WorldWideScience

Sample records for challenges analyzes system

  1. Model Based Reasoning by Introductory Students When Analyzing Earth Systems and Societal Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, L. N.; Herbert, B. E.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding how students use their conceptual models to reason about societal challenges involving societal issues such as natural hazard risk assessment, environmental policy and management, and energy resources can improve instructional activity design that directly impacts student motivation and literacy. To address this question, we created four laboratory exercises for an introductory physical geology course at Texas A&M University that engages students in authentic scientific practices by using real world problems and issues that affect societies based on the theory of situated cognition. Our case-study design allows us to investigate the various ways that students utilize model based reasoning to identify and propose solutions to societally relevant issues. In each of the four interventions, approximately 60 students in three sections of introductory physical geology were expected to represent and evaluate scientific data, make evidence-based claims about the data trends, use those claims to express conceptual models, and use their models to analyze societal challenges. Throughout each step of the laboratory exercise students were asked to justify their claims, models, and data representations using evidence and through the use of argumentation with peers. Cognitive apprenticeship was the foundation for instruction used to scaffold students so that in the first exercise they are given a partially completed model and in the last exercise students are asked to generate a conceptual model on their own. Student artifacts, including representation of earth systems, representation of scientific data, verbal and written explanations of models and scientific arguments, and written solutions to specific societal issues or environmental problems surrounding earth systems, were analyzed through the use of a rubric that modeled authentic expertise and students were sorted into three categories. Written artifacts were examined to identify student argumentation and

  2. MACSSA (Macintosh Safeguards Systems Analyzer)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argentesi, F.; Costantini, L.; Kohl, M.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses MACSSA a fully interactive menu-driven software system for accountancy of nuclear safeguards systems written for Apple Macintosh. Plant inventory and inventory change records can be entered interactively or can be downloaded from a mainframe database. Measurement procedures and instrument parameters can be defined. Partial or total statistics on propagated errors is performed and shown in tabular or graphic form

  3. Climate Model Diagnostic Analyzer Web Service System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Pan, L.; Zhai, C.; Tang, B.; Kubar, T. L.; Li, J.; Zhang, J.; Wang, W.

    2015-12-01

    Both the National Research Council Decadal Survey and the latest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Assessment Report stressed the need for the comprehensive and innovative evaluation of climate models with the synergistic use of global satellite observations in order to improve our weather and climate simulation and prediction capabilities. The abundance of satellite observations for fundamental climate parameters and the availability of coordinated model outputs from CMIP5 for the same parameters offer a great opportunity to understand and diagnose model biases in climate models. In addition, the Obs4MIPs efforts have created several key global observational datasets that are readily usable for model evaluations. However, a model diagnostic evaluation process requires physics-based multi-variable comparisons that typically involve large-volume and heterogeneous datasets, making them both computationally- and data-intensive. In response, we have developed a novel methodology to diagnose model biases in contemporary climate models and implementing the methodology as a web-service based, cloud-enabled, provenance-supported climate-model evaluation system. The evaluation system is named Climate Model Diagnostic Analyzer (CMDA), which is the product of the research and technology development investments of several current and past NASA ROSES programs. The current technologies and infrastructure of CMDA are designed and selected to address several technical challenges that the Earth science modeling and model analysis community faces in evaluating and diagnosing climate models. In particular, we have three key technology components: (1) diagnostic analysis methodology; (2) web-service based, cloud-enabled technology; (3) provenance-supported technology. The diagnostic analysis methodology includes random forest feature importance ranking, conditional probability distribution function, conditional sampling, and time-lagged correlation map. We have implemented the

  4. Analyzing the Biology on the System Level

    OpenAIRE

    Tong, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Although various genome projects have provided us enormous static sequence information, understanding of the sophisticated biology continues to require integrating the computational modeling, system analysis, technology development for experiments, and quantitative experiments all together to analyze the biology architecture on various levels, which is just the origin of systems biology subject. This review discusses the object, its characteristics, and research attentions in systems biology,...

  5. POLITICAL PSYCHOLOGY – NEW CHALLENGES IN ANALYZING FOREIGN POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin MEGHEȘAN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The art of governance, the relationship between the governed and the governing, the impact of a social and political system on coherent foreign policy-building is significantly influenced by the distribution of power and the type of decisional unit existent within the state. New subjects of study, such as political psychology, have proved their utility both in theoretical and practical study of international relations. Being a frontier subject, political psychology tries to offer answers to a number of questions regarding different issues among which the way character features influence the decision maker’s behavior, the role of the operational code in foreign policy and the utility of psychological profiles in the international relationships and in intelligence. Leading from the types of power distribution and decisional units existent in the professional literature, the present paper narrows the narrative and focuses on examining the importance of the individual level of analysis in explaining foreign policy decisions, analyzing the decision of the Russian Federation to veto the intervention of the international community in the Syrian civil conflict.

  6. Challenges in Analyzing the Biological Effects of Resveratrol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erdogan, Cihan Süleyman; Vang, Ole

    2016-01-01

    The suggested health effects (e.g., disease prevention) of dietary bioactive compounds such as resveratrol are challenging to prove in comparison to man-made drugs developed for therapeutic purposes. Dietary bioactive compounds have multiple cellular targets and therefore have a variety of biolog......The suggested health effects (e.g., disease prevention) of dietary bioactive compounds such as resveratrol are challenging to prove in comparison to man-made drugs developed for therapeutic purposes. Dietary bioactive compounds have multiple cellular targets and therefore have a variety...... research. Questions we address include: (1) Is the combinatorial effect of resveratrol and other compounds real? (2) What are the real and relevant doses of resveratrol after administration? and (3) Is it possible to estimate the preventive effect of resveratrol by clinical trials using standard...... experimental designs? The examples concerning resveratrol taken from the scientific literature are mainly from 2010 and later. The challenges pointed out in this review are similar to most naturally occurring bioactive compounds...

  7. Computer-based radionuclide analyzer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohba, Kengo; Ishizuka, Akira; Kobayashi, Akira; Ohhashi, Hideaki; Tsuruoka, Kimitoshi.

    1978-01-01

    The radionuclide analysis in nuclear power plants, practiced for the purpose of monitoring the quality of the primary loop water, the confirmation of the performance of reactor cleanup system and monitoring the radioactive waste effluent, is an important job. Important as it is, it requires considerable labor of experts, because the samples to be analyzed are multifarious and very large in number, and in addition, this job depends much on manual work. With a view of saving the labor, simplifying and standardizing the work, reducing radiation exposure, and automatizing the work of analysis, the computerized analyzer system has been worked out. The results of its performance test at the operating power plant have proved that the development has fairly accomplished the objects and that the system is well useful. The developmental work was carried out by the cooperation between The Tokyo Electric Power Co. and Toshiba in about 4 years from 1974 to this year. (auth.)

  8. Automated Root Tracking with "Root System Analyzer"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnepf, Andrea; Jin, Meina; Ockert, Charlotte; Bol, Roland; Leitner, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Crucial factors for plant development are water and nutrient availability in soils. Thus, root architecture is a main aspect of plant productivity and needs to be accurately considered when describing root processes. Images of root architecture contain a huge amount of information, and image analysis helps to recover parameters describing certain root architectural and morphological traits. The majority of imaging systems for root systems are designed for two-dimensional images, such as RootReader2, GiA Roots, SmartRoot, EZ-Rhizo, and Growscreen, but most of them are semi-automated and involve mouse-clicks in each root by the user. "Root System Analyzer" is a new, fully automated approach for recovering root architectural parameters from two-dimensional images of root systems. Individual roots can still be corrected manually in a user interface if required. The algorithm starts with a sequence of segmented two-dimensional images showing the dynamic development of a root system. For each image, morphological operators are used for skeletonization. Based on this, a graph representation of the root system is created. A dynamic root architecture model helps to determine which edges of the graph belong to an individual root. The algorithm elongates each root at the root tip and simulates growth confined within the already existing graph representation. The increment of root elongation is calculated assuming constant growth. For each root, the algorithm finds all possible paths and elongates the root in the direction of the optimal path. In this way, each edge of the graph is assigned to one or more coherent roots. Image sequences of root systems are handled in such a way that the previous image is used as a starting point for the current image. The algorithm is implemented in a set of Matlab m-files. Output of Root System Analyzer is a data structure that includes for each root an identification number, the branching order, the time of emergence, the parent

  9. Analyzing the Pension System of the USSR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksei V. Pudovkin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article under the title "ANALYSIS OF THE PENSION SYSTEM OF THE USSR" deals with numerous aspects of development of the pension system of the former USSR. Since the improvement of the Russian pension system is presently high on the agenda, the author believes that analyzing the own historical experience in the first line is essential in order to create a sound and efficient pension system in Russia. The study presented in the article aims to execute an in-depth analysis of legislature on the soviet pension system with the view to recreate the architecture of the pension system of the USSR. In addition, the study also reflects on the official statistics for the said period to make a qualified and fundamental conclusion on the efficiency of the soviet pension system. The evolution of the pension system, based on statistical data evidently proves the efficiently of the soviet pension system. It is highly recommended that the positive aspects of the soviet pension system are taken into consideration when reforming the actual pension system of Russian Federation.

  10. CRISP90 - SOFTWARE DESIGN ANALYZER SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tausworthe, R. C.

    1994-01-01

    The CRISP90 Software Design Analyzer System, an update of CRISP-80, is a set of programs forming a software design and documentation tool which supports top-down, hierarchic, modular, structured design and programming methodologies. The quality of a computer program can often be significantly influenced by the design medium in which the program is developed. The medium must foster the expression of the programmer's ideas easily and quickly, and it must permit flexible and facile alterations, additions, and deletions to these ideas as the design evolves. The CRISP90 software design analyzer system was developed to provide the PDL (Programmer Design Language) programmer with such a design medium. A program design using CRISP90 consists of short, English-like textual descriptions of data, interfaces, and procedures that are imbedded in a simple, structured, modular syntax. The display is formatted into two-dimensional, flowchart-like segments for a graphic presentation of the design. Together with a good interactive full-screen editor or word processor, the CRISP90 design analyzer becomes a powerful tool for the programmer. In addition to being a text formatter, the CRISP90 system prepares material that would be tedious and error prone to extract manually, such as a table of contents, module directory, structure (tier) chart, cross-references, and a statistics report on the characteristics of the design. Referenced modules are marked by schematic logic symbols to show conditional, iterative, and/or concurrent invocation in the program. A keyword usage profile can be generated automatically and glossary definitions inserted into the output documentation. Another feature is the capability to detect changes that were made between versions. Thus, "change-bars" can be placed in the output document along with a list of changed pages and a version history report. Also, items may be marked as "to be determined" and each will appear on a special table until the item is

  11. Analyzing endocrine system conservation and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonett, Ronald M

    2016-08-01

    Analyzing variation in rates of evolution can provide important insights into the factors that constrain trait evolution, as well as those that promote diversification. Metazoan endocrine systems exhibit apparent variation in evolutionary rates of their constituent components at multiple levels, yet relatively few studies have quantified these patterns and analyzed them in a phylogenetic context. This may be in part due to historical and current data limitations for many endocrine components and taxonomic groups. However, recent technological advancements such as high-throughput sequencing provide the opportunity to collect large-scale comparative data sets for even non-model species. Such ventures will produce a fertile data landscape for evolutionary analyses of nucleic acid and amino acid based endocrine components. Here I summarize evolutionary rate analyses that can be applied to categorical and continuous endocrine traits, and also those for nucleic acid and protein-based components. I emphasize analyses that could be used to test whether other variables (e.g., ecology, ontogenetic timing of expression, etc.) are related to patterns of rate variation and endocrine component diversification. The application of phylogenetic-based rate analyses to comparative endocrine data will greatly enhance our understanding of the factors that have shaped endocrine system evolution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Climate Model Diagnostic Analyzer Web Service System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Pan, L.; Zhai, C.; Tang, B.; Jiang, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    We have developed a cloud-enabled web-service system that empowers physics-based, multi-variable model performance evaluations and diagnoses through the comprehensive and synergistic use of multiple observational data, reanalysis data, and model outputs. We have developed a methodology to transform an existing science application code into a web service using a Python wrapper interface and Python web service frameworks. The web-service system, called Climate Model Diagnostic Analyzer (CMDA), currently supports (1) all the observational datasets from Obs4MIPs and a few ocean datasets from NOAA and Argo, which can serve as observation-based reference data for model evaluation, (2) many of CMIP5 model outputs covering a broad range of atmosphere, ocean, and land variables from the CMIP5 specific historical runs and AMIP runs, and (3) ECMWF reanalysis outputs for several environmental variables in order to supplement observational datasets. Analysis capabilities currently supported by CMDA are (1) the calculation of annual and seasonal means of physical variables, (2) the calculation of time evolution of the means in any specified geographical region, (3) the calculation of correlation between two variables, (4) the calculation of difference between two variables, and (5) the conditional sampling of one physical variable with respect to another variable. A web user interface is chosen for CMDA because it not only lowers the learning curve and removes the adoption barrier of the tool but also enables instantaneous use, avoiding the hassle of local software installation and environment incompatibility. CMDA will be used as an educational tool for the summer school organized by JPL's Center for Climate Science in 2014. In order to support 30+ simultaneous users during the school, we have deployed CMDA to the Amazon cloud environment. The cloud-enabled CMDA will provide each student with a virtual machine while the user interaction with the system will remain the same

  13. Systems Analyze Water Quality in Real Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    A water analyzer developed under Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with Kennedy Space Center now monitors treatment processes at water and wastewater facilities around the world. Originally designed to provide real-time detection of nutrient levels in hydroponic solutions for growing plants in space, the ChemScan analyzer, produced by ASA Analytics Inc., of Waukesha, Wisconsin, utilizes spectrometry and chemometric algorithms to automatically analyze multiple parameters in the water treatment process with little need for maintenance, calibration, or operator intervention. The company has experienced a compound annual growth rate of 40 percent over its 15-year history as a direct result of the technology's success.

  14. SINDA, Systems Improved Numerical Differencing Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, L. C.; Pan, H. M. Y.; Ishimoto, T.

    1972-01-01

    Computer program has been written to analyze group of 100-node areas and then provide for summation of any number of 100-node areas to obtain temperature profile. SINDA program options offer user variety of methods for solution of thermal analog modes presented in network format.

  15. Systems Challenges for Hypersonic Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, James L.; Laruelle, Gerard; Wagner, Alain

    1997-01-01

    This paper examines the system challenges posed by fully reusable hypersonic cruise airplanes and access to space vehicles. Hydrocarbon and hydrogen fueled airplanes are considered with cruise speeds of Mach 5 and 10, respectively. The access to space matrix is examined. Airbreathing and rocket powered, single- and two-stage vehicles are considered. Reference vehicle architectures are presented. Major systems/subsystems challenges are described. Advanced, enhancing systems concepts as well as common system technologies are discussed.

  16. Analyzing Innovation Systems (Burkina Faso) | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Under the supervision of the national centre for scientific and technological research (CNRST), the forum on scientific research and technological innovation (FRSIT) will identify the principal players in the national system of ... Journal articles.

  17. THE CHALLENGE OF KEEPING-UP: CURRENT METHODOLOGIES IN ANALYZING THE STUDENTS RECRUITING AREA BY UNIVERSITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MĂLĂESCU SIMONA

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The challenge of keeping-up: current methodologies in analyzing the students recruiting area by universities. Despite all progress made in the field and in some collateral areas extremely useful methodologically (e.g. the use of GIS, for some countries emerging from communist space methodologically upgrading to the latest advances in modelling and forecast of students recruitment by universities remains a difficult challenge. The analysis and modelling of the geographical area of recruiting students for a particular university represents even for the foreign literature a niche, not necessarily consciously neglected but only reached sidely due, most likely, to ignoring the benefits which the focus of concerns on this aspect would bring into focus and directing more efficiently university marketing efforts. This paper aims precisely to seek, through a meta-analysis of existing literature, disparate developments that led in some form or will allow improved modeling spatial areas of recruitment of students by universities and the challenges and limitations that apply methodological advances the area where universities belonging to the ex-communist involved. Beyond the theoretical benefit from a practical perspective, the meta-analysis aimed at synthesizing elements of good practice that can be applied to the local university system.

  18. Grand Challenges facing Storage Systems

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    In this talk, we will discuss the future of storage systems. In particular, we will focus on several big challenges which we are facing in storage, such as being able to build, manage and backup really massive storage systems, being able to find information of interest, being able to do long-term archival of data, and so on. We also present ideas and research being done to address these challenges, and provide a perspective on how we expect these challenges to be resolved as we go forward.

  19. Ecological Challenges for Closed Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Mark; Dempster, William; Allen, John P.

    2012-07-01

    Closed ecological systems are desirable for a number of purposes. In space life support systems, material closure allows precious life-supporting resources to be kept inside and recycled. Closure in small biospheric systems facilitates detailed measurement of global ecological processes and biogeochemical cycles. Closed testbeds facilitate research topics which require isolation from the outside (e.g. genetically modified organisms; radioisotopes) so their ecological interactions and fluxes can be studied separate from interactions with the outside environment. But to achieve and maintain closure entails solving complex ecological challenges. These challenges include being able to handle faster cycling rates and accentuated daily and seasonal fluxes of critical life elements such as carbon dioxide, oxygen, water, macro- and mico-nutrients. The problems of achieving sustainability in closed systems for life support include how to handle atmospheric dynamics including trace gases, producing a complete human diet and recycling nutrients and maintaining soil fertility, the sustaining of healthy air and water and preventing the loss of crucial elements from active circulation. In biospheric facilities the challenge is also to produce analogues to natural biomes and ecosystems, studying processes of self-organization and adaptation in systems that allow specification or determination of state variables and cycles which may be followed through all interactions from atmosphere to soils. Other challenges include the dynamics and genetics of small populations, the psychological challenges for small isolated human groups and measures and options which may be necessary to ensure long-term operation of closed ecological systems.

  20. Control challenges in domestic heating systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybo, Honglian; Larsen, Lars F. S.; Weitzmann, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyze domestic heating applications and identify unfavorable building constructions and control challenges to be addressed by high performance heating control systems. Heating of domestic houses use a large amount of the total energy consumption in Scandinavia....... Hence the potential of reducing energy consumption by applying high performance control is vast. Indoor climate issues are becoming more in focus, which also leads to a demand for high performance heating systems. The paper presents an analysis of how the building elements of today's domestic houses...... with water based floor heating affect the control challenge. The analysis is documented with simulation results....

  1. A multichannel analyzer computer system for simultaneously measuring 64 spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Yuheng; Wan Yuqing; Zhang Jiahong; Li Li; Chen Guozhu

    2000-01-01

    The author introduces a multichannel analyzer computer system for simultaneously measuring 64 spectra with 64 coded independent inputs. The system is developed for a double chopper neutron scattering time-of-flight spectrometer. The system structure, coding method, operating principle and performances are presented. The system can also be used for other nuclear physics experiments which need multichannel analyzer with independent coded inputs

  2. A conceptual framework toward identifying and analyzing challenges to the advancement of pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Lina R; McGrath, Simon; Rouse, Michael J; Anderson, Claire

    Pharmacists and health care professionals are faced with increasing and changing health care needs around the world. To meet these demands, they are required to continuously upgrade and develop their professions. Reprofessionalization is therefore crucial to the successful delivery of health services, but traditional theories might provide little practical guidance to evaluating the overall status of a profession. This study proposes a new conceptual framework of three interrelated professional sectors: education, regulation and practice, and uses it to identify and analyze challenges facing the pharmacy profession in Jordan. A multiple-method qualitative study comprised of semi-structured interviews and focus groups was conducted in Amman, Jordan. To explore and identify the challenges, a purposively recruited cross-sector sample of 53 key informants, stakeholders and pharmacists were interviewed. Interview transcripts were translated and analyzed using QSR NVivo 10. Thematic analysis identified eight main challenges facing pharmacy in Jordan. The original participants were then invited to participate in focus groups, the purpose of which was to validate the interview findings, map them against the conceptual framework and discuss recommendations for development. The eight validated challenges span the following areas: graduates preparedness for practice, pharmacy education accreditation and quality assurance, pre-registration requirements, workforce development, workforce planning, remuneration and wage rate, pharmacy assistants, and Pharm.D. pharmacists. Focus group participants used the framework to map each of the challenges to the primary sector-to-sector disconnect that they perceived to explain it. A list of recommendations addressing each of the challenges was also devised. The framework was found to offer valuable insight as an explanatory and diagnostic tool in policy-relevant research. By emphasizing the processual and contextual nature of

  3. Agent-based Modeling Methodology for Analyzing Weapons Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    technique involve model structure, system representation and the degree of validity, coupled with the simplicity, of the overall model. ABM is best suited... system representation of the air combat system . We feel that a simulation model that combines ABM with equation-based representation of weapons and...AGENT-BASED MODELING METHODOLOGY FOR ANALYZING WEAPONS SYSTEMS THESIS Casey D. Connors, Major, USA

  4. Analyzing Software Errors in Safety-Critical Embedded Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Robyn R.

    1994-01-01

    This paper analyzes the root causes of safty-related software faults identified as potentially hazardous to the system are distributed somewhat differently over the set of possible error causes than non-safety-related software faults.

  5. A Framework for Modeling and Analyzing Complex Distributed Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lynch, Nancy A; Shvartsman, Alex Allister

    2005-01-01

    Report developed under STTR contract for topic AF04-T023. This Phase I project developed a modeling language and laid a foundation for computational support tools for specifying, analyzing, and verifying complex distributed system designs...

  6. Analyzing Systemic Risk in the Chinese Banking System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Qiubin; de Haan, Jakob; Scholtens, Bert

    We examine systemic risk in the Chinese banking system by estimating the conditional value at risk (CoVaR), the marginal expected shortfall (MES), the systemic impact index (SII) and the vulnerability index (VI) for 16 listed banks in China. Although these measures show different patterns, our

  7. Computer program analyzes and monitors electrical power systems (POSIMO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, K.

    1972-01-01

    Requirements to monitor and/or simulate electric power distribution, power balance, and charge budget are discussed. Computer program to analyze power system and generate set of characteristic power system data is described. Application to status indicators to denote different exclusive conditions is presented.

  8. Wind energy system time-domain (WEST) analyzers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreier, M. E.; Hoffman, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    A portable analyzer which simulates in real time the complex nonlinear dynamics of horizontal axis wind energy systems was constructed. Math models for an aeroelastic rotor featuring nonlinear aerodynamic and inertial terms were implemented with high speed digital controllers and analog calculation. This model was combined with other math models of elastic supports, control systems, a power train and gimballed rotor kinematics. A stroboscopic display system graphically depicting distributed blade loads, motion, and other aerodynamic functions on a cathode ray tube is included. Limited correlation efforts showed good comparison between the results of this analyzer and other sophisticated digital simulations. The digital simulation results were successfully correlated with test data.

  9. Giessen polarization facility. III. Multi-detector analyzing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, H H; Stock, R; Arnold, W; Berg, H; Huttel, E; Ulbricht, J; Clausnitzer, G [Giessen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Strahlenzentrum

    1977-06-15

    An analyzing system with a PDP 11 computer and a digital multiplexer is described. It allows to accept signals from 16 detectors with individual ADCs simultaneously. For measurements of analyzing powers the polarization of the ion beam can be switched to zero with a frequency of 1 kHz. The switching operation additionally controls the handling of the detector pulses. The software contains special programs for the analysis of polarization experiments.

  10. Analyze of the Measuring Performance for Artificially Business Intelligent Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Vatuiu, Teodora

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyzes the measuring performance of artificially business intelligent systems. Thousands of persons-years have been devoted to the research and development in the vari¬ous aspects of artificially intelligent systems. Much progress has been attained. However, there has been no means of evaluating the progress of the field. How can we assess the cur¬rent state of the science? Most of business intelligent systems are beginning to be deployed commercially. How can a commercial buyer ...

  11. Multi-faceted data gathering and analyzing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustavson, D.B.; Rich, K.

    1977-10-01

    A low-cost general purpose data gathering and analyzing system based on a microprocessor, an interface to CAMAC, and a phone link to a time-sharing system was implemented. The parts cost for the microprocessor system was about $6000. The microprocessor buffers the data such that the variable response of the time-sharing system is acceptable for performing real-time data acquisition. The full power and flexibility of the time-sharing system excels at the task of on-line data analysis once this buffering problem is solved. 4 figures

  12. On-line analyzers to distributed control system linking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, S.F.; Buchanan, B.R.; Sanders, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    The Analytical Development Section (ADS) of the Savannah River Laboratory is developing on-line analyzers to monitor various site processes. Data from some of the on-line analyzers (OLA's) will be used for process control by distributed control systems (DCS's) such as the Fisher PRoVOX. A problem in the past has been an efficient and cost effective way to get analyzer data onto the DCS data highway. ADS is developing a system to accomplish the linking of OLA's to PRoVOX DCS's. The system will be described, and results of operation in a research and development environment given. Plans for the installation in the production environment will be discussed.

  13. Magnetic systems for wide-aperture neutron polarizers and analyzers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilev, A.G. [Neutron Research Department, Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, NRC “Kurchatov Institute”, Orlova Roscha, Gatchina, St. Petersburg 188300 (Russian Federation); Pleshanov, N.K., E-mail: pnk@pnpi.spb.ru [Neutron Research Department, Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, NRC “Kurchatov Institute”, Orlova Roscha, Gatchina, St. Petersburg 188300 (Russian Federation); Bazarov, B.A.; Bulkin, A.P.; Schebetov, A.F. [Neutron Research Department, Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, NRC “Kurchatov Institute”, Orlova Roscha, Gatchina, St. Petersburg 188300 (Russian Federation); Syromyatnikov, V.G. [Neutron Research Department, Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, NRC “Kurchatov Institute”, Orlova Roscha, Gatchina, St. Petersburg 188300 (Russian Federation); Physical Department, St. Petersburg State University, Ulyanovskaya, 1, Petrodvorets, St. Petersburg 198504 (Russian Federation); Tarnavich, V.V.; Ulyanov, V.A. [Neutron Research Department, Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, NRC “Kurchatov Institute”, Orlova Roscha, Gatchina, St. Petersburg 188300 (Russian Federation)

    2016-10-11

    Requirements on the field uniformity in neutron polarizers are analyzed in view of the fact that neutron polarizing coatings have been improved during the past decade. The design of magnetic systems that meet new requirements is optimized by numerical simulations. Magnetic systems for wide-aperture multichannel polarizers and analyzers are represented, including (a) the polarizer to be built at channel 4-4′ of the reactor PIK (Gatchina, Russia) for high-flux experiments with a 100×150 mm{sup 2} beam of polarized cold neutrons; (b) the fan analyzer covering a 150×100 mm{sup 2} window of the detector at the Magnetism Reflectometer (SNS, ORNL, USA); (c) the polarizer and (d) the fan analyzer covering a 220×110 mm{sup 2} window of the detector at the reflectometer NERO, which is transferred to PNPI (Russia) from HZG (Germany). Deviations of the field from the vertical did not exceed 2°. The polarizing efficiency of the analyzer at the Magnetism Reflectometer reached 99%, a record level for wide-aperture supermirror analyzers.

  14. Developing an Approach for Analyzing and Verifying System Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, William C.; Lindvall, Mikael; Ackermann, Chris; Sibol, Deane E.; Godfrey, Sally

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews a project for developing an approach for analyzing and verifying the inter system communications. The motivation for the study was that software systems in the aerospace domain are inherently complex, and operate under tight constraints for resources, so that systems of systems must communicate with each other to fulfill the tasks. The systems of systems requires reliable communications. The technical approach was to develop a system, DynSAVE, that detects communication problems among the systems. The project enhanced the proven Software Architecture Visualization and Evaluation (SAVE) tool to create Dynamic SAVE (DynSAVE). The approach monitors and records low level network traffic, converting low level traffic into meaningful messages, and displays the messages in a way the issues can be detected.

  15. [Adoption of new technologies by health services: the challenge of analyzing relevant factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade, Evelinda

    2008-05-01

    The exponential increase in the incorporation of health technologies has been considered a key factor in increased expenditures by the health sector. Such decisions involve multiple levels and stakeholders. Decentralization has multiplied the decision-making levels, with numerous difficult choices and limited resources. The interrelationship between stakeholders is complex, in creative systems with multiple determinants and confounders. The current review discusses the interaction between the factors influencing the decisions to incorporate technologies by health services, and proposes a structure for their analysis. The application and intensity of these factors in decision-making and the incorporation of products and programs by health services shapes the installed capacity of local and regional networks and modifies the health system. Empirical observation of decision-making and technology incorporation in Brazilian health services poses an important challenge. The structured recognition and measurement of these variables can assist proactive planning of health services.

  16. AnalyzeThis: An Analysis Workflow-Aware Storage System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, Hyogi [ORNL; Kim, Youngjae [ORNL; Vazhkudai, Sudharshan S [ORNL; Tiwari, Devesh [ORNL; Anwar, Ali [Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA; Butt, Ali R [Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA; Ramakrishnan, Lavanya [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)

    2015-01-01

    The need for novel data analysis is urgent in the face of a data deluge from modern applications. Traditional approaches to data analysis incur significant data movement costs, moving data back and forth between the storage system and the processor. Emerging Active Flash devices enable processing on the flash, where the data already resides. An array of such Active Flash devices allows us to revisit how analysis workflows interact with storage systems. By seamlessly blending together the flash storage and data analysis, we create an analysis workflow-aware storage system, AnalyzeThis. Our guiding principle is that analysis-awareness be deeply ingrained in each and every layer of the storage, elevating data analyses as first-class citizens, and transforming AnalyzeThis into a potent analytics-aware appliance. We implement the AnalyzeThis storage system atop an emulation platform of the Active Flash array. Our results indicate that AnalyzeThis is viable, expediting workflow execution and minimizing data movement.

  17. A computerised EEG-analyzing system for small laboratory animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kropveld, D.; Chamuleau, R. A.; Popken, R. J.; Smith, J.

    1983-01-01

    The experimental setup, including instrumentation and software packaging, is described for the use of a minicomputer as an on-line analyzing system of the EEG in rats. Complete fast Fourier transformation of the EEG sampled in 15 episodes of 10 s each is plotted out within 7 min after the start of

  18. Challenges in Designing Mechatronic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torry-Smith, Jonas; Qamar, Ahsan; Achiche, Sofiane

    2013-01-01

    Development of mechatronic products is traditionally carried out by several design experts from different design domains. Performing development of mechatronic products is thus greatly challenging. In order to tackle this, the critical challenges in mechatronics have to be well understood and well...... supported through applicable methods and tools. This paper aims at identifying the major challenges, by conducting a systematic and thorough survey of the most relevant research work in mechatronic design. Solutions proposed in literature are assessed and illustrated through a case study in order...... to investigate if the challenges can be handled appropriately by the methods, tools, and mindsets suggested by the mechatronic community. Using a real world mechatronics case, the paper identifies the areas where further research is required, by showing a clear connection between the actual problems faced during...

  19. Analyzing Software Requirements Errors in Safety-Critical, Embedded Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Robyn R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper analyzes the root causes of safety-related software errors in safety-critical, embedded systems. The results show that software errors identified as potentially hazardous to the system tend to be produced by different error mechanisms than non- safety-related software errors. Safety-related software errors are shown to arise most commonly from (1) discrepancies between the documented requirements specifications and the requirements needed for correct functioning of the system and (2) misunderstandings of the software's interface with the rest of the system. The paper uses these results to identify methods by which requirements errors can be prevented. The goal is to reduce safety-related software errors and to enhance the safety of complex, embedded systems.

  20. A Fuzzy Logic System to Analyze a Student's Lifestyle

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, Sourish; Boob, Aaditya Sanjay; Nikhil, Nishant; Vysyaraju, Nayan Raju; Kumar, Ankit

    2016-01-01

    A college student's life can be primarily categorized into domains such as education, health, social and other activities which may include daily chores and travelling time. Time management is crucial for every student. A self realisation of one's daily time expenditure in various domains is therefore essential to maximize one's effective output. This paper presents how a mobile application using Fuzzy Logic and Global Positioning System (GPS) analyzes a student's lifestyle and provides recom...

  1. Systems and methods for modeling and analyzing networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Colin C; Church, Bruce W; McDonagh, Paul D; Khalil, Iya G; Neyarapally, Thomas A; Pitluk, Zachary W

    2013-10-29

    The systems and methods described herein utilize a probabilistic modeling framework for reverse engineering an ensemble of causal models, from data and then forward simulating the ensemble of models to analyze and predict the behavior of the network. In certain embodiments, the systems and methods described herein include data-driven techniques for developing causal models for biological networks. Causal network models include computational representations of the causal relationships between independent variables such as a compound of interest and dependent variables such as measured DNA alterations, changes in mRNA, protein, and metabolites to phenotypic readouts of efficacy and toxicity.

  2. A new grading system for analyzing pediatric cholesteatoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, Akira; Ashimori, Naoki; Tsurita, Minako; Ban, Akihiro

    2007-01-01

    We developed a new grading system to understand the complicated pathological changes of cholesteatoma in comparison to those of chronic otitis media. This grading system, based on the extent of the cholesteatoma and the surrounding pathlogical changes, is able to simply express the entire pathological condition of the ear with cholesteatoma. Using this grading system, we analyzed the ears of 48 children with cholesteatoma, who underwent tympanoplasty over the past ten years. Their ages ranged from 2 to 15 years with an average age of 8.5 years. The attic and mesotympanic cholesteatomas were associated with greater pathological changes than those observed in postero-superior quadrant cholesteatomas. The degree of the pathological change in the area surrounding the cholesteatoma appears to correlate with the degree of extention of the cholesteatoma. This system is thus considered to be useful for evaluating the improvement in the pathological conditions before and after surgery in patients with cholesteatoma. (author)

  3. Total-System Analyzer for performance assessment of Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, M.L.; Lauffer, F.C.; Cummings, J.C.; Zieman, N.B.

    1990-01-01

    The Total-System Analyzer is a modular computer program for probabilistic total-system performance calculations. The code employs stratified random sampling from model parameter distribution functions to generate multiple realizations of the system. The results of flow and transport calculations for each realization are combined into a probability distribution function of the system response as indicated by the performance measure. We give a detailed description of the code and present results for four example problems simulating the release of radionuclides from a proposed high-level-waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The example simulations illustrate the impact of significant variation of percolation flux and sorption on radionuclide releases. We discuss the effects of numerical sampling error and of correlations among the model parameters. 20 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Information systems in logistics - transition challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Dragomirov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of information systems in business organizations does not consist of just buying software products and installing them on the servers. Most of these systems are important for the development of the organizations concerned and in some cases are very expensive. Therefore, their success requires a properly managed process of implementation, which seeks a balance between the aims of the systems and the financial and technical capabilities of the organization. The implementation problem becomes greater when the emphasis is on the logistics function in the context of the supply chain management. Last, but not least, these initiatives are related to something much more challenging, namely the adoption of the new information system by the users, which involves a change of habits in the organization. It is no secret that a new system may be rejected by its users and this will make it useless. All this requires finding adequate solutions to analyze these problems and to ensure the effective use of information systems in logistics.

  5. Development of a PDA Based Portable Pulse Height Analyzer System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankheed, Panuphong; Ngernvijit, Narippawaj; Thong-Aram, Decho

    2007-08-01

    Full text: In this research a portable pulse height analyzer system was developed by application of a Personal Digital Assistant (PDAs) palm Tungsten T model together with Single Chip SCA developed by Department of Nuclear Technology, Chulalongkorn University to be used for education and research works. Capability of the developed system could measure both the energy and the average count rate of gamma rays. The results of this research showed that the gamma energy spectrum analysis of the developed system with a 2? x 2? NaI(Tl) detector could display photo peaks of Cs-137 and Co-60 at channel 57, channel 103, and channel 117 respectively. The energy resolution was found to be 7.14% at energy 661.66 keV of Cs-137

  6. An engineering code to analyze hypersonic thermal management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangriethuysen, Valerie J.; Wallace, Clark E.

    1993-01-01

    Thermal loads on current and future aircraft are increasing and as a result are stressing the energy collection, control, and dissipation capabilities of current thermal management systems and technology. The thermal loads for hypersonic vehicles will be no exception. In fact, with their projected high heat loads and fluxes, hypersonic vehicles are a prime example of systems that will require thermal management systems (TMS) that have been optimized and integrated with the entire vehicle to the maximum extent possible during the initial design stages. This will not only be to meet operational requirements, but also to fulfill weight and performance constraints in order for the vehicle to takeoff and complete its mission successfully. To meet this challenge, the TMS can no longer be two or more entirely independent systems, nor can thermal management be an after thought in the design process, the typical pervasive approach in the past. Instead, a TMS that was integrated throughout the entire vehicle and subsequently optimized will be required. To accomplish this, a method that iteratively optimizes the TMS throughout the vehicle will not only be highly desirable, but advantageous in order to reduce the manhours normally required to conduct the necessary tradeoff studies and comparisons. A thermal management engineering computer code that is under development and being managed at Wright Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, is discussed. The primary goal of the code is to aid in the development of a hypersonic vehicle TMS that has been optimized and integrated on a total vehicle basis.

  7. An image analyzer system for the analysis of nuclear traces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuapio O, A.

    1990-10-01

    Inside the project of nuclear traces and its application techniques to be applied in the detection of nuclear reactions of low section (non detectable by conventional methods), in the study of accidental and personal neutron dosemeters, and other but, are developed. All these studies are based on the fact that the charged particles leave latent traces of dielectric that if its are engraved with appropriate chemical solutions its are revealed until becoming visible to the optical microscope. From the analysis of the different trace forms, it is possible to obtain information of the characteristic parameters of the incident particles (charge, mass and energy). Of the density of traces it is possible to obtain information of the flow of the incident radiation and consequently of the received dose. For carry out this analysis has been designed and coupled different systems, that it has allowed the solution of diverse outlined problems. Notwithstanding it has been detected that to make but versatile this activity is necessary to have an Image Analyzer System that allow us to digitize, to process and to display the images with more rapidity. The present document, presents the proposal to carry out the acquisition of the necessary components for to assembling an Image Analyzing System, like support to the mentioned project. (Author)

  8. Embedded Systems Design: Optimization Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Summary form only given. Embedded systems are everywhere: from alarm clocks to PDAs, from mobile phones to cars, almost all the devices we use are controlled by embedded systems. Over 99% of the microprocessors produced today are used in embedded systems, and recently the number of embedded systems...

  9. Governance of Aquatic Agricultural Systems: Analyzing Representation, Power, and Accountability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blake D. Ratner

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic agricultural systems in developing countries face increasing competition from multiple stakeholders over rights to access and use natural resources, land, water, wetlands, and fisheries, essential to rural livelihoods. A key implication is the need to strengthen governance to enable equitable decision making amidst competition that spans sectors and scales, building capacities for resilience, and for transformations in institutions that perpetuate poverty. In this paper we provide a simple framework to analyze the governance context for aquatic agricultural system development focused on three dimensions: stakeholder representation, distribution of power, and mechanisms of accountability. Case studies from Cambodia, Bangladesh, Malawi/Mozambique, and Solomon Islands illustrate the application of these concepts to fisheries and aquaculture livelihoods in the broader context of intersectoral and cross-scale governance interactions. Comparing these cases, we demonstrate how assessing governance dimensions yields practical insights into opportunities for transforming the institutions that constrain resilience in local livelihoods.

  10. On the Use of an Algebraic Signature Analyzer for Mixed-Signal Systems Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Geurkov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose an approach to design of an algebraic signature analyzer that can be used for mixed-signal systems testing. The analyzer does not contain carry propagating circuitry, which improves its performance as well as fault tolerance. The common design technique of a signature analyzer for mixed-signal systems is based on the rules of an arithmetic finite field. The application of this technique to the systems with an arbitrary radix is a challenging task and the devices designed possess high hardware complexity. The proposed technique is simple and applicable to systems of any size and radix. The hardware complexity is low. The technique can also be used in arithmetic/algebraic coding and cryptography.

  11. Point-of-care, portable microfluidic blood analyzer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki, Teimour; Fricke, Todd; Quesenberry, J. T.; Todd, Paul W.; Leary, James F.

    2012-03-01

    Recent advances in MEMS technology have provided an opportunity to develop microfluidic devices with enormous potential for portable, point-of-care, low-cost medical diagnostic tools. Hand-held flow cytometers will soon be used in disease diagnosis and monitoring. Despite much interest in miniaturizing commercially available cytometers, they remain costly, bulky, and require expert operation. In this article, we report progress on the development of a battery-powered handheld blood analyzer that will quickly and automatically process a drop of whole human blood by real-time, on-chip magnetic separation of white blood cells (WBCs), fluorescence analysis of labeled WBC subsets, and counting a reproducible fraction of the red blood cells (RBCs) by light scattering. The whole blood (WB) analyzer is composed of a micro-mixer, a special branching/separation system, an optical detection system, and electronic readout circuitry. A droplet of un-processed blood is mixed with the reagents, i.e. magnetic beads and fluorescent stain in the micro-mixer. Valve-less sorting is achieved by magnetic deflection of magnetic microparticle-labeled WBC. LED excitation in combination with an avalanche photodiode (APD) detection system is used for counting fluorescent WBC subsets using several colors of immune-Qdots, while counting a reproducible fraction of red blood cells (RBC) is performed using a laser light scatting measurement with a photodiode. Optimized branching/channel width is achieved using Comsol Multi-Physics™ simulation. To accommodate full portability, all required power supplies (40v, +/-10V, and +3V) are provided via step-up voltage converters from one battery. A simple onboard lock-in amplifier is used to increase the sensitivity/resolution of the pulse counting circuitry.

  12. Challenges for Nordic VET-systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christian Helms

    2015-01-01

    , this challenge is not new. It has been on the agenda since the late 1960s following the crisis for apprenticeship and the growing demand for equal access to all levels of education. What is new, however, is that the challenge has intensified and the solutions developed since the 1970s don’t appear tenable today......The systems of vocational education and training (VET) in the Nordic Countries all face a similar challenge: to offer double qualifications. The Nordic VET-systems are expected to give access not only to skilled employment, but also to higher education. As an increasing share of young people....... This situation calls for new solutions to tackle the challenge of double qualifications. The question, which I will examine in this chapter, is how the Nordic VET-systems have handled this challenge in different ways and what these systems can learn from Switzerland, which is often highlighted as a model...

  13. Multi channel analyzer system addible to personal computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez J, F.J.; Garcia R, R.; Ramirez N, R.; Torres B, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    It has been developed a Multichannel analyzer system which was added to personal computer of 4096 channels for its use, in nuclear radiations matters, such as X-ray fluorescence analysis, Neutron activation analysis, etc. in that is interesting to know the radiation energy distribution. This system has three modules; a Digital analogical converter of 12 bits, fast (total conversion time of 6 μ s) that use a successive approximation technique with linearity correction by the gliding rule method. A digital card with microprocessor that is useful as an interface with the computer for the acquisition, data storage and the process control. A computer program with extensive use of graphics, friendly with the user in order to facilitate its utilization, also with the option to find peaks, an expansion of an interesting area, information storage in compatible format with spectra analysis programs, etc. Twenty five units of this system have been constructed which all of they were distributed to the ARCAL Member countries and the other 10 units were distributed in the National Institute of Nuclear Research. On the other hand, it has been able to find other applications where the information can be converted to pulses and the interest variable is represented by the pulse amplitude. (Author)

  14. Software challenges in extreme scale systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, Vivek; Harrod, William; Snavely, Allan E

    2009-01-01

    Computer systems anticipated in the 2015 - 2020 timeframe are referred to as Extreme Scale because they will be built using massive multi-core processors with 100's of cores per chip. The largest capability Extreme Scale system is expected to deliver Exascale performance of the order of 10 18 operations per second. These systems pose new critical challenges for software in the areas of concurrency, energy efficiency and resiliency. In this paper, we discuss the implications of the concurrency and energy efficiency challenges on future software for Extreme Scale Systems. From an application viewpoint, the concurrency and energy challenges boil down to the ability to express and manage parallelism and locality by exploring a range of strong scaling and new-era weak scaling techniques. For expressing parallelism and locality, the key challenges are the ability to expose all of the intrinsic parallelism and locality in a programming model, while ensuring that this expression of parallelism and locality is portable across a range of systems. For managing parallelism and locality, the OS-related challenges include parallel scalability, spatial partitioning of OS and application functionality, direct hardware access for inter-processor communication, and asynchronous rather than interrupt-driven events, which are accompanied by runtime system challenges for scheduling, synchronization, memory management, communication, performance monitoring, and power management. We conclude by discussing the importance of software-hardware co-design in addressing the fundamental challenges for application enablement on Extreme Scale systems.

  15. Analyzing Social Interactions: Promises and Challenges of Cross Recurrence Quantification Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Konvalinka, Ivana; Wallot, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    The scientific investigation of social interactions presents substantial challenges: interacting agents engage each other at many different levels and timescales (motor and physiological coordination, joint attention, linguistic exchanges, etc.), often making their behaviors interdependent in non......-linear ways. In this paper we review the current use of Cross Recurrence Quantification Analysis (CRQA) in the analysis of social interactions, and assess its potential and challenges. We argue that the method can sensitively grasp the dynamics of human interactions, and that it has started producing valuable...

  16. Integrating and Analyzing Psychosocial and Stage Theories To Challenge the Development of the Injured Collegiate Athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Laura L.

    2003-01-01

    Integrated a psychosocial developmental theory (the Kubler-Ross Stage Theory) and a psychological stage theory (the Ross Stage Theory) and a psychological stage theory (the Chickering and Reisser psychosocial and developmental theory) for challenging injured collegiate student-athletes' personal development. A search of online databases from…

  17. Continuum kinetic methods for analyzing wave physics and distribution function dynamics in the turbulence dissipation challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juno, J.; Hakim, A.; TenBarge, J.; Dorland, W.

    2015-12-01

    We present for the first time results for the turbulence dissipation challenge, with specific focus on the linear wave portion of the challenge, using a variety of continuum kinetic models: hybrid Vlasov-Maxwell, gyrokinetic, and full Vlasov-Maxwell. As one of the goals of the wave problem as it is outlined is to identify how well various models capture linear physics, we compare our results to linear Vlasov and gyrokinetic theory. Preliminary gyrokinetic results match linear theory extremely well due to the geometry of the problem, which eliminates the dominant nonlinearity. With the non-reduced models, we explore how the subdominant nonlinearities manifest and affect the evolution of the turbulence and the energy budget. We also take advantage of employing continuum methods to study the dynamics of the distribution function, with particular emphasis on the full Vlasov results where a basic collision operator has been implemented. As the community prepares for the next stage of the turbulence dissipation challenge, where we hope to do large 3D simulations to inform the next generation of observational missions such as THOR (Turbulence Heating ObserveR), we argue for the consideration of hybrid Vlasov and full Vlasov as candidate models for these critical simulations. With the use of modern numerical algorithms, we demonstrate the competitiveness of our code with traditional particle-in-cell algorithms, with a clear plan for continued improvements and optimizations to further strengthen the code's viability as an option for the next stage of the challenge.

  18. Analyzing the Challenges of IS implementation in public health institutions of a developing country

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mengiste, Shegaw Anagaw

    2010-01-01

    , availability of adaquate and qualified manpower, and managerial commitment and support would significantly influence the implementation process. I argue that, such context-senitive challenges need to be dealt through flexible startegies that took in to account the specific context. In this paper, four...

  19. Middleware Challenges for Cyber-Physical Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohamed, Nader; Al-Jaroodi, Jameela; Lazarova-Molnar, Sanja

    2017-01-01

    enhancements for improving physical processes, the development of such complex systems composed of many distributed and heterogeneous components is extremely difficult. This is due to the many communication, computing, and networking challenges. Using an appropriate middleware that provides a framework...

  20. Evaluation of system codes for analyzing naturally circulating gas loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Ik; No, Hee Cheon; Hejzlar, Pavel

    2009-01-01

    Steady-state natural circulation data obtained in a 7 m-tall experimental loop with carbon dioxide and nitrogen are presented in this paper. The loop was originally designed to encompass operating range of a prototype gas-cooled fast reactor passive decay heat removal system, but the results and conclusions are applicable to any natural circulation loop operating in regimes having buoyancy and acceleration parameters within the ranges validated in this loop. Natural circulation steady-state data are compared to numerical predictions by two system analysis codes: GAMMA and RELAP5-3D. GAMMA is a computational tool for predicting various transients which can potentially occur in a gas-cooled reactor. The code has a capability of analyzing multi-dimensional multi-component mixtures and includes models for friction, heat transfer, chemical reaction, and multi-component molecular diffusion. Natural circulation data with two gases show that the loop operates in the deteriorated turbulent heat transfer (DTHT) regime which exhibits substantially reduced heat transfer coefficients compared to the forced turbulent flow. The GAMMA code with an original heat transfer package predicted conservative results in terms of peak wall temperature. However, the estimated peak location did not successfully match the data. Even though GAMMA's original heat transfer package included mixed-convection regime, which is a part of the DTHT regime, the results showed that the original heat transfer package could not reproduce the data with sufficient accuracy. After implementing a recently developed correlation and corresponding heat transfer regime map into GAMMA to cover the whole range of the DTHT regime, we obtained better agreement with the data. RELAP5-3D results are discussed in parallel.

  1. The security system analyzer: An application of the Prolog language

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, B.D.; Seeman, S.E.

    1986-01-01

    The Prolog programming language and entity-relationship modeling techniques were used to demonstrate a methodology for security system applications. A knowledge base was built that consists of statements modeling a generic building and surrounding area, including security fences and intrusion detectors (sensors and TV cameras). Declarative Prolog statements have the capability to use the knowledge base information in a routine manner to provide descriptive information about sensors, to dynamically update the knowledge base to provide on-line recording of changes in detector status or maintenance history, and to analyze the configuration of the building, surrounding area, and intrusion detector layout and current operability status in order to determine all the pathways from one specified point to another specified point which result in the detection probability being less than some specified value (i.e., find the ''weakest paths''). This ''search'' capability, which is the heart of the SECURITY program, allows the program to perform a CAD (computer aided design) function, and to provide a real-time security degradation analysis if intrusion detectors become inoperable. 2 refs., 3 figs

  2. TRASYS - THERMAL RADIATION ANALYZER SYSTEM (DEC VAX VERSION WITH NASADIG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, G. E.

    1994-01-01

    The Thermal Radiation Analyzer System, TRASYS, is a computer software system with generalized capability to solve the radiation related aspects of thermal analysis problems. TRASYS computes the total thermal radiation environment for a spacecraft in orbit. The software calculates internode radiation interchange data as well as incident and absorbed heat rate data originating from environmental radiant heat sources. TRASYS provides data of both types in a format directly usable by such thermal analyzer programs as SINDA/FLUINT (available from COSMIC, program number MSC-21528). One primary feature of TRASYS is that it allows users to write their own driver programs to organize and direct the preprocessor and processor library routines in solving specific thermal radiation problems. The preprocessor first reads and converts the user's geometry input data into the form used by the processor library routines. Then, the preprocessor accepts the user's driving logic, written in the TRASYS modified FORTRAN language. In many cases, the user has a choice of routines to solve a given problem. Users may also provide their own routines where desirable. In particular, the user may write output routines to provide for an interface between TRASYS and any thermal analyzer program using the R-C network concept. Input to the TRASYS program consists of Options and Edit data, Model data, and Logic Flow and Operations data. Options and Edit data provide for basic program control and user edit capability. The Model data describe the problem in terms of geometry and other properties. This information includes surface geometry data, documentation data, nodal data, block coordinate system data, form factor data, and flux data. Logic Flow and Operations data house the user's driver logic, including the sequence of subroutine calls and the subroutine library. Output from TRASYS consists of two basic types of data: internode radiation interchange data, and incident and absorbed heat rate data

  3. TRASYS - THERMAL RADIATION ANALYZER SYSTEM (DEC VAX VERSION WITHOUT NASADIG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, R. A.

    1994-01-01

    The Thermal Radiation Analyzer System, TRASYS, is a computer software system with generalized capability to solve the radiation related aspects of thermal analysis problems. TRASYS computes the total thermal radiation environment for a spacecraft in orbit. The software calculates internode radiation interchange data as well as incident and absorbed heat rate data originating from environmental radiant heat sources. TRASYS provides data of both types in a format directly usable by such thermal analyzer programs as SINDA/FLUINT (available from COSMIC, program number MSC-21528). One primary feature of TRASYS is that it allows users to write their own driver programs to organize and direct the preprocessor and processor library routines in solving specific thermal radiation problems. The preprocessor first reads and converts the user's geometry input data into the form used by the processor library routines. Then, the preprocessor accepts the user's driving logic, written in the TRASYS modified FORTRAN language. In many cases, the user has a choice of routines to solve a given problem. Users may also provide their own routines where desirable. In particular, the user may write output routines to provide for an interface between TRASYS and any thermal analyzer program using the R-C network concept. Input to the TRASYS program consists of Options and Edit data, Model data, and Logic Flow and Operations data. Options and Edit data provide for basic program control and user edit capability. The Model data describe the problem in terms of geometry and other properties. This information includes surface geometry data, documentation data, nodal data, block coordinate system data, form factor data, and flux data. Logic Flow and Operations data house the user's driver logic, including the sequence of subroutine calls and the subroutine library. Output from TRASYS consists of two basic types of data: internode radiation interchange data, and incident and absorbed heat rate data

  4. TRASYS - THERMAL RADIATION ANALYZER SYSTEM (CRAY VERSION WITH NASADIG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, G. E.

    1994-01-01

    The Thermal Radiation Analyzer System, TRASYS, is a computer software system with generalized capability to solve the radiation related aspects of thermal analysis problems. TRASYS computes the total thermal radiation environment for a spacecraft in orbit. The software calculates internode radiation interchange data as well as incident and absorbed heat rate data originating from environmental radiant heat sources. TRASYS provides data of both types in a format directly usable by such thermal analyzer programs as SINDA/FLUINT (available from COSMIC, program number MSC-21528). One primary feature of TRASYS is that it allows users to write their own driver programs to organize and direct the preprocessor and processor library routines in solving specific thermal radiation problems. The preprocessor first reads and converts the user's geometry input data into the form used by the processor library routines. Then, the preprocessor accepts the user's driving logic, written in the TRASYS modified FORTRAN language. In many cases, the user has a choice of routines to solve a given problem. Users may also provide their own routines where desirable. In particular, the user may write output routines to provide for an interface between TRASYS and any thermal analyzer program using the R-C network concept. Input to the TRASYS program consists of Options and Edit data, Model data, and Logic Flow and Operations data. Options and Edit data provide for basic program control and user edit capability. The Model data describe the problem in terms of geometry and other properties. This information includes surface geometry data, documentation data, nodal data, block coordinate system data, form factor data, and flux data. Logic Flow and Operations data house the user's driver logic, including the sequence of subroutine calls and the subroutine library. Output from TRASYS consists of two basic types of data: internode radiation interchange data, and incident and absorbed heat rate data

  5. Key ecological challenges for closed systems facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Mark; Dempster, William F.; Allen, John P.

    2013-07-01

    Closed ecological systems are desirable for a number of purposes. In space life support systems, material closure allows precious life-supporting resources to be kept inside and recycled. Closure in small biospheric systems facilitates detailed measurement of global ecological processes and biogeochemical cycles. Closed testbeds facilitate research topics which require isolation from the outside (e.g. genetically modified organisms; radioisotopes) so their ecological interactions and fluxes can be studied separate from interactions with the outside environment. But to achieve and maintain closure entails solving complex ecological challenges. These challenges include being able to handle faster cycling rates and accentuated daily and seasonal fluxes of critical life elements such as carbon dioxide, oxygen, water, macro- and mico-nutrients. The problems of achieving sustainability in closed systems for life support include how to handle atmospheric dynamics including trace gases, producing a complete human diet, recycling nutrients and maintaining soil fertility, the maintenance of healthy air and water and preventing the loss of critical elements from active circulation. In biospheric facilities, the challenge is also to produce analogues to natural biomes and ecosystems, studying processes of self-organization and adaptation in systems that allow specification or determination of state variables and cycles which may be followed through all interactions from atmosphere to soils. Other challenges include the dynamics and genetics of small populations, the psychological challenges for small isolated human groups and backup technologies and strategic options which may be necessary to ensure long-term operation of closed ecological systems.

  6. THE QATAR HEALTH SYSTEM: CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaher ALSHAMARI

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Qatar’s healthcare system is comparatively new and has experienced noteworthy developments over its brief history. In this paper, our aim is to look at the unique challenges this small nation has faced in building that system. This paper will describe the accomplishments of Qatar’s medical authorities and the challenges they faced. It will also compare public and private healthcare providers. Today, the government of Qatar has financed all the health care for this rapidly-developing, multicultural nation, but it is now planning to introduce medical insurance. This report of its experience will benefit other nations wanting to develop their own healthcare systems.

  7. Applying Systems Engineering on Energy Challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Safi, J.; Muller, G.; Bonnema, Gerrit Maarten

    2012-01-01

    Systems engineering is a discipline with methods and techniques to address complex problems. We want to study how Systems Engineering methods can help to address today's grand challenges, such as the energy problem. The first step is problem definition which aims at articulating the problem in its

  8. Analyzing the Extensive Reading Approach: Benefits and Challenges in the Mexican Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Varona Archer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Some scholars have highlighted the benefits of using extensive reading as a way to motivate students to learn a second language (L2. This article is derived from a study that aimed at implementing extensive reading in an action research project in a public University in Mexico. Therefore, the following article examines some arguments of different researchers who have carried out extensive reading studies in contexts of teaching English as a foreign language (TEFL. The implementation issues of this reading approach are also analyzed by the approach’s constraints and educational practices in the Mexican TEFL context. The concluding remarks are an attempt to contribute to the growth of future research in the field of extensive reading in Mexico.

  9. Analyzing the Critical Supply Chain For Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-23

    Global Supply Chain Risk Management . Journal of Business Logistics , 29(1). McGinnis, L. F., and V., R. V. (1977). On Goal...U.S. supplier performance management firm, outlined the four main 35 challenges that a global AandD supply chain face as export control and...2600529 Christopher, M., and Peck, H. (2004). Building the Resilient Supply Chain . International Journal of Logistics Management , 15(2), 1–13.

  10. Analyzing the security of an existing computer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, M.

    1986-01-01

    Most work concerning secure computer systems has dealt with the design, verification, and implementation of provably secure computer systems, or has explored ways of making existing computer systems more secure. The problem of locating security holes in existing systems has received considerably less attention; methods generally rely on thought experiments as a critical step in the procedure. The difficulty is that such experiments require that a large amount of information be available in a format that makes correlating the details of various programs straightforward. This paper describes a method of providing such a basis for the thought experiment by writing a special manual for parts of the operating system, system programs, and library subroutines.

  11. Modeling and Analyzing Real-Time Multiprocessor Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiggers, M.H.; Thiele, Lothar; Lee, Edward A.; Schlieker, Simon; Bekooij, Marco Jan Gerrit

    2010-01-01

    Researchers have proposed approaches to verify that real-time multiprocessor systems meet their timeliness constraints. These approaches make assumptions on the model of computation, the load placed on the multiprocessor system, and the faults that can arise. This heterogeneous set of assumptions

  12. Development of expert systems for analyzing electronic documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeer Yassin, Al-Azzawi; Shidlovskiy, S.; Jamal, A. A.

    2018-05-01

    The paper analyses a Database Management System (DBMS). Expert systems, Databases, and database technology have become an essential component of everyday life in the modern society. As databases are widely used in every organization with a computer system, data resource control and data management are very important [1]. DBMS is the most significant tool developed to serve multiple users in a database environment consisting of programs that enable users to create and maintain a database. This paper focuses on development of a database management system for General Directorate for education of Diyala in Iraq (GDED) using Clips, java Net-beans and Alfresco and system components, which were previously developed in Tomsk State University at the Faculty of Innovative Technology.

  13. BPI Challenge 2012 : the transition system case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, H.M.W.; La Rosa, M.; Soffer, P.

    2013-01-01

    Using the Transition System Miner as available in ProM6, we have investigated the control-flow perspective, the data perspective, and the resource perspective of the process that underlies the event log provided for the BPI Challenge 2012.

  14. On Analyzing LDPC Codes over Multiantenna MC-CDMA System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Suresh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiantenna multicarrier code-division multiple access (MC-CDMA technique has been attracting much attention for designing future broadband wireless systems. In addition, low-density parity-check (LDPC code, a promising near-optimal error correction code, is also being widely considered in next generation communication systems. In this paper, we propose a simple method to construct a regular quasicyclic low-density parity-check (QC-LDPC code to improve the transmission performance over the precoded MC-CDMA system with limited feedback. Simulation results show that the coding gain of the proposed QC-LDPC codes is larger than that of the Reed-Solomon codes, and the performance of the multiantenna MC-CDMA system can be greatly improved by these QC-LDPC codes when the data rate is high.

  15. Challenges and progress in turbomachinery design systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Braembussche, R A

    2013-01-01

    This paper first describes the requirements that a modern design system should meet, followed by a comparison between design systems based on inverse design or optimization techniques. The second part of the paper presents the way these challenges are realized in an optimization method combining an Evolutionary theory and a Metamodel. Extensions to multi-disciplinary, multi-point and multi-objective optimization are illustrated by examples

  16. Mathematical techniques for analyzing concurrent and probabilistic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rutten, J J M M; Panangaden, Prakash; Panangaden, Prakash; Breugel, Franck van

    2004-01-01

    The book consists of two sets of lecture notes devoted to slightly different methods of analysis of concurrent and probabilistic computational systems. The first set of lectures develops a calculus of streams (a generalization of the set of natural numbers) based on the coinduction principle coming from the theory of coalgebras. It is now well understood that the interplay between algebra (for describing structure) and coalgebra (for describing dynamics) is crucial for understanding concurrent systems. There is a striking analogy between streams and formula calculus reminiscent to those appearing in quantum calculus. These lecture notes will appeal to anyone working in concurrency theory but also to algebraists and logicians. The other set of lecture notes focuses on methods for automatically verifying probabilistic systems using techniques of model checking. The unique aspect of these lectures is the coverage of both theory and practice. The authors have been responsible for one of the most successful experi...

  17. Analyzing Innovation Systems (Burkina Faso) | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project aims to improve the efficiency of the nascent innovation system in Burkina Faso by strengthening exchanges between researchers, inventors and innovators and public ... L'Initiative des conseils subventionnaires de la recherche scientifique en Afrique subsaharienne remporte le prix de la diplomatie scientifique.

  18. On Modeling and Analyzing Cost Factors in Information Systems Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutschler, B.B.; Reichert, M.U.

    Introducing enterprise information systems (EIS) is usually associated with high costs. It is therefore crucial to understand those factors that determine or influence these costs. Though software cost estimation has received considerable attention during the last decades, it is difficult to apply

  19. Digital video timing analyzer for the evaluation of PC-based real-time simulation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Shawn R.; Crosby, Jay L.; Terry, John E., Jr.

    2009-05-01

    Due to the rapid acceleration in technology and the drop in costs, the use of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) PC-based hardware and software components for digital and hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) simulations has increased. However, the increase in PC-based components creates new challenges for HWIL test facilities such as cost-effective hardware and software selection, system configuration and integration, performance testing, and simulation verification/validation. This paper will discuss how the Digital Video Timing Analyzer (DiViTA) installed in the Aviation and Missile Research, Development and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) provides quantitative characterization data for PC-based real-time scene generation systems. An overview of the DiViTA is provided followed by details on measurement techniques, applications, and real-world examples of system benefits.

  20. Systems and methods for analyzing liquids under vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao-Ying; Yang, Li; Cowin, James P.; Iedema, Martin J.; Zhu, Zihua

    2013-10-15

    Systems and methods for supporting a liquid against a vacuum pressure in a chamber can enable analysis of the liquid surface using vacuum-based chemical analysis instruments. No electrical or fluid connections are required to pass through the chamber walls. The systems can include a reservoir, a pump, and a liquid flow path. The reservoir contains a liquid-phase sample. The pump drives flow of the sample from the reservoir, through the liquid flow path, and back to the reservoir. The flow of the sample is not substantially driven by a differential between pressures inside and outside of the liquid flow path. An aperture in the liquid flow path exposes a stable portion of the liquid-phase sample to the vacuum pressure within the chamber. The radius, or size, of the aperture is less than or equal to a critical value required to support a meniscus of the liquid-phase sample by surface tension.

  1. Monitoring and analyzing features of electrical power quality system performance

    OpenAIRE

    Genci Sharko; Nike Shanku

    2010-01-01

    Power quality is a set of boundaries that allows electrical systems to function in their intended manner without significant loss of performance or life. The term is used to describe electric power that drives an electrical load and the load's ability to function properly with that electric power. Without the proper quality of the power, an electrical device may malfunction, fail prematurely or not operate at all. There are many reasons why the electric power can be of poor quality and many m...

  2. Multi-scale biomedical systems: measurement challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summers, R

    2016-01-01

    Multi-scale biomedical systems are those that represent interactions in materials, sensors, and systems from a holistic perspective. It is possible to view such multi-scale activity using measurement of spatial scale or time scale, though in this paper only the former is considered. The biomedical application paradigm comprises interactions that range from quantum biological phenomena at scales of 10-12 for one individual to epidemiological studies of disease spread in populations that in a pandemic lead to measurement at a scale of 10+7. It is clear that there are measurement challenges at either end of this spatial scale, but those challenges that relate to the use of new technologies that deal with big data and health service delivery at the point of care are also considered. The measurement challenges lead to the use, in many cases, of model-based measurement and the adoption of virtual engineering. It is these measurement challenges that will be uncovered in this paper. (paper)

  3. Challenging problems and solutions in intelligent systems

    CERN Document Server

    Grzegorzewski, Przemysław; Kacprzyk, Janusz; Owsiński, Jan; Penczek, Wojciech; Zadrożny, Sławomir

    2016-01-01

    This volume presents recent research, challenging problems and solutions in Intelligent Systems– covering the following disciplines: artificial and computational intelligence, fuzzy logic and other non-classic logics, intelligent database systems, information retrieval, information fusion, intelligent search (engines), data mining, cluster analysis, unsupervised learning, machine learning, intelligent data analysis, (group) decision support systems, intelligent agents and multi-agent systems, knowledge-based systems, imprecision and uncertainty handling, electronic commerce, distributed systems, etc. The book defines a common ground for sometimes seemingly disparate problems and addresses them by using the paradigm of broadly perceived intelligent systems. It presents a broad panorama of a multitude of theoretical and practical problems which have been successfully dealt with using the paradigm of intelligent computing.

  4. Analyzing the errors of DFT approximations for compressed water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfè, D.; Bartók, A. P.; Csányi, G.; Gillan, M. J.

    2014-01-01

    We report an extensive study of the errors of density functional theory (DFT) approximations for compressed water systems. The approximations studied are based on the widely used PBE and BLYP exchange-correlation functionals, and we characterize their errors before and after correction for 1- and 2-body errors, the corrections being performed using the methods of Gaussian approximation potentials. The errors of the uncorrected and corrected approximations are investigated for two related types of water system: first, the compressed liquid at temperature 420 K and density 1.245 g/cm 3 where the experimental pressure is 15 kilobars; second, thermal samples of compressed water clusters from the trimer to the 27-mer. For the liquid, we report four first-principles molecular dynamics simulations, two generated with the uncorrected PBE and BLYP approximations and a further two with their 1- and 2-body corrected counterparts. The errors of the simulations are characterized by comparing with experimental data for the pressure, with neutron-diffraction data for the three radial distribution functions, and with quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) benchmarks for the energies of sets of configurations of the liquid in periodic boundary conditions. The DFT errors of the configuration samples of compressed water clusters are computed using QMC benchmarks. We find that the 2-body and beyond-2-body errors in the liquid are closely related to similar errors exhibited by the clusters. For both the liquid and the clusters, beyond-2-body errors of DFT make a substantial contribution to the overall errors, so that correction for 1- and 2-body errors does not suffice to give a satisfactory description. For BLYP, a recent representation of 3-body energies due to Medders, Babin, and Paesani [J. Chem. Theory Comput. 9, 1103 (2013)] gives a reasonably good way of correcting for beyond-2-body errors, after which the remaining errors are typically 0.5 mE h ≃ 15 meV/monomer for the liquid and the

  5. Governance Challenges in Telecoupled Food Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakin, H.; Mahanti, A.; Rueda, X.

    2015-12-01

    Distal connections increasingly influence food systems' governance: social actors in one geographic context produce intended and unintended consequences in distant locations, coupling the dynamics of socio-ecological systems. While these linkages are not new, economic globalization, urbanization and the dynamics of consumer preferences have accentuated these 'telecoupled' relationships in food systems. Telecoupling refers to the unexpected causal interactions among human-environment systems that were otherwise not linked. This paper presents a framework for evaluating telecoupling processes and outcomes in food systems, focusing on how the disparate scales of drivers and outcomes, diverse values of actors involved, and spatial and social distance combine to challenge socio-ecological system governance. We draw from two examples of food systems (coffee and maize) to argue that telecoupling, as a challenge for food systems, emerges when the institutions and mechanisms of governance acting over one system do not account for the consequences and interactions involving a different system. Telecoupling can stimulate new forms of governance, such as the development of codes of conduct and certification schemes, with positive impacts on food and livelihood security. Our cases suggest that the emergence of new governance arrangements is at least partially contingent on the prior existence of alternative social networks, which cultivate shared values, meanings and goals in food systems, as well as the capacity of affected actors to mobilize political influence and demonstrate plausible causal links. In the absence of such networks and associated capacities, the prior governance arrangements, although poorly adjusted to the new circumstances, are likely to persist, reinforcing existing power relations and the probability of undesirable social and ecological outcomes.

  6. An immersive simulation system for provoking and analyzing cataplexy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine, Kurt; Cameron, Bruce; Camp, Jon; Krahn, Lois; Robb, Richard

    2002-01-01

    medication. We believe this is a novel and innovative approach to a difficult problem. CatNAP is a compelling example of the potentially effective application of virtual reality technology to an important clinical problem that has resisted previous approaches. Preliminary results suggest that an immersive simulation system like CatNAP will be able to reliably induce cataplexy in a controlled environment. The project is continuing through a final stage of refinement prior to conducting a full clinical study.

  7. Design of multi-channel analyzer's monitoring system based on embedded system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Tao; Wei Yixiang

    2007-01-01

    A new Multi-Channel Analyzer's Monitoring system based on ARM9 Embedded system is introduced in this paper. Some solutions to problem are also discussed during the procedure of design, installation and debugging on Linux system. The Monitoring system is developed by using MiniGUI and Linux software system API, with the functions of collecting, displaying and I/O data controlling 1024 channels datum. They are all realized in real time, with the merits of low cost, small size and portability. All these lay the foundation of developing homemade Digital and Portable nuclear spectrometers. (authors)

  8. Systems biology solutions for biochemical production challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Sofie Lærke; Lennen, Rebecca M; Sonnenschein, Nikolaus

    2017-01-01

    There is an urgent need to significantly accelerate the development of microbial cell factories to produce fuels and chemicals from renewable feedstocks in order to facilitate the transition to a biobased society. Methods commonly used within the field of systems biology including omics...... characterization, genome-scale metabolic modeling, and adaptive laboratory evolution can be readily deployed in metabolic engineering projects. However, high performance strains usually carry tens of genetic modifications and need to operate in challenging environmental conditions. This additional complexity...... compared to basic science research requires pushing systems biology strategies to their limits and often spurs innovative developments that benefit fields outside metabolic engineering. Here we survey recent advanced applications of systems biology methods in engineering microbial production strains...

  9. Systems biology solutions for biochemical production challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Anne Sofie Lærke; Lennen, Rebecca M; Sonnenschein, Nikolaus; Herrgård, Markus J

    2017-06-01

    There is an urgent need to significantly accelerate the development of microbial cell factories to produce fuels and chemicals from renewable feedstocks in order to facilitate the transition to a biobased society. Methods commonly used within the field of systems biology including omics characterization, genome-scale metabolic modeling, and adaptive laboratory evolution can be readily deployed in metabolic engineering projects. However, high performance strains usually carry tens of genetic modifications and need to operate in challenging environmental conditions. This additional complexity compared to basic science research requires pushing systems biology strategies to their limits and often spurs innovative developments that benefit fields outside metabolic engineering. Here we survey recent advanced applications of systems biology methods in engineering microbial production strains for biofuels and -chemicals. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems: Challenges and Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Sabharwall; S.B. Sitton; S.J. Yoon; C. Stoots

    2014-07-01

    With growing demand of energy and costs of the fossil fuels, coupled with the environmental concerns have resulted in an increased interest in alternative energy sources. Nuclear hybrid energy systems (NHES) are being considered which incorporates renewable energy sources such as solar and wind energy combined with nuclear reactor and energy storage to meet the peak hours demand imposed on the grid, along with providing process heat for other potential industrial applications. This concept could potentially satisfy various energy demands and improve reliability, robustness and resilience for the entire system as a whole, along with economic and net efficiency gains. This paper provides a brief understanding of potential NHES system and architecture along with the challenges

  11. Challenges for Rule Systems on the Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuh-Jong; Yeh, Ching-Long; Laun, Wolfgang

    The RuleML Challenge started in 2007 with the objective of inspiring the issues of implementation for management, integration, interoperation and interchange of rules in an open distributed environment, such as the Web. Rules are usually classified as three types: deductive rules, normative rules, and reactive rules. The reactive rules are further classified as ECA rules and production rules. The study of combination rule and ontology is traced back to an earlier active rule system for relational and object-oriented (OO) databases. Recently, this issue has become one of the most important research problems in the Semantic Web. Once we consider a computer executable policy as a declarative set of rules and ontologies that guides the behavior of entities within a system, we have a flexible way to implement real world policies without rewriting the computer code, as we did before. Fortunately, we have de facto rule markup languages, such as RuleML or RIF to achieve the portability and interchange of rules for different rule systems. Otherwise, executing real-life rule-based applications on the Web is almost impossible. Several commercial or open source rule engines are available for the rule-based applications. However, we still need a standard rule language and benchmark for not only to compare the rule systems but also to measure the progress in the field. Finally, a number of real-life rule-based use cases will be investigated to demonstrate the applicability of current rule systems on the Web.

  12. [Modeling and implementation method for the automatic biochemistry analyzer control system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Ge, Wan-cheng; Song, Chun-lin; Wang, Yun-guang

    2009-03-01

    In this paper the system structure The automatic biochemistry analyzer is a necessary instrument for clinical diagnostics. First of is analyzed. The system problems description and the fundamental principles for dispatch are brought forward. Then this text puts emphasis on the modeling for the automatic biochemistry analyzer control system. The objects model and the communications model are put forward. Finally, the implementation method is designed. It indicates that the system based on the model has good performance.

  13. Structural materials challenges for fusion power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurtz, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Structural materials in a fusion power system must function in an extraordinarily demanding environment that includes various combinations of high temperatures, reactive chemicals, time-dependent thermal and mechanical stresses, and intense damaging radiation. The fusion neutron environment produces displacement damage equivalent to displacing every atom in the material about 150 times during its expected service life, and changes in chemical composition by transmutation reactions, which includes creation of reactive and insoluble gases. Fundamental materials challenges that must be resolved to effectively harness fusion power include (1) understanding the relationships between material strength, ductility and resistance to cracking, (2) development of materials with extraordinary phase stability, high-temperature strength and resistance to radiation damage, (3) establishment of the means to control corrosion of materials exposed to aggressive environments, (4) development of technologies for large-scale fabrication and joining, and (5) design of structural materials that provide for an economically attractive fusion power system while simultaneously achieving safety and environmental acceptability goals. The most effective approach to solve these challenges is a science-based effort that couples development of physics-based, predictive models of materials behavior with key experiments to validate the models. The U.S. Fusion Materials Sciences program is engaged in an integrated effort of theory, modeling and experiments to develop structural materials that will enable fusion to reach its safety, environmental and economic competitiveness goals. In this presentation, an overview of recent progress on reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels, nanocomposited ferritic alloys, and silicon carbide fiber reinforced composites for fusion applications will be given

  14. Religious legal systems: challenges of the modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Д. В. Лук’янов

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The influence of world globalization processes on the development of the religious legal systems has been analyzed in the paper. Globalization processes in the XXI century are regarding individuals, nations, and civilizations. Global transformations lead to qualitative changes in the socio-cultural relations and actualize a wide range of issues which are related to the formation of a new world culture. Modern globalization takes diverse range of public relations in its own orbit. The relationship between the legal systems in the twentieth century is some of the most important aspects of this process. However, the interaction of legal systems has significant differences from the interaction of economies of different countries. There are actual economic relations domination of Western financial and economic institutions and standardization of relevant rules. But the attempts to apply this approach to law lead to resistance to Western standards and the spread of major civilizational conflicts in different parts of the world. Globalization should be based on respect for cultural, religious and legal diversity. It has to ensure preservation of forced “Westernisation”. Significant differences in the impact of globalization on the convergence of legal systems of Western law (Romano-Germanic and Anglo-American and their impact on religious legal systems of Muslim, Hindu and Jewish law must be emphasized. The religious legal systems are not exposed to other systems and the related changes. This is due to such features as the divine nature, increased stability, specific sources of law etc. An important issue that requires further study is the reverse influence which religious law exercises to secularized modern legal system.

  15. Regional modeling approach for analyzing harmonic stability in radial power electronics based power system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoon, Changwoo; Bai, Haofeng; Wang, Xiongfei

    2015-01-01

    Stability analysis of distributed power generation system becomes complex when there are many numbers of grid inverters in the system. In order to analyze system stability, the overall network impedance will be lumped and needs to be analyzed one by one. However, using a unified bulky transfer-fu...... and then it is expanded for generalizing its concept to an overall radial structured network....

  16. The challenge of greening energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, A.; Hughes, L.

    2006-01-01

    The current state of world energy supply and demand was examined along with future challenges facing population growth, economic growth, energy-demand growth, fossil energy supply, technology improvements, renewable energy solutions, and conservation measures. It was suggested that in order to implement cleaner and greener energy technology, it is important to understand the nature of global energy systems. The challenge of defining the related ideologies of green energy and sustainability was discussed. In this paper, green energy was defined as indicating environmental compatibility with little or no negative environmental impact. This differs from the concept of sustainability, which was defined as an action that can be repeated continuously without depleting or diminishing resources. In general, green energy options include most technologies that do not involve fossil fuels. However, this paper considered a spectrum of shades of green with some options being low-impact and cleaner, and others having high environmental impacts. As an example, the authors presented the ongoing debate over nuclear energy and hydro power. Although both energy sources can be sustainable over hundreds of years, they may or may not be environmentally compatible because they are often considered to have problematic attributes. Energy from renewable sources currently accounts for less than 20 per cent of world primary energy supply because price and implementation challenges in the renewables sector do not generally compare well to other energy sources. With high energy-demands beginning to strain finite fossil-energy supplies, the energy sector is now subject to more frequent disruptions and price fluctuations. Future growth from emerging economies will demand more energy and resources. This paper also emphasized that the proportion of green sources of energy has not increased substantially in the past 3 decades, and despite many technological advances, there continue to be significant

  17. The challenge of greening energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, A.; Hughes, L. [Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, NS (Canada). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Energy Research Group

    2006-07-01

    The current state of world energy supply and demand was examined along with future challenges facing population growth, economic growth, energy-demand growth, fossil energy supply, technology improvements, renewable energy solutions, and conservation measures. It was suggested that in order to implement cleaner and greener energy technology, it is important to understand the nature of global energy systems. The challenge of defining the related ideologies of green energy and sustainability was discussed. In this paper, green energy was defined as indicating environmental compatibility with little or no negative environmental impact. This differs from the concept of sustainability, which was defined as an action that can be repeated continuously without depleting or diminishing resources. In general, green energy options include most technologies that do not involve fossil fuels. However, this paper considered a spectrum of shades of green with some options being low-impact and cleaner, and others having high environmental impacts. As an example, the authors presented the ongoing debate over nuclear energy and hydro power. Although both energy sources can be sustainable over hundreds of years, they may or may not be environmentally compatible because they are often considered to have problematic attributes. Energy from renewable sources currently accounts for less than 20 per cent of world primary energy supply because price and implementation challenges in the renewables sector do not generally compare well to other energy sources. With high energy-demands beginning to strain finite fossil-energy supplies, the energy sector is now subject to more frequent disruptions and price fluctuations. Future growth from emerging economies will demand more energy and resources. This paper also emphasized that the proportion of green sources of energy has not increased substantially in the past 3 decades, and despite many technological advances, there continue to be significant

  18. Analyzing Cyber Security Threats on Cyber-Physical Systems Using Model-Based Systems Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerzhner, Aleksandr; Pomerantz, Marc; Tan, Kymie; Campuzano, Brian; Dinkel, Kevin; Pecharich, Jeremy; Nguyen, Viet; Steele, Robert; Johnson, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    The spectre of cyber attacks on aerospace systems can no longer be ignored given that many of the components and vulnerabilities that have been successfully exploited by the adversary on other infrastructures are the same as those deployed and used within the aerospace environment. An important consideration with respect to the mission/safety critical infrastructure supporting space operations is that an appropriate defensive response to an attack invariably involves the need for high precision and accuracy, because an incorrect response can trigger unacceptable losses involving lives and/or significant financial damage. A highly precise defensive response, considering the typical complexity of aerospace environments, requires a detailed and well-founded understanding of the underlying system where the goal of the defensive response is to preserve critical mission objectives in the presence of adversarial activity. In this paper, a structured approach for modeling aerospace systems is described. The approach includes physical elements, network topology, software applications, system functions, and usage scenarios. We leverage Model-Based Systems Engineering methodology by utilizing the Object Management Group's Systems Modeling Language to represent the system being analyzed and also utilize model transformations to change relevant aspects of the model into specialized analyses. A novel visualization approach is utilized to visualize the entire model as a three-dimensional graph, allowing easier interaction with subject matter experts. The model provides a unifying structure for analyzing the impact of a particular attack or a particular type of attack. Two different example analysis types are demonstrated in this paper: a graph-based propagation analysis based on edge labels, and a graph-based propagation analysis based on node labels.

  19. The Tobacco Use Management System: Analyzing Tobacco Control From a Systems Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, David; Coghill, Ken; Zhang, Jian Ying

    2010-01-01

    We use systems thinking to develop a strategic framework for analyzing the tobacco problem and we suggest solutions. Humans are vulnerable to nicotine addiction, and the most marketable form of nicotine delivery is the most harmful. A tobacco use management system has evolved out of governments’ attempts to regulate tobacco marketing and use and to support services that provide information about tobacco's harms and discourage its use. Our analysis identified 5 systemic problems that constrain progress toward the elimination of tobacco-related harm. We argue that this goal would be more readily achieved if the regulatory subsystem had dynamic power to regulate tobacco products and the tobacco industry as well as a responsive process for resourcing tobacco use control activities. PMID:20466970

  20. 78 FR 59974 - Centennial Challenges 2014 Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Airspace Operations Challenge (AOC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION Centennial Challenges 2014 Unmanned Aircraft Systems... wish to compete may now register. Centennial Challenges is a program of prize competitions to stimulate...: http://www.uasaoc.org For general information on the NASA Centennial Challenges Program please visit...

  1. Neural System Prediction and Identification Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis eVlachos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Can we infer the function of a biological neural network (BNN if we know the connectivity and activity of all its constituent neurons? This question is at the core of neuroscience and, accordingly, various methods have been developed to record the activity and connectivity of as many neurons as possible. Surprisingly, there is no theoretical or computational demonstration that neuronal activity and connectivity are indeed sufficient to infer the function of a BNN. Therefore, we pose the Neural Systems Identification and Prediction Challenge (nuSPIC. We provide the connectivity and activity of all neurons and invite participants (i to infer the functions implemented (hard-wired in spiking neural networks (SNNs by stimulating and recording the activity of neurons and, (ii to implement predefined mathematical/biological functions using SNNs. The nuSPICs can be accessed via a web-interface to the NEST simulator and the user is not required to know any specific programming language. Furthermore, the nuSPICs can be used as a teaching tool. Finally, nuSPICs use the crowd-sourcing model to address scientific issues. With this computational approach we aim to identify which functions can be inferred by systematic recordings of neuronal activity and connectivity. In addition, nuSPICs will help the design and application of new experimental paradigms based on the structure of the SNN and the presumed function which is to be discovered.

  2. Neural system prediction and identification challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachos, Ioannis; Zaytsev, Yury V; Spreizer, Sebastian; Aertsen, Ad; Kumar, Arvind

    2013-01-01

    Can we infer the function of a biological neural network (BNN) if we know the connectivity and activity of all its constituent neurons?This question is at the core of neuroscience and, accordingly, various methods have been developed to record the activity and connectivity of as many neurons as possible. Surprisingly, there is no theoretical or computational demonstration that neuronal activity and connectivity are indeed sufficient to infer the function of a BNN. Therefore, we pose the Neural Systems Identification and Prediction Challenge (nuSPIC). We provide the connectivity and activity of all neurons and invite participants (1) to infer the functions implemented (hard-wired) in spiking neural networks (SNNs) by stimulating and recording the activity of neurons and, (2) to implement predefined mathematical/biological functions using SNNs. The nuSPICs can be accessed via a web-interface to the NEST simulator and the user is not required to know any specific programming language. Furthermore, the nuSPICs can be used as a teaching tool. Finally, nuSPICs use the crowd-sourcing model to address scientific issues. With this computational approach we aim to identify which functions can be inferred by systematic recordings of neuronal activity and connectivity. In addition, nuSPICs will help the design and application of new experimental paradigms based on the structure of the SNN and the presumed function which is to be discovered.

  3. 40 CFR 1065.309 - Continuous gas analyzer system-response and updating-recording verification-for gas analyzers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... not apply to any processing of individual analyzer signals that are time aligned to their t 50 times... for water removed from the sample done in post-processing according to § 1065.659 and it does not... used during emission testing. You may not use interpolation or filtering to alter the recorded values...

  4. Orion Absolute Navigation System Progress and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Greg N.; D'Souza, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    The Orion spacecraft is being designed as NASA's next-generation exploration vehicle for crewed missions beyond Low-Earth Orbit. The navigation system for the Orion spacecraft is being designed in a Multi-Organizational Design Environment (MODE) team including contractor and NASA personnel. The system uses an Extended Kalman Filter to process measurements and determine the state. The design of the navigation system has undergone several iterations and modifications since its inception, and continues as a work-in-progress. This paper seeks to benchmark the current state of the design and some of the rationale and analysis behind it. There are specific challenges to address when preparing a timely and effective design for the Exploration Flight Test (EFT-1), while still looking ahead and providing software extensibility for future exploration missions. The primary measurements in a Near-Earth or Mid-Earth environment consist of GPS pseudorange and deltarange, but for future explorations missions the use of star-tracker and optical navigation sources need to be considered. Discussions are presented for state size and composition, processing techniques, and consider states. A presentation is given for the processing technique using the computationally stable and robust UDU formulation with an Agee-Turner Rank-One update. This allows for computational savings when dealing with many parameters which are modeled as slowly varying Gauss-Markov processes. Preliminary analysis shows up to a 50% reduction in computation versus a more traditional formulation. Several state elements are discussed and evaluated, including position, velocity, attitude, clock bias/drift, and GPS measurement biases in addition to bias, scale factor, misalignment, and non-orthogonalities of the accelerometers and gyroscopes. Another consideration is the initialization of the EKF in various scenarios. Scenarios such as single-event upset, ground command, pad alignment, cold start are discussed as are

  5. The challenge for genetic epidemiologists: how to analyze large numbers of SNPs in relation to complex diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidema, A Geert; Boer, Jolanda M A; Nagelkerke, Nico; Mariman, Edwin C M; van der A, Daphne L; Feskens, Edith J M

    2006-04-21

    Genetic epidemiologists have taken the challenge to identify genetic polymorphisms involved in the development of diseases. Many have collected data on large numbers of genetic markers but are not familiar with available methods to assess their association with complex diseases. Statistical methods have been developed for analyzing the relation between large numbers of genetic and environmental predictors to disease or disease-related variables in genetic association studies. In this commentary we discuss logistic regression analysis, neural networks, including the parameter decreasing method (PDM) and genetic programming optimized neural networks (GPNN) and several non-parametric methods, which include the set association approach, combinatorial partitioning method (CPM), restricted partitioning method (RPM), multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) method and the random forests approach. The relative strengths and weaknesses of these methods are highlighted. Logistic regression and neural networks can handle only a limited number of predictor variables, depending on the number of observations in the dataset. Therefore, they are less useful than the non-parametric methods to approach association studies with large numbers of predictor variables. GPNN on the other hand may be a useful approach to select and model important predictors, but its performance to select the important effects in the presence of large numbers of predictors needs to be examined. Both the set association approach and random forests approach are able to handle a large number of predictors and are useful in reducing these predictors to a subset of predictors with an important contribution to disease. The combinatorial methods give more insight in combination patterns for sets of genetic and/or environmental predictor variables that may be related to the outcome variable. As the non-parametric methods have different strengths and weaknesses we conclude that to approach genetic association

  6. New Advances and Challenges of Fall Detection Systems: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Xu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Falling, as one of the main harm threats to the elderly, has drawn researchers’ attentions and has always been one of the most valuable research topics in the daily health-care for the elderly in last two decades. Before 2014, several researchers reviewed the development of fall detection, presented issues and challenges, and navigated the direction for the study in the future. With smart sensors and Internet of Things (IoT developing rapidly, this field has made great progress. However, there is a lack of a review and discussion on novel sensors, technologies and algorithms introduced and employed from 2014, as well as the emerging challenges and new issues. To bridge this gap, we present an overview of fall detection research and discuss the core research questions on this topic. A total of 6830 related documents were collected and analyzed based on the key words. Among these documents, the twenty most influential and highly cited articles are selected and discussed profoundly from three perspectives: sensors, algorithms and performance. The findings would assist researchers in understanding current developments and barriers in the systems of fall detection. Although researchers achieve fruitful work and progress, this research domain still confronts challenges on theories and practice. In the near future, the new solutions based on advanced IoT will sustainably urge the development to prevent falling injuries.

  7. The Emergence of Enterprise Systems Management - A Challenge to the IS Curriculum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Charles; Kræmmergaard, Pernille; Rikhardsson, Pall M.

    This paper proposes four cornerstones of a future Information Systems curriculum. It analyzes the challenges of the IS curriculum based on the development of enterprise systems, and further argues that the practice and the research into enterprise systems have progressed to a new stage resulting ...

  8. IndElec: A Software for Analyzing Party Systems and Electoral Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Ocaña

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available IndElec is a software addressed to compute a wide range of indices from electoral data, which are intended to analyze both party systems and electoral systems in political studies. Further, IndElec can calculate such indices from electoral data at several levels of aggregation, even when the acronyms of some political parties change across districts. As the amount of information provided by IndElec may be considerable, this software also aids the user in the analysis of electoral data through three capabilities. First, IndElec automatically elaborates preliminary descriptive statistical reports of computed indices. Second, IndElec saves the computed information into text files in data matrix format, which can be directly loaded by any statistical software to facilitate more sophisticated statistical studies. Third, IndElec provides results in several file formats (text, CSV, HTML, R to facilitate their visualization and management by using a wide range of application softwares (word processors, spreadsheets, web browsers, etc.. Finally, a graphical user interface is provided for IndElec to manage calculation processes, but no visualization facility is available in this environment. In fact, both the inputs and outputs for IndElec are arranged in files with the aforementioned formats.

  9. Analyzing Information Systems Development: A Comparison and Analysis of Eight IS Development Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iivari, Juhani; Hirschheim, Rudy

    1996-01-01

    Analyzes and compares eight information systems (IS) development approaches: Information Modelling, Decision Support Systems, the Socio-Technical approach, the Infological approach, the Interactionist approach, the Speech Act-based approach, Soft Systems Methodology, and the Scandinavian Trade Unionist approach. Discusses the organizational roles…

  10. Power system dynamics: same phenomena; new challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansour, Yakout; Vaahedi, Ebraim; Xu, Wilsun; Chang, Allen [British Columbia Hydro, Vancouver, BC (Canada). Regional System Planning

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents a summary of how a utility met some challenges recently in two areas: transient angular stability and voltage stability. The paper also includes a view of what is evolving in these two areas. (author) 7 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  11. A formulation to analyze system-of-systems problems: A case study of airport metroplex operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyalasomayajula, Sricharan Kishore

    A system-of-systems (SoS) can be described as a collection of multiple, heterogeneous, distributed, independent components interacting to achieve a range of objectives. A generic formulation was developed to model component interactions in an SoS to understand their influence on overall SoS performance. The formulation employs a lexicon to aggregate components into hierarchical interaction networks and understand how their topological properties affect the performance of the aggregations. Overall SoS performance is evaluated by monitoring the changes in stakeholder profitability due to changes in component interactions. The formulation was applied to a case study in air transportation focusing on operations at airport metroplexes. Metroplexes are geographical regions with two or more airports in close proximity to one another. The case study explored how metroplex airports interact with one another, what dependencies drive these interactions, and how these dependencies affect metroplex throughput and capacity. Metrics were developed to quantify runway dependencies at a metroplex and were correlated with its throughput and capacity. Operations at the New York/New Jersey metroplex (NYNJ) airports were simulated to explore the feasibility of operating very large aircraft (VLA), such as the Airbus A380, as a delay-mitigation strategy at these airports. The proposed formulation was employed to analyze the impact of this strategy on different stakeholders in the national air transportation system (ATS), such as airlines and airports. The analysis results and their implications were used to compare the pros and cons of operating VLAs at NYNJ from the perspectives of airline profitability, and flight delays at NYNJ and across the ATS.

  12. Building of the system for managing and analyzing the hyperspectral data of drilling core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yanju; Zhang Jielin; Wang Junhu

    2010-01-01

    Drilling core logging is very important for geological exploration, hyperspectral detection provides a totally new method for drilling core logging. To use and analyze the drilling core data more easily, and especially store them permanently, a system is built for analyzing and managing the hyperspectral data. The system provides a convenient way to sort the core data, and extract the spectral characteristics, which is the basis for the following mineral identification. (authors)

  13. The challenge for genetic epidemiologists: how to analyze large numbers of SNPs in relation to complex diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heidema, A.G.; Boer, J.M.A.; Nagelkerke, N.; Mariman, E.C.M.; A, van der D.L.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Genetic epidemiologists have taken the challenge to identify genetic polymorphisms involved in the development of diseases. Many have collected data on large numbers of genetic markers but are not familiar with available methods to assess their association with complex diseases. Statistical methods

  14. Urban underground logistics system in China: Opportunities or challenges?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhilong Chen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available An urban underground logistics system (ULS is one important means of solving urban traffic problems that has unique advantages. Freight transportation in China requires a new transportation mode. Therefore, ULS has garnered increasing attention. However, to date, few scholars and practitioners have investigated ULS in China. Although ULS shows good development opportunities, it also faces great challenges. Based on the Macro-environment and situation analysis (PEST-SWOT model, which is a strategic analysis method that combines both SWOT and PEST to effectively identify advantages, disadvantages, opportunities and threats, this paper first uses PEST to analyze the macro-environment of ULS in China and identify its internal factors (i.e., advantages and disadvantages and external factors (i.e., opportunities and threats. Next, based on the SWOT framework, this paper proposes several development strategies and recommendations that provide a comprehensive and novel perspective to the study of ULS in China.

  15. Challenges and Opportunities of Implementing District-based Health Information System in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mengiste, Shegaw Anagaw

    2005-01-01

    This paper has analyzed the challenges of sustainability and scalability of HIS. The empirical analysis was conducted in a backward and disadvantaged region of Ethiopia. An ongoing process of HISP (Health Information System Program) was addressed and the main challenges in the implementation...... of sustainable and scalable district-based health information system in the context of Primary Health Care (PHC) sector in Ethiopia were identified. Human resource, infrastructure, and HIS related problems are the main challenges hindering the implementation of sustainable and scalable district-based health...... information systems in the region....

  16. Visual and intelligent transients and accidents analyzer based on thermal-hydraulic system code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Lin; Rui Hu; Yun Su; Ronghua Zhang; Yanhua Yang

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Many thermal-hydraulic system codes were developed in the past twenty years, such as RELAP5, RETRAN, ATHLET, etc. Because of their general and advanced features in thermal-hydraulic computation, they are widely used in the world to analyze transients and accidents. But there are following disadvantages for most of these original thermal-hydraulic system codes. Firstly, because models are built through input decks, so the input files are complex and non-figurative, and the style of input decks is various for different users and models. Secondly, results are shown in off-line data file form. It is not convenient for analysts who may pay more attention to dynamic parameters trend and changing. Thirdly, there are few interfaces with other program in these original thermal-hydraulic system codes. This restricts the codes expanding. The subject of this paper is to develop a powerful analyzer based on these thermal-hydraulic system codes to analyze transients and accidents more simply, accurately and fleetly. Firstly, modeling is visual and intelligent. Users build the thermalhydraulic system model using component objects according to their needs, and it is not necessary for them to face bald input decks. The style of input decks created automatically by the analyzer is unified and can be accepted easily by other people. Secondly, parameters concerned by analyst can be dynamically communicated to show or even change. Thirdly, the analyzer provide interface with other programs for the thermal-hydraulic system code. Thus parallel computation between thermal-hydraulic system code and other programs become possible. In conclusion, through visual and intelligent method, the analyzer based on general and advanced thermal-hydraulic system codes can be used to analysis transients and accidents more effectively. The main purpose of this paper is to present developmental activities, assessment and application results of the visual and intelligent

  17. Challenges in implementing electronic hand hygiene monitoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Laurie J

    2016-05-02

    Electronic hand hygiene (HH) monitoring systems offer the exciting prospect of a more precise, less biased measure of HH performance than direct observation. However, electronic systems are challenging to implement. Selecting a system that minimizes disruption to the physical infrastructure and to clinician workflow, and that fits with the organization's culture and budget, is challenging. Getting front-line workers' buy-in and addressing concerns about the accuracy of the system and how the data will be used are also difficult challenges. Finally, ensuring information from the system reaches front-line workers and is used by them to improve HH practice is a complex challenge. We describe these challenges in detail and suggests ways to overcome them. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A System Evaluation Theory Analyzing Value and Results Chain for Institutional Accreditation in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquibut, Rene Ymbong

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to apply the system evaluation theory (SET) to analyze the institutional quality standards of Oman Academic Accreditation Authority using the results chain and value chain tools. Design/methodology/approach: In systems thinking, the institutional standards are connected as input, process, output and feedback and leads to…

  19. Wind Energy System Time-domain (WEST) analyzers using hybrid simulation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    Two stand-alone analyzers constructed for real time simulation of the complex dynamic characteristics of horizontal-axis wind energy systems are described. Mathematical models for an aeroelastic rotor, including nonlinear aerodynamic and elastic loads, are implemented with high speed digital and analog circuitry. Models for elastic supports, a power train, a control system, and a rotor gimbal system are also included. Limited correlation efforts show good comparisons between results produced by the analyzers and results produced by a large digital simulation. The digital simulation results correlate well with test data.

  20. End loss analyzer system for measurements of plasma flux at the C-2U divertor electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griswold, M. E., E-mail: mgriswold@trialphaenergy.com; Korepanov, S.; Thompson, M. C. [Tri Alpha Energy, P.O. Box 7010, Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    An end loss analyzer system consisting of electrostatic, gridded retarding-potential analyzers and pyroelectric crystal bolometers was developed to characterize the plasma loss along open field lines to the divertors of C-2U. The system measures the current and energy distribution of escaping ions as well as the total power flux to enable calculation of the energy lost per escaping electron/ion pair. Special care was taken in the construction of the analyzer elements so that they can be directly mounted to the divertor electrode. An attenuation plate at the entrance to the gridded retarding-potential analyzer reduces plasma density by a factor of 60 to prevent space charge limitations inside the device, without sacrificing its angular acceptance of ions. In addition, all of the electronics for the measurement are isolated from ground so that they can float to the bias potential of the electrode, 2 kV below ground.

  1. The Emergence of Enterprise Systems Management - A Challenge to the IS Curriculum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Charles; Kræmmergaard, Pernille; Rikhardsson, Pall M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes four cornerstones of a future Information Systems curriculum. It analyzes the challenges of the IS curriculum based on the development of enterprise systems, and further argues that the practice and the research into enterprise systems have progressed to a new stage resulting...... in the emergence of Enterprise Systems Management (ESM). Enterprise Systems Management calls for new competences and consequently represents new challenges to the IS curriculum. The paper outlines potential teaching issues and discusses the impact on the IS curriculum. Finally the paper suggests ways...

  2. A model system for analyzing the interrelations between the energy sector and the whole economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strubegger, M.; Messner, S.

    1989-01-01

    This paper introduces an instrument for the analysis of interactions between economy, private consumption and the energy sector. It is realized as an integrated model system that helps to analyze scenarios concerning future developments of the energy system and the economy for their internal consistency. This model system could provide a methodological basis for rationalizing the present debates on the economic consequences of different energy supply strategies. (author). 24 refs, 2 figs, 7 tabs

  3. A high-performance data acquisition system for computer-based multichannel analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Xinzhi; Bai Rongsheng; Wen Liangbi; Huang Yanwen

    1996-01-01

    A high-performance data acquisition system applied in the multichannel analyzer is designed with single-chip microcomputer system. The paper proposes the principle and the method of realizing the simultaneous data acquisition, the data pre-processing, and the fast bidirectional data transfer by means of direct memory access based on dual-port RAM as well. The measurement for dead or live time of ADC system can also be implemented efficiently by using it

  4. Challenges of communication system during emergency disaster ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this review is to provide the overview of available systems and potential future systems for communication during disaster in Malaysia. Electronic searches in major subject loci databases such as MEDLINE (via PUBMED), Ovid, Science Direct, Scopus, IEEE Xplore digital library and Springer are used in ...

  5. Automated 13CO2 analyzing system for the 13C breath test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suehiro, Makiko; Kuroda, Akira; Maeda, Masahiro; Hinaga, Kou; Watanabe, Hiroyuki.

    1987-01-01

    An automated 13 CO 2 analyzing system for the 13 C breath test was designed, built and evaluated. The system, which was designed to be controlled by a micro-computer, includes CO 2 purification, 13 CO 2 abundance measurement, data processing and data filing. This article gives the description of the whole system with flow charts. This system has proved to work well and it has become feasible to dispose of 5 to 6 CO 2 samples per hour. With such a system, the 13 C breath test will be carried out much more easily and will obtain much greater popularity. (author)

  6. A conceptual framework to analyze and mitigate aging effects of a system in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, S.

    1985-01-01

    A conceptual framework is developed to analyze, characterize, and mitigate the degradation of a system in a nuclear power plant due to aging. The system is evaluated, based on an aging-specific system decision model, to understand and implement decisions pertaining to surveillance, maintenance, and replacement. Decisions on other corrective measures to mitigate the effects of aging of a number of equipment items, interconnections (relationships with other systems), and interfaces (relationships within the system) can also be made based on the proposed approach

  7. A Low Cost Shading Analyzer and Site Evaluator Design to Determine Solar Power System Installation Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selami Kesler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Shading analyzer systems are necessary for selecting the most suitable installation site to sustain enough solar power. Afterwards, changes in solar data throughout the year must be evaluated along with the identification of obstructions surrounding the installation site in order to analyze shading effects on productivity of the solar power system. In this study, the shading analysis tools are introduced briefly, and a new and different device is developed and explained to analyze shading effect of the environmental obstruction on the site on which the solar power system will be established. Thus, exposure duration of the PV panels to the sunlight can be measured effectively. The device is explained with an application on the installation area selected as a pilot site, Denizli, in Turkey.

  8. Homegarden systems: agricultural characteristics and challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogerbrugge, I.; Fresco, L.O.

    1993-01-01

    Many sources of informal, grey literature on agronomic aspects of homegardens are discussed with the aim to increase the understanding of current garden systems, of their evolution and of their potential for increasing food security

  9. Challenges within ventilation systems during accident situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuberger, M.; Bletzer, P.; Fronhoefer, M.; Hardy, T.; Kuhn, W.; Ricketts, C.I.; Schmidmeier, K.H.

    1991-01-01

    To help estimate the mechanical loading at the service location two fluid dynamic codes were investigated. FLOWMASTER shows good results in generating the air-cleaning network and in calculating steady state conditions, but fails in calculating fluid dynamic transients. PROMO is very time consuming in generating the network, but one can obtain good results in calculating fluid dynamic transients. In addition to the challenges posed by elevated pressure, temperature, and air flow, the effects of shock waves, caused by explosions or hydrogen detonations must be considered. The problem of a 'shock-shock' in the flow after the diverging channel by high shock strengths were solved. In order to guarantee the safety margins of filter units during their entire service lives, filter performance needs to be verified under standardized test conditions that take into consideration the particularly adverse effects of filter exposure to super-saturated airflows and elevated differential pressure. The detail construction for a rig to type test filter units under fog conditions and increased pressure drop was finished, and the components of the test facility were chosen. (orig./DG)

  10. Past and future challenges in developing remote systems technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, K.R.

    1978-01-01

    During the early development of remote systems for processing and examining fuel and materials from nuclear reactors, the facility designer and operator worked closely together to meet the challenges of this new field. Numerous challenges still face the nuclear remote systems engineer, e.g., the development of systems that reduce the exposure of workers, the need for advances in basic technology, and the development of cost-effective facilities. The solution to these and other challenges can be accelerated by an expanded program of information exchange, an aggressive development program, and improved project management procedures

  11. Analyzing Effect of System Inertia on Grid Frequency Forecasting Usnig Two Stage Neuro-Fuzzy System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chourey, Divyansh R.; Gupta, Himanshu; Kumar, Amit; Kumar, Jitesh; Kumar, Anand; Mishra, Anup

    2018-04-01

    Frequency forecasting is an important aspect of power system operation. The system frequency varies with load-generation imbalance. Frequency variation depends upon various parameters including system inertia. System inertia determines the rate of fall of frequency after the disturbance in the grid. Though, inertia of the system is not considered while forecasting the frequency of power system during planning and operation. This leads to significant errors in forecasting. In this paper, the effect of inertia on frequency forecasting is analysed for a particular grid system. In this paper, a parameter equivalent to system inertia is introduced. This parameter is used to forecast the frequency of a typical power grid for any instant of time. The system gives appreciable result with reduced error.

  12. Power plant cooling systems: trends and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rittenhouse, R.C.

    1979-01-01

    A novel design for an intake and discharge system at the Belle River plant is described followed by a general discussion of water intake screens and porous dikes for screening fish and zooplankton. The intake system for the San Onofre PWR plant is described and the state regulations controlling the use of water for power plants is discussed. The use of sewage effluent as a source of cooling water is mentioned with reference to the Palo Verde plant. Progress in dry cooling and a new wet/dry tower due to be installed at the San Juan plant towards the end of this year, complete the survey

  13. Orion Absolute Navigation System Progress and Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Greg N.; D'Souza, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The absolute navigation design of NASA's Orion vehicle is described. It has undergone several iterations and modifications since its inception, and continues as a work-in-progress. This paper seeks to benchmark the current state of the design and some of the rationale and analysis behind it. There are specific challenges to address when preparing a timely and effective design for the Exploration Flight Test (EFT-1), while still looking ahead and providing software extensibility for future exploration missions. The primary onboard measurements in a Near-Earth or Mid-Earth environment consist of GPS pseudo-range and delta-range, but for future explorations missions the use of star-tracker and optical navigation sources need to be considered. Discussions are presented for state size and composition, processing techniques, and consider states. A presentation is given for the processing technique using the computationally stable and robust UDU formulation with an Agee-Turner Rank-One update. This allows for computational savings when dealing with many parameters which are modeled as slowly varying Gauss-Markov processes. Preliminary analysis shows up to a 50% reduction in computation versus a more traditional formulation. Several state elements are discussed and evaluated, including position, velocity, attitude, clock bias/drift, and GPS measurement biases in addition to bias, scale factor, misalignment, and non-orthogonalities of the accelerometers and gyroscopes. Another consideration is the initialization of the EKF in various scenarios. Scenarios such as single-event upset, ground command, and cold start are discussed as are strategies for whole and partial state updates as well as covariance considerations. Strategies are given for dealing with latent measurements and high-rate propagation using multi-rate architecture. The details of the rate groups and the data ow between the elements is discussed and evaluated.

  14. Cooperative mobility systems: The human factor challenges.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, Marieke; Kroon, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a vision on cooperative mobility systems from a human factors perspective. To create a common ground for future developments, it’s important to define the common research themes and knowledge gaps. This article presents what steps need to be taken in order to come to proper

  15. Challenges of communication system during emergency disaster ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2017-10-05

    Oct 5, 2017 ... 3.2.3.Satellite-Based Communication. Satellite-based communication is another alternative for communication in the event of disaster. Japan, United States of America and Russia are the countries that have utilised the system to disseminate emergency messages during previous disasters. Satellite-based.

  16. On variable geometric factor systems for top-hat electrostatic space plasma analyzers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collinson, Glyn A; Kataria, Dhiren O

    2010-01-01

    Even in the relatively small region of space that is the Earth's magnetosphere, ion and electron fluxes can vary by several orders of magnitude. Top-hat electrostatic analyzers currently do not possess the dynamic range required to sample plasma under all conditions. The purpose of this study was to compare, through computer simulation, three new electrostatic methods that would allow the sensitivity of a sensor to be varied through control of its geometric factor (GF) (much like an aperture on a camera). The methods studied were inner filter plates, split hemispherical analyzer (SHA) and top-cap electrode. This is the first discussion of the filter plate concept and also the first study where all three systems are studied within a common analyzer design, so that their relative merits could be fairly compared. Filter plates were found to have the important advantage that they facilitate the reduction in instrument sensitivity whilst keeping all other instrument parameters constant. However, it was discovered that filter plates have numerous disadvantages that make such a system impracticable for a top-hat electrostatic analyzer. It was found that both the top-cap electrode and SHA are promising variable geometric factor system (VGFS) concepts for implementation into a top-hat electrostatic analyzer, each with distinct advantages over the other

  17. Modematic: a fast laser beam analyzing system for high power CO2-laser beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Flemming O.; Ulrich, Dan

    2003-03-01

    The performance of an industrial laser is very much depending upon the characteristics of the laser beam. The ISO standards 11146 and 11154 describing test methods for laser beam parameters have been approved. To implement these methods in industry is difficult and especially for the infrared laser sources, such as the CO2-laser, the availabl analyzing systems are slow, difficult to apply and having limited reliability due to the nature of the detection methods. In an EUREKA-project the goal was defined to develop a laser beam analyzing system dedicated to high power CO2-lasers, which could fulfill the demands for an entire analyzing system, automating the time consuming pre-alignment and beam conditioning work required before a beam mode analyses, automating the analyzing sequences and data analysis required to determine the laser beam caustics and last but not least to deliver reliable close to real time data to the operator. The results of this project work will be described in this paper. The research project has led to the development of the Modematic laser beam analyzer, which is ready for the market.

  18. On analyzing poblems of distributed systems and current internet in front of the future internet architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Marcos Alberti

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, there are hundreds of underway worldwide projects to redesign both com- munication protocols and architecture of the Internet. These initiatives are collectively called “future Internet” research. Most of these initiatives rely on existing distributed systems, which often limit or even prevent the development of “clean slate” solutions. The main reason is that the great majority of distributed systems are tightly-linked with the TCP/IP protocol stack. In this article, we provide a first glance discussion on the relationships between future Internet and distributed systems research, focusing on dependencies and similar requirements among these areas. From this analysis, it beco- mes evident that many of the future Internet requirements (and open challenges are repeated in the distributed systems landscape. Although there are many studies on both research fronts individually, the study of the key challenges of future Internet when addressing distributed systems requirements is a topic yet not explored in our contemporary research. This paper aims at determining the gaps and requirements future Internet must fulfill in order to support future distributed systems. To support this objective, a set of design metrics are identified and a convergent design space is proposed.

  19. Computer-controlled system for plasma ion energy auto-analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xianqiu; Chen Junfang; Jiang Zhenmei; Zhong Qinghua; Xiong Yuying; Wu Kaihua

    2003-01-01

    A computer-controlled system for plasma ion energy auto-analyzer was technically studied for rapid and online measurement of plasma ion energy distribution. The system intelligently controls all the equipments via a RS-232 port, a printer port and a home-built circuit. The software designed by LabVIEW G language automatically fulfils all of the tasks such as system initializing, adjustment of scanning-voltage, measurement of weak-current, data processing, graphic export, etc. By using the system, a few minutes are taken to acquire the whole ion energy distribution, which rapidly provide important parameters of plasma process techniques based on semiconductor devices and microelectronics

  20. Analyzing the capability of a radio telescope in a bistatic space debris observation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Zhe; Zhao You; Gao Peng-Qi

    2013-01-01

    A bistatic space debris observation system using a radio telescope as the receiving part is introduced. The detection capability of the system at different working frequencies is analyzed based on real instruments. The detection range of targets with a fixed radar cross section and the detection ability of small space debris at a fixed range are discussed. The simulations of this particular observation system at different transmitting powers are also implemented and the detection capability is discussed. The simulated results approximately match the actual experiments. The analysis in this paper provides a theoretical basis for developing a space debris observation system that can be built in China

  1. Analyzing Systems Integration Best Practices and Assessment in DoD Space Systems Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    AFIT/GLM/LAL/93S-1, 1993. 2. Adoption of ISO /IEC 15288:2002 Systems Engineering – System Life Cycle Process. Institute of Electrical and Electronic...Air Force. 40. Pennel, L.W. and Knight, F.L (Eds). TOR-2005( 8583 )-3, Systems Engineering. The Aerospace Corporation, 2005. 41. Roche, James G

  2. Analyzing Integrated Cost-Schedule Risk for Complex Product Systems R&D Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The vast majority of the research efforts in project risk management tend to assess cost risk and schedule risk independently. However, project cost and time are related in reality and the relationship between them should be analyzed directly. We propose an integrated cost and schedule risk assessment model for complex product systems R&D projects. Graphical evaluation review technique (GERT, Monte Carlo simulation, and probability distribution theory are utilized to establish the model. In addition, statistical analysis and regression analysis techniques are employed to analyze simulation outputs. Finally, a complex product systems R&D project as an example is modeled by the proposed approach and the simulation outputs are analyzed to illustrate the effectiveness of the risk assessment model. It seems that integrating cost and schedule risk assessment can provide more reliable risk estimation results.

  3. The software for the USB-based multi-channel analyzer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Tong; Wei Yixiang

    2002-01-01

    A new type of multi-channel analyzer system is introduced, which takes advantage of Universal Serial Bus to communicate with computer and gets the merit of fast speed, universality and Plug and Play. The authors discussed the framework of the system, primary functions, display of spectrum date and the way of communication with hardware. The environment of the program is Visual Basic 6.0

  4. Health system challenges of NCDs in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Romdhane, Habiba; Tlili, Faten; Skhiri, Afef; Zaman, Shahaduz; Phillimore, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to present a qualitative 'situation analysis' of the healthcare system in Tunisia, as it applies to management of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes. A primary concern was the institutional capacity to manage non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Research took place during 2010 (analysis of official documents, semi-structured interviews with key informants, and case studies in four clinics). Walt and Gilson's framework (1994) for policy analysis was used: content, actors, context, and process. Problems of integration and coordination have compounded funding pressures. Despite its importance in Tunisian healthcare, primary health is ill-equipped to manage NCDs. With limited funds, and no referral or health information system, staff morale in the public sector was low. Private healthcare has been the main development filling the void. This study highlights major gaps in the implementation of a comprehensive approach to NCDs, which is an urgent task across the region. In strategic planning, research on the health system is vital; but the capacity within Ministries of Health to use research has first to be built, with a commitment to grounding policy change in evidence.

  5. Data acquisition and analysis system for the ion microprobe mass analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darby, D.M.; Cristy, S.S.

    1979-02-01

    A computer was interfaced to an ion microprobe mass analyzer for more rapid data acquisition and analysis. The interface is designed to allow data acquisition, independent of the computer. A large data analysis package was developed and implemented. Performance of the computerized system was evaluated and compared to manual operation

  6. Analyzing Web Server Logs to Improve a Site's Usage. The Systems Librarian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeding, Marshall

    2005-01-01

    This column describes ways to streamline and optimize how a Web site works in order to improve both its usability and its visibility. The author explains how to analyze logs and other system data to measure the effectiveness of the Web site design and search engine.

  7. An Activity Theory Approach to Analyze Barriers to a Virtual Management Information Systems (MIS) Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaradat, Suhair; Qablan, Ahmad; Barham, Areej

    2011-01-01

    This paper explains how the activity theory is used as a framework to analyze the barriers to a virtual Management Information Stream (MIS) Curriculum in Jordanian schools, from both the sociocultural and pedagogical perspectives. Taking the activity system as a unit of analysis, this study documents the processes by which activities shape and are…

  8. Developing an Indicator System for Monitoring, Analyzing, and Assessing Airport Sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janic, M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with developing an indicator system for monitoring, analyzing, and assessing sustainability of airports. The sustainability implies simultaneous increasing of the overall socialeconomic benefits and increasing at a slower rate, stagnating, and/or diminishing of the negative impacts

  9. EDAS-manual. SATAN - system to analyze tremendous amounts of nuclear data. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goeringer, H.; Gralla, S.; Malzacher, P.; Richter, M.; Schall, D.; Winkelmann, K.

    1988-09-01

    The system to analyze tremendous amounts of nuclear data (SATAN) shows different steps of a special experiment data evaluation called 'Linearisation'. The report contains the EDAS-manual with EDAS-command, TSO-command, macro and procedure. Syntax and usage of EDAS macros are explained. (DG)

  10. Challenging obduracy: how local communities transform the energy system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schoor, Tineke; van Lente, Harro; Scholtens, Bert; Peine, Alexander

    Paper discussing the contribution of local energy initiatives to the energy transition in the Netherlands. Highlights: New energy movement challenges present governance of energy system. Sustainability and strengthening regional economy are primary goals. Democratic cooperative model should

  11. Privacy Management and Networked PPD Systems - Challenges Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruotsalainen, Pekka; Pharow, Peter; Petersen, Francoise

    2015-01-01

    Modern personal portable health devices (PPDs) become increasingly part of a larger, inhomogeneous information system. Information collected by sensors are stored and processed in global clouds. Services are often free of charge, but at the same time service providers' business model is based on the disclosure of users' intimate health information. Health data processed in PPD networks is not regulated by health care specific legislation. In PPD networks, there is no guarantee that stakeholders share same ethical principles with the user. Often service providers have own security and privacy policies and they rarely offer to the user possibilities to define own, or adapt existing privacy policies. This all raises huge ethical and privacy concerns. In this paper, the authors have analyzed privacy challenges in PPD networks from users' viewpoint using system modeling method and propose the principle "Personal Health Data under Personal Control" must generally be accepted at global level. Among possible implementation of this principle, the authors propose encryption, computer understandable privacy policies, and privacy labels or trust based privacy management methods. The latter can be realized using infrastructural trust calculation and monitoring service. A first step is to require the protection of personal health information and the principle proposed being internationally mandatory. This requires both regulatory and standardization activities, and the availability of open and certified software application which all service providers can implement. One of those applications should be the independent Trust verifier.

  12. Challenges facing transactional e-government systems

    OpenAIRE

    AI-Sebie, Madi M

    2005-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University, 17/10/2005. A review of normative literature, in the field of e-government, indicates that the transactional stage of e-government is one of the most important to the implementation of an e-government system as it represents the highest level of interaction within organisations and between customers and government organisations. Due to the importance of the transactional stage of the e-govern...

  13. ATLAS LTCS Vertically Challenged System Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Deepak; Garrison, Matt; Ku, Jentung

    2014-01-01

    Re-planning of LTCS TVAC testing and supporting RTA (Receiver Telescope Assembly) Test Plan and Procedure document preparation. The Laser Thermal Control System (LTCS) is designed to maintain the lasers onboard Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) at their operational temperatures. In order to verify the functionality of the LTCS, a thermal balance test of the thermal hardware was performed. During the first cold start of the LTCS, the Loop Heat Pipe (LHP) was unable to control the laser mass simulators temperature. The control heaters were fully on and the loop temperature remained well below the desired setpoint. Thermal analysis of the loop did not show these results. This unpredicted behavior of the LTCS was brought up to a panel of LHP experts. Based on the testing and a review of all the data, there were multiple diagnostic performed in order to narrow down the cause. The prevailing theory is that gravity is causing oscillating flow within the loop, which artificially increased the control power needs. This resulted in a replan of the LTCS test flow and the addition of a GSE heater to allow vertical operation.

  14. Improving cold chain systems: Challenges and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok, Ashvin; Brison, Michael; LeTallec, Yann

    2017-04-19

    While a number of new vaccines have been rolled out across the developing world (with more vaccines in the pipeline), cold chain systems are struggling to efficiently support national immunization programs in ensuring the availability of safe and potent vaccines. This article reflects on the Clinton Health Access Initiative, Inc. (CHAI) experience working since 2010 with national immunization programs and partners to improve vaccines cold chains in 10 countries-Ethiopia, Nigeria, Kenya, Malawi, Tanzania, Uganda, Cameroon, Mozambique, Lesotho and India - to identify the root causes and solutions for three common issues limiting cold chain performance. Key recommendations include: Collectively, the solutions detailed in this article chart a path to substantially improving the performance of the cold chain. Combined with an enabling global and in-country environment, it is possible to eliminate cold chain issues as a substantial barrier to effective and full immunization coverage over the next few years. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. When Workflow Management Systems and Logging Systems Meet: Analyzing Large-Scale Execution Traces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunter, Daniel

    2008-07-31

    This poster shows the benefits of integrating a workflow management system with logging and log mining capabilities. By combing two existing, mature technologies: Pegasus-WMS and Netlogger, we are able to efficiently process execution logs of earthquake science workflows consisting of hundreds of thousands to one million tasks. In particular we show results of processing logs of CyberShake, a workflow application running on the TeraGrid. Client-side tools allow scientists to quickly gather statistics about a workflow run and find out which tasks executed, where they were executed, what was their runtime, etc. These statistics can be used to understand the performance characteristics of a workflow and help tune the execution parameters of the workflow management system. This poster shows the scalability of the system presenting results of uploading task execution records into the system and by showing results of querying the system for overall workflow performance information.

  16. The computational challenges of Earth-system science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Alan; Steenman-Clark, Lois

    2002-06-15

    The Earth system--comprising atmosphere, ocean, land, cryosphere and biosphere--is an immensely complex system, involving processes and interactions on a wide range of space- and time-scales. To understand and predict the evolution of the Earth system is one of the greatest challenges of modern science, with success likely to bring enormous societal benefits. High-performance computing, along with the wealth of new observational data, is revolutionizing our ability to simulate the Earth system with computer models that link the different components of the system together. There are, however, considerable scientific and technical challenges to be overcome. This paper will consider four of them: complexity, spatial resolution, inherent uncertainty and time-scales. Meeting these challenges requires a significant increase in the power of high-performance computers. The benefits of being able to make reliable predictions about the evolution of the Earth system should, on their own, amply repay this investment.

  17. An embedded EEG analyzing system based on muC/os-II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Boqiang; Zhang, Yanyan; Liu, Zhongguo; Yin, Cong

    2007-01-01

    An EEG analyzing system based on Advanced RISC Machines (ARM) and muC/os-II real time operating system is discussed in this paper. The detailed system design including the producing of event signals and the synchronization between event signals and EEG signals is described. The details of data acquisition, data preprocessing, data transmitting through USB and system configurations are also contained in the system design. In this paper the design of high capability amplifier and the software of embedded subsystem are discussed. Also the design of realizing multi-task system in muC/os-II, the definition of communicating protocols between PC and the equipment and the detail configurations of USB are given out. The final test shows that the filter behaviors of this equipment are feasible.

  18. Modeling, Control and Analyze of Multi-Machine Drive Systems using Bond Graph Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Belhadj

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a system viewpoint method has been investigated to study and analyze complex systems using Bond Graph technique. These systems are multimachine multi-inverter based on Induction Machine (IM, well used in industries like rolling mills, textile, and railway traction. These systems are multi-domains, multi-scales time and present very strong internal and external couplings, with non-linearity characterized by a high model order. The classical study with analytic model is difficult to manipulate and it is limited to some performances. In this study, a “systemic approach” is presented to design these kinds of systems, using an energetic representation based on Bond Graph formalism. Three types of multimachine are studied with their control strategies. The modeling is carried out by Bond Graph and results are discussed to show the performances of this methodology

  19. Fault tree and reliability relationships for analyzing noncoherent two-state systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alesso, H.P.; Benson, H.J.

    1980-01-01

    Recently, there has been interest in analyzing the noncoherent interactions that result from adversary theft of special nuclear material from reprocessing facilities. The actions of the adversary, acting in conflict with the reprocessing facility's material control and accounting system, may be viewed as a single noncoherent structure. This paper develops a basis for analyzing noncoherent structures by decomposing them into coherent subsystems. Both reliability and fault tree structure functions are used for this analysis. In addition, a bounding criterion is established for the reliability of statistically dependent noncoherent structures. (orig.)

  20. Design and development of VHDL based IP core for coincidence analyzer for FPGA based TDCR system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, Shivam; Gupta, Ashutosh; Chaudhury, Probal; Sharma, M.K.; Kulkarni, M.S.

    2018-01-01

    The coincidence counting technique is used in activity measurement methods to determine the activity of radionuclide e.g. 4πβ-γ method and Triple to Double Coincidence Ratio (TDCR) method etc. The 4πβ-γ method requires two inputs Coincidence Analyzer (CA) whereas; TDCR method requires three inputs CA. A VHDL (Very High Speed Integrated Circuit Hardware Description Language) based IP (Intellectual Property) core for coincidence analyzer has been designed and implemented in FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) for TDCR system. The developed IP not only facilitates the coincidence counting of three channels simultaneously but also provides an extendable dead time feature

  1. Research on the Method of Big Data Collecting, Storing and Analyzing of Tongue Diagnosis System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaowei; Wu, Qingfeng

    2018-03-01

    This paper analyzes the contents of the clinical data of tongue diagnosis of TCM (Traditional Chinese Medicine), and puts forward a method to collect, store and analyze the clinical data of tongue diagnosis. Under the guidance of TCM theory of syndrome differentiation and treatment, this method combines with Hadoop, which is a distributed computing system with strong expansibility, and integrates the functions of analysis and conversion of big data of clinic tongue diagnosis. At the same time, the consistency, scalability and security of big data in tongue diagnosis are realized.

  2. The visual and remote analyzing software for a Linux-based radiation information acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Zhaoyang; Zhang Li; Chen Zhiqiang

    2003-01-01

    A visual and remote analyzing software for the radiation information, which has the merit of universality and credibility, is developed based on the Linux operating system and the TCP/IP network protocol. The software is applied to visually debug and real time monitor of the high-speed radiation information acquisition system, and a safe, direct and timely control can assured. The paper expatiates the designing thought of the software, which provides the reference for other software with the same purpose for the similar systems

  3. Grand societal challenges in information systems research and education

    CERN Document Server

    vom Brocke, Jan; Hofmann, Sara; Tumbas, Sanja

    2015-01-01

    This book examines how information systems research and education can play a major role in contributing to solutions to the Societal Grand Challenges formulated in "The Millennium Project" (millenium-project.org). Individual chapters focus on specific challenges, review existing approaches and contributions towards solutions in information systems research and outline a research agenda for these challenges. The topics considered in this volume range from climate change, population growth, global ICT availability, breakthroughs in science and technology and energy demand to ethical decision-making, policymaking, gender status and transnational crime prevention. It is the first book to present ideas on how the Information Systems discipline can contribute to the solution on this wide spectrum of grand societal challenges.

  4. ANALYZING AND MODELING THE ROLE OF HUMAN RESOURCE INFORMATION SYSTEM ON HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING AT HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTION IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susilo H.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The challenge of Human Resource Management in Higher Education Institutions is how to plan, organize, and assess the performance of human resources so as to contribute as much as possible to the achievement of high quality education objectives. To answer these challenges, the role of Human Resources Information System (HRIS is needed to facilitate leadership both at the university and faculty level in preparing the needs planning and utilizing the advantages of human resources. This study aims to analyze the role of HRIS in human resource planning, especially in the stages of needs planning activities, recruitment and selection, human resources development, promotion and promotion, and assessment of work and remuneration. The output of research resulted in the form of HRIS-based human resource planning concepts for Higher Education Institutions. The research method was designed using qualitative descriptive approach. Data collection is done through observation technique and interview with research location in University of Brawijaya. The results show that the existing HRIS has not played an optimal role because the function of the system is still limited as a data gathering medium and the submission of employment reports that have not been able to contribute as a decision support system for leaders in HR planning.

  5. Analyzing the behavior and reliability of voting systems comprising tri-state units using enumerated simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yacoub, Sherif

    2003-01-01

    Voting is a common technique used in combining results from peer experts, for multiple purposes, and in a variety of domains. In distributed decision making systems, voting mechanisms are used to obtain a decision by incorporating the opinion of multiple units. Voting systems have many applications in fault tolerant systems, mutual exclusion in distributed systems, and replicated databases. We are specifically interested in voting systems as used in decision-making applications. In this paper, we describe a synthetic experimental procedure to study the behavior of a variety of voting system configurations using a simulator to: analyze the state of each expert, apply a voting mechanism, and analyze the voting results. We introduce an enumerated-simulation approach and compare it to existing mathematical approaches. The paper studies the following behaviors of a voting system: (1) the reliability of the voting system, R; (2) the probability of reaching a consensus, P c ; (3) certainty index, T; and (4) the confidence index, C. The configuration parameters controlling the analysis are: (1) the number of participating experts, N, (2) the possible output states of an expert, and (3) the probability distribution of each expert states. We illustrate the application of this approach to a voting system that consists of N units, each has three states: correct (success), wrong (failed), and abstain (did not produce an output). The final output of the decision-making (voting) system is correct if a consensus is reached on a correct unit output, abstain if all units abstain from voting, and wrong otherwise. We will show that using the proposed approach, we can easily conduct studies to unleash several behaviors of a decision-making system with tri-state experts

  6. Method and system for formation and withdrawal of a sample from a surface to be analyzed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Berkel, Gary J.; Kertesz, Vilmos

    2017-10-03

    A method and system for formation and withdrawal of a sample from a surface to be analyzed utilizes a collection instrument having a port through which a liquid solution is conducted onto the surface to be analyzed. The port is positioned adjacent the surface to be analyzed, and the liquid solution is conducted onto the surface through the port so that the liquid solution conducted onto the surface interacts with material comprising the surface. An amount of material is thereafter withdrawn from the surface. Pressure control can be utilized to manipulate the solution balance at the surface to thereby control the withdrawal of the amount of material from the surface. Furthermore, such pressure control can be coordinated with the movement of the surface relative to the port of the collection instrument within the X-Y plane.

  7. System, apparatus and methods to implement high-speed network analyzers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezick, James; Lethin, Richard; Ros-Giralt, Jordi; Szilagyi, Peter; Wohlford, David E

    2015-11-10

    Systems, apparatus and methods for the implementation of high-speed network analyzers are provided. A set of high-level specifications is used to define the behavior of the network analyzer emitted by a compiler. An optimized inline workflow to process regular expressions is presented without sacrificing the semantic capabilities of the processing engine. An optimized packet dispatcher implements a subset of the functions implemented by the network analyzer, providing a fast and slow path workflow used to accelerate specific processing units. Such dispatcher facility can also be used as a cache of policies, wherein if a policy is found, then packet manipulations associated with the policy can be quickly performed. An optimized method of generating DFA specifications for network signatures is also presented. The method accepts several optimization criteria, such as min-max allocations or optimal allocations based on the probability of occurrence of each signature input bit.

  8. Molecular Detection of Bladder Cancer by Fluorescence Microsatellite Analysis and an Automated Genetic Analyzing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarel Halachmi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the ability of an automated fluorescent analyzing system to detect microsatellite alterations, in patients with bladder cancer. We investigated 11 with pathology proven bladder Transitional Cell Carcinoma (TCC for microsatellite alterations in blood, urine, and tumor biopsies. DNA was prepared by standard methods from blood, urine and resected tumor specimens, and was used for microsatellite analysis. After the primers were fluorescent labeled, amplification of the DNA was performed with PCR. The PCR products were placed into the automated genetic analyser (ABI Prism 310, Perkin Elmer, USA and were subjected to fluorescent scanning with argon ion laser beams. The fluorescent signal intensity measured by the genetic analyzer measured the product size in terms of base pairs. We found loss of heterozygocity (LOH or microsatellite alterations (a loss or gain of nucleotides, which alter the original normal locus size in all the patients by using fluorescent microsatellite analysis and an automated analyzing system. In each case the genetic changes found in urine samples were identical to those found in the resected tumor sample. The studies demonstrated the ability to detect bladder tumor non-invasively by fluorescent microsatellite analysis of urine samples. Our study supports the worldwide trend for the search of non-invasive methods to detect bladder cancer. We have overcome major obstacles that prevented the clinical use of an experimental system. With our new tested system microsatellite analysis can be done cheaper, faster, easier and with higher scientific accuracy.

  9. Organic Coasts? Regulatory Challenges of Certifying Integrated Shrimp-Mangrove Production Systems in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Tran Thi Thu; Bush, Simon R.; Mol, Arthur P. J.; van Dijk, Han

    2012-01-01

    The Vietnamese government aims to expand the scale of Naturland certified organic production in integrated shrimp-mangrove farming systems across the coast of Ca Mau province by 2015. In doing so the division between public and private regulation has become blurred. We analyze the government's goal by examining the regulatory challenges of using…

  10. A WebGIS-based system for analyzing and visualizing air quality data for Shanghai Municipality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Manyi; Liu, Chaoshun; Gao, Wei

    2014-10-01

    An online visual analytical system based on Java Web and WebGIS for air quality data for Shanghai Municipality was designed and implemented to quantitatively analyze and qualitatively visualize air quality data. By analyzing the architecture of WebGIS and Java Web, we firstly designed the overall scheme for system architecture, then put forward the software and hardware environment and also determined the main function modules for the system. The visual system was ultimately established with the DIV + CSS layout method combined with JSP, JavaScript, and some other computer programming languages based on the Java programming environment. Moreover, Struts, Spring, and Hibernate frameworks (SSH) were integrated in the system for the purpose of easy maintenance and expansion. To provide mapping service and spatial analysis functions, we selected ArcGIS for Server as the GIS server. We also used Oracle database and ESRI file geodatabase to store spatial data and non-spatial data in order to ensure the data security. In addition, the response data from the Web server are resampled to implement rapid visualization through the browser. The experimental successes indicate that this system can quickly respond to user's requests, and efficiently return the accurate processing results.

  11. Microgamma Scan System for analyzing radial isotopic profiles of irradiated transmutation fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilton, Bruce A.; McGrath, Christopher A.

    2008-01-01

    The U. S. Global Nuclear Energy Partnership / Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (GNEP/AFCI) is developing metallic transmutation alloys as a fuel form to transmute the long-lived transuranic actinide isotopes contained in spent nuclear fuel into shorter-lived fission products. A micro-gamma scan system is being developed to analyze the radial distribution of fission products, such as Cs-137, Cs-134, Ru-106, and Zr-95, in irradiated fuel cross-sections. The micro-gamma scan system consists of a precision linear stage with integrated sample holder and a tungsten alloy collimator, which interfaces with the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Analytical Laboratory Hot Cell (ALHC) Gamma Scan System high purity germanium detector, multichannel analyzer, and removable collimators. A simplified model of the micro-gamma scan system was developed in MCNP (Monte-Carlo N-Particle Transport Code) and used to investigate the system performance and to interpret data from the scoping studies. Preliminary measurements of the micro-gamma scan system are discussed. (authors)

  12. Analyzing systemic risk using non-linear marginal expected shortfall and its minimum spanning tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jae Wook; Ko, Bonggyun; Chang, Woojin

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to propose a new theoretical framework for analyzing the systemic risk using the marginal expected shortfall (MES) and its correlation-based minimum spanning tree (MST). At first, we develop two parametric models of MES with their closed-form solutions based on the Capital Asset Pricing Model. Our models are derived from the non-symmetric quadratic form, which allows them to consolidate the non-linear relationship between the stock and market returns. Secondly, we discover the evidences related to the utility of our models and the possible association in between the non-linear relationship and the emergence of severe systemic risk by considering the US financial system as a benchmark. In this context, the evolution of MES also can be regarded as a reasonable proxy of systemic risk. Lastly, we analyze the structural properties of the systemic risk using the MST based on the computed series of MES. The topology of MST conveys the presence of sectoral clustering and strong co-movements of systemic risk leaded by few hubs during the crisis. Specifically, we discover that the Depositories are the majority sector leading the connections during the Non-Crisis period, whereas the Broker-Dealers are majority during the Crisis period.

  13. Transient analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muir, M.D.

    1975-01-01

    The design and design philosophy of a high performance, extremely versatile transient analyzer is described. This sub-system was designed to be controlled through the data acquisition computer system which allows hands off operation. Thus it may be placed on the experiment side of the high voltage safety break between the experimental device and the control room. This analyzer provides control features which are extremely useful for data acquisition from PPPL diagnostics. These include dynamic sample rate changing, which may be intermixed with multiple post trigger operations with variable length blocks using normal, peak to peak or integrate modes. Included in the discussion are general remarks on the advantages of adding intelligence to transient analyzers, a detailed description of the characteristics of the PPPL transient analyzer, a description of the hardware, firmware, control language and operation of the PPPL transient analyzer, and general remarks on future trends in this type of instrumentation both at PPPL and in general

  14. ITHNA.SYS: An Integrated Thermal Hydraulic and Neutronic Analyzer SYStem for NUR research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazidi, S., E-mail: samirmazidi@gmail.com [Division Physique et Applications Nucléaires, Centre de Recherche Nucléaire de Draria (CRND), BP 43 Sebala, Draria, Alger (Algeria); Meftah, B., E-mail: b_meftah@yahoo.com [Division Physique et Applications Nucléaires, Centre de Recherche Nucléaire de Draria (CRND), BP 43 Sebala, Draria, Alger (Algeria); Belgaid, M., E-mail: belgaidm@yahoo.com [Faculté de Physique, Université Houari Boumediene, USTHB, BP 31, Bab Ezzouar, Alger (Algeria); Letaim, F., E-mail: fletaim@yahoo.fr [Faculté des Sciences et Technologies, Université d’El-oued, PO Box 789, El-oued (Algeria); Halilou, A., E-mail: hal_rane@yahoo.fr [Division Réacteur NUR, Centre de Recherche Nucléaire de Draria, BP 43 Sebala, Draria, Alger (Algeria)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • We develop a neutronic and thermal hydraulic MTR reactor analyzer. • The analyzer allows a rapid determination of the reactor core parameters. • Some NUR reactor parameters have been analyzed. - Abstract: This paper introduces the Integrated Thermal Hydraulic and Neutronic Analyzer SYStem (ITHNA.SYS) that has been developed for the Algerian research reactor NUR. It is used both as an operating aid tool and as a core physics engineering analysis tool. The system embeds three modules of the MTR-PC software package developed by INVAP SE: the cell calculation code WIMSD, the core calculation code CITVAP and the program TERMIC for thermal hydraulic analysis of a material testing reactor (MTR) core in forced convection. ITHNA.SYS operates both in on-line and off-line modes. In the on-line mode, the system is linked, via the computer parallel port, to the data acquisition console of the reactor control room and allows a real time monitoring of major physical and safety parameters of the NUR core. PC-based ITHNA.SYS provides a viable and convenient way of using an accumulated and often complex reactor physics stock of knowledge and frees the user from the intricacy of adequate reactor core modeling. This guaranties an accurate, though rapid, determination of a variety of neutronic and thermal hydraulic parameters of importance for the operation and safety analysis of the NUR research reactor. Instead of the several hours usually required, the processing time for the determination of such parameters is now reduced to few seconds. Validation of the system was performed with respect to experimental measurements and to calculations using reference codes. ITHNA.SYS can be easily adapted to accommodate other kinds of MTR reactors.

  15. A scalable, self-analyzing digital locking system for use on quantum optics experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparkes, B M; Chrzanowski, H M; Parrain, D P; Buchler, B C; Lam, P K; Symul, T

    2011-07-01

    Digital control of optics experiments has many advantages over analog control systems, specifically in terms of the scalability, cost, flexibility, and the integration of system information into one location. We present a digital control system, freely available for download online, specifically designed for quantum optics experiments that allows for automatic and sequential re-locking of optical components. We show how the inbuilt locking analysis tools, including a white-noise network analyzer, can be used to help optimize individual locks, and verify the long term stability of the digital system. Finally, we present an example of the benefits of digital locking for quantum optics by applying the code to a specific experiment used to characterize optical Schrödinger cat states.

  16. [Morphometrical analyze of the middle cerebral artery system at the 13-15 weeks fetuses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macovei, Georgeta Nataşa; Varlam, H; St Antohe, D

    2002-01-01

    Tele-encephalization process is accompanied by the appearance and progressive complication of the middle cerebral artery system. The aim of our study is to analyze the morphometrical parameters of the middle cerebral artery branches in the beginning of the edification of its system. We used 162 cerebral hemispheres from 88 fetuses aged of 13-15 weeks. Middle cerebral artery system was injected with a gelatin-China ink mixture and images recorded by means of a Zeiss surgical microscope. Parameters evaluation (length, proximal and distal diameters, external surface, volume, angles of bifurcation) was realized with KS-300 program. At this early age middle cerebral artery system has only 4-5 generations of branches usually resulting from acute angle bifurcations.

  17. Preferences in Interactive Systems: Technical Challenges and Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Peintner, Bart; Viappiani, Paolo; Yorke-Smith, Neil

    2008-01-01

    Interactive artificial intelligence systems employ preferences in both their reasoning and their interaction with the user. This survey considers preference handling in applications such as recommender systems, personal assistant agents, and personalized user interfaces. We survey the major questions and approaches, present illustrative examples, and give an outlook on potential benefits and challenges.

  18. Comparative study of gas-analyzing systems designed for continuous monitoring of TPP emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondrat'eva, O. E.; Roslyakov, P. V.

    2017-06-01

    Determining the composition of combustion products is important in terms of both control of emissions into the atmosphere from thermal power plants and optimization of fuel combustion processes in electric power plants. For this purpose, the concentration of oxygen, carbon monoxide, nitrogen, and sulfur oxides in flue gases is monitored; in case of solid fuel combustion, fly ash concentration is monitored as well. According to the new nature conservation law in Russia, all large TPPs shall be equipped with continuous emission monitoring and measurement systems (CEMMS) into the atmosphere. In order to ensure the continuous monitoring of pollutant emissions, direct round-the-clock measurements are conducted with the use of either domestically produced or imported gas analyzers and analysis systems, the operation of which is based on various physicochemical methods and which can be generally used when introducing CEMMS. Depending on the type and purposes of measurement, various kinds of instruments having different features may be used. This article represents a comparative study of gas-analysis systems for measuring the content of polluting substances in exhaust gases based on various physical and physicochemical analysis methods. It lists basic characteristics of the methods commonly applied in the area of gas analysis. It is proven that, considering the necessity of the long-term, continuous operation of gas analyzers for monitoring and measurement of pollutant emissions into the atmosphere, as well as the requirements for reliability and independence from aggressive components and temperature of the gas flow, it is preferable to use optical gas analyzers for the aforementioned purposes. In order to reduce the costs of equipment comprising a CEMMS at a TPP and optimize the combustion processes, electrochemical and thermomagnetic gas analyzers may also be used.

  19. Shared Electronic Health Record Systems: Key Legal and Security Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Ellen K; Skipenes, Eva; Hausken, Marie F; Skeie, Svein; Østbye, Truls; Iversen, Marjolein M

    2017-11-01

    Use of shared electronic health records opens a whole range of new possibilities for flexible and fruitful cooperation among health personnel in different health institutions, to the benefit of the patients. There are, however, unsolved legal and security challenges. The overall aim of this article is to highlight legal and security challenges that should be considered before using shared electronic cooperation platforms and health record systems to avoid legal and security "surprises" subsequent to the implementation. Practical lessons learned from the use of a web-based ulcer record system involving patients, community nurses, GPs, and hospital nurses and doctors in specialist health care are used to illustrate challenges we faced. Discussion of possible legal and security challenges is critical for successful implementation of shared electronic collaboration systems. Key challenges include (1) allocation of responsibility, (2) documentation routines, (3) and integrated or federated access control. We discuss and suggest how challenges of legal and security aspects can be handled. This discussion may be useful for both current and future users, as well as policy makers.

  20. Development and evaluation of a computer-aided system for analyzing human error in railway operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong San; Baek, Dong Hyun; Yoon, Wan Chul

    2010-01-01

    As human error has been recognized as one of the major contributors to accidents in safety-critical systems, there has been a strong need for techniques that can analyze human error effectively. Although many techniques have been developed so far, much room for improvement remains. As human error analysis is a cognitively demanding and time-consuming task, it is particularly necessary to develop a computerized system supporting this task. This paper presents a computer-aided system for analyzing human error in railway operations, called Computer-Aided System for Human Error Analysis and Reduction (CAS-HEAR). It supports analysts to find multiple levels of error causes and their causal relations by using predefined links between contextual factors and causal factors as well as links between causal factors. In addition, it is based on a complete accident model; hence, it helps analysts to conduct a thorough analysis without missing any important part of human error analysis. A prototype of CAS-HEAR was evaluated by nine field investigators from six railway organizations in Korea. Its overall usefulness in human error analysis was confirmed, although development of its simplified version and some modification of the contextual factors and causal factors are required in order to ensure its practical use.

  1. Analyzing the decision making process of certifying digital control systems of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yih, Swu; Fan, Chin-Feng

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We have performed basic research in analyzing certification process and developed a regulatory decision making model for nuclear digital control system certification. The model views certification as an evidence–confidence conversion process. ► We have applied this model to analyze previous nuclear digital I and C certification experiences and obtained valuable insights. ► Furthermore, a prototype of a computer-aided licensing support system based on the model has been developed to enhance regulatory review efficiency. - Abstract: Safety-critical computing systems need regulators’ approval before operation. Such a permit issue process is called “certification”. Digital instrumentation and Control (I and C) certification in the nuclear domain has always been problematic and lengthy. Thus, the certification efficiency has always been a crucial concern to the applicant whose business depends on the regulatory decision. However, to our knowledge, there is little basic research on this topic. This study presents a Regulatory Decision-Making Model aiming at analyzing the characteristics and efficiency influence factors in a generic certification process. This model is developed from a dynamic operational perspective by viewing the certification process as an evidence–confidence conversion process. The proposed model is then applied to previous nuclear digital I and C certification experiences to successfully explain why some cases were successful and some were troublesome. Lessons learned from these cases provide invaluable insights regarding to the regulatory review activity. Furthermore, to utilize the insights obtained from the model, a prototype of a computer-aided licensing support system has been developed to speed up review evidence preparation and manipulation; thus, regulatory review efficiency can be further improved.

  2. Data acquisition systems for uses of multi-counter time analyzer and one-dimensional PSD pulse height analyzer to neutron scattering measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Masayoshi; Tasaki, Seiji; Okamoto, Sunao

    1989-01-01

    A data acquisition system having the various modern electronic devices was designed and tested for practical use of neutron time-of-flight (TOF) measurements with multiple counters. The system is principally composed of TOF logic units (load-able up to 128 units) with a control unit and a conventional micro-computer. The TOF logic unit (main memory, 2048 ch, 24 bits/ch) demonstrates about 1.7 times higher efficiency for neutron counting rate per channel than the one by a conventional TOF logic unit. Meanwhile, some data-access functions of the TOF logic unit were applied to position sensitive analyzer of one-dimensional neutron PSD for small angle scattering. The analyzer was tested with use of pulse generator. The result shows good linearity. (author)

  3. Computational methods for analyzing the transmission characteristics of a beta particle magnetic analysis system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, J. J.

    1979-01-01

    Computational methods were developed to study the trajectories of beta particles (positrons) through a magnetic analysis system as a function of the spatial distribution of the radionuclides in the beta source, size and shape of the source collimator, and the strength of the analyzer magnetic field. On the basis of these methods, the particle flux, their energy spectrum, and source-to-target transit times have been calculated for Na-22 positrons as a function of the analyzer magnetic field and the size and location of the target. These data are in studies requiring parallel beams of positrons of uniform energy such as measurement of the moisture distribution in composite materials. Computer programs for obtaining various trajectories are included.

  4. Advances in the Control System for a High Precision Dissolved Organic Carbon Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, M.; Stubbins, A.; Haidekker, M.

    2017-12-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is a master variable in aquatic ecosystems. DOC in the ocean is one of the largest carbon stores on earth. Studies of the dynamics of DOC in the ocean and other low DOC systems (e.g. groundwater) are hindered by the lack of high precision (sub-micromolar) analytical techniques. Results are presented from efforts to construct and optimize a flow-through, wet chemical DOC analyzer. This study focused on the design, integration and optimization of high precision components and control systems required for such a system (mass flow controller, syringe pumps, gas extraction, reactor chamber with controlled UV and temperature). Results of the approaches developed are presented.

  5. Hardware-software system for simulating and analyzing earthquakes applied to civil structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Amezquita-Sanchez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of recent strong earthquakes, the incessant worldwide movements of tectonic plates and the continuous ambient vibrations caused by traffic and wind have increased the interest of researchers in improving the capacity of energy dissipation to avoid damages to civil structures. Experimental testing of structural systems is essential for the understanding of physical behaviors and the building of appropriate analytic models in order to expose difficulties that may not have been considered in analytical studies. This paper presents a hardware-software system for exciting, monitoring and analyzing simultaneously a structure under earthquake signals and other types of signals in real-time. Effectiveness of the proposed system has been validated by experimental case studies and has been found to be a useful tool in the analysis of earthquake effects on structures.

  6. Challenge-driven attention: interacting frontal and brainstem systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev D S Raizada

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The world is an unpredictable place, presenting challenges that fl uctuate from moment to moment. However, the neural systems for responding to such challenges are far from fully understood. Using fMRI, we studied an audiovisual task in which the trials' diffi culty and onset times varied unpredictably. Two regions were found to increase their activation for challenging trials, with their activities strongly correlated: right frontal cortex and the brainstem. The frontal area matched regions found in previous human studies of cognitive control, and activated in a graded manner with increasing task diffi culty. The brainstem responded only to the most diffi cult trials, showing a phasic activity pattern paralleling locus coeruleus recordings in monkeys. These results reveal a bridge between animal and human studies, and suggest interacting roles for the brainstem and right frontal cortex: the brainstem may signal that an attentional challenge is occurring, while right frontal cortex allocates cognitive resources in response.

  7. Analyzer-based imaging system performance in a synchrotron clinical environment: a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arfelli, F.; Khromova, A.; Rigon, L.; Menk, R.H.; Dreossi, D.; Pinamonti, M.; Zanconati, F.

    2017-01-01

    X-ray phase contrast imaging arises from changes of the propagation direction of the radiant wave field when traversing the object and it can yield higher contrast for soft tissues than conventional x-ray radiology based on attenuation. Commonly intermediate steps are required to transform wave front modulations into intensity modulations measurable by the detection system. One of these phase contrast techniques is analyzer-based imaging (ABI), which utilizes an analyzer crystal as angular filter with a bandwidth in the micro-radian regime placed between the sample and the detector. Furthermore employing appropriate algorithms, attenuation, refraction and scattering/dark field images can be extracted providing complementary information. The implementation of ABI requires X-ray optics with very high stability and micro-radian resolution. In return, this method possesses an extremely high sensitivity among the phase contrast techniques. At the medical beamline of the Italian synchrotron ELETTRA, a patient room has been implemented in order to perform clinical mammography with free-space propagation phase contrast. In this work we have tested the feasibility of ABI in a preclinical set-up implementing the system in the patient room. High quality images of breast tissues samples are presented and compared to images acquired at a conventional mammography unit. The system has shown excellent stability and imaging performances.

  8. Technical challenges to energy systems' operation and markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, P.; Meibom, P.; Gehrke, O. [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark); Oestergaard, J. [Technical Univ. of Denmark (Denmark)

    2006-11-15

    A future energy system that includes a high proportion of renewable energy will be expected to meet the same requirements for security of supply and economic efficiency as the energy systems of today, while delivering better environmental performance, especially with regard to CO{sub 2} emissions. Security of supply refers to the long-term reliability of fuel supply; especially in power systems, it also covers short-term requirements for system stability and adequacy. Economic efficiency is concerned with getting the best from the significant amounts of money, human capital and natural resources involved in an energy system. Integral to economic efficiency in energy systems is the presence of well-functioning markets for energy services. The variability and reduced predictability of a number of renewable energy sources, notably wind power, create specific challenges for future energy systems compared to those of today. Power transmission will also become an issue, as the areas with good potential for wind power and wave energy are often located some distance from the centres of power consumption. This chapter describes the challenges involved, and possible solutions to these, with a focus on power systems. The chapter is divided into two sections reflecting the fact that some challenges relate to managing the power system in its normal operation mode, whereas others are specific to fault conditions. (au)

  9. A Systems Thinking Approach to Engineering Challenges of Military Systems-of-Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    as part of organizational thinking , processes and practice; and 2) an adequate SoSE practice supporting environment created and used to enable SoS...UNCLASSIFIED UNCLLASIFIED A Systems Thinking Approach to Engineering Challenges of Military Systems-of-Systems Pin Chen and Mark...their products and outcomes. This report introduces a systems thinking -based approach, SoS thinking , which offers a language and a thoughtful process

  10. Different approaches to analyze the dipolar interaction effects on diluted and concentrated granular superparamagnetic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moscoso-Londoño, O., E-mail: omoscoso@ifi.unicamp.br [Instituto de Física ‘Gleb Wataghin’, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), CEP13083-859 Campinas, São Paulo (Brazil); Tancredi, P. [Laboratorio de Sólidos Amorfos, INTECIN, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad de Buenos Aires (UBA), CONICET, C1063ACV Buenos Aires (Argentina); Muraca, D. [Instituto de Física ‘Gleb Wataghin’, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), CEP13083-859 Campinas, São Paulo (Brazil); Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Humanas, Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Av. Dos Estados, 5001, Santo André, SP (Brazil); Mendoza Zélis, P.; Coral, D.; Fernández van Raap, M.B. [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional de La Plata (UNLP), CONICET, CC.67, 1900 La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Wolff, U.; Neu, V.; Damm, C. [IFW Dresden, Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research, Dresden, Helmholtzstrasse 20, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Oliveira, C.L.P. de [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo 05314970 (Brazil); Pirota, K.R. [Instituto de Física ‘Gleb Wataghin’, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), CEP13083-859 Campinas, São Paulo (Brazil); and others

    2017-04-15

    Controlled magnetic granular materials with different concentrations of magnetite nanoparticles immersed in a non-conducting polymer matrix were synthesized and, their macroscopic magnetic observables analyzed in order to advance towards a better understanding of the magnetic dipolar interactions and its effects on the obtained magnetic parameters. First, by means of X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, small angle X-ray scattering and X-ray absorption fine structure an accurate study of the structural properties was carried out. Then, the magnetic properties were analyzed by means of different models, including those that consider the magnetic interactions through long-range dipolar forces as: the Interacting Superparamagnetic Model (ISP) and the Vogel-Fulcher law (V-F). In systems with larger nanoparticle concentrations, magnetic results clearly indicate that the role played by the dipolar interactions affects the magnetic properties, giving rise to obtaining magnetic and structural parameters without physical meaning. Magnetic parameters as the effective anisotropic constant, magnetic moment relaxation time and mean blocking temperature, extracted from the application of the ISP model and V-F Law, were used to simulate the zero-field-cooling (ZFC) and field-cooling curves (FC). A comparative analysis of the simulated, fitted and experimental ZFC/FC curves suggests that the current models depict indeed our dilute granular systems. Notwithstanding, for concentrated samples, the ISP model infers that clustered nanoparticles are being interpreted as single entities of larger magnetic moment and volume, effect that is apparently related to a collective and complex magnetic moment dynamics within the cluster. - Highlights: • Nanoparticle architecture into matrices determines the composite magnetic response. • Magnetically diluted or compacted systems are useful to study magnetism at nanoscale. • Particle aggregation into the matrices was examined

  11. Methods and metrics challenges of delivery-system research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Jeffrey A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many delivery-system interventions are fundamentally about change in social systems (both planned and unplanned. This systems perspective raises a number of methodological challenges for studying the effects of delivery-system change--particularly for answering questions related to whether the change will work under different conditions and how the change is integrated (or not into the operating context of the delivery system. Methods The purpose of this paper is to describe the methodological and measurement challenges posed by five key issues in delivery-system research: (1 modeling intervention context; (2 measuring readiness for change; (3 assessing intervention fidelity and sustainability; (4 assessing complex, multicomponent interventions; and (5 incorporating time in delivery-system models to discuss recommendations for addressing these issues. For each issue, we provide recommendations for how research may be designed and implemented to overcome these challenges. Results and conclusions We suggest that a more refined understanding of the mechanisms underlying delivery-system interventions (treatment theory and the ways in which outcomes for different classes of individuals change over time are fundamental starting points for capturing the heterogeneity in samples of individuals exposed to delivery-system interventions. To support the research recommendations outlined in this paper and to advance understanding of the "why" and "how" questions of delivery-system change and their effects, funding agencies should consider supporting studies with larger organizational sample sizes; longer duration; and nontraditional, mixed-methods designs. A version of this paper was prepared under contract with the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ, US Department of Health and Human Services for presentation and discussion at a meeting on "The Challenge and Promise of Delivery System Research," held in Sterling, VA, on

  12. Problem-solving tools for analyzing system problems. The affinity map and the relationship diagram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepley, C J

    1998-12-01

    The author describes how to use two management tools, an affinity map and a relationship diagram, to define and analyze aspects of a complex problem in a system. The affinity map identifies the key influencing elements of the problem, whereas the relationship diagram helps to identify the area that is the most important element of the issue. Managers can use the tools to draw a map of problem drivers, graphically display the drivers in a diagram, and use the diagram to develop a cause-and-effect relationship.

  13. Development of a PWR CRDM [control rod drive mechanism] data-analyzing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyaguchi, Jinichi

    1989-01-01

    Control rod drive mechanisms (CRDMs) play an important role in the nuclear power plant, and their reliability impacts plant operation and reactor safety. The CRDM performance might decline if the CRDM has been operated for a long time. The CRDM's operation time is expected to increase significantly, depending on the variations of plant operation, so it is desirable to upgrade preventive maintenance of CRDMs and drive lines through periodic inspection and condition monitoring. Furthermore, in the case of CRDM malfunction, it is necessary to cope immediately with the trouble, based on technical judgment. The CRDM data-analyzing system has been developed in order to achieve highly reliable CRDMs by predicting malfunctions

  14. Industrial applications of formal methods to model, design and analyze computer systems

    CERN Document Server

    Craigen, Dan

    1995-01-01

    Formal methods are mathematically-based techniques, often supported by reasoning tools, that can offer a rigorous and effective way to model, design and analyze computer systems. The purpose of this study is to evaluate international industrial experience in using formal methods. The cases selected are representative of industrial-grade projects and span a variety of application domains. The study had three main objectives: · To better inform deliberations within industry and government on standards and regulations; · To provide an authoritative record on the practical experience of formal m

  15. Opportunities and challenges for implementing cost accounting systems in the Kenyan health system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elesban Kihuba

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low- and middle-income countries need to sustain efficiency and equity in health financing on their way to universal health care coverage. However, systems meant to generate quality economic information are often deficient in such settings. We assessed the feasibility of streamlining cost accounting systems within the Kenyan health sector to illustrate the pragmatic challenges and opportunities. Design: We reviewed policy documents, and conducted field observations and semi-structured interviews with key informants in the health sector. We used an adapted Human, Organization and Technology fit (HOT-fit framework to analyze the components and standards of a cost accounting system. Results: Among the opportunities for a viable cost accounting system, we identified a supportive broad policy environment, political will, presence of a national data reporting architecture, good implementation experience with electronic medical records systems, and the availability of patient clinical and resource use data. However, several practical issues need to be considered in the design of the system, including the lack of a framework to guide the costing process, the lack of long-term investment, the lack of appropriate incentives for ground-level staff, and a risk of overburdening the current health management information system. Conclusion: To facilitate the implementation of cost accounting into the health sector, the design of any proposed system needs to remain simple and attuned to the local context.

  16. Opportunities and challenges for implementing cost accounting systems in the Kenyan health system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihuba, Elesban; Gheorghe, Adrian; Bozzani, Fiammetta; English, Mike; Griffiths, Ulla K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Low- and middle-income countries need to sustain efficiency and equity in health financing on their way to universal health care coverage. However, systems meant to generate quality economic information are often deficient in such settings. We assessed the feasibility of streamlining cost accounting systems within the Kenyan health sector to illustrate the pragmatic challenges and opportunities. Design We reviewed policy documents, and conducted field observations and semi-structured interviews with key informants in the health sector. We used an adapted Human, Organization and Technology fit (HOT-fit) framework to analyze the components and standards of a cost accounting system. Results Among the opportunities for a viable cost accounting system, we identified a supportive broad policy environment, political will, presence of a national data reporting architecture, good implementation experience with electronic medical records systems, and the availability of patient clinical and resource use data. However, several practical issues need to be considered in the design of the system, including the lack of a framework to guide the costing process, the lack of long-term investment, the lack of appropriate incentives for ground-level staff, and a risk of overburdening the current health management information system. Conclusion To facilitate the implementation of cost accounting into the health sector, the design of any proposed system needs to remain simple and attuned to the local context. PMID:27357072

  17. Opportunities and challenges for implementing cost accounting systems in the Kenyan health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihuba, Elesban; Gheorghe, Adrian; Bozzani, Fiammetta; English, Mike; Griffiths, Ulla K

    2016-01-01

    Low- and middle-income countries need to sustain efficiency and equity in health financing on their way to universal health care coverage. However, systems meant to generate quality economic information are often deficient in such settings. We assessed the feasibility of streamlining cost accounting systems within the Kenyan health sector to illustrate the pragmatic challenges and opportunities. We reviewed policy documents, and conducted field observations and semi-structured interviews with key informants in the health sector. We used an adapted Human, Organization and Technology fit (HOT-fit) framework to analyze the components and standards of a cost accounting system. Among the opportunities for a viable cost accounting system, we identified a supportive broad policy environment, political will, presence of a national data reporting architecture, good implementation experience with electronic medical records systems, and the availability of patient clinical and resource use data. However, several practical issues need to be considered in the design of the system, including the lack of a framework to guide the costing process, the lack of long-term investment, the lack of appropriate incentives for ground-level staff, and a risk of overburdening the current health management information system. To facilitate the implementation of cost accounting into the health sector, the design of any proposed system needs to remain simple and attuned to the local context.

  18. Voice preprocessing system incorporating a real-time spectrum analyzer with programmable switched-capacitor filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, G.

    1984-01-01

    As part of a speaker verification program for BISS (Base Installation Security System), a test system is being designed with a flexible preprocessing system for the evaluation of voice spectrum/verification algorithm related problems. The main part of this report covers the design, construction, and testing of a voice analyzer with 16 integrating real-time frequency channels ranging from 300 Hz to 3 KHz. The bandpass filter response of each channel is programmable by NMOS switched capacitor quad filter arrays. Presently, the accuracy of these units is limited to a moderate precision by the finite steps of programming. However, repeatability of characteristics between filter units and sections seems to be excellent for the implemented fourth-order Butterworth bandpass responses. We obtained a 0.1 dB linearity error of signal detection and measured a signal-to-noise ratio of approximately 70 dB. The proprocessing system discussed includes preemphasis filter design, gain normalizer design, and data acquisition system design as well as test results.

  19. Analyzing farming systems diversity: a case study in south-western France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choisis, J. P.; Thevenet, C.; Girbon, A.

    2012-11-01

    The huge changes in agricultural activities, which may be amplified by the forthcoming Common Agriculture Policy reform, call the future of crop-livestock systems into question and hence the impact of these changes on landscapes and biodiversity. We analyzed relationships between agriculture, landscape and biodiversity in south-western France. The study area covered about 4,000 ha and included four villages. We conducted a survey of 56 farms. Multivariate analysis (multiple factor analysis and cluster analysis) were used to analyze relationships between 25 variables and to build a typology. The type of farming (beef and/or dairy cattle, cash crops), size (area and workforce) and cultivation practices, among others, were revealed as differentiating factors of farms. Six farming types were identified (1) hillside mixed crop-livestock farms, (2) large corporate farms, (3) extensive cattle farms, (4) large intensive farms on the valley sides, (5) small multiple-job holdings, and (6) hobby farms. The diversity of farming systems revealed the variable impact of the main drivers of change affecting agricultural development, particularly the enlargement and modernization of farms along with the demography of agricultural holdings. (Author) 41 refs.

  20. Development of a visual control and display system for the SMART plant analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Han Ok; Yoon, Ju Hyeon; Seo, Jae Kwang; Lee, Doo Jeong

    2000-01-01

    A Visual Control and Display System (VCDS) for the SMART plant analyzer has been developed using the MMS simulation tools. The SAMRT plant analyzer consists of the VCDS and the MMS SMART model. The MMS SMART model is a numerical simulation model for the SMART plant and is composed of the MMS real-time modules and control blocks. It covers the whole plant including primary, secondary and auxiliary systems. The developed VCDS is Graphical User Interfaces (GUI) that is running in a synchronized way with the SMART model. The VCDS consists of the MMS Simulation tools and seven control and display screens. The VCDS provides easy means for the control and display of the SMART model status. The VCDS allows users to display and change a specified list of model variables and transient scenarios interactively through the MMS simulation tools. The control and display screens are developed with Visual Basic 6.0 and MMI32 ActiveX controls and it can be executed in several TCP/IP networked computers simultaneously. The developed VCDS can be utilized for the engineering simulation of the SMART plant operation, and for control logic and operational procedure developments

  1. Analyzing and Comparing Biomass Feedstock Supply Systems in China: Corn Stover and Sweet Sorghum Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lantian Ren

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the rural Chinese biomass supply system and models supply chain operations according to U.S. concepts of logistical unit operations: harvest and collection, storage, transportation, preprocessing, and handling and queuing. In this paper, we quantify the logistics cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum in China under different scenarios. We analyze three scenarios of corn stover logistics from northeast China and three scenarios of sweet sorghum stalks logistics from Inner Mongolia in China. The case study estimates that the logistics cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum stalk to be $52.95/dry metric ton and $52.64/dry metric ton, respectively, for the current labor-based biomass logistics system. However, if the feedstock logistics operation is mechanized, the cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum stalk decreases to $36.01/dry metric ton and $35.76/dry metric ton, respectively. The study also includes a sensitivity analysis to identify the cost factors that cause logistics cost variation. Results of the sensitivity analysis show that labor price has the most influence on the logistics cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum stalk, with a variation of $6 to $12/dry metric ton.

  2. Challenges in the analysis of complex systems: introduction and overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Harold M.; Davidsen, Jörn; Leung, Henry

    2017-12-01

    One of the main challenges of modern physics is to provide a systematic understanding of systems far from equilibrium exhibiting emergent behavior. Prominent examples of such complex systems include, but are not limited to the cardiac electrical system, the brain, the power grid, social systems, material failure and earthquakes, and the climate system. Due to the technological advances over the last decade, the amount of observations and data available to characterize complex systems and their dynamics, as well as the capability to process that data, has increased substantially. The present issue discusses a cross section of the current research on complex systems, with a focus on novel experimental and data-driven approaches to complex systems that provide the necessary platform to model the behavior of such systems.

  3. Analyzer-based phase-contrast imaging system using a micro focus x-ray source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Wei; Majidi, Keivan; Brankov, Jovan G.

    2014-01-01

    Here we describe a new in-laboratory analyzer based phase contrast-imaging (ABI) instrument using a conventional X-ray tube source (CXS) aimed at bio-medical imaging applications. Phase contrast-imaging allows visualization of soft tissue details usually obscured in conventional X-ray imaging. The ABI system design and major features are described in detail. The key advantage of the presented system, over the few existing CXS ABI systems, is that it does not require high precision components, i.e., CXS, X-ray detector, and electro-mechanical components. To overcome a main problem introduced by these components, identified as temperature stability, the system components are kept at a constant temperature inside of three enclosures, thus minimizing the electrical and mechanical thermal drifts. This is achieved by using thermoelectric (Peltier) cooling/heating modules that are easy to control precisely. For CXS we utilized a microfocus X-ray source with tungsten (W) anode material. In addition the proposed system eliminates tungsten's multiple spectral lines by selecting monochromator crystal size appropriately therefore eliminating need for the costly mismatched, two-crystal monochromator. The system imaging was fine-tuned for tungsten Kα 1 line with the energy of 59.3 keV since it has been shown to be of great clinical significance by a number of researchers at synchrotron facilities. In this way a laboratory system that can be used for evaluating and quantifying tissue properties, initially explored at synchrotron facilities, would be of great interest to a larger research community. To demonstrate the imaging capability of our instrument we use a chicken thigh tissue sample

  4. Analyzer-based phase-contrast imaging system using a micro focus x-ray source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Majidi, Keivan; Brankov, Jovan G.

    2014-08-01

    Here we describe a new in-laboratory analyzer based phase contrast-imaging (ABI) instrument using a conventional X-ray tube source (CXS) aimed at bio-medical imaging applications. Phase contrast-imaging allows visualization of soft tissue details usually obscured in conventional X-ray imaging. The ABI system design and major features are described in detail. The key advantage of the presented system, over the few existing CXS ABI systems, is that it does not require high precision components, i.e., CXS, X-ray detector, and electro-mechanical components. To overcome a main problem introduced by these components, identified as temperature stability, the system components are kept at a constant temperature inside of three enclosures, thus minimizing the electrical and mechanical thermal drifts. This is achieved by using thermoelectric (Peltier) cooling/heating modules that are easy to control precisely. For CXS we utilized a microfocus X-ray source with tungsten (W) anode material. In addition the proposed system eliminates tungsten's multiple spectral lines by selecting monochromator crystal size appropriately therefore eliminating need for the costly mismatched, two-crystal monochromator. The system imaging was fine-tuned for tungsten Kα1 line with the energy of 59.3 keV since it has been shown to be of great clinical significance by a number of researchers at synchrotron facilities. In this way a laboratory system that can be used for evaluating and quantifying tissue properties, initially explored at synchrotron facilities, would be of great interest to a larger research community. To demonstrate the imaging capability of our instrument we use a chicken thigh tissue sample.

  5. Analyzer-based phase-contrast imaging system using a micro focus x-ray source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Wei [BME Department, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois 60616 (United States); Majidi, Keivan; Brankov, Jovan G., E-mail: brankov@iit.edu [ECE Department, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois 60616 (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Here we describe a new in-laboratory analyzer based phase contrast-imaging (ABI) instrument using a conventional X-ray tube source (CXS) aimed at bio-medical imaging applications. Phase contrast-imaging allows visualization of soft tissue details usually obscured in conventional X-ray imaging. The ABI system design and major features are described in detail. The key advantage of the presented system, over the few existing CXS ABI systems, is that it does not require high precision components, i.e., CXS, X-ray detector, and electro-mechanical components. To overcome a main problem introduced by these components, identified as temperature stability, the system components are kept at a constant temperature inside of three enclosures, thus minimizing the electrical and mechanical thermal drifts. This is achieved by using thermoelectric (Peltier) cooling/heating modules that are easy to control precisely. For CXS we utilized a microfocus X-ray source with tungsten (W) anode material. In addition the proposed system eliminates tungsten's multiple spectral lines by selecting monochromator crystal size appropriately therefore eliminating need for the costly mismatched, two-crystal monochromator. The system imaging was fine-tuned for tungsten Kα{sub 1} line with the energy of 59.3 keV since it has been shown to be of great clinical significance by a number of researchers at synchrotron facilities. In this way a laboratory system that can be used for evaluating and quantifying tissue properties, initially explored at synchrotron facilities, would be of great interest to a larger research community. To demonstrate the imaging capability of our instrument we use a chicken thigh tissue sample.

  6. Case prediction in BPM systems : a research challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijers, H.A.

    2007-01-01

    The capabilities of Business Process Management Systems (BPMS's) are continuously extended to increase the effectiveness of the management and enactment of business processes. This paper identifies the challenge of case prediction, which for a specific case under the control of a BPMS deals with the

  7. The Almajiri educational system in Nigeria: cost and challenges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cost implications of Almajiri system include human resources wastage, exposure of children to harsh environmental hazards, and deprivation of these children of parental care. The paper also highlighted on the major challenges to include illiterate teachers involve in teaching the children, lack of basic infrastructural ...

  8. Material challenges for the next generation of fission reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckthorpe, Derek

    2010-01-01

    The new generation of fission reactor systems wil require the deployment and construction of a series of advanced water cooled reactors as part of a package of measures to meet UK and European energy needs and to provide a near term non-fossil fuel power solution that addresses CO 2 emission limits. In addition new longer term Generation IV reactor tye systems are being developed and evaluated to enhance safety, reliability, sustainability economics and proliferation resistance requirements and to meet alternative energy applications (outside of electricity generation) such as process heat and large scale hydrogen generation. New fission systems will impose significant challenges on materials supply and development. In the near term, because of the need to 'gear up' to large scale construction after decades of industrial hibernation/contraction and, in the longer term, because of the need for materials to operate under more challenging environments requiring the deployment and development of new alternative materials not yet established to an industrial stage. This paper investigates the materials challenges imposed by the new Generation III+ and Generation IV systems. These include supply and fabrication issues, development of new high temperature alloys and non-metallic materials, the use of new methods of manufacture and the best use of currently available resources and minerals. Recommendations are made as to how these materials challenges might be met and how governments, industry, manufacturers and researchers can all play their part. (orig.)

  9. A System of Movement and Motor Skill Challenges for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Grant M.; Turner, Bud

    2012-01-01

    Given increasing childhood inactivity and obesity, and minimal time for quality physical education in elementary and secondary schools, it is essential that children are motivated and held accountable for independent motor and movement skill practice. The Movement and Motor Skill Challenge System provides a comprehensive set of stimulating,…

  10. Electronic Payment System in Nigeria: Its Economic Benefits and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okifo, Joseph; Igbunu, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The crux of this study is on the adoption of E-payment system in Nigeria: Its economic benefits and challenges. The arrival of the internet has taken electronic payments and transactions to an exponential growth level. Consumers could purchase goods and services from the internet and send unencrypted credit card numbers across the network, which…

  11. Material challenges for the next generation of fission reactor systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckthorpe, Derek [AMEC, Knutsford, Cheshire (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    The new generation of fission reactor systems wil require the deployment and construction of a series of advanced water cooled reactors as part of a package of measures to meet UK and European energy needs and to provide a near term non-fossil fuel power solution that addresses CO{sub 2} emission limits. In addition new longer term Generation IV reactor tye systems are being developed and evaluated to enhance safety, reliability, sustainability economics and proliferation resistance requirements and to meet alternative energy applications (outside of electricity generation) such as process heat and large scale hydrogen generation. New fission systems will impose significant challenges on materials supply and development. In the near term, because of the need to 'gear up' to large scale construction after decades of industrial hibernation/contraction and, in the longer term, because of the need for materials to operate under more challenging environments requiring the deployment and development of new alternative materials not yet established to an industrial stage. This paper investigates the materials challenges imposed by the new Generation III+ and Generation IV systems. These include supply and fabrication issues, development of new high temperature alloys and non-metallic materials, the use of new methods of manufacture and the best use of currently available resources and minerals. Recommendations are made as to how these materials challenges might be met and how governments, industry, manufacturers and researchers can all play their part. (orig.)

  12. Educator Perspectives on Earth System Science Literacy: Challenges and Priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDue, Nicole; Clark, Scott K.

    2012-01-01

    The challenges and priorities of defining and achieving Earth System Science (ESS) literacy are examined through surveys of geoscience educators attending a professional geological meeting. Two surveys with Likert-style and free-response questions were distributed to geoscientists and K-12 teachers to elicit what instructors think are important…

  13. Human capital flight challenges within an Equitable Health System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human capital flight challenges within an Equitable Health System. N E Udonwa. Abstract. No Abstract Nigerian Journal of Medicine Vol. 16 (4) 2007: pp. 307-311. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/njm.v16i4.37327 · AJOL African ...

  14. Control Engineering, System Theory and Mathematics: The Teacher's Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenger, K.

    2007-01-01

    The principles, difficulties and challenges in control education are discussed and compared to the similar problems in the teaching of mathematics and systems science in general. The difficulties of today's students to appreciate the classical teaching of engineering disciplines, which are based on rigorous and scientifically sound grounds, are…

  15. Challenges in Evaluating Clinical Governance Systems in Iran: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooshmand, Elaheh; Tourani, Sogand; Ravaghi, Hamid; Ebrahimipour, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Background: In spite of the pivotal role of clinical governance in enhancing quality of services provided by hospitals across the country, a scientific framework with specific criteria for evaluating hospitals has not been developed so far. Objectives: This study was conducted with the aim to identify the challenges involved in evaluating systems of clinical governance in Iran. Materials and Methods: For the purposes of this qualitative study, 15 semi-structured interviews with experts in the field were conducted in 2011 and the data were analyzed using framework analysis method. Results: Five major challenges in evaluating clinical governance include managing human resources, improving clinical quality, managing development, organizing clinical governance, and providing patient-oriented healthcare system. Conclusions: Healthcare system in Iran requires a clinical governance program which has a patient-oriented approach in philosophy, operation, and effectiveness in order to meet the challenges ahead. PMID:24910799

  16. Integrated system for testing, investigation and analyzing of nuclear materials, TIAMAT-N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, Maria; Pitigoi, Vasile; Ionescu, Viorel; Constantin, Mihai; Babusi, Octavian

    2010-01-01

    Full text: The paper presents the results obtained in the framework of the project carried out as part of the National Program PNII, Modulus Capacities I, Competition 2008, concerning the performances of the Testing, Investigation and Analyzing System, used in the nuclear materials field. The system will ensure the evaluation of the nuclear structures, including the thermo-mechanical behaviour in connection with the physical-chemical analysis, microstructure and nondestructive investigations. Using last generation equipment and its interconnection to an IT system of monitoring, acquisition and data storage, it aims to implement the investigation methodologies applied in the nuclear area, to harmonize working practices according to the standards and procedures at European and international level. In addition, the system helps to develop a database, which will be continuously updated, with the materials investigated in the different types of tests and specific analyses. The project achievements will be capitalized at national level, sustaining the R and D studies of the National Nuclear Plan but also in the European and International Programs, including EURATOM Projects and Networks of Excellence, collaboration with AECL and COG Canada and participation in the AIEA Program. (authors)

  17. An Open Challenge Problem Repository for Systems Supporting Binders

    OpenAIRE

    Felty, A.; Momigliano, A.; Pientka, B.

    2015-01-01

    A variety of logical frameworks support the use of higher-order abstract syntax in representing formal systems; however, each system has its own set of benchmarks. Even worse, general proof assistants that provide special libraries for dealing with binders offer a very limited evaluation of such libraries, and the examples given often do not exercise and stress-test key aspects that arise in the presence of binders. In this paper we design an open repository ORBI (Open challenge problem Repo...

  18. Nanomedical device and systems design challenges, possibilities, visions

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Nanomedical Device and Systems Design: Challenges, Possibilities, Visions serves as a preliminary guide toward the inspiration of specific investigative pathways that may lead to meaningful discourse and significant advances in nanomedicine/nanotechnology. This volume considers the potential of future innovations that will involve nanomedical devices and systems. It endeavors to explore remarkable possibilities spanning medical diagnostics, therapeutics, and other advancements that may be enabled within this discipline. In particular, this book investigates just how nanomedical diagnostic and

  19. Challenges for maintaining the modernization of instrumentation and control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas, V.

    2014-01-01

    Instrumentation and control system upgrades in nuclear power plants come with some challenges for their maintenance staff. It is important to have a long term modernization plant that derives from specific studies for each system. Training, spares, configuration control and cybersecurity are critical topics to take into account from the beginning of these projects. New system maintenance plans can require a new approach in accordance with the technology. FPGAs (Field Programmable Gate Array) appear as the alternative for the future, mainly in safety systems. (Author)

  20. Challenges to China's transition to a low carbon electricity system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahrl, Fredrich; Williams, Jim; Ding Jianhua; Hu Junfeng

    2011-01-01

    We examine the challenges to China's transition to a low carbon electricity system, in which renewable energy would play a significant role. China's electricity system currently lacks the flexibility in planning, operations, and pricing to respond to conflicting pressures from demand growth, rising costs, and environmental mandates in a way that simultaneously maintains reliability, decarbonizes the system, and keeps prices within acceptable bounds. Greater flexibility crucially requires the ability to more systematically and transparently manage and allocate costs. This will require re-orientating sector institutions still rooted in central planning, and strengthening independent regulation. Some of the necessary changes require fundamental political and legal reforms beyond the scope of energy policy. However, the system's flexibility can still be increased through the development of traditional planning and regulatory tools and approaches, such as an avoided cost basis for energy efficiency investments, more integrated planning to improve the coordination of generation, transmission, and demand-side investments, and a transparent ratemaking process. The judicious application of OECD electricity sector experience and skills can support these developments. - Research highlights: → China's electricity system currently lacks the flexibility to integrate renewables and reduce CO 2 emissions on a large scale at an acceptable cost and level of reliability. → The challenges to increased flexibility are more institutional than technological. → Chinese government agencies need new approaches to basic power system planning and ratemaking. → OECD countries can help address these challenges through the transfer of 'soft' technologies.

  1. Innovation in Extraterrestrial Service Systems - A Challenge for Service Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergner, David

    2010-01-01

    This presentation was prepared at the invitation of Professor Yukio Ohsawa, Department of Systems Innovation, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, for delivery at the International Workshop on Innovating Service Systems, sponsored by the Japanese Society of Artificial Intelligence (JSAI) as part of the JSAI Internation Symposium on AI, 2010. It offers several challenges for Service Science and Service Innovation. the goal of the presentation is to stimulate thinking about how service systems viII evolve in the future, as human society advances from its terrestrial base toward a permanent presence in space. First we will consider the complexity of the International Space Station (ISS) as it is today, with particular emphasis of its research facilities, and focus on a current challenge - to maximize the utilization of ISS research facilities for the benefit of society. After briefly reviewing the basic principles of Service Science, we will discuss the potential application of Service Innovation methodology to this challenge. Then we viII consider how game-changing technologies - in particular Synthetic Biology - could accelerate the pace of sociocultural evolution and consequently, the progression of human society into space. We will use this provocative vision to advance thinking about how the emerging field of Service Science, Management, and Engineering (SSME) might help us anticipate and better handle the challenges of this inevitable evolutionary process.

  2. The Social Process of Analyzing Real Water Resource Systems Plans and Management Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucks, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Developing and applying systems analysis methods for improving the development and management of real world water resource systems, I have learned, is primarily a social process. This talk is a call for more recognition of this reality in the modeling approaches we propose in the papers and books we publish. The mathematical models designed to inform planners and managers of water systems that we see in many of our journals often seem more complex than they need be. They also often seem not as connected to reality as they could be. While it may be easier to publish descriptions of complex models than simpler ones, and while adding complexity to models might make them better able to mimic or resemble the actual complexity of the real physical and/or social systems or processes being analyzed, the usefulness of such models often can be an illusion. Sometimes the important features of reality that are of concern or interest to those who make decisions can be adequately captured using relatively simple models. Finding the right balance for the particular issues being addressed or the particular decisions that need to be made is an art. When applied to real world problems or issues in specific basins or regions, systems modeling projects often involve more attention to the social aspects than the mathematical ones. Mathematical models addressing connected interacting interdependent components of complex water systems are in fact some of the most useful methods we have to study and better understand the systems we manage around us. They can help us identify and evaluate possible alternative solutions to problems facing humanity today. The study of real world systems of interacting components using mathematical models is commonly called applied systems analyses. Performing such analyses with decision makers rather than of decision makers is critical if the needed trust between project personnel and their clients is to be developed. Using examples from recent and ongoing

  3. Analyzing the Drivers of Advanced Sustainable Manufacturing System Using AHP Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Madan Shankar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A number of current manufacturing sectors are striving hard to introduce innovative long-term strategies into their operations. As a result, many scholarly studies have found it fruitful to investigate advanced manufacturing strategies such as agile, computer-integrated, and cellular manufacturing. Through the example of downstream cases, manufacturing sectors have learned that financial benefits garnered through automated technologies cannot be counted on as a sole measure to ensure their success in today’s competitive and fluctuating marketplaces. The objective of this study is to integrate those advanced techniques with sustainable operations, to promote advanced sustainable manufacturing so those manufacturing sectors can thrive even in uncertain markets. To establish this connection, this study analyzes the drivers of advanced sustainable manufacturing through a proposed framework validated through a case study in India. Common drivers are collected from the literature, calibrated with opinions from experts, and analyzed through an analytical hierarchy process (AHP, which is a multi-criteria decision making (MCDM approach. This study reveals that quality is the primary driver that pressures manufacturing sectors to adopt advanced sustainable manufacturing. Manufacturers can easily note the top ranked driver and adopt it to soundly implement advanced sustainable manufacturing. In addition, some key future scopes are explored along with possible recommendations for effective implementation of advanced sustainable manufacturing systems.

  4. Configurations of power relations in the Brazilian emergency care system: analyzing a context of visible practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velloso, Isabela; Ceci, Christine; Alves, Marilia

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we make explicit the changing configurations of power relations that currently characterize the Brazilian Emergency Care System (SAMU) team in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The SAMU is a recent innovation in Brazilian healthcare service delivery. A qualitative case study methodology was used to explore SAMU's current organizational arrangements, specifically the power relations that have developed and that demonstrate internal team struggles over space and defense of particular occupational interests. The argument advanced in this paper is that these professionals are developing their work in conditions of exposure, that is, they are always being observed by someone, and that such observational exposure provides the conditions whereby everyday emergency care practices are enacted such that practice is shaped by, as well as shapes, particular, yet recognizable power relationships. Data were collected through the observation of the SAMU's work processes and through semi-structured interviews. Research materials were analyzed using discourse analysis. In the emergency care process of work, visibility is actually embedded in the disciplinary context and can thus be analyzed as a technique applied to produce disciplined individuals through the simple mechanisms elaborated by Foucault such as hierarchical surveillance, normalizing judgment, and the examination. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Development of the RETRAN input model for Ulchin 3/4 visual system analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S. W.; Kim, K. D.; Lee, Y. J.; Lee, W. J.; Chung, B. D.; Jeong, J. J.; Hwang, M. K.

    2004-01-01

    As a part of the Long-Term Nuclear R and D program, KAERI has developed the so-called Visual System Analyzer (ViSA) based on best-estimate codes. The MARS and RETRAN codes are used as the best-estimate codes for ViSA. Between these two codes, the RETRAN code is used for realistic analysis of Non-LOCA transients and small-break loss-of-coolant accidents, of which break size is less than 3 inch diameter. So it is necessary to develop the RETRAN input model for Ulchin 3/4 plants (KSNP). In recognition of this, the RETRAN input model for Ulchin 3/4 plants has been developed. This report includes the input model requirements and the calculation note for the input data generation (see the Appendix). In order to confirm the validity of the input data, the calculations are performed for a steady state at 100 % power operation condition, inadvertent reactor trip and RCP trip. The results of the steady-state calculation agree well with the design data. The results of the other transient calculations seem to be reasonable and consistent with those of other best-estimate calculations. Therefore, the RETRAN input data can be used as a base input deck for the RETRAN transient analyzer for Ulchin 3/4. Moreover, it is found that Core Protection Calculator (CPC) module, which is modified by Korea Electric Power Research Institute (KEPRI), is well adapted to ViSA

  6. Research on application of technique for analyzing system reliability, GO-FLOW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Takeshi; Fukuto, Junji; Sugasawa, Shinobu; Mitomo, Nobuo; Miyazaki, Keiko; Hirao, Yoshihiro; Kobayashi, Michiyuki

    1997-01-01

    As the method of evaluation, probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) has been introduced in nuclear power field, and began to play important role in plant design and safety examination. In the Ship Research Institute, as the technique for analyzing system reliability which takes the main part of PSA, the research on developing the GO-FLOW technique which has various advanced functions has been carried out. In this research, the functions of the GO-FLOW technique are improved, and the function of the dynamic behavior analysis for systems and the analysis function for the combination of the physical behavior of systems and the change of probabilistic events are developed, further, the function of extracting main accident sequence by utilizing the GO-FLOW technique is prepared. As for the analysis of dynamic behavior, the sample problem on hold-up tank was investigated. As to the extraction of main accident sequence, the fundamental part of the function of event tree analysis was consolidated, and the function of setting branching probability was given. As to the indication of plant behavior, the simulator for improved marine reactor MRX was developed. (K.I.)

  7. A Fundamental Scale of Descriptions for Analyzing Information Content of Communication Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Febres

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of the description of a system is a function of the entropy of its symbolic description. Prior to computing the entropy of the system’s description, an observation scale has to be assumed. In texts written in artificial and natural languages, typical scales are binary, characters, and words. However, considering languages as structures built around certain preconceived set of symbols, like words or characters, limits the level of complexity that can be revealed analytically. This study introduces the notion of the fundamental description scale to analyze the essence of the structure of a language. The concept of Fundamental Scale is tested for English and musical instrument digital interface (MIDI music texts using an algorithm developed to split a text in a collection of sets of symbols that minimizes the observed entropy of the system. This Fundamental Scale reflects more details of the complexity of the language than using bits, characters or words. Results show that this Fundamental Scale allows to compare completely different languages, such as English and MIDI coded music regarding its structural entropy. This comparative power facilitates the study of the complexity of the structure of different communication systems.

  8. Preliminary PANSAT ground station software design and use of an expert system to analyze telemetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Gregory W.

    1994-03-01

    The Petite Amateur Navy Satellite (PANSAT) is a communications satellite designed to be used by civilian amateur radio operators. A master ground station is being built at the Naval Postgraduate School. This computer system performs satellite commands, displays telemetry, trouble-shoots problems, and passes messages. The system also controls an open loop tracking antenna. This paper concentrates on the telemetry display, decoding, and interpretation through artificial intelligence (AI). The telemetry is displayed in an easily interpretable format, so that any user can understand the current health of the satellite and be cued as to any problems and possible solutions. Only the master ground station has the ability to receive all telemetry and send commands to the spacecraft; civilian ham users do not have access to this information. The telemetry data is decommutated and analyzed before it is displayed to the user, so that the raw data will not have to be interpreted by ground users. The analysis will use CLIPS imbedded in the code, and derive its inputs from telemetry decommutation. The program is an expert system using a forward chaining set of rules based on the expected operation and parameters of the satellite. By building the rules during the construction and design of the satellite, the telemetry can be well understood and interpreted after the satellite is launched and the designers may no longer be available to provide input to the problem.

  9. SSYST. A code system to analyze LWR fuel rod behavior under accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulden, W.; Meyder, R.; Borgwaldt, H.

    1982-01-01

    SSYST (Safety SYSTem) is a modular system to analyze the behavior of light water reactor fuel rods and fuel rod simulators under accident conditions. It has been developed in close cooperation between Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK) and the Institut fuer Kerntechnik und Energiewandlung (IKE), University Stuttgart, under contract of Projekt Nukleare Sicherheit (PNS) at KfK. Although originally aimed at single rod analysis, features are available to calculate effects such as blockage ratios of bundles and wholes cores. A number of inpile and out-of-pile experiments were used to assess the system. Main differences versus codes like FRAP-T with similar applications are (1) an open-ended modular code organisation, (2) availability of modules of different sophistication levels for the same physical processes, and (3) a preference for simple models, wherever possible. The first feature makes SSYST a very flexible tool, easily adapted to changing requirements; the second enables the user to select computational models adequate to the significance of the physical process. This leads together with the third feature to short execution times. The analysis of transient rod behavior under LOCA boundary conditions e.g. takes 2 mins cpu-time (IBM-3033), so that extensive parametric studies become possible

  10. How Unstable Are Complex Financial Systems? Analyzing an Inter-bank Network of Credit Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Sitabhra; Thess, Maximilian; Markose, Sheri

    The recent worldwide economic crisis of 2007-09 has focused attention on the need to analyze systemic risk in complex financial networks. We investigate the problem of robustness of such systems in the context of the general theory of dynamical stability in complex networks and, in particular, how the topology of connections influence the risk of the failure of a single institution triggering a cascade of successive collapses propagating through the network. We use data on bilateral liabilities (or exposure) in the derivatives market between 202 financial intermediaries based in USA and Europe in the last quarter of 2009 to empirically investigate the network structure of the over-the-counter (OTC) derivatives market. We observe that the network exhibits both heterogeneity in node properties and the existence of communities. It also has a prominent core-periphery organization and can resist large-scale collapse when subjected to individual bank defaults (however, failure of any bank in the core may result in localized collapse of the innermost core with substantial loss of capital) but is vulnerable to system-wide breakdown as a result of an accompanying liquidity crisis.

  11. Development of Data Storage System for Portable Multichannel Analyzer using S D Card

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suksompong, Tanate; Ngernvijit, Narippawaj; Sudprasert, Wanwisa

    2009-07-01

    Full text: The development of data storage system for portable multichannel analyzer (MCA) focused on the application of SD card as a storage device instead of the older devices that could not easily extend their capacity. The entire work consisted of two parts: the first part was the study for pulse detection by designing the input pulse detecting circuit. The second part dealed with the accuracy testing of data storage system for portable MCA, consisting of the design of connecting circuit between micro controller and SD card, the transfer of input pulse data into SD card and the ability of data storage system for radiation detection. It was found that the input pulse detecting circuit could detect the input pulse with the maximum voltage, then the signal was transferred to micro controller for data processing. The micro controller could connect to SD card via SPI MODE. The portable MCA could perfectly verify the input signal ranging from 0.2 to 5.0 volts. The SD card could store the data as . xls file which could easily be accessed by the compatible software such as Microsoft Excel

  12. A Comparison of Geographic Information Systems, Complex Networks, and Other Models for Analyzing Transportation Network Topologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, Natalia (Technical Monitor); Kuby, Michael; Tierney, Sean; Roberts, Tyler; Upchurch, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    This report reviews six classes of models that are used for studying transportation network topologies. The report is motivated by two main questions. First, what can the "new science" of complex networks (scale-free, small-world networks) contribute to our understanding of transport network structure, compared to more traditional methods? Second, how can geographic information systems (GIS) contribute to studying transport networks? The report defines terms that can be used to classify different kinds of models by their function, composition, mechanism, spatial and temporal dimensions, certainty, linearity, and resolution. Six broad classes of models for analyzing transport network topologies are then explored: GIS; static graph theory; complex networks; mathematical programming; simulation; and agent-based modeling. Each class of models is defined and classified according to the attributes introduced earlier. The paper identifies some typical types of research questions about network structure that have been addressed by each class of model in the literature.

  13. Omega-mode perturbation theory and reactor kinetics for analyzing accelerator-driven subcritical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren-Tai, Chiang

    2003-01-01

    An ω-mode first-order perturbation theory is developed for analyzing the time- and space-dependent neutron behavior in Accelerator-Driven Subcritical Systems (ADSS). The generalized point-kinetics equations are systematically derived using the ω-mode first-order perturbation theory and Fredholm Alternative Theorem. Seven sets of the ω-mode eigenvalues exist with using six groups of delayed neutrons and all ω eigenvalues are negative in ADSS. Seven ω-mode adjoint and forward eigenfunctions are employed to form the point-kinetic parameters. The neutron flux is expressed as a linear combination of the products of seven ω-eigenvalue-mode shape functions and their corresponding time functions up to the first order terms, and the lowest negative ω-eigenvalue mode is the dominant mode. (author)

  14. Polymerase chain reaction system using magnetic beads for analyzing a sample that includes nucleic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasarabadi, Shanavaz [Livermore, CA

    2011-01-11

    A polymerase chain reaction system for analyzing a sample containing nucleic acid includes providing magnetic beads; providing a flow channel having a polymerase chain reaction chamber, a pre polymerase chain reaction magnet position adjacent the polymerase chain reaction chamber, and a post pre polymerase magnet position adjacent the polymerase chain reaction chamber. The nucleic acid is bound to the magnetic beads. The magnetic beads with the nucleic acid flow to the pre polymerase chain reaction magnet position in the flow channel. The magnetic beads and the nucleic acid are washed with ethanol. The nucleic acid in the polymerase chain reaction chamber is amplified. The magnetic beads and the nucleic acid are separated into a waste stream containing the magnetic beads and a post polymerase chain reaction mix containing the nucleic acid. The reaction mix containing the nucleic acid flows to an analysis unit in the channel for analysis.

  15. Bi-Directional Brillouin Optical Time Domain Analyzer System for Long Range Distributed Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Nan; Wang, Liang; Wang, Jie; Jin, Chao; Tam, Hwa-Yaw; Zhang, A Ping; Lu, Chao

    2016-12-16

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel scheme of bi-directional Brillouin time domain analyzer (BD-BOTDA) to extend the sensing range. By deploying two pump-probe pairs at two different wavelengths, the Brillouin frequency shift (BFS) distribution over each half of the whole fiber can be obtained with the simultaneous detection of Brillouin signals in both channels. Compared to the conventional unidirectional BOTDA system of the same sensing range, the proposed BD-BOTDA scheme enables distributed sensing with a performance level comparable to the conventional one with half of the sensing range and a spatial resolution of 2 m, while maintaining the Brillouin signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the BFS uncertainty. Based on this technique, we have achieved distributed temperature sensing with a measurement range of 81.9 km fiber at a spatial resolution of 2 m and BFS uncertainty of ~0.44 MHz without introducing any complicated components or schemes.

  16. Development of Labview based data acquisition and multichannel analyzer software for radioactive particle tracking system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Nur Aira Abd, E-mail: nur-aira@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Yussup, Nolida; Ibrahim, Maslina Bt. Mohd; Abdullah, Nor Arymaswati; Mokhtar, Mukhlis B. [Technical Support Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, 43000, Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Abdullah, Jaafar B.; Hassan, Hearie B. [Industrial Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, 43000, Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-04-29

    A DAQ (data acquisition) software called RPTv2.0 has been developed for Radioactive Particle Tracking System in Malaysian Nuclear Agency. RPTv2.0 that features scanning control GUI, data acquisition from 12-channel counter via RS-232 interface, and multichannel analyzer (MCA). This software is fully developed on National Instruments Labview 8.6 platform. Ludlum Model 4612 Counter is used to count the signals from the scintillation detectors while a host computer is used to send control parameters, acquire and display data, and compute results. Each detector channel consists of independent high voltage control, threshold or sensitivity value and window settings. The counter is configured with a host board and twelve slave boards. The host board collects the counts from each slave board and communicates with the computer via RS-232 data interface.

  17. Bi-Directional Brillouin Optical Time Domain Analyzer System for Long Range Distributed Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Nan; Wang, Liang; Wang, Jie; Jin, Chao; Tam, Hwa-Yaw; Zhang, A. Ping; Lu, Chao

    2016-01-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel scheme of bi-directional Brillouin time domain analyzer (BD-BOTDA) to extend the sensing range. By deploying two pump-probe pairs at two different wavelengths, the Brillouin frequency shift (BFS) distribution over each half of the whole fiber can be obtained with the simultaneous detection of Brillouin signals in both channels. Compared to the conventional unidirectional BOTDA system of the same sensing range, the proposed BD-BOTDA scheme enables distributed sensing with a performance level comparable to the conventional one with half of the sensing range and a spatial resolution of 2 m, while maintaining the Brillouin signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the BFS uncertainty. Based on this technique, we have achieved distributed temperature sensing with a measurement range of 81.9 km fiber at a spatial resolution of 2 m and BFS uncertainty of ~0.44 MHz without introducing any complicated components or schemes. PMID:27999250

  18. Kinetic---a system code for analyzing nuclear thermal propulsion rocket engine transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, E.; Lazareth, O.; Ludewig, H.

    1993-01-01

    A system code suitable for analyzing Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) rocket engines is described in this paper. The code consists of a point reactor model and nodes to describe the fluid dynamics and heat transfer mechanism. Feedback from the fuel, coolant, moderator and reflector are allowed for, and the control of the reactor is by motion of controls element (drums or rods). The worth of the control element and feedback coefficients are predetermined. Separate models for the turbo-pump assembly (TPA) and nozzle are also included. The model to be described in this paper is specific for the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR). An illustrative problem is solved. This problem consists of a PBR operating in a blowdown mode

  19. Kinetic—a system code for analyzing nuclear thermal propulsion rocket engine transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Eldon; Lazareth, Otto; Ludewig, Hans

    1993-01-01

    A system code suitable for analyzing Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) rocket engines is described in this paper. The code consists of a point reactor model and nodes to describe the fluid dynamics and heat transfer mechanism. Feedback from the fuel, coolant, moderator and reflector are allowed for, and the control of the reactor is by motion of controls element (drums or rods). The worth of the control element and feedback coefficients are predetermined. Separate models for the turbo-pump assembly (TPA) and nozzle are also included. The model to be described in this paper is specific for the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR). An illustrative problem is solved. This problem consists of a PBR operating in a blowdown mode.

  20. KINETIC: A system code for analyzing Nuclear thermal propulsion rocket engine transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, E.; Lazareth, O.; Ludewig, H.

    1993-07-01

    A system code suitable for analyzing Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) rocket engines is described in this paper. The code consists of a point reactor model and nodes to describe the fluid dynamics and heat transfer mechanism. Feedback from the fuel coolant, moderator and reflector are allowed for, and the control of the reactor is by motion of control elements (drums or rods). The worth of the control clement and feedback coefficients are predetermined. Separate models for the turbo-pump assembly (TPA) and nozzle are also included. The model to be described in this paper is specific for the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR). An illustrative problem is solved. This problem consists of a PBR operating in a blowdown mode.

  1. A low-cost multichannel analyzer with data reduction assembly for continuous air monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoghi, B.; Lee, Y.; Nelson, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on a microcontroller-based multichannel analyzer (MCA) with a data reduction assembly (DRA) for a plutonium continuous air monitor (CAM) system. The MCA is capable of detecting the airborne alpha emitters in the presence of radon daughter products. The pulse output from the preamplifier has been stretched to allow the peak detector sufficient time to capture the pulse height. The pulse amplitude conversion, the data acquisition, and the output functions are carried out fully by software. The DRA consists of a data reduction unit (DRU) and its operator interface panel. The data reduction assembly has the ability to be networked to a single PC with up to 332 different CAM's remotely connected to it

  2. Irradiated-Microsphere Gamma Analyzer (IMGA): an integrated system for HTGR coated particle fuel performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kania, M.J.; Valentine, K.H.

    1980-02-01

    The Irradiated-Microsphere Gamma Analyzer (IMGA) System, designed and built at ORNL, provides the capability of making statistically accurate failure fraction measurements on irradiated HTGR coated particle fuel. The IMGA records the gamma-ray energy spectra from fuel particles and performs quantitative analyses on these spectra; then, using chemical and physical properties of the gamma emitters it makes a failed-nonfailed decision concerning the ability of the coatings to retain fission products. Actual retention characteristics for the coatings are determined by measuring activity ratios for certain gamma emitters such as 137 Cs/ 95 Zr and 144 Ce/ 95 Zr for metallic fission product retention and 134 Cs/ 137 Cs for an indirect measure of gaseous fission product retention. Data from IMGA (which can be put in the form of n failures observed in N examinations) can be accurately described by the binomial probability distribution model. Using this model, a mathematical relationship between IMGA data (n,N), failure fraction, and confidence level was developed. To determine failure fractions of less than or equal to 1% at confidence levels near 95%, this model dictates that from several hundred to several thousand particles must be examined. The automated particle handler of the IMGA system provides this capability. As a demonstration of failure fraction determination, fuel rod C-3-1 from the OF-2 irradiation capsule was analyzed and failure fraction statistics were applied. Results showed that at the 1% failure fraction level, with a 95% confidence level, the fissile particle batch could not meet requirements; however, the fertile particle exceeded these requirements for the given irradiation temperature and burnup

  3. The Challenges of Basel III for Romanian Banking System

    OpenAIRE

    Anca Elena NUCU

    2011-01-01

    Basel III represents a fundamental review of the regulatory and supervision framework of the banking industry in the future, the aim being to strengthen the stability of the financial system. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the impact of Basel III introduction upon the banking system at European level, respectively, upon the Romanian banking system. If at European level it is estimated a substantial deficit in capital and liquidity, with major impact on profitability indicators, the i...

  4. Application of Method of Variation to Analyze and Predict Human Induced Modifications of Water Resource Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessu, S. B.; Melesse, A. M.; Mahadev, B.; McClain, M.

    2010-12-01

    Water resource systems have often used gravitational surface and subsurface flows because of their practicality in hydrological modeling and prediction. Activities such as inter/intra-basin water transfer, the use of small pumps and the construction of micro-ponds challenge the tradition of natural rivers as water resource management unit. On the contrary, precipitation is barely affected by topography and plot harvesting in wet regions can be more manageable than diverting from rivers. Therefore, it is indicative to attend to systems where precipitation drives the dynamics while the internal mechanics constitutes spectrum of human activity and decision in a network of plots. The trade-in volume and path of harvested precipitation depends on water balance, energy balance and the kinematics of supply and demand. Method of variation can be used to understand and predict the implication of local excess precipitation harvest and exchange on the natural water system. A system model was developed using the variational form of Euler-Bernoulli’s equation for the Kenyan Mara River basin. Satellite derived digital elevation models, precipitation estimates, and surface properties such as fractional impervious surface area, are used to estimate the available water resource. Four management conditions are imposed in the model: gravitational flow, open water extraction and high water use investment at upstream and downstream respectively. According to the model, the first management maintains the basin status quo while the open source management could induce externality. The high water market at the upstream in the third management offers more than 50% of the basin-wide total revenue to the upper third section of the basin thus may promote more harvesting. The open source and upstream exploitation suggest potential drop of water availability to downstream. The model exposed the latent potential of economic gradient to reconfigure the flow network along the direction where the

  5. Analyzing recommender systems for health promotion using a multidisciplinary taxonomy: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hors-Fraile, Santiago; Rivera-Romero, Octavio; Schneider, Francine; Fernandez-Luque, Luis; Luna-Perejon, Francisco; Civit-Balcells, Anton; de Vries, Hein

    2018-06-01

    Recommender systems are information retrieval systems that provide users with relevant items (e.g., through messages). Despite their extensive use in the e-commerce and leisure domains, their application in healthcare is still in its infancy. These systems may be used to create tailored health interventions, thus reducing the cost of healthcare and fostering a healthier lifestyle in the population. This paper identifies, categorizes, and analyzes the existing knowledge in terms of the literature published over the past 10 years on the use of health recommender systems for patient interventions. The aim of this study is to understand the scientific evidence generated about health recommender systems, to identify any gaps in this field to achieve the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 3 (SDG3) (namely, "Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages"), and to suggest possible reasons for these gaps as well as to propose some solutions. We conducted a scoping review, which consisted of a keyword search of the literature related to health recommender systems for patients in the following databases: ScienceDirect, PsycInfo, Association for Computing Machinery, IEEExplore, and Pubmed. Further, we limited our search to consider only English-language journal articles published in the last 10 years. The reviewing process comprised three researchers who filtered the results simultaneously. The quantitative synthesis was conducted in parallel by two researchers, who classified each paper in terms of four aspects-the domain, the methodological and procedural aspects, the health promotion theoretical factors and behavior change theories, and the technical aspects-using a new multidisciplinary taxonomy. Nineteen papers met the inclusion criteria and were included in the data analysis, for which thirty-three features were assessed. The nine features associated with the health promotion theoretical factors and behavior change theories were not observed in

  6. Green Buildings in Singapore; Analyzing a Frontrunner’s Sectoral Innovation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidushini Siva

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The building sector in Singapore consumes up to half of the nation’s total energy. The government has therefore been urging the transformation of the industry by targeting 80% of all buildings to be green-certified by 2030. Thus far, Singapore has done relatively well, and is widely viewed as frontrunner in this respect. This paper addresses the question: what are the benefits and limitations of Singapore’s sectoral innovation system in spurring an energy transition in the building sector, in particular by up-scaling the use of green building technology? The Sectoral Innovation Systems (SIS theoretical framework was used to analyze the Singapore case. Four SIS components were assessed: technological regime, market demand, actor interactions and networks, and institutional framework. The benefits of Singapore’s sectoral innovation system identified in the analysis basically concern aspects of all of the four elements of SIS. Particular success factors concerned the launching of an integrated strategy to support green building innovations (i.e., the Green Mark policy scheme, implementing support policies, and setting up test beds. Furthermore, a masterplan to engage and educate end-users was implemented, knowledge exchange platforms were set up, regulations on the use of efficient equipment in buildings were issued, and standards and a certification system were adopted. The results also shed light on key barriers, namely, the reluctance of building users to change their habits, ineffective stakeholder collaboration, and green buildings innovation support coming from the government only. Measures in place have been moderately effective.

  7. First result from x-ray pulse height analyzer with radial scanning system for LHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muto, Sadatsugu; Morita, Shigeru

    2001-01-01

    Radial profiles of x-ray spectrum have been successfully obtained using an assembly of x-ray pulse height analyzer in large helical device. The observed profile is obtained from plasma heated by ICRF and neutral beam injection (NBI). As a detector, Si(Li) semiconductor is used with a histogramming memory and analog-to-digital converter (ADC) basically working at high counting rate up to 500 kcps. In routine operation a count rate of 62 kcps has been normally obtained with energy resolution better than 400 eV at iron Kα line. The assembly is equipped with four detectors and a radial scanning system which modulates sight lines of the detectors in major radius direction. The profiles of electron temperature and the intensity of metallic impurities have been obtained with a spatial resolution of a few centimeters. Measured electron temperature is in good agreement with that from Thomson scattering. The system is applicable to steady-state discharge. The design philosophy of the assembly and recent results on the performance tests are also presented.

  8. A Hybrid DGTD-MNA Scheme for Analyzing Complex Electromagnetic Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Peng

    2015-01-07

    A hybrid electromagnetics (EM)-circuit simulator for analyzing complex systems consisting of EM devices loaded with nonlinear multi-port lumped circuits is described. The proposed scheme splits the computational domain into two subsystems: EM and circuit subsystems, where field interactions are modeled using Maxwell and Kirchhoff equations, respectively. Maxwell equations are discretized using a discontinuous Galerkin time domain (DGTD) scheme while Kirchhoff equations are discretized using a modified nodal analysis (MNA)-based scheme. The coupling between the EM and circuit subsystems is realized at the lumped ports, where related EM fields and circuit voltages and currents are allowed to “interact’’ via numerical flux. To account for nonlinear lumped circuit elements, the standard Newton-Raphson method is applied at every time step. Additionally, a local time-stepping scheme is developed to improve the efficiency of the hybrid solver. Numerical examples consisting of EM systems loaded with single and multiport linear/nonlinear circuit networks are presented to demonstrate the accuracy, efficiency, and applicability of the proposed solver.

  9. USING ALMOST IDEAL DEMAND SYSTEM TO ANALYZE DEMAND FOR SHRIMP IN US FOOD MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia “Vivian” Zhou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the demand for shrimp along with beef, pork, and chicken in the US food market, which contributes much to predicting supply strategies, consumer preferences and policy making. It focuses on the own and cross elasticity relationship between the expenditure share, price, and expenditure changes. An Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDs model and two alternative specifications (both nonlinear AIDs and LA-AIDs are used to estimate a system of expenditure share equations for ocean shrimp, penaeid shrimp, beef, pork, and chicken. Empirical results from nonlinear AIDs model is compared with those from LA-AIDs model. There are quite a few inconsistency between nonlinear and LA results. Results from nonlinear are more expected and more complied with microeconomic theory than those from LA. Also, results indicated that some insignificant slope coefficients and inappropriate signs of them did not comply with microeconomic theory. This could be caused by heteroscedasticity, autocorrelation, a limitation in the data used, or shrimp is a quite different commodity.

  10. Assessment in Open and Distance Learning System (ODL: A Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. S. Chaudhary

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Assessment is an integral part of the learning process. The traditional practice of assessment has changed to meet the need of the contemporary society. In this paper assessment strategies used in Open and Distance Education are discussed and constructive suggestions are given to meet the challenges of assessment. Recently we experience a paradigm shift in assessment both in face-to-face and ODL system. Content-based testing has shifted to performance-based assessment. Assessment is no longer used for grading and certification, rather it has linked with learning and skill development of the students. Instead of a single paper pencil test, a variety of techniques and methods are being increasingly conducted. In this context assessment in the ODL system has adopted a new shape to provide better assessment judgments to its students and at the same time helping teachers and administrators. Coping with the changing scenario in ODL we face challenges addressed extensively in this article.

  11. Challenges, issues and trends in fall detection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Since falls are a major public health problem among older people, the number of systems aimed at detecting them has increased dramatically over recent years. This work presents an extensive literature review of fall detection systems, including comparisons among various kinds of studies. It aims to serve as a reference for both clinicians and biomedical engineers planning or conducting field investigations. Challenges, issues and trends in fall detection have been identified after the reviewing work. The number of studies using context-aware techniques is still increasing but there is a new trend towards the integration of fall detection into smartphones as well as the use of machine learning methods in the detection algorithm. We have also identified challenges regarding performance under real-life conditions, usability, and user acceptance as well as issues related to power consumption, real-time operations, sensing limitations, privacy and record of real-life falls. PMID:23829390

  12. Advances in electrostatic energy analyzers for ion beam probe diagnostic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bird, L.A.; Glowienka, J.C.; Jennings, W.C.; Hickok, R.L.

    1974-01-01

    Two new concepts are discussed for feedback controlled electrostatic energy analyzers; a dual gain analyzer for current density measurements, and bottom plate coupling to provide dc stability and better frequency response. An analyzer incorporating both of these concepts was built and preliminary measurements of its performance were made. These measurements are not reported here. (U.S.)

  13. Pilot Implementation of Health Information Systems: Issues and challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bansler, Jørgen Peter; Havn, Erling C.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: This study aims to explore the issues and challenges involved in designing and organizing pilot implementations of health information systems (HIS). Pilot implementations are a widely used approach for identifying design flaws and implementation issues before full-scale deployment...... of conventional implementations; they are fundamentally different and they have their own complications and issues to deal with that make them hard to design and manage....

  14. Electronic health systems: challenges faced by hospital-based providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agno, Christina Farala; Guo, Kristina L

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss specific challenges faced by hospitals adopting the use of electronic medical records and implementing electronic health record (EHR) systems. Challenges include user and information technology support; ease of technical use and software interface capabilities; compliance; and financial, legal, workforce training, and development issues. Electronic health records are essential to preventing medical errors, increasing consumer trust and use of the health system, and improving quality and overall efficiency. Government efforts are focused on ways to accelerate the adoption and use of EHRs as a means of facilitating data sharing, protecting health information privacy and security, quickly identifying emerging public health threats, and reducing medical errors and health care costs and increasing quality of care. This article will discuss physician and nonphysician staff training before, during, and after implementation; the effective use of EHR systems' technical features; the selection of a capable and secure EHR system; and the development of collaborative system implementation. Strategies that are necessary to help health care providers achieve successful implementation of EHR systems will be addressed.

  15. Smart wearable systems: current status and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Marie; Estève, Daniel; Fourniols, Jean-Yves; Escriba, Christophe; Campo, Eric

    2012-11-01

    Extensive efforts have been made in both academia and industry in the research and development of smart wearable systems (SWS) for health monitoring (HM). Primarily influenced by skyrocketing healthcare costs and supported by recent technological advances in micro- and nanotechnologies, miniaturisation of sensors, and smart fabrics, the continuous advances in SWS will progressively change the landscape of healthcare by allowing individual management and continuous monitoring of a patient's health status. Consisting of various components and devices, ranging from sensors and actuators to multimedia devices, these systems support complex healthcare applications and enable low-cost wearable, non-invasive alternatives for continuous 24-h monitoring of health, activity, mobility, and mental status, both indoors and outdoors. Our objective has been to examine the current research in wearable to serve as references for researchers and provide perspectives for future research. Herein, we review the current research and development of and the challenges facing SWS for HM, focusing on multi-parameter physiological sensor systems and activity and mobility measurement system designs that reliably measure mobility or vital signs and integrate real-time decision support processing for disease prevention, symptom detection, and diagnosis. For this literature review, we have chosen specific selection criteria to include papers in which wearable systems or devices are covered. We describe the state of the art in SWS and provide a survey of recent implementations of wearable health-care systems. We describe current issues, challenges, and prospects of SWS. We conclude by identifying the future challenges facing SWS for HM. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Big data in complex systems challenges and opportunities

    CERN Document Server

    Azar, Ahmad; Snasael, Vaclav; Kacprzyk, Janusz; Abawajy, Jemal

    2015-01-01

    This volume provides challenges and Opportunities with updated, in-depth material on the application of Big data to complex systems in order to find solutions for the challenges and problems facing big data sets applications. Much data today is not natively in structured format; for example, tweets and blogs are weakly structured pieces of text, while images and video are structured for storage and display, but not for semantic content and search. Therefore transforming such content into a structured format for later analysis is a major challenge. Data analysis, organization, retrieval, and modeling are other  foundational challenges treated in this book. The material of this book will be useful for researchers and practitioners in the field of big data as well as advanced undergraduate and graduate  students. Each of the 17 chapters in the book opens with a chapter abstract and key terms list. The chapters are organized along the lines of problem description, related works, and analysis of the results and ...

  17. Challenges in designing interactive systems for emergency response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Margit; Kyng, Morten; Nielsen, Esben Toftdahl

    2007-01-01

    and visions as ways to bridge between fieldwork and literature studies on the one hand and the emerging computer based prototypes on the other. Our case concerns design of innovative interactive systems for support in emergency response, including patient identification and monitoring as well as construction......This paper presents research on participatory design of interactive systems for emergency response. We present the work by going through the design method with a focus on the new elements that we developed for the participatory design toolkit, in particular we emphasize the use of challenges...

  18. Technology, Applications, and Process Challenges of Dual Chamber Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werk, Tobias; Ludwig, Imke S; Luemkemann, Joerg; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Huwyler, Joerg; Hafner, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    Dual-chamber systems provide an option as a drug and device combination product, when home care and emergency lyophilized products are intended. Nevertheless, until today, there are only a few products on the market, due to the challenges and limitations in manufacturability, product formulation, and product stability in a dual-chamber configuration, as well as economic considerations. This review serves to describe currently available dual-chamber systems and to discuss factors to be considered for appropriate selection and establishing fill-finish processes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Challenges at different stages of an iris based biometric system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Singla

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Iris recognition has been used for authentication for the past few years and is capable of positive/negative authenticationof an individual without any physical contact or intervention. This technique is being used mainly because of its uniqueness,stability, and reliability but still many challenges are being faced an the iris based recognition system. This paperpresents the difficulties faced in different modules, like the sensor module, preprocessing module, feature extraction module,and matching module of an iris biometric system.

  20. Development of a Spatial Decision Support System for Analyzing Changes in Hydro-meteorological Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Westen, Cees

    2013-04-01

    In the framework of the EU FP7 Marie Curie ITN Network "CHANGES: Changing Hydro-meteorological Risks, as Analyzed by a New Generation of European Scientists (http://www.changes-itn.eu)", a spatial decision support system is under development with the aim to analyze the effect of risk reduction planning alternatives on reducing the risk now and in the future, and support decision makers in selecting the best alternatives. The SDSS is one of the main outputs of the CHANGES network, which will develop an advanced understanding of how global changes, related to environmental and climate change as well as socio-economical change, may affect the temporal and spatial patterns of hydro-meteorological hazards and associated risks in Europe; how these changes can be assessed, modeled, and incorporated in sustainable risk management strategies, focusing on spatial planning, emergency preparedness and risk communication. The CHANGES network consists of 11 full partners and 6 associate partners of which 5 private companies, representing 10 European countries. The CHANGES network has hired 12 Early Stage Researchers (ESRs) and is currently hiring 3-6 researchers more for the implementation of the SDSS. The Spatial Decision Support System will be composed of a number of integrated components. The Risk Assessment component allows to carry out spatial risk analysis, with different degrees of complexity, ranging from simple exposure (overlay of hazard and assets maps) to quantitative analysis (using different hazard types, temporal scenarios and vulnerability curves) resulting into risk curves. The platform does not include a component to calculate hazard maps, and existing hazard maps are used as input data for the risk component. The second component of the SDSS is a risk reduction planning component, which forms the core of the platform. This component includes the definition of risk reduction alternatives (related to disaster response planning, risk reduction measures and

  1. Analyzing the politico-moral foundations of the Iran's health system based on theories of justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akrami, Forouzan; Abbasi, Mahmoud; Karimi, Abbas; Shahrivari, Akbar; Majdzadeh, Reza; Zali, Alireza

    2017-01-01

    Public health ethics is a field that covers both factual and ethical issues in health policy and science, and has positive obligations to improve the well-being of populations and reduce social inequalities. It is obvious that various philosophies and moral theories can differently shape the framework of public health ethics. For this reason, the present study reviewed theories of justice in order to analyze and criticize Iran's general health policies document, served in 14 Articles in 2014. Furthermore, it explored egalitarianism as the dominant theory in the political philosophy of the country's health care system. According to recent theories of justice, however, health policies must address well-being and its basic dimensions such as health, reasoning, autonomy, and the role of the involved agencies and social institutions in order to achieve social justice beyond distributive justice. Moreover, policy-making in the field of health and biomedical sciences based on Islamic culture necessitates a theory of social justice in the light of theological ethics. Educating people about their rights and duties, increasing their knowledge on individual agency, autonomy, and the role of the government, and empowering them will help achieve social justice. It is recommended to design and implement a strategic plan following each of these policies, based on the above-mentioned values and in collaboration with other sectors, to clarify the procedures in every case.

  2. An Artificial Neural Network for Analyzing Overall Uniformity in Outdoor Lighting Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio del Corte-Valiente

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Street lighting installations are an essential service for modern life due to their capability of creating a welcoming feeling at nighttime. Nevertheless, several studies have highlighted that it is possible to improve the quality of the light significantly improving the uniformity of the illuminance. The main difficulty arises when trying to improve some of the installation’s characteristics based only on statistical analysis of the light distribution. This paper presents a new algorithm that is able to obtain the overall illuminance uniformity in order to improve this sort of installations. To develop this algorithm it was necessary to perform a detailed study of all the elements which are part of street lighting installations. Because classification is one of the most important tasks in the application areas of artificial neural networks, we compared the performances of six types of training algorithms in a feed forward neural network for analyzing the overall uniformity in outdoor lighting systems. We found that the best algorithm that minimizes the error is “Levenberg-Marquardt back-propagation”, which approximates the desired output of the training pattern. By means of this kind of algorithm, it is possible to help to lighting professionals optimize the quality of street lighting installations.

  3. Challenges in data science: a complex systems perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbone, Anna; Jensen, Meiko; Sato, Aki-Hiro

    2016-01-01

    The ability to process and manage large data volumes has been proven to be not enough to tackle the current challenges presented by “Big Data”. Deep insight is required for understanding interactions among connected systems, space- and time- dependent heterogeneous data structures. Emergence of global properties from locally interacting data entities and clustering phenomena demand suitable approaches and methodologies recently developed in the foundational area of Data Science by taking a Complex Systems standpoint. Here, we deal with challenges that can be summarized by the question: “What can Complex Systems Science contribute to Big Data? ”. Such question can be reversed and brought to a superior level of abstraction by asking “What Knowledge can be drawn from Big Data?” These aspects constitute the main motivation behind this article to introduce a volume containing a collection of papers presenting interdisciplinary advances in the Big Data area by methodologies and approaches typical of the Complex Systems Science, Nonlinear Systems Science and Statistical Physics.

  4. The principles involved in building an optimum system of magnetic gas analyzers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, A N; Sukhanov, S

    1980-01-01

    A short survey is given of magnetomechanical and thermo-magnetic gas analyzers for oxygen. It is noted that the principle of building magnetic gas analyzers that measure secondary phenomena has fact that disadvantages due to the fact that a gas analyzer uses galvanaomagnetic elements from Hall generators. The measurement range is 0-2% of the volume of 0/sub 2/ concentration, the accuracy class is 1 and the threshold sensitivity is .01 percent by volume.

  5. Challenge of Replacing Obsolete Equipment and Systems on Brownfield Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teasdale, St.

    2009-01-01

    The Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) is responsible for the decommissioning and clean-up of the UK's civil public sector nuclear sites. One of their top priorities is the retrieval of sludge and fuel from the First Generation Magnox Fuel Storage Pond (FGMSP) at Sellafield site which is one of the most complex and compact nuclear sites in the world. The FGMSP plant is currently undergoing a series of major modifications in preparation for the retrievals operations. One of the most challenging modifications undertaken in the facility has been the Control and Surveillance Project which covered replacement of the existing Environmental Monitoring System, this presented the complex challenge of replacing an existing system whilst maintaining full functionality on a live radiological safety system with a constant radiological hazard. The Control and Surveillance Project involved the design, procurement, installation, changeover and commissioning of a new Radiological Surveillance System (alpha, beta and gamma monitoring) along with Building Evacuation Systems within the FGMSP complex to replace the existing obsolete system. This Project was a key enabler to future FGMSP retrievals and decommissioning activities. The project objective was to create and maintain a safe radiological working environment for over 450 personnel working in the plant up to 2020. The Legacy Ponds at Sellafield represent one of the biggest challenges in the civil nuclear clean up portfolio in the UK. Retrieval of sludge and fuel from the First Generation Magnox Fuel Storage Pond (FGMSP), and its safe long term storage is one of the NDA's top priorities. In June 2002 Sellafield Ltd contracted with the ACKtiv Nuclear Joint Venture to progress the risk mitigation, asset restoration and the early enabling works associated with preparation for clean up. Since then significant progress has been made in preparing the facility, and it's support systems, for the clean-up operations. This has been

  6. ANALYZING THE POSTPONEMENT OF TIME PRODUCTION SYSTEMS IN MAKE-TO-STOCK AND SEASONAL DEMAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cesar Chagas Rodrigues

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The supply chain management, postponement and demand management functions are of strategic importance to the economic success of organizations because they influence the production process, when viewed in isolation and empirically may hinder understanding of their behavior. The aim of this paper is to analyze the influence of the postponement in an enterprise production system with make-to-stock and with seasonal demand. The research method used was a case study, the instruments of data collection were semi-structured interviews, documentary analysis and site visits. This research is restricted to analysis of the influence that different levels of delay and the company's position in the supply chain have on the practice of demand management in the productive segment graphic, product spiral notebook and also in relation to geographical focus (region of the state São Paulo, in which it will seek to interview the managers and directors. As a way to support the research on the analysis of case study and the final considerations will be discussed the following issues: supply chain management, postponement, demand management and production system make-to-stock. The demand management can be understood as a practice that allows you to manage and coordinate the supply chain in reverse, i.e. the consumer to the supplier, in which consumers trigger actions for the supply of products can make the process more efficient. The purpose of managing the supply chain is able to allow the addition of value, exceeding the expectations of consumers, it is necessary to develop a relationship with suppliers and customers win-win. The postponement strategy must fit the characteristics of the turbulent environment within the markets along with demands that require variety of customized products and services and reasonable costs, aiming to support decision making. The postponement of time can be a way to soften the increase in inventory of finished product in the company

  7. Challenges in Quantitative Abstractions for Collective Adaptive Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirco Tribastone

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Like with most large-scale systems, the evaluation of quantitative properties of collective adaptive systems is an important issue that crosscuts all its development stages, from design (in the case of engineered systems to runtime monitoring and control. Unfortunately it is a difficult problem to tackle in general, due to the typically high computational cost involved in the analysis. This calls for the development of appropriate quantitative abstraction techniques that preserve most of the system's dynamical behaviour using a more compact representation. This paper focuses on models based on ordinary differential equations and reviews recent results where abstraction is achieved by aggregation of variables, reflecting on the shortcomings in the state of the art and setting out challenges for future research.

  8. Accomplishments and challenges in development of an autonomous operation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endou, A.; Saiki, A.; Yoshikawa, S.; Okusa, K.; Suda, K.

    1994-01-01

    The authors are studying an autonomous operation system for nuclear power plants in which AI plays key roles as an alternative of plant operators and traditional controllers. In contrast with past studies dedicated to assist the operators, the ultimate target of development of the autonomous operation system is to operate the nuclear plants by AI. To realize humanlike decision-making process by means of AI, the authors used a model-based approach from multiple viewpoints and methodology diversity. A hierarchical distributed cooperative multi-agent system configuration is adopted to allow to incorporate diversified methodologies and to dynamically reorganize system functions. In the present paper, accomplishments to date in the course of the development are described. Challenges for developing methodologies to attain dynamic reorganization are also addressed. (author)

  9. Analyzing the evolutionary mechanisms of the Air Transportation System-of-Systems using network theory and machine learning algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotegawa, Tatsuya

    Complexity in the Air Transportation System (ATS) arises from the intermingling of many independent physical resources, operational paradigms, and stakeholder interests, as well as the dynamic variation of these interactions over time. Currently, trade-offs and cost benefit analyses of new ATS concepts are carried out on system-wide evaluation simulations driven by air traffic forecasts that assume fixed airline routes. However, this does not well reflect reality as airlines regularly add and remove routes. A airline service route network evolution model that projects route addition and removal was created and combined with state-of-the-art air traffic forecast methods to better reflect the dynamic properties of the ATS in system-wide simulations. Guided by a system-of-systems framework, network theory metrics and machine learning algorithms were applied to develop the route network evolution models based on patterns extracted from historical data. Constructing the route addition section of the model posed the greatest challenge due to the large pool of new link candidates compared to the actual number of routes historically added to the network. Of the models explored, algorithms based on logistic regression, random forests, and support vector machines showed best route addition and removal forecast accuracies at approximately 20% and 40%, respectively, when validated with historical data. The combination of network evolution models and a system-wide evaluation tool quantified the impact of airline route network evolution on air traffic delay. The expected delay minutes when considering network evolution increased approximately 5% for a forecasted schedule on 3/19/2020. Performance trade-off studies between several airline route network topologies from the perspectives of passenger travel efficiency, fuel burn, and robustness were also conducted to provide bounds that could serve as targets for ATS transformation efforts. The series of analysis revealed that high

  10. International outsourcing as a challenge for the world trade system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Sivacheva

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available From the strategic management point of view, the twenty-first century is being widely recognized as the century for outsourcing in the global economy. In the meantime international outsourcing is one of the most dynamic, innovation-driven and complicated processes in modern world. The present paper concentrates on the essence of international outsourcing (tracing its roots in the international division of labour and world economic relations theoretical approaches, reviews its explicit and implicit challenges and finally presents opportunities for regulating international outsourcing. Attention is focused on the following key questions: to what extent does international outsourcing represent a challenge for the world trade system? what contribution does international outsourcing make to economic «strength» in the modern world?

  11. Challenges and Success Factors of ERP Systems in Australian SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitalakshmi Venkatraman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Today, great potential is envisaged for ERP systems in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs, and software vendors have been repackaging their ERP systems for SMEs with a recent focus on cloud-based systems. While cloud ERP offers the best solution for SMEs without the overheads of the huge investment and management costs that are associated with traditional ERP systems, the SME sector faces many challenges in their adoption. Traditional ERP studies have predominantly focused on large organizations, and gaps in the literature indicate that both vendor and consumer perspectives require more understanding with new technology offerings for SMEs. This paper describes some of the common challenges, such as cost effectiveness, alignment between software and business processes, customized governance and training, which form the major SME constraints for ERP system adoption. Due to the dynamic nature of SME businesses, best practice guidelines for an SME’s ERP implementation could be arrived at through closer investigation of its business requirements in order to avoid misfits. This forms the main objective of the study. We identify key success factors of ERP implementation in an Australian SME as a case study. These target success factors are then compared to the actual outcomes achieved. Factors such as business process alignment with the ERP system, meeting customer and stakeholder needs and reducing recurring and maintenance costs were key to the success of ERP implementation for the Australian SME. In particular, the IT and business strategy alignment with a customer focus and flexible reporting features of ERP systems has resulted in business agility.

  12. Deep graphs—A general framework to represent and analyze heterogeneous complex systems across scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traxl, Dominik; Boers, Niklas; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-06-01

    Network theory has proven to be a powerful tool in describing and analyzing systems by modelling the relations between their constituent objects. Particularly in recent years, a great progress has been made by augmenting "traditional" network theory in order to account for the multiplex nature of many networks, multiple types of connections between objects, the time-evolution of networks, networks of networks and other intricacies. However, existing network representations still lack crucial features in order to serve as a general data analysis tool. These include, most importantly, an explicit association of information with possibly heterogeneous types of objects and relations, and a conclusive representation of the properties of groups of nodes as well as the interactions between such groups on different scales. In this paper, we introduce a collection of definitions resulting in a framework that, on the one hand, entails and unifies existing network representations (e.g., network of networks and multilayer networks), and on the other hand, generalizes and extends them by incorporating the above features. To implement these features, we first specify the nodes and edges of a finite graph as sets of properties (which are permitted to be arbitrary mathematical objects). Second, the mathematical concept of partition lattices is transferred to the network theory in order to demonstrate how partitioning the node and edge set of a graph into supernodes and superedges allows us to aggregate, compute, and allocate information on and between arbitrary groups of nodes. The derived partition lattice of a graph, which we denote by deep graph, constitutes a concise, yet comprehensive representation that enables the expression and analysis of heterogeneous properties, relations, and interactions on all scales of a complex system in a self-contained manner. Furthermore, to be able to utilize existing network-based methods and models, we derive different representations of

  13. SSD for R: A Comprehensive Statistical Package to Analyze Single-System Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Charles; Schudrich, Wendy Zeitlin

    2013-01-01

    The need for statistical analysis in single-subject designs presents a challenge, as analytical methods that are applied to group comparison studies are often not appropriate in single-subject research. "SSD for R" is a robust set of statistical functions with wide applicability to single-subject research. It is a comprehensive package…

  14. Information management challenges of the EOS Data and Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdonald, Kenneth R.; Blake, Deborah J.

    1991-01-01

    An overview of the current information management concepts that are embodied in the plans for the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is presented, and some of the technology development and application areas that are envisioned to be particularly challenging are introduced. The Information Management System (IMS) is the EOSDIS element that provides the primary interface between the science users and the data products and services of EOSDIS. The goals of IMS are to define a clear and complete set of functional requirements and to apply innovative methods and technologies to satisfy them. The information management functions are described in detail, and some applicable technolgies are discussed. Some of the general issues affecting the successful development and operation of the information management element are addressed.

  15. Progress and challenges to the global waste management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jagdeep; Laurenti, Rafael; Sinha, Rajib; Frostell, Björn

    2014-09-01

    Rapid economic growth, urbanization and increasing population have caused (materially intensive) resource consumption to increase, and consequently the release of large amounts of waste to the environment. From a global perspective, current waste and resource management lacks a holistic approach covering the whole chain of product design, raw material extraction, production, consumption, recycling and waste management. In this article, progress and different sustainability challenges facing the global waste management system are presented and discussed. The study leads to the conclusion that the current, rather isolated efforts, in different systems for waste management, waste reduction and resource management are indeed not sufficient in a long term sustainability perspective. In the future, to manage resources and wastes sustainably, waste management requires a more systems-oriented approach that addresses the root causes for the problems. A specific issue to address is the development of improved feedback information (statistics) on how waste generation is linked to consumption. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Security Challenges in Smart-Grid Metering and Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxin Fan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The smart grid is a next-generation power system that is increasingly attracting the attention of government, industry, and academia. It is an upgraded electricity network that depends on two-way digital communications between supplier and consumer that in turn give support to intelligent metering and monitoring systems. Considering that energy utilities play an increasingly important role in our daily life, smart-grid technology introduces new security challenges that must be addressed. Deploying a smart grid without adequate security might result in serious consequences such as grid instability, utility fraud, and loss of user information and energy-consumption data. Due to the heterogeneous communication architecture of smart grids, it is quite a challenge to design sophisticated and robust security mechanisms that can be easily deployed to protect communications among different layers of the smart grid-infrastructure. In this article, we focus on the communication-security aspect of a smart-grid metering and control system from the perspective of cryptographic techniques, and we discuss different mechanisms to enhance cybersecurity of the emerging smart grid. We aim to provide a comprehensive vulnerability analysis as well as novel insights on the cybersecurity of a smart grid.

  17. Immigrants and health system challenges to TB control in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fochsen Grethe

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the past three decades, Oman has made significant progress in controlling TB within it's borders. However, the national TB control program elimination target has yet to be reached. This study aims to explore the perceived roles played by the immigrant population and the private health sector in relation to TB control in Oman. Methods We conducted seventeen interviews with different health care providers. The verbatim transcripts were processed using content analysis. Results Three main themes emerged. Firstly the threat of repatriation faced by underprivileged expatriates, secondly the criticized and forgotten private health sector as a key player and thirdly the user and provider barriers faced by Omani patients in the Omani public health system. Conclusions The study has identified some of the challenges and barriers to TB control in Oman. These challenges are mainly related to unintended negative consequences arising from the current repatriation policy of immigrants and to and the lack of involvement of the private sector in TB control. TB control strategies designed to address these challenges are needed, for Oman to reach its TB elimination targets.

  18. Opportunities and challenges for multicriteria assessment of food system sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo F. Alrøe

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The focus of the Special Feature on "Multicriteria assessment of food system sustainability" is on the complex challenges of making and communicating overall assessments of food systems sustainability based on multiple and varied criteria. Four papers concern the choice and development of appropriate tools for making multicriteria sustainability assessments that handle built-in methodological conflicts and trade-offs between different assessment objectives. They underscore the value of linking diverse methods and tools, or nesting and stepping their deployment, to help build resilience and sustainability. They conclude that there is no one tool, one framework, or one indicator set that is appropriate for the different purposes and contexts of sustainability assessment. The process of creating the assessment framework also emerges as important: if the key stakeholders are not given a responsible and full role in the development of any assessment tool, it is less likely to be fit for their purpose and they are unlikely to take ownership or have confidence in it. Six other papers reflect on more fundamental considerations of how assessments are based in different scientific perspectives and on the role of values, motivation, and trust in relation to assessments in the development of more sustainable food systems. They recommend a radical break with the tradition of conducting multicriteria assessment from one hegemonic perspective to considering multiple perspectives. Collectively the contributions to this Special Feature identify three main challenges for improved multicriteria assessment of food system sustainability: (i how to balance different types of knowledge to avoid that the most well-known, precise, or easiest to measure dimensions of sustainability gets the most weight; (ii how to expose the values in assessment tools and choices to allow evaluation of how they relate to the ethical principles of sustainable food systems, to societal

  19. Simulation Tools and Techniques for Analyzing the Impacts of Photovoltaic System Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariri, Ali

    approach: this is a theoretical mathematical approach that demonstrated the understanding of the fundamentals of electric power system operation. It provides an easy way to estimate the maximum amount of PV power that can be injected at each node in the network. This approach has been tested and validated. 2. Stochastic simulation software approach: this approach provides a comprehensive simulation software that can be used in order to identify the PV hosting limit. The software performs a large number of stochastic simulation while varying the PV system size and location. The collected data is then analyzed for violations in the voltage levels, voltage fluctuations and reverse power flow. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  20. The Modern Hearing Aid – an Extreme System Integration Challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger

    (Application Specific Integrated Circuit) to produce a competitive advantage in terms of size and features. This presentation will give a brief insight into the hearing aid market and industry and a brief view of the historic development of hearing aids. The system integration challenge will be illustrated......People with reduced hearing generally want to hide this disability and thus the size of hearing aids is constantly decreasing in the effort to make them virtually invisible. However, as for all other modern electrical devices more and more features are constantly added to hearing aids driven...

  1. Challenges of using Hospital Information Systems by nurses: comparing academic and non-academic hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadian, Leila; Dorosti, Nafise; Khajouei, Reza; Gohari, Sadrieh Hajesmaeel

    2017-06-01

    Hospital Information Systems (HIS) are used for easy access to information, improvement of documentation and reducing errors. Nonetheless, using these systems is faced with some barriers and obstacles. This study identifies the challenges and the obstacles of using these systems in the academic and non-academic hospitals in Kerman. This is a cross-sectional study which was carried out in 2015. The statistical population in this study consisted of the nurses who had been working in the academic and non-academic hospitals in Kerman. A questionnaire consisting of two sections was used. The first section consisted of the demographic information of the participants and the second section comprised 34 questions about the challenges of HIS use. Data were analyzed by the descriptive and statistical analysis (t-test, and ANOVA) using SPSS 19 software. The most common and important challenges in the academic hospitals were about human environment factors, particularly "negative attitude of society toward using HIS". In the non-academic hospitals, the most common and important challenges were related to human factors, and among them, "no incentive to use system" was the main factor. The results of the t-test method revealed that there was a significant relationship between gender and the mean score of challenges related to the organizational environment category in the academic hospitals and between familiarity with HIS and mean score of human environment factors (pinformation systems are the factors related to the human environment and the human factors. The results of this study can bring a good perspective to the policy makers and the managers regarding obstacles of using HISs from the nurses' perspective, so that they can solve their problems and can successfully implement these systems.

  2. Using business intelligence to analyze and share health system infrastructure data in a rural health authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Waqar; Urquhart, Bonnie; Berg, Emery; Dhanoa, Ramandeep

    2014-08-06

    Health care organizations gather large volumes of data, which has been traditionally stored in legacy formats making it difficult to analyze or use effectively. Though recent government-funded initiatives have improved the situation, the quality of most existing data is poor, suffers from inconsistencies, and lacks integrity. Generating reports from such data is generally not considered feasible due to extensive labor, lack of reliability, and time constraints. Advanced data analytics is one way of extracting useful information from such data. The intent of this study was to propose how Business Intelligence (BI) techniques can be applied to health system infrastructure data in order to make this information more accessible and comprehensible for a broader group of people. An integration process was developed to cleanse and integrate data from disparate sources into a data warehouse. An Online Analytical Processing (OLAP) cube was then built to allow slicing along multiple dimensions determined by various key performance indicators (KPIs), representing population and patient profiles, case mix groups, and healthy community indicators. The use of mapping tools, customized shape files, and embedded objects further augment the navigation. Finally, Web forms provide a mechanism for remote uploading of data and transparent processing of the cube. For privileged information, access controls were implemented. Data visualization has eliminated tedious analysis through legacy reports and provided a mechanism for optimally aligning resources with needs. Stakeholders are able to visualize KPIs on a main dashboard, slice-and-dice data, generate ad hoc reports, and quickly find the desired information. In addition, comparison, availability, and service level reports can also be generated on demand. All reports can be drilled down for navigation at a finer granularity. We have demonstrated how BI techniques and tools can be used in the health care environment to make informed

  3. Remote sensing, geographical information systems, and spatial modeling for analyzing public transit services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Changshan

    Public transit service is a promising transportation mode because of its potential to address urban sustainability. Current ridership of public transit, however, is very low in most urban regions, particularly those in the United States. This woeful transit ridership can be attributed to many factors, among which poor service quality is key. Given this, there is a need for transit planning and analysis to improve service quality. Traditionally, spatially aggregate data are utilized in transit analysis and planning. Examples include data associated with the census, zip codes, states, etc. Few studies, however, address the influences of spatially aggregate data on transit planning results. In this research, previous studies in transit planning that use spatially aggregate data are reviewed. Next, problems associated with the utilization of aggregate data, the so-called modifiable areal unit problem (MAUP), are detailed and the need for fine resolution data to support public transit planning is argued. Fine resolution data is generated using intelligent interpolation techniques with the help of remote sensing imagery. In particular, impervious surface fraction, an important socio-economic indicator, is estimated through a fully constrained linear spectral mixture model using Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) data within the metropolitan area of Columbus, Ohio in the United States. Four endmembers, low albedo, high albedo, vegetation, and soil are selected to model heterogeneous urban land cover. Impervious surface fraction is estimated by analyzing low and high albedo endmembers. With the derived impervious surface fraction, three spatial interpolation methods, spatial regression, dasymetric mapping, and cokriging, are developed to interpolate detailed population density. Results suggest that cokriging applied to impervious surface is a better alternative for estimating fine resolution population density. With the derived fine resolution data, a multiple

  4. Security challenges in designing I and C systems for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behera, Rajendra Prasad; Jayanthi, T.; Madhusoodanan, K.; Satya Murty, S.A.V.

    2016-01-01

    Geographically distributed instrumentation and control (I and C) systems in any nuclear power plant (NPP) facilitate the operator with remote access to real-time data and issue supervisory command to remote control devices deployed in the field. The increased connectivity to plant communication network has exposed I and C systems to security vulnerabilities both in terms of physical and logical access. For example, denial-of service and fault induction attack can disrupt the operation of I and C systems by delaying or blocking the flow of data through plant communication network. The design process of I and C system is quite challenging since an engineer has to consider both safety and security features implemented in hardware and software components of the system. This paper analyzes attack taxonomy based on available data and presents Security Tree Analysis (STA) technique towards building safe and secures I and C systems for Nuclear Power Plant. (author)

  5. Health recommender systems: concepts, requirements, technical basics and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesner, Martin; Pfeifer, Daniel

    2014-03-03

    During the last decades huge amounts of data have been collected in clinical databases representing patients' health states (e.g., as laboratory results, treatment plans, medical reports). Hence, digital information available for patient-oriented decision making has increased drastically but is often scattered across different sites. As as solution, personal health record systems (PHRS) are meant to centralize an individual's health data and to allow access for the owner as well as for authorized health professionals. Yet, expert-oriented language, complex interrelations of medical facts and information overload in general pose major obstacles for patients to understand their own record and to draw adequate conclusions. In this context, recommender systems may supply patients with additional laymen-friendly information helping to better comprehend their health status as represented by their record. However, such systems must be adapted to cope with the specific requirements in the health domain in order to deliver highly relevant information for patients. They are referred to as health recommender systems (HRS). In this article we give an introduction to health recommender systems and explain why they are a useful enhancement to PHR solutions. Basic concepts and scenarios are discussed and a first implementation is presented. In addition, we outline an evaluation approach for such a system, which is supported by medical experts. The construction of a test collection for case-related recommendations is described. Finally, challenges and open issues are discussed.

  6. Health Recommender Systems: Concepts, Requirements, Technical Basics and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Wiesner

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades huge amounts of data have been collected in clinical databases representing patients’ health states (e.g., as laboratory results, treatment plans, medical reports. Hence, digital information available for patient-oriented decision making has increased drastically but is often scattered across different sites. As as solution, personal health record systems (PHRS are meant to centralize an individual’s health data and to allow access for the owner as well as for authorized health professionals. Yet, expert-oriented language, complex interrelations of medical facts and information overload in general pose major obstacles for patients to understand their own record and to draw adequate conclusions. In this context, recommender systems may supply patients with additional laymen-friendly information helping to better comprehend their health status as represented by their record. However, such systems must be adapted to cope with the specific requirements in the health domain in order to deliver highly relevant information for patients. They are referred to as health recommender systems (HRS. In this article we give an introduction to health recommender systems and explain why they are a useful enhancement to PHR solutions. Basic concepts and scenarios are discussed and a first implementation is presented. In addition, we outline an evaluation approach for such a system, which is supported by medical experts. The construction of a test collection for case-related recommendations is described. Finally, challenges and open issues are discussed.

  7. The Challenges of Basel III for Romanian Banking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Elena NUCU

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Basel III represents a fundamental review of the regulatory and supervision framework of the banking industry in the future, the aim being to strengthen the stability of the financial system. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the impact of Basel III introduction upon the banking system at European level, respectively, upon the Romanian banking system. If at European level it is estimated a substantial deficit in capital and liquidity, with major impact on profitability indicators, the impact of Basel III upon banking system in Romania is considered to be limited. The measures which credit institutions could take to mitigate the impact of alignment with the new standards are business model adjustment and balance sheet restructuring.

  8. Thermostability of biological systems: fundamentals, challenges, and quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaoming

    2011-01-01

    This review examines the fundamentals and challenges in engineering/understanding the thermostability of biological systems over a wide temperature range (from the cryogenic to hyperthermic regimen). Applications of the bio-thermostability engineering to either destroy unwanted or stabilize useful biologicals for the treatment of diseases in modern medicine are first introduced. Studies on the biological responses to cryogenic and hyperthermic temperatures for the various applications are reviewed to understand the mechanism of thermal (both cryo and hyperthermic) injury and its quantification at the molecular, cellular and tissue/organ levels. Methods for quantifying the thermophysical processes of the various applications are then summarized accounting for the effect of blood perfusion, metabolism, water transport across cell plasma membrane, and phase transition (both equilibrium and non-equilibrium such as ice formation and glass transition) of water. The review concludes with a summary of the status quo and future perspectives in engineering the thermostability of biological systems.

  9. Nonviral Delivery Systems For Cancer Gene Therapy: Strategies And Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Gayong; Kim, Dongyoon; Le, Quoc-Viet; Park, Gyu Thae; Kwon, Taekhyun; Oh, Yu-Kyoung

    2018-01-19

    Gene therapy has been receiving widespread attention due to its unique advantage in regulating the expression of specific target genes. In the field of cancer gene therapy, modulation of gene expression has been shown to decrease oncogenic factors in cancer cells or increase immune responses against cancer. Due to the macromolecular size and highly negative physicochemical features of plasmid DNA, efficient delivery systems are an essential ingredient for successful gene therapy. To date, a variety of nanostructures and materials have been studied as nonviral gene delivery systems. In this review, we will cover nonviral delivery strategies for cancer gene therapy, with a focus on target cancer genes and delivery materials. Moreover, we will address current challenges and perspectives for nonviral delivery-based cancer gene therapeutics. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  10. Challenges in parameter identification of large structural dynamic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, C.G.

    2001-01-01

    In theory, it is possible to determine the parameters of a structural or mechanical system by subjecting it to some dynamic excitation and measuring the response. Considerable research has been carried out in this subject area known as the system identification over the past two decades. Nevertheless, the challenges associated with numerical convergence are still formidable when the system is large in terms of the number of degrees of freedom and number of unknowns. While many methods work for small systems, the convergence becomes difficult, if not impossible, for large systems. In this keynote lecture, both classical and non-classical system identification methods for dynamic testing and vibration-based inspection are discussed. For classical methods, the extended Kalman filter (EKF) approach is used. On this basis, a substructural identification method has been developed as a strategy to deal with large structural systems. This is achieved by reducing the problem size, thereby significantly improving the numerical convergence and efficiency. Two versions of this method are presented each with its own merits. A numerical example of frame structure with 20 unknown parameters is illustrated. For non-classical methods, the Genetic Algorithm (GA) is shown to be applicable with relative ease due to its 'forward analysis' nature. The computational time is, however, still enormous for large structural systems due to the combinatorial explosion problem. A model GA method has been developed to address this problem and tested with considerable success on a relatively large system of 50 degrees of freedom, accounting for input and output noise effects. An advantages of this GA-based identification method is that the objective function can be defined in response measured. Numerical studies show that the method is relatively robust, as it does in response measured. Numerical studies show that the method is relatively robust, as it dos not require good initial guess and the

  11. Analyzing dynamic fault trees derived from model-based system architectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehlinger, Josh; Dugan, Joanne Bechta

    2008-01-01

    Dependability-critical systems, such as digital instrumentation and control systems in nuclear power plants, necessitate engineering techniques and tools to provide assurances of their safety and reliability. Determining system reliability at the architectural design phase is important since it may guide design decisions and provide crucial information for trade-off analysis and estimating system cost. Despite this, reliability and system engineering remain separate disciplines and engineering processes by which the dependability analysis results may not represent the designed system. In this article we provide an overview and application of our approach to build architecture-based, dynamic system models for dependability-critical systems and then automatically generate Dynamic Fault Trees (DFT) for comprehensive, toolsupported reliability analysis. Specifically, we use the Architectural Analysis and Design Language (AADL) to model the structural, behavioral and failure aspects of the system in a composite architecture model. From the AADL model, we seek to derive the DFT(s) and use Galileo's automated reliability analyses to estimate system reliability. This approach alleviates the dependability engineering - systems engineering knowledge expertise gap, integrates the dependability and system engineering design and development processes and enables a more formal, automated and consistent DFT construction. We illustrate this work using an example based on a dynamic digital feed-water control system for a nuclear reactor

  12. Front-end electronics and trigger systems - status and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spieler, Helmuth G; Spieler, Helmuth G

    2007-01-01

    The past quarter century has brought about a revolution in front-end electronics for large-scale detector systems. Custom integrated circuits specifically tailored to the requirements of large detector systems have provided unprecedented performance and enabled systems that once were deemed impossible. The evolution of integrated circuit readouts in strip detectors is summarized, the present status described, and challenges posed by the sLHC and ILC are discussed. Performance requirements increase, but key considerations remain as in the past: power dissipation, material, and services. Smaller CMOS feature sizes will not provide the required electronic noise at lower power, but will improve digital power efficiency. Significant improvements appear to be practical in more efficient power distribution. Enhanced digital electronics have provided powerful trigger processors that greatly improve the trigger efficiency. In data readout systems they also improve data throughput, while reducing power requirements. Concurrently with new developments in high energy physics, detector systems for cosmology and astrophysics have made great strides. As an example, a large-scale readout for superconducting bolometer arrays is described

  13. Challenges facing air management for fuel cell systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, P.B. [Department of Energy (United States); Sutton, R. [Argonne National Lab. (United States); Wagner, F.W. [Energetics Incorporated (United States)

    2000-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. automotive industry are working cooperatively under the auspices of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) to develop a six-passenger automobile that can achieve up to 80 mpg. while meeting customer needs and all safety and emission requirements. These partners are continuing to invest heavily in the research and development of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells as a clean and efficient energy conversion system for the PNGV. A critical challenge facing fuel cell systems for the PNGV is the development of efficient, compact, cost-effective air management systems. The U.S. Department of Energy has been exploring several compressor/expander options for pressurized fuel cell systems, including scroll, toroidal intersecting vane, turbine, twin screw, and piston technologies. Each of these technologies has strengths and weaknesses regarding efficiency, pressure ratio over turndown, size and weight, and cost. This paper will present data from the U.S. Department of Energy's research and development efforts on air management systems and will discusses recent program developments resulting from an independent peer review evaluation. (author)

  14. Analyzing inter-organizational systems from a power and interest perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, A.; de Vries, J.

    2005-01-01

    Inter-organizational systems (IOS) are Information and Communication Technology (ICT)-based systems that enable organizations to share information and to electronically conduct business across organizational boundaries. Especially since the increasing availability of the Internet, there have been

  15. A Framework For Analyzing And Mitigating The Vulnerabilities Of Complex Systems Via Attack And Protection Trees

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Edge, Kenneth S

    2007-01-01

    .... Attack trees by themselves do not provide enough decision support to system defenders. This research develops the concept of using protection trees to offer a detailed risk analysis of a system...

  16. Development and Operation of Dual-Mode Analyzers for Wireless Power Consortium/Power Matters Alliance Wireless Power Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, Keehong

    2016-05-01

    We have designed a protocol analyzer to be used in wireless power systems and analyzed the operation of wireless chargers defined by standards of Qi of Wireless Power Consortium (WPC) and Power Matters Alliance (PMA) protocols. The integrated circuit (IC, or microchip) developed so far for wireless power transmission is not easily adopted by chargers for specific purposes. A device for measuring the performance of test equipment currently available is required to transform and expand the types of protocol. Since a protocol analyzer with these functions is required, we have developed a device that can analyze the two protocols of WPC and PMA at the same time. As a result of our research, we present a dual-mode system that can analyze the protocols of both WPC and PMA.

  17. Analyzing the Impacts of Implementation of Human Resource Information System in Mergers and Acquisitions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN; YIWEN

    2016-01-01

    Mergers&Acquisitions(M&A)have become very popular throughout the world in the recent years,due to globalization,liberalization,technological developments and intensely competitive business environment.Inchoately,it suggests that strategic or financial terms are the main issues result in the failure of M&A.In this paper,it analyses the challenges of mergers and acquisitions and the implementation of HRIS from the perspective of timing,data entry,staff training,and security.Through the analysis,it is clear how to make sure the post-merger organization development successfully.

  18. Public Health System in Brazil nowadays: challenges for its operation and funding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alethele de Oliveira Santos

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper has the aim to revisit the theme of the brazilian public health system from the perspective of its operation and funding of its actions and services, analyzing some of the main obstacles to its effectiveness. Endowed with its own logic of organization, planning and funding of its actions and services, the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS finds barriers to its sustainability when it comes to funding and the judicialization of health. Historical under-funding worsened by the economic and political crisis the country currently faces plus the increase in casuistic judicial decisions that prioritize the individual logic over the collective right have produced serious shocks in the system. These are just some of the challenges to an effective public health system. This is why the work of public bodies must be responsible and always take into consideration the collective dimension of the right to health under penalty of causing the collapse of the public health system altogether.

  19. Interactive visualization system to analyze corrugated millimeter-waveguide component of ECH in nuclear fusion with FDTD simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashima, N; Nakamura, H; Kubo, S; Tamura, Y; Ito, A M

    2014-01-01

    We have simulated distribution of electromagnetic waves through the system composed of miter bends by Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) simulation. We develop the interactive visualization system using a new interactive GUI system which is composed of the virtual reality system and android tablet to analyze the FDTD simulation. The effect of the waveguide system with grooves have been investigated to quantitatively by visualization system. Comparing waveguide system with grooves and without grooves, grooves have been confirmed to suppress the surface current at the metal surface. The surface current at complex shape such as the miter bend have been investigated

  20. An integrated simulation tool for analyzing the Operation and Interdependency of Natural Gas and Electric Power Systems

    OpenAIRE

    PAMBOUR Kwabena A.; CAKIR BURCIN; BOLADO LAVIN Ricardo; DIJKEMA Gerard

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present an integrated simulation tool for analyzing the interdependency of natural gas and electric power systems in terms of security of energy supply. In the first part, we develop mathematical models for the individual systems. In part two, we identify the interconnections between both systems and propose a method for coupling the combined simulation model. Next, we develop the algorithm for solving the combined system and integrate this algorithm into a simulation softwa...

  1. Intellectual capital statements on their way to the stock exchange: Analyzing new reporting systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian; Bukh, P.N.; Mouritsen, J.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to propose and illustrate the use of a set of rules to make an analytical reading of the indicators of an intellectual capital statement possible. Design/methodology/approach - The paper proposes a model to analyze intellectual capital statements and applies...... demonstrates the use of a theoretically anchored and practical, useful model for analysing disclosure in the narrative part of a financial report....

  2. Fourth Data Challenge for the ALICE data acquisition system

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    The ALICE experiment will study quark-gluon plasma using beams of heavy ions, such as those of lead. The particles in the beams will collide thousands of times per second in the detector and each collision will generate an event containing thousands of charged particles. Every second, the characteristics of tens of thousands of particles will have to be recorded. Thus, to be effective, the data acquisition system (DAQ) must meet extremely strict performance criteria. To this end, the ALICE Data Challenges entail step-by-step testing of the DAQ with existing equipment that is sufficiently close to the final equipment to provide a reliable indication of performance. During the fourth challenge, in 2002, a data acquisition rate of 1800 megabytes per second was achieved by using some thirty parallel-linked PCs running the specially developed DATE software. During the final week of tests in December 2002, the team also tested the Storage Tek linear magnetic tape drives. Their bandwidth is 30 megabytes per second a...

  3. SNAP/SOS: a package for simulating and analyzing safeguards systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, F.H. III; Polito, J.; Sabuda, J.

    1983-01-01

    The effective analysis of safeguards systems at nuclear facilities requires significant effort. The Safeguards Network Analysis Procedure (SNAP) and the SNAP Operating System (SOS) reduce that effort to a manageable level. SNAP provides a detailed analysis of site safeguards for tactical evaluation. SOS helps the analyst organize and manage the SNAP effort effectively. SOS provides a database for model storage, automatic model generation, and computer graphics. The SOS/SNAP combination is a working example of a simulation system including executive-level control, database system, and facilities for model creation, editing, and output analysis

  4. Analyzing interdependencies between policy mixes and technological innovation systems : The case of offshore wind in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reichardt, Kristin; Negro, Simona O.; Rogge, Karoline S.; Hekkert, Marko P.

    2016-01-01

    One key approach for studying emerging technologies in the field of sustainability transitions is that of technological innovation systems (TIS). While most TIS studies aim at deriving policy recommendations - typically by identifying system barriers - the actual role of these proposed policies in

  5. Analyzing the Operation of Performance-Based Accountability Systems for Public Services. Technical Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camm, Frank; Stecher, Brian M.

    2010-01-01

    Empirical evidence of the effects of performance-based public management is scarce. This report describes a framework used to organize available empirical information on one form of performance-based management, a performance-based accountability system (PBAS). Such a system identifies individuals or organizations that must change their behavior…

  6. A Systems Approach to Analyzing Cyber-Physical Threats in the Smart Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almajali, Anas; Rice, Eric; Viswanathan, Arun; Tan, Kymie; Neuman, Clifford

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents a systems analysis approach to characterizing the risk of a Smart Grid to a load-drop attack. A characterization of the risk is necessary for the design of detection and remediation strategies to address the consequences of such attacks. Using concepts from systems health management and system engineering, this work (a) first identifies metrics that can be used to generate constraints for security features, and (b) lays out an end-to-end integrated methodology using separate network and power simulations to assess system risk. We demonstrate our approach by performing a systems-style analysis of a load-drop attack implemented over the AMI subsystem and targeted at destabilizing the underlying power grid.

  7. Eddy covariance measurements with a new fast-response, enclosed-path analyzer: Spectral characteristics and cross-system comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. Novick; J. Walker; W.S. Chan; A. Schmidt; C. Sobek; J.M. Vose

    2013-01-01

    A new class of enclosed path gas analyzers suitable for eddy covariance applications combines the advantages of traditional closed-path systems (small density corrections, good performance in poor weather) and open-path systems (good spectral response, low power requirements), and permits estimates of instantaneous gas mixing ratio. Here, the extent to which these...

  8. A Method for Analyzing the Dynamic Response of a Structural System with Variable Mass, Damping and Stiffness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike D.R. Zhang

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a method for analyzing the dynamic response of a structural system with variable mass, damping and stiffness is first presented. The dynamic equations of the structural system with variable mass and stiffness are derived according to the whole working process of a bridge bucket unloader. At the end of the paper, an engineering numerical example is given.

  9. Digital health and the challenge of health systems transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Marie-Pierre; Fortin, Jean-Paul

    2017-01-01

    Information and communication technologies have transformed all sectors of society. The health sector is no exception to this trend. In light of “digital health”, we see multiplying numbers of web platforms and mobile health applications, often brought by new unconventional players who produce and offer services in non-linear and non-hierarchal ways, this by multiplying access points to services for people. Some speak of a “uberization” of healthcare. New realities and challenges have emerged from this paradigm, which question the abilities of health systems to cope with new business and economic models, governance of data and regulation. Countries must provide adequate responses so that digital health, based increasingly on disruptive technologies, can benefit for all. PMID:28894741

  10. Digital health and the challenge of health systems transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alami, Hassane; Gagnon, Marie-Pierre; Fortin, Jean-Paul

    2017-01-01

    Information and communication technologies have transformed all sectors of society. The health sector is no exception to this trend. In light of "digital health", we see multiplying numbers of web platforms and mobile health applications, often brought by new unconventional players who produce and offer services in non-linear and non-hierarchal ways, this by multiplying access points to services for people. Some speak of a "uberization" of healthcare. New realities and challenges have emerged from this paradigm, which question the abilities of health systems to cope with new business and economic models, governance of data and regulation. Countries must provide adequate responses so that digital health, based increasingly on disruptive technologies, can benefit for all.

  11. Conceptual Challenges of the Systemic Approach in Understanding Cell Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paldi, Andras

    2018-01-01

    The cells of a multicellular organism are derived from a single zygote and genetically identical. Yet, they are phenotypically very different. This difference is the result of a process commonly called cell differentiation. How the phenotypic diversity emerges during ontogenesis or regeneration is a central and intensely studied but still unresolved issue in biology. Cell biology is facing conceptual challenges that are frequently confused with methodological difficulties. How to define a cell type? What stability or change means in the context of cell differentiation and how to deal with the ubiquitous molecular variations seen in the living cells? What are the driving forces of the change? We propose to reframe the problem of cell differentiation in a systemic way by incorporating different theoretical approaches. The new conceptual framework is able to capture the insights made at different levels of cellular organization and considered previously as contradictory. It also provides a formal strategy for further experimental studies.

  12. Requirements for a system to analyze HEP events using database computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, E.; Lifka, D.; Lusk, E.; Price, L.E.; Day, C.T.; Loken, S.; MacFarlane, J.F.; Baden, A.

    1992-01-01

    We describe the requirements for the design and prototyping of an object-oriented database designed to analyze data in high energy physics. Our goal is to satisfy the data processing and analysis needs of a generic high energy physics experiment to be proposed for the Superconducting SuperCollider (SSC), and requires the collection and analysis of between 10 and 100 million sets of vectors (events), each approximately one megabyte in length. We sketch how this analysis would proceed using an object-oriented database which support the basic data types used in HEP

  13. Analyzing the Historical Development and Transition of the Korean Health Care System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Yi; Kim, Chul-Woung; Seo, Nam-Kyu; Lee, Seung Eun

    2017-08-01

    Many economically advanced countries have attempted to minimize public expenditures and pursue privatization based on the principles of neo-liberalism. However, Korea has moved contrary to this global trend. This study examines why and how the Korean health care system was formed, developed, and transformed into an integrated, single-insurer, National Health Insurance (NHI) system. We describe the transition in the Korean health care system using an analytical framework that incorporates such critical variables as government economic development strategies and the relationships among social forces, state autonomy, and state power. This study focuses on how the relationships among social forces can change as a nation's economic development or governing strategy changes in response to changes in international circumstances such as globalization. The corporatist Social Health Insurance (SHI) system (multiple insurers) introduced in 1977 was transformed into the single-insurer NHI in July 2000. These changes were influenced externally by globalization and internally by political democratization, keeping Korea's private-dominant health care provision system unchanged over several decades. Major changes such as integration reform occurred, when high levels of state autonomy were ensured. The state's power (its policy capability), based on health care infrastructures, acts to limit the direction of any change in the health care system because it is very difficult to build the infrastructure for a health care system in a short timeframe.

  14. Integrating Photovoltaic Systems in Power System: Power Quality Impacts and Optimal Planning Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Fazliana Abdul Kadir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an overview of some of the main issues in photovoltaic based distributed generation (PVDG. A discussion of the harmonic distortion produced by PVDG units is presented. The maximum permissible penetration level of PVDG in distribution system is also considered. The general procedures of optimal planning for PVDG placement and sizing are also explained in this paper. The result of this review shows that there are different challenges for integrating PVDG in the power systems. One of these challenges is integrated system reliability whereas the amount of power produced by renewable energy source is consistent. Thus, the high penetration of PVDG into grid can decrease the reliability of the power system network. On the other hand, power quality is considered one of the challenges of PVDG whereas the high penetration of PVDGs can lead to more harmonic propagation into the power system network. In addition to that, voltage fluctuation of the integrated PVDG and reverse power flow are two important challenges to this technology. Finally, protection of power system with integrated PVDG is one of the most critical challenges to this technology as the current protection schemes are designed for unidirectional not bidirectional power flow pattern.

  15. Analyzing the effect of gain time on soft task scheduling policies in real-time systems

    OpenAIRE

    Búrdalo Rapa, Luis Antonio; Terrasa Barrena, Andrés Martín; Espinosa Minguet, Agustín Rafael; García Fornes, Ana María

    2012-01-01

    In hard real-time systems, gain time is defined as the difference between the Worst Case Execution Time (WCET) of a hard task and its actual processor consumption at runtime. This paper presents the results of an empirical study about how the presence of a significant amount of gain time in a hard real-time system questions the advantages of using the most representative scheduling algorithms or policies for aperiodic or soft tasks in fixed-priority preemptive systems. The work presented here...

  16. Analyzing resilience with communicative systems theory an example from European fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Douglas Clyde; Jacobsen, Rikke Becker

    2013-01-01

    The present paper argues that our understanding of the resilience of social-ecological systems can be improved by considering “communicative resilience” based on Communicative Systems Theory, which focuses on communicative action oriented to achieving mutual understandings. It further argues...... that it is possible to theorise and analyse resilience within complex social-ecological systems from this communicative perspective in a way that is very different from, but complementary to, agent-based approaches focussed on incentives. The paper presents data from multispecies mixed fisheries in Europe...

  17. RFIC's challenges for third-generation wireless systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boric-Lubecke, Olga; Lin, Jenshan; Gould, Penny; Kermalli, Munawar

    2001-11-01

    Third generation (3G) cellular wireless systems are envisioned to offer low cost, high-capacity mobile communications with data rates of up to 2 Mbit/s, with global roaming and advanced data services. Besides adding mobility to the internet, 3G systems will provide location-based services, as well as personalized information and entertainment. Low cost, high dynamic-range radios, both for base stations (BS) and for mobile stations (MS) are required to enable worldwide deployment of such networks. A receiver's reference sensitivity, intermodulation characteristics, and blocking characteristics, set by a wireless standard, define performance requirements of individual components of a receiver front end. Since base station handles multiple signals from various distances simultaneously, its radio specifications are significantly more demanding than those for mobile devices. While high level of integration has already been achieved for second generation hand-sets using low-cost silicon technologies, the cost and size reduction of base stations still remains a challenge and necessity. While silicon RFIC technology is steadily improving, it is still difficult to achieve noise figure (NF), linearity, and phase noise requirements with presently available devices. This paper will discuss base station specification for 2G (GSM) and 3G (UMTS) systems, as well as the feasibility of implementing base station radios in low-cost silicon processes.

  18. A Hybrid DGTD-MNA Scheme for Analyzing Complex Electromagnetic Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Peng; Jiang, Li-Jun; Bagci, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    lumped circuit elements, the standard Newton-Raphson method is applied at every time step. Additionally, a local time-stepping scheme is developed to improve the efficiency of the hybrid solver. Numerical examples consisting of EM systems loaded

  19. Procedures for analyzing the effectiveness of siren systems for alerting the public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keast, D.N.; Towers, D.A.; Anderson, G.S.; Kenoyer, J.L.; Desrosiers, A.E.

    1982-09-01

    NUREG-0654, Revision 1 (Criteria for Preparation and Evaluation of Radiological Emergency Response Plans and Preparedness in Support of Nuclear Power Plants), Appendix 3, discusses requirements of the licensees to implement a prompt notification system within the 10-mile emergency planning zone (EPZ) surrounding a nuclear facility. Sirens are being installed for use as part of or as the entire notification system by many licensees. This report describes a procedure for predicting siren system effectiveness under defined conditions within the EPZ's. The procedure requires a good topographical map and knowledge of the meteorology, demographics, and human activity patterns within the EPZ. The procedure is intended to be applied to systems of sirens and to obtain average results for a large number (30 or more) of listener locations

  20. A Framework For Analyzing And Mitigating The Vulnerabilities Of Complex Systems Via Attack And Protection Trees

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Edge, Kenneth S

    2007-01-01

    .... In addition to developing protection trees, this research improves the existing concept of attack trees and develops rule sets for the manipulation of metrics used in the security of complex systems...

  1. Development of a model system to analyze chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruedel, Anke; Hofmeister, Simone; Bosserhoff, Anja-Katrin

    2013-01-01

    High-density cell culture is widely used for the analysis of cartilage development of human mesenchymal stem cells (HMSCs) in vitro. Several cell culture systems, as micromass, pellet culture and alginate culture, are applied by groups in the field to induce chondrogenic differentiation of HMSCs. A draw back of all model systems is the high amount of cells necessary for the experiments. Further, handling of large experimental approaches is difficult due to culturing e.g. in 15 ml tubes. Therefore, we aimed to develop a new model system based on “hanging drop” cultures using 10 to 100 fold less cells. Here, we demonstrate that differentiation of chondrogenic cells was induced as previously shown in other model systems. Real time RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that Collagen type II and MIA/CD-RAP were upregulated during culturing whereas for induction of hypertrophic markers like Collagen type X and AP-2 epsilon treatment with TGF beta was needed. To further test the system, siRNA against Sox9 was used and effects on chondrogenic gene expression were evaluated. In summary, the hanging drop culture system was determined to be a promising tool for in vitro chondrogenic studies. PMID:24294400

  2. Variable threshold algorithm for division of labor analyzed as a dynamical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Cagigal, Manuel; Matallanas, Eduardo; Navarro, Iñaki; Caamaño-Martín, Estefanía; Monasterio-Huelin, Félix; Gutiérrez, Álvaro

    2014-12-01

    Division of labor is a widely studied aspect of colony behavior of social insects. Division of labor models indicate how individuals distribute themselves in order to perform different tasks simultaneously. However, models that study division of labor from a dynamical system point of view cannot be found in the literature. In this paper, we define a division of labor model as a discrete-time dynamical system, in order to study the equilibrium points and their properties related to convergence and stability. By making use of this analytical model, an adaptive algorithm based on division of labor can be designed to satisfy dynamic criteria. In this way, we have designed and tested an algorithm that varies the response thresholds in order to modify the dynamic behavior of the system. This behavior modification allows the system to adapt to specific environmental and collective situations, making the algorithm a good candidate for distributed control applications. The variable threshold algorithm is based on specialization mechanisms. It is able to achieve an asymptotically stable behavior of the system in different environments and independently of the number of individuals. The algorithm has been successfully tested under several initial conditions and number of individuals.

  3. Aviation Safety: Modeling and Analyzing Complex Interactions between Humans and Automated Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rungta, Neha; Brat, Guillaume; Clancey, William J.; Linde, Charlotte; Raimondi, Franco; Seah, Chin; Shafto, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The on-going transformation from the current US Air Traffic System (ATS) to the Next Generation Air Traffic System (NextGen) will force the introduction of new automated systems and most likely will cause automation to migrate from ground to air. This will yield new function allocations between humans and automation and therefore change the roles and responsibilities in the ATS. Yet, safety in NextGen is required to be at least as good as in the current system. We therefore need techniques to evaluate the safety of the interactions between humans and automation. We think that current human factor studies and simulation-based techniques will fall short in front of the ATS complexity, and that we need to add more automated techniques to simulations, such as model checking, which offers exhaustive coverage of the non-deterministic behaviors in nominal and off-nominal scenarios. In this work, we present a verification approach based both on simulations and on model checking for evaluating the roles and responsibilities of humans and automation. Models are created using Brahms (a multi-agent framework) and we show that the traditional Brahms simulations can be integrated with automated exploration techniques based on model checking, thus offering a complete exploration of the behavioral space of the scenario. Our formal analysis supports the notion of beliefs and probabilities to reason about human behavior. We demonstrate the technique with the Ueberligen accident since it exemplifies authority problems when receiving conflicting advices from human and automated systems.

  4. The combination of system dynamics and game theory in analyzing oligopoly markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohammadi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a hybrid method of game theory and dynamic systems to study the behavior of firms in an oligopoly market. The aim of this study is to build a model for an oligopoly game on the basis of feedback loops and system dynamics approach and to solve the resulted problems under some special conditions where traditional game theory methods are unable to handle. The method includes a combination of qualitative methods including interviews with industry experts to prepare the model and quantitative methods of system dynamics, simulation methodologies and game theory. The results indicate that competitive behavior and the important parameters such as volume of demand, interest rates and price fluctuation will be stabilized after a transition period.

  5. Comparison and verification of two computer programs used to analyze ventilation systems under accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartig, S.H.; Wurz, D.E.; Arnitz, T.; Ruedinger, V.

    1985-01-01

    Two computer codes, TVENT and EVENT, which were developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for the analysis of ventilation systems, have been modified to model air-cleaning systems that include active components with time-dependent flow-resistance characteristics. With both modified programs, fluid-dynamic transients were calculated for a test facility used to simulate accident conditions in air-cleaning systems. Experiments were performed in the test facility whereby flow and pressure transients were generated with the help of two quick-actuating air-stream control valves. The numerical calculations are compared with the test results. Although EVENT makes use of a more complex theoretical flow model than TVENT, the numerical simulations of both codes were found to be very similar for the flow conditions studied and to closely follow the experimental results

  6. Analyzing Systemic Risk in CEE Markets in 2007–2008 Financial Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Karkowska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to attempt to answer the question ofhow the crisis affected the banking systems of cee countries, withspecial emphasis on liquidity risk. It seems that this problem hasparticularly affected emerging economies. First, the liquidity riskbegan to exert considerable influence on the functioning bankingsystem and, indirectly, the whole economy. In this paper authorwanted to answer the following questions: What are the channelsof transmission systemic risk on cee markets? What is the role ofbig world banking groups in these financial systems? This conceptis applied to ten Central Eastern European countries, whichexperienced a financial crisis. In the research author hypothesizedabout interconnectedness of liquidity in financial systemsand solvency problems of big banking groups operating in CEE.

  7. Analyze the optimal solutions of optimization problems by means of fractional gradient based system using VIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firat Evirgen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a class of Nonlinear Programming problem is modeled with gradient based system of fractional order differential equations in Caputo's sense. To see the overlap between the equilibrium point of the fractional order dynamic system and theoptimal solution of the NLP problem in a longer timespan the Multistage Variational İteration Method isapplied. The comparisons among the multistage variational iteration method, the variationaliteration method and the fourth order Runge-Kutta method in fractional and integer order showthat fractional order model and techniques can be seen as an effective and reliable tool for finding optimal solutions of Nonlinear Programming problems.

  8. A distributed system for visualizing and analyzing multivariate and multidisciplinary data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Allan S.; Allen, Mark; Bailey, Michael; Blom, Ronald; Blume, Leo; Elson, Lee

    1993-01-01

    THe Linked Windows Interactive Data System (LinkWinds) is being developed with NASA support. The objective of this proposal is to adapt and apply that system in a complex network environment containing elements to be found by scientists working multidisciplinary teams on very large scale and distributed data sets. The proposed three year program will develop specific visualization and analysis tools, to be exercised locally and remotely in the LinkWinds environment, to demonstrate visual data analysis, interdisciplinary data analysis and cooperative and interactive televisualization and analysis of data by geographically separated science teams. These demonstrators will involve at least two science disciplines with the aim of producing publishable results.

  9. A Regional Earth System Model of the Northeast Corridor: Analyzing 21st Century Climate and Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorosmarty, C. J.; Duchin, F.; Melillo, J. M.; Wollheim, W. M.; Gonzalez, J.; Kicklighter, D. W.; Rosenzweig, B.; Yang, P.; Lengyel, F.; Fekete, B. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Northeast region (NE) exhibits many of the changes taking place across the Nation's landscapes and watersheds, yet also provides a unique lens through which to assess options for managing large-scale natural resource systems. We report here on a regional NSF-funded Earth System Modeling (EaSM) project, which has assembled an interdisciplinary research team from academia and government with expertise in physics, biogeochemistry, engineering, energy, economics, and policy engagement. The team is simultaneously studying the evolution of regional human-environment systems and seeking to improve the translation of research findings to the planning community. We hypothesize that there are regionally-significant consequences of human decisions on environmental systems of the NE, expressed through the action of both natural and engineered human systems that dictate the region's biogeophysical state, ecosystem services, energy and economic output. Our central goal is: To build a Northeast Regional Earth System Model (NE-RESM) that improves understanding and capacity to forecast the implications of planning decisions on the region's environment, ecosystem services, energy systems and economy through the 21st century. We are using scenario experiments to test our hypothesis and to make forecasts about the future. We see the proposed research as a major step forward in developing a capacity to diagnose and understand the state of large, interacting human-natural systems. Major foci include: the application of meso-scale atmospheric physics models to drive terrestrial-aquatic ecosystem models; a linked ecosystem services accounting tool; geospatial modeling of anthropogenic GHG emissions and biotic source/sinks at improved space/time resolutions; and meso-economic input-output model to evaluate the impacts of ecosystem services constraints on subregional economies. The presentation will report on recent progress across three strategic planning fronts, which are important to

  10. Computational method and system for modeling, analyzing, and optimizing DNA amplification and synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandersall, Jennifer A.; Gardner, Shea N.; Clague, David S.

    2010-05-04

    A computational method and computer-based system of modeling DNA synthesis for the design and interpretation of PCR amplification, parallel DNA synthesis, and microarray chip analysis. The method and system include modules that address the bioinformatics, kinetics, and thermodynamics of DNA amplification and synthesis. Specifically, the steps of DNA selection, as well as the kinetics and thermodynamics of DNA hybridization and extensions, are addressed, which enable the optimization of the processing and the prediction of the products as a function of DNA sequence, mixing protocol, time, temperature and concentration of species.

  11. Analyzing the Applicability of Airline Booking Systems for Cloud Computing Offerings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watzl, Johannes; Felde, Nils Gentschen; Kranzlmuller, Dieter

    This paper introduces revenue management systems for Cloud computing offerings on the Infrastructure as a Service level. One of the main fields revenue management systems are deployed in is the airline industry. At the moment, the predominant part of the Cloud providers use static pricing models. In this work, a mapping of Cloud resources to flights in different categories and classes is presented together with a possible strategy to make use of these models in the emerging area of Cloud computing. The latter part of this work then describes a first step towards an inter-cloud brokering and trading platform by deriving requirements for a potential architectural design.

  12. Non-viral delivery systems for CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing: Challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling; Hu, Shuo; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2018-07-01

    In recent years, CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat)/Cas (CRISPR-associated) genome editing systems have become one of the most robust platforms in basic biomedical research and therapeutic applications. To date, efficient in vivo delivery of the CRISPR/Cas9 system to the targeted cells remains a challenge. Although viral vectors have been widely used in the delivery of the CRISPR/Cas9 system in vitro and in vivo, their fundamental shortcomings, such as the risk of carcinogenesis, limited insertion size, immune responses and difficulty in large-scale production, severely limit their further applications. Alternative non-viral delivery systems for CRISPR/Cas9 are urgently needed. With the rapid development of non-viral vectors, lipid- or polymer-based nanocarriers have shown great potential for CRISPR/Cas9 delivery. In this review, we analyze the pros and cons of delivering CRISPR/Cas9 systems in the form of plasmid, mRNA, or protein and then discuss the limitations and challenges of CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing. Furthermore, current non-viral vectors that have been applied for CRISPR/Cas9 delivery in vitro and in vivo are outlined in details. Finally, critical obstacles for non-viral delivery of CRISPR/Cas9 system are highlighted and promising strategies to overcome these barriers are proposed. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Health system challenges in organizing quality diabetes care for urban poor in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhojani, Upendra; Devedasan, Narayanan; Mishra, Arima; De Henauw, Stefaan; Kolsteren, Patrick; Criel, Bart

    2014-01-01

    Weak health systems in low- and middle-income countries are recognized as the major constraint in responding to the rising burden of chronic conditions. Despite recognition by global actors for the need for research on health systems, little attention has been given to the role played by local health systems. We aim to analyze a mixed local health system to identify the main challenges in delivering quality care for diabetes mellitus type 2. We used the health system dynamics framework to analyze a health system in KG Halli, a poor urban neighborhood in South India. We conducted semi-structured interviews with healthcare providers located in and around the neighborhood who provide care to diabetes patients: three specialist and 13 non-specialist doctors, two pharmacists, and one laboratory technician. Observations at the health facilities were recorded in a field diary. Data were analyzed through thematic analysis. There is a lack of functional referral systems and a considerable overlap in provision of outpatient care for diabetes across the different levels of healthcare services in KG Halli. Inadequate use of patients' medical records and lack of standard treatment protocols affect clinical decision-making. The poor regulation of the private sector, poor systemic coordination across healthcare providers and healthcare delivery platforms, widespread practice of bribery and absence of formal grievance redress platforms affect effective leadership and governance. There appears to be a trust deficit among patients and healthcare providers. The private sector, with a majority of healthcare providers lacking adequate training, operates to maximize profit, and healthcare for the poor is at best seen as charity. Systemic impediments in local health systems hinder the delivery of quality diabetes care to the urban poor. There is an urgent need to address these weaknesses in order to improve care for diabetes and other chronic conditions.

  14. Health system challenges in organizing quality diabetes care for urban poor in South India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upendra Bhojani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Weak health systems in low- and middle-income countries are recognized as the major constraint in responding to the rising burden of chronic conditions. Despite recognition by global actors for the need for research on health systems, little attention has been given to the role played by local health systems. We aim to analyze a mixed local health system to identify the main challenges in delivering quality care for diabetes mellitus type 2. METHODS: We used the health system dynamics framework to analyze a health system in KG Halli, a poor urban neighborhood in South India. We conducted semi-structured interviews with healthcare providers located in and around the neighborhood who provide care to diabetes patients: three specialist and 13 non-specialist doctors, two pharmacists, and one laboratory technician. Observations at the health facilities were recorded in a field diary. Data were analyzed through thematic analysis. RESULT: There is a lack of functional referral systems and a considerable overlap in provision of outpatient care for diabetes across the different levels of healthcare services in KG Halli. Inadequate use of patients' medical records and lack of standard treatment protocols affect clinical decision-making. The poor regulation of the private sector, poor systemic coordination across healthcare providers and healthcare delivery platforms, widespread practice of bribery and absence of formal grievance redress platforms affect effective leadership and governance. There appears to be a trust deficit among patients and healthcare providers. The private sector, with a majority of healthcare providers lacking adequate training, operates to maximize profit, and healthcare for the poor is at best seen as charity. CONCLUSIONS: Systemic impediments in local health systems hinder the delivery of quality diabetes care to the urban poor. There is an urgent need to address these weaknesses in order to improve care for diabetes

  15. Construction of prototype of on-line analyzer detection system for coal on belt conveyor using neutron activation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rony Djokorayono; Agus Cahyono; MP Indarzah; SG Usep; Sukandar

    2015-01-01

    The use of on-line neutron activation technique for coal analysis is proposed as an alternative method for analysis based on sampling technique. Compared to this conventional technique, the on-line neutron activation technique has much shorter time of analysis and more accurate results. The construction of detection system prototype for the on-line analyzer is described in this paper. This on-line analyzer consists of detection system, data acquisition system, and computer console. This detection system comprises several modules, i.e. NaI(Tl) scintillation detector completed with a photomultiplier tube (PMT), pre-amplifier, single channel analyzer (SCA), and analog signal transmitter and pulse counter processor. The construction processes of these four modules include the development of configuration block, lay out, and selection of electronic components. The modules have been integrated and tested. This detection system was tested using radioactive element Zn-65 having energy of 1115.5 keV and activity of 1 μCi. The test results show that the prototype of the on-line analyzer detection system has functioned as expected. (author)

  16. A Framework For Analyzing And Mitigating The Vulnerabilities Of Complex Systems Via Attack And Protection Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Systems, Ciudad Real, Spain, 2002. [Ame00] "Metamorphosis," in American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language Fourth ed: Houghton Mifflin Company...Beyond Fear: Thinking Sensibly About Security in an Uncertain World. New York: Copernicus Books, 2003. [Sch99] Schneier, B. "Modeling Security

  17. Analyzing the Implementation of an ERP System by Self-Assessment in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Máté, Domicián; Bács, Zoltán; Takács, Viktor László

    2017-01-01

    Over the last few decades, not only organizations but also Higher Education Institutions should be more responsive to the demands of the changed global business environment and improve their effectiveness. Our motivation to write this paper is to assess the implementation of an Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system in higher education and…

  18. Design of the expert system to analyze disease in Plant Teak using Forward Chaining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poningsih Poningsih

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Teak is one kind of plant that is already widely known and developed by the wider community in the form of plantations and community forests. This is because until now Teak wood is a commodity of luxury, high quality, the price is expensive, and high economic value. Expert systems are a part of the method sciences artificial intelligence to make an application program disease diagnosis teak computerized seek to replace and mimic the reasoning process of an expert or experts in solving the problem specification that can be said to be a duplicate from an expert because science knowledge is stored inside a database  Expert System for the diagnosis of disease teak using forward chaining method aims to explore the characteristics shown in the form of questions in order to diagnose the disease teak with web-based software. Device keel expert system can recognize the disease after consulting identity by answering some of the questions presented by the application of expert systems and can infer some kind of disease in plants teak. Data disease known customize rules (rules are made to match the characteristics of teak disease and provide treatment solutions.

  19. Study to Analyze the Acquisition of Automatic Test Equipment (ATE) Systems. Data Sequence Number A003

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-12-27

    Systems Test Equipment Comparator, ASTEC ) at NAEC can provide a very accurate Ion a pin by pin basis) match between the UUT and ATE in their data bank...In addition, abbreviated summary data on the ATE is also available to users. ASTEC will also file the UUT data as part of its data bank so that

  20. Design and construction of a system to analyze Radon 222 by means of alpha spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, J.B.

    1991-01-01

    Design and construction of a system to measure gaseous Radon 222 which arise from a source of Radium 226 electrodeposited in a stainless disc is described. Such a system allows to differentiate the energies of radium where they come from, as well as energies of daughter products. In this way it is possible to have a more precise measure of the alpha activity of this isotope. The system was constructed in a stainless steel hermetic container made of the camera, a cape and a valve, the used sample was a standards of Radium 226 attained from carnotite ore. The Radon 222 alpha particles, as well as the alpha particles of its decay products namely Polonium 210. Polonium 218 and Polonium 214 were identified by a surface barrier detector. The results in this manner obtained shows clearly well definite peaks of Radon 222 and also peaks of the Radon 222 daughter products with energies of 5.43, 5.31, 6.0 and 7.69 Mev respectively. The system allows to separate and to indentify the energies of Radon and its daughter products coming directly from a standard solid sample of Radium 226 (Author)

  1. Analyzing Fourier Transforms for NASA DFRC's Fiber Optic Strain Sensing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiechtner, Kaitlyn Leann

    2010-01-01

    This document provides a basic overview of the fiber optic technology used for sensing stress, strain, and temperature. Also, the document summarizes the research concerning speed and accuracy of the possible mathematical algorithms that can be used for NASA DFRC's Fiber Optic Strain Sensing (FOSS) system.

  2. Analyzing Drivers' Attitude towards HUD System Using a Stated Preference Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Guo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available It is very important for drivers to obtain driving information easily and efficiently. There are many advanced devices used for driving safety assistance. Of these assistance devices, the head-up display (HUD system can promote the reduction of driver's reaction time and improve spatial awareness. The drivers' attitude towards and preference for HUD system are crucial to design the functional framework and interface of HUD system. This study explored the relationships between drivers' attitude and HUD presentation image designs using stated preference data from questionnaire survey. The questionnaire included drivers' attitude towards the use of HUD and the preference for the information display zone and information display elements of the HUD. Contrastive analysis was adopted to examine the variations in drivers' attitude and preference for age and driving skills. According to the results, the participants have varying attitudes to HUD system, but most participants show relatively unified preference for the information display zone and information display elements. The results can also be used to customize a HUD presentation image which is in accordance with the drivers' feelings and preferences.

  3. Graphene and the immune system: Challenges and potentiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orecchioni, Marco; Ménard-Moyon, Cécilia; Delogu, Lucia Gemma; Bianco, Alberto

    2016-10-01

    In the growing area of nanomedicine, graphene-based materials (GBMs) are some of the most recent explored nanomaterials. For the majority of GBM applications in nanomedicine, the immune system plays a fundamental role. It is necessary to well understand the complexity of the interactions between GBMs, the immune cells, and the immune components and how they could be of advantage for novel effective diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. In this review, we aimed at painting the current picture of GBMs in the background of the immune system. The picture we have drawn looks like a cubist image, a sort of Picasso-like portrait looking at the topic from all perspectives: the challenges (due to the potential toxicity) and the potentiality like the conjugation of GBMs to biomolecules to develop advanced nanomedicine tools. In this context, we have described and discussed i) the impact of graphene on immune cells, ii) graphene as immunobiosensor, and iii) antibodies conjugated to graphene for tumor targeting. Thanks to the huge advances on graphene research, it seems realistic to hypothesize in the near future that some graphene immunoconjugates, endowed of defined immune properties, can go through preclinical test and be successfully used in nanomedicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. USING CFD TO ANALYZE NUCLEAR SYSTEMS BEHAVIOR: DEFINING THE VALIDATION REQUIREMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard Schultz

    2012-09-01

    A recommended protocol to formulate numeric tool specifications and validation needs in concert with practices accepted by regulatory agencies for advanced reactors is described. The protocol is based on the plant type and perceived transient and accident envelopes that translates to boundary conditions for a process that gives the: (a) key phenomena and figures-of-merit which must be analyzed to ensure that the advanced plant can be licensed, (b) specification of the numeric tool capabilities necessary to perform the required analyses—including bounding calculational uncertainties, and (c) specification of the validation matrices and experiments--including the desired validation data. The result of applying the process enables a complete program to be defined, including costs, for creating and benchmarking transient and accident analysis methods for advanced reactors. By following a process that is in concert with regulatory agency licensing requirements from the start to finish, based on historical acceptance of past licensing submittals, the methods derived and validated have a high probability of regulatory agency acceptance.

  5. A Framework to Analyze the Robustness of Social-ecological Systems from an Institutional Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. Anderies

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available What makes social-ecological systems (SESs robust? In this paper, we look at the institutional configurations that affect the interactions among resources, resource users, public infrastructure providers, and public infrastructures. We propose a framework that helps identify potential vulnerabilities of SESs to disturbances. All the links between components of this framework can fail and thereby reduce the robustness of the system. We posit that the link between resource users and public infrastructure providers is a key variable affecting the robustness of SESs that has frequently been ignored in the past. We illustrate the problems caused by a disruption in this link. We then briefly describe the design principles originally developed for robust common-pool resource institutions, because they appear to be a good starting point for the development of design principles for more general SESs and do include the link between resource users and public infrastructure providers.

  6. Imaging systems and algorithms to analyze biological samples in real-time using mobile phone microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Akshaya; Usmani, Mohammad; Mayberry, Addison; Perkins, David L; Holcomb, Daniel E

    2018-01-01

    Miniaturized imaging devices have pushed the boundaries of point-of-care imaging, but existing mobile-phone-based imaging systems do not exploit the full potential of smart phones. This work demonstrates the use of simple imaging configurations to deliver superior image quality and the ability to handle a wide range of biological samples. Results presented in this work are from analysis of fluorescent beads under fluorescence imaging, as well as helminth eggs and freshwater mussel larvae under white light imaging. To demonstrate versatility of the systems, real time analysis and post-processing results of the sample count and sample size are presented in both still images and videos of flowing samples.

  7. Analyzing Chaos Systems and Fine Spectrum Sensing Using Detrended Fluctuation Analysis Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier S. González-Salas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical study that uses detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA algorithm of time series obtained from linear and nonlinear dynamical systems is presented. The DFA algorithm behavior toward periodic and chaotic signals is investigated and the effect of the time scale under analysis is discussed. The displayed results prove that the DFA algorithm response is invariant (stable performance to initial condition and chaotic system parameters. An initial idea of DFA algorithm implementation for fine spectrum sensing (SS is proposed under two-stage spectrum sensor approach with test statistics based on the scaling exponent value. The outcomes demonstrate a promising new SS technique that can alleviate several imperfections such as noise power uncertainty and spatial correlation between the adjacent antenna array elements.

  8. MACRO1: a code to test a methodology for analyzing nuclear-waste management systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, L.L.

    1979-01-01

    The code is primarily a manager of probabilistic data and deterministic mathematical models. The user determines the desired aggregation of the available models into a composite model of a physical system. MACRO1 then propagates the finite probability distributions of the inputs to the model to finite probability distributions over the outputs. MACRO1 has been applied to a sample analysis of a nuclear-waste repository, and its results compared satisfactorily with previously obtained Monte Carlo statistics

  9. Analyzing Risks and Vulnerabilities of Various Computer Systems and Undergoing Exploitation using Embedded Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branch, Drew Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Security is one of the most if not the most important areas today. After the several attacks on the United States, security everywhere has heightened from airports to communication among the military branches legionnaires. With advanced persistent threats (APTs) on the rise following Stuxnet, government branches and agencies are required, more than ever, to follow several standards, policies and procedures to reduce the likelihood of a breach. Attack vectors today are very advanced and are going to continue to get more and more advanced as security controls advance. This creates a need for networks and systems to be in an updated, patched and secured state in a launch control system environment. Attacks on critical systems are becoming more and more relevant and frequent. Nation states are hacking into critical networks that might control electrical power grids or water dams as well as carrying out advanced persistent threat (APTs) attacks on government entities. NASA, as an organization, must protect its self from attacks from all different types of attackers with different motives. Although the International Space Station was created, there is still competition between the different space programs. With that in mind, NASA might get attacked and breached for various reasons such as espionage or sabotage. My project will provide a way for NASA to complete an in house penetration test which includes: asset discovery, vulnerability scans, exploit vulnerabilities and also provide forensic information to harden systems. Completing penetration testing is a part of the compliance requirements of the Federal Information Security Act (FISMA) and NASA NPR 2810.1 and related NASA Handbooks. This project is to demonstrate how in house penetration testing can be conducted that will satisfy all of the compliance requirements of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), as outlined in FISMA. By the end of this project, I hope to have carried out the tasks stated

  10. Review and Extension of Suitability Assessment Indicators of Weather Model Output for Analyzing Decentralized Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Schermeyer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Electricity from renewable energy sources (RES-E is gaining more and more influence in traditional energy and electricity markets in Europe and around the world. When modeling RES-E feed-in on a high temporal and spatial resolution, energy systems analysts frequently use data generated by numerical weather models as input since there is no spatial inclusive and comprehensive measurement data available. However, the suitability of such model data depends on the research questions at hand and should be inspected individually. This paper focuses on new methodologies to carry out a performance evaluation of solar irradiation data provided by a numerical weather model when investigating photovoltaic feed-in and effects on the electricity grid. Suitable approaches of time series analysis are researched from literature and applied to both model and measurement data. The findings and limits of these approaches are illustrated and a new set of validation indicators is presented. These novel indicators complement the assessment by measuring relevant key figures in energy systems analysis: e.g., gradients in energy supply, maximum values and volatility. Thus, the results of this paper contribute to the scientific community of energy systems analysts and researchers who aim at modeling RES-E feed-in on a high temporal and spatial resolution using weather model data.

  11. Use of an Electronic Tongue System and Fuzzy Logic to Analyze Water Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Guilherme S.; Paterno, Leonardo G.; Fonseca, Fernando J.

    2009-05-01

    An electronic tongue (ET) system incorporating 8 chemical sensors was used in combination with two pattern recognition tools, namely principal component analysis (PCA) and Fuzzy logic for discriminating/classification of water samples from different sources (tap, distilled and three brands of mineral water). The Fuzzy program exhibited a higher accuracy than the PCA and allowed the ET to classify correctly 4 in 5 types of water. Exception was made for one brand of mineral water which was sometimes misclassified as tap water. On the other hand, the PCA grouped water samples in three clusters, one with the distilled water; a second with tap water and one brand of mineral water, and the third with the other two other brands of mineral water. Samples in the second and third clusters could not be distinguished. Nevertheless, close grouping between repeated tests indicated that the ET system response is reproducible. The potential use of the Fuzzy logic as the data processing tool in combination with an electronic tongue system is discussed.

  12. Analyzing organic tea certification and traceability system within the Taiwanese tea industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mao-Chang; Yang, Chin-Ying

    2015-04-01

    We applied game theory to the organic tea certification process and traceability system used by the Taiwanese tea industry to elucidate the strategic choices made by tea farmers and organic tea certification agencies. Thus, this paper clarifies how relevant variables affect the organic certification process and traceability system used within the tea industry. The findings indicate that farmers who generate high revenues experience failures regarding tea deliveries, cash outflow, damage compensation, and quasi-rent. An additional problem included the high costs yielded when tea farmers colluded with or switched organic tea certification agencies. Furthermore, there could be decreasing levels of personal interest in planting non-organic tea and lowering the costs of planting organic tea and the managerial accounting costs of building comprehensive traceability systems; thus, the analysis yielded strong results and a superior equilibrium. This research is unprecedented, using an innovative model and providing a novel analysis structure for use in the tea industry. These results contribute to the field of literature and should serve as a valuable reference for members of the tea industry, government, and academia. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Application of the Controllable Unit Approach (CUA) to analyzing safeguards measurement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seabaugh, P.W.; Rogers, D.R.; Woltermann, H.A.; Fushimi, F.C.; Ciramella, A.F.

    1978-01-01

    CUA is a material control and accountability methodology that takes into account the system logic and statistical characteristics of a plant process through the formulation of closure equations. The study evaluated CUA methodology to meet performance oriented regulations. The criterion is defined as the detection of a material loss of two kilograms of SNM with 97.5% confidence. Specifically investigated were the timeliness of detection, the ability to localize material loss, process coverage, cost/benefits, and compatibility with other safeguards techniques such as diversion path analysis and data filtering. The feasibility of performance-oriented regulations is demonstrated. To fully use the system of closure equations, a procedure was developed to formally integrate the effect of both short-term and long-term closure equations into an overall systems criterion of performance. Both single and multiple diversion strategies are examined in order to show how the CUA method can protect against either strategy. Quantitative results show that combined closure equations improve the detection sensitivity to material loss, and that multiple diversions provide only diminishing returns

  14. Recommendation Systems for Geoscience Data Portals Built by Analyzing Usage Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, C.; Nandigam, V.; Baru, C.

    2009-04-01

    Since its launch five years ago, the National Science Foundation-funded GEON Project (www.geongrid.org) has been providing access to a variety of geoscience data sets such as geologic maps and other geographic information system (GIS)-oriented data, paleontologic databases, gravity and magnetics data and LiDAR topography via its online portal interface. In addition to data, the GEON Portal also provides web-based tools and other resources that enable users to process and interact with data. Examples of these tools include functions to dynamically map and integrate GIS data, compute synthetic seismograms, and to produce custom digital elevation models (DEMs) with user defined parameters such as resolution. The GEON portal built on the Gridsphere-portal framework allows us to capture user interaction with the system. In addition to the site access statistics captured by tools like Google Analystics which capture hits per unit time, search key words, operating systems, browsers, and referring sites, we also record additional statistics such as which data sets are being downloaded and in what formats, processing parameters, and navigation pathways through the portal. With over four years of data now available from the GEON Portal, this record of usage is a rich resource for exploring how earth scientists discover and utilize online data sets. Furthermore, we propose that this data could ultimately be harnessed to optimize the way users interact with the data portal, design intelligent processing and data management systems, and to make recommendations on algorithm settings and other available relevant data. The paradigm of integrating popular and commonly used patterns to make recommendations to a user is well established in the world of e-commerce where users receive suggestions on books, music and other products that they may find interesting based on their website browsing and purchasing history, as well as the patterns of fellow users who have made similar

  15. Resilience as a framework for analyzing the adaptation of mountain summer pasture systems to climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baptiste Nettier

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Social-ecological resilience is defined by Brian Walker and colleagues as "the capacity of a social-ecological system (SES to absorb disturbances and reorganize while undergoing change so as to continue to retain essentially the same function, structure, feedbacks, and therefore identity." It is an increasingly widespread concept whose success depends, among other things, on the promise of its rapid transfer from science into practice and its operational character for the sustainable management of SESs. However, tangible examples of management methods based on resilience remain limited in the scientific literature. Here, we test the resilience management framework proposed by Brian Walker and David Salt by applying it to the case of mountain summer pastures in the French Alps, which are complex SESs in which human and ecological dimensions are closely linked and subject to substantial perturbations due to climate change. Three steps were implemented: (1 building a conceptual model based on expert knowledge of the functioning of summer pastures; (2 building, from the model, a template for summer pasture resilience analysis; and (3 testing the operational character of the model and the template for two pairs of contrasting cases. This heuristic tool enables understanding the ways in which farmers and herders manage the resilience of their system but does not aim to quantify resilience. The method developed, together with the resilience concept, provide insights into the functioning of summer pastures from both biophysical and management perspectives. The modeling process constitutes a learning process, which will support the implementation of adaptive management. We identified three critical points for making the method truly operational: basing modeling on an equal consideration of social and ecological dimensions, defining the boundaries of the modeled system based on the social dimension, and selecting a scale of analysis coherent with the type

  16. Management of systemic lupus erythematosus during pregnancy: challenges and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knight CL

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Caroline L Knight, Catherine Nelson-Piercy Division of Women’s Health, Women’s Health Academic Centre, King’s College London and King’s Health Partners, St Thomas’ Hospital, London, UK Abstract: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is a chronic, multisystem autoimmune disease predominantly affecting women, particularly those of childbearing age. SLE provides challenges in the prepregnancy, antenatal, intrapartum, and postpartum periods for these women, and for the medical, obstetric, and midwifery teams who provide their care. As with many medical conditions in pregnancy, the best maternal and fetal–neonatal outcomes are obtained with a planned pregnancy and a cohesive multidisciplinary approach. Effective prepregnancy risk assessment and counseling includes exploration of factors for poor pregnancy outcome, discussion of risks, and appropriate planning for pregnancy, with consideration of discussion of relative contraindications to pregnancy. In pregnancy, early referral for hospital-coordinated care, involvement of obstetricians and rheumatologists (and other specialists as required, an individual management plan, regular reviews, and early recognition of flares and complications are all important. Women are at risk of lupus flares, worsening renal impairment, onset of or worsening hypertension, preeclampsia, and/or venous thromboembolism, and miscarriage, intrauterine growth restriction, preterm delivery, and/or neonatal lupus syndrome (congenital heart block or neonatal lupus erythematosus. A cesarean section may be required in certain obstetric contexts (such as urgent preterm delivery for maternal and/or fetal well-being, but vaginal birth should be the aim for the majority of women. Postnatally, an ongoing individual management plan remains important, with neonatal management where necessary and rheumatology follow-up. This article explores the challenges at each stage of pregnancy, discusses the effect of SLE on pregnancy and

  17. Natural hazard impacts on transport systems: analyzing the data base of transport accidents in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, Elena

    2015-04-01

    We consider a transport accident as any accident that occurs during transportation of people and goods. It comprises of accidents involving air, road, rail, water, and pipeline transport. With over 1.2 million people killed each year, road accidents are one of the world's leading causes of death; another 20-50 million people are injured each year on the world's roads while walking, cycling, or driving. Transport accidents of other types including air, rail, and water transport accidents are not as numerous as road crashes, but the relative risk of each accident is much higher because of the higher number of people killed and injured per accident. Pipeline ruptures cause large damages to the environment. That is why safety and security are of primary concern for any transport system. The transport system of the Russian Federation (RF) is one of the most extensive in the world. It includes 1,283,000 km of public roads, more than 600,000 km of airlines, more than 200,000 km of gas, oil, and product pipelines, 115,000 km of inland waterways, and 87,000 km of railways. The transport system, especially the transport infrastructure of the country is exposed to impacts of various natural hazards and weather extremes such as heavy rains, snowfalls, snowdrifts, floods, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, snow avalanches, debris flows, rock falls, fog or icing roads, and other natural factors that additionally trigger many accidents. In June 2014, the Ministry of Transport of the RF has compiled a new version of the Transport Strategy of the RF up to 2030. Among of the key pillars of the Strategy are to increase the safety of the transport system and to reduce negative environmental impacts. Using the data base of technological accidents that was created by the author, the study investigates temporal variations and regional differences of the transport accidents' risk within the Russian federal regions and a contribution of natural factors to occurrences of different

  18. Light-pollution measurement with the Wide-field all-sky image analyzing monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vítek, S.

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to measure light pollution in the capital of Czech Republic, Prague. As a measuring instrument is used calibrated consumer level digital single reflex camera with IR cut filter, therefore, the paper reports results of measuring and monitoring of the light pollution in the wavelength range of 390 - 700 nm, which most affects visual range astronomy. Combining frames of different exposure times made with a digital camera coupled with fish-eye lens allow to create high dynamic range images, contain meaningful values, so such a system can provide absolute values of the sky brightness.

  19. ETHICAL CHALLENGES OF THE E-LEARNING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA CERNAT

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is the result of a four years teaching experience in one of the largest and controversial Romanian Universities using the E-learning system: Spiru Haret. It is a well-known fact that this was the first Romanian academic institution that used the E-learning techniques in wide and systematic way. Numerous articles appeared in the press in 2009 when the scandal of fake diplomas first started. This article is the perspective of an insider, that is, of someone who taught information and communication techniques in this institution for several years. I consider my experience and my findings to be balanced and objective and I also believe that we have to analyze things in a more profound and rational manner after the 2009 media storm ended. My article provides very useful information in this area since there are no academic articles on the way this Romanian academic institution (misunderstands the power of E-learning tools.

  20. Turning challenges into design principles: Telemonitoring systems for patients with multiple chronic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Mehwish; Kuluski, Kerry; McIsaac, Warren J; Cafazzo, Joseph A; Seto, Emily

    2018-01-01

    People with multiple chronic conditions often struggle with managing their health. The purpose of this research was to identify specific challenges of patients with multiple chronic conditions and to use the findings to form design principles for a telemonitoring system tailored for these patients. Semi-structured interviews with 15 patients with multiple chronic conditions and 10 clinicians were conducted to gain an understanding of their needs and preferences for a smartphone-based telemonitoring system. The interviews were analyzed using a conventional content analysis technique, resulting in six themes. Design principles developed from the themes included that the system must be modular to accommodate various combinations of conditions, reinforce a routine, consolidate record keeping, as well as provide actionable feedback to the patients. Designing an application for multiple chronic conditions is complex due to variability in patient conditions, and therefore, design principles developed in this study can help with future innovations aimed to help manage this population.

  1. A system to analyze the complex physiological states of coal solubilizing fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoelker, U.; Moenkemann, H.; Hoefer, M. [Universitaet Bonn, Bonn (Germany). Botanisches Institut

    1997-11-01

    The mechanism by which some microorganisms solubilize brown coal is still unknown. The paper discusses the deuteromycetes Fusarium oxysporum and Trichoderma atroviride as a suitable test system to analyse the complex fungal physiology relating to coal solubilization. The two fungi can occur in two different growth substrate-controlled physiological states: a coal-solubilizing one, when cells are grown on glutamate or gluconate as substrate and a non-solubilizing one, when grown on carbohydrates. When grown on carbohydrates, F.oxysporum produces the pigment bikaverein. Purified bikaverein inhibits also coal solubilization by T. atroviride. The ability to solubilize coal is constitutive in F. oxysporum, while in T. atroviride, it has to be induced. 10 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. A computational system for analyze nuclear power plants structures, made by panels, using superelements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesus Miranda, C.A. de.

    1981-03-01

    The analysis of linear static behavior of folded-plate structures like the turbine building of a nuclear power plant by the Finite Element Method. Folded-plate isoparametric plane elements with 48 degrees of freedom each, 8 nodal points, in which shear deformations are considered, and super-elements, whose internal degrees of freedom are condensated, are used. Arbitrary shells can be analized too. A brief exposition of the method is present and the developing of the foregoing element and super-element is also shown. A computer program was developed for the CDC-CYBER 175 computer machine and the FORTRAN IV language was used. The coeficients of the equations system are stored by the technique of block partitioning with a compacted column storage scheme and special attention was dedicated to the preparation of the problem's data and some options were developed for this purpose. (Author) [pt

  3. Challenges of structural materials for innovative nuclear systems in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano, M.; Gomez-Briceno, D.

    2009-01-01

    New fusion and fission reactors for generation IV are envisaged to operate at conditions well above the actual ones for commercial fission reactors. This type of reactor combined a high operation temperature with a high neutron dose and an aggressive coolant, which imply new challenges for structural materials. One of the key issues to assure the safety and feasibility of these new nuclear systems is the selection of the structural materials, especially for in core components. Beside the differences between them, especially the amount of transmutation He in fusion reactors, similar structural materials have been selected. Some of the selected materials are well characterized at least at medium temperatures, as conventional ferritic/martensitic steels, but the qualification for higher temperatures is needed. For other materials, as ODS steels, there is a need for a complete characterization and qualification. In this paper a review of the operating conditions and selected structural materials for generation IV and fusion reactors within Europe is made. The needs for a complete characterization of these candidate materials are identified in terms of high temperature behaviour, radiation damage and coolant compatibility. (author)

  4. Women in Arab countries: challenging the patriarchal system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fargues, Philippe

    2005-05-01

    Progress in the empowerment of Arab women was found to be low in a 2002 report. Yet Arab women's status is not reflected in continuing high fertility, which in 2000 had dropped sharply in one generation to 3.4. This paper discusses why fertility decline could nevertheless have taken place in the Arab countries. Islam has not stood in the way of fertility decline, as Iran and Algeria show. From the mid- 1970s to 1980s, subsidised consumption through oil wealth redistribution reduced the cost of children, and social conservatism kept married women out of the labour force, both of which promoted higher fertility. The early stages of fertility decline were mainly due to longer length of education of girls, rising female age at first marriage, e.g. 28 in urban Morocco and 29 in Libya, and entry into the labour force of young, single women. There is also a growing population sub-group of never-married young women. Collapsing oil prices and structural adjustment reduced household resources and became an effective fertility regulation factor. Girls born since the 1950s have not only been educated longer than their mothers, but also their fathers, which increases their authority. These factors, and women's activism and civil and political lobbying for the reform of personal status now underway in a number of Arab countries, could all challenge the patriarchal system.

  5. Identity Management Mismatch Challenges in the Danish Municipality Administration System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Schaarup; Christensen, Henrik Bærbak

    2010-01-01

    Integrating a COTS product in a company’s product portfolio is appealing from a business perspective but highly challenging from the perspective of the software architecture. In this paper we outline research challenges regarding authorization in the identity management part of the Danish...

  6. Kazakhstan's Environment-Health system, a Big Data challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitolo, Claudia; Bella Gazdiyeva, Bella; Tucker, Allan; Russell, Andrew; Ali, Maged; Althonayan, Abraham

    2016-04-01

    Kazakhstan has witnessed a remarkable economic development in the past 15 years, becoming an upper-middle-income country. However it is still widely regarded as a developing nation, partially because of its population's low life expectancy which is 5 years below the average in similar economies. The environment is in a rather fragile state, affected by soil, water, air pollution, radioactive contamination and climate change. However, Kazakhstan's government is moving towards clean energy and environmental protection and calling on scientists to help prioritise investments. The British Council-funded "Kazakhstan's Environment-Health Risk Analysis (KEHRA)" project is one of the recently launched initiatives to support Kazakhstan healthier future. The underlying hypothesis of this research is that the above mentioned factors (air/water/soil pollution, etc.) affecting public health almost certainly do not act independently but rather trigger and exacerbate each other. Exploring the environment-health links in a multi-dimensional framework is a typical Big Data problem, in which the volume and variety of the data needed poses technical as well as scientific challenges. In Kazakhstan, the complexities related to managing and analysing Big Data are worsened by a number of obstacles at the data acquisition step: most of the data is not in digital form, spatial and temporal attributes are often ambiguous and the re-use and re-purpose of the information is subject to restrictive licenses and other mechanisms of control. In this work, we document the first steps taken towards building an understanding of the complex environment-health system in Kazakhstan, using interactive visualisation tools to identify and compare hot-spots of pollution and poor health outcomes, Big Data and web technologies to collect, manage and explore available information. In the future, the knowledge acquired will be modelled to develop evidence-based recommendation systems for decision makers in

  7. Hepatitis B infection reported with cancer chemotherapy: analyzing the US FDA Adverse Event Reporting System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanagawa, Akimasa; Hotta, Yuji; Kataoka, Tomoya; Maeda, Yasuhiro; Kondo, Masahiro; Kawade, Yoshihiro; Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Nishikawa, Ryohei; Tohkin, Masahiro; Kimura, Kazunori

    2018-04-16

    We conducted data mining using the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) database on spontaneously reported adverse events to evaluate the association between anticancer drug therapy and hepatitis B infection. Reports of hepatitis B infection were retrieved from the FAERS database. The reporting odds ratio (ROR) was used to estimate the association between hepatitis B infection and various anticancer agents and drug combinations. We detected statistically significant risk signals of hepatitis B for 33 of 64 anticancer agents by ROR (26 cytotoxicity drugs and seven molecular-targeted drugs). We focused on molecular-targeted drugs and assessed the risk of hepatitis B from specific anticancer drug combinations. The frequency of hepatitis B infection was significantly high for drugs such as rituximab, bortezomib, imatinib, and everolimus. The addition of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and fludarabine to drug combinations additively enhanced the frequency of hepatitis B infection. There were no reports on hepatitis B infection associated with trastuzumab or azacitidine monotherapy. However, trastuzumab-containing regimens (e.g., combinations with docetaxel or paclitaxel) were correlated with the incidence of hepatitis B infection, similar to azacitidine monotherapy. Our findings suggest that the concomitant use of anticancer drugs, such as trastuzumab, taxane, and azacitidine, may contribute to the risk of hepatitis B infection. The unique signals detected from the public database might provide clues to eliminate the threat of HBV in oncology. © 2018 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Analyze for the Quality Control of General X-ray Systems in Capital region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Byung Sam; Lee, Kang Min; Shin, Woo Yong; Park, Soon Chul; Choi, Hak Dong; Cho, Yong Kwon

    2012-01-01

    Thanks to the rapid increase of the interest in the quality control of the General X-ray systems, this research proposes the direction of the quality control through comparing and inspecting the actual condition of the respective quality control in the Clinic, the educational institution and the hospital. The subjects of the investigation are diagnostic radiation equipment's in the clinic, the educational institution and the hospital around the capital. A test of kVp, mR/mAs out put test and reproducibility of the exposure dose, half value layer, an accordance between the light field and the beam alignment test, and lastly reproducibility of the exposure time. Then the mean difference of the percentage, the CV (Coefficient of Variation, CV) and the attenuated curve which are respectively resulted from the above tests are computed. After that we have evaluated the values according to the regulations on the Diagnostic Radiation Equipment Safety Administration regulations. In the case of the clinic and the educational institution, there were 22 general X-ray devices. And 18.2% of the kVp test, 13.6% of the reproducibility of exposure dose test, 9.1% of the mR/mAs out put test, and 13.6% of the HVL (Half Value Layer) test appeared to be improper. In the case of the hospital, however, there were 28 devices. And 7.1% of the reproducibility of exposure dose, 7.1% of the difference in the light field/ beam alignment, and 7.1% of the reproducibility of the exposure time appeared to be improper. According to the investigation, the hospital's quality control condition is better than the condition in the clinic and the educational institution. The quality control condition of the general X-ray devices in the clinic is unsatisfactory compared to the hospital. Thus, it is considered that realizing the importance of the quality control is necessary.

  9. Challenges of information systems strategy implementation in public hospitals: a South African experience

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hwabamungu, B

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available on this phenomenon in the healthcare sector. Building on previous IS strategizing research we explored the challenges of Information Systems strategy implementation. We then explored the challenges of IS strategy implementation in public hospitals in developing...

  10. Using a Remotely Piloted Aircraft System (RPAS) to analyze the stability of a natural rock slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvini, Riccardo; Esposito, Giuseppe; Mastrorocco, Giovanni; Seddaiu, Marcello

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes the application of a rotary wing RPAS for monitoring the stability of a natural rock slope in the municipality of Vecchiano (Pisa, Italy). The slope under investigation is approximately oriented NNW-SSE and has a length of about 320 m; elevation ranges from about 7 to 80 m a.s.l.. The hill consists of stratified limestone, somewhere densely fractured, with dip direction predominantly oriented in a normal way respect to the slope. Fracture traces are present in variable lengths, from decimetre to metre, and penetrate inward the rock versant with thickness difficult to estimate, often exceeding one meter in depth. The intersection between different fracture systems and the slope surface generates rocky blocks and wedges of variable size that may be subject to phenomena of gravitational instability (with reference to the variation of hydraulic and dynamic conditions). Geometrical and structural info about the rock mass, necessary to perform the analysis of the slope stability, were obtained in this work from geo-referenced 3D point clouds acquired using photogrammetric and laser scanning techniques. In particular, a terrestrial laser scanning was carried out from two different point of view using a Leica Scanstation2. The laser survey created many shadows in the data due to the presence of vegetation in the lower parts of the slope and limiting the feasibility of geo-structural survey. To overcome such a limitation, we utilized a rotary wing Aibotix Aibot X6 RPAS geared with a Nikon D3200 camera. The drone flights were executed in manual modality and the images were acquired, according to the characteristics of the outcrops, under different acquisition angles. Furthermore, photos were captured very close to the versant (a few meters), allowing to produce a dense 3D point cloud (about 80 Ma points) by the image processing. A topographic survey was carried out in order to guarantee the necessary spatial accuracy to the process of images exterior

  11. NASA Engineering Design Challenges: Environmental Control and Life Support Systems. Water Filtration Challenge. EG-2008-09-134-MSFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Twila, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This educator guide is organized into seven chapters: (1) Overview; (2) The Design Challenge; (3) Connections to National Curriculum Standards; (4) Preparing to Teach; (5) Classroom Sessions; (6) Opportunities for Extension; and (7) Teacher Resources. Chapter 1 provides information about Environmental Control and Life Support Systems used on NASA…

  12. Next-Generation Climate Modeling Science Challenges for Simulation, Workflow and Analysis Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, D. M.; Anantharaj, V. G.; Bader, D. C.; Krishnan, H.; Leung, L. R.; Ringler, T.; Taylor, M.; Wehner, M. F.; Williams, D. N.

    2016-12-01

    We will present two examples of current and future high-resolution climate-modeling research that are challenging existing simulation run-time I/O, model-data movement, storage and publishing, and analysis. In each case, we will consider lessons learned as current workflow systems are broken by these large-data science challenges, as well as strategies to repair or rebuild the systems. First we consider the science and workflow challenges to be posed by the CMIP6 multi-model HighResMIP, involving around a dozen modeling groups performing quarter-degree simulations, in 3-member ensembles for 100 years, with high-frequency (1-6 hourly) diagnostics, which is expected to generate over 4PB of data. An example of science derived from these experiments will be to study how resolution affects the ability of models to capture extreme-events such as hurricanes or atmospheric rivers. Expected methods to transfer (using parallel Globus) and analyze (using parallel "TECA" software tools) HighResMIP data for such feature-tracking by the DOE CASCADE project will be presented. A second example will be from the Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy (ACME) project, which is currently addressing challenges involving multiple century-scale coupled high resolution (quarter-degree) climate simulations on DOE Leadership Class computers. ACME is anticipating production of over 5PB of data during the next 2 years of simulations, in order to investigate the drivers of water cycle changes, sea-level-rise, and carbon cycle evolution. The ACME workflow, from simulation to data transfer, storage, analysis and publication will be presented. Current and planned methods to accelerate the workflow, including implementing run-time diagnostics, and implementing server-side analysis to avoid moving large datasets will be presented.

  13. Data Mining for Wearable Sensors in Health Monitoring Systems: A Review of Recent Trends and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Banaee

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The past few years have witnessed an increase in the development of wearable sensors for health monitoring systems. This increase has been due to several factors such as development in sensor technology as well as directed efforts on political and stakeholder levels to promote projects which address the need for providing new methods for care given increasing challenges with an aging population. An important aspect of study in such system is how the data is treated and processed. This paper provides a recent review of the latest methods and algorithms used to analyze data from wearable sensors used for physiological monitoring of vital signs in healthcare services. In particular, the paper outlines the more common data mining tasks that have been applied such as anomaly detection, prediction and decision making when considering in particular continuous time series measurements. Moreover, the paper further details the suitability of particular data mining and machine learning methods used to process the physiological data and provides an overview of the properties of the data sets used in experimental validation. Finally, based on this literature review, a number of key challenges have been outlined for data mining methods in health monitoring systems.

  14. Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems: Imperatives, Prospects, and Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aumeier, Steven E.

    2010-01-01

    certainly not new, renewed interest in more tightly coupled energy product plants (such as HES) that meet the objectives outline above have gained additional interest recently, an interest likely sparked by sharpening energy security concerns. Studies have shown that non-nuclear integrated (hybrid) energy systems can have appealing attributes in terms of overall process efficiency, enhanced electric grid stability, renewable energy integration, and economic performance, and lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions. These attributes seem to be sufficiently compelling that several significant commercial investments in fossil-renewable HES are being made in the United States while the U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) has openly solicited information regarding nuclear energy integration schemes. The challenges of nuclear energy integration include myriad issues associated with the following RD and D areas, or 'platforms': (1) feedstock processing (e.g. bio-feedstock integration with coal, carbon feedstock extraction using nuclear energy); (2) heat/energy management (e.g. advanced heat exchangers, process design); (3) energy storage (e.g. H2 production, liquid fuels synthesis); (4) byproduct management (e.g. CO2 recycle approaches); (5) systems dynamics, integration and control (e.g. process dynamics analyses and optimization, advanced prognostics, diagnostics, variable time scale control and flow sheet optimization).

  15. The promises and challenges of future reactor system developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. H.; Chang, M. H.; Kim, H. J.

    2007-01-01

    improved economy when compared to currently the existing plants. The APR 1400 has been developed since 1991 and it is expected that its first commercial operation will be in 2012. In the short term by 2011, the APR-1400 design will be improved from the viewpoints of safety, economics and performance. We are also developing a small integral reactor SMART, which is a promising advanced small and medium-size power category of nuclear reactors. It is an integral type reactor with a sensible mixture of new innovative design features and proven technologies aimed at achieving a highly enhanced safety and improved economics. SMART is purposed for dual applications such as for seawater desalination and electricity generation. Since the SMART technology is technically sound and has sufficient economics, the SMART desalination plant has good prospects of being deployed as a nuclear desalination plant. We are also actively participating in the GEN IV collaboration (GIF: GEN IV International Forum) for a VHTR and a SFR technology development. Through close collaboration with GIF, a proliferation-resistant SFR technology will be developed based on KALIMAER for an effective uranium utilization and waste minimization. Also a high temperature reactor is currently under development to demonstrate a nuclear based hydrogen production technology. Korea is really looking ahead by developing new generation of advanced nuclear reactor systems for a sustainable development, economical benefits, a clean environment and public confidence. In this paper, Korean nuclear reactor technology development program is described together with lessons learned from self-reliance in nuclear reactor technology. In addition, this paper presents the status of the next generation reactor system development program and the future reactor system development program for addressing these challenges

  16. The extreme condition analyzing for NEMPI shielding of electronic system in high-intensity pulsed radiation diagnosing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Xiaolei; Liu Fang; Ouyang Xiaoping

    2012-01-01

    The difficulty for estimating the NEMPI (electromagnetic pulsed interference caused by the nuclear reaction) on the electronic system in high-intensity pulsed radiation diagnosing is analyzed in this article. To solve the difficulty, a method called 'Extreme Condition Analyzing' is presented for estimating the NEMPI conservatively and reliably. Through an extreme condition hypothesizing which could be described as 'Entire Coupling of Electric Field Energy', the E max (maximum electric field intensity which could be endured by the electronic system in the high-intensity pulsed radiation) could be figured out without any other information of the EMP caused by the nuclear reaction. Then a feasibility inspection is introduced, to confirm that the EMPI shielding request according to E max is not too extreme to be achieved. (authors)

  17. Building a Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) and Its Interoperability Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, B. J.

    2015-12-01

    Launched in 2005 by industrialized nations, the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) began building the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). Consisting of both a policy framework, and an information infrastructure, GEOSS, was intended to link and/or integrate the multitude of Earth observation systems, primarily operated by its Member Countries and Participating Organizations, so that users could more readily benefit from global information assets for a number of society's key environmental issues. It was recognized that having ready access to observations from multiple systems was a prerequisite for both environmental decision-making, as well as economic development. From the very start, it was also recognized that the shear complexity of the Earth's system cannot be captured by any single observation system, and that a federated, interoperable approach was necessary. While this international effort has met with much success, primarily in advancing broad, open data policies and practices, challenges remain. In 2014 (Geneva, Switzerland) and 2015 (Mexico City, Mexico), Ministers from GEO's Member Countries, including the European Commission, came together to assess progress made during the first decade (2005 to 2015), and approve implementation strategies and mechanisms for the second decade (2016 to 2025), respectively. The approved implementation strategies and mechanisms are intended to advance GEOSS development thereby facilitating the increased uptake of Earth observations for informed decision-making. Clearly there are interoperability challenges that are technological in nature, and several will be discussed in this presentation. There are, however, interoperability challenges that can be better characterized as economic, governmental and/or political in nature, and these will be discussed as well. With the emergence of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction (WCDRR), and the United Nations

  18. Energy Systems in the Era of Energy Vectors A Key to Define, Analyze and Design Energy Systems Beyond Fossil Fuels

    CERN Document Server

    Orecchini, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    What lies beyond the era of fossil fuels? While most answers focus on different primary energy resources, Energy Systems in the Era of Energy Vectors provides a completely new approach. Instead of providing a traditional consumption analysis of classical primary energy resources such as oil, coal, nuclear power and gas, Energy Systems in the Era of Energy Vectors describes and assesses energy technologies, markets and future strategies, focusing on their capacity to produce, exchange, and use energy vectors. Special attention is given to the renewable energy resources available in different areas of the world and made exploitable by the integration of energy vectors in the global energy system. Clear definitions of energy vectors and energy systems are used as the basis for a complete explanation and assessment of up-to-date, available technologies for energy resources, transport and storage systems, conversion and use. The energy vectors scheme allows the potential realisation of a worldwide sustainable ener...

  19. Development of ultracold neutron detectors and a polarization analyzing system for the measurement of the neutron electric dipole moment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogel, Gwendal

    2009-01-01

    This thesis was performed in the context of a project aiming to measure the electric dipole moment (EDM) of the neutron at the Paul Scherrer Institute. Two aspects have been studied: The detection and the polarization analysis of ultracold neutrons. Three types of detectors have been tested at the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL): The Cascade-U (GEM technology), the "3He gas detector and "6Li-doped glass scintillators (GS family). Their detection efficiency and their background sensitivity have been measured. The GS10 scintillator is competitive with the "3He gas detector under the conditions realized with the EDM spectrometer. A GS3/GS20 scintillator stack has enabled to improve the neutron/gamma discrimination. It has been found 20% less efficient than the "3He gas detector under the EDM spectrometer. The Cascade-U detector has been observed to be 20% less efficient than a 500 microns thick GS10 glass as confirmed by simulations. A new system for simultaneous spin analysis is presented. It consists of two independent detection systems (arms) which are each made of an adiabatic spin flipper, a spin analyzer, and a detector. The arms detect opposite spin components, allowing the simultaneous counting of both neutron spin orientations. A prototype mounted in horizontal configuration has been tested at ILL. The analyzing power of both arms has been measured to be 80%. The transmission of the system without spin analyzers has been found to be 50%. (author) [fr

  20. A New Approach for Analyzing the Reliability of the Repair Facility in a Series System with Vacations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renbin Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the renewal process theory we develop a decomposition method to analyze the reliability of the repair facility in an n-unit series system with vacations. Using this approach, we study the unavailability and the mean replacement number during (0,t] of the repair facility. The method proposed in this work is novel and concise, which can make us see clearly the structures of the facility indices of a series system with an unreliable repair facility, two convolution relations. Special cases and numerical examples are given to show the validity of our method.

  1. Radiometric analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arima, S.; Oda, M.; Miyashita, K.; Takada, M.

    1977-01-01

    A radiometric analyzer for measuring the characteristic values of a sample by radiation includes a humer of radiation measuring subsystems having different ratios of sensitivities to the elements of the sample and linearizing circuits having inverse function characteristics of calibration functions which correspond to the radiation measuring subsystems. A weighing adder operates a desirable linear combination of the outputs of the linearizing circuits. Operators for operating between two or more different linear combinations are included

  2. Developing framework to analyze world-class maintenance (wcm) indicators: gap analysis to highlight challenges and opportunities for the Norwegian petroleum industry

    OpenAIRE

    Imam, Syeda Fahmida

    2012-01-01

    Master's thesis in Offshore Technology World-class Maintenance (WCM) is a unique business process which actually does not cost, rather pays back. This study was an initial attempt to understand the extent of WCM concept being utilized in the Norwegian industry. The aim of the study was to develop a framework for analyzing the WCM indicators. For this purpose, the study was focused to: identify measurable WCM indicators, find the trends of WCM in the Norwegian sector, and find gap betwee...

  3. Improvement of the reliability graph with general gates to analyze the reliability of dynamic systems that have various operation modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Seung Ki [Div. of Research Reactor System Design, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); No, Young Gyu; Seong, Poong Hyun [Dept. of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    The safety of nuclear power plants is analyzed by a probabilistic risk assessment, and the fault tree analysis is the most widely used method for a risk assessment with the event tree analysis. One of the well-known disadvantages of the fault tree is that drawing a fault tree for a complex system is a very cumbersome task. Thus, several graphical modeling methods have been proposed for the convenient and intuitive modeling of complex systems. In this paper, the reliability graph with general gates (RGGG) method, one of the intuitive graphical modeling methods based on Bayesian networks, is improved for the reliability analyses of dynamic systems that have various operation modes with time. A reliability matrix is proposed and it is explained how to utilize the reliability matrix in the RGGG for various cases of operation mode changes. The proposed RGGG with a reliability matrix provides a convenient and intuitive modeling of various operation modes of complex systems, and can also be utilized with dynamic nodes that analyze the failure sequences of subcomponents. The combinatorial use of a reliability matrix with dynamic nodes is illustrated through an application to a shutdown cooling system in a nuclear power plant.

  4. Dual analyzer system for surface analysis dedicated for angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy at liquid surfaces and interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niedermaier, Inga; Kolbeck, Claudia; Steinrück, Hans-Peter; Maier, Florian, E-mail: florian.maier@fau.de [Lehrstuhl für Physikalische Chemie II, FAU Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Egerlandstraße 3, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2016-04-15

    The investigation of liquid surfaces and interfaces with the powerful toolbox of ultra-high vacuum (UHV)-based surface science techniques generally has to overcome the issue of liquid evaporation within the vacuum system. In the last decade, however, new classes of liquids with negligible vapor pressure at room temperature—in particular, ionic liquids (ILs)—have emerged for surface science studies. It has been demonstrated that particularly angle-resolved X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (ARXPS) allows for investigating phenomena that occur at gas-liquid and liquid-solid interfaces on the molecular level. The results are not only relevant for IL systems but also for liquids in general. In all of these previous ARXPS studies, the sample holder had to be tilted in order to change the polar detection angle of emitted photoelectrons, which restricted the liquid systems to very thin viscous IL films coating a flat solid support. We now report on the concept and realization of a new and unique laboratory “Dual Analyzer System for Surface Analysis (DASSA)” which enables fast ARXPS, UV photoelectron spectroscopy, imaging XPS, and low-energy ion scattering at the horizontal surface plane of macroscopically thick non-volatile liquid samples. It comprises a UHV chamber equipped with two electron analyzers mounted for simultaneous measurements in 0° and 80° emission relative to the surface normal. The performance of DASSA on a first macroscopic liquid system will be demonstrated.

  5. Dual analyzer system for surface analysis dedicated for angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy at liquid surfaces and interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niedermaier, Inga; Kolbeck, Claudia; Steinrück, Hans-Peter; Maier, Florian

    2016-01-01

    The investigation of liquid surfaces and interfaces with the powerful toolbox of ultra-high vacuum (UHV)-based surface science techniques generally has to overcome the issue of liquid evaporation within the vacuum system. In the last decade, however, new classes of liquids with negligible vapor pressure at room temperature—in particular, ionic liquids (ILs)—have emerged for surface science studies. It has been demonstrated that particularly angle-resolved X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (ARXPS) allows for investigating phenomena that occur at gas-liquid and liquid-solid interfaces on the molecular level. The results are not only relevant for IL systems but also for liquids in general. In all of these previous ARXPS studies, the sample holder had to be tilted in order to change the polar detection angle of emitted photoelectrons, which restricted the liquid systems to very thin viscous IL films coating a flat solid support. We now report on the concept and realization of a new and unique laboratory “Dual Analyzer System for Surface Analysis (DASSA)” which enables fast ARXPS, UV photoelectron spectroscopy, imaging XPS, and low-energy ion scattering at the horizontal surface plane of macroscopically thick non-volatile liquid samples. It comprises a UHV chamber equipped with two electron analyzers mounted for simultaneous measurements in 0° and 80° emission relative to the surface normal. The performance of DASSA on a first macroscopic liquid system will be demonstrated.

  6. Improvement of the reliability graph with general gates to analyze the reliability of dynamic systems that have various operation modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Seung Ki; No, Young Gyu; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2016-01-01

    The safety of nuclear power plants is analyzed by a probabilistic risk assessment, and the fault tree analysis is the most widely used method for a risk assessment with the event tree analysis. One of the well-known disadvantages of the fault tree is that drawing a fault tree for a complex system is a very cumbersome task. Thus, several graphical modeling methods have been proposed for the convenient and intuitive modeling of complex systems. In this paper, the reliability graph with general gates (RGGG) method, one of the intuitive graphical modeling methods based on Bayesian networks, is improved for the reliability analyses of dynamic systems that have various operation modes with time. A reliability matrix is proposed and it is explained how to utilize the reliability matrix in the RGGG for various cases of operation mode changes. The proposed RGGG with a reliability matrix provides a convenient and intuitive modeling of various operation modes of complex systems, and can also be utilized with dynamic nodes that analyze the failure sequences of subcomponents. The combinatorial use of a reliability matrix with dynamic nodes is illustrated through an application to a shutdown cooling system in a nuclear power plant

  7. RNAi nanomedicines: challenges and opportunities within the immune system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinstein, Shiri; Peer, Dan

    2010-01-01

    RNAi, as a novel therapeutic modality, has an enormous potential to bring the era of personalized medicine one step further from notion into reality. However, delivery of RNAi effector molecules into their target tissues and cells remain extremely challenging. Major attempts have been made in recent years to develop sophisticated nanocarriers that could overcome these hurdles. This review will present the recent progress with the challenges and opportunities in this emerging field, focusing mostly on the in vivo applications with special emphasis on the strategies for RNAi delivery into immune cells. (topical review)

  8. Technical note: comparison of 3 methods for analyzing areas under the curve for glucose and nonesterified fatty acids concentrations following epinephrine challenge in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, F C; Sears, W; LeBlanc, S J; Drackley, J K

    2011-12-01

    The objective of the study was to compare 3 methods for calculating the area under the curve (AUC) for plasma glucose and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) after an intravenous epinephrine (EPI) challenge in dairy cows. Cows were assigned to 1 of 6 dietary niacin treatments in a completely randomized 6 × 6 Latin square with an extra period to measure carryover effects. Periods consisted of a 7-d (d 1 to 7) adaptation period followed by a 7-d (d 8 to 14) measurement period. On d 12, cows received an i.v. infusion of EPI (1.4 μg/kg of BW). Blood was sampled at -45, -30, -20, -10, and -5 min before EPI infusion and 2.5, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min after. The AUC was calculated by incremental area, positive incremental area, and total area using the trapezoidal rule. The 3 methods resulted in different statistical inferences. When comparing the 3 methods for NEFA and glucose response, no significant differences among treatments and no interactions between treatment and AUC method were observed. For glucose and NEFA response, the method was statistically significant. Our results suggest that the positive incremental method and the total area method gave similar results and interpretation but differed from the incremental area method. Furthermore, the 3 methods evaluated can lead to different results and statistical inferences for glucose and NEFA AUC after an EPI challenge. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. An adopter-centric approach to analyze the diffusion patterns of innovative residential heating systems in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahapatra, Krushna; Gustavsson, Leif

    2008-01-01

    Innovation and diffusion of renewable energy technologies play a major role in mitigation of climate change. In Sweden replacing electric and oil heating systems with innovative heating systems such as district heating, heat pumps and wood pellet boilers in detached homes is a significant mitigation option. Using an adopter-centric approach, we analyzed the influence of investment subsidy on conversion of resistance heaters and oil boilers, and the variation in diffusion pattern of district heating, heat pumps and pellet boilers in Swedish detached homes. Results from questionnaire surveys of 1500 randomly selected homeowners in September 2004 and January 2007 showed that more than 80% of the respondents did not intend to install a new heating system. Hence, about 37% of the homeowners still have electric and oil heating systems. The government investment subsidy was important for conversion from a resistance heater, but not from an oil boiler. This is because homeowners currently replacing their oil boilers are the laggards, while those replacing resistance heaters are the 'early adopters'. Economic aspects and functional reliability were the most important factors for the homeowners when considering a new heating system. There is a variation in the perceived advantages associated with each of the innovative heating systems and therefore, the diffusion patterns of such systems vary. Installers and interpersonal sources were the most important communication channels for information on heating systems

  10. An adopter-centric approach to analyze the diffusion patterns of innovative residential heating systems in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahapatra, Krushna; Gustavsson, Leif [Ecotechnology, Mid Sweden University, 831 25 Oestersund (Sweden)

    2008-02-15

    Innovation and diffusion of renewable energy technologies play a major role in mitigation of climate change. In Sweden replacing electric and oil heating systems with innovative heating systems such as district heating, heat pumps and wood pellet boilers in detached homes is a significant mitigation option. Using an adopter-centric approach, we analyzed the influence of investment subsidy on conversion of resistance heaters and oil boilers, and the variation in diffusion pattern of district heating, heat pumps and pellet boilers in Swedish detached homes. Results from questionnaire surveys of 1500 randomly selected homeowners in September 2004 and January 2007 showed that more than 80% of the respondents did not intend to install a new heating system. Hence, about 37% of the homeowners still have electric and oil heating systems. The government investment subsidy was important for conversion from a resistance heater, but not from an oil boiler. This is because homeowners currently replacing their oil boilers are the laggards, while those replacing resistance heaters are the 'early adopters'. Economic aspects and functional reliability were the most important factors for the homeowners when considering a new heating system. There is a variation in the perceived advantages associated with each of the innovative heating systems and therefore, the diffusion patterns of such systems vary. Installers and interpersonal sources were the most important communication channels for information on heating systems. (author)

  11. Future illumination systems and the climate change challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarklev, Araceli; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard

    2010-01-01

    are met in conjunction with situations, where the esthetical design issues are addressed. Finally, our study also points out to the necessity of finding a trans-disciplinary cooperation across sectors to more effectively answer to the climate change challenge, when designing low-carbon technologies...

  12. Editorial: Challenges and solutions in GW calculations for complex systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giustino, F.; Umari, P.; Rubio, A.

    2012-09-01

    We report key advances in the area of GW calculations, review the available software implementations and define standardization criteria to render the comparison between GW calculations from different codes meaningful, and identify future major challenges in the area of quasiparticle calculations. This Topical Issue should be a reference point for further developments in the field.

  13. Teacher Perspectives of Challenges within the Norwegian Educational System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Sarah K.; Terras, Katherine L.

    2015-01-01

    This research examines teacher perspectives' of educational challenges in Norway. Norway is one of the most well-resourced, prosperous, social welfare states in the world, yet the OECD (2011) recognized students' weak basic skills and insufficient teacher ability in content and pedagogy, along with engagement and imbalanced resources as points for…

  14. Contamination Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Measurement of the total organic carbon content in water is important in assessing contamination levels in high purity water for power generation, pharmaceutical production and electronics manufacture. Even trace levels of organic compounds can cause defects in manufactured products. The Sievers Model 800 Total Organic Carbon (TOC) Analyzer, based on technology developed for the Space Station, uses a strong chemical oxidizing agent and ultraviolet light to convert organic compounds in water to carbon dioxide. After ionizing the carbon dioxide, the amount of ions is determined by measuring the conductivity of the deionized water. The new technique is highly sensitive, does not require compressed gas, and maintenance is minimal.

  15. Obstacles and Challenges to Gender Parity. Political Violence, Electoral System and Interculturalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Albaine

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study is a contribution to the debate about the adoption of gender parity policies in Latin America analyzing particular obstacles and challenges related to the implementation of this principle. Electoral systems tend to either optimize or reduce the impact of such gender parity measures. As well as with quotas, the size of the electoral district and the kind of electoral list system are the two variables that most influence the effective implementation of these measures. At the same time, the socio-cultural context also influences the process of implementation of gender parity measures. In patriarchal societies –with high levels of gender-based violence– electoral processes are often characterized by gender-based harassment and political violence, one of the greatest obstacles for increasing women’s political participation. These situations are further complicated in societies which are also characterized by ethnic and cultural diversity, presenting the challenge of including women who are also discriminated against for their ethno-cultural identity.

  16. The challenge of benchmarking health systems: is ICT innovation capacity more systemic than organizational dependent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapão, Luís Velez

    2015-01-01

    The article by Catan et al. presents a benchmarking exercise comparing Israel and Portugal on the implementation of Information and Communication Technologies in the healthcare sector. Special attention was given to e-Health and m-Health. The authors collected information via a set of interviews with key stakeholders. They compared two different cultures and societies, which have reached slightly different implementation outcomes. Although the comparison is very enlightening, it is also challenging. Benchmarking exercises present a set of challenges, such as the choice of methodologies and the assessment of the impact on organizational strategy. Precise benchmarking methodology is a valid tool for eliciting information about alternatives for improving health systems. However, many beneficial interventions, which benchmark as effective, fail to translate into meaningful healthcare outcomes across contexts. There is a relationship between results and the innovational and competitive environments. Differences in healthcare governance and financing models are well known; but little is known about their impact on Information and Communication Technology implementation. The article by Catan et al. provides interesting clues about this issue. Public systems (such as those of Portugal, UK, Sweden, Spain, etc.) present specific advantages and disadvantages concerning Information and Communication Technology development and implementation. Meanwhile, private systems based fundamentally on insurance packages, (such as Israel, Germany, Netherlands or USA) present a different set of advantages and disadvantages - especially a more open context for innovation. Challenging issues from both the Portuguese and Israeli cases will be addressed. Clearly, more research is needed on both benchmarking methodologies and on ICT implementation strategies.

  17. THE USE OF GIS TECHNOLOGIES IN ANALYZING CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF URBAN GREEN SPACES IN KIGALI CITY, RWANDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Rwanyiziri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was assessing the challenges and opportunities for managing Green Spaces (GS of the Urban Part of Kigali City (UPKC. To find out the GS classes and their threats, the land use classes were identified using GIS technologies. Its output was completed by the field visit, questionnaire survey, informal interviews and desk review of the existing environmental and biodiversity policies and laws. The land use assessment has shown that the built up areas is the most predominant and occupies 74.3%, while the green spaces occupy only 25.3% of the total areas of Urban Part of Kigali City (UPKC. Among the GS classes identified in UPKC, wetlands occupy about 62.6% of the total area of the GS, forests 25%, gardens that are combination of the road side trees, the roundabouts, and playgrounds occupy 12.4% of the total area of GS while the seasonal and perennial crops areas are not significant in the city. In addition, results have shown that GS play different roles in the city among others, the beautification of the city, the air purification and refreshment, waste water treatment, heat reduction, mind refreshment; act as habitat, food and corridors for a good number of animal, etc. Even though there is no specific law or policy to the urban GS management and protection, the Government of Rwanda (GoR has put in place a good number of opportunities that take them into consideration. Those include, (1 the governmental policies such as Environmental Policy, Biodiversity Policy, and Forest Policy; (2 the laws such as Organic Environmental Law and, (3 the plans such the master plans for the three districts that make Kigali City. Despite these opportunities, the management of GS in Kigali City is still facing some challenges that the Kigali City authorities are still trying to address. Those include the lack of policies on GS management, low level of awareness on GS management among local people, and the demographic pressure particularly caused by the

  18. Precision-cut intestinal slices as a culture system to analyze the infection of differentiated intestinal epithelial cells by avian influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punyadarsaniya, Darsaniya; Winter, Christine; Mork, Ann-Kathrin; Amiri, Mahdi; Naim, Hassan Y; Rautenschlein, Silke; Herrler, Georg

    2015-02-01

    Many viruses infect and replicate in their host via the intestinal tract, e.g. many picornaviruses, several coronaviruses and avian influenza viruses of waterfowl. To analyze infection of enterocytes is a challenging task as culture systems for differentiated intestinal epithelial cells are not readily available and often have a life span that is too short for infection studies. Precision-cut intestinal slices (PCIS) from chicken embryos were prepared and shown that the epithelial cells lining the lumen of the intestine are viable for up to 4 days. Using lectin staining, it was demonstrated that α2,3-linked sialic acids, the preferred receptor determinants of avian influenza viruses, are present on the apical side of the epithelial cells. Furthermore, the epithelial cells (at the tips) of the villi were shown to be susceptible to infection by an avian influenza virus of the H9N2 subtype. This culture system will be useful to analyze virus infection of intestinal epithelial cells and it should be applicable also to the intestine of other species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. From Analysis to Impact: Challenges and Outcomes from Google's Cloud-based Platforms for Analyzing and Leveraging Petapixels of Geospatial Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thau, D.

    2017-12-01

    For the past seven years, Google has made petabytes of Earth observation data, and the tools to analyze it, freely available to researchers around the world via cloud computing. These data and tools were initially available via Google Earth Engine and are increasingly available on the Google Cloud Platform. We have introduced a number of APIs for both the analysis and presentation of geospatial data that have been successfully used to create impactful datasets and web applications, including studies of global surface water availability, global tree cover change, and crop yield estimation. Each of these projects used the cloud to analyze thousands to millions of Landsat scenes. The APIs support a range of publishing options, from outputting imagery and data for inclusion in papers, to providing tools for full scale web applications that provide analysis tools of their own. Over the course of developing these tools, we have learned a number of lessons about how to build a publicly available cloud platform for geospatial analysis, and about how the characteristics of an API can affect the kinds of impacts a platform can enable. This study will present an overview of how Google Earth Engine works and how Google's geospatial capabilities are extending to Google Cloud Platform. We will provide a number of case studies describing how these platforms, and the data they host, have been leveraged to build impactful decision support tools used by governments, researchers, and other institutions, and we will describe how the available APIs have shaped (or constrained) those tools. [Image Credit: Tyler A. Erickson

  20. The application and analyze of the publish-subscribe communication system for radiation and environmental monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismet Isnaini; I Putu Susila; Istofa

    2016-01-01

    As part of the RAMONA (Radiation and Meteorological Monitoring Analysis System), a publish and subscribe communication system has been designed and implemented, to enable the Ultrasonic Device of Maretron WS0100 which is connected to the client computer to communicate with the server and/or other client. The Maretron is connected to other devices through an interface which use an NMEA2000 protocol, a communication protocol standard set by the National Maritime Electrical Association (NMEA), which usually used in the communication between sensors in the ships and its display. The Maretron device has several sensors embedded such as humidity, wind direction and speed, temperature as well as speed. The communication between Maretron is utilizing a MQTT (Message Queueing Telemetry Transport) system, a publish/subscribe protocol, in which a client publish its data to a data bus with a certain topic, while the server or other client who subscribe to that topic through a broker will then grab and process the data. The data format sent by the Maretron is in JSON (Java Scrip Object Notation) format, which will be parsed by the subscriber and later will be saved on a database or displayed in a website as per requirement. (author)

  1. Model systems to analyze the role of miRNAs and commensal microflora in bovine mucosal immune system development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Guanxiang; Malmuthuge, Nilusha; Guan, Le Luo; Griebel, Philip

    2015-07-01

    Information is rapidly accumulating regarding the role of miRNAs as key regulators of immune system development and function. It is also increasingly evident that miRNAs play an important role in host-pathogen interactions through regulation of both innate and acquired immune responses. Little is known, however, about the specific role of miRNAs in regulating normal development of the mucosal immune system, especially during the neonatal period. Furthermore, there is limited knowledge regarding the possible role the commensal microbiome may play in regulating mucosal miRNAs expression, although evidence is emerging that a variety of enteric pathogens influence miRNA expression. The current review focuses on recent information that miRNAs play an important role in regulating early development of the bovine mucosal immune system. A possible role for the commensal microbiome in regulating mucosal development by altering miRNA expression is also discussed. Finally, we explore the potential advantages of using the newborn calf as a model to determine how interactions between developmental programming, maternal factors in colostrum, and colonization of the gastrointestinal tract by commensal bacteria may alter mucosal miRNA expression and immune development. Identifying the key factors that regulate mucosal miRNA expression is critical for understanding how the balance between protective immunity and inflammation is maintained to ensure optimal gastrointestinal tract function and health of the whole organism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Development of an energy analyzer as diagnostic of beam-generated plasma in negative ion beam systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, E.; Carozzi, G.; Veltri, P.; Spolaore, M.; Cavazzana, R.; Antoni, V.; Serianni, G.

    2017-08-01

    The measurement of the plasma potential and the energy spectrum of secondary particles in the drift region of a negative ion beam offers an insight into beam-induced plasma formation and beam transport in low pressure gasses. Plasma formation in negative-ion beam systems, and the characteristics of such a plasma are of interest especially for space charge compensation, plasma formation in neutralizers, and the development of improved schemes of beam-induced plasma neutralisers for future fusion devices. All these aspects have direct implications in the ITER Heating Neutral Beam and the operation of the prototypes, SPIDER and MITICA, and also have important role in the conceptual studies for NBI systems of DEMO, while at present experimental data are lacking. In this paper we present the design and development of an ion energy analyzer to measure the beam plasma formation and space charge compensation in negative ion beams. The diagnostic is a retarding field energy analyzer (RFEA), and will measure the transverse energy spectra of plasma molecular ions. The calculations that supported the design are reported, and a method to interpret the measurements in negative ion beam systems is also proposed. Finally, the experimental results of the first test in a magnetron plasma are presented.

  3. RADHEAT-V4: a code system to generate multigroup constants and analyze radiation transport for shielding safety evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamano, Naoki; Minami, Kazuyoshi; Koyama, Kinji; Naito, Yoshitaka.

    1989-03-01

    A modular code system RADHEAT-V4 has been developed for performing precisely neutron and photon transport analyses, and shielding safety evaluations. The system consists of the functional modules for producing coupled multi-group neutron and photon cross section sets, for analyzing the neutron and photon transport, and for calculating the atom displacement and the energy deposition due to radiations in nuclear reactor or shielding material. A precise method named Direct Angular Representation (DAR) has been developed for eliminating an error associated with the method of the finite Legendre expansion in evaluating angular distributions of cross sections and radiation fluxes. The DAR method implemented in the code system has been described in detail. To evaluate the accuracy and applicability of the code system, some test calculations on strong anisotropy problems have been performed. From the results, it has been concluded that RADHEAT-V4 is successfully applicable to evaluating shielding problems accurately for fission and fusion reactors and radiation sources. The method employed in the code system is very effective in eliminating negative values and oscillations of angular fluxes in a medium having an anisotropic source or strong streaming. Definitions of the input data required in various options of the code system and the sample problems are also presented. (author)

  4. Using the T-scan III system to analyze occlusal function in mandibular reconstruction patients: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Wei Liu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was designed to analyze the post-rehabilitation occlusal function of subjects treated with complex mandibular resection and subsequently rehabilitated with fibula osteoseptocutaneous flaps, dental implants, and fixed prostheses utilizing the T-scan system. Methods: Ten mandibular complex resection cases that adopted fibula osteoseptocutaneous flaps, dental implants, and fixed prostheses to reconstruct occlusal function were analyzed. The mandibular reconstructions were divided into three groups based on size: full mandibular reconstructions, mandibular reconstructions larger than half of the arch, and mandibular reconstructions smaller than half of the arch. The T-scan III system was used to measure maximum occlusal force, occlusal time, anterior-posterior as well as left-right occlusal force asymmetries, and anterior-posterior as well as left-right asymmetrical locations of occlusal centers. Results: Subjects with larger mandibular reconstructions and dental implants with fixed partial dentures demonstrated decreased average occlusal force; however, the difference did not reach the statistically significant level (p > 0.05. The most significant asymmetry of occlusal center location occurred among subjects with mandibular reconstructed areas larger than half of the mandibular arch. Conclusions: Comparison of the parameters of T-scan system used to analyze the occlusal function showed that the occlusal force was not an objective reference. Measurements of the location of the occlusal center appeared more repeatable, and were less affected by additional factors. The research results of this study showed that the size of a reconstruction did not affect the occlusal force after reconstruction and larger reconstructed areas did not decrease the average occlusal force. The most significant parameter was left and right asymmetry of the occlusion center (LROC and was measured in subjects with reconstruction areas larger than half

  5. Utilizing Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to analyze geographic and demographic patterns related to forensic case recovery locations in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolpan, Katharine E; Warren, Michael

    2017-12-01

    This paper highlights how Geographic Information Systems (GIS) can be utilized to analyze biases and patterns related to physical and cultural geography in Florida. Using case recovery locations from the C. Addison Pound Human Identification Laboratory (CAPHIL), results indicate that the majority of CAPHIL cases are recovered from urban areas with medium to low population density and low rates of crime. The results also suggest that more accurate record keeping methods would enhance the data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Requirements for guidelines systems: implementation challenges and lessons from existing software-engineering efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Hemant; Allard, Raymond D; Enberg, Robert; Krishnan, Ganesh; Williams, Patricia; Nadkarni, Prakash M

    2012-03-09

    A large body of work in the clinical guidelines field has identified requirements for guideline systems, but there are formidable challenges in translating such requirements into production-quality systems that can be used in routine patient care. Detailed analysis of requirements from an implementation perspective can be useful in helping define sub-requirements to the point where they are implementable. Further, additional requirements emerge as a result of such analysis. During such an analysis, study of examples of existing, software-engineering efforts in non-biomedical fields can provide useful signposts to the implementer of a clinical guideline system. In addition to requirements described by guideline-system authors, comparative reviews of such systems, and publications discussing information needs for guideline systems and clinical decision support systems in general, we have incorporated additional requirements related to production-system robustness and functionality from publications in the business workflow domain, in addition to drawing on our own experience in the development of the Proteus guideline system (http://proteme.org). The sub-requirements are discussed by conveniently grouping them into the categories used by the review of Isern and Moreno 2008. We cite previous work under each category and then provide sub-requirements under each category, and provide example of similar work in software-engineering efforts that have addressed a similar problem in a non-biomedical context. When analyzing requirements from the implementation viewpoint, knowledge of successes and failures in related software-engineering efforts can guide implementers in the choice of effective design and development strategies.

  7. Evaluation of a lower-powered analyzer and sampling system for eddy-covariance measurements of nitrous oxide fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Shannon E.; Sargent, Steve; Wagner-Riddle, Claudia

    2018-03-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes measured using the eddy-covariance method capture the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of N2O emissions. Most closed-path trace-gas analyzers for eddy-covariance measurements have large-volume, multi-pass absorption cells that necessitate high flow rates for ample frequency response, thus requiring high-power sample pumps. Other sampling system components, including rain caps, filters, dryers, and tubing, can also degrade system frequency response. This field trial tested the performance of a closed-path eddy-covariance system for N2O flux measurements with improvements to use less power while maintaining the frequency response. The new system consists of a thermoelectrically cooled tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer configured to measure both N2O and carbon dioxide (CO2). The system features a relatively small, single-pass sample cell (200 mL) that provides good frequency response with a lower-powered pump ( ˜ 250 W). A new filterless intake removes particulates from the sample air stream with no additional mixing volume that could degrade frequency response. A single-tube dryer removes water vapour from the sample to avoid the need for density or spectroscopic corrections, while maintaining frequency response. This eddy-covariance system was collocated with a previous tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer model to compare N2O and CO2 flux measurements for two full growing seasons (May 2015 to October 2016) in a fertilized cornfield in Southern Ontario, Canada. Both spectrometers were placed outdoors at the base of the sampling tower, demonstrating ruggedness for a range of environmental conditions (minimum to maximum daily temperature range: -26.1 to 31.6 °C). The new system rarely required maintenance. An in situ frequency-response test demonstrated that the cutoff frequency of the new system was better than the old system (3.5 Hz compared to 2.30 Hz) and similar to that of a closed-path CO2 eddy-covariance system (4

  8. Challenges in miniaturized automotive long-range lidar system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fersch, Thomas; Weigel, Robert; Koelpin, Alexander

    2017-05-01

    This paper discusses the current technical limitations posed on endeavors to miniaturize lidar systems for use in automotive applications and how to possibly extend those limits. The focus is set on long-range scanning direct time of flight LiDAR systems using APD photodetectors. Miniaturization evokes severe problems in ensuring absolute laser safety while maintaining the systems' performance in terms of maximum range, signal-to-noise ratio, detection probability, pixel density, or frame rate. Based on hypothetical but realistic specifications for an exemplary system the complete lidar signal path is calculated. The maximum range of the system is used as a general performance indicator. It is determined with the minimum signal-to-noise ratio required to detect an object. Various system parameters are varied to find their impact on the system's range. The reduction of the laser's pulse width and the right choice for the transimpedance amplifier's amplification have shown to be practicable measures to double the system's range.

  9. Analyzing the topological, electrical and reliability characteristics of a power transmission system for identifying its critical elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zio, E.; Golea, L.R.

    2012-01-01

    The subject of this paper is the analysis of an electrical transmission system with the objective of identifying its most critical elements with respect to failures and attacks. The methodological approach undertaken is based on graph-theoretical (topological) network analysis. Four different perspectives of analysis are considered within the formalism of weighed networks, adding to the purely topological analysis of the system, the reliability and electrical characteristics of its components. In each phase of the analysis: i) a graph-theoretical representation is offered to highlight the structure of the most important system connections according to the particular characteristics examined (topological, reliability, electrical or electrical-reliability), ii) the classical degree index of a network node is extended to account for the different characteristics considered. The application of these concepts of analysis to an electrical transmission system of literature confirms the importance of different perspectives of analysis on such a critical infrastructure. - Highlights: ► We analyze a power system from topological, reliability and electrical perspectives. ► We rank critical components within a vulnerability assessment framework. ► We compute an extended degree to rank critical energy paths. ► We compare several analytical approaches and provide a table for choosing among them. ► We suggest network changes to increase the reliability of highly loaded energy paths.

  10. Application of grey model on analyzing the passive natural circulation residual heat removal system of HTR-10

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Tao; PENG Changhong; WANG Zenghui; WANG Ruosu

    2008-01-01

    Using the grey correlation analysis, it can be concluded that the reactor pressure vessel wall temperature has the strongest effect on the passive residual heat removal system in HTR (High Temperature gas-cooled Reactor),the chimney height takes the second place, and the influence of inlet air temperature of the chimney is the least. This conclusion is the same as that analyzed by the traditional method. According to the grey model theory, the GM(1,1) and GM(1, 3) model are built based on the inlet air temperature of chimney, pressure vessel temperature and the chimney height. Then the effect of three factors on the heat removal power is studied in this paper. The model plays an important role on data prediction, and is a new method for studying the heat removal power. The method can provide a new theoretical analysis to the passive residual heat removal system of HTR.

  11. Expert Systems: A Challenge for the Reading Profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balajthy, Ernest

    The expert systems are designed to imitate the reasoning of a human expert in a content area field. Designed to be advisors, these software systems combine the content area knowledge and decision-making ability of an expert with the user's understanding and knowledge of particular circumstances. The reading diagnosis system, the RD2P System…

  12. IFRS IN ROMANIAN BANKING SYSTEM. LIMITS AND CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inesa TOFANICA

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In our globalized world, accounting has followed the trend and it has imposed comparability norms in order to adjust to everyday economic transactions. The International Financial Reporting Standards are a set of accounting standards developed by a non-profit organization called IASB (International Accounting Standards Board. This set of standards is applied in many countries all over the world, and Romania is one of them. The advantages of IFRS are well known and recognized, but the path of IFRS adoption is not always smooth. This paper aims to present the limits and the challenges encountered by the companies which apply IFRS in their financial reports.

  13. LOCAL FOOD SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT IN THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA: CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor MOROZ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main challenge of the food sector in the Republic of Moldova is to identify specific needs and opportunities for agriculture and rural development throughout food supply chains, and focusing investment in areas where the most impact will be made. The identification and allocation of resources requires analysis of main dimensions of food supply chains, in order to establish links and determine local factors. In small transition economies the diagnosis of the food supply chains, is typically based on limited data and incomplete information. In order to investigate the actual state of food supply chains were used specific methods and techniques: statistical and economic analysis of macro-economic indicators, semi-structured interviews of key stakeholders, analysis of the impact of public policies on the agro-food sector. In the article is analyzed the process of food systems formation and integration at the local and global level. Although it is a small part of the overall agricultural sector, various local food systems are under development in the Republic of Moldova. These systems bring consumers in close contact with farmers and mobilize them to support local farms and sustainable farming practices. While local food systems continue to face many barriers, many of them show considerable potential for growth.

  14. Arctic System Science: Meeting Earth System and Social Impact Challenges through Integrative Approaches and Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorosmarty, C. J.; Hinzman, L. D.; Rawlins, M. A.; Serreze, M. C.; Francis, J. A.; Liljedahl, A. K.; McDonald, K. C.; Piasecki, M.; Rich, R. H.; Holland, M. M.

    2017-12-01

    The Arctic is an integral part of the Earth system where multiple interactions unite its natural and human elements. Recent observations show the Arctic to be experiencing rapid and amplified signatures of global climate change. At the same time, the Arctic system's response to this broader forcing has itself become a central research topic, given its potential role as a critical throttle on future planetary dynamics. Changes are already impacting life systems and economic prosperity and continued change is expected to bear major implications far outside the region. We also have entered an era when environmental management, traditionally local in scope, must confront regional, whole biome, and pan-Arctic biogeophysical challenges. While challenges may appear to operate in isolation, they emerge within the context of an evolving, integrated Arctic system defined by interactions among natural and social sub-systems. Clearly, new efforts aimed at community planning, industrial development, and infrastructure construction must consider this multiplicity of interacting processes. We recently organized an "Arctic System Synthesis Workshop Series" supported by the Arctic Systems Science Program of NSF and devoted to exploring approaches capable of uncovering the systems-level behavior in both the natural and social sciences domains. The series featured two topical meetings. The first identified the sources responsible for extreme climate events in the Arctic. The second focused on multiple "currencies" within the system (i.e., water, energy, carbon, nutrients) and how they interact to produce systems-level behaviors. More than 40 experts participated, drawn from the ranks of Arctic natural and social sciences. We report here on the workshop series consensus report, which identifies a broad array of topics. Principal among these are a consideration of why study the Arctic as a system, as well as an articulation of the major systems-level approaches to support basic as well

  15. Homebirth as systems-challenging praxis: knowledge, power, and intimacy in the birthplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheyney, Melissa J

    2008-02-01

    In this article, I examine the processes and motivations involved when women in the United States choose to circumvent the dominant obstetric care paradigm by delivering at home with a group of care providers called direct-entry midwives. Using grounded theory, participant observation, and open-ended, semistructured interviewing, I collected and analyzed homebirth narratives from a theoretical sample of women (n = 50) in two research locales. Findings interpreted from the perspective of critical medical anthropology suggest that women who choose to birth at home negotiate fears associated with the "just in case something bad happens" argument that forms the foundation for hospital birth rationales through complex individual and social processes. These involve challenging established forms of authoritative knowledge, valuing alternative and more embodied or intuitive ways of knowing, and knowledge sharing through the informed consent process. Adherence to subjugated discourses combined with lived experiences of personal power and the cultivation of intimacy in the birthplace fuel homebirth not only as a minority social movement, but also as a form of systems-challenging praxis.

  16. Approaches and Challenges of Engineering Implantable Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS Drug Delivery Systems for in Vitro and in Vivo Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken-Tye Yong

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite the advancements made in drug delivery systems over the years, many challenges remain in drug delivery systems for treating chronic diseases at the personalized medicine level. The current urgent need is to develop novel strategies for targeted therapy of chronic diseases. Due to their unique properties, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS technology has been recently engineered as implantable drug delivery systems for disease therapy. This review examines the challenges faced in implementing implantable MEMS drug delivery systems in vivo and the solutions available to overcome these challenges.

  17. Adaptive Embedded SystemsChallenges of Run-Time Resource Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Understanding and efficiently controlling the dynamic behavior of adaptive embedded systems is a challenging endavor. The challenges come from the often very complicated interplay between the application, the application mapping, and the underlying hardware architecture. With MPSoC, we have...... the technology to design and fabricate dynamically reconfigurable hardware platforms. However, such platforms will pose new challenges to tools and methods to efficiently explore these platforms at run-time. This talk will address some of the challenges of run-time resource management in adaptive embedded...... systems....

  18. Power System Challenge: Synthesis Report for the 7th Clean Energy Ministerial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-06-01

    The Clean Energy Ministerial's (CEM's) Power System Challenge was established in 2015 to create a shared vision among major economies regarding the pathway to clean, reliable, resilient, and affordable power. Endorsing governments have created core principles and challenge propositions as a framework for government and industry action to support and guide power system transformation. This brochure details the status of the Challenge, how countries are working to meet the Challenge, and the relevant milestones reached by initiatives of the Clean Energy Ministerial.

  19. 'Motor challenge' pilot programme; Motor Challenge Pilotprogramm. Schweizer Teilnahme im SAVE-Programm: pilot actions for motor systems industrial energy use challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nipkow, J.

    2003-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a pilot project associated with the Motor Challenge Programme (MCP) initiated by the European Commission (Transport and Energy Committee). The programme is briefly described, which aims to improve the efficiency of electrical motors used in industrial compressed-air, pump and ventilator systems as well as in comprehensive motor driven systems. Switzerland's participation in this pilot project is examined, which was concluded after a period of two years when the Motor Challenge Programme itself was launched in February 2003. The mechanisms of the programme are described, whereby companies may become involved in the programme either as partners (users of drive systems) or as endorsers (suppliers, planners, etc., of such systems). Experience gained with two companies in Switzerland - a food processing group and a major chemical pulp producer - who participated in the programme is presented. Efficiency potentials of around 3 GWh/a were identified; these represent a high proportion of the estimated total of 18 GWh/a in the overall programme. A follow-up project is proposed that is to provide detailed information and initiate further efficiency projects in order to encourage other companies to participate in the MCP programme.

  20. THE SYSTEMIC RISK BUFFER – A CHALLENGING INSTRUMENT FOR ASSESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BADEA IRINA - RALUCA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The consequences of the global financial crisis have changed the orientation of the regulators from the micro towards the macroeconomic level, which encompasses the financial system as a whole, with its components as individual financial institutions. Needless to say that there is an inherent risk to which every participant to the market is exposed, the systemic risk. Therefore, this paper aims at presenting systemic risk in a clear manner, paying attention to and highlighting several approaches regarding systemic risk in literature and practice. Moreover, the mechanism of systemic risk transmission points out the channels through which systemic risk spreads and affects the real economy. There is also presented a new component of the macroprudential regulation, i.e. the systemic risk buffer (SRB, which is an important instrument to fight against systemic risk along with the other buffers stipulated in the Basel III standards. Hence, the subject dealt in this paper represents a realistic outlook upon the situation of the financial system at the moment, in its struggle to forecast a potential systemic threat and the instruments needed to counteract it in order to diminish its negative effects. In the last part of the paper there is presented evidence from a few countries that started to implement the SRB and G-SII or O-SII buffers or are phased for implementation to the extent of 2019. Tracking the vulnerabilities of the system as a whole, of each of its components and the tranmission channels of systemic risk should be the first step to make before taking any measures against a monetary or financial phenomenon.

  1. Emerging nuclear energy systems: Economic challenge: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuckolls, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    Future nuclear energy systems may achieve substantially lower energy costs than those of existing fossil energy systems and comparable capital costs. Such low cost nuclear energy would provide a strong economic incentive to minimize the use of fossil fuels. If these low cost nuclear energy systems emerge in the next few decades, 21st century civilization may be able to avert potentially disastrous CO 2 induced global climate changes. 12 refs., 1 fig

  2. Big Data challenges and solutions in building the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzetti, Paolo; Nativi, Stefano; Santoro, Mattia; Boldrini, Enrico

    2014-05-01

    The Group on Earth Observation (GEO) is a voluntary partnership of governments and international organizations launched in response to calls for action by the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development and by the G8 (Group of Eight) leading industrialized countries. These high-level meetings recognized that international collaboration is essential for exploiting the growing potential of Earth observations to support decision making in an increasingly complex and environmentally stressed world. To this aim is constructing the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) on the basis of a 10-Year Implementation Plan for the period 2005 to 2015 when it will become operational. As a large-scale integrated system handling large datasets as those provided by Earth Observation, GEOSS needs to face several challenges related to big data handling and big data infrastructures management. Referring to the traditional multiple Vs characteristics of Big Data (volume, variety, velocity, veracity and visualization) it is evident how most of them can be found in data handled by GEOSS. In particular, concerning Volume, Earth Observation already generates a large amount of data which can be estimated in the range of Petabytes (1015 bytes), with Exabytes (1018) already targeted. Moreover, the challenge is related not only to the data size, but also to the large amount of datasets (not necessarily having a big size) that systems need to manage. Variety is the other main challenge since datasets coming from different sensors, processed for different use-cases are published with highly heterogeneous metadata and data models, through different service interfaces. Innovative multidisciplinary applications need to access and use those datasets in a harmonized way. Moreover Earth Observation data are growing in size and variety at an exceptionally fast rate and new technologies and applications, including crowdsourcing, will even increase data volume and variety in the next future

  3. Grand Challenges in Space Technology: Distributed Satellite Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, David

    2001-01-01

    The MITIAFRL Distributed Satellite Systems program examines the motivation, analysis and development of technology associated with the distribution of assets and functionality over a number of cooperating satellites...

  4. Greenlandic water and sanitation systems-identifying system constellation and challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Kåre; Hoffmann, Birgitte

    2017-01-01

    " (United Nations 2015). This obviously raises the question of how this can be achieved considering the very different conditions and cultures around the globe. This article presents the Greenlandic context and elucidates the current Greenland water supply system and wastewater management system from......A good water supply and wastewater management is essential for a local sustainable community development. This is emphasized in the new global goals of the UN Sustainable Development, where the sixth objective is to: "Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all...... a socio-technical approach, focusing on the geographic, climatic and cultural challenges. The article identifies a diverse set of system constellations in different parts of Greenland and concludes with a discussion of health and quality of life implications....

  5. A Portable, Low-Power Analyzer and Automated Soil Flux Chamber System for Measuring Wetland GHG Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Nick; Kim-Hak, David; McArthur, Gordon

    2017-04-01

    Preservation and restoration of wetlands has the potential to help sequester large amounts of carbon due to the naturally high primary productivity and slow turnover of stored soil carbon. However, the anoxic environmental conditions present in wetland soils are also the largest natural contributor to global methane emissions. While it is well known that wetlands are net carbon sinks over long time scales, given the high global warming potential of methane, the short-term balances between C uptake and storage and loss as CO2 and CH4 need to be carefully considered when evaluating the climate effects of land-use change. It is relatively difficult to measure methane emissions from wetlands with currently available techniques given the temporally and spatially sporadic nature of the processes involved (methanogenesis, methane oxidation, ebullition, etc.). For example, using manual soil flux chambers can often only capture a portion of either the spatial or temporal variability, and often have other disadvantages associated with soil atmosphere disturbance during deployment in these relatively compressible wetland soils. Automated chamber systems offer the advantage of collecting high-resolution time series of gaseous fluxes while reducing some human and method induced biases. Additionally, new laser-based analyzers that can be used in situ alongside automated chambers offer a greater minimum detectable flux than can be achieved using alternative methods such as Gas Chromatography. Until recently these types of automated measurements were limited to areas that had good power coverage, as laser based systems were power intensive and could not easily be supplemented with power from field-available sources such as solar. Recent advances in laser technology has reduced the power needed and made these systems less power intensive and more field portable in the process. Here we present data using an automated chamber system coupled to a portable laser based greenhouse gas

  6. Child human trafficking victims: challenges for the child welfare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Rowena; Berger Cardoso, Jodi

    2010-08-01

    Since the passing of the Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act in 2000 and its reauthorization by President George Bush in 2008, federal, state and community efforts in identifying and providing services for victims of human trafficking have significantly improved. However, most of the research and resources for trafficking victims have been directed towards adults rather than children. Researchers agree that there is a growing number of sexually exploited and trafficked children in the United States yet few programs emphasize the unique experiences and special needs of this population. This article examines commercial sexual exploitation of children; differentiates the needs and problems between child prostitution and victims of human trafficking; reviews and critiques current treatment practices; and summarizes challenges and successes in working with child victims of human trafficking, offering practice and policy recommendations. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Hidden Challenges to Education Systems in Transition Economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Sue E.

    This book, published by the World Bank, sounds the alarm for education in Europe and Central Asia (ECA). It describes how the transition from communism to free-market economies has left many countries' educational systems in disarray. At the start of transition, ECA education systems had solved problems that plagued other regions of the world,…

  8. Accelerating cooperative systems' development through the Grand Cooperative Driving challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk Noordegraaf, D.; Malone, K.M.; Katwijk, R. van; Gerrits, A.

    2009-01-01

    Cooperative driving systems comprise an important research area. They are considered a promising solution for reducing traffic congestion, reducing environmental impact and improving traffic safety and driver comfort. The key to these systems is the communication and interaction between vehicles and

  9. Challenging obduracy : How local communities transform the energy system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Schoor, Tineke; Van Lente, Harro; Scholtens, Bert; Peine, Alex

    2016-01-01

    The transformation from the current energy system to a decentralized renewable energy system requires the transformation of communities into energy neutral or even energy producing communities. Increasingly, citizens become 'prosumers' and pool their resources to start a local energy initiative. In

  10. Activity theory as a challenge to systems design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne

    1991-01-01

    This paper suggests an improvement of the theoretical foundation of information systems research of the 1990s. This foundation is found in human activity theory. The paper deals with how human activity theory can help systems design change, theoretically and practically. Applying activity theory...

  11. An integrated drug prescription and distribution system: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanssiers, R; Everaert, E; De Win, M; Van De Velde, R; De Clercq, H

    2002-01-01

    Using the hospital's drug prescription and distribution system as a guide, benefits and drawbacks of a medical activity management system that is tightly integrated with the supply chain management of a hospital will be discussed from the point of view of various participating healthcare actors.

  12. Green certificate system for heating - principal and practical challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eldegard, Tom

    2002-01-01

    A certificate system with an obligation to buying is a very relevant instrument in energy policy in order to stimulate the implementation of new renewable energy sources. This solution is widely supported; it is being institutionalized in many countries, especially in Europe and in the electricity sector, and the heating sector is soon to follow. This report discusses the broad lines of a possible green certificate system for the heating sector in Norway and concludes that it is might well be linked with a similar system for the electricity sector. For Norway, an isolated certificate system for the electricity sector would not be cost-effective. This is because this system would emphasize relatively expensive renewable electric energy rather than utilizing the large potential for replacing the electric heating of buildings with much cheaper renewable heat

  13. Development of tsunami early warning systems and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wächter

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Fostered by and embedded in the general development of information and communications technology (ICT, the evolution of tsunami warning systems (TWS shows a significant development from seismic-centred to multi-sensor system architectures using additional sensors (e.g. tide gauges and buoys for the detection of tsunami waves in the ocean.

    Currently, the beginning implementation of regional tsunami warning infrastructures indicates a new phase in the development of TWS. A new generation of TWS should not only be able to realise multi-sensor monitoring for tsunami detection. Moreover, these systems have to be capable to form a collaborative communication infrastructure of distributed tsunami warning systems in order to implement regional, ocean-wide monitoring and warning strategies.

    In the context of the development of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS and in the EU-funded FP6 project Distant Early Warning System (DEWS, a service platform for both sensor integration and warning dissemination has been newly developed and demonstrated. In particular, standards of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC and the Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS have been successfully incorporated.

    In the FP7 project Collaborative, Complex and Critical Decision-Support in Evolving Crises (TRIDEC, new developments in ICT (e.g. complex event processing (CEP and event-driven architecture (EDA are used to extend the existing platform to realise a component-based technology framework for building distributed tsunami warning systems.

  14. The LHCb Silicon Tracker - Control system specific tools and challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Adeva, G; Esperante Pereira, D; Gallas, A; Pazos Alvarez, A; Perez Trigo, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Saborido, J; Amhis, Y; Bay, A; Blanc, F; Bressieux, J; Conti, G; Dupertuis, F; Fave, V; Frei, R; Gauvin, N; Haefeli, G; Keune, A; Luisier, J; Marki, R; Muresan, R; Nakada, T; Needham, M; Knecht, M; Schneider, O; Tran, M; Anderson, J; Buechler, A; Bursche, A; Chiapolini, N; De Cian, M; Elsasser, C; Salzmann, C; Saornil Gamarra, S; Steiner, S; Steinkamp, O; Straumann, U; van Tilburg, J; Tobin, M; Vollhardt, A; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Bauer, C; Britsch, M; Maciuc, F; Schmelling, M; Voss, H; Iakovenko, V; Okhrimenko, O; Pugatch, V

    2014-01-01

    The Experiment Control System (ECS) of the LHCb Silicon Tracker sub-detectors is built on the integrated LHCb ECS framework. Although all LHCb sub-detectors use the same framework and follow the same guidelines, the Silicon Tracker control system uses some interesting additional features in terms of operation and monitoring. The main details are described in this document. Since its design, the Silicon Tracker control system has been continuously evolving in a quite disorganized way. Some major maintenance activities are required to be able to keep improving. A description of those activities can also be found here.

  15. Challenges and models in supporting logistics system design for dedicated-biomass-based bioenergy industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoyan; Li, Xueping; Yao, Qingzhu; Chen, Yuerong

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzed the uniqueness and challenges in designing the logistics system for dedicated biomass-to-bioenergy industry, which differs from the other industries, due to the unique features of dedicated biomass (e.g., switchgrass) including its low bulk density, restrictions on harvesting season and frequency, content variation with time and circumambient conditions, weather effects, scattered distribution over a wide geographical area, and so on. To design it, this paper proposed a mixed integer linear programming model. It covered from planting and harvesting switchgrass to delivering to a biorefinery and included the residue handling, concentrating on integrating strategic decisions on the supply chain design and tactical decisions on the annual operation schedules. The present numerical examples verified the model and demonstrated its use in practice. This paper showed that the operations of the logistics system were significantly different for harvesting and non-harvesting seasons, and that under the well-designed biomass logistics system, the mass production with a steady and sufficient supply of biomass can increase the unit profit of bioenergy. The analytical model and practical methodology proposed in this paper will help realize the commercial production in biomass-to-bioenergy industry. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The sequence coding and search system: an approach for constructing and analyzing event sequences at commercial nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mays, G.T.

    1990-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has recognized the importance of the collection, assessment, and feedback of operating experience data from commercial nuclear power plants and has centralized these activities in the Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD). Such data is essential for performing safety and reliability analyses, especially analyses of trends and patterns to identify undesirable changes in plant performance at the earliest opportunity to implement corrective measures to preclude the occurrence of a more serious event. One of NRC's principal tools for collecting and evaluating operating experience data is the Sequence Coding and Search System (SCSS). The SCSS consists of a methodology for structuring event sequences and the requisite computer system to store and search the data. The source information for SCSS is the Licensee Event Report (LER), which is a legally required document. This paper describes the objectives of SCSS, the information it contains, and the format and approach for constructing SCSS event sequences. Examples are presented demonstrating the use of SCSS to support the analysis of LER data. The SCSS contains over 30,000 LERs describing events from 1980 through the present. Insights gained from working with a complex data system from the initial developmental stage to the point of a mature operating system are highlighted. Considerable experience has been gained in the areas of evolving and changing data requirements, staffing requirements, and quality control and quality assurance procedures for addressing consistency, software/hardware considerations for developing and maintaining a complex system, documentation requirements, and end-user needs. Two other approaches for constructing and evaluating event sequences are examined including the Accident Precursor Program (ASP) where sequences having the potential for core damage are identified and analyzed, and the Significant Event Compilation Tree

  17. Control programs of multichannel pulse height analyzer with CAMAC system using FACOM U-200 mini-computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagishi, Kojiro

    1978-02-01

    The 4096 channel Pulse Height Analyzer (PHA) assembled with CAMAC plug-in units has been developed in JAERI. The PHA consists of ADC unit, CRT-display unit, and CAMAC plug-in units, which are memory-controller, MCA-timer, 4K words RAM memory and CRT-driver. The system is on-line connected to FACOM U-200 Mini-Computer through CAMAC interface unit Crate-controller. The softwares for on-line data acquisition of the system have been developed. These are four utility programs written in FORTRAN and two program packages written in assembler language FASP which are CAMAC Program Package and Basic Input/Output Program Package. CAMAC Program Package has 18 subroutine programs for control of CAMAC plug-in units from FACOM U-200 Mini-Computer; and Basic Input/Output Program Package has 26 subroutine programs to input/output data to/from a typewriter, keyboard, cassette magnetic tape and open reel magnetic tape. These subroutine programs are all FORTRAN callable. The PHA with CAMAC system is first outlined, and then usage is described in detail of four utility programs, CAMAC Program Package and Basic Input/Output Program Package. (auth.)

  18. Systemic inflammatory responses following welding inhalation challenge test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Kauppi

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Exposure to MS and SS welding fume resulted in a mild systemic inflammatory response. The particle concentration from the breathing zones correlated with the measurements inside the welding face shields.

  19. Performance of the Zeeman analyzer system of the McDonald Observatory 2.7 meter telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, S. S.; Tull, R. G.; Kelton, P. W.

    1980-01-01

    The paper describes a multichannel photoelectric Zeeman analyzer at the coude spectrograph of the McDonald 2.7 m reflector. A comparison of Lick and McDonald observations of HD 153882 reveals no significant difference in slopes or zero points of the two magnetic fields indicating that the systematic scale difference of 30-40% is probably instrumental in origin. Observations of the magnetic variable beta Cor Bor revealed a more nearly sinusoidal magnetic curve with less internal scatter than the photographically determined field measures of the Lick and Mauna Kea Zeeman systems. Investigation of periodicity in the secularly varying magnetic minima of beta Cor Bor did not yield evidence of previously noted periodicities other than that expected from the time structure of the data sampling.

  20. H4: A challenging system for natural orbital functional approximations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos-Cordoba, Eloy; Lopez, Xabier; Piris, Mario; Matito, Eduard

    2015-01-01

    The correct description of nondynamic correlation by electronic structure methods not belonging to the multireference family is a challenging issue. The transition of D 2h to D 4h symmetry in H 4 molecule is among the most simple archetypal examples to illustrate the consequences of missing nondynamic correlation effects. The resurgence of interest in density matrix functional methods has brought several new methods including the family of Piris Natural Orbital Functionals (PNOF). In this work, we compare PNOF5 and PNOF6, which include nondynamic electron correlation effects to some extent, with other standard ab initio methods in the H 4 D 4h /D 2h potential energy surface (PES). Thus far, the wrongful behavior of single-reference methods at the D 2h –D 4h transition of H 4 has been attributed to wrong account of nondynamic correlation effects, whereas in geminal-based approaches, it has been assigned to a wrong coupling of spins and the localized nature of the orbitals. We will show that actually interpair nondynamic correlation is the key to a cusp-free qualitatively correct description of H 4 PES. By introducing interpair nondynamic correlation, PNOF6 is shown to avoid cusps and provide the correct smooth PES features at distances close to the equilibrium, total and local spin properties along with the correct electron delocalization, as reflected by natural orbitals and multicenter delocalization indices

  1. H4: A challenging system for natural orbital functional approximations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Cordoba, Eloy; Lopez, Xabier; Piris, Mario; Matito, Eduard

    2015-10-01

    The correct description of nondynamic correlation by electronic structure methods not belonging to the multireference family is a challenging issue. The transition of D2h to D4h symmetry in H4 molecule is among the most simple archetypal examples to illustrate the consequences of missing nondynamic correlation effects. The resurgence of interest in density matrix functional methods has brought several new methods including the family of Piris Natural Orbital Functionals (PNOF). In this work, we compare PNOF5 and PNOF6, which include nondynamic electron correlation effects to some extent, with other standard ab initio methods in the H4 D4h/D2h potential energy surface (PES). Thus far, the wrongful behavior of single-reference methods at the D2h-D4h transition of H4 has been attributed to wrong account of nondynamic correlation effects, whereas in geminal-based approaches, it has been assigned to a wrong coupling of spins and the localized nature of the orbitals. We will show that actually interpair nondynamic correlation is the key to a cusp-free qualitatively correct description of H4 PES. By introducing interpair nondynamic correlation, PNOF6 is shown to avoid cusps and provide the correct smooth PES features at distances close to the equilibrium, total and local spin properties along with the correct electron delocalization, as reflected by natural orbitals and multicenter delocalization indices.

  2. Challenges in Modeling the Sun-Earth System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, James

    2004-01-01

    The transfer of mass, energy and momentum through the coupled Sun-Earth system spans a wide range of scales in time and space. While profound advances have been made in modeling isolated regions of the Sun-Earth system, minimal progress has been achieved in modeling the end-to-end system. Currently, end-to-end modeling of the Sun-Earth system is a major goal of the National Space Weather and NASA Living With a Star (LWS) programs. The uncertainty in the underlying physics responsible for coupling contiguous regions of the Sun-Earth system is recognized as a significant barrier to progress. Our limited understanding of the underlying coupling physics is illustrated by the following example questions: how does the propagation of a typical CME/solar flare influence the measured properties of the solar wind at 1 AU? How does the solar wind compel the dynamic response of the Earth's magnetosphere? How is variability in the ionosphere-thermosphere system coupled to magnetospheric variations? Why do these and related important questions remain unanswered? What are the primary problems that need to be resolved to enable significant progress in comprehensive modeling of the Sun-Earth system? Which model/technique improvements are required and what new data coverage is required to enable full model advances? This poster opens the discussion for how these and other important questions can be addressed. A workshop scheduled for October 8-22, 2004 in Huntsville, Alabama, will be a forum for identifying ana exploring promising new directions and approaches for characterizing and understanding the system. To focus the discussion, the workshop will emphasize the genesis, evolution, propagation and interaction of high-speed solar wind streamers or CME/flares with geospace and the subsequent response of geospace from its outer reaches in the magnetosphere to the lower edge of the ionosphere-mesosphere-thermosphere. Particular emphasis will be placed on modeling the coupling aspects

  3. Evaluation of a lower-powered analyzer and sampling system for eddy-covariance measurements of nitrous oxide fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Brown

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Nitrous oxide (N2O fluxes measured using the eddy-covariance method capture the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of N2O emissions. Most closed-path trace-gas analyzers for eddy-covariance measurements have large-volume, multi-pass absorption cells that necessitate high flow rates for ample frequency response, thus requiring high-power sample pumps. Other sampling system components, including rain caps, filters, dryers, and tubing, can also degrade system frequency response. This field trial tested the performance of a closed-path eddy-covariance system for N2O flux measurements with improvements to use less power while maintaining the frequency response. The new system consists of a thermoelectrically cooled tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer configured to measure both N2O and carbon dioxide (CO2. The system features a relatively small, single-pass sample cell (200 mL that provides good frequency response with a lower-powered pump ( ∼  250 W. A new filterless intake removes particulates from the sample air stream with no additional mixing volume that could degrade frequency response. A single-tube dryer removes water vapour from the sample to avoid the need for density or spectroscopic corrections, while maintaining frequency response. This eddy-covariance system was collocated with a previous tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer model to compare N2O and CO2 flux measurements for two full growing seasons (May 2015 to October 2016 in a fertilized cornfield in Southern Ontario, Canada. Both spectrometers were placed outdoors at the base of the sampling tower, demonstrating ruggedness for a range of environmental conditions (minimum to maximum daily temperature range: −26.1 to 31.6 °C. The new system rarely required maintenance. An in situ frequency-response test demonstrated that the cutoff frequency of the new system was better than the old system (3.5 Hz compared to 2.30 Hz and similar to that of a closed

  4. The unique safety challenges of space reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanes, S.J.; Marshall, A.C.

    1991-01-01

    Compact reactor systems can provide high levels of power for extended periods in space environments. Their relatively low mass and their ability to operate independently of their proximity to the sun make reactor power systems high desirable for many civilian and military space missions. The US Department of Energy is developing reactor system technologies to provide electrical power for space applications. In addition, reactors are now being considered to provide thermal power to a hydrogen propellant for nuclear thermal rocketry. Space reactor safety issues differ from commercial reactor issues, in some areas, because of very different operating requirements and environments. Accidents similar to those postulated for commercial reactors must be considered for space reactors during their operational phase. Safety strategies will need to be established that account for the consequences of the loss of essential power

  5. Web Content Management Systems: An Analysis of Forensic Investigatory Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsman, Graeme

    2018-02-26

    With an increase in the creation and maintenance of personal websites, web content management systems are now frequently utilized. Such systems offer a low cost and simple solution for those seeking to develop an online presence, and subsequently, a platform from which reported defamatory content, abuse, and copyright infringement has been witnessed. This article provides an introductory forensic analysis of the three current most popular web content management systems available, WordPress, Drupal, and Joomla! Test platforms have been created, and their site structures have been examined to provide guidance for forensic practitioners facing investigations of this type. Result's document available metadata for establishing site ownership, user interactions, and stored content following analysis of artifacts including Wordpress's wp_users, and wp_comments tables, Drupal's "watchdog" records, and Joomla!'s _users, and _content tables. Finally, investigatory limitations documenting the difficulties of investigating WCMS usage are noted, and analysis recommendations are offered. © 2018 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  6. Road transportation challenges and systems for the next decade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welbourne, E.R.

    1992-01-01

    An overview is presented of the historical evolution in road transport systems technology and regulations, and of developments foreseen in the next decade, in the contexts of safety, energy consumption and emissions, and the environment. Collision reduction technology including high centre mounted stop lights, antilock braking systems, headlight glare reduction, crashworthiness, and impact modes are discussed. Technology for reducing energy consumption, global climate change implications, chlorofluorocarbons, urban air quality impacts, and the conflict between improved safety and the environment (larger cars tend to be safer) are discussed. 13 refs

  7. New challenges to air/gas cleaning systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovach, J.L. [NUCON International, Inc., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1997-08-01

    This paper discusses the need for changes in the design and manufacturing of air and gas cleaning systems to meet waste management and site remediation requirements. Current design and manufacturing practices are primarily directed toward evaluating operational problems with existing systems in nuclear reactor facilities. However, nuclear waste management needs have developed which are much broader in scope and have different processing conditions. Numerous examples of air cleaning needs for waste management activities are provided; the major differences from operating facility needs are the requirement for continuous effluent treatment under widely different processing conditions. Related regulatory issues are also discussed briefly. 1 ref.

  8. Intrinsic noise analyzer: a software package for the exploration of stochastic biochemical kinetics using the system size expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Philipp; Matuschek, Hannes; Grima, Ramon

    2012-01-01

    The accepted stochastic descriptions of biochemical dynamics under well-mixed conditions are given by the Chemical Master Equation and the Stochastic Simulation Algorithm, which are equivalent. The latter is a Monte-Carlo method, which, despite enjoying broad availability in a large number of existing software packages, is computationally expensive due to the huge amounts of ensemble averaging required for obtaining accurate statistical information. The former is a set of coupled differential-difference equations for the probability of the system being in any one of the possible mesoscopic states; these equations are typically computationally intractable because of the inherently large state space. Here we introduce the software package intrinsic Noise Analyzer (iNA), which allows for systematic analysis of stochastic biochemical kinetics by means of van Kampen's system size expansion of the Chemical Master Equation. iNA is platform independent and supports the popular SBML format natively. The present implementation is the first to adopt a complementary approach that combines state-of-the-art analysis tools using the computer algebra system Ginac with traditional methods of stochastic simulation. iNA integrates two approximation methods based on the system size expansion, the Linear Noise Approximation and effective mesoscopic rate equations, which to-date have not been available to non-expert users, into an easy-to-use graphical user interface. In particular, the present methods allow for quick approximate analysis of time-dependent mean concentrations, variances, covariances and correlations coefficients, which typically outperforms stochastic simulations. These analytical tools are complemented by automated multi-core stochastic simulations with direct statistical evaluation and visualization. We showcase iNA's performance by using it to explore the stochastic properties of cooperative and non-cooperative enzyme kinetics and a gene network associated with

  9. An art report to analyze research status for the establishment of the space food development and future food system using the advanced food technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ju Woon; Byun, Myung Woo; Kim, Jae Hun

    2006-12-01

    The quality of food for the astronaut accomplishing the mission in the space is one of the most important matters, and it is time to study and develop Korean space food for the Korean astronaut in the space. Therefore, in the beginning of the space exploration era, it is necessary to establish a national long-term plan and study and develop Korean space food in order to provide food with better quality for the astronaut accomplishing the space mission. Using current food processing, preservation, and packaging technology, it is necessary to develop the Korean space food, provide Korean astronaut studying at the international space station, and study the future space food systems used for the long-term space voyage and planet habitat base in the era of space exploration. Space food is analyzed through nutritional analysis, sensory evaluation, storage studies, packaging evaluations, and many other methods before its final shipment on the space shuttle. Each technology developed for the advanced food system must provide the required attribute to the food system, including safety, nutrition, and acceptability. It is anticipated that the duration of the exploration class missions can be at least 2, 3 years, and one of the biggest challenges for these missions will be to provide acceptable food with a shelf-life of 3-5 years. The development of space food process/preservation technology and its ripple effect will make a contribution to the improvement of nation's international phase, and the developed space food will potentially be used for combat ration and emergency/special food like the U. S. A. In the 21th century of space exploration era, the development of the advanced food system and life support system in the Mars space base as well as the space shuttle will strengthen the capability to precede the future space exploration era

  10. An art report to analyze research status for the establishment of the space food development and future food system using the advanced food technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ju Woon; Byun, Myung Woo; Kim, Jae Hun [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-12-15

    The quality of food for the astronaut accomplishing the mission in the space is one of the most important matters, and it is time to study and develop Korean space food for the Korean astronaut in the space. Therefore, in the beginning of the space exploration era, it is necessary to establish a national long-term plan and study and develop Korean space food in order to provide food with better quality for the astronaut accomplishing the space mission. Using current food processing, preservation, and packaging technology, it is necessary to develop the Korean space food, provide Korean astronaut studying at the international space station, and study the future space food systems used for the long-term space voyage and planet habitat base in the era of space exploration. Space food is analyzed through nutritional analysis, sensory evaluation, storage studies, packaging evaluations, and many other methods before its final shipment on the space shuttle. Each technology developed for the advanced food system must provide the required attribute to the food system, including safety, nutrition, and acceptability. It is anticipated that the duration of the exploration class missions can be at least 2, 3 years, and one of the biggest challenges for these missions will be to provide acceptable food with a shelf-life of 3-5 years. The development of space food process/preservation technology and its ripple effect will make a contribution to the improvement of nation's international phase, and the developed space food will potentially be used for combat ration and emergency/special food like the U. S. A. In the 21th century of space exploration era, the development of the advanced food system and life support system in the Mars space base as well as the space shuttle will strengthen the capability to precede the future space exploration era

  11. Pilot Implementation of Health Information Systems: Issues and challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bansler, Jørgen P.; Havn, Erling C.

    2009-01-01

    Pilot implementation is a powerful and widely used approach in identifying design flaws and implementation issues before the full-scale deployment of new health information systems. However, pilot implementations often fail in the sense that they say little about the usability and usefulness...

  12. Opportunities and Challenges of Multi-Loop Aquaponic Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goddek, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Climate change requires new and innovative agricultural approaches to food security, especially in countries facing water scarcity. In this context, aquaponics could constitute a partial solution to tackle this issue. Traditional designs for one-loop aquaponic systems comprise of both aquaculture

  13. Mexico - The Federal Procurement System : Challenges and Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    The World Bank carried out the first country procurement assessment review (CPAR) jointly with the Government in 2001, focusing on the features and performance of the federal procurement system. Based on the action plan included in the 2001 CPAR, the government reformed federal procurement laws and regulations in 2005 and furthered the development of Government Procurement Electronic Syste...

  14. Production systems of traditional leafy vegetables: Challenges for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to access the indigenous or local knowledge associated with the production of these crops. This paper focuses on factors that are unique to TLV production systems. TLV production is dominated by women farmers in an attempt to sustain immediate household food security. The cultural environment within which the women ...

  15. The Evolution and Challenges of the Danish Civil Service System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Balle

    2013-01-01

    service is examined. The Danish civil service system has been characterized by long-term gradual evolution and adoption of many of the prevailing institutions in medieval and modern European state administration. This adaptation to prevailing trends has been predominantly characterized by integration...

  16. Public Sector Agricultural Extension System Reform and the Challenges Ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, William M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper is organized into two main sections. The first section examines extension as an engine for innovation and reviews the numerous priorities confronting extension systems. Section two highlights the current knowledge imperative and the critical connection of extension to post-secondary higher education and training, organizational…

  17. Independent School Success Challenging the Danish Public School System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringsmose, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    Denmark has had a long history of placing a high priority on education and public schooling. It is a declared goal of the Danish welfare system to provide comprehensive schooling, where children from different socioeconomic backgrounds can go to school together and have the same opportunities through education. It is also a declared goal for…

  18. Predictive maintenance of maritime systems : models and challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinga, T.; Tiddens, W.W.; Amoiralis, F.; Politis, M.; Cepin, Marko; Bris, Radim

    2017-01-01

    To reduce maintenance and logistic costs and increase the asset availability, a predictive maintenance concept for maritime systems is developed. In the present paper, the physics-of-failure based prognostic methods will be introduced, but also other issues related to the development and application

  19. Security challenges for cooperative and interconnected mobility systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, T.; Kievit, S. de; Sluis, H.J.D. van de; Nunen, E. van; Passchier, I.; Luiijf, H.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Software is becoming an important part of the innovation for vehicles. In addition, the systems in vehicles become interconnected and also get external connections, to the internet and Vehicular Ad hoc NETworks (VANETs). These trends form a combined security and safety threat, because recent

  20. Participatory Design and the Challenges of Large-Scale Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper; Hertzum, Morten

    2008-01-01

    With its 10th biannual anniversary conference, Participatory Design (PD) is leaving its teens and must now be considered ready to join the adult world. In this article we encourage the PD community to think big: PD should engage in large-scale information-systems development and opt for a PD...

  1. Summary of [alpha]-FLOW, a general purpose three-dimensional fluid analyzing system. Han[prime]yo sanjigen ryutai kaiseki system [alpha]-FLOW no gaiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koike, H [Fuji Research Institute Corporation, Tokyo (Japan)

    1992-08-01

    The [alpha]-FLOW is a three-dimensional fluid analyzing software developed from cooperations among research institutes of private business companies and universities in Japan under the assistance from the Ministry of International Trade and Industry. This paper describes its summary and features. The system is a discrete system utilizing a supercomputer and a work station. The analysis modules incorporated in the system include those for non-compressive fluid analysis, compressive fluid analysis, analysis of non-compressive fluid including free surface, analysis of flows including combustion and chemical reactions, substance migration analysis, and heat transfer analysis. It has a feature that even non-specialists can analyze fluids easily as a result of the development of an expert system to support the numerical analysis. Development of the input data preparing system enables to utilize the work station to process from shape modeling to grid generation, and from inputting analyzing condition data to calculating the flows and outputting the calculation result, all in dialogue modes. An open architecture was adopted. 27 refs., 7 figs., 10 tabs.

  2. Mars Surface Systems Common Capabilities and Challenges for Human Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toups, Larry; Hoffman, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the current status of common systems and operations as they are applied to actual locations on Mars that are representative of Exploration Zones (EZ) - NASA's term for candidate locations where humans could land, live and work on the Martian surface. Given NASA's current concepts for human missions to Mars, an EZ is a collection of Regions of Interest (ROIs) located within approximately 100 kilometers of a centralized landing site. ROIs are areas that are relevant for scientific investigation and/or development/maturation of capabilities and resources necessary for a sustainable human presence. An EZ also contains a habitation site that will be used by multiple human crews during missions to explore and utilize the ROIs within the EZ. The Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC), a description of NASA's current approach to these human Mars missions, assumes that a single EZ will be identified within which NASA will establish a substantial and durable surface infrastructure that will be used by multiple human crews. The process of identifying and eventually selecting this single EZ will likely take many years to finalized. Because of this extended EZ selection process it becomes important to evaluate the current suite of surface systems and operations being evaluated for the EMC as they are likely to perform at a variety of proposed EZ locations and for the types of operations - both scientific and development - that are proposed for these candidate EZs. It is also important to evaluate proposed EZs for their suitability to be explored or developed given the range of capabilities and constraints for the types of surface systems and operations being considered within the EMC. Four locations identified in the Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG)'s Human Exploration of Mars Science Analysis Group (HEM-SAG) report are used in this paper as representative of candidate EZs that will emerge from the selection process that NASA has initiated. A field

  3. Mars Surface System Common Capabilities and Challenges for Human Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Stephen J.; Toups, Larry

    2016-01-01

    NASA has begun a process to identify and evaluate candidate locations where humans could land, live and work on the martian surface. These locations are referred to as Exploration Zones (EZs). Given current mission concepts, an EZ is a collection of Regions of Interest (ROIs) that are located within approximately 100 kilometers of a centralized landing site. ROIs are areas that are relevant for scientific investigation and/or development/maturation of capabilities and resources necessary for a sustainable human presence. The EZ also contains a landing site and a habitation site that will be used by multiple human crews during missions to explore and utilize the ROIs within the EZ. In parallel with this process, NASA continues to make progress on the Evolvable Mars Campaign examining alternatives that can pioneer an extended human presence on Mars that is Earth independent. This involves ongoing assessments of surface systems and operations to enable a permanent, sustainable human presence. Because of the difficulty in getting equipment and supplies to the surface of Mars, part of these assessments involve identifying those systems and processes that can perform in multiple, sometimes completely unrelated, situations. These assessments have been performed in a very generic surface mission carried out at a very generic surface location. As specific candidate EZs are identified it becomes important to evaluate the current suite of surface systems and operations as they are likely to perform for the specific locations and for the types of operations - both scientific and development - that are proposed for these EZs. It is also important to evaluate the proposed EZs for their suitability to be explored or developed given the range of capabilities and constraints for the types of surface systems and operations being considered within the EMC. This means looking at setting up and operating a field station at a central location within the EZ as well as traversing to and

  4. A novel approach for analyzing glass-transition temperature vs. composition patterns: application to pharmaceutical compound+polymer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogeras, Ioannis M

    2011-04-18

    In medicine, polymer-based materials are commonly used as excipients of poorly water-soluble drugs. The success of the encapsulation, as well as the physicochemical stability of the products, is often reflected on their glass transition temperature (T(g)) vs. composition (w) dependencies. The shape of the T(g)(w) patterns is critically influenced by polymer's molecular mass, drug molecule's shape and molecular volume, the type and degree of shielding of hydrogen-bonding capable functional groups, as well as aspects of the preparation process. By altering mixture's T(g) the amorphous solid form of the active ingredient may be retained at ambient or body temperatures, with concomitant improvements in handling, solubility, dissolution rate and oral bioavailability. Given the importance of the problem, the glass transitions observed in pharmaceutical mixtures have been extensively analyzed, aiming to appraise the state of mixing and intermolecular interactions. Here, accumulated experimental information on related systems is re-evaluated and comparably discussed under the light of a more effective and system-inclusive T(g)(w) equation. The present analysis indicates that free volume modifications and conformational changes of the macromolecular chains dominate, over enthalpic effects of mixing, in determining thermal characteristics and crystallization inhibition/retardation. Moreover, hydrogen-bonding and ion-dipole heterocontacts--although favorable of a higher degree of mixing--appear less significant compared to the steric hindrances and the antiplasticization proffered by the higher viscosity component. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Developing and using expert systems and neural networks in medicine: a review on benefits and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhtaheri, Abbas; Sadoughi, Farahnaz; Hashemi Dehaghi, Zahra

    2014-09-01

    Complicacy of clinical decisions justifies utilization of information systems such as artificial intelligence (e.g. expert systems and neural networks) to achieve better decisions, however, application of these systems in the medical domain faces some challenges. We aimed at to review the applications of these systems in the medical domain and discuss about such challenges. Following a brief introduction of expert systems and neural networks by representing few examples, the challenges of these systems in the medical domain are discussed. We found that the applications of expert systems and artificial neural networks have been increased in the medical domain. These systems have shown many advantages such as utilization of experts' knowledge, gaining rare knowledge, more time for assessment of the decision, more consistent decisions, and shorter decision-making process. In spite of all these advantages, there are challenges ahead of developing and using such systems including maintenance, required experts, inputting patients' data into the system, problems for knowledge acquisition, problems in modeling medical knowledge, evaluation and validation of system performance, wrong recommendations and responsibility, limited domains of such systems and necessity of integrating such systems into the routine work flows. We concluded that expert systems and neural networks can be successfully used in medicine; however, there are many concerns and questions to be answered through future studies and discussions.

  6. Health information systems: challenges for the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, M J; Lillis, J C

    2000-08-01

    No longer focused on mere automation of manual processes, healthcare technology is poised to transform practice. Healthcare information systems can extend and enhance the memory; streamline administrative processes; provide access to information where, when, and how it is needed; and manage the cost of care while protecting and improving clinical quality and customer satisfaction. To reap the benefits of information systems, healthcare professionals must take stock of the industry's current position on the road to transformation and determine how to manage the journey ahead. This article explores healthcare information technology trends, discusses emerging technologies such as the Internet and the computerized patient record, and offers future recommendations for achieving technology integration and acceptance. Key to this discussion is the belief that people-based skills such as cooperation, leadership, and creative thinking are just as important as--if not more important than--the actual technology.

  7. Social-ecological system framework: initial changes and continuing challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. McGinnis

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The social-ecological system (SES framework investigated in this special issue enables researchers from diverse disciplinary backgrounds working on different resource sectors in disparate geographic areas, biophysical conditions, and temporal domains to share a common vocabulary for the construction and testing of alternative theories and models that determine which influences on processes and outcomes are especially critical in specific empirical settings. We summarize changes that have been made to this framework and discuss a few remaining ambiguities in its formulation. Specifically, we offer a tentative rearrangement of the list of relevant attributes of governance systems and discuss other ways to make this framework applicable to policy settings beyond natural resource settings. The SES framework will continue to change as more researchers apply it to additional contexts; the main purpose of this article is to delineate the version that served as the basis for the theoretical innovations and empirical analyses detailed in other contributions to this special issue.

  8. Water: Challenges at the Intersection of Human and Natural Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Futrell, J.H.; Gephart, R. E.; Kabat-Lensch, E.; McKnight, D. M.; Pyrtle, A.; Schimel, J. P.; Smyth, R. L.; Skole, D. L. Wilson, J. L.; Gephart, J. M.

    2005-09-01

    There is a growing recognition about the critical role water plays in sustaining people and society. This workshop established dialog between disciplinary scientists and program managers from diverse backgrounds in order to share perspectives and broaden community understanding of ongoing fundamental and applied research on water as a complex environmental problem. Three major scientific themes emerged: (1) coupling of cycles and process, with emphasis on the role of interfaces; (2) coupling of human and natural systems across spatial and temporal scales; and (3) prediction in the face of uncertainty. In addition, the need for observation systems, sensors, and infrastructure; and the need for data management and synthesis were addressed. Current barriers to progress were noted as educational and institutional barriers and the integration of science and policy.

  9. Health Behaviour Change Support Systems: Past Research and Future Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Mettler, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of mobile devices and social technologies has opened up new possibilities for health promotion and disease prevention. By means of emotional stimuli, motivation, and persuasion health behaviour change support systems (HBCSS) aim at influencing users to improve their health and wellbeing. This article presents the results of a bibliometric analysis related to the existing HBCSS body of knowledge. A total of 51 research studies were analysed with a look at their topical and theore...

  10. Challenges to the multilateral trading system and possible responses

    OpenAIRE

    Panagariya, Arvind

    2013-01-01

    This paper develops three major themes. First, the atmosphere of gloom around the multilateral trading system due to dim prospects of a successful conclusion of the Doha Round notwithstanding, global trade regime remains open and the institution in charge of it, the World Trade Organization, is in sound health. If anything, the Doha Round has been a victim of its own success: considerable de facto liberalization in agriculture has been achieved since the launch of the round. Second, to secure...

  11. Dairy goat production systems: status quo, perspectives and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escareño, Luis; Salinas-Gonzalez, Homero; Wurzinger, Maria; Iñiguez, Luiz; Sölkner, Johann; Meza-Herrera, Cesar

    2013-01-01

    Goat production concentrated in developing countries (tropics, dry areas), contributes largely to the livelihoods of low and medium income farmers. Farming systems in these areas have evolved to cope with the formidable constraints imposed by harsh natural and economic conditions by adapting integrated crop/livestock production strategies. In Asia, Africa and Latin America, due to its almost exclusive extensive nature, goat production relies mainly on grazing on communal lands that hardly provide the minimum nutrient requirements due to overstocking and degradation. While some of these production systems are becoming semi-intensive, appropriate breeding strategies should be designed to promote conservation and improvement of their unique attributes, such as adaptability, water use efficiency and suitability under harsh climatic conditions. In Europe, dairy goat production is more common around the Mediterranean basin, where it is important from an economic, environmental and sociological perspective to the Mediterranean countries: Spain, France, Italy and Greece. Europe owns only 5.1 % of the world's dairy goat herds, but produces 15.6 % of the world's goat milk; this is the only continent where goat milk has such an economic importance and organization. In developing countries the dairy goat sector requires a systemic approach, whereby nutrition, animal health, breeding, know-how, inputs and technologies must be assembled. This would allow the optimization of natural and local resources and would promote the transition from a risk reduction strategy towards an increased productivity strategy. Such an increase would privilege production efficiency based on clean, green and ethical practices for responsible innovation.

  12. Qualitative analysis of round-table discussions on the business case and procurement challenges for hospital electronic prescribing systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin M Cresswell

    Full Text Available There is a pressing need to understand the challenges surrounding procurement of and business case development for hospital electronic prescribing systems, and to identify possible strategies to enhance the efficiency of these processes in order to assist strategic decision making.We organized eight multi-disciplinary round-table discussions in the United Kingdom. Participants included policy makers, representatives from hospitals, system developers, academics, and patients. Each discussion was digitally audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and, together with accompanying field notes, analyzed thematically with NVivo9.We drew on data from 17 participants (approximately eight per roundtable, six hours of discussion, and 15 pages of field notes. Key challenges included silo planning with systems not being considered as part of an integrated organizational information technology strategy, lack of opportunity for interactions between customers and potential suppliers, lack of support for hospitals in choosing appropriate systems, difficulty of balancing structured planning with flexibility, and the on-going challenge of distinguishing "wants" and aspirations from organizational "needs".Development of business cases for major investments in information technology does not take place in an organizational vacuum. Building on previously identified potentially transferable dimensions to the development and execution of business cases surrounding measurements of costs/benefits and risk management, we have identified additional components relevant to ePrescribing systems. These include: considerations surrounding strategic context, case for change and objectives, future service requirements and options appraisal, capital and revenue implications, timescale and deliverability, and risk analysis and management.

  13. Reformation of Pretreatment System of Oxygen Analyzer%氧分仪预处理系统改造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑友军

    2016-01-01

    In the process of acrylonitrile unit, oxygen content in the process materials at the outlet of the reactor is a very important parameter. It is both a measure of propylene, ammonia and air ratio in the reactor and an important indicator of the reaction rate. It is also an important index of whether the reaction is normal or not in the reaction section, so from both process and safety aspects, online analysis and monitoring oxygen concentration is required. This paper is mainly about application problem analysis of on line oxygen analyzer in acrylonitrile plant reaction section. Based on the problems, reformed the pretreatment system of oxygen analyzer. After the completion of the transformation, fault rate of oxygen analyzer is greatly reduced, the instrument's precision and stability is greatly improved, the transformation also improve the acrylonitrile plant startup speed, reduces the waste of the material. It is played an important role in the aspect of process and safety of acrylonitrile plant, economic effect is very obvious.%丙烯腈联合装置中,反应器出口处工艺物料中的氧气含量是十分关键的工艺参数指标。它是衡量反应器内丙烯、氨及空气的配比关系,反应速率安全等重要指标,也是丙烯腈装置反应工段生产是否正常的一项重要指标,从安全、工艺上都要求对氧浓度进行在线分析和监测。本文主要分析丙烯腈反应工段氧浓度在线分析仪表在应用中出现的问题,并针对出现的问题由氧分析仪预处理系统进行改造。在氧分仪预处理系统投用后,氧分析仪的故障率大大降低,仪表检测精度和运行稳定性大大提高,而且提高了丙烯腈装置开车速度,降低了物料的浪费,且对保证丙烯腈生产和安全起了重要作用,经济效果非常明显。

  14. Promoting better integration of health information systems: best practices and challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michelsen, K.; Brand, H.; Achterberg, P.; Wilkinson, J.

    2015-01-01

    Health Evidence Network Synthesis Report [Promoting better integration of health information systems: best practices and challenges K Michelsen, H Brand, P Achterberg, J Wilkinson - 2015 ... Authors Kai Michelsen Department of International Health, Maastricht University Maastricht,

  15. Context-aware Recommender Systems for Learning: a Survey and Future Challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbert, Katrien; Manouselis, Nikos; Xavier, Ochoa; Wolpers, Martin; Drachsler, Hendrik; Ivana, Bosnic; Erik, Duval

    2011-01-01

    Verbert, K., Manouselis, N., Xavier, O., Wolpers, M., Drachsler, H., Bosnic, I., & Duval, E. (accepted). Context-aware Recommender Systems for Learning: a Survey and Future Challenges. IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies (TLT).

  16. "Excuse me, where's the registration desk?" Report on Integrating Systems for the Robot Challenge AAAI 2002

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perzanowski, Dennis; Schultz, Alan C; Adams, William; Bugajska, Magda; Abramson, M; MacMahon, M; Atrash, A; Coblenz, M

    2002-01-01

    ...., and the Naval Research Laboratory -- collaborated and integrated their various robotic systems and interfaces to attempt The Robot Challenge held at the AAAI 2002 annual conference in Edmonton, Alberta...

  17. Security, development and human rights: normative, legal and policy challenges for the international drug control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Damon

    2010-03-01

    This commentary addresses some of the challenges posed by the broader normative, legal and policy framework of the United Nations for the international drug control system. The 'purposes and principles' of the United Nations are presented and set against the threat based rhetoric of the drug control system and the negative consequences of that system. Some of the challenges posed by human rights law and norms to the international drug control system are also described, and the need for an impact assessment of the current system alongside alternative policy options is highlighted as a necessary consequence of these analyses. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Sustainable energy systems: Limitations and challenges based on exergy analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Woudstra, N.

    2012-01-01

    General There is a general understanding that the so-called “developed countries” have to change their way of life including their energy supply into a more sustainable way. But even in the case of unanimity with regard to the direction, there are still many opinions about the way to follow. This thesis discusses problems and possibilities of more sustainable energy systems first of all for the energy supply of the Netherlands. The “trias energetica” is used to distinguish the steps that have...

  19. The Orbitrap mass analyzer as a space instrument for the understanding of prebiotic chemistry in the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuitton, Véronique; Briois, Christelle; Makarov, Alexander

    Over the past decade, it has become apparent that organic molecules are widespread in our Solar System and beyond. The better understand of the prebiotic chemistry leading to their formation is a primary objective of many ongoing space missions. Cassini-Huygens revealed the existence of very large molecular structures in Titan's atmosphere as well as on its surface, in the form of dune deposits, but their exact nature remains elusive. One key science goal of the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover is to assess the presence of organics on the red planet. Rosetta will characterize the elemental and isotopic composition of the gas and dust ejected from comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko, while amino acids have been detected in meteorites. This search for complex organics relies heavily on mass spectrometry, which has the remarkable ability to analyze and quantify species from almost any type of sample (provided that the appropriate sampling and ionizing method is used). Because of the harsh constraints of the spatial environment, the mass resolution of the spectrometers onboard current space probes is quite limited compared to laboratory instruments, leading to significant limitations in the scientific return of the data collected. Therefore, future in situ solar system exploration missions would significantly benefit from instruments relying on High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (HRMS). Since 2009, 5 French laboratories (LPC2E, IPAG, LATMOS, LISA, CSNSM) involved in the chemical investigation of solar system bodies form a Consortium to develop HRMS for future space exploration, based on the use of the Orbitrap technology (C. Briois et al., 2014, to be submitted). The work is undertaken in close collaboration with the Thermo Fisher Scientific Company, which commercializes Orbitrap based laboratory instruments. The Orbitrap is an electrostatic mass analyzer, it is compact, lightweight, and can reach a good sensitivity and dynamic range. A prototype is under development at

  20. Challenges in thermal and hydraulic analysis of ADS target systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groetzbach, G.; Batta, A.; Lefhalm, C.-H.; Otic, I.

    2004-01-01

    The liquid metal cooled spallation targets of Accelerator Driven nuclear reactor Systems obey high thermal loads; in addition some flow and cooling conditions are of a prototypical character; in contrast the operating conditions for the engaged materials are narrow; thus, the target development requires a very careful analysis by experimental and numerical means. Especially the cooling of the steel window, which is heated by the proton beam, needs special care. Some of the main goals of the experimental and numerical analyses of the thermal dynamics of those systems are discusses. The prediction of locally detached flows and of flows with larger recirculation areas suffers from insufficient turbulence modeling; this has to be compensated by using prototypical model experiments, e.g. with water, to select the adequate models and numerical schemes. The well known problems with the Reynolds analogy in predicting the heat transfer in liquid metals requires always prototypic liquid metal experiments to select and adapt the turbulent heat flux models. The uncertainties in liquid metal experiments cannot be neglected; so it is necessary to perform CFD calculations and experiments always hand in hand and to develop improve turbulent heat flux models. One contribution to an improved 3 or 4-equation model is deduced from recent Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) data. (author)

  1. Human capital flight challenges within an equitable health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udonwa, N E

    2007-01-01

    The issue of human capital flight has been discussed at different forums with a consensus opinion that it has its merits and demerits to equitable health system. Most often one nation becomes a substantial net exporter of talent, leaving the provider nation at risk of depleting its natural supply of talent. This paper looks into the historical perspective of human capital flight or "brain drain", and its burden. It attempts to elucidate the various causes and suggested solutions. The paper's objective is to educate colleagues on the conceptual and contextual imperatives of the issue. Using a convenient sample of key informants who were medical colleagues in Nigeria relevant information was sourced from these colleagues, documents from the postgraduate medical college of Nigeria and the internet on maters relating to human capital flight and brain drain. Every year, thousands of qualified doctors, and other professionals leave Nigeria tempted by significantly higher wages, brighter prospects for employment and education, stability, food security. It appears that the potential exposure to different working conditions, resources and professional environments can be of advantage to the country, should Nigeria be able to recall these professionals. It also appears that necessary economic reforms that make staying at home rewarding, that is--good leadership, and policy planning that seriously looks into rural development, among other issues, are keys ingredients to reversing the trend in order to ensure a more equitable health system.

  2. Reframing the challenges to integrated care: a complex-adaptive systems perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Tsasis

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite over two decades of international experience and research on health systems integration, integrated care has not developed widely. We hypothesized that part of the problem may lie in how we conceptualize the integration process and the complex systems within which integrated care is enacted. This study aims to contribute to discourse regarding the relevance and utility of a complex-adaptive systems (CAS perspective on integrated care.Methods: In the Canadian province of Ontario, government mandated the development of fourteen Local Health Integration Networks in 2006. Against the backdrop of these efforts to integrate care, we collected focus group data from a diverse sample of healthcare professionals in the Greater Toronto Area using convenience and snowball sampling. A semi-structured interview guide was used to elicit participant views and experiences of health systems integration. We use a CAS framework to describe and analyze the data, and to assess the theoretical fit of a CAS perspective with the dominant themes in participant responses.Results: Our findings indicate that integration is challenged by system complexity, weak ties and poor alignment among professionals and organizations, a lack of funding incentives to support collaborative work, and a bureaucratic environment based on a command and control approach to management. Using a CAS framework, we identified several characteristics of CAS in our data, including diverse, interdependent and semi-autonomous actors; embedded co-evolutionary systems; emergent behaviours and non-linearity; and self-organizing capacity. Discussion and Conclusion: One possible explanation for the lack of systems change towards integration is that we have failed to treat the healthcare system as complex-adaptive. The data suggest that future integration initiatives must be anchored in a CAS perspective, and focus on building the system's capacity to self-organize. We conclude that

  3. Reframing the challenges to integrated care: a complex-adaptive systems perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Tsasis

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite over two decades of international experience and research on health systems integration, integrated care has not developed widely. We hypothesized that part of the problem may lie in how we conceptualize the integration process and the complex systems within which integrated care is enacted. This study aims to contribute to discourse regarding the relevance and utility of a complex-adaptive systems (CAS perspective on integrated care. Methods: In the Canadian province of Ontario, government mandated the development of fourteen Local Health Integration Networks in 2006. Against the backdrop of these efforts to integrate care, we collected focus group data from a diverse sample of healthcare professionals in the Greater Toronto Area using convenience and snowball sampling. A semi-structured interview guide was used to elicit participant views and experiences of health systems integration. We use a CAS framework to describe and analyze the data, and to assess the theoretical fit of a CAS perspective with the dominant themes in participant responses. Results: Our findings indicate that integration is challenged by system complexity, weak ties and poor alignment among professionals and organizations, a lack of funding incentives to support collaborative work, and a bureaucratic environment based on a command and control approach to management. Using a CAS framework, we identified several characteristics of CAS in our data, including diverse, interdependent and semi-autonomous actors; embedded co-evolutionary systems; emergent behaviours and non-linearity; and self-organizing capacity.  Discussion and Conclusion: One possible explanation for the lack of systems change towards integration is that we have failed to treat the healthcare system as complex-adaptive. The data suggest that future integration initiatives must be anchored in a CAS perspective, and focus on building the system's capacity to self-organize. We conclude that

  4. The mental health system in Brazil: Policies and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razzouk Denise

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this paper is to assess the mental health system in Brazil in relation to the human resources and the services available to the population. Methods The World Health Organization Assessment Instrument for Mental Health Systems (WHO AIMS was recently applied in Brazil. This paper will analyse data on the following sections of the WHO-AIMS: a mental health services; and b human resources. In addition, two more national datasets will be used to complete the information provided by the WHO questionnaire: a the Executive Bureau of the Department of Health (Datasus; and b the National Register of Health Institutions (CNS. Results There are 6003 psychiatrists, 18,763 psychologists, 1985 social workers, 3119 nurses and 3589 occupational therapists working for the Unified Health System (SUS. At primary care level, there are 104,789 doctors, 184, 437 nurses and nurse technicians and 210,887 health agents. The number of psychiatrists is roughly 5 per 100,000 inhabitants in the Southeast region, and the Northeast region has less than 1 psychiatrist per 100,000 inhabitants. The number of psychiatric nurses is insufficient in all geographical areas, and psychologists outnumber other mental health professionals in all regions of the country. The rate of beds in psychiatric hospitals in the country is 27.17 beds per 100,000 inhabitants. The rate of patients in psychiatric hospitals is 119 per 100,000 inhabitants. The average length of stay in mental hospitals is 65.29 days. In June 2006, there were 848 Community Psychosocial Centers (CAPS registered in Brazil, a ratio of 0.9 CAPS per 200,000 inhabitants, unequally distributed in the different geographical areas: the Northeast and the North regions having lower figures than the South and Southeast regions. Conclusion The country has opted for innovative services and programs, such as the expansion of Psychosocial Community Centers and the Return Home program to deinstitutionalize

  5. Changing tax system challenges producers and refiners in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khartukov, E.M.

    1996-01-01

    Over the past several years, economics of the Russian oil industry has undergone considerable change reflecting the radical transformation of the country's core industry from a wholly state-run and heftily subsidized distribution system toward a formally privatized, cash-strapped, and quasi-market entrepreneurship. All-out price liberalization, launched by the Russian government at the start of 1992, did not apply to the national oil industry. Domestic oil prices remained tangibly restrained until mid-1993 and were officially deregulated in March 1995. Consequently, rising costs diminished profit margins of Russian oil producers, whose operating costs were never as low as popularly believed. This paper reviews the tax structure of the Russian oil industry showing the effects on exports, gas prices at the pumps, and distribution prices

  6. Simple model systems: a challenge for Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Carlo Marta

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The success of biomedical researches has led to improvement in human health and increased life expectancy. An unexpected consequence has been an increase of age-related diseases and, in particular, neurodegenerative diseases. These disorders are generally late onset and exhibit complex pathologies including memory loss, cognitive defects, movement disorders and death. Here, it is described as the use of simple animal models such as worms, fishes, flies, Ascidians and sea urchins, have facilitated the understanding of several biochemical mechanisms underlying Alzheimer's disease (AD, one of the most diffuse neurodegenerative pathologies. The discovery of specific genes and proteins associated with AD, and the development of new technologies for the production of transgenic animals, has helped researchers to overcome the lack of natural models. Moreover, simple model systems of AD have been utilized to obtain key information for evaluating potential therapeutic interventions and for testing efficacy of putative neuroprotective compounds.

  7. Underwater lidar system: design challenges and application in pollution detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Pradip; Sankolli, Swati; Chakraborty, A.

    2016-05-01

    The present remote sensing techniques have imposed limitations in the applications of LIDAR Technology. The fundamental sampling inadequacy of the remote sensing data obtained from satellites is that they cannot resolve in the third spatial dimension, the vertical. This limits our possibilities of measuring any vertical variability in the water column. Also the interaction between the physical and biological process in the oceans and their effects at subsequent depths cannot be modeled with present techniques. The idea behind this paper is to introduce underwater LIDAR measurement system by using a LIDAR mounted on an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV). The paper introduces working principles and design parameters for the LIDAR mounted AUV (AUV-LIDAR). Among several applications the papers discusses the possible use and advantages of AUV-LIDAR in water pollution detection through profiling of Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM) in water bodies.

  8. Inclusive Education as Complex Process and Challenge for School System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Khamisy Danuta

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Education may be considered as a number of processes, actions and effects affecting human being, as the state or level of the results of these processes or as the modification of the functions, institutions and social practices roles, which in the result of inclusion become new, integrated system. Thus this is very complex process. Nowadays the complexity appears to be one of very significant terms both in science and in philosophy. It appears that despite searching for simple rules, strategies, solutions everything is still more complex. The environment is complex, the organism living in it and exploring it, and just the exploration itself is a complex phenomenon, much more than this could initially seem to be.

  9. A stratified myeloid system, the challenge of understanding macrophage diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissmann, F; Mass, E

    2015-12-01

    The present issue of 'Seminars in Immunology' addresses the topic of macrophage biology, 100 years after the death of Elie Metchnikoff (May 1845-July 1916). As foreseen by Metchnikoff, the roles of macrophages in the maintenance of homeostasis and immunity against pathogens have become a broad and active area of investigation. We now start to realize that the myeloid system includes a multiplicity of cell types with diverse developmental origins and functions. Therefore, the textbook picture of a plastic and multifunctional macrophage does not meet the requirements of our current knowledge anymore. Further development toward a quantitative and molecular understanding of myeloid cell biology in vivo and their roles in tissue homeostasis and remodeling will benefit from taking this complexity into account. A tentative model to help in this pursuit and account for myeloid cell and macrophage diversity is discussed below. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. The international nuclear non-proliferation system: Challenges and choices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, J.; McGrew, A.G.

    1984-01-01

    When a topic has been under discussion for almost 40 years there is a danger that the literature will become excessively esoteric and that, as Philip Grummett suggests, '...a new scholasticism will arise' (p.79). Originating in a November l982 seminar co-sponsored by the British International Studies Association and the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, this volume is a refreshing, well conceived, and well written antidote to that trend. It is also well timed for the 1985 NPT Review Conference. The eight chapters of the volume are divided into three sections. Following an introduction by Anthony McGrew that touches on all the major themes of the volume, the first section deals with the existing non-proliferation system. In three chapters the historical, institutional and policy-making elements of the present system are outlined. There is a vignette on the Nuclear Suppliers Group in Wilmshurst's chapter one (pp. 28-33). Fischer's informative chapter on the IAEA is followed by Gummett's examination of policy options, including, for example, the linking of conventional weapons transfer to non-proliferation policies. The second section, also of three chapters, examines current issues: the state of the international nuclear industry, and the non-proliferation policies of the United States and Britain. Walker's chapter focuses chiefly on change in the industry-from monopoly to pluralism in suppliers, the effect of the economic recession, and the combined effect of these two factors on international politics. Devine's American non-proliferation chapter is a statement of the State Department view, whilst Keohane's chapter on Britain attempts to put the Trident procurement into a proliferation context. The British chapter is present because of ethnocentric considerations

  11. The international nuclear non-proliferation system: Challenges and choices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, J.; McGrew, A.G.

    1984-01-01

    When a topic has been under discussion for almost 40 years there is a danger that the literature will become excessively esoteric and that, as Philip Grummett suggests, '...a new scholasticism will arise' (p.79). Originating in a November l982 seminar co-sponsored by the British International Studies Association and the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, this volume is a refreshing, well conceived, and well written antidote to that trend. It is also well timed for the 1985 NPT Review Conference. The eight chapters of the volume are divided into three sections. Following an introduction by Anthony McGrew that touches on all the major themes of the volume, the first section deals with the existing non-proliferation system. In three chapters the historical, institutional and policy-making elements of the present system are outlined. There is a vignette on the Nuclear Suppliers Group in Wilmshurst's chapter one (pp. 28-33). Fischer's informative chapter on the IAEA is followed by Gummett's examination of policy options, including, for example, the linking of conventional weapons transfer to non-proliferation policies. The second section, also of three chapters, examines current issues: the state of the international nuclear industry, and the non-proliferation policies of the United States and Britain. Walker's chapter focuses chiefly on change in the industry-from monopoly to pluralism in suppliers, the effect of the economic recession, and the combined effect of these two factors on international politics. Devine's American non-proliferation chapter is a statement of the State Department view, whilst Keohane's chapter on Britain attempts to put the Trident procurement into a proliferation context. The British chapter is present because of ethnocentric considerations.

  12. Intrinsic noise analyzer: a software package for the exploration of stochastic biochemical kinetics using the system size expansion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Thomas

    Full Text Available The accepted stochastic descriptions of biochemical dynamics under well-mixed conditions are given by the Chemical Master Equation and the Stochastic Simulation Algorithm, which are equivalent. The latter is a Monte-Carlo method, which, despite enjoying broad availability in a large number of existing software packages, is computationally expensive due to the huge amounts of ensemble averaging required for obtaining accurate statistical information. The former is a set of coupled differential-difference equations for the probability of the system being in any one of the possible mesoscopic states; these equations are typically computationally intractable because of the inherently large state space. Here we introduce the software package intrinsic Noise Analyzer (iNA, which allows for systematic analysis of stochastic biochemical kinetics by means of van Kampen's system size expansion of the Chemical Master Equation. iNA is platform independent and supports the popular SBML format natively. The present implementation is the first to adopt a complementary approach that combines state-of-the-art analysis tools using the computer algebra system Ginac with traditional methods of stochastic simulation. iNA integrates two approximation methods based on the system size expansion, the Linear Noise Approximation and effective mesoscopic rate equations, which to-date have not been available to non-expert users, into an easy-to-use graphical user interface. In particular, the present methods allow for quick approximate analysis of time-dependent mean concentrations, variances, covariances and correlations coefficients, which typically outperforms stochastic simulations. These analytical tools are complemented by automated multi-core stochastic simulations with direct statistical evaluation and visualization. We showcase iNA's performance by using it to explore the stochastic properties of cooperative and non-cooperative enzyme kinetics and a gene network

  13. Intrinsic Noise Analyzer: A Software Package for the Exploration of Stochastic Biochemical Kinetics Using the System Size Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grima, Ramon

    2012-01-01

    The accepted stochastic descriptions of biochemical dynamics under well-mixed conditions are given by the Chemical Master Equation and the Stochastic Simulation Algorithm, which are equivalent. The latter is a Monte-Carlo method, which, despite enjoying broad availability in a large number of existing software packages, is computationally expensive due to the huge amounts of ensemble averaging required for obtaining accurate statistical information. The former is a set of coupled differential-difference equations for the probability of the system being in any one of the possible mesoscopic states; these equations are typically computationally intractable because of the inherently large state space. Here we introduce the software package intrinsic Noise Analyzer (iNA), which allows for systematic analysis of stochastic biochemical kinetics by means of van Kampen’s system size expansion of the Chemical Master Equation. iNA is platform independent and supports the popular SBML format natively. The present implementation is the first to adopt a complementary approach that combines state-of-the-art analysis tools using the computer algebra system Ginac with traditional methods of stochastic simulation. iNA integrates two approximation methods based on the system size expansion, the Linear Noise Approximation and effective mesoscopic rate equations, which to-date have not been available to non-expert users, into an easy-to-use graphical user interface. In particular, the present methods allow for quick approximate analysis of time-dependent mean concentrations, variances, covariances and correlations coefficients, which typically outperforms stochastic simulations. These analytical tools are complemented by automated multi-core stochastic simulations with direct statistical evaluation and visualization. We showcase iNA’s performance by using it to explore the stochastic properties of cooperative and non-cooperative enzyme kinetics and a gene network associated with

  14. Universal coverage challenges require health system approaches; the case of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Antonio; Kutzin, Joseph; Menabde, Nata

    2014-02-01

    This paper uses the case of India to demonstrate that Universal Health Coverage (UHC) is about not only health financing; personal and population services production issues, stewardship of the health system and generation of the necessary resources and inputs need to accompany the health financing proposals. In order to help policy makers address UHC in India and sort out implementation issues, the framework developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) in the World Health Report 2000 and its subsequent extensions are advocated. The framework includes final goals, generic intermediate objectives and four inter-dependent functions which interact as a system; it can be useful by diagnosing current shortcomings and facilitating the filling up of gaps between functions and goals. Different positions are being defended in India re the preconditions for UHC to succeed. This paper argues that more (public) money will be important, but not enough; it needs to be supplemented with broad interventions at various health system levels. The paper analyzes some of the most important issues in relation to the functions of service production, generation of inputs and the necessary stewardship. It also pays attention to reform implementation, as different from its design, and suggests critical aspects emanating from a review of recent health system reforms. Precisely because of the lack of comparative reference for India, emphasis is made on the need to accompany implementation with analysis, so that the "solutions" ("what to do?", "how to do it?") are found through policy analysis and research embedded into flexible implementation. Strengthening "evidence-to-policy" links and the intelligence dimension of stewardship/leadership as well as accountability during implementation are considered paramount. Countries facing similar challenges to those faced by India can also benefit from the above approaches. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. ICECO-CEL: a coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian code for analyzing primary system response in fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.Y.

    1981-02-01

    This report describes a coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian code, ICECO-CEL, for analyzing the response of the primary system during hypothetical core disruptive accidents. The implicit Eulerian method is used to calculate the fluid motion so that large fluid distortion, two-dimensional sliding interface, flow around corners, flow through coolant passageways, and out-flow boundary conditions can be treated. The explicit Lagrangian formulation is employed to compute the response of the containment vessel and other elastic-plastic solids inside the reactor containment. Large displacements, as well as geometrical and material nonlinearities are considered in the analysis. Marker particles are utilized to define the free surface or the material interface and to visualize the fluid motion. The basic equations and numerical techniques used in the Eulerian hydrodynamics and Lagrangian structural dynamics are described. Treatment of the above-core hydrodynamics, sodium spillage, fluid cavitation, free-surface boundary conditions and heat transfer are also presented. Examples are given to illustrate the capabilities of the computer code. Comparisons of the code predictions with available experimental data are also made

  16. Simplified demultiplexing scheme for two PDM-IM/DD systems utilizing a single Stokes analyzer over 25-km SMF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yan; Yan, Lianshan; Yi, Anlin; Jiang, Lin; Pan, Wei; Luo, Bin; Zou, Xihua

    2017-10-15

    We propose a four-linear state of polarization multiplexed intensity modulation and direct detection (IM/DD) scheme based on two orthogonal polarization division multiplexing (PDM) on-off keying systems. We also experimentally demonstrate a simple demultiplexing algorithm for this scheme by utilizing only a single Stokes analyzer. At the rate of 4×10  Gbit/s, the experimental results show that the power penalty of the proposed scheme is about 1.5 dB, compared to the single PDM-IM/DD for back-to-back (B2B) transmission. Compared to B2B, just about 1.7 dB power penalty is required after 25 km Corning LEAF optical fiber transmission. Meanwhile, the performance of the polarization tracking is evaluated, and the results show that the BER fluctuation is less than 0.5 dB with a polarization scrambling rate up to 708.75 deg/s.

  17. Analyzing the politico-moral foundations of the Iran’s health system based on theories of justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akrami, Forouzan; Abbasi, Mahmoud; Karimi, Abbas; Shahrivari, Akbar; Majdzadeh, Reza; Zali, Alireza

    2017-01-01

    Public health ethics is a field that covers both factual and ethical issues in health policy and science, and has positive obligations to improve the well-being of populations and reduce social inequalities. It is obvious that various philosophies and moral theories can differently shape the framework of public health ethics. For this reason, the present study reviewed theories of justice in order to analyze and criticize Iran’s general health policies document, served in 14 Articles in 2014. Furthermore, it explored egalitarianism as the dominant theory in the political philosophy of the country’s health care system. According to recent theories of justice, however, health policies must address well-being and its basic dimensions such as health, reasoning, autonomy, and the role of the involved agencies and social institutions in order to achieve social justice beyond distributive justice. Moreover, policy-making in the field of health and biomedical sciences based on Islamic culture necessitates a theory of social justice in the light of theological ethics. Educating people about their rights and duties, increasing their knowledge on individual agency, autonomy, and the role of the government, and empowering them will help achieve social justice. It is recommended to design and implement a strategic plan following each of these policies, based on the above-mentioned values and in collaboration with other sectors, to clarify the procedures in every case. PMID:29291037

  18. SSYST: A code-system for analyzing transient LWR fuel rod behaviour under off-normal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgwaldt, H.; Gulden, W.

    1983-01-01

    SSYST is a code-system for analyzing transient fuel rod behaviour under off-normal conditions, developed conjointly by the Institut fur Kernenergetik und Energiesysteme (IKE), Stuttgart, and Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK) under contract of Projekt Nukleare Sicherheit (PNS) at KfK. The main differences between SSYST and similar codes are an open-ended modular code organization, and a preference for simple models, wherever possible. While the first feature makes SSYST a very flexible tool, easily adapted to changing requirements, the second feature leads to short execution times. The analysis of transient rod behaviour under LOCA boundary conditions takes 2 min cpu-time (IBM-3033), so that extensive parametric studies become possible. This paper gives an outline of the overall code organisation and a general overview of the physical models implemented. Besides explaining the routine application of SSYST in the analysis of loss-of-coolant accidents, examples are given of special applications which have led to a satisfactory understanding of the decisive influence of deviations from rotational symmetry on the fuel rod perimeter

  19. Coupled Data Assimilation for Integrated Earth System Analysis and Prediction: Goals, Challenges, and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penny, Stephen G.; Akella, Santha; Buehner, Mark; Chevallier, Matthieu; Counillon, Francois; Draper, Clara; Frolov, Sergey; Fujii, Yosuke; Karspeck, Alicia; Kumar, Arun

    2017-01-01

    observation-based identification and understanding of mechanisms that determine the variability of weather and climate, (e) identify critical weaknesses in coupled models and the earth observing system, (f) generate full-field estimates of unobserved or sparsely observed variables, (g) improve the estimation of the external forcings causing changes to climate, (h) transition successes from idealized CDA experiments to real-world applications. Challenges: (a) Modeling at the interfaces between interacting components of coupled Earth system models may be inadequate for estimating uncertainty or error covariances between domains, (b) current data assimilation methods may be insufficient to simultaneously analyze domains containing multiple spatiotemporal scales of interest, (c) there is no standardization of observation data or their delivery systems across domains, (d) the size and complexity of many large-scale coupled Earth system models makes it is difficult to accurately represent uncertainty due to model parameters and coupling parameters, (e) model errors lead to local biases that can transfer between the different Earth system components and lead to coupled model biases and long-term model drift, (e) information propagation across model components with different spatiotemporal scales is extremely complicated, and must be improved in current coupled modeling frameworks, (h) there is insufficient knowledge on how to represent evolving errors in non-atmospheric model components (e.g. as sea ice, land and ocean) on the timescales of NWP.

  20. The Geopolitics of Climate Change: Challenges to the International System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halden, Peter

    2007-12-01

    This report analyses the consequences of climate change and global warming for international politics in general and international security in particular. The report focuses on whether and in what way climate change may alter the conditions of international security. From this perspective, the initial effects of climate change will vary according to existing economic, political and social structures in different world regions. Organised violence is more likely in regions with weak states and conflictual inter-state dynamics than in those characterised by co-operative relations. In the short- to medium term, climate change is unlikely to alter the constitutive structures of international security. However, depending on the severity of climate change, these conditions may change over the long term. Such changes will probably depend on the secondary effects that change has on the world and regional economies. Climate change is unlikely to lead to an increase in conflicts in the short- to medium term, but a long-term development marked by unmitigated climate change could very well have serious consequences for international security. The report argues that, although necessary, mitigation and adaptation measures may have consequences for international politics. These are due to the changes in social and political systems that they entail