate unloaded from third order and larger, but not smaller, veins. Long-distance import and unloading did not respond the same way to all experimental treatments. Import was completely inhibited by cold, anaerobiosis or steam girdling the sink leaf petiole. Unloading was inhibited by cold but continued in an anaerobic atmosphere and after steam girdling. Uptake of exogenous (/sup 14/C)sucrose was inhibited by anaerobiosis. Since an apoplastic pathway of phloem unloading would involve solute uptake from the apoplast the results are most consistent with passive symplastic unloading of photoassimilates from phloem to surrounding cells.

  3. Electronic pay and leave statements (e-Payslips)

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Within the framework of measures to simplify and rationalise administrative procedures, the FI and IT Departments proposed a project to introduce electronic pay and leave statements. The project was launched at the beginning of 2004 after it had been approved by the Director of the Finance and Human Resources Departments. The project was presented to the GTPA (Groupe de Travail sur les Procédures Administratives) and discussed at the meeting of the SCC (Standing Concertation Committee) on 8 July 2004. The system designed and developed by the IT Department is now operational. What will change? Members of the personnel who currently receive a paper copy of their pay and/or leave statement will, in future, receive monthly e-mail notification of their electronic pay and leave statement, instead of the paper document. The current project does not affect retired members of the personnel. Each person receiving the e-mail notification will be invited to consult these electronic statements by clicking on a link p...

  4. Topical anti-inflammatory activity of Solanum corymbiflorum leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piana, Mariana; Camponogara, Camila; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Machado, Michel Mansur; de Brum, Thiele Faccim; Oliveira, Sara Marchesan; de Freitas Bauermann, Liliane

    2016-02-17

    Solanum corymbiflorum is popularly known as "baga-de-veado" and its leaves are applied on inflamed legs, scabies, tick bite, boils, mastitis, low back pain and otitis. The aim of this study was evaluate anti-inflammatory in vivo activity and relate this activity with antioxidant compounds present in the extract of S. corymbiflorum leaves. The extract from S. corymbiflorum leaves topically applied was able to reduce the croton oil-induced ear edema and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity with maximum inhibition of 87±3% and 45±7%, rescpectively in the dose of 1mg/ear. Similar results were found for positive control dexamethasone, which presented inhibitions of ear edema and MPO activity of 89±3% and 50±3%, respectively in a dose of 0.1mg/ear. These findings are due, at least in part, the presence of polyphenols (195.28mg GAE/g) and flavonoids, as chlorogenic acid (59.27mg/g), rutin (12.72mg/g), rosmarinic acid, caffeic acid and gallic acid found by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. This species showed potencial antioxidant by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and carbonyl groups in proteins methods which may be related with the presence of this compounds. This species possess anti-inflammatory activity confirming their popular use for the local treatment of skin inflammatory disorders. PMID:26721215

  5. Robinia pseudoacacia leaves improve soil physical and chemical properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Babar KHAN; Abdukadir Ablimit; Rashed MAHMOOD; Muhammad QASIM

    2010-01-01

    The role of the leaves of Robinia pseudoacacia L.,which is widely distributed in the arid lands,on improving soil physical and chemical properties was analyzed at various incubation periods.The incubated soils added with 0,25,50 and 75 g Robinia pseudoacacia leaves were tested after consecutive incubation intervals of 6,8 and 10 months and the different soil parameters were measured.The results showed the increases in organic matter (OM),extractable K,cation exchange capacity (CEC),aggregate stability and water holding capacity,but the decreases in pH value and bulk density after 6 months' incubation.The gradual decrease in change rates of soil properties indicated less microbial population and organic residual mineralization under acidic conditions,which were resulted from fast decomposition of leaves after the first 6 months incubation.The increases in soil organic matter content,extractable K,CEC,aggregate stability and water holding capacity and the decreases in soil pH and bulk density provide favorable conditions for crop's growth.

  6. Antioxidant Activity of Pistacia vera Fruits, Leaves and Gum Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Sajadi Tabassi, Sayyed Abolghasem; Milani Moghadam, Negar; Rashedinia, Marzieh; Mehri, Soghra

    2012-01-01

    The side effects of synthetic antioxidants have been considered in different studies. Accordingly, there is an increasing interest toward the use of natural substances instead of the synthetic ones. In this study, the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Pistacia vera leaves and fruits as well as hydroalcoholic extract of gum were tested for a possible antioxidant activity using in vitro methods. Deoxyribose assay, erythrocyte membrane lipid peroxidation and liver misrosomal non- enzymatic lipid peroxidation tests were used as an in-vitro model for determination antioxidant activity. The extract were evaluated at different concentratios: 25,100, 250, 500 and 1000 μg/mL. In all procedures, all extracts showed free radical scavenging activity. The effect of ethanolic extract of P. vera fruit at 1000 μg/mL was quite similar to positive control (DMSO 20 mM) in deoxyribose method. In two other tests, the ethanolic extracts of fruits and leaves were more effective than the aqueous extracts to inhibit malondialdehyde generation. Phytochemical tests showed the presence of flavonoids and tannins in Pistocia vera extracts. The present study showed that extracts of different part of P. vera have antioxidant activity in different in vitro methods. The ethanolic extracts of leaves and fruits showed more roles for antioxidant properties and gum hydroalcoholic extract demonstrated less antioxidant effect. PMID:24250515

  7. Structure of Kalanchoë pumila Bak. leaves (Crassulaceae DC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykhaylo Chernetskyy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The structure of Kalanchoё pumila Bak. was studied with the use of stereoscopic, light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. It was found that the chlorenchymatic tissue was divided into subepidermal small-celled mesophyll and large-celled (water transporting, CAM type mesophyll, placed in the central part of the leaf. The mesophyll structure and its cell ultrastructure indicate C3 photosynthesis in this taxon, whereas CAM photosynthesis, being an adaptive syndrome, is induced by external factors. Three groups of xeromorphic traits were observed in the structure of K. pumila leaves, related to: 1 storing water in the ground and epidermal tissues, 2 decreased transpiration (the closing of stomata during heat, 3 avoiding excess insolation of the mesophyll and overheating of the leaf (striated cuticula, anthocyan pigments, tannin storage. The last two groups of xeromorphic traits also include thickening of the outer walls of cuticular cells, a thick-layered cuticula, and the presence of epicuticular wax and calcium carbonate deposits. Microchannels which enhance transpiration efficiency in developing K. pumila leaves were found in the vicinity of anticlinal walls in the outer walls of epidermal cells. Calcium deposits produced on the leaf surfaces protect them in extreme conditions. Adaptive traits in the structure of K. pumila leaves are conservative and they confirm the relations between this taxon and the conditions in their native land.

  8. Mechanical Stress Induces Remodeling of Vascular Networks in Growing Leaves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohai Bar-Sinai

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Differentiation into well-defined patterns and tissue growth are recognized as key processes in organismal development. However, it is unclear whether patterns are passively, homogeneously dilated by growth or whether they remodel during tissue expansion. Leaf vascular networks are well-fitted to investigate this issue, since leaves are approximately two-dimensional and grow manyfold in size. Here we study experimentally and computationally how vein patterns affect growth. We first model the growing vasculature as a network of viscoelastic rods and consider its response to external mechanical stress. We use the so-called texture tensor to quantify the local network geometry and reveal that growth is heterogeneous, resembling non-affine deformations in composite materials. We then apply mechanical forces to growing leaves after veins have differentiated, which respond by anisotropic growth and reorientation of the network in the direction of external stress. External mechanical stress appears to make growth more homogeneous, in contrast with the model with viscoelastic rods. However, we reconcile the model with experimental data by incorporating randomness in rod thickness and a threshold in the rod growth law, making the rods viscoelastoplastic. Altogether, we show that the higher stiffness of veins leads to their reorientation along external forces, along with a reduction in growth heterogeneity. This process may lead to the reinforcement of leaves against mechanical stress. More generally, our work contributes to a framework whereby growth and patterns are coordinated through the differences in mechanical properties between cell types.

  9. Interaction of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli with salad leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Cedric N; Shaw, Robert K; Ruiz-Perez, Fernando; Nataro, James P; Henderson, Ian R; Pallen, Mark J; Frankel, Gad

    2009-08-01

    Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) are important human pathogens. However, their environmental reservoir is unknown. As fresh salad leaves are increasingly recognized as an important environmental vector for human pathogens, we investigated leaf attachment capability of EAEC strains. We found that binding of clinical EAEC isolates to leaves from Eruca vesicaria (commonly known as rocket or arugula) can be divided into high, moderate and low adherent phenotypes. Using the prototype EAEC strain 042 to investigate the underlining mechanisms involved in leaf attachment, we found small attached bacterial aggregates over the entire leaf surface and dense bacterial attachment to the guard cell of the stomata. An aaf 042 mutant lost the ability to bind the epidermis while retaining stomatal adherence. In contrast, a fliC 042 mutant retained the ability to bind the epidermis but lost stomatal tropism. These results show that multiple adherence factors are involved in the interaction of EAEC with leaves, that EAEC uses similar colonization factors to bind mucosal and leaf surfaces and that fresh produce might be an important reservoir of EAEC strains.

  10. Transcriptome response of cassava leaves under natural shade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zehong; Zhang, Yang; Xiao, Yi; Liu, Fangfang; Wang, Minghui; Zhu, Xinguang; Liu, Peng; Sun, Qi; Wang, Wenquan; Peng, Ming; Brutnell, Tom; Li, Pinghua

    2016-01-01

    Cassava is an important staple crop in tropical and sub-tropical areas. As a common farming practice, cassava is usually cultivated intercropping with other crops and subjected to various degrees of shading, which causes reduced productivity. Herein, a comparative transcriptomic analysis was performed on a series of developmental cassava leaves under both full sunlight and natural shade conditions. Gene expression profiles of these two conditions exhibited similar developmental transitions, e.g. genes related to cell wall and basic cellular metabolism were highly expressed in immature leaves, genes involved in lipid metabolism and tetrapyrrole synthesis were highly expressed during the transition stages, and genes related to photosynthesis and carbohydrates metabolism were highly expressed in mature leaves. Compared with the control, shade significantly induced the expression of genes involved in light reaction of photosynthesis, light signaling and DNA synthesis/chromatin structure; however, the genes related to anthocyanins biosynthesis, heat shock, calvin cycle, glycolysis, TCA cycle, mitochondrial electron transport, and starch and sucrose metabolisms were dramatically depressed. Moreover, the shade also influenced the expression of hormone-related genes and transcriptional factors. The findings would improve our understanding of molecular mechanisms of shade response, and shed light on pathways associated with shade-avoidance syndrome for cassava improvement. PMID:27539510

  11. Brine shrimp cytotoxic activities of Hippophae rhamnoides Linn leaves extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javid Ali

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate brine shrimp lethality assay of solvent extracts (aqueous, methanol, ethanol, acetone, ethyl acetate, chloroform and n-hexane of Hippophae rhamnoides (H. rhamnoides leaves. Methods: Brine shrimp cytotoxicity assay was used to assess the cytotoxic potential of H. rhamnoides leaves extracts. Three vials for concentration of each extract were made and 10 shrimps per vial (30 shrimps per dilution were transferred to specific concentration of each extract. Results: The mortality of aqueous extract was 46.7%, methanol extract was 46.7%, ethanolic extract was 50.0%, ethyl acetate was 26.7%, acetone extract was 33.3%, chloroform extract was 40.0% and n-hexane extract was 33.3%. The lowest LD50 was found in methanol extracts (1199.97 µg/mL. Brine shrimp cytotoxicity of tested extracts of H. rhamnoides showed that mortality rate was concentration dependent. Conclusions: It is concluded that bioactive components are present in all leaves extracts of H. rhamnoides, which could be accounted for its pharmacological effects. Thus, the results support the uses of this plant species in traditional medicine.

  12. Transcriptome response of cassava leaves under natural shade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zehong; Zhang, Yang; Xiao, Yi; Liu, Fangfang; Wang, Minghui; Zhu, Xinguang; Liu, Peng; Sun, Qi; Wang, Wenquan; Peng, Ming; Brutnell, Tom; Li, Pinghua

    2016-01-01

    Cassava is an important staple crop in tropical and sub-tropical areas. As a common farming practice, cassava is usually cultivated intercropping with other crops and subjected to various degrees of shading, which causes reduced productivity. Herein, a comparative transcriptomic analysis was performed on a series of developmental cassava leaves under both full sunlight and natural shade conditions. Gene expression profiles of these two conditions exhibited similar developmental transitions, e.g. genes related to cell wall and basic cellular metabolism were highly expressed in immature leaves, genes involved in lipid metabolism and tetrapyrrole synthesis were highly expressed during the transition stages, and genes related to photosynthesis and carbohydrates metabolism were highly expressed in mature leaves. Compared with the control, shade significantly induced the expression of genes involved in light reaction of photosynthesis, light signaling and DNA synthesis/chromatin structure; however, the genes related to anthocyanins biosynthesis, heat shock, calvin cycle, glycolysis, TCA cycle, mitochondrial electron transport, and starch and sucrose metabolisms were dramatically depressed. Moreover, the shade also influenced the expression of hormone-related genes and transcriptional factors. The findings would improve our understanding of molecular mechanisms of shade response, and shed light on pathways associated with shade-avoidance syndrome for cassava improvement.

  13. Brine shrimp cytotoxic activities of Hippophae rhamnoides Linn leaves extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JavidAli; BashirAhmad

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate brine shrimp lethality assay of solvent extracts (aqueous, methanol, ethanol, acetone, ethyl acetate, chloroform and n-hexane) of Hippophae rhamnoides (H. rhamnoides) leaves. Methods: Brine shrimp cytotoxicity assay was used to assess the cytotoxic potential of H. rhamnoides leaves extracts. Three vials for concentration of each extract were made and 10 shrimps per vial (30 shrimps per dilution) were transferred to specific concentration of each extract. Results: The mortality of aqueous extract was 46.7%, methanol extract was 46.7%, ethanolic extract was 50.0%, ethyl acetate was 26.7%, acetone extract was 33.3%, chloroform extract was 40.0% and n-hexane extract was 33.3%. The lowest LD50 was found in methanol extracts (1199.97 µg/mL). Brine shrimp cytotoxicity of tested extracts of H. rhamnoides showed that mortality rate was concentration dependent. Conclusions: It is concluded that bioactive components are present in all leaves extracts of H. rhamnoides, which could be accounted for its pharmacological effects. Thus, the results support the uses of this plant species in traditional medicine.

  14. EVALUATION OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL & PHYTOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF AMARANTHUS CAUDATUS LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiremath G. Urmila

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to provide physicochemical and phytochemical detail about the plant Amaranthus caudatus. The physicochemical results obtained can be used for the identification of the powdered drugs. In the phytochemical screening different type of extracts were prepared to find the presence of secondary metabolites. The results revealed the presence of carbohydrates, glycosides, saponins, proteins, amino acids, tannins, and phenolic compounds in the plant. Amaranthus caudatus belongs to the family Amaranthaceae .The Amaranthus plants are spread throughout the world, growing under a wide range of climatic conditions and they are able to produce grains and leaves edible vegetables. Traditionally it has been used nutritionally for infants, children, pregnant and lactating woman, as it is comparable to the properties of milk; it was also used in countering heavy menstrual bleeding and vaginal discharge. It helps control dysentery and diarrhea. The roots were used to cure kidney stones, leaves used to cure cuts, leprosy, boils, burns, fever and decoction of the stem used in jaundice. The plant has cooling effect, laxative, diuretic, stomachic and antipyretic, anti-diarrheal, anti-hemorrhagic. The leaves, roots, bark, stem, seeds have medicinal value.

  15. Radioactivity of Tobacco Leaves and Radiation Dose Induced from Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Papastefanou

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The radioactivity in tobacco leaves collected from 15 different regions of Greece and before cigarette production was studied in order to find out any association between the root uptake of radionuclides from soil ground by the tobacco plants and the effective dose induced to smokers from cigarette tobacco due to the naturally occurring primordial radionuclides , such as 226Ra and 210Pb of the uranium series and 228Ra of the thorium series and/or man-made radionuclides, such as 137Cs of Chernobyl origin. Gamma-ray spectrometry was applied using Ge planar and coaxial type detectors of high resolution and high efficiency. It was concluded that the activities of the radioisotopes of radium, 226Ra and 228Ra in the tobacco leaves reflected their origin from the soil by root uptake rather than fertilizers used in the cultivation of tobacco plants. Lead-210 originated from the air and was deposited onto the tobacco leaves and trapped by the trichomes. Potassium-40 in the tobacco leaves was due to root uptake either from soil or from fertilizer. The cesium radioisotopes 137Cs and 134Cs in tobacco leaves were due to root uptake and not due to deposition onto the leaf foliage as they still remained in soil four years after the Chernobyl reactor accident, but were absent from the atmosphere because of the rain washout (precipitation and gravitational settling. The annual effective dose due to inhalation for adults (smokers for 226Ra varied from 42.5 to 178.6 μSv/y (average 79.7 μSv/y, while for 228Ra from 19.3 to 116.0 μSv/y (average 67.1 μSv/y and for 210Pb from 47.0 to 134.9 μSv/y (average 104.7 μSv/y, that is the same order of magnitude for each radionuclide. The sum of the effective doses of the three radionuclides varied from 151.9 to 401.3 μSv/y (average 251.5 μSv/y. The annual effective dose from 137Cs of Chernobyl origin was three orders of magnitude lower as it varied from 70.4 to 410.4 nSv/y (average 199.3 nSv/y.

  16. 5 CFR 550.1204 - Projecting the lump-sum leave period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... this chapter; or credit hours accumulated under an alternative work schedule established under 5 U.S.C... annual leave to the employee's credit. The agency must project the lump-sum period leave beginning on...

  17. Flavonoids in the leaves of polish species of the genus Betula L. III. The flavonoids of B. oycoviensis Bess. leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucyna Pawłowska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available B. oycoviensis Bess. leaves were found to contain compounds characteristic of B. "nova" i.e. myricitrin, isoquercitrin and probably also kaempferol 3-rhamno-7-glucoside, quercetin 3,7,4'-trimethyl ether, and quercetin 7,3',4'-trimethyl ether. They also contain compounds which occur in B. pendula Roth. (kaempferol 3-glucoside, isorhamnetin 3-glactoside, 6-methoxykaempferide, acacetin 7-glucoside, and probably scutellarein 7-glycoside. These biochemical traits bring out still better the hybrid origin of B. oycoviensis.

  18. Sharing the caring: State, family and gender equality in parental leave policy

    OpenAIRE

    Widener, Anmarie J.

    2006-01-01

    Parental leave policies give parents a temporary leave from employment in order to care for a child. Secondary aims are to increase women’s attachment to the labour force as well as supporting gender equal roles in paid and unpaid work. This study researched parent satisfaction of parental leave policies in the United States of America and the Netherlands. Mothers and fathers were individually interviewed face to face regarding satisfaction with family leave polices, if and why they did or di...

  19. Longevity of guard cell chloroplasts in falling leaves: implication for stomatal function and cellular aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeiger, E.; Schwartz, A.

    1982-11-12

    Guard cell chloroplasts in senescing leaves from 12 species of perennial trees and three species of annual plants survived considerably longer than their mesophyll counterparts. In Ginkgo biloba, stomata from yellow leaves opened during the day and closed at night; guard cell chloroplasts from these leaves showed fluorescence transients associated with electron transport and photophosphorylation. These findings indicate that guard cell chloroplasts are highly conserved throughout the life-span of the leaf and that leaves retain stomatal control during senescence.

  20. Essential oil constituents and their biological activities from the leaves of Cassia fistula growing in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Prabodh Satyal; Dosoky, Noura S.; Ambika Poudel; William N. Setzer

    2013-01-01

    Cassia fistula L. (Fabaceae) fruit is used traditionally in Nepal as an antipyretic and to treat constipation, while the leaves are used to treat jaundice, piles, rheumatism, ulcers, insect bites, facial paralysis and skin eruptions. C. fistula leaves are important ingredients in Ayurvedic medicine. This study was undertaken to characterize the volatile constituents of C. fistula leaves and to evaluate their antimicrobial and cytotoxic properties. The essential oil from the leaves of Cassia f...

  1. Sharing the caring : State, family and gender equality in parental leave policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Widener, Anmarie J.

    2006-01-01

    Parental leave policies give parents a temporary leave from employment in order to care for a child. Secondary aims are to increase women’s attachment to the labour force as well as supporting gender equal roles in paid and unpaid work. This study researched parent satisfaction of parental leave p

  2. Development and Leaf Consumption by Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Reared on Leaves of Agroenergy Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezas, M F; Nava, D E; Geissler, L O; Melo, M; Garcia, M S; Krüger, R

    2013-12-01

    Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a polyphagous pest that threatens more than 24 species of crop plants including those used for biodiesel production such as Ricinus communis (castor bean), Jatropha curcas (Barbados nut), and Aleurites fordii (tung oil tree). The development and leaf consumption by S. cosmioides reared on leaves of these three species were studied under controlled laboratory conditions. The egg-to-adult development time of S. cosmioides was shortest when reared on castor bean leaves and longest when reared on tung oil tree leaves. Larvae reared on castor bean and Barbados nut leaves had seven instars, whereas those reared on tung oil tree leaves had eight. Females originating from larvae reared on castor bean and Barbados nut leaves showed greater fecundity than did females originating from larvae reared on tung oil tree leaves. Insects fed on castor bean leaves had shorter life spans than those fed on tung oil tree and Barbados nut leaves although the oviposition period did not differ significantly. The intrinsic and finite rates of increase were highest for females reared on castor bean leaves. Total leaf consumption was highest for larvae reared on tung oil tree leaves and lowest for those reared on Barbados nut leaves. We conclude that castor bean is a more appropriate host plant for the development of S. cosmioides than are Barbados nut and tung oil tree. PMID:27193276

  3. Evidence from Maternity Leave Expansions of the Impact of Maternal Care on Early Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Michael; Milligan, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    We study the impact of maternal care on early child development using an expansion in Canadian maternity leave entitlements. Following the leave expansion, mothers who took leave spent 48-58 percent more time not working in their children's first year of life. This extra maternal care primarily crowded out home-based care by unlicensed…

  4. 29 CFR 825.201 - Leave to care for a parent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... foster care, or to care for a parent, the husband and wife would each be entitled to the difference... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leave to care for a parent. 825.201 Section 825.201 Labor....201 Leave to care for a parent. (a) General rule. An eligible employee is entitled to FMLA leave...

  5. Development and Leaf Consumption by Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Reared on Leaves of Agroenergy Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezas, M F; Nava, D E; Geissler, L O; Melo, M; Garcia, M S; Krüger, R

    2013-12-01

    Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a polyphagous pest that threatens more than 24 species of crop plants including those used for biodiesel production such as Ricinus communis (castor bean), Jatropha curcas (Barbados nut), and Aleurites fordii (tung oil tree). The development and leaf consumption by S. cosmioides reared on leaves of these three species were studied under controlled laboratory conditions. The egg-to-adult development time of S. cosmioides was shortest when reared on castor bean leaves and longest when reared on tung oil tree leaves. Larvae reared on castor bean and Barbados nut leaves had seven instars, whereas those reared on tung oil tree leaves had eight. Females originating from larvae reared on castor bean and Barbados nut leaves showed greater fecundity than did females originating from larvae reared on tung oil tree leaves. Insects fed on castor bean leaves had shorter life spans than those fed on tung oil tree and Barbados nut leaves although the oviposition period did not differ significantly. The intrinsic and finite rates of increase were highest for females reared on castor bean leaves. Total leaf consumption was highest for larvae reared on tung oil tree leaves and lowest for those reared on Barbados nut leaves. We conclude that castor bean is a more appropriate host plant for the development of S. cosmioides than are Barbados nut and tung oil tree.

  6. Should I stay or should I go?: the impact of age norms on leaving home

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Billari, F.; Liefbroer, A.C.

    2007-01-01

    This article studies the association between social norms and the timing of leaving home. Although largely overlooked by most recent studies on leaving home, life-course theory suggests that age norms and age grading infl uence life-course decisions in general and leaving home in particular. We use

  7. Detection of honey mesquite leaves in cattle diets using fecal near infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa Torr.) is a common invasive shrub whose leaves contain secondary compounds that limit consumption by cattle. However, crude protein and fiber levels of mesquite leaves are similar to alfalfa hay. The ability to consume small quantities of mesquite leaves might mak...

  8. The correlation of the maximum intensity of fluorescence with pigment characteristics of leaves of Betula pendula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavoruev, V. V.; Zavorueva, E. N.

    2015-11-01

    Using fluorimeter Junior PAM (Heinz Walz GmbH, Germany) the fluorescence parameters of leaves of Betula pendula are investigated. A linear dependence of the maximum fluorescence (Fm) of leaves from the ratio of total chlorophylls concentration to concentration of carotenoids is obtained. Such dependence is found for samples collected during the period of vegetation and for simultaneous selection of colored leaves.

  9. Study on Photosynthesis of Different Position Leaves of Cucumber in Solar-Greenhouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AI Xi-zhen; ZHANG Zhen-xian; YU Xian-chang; XING Yu-xian

    2003-01-01

    The photosynthetic rate (Pn) and carboxylation efficiency (CE) were observed to be the highestin mid-position leaves of cucumber in solar-greenhouse, second in upper and middle-lower position leaves, andlowest in lower-position leaves. The saturation light of the mid-position leaves was also the highest, while thephoto compensation points of the upper, middle and lower position leaves decreased as the leaf-position descen-ded. During the growth period, the Pn of most leaves enhanced as PFD increased. Pn curves of diurnal varia-tion in different position leaves had single-peak which appeared at 12:00 a.m. As the plant density increased,the PFD of different layer leaves decreased, especially of the lower position leaves. The effect of plant densityon the Pn of the upper-position leaves was not visible, but on the light compensation points was obvious. As tolower position leaves, the Pn and saturation light decreased as the plant density increased, but the light com-pensation points were not obviously affected. Cucumber leaves had certain capacity of adaptation and adjust-ment to light intensity which expressed as the lower the PFD, the higher the apparent quantum yield (AQY).So the AQY increased as the leaf position descended and plant density increased.

  10. Male use of parental leave in Luxembourg : empirical analysis of administrative records

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhelyazkova, N.

    2013-01-01

    The study investigates the decisions of fathers to use parental leave at the individual level. The focus is on the opportunity cost fathers would face for using the leave. Opportunity cost is measured in two ways: as the difference between the parental leave benefit and the salary of the father and

  11. 29 CFR 825.203 - Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule leave. 825.203 Section 825.203 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT... Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.203 Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule leave....

  12. 5 CFR 630.202 - Full biweekly pay period; leave earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Full biweekly pay period; leave earnings. 630.202 Section 630.202 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE... biweekly pay period; leave earnings. (a) Full-time employees. A full-time employee earns leave during...

  13. 29 CFR 825.121 - Leave for adoption or foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leave for adoption or foster care. 825.121 Section 825.121... Leave for adoption or foster care. (a) General rules. Eligible employees are entitled to FMLA leave for placement with the employee of a son or daughter for adoption or foster care as follows: (1) Employees...

  14. Comparison of stomatal characteristics and photosynthesis of polymorphic Populus euphratica leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Caixia; QIU Jian; JIANG Chunning; YUE Ning; WANG Xiuqin; WANG Wanfu

    2007-01-01

    The leaf shapes of adult Populus euphratica vary from lanceolate to dentate broad-ovate.In order to find the mechanism regarding the ecological adaptation of the polymorphic leaves,the dentate broad-ovate,broad-ovate,and lanceolate leaves were chosen to study their stomatal and photosynthetic characteristics.It is observed that the stomas on the adaxial and abaxial epidermis of the same leaves open non-uniformly with similar densities.The stomatal densities are different among the three typical leaves,which decrease from broad-ovate to lanceolate leaves.Their stomatal sunken degree varied obviously,decreasing from broad-ovate to lanceolate leaves.The changes of the diurnal photosynthetic rate of the three typical leaves follow a single peak curve.The mean diurnal photosynthetic rates of these leaves rank from high to low as broad-ovate>dentate broad-ovate>lanceolate leaves.The light compensation points are similar in the three typical leaves,while the light saturation points vary obviously.The efficiency of solar energy conversion and potential activity of the PSⅡ in the leaves differ significantly,with the dentate broad-ovate leaves the highest.The results suggest that their leaf shapes,anatomic structures,and photosynthetic characteristics change during the leaf development.

  15. Antigenotoxic activities of crude extracts from Acacia salicina leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Hédi B; Boubaker, Jihed; Bouhlel, Inès; Mahmoud, Amor; Bernillon, Stéphane; Chibani, Jemni B; Ghedira, Kamel; Chekir-Ghedira, Leila

    2007-01-01

    For centuries, plants have been used in traditional medicines and there has been recent interest in the chemopreventive properties of compounds derived from plants. In the present study, we investigated the effects of extracts of Acacia salicina leaves on the genotoxicity of benzo[a]pyrene (B(a)P) and nifuroxazide in the SOS Chromotest. Aqueous, total oligomers flavonoids (TOF)-enriched, petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts were prepared from powdered Acacia leaves, and characterized qualitatively for the presence of tannins, flavonoids, and sterols. All the extracts significantly decreased the genotoxicity induced by 1 microg B(a)P (+S9) and 10 microg nifuroxazide (-S9). The TOF-enriched and methanol extracts decreased the SOS response induced by B(a)P to a greater extent, whereas the TOF-enriched and the ethyl acetate extracts exhibited increased activity against the SOS response produced by nifuroxazide. In addition, the aqueous, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts showed increased activity in scavenging the 1,1-diphenyl- 2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical, while 100-300 microg/ml of all the test extracts were active in inhibiting O2-production in a xanthine/xanthine oxidase system. In contrast, only the petroleum ether extract was effective at inhibiting nitroblue tetrazolium reduction by the superoxide radical in a nonenzymatic O2- -generating system. The present study indicates that extracts of A. salicina leaves are a significant source of compounds with antigenotoxic and antioxidant activity (most likely phenolic compounds and sterols), and thus may be useful for chemoprevention. PMID:17177209

  16. Pharmacognostical studies of leaves of Combretum albidum G. Don

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish S Zalke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Combretum albidum Don belonging to family Combretaceae is an unexplored medicinal plant in the Indian medicinal system. According to ethnobotanical information, the leaves are used in the treatment of peptic ulcer and its fruits are used in diarrhoea and dysentery. Stem bark is used in the treatment of jaundice and skin diseases. The problem encountered in standardisation of this medicinal plant is its identification by source. Materials and Methods: The pharmacognostical studies were carried out in terms of organoleptic, macroscopic, microscopic, physicochemical, florescence and phytochemical analysis. Physicochemical parameters such as total ash, moisture content and extractive values are determined by World Health Organization guidelines. The microscopic features of leaf components are observed with Nikon lab photo device with microscopic units. Results: Macroscopically, the leaves are simple, obovate in shape, acuminate apex, entire margin and smooth surface. Microscopically, the leaves showed a large vascular strand that consists of thick walled xylem elements mixed with xylem fibres and phloem which is present in a thin layer along inner and outer portions of xylem. External to the xylem occur a thin line of sclerenchyma. Powder microscopy revealed glandular trichomes in the adaxial epidermal peelings also shows the non-glandular trichomes fairly common in powder and epidermis with anisocytic stomata. Vessels elements are narrow, long, cylindrical and dense multi-seriate bordered pits. Xylem fibres are thin and long, with thick walls, which are lignified. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of carbohydrate, glycoside, saponin, flavonoid, phytosterols and phenolic compounds. Conclusions: The results of the study can serve as a valuable source of pharmacognostic information as suitable standards for identification of this plant material in future investigations and applications.

  17. Antimicrobial and antipathogenic activity of Fallopia japonica leaves alcoholic extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana-Cristina Marinaş

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study consists in the investigation of the antimicrobial and antiphatogenic activity of ethanol extracts obtain from F. japonica leaves. Total phenolic content was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method, while their phenolic composition was specified by HPLC. In vitro antimicrobial activity of various concentrations ranging from 6.25 to 200 μL/mL of alcoholic (ethanol 70% extract of F. japonica were analyzed on different clinical and reference bacterial strains (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumanii and fungal strains belonging to Candida spp. using agar disk diffusion method and broth dilution method. The anti-pathogenic properties were studied by determining the adhesion capacity of microbial strains to inert substrate. The soluble virulence factors were quantified using specific media with different biochemical substrats for revealing haemolysins, lecithinase, gelatinase, lipase, DN-ase, amylase and iron chelating agents. The antibiogram adapted technique assesseded the synergic effects of F. japonica leaves extracts with the clinical used antibiotics for different bacterial strains. The studied extract showed the best antimicrobial activity against P. aeruginosa (6.25 μL/mL due to phenolic compound identified (epicatechin, rutin and quercetin. In the Gram-positive strains’ case were observed phenotypic changes in the DNA-ase and lechitinase enzymes expression. In the antibioresistance pattern profiling it was observed that F. japonica leaves improved the Kanamycin activity for S. aureus, Colistin for P. aeruginosa and Meropenem for A. baumanii. In this respect, could be assumed that this extract could be used complementarily with antibiotherapy, by inhibiting the specific virulence factors.

  18. Associational resistance protects mangrove leaves from crab herbivory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Amy A.; Bell, Susan S.; Dawes, Clinton J.

    2012-05-01

    While associational defenses have been well documented in many plant and algal ecosystems, this study is the first to document associational resistance in mangroves. Mangrove tree crab (Aratus pisonii) density and herbivory on three life-stages of the red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) were documented in pure red versus mixed-species and predominantly non-red mangrove stands containing black (Avicennia germinans) and white (Laguncularia racemosa) mangroves in 1999-2000 in Tampa Bay, Florida. This study first established that R. mangle is the focal species in the context of associational resistance because it is damaged more than either of the other mangrove species. Next, it was hypothesized that crab density and leaf damage on R. mangle would be lower when in mixed-species and predominantly non-red versus red mangrove stands. A non-significant trend suggested that crab density varies among stands, and crab damage on R. mangle leaves was significantly lower in mixed-species and non-red stands. Mechanisms to explain associational resistance were examined. Positive Pearson correlations between the percent of adult R. mangle in a stand and both crab density and R. mangle leaf damage provided support for the resource concentration hypothesis. Limited support was found for the attractant-decoy hypothesis because the total amount of damaged leaves of all mangrove species combined typically differed among stands, suggesting that crabs were not shifting to alternative mangrove species to offset reduced availability of R. mangle leaves. Finally, while R. mangle seedlings were shorter in non-red stands compared to others, intra-specific differences in R. mangle leaf chemistry and sclerophylly among stands failed to explain associational patterns. These combined results argue for the need for additional experiments to elucidate mechanisms responsible for defensive plant associations in mangrove ecosystems and to determine whether such associations could be of use in mangrove

  19. Metabolic Response of Pakchoi Leaves to Amino Acid Nitrogen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-li; YU Wen-juan; ZHOU Qian; HAN Rui-feng; HUANG Dan-feng

    2014-01-01

    Different nitrogen (N) forms may cause changes in the metabolic profiles of plants. However, few studies have been conducted on the effects of amino acid-N on plant metabolic proifles. The main objective of this study was to identify primary metabolites associated with amino acid-N (Gly, Gln and Ala) through metabolic proifle analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Plants of pakchoi (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis L.), Huawang and Wuyueman cultivars, were grown with different nitrogen forms (i.e., Gly, Gln, Ala, NO3--N, and N starvation) applied under sterile hydroponic conditions. The fresh weight and plant N accumulation of Huawang were greater than those of Wuyueman, which indicates that the former exhibited better N-use efficiency than the latter. The physiological performances of the applied N forms were generally in the order of NO3--N>Gln>Gly>Ala. The metabolic analysis of leaf polar extracts revealed 30 amino acid N-responsive metabolites in the two pakchoi cultivars, mainly consisting of sugars, amino acids, and organic acids. Changes in the carbon metabolism of pakchoi leaves under amino acid treatments occurred via the accumulation of fructose, glucose, xylose, and arabinose. Disruption of amino acid metabolism resulted in accumulation of endogenous Gly in Gly treatment, Pro in Ala treatment, and Asn in three amino acid (Gly, Gln and Ala) treatments. By contrast, the levels of endogenous Gln and Leu decreased. However, this reduction varied among cultivars and amino acid types. Amino acid-N supply also affected the citric acid cycle, namely, the second stage of respiration, where leaves in Gly, Gln and Ala treatments contained low levels of malic, citric and succinic acids compared with leaves in NO3--N treatments. No signiifcant difference in the metabolic responses was observed between the two cultivars which differed in their capability to use N. The response of primary metabolites in pakchoi leaves to amino acid-N supply

  20. Detection and pattern recognition applied to leaves and chromosomes

    OpenAIRE

    Cottle Cabildo, Alexander Armstrong

    2014-01-01

    The Project you are about to see it is based on the technologies used on object detection and recognition, especially on leaves and chromosomes. To do so, this document contains the typical parts of a scientific paper, as it is what it is. It is composed by an Abstract, an Introduction, points that have to do with the investigation area, future work, conclusions and references used for the elaboration of the document. The Abstract talks about what are we going to find in this paper, whi...

  1. Flavonoids and fatty acids of Camellia japonica leaves extract

    OpenAIRE

    Cinthia M. Azuma; Flávia Cristina S. dos Santos; João Henrique G. Lago

    2011-01-01

    The ethanol extract from the leaves of Camellia japonica L., Theaceae, showed antiradical potential in the DPPH test using TLC plates (SiO2). Aiming the isolation of active compounds, this extract was partitioned between BuOH:H2O (1:1) and the two obtained phases were also evaluated to detection of antiradical activity. The active BuOH phase was fractionated in Sephadex LH-20 and silica (normal or reverse phase) to afford three aglycone flavonoids (quercetin, kaempferol and apigenin), which h...

  2. Diversity of calcium speciation in leaves of Primulina species (Gesneriaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingwen Qi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Primulina is a genus containing typical “stone plants” or “cave plants” that show a high degree of edaphic specialization in the karst limestone regions of southwest China. Most species of the genus occur only on calcareous soils developed from carbonate bedrock, while a few species are found only on the red soil developed from the Danxia landform or acidic soil developed from sandshale bedrock. The aim of this study is to investigate the diversity and characteristics of calcium absorption and storage in Primulina from different soil substrates. Calcium in leaves was determined for plants sampled from 15 populations representing 11 Primulina species occurring on calcareous soil, red soil or acid soil. We analyzed the main types of calcium found in leaves, and compared the calcium content within and among species from different soil types. The results revealed a general high level of leaf calcium content in Primulina species compared with other plants from the karst regions of southwest China. However, we found a significant difference in calcium content among Primulina species from different soil types, with high average calcium content (2,285.6 mg/kg in Primulina from calcareous soil relative to low levels present in Primulina from both acid soil (1,379.3 mg/kg and Danxia red soil (1,329.1 mg/kg. The main form of calcium stored in most Primulina species (9 out of 11 was pectate calcium, which accounted for 31.6–64.2% of the total calcium in the leaves. In contrast, for two species, P. linearifolia and P. medica, which grow on soil with a pH > 8, the main calcium form was soluble calcium, which accounted for about 40% of the total calcium in plant leaves. In addition, differences in calcium amount and type were recorded within species from either the same or different soil types. These results suggest that there is variation in calcium speciation found in Primulina at both interspecific and intraspecific levels. Our findings provide a

  3. ANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF MEMECYLON MALABARICUM (MELASTOMATACEAE LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ramaiah

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Memecylon malabaricum cogn (Melastomataceae is an indigenous medicinal plant used in ethno medicine for the treatment of bacterial infections, inflammation and skin diseases including herpes, chickenpox. It’s also a root ecbolic. The methanolic extract of Memecylon malabaricum leaves is subjected to antidiabetic activity using experimental model of alloxan induced diabetes. The results showed that the methanolic extract significantly decrease the raised blood glucose level, comparable to reference standard, gliclazide. The results of this study explicate justification of the use of this plant in the treatment of diabetes.  

  4. Three novel compounds from the leaves of Smallanthus sonchifolius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Ying-Kun; Kang, Ting-Guo; Dou, De-Qiang; Liang, Li; Dong, Feng

    2008-01-01

    Three novel compounds, together with five known ingredients, octacosanol, 3',4',5-trihydroxy-3,7-dimethoxyflavone, 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, isorhamnetin, and ent-kaurane-3beta,16beta,17-triol, were obtained from the leaves of Smallanthus sonchifolius (yacon), and their structures were elucidated as ent-kaurane-3beta,16beta,17,18-tertol (1), 3R,7E-9-butoxyl-megastigma-3-ol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2), and 3S,5R,6Z-megastigma-6-en-3,5,8,9-tertol (3) on the basis of spectroscopic and chemical methods. PMID:19031255

  5. Cytotoxic Constituents from bark and leaves of Amyris pinnata Kunth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Enrique Cuca-Suarez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available From leaves and bark of Amyris pinnata Kunth twelve compounds were isolated, corresponding to six lignans 1-6, three coumarins 7-9, a sesquiterpene 10, an oxazole alkaloid 11, and a prenylated flavonoid 12,. Metabolites were identified by spectroscopic techniques ( 1H and 13C NMR, EIMS and by comparison with published data in the literature. C ytotoxicity against leukemia, solid tumors, and normal cells was evaluated for all isolated compounds. Lignans were found to be the most cytotoxic compounds occurring in A. pinnata.

  6. Effect of Plantago australis leaves on different gastric ulcer models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. Bürger

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The anti-ulcerogenic effect of the crude ethanolic extract (CEE of Plantago australis leaves was tested against ethanol-, indomethacin-, and cold restrain-induced stress ulcers. The CEE (500 and 1000 mg/kg reduced the lesion index (LI and the ulcer index in ethanol-induced ulcers, and the dose of 1000 mg/kg increased the amount of mucous. The highest dose of the CEE reduced the LI of cold restraint-induced stress ulcers when compared to the control group. The indomethacin-induced ulcers were not affected by this extract.

  7. Megastimanes and ergostane type steroid from leaves Cratylia mollis (Leguminosae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Luciano S.; Lima, Marcos V.B.; David, Juceni P.; David, Jorge M. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Faculdade de Farmacia. Inst. de Quimica; Giulietti, Ana M.; Queiroz, Luciano P. de [Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Biologicas

    2009-07-01

    From the methanolic extract of the leaves of Cratylia mollis were obtained by chromatographic techniques (3S,5S,6S,9R)-3,6-dihydroxy-5,6-dihydro-beta-ionol (1), and a new bis-norisoprenoid named (4S{sup *}, 6S{sup *})-4-but-1E-enyl-4,6-dihydroxy-3,5,5-trimethyl-cyclohex-2-enone (2) as well as 5 alpha,8 alpha-epidioxy ergosta-6,22-dien-3-beta-ol. The structures of the pure compounds were elucidated based on MS, {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopic data analyses. (author)

  8. A report on anthelmintic activity of Cassia tora leaves

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    Jinu John

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Methanolic extract and its ethyl acetate fraction of Cassia tora L. leaves were evaluated for anthelmintic property using the Indian adult earthworm (Pheretima posthuma as a model. Among the earthworms the ethyl acetate fraction was potent. The results were compared with a standard drug, albendazole. The phytochemical analysis of both extracts showed the presence of phenolics like flavonoids and tannins as well as anthraquinones, which may be the active principle. The present study confirms the ethno-medicinal report of the plant as an anthelmintic drug.

  9. PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF LEAVES OF JATROPHA CURCAS PLANT

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    Ahirrao R.A.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The various extract of leaves Jatropha curcas Linn. belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae were investigated for its physicochemical and phytochemical screening. Ash value (total ash, acid insoluble ash and water soluble ash, extractive values, Loss on drying were studied dry weight. Ash content analysis was showed total ash, acid insoluble ash and water soluble ash [7.40 %, 4.42 % and 6.12 % respectively]. The moisture content was found to be 1.70 %. Preliminary phytochemical analysis test showed the presence of steroids, flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, triterpenoids, tannins and carbohydrate.

  10. Efficient Tool for the Recognition of the Leaves of Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhadi Adel

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This work appears in pattern recognition in the agronomic domain, especially for the identification of the leaves of plants, while using the adaptive technique of neuronal networks. In this article, we will expose our tool; which is intended for two categories of specialists, the first consisting of researchers in the field of botany, as the second, so all scientists, who may use this work in their own applications. We will expose also, the capacities of generalization of the neuronal networks and their implementation to our problem.

  11. Effect of vanadium on nitrate reductase activity in tomato leaves

    OpenAIRE

    J. Buczek

    2015-01-01

    The activity of nitrate reductase in cell-free extracts from tomato leaves is completely inhibited by 100 μM NaVO3 or VOCl2. In experiments in vivo vanadium ions inhibit the activity of the enzyme in 50 to 60 per cent. Addition of l mM vanadium to the medium on which tomato seedlings are grown causes after 24 h almost complete inhibition of nitrate reductase activity in cell-free extracts of the enzyme. Inhibition with vanadium may be abolished in experiments in vitro if the extract is treate...

  12. VOLATILE OIL COMPOSITION OF THE LEAVES OF EUCALYPTUS CITRIODORA HOOK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal Abhilasha

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The leaves of Eucalyptus citriodora Hook. (Myrtaceae of Delhi region yielded 0.22 % of the volatile oil which was analyzed by GC and GC-MS techniques. Fifteen components comprising 100 % of the total volatiles were identified which consisted of five monoterpenes (96.3 % and ten aliphatic components (3.7 %. The major monoterpenes characterized included α- pinene (38.6 %, β -.pinene (25.7%, sabinene (19.6% and α-thujene (11.9%. Among the aliphatic constituents, there were six hydrocarbons (2.3 % and four aliphatic alcohols (1.4 %. Myrcene and all aliphatic constituents were present in trace amounts.

  13. IN VITRO ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF ACALYPHA INDICA LEAVES EXTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pal Vishesh Kumar

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol extract from the Acalypha indica leaves of investigated for their anthelmintic activity against Pheretima posthuma. Three concentrations (1%, 2.5% and 5% of extract were studied in activity, which involved the determination of time of paralysis and death of the worm. Both the extracts exhibited significant anthelmintic activity at highest concentration of 100 mg/ml. Piperazine citrate in same concentration as that of extract was included as standard reference and distilled water as control. The anthelmintic activity of ethanol extract of Acalypha indica leaf therefore been demonstrated for the first time.

  14. Fluidized and vibrofluidized shallow beds of fresh leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Renata de Aquino Brito Lima; Maria do Carmo Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    The fluid dynamics behavior of shallow fluidized and vibrofluidized beds operating with fresh leaves was investigated with the aim of exploring drying applications in a modified conveyor belt (MCB) system, which may be operated in a fixed- or fiuidized-bed mode. Leaves of the specimens Duranta repens,Schinus molle, Coleus barbatus, Buxus sempervirens, and Bougainvillea spectabilis were tested with a range of sphericities from 0.063 to 0.213. bulk densities from 0.038 to 0.251 g/cm3. apparent densities from 0.52 to 0.97 g/cm3 and ratios of total surface area to volume from 21 to 224 cm-t. Fluidization characteristic curves were obtained by measuring pressure drops versus air velocity in a rectangular column of 0.20m x 0.11 m cross section. It was not possible to reach real fluidized regimes with the leaves due to strongly non-homogeneous beds. Nevertheless, the characteristic curves allowed for the identification of a transition regime from fixed- to expanded-beds, and parameters such as air velocity and pressure drop obtained from the experimental data at the transition were reproducible for specimens with lower surface area or lower specific gravity (i.e., Duranta repens, Schinus molle, and Bougainvillea spectabilis).The transition velocity and pressure drop could not be predicted by the literature developed for estimat0.5 and 1.0 helped to reduce channeling and decrease the transition velocities from fixed to expanded regimes although it did not affect the pressure drops after the bed expansion. The results suggest that drying fresh leaves using the MCB dryer operating in a fluidized mode would not be feasible because none of the materials investigated attained a high-quality fluidization. Operation of the MCB dryer may be possible by alternating between the fixed and vibrofluidized modes. For the specimens tested, the drying should be performed in a range of air velocities from 0.50 to 0.60 m/s to ensure that the operation is in a vibrofluidized regime. The

  15. EVALUATION OF ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF CORCHORUS AESTUANS LINN LEAVES EXTRACTS

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    Patel Rashmika P.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The leaves of Corchorus aestuans Linn are said to cure gonorrhea and used in making an injection for urethral discharge. In the present study, the antioxidant potency of Corchorus aestuans Linn crude methanol and its fractionated extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate and water have been investigated, employing three different established in vitro testing systems, such as scavenging activity on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radicals, reducing power assay and β-carotene method. The data obtained in these testing systems clearly establish the antioxidant potency of Corchorus aestuans Linn. As such, this is the first report on the antioxidant activities of Corchorus aestuans Linn.

  16. Determination of high molecular mass compounds from Amazonian plant's leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fractions of dichloromethane extracts of leaves from andiroba (Carapa guianensis - Meliaceae), caapi (Banisteriopsis caapi - Malpighiaceae), cocoa (Theobroma cacao - Sterculiaceae), Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa - Lecytidaceae), cupuacu (Theobroma grandiflorum - Sterculiaceae), marupa (Simaruba amara - Simaroubaceae) and rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis - Euphorbiaceae), were analyzed by HT-HRGC and HT-HRGC-MS. Esters of homologous series of fatty acids and long chain alcohols, phytol, amyrines and tocopherols were characterized. The characterization of the compounds was based mainly in mass spectra data and in addition by usual spectrometric data (1H and 13C NMR, IR). (author)

  17. Mercury in canopy leaves of French Guiana in remote areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mélières, Marie-Antoinette; Pourchet, M; Charles-Dominique, P; Gaucher, P

    2003-07-20

    A study of total Hg concentration in the foliage of the canopy was carried out in two remote areas in French Guiana. The sampled canopy is representative of the French Guiana canopy. The concentration in the foliage, 64+/-14 ngg(-1) (dry wt.), is used to estimate the annual input of total Hg to the soil through the litterfall, found to be 45+/-10 microgm(-2)y(-1). As translocation is negligible, mercury in the canopy originates mainly from atmospheric uptake by the leaves and this litterfall deposit represents a direct atmospheric input from the background atmospheric load into the soil. PMID:12826397

  18. Occurrence of biflavones in leaves of Caesalpinia pyramidalis specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus V. Bahia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The chloroform partition of methanol extract of leaves of Caesalpinia pyramidalis was submitted to different chromatographic procedures which afforded besides agathisflavone and taxifolin, the minor biflavones loniflavone, amentoflavone, 5'- hydroxyamentoflavone and podocarpusflavone A. The structures of the compounds were established on the basis of NMR and MS data analysis. Besides, the content of biflavones of different specimens of C. pyramidalis, which are collected in different habitats of the Brazilian semi-arid region, was determinated by LC-APCI-MS analysis. These analysis demonstrated that only the specimens harvested in Bahia state showed collectively the presence of agathisflavone, amentoflavone, sequoiaflavone and podocarpusflavone A.

  19. Viewing Asking for Leave from a Cultural Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨洪娟

    2013-01-01

    This thesis aims at investigating what the discourse patterns are in the asking-for-leave notes written by Chinese stu⁃dents and native English speakers respectively and what excuses are given by Chinese students and native English speakers. Role play and retrospective interview were employed as research methords. The results show that the Chinese students all use an induc⁃tive pattern, while all native English speakers write the note in a deductive way. Besides, the excuses presented by the two kinds of subjects are different due to their different cultural background.

  20. VOLATILE OIL COMPOSITION OF THE LEAVES OF EUCALYPTUS CITRIODORA HOOK.

    OpenAIRE

    Mittal Abhilasha; Ali Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    The leaves of Eucalyptus citriodora Hook. (Myrtaceae) of Delhi region yielded 0.22 % of the volatile oil which was analyzed by GC and GC-MS techniques. Fifteen components comprising 100 % of the total volatiles were identified which consisted of five monoterpenes (96.3 %) and ten aliphatic components (3.7 %). The major monoterpenes characterized included α- pinene (38.6 %), β -.pinene (25.7%), sabinene (19.6%) and α-thujene (11.9%). Among the aliphatic constituents, there were six hydrocarbo...

  1. Who are they and why are they leaving?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploegstra, Jeffrey Thomas

    Quality science teachers continue to be in short supply in the United States. This shortage can be attributed to a number of factors including a rapidly growing population, low numbers entering the field, retirement, and attrition. The case has been made that teacher shortage issues are most strongly related to teacher attrition. If we intend to address the concern over the supply of highly qualified teachers, we need to understand why teachers leave, who we are losing and how they are different from those who stay in teaching. This study addressed these issues through a mixed methods approach. Surveys of the opinions, beliefs, and experiences of teachers, observations of their teaching performance, and interviews were analyzed to identify significant issues leading to departure from classroom teaching. Analysis of the data consisted of MANOVA, correlation, and Chi-square analysis of the survey instruments and observations comparing leavers and stayers. The interviews and other data were triangulated to develop a number of significant themes related to the underlying causes of teacher attrition. The outcomes of this study lend significant insight into the relationships between teacher characteristics, expectations, experiences, and their decision to continue teaching. Major findings include: (1) The workload of teaching is a significant source of dissatisfaction for all teachers, and leavers describe an inability to balance life and work as a significant factor in their decision to leave; (2) Teachers who intend to leave are generally less satisfied with their teacher education programs; (3) Leavers have higher expectations of themselves and/or expect more recognition; (4) Leavers feel held back as professionals due to a variety of contextual factors; (5) Leavers and stayers are similar in their beliefs and practices; (6) Student interactions are a much more significant factor than previously reported. Leavers generally report more discipline issues and less

  2. Trends in parental leave in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eydal, Guðný; Gíslason, Ingólfur; Rostgaard, Tine;

    2015-01-01

    are witnessing a paradigm shift in some of these countries, away from an emphasis on gender equality to a more traditional family approach, with the mother as the main parent, thinly guised as ‘free choice’ of individual families. Furthermore, the article asks why the changes in question have taken place......The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the development of parental leave in the Nordic countries in the last decade or so and explain the different roads taken by individual countries in this regard. Focusing on the recent development, mainly on father’s quota, we discuss whether we...

  3. New flavone from the leaves of Neea theifera (Nyctaginaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinaldo, Daniel; Rodrigues, Clenilson M.; Rodrigues, Juliana; Sannomiya, Miriam; Santos, Lourdes C. dos; Vilegas, Wagner [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: vilegasw@gmail.com

    2007-07-01

    Neea theifera Oerst. (Nyctaginaceae) is widely used in Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of gastric ulcers and inflammation. Phytochemical investigation of the leaves of Neea theifera afforded the isolation of the new flavone luteolin-7-O-[2''-O-(5'''-O-feruloyl)- {beta}-D-apiofuranosyl]-b-D-glucopyranoside (1) besides the eight-known compounds vitexin, isovitexin, isoorientin, orientin, vicenin-2, chrysoeriol, apigenin and luteolin. Their chemical identification was established by NMR spectroscopic methods including 2D-NMR, as well as UV and ESI-MS analyses. (author)

  4. Antiplatelet Aggregation Coumarins from the Leaves of Murraya omphalocarpa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang-Chang Wu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a bioactivity-guided fractionation method, two coumarins: minumicrolineacetonide (1 and epimurpaniculol senecioate (2, were isolated from the leaves ofMurraya omphalocarpa Hayata (Rutaceae. Compound 1 had been previously synthesizedand was now isolated from natural sources for the first time, and compound 2, possessing anegative optical rotation value, is new. The structures and their stereochemistry were fullyelucidated on the basis of spectroscopic and X-ray crystallographic techniques. Bothcompounds 1 and 2 are active in the antiplatelet aggregation assay. Interestingly, thepossible acetonide artifact 1 displayed significant antiplatelet aggregation induced not onlyby AA and collagen but also by platelet activating factor (PAF.

  5. Three new xanthones from the leaves of Garcinia lancilimba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yating; Li, Dahong; Jia, Cuicui; Xue, Chunmei; Bai, Jiao; Li, Zhanlin; Hua, Huiming

    2016-04-01

    Three new prenylated xanthones, garcinexanthones G-I (1-3), together with fifteen known ones (4-18) were identified from the leaves of Garcinia lancilimba. Their structures were determined by extensive spectroscopic analyses. Most of the compounds exhibited inhibitory effects against HL-60 (human leukemia), A549 (human lung cancer), and MCF-7 (human breast cancer) cell lines. Among them, compounds 7, 17, and 13 exhibited the most pronounced growth inhibitory activity against HL-60, A549, and MCF-7 cell lines with GI50 values of 1.68, 4.88, and 6.28 μM, respectively. PMID:26645396

  6. A cytotoxic compound from the leaves of Juglans mandshurica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    From Juglans mandshurica leaves, a new quinone compound was isolated through bioassay-guided fractionation. The structure elucidation of the compound was established based on spectroscopic studies, notably of the 2D NMR spectra. The compound exhibited moderate cytotoxic activities against Hela, MCF-7, BGC823 and 3T3-Llcell lines with IC50 ranges from 7.5 to 26.8 μmol/L.(C) 2007 Li Jia An. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Chinese Chemical Society. All rights reserved.

  7. Freezing injury in cold-acclimated and unhardened spinach leaves : I. Photosynthetic reactions of thylakoids isolated from frost-damaged leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klosson, R J; Krause, G H

    1981-04-01

    Spinach plants (Spinacia oleracea L.) were frost-hardened by cold-acclimation to 1° C or kept in an unhardy state at 20°/14° C in phytotrons. Detached leaves were exposed to temperatures below 0°C. Rates of photosynthetic CO2 uptake by the leaves, recorded after frost treatment, served as a measure of freezing injury. Thylakoid membranes were isolated from frost-injured leaves and their photosynthetic activities tested. Ice formation occurred at about-4° to-5° C, both in unhardened and cold-acclimated leaves. After thawing, unhardened leaves appeared severely damaged when they had been exposed to-5° to-8° C. Acclimated leaves were damaged by freezing at temperatures between-10° to-14° C. The pattern of freezing damage was complex and appeared to be identical in hardened and unhardened leaves: 1. Inactivation of photosynthesis and respiration of the leaves occurred almost simultaneously. 2. When the leaves were partly damaged, the rates of photosynthetic electron transport and noncyclic photophosphorylation and the extent of light-induced H(+) uptake by the isolated thylakoids were lowered at about the same degree. The dark decay of the proton gradient was, however, not stimulated, indicating that the permeability of the membrane to-ward protons and metal cations had not increased. 3. As shown by partial reactions of the electron transport system, freezing of leaves predominantly inhibited the oxygen evolution, but photosystem II and photosystem I-dependent electron transport were also impaired. 4. Damage of the chloroplast envelope was indicated by a decline in the percentage of intact chloroplasts found in preparations from injured leaves. The results are discussed in relation to earlier studies on freezing damage of thylakoid membranes occurring in vitro. PMID:24301976

  8. Ultrastructural characteristic of cells and pigment analysis in floating and submerged leaves of Trapa natans L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Оlena M. Nedukha

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The comparative analysis of ultrastructure of the photosynthetic cells and pigment content of Trapa natans in both floating and submerged leaves at vegetative phase were conducted. It has shown that the changes of cell ultrasructure and pigment content in leaves are depended from the location of leaves above or under water surface. It has ascertained that submersion of the leaves under water lead to: 1 increase of thylakoid number in grana; 2 decrease of number of the chloroplasts with starch grains; 3 decrease of the relation between chlorophylls (Chlа/ Chlb and of the sum of chlorophylls (Chlа+ Chlb in comparison with analogical parameters in floating leaves

  9. Comparative Study of Carbon Storage and Allocation Characteristics of Mature Evergreen Broad-leaved Forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhangquan; ZENG; Canming; ZHANGY; Yandong; NIU; Xiquan; LI; Zijian; WU; Jia; LUO

    2014-01-01

    Evergreen broad-leaved forest is an important forest type in China.This paper analyzes the allocation characteristics of vegetation and soil carbon pool of evergreen broad-leaved forest,to understand the current status of research on the carbon storage of evergreen broadleaved forest as well as shortcomings.In the context of global climate change,it is necessary to carry out the long-term research of evergreen broad-leaved forest,in order to grasp the formation mechanism of evergreen broad-leaved forest productivity,and the impact of climate change on the carbon sequestration function of evergreen broad-leaved forest ecosystem.

  10. Influence of some chosen morphactins on tissue formation in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Tomaszewski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of two morphactins (IT 3233 and IT 3456 on the formation of tissues in sunflower leaves was investigated. The leaves were usually smaller, they had plicate laminae and rolled up edges. The different influence of morphactins in dependence on the position of the leaves on the stem and on the kind of tissues was confirmed. Leaves growing from the first node had the thickest laminae, main ribs and the longest cells of palisade parenchyma. The values contrasted with those in the leaves from the third node. An increase of the number of epidermis cells and stomata in leaves from the first and second node and a decrease in those from the third node were observed. Additional layers (1-2 of palisade parenchyma in leaves of the second and third node were formed. Mesophyll was very compact. Xylem consisted of a greater number of elements, arranged compactly and of much lower diameter.

  11. Improving flavonoid extraction from Ginkgo biloba leaves by prefermentation processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiahong; Cao, Fuliang; Su, Erzheng; Wu, Caie; Zhao, Linguo; Ying, Ruifeng

    2013-06-19

    This paper presents a prefermentation treatment method involving fungi to improve flavonoid extraction from the leaves of Ginkgo biloba . The fungi employed for this treatment were screened from the soil present under an ancient ginkgo tree. Seventy-six strains belonging to 23 genera were isolated and identified by a molecular identification method employing 18S rDNA sequences. Thirty-three strains grew well using ginkgo leaves as the growth medium. One strain, Gyx086, with higher extracted yield of flavonoids and more similar to the control, was finally selected for prefermentation processing. The major fermentation factors were optimized by response surface methodology. The optimal conditions for the highest total falvonoid yield were 27.8 °C for temperature, 64.2% for moisture content, and 61 h for fermentation time. Under the optimal condition, a actual total flavonoid yield of 27.59 ± 0.52 mg/g dry weight culture sample was obtained, which was about 70% higher than that of unfermented gingko leaf samples.

  12. Effects of biocides on chlorophyll contents of detached basil leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titima Arunrangsi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Herbicides and insecticides have been widely and intensively used in agricultural areas worldwide to enhance crop yield. However, many biocides cause serious environmental problems. In addition, the biocides may also have some effects on the treated agricultural crops. To study effects of biocides on chlorophyll content in detached basil leaves, 2,4-D dimethylamine salt (2,4 D-Amine, paraquat, carbosulfan, and azadirachtin, were chosen as representatives of biocide. After applying the chemicals to detached basil leaves overnight in darkness, chlorophyll contents were determined. Only treatment with 2,4 D-Amine resulted in reduction of chlorophyll contents significantly compared to treatment with deionized (DI water. In the case of paraquat and carbosulfan, chlorophyll contents were not significantly changed, while slightly higher chlorophyll contents, compared to DI water, after the treatment with azadirachtin, were observed. The results indicated that 2,4 D-Amine shows an ability to accelerate chlorophyll degradation, but azadirachtin helps to retard chlorophyll degradation, when each biocide is used at the concentration recommended by the manufacturer.

  13. Evaluation of reversible contraceptive potential of Cordia dichotoma leaves extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plaban Bhattacharya

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Considering the safety-risk ratio of steroidal contraceptives, the present work was carried out to evaluate ethno-contraceptive use of Cordia dichotoma G. Forst., Boraginaceae, leaves (LCD. Preliminary pharmacological screening was performed on post-coital female albino rats. The leaves extract (LD50 5.50 g/kg bw showed 100% anti-implantation activity (n=10 at 800 mg/kg dose level. (2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (BCD was used as bioavailability enhancer to form LCD-BCD complex, characterized by DLS, SEM and XRD analyses. The LCD-BCD complex (1:1, w/w exhibited 100% pregnancy interception (n=20 at the dose level of 250 mg/kg and also showed strong estrogenic potential with a luteal phase defect. Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analyses were carried out. The LCD extract was standardized by a validated HPTLC method and two contraceptive phytoconstituents, apigenin and luteolin were isolated. A detailed pharmacological analyses followed by chronic toxicity study were performed to predict the reversible nature of the developed phytopharmaceutical. The histological and biochemical estimations detected the reversible contraceptive potential after withdrawal. The observations suggested that the developed phyto-pharmaceutical has potential antifertility activity with safety aspects.

  14. Chloroplast ultrastructure in leaves of Cucumis sativus chlorophyll mutant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Palczewska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The developing and young leaves of Cucumis sativus chlorophyll mutants are yellow, when mature they become green and do not differ in their colour from those of control plants. The mesophyll of yellow leaves contains a diversiform plastid population with a varying degree of defectiveness, which is mainly manifested in the reduction or disorganization of the typical thylakoid system. DNA areas, ribosome-like particles and aggregates of electron-dense material are preserved in the stroma of mutated plastids. Starch grains are deficient. Apart from mutated plastids, chloroplasts with a normal structure, as in control plants, were also observed.The leaf greening process is accompanied by a reconstruction and rearrangement of the inner chloroplast lamellar system and an ability to accumulate starch. However, in the mutant chloroplasts as compared with control-plant ones, an irregular arrangement of grana and reduced number of inter-grana thylakoids can be seen. An osmiophilic substance stored in the stroma of mutated plastids and the vesicles formed from an internal plastid membrane take part in restoration of the membrane system.

  15. Distinguishing Bovine Fecal Matter on Spinach Leaves Using Field Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colm D. Everard

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Detection of fecal contaminants on leafy greens in the field will allow for decreasing cross-contamination of produce during and post-harvest. Fecal contamination of leafy greens has been associated with Escherichia coli (E. coli O157:H7 outbreaks and foodborne illnesses. In this study, passive field spectroscopy measuring reflectance and fluorescence created by the sun’s light, coupled with numerical normalization techniques, are used to distinguish fecal contaminants on spinach leaves from soil on spinach leaves and uncontaminated spinach leaf portions. A Savitzky-Golay first derivative transformation and a waveband ratio of 710:688 nm as normalizing techniques were assessed. A soft independent modelling of class analogies (SIMCA procedure with a 216 sample training set successfully predicted all 54 test set sample types using the spectral region of 600–800 nm. The ratio of 710:688 nm along with set thresholds separated all 270 samples by type. Application of these techniques in-field to avoid harvesting of fecal contaminated leafy greens may lead to a reduction in foodborne illnesses as well as reduced produce waste.

  16. Liquid chromatographic determination of sennosides in Cassia angustifolia leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Alpuna; Pandey, Richa; Verma, Ram K; Gupta, Madan M

    2006-01-01

    A simple liquid chromatographic method was developed for the determination of sennosides B and A in leaves of Cassia angustifolia. These compounds were extracted from leaves with a mixture of methanol-water (70 + 30, v/v) after defatting with hexane. Analyte separation and quantitation were achieved by gradient reversed-phase liquid chromatography and UV absorbance at 270 nm using a photodiode array detector. The method involves the use of an RP-18 Lichrocart reversed-phase column (5 microm, 125 x 4.0 mm id) and a binary gradient mobile-phase profile. The various other aspects of analysis, namely, peak purity, similarity, recovery, repeatability, and robustness, were validated. Average recoveries of 98.5 and 98.6%, with a coefficient of variation of 0.8 and 0.3%, were obtained by spiking sample solution with 3 different concentration solutions of standards (60, 100, and 200 microg/mL). Detection limits were 10 microg/mL for sennoside B and 35 microg/mL for sennoside A, present in the sample solution. The quantitation limits were 28 and 100 microg/mL. The analytical method was applied to a large number of senna leaf samples. The new method provides a reliable tool for rapid screening of C. angustifolia samples in large numbers, which is needed in breeding/genetic engineering and genetic mapping experiments.

  17. Antimicrobial activities of essential oil from Artemisiae argyi leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei; ZHANG Xue-ke; WU Nan; FU Yu-jie; ZU Yuan-gang

    2006-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the antimicrobial activities of essential oil from Artemisiae argyi leaves. The sample of the essential oil was analyzed by GC-MS. From 18 compounds representing the oils, Eucalyptole (18.42%), Spathulenol (14.32), 4-Methyl-1-(1-methylethyl)-3-cyclohexen-1-ol (3.10%), 3-Carene (2.64%) appeared as the main components. The screening of antimicro bial activity of the essential oil was evaluated using agar diffusion and broth microdilution methods. Gram-positive bacterial were more sensitive than gram-negative bacterial of the 8 microorganisms, and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 showed the lowest MIC (0.3125%) and MBC (0.625%). In the disc diffusion assay, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 49134 and Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 showed obvious inhibitory activity. Survival curve showed that, 2MIC ofArtemisiae argyi essential oil had a lethal effect on Candida albicans within the first 1 h. Results presented here suggest that the essential oil of Artemisiae argyi leaves possesses antimicrobial properties, and provides scientific foundations for exploition ofArtemisiae argyi.

  18. Metabolic profiling of antioxidants constituents in Artemisia selengensis leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Tu, Zong-cai; Wang, Hui; Fu, Zhi-feng; Wen, Qing-hui; Fan, Dan

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant potential of Artemisia selengensis Turcz (AST) leaves, a byproduct when processing AST stalk, and identify the antioxidant constituents by using HPLC-QTOF-MS(2). The total phenolics content (TPC), total flavonoids content (TFC) and antioxidant abilities of fractions resulted from the successively partition of chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol were compared. Ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) exhibited the highest TFC (65.44 mg QuE/g fraction), n-butanol fraction (nBuF) showed the highest TPC (384.78 mg GAE/g fraction) and the best DPPH scavenging ability, ABTS(+) scavenging ability and reducing power. Totally, 57 compounds were identified or tentatively identified in nBuF and EAF, 40 of them were reported in AST for the first time. The major constituents in EAF were flavonoids, and the major constituents in nBuF were phenolic acids and organic acids. Thus, AST leaves might be a potential low-cost resource of natural antioxidants.

  19. Investigation of in Vitro Anthelmintic activity of Cinnamomum Camphor Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAQUE RABIUL

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aqueous extract of Cinnamomum camphorLeaves was investigated for anthelmintic activity using earthworms(Pheretima posthuma, tapeworms (Raillietina spiralis and roundworms (Ascaridia galli. Various concentrations (10-70 mg/ml of plant extract were tested in the bioassay. Piperazine citrate (10 mg/ml was used as reference standard drug whereas distilled water as control.Determination of paralysis time and death time of the worms were recorded. Extract exhibited significant anthelmintic activity at the concentration of 50 mg/ml. The result shows that aqueous extract possesses vermicidal activity and found to be effective as an anthelmintic. Therefore, the anthelmintic activity of the aqueous extract of Cinnamomum camphorLeaves has been reported. Introduction Infections with helminth are among the most widespread infections in humans and other domestic animals affecting a large number of world population. The majority of these infections due to worms are generally restricted mainly to the tropical regions and the occurance is accelerated due to unhygienic lifestyle and poverty also resulting in the development of symtomps like anaemia, eosinophilia and pneumonia1. Parasitic diseases cause ruthless morbidity affecting principally in population.

  20. Antileishmanial Phenylpropanoids from the Leaves of Hyptis pectinata (L. Poit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosangela A. Falcao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyptis pectinata, popularly known in Brazil as “sambacaitá” or “canudinho,” is an aromatic shrub largely grown in the northeast of Brazil. The leaves and bark are used in an infusion for the treatment of throat and skin inflammations, bacterial infections, pain, and cancer. Analogues of rosmarinic acid and flavonoids were obtained from the leaves of Hyptis pectinata and consisted of two new compounds, sambacaitaric acid (1 and 3-O-methyl-sambacaitaric acid (2, and nine known compounds, rosmarinic acid (3, 3-O-methyl-rosmarinic acid (4, ethyl caffeate (5, nepetoidin A (6, nepetoidin B (7, cirsiliol (8, circimaritin (9, 7-O-methylluteolin (10, and genkwanin (11. The structures of these compounds were determined by spectroscopic methods. Compounds 1–5, and 7 were evaluated in vitro against the promastigote form of L. braziliensis, and the ethanol extract. The hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol-water fractions were also evaluated. The EtOH extract, the hexane extract, EtOAc, MeOH:H2O fractions; and compounds 1, 2 and 4 exhibited antileishmanial activity, and compound 1 was as potent as pentamidine. In contrast, compounds 3, 5, and 7 did not present activity against the promastigote form of L. braziliensis below 100 µM. To our knowledge, compounds 1 and 2 are being described for the first time.