WorldWideScience

Sample records for chalones

  1. Chalon/Saint-Marcel manufacturing plant; L'usine de Chalon/Saint-Marcel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    AREVA is the world leader in the design and construction of nuclear power plants, the manufacture of heavy components, and the supply of nuclear fuel and nuclear services such as maintenance and inspection. The Equipment Division provides the widest range of nuclear components and equipment, manufactured at its two facilities in Jeumont, northern France, and St. Marcel, in Burgundy. The St. Marcel plant, set on 35 ha (87.5 acres) near Chalon-sur-Saone, was established in 1973 in a region with a long history of specialized metalworking and mechanical activities to meet the demand for non-military nuclear requirements in France. The site offers two advantages: - excellent facilities for loading and transporting heavy components on the Saone river, - it's proximity to other group sites. Since its completion in 1975, the Chalon/St. Marcel facility has manufactured all the heavy components for French pressurized water reactors (PWRs) ranging from 900 MW to 1500 MW. It has also completed a significant number of export contracts that have made AREVA world leader. Nearly 600 heavy components (reactor vessels, steam generators, pressurizers and closure heads) have been manufactured or are currently being manufactured since the plant opened in 1975. The plant is at the heart of the manufacturing chain for nuclear steam supply systems (NSSS) supplied by AREVA. On the basis of engineering data, the plant manufactures reactor vessels, reactor vessel internals, steam generators, pressurizers and related components such as accumulators, auxiliary heat exchangers and supporting elements. Vessel upper internals Other similar components such as reactor vessels for boiling water reactors (BWR) or high temperature reactors (HTR) and other types of steam generators can also be manufactured in the plant (for example Once Through Steam Generators - OTSG). The basic activities performed at Chalon/St. Marcel are metalworking and heavy machining. These activities are carried out in

  2. A flow cytometric in vivo chalone assay using retransplanted old murine JB-1 ascites tumour cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barfod, N M

    1981-07-01

    A flow cytometric in vivo chalone assay is described. Transplantation of old JB-1 ascites tumour cells to new hosts induced an influx of tumour cells, with G1 DNA content, to the S phase. This induction could be reversibly and specifically blocked by injections of an ultrafiltrate of old JB-1 ascites fluid. The method described is superior to a previously published in vivo chalone assay using regenerating ascites tumours. Owing to a reduced variability in time of onset of DNA synthesis, a smaller scatter of observations is achieved and thus the number of mice per group may be reduced using the new method. In contrast to the older technique, the present one does not necessitate killing of mice during the observation period.

  3. The terms 'autacoid', 'hormone' and 'chalone' and how they have shifted with time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keppel Hesselink, J M

    2015-12-01

    The increase of knowledge in a particular field (endocrinology) can be understood if one follows how certain key concepts were constructed and transformed over time. To explore such construction and transformation (shifts in meaning), we studied the use of the concepts 'autacoid' and 'chalone' in a period of one century (1916-2016), since the introduction of these concepts by the British professor of physiology Sir Sharpey-Schäfer. We could identify that the use of 'autacoid' shifted from a very broad category encompassing both stimulating and inhibiting hormones, in the period 1916-1960, to a much more specific use of the term for locally produced bioactive molecules, from the 1960s onwards. Histamine was the first compound seen as an 'autacoid', followed by prostaglandins, ATP, ADP and bradykinin, and from 1993 onwards, compounds such as 'palmitoylethanolamide' were also classified as 'autacoids'. For 'chalone', a comparable shift was noticed around the 1960s, when the concept suddenly changed from the category of inhibiting hormones into a substance that is produced within a tissue, inhibiting mitosis of the cells of that tissue. For both concept shifts, we could not find any argument. Around 1980, authors started to relate autacoids to various promising indications in the field of inflammation and immune modulation. The Nobel laureate Rita Levi-Montalcini gave an extra dimension to the concept autacoid in 1993, and introduced a new class of compounds modulating mast cells, the ALIAmides (from Autacoid Local Inflammation Antagonist), of which palmitoylethanolamide was the prototype. Our exploration demonstrates that biomedical concepts can be constructed and defined differently as time goes by, while concept transformations seem to emerge without arguments.

  4. Lack of evidence of chalone activity in used medium and extract of JB-1 tumor cells in vitro. A flow cytometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeser, F K; Barfod, N M; Bichel, P

    1978-02-14

    In cell-free mouse ascites fluid from the JB-1 ascites tumor in the plateau phase of growth low-molecular chalone substances have been found which reversibly and specifically arrest JB-1 cells in the G1 and G2 phase of the cell cycle. The aim of this study was to investigate whether chalones were involved in the regulation of in vitro growth of JB-1 tumor cells. Used medium and cell extract from confluent, stationary JB-1 cell cultures were investigated for proliferation-inhibitory properties. JB-1 cells from stationary cultures were explanted in test cultures and the traverse of cells through the S phase was investigated by means of flow cytometry (FCM). Inhibition--expressed as a delay of the traverse of cells through the S phase--was not observed when a surplus of used medium, concentrated and fractionated used medium or concentrated and fractionated cell extract from JB-1 cells in vitro was added to test cultures. On the contrary, used medium and concentrated and fractionated used medium stimulated growth. Thus, no involvement of chalones in the growth regulation of JB-1 tumor cells in vitro was detected.

  5. 决明查尔酮合成酶基因的克隆及序列分析%Molecular Cloning and Analysis of a Chalone Synthase Gene of Cassia tora

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖海; 周嘉裕

    2008-01-01

    以决明(Cassia tora)为实验材料,利用RT-PCR和RACE技术,从决明嫩叶中克隆出查尔酮合成酶(Chal-one synthase,CHS)基因,其cDNA全长为1 459 bp,编码一个由390个氨基酸残基组成的多肽.氨基酸序列分析表明,决明CHS基因的氨基酸序列中含有44.61%的中性疏水氨基酸,29.74%的中性亲水氨基酸,12.56%的酸性氨基酸和13.O8%的碱性氨基酸.决明CHS基因的氨基酸序列中具有CHS家族酶系的氨基酸保守残基,包括结合底物CoA的结合残基及催化聚酮合成的催化残基,表明其可能参与聚酮化合物的合成.决明与其它植物CHS的氨基酸序列的进化分析表明,其与同为豆科决明属的翼叶决明(Cassia alata)的同源性较近,并且CHS家族可以分为CHS亚家族与非CHS亚家族.将得到的序列提交GenBank,登录号为EU430077.%Using Cassia tara as material,a cDNA encoding chalone synthase (CHS) was cloned from tender leaves of Cassia tara by RT-PCR and RACE. The full-length cDNA of CHS from Cassia tara had 1 459 bp with an open reading frame encoding 390 amino acids of protein. There were 44.61% of neutral hydrophobic residues,29.74% of neutral hydrophilic residues,12.56% of acid residues,and 13.08% of alkaline residues in the CHS amino acid sequence. It was suggested that the CHS from Cassia tara might be involved with the biosynthesis of polyketide since it maintained the same functional regions involved with CoA binding site and catalytic residues conserved in the CHS-superfamily enzymes. Furthermore, phylogenic analysis on the amino acid sequence of CHS from Cassia tara with other plants showed that Cassia tara was closely related to Cassia alata,and CHS-superfamily enzymes. They could be grouped into CHS-subfamily and non CHS-subfamily. The accession number of CHS from Cassia tara in GenBank was EU430077.

  6. Inhibition of Granulopoiesis in Diffusion Chambers by a Granulocyte Chalone

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-07-01

    to reduce the active growth fraction of the primitive cells from which white cells are derived (progenitor cells) and thereby diminishing the...percent trypticase soy broth and 5 percent horse serum and was supplemented with 30 /ig/ml of L-asparagine and antibiotics. The cells were

  7. Employment of synchronized cells and flow microfluorometry in investigations on the JB-1 ascites tumour chalones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichel, P; Barfod, N M; Jakobsen, A

    1975-11-01

    In most experimental ascites tumours the growth rate decreases with increasing age and cell number. This decrease is caused by a prolongation of the cell cycle and an increasing accumulation of non-cycling cells in resting (or quiescent) G1 and G2 compartments. In cell-free ascitic fluid from the JB-1 ascites tumour in the plateau phase of growth lowmolecular-weight substances have been found which reversibly and specifically arrest JB-1 cells in G1 and G2. The present paper describes an in-vitro model for testing the effect of the humoral growth inhibitors contained in the ascitic fluid. The test system is based on synchronized JB-1 cells analysed by flow-through cytofluorometry. Addition to the synchronous cells of a ultrafiltrate (less than 50000 Daltons) of the JB-1 ascitic fluid was found to induce a complete, but temporary arrest of the cells at the G1-S border.

  8. Specific chalone inhibition of the regeneration of the JB-1 ascites tumour studied by flow microfluorometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichel, P; Barfod, N M

    1977-03-01

    The variation in the DNA distribution in the JB-1 and the Lla2 ascites tumour was investigated by means of flow microfluorometry (FMF) in the plateau stage and during the initiation of the regenerative growth induced by percutaneous aspiration. The study showed that a considerable influx of cells with G1DNA content into the S phase occurred in both tumours about 10 hr after aspiration. In the JB-1 tumour, these initial regenerative changes could be reversibly blocked by injections of cell-free plateau JB-1 ascitic fluid or an ultrafiltrate of this ascites. In contrast to these observations no delay in the regenerative changes was observed in the L1a2 tumour after treatment with JB-1 ascites or the ultrafiltrate. The study supports the assumption of a specific growth regulation of the JB-1 ascites tumour and emphasizes the suitability of FMF analyses in cell-kinetic studies in which short-term fluctuations take place in the distribution of cells with different DNA content.

  9. Newton and the counterfeiter the unknown detective career of the world's greatest scientist

    CERN Document Server

    Levenson, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    In 1695, Isaac Newton-already renowned as the greatest mind of his age-made a surprising career change. He left quiet Cambridge, where he had lived for thirty years and made his earth-shattering discoveries, and moved to London to take up the post of Warden of His Majesty's Mint. Newton was preceded to the city by a genius of another kind, the budding criminal William Chaloner. Thanks to his preternatural skills as a counterfeiter, Chaloner was rapidly rising in London's highly competitive underworld, at a time when organized law enforcement was all but unknown and money in the modern sense wa

  10. A New Phenolic Compound I solated from SemenCelo si a cristata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiyan Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A new phenolic compound, named 3-geranyl-2,5-dihydroxy-benzaldehyde (1, together with seven known chalone derivatives (2–8 has been isolated from the seeds of Celosia cristata L. Their chemical structures have been elucidated by spectroscopic analysis. All these compounds (1–8 were isolated from C. cristata for the first time.

  11. Plant-derived health: the effects of turmeric and curcuminoids Efectos saludables de la cúrcuma y de los curcuminoides

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Plants contain numerous polyphenols, which have been shown to reduce inflammation and hereby to increase resistance to disease. Examples of such polyphenols are isothiocyanates in cabbage and broccoli, epigallocatechin in green tee, capsaicin in chili peppers, chalones, rutin and naringenin in apples, resveratrol in red wine and fresh peanuts and curcumin/curcuminoids in turmeric. Most diseases are maintained by a sustained discreet but obvious increased systemic inflammation. Many studies su...

  12. Flood Risk Vulnerability Assessment: What are the Main Factors? Hierarchization of The Main Factors at a Regional Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouannic, G.; Kolli, Z.; Legendre, T.; Marchetti, M.; Gastaud, P.; Gargani, J.; Lermet, R.; Augeard, C.; Felts, D.; Arki, F.

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies have shown that the national flood risk exposure is high in France, with one fourth of the total population and a third of jobs located in risk areas. In this context, a global vulnerability assessment methodology is currently being developed in France to bring adequate tools for local territories to manage flood risk. This study addresses the question of the quantification, the qualification and the choice of these vulnerability indicators for a given territory. This work aims to propose a classification of nearly 40 of these indicators in terms of their relative impacts on the risk level estimated on two territories: Chalon-sur-Saône (Saône river) Garonne estuary (Garonne and Dordogne rivers, and Atlantic ocean) Through these cases study, 3 different spatial scales have been compared: the Prés-Saint-Jean district inside Chalon (0.6 km²), the city of Ambès (28.8 km²) and Chalon with its suburbs (72.2 km²). A principal component analysis (PCA) was applied and indicated a threshold in terms of urban impacts between the different flood scenarios. On Chalon, the PCA discriminates 2 groups of flood and highlighted a threshold between T20 and T50. A partial least-square regression (PLS) was computed to make predictions on vulnerability indicators values modelled on new flood scenarios. Their results were is useful to identify the most relevant vulnerability indicators as a function of their flood exposure. These statistical analysis aims to highlight the relationship between a variable of exposure level (hydrologic impact: water levels and flow velocity) with spatialized vulnerability indicators in a 100 m grid (e.g., population, job, etc.). Finally, to get a hierarchy of variables depending on their impact on the risk level, an ANOVA was computed. The selection of variables was performed with a stepwise selection to assess contributions of each dependant variable on the F-statistic as they are added to or removed from the model.

  13. –XII– Aviñón (8-18 de julio de 1844

    OpenAIRE

    Tristán, Flora

    2015-01-01

    El 11 de julio. Hace cuatro días que estoy acá. No he tenido tiempo todavía de escribir ni una sola palabra. Aquí como en todas partes encuentro lo contrario de casi todo lo que me habían dicho (los cargadores del puerto son bastante honestos y cobran menos caro que los de Chalon y Mâcon). Si llegamos de Lyon, el aspecto de esta ciudad es espantoso, sin movimiento comercial ni tráfico en las calles, pero en lugar de ello [vemos] gallinas, patos, perros y otros animales domésticos. Todo el mun...

  14. Areva subcontracts in Japan the noble part of the Finnish EPR; Areva sous-traite au Japon la partie noble de l'EPR finlandais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jemain, A

    2004-02-01

    Areva, the French energy group, will subcontract the manufacturing of the reactor vessel and cover of the European Pressurized Reactor (EPR) which will be built in Finland. These components will be manufactured in Japan by Mitsubishi and not by Areva's Chalon/Saint-Marcel factory. The reason is the overburden of work and the lack of room and of machining equipment in the French factory. Also, the turbine and alternator are not built by Alstom, but by Siemens (Germany). (J.S.)

  15. [An educational tool for diabetic children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochon, Stéphanie; Monnot, Alexandra; Fayet, Corinne

    2011-04-01

    The 2010 Abbott Diabetes Care--Société Francophone du Diabète (SFD) Paramédical prize was awarded to the nursing team of the paediatric unit of the William Morey hospital in Chalon-sur-Saône (71) for the creation of a new educational tool. The interactive game aims to encourage children with type 1 diabetes to do sport by providing them with the education and knowledge they need to manage their diabetes before, during and after the physical activity.

  16. Les peintures romanes de la cathédrale d’Auxerre. Une relecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Franzé

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Selon les Gestes des évêques d’Auxerre, la cathédrale détruite lors de l’incendie de 1023 est reconstruite assez rapidement du temps de l’évêque Hugues de Chalon (1001-1039/1041  : en 1035, lorsqu’un second incendie se propage dans la ville, l’édifice nouvellement construit est épargné . Pour Christian Sapin, les « cryptes voûtées, en pierres de taille » décrites dans le texte correspondent bien à l’élévation actuelle . Une datation dans le second quart du xie siècle est confirmée par rappro...

  17. Isolation and partial identification of eight endogenous G1 inhibitors of JB-1 ascites tumor cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barfod, N M

    1982-06-01

    Eight endogenous G1 inhibitors of the proliferation of JB-1 ascites tumor cells have been isolated and characterized. The activity of the inhibitors has been analyzed on synchronized JB-1 (murine plasmacytoma) and L1A2 (murine sarcoma) cells in vitro using flow cytometry. The purified inhibitors have been tested for in vivo activity on partially synchronized JB-1 and L1A2 ascites tumors in situ. Four of the inhibitors exhibited a high degree of cell specificity (chalone-like inhibitors) and were chemically related, whereas the other four showed no cell specificity. In most extractions, the amount of cell-specific activity is more than 50% of the total G1-inhibitory activity. Most of the inhibitors are low-molecular-weight peptides and glycopeptides.

  18. Renal tubular injury biomarkers in the diagnosis of pediatric diseases combined clinical analysis%肾小管损伤标志物在儿科疾病联合诊断中的临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈召金; 黄敏辉; 姚慧梅

    2013-01-01

    Objective To discuss kidney tubules injury marker's combination application value on paediatric diseases ,and to analysis its specificity .Methods 30 cases of kidney tubules injury patients as group Ⅰ ,30 cases of nephrotic syndrome patients as group Ⅱ ,30 cases of anaphylactoid purpura patients as group Ⅲ and 30 cases of healthy people as groupⅣ (control group) were collected .The patients'β2-microglobulin ,retinol conjugated protein , N-acetyl-beta-D nucleosidase amino acids and urinary bladder chalone C level were detected by enzyme linked immu-nosorbent assay ,direct chromogenic method and rate nephelometry method .Each groups'changes were compared and the positive rates of four indicators were statistically analyzed .Results There were significant differences among β2-microglobulin ,retinol conjugated protein ,N-acetyl-beta-D nucleosidase amino acids and urinary bladder chalone C lev-el of these four groups (P0 .05) .The positive rate of four indexes'combina-tion application of group Ⅰ was 100% .Conclusion The change ofβ2-microglobulin ,retinol conjugated protein ,N-ac-etyl-beta-D nucleosidase amino acids and urinary bladder chalone C level can reflect kidney tubules'injury situations , and kidney tubules injury marker has positive meaning on the diagnosis of children kidney disease in clinical .%目的:探讨肾小管损伤标志物在儿科疾病中联合应用的价值,并进行特异性分析。方法随机选取已确诊的30例肾小管损伤患者(Ⅰ组)、30例肾病综合征患者(Ⅱ组)、30例过敏性紫癜患者(Ⅲ组),和30例健康者(Ⅳ组),分别采用酶联免疫吸附法、直接显色法、速率散射比浊法测定尿中β2微球蛋白(β2-MG)、视黄醇结合蛋白(RBP)、N-乙酰-β-D氨基酸核苷酶(NAG)和尿胱抑素C(Cys C)的水平,并比较各组变化,进行统计学分析;根据4个指标联合检测肾小管损伤,比较各组的阳性率。结果Ⅰ组

  19. Effects of humoral factors on amplification of nonrecognizable erythrocytic and granulocytic precursors. [Rats, radiation effects on blood cell production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cronkite, E P; Carsten, A L; Cohen, R; Miller, M E; Moccia, G

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of these studies was to evaluate the effects of humoral factors on amplification of nonrecognizable erythrocytic and granulocytic precursors using the in vivo plasma clot diffusion chamber and the in vitro plasma clot culture methods. Plasma erythropoietin levels changes in the reticulocyte concentration and hematocrits of irradiated and non-irradiated Long-Evans rats exposed to hypoxia were also determined. While erythropoietin plasma levels appeared to effect BFU-E and CFU-E growth, results suggest erythropoietin may not be the sole regulator of red cell production and that inhibitors or chalone-like mechanisms may be involved. Measurements made on granulocyte precursors treated with CSF containing L-cell conditioned medium revealed granulocytic colonies and burst-like formations, similar to those seen for erythrocytic growth. There is strong evidence suggesting that CSF is a regulator of granulopoiesis; however, it is not the sole regulator and it appears that inhibitors may play an in vivo role. Growth of colonies with cell numbers not a power of 2 implies either asymmetric nitosis due to loss of genetic information required for continuing division, or differences in concentration of, or ability to recognize inhibitory factors. These possibilities are examined on the basis of results using in vivo and in vitro culture techniques.

  20. Plant-derived health: the effects of turmeric and curcuminoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengmark, S; Mesa, M D; Gil, A

    2009-01-01

    Plants contain numerous polyphenols, which have been shown to reduce inflammation and hereby to increase resistance to disease. Examples of such polyphenols are isothiocyanates in cabbage and broccoli, epigallocatechin in green tee, capsaicin in chili peppers, chalones, rutin and naringenin in apples, resveratrol in red wine and fresh peanuts and curcumin/curcuminoids in turmeric. Most diseases are maintained by a sustained discreet but obvious increased systemic inflammation. Many studies suggest that the effect of treatment can be improved by a combination of restriction in intake of proinflammatory molecules such as advanced glycation end products (AGE), advanced lipoperoxidation end products (ALE), and rich supply of antiinflammatory molecules such as plant polyphenols. To the polyphenols with a bulk of experimental documentation belong the curcuminoid family and especially its main ingredient, curcumin. This review summarizes the present knowledge about these turmericderived ingredients, which have proven to be strong antioxidants and inhibitors of cyclooxigenase-2 (COX-2), lipoxygenase (LOX) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) but also AGE. A plethora of clinical effects are reported in various experimental diseases, but clinical studies in humans are few. It is suggested that supply of polyphenols and particularly curcuminoids might be value as complement to pharmaceutical treatment, but also prebiotic treatment, in conditions proven to be rather therapy-resistant such as Crohn's, long-stayed patients in intensive care units, but also in conditions such as cancer, liver cirrhosis, chronic renal disease, chronic obstructive lung disease, diabetes and Alzheimer's disease.

  1. Role of polyamines in gastrointestinal mucosal growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Xiang Bian; Jian Hua Wang

    2000-01-01

    The polyamines [putrescine (PU), spermidine (SPD) and spermine (SPM)] are ubiquitous polycationiccompounds found in all prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, are essentially involved in a variety of regulatorysteps during normal, adaptive, and malignant cell proliferation. Nearly four decades investigation about thepolyamines contributed to the synthesis and decomposition of polyamines and the active and passive enzymeswhich regulate them at different levels. This review focuses on the sources and homeostasis of intracellularpolyamines, the transport and role of the polyamines in the growth of the gastrointestinal mucosa and theirpossible mechanism. We tried to point out the gaps remaining in the story and give a working hypothesis forthe role of polyamines in gastrointestinal mucosal growth. We propose in the hypothesis that polyamine is a“key”to unlock the “door”of cell proliferation. How many “doors” between the “polyamine key” and the“real start” of proliferation? The polyamine might be the only key for cell proliferation. Another possibilityis that polyamine is the first key and its “unlocking-effect” resulting in getting another key for the next doorin the proliferation chain, for example, proto-oncogenes. To decide whether polyamine is an intermediatestep or just only one step of cell proliferation, the possible way is to keep polyamine to be a stimulus and finda way to deprive the function of proto-oncogene protein (or other possible gene expression product) to checkthe effect on the cell proliferation. Another important question is how polyamine can trigger the synthesis ofDNA in virtual. Arabinose operon model may give us some ideas to investigate about that. And furthermore,it is necessary to pay attention to the relationship between polyamine and other cell proliferation regulator,like growth factor, chalone, cAMP, cGMP, etc. Further studies are needed to investigate the mechanism ofpolyamine acted on the gastrointestinal mucosal

  2. Delayed postural control during self-generated perturbations in the frail older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubicki A

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Alexandre Kubicki1–3, François Bonnetblanc1,2, Geoffroy Petrement3, Yves Ballay1,2, France Mourey2,4¹UFR STAPS, Université de Bourgogne, Dijon, France; ²Motricité et Plasticité, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM, Dijon, France; ³SARL Fovea Interactive, Campus Industriel – Espace Entreprises, Chalon sur Saône, France; 4UFR Médecine, Université de Bourgogne, Dijon, FrancePurpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the coordination between posture and movement in pathological aging (frailty in comparison with normal aging, with the hypothesis that in pathological aging, postural control evolves towards a more reactive mode for which the perturbation induced by the movement is not anticipated and leads to delayed and late postural adjustments.Methods: Elderly subjects performed rapid focal arm-raising movements towards a target, from an upright standing position in two stimuli conditions: simple reaction time and choice reaction time (CRT. Hand and center of pressure (CoP kinematics were compared between a control group and a frail group of the same age.Results: In frail individuals, the entire movement was impaired and slowed down. In addition, postural adjustments that classically precede and accompany the focal arm movement were delayed and reduced, especially in the CRT condition in which the motor prediction is more limited. Finally, a correlation between the time to CoP maximal velocity and the timed up-and-go score was observed.Conclusion: In these patients, it was concluded that the control of the CoP displacement evolved from a proactive mode in which the perturbation associated with the arm movement is anticipated toward a more reactive mode in which the perturbation is compensated by late and delayed adjustments.Keywords: frailty, anticipatory postural adjustments, backward disequilibrium

  3. Records of natural fire and climate history during the last three glacial-interglacial cycles around the South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO; Yunli

    2001-01-01

    assessing Quaternary and Tertiary environments:Achievements and limits, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 2000, 164: 397-407.[13]Timothy, P. J., William, G. C., Fossil charcoal, its recognition and palaeoatmospheric significance, Palaeogeography, Pa laeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 1991, 97: 39-50.[14]Harris, T. M., Forest fire in the Mesozoic, Journal of Ecology, 1958, 46: 447-453.[15]Harris, T. M., Burnt ferns from the English Wealden, Proc. Geol. Assoc. London, 1981, 92: 47-58.[16]Cope, M. J., Chaloner, W. G., Wildfire, an interaction of biological and physical processes, in Geological Factors and the Evolution of Plants (ed. Tiffney, B. H.), Hartford: Yale University Press, 1985, 225-277.[17]Cope, M. J., Chaloner, W. G., Fossil charcoal as evidence of past atmospheric composition, Nature, 1980, 283: 647-649.[18]Chaloner, W. G., Fossil charcoal as an indicator of palaeoatmosphere oxygen level, J. Geol. Soc. Lodon, 1989, 146: 171-174.[19]Clark, J. S., Particle motion and the theory of charcoal analysis: Source area, transport, deposition, and sampling, Quater nary Research, 1988, 30: 81-91.[20]MacDonal, G. M., Larsen, C. P. S., Moser, K. A., The reconstruction of boreal forest fire history from lake sediments: Acomparison of charcoal, pollen sedimentological, and geochemical indices, Quaternary Science Reviews, 1991, 10: 53-71.[21]Swain, A. M., A history of fire and vegetation in northeast Minnesota as recorded in lake sediments, Quaternary Research,973, 3: 383-395.[22]Patternson, W. A., Edwards, K. J., Maguire, D. J., Microscopic charcoal as a fossil indicaror of fire, Quaternary Science Reviews, 1987, 6: 3-23.[23]Sander, P. M., Gee, C. T., Fossil charcoal: Techniques and applications, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 1990, 63:269-279.[24]Patterson, III, W. A., Edwards, K. J., Maquire, D. J., Microscopic charcoal as a fossil indicator of fire, Quaternary Science Review, 1987, 6: 3-23.[25

  4. Plant-derived health: the effects of turmeric and curcuminoids Efectos saludables de la cúrcuma y de los curcuminoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bengmark

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Plants contain numerous polyphenols, which have been shown to reduce inflammation and hereby to increase resistance to disease. Examples of such polyphenols are isothiocyanates in cabbage and broccoli, epigallocatechin in green tee, capsaicin in chili peppers, chalones, rutin and naringenin in apples, resveratrol in red wine and fresh peanuts and curcumin/curcuminoids in turmeric. Most diseases are maintained by a sustained discreet but obvious increased systemic inflammation. Many studies suggest that the effect of treatment can be improved by a combination of restriction in intake of proinflammatory molecules such as advanced glycation end products (AGE, advanced lipoperoxidation end products (ALE, and rich supply of antiinflammatory molecules such as plant polyphenols. To the polyphenols with a bulk of experimental documentation belong the curcuminoid family and especially its main ingredient, curcumin. This review summarizes the present knowledge about these turmericderived ingredients, which have proven to be strong antioxidants and inhibitors of cyclooxigenase-2 (COX-2, lipoxygenase (LOX and nuclear factor κ B (NF-κB but also AGE. A plethora of clinical effects are reported in various experimental diseases, but clinical studies in humans are few. It is suggested that supply of polyphenols and particularly curcuminoids might be value as complement to pharmaceutical treatment, but also prebiotic treatment, in conditions proven to be rather therapy-resistant such as Crohn's, long-stayed patients in intensive care units, but also in conditions such as cancer, liver cirrhosis, chronic renal disease, chronic obstructive lung disease, diabetes and Alzheimer's disease.Las plantas contienen un gran número de sustancias de naturaleza polifenólica con capacidad para reducir los procesos inflamatorios y, por lo tanto, incrementar la resistencia a determinadas enfermedades. Ejemplos de algunos polifenoles son los isotiocianatos presentes en la col

  5. Co-suppression in transgenic Petunia hybrida expressing chalcone synthase A (chsA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Yan; (

    2001-01-01

    [1]Napoli, C., Lemieux, C., Jorgensen, R., Introduction of a chimeric chalone synthase gene into petunia results in reversible cosuppession of homologous genes in trans, The Plant Cell, 1990, 2: 279-289.[2]Van der Krol, A.R., Mur, L.A., Beld, M. M. et al., Flavonnoid genes in petunia: addition of a limited number of gene copies may lead to a suppression of gene expression, The Plant Cell, 1990, 2: 291-299.[3]Manika, P.B., Bhadra, U., Birchler, J., Cosuppression in Drosophila: gene silencing of Alcohol dehydrogenase by White-Adh transgene is Polycomb dependent, Cell, 1997, 90: 479-498.[4]de Carvalho Niebel, F., Frendo, P., Van Montagu, M. et al., Post-transcriptional cosuppression of ?-1,3-glucanase transgene expression in homozygous plants, EMBO J., 1992, 11: 2595-2602.[5]Van Blokland, R., Van der Geest, N., Mol, J. N. M. et al., Transgene-mediated suppression of chalcone synthase expression in Petunia hybrida results from an increase in RNA turnover, The Plant Cell, 1994, 6: 861-877.[6]Stam, M., Mol, J. N. M., Kooter, J. M., The silence of genes in transgenic plants, Annals of Bot., 1997, 79: 3-12.[7]Vaucheret, H., Beclin, C., Elmayan, T. et al., Transgene-induced gene silencing in plants, Plant J., 1998, 16(6): 651-659.[8]Shao, L., Li, Y., Yang, M. Z. et al., Transformation of Petunia hybrida with chalcone synthase A (chsA) resulting flower colour alteration and male sterility, Acta Botanica Sinica (in Chinese), 1996, 38(7): 517-524.[9]Koes, R. E., Spelt, C. E., Mol, J. N. M., The chalcone synthase multigene family of Petunia hybrida (V30): differential, light-regulated expression during flower development and UV light induction, Plant Mol. Biol., 1989, 12: 213-225.[10]Drews, G. N., Beals, T. P., Bul, A. Q. et al., Regional and cell-specific expression patterns during petal development, The Plant Cell, 1992, 4: 1383-1404.[11]Martin, C., Gerats, T., Control of pigment biosynthesis genes during petal development, The