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Sample records for challenged african environment

  1. AFRICAN RELIGION AND ENVIRONMENTAL CHALLENGES IN POST COLONIAL AFRICA

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    Benson Ohihon Igboin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between religion and the environment has been one of contest. But in African belief it is a rested argument because the cosmos is conceived as a whole and subsumed under God, the creator. This traditional belief has come in contact with serious Western ideologies on the environment that calls for a re-evaluation of the role of the moral agency in African Religion, namely, the ancestors. It is argued that in spite of the Western influences that have vitrified the traditional belief in the place and potency of the ancestors, a transformative-ecozoic model, with its all-compassing moral, social, cultural and educational contents, provides African Religion with challenges it must rise up to in the context of the comity of global religions. Through analytical and contextual framework, the paper argues further that African Religion still has crucial roles to play in the maintenance of the environment in the 21st century, but that these roles are anchored on its ability to match academics with praxis.

  2. Beyond survival: Challenges facing South African automotive component exporters

    OpenAIRE

    M. J. Naude; C. O'Neill

    2006-01-01

    Purpose and Objective: The South African automotive component industry faces huge challenges in a very competitive global market. The primary focus of this research article is to determine the challenges facing exporters within this industry with special reference to selected sub-sectors. The challenges are approached from a supply chain perspective only. Problem Investigated: The research problem of this study was to identify these unique challenges and ascertain whether the implement...

  3. African Science Leaders Focus on Key Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2014-08-01

    While dozens of African presidents were in Washington, D. C., in early August to meet with U.S. president Barack Obama during the first U.S.-Africa Leaders Summit, African science ministers and science academy officials held their own gathering at the U.S. National Academy of Sciences (NAS) to focus on challenges and opportunities related to environmental protection, climate change, development, health, poverty, technology, and other issues.

  4. African Union in the Maintenance of Peace and Security of African Countries: Challenges and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson, O. S.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The African Union by its declaration is committed to the total integration of all African states and unity of action based on shared values and common, development interests and goals. To this end, the challenges facing the African Union include the problems of infrastructures and inadequate social services. The African states are plagued by political instability, ethnic conflicts, refugees/ internally displaced persons and fragile civil institutions. These problems are compounded by globalization, New World Order and heavy burden of external debts that make life difficult and the future dim and gloomy. These challenges and struggles by the African leaders to face up to them have precipitated the writing of this research paper. In doing so, the study traced the historical concept, evolution and final emergence of the union. The research project carefully looked into the act establishing the AU and compared with the charter of the Organization of African Unity (OAU and appreciated the necessity of its establishment. The study has noted that AU was modelled after the European Union (EU and therefore, efforts have been made to study the two unions so that the AU will benefit from the experience of the EU. In concluding the study, it is recommended inter alia that African Union make peace and security a priority and harmonize general policies and Infrastructural development. The hope that this study will contribute its widow's might to the development of AU is imperative. We cannot afford to fail this time, as the consequences are better imagined than experienced.

  5. Whereto with institutions and governance challenges in African wildlife conservation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muchapondwa, Edwin; Stage, Jesper

    2015-09-01

    African wildlife conservation has been transformed, shifting from a traditional, state-managed government approach to a broader governance approach with a wide range of actors designing and implementing wildlife policy. The most widely popularized approach has been that of community-managed nature conservancies. The knowledge of how institutions function in relation to humans and their use of the environment is critical to the design and implementation of effective conservation. This paper seeks to review the institutional and governance challenges faced in wildlife conservation in southern and eastern Africa. We discuss two different sets of challenges related to the shift in conservation practices: the practical implementation of wildlife governance, and the capacity of current governance structures to capture and distribute economic benefits from wildlife. To some extent, the issues raised by the new policies must be resolved through theoretical and empirical research addressed at wildlife conservation per se. However, many of these issues apply more broadly to a wide range of policy arenas and countries where similar policy shifts have taken place.

  6. Mental health of the African girl child: challenges for nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uys, Leana

    2009-07-01

    In this paper, the ecological systems theory of child development is used as the framework for exploring research on the development of African children, especially girl children. The special problems faced by children and the challenges this raises for nurses also are described in this paper. PMID:19544126

  7. English South African children’s literature and the environment

    OpenAIRE

    E.R. Jenkins

    2004-01-01

    Historical studies of nature conservation and literary criticism of fiction concerned with the natural environment provide some pointers for the study of South African children’s literature in English. This kind of literature, in turn, has a contribution to make to studies of South African social history and literature. There are English-language stories, poems and picture books for children which reflect human interaction with nature in South Africa since early in the nineteenth century: fro...

  8. Promoting the competitiveness of South African agriculture in a dynamic economic and political environment

    OpenAIRE

    Ortmann, Gerald F.

    2005-01-01

    South African (SA) farmers are faced with a dynamic global economic and trade environment caused by the liberalisation of international markets and rapid advances in information and communication technologies In addition to dealing with the deregulation of domestic agricultural markets in the 1990s, SA farmers also have to adapt to a dynamic political environment and other challenges, including land reform, AgriBEE, new labour legislation and minimum wages, property taxes, skills levies, unce...

  9. Design Milieux for Learning Environments in African Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duveskog, Marcus; Sutinen, Erkki; Cronje, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    During the years 2002 to 2009, five African settings were used as foundation for designing different learning environments. While the content and target group for each learning environment varied, all of their design settings, or milieux, shared one implicit expectation: the milieu should facilitate the production of a change-making learning…

  10. Beyond survival: Challenges facing South African automotive component exporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Naude

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and Objective: The South African automotive component industry faces huge challenges in a very competitive global market. The primary focus of this research article is to determine the challenges facing exporters within this industry with special reference to selected sub-sectors. The challenges are approached from a supply chain perspective only. Problem Investigated: The research problem of this study was to identify these unique challenges and ascertain whether the implementation of a 'philosophy of continuous improvement' could be used as a strategic tool to address the challenges they face in the market. Methodology: This study included a combination of literature review, interviews with managers in the selected sub-groups and questionnaires sent out to determine the challenges facing automotive component exporters. In order to test the content validity and the reliability of the questionnaire, a pilot study was conducted at two organisations that are the main suppliers of automotive filters for passenger vehicles. The non-probability convenience sample technique was used to select the sample and consisted of selected sub-sectors that contribute 64,1% of the total value of automotive component exports in South Africa. Out of twenty-seven questionnaires sent out, twenty (74% response rate were duly completed by the respondents and returned to the researcher. Findings: South Africa faces unique challenges and these are listed and ranked according to priority from most to least important as follows: 1. The reduction of production costs; 2. R/US$ exchange rate effect on the respondent's export sales and profit margin; 3. Exchange rate fluctuations; 4. Threats to the local automotive component market; and 5. Increased competition by way of manufactured imports being sold in the South African market. Value of Research: The study provides recommendations that can be used within the automotive component industry.

  11. The African Union Mission in Somalia and Civilian Protection Challenges

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    Paul D Williams

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Deployed to Mogadishu in March 2007, it was not until late May 2013 that the African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM adopted a mission-wide protection-of-civilians (PoC strategy. This article helps explain this long delay by highlighting the multiple PoC challenges faced by the mission. First, it shows how AMISOM’s relevant documents contained a variety of mixed messages on PoC issues. Second, it illustrates some of the ways in which the African Union was hardly an ideal actor to implement a civilian protection agenda because of its limited previous experience with these issues. Third, it analyzes the ways in which AMISOM was itself sometimes a source of civilian harm in Mogadishu. The fourth section examines the remedial policies AMISOM adopted to try and alleviate this problem. The conclusion reflects on the current PoC challenges facing AMISOM and suggests that to be successful the new mission-wide strategy must overcome these material, legal, moral, and doctrinal challenges.

  12. Procurement challenges in the South African public sector

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    Intaher M. Ambe

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on an exploration of challenges experienced in the field of procurement within the South African public sector. To institute procurement best practices, a supply chain management system was adopted in South Africa in 2003. The procurement process was granted constitutional status and has been used to address past inequitable policies and practices. It promotes aims which are, arguably, secondary to the primary aim of procurement. For the exploration, a conceptual analytical approach was employed and some of the key guiding pillars of public procurement in South Africa divulged. The challenges restraining effective and efficient implementation of public procurement are also revealed. The article concludes by recommending the development of competency through customised (separate training materials and programmes, the involvement of stakeholders in the bidding process and the employment of good strategic sourcing practices.

  13. Challenges to Issues of Balance and Representativeness in African Lexicography

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    Thapelo Joseph Otlogetswe

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: Modern dictionaries depend on corpora of different sizes and types for frequency listings, concordances and collocations, illustrative sentences and grammatical information. With the help of computer software, retrieving such information has increasingly become relatively easy. However, the quality of retrieved information for lexicographic purposes depends on the information input at the stage of corpus construction. If corpora are not representative of the different language usages of a speech community, they may prove to be unreliable sources of lexicographic information. There are, however, issues in African languages which make many African corpora questionable. These issues include a lack of texts of different genres, the unavailability of balanced and representative written texts, a complete absence of spoken texts as well as literacy problems in African societies. This article therefore explores the different challenges to the construction of reliable corpora in African languages. It argues that African languages face peculiar challenges and corpus research may require a different treatment compared to European and American corpus research. It finally concludes that issues of balance and representativeness appear theoretically impossible when looking at the results of sociolinguistic research on the different existing language varieties which are difficult to represent accurately in a corpus.

    Keywords: AFRICAN LANGUAGES, BALANCE, BANK OF ENGLISH, BORROWING,BRITISH NATIONAL CORPUS, COBUILD, CODE-SWITCHING, COMPUTERS, CORPORA,DIALECT, DICTIONARIES, FREQUENCY, LANGUAGE VARIETY, REPRESENTATIVENESS,SETSWANA, SOCIOLINGUISTICS, SPEECH, TEXT

    Opsomming: Uitdagings betreffende kwessies van balans en verteenwoordigendheidin Afrikaleksikografie. Moderne woordeboeke steun op korpusse vanverskillende groottes en soorte vir frekwensielyste, konkordansies en kollokasies, voorbeeldsinneen taalkundige inligting. Met die hulp van

  14. English South African children’s literature and the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.R. Jenkins

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Historical studies of nature conservation and literary criticism of fiction concerned with the natural environment provide some pointers for the study of South African children’s literature in English. This kind of literature, in turn, has a contribution to make to studies of South African social history and literature. There are English-language stories, poems and picture books for children which reflect human interaction with nature in South Africa since early in the nineteenth century: from hunting, through domestication of the wilds, the development of scientific agriculture, and the changing roles of nature reserves, to modern ecological concern for the entire environment. Until late in the twentieth century the literature usually endorsed the assumption held by whites that they had exclusive ownership of the land and wildlife. In recent years English-language children’s writers and translators of indigenous folktales for children have begun to explore traditional beliefs about and practices in conservation.

  15. CORPORATE COMMUNICATION CHALLENGES IN MULTICULTURAL ENVIRONMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandrina Cristina VASILE; Luminița NICOLESCU

    2016-01-01

    In the current economic environment where globalization is powerful and demographic changes complex and continuously changing, the cultural and structural dimensions inside and outside business are getting more intricate. Management and companies leaders search a more complex and valuable solution to increase shareholders satisfaction, to protect the environment and keep calm internal circumstances. The more complex the changes are, the higher the leaders challenges for setting the successful...

  16. The Workplace Environment for African-American Faculty Employed in Predominately White Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield-Harris, Lisa; Lockhart, Joan Such

    2016-01-01

    Diversity in academia requires attention, especially with the expected increase in minority populations in the United States (American Association of Colleges of Nursing, (AACN) 2014). Despite theoretical papers that suggest that several challenges are encountered by minority faculty employed in predominately White institutions, a dearth of research on this topic has been published. The purpose of this literature review was to analyze the published research that addressed the workplace environment of African-American faculty employed in predominately White institutions. In utilizing the keywords in various combinations, 236 articles were retrieved through multiple databases. After applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, 15 studies were reviewed with only three related to nursing. Two themes were extracted from the review: 1) the cultural climate of the workplace environment and, 2) underrepresentation of African-American faculty. It is apparent from this review that additional research is needed to understand the experiences of this group of faculty to target effective recruitment and retention strategies. PMID:27263232

  17. Regulatory challenges for GM crops in developing economies: the African experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nang'ayo, Francis; Simiyu-Wafukho, Stella; Oikeh, Sylvester O

    2014-12-01

    Globally, transgenic or genetically modified (GM) crops are considered regulated products that are subject to regulatory oversight during trans-boundary movement, testing and environmental release. In Africa, regulations for transgenic crops are based on the outcomes of the historic Earth Summit Conference held in Rio, Brazil two decades ago, namely, the adoption of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and the subsequent adoption of the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety. To exploit the potential benefits of transgenic crops while safeguarding the potential risks on human health and environment, most African countries have signed and ratified the CBD and the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety. Consequently, these countries are required to take appropriate legal, administrative and other measures to ensure that the handling and utilization of living modified organisms are undertaken in a manner that reduces the risks to humans and the environment. These countries are also expected to provide regulatory oversight on transgenic crops through functional national biosafety frameworks (NBFs). While in principle this approach is ideal, NBFs in most African countries are steeped in a host of policy, legal and operational challenges that appear to be at cross-purposes with the noble efforts of seeking to access, test and deliver promising GM crops for use by resource-limited farmers in Africa. In this paper we discuss the regulatory challenges faced during the development and commercialization of GM crops based on experiences from countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:24821674

  18. Caregiver perceptions of the food marketing environment of African-American 3–11-year-olds: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin, Monica L; Herbey, Ivan; Williams, Ronnie; Ard, Jamy D; Ivankova, Nataliya; Odoms-Young, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess caregivers’ perceptions of the extent to which the food marketing environment influences food consumption among African-American children (aged 3–11 years) in order to generate potential strategies to make the marketing environment more favourable to healthier eating. Design Individual semi-structured interviews with caregivers were conducted by trained community leaders to ascertain their awareness of and perceptions about food marketing environments contributing to African-American children’s food consumption. Setting Six predominantly African-American communities in metro Birmingham, Alabama, USA with high proportions of school-age children and lower-income residents. Subjects Caregivers (n 25) were predominantly female (93 %) and either parents/guardians (64 %) or grandparents (28 %) of African-American children aged 3–11 years. Caregiver mean age was 43 years and 46% had lived in their current residence for over 10 years. Results Caregivers reported all aspects of the food marketing matrix as supporting unhealthy eating among African-American youth. Child preference for foods higher in fat and sugar, lower pricing of less healthy foods, limited access to healthier food retailers and targeted advertisements were particularly influential on the food selection, acquisition and consumption of children. Company loyalty, corporate sponsorship of local events and conflicts over parental v. food company responsibility contributed to less consensus about the overall impact (positive or negative) of food companies in African-American communities. Conclusions While caregivers perceived aspects of their food marketing environments as primarily contributing to unhealthy eating among African-American children, framing the demand for changes in the food marketing environments of African-American youth may be particularly challenging. PMID:23830058

  19. CORPORATE COMMUNICATION CHALLENGES IN MULTICULTURAL ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandrina Cristina VASILE

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the current economic environment where globalization is powerful and demographic changes complex and continuously changing, the cultural and structural dimensions inside and outside business are getting more intricate. Management and companies leaders search a more complex and valuable solution to increase shareholders satisfaction, to protect the environment and keep calm internal circumstances. The more complex the changes are, the higher the leaders challenges for setting the successful path to their organizations are and our aim in the current paper would be to present several solutions found through communication tools.

  20. The Teaching of African Traditional Religion in Primary Schools in Zimbabwe: Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marashe, Joel; Ndamba, Gamuchirai Tsitsiozashe; Chireshe, Excellent

    2009-01-01

    Zimbabwe's Education Ministry recommended the teaching of African Traditional Religion in recognition of its multi-religious society. This study sought to establish the extent to which African Traditional Religion is taught in primary schools, the challenges faced by teachers, and opportunities for promoting its teaching. A descriptive survey…

  1. Understanding growth options and challenges in African economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of theories relating to economic growth processes in developing countries and relates these theories to the economic growth process in Sub-Sahara African countries......This paper provides an overview of theories relating to economic growth processes in developing countries and relates these theories to the economic growth process in Sub-Sahara African countries...

  2. Impact of College Environments on the Spiritual Development of African American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weddle-West, Karen; Hagan, Waldon Joseph; Norwood, Kristie M.

    2013-01-01

    This study focused on the impact of college environments on the spiritual development of African American students. Using the Armstrong Measure of Spirituality (AMOS) survey administered to 125 African American college students, the study sought to ascertain whether or not there were differences in spirituality as reported by African American…

  3. How to overcome some of the challenges that African scholars are facing in conducting informetrics research

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    Isola Ajiferuke

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides evidence to show that the contributions of African researchers to the informetrics literature are minimal. The three main challenges identified as limiting the contributions of African scholars to the informetrics literature are lack of appropriate skills, inadequate data collection sources, and unaffordable analytical tools. To overcome these challenges, it is suggested that regular pre-conference workshops on informetrics should be organized, an African Citation Index should be developed, and the use of free analytical tools should be encouraged.

  4. Recruitment Challenges: Lessons from Senior Centers and Older African-American Participants in a Literacy Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntiri, Daphne W.; Stewart, Merry

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the challenges encountered in the recruitment of urban older African-Americans in a study to explore the effects of interactive educational intervention on functional health literacy and diabetes knowledge. Our methods included identification of challenges related to the individual characteristics of seniors' centers that…

  5. Berry Phenolics of Grapevine under Challenging Environments

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    Hernâni Gerós

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant phenolics have been for many years a theme of major scientific and applied interest. Grape berry phenolics contribute to organoleptic properties, color and protection against environmental challenges. Climate change has already caused significant warming in most grape-growing areas of the world, and the climatic conditions determine, to a large degree, the grape varieties that can be cultivated as well as wine quality. In particular, heat, drought and light/UV intensity severely affect phenolic metabolism and, thus, grape composition and development. In the variety Chardonnay, water stress increases the content of flavonols and decreases the expression of genes involved in biosynthesis of stilbene precursors. Also, polyphenolic profile is greatly dependent on genotype and environmental interactions. This review deals with the diversity and biosynthesis of phenolic compounds in the grape berry, from a general overview to a more detailed level, where the influence of environmental challenges on key phenolic metabolism pathways is approached. The full understanding of how and when specific phenolic compounds accumulate in the berry, and how the varietal grape berry metabolism responds to the environment is of utmost importance to adjust agricultural practices and thus, modify wine profile.

  6. Changing computing curricula in African universities: evaluating progress and challenges via design-reality gap analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Heeks, R.

    2011-01-01

    Information and communication technologies (ICTs) are diffusing rapidly into all African nations. Effective use of the new technology requires a step-change in local skill levels; including a step-change in ICT-related university education. Part of that process must be an updating of university computing curricula, ranging from computer science through to information systems. Adoption of international curricula offers a ready means for updating, but African universities face challenges of imp...

  7. How can the operating environment for nutrition research be improved in Sub-Saharan Africa?: the views of African researchers

    OpenAIRE

    Van Royen, Kathleen; Lachat, Carl; Holdsworth, Michelle; Smit, Karlien; Kinabo, Joyce; Roberfroid, Dominique; Nago, Houefa Eunice Sorel; Garimoi Orach, Christhopher; Kolsteren, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Optimal nutrition is critical for human development and economic growth. Sub-Saharan Africa is facing high levels of food insecurity and only few sub-Saharan African countries are on track to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger by 2015. Effective research capacity is crucial for addressing emerging challenges and designing appropriate mitigation strategies in sub-Saharan Africa. A clear understanding of the operating environment for nutrition research in sub-Saharan Africa is a much needed p...

  8. Third World adversity: African infant precocity and the role of environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saugstad, Letten F

    2002-01-01

    The war against illiteracy has not been won. The number of illiterates approaches a billion. Most reside in Third World countries--former colonies--where they are caught in a poverty trap of disease, low agricultural production and environmental adversity requiring technology beyond their means. I argue against the commonly held view that this is mainly attributable to the four hundred years of traffic in men. According to the late K.O. Dike, middle men along the African coast barred foreign merchants from the hinterland, and because of this the social, political structure and sovereignty of the African states remained fundamentally unchanged during the period 1400-1807, whereas a few decades after colonisation the socio-political system collapsed and was replaced by a small rich elite and many poor, while resources were taken out of Africa. Present poverty and underdevelopment represent as great a challenge as the trade in slaves. As did the African Middle-Men of that time, African leaders now must unite in an ambitious and confident Pan-African Union demonstrating strength. Western countries should focus on reducing poverty and improving nutrition. This also makes terrorism and legal and illegal migration less likely. Education is important, but the West should not limit its effort to fighting illiteracy but should also support the establishment of institutions for higher education. Africa possessed optimal conditions and an enriched environment for human evolution. African Infant Precocity is a persistent example. The human brain, like other brains, consists 60% of poly-unsaturated fatty acids (Marine-Fat), the rest being water. A sufficient amount is required to secure optimal brain growth. It normalizes brain function, and prevents sudden cardiac and infant death, which have been increasing in Western societies. Humans are unique in having a mismatch between the need for brain food--marine fat--and our common high protein diet. Nowhere is the neglect of the

  9. Infrastructure challenges for the built environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The twin challenges of a lower-carbon future and national energy security are focusing attention on the most effective means of energy generation in the built environment. Efficiency gains are offered by the distribution of heat from community heating and combined heat and power (CHP) plant, which is presently underdeveloped in the UK by comparison with continental Europe. Natural gas is the preferred fuel for most of today's district energy systems which are technically developed, but proposed schemes must be tested against CHP 'quality' criteria to ensure there is not an increase in primary energy use compared to larger-scale central generation. Future district energy systems must aim to exploit local energy resources, such as biomass, wind and micro-hydro, and local thermal resources, such as solar collectors and ground source heat pumping. They may also incorporate novel forms of heat and power storage and load management. District energy schemes must be planned within a context of increasingly efficient buildings requiring less heat while the demand for electricity increases. In addition, local power schemes will have to meet future environmental requirements, for example for air quality where waste or biomass is combusted

  10. Challenges faced by gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender (glbt) students at a South African university

    OpenAIRE

    Sithole, S

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the academic and social challenges experienced by students from the gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender (glbt) community on campus at a South African university. A qualitative study to investigate some of these academic and social challenges experienced by glbt students at a university campus was conducted. The population of the study was all students from glbt community on campus and a purposive sample of twelve (12) respondents was constituted and a s...

  11. Factors Associated with Weight Resilience in Obesogenic Environments in Female African-American Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Brogan, Kathryn; Idalski Carcone, April; Jen, K.-L. Catherine; Ellis, Deborah; Marshall, Sharon; Naar-King, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    This study used a descriptive, cross-sectional analysis to examine a social ecological model of obesity among African-American female adolescents residing in obesogenic environments. The goal was to identify factors that promote weight resilience, defined as maintaining a healthy body weight despite living in an environment that encourages inactivity and undermines healthy weight behaviors. During 2005 to 2008, weight-resilient (n=32) and obese (n=35) African-American female adolescents (12 t...

  12. Environment, Health and Climate: Impact of African aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liousse, C.; Doumbia, T.; Assamoi, E.; Galy-Lacaux, C.; Baeza, A.; Penner, J. E.; Val, S.; Cachier, H.; Xu, L.; Criqui, P.

    2012-12-01

    Fossil fuel and biofuel emissions of particles in Africa are expected to significantly increase in the near future, particularly due to rapid growth of African cities. In addition to biomass burning emissions prevailing in these areas, air quality degradation is then expected with important consequences on population health and climatic/radiative impact. In our group, we are constructing a new integrated methodology to study the relations between emissions, air quality and their impacts. This approach includes: (1) African combustion emission characterizations; (2) joint experimental determination of aerosol chemistry from ultrafine to coarse fractions and health issues (toxicology and epidemiology). (3) integrated environmental, health and radiative modeling. In this work, we show some results illustrating our first estimates of African anthropogenic emission impacts: - a new African anthropogenic emission inventory adapted to regional specificities on traffic, biofuel and industrial emissions has been constructed for the years 2005 and 2030. Biomass burning inventories were also improved in the frame of AMMA (African Monsoon) program. - carbonaceous aerosol radiative impact in Africa has been modeled with TM5 model and Penner et al. (2011) radiative code for these inventories for 2005 and 2030 and for two scenarios of emissions : a reference scenario, with no further emission controls beyond those achieved in 2003 and a ccc* scenario including planned policies in Kyoto protocol and regulations as applied to African emission specificities. In this study we will show that enhanced heating is expected with the ccc* scenarios emissions in which the OC fraction is relatively lower than in the reference scenario. - results of short term POLCA intensive campaigns in Bamako and Dakar in terms of aerosol chemical characterization linked to specific emissions sources and their inflammatory impacts on the respiratory tract through in vitro studies. In this study, organic

  13. Steam injection in Colombia under challenging environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waghray, J.P. [Mansovar Energy Colombia Ltd (Colombia)

    2011-07-01

    Mansarovar Energy Columbia Ltd. is a company extracting heavy oil from its Colombian fields. In order to enhance the production and at the same time to contribute to the economic recovery, they are using the cyclic steam injection method. The aim of this presentation is to show what are the challenges facing heavy oil extraction in Colombia, what is the state of the art, and what needs to be improved. Heavy oil extraction in Colombia presents two sorts of challenges: operational ones related to sanding problems and diluents and gas availability; and commercial ones, related to low return rates. The use of steam injection in conventional wells can, however, increase both productivity and the rate of return while at the same time enhancing the recovery factor by 10 to 15%. For the future, improvement in drilling and completion, production, and steam efficiency will be necessary as well as the implementation of the appropriate enhanced oil recovery processes.

  14. Permanent challenge for a healthy environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marli Teresinha Gimeniz Galvão

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available For over a century, Florence Nightingale, a precursor of modern nursing, promulgated the importance of the adequate environment for disease prevention, treatment of diseased and their recovery. He highlighted, among others, the importance of clean air and environmental hygiene. Concerning the disease prevention, considered necessary care residences about air, water, sewerage, cleaning and illumination. In current times, the concepts expanded, the wounds arising from lack of water and sanitation, demonstrated care urgently in the wide mode environment, and prevention in the residential areas and peridomicile.

  15. Environment protection: challenges for future farming

    OpenAIRE

    David J. Pannell

    2011-01-01

    There has been increased public demand for environment protection, including in rural areas. Government programs and policies have responded to these demands in various ways, such as by attempting to increase farmer awareness of environmental issues, increasing budgets for rural environmental programs, increasing environmental regulation, purchasing water from irrigators for environmental purposes, and encouraging farmer adoption of new environmentally friendly practices. These changes create...

  16. Social Environment and Sexual Risk-Taking among Gay and Transgender African American Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, Robin; Bernadini, Stephen; Jemmott, John B.

    2013-01-01

    More prevention effort is required as the HIV epidemic increases among gay and transgender African American youth. Using ecological systems theory and an integrative model of behaviour change, this study examines the sexual behaviour of gay and transgender African American young people as embedded within the unique social and structural environments affecting this population. Also examined is the important role played by mobile technology in the social and sexual lives of individuals. Seven f...

  17. Environment protection: The current challenge in radioecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bréchignac, F.

    2012-04-01

    Radioecology, a multifaceted scientific discipline which addresses environmental issues relevant to radioprotection, has for a long time been focused on environmental transfers through the environment to feed the needs of human radioprotection. This quite anthropocentric initial scope is now moving to a more ecocentric view capable of assessing ecological risk mediated by ionising radiation. The central issue consists in reaching an ability to understand the effects of radiation on the environment components, from individual organisms up to populations of species and ecosystems, together with their interaction with the abiotic compartments. Dominated by operational goals, the system of radiological protection of the environment which is under development emphasises a concept based upon reference organisms supported by traditional toxicological data on individual organisms. Whilst there are immediate advantages to this approach (pragmatism, consistency with other approaches in use for man and biota), there are also clear limitations which need to be acknowledged and further considered. The most important probably is to rely on effects data gathered almost exclusively for individual organisms to meet protection goals which are usually set at population and ecosystem levels. Overcoming this limitation leads to scientific and methodological approaches featuring the ecosystem concept.

  18. Psychosocial Mechanisms Linking the Social Environment to Mental Health in African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mama, Scherezade K; Li, Yisheng; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Lee, Rebecca E; Thompson, Deborah; Wetter, David W; Nguyen, Nga T; Reitzel, Lorraine R; McNeill, Lorna H

    2016-01-01

    Resource-poor social environments predict poor health, but the mechanisms and processes linking the social environment to psychological health and well-being remain unclear. This study explored psychosocial mediators of the association between the social environment and mental health in African American adults. African American men and women (n = 1467) completed questionnaires on the social environment, psychosocial factors (stress, depressive symptoms, and racial discrimination), and mental health. Multiple-mediator models were used to assess direct and indirect effects of the social environment on mental health. Low social status in the community (p < .001) and U.S. (p < .001) and low social support (p < .001) were associated with poor mental health. Psychosocial factors significantly jointly mediated the relationship between the social environment and mental health in multiple-mediator models. Low social status and social support were associated with greater perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and perceived racial discrimination, which were associated with poor mental health. Results suggest the relationship between the social environment and mental health is mediated by psychosocial factors and revealed potential mechanisms through which social status and social support influence the mental health of African American men and women. Findings from this study provide insight into the differential effects of stress, depression and discrimination on mental health. Ecological approaches that aim to improve the social environment and psychosocial mediators may enhance health-related quality of life and reduce health disparities in African Americans. PMID:27119366

  19. Psychosocial Mechanisms Linking the Social Environment to Mental Health in African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basen-Engquist, Karen; Lee, Rebecca E.; Thompson, Deborah; Wetter, David W.; Reitzel, Lorraine R.

    2016-01-01

    Resource-poor social environments predict poor health, but the mechanisms and processes linking the social environment to psychological health and well-being remain unclear. This study explored psychosocial mediators of the association between the social environment and mental health in African American adults. African American men and women (n = 1467) completed questionnaires on the social environment, psychosocial factors (stress, depressive symptoms, and racial discrimination), and mental health. Multiple-mediator models were used to assess direct and indirect effects of the social environment on mental health. Low social status in the community (p < .001) and U.S. (p < .001) and low social support (p < .001) were associated with poor mental health. Psychosocial factors significantly jointly mediated the relationship between the social environment and mental health in multiple-mediator models. Low social status and social support were associated with greater perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and perceived racial discrimination, which were associated with poor mental health. Results suggest the relationship between the social environment and mental health is mediated by psychosocial factors and revealed potential mechanisms through which social status and social support influence the mental health of African American men and women. Findings from this study provide insight into the differential effects of stress, depression and discrimination on mental health. Ecological approaches that aim to improve the social environment and psychosocial mediators may enhance health-related quality of life and reduce health disparities in African Americans. PMID:27119366

  20. The Adoption and Challenges of Electronic Voting Technologies Within the South African Context

    OpenAIRE

    Mourine Achieng; Ephias Ruhode,

    2013-01-01

    Literature has shown that countries such as Brazil and India have successfully implemented electronic voting systems and other countries are at various piloting stages to address many challenges associated with manual paper based system such ascosts of physical ballot paper and other overheads, electoral delays, distribution of electoral materials, and general lack of confidence in the electoral process. It is in this context that this study explores how South African can leverage the opportu...

  1. Home Literacy Environment of African American Head Start Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janese Daniels

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have documented culturally specific family literacy practices in which low-income families engage, which are often a function of the context in which the family is currently embedded.  These practices are well documented in ethnographic literature. Although this evidence exists, its utility is limited due to small sample sizes and lack of quantitative documentation on their contribution to children’s language and literacy development.  This study attempted to quantify those culturally specific family literacy practices.  51 low-income African-American mother-child dyads participated.  The contribution of multiple literacy practices was examined in relation to child language and literacy outcomes.  Most low-income African-American families engaged in multiple literacy practices.  Recommended areas for future research directions are discussed.

  2. Polar Environment and Climate. The Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication summarises the presentations and discussions held during the title symposium. It includes session reports by chairs and short papers from attendees who were also invited to contribute. The report follows the structure of this multidisciplinary symposium: General session on the International Polar Year (IPY); Past, present and future climate; Human and wildlife health; Natural and socioeconomics impacts of climate change and finally, Public outreach, education and policy makers. The publication illustrates the importance and diversity of European research in the Polar Regions. It also identifies gaps in our current understanding of these particularly complex and vulnerable environments and the related research needs

  3. Contemporary environment challenges in waterfront development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoş Horia Buhociu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Today we see the results of people constantly and increasingly degrading coastal ecosystems all over the world. This degradation is reducing the natural long-term capacity of unspoiled ecosystems to provide a good quality of life and also regeneration. Although there are significant differences in the level of global changes and the activist citizenry is gaining field, a negative trend can be observed, favoring the damage of the environment. To address this situation, the coastal areas management has to be seen not just as a plan but as a process, as building a coherent plan for coastal zone management is similar to building a house from its foundation. It is essentially an iterative process that puts together natural and social sciences, while considering the needs and interests of a wide range of stakeholders.

  4. [Population and environment: the challenges of complexity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudela, F

    1995-06-01

    This work argues that the emerging science of complexity could provide a systemic and interdisciplinary approach to problems of population and the environment. The concept of complexity in everyday speech is first distinguished from the more specific scientific notion of complexity that has gained popularity in the past two decades. There is as yet no consensus on the definition of complexity, but it is provisionally identified as a characteristic of systems that meet certain criteria, including networks of internal and external relationships and nonlinearity of relations. Complex systems are human constructs; they are inventions or models including elements that establish nonlinear relations between themselves and with the total system. Construction and analysis of such models aids in understanding the functional relationships of a specific situation and opens up the possibility of interdisciplinary studies. Since the most important initial contribution to scientific recognition of complexity came from the hard sciences, chaos, a particular form of complexity, has been found to be ubiquitous and is no longer regarded as a curious exception in a world ruled by regularity. Four examples of situations in which the relationships between population and environmental pressures have been altered illustrate the uses of complex systems. The decimation of the New World population following the Spanish conquest, the scarcity of rubber plants in the Brazilian Amazon during World War II, the collapse of banana plantations in the Mexican state of Tabasco in 1941, and the drought and famine in the Sahel in the early 1970s are discussed in this light. Some of the most important methodological issues that may arise in applying the perspective of complexity are identified and discussed, including delimitation of the system and its surrounding conditions, identification of scales and levels of analysis, structural characterization of the system, trends and changes in complex systems

  5. Surgical management of acromegaly in a resource-challenged environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idowu Olufemi Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The management of acromegaly caused by an uncommon growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma can be challenging in low-resource African subregion. We conducted a study over a 2-year period to describe the results and challenges following surgical treatment of this rare condition in our centre. The clinical outcome was defined as successful based on the surgeon′s intraoperative observation, postoperative neuroimaging findings and neuroendocrinological results. A total of three patients (two males and one female aged 19-32 years were included. Visual impairment was the main presenting symptom in all the three patients. The postoperative period was uneventful. Acromegaly is an uncommon disorder in our region. Surgery is the treatment of choice in low-resource practice.

  6. African American church-based HIV testing and linkage to care: assets, challenges and needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jennifer M; Thompson, Keitra; Rogers, Christopher

    2016-06-01

    The US National HIV AIDS strategy promotes the use of faith communities to lessen the burden of HIV in African American communities. One specific strategy presented is the use of these non-traditional venues for HIV testing and co-location of services. African American churches can be at the forefront of this endeavour through the provision of HIV testing and linkage to care. However, there are few interventions to promote the churches' involvement in both HIV testing and linkage to care. We conducted 4 focus groups (n = 39 participants), 4 interviews and 116 surveys in a mixed-methods study to examine the feasibility of a church-based HIV testing and linkage to care intervention in Philadelphia, PA, USA. Our objectives were to examine: (1) available assets, (2) challenges and barriers and (3) needs associated with church-based HIV testing and linkage to care. Analyses revealed several factors of importance, including the role of the church as an access point for testing in low-income neighbourhoods, challenges in openly discussing the relationship between sexuality and HIV, and buy-in among church leadership. These findings can support intervention development and necessitate situating African American church-based HIV testing and linkage to care interventions within a multi-level framework. PMID:26652165

  7. African Union and the Developmental Transformation of Africa: Challenges, Achievement and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BAKARE Adebola Rafiu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decades we have witnessed developmental growth across Asia and the riseof emerging economies like China, India, Singapore, and Malaysia thus giving birth to theepithet; the “Asian Tigers”, but Africa has suffered from relative economic stagnation andpoor development. This paper evaluates the activities of AU with respect to thesespecificities in tackling past and present challenges facing the continent in the wave ofAfro-pessimists’ argument that Africa cannot claim its place in the 21st century. The paperidentified the challenges facing the AU in coordinating African developmentaltransformation but recognised the fact that Africa of the end of the first decade of the 21stcentury is not exactly the same as the Africa of the early sixties in term of developmentalimprovement. The study recommended that AU focus on issues such as the high mobilityof African people, and its consequences in terms of citizenship rights; the issue of naturalresource management and food security; the recurrent problem of African integration witha focus on the issue of common borders and most importantly, the issue of competingregionalism especially on the polarisation of the continent along Anglo-francophonedelineation. The paper adopted qualitative methodology.Keywords: Colonialism, Good Governance, Economic Growth, Decolonisation, Slavery,Conflict Management

  8. Challenging the ‘Four Corner Press’ as framework for invitational leadership in South African schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Niemann

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Invitational leadership (IL is consistent with current leadership trends and, because South African schools are in need of sound leadership, it is necessary to have a framework that can guide principals to act in accordance with the expectations of their educators.Research purpose: This study challenges the internationally accepted ‘Four Corner Press’ of Purkey and Novak (1984 as a framework for IL in the South African school context.Motivation for the study: IL appears to be a comprehensive model for successful school leadership. This necessitated an investigation to determine whether the ‘Four Corner Press’ reflects the expectations of teachers and, if so, whether it could serve as a valuable leadership tool.Research design, approach and method: A questionnaire containing 31 Likert-scale items, underpinned by the principles of IL, was disseminated to 600 educators conveniently drawn from the population of 88 828 teachers in Free State and Eastern Cape schools.Main findings: The data obtained from the survey enabled the researchers to perform a factor analysis, which revealed that South African educators’ expectations of leadership aligned with the ‘Four Corner Press’.Managerial implications: The ‘Four Corner Press’ can be used as a plausible framework for IL in South African schools, which has implications for the development and training of principals.Contribution/value-add: The ‘Four Corner Press’ can be regarded as a reliable prototype of IL expectations within the South African context, which contributes to extending the body of knowledge of education leadership in South Africa.

  9. E-health: Determinants, opportunities, challenges and the way forward for countries in the WHO African Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gatwiri Doris

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The implementation of the 58th World Health Assembly resolution on e-health will pose a major challenge for the Member States of the World Health Organization (WHO African Region due to lack of information and communications technology (ICT and mass Internet connectivity, compounded by a paucity of ICT-related knowledge and skills. The key objectives of this article are to: (i explore the key determinants of personal computers (PCs, telephone mainline and cellular and Internet penetration/connectivity in the African Region; and (ii to propose actions needed to create an enabling environment for e-health services growth and utilization in the Region. Methods The effects of school enrolment, per capita income and governance variables on the number of PCs, telephone mainlines, cellular phone subscribers and Internet users were estimated using a double-log regression model and cross-sectional data on various Member States in the African Region. The analysis was based on 45 of the 46 countries that comprise the Region. The data were obtained from the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP, the World Bank and the International Telecommunications Union (ITU sources. Results There were a number of main findings: (i the adult literacy and total number of Internet users had a statistically significant (at 5% level in a t-distribution test positive effect on the number of PCs in a country; (ii the combined school enrolment rate and per capita income had a statistically significant direct effect on the number of telephone mainlines and cellular telephone subscribers; (iii the regulatory quality had statistically significant negative effect on the number of telephone mainlines; (iv similarly, the combined school enrolment ratio and the number of telephone mainlines had a statistically significant positive relationship with Internet usage; and (v there were major inequalities in ICT connectivity between upper-middle, lower-middle and

  10. Examining Relationships between Ethnic Identity, Family Environment, and Psychological Outcomes for African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Jalika; Harris-Britt, April; Walker-Barnes, Chanequa

    2009-01-01

    Ethnic identity has been linked to a number of healthy psychological outcomes for African American adolescents. The levels of conflict and cohesion in the family environment have also been found to be predictive of adolescent mental health. This study examined whether the ethnic identity and levels of conflict and cohesion in the family…

  11. Ethics in occupational health: deliberations of an international workgroup addressing challenges in an African context

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background International codes of ethics play an important role in guiding professional practice in developing countries. In the occupational health setting, codes developed by international agencies have substantial import on protecting working populations from harm. This is particularly so under globalisation which has transformed processes of production in fundamental ways across the globe. As part of the process of revising the Ethical Code of the International Commission on Occupational Health, an Africa Working Group addressed key challenges for the relevance and cogency of an ethical code in occupational health for an African context through an iterative consultative process. Discussion Firstly, even in the absence of strong legal systems of enforcement, and notwithstanding the value of legal institutionalisation of ethical codes, guidelines alone may offer advantageous routes to enhancing ethical practice in occupational health. Secondly, globalisation has particularly impacted on health and safety at workplaces in Africa, challenging occupational health professionals to be sensitive to, and actively redress imbalance of power. Thirdly, the different ways in which vulnerability is exemplified in the workplace in Africa often places the occupational health professional in invidious positions of Dual Loyalty. Fourth, the particular cultural emphasis in traditional African societies on collective responsibilities within the community impacts directly on how consent should be sought in occupational health practice, and how stigma should be dealt with, balancing individual autonomy with ideas of personhood that are more collective as in the African philosophy of ubuntu. To address stigma, practitioners need to be additionally sensitive to how power imbalances at the workplace intersect with traditional cultural norms related to solidarity. Lastly, particularly in the African context, the inseparability of workplace and community means that efforts to address

  12. How can the operating environment for nutrition research be improved in sub–Saharan Africa?  The views of African researchers

    OpenAIRE

    Van Royen, Kathleen; Smit, Karlien; Lachat, Carl; Holdsworth, Michelle; Kinabo, Joyce; Roberfroid, Dominique; Nago, Eunice

    2013-01-01

    Optimal nutrition is critical for human development and economic growth. Sub-Saharan Africa is facing high levels of food insecurity and only few sub-Saharan African countries are on track to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger by 2015. Effective research capacity is crucial for addressing emerging challenges and designing appropriate mitigation strategies in sub-Saharan Africa. A clear understanding of the operating environment for nutrition research in sub-Saharan Africa is a m...

  13. Exploring the challenges associated with the greening of supply chains in the South African manganese and phosphate mining industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.I. David Pooe

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available As with most mining activities, the mining of manganese and phosphate has serious consequences for the environment. Despite a largely adequate and progressive framework for environmental governance developed since 1994, few mines have integrated systems into their supply chain processes to minimise environmental risks and ensure the achievement of acceptable standards. Indeed, few mines have been able to implement green supply chain management (GrSCM. The purpose of this article was to explore challenges related to the implementation of GrSCM and to provide insight into how GrSCM can be implemented in the South African manganese and phosphate industry. This article reported findings of a qualitative study involving interviews with 12 participants from the manganese and phosphate industry in South Africa. Purposive sampling techniques were used. Emerging from the study were six themes, all of which were identified as key challenges in the implementation of GrSCM in the manganese and phosphate mining industry. From the findings, these challenges include the operationalisation of environmental issues, lack of collaboration and knowledge sharing, proper application of monitoring and control systems,lack of clear policy and legislative direction, the cost of implementing GrSCM practices, and the need for strong leadership and management of change. On the basis of the literature reviewed and empirical findings, conclusions were drawn and policy and management recommendations were accordingly made.

  14. How can the operating environment for nutrition research be improved in sub-Saharan Africa? The views of African researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Royen, Kathleen; Lachat, Carl; Holdsworth, Michelle; Smit, Karlien; Kinabo, Joyce; Roberfroid, Dominique; Nago, Eunice; Garimoi Orach, Christopher; Kolsteren, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Optimal nutrition is critical for human development and economic growth. Sub-Saharan Africa is facing high levels of food insecurity and only few sub-Saharan African countries are on track to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger by 2015. Effective research capacity is crucial for addressing emerging challenges and designing appropriate mitigation strategies in sub-Saharan Africa. A clear understanding of the operating environment for nutrition research in sub-Saharan Africa is a much needed prerequisite. We collected data on the barriers and requirements for conducting nutrition research in sub-Saharan Africa through semi-structured interviews with 144 participants involved in nutrition research in 35 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. A total of 133 interviews were retained for coding. The main barriers identified for effective nutrition research were the lack of funding due to poor recognition by policymakers of the importance of nutrition research and under-utilisation of research findings for developing policy, as well as an absence of research priority setting from within Africa. Current research topics were perceived to be mainly determined by funding bodies from outside Africa. Nutrition researchers argued for more commitment from policymakers at national level. The low capacity for nutrition research was mainly seen as a consequence of insufficient numbers of nutrition researchers, limited skills and a poor research infrastructure. In conclusion, African nutrition researchers argued how research priorities need to be identified by African stakeholders, accompanied by consensus building to enable creating a problem-driven national research agenda. In addition, it was considered necessary to promote interactions among researchers, and between researchers and policymakers. Multidisciplinary research and international and cross-African collaboration were seen as crucial to build capacity in sub-Saharan nutrition research. PMID:23776663

  15. How can the operating environment for nutrition research be improved in sub-Saharan Africa? The views of African researchers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Van Royen

    Full Text Available Optimal nutrition is critical for human development and economic growth. Sub-Saharan Africa is facing high levels of food insecurity and only few sub-Saharan African countries are on track to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger by 2015. Effective research capacity is crucial for addressing emerging challenges and designing appropriate mitigation strategies in sub-Saharan Africa. A clear understanding of the operating environment for nutrition research in sub-Saharan Africa is a much needed prerequisite. We collected data on the barriers and requirements for conducting nutrition research in sub-Saharan Africa through semi-structured interviews with 144 participants involved in nutrition research in 35 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. A total of 133 interviews were retained for coding. The main barriers identified for effective nutrition research were the lack of funding due to poor recognition by policymakers of the importance of nutrition research and under-utilisation of research findings for developing policy, as well as an absence of research priority setting from within Africa. Current research topics were perceived to be mainly determined by funding bodies from outside Africa. Nutrition researchers argued for more commitment from policymakers at national level. The low capacity for nutrition research was mainly seen as a consequence of insufficient numbers of nutrition researchers, limited skills and a poor research infrastructure. In conclusion, African nutrition researchers argued how research priorities need to be identified by African stakeholders, accompanied by consensus building to enable creating a problem-driven national research agenda. In addition, it was considered necessary to promote interactions among researchers, and between researchers and policymakers. Multidisciplinary research and international and cross-African collaboration were seen as crucial to build capacity in sub-Saharan nutrition research.

  16. Qualitative study of African-American job satisfaction in a scientific/technical research environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krossa, C.D. [San Francisco Univ. (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Many studies have been conducted in the area of job satisfaction. Its necessary attributes sor components have been studied, analyzed, validated, standardized, and normed, onpredominantly white male populations. Few of these studies have focused on people of color, specifically African-Americans, and fewer still on those African-Americans working in a high-tech, scientific and research environments. The researchers have defined what is necessary for the current dominent culture`s population, but are their findings applicable and valid for our nation`s other cultures and ethnic groups? Among the conclusions: the subjects felt that there was no real difference in job satisfiers from their white colleagues; however the subjects had the sense of community (African-American) and the need to give back to it. Frustrations included politics, funding, and lack of control.

  17. Academic Training: Climate change and challenges for the environment / POSTPONED!!!

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2005-01-01

    2004-2005 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 20, 21, 22 June 20, 21, 22 June, from 11:00 to 12:00 – Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 Climate change and challenges for the environment C. SCHLUECHTER / Univ. Bern, CH The Academic Training is postponed.

  18. Rapid population growth and fragile environments: the sub-Saharan African and south Asian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, J C; Caldwell, P

    1994-02-18

    Case studies of the world's two poorest regions, sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, were used to illustrate the compromised standard of living of the poor and environmental damage due to continued rapid population growth. The conclusion was that the livelihoods of the poor should not be endangered for preserving the living standards of richer people. Nations must not ignore the challenges of reducing population growth as fast as can be achieved. The transitional period over the next 50 years is the main concern, because population growth rates will be slowing. Rural population growth is expected to decline from 60% of total population growth in South Asia to 7% between 2000 and 2025; similarly the decline in sub-Saharan Africa would be from 50% to 15%. Over the past 30 years, food production in South Asia has kept pace with population growth. Sub-Saharan Africa has adopted food importation to meet demand. African problems are a low resource base, faster population growth, and the fact that governments and individuals are too poor to maintain soil fertility. Long-term studies of how much soil depletion will occur are not available for these regions, and local area studies are not as pessimistic. Transition policies are needed to put "people first in terms of engineered or directed population and ecological change." The six main issues are the following: 1) the Brundtland Commission appropriately identified poverty as the main cause and effect of environmental degradation because of the threat to survival; 2) the verdict is still out about whether food production will keep pace with population growth through economic growth and investment in agriculture; 3) empirical research is needed to examine local social and regulatory institutions and the possibility of reinforcing these mechanisms rather than instituting central controls; 4) central coercion or modernizing economic policies can destroy local level controls; 5) famine is a complex ecological phenomenon and the

  19. The Learning Environment and the Reading Achievement of Middle School African American Male Students in a Suburban School Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Nicole Denise

    2012-01-01

    The reading achievement of African American males might be impacted by a host of variables. This study was undertaken to determine if there was a difference in the culturally responsive characteristics present in the learning environment of a middle school and the reading achievement of middle school African American males. The purpose of this…

  20. Influences of Family Environment and Meditation Efficacy on Hemodynamic Function among African American Adolescents*

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, Vernon A.; Gregoski, Mathew J.; Tingen, Martha S.; Treiber, Frank A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the impact of breathing awareness meditation (BAM) compared to health education (HE) and lifeskills training (LS) upon resting systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and heart rate (HR) within the context of potential moderating factors of family environment and expectancy of benefit. 186 African American adolescents (mean age: 15.1±0.7 yrs) were randomly assigned by school to three-month BAM, LS, or HE interventions. Laboratory resting blood pressur...

  1. On the dynamics of african easterly waves: their origin, propagation and interaction with the environment.

    OpenAIRE

    Leroux, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    African Easterly Waves (AEWs) are synoptic baroclinic disturbances (wavelength 2000-5000 km; period 3-5 days) that propagate westward over West Africa in the monsoon season and display intraseasonal intermittence. This thesis work aims to investigate the question of the origin, growth and intermittence of AEWs through idealised modelling and analysis of observations. Factors such as possible precursors for the waves, and the relationship of the waves with the background environment - in parti...

  2. Private Higher Educational Institutions in a changing South African environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Froneman

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the problems experienced by potential learners is accessibility to education facilities, especially in rural areas and for people with time constraints. The objective of this research is to investigate the role for Private Higher Educational Institutions (PHEIs in South Africa, sharing the task of providing education with government supported institutions. Although distance learning is not a panacea for all educational problems, it holds great promise for driving change in education. The research is based on questionnaires, interviews and literature. Results indicated that traditional residential education couldn't reach all people. Distance learning can relieve the situation. However, both private and public providers of higher education (residential and distance can co-exist in South Africa. Private Higher Distance Learning (PHDL contributes in lowering present levels of unemployment by providing skills, as many prospective students stay in rural areas and townships. This paper emphasizes some of the changes impacting on the future of PHDL and bringing education opportunities to masses by creating an environment of shared responsibility between government institutions and private initiatives, jointly servicing a greater part of the population.

  3. The Adoption and Challenges of Electronic Voting Technologies Within the South African Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourine Achieng

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Literature has shown that countries such as Braziland India have successfully implemented electronicvoting systems and other countries are at various piloting stages to address many challenges associatedwith manual paper based system such ascosts of physical ballot paper and other overheads, electoraldelays, distribution of electoral materials, and general lack of confidence in the electoral process.It is inthis context that this study explores how South African can leverage the opportunities that e-votingpresents. Manual voting is often tedious, non-secure, and time-consuming, which leads us to think aboutusing electronic facilities to make the process more efficient. This study proposes that the adoptionofelectronic voting technologies could perhaps mitigate some of these issues and challengesin the processimproving the electoral process. The study used anon-line questionnaire which was administered to abroader group of voters and an in-depth semi-structured interview with the Independent ElectoralCommission officials. The analysis is based on thematic analysis and diffusion of innovations theory isadopted as a theoretical lens of analysis. The findings reveal that relative advantage, compatibilityandcomplexity would determine the intentions of SouthAfrican voters and the Electoral Management Bodies(IEC to adopt e-voting technologies. Moreover, thefindings also reveal several other factorsthat couldinfluence the adoption process. The study is limited to only voters in Cape Town and these voters wereexpected to have some access to the internet. The sample size limits the generalizability of the findings ofthis study.

  4. A Direct Assessment of Obesogenic Built Environments: Challenges and Recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper outlines the challenges faced during direct built environment (BE) assessments of 42 Canadian communities of various income and urbanization levels. In addition, we recommend options for overcoming such challenges during BE community assessments. Direct BE assessments were performed utilizing two distinct audit methods: (1) modified version of Irvine-Minnesota Inventory in which a paper version of an audit tool was used to assess BE features and (2) a Physical Activity and Nutrition Features audit tool, where the presence and positions of all environmental features of interest were recorded using a Global-Positioning-System (GPS) unit. This paper responds to the call for the need of creators and users of environmental audit tools to share experiences regarding the usability of tools for BE assessments. The outlined BE assessment challenges plus recommendations for overcoming them can help improve and refine the existing audit tools and aid researchers in future assessments of the BE

  5. Contextualizing physical literacy in the school environment: The challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Castelli, Darla M.; Jeanne M. Barcelona; Lynne Bryant

    2015-01-01

    The intent of this paper is to conceptualize physical literacy in the school environment within the United States educational system. Evolution of physical literacy from both a general education and disciplinary focus is overviewed. The challenges of transitioning from a physically educated to a physically literate person as the primary learning outcome of physical education may inhibit progress. Five prioritized recommendations are made to assist teachers in overcoming such barriers: (a) who...

  6. Presidential address - the South African coal industry: current position and future challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohring, R.P. [Ingwe Coal Corporation (South Africa)

    1997-09-01

    The South African Coal Industry had its beginnings in the Eastern Cape in 1859 when coal was mined to satisfy the fledgeling settlements in the Eastern Cape. The growth in the industry was relatively slow up to the early 1970s when, firstly, the export business was expanded coupled with a major increase in the quantity of coal converted to liquid fuels and utilized for power generation. To meet this increased demand the industry developed many new operations employing the latest mining technology and systems. Coal production in South Africa reached 204 million tons in 1996 and revenue from exports reached R8 billion making it the second-largest foreign exchange earner after gold. In his address Rick P. Mohring describes the role coal plays in the international energy scene and outlines South Africa`s position as a producer and consumer of coal, and the challenges facing the industry. A wide range of steam-coals are produced to satisfy both the local market (power generation, coal conversion and the metallurgical industry) and the export steam-coal market. South Africa is in a unique position regarding the export market as it is still a relatively low-cost producer and is geographically well-placed to play in both the European and Far East markets. There are, however, a number of challenges facing the industry. To retain our competitiveness in the international market, ways of minimizing the cost pressures caused by high-cost inflation increased environmental protection obligations and a decreasing quality resource base need to be sought. Locally the coal mining industry has a major role to play in Eskom`s goal of reducing the real cost of electricity by 15% in the next three years. Safety and health, productivity and the adaptation of the latest technology are issues being addressed by the industry to maintain its dominant position within the South African economy. 7 figs.

  7. Adaptation of the South African regulatory framework to the licensing of the pebble bed modular reactor. Regulatory challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Internationally, it has been recognized that there is a need to adapt the regulatory systems and regulations in the countries being faced with the introduction of new nuclear technologies and applications, thus posing some challenges to the regulatory framework of such countries. With the development of the pebble bed modular reactor, being pursued by South Africa as one of its alternative energy sources, the South African regulatory framework and licensing philosophy had to be adapted in terms of ensuring that a credible and effective licensing process be developed and implemented for this 'new' technology. This paper will present the major challenges which the South African National Nuclear Regulator faced in developing and implementing such a licensing process and how these are being addressed. The paper will also discuss the stakeholders' involvement and interaction in this project as required by the relevant South African legislation. (author)

  8. 3D Laser Triangulation for Plant Phenotyping in Challenging Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrine Heinsvig Kjaer

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To increase the understanding of how the plant phenotype is formed by genotype and environmental interactions, simple and robust high-throughput plant phenotyping methods should be developed and considered. This would not only broaden the application range of phenotyping in the plant research community, but also increase the ability for researchers to study plants in their natural environments. By studying plants in their natural environment in high temporal resolution, more knowledge on how multiple stresses interact in defining the plant phenotype could lead to a better understanding of the interaction between plant responses and epigenetic regulation. In the present paper, we evaluate a commercial 3D NIR-laser scanner (PlantEye, Phenospex B.V., Herleen, The Netherlands to track daily changes in plant growth with high precision in challenging environments. Firstly, we demonstrate that the NIR laser beam of the scanner does not affect plant photosynthetic performance. Secondly, we demonstrate that it is possible to estimate phenotypic variation amongst the growth pattern of ten genotypes of Brassica napus L. (rapeseed, using a simple linear correlation between scanned parameters and destructive growth measurements. Our results demonstrate the high potential of 3D laser triangulation for simple measurements of phenotypic variation in challenging environments and in a high temporal resolution.

  9. Adaptive Challenges Rising from the Life Context of African-American Caregiving Grandmothers with Diabetes: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Dana Carthron; Bailey, Donald E.; Ruth Anderson

    2015-01-01

    To understand the challenges arising from the context within which diabetic African-American caregiving grandmothers self-manage their diabetes we used the Adaptive Leadership Framework. Additionally, challenges to retaining this population in a longitudinal study were examined. In this exploratory, longitudinal, qualitative pilot study, data were collected at five time-points over 18 months. We coded the data using content analysis and conducted the within-case and cross-case analyses using ...

  10. THE STUDY OF AFRICAN TRADITIONAL RELIGION AND ITS CHALLENGES IN CONTEMPORARY TIMES

    OpenAIRE

    Rotimi Williams Omotoye

    2011-01-01

    African Traditional Religion is the traditional religion of the African people before the coming of Islam and Christianity. However, the missionaries of the two foreign religions succeeded in converting some African people to the new religions. The African religion was condemned by the Early European scholars, travelers, investigators and missionaries. The educated Elite who were products of the schools established by the Christian missionaries in particular and the converts in general did no...

  11. Using African languages for democracy and lifelong learning in Africa: A post-2015 challenge and the work of CASAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock-Utne, Birgit; Mercer, Malcolm

    2014-12-01

    Africans speak African languages in their everyday lives while lessons in school are delivered in an exogenous language. In many places adult education is also carried out in a language the majority of people do not speak. The exogenous languages, which are the languages of the former colonial powers and mastered just by a small African elite, are used in most parliaments in Africa and in most newspapers. This problem is largely ignored by the international community. An argument often put forward against using African languages as Languages of Instruction (LOIs) is that there are so many of them, and it may be problematic to select one as an LOI. But is this really the case? And does one need to select one language? The main work of the Centre for Advanced Studies of African Society (CASAS) located in Cape Town has been to harmonise the written forms of most African languages so that these languages can be used as LOIs and as languages of government and the press. This paper examines in some detail the work undertaken by CASAS, its successes and challenges. It shows that the political process of getting the harmonised languages adopted is more difficult and unpredictable than the linguistic work itself.

  12. Contextualizing physical literacy in the school environment: The challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darla M. Castelli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The intent of this paper is to conceptualize physical literacy in the school environment within the United States educational system. Evolution of physical literacy from both a general education and disciplinary focus is overviewed. The challenges of transitioning from a physically educated to a physically literate person as the primary learning outcome of physical education may inhibit progress. Five prioritized recommendations are made to assist teachers in overcoming such barriers: (a whole of school approach, (b effective, differentiated pedagogy, (c integration of technology for individualized tracking of progress, (d supportive school climate, and (e alignment of local efforts with national initiatives.

  13. Developing a South African pedestrian environment assessment tool: Tshwane case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Olwoch

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Pedestrians, comprising approximately 60% of the population, are among the most vulnerable road users in South Africa. The roadside environment may be an important factor influencing the nature and frequency of pedestrian fatalities. While there are audit tools for assessing the pedestrian environment in other countries, no such tool exists for South Africa. This study evaluated existing audit tools in relation to South African issues and conditions and developed a South African Pedestrian Environment Assessment Tool (PEAT. PEAT was tested at five sites in the Tshwane Metropolitan Area in Gauteng to assess its applicability. PEAT was simple to use and provided valuable information, however, appropriate measures need to be taken to address fieldworker security, especially for night-time assessments when several roadside factors, such as lighting, should be evaluated. Although it was not the focus of our study, based on our results, we suggest that the lack of pavements, pedestrian crossings and pedestrian lighting are factors that, potentially, could increase pedestrian vulnerability.

  14. The Challenges of Becoming Tutors at Electronic Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia López Hurtado

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a research report of my own experience as a tutor in electronic environments which I have accumulated throughout the guidance for English learners of basic level at a public university. This article looks for illustrating the researcher's own perceptions and challenges as becoming an e-tutor. Therefore, I will introduce an overview of studies and experiences that address this issue in international contexts, and then I will refer to my own experience where I describe the roles that emerged while I was administrating and delivering e- learning pedagogical experiences such as an exploration of some skills and learning activities carried out in an English course; this description embraces three different stages (before, during and after of implementation. Subsequently, some discussion of the results is provided gathered from the research instruments I used. Finally, some conclusions and suggestions are provided in regards to the research question of the study, its outcomes on how tutors' challenges shape tutor's roles in electronic environments.

  15. Active Debris Removal and the Challenges for Environment Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, J. C.

    2012-01-01

    Recent modeling studies on the instability of the debris population in the low Earth orbit (LEO) region and the collision between Iridium 33 and Cosmos 2251 have underlined the need for active debris removal. A 2009 analysis by the NASA Orbital Debris Program Office shows that, in order to maintain the LEO debris population at a constant level for the next 200 years, an active debris removal of about five objects per year is needed. The targets identified for removal are those with the highest mass and collision probability products in the environment. Many of these objects are spent upper stages with masses ranging from 1 to more than 8 metric tons, residing in several altitude regions and concentrated in about 7 inclination bands. To remove five of those objects on a yearly basis, in a cost-effective manner, represents many challenges in technology development, engineering, and operations. This paper outlines the fundamental rationale for considering active debris removal and addresses the two possible objectives of the operations -- removing large debris to stabilize the environment and removing small debris to reduce the threat to operational spacecraft. Technological and engineering challenges associated with the two different objectives are also discussed.

  16. “Food is directed to the area”: African Americans’ perceptions of the neighborhood nutrition environment in Pittsburgh

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Supriya; Quinn, Sandra C; KRISKA, ANDREA M.; Thomas, Stephen B

    2010-01-01

    Studies have shown racial disparities in neighborhood access to healthy food in the United States. We used a mixed methods approach employing geographic information systems, focus groups, and a survey to examine African Americans’ perceptions of the neighborhood nutrition environment in Pittsburgh. We found that African Americans perceive that supermarkets serving their community offer produce and meats of poorer quality than branches of the same supermarket serving White neighborhoods (p

  17. The challenge of language assessment for african american english-speaking children: a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Harry N

    2004-02-01

    The diagnostic problem of how validly to assess the language of children who speak dialects different from Mainstream American English (MAE) has challenged the field of communication disorders for several decades. The key to its solution is to recognize differences due to dialect or development and remove them from the initial diagnosis of a disorder. A new approach to the puzzle, implemented jointly by University of Massachusetts scholars and the Psychological Corporation (TPC), takes two directions: (1) it provides new normative data on African American English (AAE) development, and (2) it proposes a level of analysis deeper than dialect for the discovery of alternate markers of a disorder. We present three objectives for a language assessment instrument designed to solve this longstanding problem: (1) to answer the problem/no problem question for a given child; (2) to provide explanatory data about the nature of the problem; and (3) to achieve objectives 1 and 2 in a way that is culturally and linguistically fair to both speakers of MAE and speakers of other dialects of English such as AAE. PMID:15088228

  18. Challenge in environmentally sustainable development in some southern African developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the challenges in attaining environmentally sustainable development in some southern African developing countries, with main focus on environmentally degrading activities carried out by the poor rural communities as the only way of scaling down poverty. The typical examples include, among others, charcoal burning, firewood gathering and hunting. These activities are practiced by poor rural communities for commercial purposes, with the main market being the urban areas; whose population increase and the inability to afford electricity for domestic purposes have made the demand for charcoal and firewood to increase. While recognising the right for the basic needs for everyone, efforts have been made to reduce the pressure exerted by rural communities on to natural resources, and alternative income generating activities have been adopted. However, successes in these fields are still not observable. The paper also discusses the need for integrated approaches that might reduce the demand on natural forest resources-based energy, which consist of subsidized electricity, fast growing tree plantation, and energy efficiency, among others. (author)

  19. Kazakhstan's Environment-Health system, a Big Data challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitolo, Claudia; Bella Gazdiyeva, Bella; Tucker, Allan; Russell, Andrew; Ali, Maged; Althonayan, Abraham

    2016-04-01

    Kazakhstan has witnessed a remarkable economic development in the past 15 years, becoming an upper-middle-income country. However it is still widely regarded as a developing nation, partially because of its population's low life expectancy which is 5 years below the average in similar economies. The environment is in a rather fragile state, affected by soil, water, air pollution, radioactive contamination and climate change. However, Kazakhstan's government is moving towards clean energy and environmental protection and calling on scientists to help prioritise investments. The British Council-funded "Kazakhstan's Environment-Health Risk Analysis (KEHRA)" project is one of the recently launched initiatives to support Kazakhstan healthier future. The underlying hypothesis of this research is that the above mentioned factors (air/water/soil pollution, etc.) affecting public health almost certainly do not act independently but rather trigger and exacerbate each other. Exploring the environment-health links in a multi-dimensional framework is a typical Big Data problem, in which the volume and variety of the data needed poses technical as well as scientific challenges. In Kazakhstan, the complexities related to managing and analysing Big Data are worsened by a number of obstacles at the data acquisition step: most of the data is not in digital form, spatial and temporal attributes are often ambiguous and the re-use and re-purpose of the information is subject to restrictive licenses and other mechanisms of control. In this work, we document the first steps taken towards building an understanding of the complex environment-health system in Kazakhstan, using interactive visualisation tools to identify and compare hot-spots of pollution and poor health outcomes, Big Data and web technologies to collect, manage and explore available information. In the future, the knowledge acquired will be modelled to develop evidence-based recommendation systems for decision makers in

  20. Academic Training: Climate change and challenges for the environment / POSTPONED!!!

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise benz

    2005-01-01

    2004-2005 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 20, 21, 22 June 20, 21, 22 June, from 11:00 to 12:00 - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 Climate change and challenges for the environment C. SCHLUECHTER / Univ. Bern, CH The seminar is postponed. ENSEIGNEMENT ACADEMIQUE ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 academic.training@cern.ch If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt.

  1. Equity and Quality in the Revitalisation of African Higher Education: Trends and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mala

    2011-01-01

    The revitalisation of African higher education has been a policy imperative on the agenda of many international and African organisations in the last decade, as well as a focus for research and debate. Revitalisation is a theme which is itself framed by a larger set of current discourses about the powerful role of knowledge in society and in the…

  2. WORKING TOWARDS AN AFRICAN PEACEKEEPING CAPABILITY: KEY ISSUES, CHALLENGES AND DILEMMAS IN DARFUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theo Neethling

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The most violent and devastating conflicts on the African continent havenotably been intra-state in nature: conflicts with considerable peacekeepingconsequences for regional and international organisations. To this end, it iscommonly accepted that there is a pressing need for African and other role-playersto register progress on the need to address, manage and resolve the conflicts on thecontinent.

  3. Leaving Home: The Challenges of Black-African International Students Prior to Studying Overseas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Elizabeth Frances; Hyams-Ssekasi, Denis

    2016-01-01

    Much of the literature on international students centres on their experiences once they arrive in their host countries. This study explores the preparations of Black-African students for leaving their home countries to study abroad. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 50 Black-African students studying at one British university. The…

  4. True challenges of disposable optical fiber sensors for clinical environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinet, Éric; Hamel, Caroline

    2007-07-01

    Medical applications represent a unique chance of expansion for the optical fiber sensors (OFS) market that was confined so far mostly in niche applications where higher technological costs were justified by OFS distinctive advantages. Single use medical devices integrating OFS could however generate a significant growth for this type of technology. Thanks to cost reductions derived from the success of optical fiber used in the telecom industry, it is now possible to produce competitive disposable OFS for clinical environment. Cost reduction is nevertheless not the only challenge for this type of application: materials bio-compatibility and sterilization resistance, packaging issues, design considerations for end-user acceptance and operational simplicity, technology reliability including connectivity and sensor performances, manufacturing process monitoring and outstanding quality control, are among few of the problems that have to be considered to address correctly the complex medical market with successful disposable OFS devices. With a clear understanding of the needs and challenges of clinical applications, it is easier to respond to this reality and to offer commercially suitable solutions.

  5. Challenges and prospects for the control of foot-and-mouth disease: an African perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maree FF

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Francois F Maree,1,2 Christopher J Kasanga,3, Katherine A Scott,1 Pamela A Opperman,1,2 Melanie Chitray,1,2, Abraham K Sangula,4 Raphael Sallu,3 Yona Sinkala,5 Philemon N Wambura,3 Donald P King,6 David J Paton,6 Mark M Rweyemamu,3 1Transboundary Animal Diseases Programme, Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute, Agricultural Research Council, Onderstepoort, Pretoria, South Africa; 2Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, Faculty of Agricultural and Natural Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa; 3Southern African Centre for Infectious Diseases Surveillance, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania; 4Foot-and-Mouth Disease Laboratory, Embakasi, Nairobi, Kenya; 5Department of Disease Control, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia; 6The Pirbright Institute, Pirbright, Surrey, UK Abstract: The epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD in Africa is unique in the sense that six of the seven serotypes of FMD viruses (Southern African Territories [SAT] 1, SAT2, SAT3, A, O, and C, with the exception of Asia-1, have occurred in the last decade. Due to underreporting of FMD, the current strains circulating throughout sub-Saharan Africa are in many cases unknown. For SAT1, SAT2, and serotype A viruses, the genetic diversity is reflected in antigenic variation, and indications are that vaccine strains may be needed for each topotype. This has serious implications for control using vaccines and for choice of strains to include in regional antigen banks. The epidemiology is further complicated by the fact that SAT1, SAT2, and SAT3 viruses are maintained and spread by wildlife, persistently infecting African buffalo in particular. Although the precise mechanism of transmission of FMD from buffalo to cattle is not well understood, it is facilitated by direct contact between these two species. Once cattle are infected they may maintain SAT infections without the further involvement of buffalo. No

  6. Health challenges in South African automotive companies: Wellness in the workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Meyer-Weitz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: In South Africa, workplace programmes in the automotive industry focus predominantly on occupational health and safety and HIV and AIDS. The implementation of focused workplace interventions might be hampered when companies are not convinced that the condition (i.e. HIV and AIDS is the main negative health influencing factor responsible for increased production costs.Research purpose: The study investigated the health influencing conditions perceived to negatively impact company production costs and related interventions.Motivation for the study: Apart from HIV and AIDS, little information is available about the health challenges in the South African workplace and focused HIV and AIDS programmes might only partly respond to the key health challenges of workplaces. The inter-relatedness of various risky lifestyle factors linked to health conditions necessitates a comprehensive health promotion approach.Research approach, design and method: A cross-sectional survey was conducted amongst 74 companies selected through stratified random sampling. Non-parametric tests were conducted to investigate the health influencing factors perceived to impact production costs, the monitoring thereof, extent of containment and the implementation of interventions in terms of company size and ownership.Main findings: The health factors perceived to have a moderate to large impact were HIV and AIDS, smoking, alcohol use, stress, back and neck ache and tuberculosis, also reported to be better monitored and managed by medium and large organisations. Small organisations reported a smaller impact, fewer efforts and less success. HIV and AIDS programmes were more evident in large companies and those with wellness programmes (52%. Workplace programmes enabled better monitoring and managing of impacting health conditions. Smaller organisations were not convinced of the benefits of interventions in addressing health challenges.Practical/managerial implications

  7. Influences of Family Environment and Meditation Efficacy on Hemodynamic Function among African American Adolescents*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Vernon A.; Gregoski, Mathew J.; Tingen, Martha S.; Treiber, Frank A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the impact of breathing awareness meditation (BAM) compared to health education (HE) and lifeskills training (LS) upon resting systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and heart rate (HR) within the context of potential moderating factors of family environment and expectancy of benefit. 186 African American adolescents (mean age: 15.1±0.7 yrs) were randomly assigned by school to three-month BAM, LS, or HE interventions. Laboratory resting blood pressure (BP), Family Relations Index (FRI) and expectancy of benefit evaluations were conducted at pre- and post-intervention. Higher expectancy of benefit from any of the three interventions resulted in greater reductions in SBP. A two-way interaction indicated that BAM group subjects who came from positive family environments exhibited greater decreases in SBP. A two-way interaction indicated that BAM and LS subjects who came from positive family environments exhibited greater DBP decreases. A two-way interaction indicated that BAM subjects who came from positive family environments exhibited a greater HR decrease (all p<.05). Expectancy of intervention benefits beneficially impacted success of behavioral interventions aimed at reducing SBP. Positive family environments in combination with either BAM or LS appear to have a beneficial impact upon hemodynamic function in AA adolescents. PMID:22328869

  8. Adaptive Challenges Rising from the Life Context of African-American Caregiving Grandmothers with Diabetes: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Carthron

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available To understand the challenges arising from the context within which diabetic African-American caregiving grandmothers self-manage their diabetes we used the Adaptive Leadership Framework. Additionally, challenges to retaining this population in a longitudinal study were examined. In this exploratory, longitudinal, qualitative pilot study, data were collected at five time-points over 18 months. We coded the data using content analysis and conducted the within-case and cross-case analyses using data matrices. Lack of awareness of available resources, represented a technical challenge within the life context of these grandmothers and the remaining three themes: family upheaval; priority setting (with subthemes of difficulty meeting basic needs and competing demands; and self-silencing and self-sacrifice represented adaptive challenges. The context of African-American grandmothers’ lives created primarily adaptive challenges that were complex and without immediate solutions. Research is needed to develop culturally and contextually appropriate interventions to help this vulnerable group develop capacity for adaptive work.

  9. 11 Years of the African Women’s Rights Protocol: Progress and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Faiza Jama Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Eleven years ago, African states made formidable progress by jointly adopting the Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa (the Maputo Protocol) regarded as one of the most progressive women’s and human rights instruments in the world. To date, because of advocacy by the SOAWR coalition, 48 countries have signed of which 36 have ratified Africa’s ‘homegrown CEDAW’ that comprehensively addresses the rights of African women, ranging from econ...

  10. Probabilistic discrimination between large-scale environments of intensifying and decaying African Easterly Waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agudelo, Paula A. [Area Hidrometria e Instrumentacion Carrera, Empresas Publicas de Medellin, Medellin (Colombia); Hoyos, Carlos D.; Curry, Judith A.; Webster, Peter J. [School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2011-04-15

    About 50-60% of Atlantic tropical cyclones (TCs) including nearly 85% of intense hurricanes have their origins as African Easterly Waves (AEWs). However, predicting the likelihood of AEW intensification remains a difficult task. We have developed a Bayesian diagnostic methodology to understand genesis of North Atlantic TCs spawned by AEWs through the examination of the characteristics of the AEW itself together with the large-scale environment, resulting in a probabilistic discrimination between large-scale environments associated with intensifying and decaying AEWs. The methodology is based on a new objective and automatic AEW tracking scheme used for the period 1980 to 2001 based on spatio-temporally Fourier-filtered relative vorticity and meridional winds at different levels and outgoing long wave radiation. Using the AEW and Hurricane Best Track Files (HURDAT) data sets, probability density functions of environmental variables that discriminate between AEWs that decay, become TCs or become major hurricanes are determined. Results indicate that the initial amplitude of the AEWs is a major determinant for TC genesis, and that TC genesis risk increases when the wave enters an environment characterized by pre-existing large-scale convergence and moist convection. For the prediction of genesis, the most useful variables are column integrated heating, vertical velocity and specific humidity, and a combined form of divergence and vertical velocity and SST. It is also found that the state of the large-scale environment modulates the annual cycle and interannual variability of the AEW intensification efficiency. (orig.)

  11. Sustainable Digital Environments: What Major Challenges Is Humankind Facing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland W. Scholz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper identifies and discusses the benefits, threats, and vulnerabilities related to the digital revolution. It aims to motivate research and its funding regarding digital threats and vulnerabilities related, in particular, to anticipating unintended, undesirable rebound effects, tipping points, critically fast evolutionary change rates, trade-offs, etc. A brief analysis of the history of the mind and technology reveals slow technological development over tens of thousands of years (including the invention of a place-value digital number system. Then, a small series of groundbreaking ideas (e.g., binary logic, Shannon’s symbolic analysis of relay and switching circuits, architectures of computing enabled the industry-driven invention of programmable computing machines. Ultimately, the mastery of electron and semiconductor physics allowed for economical and seemingly unlimited storage capacity that made digital tools available to all domains of society. Based on the historical analysis, a coupled human-environment systems perspective (that includes a hierarchy assumption ranging from the human cell to the human species enables the identification of several potential challenges to society and science. First, digital nano-engineering promotes genetic modifications (i.e., directed evolution, and synthetic biology enables a new level of the appropriation of nature. The understanding of cell-based biocomputers may call for new forms of logic. These and other challenges require thorough sustainability research in order to anticipate major changes on all levels of human systems. Second, the human individual is exposed to new forms of vulnerability. In particular, the potential epigenetic effects resulting from the excessive use of digital information of historically unknown speed, density, and contents and the loss of (the Western common-law right to privacy resulting from big data (whose ownership is often unknown should become subjects of

  12. The Business-Related and Logistical Challenges of Entering the African Solar Market.

    OpenAIRE

    Widauer, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    The thesis evaluates the principal business-related and logistical opportunities and risks on the African solar market which is often associated to offer the last unexploited economic opportunities on this planet. For this purpose, the author examines three major African trade unions and reviews the strengths and weaknesses of each regional coalition. It becomes obvious that each respective trade bloc contains one dominant player, in this case Nigeria, Kenya and South Africa. The practical se...

  13. Communalism and hospitality in African urban congregations: pastoral care challenges and possible responses

    OpenAIRE

    De Klerk, Barend Jacobus; Magezi, V; Sichula, O

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the problem behind the protracted crisis of how hospitality ought to be understood and practised in the urbanised and pluralistic congregations of Zambian Society ("the problem of hospitality"). The focus is not only on the Zambian context, but explores in general the traditional African way of life. The activities of the early missionaries, colonialism and the incompetence of independent African states are discussed with particular emphasis on their role in communal...

  14. Navigation in GPS Challenged Environments Based Upon Ranging Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markiel, J. N. Nikki

    The ability of living creatures to navigate their environment is one of the great mysteries of life. Humans, even from an early age, can acquire data about their surroundings, determine whether objects are movable or fixed, and identify open space, separate static and non-static objects, and move towards another location with minimal effort, in infinitesimal time spans. Over extended time periods humans can recall the location of objects and duplicate navigation tasks based purely on relative positioning of landmarks. Our ability to emulate this complex process in autonomous vehicles remains incomplete, despite significant research efforts over the past half century. Autonomous vehicles rely on a variety of electronic sensors to acquire data about their environment; the challenge is to transform that data into information supporting the objective of navigation. Historically, much of the sensor data was limited to the two dimensional (2D) instance; recent technological developments such as Laser Ranging and 3D Sonar are extending data collection to full three dimensional (3D) acquisition. The objective of this dissertation is the development of an algorithm to support the transformation of 3D ranging data into a navigation solution within unknown environments, and in the presence of dynamically moving objects. The algorithm reflects one of the very first attempts to leverage the 3D ranging technology for the purpose of autonomous navigation, and provides a system which enables the ability to complete the following objectives: • Separation of static and non-static elements in the environment. • Navigation based upon the range measurements of static elements. This research extends the body of knowledge in three primary topics. 1) The first is the development of a general method to identify n features in an initial data set from m features in a subsequent data set, given that both data sets are acquired via 3D ranging sensors. Accomplishing this objective

  15. Enhancing energy security in Malayia: the challenges towards sustainable environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahid, E. J. M.; Siang, C. Ch; Peng, L. Y.

    2013-06-01

    Energy is known as one of the essential ingredients for economic development and security of energy supply is crucial in ensuring continuous economic development of a country. Malaysia's proven domestic oil reserves are estimated to last for another 25 years, while that of gas for another 39 years as of 2011. Despite the depleting indigenous energy resources, the primary energy demand has continued to grow robustly, at an annual rate of 6.3 percent per year from 1990 to 2010, while the primary energy import has grown 7.2% per year and the primary energy export has grown at a slower rate of 1.9% per year. This worrying trend is further compounded by the faster rate of primary oil import averaging 10.5% per year while the primary energy export has shrink at a rate of 1.4% per year. This paper has identified two main concerns namely overdependence on fossil fuel and increasing energy import dependency in creating a precarious position towards energy self-sufficiency. The study will analyse the energy security of the country and explore possible options and challenges in enhancing the energy supply security toward sustainable environment.

  16. Academic Training: Climate change and challenges for the environment

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2005-01-01

    2005-2006 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 14, 15, 16 November from 11:00 to 12:00 - TH Auditorium, bldg. 4 Climate change and challenges for the environment by C. Schlüchter / Institut für Geologie, Univ. Bern, CH Climate change as seen by a geologist Glaciers are an integrated part of the high altitudes and the high latitudes of our planet. They are sensitive to temperature and moisture changes and adjust their mass balances accordingly. By doing so they interact with their substratum, the geological basement and they produce characteristic imprints of their presence, their variability and their disappearance. In glacial geology and paleoglaciology such imprints of former glaciers are carefully recorded, mapped and, hopefully, dated in order to obtain amplitude and periodicity records of their changes - as forced by changing climate, as we believe. In the upcoming lectures three aspects will be discussed: the last glaciation in the Swiss Alps. A reconstruction is shown based on fieldwor...

  17. Enhancing energy security in Malayia: the challenges towards sustainable environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy is known as one of the essential ingredients for economic development and security of energy supply is crucial in ensuring continuous economic development of a country. Malaysia's proven domestic oil reserves are estimated to last for another 25 years, while that of gas for another 39 years as of 2011. Despite the depleting indigenous energy resources, the primary energy demand has continued to grow robustly, at an annual rate of 6.3 percent per year from 1990 to 2010, while the primary energy import has grown 7.2% per year and the primary energy export has grown at a slower rate of 1.9% per year. This worrying trend is further compounded by the faster rate of primary oil import averaging 10.5% per year while the primary energy export has shrink at a rate of 1.4% per year. This paper has identified two main concerns namely overdependence on fossil fuel and increasing energy import dependency in creating a precarious position towards energy self-sufficiency. The study will analyse the energy security of the country and explore possible options and challenges in enhancing the energy supply security toward sustainable environment.

  18. Recruiting intergenerational African American males for biomedical research Studies: a major research challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Goldie S; Edwards, Christopher L; Kelkar, Vinaya A; Phillips, Ruth G; Byrd, Jennifer R; Pim-Pong, Dora Som; Starks, Takiyah D; Taylor, Ashleigh L; Mckinley, Raechel E; Li, Yi-Ju; Pericak-Vance, Margaret

    2011-06-01

    The health and well-being of all individuals, independent of race, ethnicity, or gender, is a significant public health concern. Despite many improvements in the status of minority health, African American males continue to have the highest age-adjusted mortality rate of any race-sex group in the United States. Such disparities are accounted for by deaths from a number of diseases such as diabetes, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), cancer, and cardiovascular disease, as well as by many historical and present social and cultural constructs that present as obstacles to better health outcomes. Distrust of the medical community, inadequate education, low socioeconomic status, social deprivation, and underutilized primary health care services all contribute to disproportionate health and health care outcomes among African Americans compared to their Caucasian counterparts. Results of clinical research on diseases that disproportionately affect African American males are often limited in their reliability due to common sampling errors existing in the majority of biomedical research studies and clinical trials. There are many reasons for underrepresentation of African American males in clinical trials, including their common recollection and interpretation of relevant historical of biomedical events where minorities were abused or exposed to racial discrimination or racist provocation. In addition, African American males continue to be less educated and more disenfranchised from the majority in society than Caucasian males and females and their African American female counterparts. As such, understanding their perceptions, even in early developmental years, about health and obstacles to involvement in research is important. In an effort to understand perspectives about their level of participation, motivation for participation, impact of education, and engagement in research, this study was designed to explore factors that impact their willingness to participate. Our

  19. Classroom Management Training for Teachers in Urban Environments Serving Predominately African American Students: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Kristine E.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to review the literature in terms of professional development activities that researchers have enlisted to reduce student problem behaviors and improve classroom management competencies among teachers who work in urban environments serving predominately African American students. First, the author conducted a…

  20. The competitive environment in the assurance industry : a South African case study de Villiers R.H.

    OpenAIRE

    De Villiers, Rihard Holmes.

    2012-01-01

    The assurance industry is fiercely competitive with intense rivalry among the Big Four assurance firms. Clients also exert extreme pricing pressure on audit fees to further strain profitability. Understanding and analysing the various drivers within the competitive assurance environment help an organisation to better combat the competitive forces and derive a strategy that will enable it to obtain a competitive advantage. This study analyses the competitive South African assurance environment...

  1. Effect of Changes to the Neighborhood Built Environment on Physical Activity in a Low-Income African American Neighborhood

    OpenAIRE

    Gustat, Jeanette; Rice, Janet; Parker, Kathryn M.; Becker, Adam B.; Farley, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Obesity is a public health problem that is due in part to low levels of physical activity. Physical activity levels are influenced by the built environment. We examined how changes in the built environment affected residents' physical activity levels in a low-income, primarily African American neighborhood in New Orleans. Methods We built a 6-block walking path and installed a school playground in an intervention neighborhood. We measured physical activity levels in this neighbor...

  2. VNIR-SWIR-TIR hyperspectral airborne campaign for soil and sediment mapping in semi-arid south african environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milewski, Robert; Chabrillat, Sabine; Eisele, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Airborne hyperspectral remote sensing techniques has been proven to offer efficient procedures for soil and sediment mineralogical mapping in arid areas on larger scales. Optical methods based on traditional remote sensing windows using the solar reflective spectral wavelength range from the visible-near infrared (VNIR: 0.4-1.1 μm) to the short-wave infrared region (SWIR: 1.1-2.5 μm) allow mapping of common soil properties such as iron oxides, textural characteristics and organic carbon. However, soil mapping in semi-arid environments using VNIR-SWIR is currently limited due to specific spectral characteristics. Challenges appear in such environments due to the common presence of sandy soils (coarse textured) which grain size distribution is driven by the dominant mineral, quartz (SiO2), and which lacks any distinctive Si-O bond related spectral features within the VNIR-SWIR. Furthermore, another challenge is represented by the common presence of other specific spectral features due to different salts (gypsum, halite) or coatings of different forms (cyanobacteria, iron-oxides and/or -oxyhydroxides) for which few studies exists or that oft prevent detection of any other potential spectral feature of e.g. soil organics. In this context, more methodological developments are needed to overcome current limitations of hyperspectral remote sensing for arid areas, and to extent its scope using the thermal infrared (TIR) wavelength region within the atmospheric window between 8 and 14 μm (longwave infrared). In 2015 an extensive VNIR-SWIR-TIR airborne hyperspectral dataset consisting of HySpex-VNIR, HySpex-SWIR (NEO) and Hyper-Cam (TELOPS) data has been acquired in various Namibian and South African landscapes part of the Dimap/GFZ campaign in the frame of the BMBF-SPACES Geoarchive project. Research goals are 1) to demonstrate the capabilities to extract information from such a dataset and 2) to demonstrate the potential of advanced hyperspectral remote sensing

  3. Nigeria’s Business Environment: Issues Challenges And Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Victor Olukayode Ogunro

    2014-01-01

    Business as part of man’s activities thrives in conducive and sustainable environment. Conducive and sustainable environment depends on the availability of infrastructure put in place by the government. Nigeria’s business environment in the recent years has been coloured with fear and uncertainty leading to collapse of some business outfits particularly, the small scale industries and the relocation of the big ones to other countries. This paper examined business environment in Nigeria with f...

  4. Transformation Challenges in the South African Workplace: A Conversation with Melissa Steyn of iNCUDISA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Terri

    2007-01-01

    Diversity communication and training are recent phenomena in South African workplaces. The demise of apartheid, new political dispensation, and reentry onto the world stage have all contributed to creating an opportunity for diversity. Accelerated corporate interest in this field may be linked to government pressure, globalization, and the much…

  5. Taking a Case to the African Court of Human and Peoples' Rights : Procedural Challenges and the Court's Role in Addressing Them

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Protocol on the African Court of Human and Peoples’ Rights, adopted in 1998 and entered into force in 2004, is designed to reinforce the human rights protection that has been under the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights. The provisions of the Protocol are not clearly stipulated on points that deal with the salient procedural issues. This thesis explores the challenges that the Court will encounter in applying procedural rules and its role in addressing them. Of s...

  6. Glitch game testers: The design and study of a learning environment for computational production with young African American males

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiSalvo, Elizabeth Betsy

    The implementation of a learning environment for young African American males, called the Glitch Game Testers, was launched in 2009. The development of this program was based on formative work that looked at the contrasting use of digital games between young African American males and individuals who chose to become computer science majors. Through analysis of cultural values and digital game play practices, the program was designed to intertwine authentic game development practices and computer science learning. The resulting program employed 25 African American male high school students to test pre-release digital games full-time in the summer and part-time in the school year, with an hour of each day dedicated to learning introductory computer science. Outcomes for persisting in computer science education are remarkable; of the 16 participants who had graduated from high school as of 2012, 12 have gone on to school in computing-related majors. These outcomes, and the participants' enthusiasm for engaging in computing, are in sharp contrast to the crisis in African American male education and learning motivation. The research presented in this dissertation discusses the formative research that shaped the design of Glitch, the evaluation of the implementation of Glitch, and a theoretical investigation of the way in which participants navigated conflicting motivations in learning environments.

  7. Student Teachers' Attitudes towards and Willingness to Teach Evolution in a Changing South African Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrie, A. L.

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates the attitudes of South African student teachers towards the theory of evolution and their willingness to teach it. The teaching of evolution has been excluded from the South African school curriculum for most of the 20th century. In 2008, Grade 12 learners were for the first time exposed to the concept of evolution in the…

  8. The challenge of globalization and democratization to the African Union: The case of Togo Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngboawaji Daniel Nte

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Times have changed for African cold warrior dictatorships.  It used to be that these cold warriors would kill, main and muscle their way into political leadership while the western world and their fellow African state look the other way.  Thanks to the multinationals that supported them.  The paper examines the political crisis in Togo through the Kantian Democratic Peace Theory.  It assumes that the UN, and AU, ECOWAS and the international community are practical example of the Kantian "republican confederation" with overwhelming international political influence to bring pressure upon any one-republican member that threatens world peace.  The paper holds that the political crisis in Togo was a threat to both regional and global peace and concludes that international pressure was responsible for the resignation of Faure Eyadema hence the restoration of constitutional order in Togo.

  9. Implementation challenges facing performance management systems in South African municipalities: selected cases

    OpenAIRE

    12330841 - Van der Waldt, Gerrit

    2014-01-01

    South African municipalities must adhere to the principles of good, developmental local governance and comply with an inclusive statutory and regulatory framework that governs service delivery. In order to achieve this, municipalities need to design and implement comprehensive performance management systems (PMS). Such systems should facilitate the continuous assessment, monitoring, and evaluation of municipal structures, systems and processes. This should be done in alignment with a municipa...

  10. Challenges in Diagnosing Human African Trypanosomiasis: Evaluation of the MSF OCG project in Dingila, DRC

    OpenAIRE

    Van Nieuwenhove, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Between late 2010 and the end of 2014 and under extremely difficult conditions, Médecins sans Frontières (MSF) carried out a project to combat Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT), also known as sleeping sickness, in the Dingila, Ango and Zobia regions of Orientale Province in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). HAT in DRC is caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and is transmitted by the tsetse fly (Glossina genus) of the Palpalis group. Without effective treatment, virtually all f...

  11. DNA Vaccination Partially Protects against African Swine Fever Virus Lethal Challenge in the Absence of Antibodies

    OpenAIRE

    Jordi M Argilaguet; Pérez Martín, Eva; Nofrarías Espadamala, Miquel; Gallardo, Carmina; Accensi Alemany, Francesc; Lacasta, Anna; Mora Salvatierra, Mercedes; Ballester Devis, Maria; Galindo Cardiel, Iván; López Soria, Sergio; José M Escribano; Reche, Pedro A.; Rodríguez, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    The lack of available vaccines against African swine fever virus (ASFV) means that the evaluation of new immunization strategies is required. Here we show that fusion of the extracellular domain of the ASFV Hemagglutinin (sHA) to p54 and p30, two immunodominant structural viral antigens, exponentially improved both the humoral and the cellular responses induced in pigs after DNA immunization. However, immunization with the resulting plasmid (pCMV-sHAPQ) did not confer protection against letha...

  12. The challenges of rehabilitating denuded patches of a semi-arid environment in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Mganga, K.Z.; Nyangito, M.M.; Musimba, N.K.R.; Nyariki, D.M.; Mwangombe, A.W.; Ekaya, W.N.; Muiri, W.M.; Clavel, D; Francis, J.; Kaufmann, Von, R.; Verhagen, J.

    2010-01-01

    Land degradation is a major problem in the semi-arid environments of Sub-Saharan Africa. Fighting land degradation is essential to ensure the sustainable and long-term productivity of the habited semiarid lands. In Kenya, grass reseeding technology has been used to combat land degradation. However, despite the use of locally adapted perennial grass species namely Cenchrus ciliaris (African foxtail grass), Eragrostis superba (Maasai love grass) and Enteropogon macrostachyus (Bush rye) failure ...

  13. The West African Health Organization’s experience in improving the health research environment in the ECOWAS region

    OpenAIRE

    Aidam, Jude; Sombié, Issiaka

    2016-01-01

    Background The West African Health Organization (WAHO) implemented a research development program in West Africa during 2009–2013 using the Knowledge for Better Health Research Capacity Development Framework, developed by Pang et al. (Bull World Health Organ 81(11):815–820, 2003), on strategies used to improve the research environment. The framework has the following components: stewardship, financing, sustainable resourcing and research utilization. This paper describes how WAHO implemented ...

  14. Regulatory challenges for in vitro diagnostics in a global environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longwell, A

    1994-06-01

    U.S. medical products are marketed globally and are designed to meet needs of medical practitioners and their patients throughout the world. However, differences in how these products are regulated in different countries can pose challenges for the global marketer. This paper explores some of the differences between proposed and extant U.S. and European regulations for in vitro diagnostic products in terms of documentation, records, and labelling. It will describe some of the practical implications of these differences. PMID:7804632

  15. Clinical Research Environment in India: Challenges and Proposed Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Burt, Tal; SHARMA, POOJA; Dhillon, Savita; Manchanda, Mukul; Mittal, Sanjay; Trehan, Naresh

    2014-01-01

    India has compelling need and keen aspirations for indigenous clinical research. Notwithstanding this need and previously reported growth the expected expansion of Indian clinical research has not materialized. We reviewed the scientific literature, lay press reports, and ClinicalTrials.gov data for information and commentary on projections, progress, and impediments associated with clinical trials in India. We also propose targeted solutions to identified challenges. The Indian clinical tria...

  16. Income Differences in Perceived Neighborhood Environment Characteristics Among African American Women

    OpenAIRE

    Adamus-Leach, Heather J.; Mama, Scherezade K.; O’Connor, Daniel P.; Lee, Rebecca E.

    2012-01-01

    Perceptions of neighborhood attributes for physical activity may be influenced by individual level income. This study examined differences in perceptions of neighborhood attributes for walking and bicycling in high and low income African American women. African American women (n = 388) aged 20–65 years completed the International Physical Activity Prevalence Study’s Environmental Survey Module. Independent t-tests determined differences in perceptions of neighborhood attributes by income grou...

  17. The Academic Writing Challenges of Undergraduate Students: A South African Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineteh, Ernest A.

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the academic writing challenges of undergraduate students at Cape Peninsula University of Technology (CPUT), South Africa. It examines challenges such as lack of a mastery of academic writing conventions, analysis of writing topics, using writing to construct social identities; ability to research and apply knowledge across…

  18. Past successes and future challenges: Improving the urban environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gade, M.

    1994-12-31

    The author discusses issues related to the Chicago urban environment from her perspective in the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency. Understanding of the ozone air pollution problem in the Chicago area has undergone significant changes in the past three years, and there is still more to be understood about the complex factors which contribute to ozone pollution over urban areas such as Chicago. Ability to address these problems to present clean air standards is not in hand at present. The author asserts that information, and the ability of governmental agencies to ingest and respond to that information in a timely manner is a key to improvement of the environment in urban areas in reasonable time spans. In addition cost and price information on environmental control and protection needs to be more clearly presented to the people so they can understand the difficult choices which must be made in addressing these environmental problems.

  19. PHARMACEUTICAL WASTE MANAGEMENT: A CHALLENGE TO MAKE ENVIRONMENT ECOFRIENDLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Natasha

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The pharmaceutical industry has made progress over the past several years to minimizing use of reagents that are hazardous to the environment and by designing alternate synthesis pathways. It is anticipated that they will extend these principles to product design, through such measures as increasing therapeutic efficacy by enhancing delivery to the target site, thus minimizing dosage required. The industry should be encouraged to investigate expiration dates to establish a maximum shelf life for a drug product, to minimize wastage.Pharmaceutical pollution, all sectors involved in health care pharmaceutical developers and manufacturers, hospitals, individual physicians and all those involved in the health care system, law enforcement agencies, pharmacies, waste management agencies, consumers, environmental protection organizations, and governmental agency to participate in preventing pharmaceutical pollution. This powerful approach provides a comprehensive solution to an issue that has the potential to affect much of life on earth to make the environment eco friendly.

  20. Challenges in Creating a Disaster Resilient Built Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Malalgoda, Chamindi; Amaratunga, Dilanthi; Haigh, Richard

    2014-01-01

    With the increase in occurrences of high impact disasters, the concept of risk reduction and resilience is widely recognised. Recent disasters have highlighted the exposure of urban cities to natural disasters and emphasised the need of making cities resilient to disasters. Built environment plays an important role in every city and need to be functional and operational at a time of a disaster and is expected to provide protection to people and other facilities. However, recent disasters h...

  1. Preserving the global environment: The challenge of shared leadership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book brings together essays commissioned as background reading for an April 1990 conference on the global environment co-sponsored by the American Assembly and the World Resources Institute. Among the topic areas covered are the following: technical aspects of energy policy and climatic change; harnessing the power of the marketplace; international cooperation; international regulatory regimes; world economic climate; deforestation and species loss; human population growth

  2. One Health: past successes and future challenges in three African contexts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna L Okello

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The recent emergence of zoonotic diseases such as Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS have contributed to dominant Global Health narratives around health securitisation and pandemic preparedness, calling for greater co-operation between the health, veterinary and environmental sectors in the ever-evolving One Health movement. A decade later, One Health advocates face increasing pressure to translate the approach from theory into action.A qualitative case study methodology was used to examine the emerging relationships between international One Health dialogue and its practical implementation in the African health policy context. A series of Key Informant Interviews (n = 32 with policy makers, government officials and academics in Nigeria, Tanzania and Uganda are presented as three separate case studies. Each case examines a significant aspect of One Health operationalisation, framed around the control of both emerging and Neglected Zoonotic Diseases including HPAI, Human African Trypanosomiasis and rabies. The research found that while there is general enthusiasm and a strong affirmative argument for adoption of One Health approaches in Africa, identifying alternative contexts away from a narrow focus on pandemics will help broaden its appeal, particularly for national or regionally significant endemic and neglected diseases not usually addressed under a "global" remit.There is no 'one size fits all' approach to achieving the intersectoral collaboration, significant resource mobilisation and political co-operation required to realise a One Health approach. Individual country requirements cannot be underestimated, dismissed or prescribed in a top down manner. This article contributes to the growing discussion regarding not whether One Health should be operationalised, but how this may be achieved.

  3. Efficacy of a commercially available coryza vaccine against challenge with recent South African NAD-independent isolates of Haemophilus paragallinarum in chickens : research communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A.C. Jacobs

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa the incidence of NAD-independent Haemophilus paragallinarum isolation from clinical cases is increasing. This study was carried out to test whether a commercially available coryza vaccine (Nobilis (r Coryza, Intervet International BV could protect chickens against challenge with recent NAD-independent isolates. SPF chickens were vaccinated twice at 3 and 7 weeks of age and were challenged at 9 weeks of age with 5 different NAD-independent isolates of serotype A or C-3. The results after challenge show that the coryza vaccine induces good protection against challenge with the different South African NAD-independent isolates of H. paragallinarum, including serotype C-3.

  4. In Search of Three-win Solutions: The Challenges of the 2012 UN Conference on Environment and Sustainable Development In Search of Three-win Solutions: The Challenges of the 2012 UN Conference on Environment and Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    Ignacy Sachs

    2010-01-01

    In Search of Three-win Solutions: The Challenges of the 2012 UN Conference on Environment and Sustainable DevelopmentIn Search of Three-win Solutions: The Challenges of the 2012 UN Conference on Environment and Sustainable Development

  5. Flexible Environments for Grand-Challenge Simulation in Climate Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierrehumbert, R.; Tobis, M.; Lin, J.; Dieterich, C.; Caballero, R.

    2004-12-01

    Current climate models are monolithic codes, generally in Fortran, aimed at high-performance simulation of the modern climate. Though they adequately serve their designated purpose, they present major barriers to application in other problems. Tailoring them to paleoclimate of planetary simulations, for instance, takes months of work. Theoretical studies, where one may want to remove selected processes or break feedback loops, are similarly hindered. Further, current climate models are of little value in education, since the implementation of textbook concepts and equations in the code is obscured by technical detail. The Climate Systems Center at the University of Chicago seeks to overcome these limitations by bringing modern object-oriented design into the business of climate modeling. Our ultimate goal is to produce an end-to-end modeling environment capable of configuring anything from a simple single-column radiative-convective model to a full 3-D coupled climate model using a uniform, flexible interface. Technically, the modeling environment is implemented as a Python-based software component toolkit: key number-crunching procedures are implemented as discrete, compiled-language components 'glued' together and co-ordinated by Python, combining the high performance of compiled languages and the flexibility and extensibility of Python. We are incrementally working towards this final objective following a series of distinct, complementary lines. We will present an overview of these activities, including PyOM, a Python-based finite-difference ocean model allowing run-time selection of different Arakawa grids and physical parameterizations; CliMT, an atmospheric modeling toolkit providing a library of 'legacy' radiative, convective and dynamical modules which can be knitted into dynamical models, and PyCCSM, a version of NCAR's Community Climate System Model in which the coupler and run-control architecture are re-implemented in Python, augmenting its flexibility

  6. Cervical necrotizing fasciitis: management challenges in poor resource environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adekanye, Abiola Grace; Umana, A N; Offiong, M E; Mgbe, R B; Owughalu, B C; Inyama, M; Omang, H M

    2016-09-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis of the head and neck is a rare and potentially fatal disease. It is a bacterial infection characterized by spreading along fascia planes and subcutaneous tissue resulting in tissue necrosis and likely death. It is commonly of dental or pharyngeal origin. Factors affecting the success of the treatment are early diagnosis, appropriate antibiotics and surgical debridement. Our study showed eight patients, five males and three females with mean age of 49.25 years (range 20-71 years). Clinical presentations were a rapidly progressing painful neck swelling, fever, dysphagia and trismus. The aetiology varied from idiopathic, pharyngeal/tonsillar infection, trauma and nasal malignancy. There were associated variable comorbidities (diabetes mellitus, HIV infection, hypertension and congestive cardiac failure). All the patients received early and aggressive medical treatment. The earliest time of surgery was 12 h after admission because of the poor financial status of patients. Three cases came in with complications of the disease and were not fit for extensive debridement under general anaesthesia. For them limited and reasonable bed side debridement was done. Mortality was 50 % from multiple organ failure, HIV encephalopathy, aspiration pneumonitis and septicemia. The duration of hospital stay for the patients that died ranged from 1 to 16 days and 4 to 34 days for the survivor. Our study heightens awareness and outlines the management challenges of necrotizing fasciitis of the head and neck in a poor resource setting. PMID:26626324

  7. Supporting Teachers Personally and Professionally in Challenging Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean McNiff

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I would like to outline some of the work I do around the world, developing and contributing to professional education programmes for practitioners across a range of professions, using an action research methodology. Here I especially focus on my work with teachers; and I highlight the point that some of the most problematic yet rewarding work is conducted within contexts of economic, historical and social change and challenge. I also explain how I conduct my own action research, which is about finding ways to encourage teachers to think critically and reflectively about what they are doing, and specifically to engage with questions of the kind, ‘How do I improve my practice?’ (Whitehead,1989. Through engaging with these kinds of questions, teachers can position themselves as having the authority to take control of and make discerning judgements about their practices, as they seek to exercise educational influence in their own learning and in the learning of others.

  8. Climate change and the cultural environment: Recognized impacts challenges in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    BerghÀll, Jonna; Pesu, Minna

    2008-01-01

    Climate change impacts the cultural heritage of Finland. Adaptation and mitigation measures are posing challenges along with the consequences of climate change. Cultural landscapes, the built cultural environment and the archaeological heritage all will be affected. The impacts of climate change that Finland will face and the challenges posed by them for the care of the cultural environment also apply to the Boreal Zone of Northern Europe in more general terms. This report charts the chall...

  9. Using African Languages for Democracy and Lifelong Learning in Africa: A Post-2015 Challenge and the Work of CASAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock-Utne, Birgit; Mercer, Malcolm

    2014-01-01

    Africans speak African languages in their everyday lives while lessons in school are delivered in an exogenous language. In many places adult education is also carried out in a language the majority of people do not speak. The exogenous languages, which are the languages of the former colonial powers and mastered just by a small African elite, are…

  10. Report on the First NLG Challenge on Generating Instructions in Virtual Environments (GIVE)

    OpenAIRE

    Byron, Donna; Koller, Alexander; Striegnitz, Kristina; CASSELL, JUSTINE; Dale, Robert; Moore, Johanna D.; Oberlander, Jon

    2009-01-01

    We describe the first installment of the Challenge on Generating Instructions in Virtual Environments (GIVE), a new shared task for the NLG community. We motivate the design of the challenge, describe how we carried it out, and discuss the results of the system evaluation.

  11. Transport of natural UF6 in a challenging environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chollet, P.; Presta, A. [COGEMA Logistics (AREVA Group) (France)

    2004-07-01

    At the entrance of the nuclear fuel cycle, the front-end material transportation takes a major and specific place. After years of stability the landscape of front-end industry is going toward significant changes regarding capacity, implementation of new technologies, imbalance of conversion capacity between geographical areas with increasing volumes of natural UF6 to transport and transport issues such as new regulations and denial of shipments by liners and ports. Facing this evolution the front end-industry is re-organizing its environment to increase robustness of the logistical chain: by being active in industrial organizations such as WNTI and WNA to share technical views and develop licensed standard transport equipment usable worldwide by developing other safe and reliable comprehensive logistics solutions as an alternative to conventional transport means. Our paper will describe the solutions under review to meet nuclear fuel cycle companies expectations: qualification of several robust logistics systems chartered vessels for maritime transport of UF6 specific 20' flat racks for safer handling of 48Y cylinders with future thermal protections.

  12. Transport of natural UF6 in a challenging environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the entrance of the nuclear fuel cycle, the front-end material transportation takes a major and specific place. After years of stability the landscape of front-end industry is going toward significant changes regarding capacity, implementation of new technologies, imbalance of conversion capacity between geographical areas with increasing volumes of natural UF6 to transport and transport issues such as new regulations and denial of shipments by liners and ports. Facing this evolution the front end-industry is re-organizing its environment to increase robustness of the logistical chain: by being active in industrial organizations such as WNTI and WNA to share technical views and develop licensed standard transport equipment usable worldwide by developing other safe and reliable comprehensive logistics solutions as an alternative to conventional transport means. Our paper will describe the solutions under review to meet nuclear fuel cycle companies expectations: qualification of several robust logistics systems chartered vessels for maritime transport of UF6 specific 20' flat racks for safer handling of 48Y cylinders with future thermal protections

  13. VP7 from African horse sickness virus serotype 9 protects mice against a lethal, heterologous serotype challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade-Evans, A M; Pullen, L; Hamblin, C; O'Hara, R S; Burroughs, J N; Mertens, P P

    1998-01-01

    An established mouse model system was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the major outer core protein VP7 of African horse sickness virus (AHSV) serotype 9 as a subunit vaccine. Balb C mice were immunised with VP7 crystals purified from AHSV infected BHK cells. In groups of mice, each of which was immunised with > or = 1.5 micrograms of the protein in Freund's adjuvant, > or = 80% of mice survived challenge with a virulent strain of a heterologous AHSV serotype (AHSV 7), that killed > or = 80% of the mice in the uninoculated control groups. This level of protection was significantly greater than that observed in mice inoculated with equivalent amounts of either denatured VP7 (50% survival), or GST/VP7 fusion protein (50-70% survival), or which were vaccinated with AHSV 9 (40-50% survival). The VP7 protein folding, or its assembly into crystals, are thought to play some role in the effectiveness of the protective response observed. Titres of circulating antibodies against AHSV VP7 were determined by competitive ELISA but did not appear to correlate with the levels of protection observed. Passive transfer of these antibodies to syngeneic recipients also failed to protect Balb C mice from the AHSV 7 challenge. The observed protection is therefore unlikely to be due to an antibody mediated immune response. PMID:9785508

  14. The TAHMO sensor design challenge: unlocking and empowering local African talent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hut, R.; Van De Giesen, N.

    2013-12-01

    The TAHMO initiative aims to develop and install 20.000 weather stations in sub Saharan Africa. The success of this endeavor greatly depends on using local knowledge, as well as support from local communities. A sensor design competition was held in which participants were asked to design a novel weather sensor. Promotion of the competition was focused on Africa and mainly African student teams responded. The best 15 out of 34 submission were send a 'maker package' containing the tools and materials to physically make their sensors. Winners of the maker packages were asked to upload a video of the process of building their sensors. Using these videos, 9 teams were invited to a final one-week workshop in which all teams worked together to connect all their sensors and automatically upload measurement readings to the internet. This goal was achieved on the last day of the workshop. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EOTPMp-13Bs The main results of this competition, the lessons learned and the road ahead for TAHMO will be presented.

  15. A challenge to the ancient origin of SIVagm based on African green monkey mitochondrial genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel O Wertheim

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available While the circumstances surrounding the origin and spread of HIV are becoming clearer, the particulars of the origin of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV are still unknown. Specifically, the age of SIV, whether it is an ancient or recent infection, has not been resolved. Although many instances of cross-species transmission of SIV have been documented, the similarity between the African green monkey (AGM and SIVagm phylogenies has long been held as suggestive of ancient codivergence between SIVs and their primate hosts. Here, we present well-resolved phylogenies based on full-length AGM mitochondrial genomes and seven previously published SIVagm genomes; these allowed us to perform the first rigorous phylogenetic test to our knowledge of the hypothesis that SIVagm codiverged with the AGMs. Using the Shimodaira-Hasegawa test, we show that the AGM mitochondrial genomes and SIVagm did not evolve along the same topology. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the SIVagm topology can be explained by a pattern of west-to-east transmission of the virus across existing AGM geographic ranges. Using a relaxed molecular clock, we also provide a date for the most recent common ancestor of the AGMs at approximately 3 million years ago. This study substantially weakens the theory of ancient SIV infection followed by codivergence with its primate hosts.

  16. West African monsoon intraseasonal activity and its daily precipitation indices in regional climate models: diagnostics and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poan, E. D.; Gachon, P.; Dueymes, G.; Diaconescu, E.; Laprise, R.; Seidou Sanda, I.

    2016-02-01

    The West African monsoon intraseasonal variability has huge socio-economic impacts on local populations but understanding and predicting it still remains a challenge for the weather prediction and climate scientific community. This paper analyses an ensemble of simulations from six regional climate models (RCMs) taking part in the coordinated regional downscaling experiment, the ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis (ERAI) and three satellite-based and observationally-constrained daily precipitation datasets, to assess the performance of the RCMs with regard to the intraseasonal variability. A joint analysis of seasonal-mean precipitation and the total column water vapor (also called precipitable water—PW) suggests the existence of important links at different timescales between these two variables over the Sahel and highlights the relevance of using PW to follow the monsoon seasonal cycle. RCMs that fail to represent the seasonal-mean position and amplitude of the meridional gradient of PW show the largest discrepancies with respect to seasonal-mean observed precipitation. For both ERAI and RCMs, spectral decompositions of daily PW as well as rainfall show an overestimation of low-frequency activity (at timescales longer than 10 days) at the expense of the synoptic (timescales shorter than 10 days) activity. Consequently, the effects of the African Easterly Waves and the associated mesoscale convective systems are substantially underestimated, especially over continental regions. Finally, the study investigates the skill of the models with respect to hydro-climatic indices related to the occurrence, intensity and frequency of precipitation events at the intraseasonal scale. Although most of these indices are generally better reproduced with RCMs than reanalysis products, this study indicates that RCMs still need to be improved (especially with respect to their subgrid-scale parameterization schemes) to be able to reproduce the intraseasonal variance spectrum adequately.

  17. Challenges facing providers of imported malaria-related healthcare services for Africans visiting friends and relatives (VFRs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background In many non-malarious countries, imported malaria disproportionately affects Africans visiting friends and relatives (VFRs). Most previous research has focused on understanding the knowledge, attitudes and practices of these travellers, but has not examined the quality of prevention, diagnosis and treatment services provided. The aim of this study was to understand the perspective of providers of malaria-related healthcare services to VFRs about factors impacting on the quality of these and to make recommendations about improvements. Methods Thirty semi-structured interviews were conducted with practice nurses providing pre-travel health advice (n = 10), general practitioners (GPs) (n = 10), hospital consultants (n = 3), and community pharmacists (n = 7) working in areas of London with large African communities and a relatively high burden of imported malaria. A thematic analysis of the results was undertaken. Results Time constraints in GPs’ surgeries and competing priorities, lack of confidence in issuing advice on mosquito avoidance, the cost of chemoprophylaxis and travel at short notice prevented the provision of adequate malaria prevention advice. Long GP waiting times, misdiagnoses, lack of disclosure by VFRs about recent travel, and the issue of where malaria treatment should be provided were raised as potential barriers to diagnosis and treatment. Conclusions Some issues raised by respondents are relevant to all travellers, irrespective of their reason for travel. The challenge for healthcare providers to reduce the burden of imported malaria in VFRs is to provide services of sufficient quality to persuade them to adopt these in preference to those with which they may be familiar in their country of birth. Although no single intervention will significantly lower the burden of imported malaria, addressing the issues raised in this research could make a significant impact. PMID:24405512

  18. Determining the effects and challenges of incorporating genetic testing into primary care management of hypertensive patients with African ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, C R; Abul-Husn, N S; Ellis, S; Ramos, M A; Negron, R; Suprun, M; Zinberg, R E; Sabin, T; Hauser, D; Calman, N; Bagiella, E; Bottinger, E P

    2016-03-01

    People of African ancestry (Blacks) have increased risk of kidney failure due to numerous socioeconomic, environmental, and clinical factors. Two variants in the APOL1 gene are now thought to account for much of the racial disparity associated with hypertensive kidney failure in Blacks. However, this knowledge has not been translated into clinical care to help improve patient outcomes and address disparities. GUARDD is a randomized trial to evaluate the effects and challenges of incorporating genetic risk information into primary care. Hypertensive, non-diabetic, adults with self-reported African ancestry, without kidney dysfunction, are recruited from diverse clinical settings and randomized to undergo APOL1 genetic testing at baseline (intervention) or at one year (waitlist control). Providers are educated about genomics and APOL1. Guided by a genetic counselor, trained staff return APOL1 results to patients and provide low-literacy educational materials. Real-time clinical decision support tools alert clinicians of their patients' APOL1 results and associated risk status at the point of care. Our academic-community-clinical partnership designed a study to generate information about the impact of genetic risk information on patient care (blood pressure and renal surveillance) and on patient and provider knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors. GUARDD will help establish the effective implementation of APOL1 risk-informed management of hypertensive patients at high risk of CKD, and will provide a robust framework for future endeavors to implement genomic medicine in diverse clinical practices. It will also add to the important dialog about factors that contribute to and may help eliminate racial disparities in kidney disease. PMID:26747051

  19. Offshore produced water management: A review of current practice and challenges in harsh/Arctic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jisi; Chen, Bing; Thanyamanta, Worakanok; Hawboldt, Kelly; Zhang, Baiyu; Liu, Bo

    2016-03-15

    Increasing offshore oil and gas exploration and development in harsh/Arctic environments require more effective offshore produced water management, as these environments are much more sensitive to changes in water quality than more temperate climates. However, the number and scope of studies of offshore produced water management in harsh/Arctic environments are limited. This paper reviews the current state of offshore produced water management, impacts, and policies, as well as the vulnerability, implications and operational challenges in harsh/Arctic environments. The findings show that the primary contaminant(s) of concern are contained in both the dissolved oil and the dispersed oil. The application of emerging technologies that can tackle this issue is significantly limited by the challenges of offshore operations in harsh/Arctic environments. Therefore, there is a need to develop more efficient and suitable management systems since more stringent policies are being implemented due to the increased vulnerability of harsh/Arctic environments. PMID:26781453

  20. African American Female Engineering Students' Persistence in Stereotype-threatening Environments: A Critical Race Theory Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory, Stacie LeSure

    2015-01-01

    Due to the social context of engineering classrooms, stereotype threat (STT) may play an essential role in the dearth of African American females in engineering. Empirical studies have confirmed the deleterious effects STT has on students' performance. However, acceptance of STT as more than a laboratory phenomenon necessitates an in-depth understanding of how stigmatized groups experience being socially devalued and negatively stereotyped. In this qualitative investigation, Intersectionality...

  1. Effects of the environment on fish juvenile growth in West African stressful estuaries

    OpenAIRE

    Diouf, K.; Guilhaumon, F; Aliaume, C.; Ndiaye, P.; Do Chi, T.; Panfili, Jacques

    2009-01-01

    The knowledge of juvenile fish growth in extreme environmental conditions is a key to the understanding of adaptive responses and to the relevant management of natural populations. The juvenile growth of an extreme euryhaline tilapia species, Sarotherodon melanotheron (Cichlidae), was examined across a salinity gradient (20-118) in several West African estuarine ecosystems. juveniles were collected during the reproduction period of two consecutive years (2003 and 2004) in six locations in the...

  2. Challenges experienced by African educators in developing the school curriculum of the North West province / Mamashaba Christina Ratlebyana

    OpenAIRE

    Ratlebyana, Mamashaba Christina

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify problems experienced by African educators in developing the school curriculum. The kinds of attitudes and beliefs of African educators in developing the school curriculum are also determined. The study indicates that African educators experienced problems in developing the school curriculum. Learners in urban areas had more advantages than those in rural areas such as availability of facilities and well qualified staff. Schools need adeq...

  3. Mobile banking services in the East African community (EAC): challenges to the existing legislative and regulatory frameworks in the EAC

    OpenAIRE

    Nyaga, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Principal research question: What are the effective legislative and regulatory responses to mobile banking services in the East African Community (EAC)? Keywords: Convergence, legislation, regulation, Mobile banking services, East African Community. Hypothesis: There is a lack of effective and robust legislative and regulatory framework in the EAC that addresses the mobile banking services. Purpose – This paper addresses issues affecting mobile money in the East African Community (EA...

  4. SERVICE MARKETING: A STUDY OF DEVELOPMENT AND CHALLENGES IN MACRO &MARKET ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Pagare M.P; Rathod A. U

    2014-01-01

    These papers to view that Concept of marketing service and challenges ahead, As well as in these papers collect various review of literature, and I discussed figure of Development and Challenges in the macro and market environment. The term service marketing is used rather loosely today. It has come to stand for an ultimate goal of customer relationship management by businesses. It has also come to mean delivery of information of high relevance to an individual. In any cas...

  5. The South African Military Nursing College Pupil Enrolled Nurses’ experiences of the clinical learning environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernestina M. Caka

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study focused on the clinical learning experiences of Pupil Enrolled Nurses (PENs within the military health service. The purpose of the research was to explore and describe the learning experiences of PENs within the Military health clinical learning environment. An explorative, descriptive, contextual design which is qualitative in nature was used to guide the study. The military as a training institution prides itself on preparing nurses both as soldiers and nurses, this could be both challenging and exasperating for students, as the scopes are diverse. Being notably very hierarchical, the military’s rules constantly take precedence over nursing rules. For the duration of nursing training, students are allocated in the clinical learning area to acquire competencies such as problem solving, cognitive and psychomotor skills (Kuiper & Pesut 2003:383. Students learn how to merge theory and practice and apply theories in the practical sense. This is however, not done in isolation from the military codes, as they are intertwined. Attendance of military parades and drills are incorporated during this phase. This could create missed opportunities from the clinical learning as students are expected to leave the clinical setting for this purpose. Three focus group sessions were conducted and the experiences of the students, as narrated by themselves, yielded valuable insights. The researcher wrote field notes and assisted with the management of the audio tapes for easy retrieval of information. Data was analysed by the researcher, independent of the cocoder. Two themes relating to the PENs’ learning experiences emerged from the data analysed: (1 facilitators of clinical learning, (2 and barriers to clinical learning. The findings obtained depicted those factors which facilitated and obstructed student learning. These findings made it possible for the researcher to make recommendations concerning positive interventions which could be taken to

  6. South African CSP projects under the REIPPP programme - Requirements, challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relancio, Javier; Cuellar, Alberto; Walker, Gregg; Ettmayr, Chris

    2016-05-01

    Thus far seven Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) projects have been awarded under the Renewable Energy Independent Power Producer Procurement Programme (REIPPPP), totalling 600MW: one project is in operation, four under construction and two on their way to financial close. This provides an excellent opportunity for analysis of key features of the projects that have contributed to or detracted from the programme's success. The paper draws from Mott MacDonald's involvement as Technical Advisor on the seven CSP projects that have been successful under the REIPPPP to date as well as other global CSP developments. It presents how various programme requirements have affected the implementation of projects, such as the technical requirements, time of day tariff structure, economic development requirements and the renewable energy grid code. The increasingly competitive tariffs offered have encouraged developers to investigate efficiency maximising project configurations and cost saving mechanisms, as well as featuring state of the art technology in their proposals. The paper assesses the role of the project participants (developers, lenders and government) with regards to these innovative technologies and solutions. In our paper we discuss the status of projects and the SA market, analysing the main challenges and opportunities that in turn have influenced various aspects such as technology choice, operational regimes and supply chain arrangements.

  7. Developing a planning tool for South African prosecution resources: challenges and approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Koen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In every country the prosecution of criminal cases is governed by different laws, policies and processes. In South Africa, the National Prosecuting Authority (NPA has the responsibility of planning and managing all prosecution functions. The NPA has certain unique characteristics that make it different from other similar organisations internationally. The development of a planning tool that the NPA could use to plan their future resource requirements over the short to medium term required extensive modelling, and its final form included features which, to the best knowledge of the development team, make it unique both locally and internationally. Model design was largely influenced by the challenges emanating from the special requirements and context of the problem. Resources were not forecasted directly, but were derived with the help of simulation models that traced docket flows through various resource-driven processes. Docket flows were derived as a proportion of reported crimes, and these were forecasted using a multivariate statistical model which could take into account explanatory variables as well as the correlations between the patterns observed within different crime categories. The simulation consisted of a number of smaller models which could be run independently, and not of one overarching model. This approach was found to make the best use of available data, and compensated for the fact that certain parameters, linking different courts and court types, were not available. In addition, it simplified scenario testing and sensitivity analysis. The various components of the planning tool, including inputs and outputs of the simulation models and the linkages between the forecasts and the simulation models, were implemented in a set of spreadsheets. By using spreadsheets as a common user interface, the planning tool could be used by prosecutors and managers who may not have extensive mathematical or modelling experience.

  8. MUPBED - interworking challenges in a multi-domain and multi-technology network environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foisel, Hans-Martin; Spaeth, Jan; Cavazzoni, Carlo; Wessing, Henrik; Popov, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Todays data transport networks are evolving continuously towards customer oriented and application aware networks. This evolution happens in Europe in a highly diverse network environment, covering multiple network domains, layers, technologies, control and management approaches. In this paper, the...... issues, challenges and the solutions developed in the IST project MUPBED (,,Multi-Partner European Test Beds for Research Networking; www.ist-mupbed.eu) for seamless interworking in a typical European heterogeneous network environment are described, addressing horizontal, interdomain, and vertical, inter...

  9. Bank Challenges – The Impact of Influential Stakeholders and a Dynamic Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Russo, Johanna; Pierre, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Title: Bank Challenges – The Impact of Influential Stakeholders and a Dynamic Environment Date: June 5th, 2013 Institute: School of Business, Society and Engineering, Mälardalen University Classification: Master Thesis in Business Administration, 15 ECTS Authors: Sara Pierre and Johanna Russo Tutor: Carl G. Thunman Keywords: Bank, banking sector, stakeholders, financial market, environment, environmental factors, bank activities and change. Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to identify, ...

  10. Large spatial scale of the phenotype-environment color matching in two cryptic species of african desert jerboas (dipodidae: jaculus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbyszek Boratyński

    Full Text Available We tested the camouflage hypothesis, or the linkage between animal (Saharan rodent and habitat coloration, on the largest geographical scale yet conducted. We aimed to determine whether phenotypic variation is explained by micro-habitat variation and/or genetic polymorphism to determine 1 the strength of linkage between fur color and local substrate color, and 2 the divergence in fur coloration between two genetic clades, representing cryptic species, throughout the complete range of the African desert jerboas (Jaculus jaculus. We used a combination of museum and field-collected specimens, remote sensing tools, satellite and digital photography and molecular genetic and phylogenetic methods to investigate the above hypotheses. Along with showing that the two divergent genetic clades of jerboas occur sympatrically throughout their African distribution, we showed significant covariation between dorsal fur coloration of the animals and the color of their habitat. We also described significant phenotypic divergence in fur color, consistent with genetic divergence between the sympatric clades. The linkage between environment and phenotype supports the idea that the selection promoting cryptic coloration is persistent in contemporary populations of jerboas, however the phenotypic divergence indicates that it has different strengths (or optima in the two clades. The mosaic distribution of micro-habitats occupied by geographically sympatric clades suggests that it may influence both ecological and evolutionary dynamics between these two cryptic species.

  11. The 90s - The decade of the environment meeting the training challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decade of the 90s is the Decade of the Environment--you see it on TV, in papers, magazines... everywhere. Protection of the environment and compliance with new and ever-changing regulations are a must for companies to be successful. Like all other industries, utilities must meet this challenge head on. The nuclear industry has always been aware of the need for training on nuclear issues such as handling nuclear materials and wastes and responding to nuclear emergencies; but to meet the challenges of tomorrow, we must now provide quality training on environmental regulations. This paper outlines the process Duke Power is using to meet the challenge of providing consistent, accurate, relevant training on EPA, OSHA, and DOT regulations. Training programs discussed in this paper include: general employee environmental overview training; RCRA specific training topics; OSHA emergency response team training; and department of transportation training

  12. Analysis of pan-African Centres of excellence in health innovation highlights opportunities and challenges for local innovation and financing in the continent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nwaka Solomon

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A pool of 38 pan-African Centres of Excellence (CoEs in health innovation has been selected and recognized by the African Network for Drugs and Diagnostics Innovation (ANDI, through a competitive criteria based process. The process identified a number of opportunities and challenges for health R&D and innovation in the continent: i it provides a direct evidence for the existence of innovation capability that can be leveraged to fill specific gaps in the continent; ii it revealed a research and financing pattern that is largely fragmented and uncoordinated, and iii it highlights the most frequent funders of health research in the continent. The CoEs are envisioned as an innovative network of public and private institutions with a critical mass of expertise and resources to support projects and a variety of activities for capacity building and scientific exchange, including hosting fellows, trainees, scientists on sabbaticals and exchange with other African and non-African institutions.

  13. African - American Influence on American Government‘s Foreign Trade, Investment and Aid Policies toward Africa: Continuing Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    James OKORO; Richard INGWE; Uno IJIM-AGBOR

    2012-01-01

    This paper is timely because it critically examines the influence of African-Americans on U.S. trade, foreign direct investment and aid toward the Sub-Saharan African Countries in the late 1970s, a dimension that has been largely overlooked in foreign policy analysis, despite its critical significance. In fact, African-American influence in U.S. trade, foreign direct investment and aid policy toward Africa is an aspect that has so far received scanty attention regarding their ancestral homela...

  14. How changes in the environment of the nuclear community are challenging the regulators of nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A country introducing nuclear power in its energy strategy has a lifelong obligation. The obligation is not mainly a question of energy production. It is an obligation to maintain safety during the phase of construction, energy production and decommissioning, as well as to take care of all the waste streams from nuclear installations. In addition, a country introducing nuclear power has an obligation that nuclear sources, material and equipment is used solely for peaceful purposes. In order to protect individuals and the environment, society has decided on legal requirements for the operation of nuclear facilities and established national safety authorities to oversee that the licensees fulfil their obligation and responsibility for safety. The changing environment related to nuclear will most certainly challenge the regulator, thus influencing oversight strategies and inspection practices - change which has started already. The paper addresses some of the changes and regulatory challenges related to this changing environment. (author)

  15. A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis of Gender Differences within the African Business Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Linde

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this exploratory study was to determine whether thereare any differences in the use of conflict-handling (management stylesbetween men and women among entrepreneurs of small businesses inSouth Africa, and to compare the results against the conflict-handlingstyles used by male and female executives in organisations in Nigeria.The empirical research was done by applying the Rahim OrganizationalInventory (ROC ii model. The results revealed that, although slight, avariance in conflict-handling styles exists between males and females,respectively. In South Africa, females tend to make use of the integratingstyle on a more frequent basis than males do to manage conflictwith subordinates. Males registered a strong negative correlation betweenintegrating, dominating and compromising styles. The study alsocompared results of a similar study done on executives in Nigeria. Theresults of the Nigerian sample are similar to that of the South Africansample, in that both males and females tend to use the integrating stylemore frequently. Also, there is a slight indication that Nigerians havemarginally lower concern for self than South Africans do.

  16. Issues and challenges of information fusion in contested environments: panel results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasch, Erik; Kadar, Ivan; Chong, Chee; Jones, Eric K.; Tierno, Jorge E.; Fenstermacher, Laurie; Gorman, John D.; Levchuk, Georgiy

    2015-05-01

    With the plethora of information, there are many aspects to contested environments such as the protection of information, network privacy, and restricted observational and entry access. In this paper, we review and contrast the perspectives of challenges and opportunities for future developments in contested environments. The ability to operate in a contested environment would aid societal operations for highly congested areas with limited bandwidth such as transportation, the lack of communication and observations after a natural disaster, or planning for situations in which freedom of movement is restricted. Different perspectives were presented, but common themes included (1) Domain: targets and sensors, (2) network: communications, control, and social networks, and (3) user: human interaction and analytics. The paper serves as a summary and organization of the panel discussion as towards future concerns for research needs in contested environments.

  17. In Search of Three-win Solutions: The Challenges of the 2012 UN Conference on Environment and Sustainable Development In Search of Three-win Solutions: The Challenges of the 2012 UN Conference on Environment and Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacy Sachs

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In Search of Three-win Solutions: The Challenges of the 2012 UN Conference on Environment and Sustainable DevelopmentIn Search of Three-win Solutions: The Challenges of the 2012 UN Conference on Environment and Sustainable Development

  18. Challenges and opportunities for HIV prevention and care: insights from focus groups of HIV-infected African American men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buseh, Aaron G; Stevens, Patricia E; McManus, Patricia; Addison, Reverend Jim; Morgan, Sarah; Millon-Underwood, Sandra

    2006-01-01

    Given the inordinate burden of HIV illness borne by African American men, investigations of HIV prevention and care in this population are urgently needed. In this qualitative study, a sample of 20 HIV-infected African American men participated in two focus groups in which they exchanged experiences and ideas about living with HIV. They shared details about how they were personally impacted by HIV, and together they constructed a perspective on the larger societal context in which the HIV infection rate among African American men continues unabated. The men focused on growing complacency about HIV/AIDS in the United States, underfunding of supports and services, stigmas operative in African American communities, and differential care based on race, gender, and diagnosis. They saw opportunity in personal strategies that help individual men infected with HIV to take a more empowered stance to deal with the disease and improve their health but looked for changes undertaken by African Americans at the community level to make a real difference in the epidemic. Their vision included enhanced support for HIV prevention and care from influential community institutions like Black churches, more open dialogue about drugs and sexual behavior, and capacity-building for families whose members are HIV-infected or at risk for HIV. PMID:16849084

  19. Housing and Social Environments of African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) Elephants in North American Zoos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, Cheryl L.; Hogan, Jennifer N.; Bonaparte-Saller, Mary K.; Mench, Joy A.

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated 255 African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants living in 68 North American zoos over one year to quantify housing and social variables. All parameters were quantified for the both the day and the night and comparisons were made across these time periods as well as by species and sex. To assess housing, we evaluated not only total exhibit size, but also individual animals’ experiences based on the time they spent in the unique environments into which the exhibits were subdivided. Variables developed to assess housing included measurements of area as a function of time (Total Space Experience), environment type (Indoor, Outdoor, In/Out Choice) and time spent on hard and soft flooring. Over the year, Total Space Experience values ranged from 1,273 square feet to 169,692 square feet, with Day values significantly greater than Night values (panimals functionally housed together (Social Experience) and social group characteristics such as time spent with juveniles and in mixed-sex groups. Overall Social Experience scores ranged from 1 to 11.2 and were significantly greater during the Day than at Night (pwelfare outcomes. PMID:27414034

  20. Effects of the environment on fish juvenile growth in West African stressful estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diouf, K.; Guilhaumon, F.; Aliaume, C.; Ndiaye, P.; Chi, T. Do; Panfili, J.

    2009-06-01

    The knowledge of juvenile fish growth in extreme environmental conditions is a key to the understanding of adaptive responses and to the relevant management of natural populations. The juvenile growth of an extreme euryhaline tilapia species, Sarotherodon melanotheron (Cichlidae), was examined across a salinity gradient (20-118) in several West African estuarine ecosystems. Juveniles were collected during the reproduction period of two consecutive years (2003 and 2004) in six locations in the Saloum (Senegal) and Gambia estuaries. Age and growth were estimated using daily otolith microincrements. For each individual, otolith growth rates showed three different stages (slow, fast, decreasing): around 4 ± 0.5 μm d -1 during the first five days, 9 ± 0.5 μm d -1 during the next 15 days and 4 ± 0.50 μm d -1 at 60 days. Growth modelling and model comparisons were objectively made within an information theory framework using the multi-model inference from five growth models (linear, power, Gompertz, von Bertalanffy, and logistic). The combination of both the model adjustment inspection and the information theory model selection procedure allowed identification of the final set of models, including the less parameterised ones. The estimated growth rates were variable across spatial scales but not across temporal scales (except for one location), following exactly the salinity gradient with growth decrease towards the hypersaline conditions. The salinity gradient was closely related to all measured variables (condition factor, mean age, multi-model absolute growth rate) demonstrating the strong effect of hypersaline environmental conditions—induced by climate changes—on fish populations at an early stage.

  1. Grand Challenge Problem 2: Adaptive awareness for social regulation of emotions in online collaborative learning environments

    OpenAIRE

    Chanel, Guillaume; Lalanne, Denis; Lavoué, Elise; Lund, Kristine; Molinari, Gaëlle; Ringeval, Fabien; Weinberger, Armin

    2016-01-01

    Students’ ability to understand and manage emotions in self and others plays an important role in the success of collaborative learning (Järvenoja & Järvelä, 2009; Lajoie et al., 2015; Lavoué, Molinari, Prié, & Khezami, 2015). In online learning environments, the use of new social media technologies (blogs, forums, wikis, so-cial networking sites, etc.) facilitates connections between learners, but also may introduce new communication challenges. Moreover, the access of emotional cues (e.g., ...

  2. The challenges of implementing a virtual learning environment in a secondary school : an Irish case study

    OpenAIRE

    Shortt, Joseph F.

    2010-01-01

    non-peer-reviewed This case study evaluates the challenges encountered in the implementation of a Virtual Learning Environment in a secondary school in Ireland. The VLE had been in use at the school for four years yet the take up by teachers had been modest. This study examines a variety of determinants that influence technology acceptance and successful implementation outcomes in respect of the VLE at the school. A questionnaire survey of staff was carried out and semi-structured inter...

  3. Marketing Communications in a Virtual Environment – Opportunities and Challenges for Companies in the Tourism Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Plata-Alf, Dagmara

    2013-01-01

    The development of communication-information technology has led to the transfer of the communication process to a virtual environment influencing while at the same time providing an opportunity and a challenge for the development of marketing strategies. This article presents a literary overview aimed at clarifying key concepts and processes related to transformations in internet marketing, and systematizing definitions functioning in that field of science. As a part of the ...

  4. The impact of social environments on the effectiveness of youth HIV prevention: a South African case study

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Cathy; Foulis, C.; Maimane, S.; Sibiya, Z.

    2005-01-01

    Few would disagree that ‘social context’ shapes the effectiveness of HIV-prevention programmes. However much work remains to be done in developing systematic conceptualisations of HIV/AIDS-relevant aspects of social environments in vulnerable communities. This paper contributes to this challenge through a case study (44 interviews, 11 focus groups with 55 people and fieldworker diaries) of the impact of social context on a participatory peer education programme involving young people in a per...

  5. “Using History to Make Slavery History”: The African American Past and the Challenge of Contemporary Slavery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James B. Stewart

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that contemporary antislavery activism in the United States is programmatically undermined and ethically compromised unless it is firmly grounded in a deep understanding of the African American past. Far too frequently those who claim to be “the new abolitionists” evince no interest in what the original abolitionist movement might have to teach them and seem entirely detached from a U.S. history in which the mass, systematic enslavement of African Americans and its consequences are dominating themes. As a result contemporary antislavery activism too often marginalizes the struggle for racial justice in the United States and even indulges in racist ideology. In an effort to overcome these problems, this article seeks to demonstrate in specific detail how knowledge of the African American past can empower opposition to slavery as we encounter it today.

  6. Challenges in researching violence affecting health service delivery in complex security environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foghammar, Ludvig; Jang, Suyoun; Kyzy, Gulzhan Asylbek; Weiss, Nerina; Sullivan, Katherine A; Gibson-Fall, Fawzia; Irwin, Rachel

    2016-08-01

    Complex security environments are characterized by violence (including, but not limited to "armed conflict" in the legal sense), poverty, environmental disasters and poor governance. Violence directly affecting health service delivery in complex security environments includes attacks on individuals (e.g. doctors, nurses, administrators, security guards, ambulance drivers and translators), obstructions (e.g. ambulances being stopped at checkpoints), discrimination (e.g. staff being pressured to treat one patient instead of another), attacks on and misappropriation of health facilities and property (e.g. vandalism, theft and ambulance theft by armed groups), and the criminalization of health workers. This paper examines the challenges associated with researching the context, scope and nature of violence directly affecting health service delivery in these environments. With a focus on data collection, it considers how these challenges affect researchers' ability to analyze the drivers of violence and impact of violence. This paper presents key findings from two research workshops organized in 2014 and 2015 which convened researchers and practitioners in the fields of health and humanitarian aid delivery and policy, and draws upon an analysis of organizational efforts to address violence affecting healthcare delivery and eleven in-depth interviews with representatives of organizations working in complex security environments. Despite the urgency and impact of violence affecting healthcare delivery, there is an overall lack of research that is of health-specific, publically accessible and comparable, as well as a lack of gender-disaggregated data, data on perpetrator motives and an assessment of the 'knock-on' effects of violence. These gaps limit analysis and, by extension, the ability of organizations operating in complex security environments to effectively manage the security of their staff and facilities and to deliver health services. Increased research

  7. The Post-Apartheid Challenge: Labour Demand Trends in the South African Labour Market, 1995-1999

    OpenAIRE

    Haroon Bhorat

    2003-01-01

    The paper attempts to provide a descriptive overview of absolute and relative shifts in labour demand in the South African economy over the post-apartheid period, 1995-1999. The paper debunks the myth that the domestic economy is characterised by ‘jobless growth’ in this period. However, it does reveal that the rate of job creation has been far below the growth of the labour force, yielding a relatively poor employment performance for the South African economy. In particular, the analysis sho...

  8. [Changing economic environment of hospitals: management challenges of the 1990s].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotstein, Z; Noy, S; Goldman, B; Shani, M

    1990-12-16

    The modern hospital is an organization which is influenced by the external environment in which it functions. A major relevant area is the economic environment. In recent years the western world has been facing the challenge of rising costs of health care and an increase in their proportion to the gross national product of most countries. Consequently, hospitals as major providers of health care are under pressure from governments and health insurance companies to cut costs and to "produce" more efficiently. Since hospitals worldwide are finding it hard and painful to function in the new environment in which attitudes to hospitals are changing, a potential managerial-economic crisis may be the next phase. How can the hospital adapt to these changes? First, by adopting managerial attitudes and the tools of the business sector. These include: the strategic planning process, hospital operative autonomy, creating medical-economic responsibility centers as departments, cost-accounting for medical procedures, and case-mix budgeting. Management information systems are necessary during the transition. The hospital information system should include functions at the operative level, such as outpatient visits, and admissions and discharges of patients; and also clinical, diagnostic and laboratory procedures related to the patient case-mix. The second level is a management information system which includes salaries of personnel, case-mix budgeting with variance analysis, prices of procedures and epidemiological data. The authors believe that only the managerial approach combining medical and economic disciplines can meet the challenges of the changing modern economic environment. PMID:2074075

  9. Addressing Challenges to the Design & Test of Operational Lighting Environments for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Toni A.

    2014-01-01

    In our day to day lives, the availability of light, with which to see our environment, is often taken for granted. The designers of land based lighting systems use sunlight and artificial light as their toolset. The availability of power, quantity of light sources, and variety of design options are often unlimited. The accessibility of most land based lighting systems makes it easy for the architect and engineer to verify and validate their design ideas. Failures with an implementation, while sometimes costly, can easily be addressed by renovation. Consider now, an architectural facility orbiting in space, 260 miles above the surface of the earth. This human rated architectural facility, the International Space Station (ISS) must maintain operations every day, including life support and appropriate human comforts without fail. The facility must also handle logistics of regular shipments of cargo, including new passengers. The ISS requires accommodations necessary for human control of machine systems. Additionally, the ISS is a research facility and supports investigations performed inside and outside its livable volume. Finally, the facility must support remote operations and observations by ground controllers. All of these architectural needs require a functional, safe, and even an aesthetic lighting environment. At Johnson Space Center, our Habitability and Human Factors team assists our diverse customers with their lighting environment challenges, via physical test and computer based analysis. Because of the complexity of ISS operational environment, our team has learned and developed processes that help ISS operate safely. Because of the dynamic exterior lighting environment, uses computational modeling to predict the lighting environment. The ISS' orbit exposes it to a sunrise every 90 minutes, causing work surfaces to quickly change from direct sunlight to earthshine to total darkness. Proper planning of vehicle approaches, robotics operations, and crewed

  10. Variable light environments induce plastic spectral tuning by regional opsin coexpression in the African cichlid fish, Metriaclima zebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Brian E; Lu, Jessica; Leips, Jeff; Cronin, Thomas W; Carleton, Karen L

    2015-08-01

    Critical behaviours such as predation and mate choice often depend on vision. Visual systems are sensitive to the spectrum of light in their environment, which can vary extensively both within and among habitats. Evolutionary changes in spectral sensitivity contribute to divergence and speciation. Spectral sensitivity of the retina is primarily determined by visual pigments, which are opsin proteins bound to a chromophore. We recently discovered that photoreceptors in different regions of the retina, which view objects against distinct environmental backgrounds, coexpress different pairs of opsins in an African cichlid fish, Metriaclima zebra. This coexpression tunes the sensitivity of the retinal regions to the corresponding backgrounds and may aid in detection of dark objects, such as predators. Although intraretinal regionalization of spectral sensitivity in many animals correlates with their light environments, it is unknown whether variation in the light environment induces developmentally plastic alterations of intraretinal sensitivity regions. Here, we demonstrate with fluorescent in situ hybridization and qPCR that the spectrum and angle of environmental light both influence the development of spectral sensitivity regions by altering the distribution and level of opsins across the retina. Normally, M. zebra coexpresses LWS opsin with RH2Aα opsin in double cones of the ventral but not the dorsal retina. However, when illuminated from below throughout development, adult M. zebra coexpressed LWS and RH2Aα in double cones both dorsally and ventrally. Thus, environmental background spectra alter the spectral sensitivity pattern that develops across the retina, potentially influencing behaviours and related evolutionary processes such as courtship and speciation. PMID:26175094

  11. The South African Military Nursing College Pupil Enrolled Nurses’ experiences of the clinical learning environment

    OpenAIRE

    Ernestina M. Caka; Sebi Lekalakala-Mokgele

    2013-01-01

    The study focused on the clinical learning experiences of Pupil Enrolled Nurses (PENs) within the military health service. The purpose of the research was to explore and describe the learning experiences of PENs within the Military health clinical learning environment. An explorative, descriptive, contextual design which is qualitative in nature was used to guide the study. The military as a training institution prides itself on preparing nurses both as soldiers and nurses, this could be both...

  12. Interoperability in healthcare: major challenges in the creation of the enterprise environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsköld, L.; Wintell, M.; Lundberg, N.

    2009-02-01

    There is today a lack of interoperability in healthcare although the need for it is obvious. A new healthcare enterprise environment has been deployed for secure healthcare interoperability in the Western Region in Sweden (WRS). This paper is an empirical overview of the new enterprise environment supporting regional shared and transparent radiology domain information in the WRS. The enterprise environment compromises 17 radiology departments, 1,5 million inhabitants, using different RIS and PACS in a joint work-oriented network and additional cardiology, dentistry and clinical physiology departments. More than 160 terabytes of information are stored in the enterprise repository. Interoperability is developed according to the IHE mission, i.e. applying standards such as Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) and Health Level 7 (HL7) to address specific clinical communication needs and support optimal patient care. The entire enterprise environment is implemented and used daily in WRS. The central prerequisites in the development of the enterprise environment in western region of Sweden were: 1) information harmonization, 2) reuse of standardized messages e.g. HL7 v2.x and v3.x, 3) development of a holistic information domain including both text and images, and 4) to create a continuous and dynamic update functionality. The central challenges in this project were: 1) the many different vendors acting in the region and the negotiations with them to apply communication roles/profiles such as HL7 (CDA, CCR), DICOM, and XML, 2) the question of whom owns the data, and 3) incomplete technical standards. This study concludes that to create a workflow that runs within an enterprise environment there are a number of central prerequisites and challenges that needs to be in place. This calls for negotiations on an international, national and regional level with standardization organizations, vendors, health management and health personnel.

  13. Securing classification and regulatory approval for deepwater projects: management challenges in a global environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feijo, Luiz P.; Burton, Gareth C. [American Bureau of Shipping (ABS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    As the offshore industry continues to develop and move into increasingly deeper waters, technological boundaries are being pushed to new limits. Along with these advances, the design, fabrication and installation of deepwater oil and gas projects has become an increasingly global endeavor. After providing an overview of the history and role of Classification Societies, this paper reviews the challenges of securing classification and regulatory approval in a global environment. Operational, procedural and technological changes which one Classification Society; the American Bureau of Shipping, known as ABS, has implemented to address these challenges are presented. The result of the changes has been a more customized service aiming at faster and more streamlined classification approval process. (author)

  14. The relationship between body image and the Muslim religious dress code of South African Indian Muslim female adolescents / Yasmin Seedat

    OpenAIRE

    Seedat, Yasmin

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on the relationship between body image and the Muslim religious dress code of South African Indian Muslim female adolescents. During the literature search conducted by the researcher no research specifically on body image of female adolescents when wearing the Muslim dress code in South Africa could be found. South African Indian Muslim adolescents are faced with challenges in a changing environment. In the aftermath of 9/11 South African Indian Muslim adolescent females ar...

  15. Green buildings in Malaysia towards greener environment: challenges for policy makers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The launch of the National Green Technology Policy (NGTP) in 2009 is a manifesto of the government's seriousness in implementing 'green' initiatives for the country. Specifically for buildings, the government promotes the application of renewable energy (RE) and energy efficiency (EE) and the application of green building index. With the introduction of Low Carbon Cities Framework, Green Pass, Green Neighbourhood, Green Building Index by various agencies and organisations in Malaysia, it is time to look back and see how all these tools could come together. This paper attempts to identify the challenges in harmonising the green initiatives for policy makers toward greener environment for sustainability.

  16. Green buildings in Malaysia towards greener environment: challenges for policy makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhaida, M. S.; Tan, K. L.; Leong, Y. P.

    2013-06-01

    The launch of the National Green Technology Policy (NGTP) in 2009 is a manifesto of the government's seriousness in implementing "green" initiatives for the country. Specifically for buildings, the government promotes the application of renewable energy (RE) and energy efficiency (EE) and the application of green building index. With the introduction of Low Carbon Cities Framework, Green Pass, Green Neighbourhood, Green Building Index by various agencies and organisations in Malaysia, it is time to look back and see how all these tools could come together. This paper attempts to identify the challenges in harmonising the green initiatives for policy makers toward greener environment for sustainability.

  17. A Framework for delivering legal research skills training online via a Virtual Learning Environment to be implemented at the School of Oriental and African Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Spells, Sarah

    2005-01-01

    This research project aimed generally to investigate the use of a Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) to deliver legal research skills training at the School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS). Legal research skills are an increasingly important part of students’ studies. It is vital that law graduates are equipped with the necessary skills to research a legal problem adequately to become a competent legal practitioner. As SOAS law students study not only English and EU law, but also the l...

  18. Metabolic cost of osmoregulation in a hypertonic environment in the invasive African clawed frog Xenopus laevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Villalobos, Isaac; Narváez, Cristóbal; Sabat, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Studies of aquatic invertebrates reveal that salinity affects feeding and growth rates, reproduction, survival, and diversity. Little is known, however, about how salinity impacts the energy budget of vertebrates and amphibians in particular. The few studies focused on this topic in vertebrates suggest that the ingestion of salts and the resulting osmoregulatory activity is energetically expensive. We analyzed the effect of saline acclimation on standard metabolic rates (SMR) and the activities of metabolic enzymes of internal organs and osmoregulatory variables (plasma osmolality and urea plasma level) in females of Xenopus laevis by means of acclimating individuals to an isosmotic (235 mOsm NaCl; ISO group) and hyper-osmotic (340 mOsm NaCl; HYP group) environment for 40 days. After acclimation, we found that total and mass-specific SMR was approximately 80% higher in the HYP group than those found in the ISO group. These changes were accompanied by higher citrate synthase activities in liver and heart in the HYP group than in the ISO group. Furthermore, we found a significant and positive correlation between metabolic rates and plasma urea, and citrate synthase activity in liver and heart. These results support the notion that the cost of osmoregulation is probably common in most animal species and suggest the existence of a functional association between metabolic rates and the adjustments in osmoregulatory physiology, such as blood distribution and urea synthesis. PMID:27334694

  19. The challenges of underweight and overweight in South African children: are we winning or losing the battle? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monyeki, Makama Andries; Awotidebe, Adedapo; Strydom, Gert L; de Ridder, J Hans; Mamabolo, Ramoteme Lesly; Kemper, Han C G

    2015-02-01

    Underweight and overweight are adverse effects of malnutrition and both are associated with negative health consequences in children and adolescents. In South Africa, the burden of economic and social disparity coexists with malnutrition in children. The purpose of this study was to review available South Africa studies regarding the comprehensive summary of prevalence of underweight and overweight and evaluates government policies in addressing undernutrition and overnutrition in South African children and adolescents. We searched subject-specific electronic bibliographic databases of observational studies published on malnutrition, undernutrition, overnutrition, underweight and overweight in South African boys and girls from birth to 20 years of age in studies published on or after 1990. A total of sixteen cross-sectional, three longitudinal studies and one report met the criteria for inclusion in this review. Descriptive data synthesis revealed the small number of longitudinal studies highlights the dearth of research in tracking undernutrition and overnutrition in South African children. In this review, 0.7%-66% of underweight was reported among children in rural areas compared to a 3.1%-32.4% of overweight in urban areas. All studies reported a higher rate of underweight in boys than girls who were significantly more likely to have higher body fat. The data indicated that both underweight and overweight were positively related with health-related physical activity and psychological health problems such as low activity, low fitness, low self-image and self-esteem. Numerous recommendations were made in the reviewed studies, however effective strategic programs in eradicating both underweight and overweight are minimal. It is evident from the reviewed studies that the burden of underweight and overweight are still a problem in South African children. The most highly affected by underweight are rural children, while children in urban areas in transition are faced

  20. The Challenges of Underweight and Overweight in South African Children: Are We Winning or Losing the Battle? A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makama Andries Monyeki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Underweight and overweight are adverse effects of malnutrition and both are associated with negative health consequences in children and adolescents. In South Africa, the burden of economic and social disparity coexists with malnutrition in children. The purpose of this study was to review available South Africa studies regarding the comprehensive summary of prevalence of underweight and overweight and evaluates government policies in addressing undernutrition and overnutrition in South African children and adolescents. We searched subject-specific electronic bibliographic databases of observational studies published on malnutrition, undernutrition, overnutrition, underweight and overweight in South African boys and girls from birth to 20 years of age in studies published on or after 1990. A total of sixteen cross-sectional, three longitudinal studies and one report met the criteria for inclusion in this review. Descriptive data synthesis revealed the small number of longitudinal studies highlights the dearth of research in tracking undernutrition and overnutrition in South African children. In this review, 0.7%–66% of underweight was reported among children in rural areas compared to a 3.1%–32.4% of overweight in urban areas. All studies reported a higher rate of underweight in boys than girls who were significantly more likely to have higher body fat. The data indicated that both underweight and overweight were positively related with health-related physical activity and psychological health problems such as low activity, low fitness, low self-image and self-esteem. Numerous recommendations were made in the reviewed studies, however effective strategic programs in eradicating both underweight and overweight are minimal. It is evident from the reviewed studies that the burden of underweight and overweight are still a problem in South African children. The most highly affected by underweight are rural children, while children in urban areas

  1. Hepatocyte fate upon TGF-β challenge is determined by the matrix environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Christoph; Liebe, Roman; Breitkopf-Heinlein, Katja; Liu, Yan; Müller, Alexandra; Rakoczy, Pia; Thomas, Maria; Weng, Honglei; Bachmann, Anastasia; Ebert, Matthias; Dooley, Steven

    2015-06-01

    Primary hepatocytes are a versatile tool to investigate all aspects of liver function, and frequently used in drug development and testing. Upon TGF-β challenge, hepatocytes either undergo an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) or apoptosis: culture on stiff collagen (monolayer) results in EMT whereas hepatocytes in a soft collagen matrix (sandwich) undergo programmed cell death. In this study, we analyzed the transcriptional programs triggered by TGF-β under different culture conditions. Our results indicate that TGF-β initiates an identical transcription profile in hepatocytes irrespective of the cellular environment. The fact that we nevertheless observe two vastly different phenotypes indicates that the matrix environment rather than the TGF-β induced expression signature is the major determinant of the hepatocellular response. To confirm the impact of the surrounding matrix environment on the hepatocytes׳ phenotype in response to TGF-β signaling, we studied the effect of Snail overexpression and knockout in both culture conditions. Neither genetic manipulation showed an impact on hepatocytes' fate upon TGF-β treatment, confirming the crucial role of the surrounding matrix. Our findings provide novel insights into the hepatocellular basis of the fate decision between EMT and apoptotic cell death, and might explain why liver cells can react in very different manners to identical stimuli when tissue remodeling has changed the matrix environment, as occurs in a fibrotic liver. PMID:25982745

  2. HIV treatment and care in resource-constrained environments: challenges for the next decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eholié, Serge-Paul; Aoussi, François Eba; Ouattara, Ismael Songda; Bissagnéné, Emmanuel; Anglaret, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    Many successes have been achieved in HIV care in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC): increased number of HIV-infected individuals receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART), wide decentralization, reduction in morbidity and mortality and accessibility to cheapest drugs. However, these successes should not hide existing failures and difficulties. In this paper, we underline several key challenges. First, ensure long-term financing, increase available resources, in order to meet the increasing needs, and redistribute the overall budget in a concerted way amongst donors. Second, increase ART coverage and treat the many eligible patients who have not yet started ART. Competition amongst countries is expected to become a strong driving force in encouraging the least efficient to join better performing countries. Third, decrease early mortality on ART, by improving access to prevention, case-finding and treatment of tuberculosis and invasive bacterial diseases and by getting people to start ART much earlier. Fourth, move on from WHO 2006 to WHO 2010 guidelines. Raising the cut-off point for starting ART to 350 CD4/mm(3) needs changing paradigm, adopting opt-out approach, facilitating pro-active testing, facilitating task shifting and increasing staff recruitments. Phasing out stavudine needs acting for a drastic reduction in the costs of other drugs. Scaling up routine viral load needs a mobilization for lower prices of reagents and equipments, as well as efforts in relation to point-of-care automation and to maintenance. The latter is a key step to boost the utilization of second-line regimens, which are currently dramatically under prescribed. Finally, other challenges are to reduce lost-to-follow-up rates; manage lifelong treatment and care for long-term morbidity, including drug toxicity, residual AIDS and HIV-non-AIDS morbidity and aging-related morbidity; and be able to face unforeseen events such as socio-political and military crisis. An old African proverb

  3. HIV treatment and care in resource-constrained environments: challenges for the next decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge-Paul Eholié

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Many successes have been achieved in HIV care in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC: increased number of HIV-infected individuals receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART, wide decentralization, reduction in morbidity and mortality and accessibility to cheapest drugs. However, these successes should not hide existing failures and difficulties. In this paper, we underline several key challenges. First, ensure long-term financing, increase available resources, in order to meet the increasing needs, and redistribute the overall budget in a concerted way amongst donors. Second, increase ART coverage and treat the many eligible patients who have not yet started ART. Competition amongst countries is expected to become a strong driving force in encouraging the least efficient to join better performing countries. Third, decrease early mortality on ART, by improving access to prevention, case-finding and treatment of tuberculosis and invasive bacterial diseases and by getting people to start ART much earlier. Fourth, move on from WHO 2006 to WHO 2010 guidelines. Raising the cut-off point for starting ART to 350 CD4/mm3 needs changing paradigm, adopting opt-out approach, facilitating pro-active testing, facilitating task shifting and increasing staff recruitments. Phasing out stavudine needs acting for a drastic reduction in the costs of other drugs. Scaling up routine viral load needs a mobilization for lower prices of reagents and equipments, as well as efforts in relation to point-of-care automation and to maintenance. The latter is a key step to boost the utilization of second-line regimens, which are currently dramatically under prescribed. Finally, other challenges are to reduce lost-to-follow-up rates; manage lifelong treatment and care for long-term morbidity, including drug toxicity, residual AIDS and HIV-non-AIDS morbidity and aging-related morbidity; and be able to face unforeseen events such as socio-political and military crisis. An old

  4. Reinforced Ultra-Tightly Coupled GPS/INS System for Challenging Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueyun Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Among all integration levels currently available for Global Positioning System (GPS and Inertial Navigation System (INS Integrated System, ultra-tightly coupled (UTC GPS/INS system is the best choice for accurate and reliable navigation. Nevertheless the performance of UTC GPS/INS system degrades in challenging environments, such as jamming, changing noise of GPS signals, and high dynamic maneuvers. When low-end Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs based on MEMS sensors are employed, the performance degradation will be more severe. To solve this problem, a reinforced UTC GPS/INS system is proposed. Two techniques are adopted to deal with jamming and high dynamics. Firstly, adaptive integration Kalman filter (IKF based on fuzzy logics is developed to reinforce the antijamming ability. The parameters of membership functions (MFs are adjusted and optimized through self-developed neutral network. Secondly, a Doppler frequency error estimator based on Kalman filter is designed to improve the navigation performance under high dynamics. A complete simulation platform is established to evaluate the reinforced system. Results demonstrate that the proposed system architecture significantly improves navigation performance in challenging environments and it is a more advanced solution to accurate and reliable navigation than traditional UTC GPS/INS system.

  5. Identifying gene-environment interactions in schizophrenia: contemporary challenges for integrated, large-scale investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Os, Jim; Rutten, Bart P; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Delespaul, Philippe; Viechtbauer, Wolfgang; van Zelst, Catherine; Bruggeman, Richard; Reininghaus, Ulrich; Morgan, Craig; Murray, Robin M; Di Forti, Marta; McGuire, Philip; Valmaggia, Lucia R; Kempton, Matthew J; Gayer-Anderson, Charlotte; Hubbard, Kathryn; Beards, Stephanie; Stilo, Simona A; Onyejiaka, Adanna; Bourque, Francois; Modinos, Gemma; Tognin, Stefania; Calem, Maria; O'Donovan, Michael C; Owen, Michael J; Holmans, Peter; Williams, Nigel; Craddock, Nicholas; Richards, Alexander; Humphreys, Isla; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Leweke, F Markus; Tost, Heike; Akdeniz, Ceren; Rohleder, Cathrin; Bumb, J Malte; Schwarz, Emanuel; Alptekin, Köksal; Üçok, Alp; Saka, Meram Can; Atbaşoğlu, E Cem; Gülöksüz, Sinan; Gumus-Akay, Guvem; Cihan, Burçin; Karadağ, Hasan; Soygür, Haldan; Cankurtaran, Eylem Şahin; Ulusoy, Semra; Akdede, Berna; Binbay, Tolga; Ayer, Ahmet; Noyan, Handan; Karadayı, Gülşah; Akturan, Elçin; Ulaş, Halis; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara; Bernardo, Miguel; Sanjuán, Julio; Bobes, Julio; Arrojo, Manuel; Santos, Jose Luis; Cuadrado, Pedro; Rodríguez Solano, José Juan; Carracedo, Angel; García Bernardo, Enrique; Roldán, Laura; López, Gonzalo; Cabrera, Bibiana; Cruz, Sabrina; Díaz Mesa, Eva Ma; Pouso, María; Jiménez, Estela; Sánchez, Teresa; Rapado, Marta; González, Emiliano; Martínez, Covadonga; Sánchez, Emilio; Olmeda, Ma Soledad; de Haan, Lieuwe; Velthorst, Eva; van der Gaag, Mark; Selten, Jean-Paul; van Dam, Daniella; van der Ven, Elsje; van der Meer, Floor; Messchaert, Elles; Kraan, Tamar; Burger, Nadine; Leboyer, Marion; Szoke, Andrei; Schürhoff, Franck; Llorca, Pierre-Michel; Jamain, Stéphane; Tortelli, Andrea; Frijda, Flora; Vilain, Jeanne; Galliot, Anne-Marie; Baudin, Grégoire; Ferchiou, Aziz; Richard, Jean-Romain; Bulzacka, Ewa; Charpeaud, Thomas; Tronche, Anne-Marie; De Hert, Marc; van Winkel, Ruud; Decoster, Jeroen; Derom, Catherine; Thiery, Evert; Stefanis, Nikos C; Sachs, Gabriele; Aschauer, Harald; Lasser, Iris; Winklbaur, Bernadette; Schlögelhofer, Monika; Riecher-Rössler, Anita; Borgwardt, Stefan; Walter, Anna; Harrisberger, Fabienne; Smieskova, Renata; Rapp, Charlotte; Ittig, Sarah; Soguel-dit-Piquard, Fabienne; Studerus, Erich; Klosterkötter, Joachim; Ruhrmann, Stephan; Paruch, Julia; Julkowski, Dominika; Hilboll, Desiree; Sham, Pak C; Cherny, Stacey S; Chen, Eric Y H; Campbell, Desmond D; Li, Miaoxin; Romeo-Casabona, Carlos María; Emaldi Cirión, Aitziber; Urruela Mora, Asier; Jones, Peter; Kirkbride, James; Cannon, Mary; Rujescu, Dan; Tarricone, Ilaria; Berardi, Domenico; Bonora, Elena; Seri, Marco; Marcacci, Thomas; Chiri, Luigi; Chierzi, Federico; Storbini, Viviana; Braca, Mauro; Minenna, Maria Gabriella; Donegani, Ivonne; Fioritti, Angelo; La Barbera, Daniele; La Cascia, Caterina Erika; Mulè, Alice; Sideli, Lucia; Sartorio, Rachele; Ferraro, Laura; Tripoli, Giada; Seminerio, Fabio; Marinaro, Anna Maria; McGorry, Patrick; Nelson, Barnaby; Amminger, G Paul; Pantelis, Christos; Menezes, Paulo R; Del-Ben, Cristina M; Gallo Tenan, Silvia H; Shuhama, Rosana; Ruggeri, Mirella; Tosato, Sarah; Lasalvia, Antonio; Bonetto, Chiara; Ira, Elisa; Nordentoft, Merete; Krebs, Marie-Odile; Barrantes-Vidal, Neus; Cristóbal, Paula; Kwapil, Thomas R; Brietzke, Elisa; Bressan, Rodrigo A; Gadelha, Ary; Maric, Nadja P; Andric, Sanja; Mihaljevic, Marina; Mirjanic, Tijana

    2014-07-01

    Recent years have seen considerable progress in epidemiological and molecular genetic research into environmental and genetic factors in schizophrenia, but methodological uncertainties remain with regard to validating environmental exposures, and the population risk conferred by individual molecular genetic variants is small. There are now also a limited number of studies that have investigated molecular genetic candidate gene-environment interactions (G × E), however, so far, thorough replication of findings is rare and G × E research still faces several conceptual and methodological challenges. In this article, we aim to review these recent developments and illustrate how integrated, large-scale investigations may overcome contemporary challenges in G × E research, drawing on the example of a large, international, multi-center study into the identification and translational application of G × E in schizophrenia. While such investigations are now well underway, new challenges emerge for G × E research from late-breaking evidence that genetic variation and environmental exposures are, to a significant degree, shared across a range of psychiatric disorders, with potential overlap in phenotype. PMID:24860087

  6. Polar Engineering and Research to Address Operational Challenges in Austere Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, J. L.; Richter-Menge, J.; Weale, J. C.; Lever, J. H.; Knuth, M. A.; Shoop, S. A.; Haehnel, R.; Arcone, S. A.; Bjella, K.; Finnegan, D. C.; Courville, Z.; Tracy, B. T.

    2009-12-01

    Logistics constraints and operational challenges in the austere environs of the polar regions present unique technological and engineering problems. Working closely with universities, government agencies and industry, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Cold Regions Research and Engineering Lab (CRREL) routinely conducts scientific research and engineering in the Arctic, sub-Arctic and Antarctic covering a wide range of topics and applications. Current areas of focus include: improved mobility techniques for overland traverses; robotic vehicles for traversing, sampling and data collection; snow road and transportation characterization; integrated operational systems including airfield consolidation proof-of-concept studies; infrastructure technology such as firn air cooling, building design, snow foundations and sewage handling; remote/renewable autonomous power solutions for data collection; subsurface radar for crevasse detection and cryosphere characterization; ground-based lidar topographic scanning and near-real-time climate/environmental monitoring linked to AIS infrastructure. While these research and engineering efforts provide solutions and improved technology for specific problems, the impacts are many and wide-reaching and the results are often applicable to other challenging environments. Here, an overview of current research foci and projects is presented along with in-the-field applications, effects and future implications. The results and solutions of these efforts typically lead to technological improvements in operations and logistics which are cost-beneficial, thus freeing up funding dollars for fundamental scientific research. The links between basic research and applied solutions delivering far-reaching impacts (both large- and small-scale) on society, the environment, industry and scientific research are also demonstrated.

  7. Challenges And Lessons Learned From Communities Using Evidence To Adopt Strategies To Improve Healthy Food Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems Van Dijk, Julie A; Catlin, Bridget; Cofsky, Abbey; Carroll, Carrie

    2015-11-01

    Communities across the United States are increasingly tackling the complex task of changing their local environments and cultures to improve access to and consumption of healthy food. Communities that have received the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Culture of Health Prize have deployed numerous evidence-informed strategies to enhance their local food environments. Their experiences can provide lessons for other communities working to improve health. In this article we examine how the prize-winning communities worked in a multidisciplinary collective manner to implement evidence-based strategies, deployed suites of strategies to expand the reach of food-related work, balanced evidence against innovation, and measured their own progress. Most of the communities also faced challenges in using evidence effectively to implement strategies to promote healthy food environments. Policy makers can accelerate the adoption of evidence-informed approaches related to food and health by embedding them in program standards and funding requirements. Establishing opportunities for ongoing training to enhance community practitioners' evaluation skills and collaborative leadership would also improve the effectiveness of community implementation of these strategies. PMID:26526258

  8. A new approach to environmental education: environment-challenge for science, technology and society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents a new approach to environmental education within the project Environment: Challenge for Science, Technology and Education, realized on the Alternative Academic Education Network (AAEN) in Belgrade. The project is designed for graduate or advanced undergraduate students of science, medicine, engineering, biotechnology, political and law sciences. It is multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary project aimed to support students interest in different areas of the environmental sciences through strong inter-connection between modern scientific ideas, technological achievements and society. The project contains four basic courses (Living in the Environment; Physical and Chemical Processes in the Environment; Industrial Ecology and Sustainable Development; Environmental Philosophy and Ethics) and a number of elective courses dealing with environmental biology, adaptation processes , global eco politics, environmental ethics, scientific and public policy, environmental consequences of warfare, environmental pollution control, energy management, environmental impact assessment, etc. The standard ex catedra teaching is replaced with active student-teacher communication method enabling students to participate actively in the subject through seminars, workshops, short essays and individual research projects

  9. The Near-Earth Orbital Debris Problem and the Challenges for Environment Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Jer-Chyi

    2012-01-01

    The near-Earth space environment has been gradually polluted with orbital debris (OD) since the beginning of space activities 55 years ago. Although this problem has been known to the research community for decades, the public was, in general, unaware of the issue until the anti-satellite test conducted by China in 2007 and the collision between Cosmos 2251 and the operational Iridium 33 in 2009. The latter also underlined the potential of an ongoing collision cascade effect (the "Kessler Syndrome") in the low Earth orbit (LEO, the region below 2000 km altitude). Recent modeling results have indicated that mitigation measures commonly adopted by the international space community will be insufficient to stabilize the LEO debris population. To better limit the OD population increase, more aggressive actions must be considered. There are three options for OD environment remediation-removal of large/massive intact objects to address the root cause of the OD population growth problem, removal of 5-mm-to-1 cm debris to mitigate the main mission-ending threats for the majority of operational spacecraft, and prevention of major debris-generating collisions as a temporary means to slow down the OD population increase. The technology, engineering, and cost challenges to carry out any of these three options are monumental. It will require innovative ideas, game-changing technologies, and major collaborations at the international level to address the OD problem and preserve the near-Earth environment for future generations.

  10. Technical support functions in a commercial PET environment: The challenge of a nationwide network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The short half-life of positron-emitting radionuclides requires a highly distributed network to provide a nationwide supply of radiopharmaceuticals for PET. Such a network creates unique challenges that are previously unknown in the production and delivery of traditional radiopharmaceuticals used in diagnostic nuclear medicine studies. Technical support plays a key role in any production process, but is especially critical in a distributed PET production environment. The infrastructure required to provide effective technical support in PET on a nationwide level has not been previously described. This paper describes PETNET's efforts to develop a cost-effective technical support system, including: (a) operations training, (b) real-time support for equipment and process related problems, (c) development of process improvements and (d) technical documentation

  11. Following professional codes of practice and military orders in austere military environments: a controversial debate on ethical challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Janet

    2015-12-01

    In 2004, the World Medical Association's International Code of Ethics claimed that 'medical ethics in armed conflict is identical to medical ethics in times of peace'. This paper challenges this notion and suggests that the hostile, austere and diverse environments in which military doctors and nurses serve are significantly more problematic and different to a civilian healthcare environment. It debates that there may be some incompatibility and challenges between following military orders such as the protocols written down in a Medical Rules of Eligibility matrix and professional codes of practice in these environments. This is either where fighting takes place or where the mission is for humanitarian purposes. PMID:26621807

  12. The challenges of teaching geographical information systems integrated into the management of environment and natural resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Geographic Information Systems, GIS, have the potential to become tools and methodologies for the solution of practical problems that involve complex spatial analyses, like the associated with natural resources and environmental management areas. The university, with its postgraduate programs, can help with the social adaptation processes for this new technology and can contribute to achieve the success sooner and with more effectiveness. To do so, three main challenges must be reached in the users of this technology: first, a spatial thinking second, skills to design and to make use of this instrument as supporting in environmental and natural resources analyses and finally, the identification of strategies to use this technology in projects and corporative surroundings. The Antioquia University in its Engineering Faculty (at first, in agreement with the Education Faculty)developed a Specialization in Environment and Geoinformatic. In this, the curriculum is worked in three moments (one for each challenge): first, a moment to building a common language and to adopting conceptual and technical instruments? second, a moment to put together instruments and methods and finally, a moment to make the practical application of the environmental management supported in the geo information spatial systems. This article gives account of this institutional experience.

  13. Aviation Trends Related to Atmospheric Environment Safety Technologies Project Technical Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveley, Mary S.; Withrow, Colleen A.; Barr, Lawrence C.; Evans, Joni K.; Leone, Karen M.; Jones, Sharon M.

    2014-01-01

    Current and future aviation safety trends related to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Atmospheric Environment Safety Technologies Project's three technical challenges (engine icing characterization and simulation capability; airframe icing simulation and engineering tool capability; and atmospheric hazard sensing and mitigation technology capability) were assessed by examining the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) accident database (1989 to 2008), incidents from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) accident/incident database (1989 to 2006), and literature from various industry and government sources. The accident and incident data were examined for events involving fixed-wing airplanes operating under Federal Aviation Regulation (FAR) Parts 121, 135, and 91 for atmospheric conditions related to airframe icing, ice-crystal engine icing, turbulence, clear air turbulence, wake vortex, lightning, and low visibility (fog, low ceiling, clouds, precipitation, and low lighting). Five future aviation safety risk areas associated with the three AEST technical challenges were identified after an exhaustive survey of a variety of sources and include: approach and landing accident reduction, icing/ice detection, loss of control in flight, super density operations, and runway safety.

  14. Managing large energy and mineral resources (EMR) projects in challenging environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanmeka, Arpamart

    The viability of energy mineral resources (EMR) construction projects is contingent upon the state of the world economic climate. Oil sands projects in Alberta, Canada exemplify large EMR projects that are highly sensitive to fluctuations in the world market. Alberta EMR projects are constrained by high fixed production costs and are also widely recognized as one of the most challenging construction projects to successfully deliver due to impacts from extreme weather conditions, remote locations and issues with labor availability amongst others. As indicated in many studies, these hardships strain the industry's ability to execute work efficiently, resulting in declining productivity and mounting cost and schedule overruns. Therefore, to enhance the competitiveness of Alberta EMR projects, project teams are targeting effective management strategies to enhance project performance and productivity by countering the uniquely challenging environment in Alberta. The main purpose of this research is to develop industry wide benchmarking tailored to the specific constraints and challenges of Alberta. Results support quantitative assessments and identify the root causes of project performance and ineffective field productivity problems in the heavy industry sector capital projects. Customized metrics produced from the data collected through a web-based survey instrument were used to quantitatively assess project performance in the following dimensions: cost, schedule, change, rework, safety, engineering and construction productivity and construction practices. The system enables the industry to measure project performance more accurately, get meaningful comparisons, while establishing credible norms specific to Alberta projects. Data analysis to identify the root cause of performance problems was conducted. The analysis of Alberta projects substantiated lessons of previous studies to create an improved awareness of the abilities of Alberta-based companies to manage their

  15. Applying ultrasonic in-line inspection technology in a deep water environment: exploring the challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thielager, N.; Nadler, M.; Pieske, M.; Beller, M. [NDT Systems and Services AG, Stutensee (Germany)

    2009-12-19

    The demand for higher inspection accuracies of in-line inspection tools (ILI tools) is permanently growing. As integrity assessment procedures are being refined, detection performances, sizing accuracies and confidence levels regarding detection and sizing play an ever increasing role. ILI tools utilizing conventional ultrasound technology are at the forefront of technology and fulfill the market requirements regarding sizing accuracies and the ability to provide quantitative measurements of wall thickness as well as crack inspection capabilities. Data from ultrasonic tools is ideally suited for advanced integrity assessment applications and run comparisons. Making this technology available for a deep-water environment of heavy wall, high pressures and temperatures comes with a wide range of challenges which have to be addressed. This paper will introduce developments recently made in order to adapt and modify ultrasonic in-line inspection tools for the application in a heavy wall, high pressure and high temperature environment as encountered in deep offshore pipelines. The paper will describe necessary design modifications and new conceptual approaches especially regarding tool electronics, cables, connectors and the sensor carrier. A tool capable of deep-water inspection with a pressure bearing capability of 275 bar will be introduced and data from inspection runs will be presented. As an outlook, the paper will also discuss future inspection requirements for offshore pipelines with maximum pressure values of up to 500 bar. (author)

  16. The Importance of Home Environment and Parental Encouragement in the Academic Achievement of African-Canadian Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codjoe, Henry M.

    2007-01-01

    This article focuses on the educational experiences of African-Canadian youth. Traditionally, researchers have tended to emphasize the poor academic performance of Black students, or issues and problems related to their academic failure, or to stereotype them as loud, lazy, criminal, athletic, deprived, dangerous, and deviant. In contrast, this…

  17. Assessing social vulnerability in African urban context. The challenge to cope with climate change induced hazards by communities and households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabisch, Sigrun; Jean-Baptiste, Nathalie

    2013-04-01

    Social vulnerability assessment remains central in discourses on global climatic change and takes a more pertinent meaning considering that natural disasters in African countries continue to deeply affect human settlements and destroys human livelihoods. In recent years, in particular large territories and growing cities have experienced severe weather events. Among them are river and flash floods, affecting the social and economic assets of local populations. The impact of the damage related to floods is not only perceptible during seasonal events but also during unexpected larger disasters which place a particular burden on local population and institutions to adapt effectively to increasing climatic pressures. Important features for social vulnerability assessment are the increasing severity of the physical damages, the shortcoming of social and technical infrastructure, the complexity of land management/market, the limited capacity of local institutions and last but not least the restricted capacities of local population to resist these events. Understanding vulnerability implies highlighting and interlinking relevant indicators and/or perceptions encompassed in four main dimensions: social, institutional, physical and attitudinal vulnerability. Case studies in Dar es Salaam, Ouagadougou and Addis Ababa were carried out to obtain insights into the context-related conditions, behavior routines and survival networks in urban areas in west and east Africa. Using a combination of tools (e.g. focus group discussions, transect walks, interviews) we investigated in close cooperation with African partners how households and communities are being prepared to cope with, as well as to recover from floods. A comprehensive process of dealing with floods can be described based on sequential attributes concerning i) Anticipation before a flood occurs, ii) Resistance and coping activities during a flood event and, iii) Recovery and reconstruction afterwards. A participatory

  18. Water balance modelling in a semi-arid environment with limited in-situ data: remote sensing coupled with satellite gravimetry, Lake Manyara, East African Rift, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    D. Deus; R. Gloaguen; Krause, P.

    2011-01-01

    Accurate and up to date information on the status and trends of water balance is needed to develop strategies for conservation and the sustainable management of water resources. The purpose of this research is to estimate water balance in a semi-arid environment with limited in-situ data by using a remote sensing approach. We focus on the Lake Manyara catchment, located within the East African Rift of northern Tanzania. We use remote sensing and a semi-distributed hydrological model to study ...

  19. Optimising The Available Scarce Water Resources At European Scale In A Modelling Environment: Results And Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Roo, Ad; Burek, Peter; Gentile, Alessandro; Udias, Angel; Bouraoui, Faycal

    2013-04-01

    sector, the manufacturing-industry sector, the energy-production sector and the domestic sector. Also, potential flood damage of a 100-year return period flood has been used as an indicator. The study has shown that technically this modelling software environment can deliver optimum scenario combinations of packages of measures that improve various water quantity and water quality indicators, but that additional work is needed before final conclusions can be made using the tool. Further work is necessary, especially in the economic loss estimations, the water prices and price-elasticity, as well as the implementation and maintenance costs of individual scenarios. First results and challenges will be presented and discussed.

  20. The challenge of social networking in the field of environment and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van den Hazel Peter

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fields of environment and health are both interdisciplinary and trans-disciplinary, and until recently had little engagement in social networking designed to cross disciplinary boundaries. The EU FP6 project HENVINET aimed to establish integrated social network and networking facilities for multiple stakeholders in environment and health. The underlying assumption is that increased social networking across disciplines and sectors will enhance the quality of both problem knowledge and problem solving, by facilitating interactions. Inter- and trans-disciplinary networks are considered useful for this purpose. This does not mean that such networks are easily organized, as openness to such cooperation and exchange is often difficult to ascertain. Methods Different methods may enhance network building. Using a mixed method approach, a diversity of actions were used in order to investigate the main research question: which kind of social networking activities and structures can best support the objective of enhanced inter- and trans-disciplinary cooperation and exchange in the fields of environment and health. HENVINET applied interviews, a role playing session, a personal response system, a stakeholder workshop and a social networking portal as part of the process of building an interdisciplinary and trans-disciplinary network. Results The interviews provided support for the specification of requirements for an interdisciplinary and trans-disciplinary network. The role playing session, the personal response system and the stakeholder workshop were assessed as useful tools in forming such network, by increasing the awareness by different disciplines of other’s positions. The social networking portal was particularly useful in delivering knowledge, but the role of the scientist in social networking is not yet clear. Conclusions The main challenge in the field of environment and health is not so much a lack of scientific

  1. Thick lithosphere, deep crustal earthquakes and no melt: a triple challenge to understanding extension in the western branch of the East African Rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, J. P.; Selway, K.; Nyblade, A. A.; Brazier, R. A.; Tahir, N. El; Durrheim, R. J.

    2016-02-01

    Geodynamic models predict that rifting of thick, ancient continental lithosphere should not occur unless it is weakened by heating and magmatic intrusion. Therefore, the processes occurring along sections of the western branch of the East African Rift, where ˜150 km thick, Palaeoproterozoic lithosphere is rifting with no surface expression of magmatism, are a significant challenge to understand. In an attempt to understand the apparently amagmatic extension we probed the regional uppermost mantle for signatures of thermal alteration using compressional (Vp) and shear (Vs) wave speeds derived from Pn and Sn tomography. Pervasive thermal alteration of the uppermost mantle and possibly the presence of melt can be inferred beneath the Rungwe volcanic centre, but no signatures on a similar scale were discerned beneath amagmatic portions of the western rift branch encompassing the southern half of the Lake Tanganyika rift and much of the Rukwa rift. In this region, Vp and Vs wave speeds indicate little, if any, heating of the uppermost mantle and no studies have reported dyking. Vp/Vs ratios are consistent with typical, melt-free, olivine-dominated upper mantle. Although our resolution limit precludes us from imaging potential localised magmatic intrusions with dimensions of tens of kilometres, the absence of surface volcanism, the amagmatic upper crustal rupture known to have occurred at disparate locations on the western branch, the presence of lower crustal seismicity and the low temperatures implied by the fast seismic wave speeds in the lower crust and uppermost mantle in this region suggests possible amagmatic extension. Most dynamic models predict that this should not happen. Indeed even with magmatic intrusion, rifting of continental lithosphere >100 km thick is considered improbable under conditions found on Earth. Yield strength envelopes confirm that currently modelled stresses are insufficient to produce the observed deformation along these portions of the

  2. Advancing the Structural Use of Earth-based Bricks: Addressing Key Challenges in the East African Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mang Tia

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The research discussed in this paper is a subset of a bigger, NSF funded research project that is directed at investigating the use of sustainable building materials. The deployment context for the research is the hot and humid climate using selected cases from the East African region. The overarching goal for the research is advancing the structural use of earth-based technologies. Significant strides can be made through developing strategies for countering the adverse factors that affect the structural performance of the resulting wall, especially ones related to moisture dynamics. The research was executed in two phases. The first phase was a two-day NSF supported workshop which was held in Tanzania in July 2009. It provided a forum for sharing best practices in earth-based building technologies and developing a research and development roadmap. The priority research areas were broadly classified as optimizing the physio-mechanical properties of earth as a building material and managing socio-cultural impediments. In the second phase of the research, the authors collaborated with researchers from East Africa to conduct experimental work on the optimization of physio-mechanical properties. The specific research issues that have been addressed are: (1 characterizing the chemical reactions that can be linked to deterioration triggered by hygrothermal loads based on the hot and humid context, and; (2 developing a prototype for a simpler, portable, affordable and viable compressed brick production machine. The paper discusses the results from the characterization work that ultimately will be used to design bricks that have specific properties based on an understanding of how different stabilizers affect the hydration process. It also describes a cheaper, portable and more efficient prototype machine that has been developed as part of the follow-up research activities.

  3. Environment, economy and energy: Meeting the multiple challenges of the 1990s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the fall of 1991, New England Electric System (NEES) released its third major resource plan, 'NEESPLAN 3: Environment, Economy, and Energy in the 1990s.' In it, the Company set three major goals for the decade: (1) to reduce continuously the environmental impacts of providing electric service, including a 45% reduction in our weighted air emissions index between 1990 and 2000; (2) to maintain competitiveness by keeping price increases at or below inflation, on average, through the year 2000; and, (3) to ensure resource diversity and reliability by increasing nonutility generation, repowering existing power plants, and exploring new technologies. NEES developed these goals to provide a unified central vision for the company to respond to changing times. NEES is basing their corporate direction on their fundamental beliefs that environmental concerns are here to stay, and that these concerns must be met in tandem with cost and service challenges. By implementing NESSPLAN 3, NEES wants to demonstrate that many of the public policy goals of the environmental and regulatory communities can be better achieved by focusing on overall results rather than by litigating the details of individual power supply decisions. This article discusses the development of NEESPLAN 3, while paying particular attention to the various alternatives they examined to reach the goal of a 45% reduction in air emissions

  4. Performance Improvement of Receivers Based on Ultra-Tight Integration in GNSS-Challenged Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Qin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-tight integration was first proposed by Abbott in 2003 with the purpose of integrating a global navigation satellite system (GNSS and an inertial navigation system (INS. This technology can improve the tracking performances of a receiver by reconfiguring the tracking loops in GNSS-challenged environments. In this paper, the models of all error sources known to date in the phase lock loops (PLLs of a standard receiver and an ultra-tightly integrated GNSS/INS receiver are built, respectively. Based on these models, the tracking performances of the two receivers are compared to verify the improvement due to the ultra-tight integration. Meanwhile, the PLL error distributions of the two receivers are also depicted to analyze the error changes of the tracking loops. These results show that the tracking error is significantly reduced in the ultra-tightly integrated GNSS/INS receiver since the receiver’s dynamics are estimated and compensated by an INS. Moreover, the mathematical relationship between the tracking performances of the ultra-tightly integrated GNSS/INS receiver and the quality of the selected inertial measurement unit (IMU is derived from the error models and proved by the error comparisons of four ultra-tightly integrated GNSS/INS receivers aided by different grade IMUs.

  5. The challenges posed by radiation and radionuclide releases to the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenning, Richard J; Apitz, Sabine E; Backhaus, Thomas; Barnthouse, Lawrence; Batley, Graeme; Brooks, Bryan; Chapman, Peter M; Griffin, Michael; Kapustka, Lawrence; Landis, Wayne; Leung, Kenneth M Y; Linkov, Igor; Seager, Thomas P; Suter, Glenn; Tannenbaum, Lawrence

    2011-07-01

    The recent accident at the Fukushima I nuclear power plant in Japan (also known as Fukushima Daiichi) captured the world's attention and re-invigorated concerns about the safety of nuclear power technology. The Editors of Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management invited experts in the field to describe the primary issues associated with the control and release of radioactive materials to the environment, particularly those that are of importance to the health of the human populations and the ecological systems that populate our planet. This collection of invited short commentaries aims to inform on the safety of nuclear power plants damaged by natural disasters and provide a primer on the potential environmental impacts. The intent of these invited commentaries is not to fuel the excitement and fears about the Fukushima Daiichi incident; rather, it is to collect views and comments from some of the world's experts on the broad science and policy challenges raised by this event, and to provide high-level views on the science issues that surround this situation in order to improve our collective ability to avoid or at least minimize the consequences of future events. PMID:21608119

  6. The key challenge of corporate governance of firms: Empirical evidence from Sub-Saharan African anglophone (SSAA) countries

    OpenAIRE

    Afolabi, Adeoye Amuda

    2013-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. Motivation:In the Sub-Saharan Africa countries there are several factors contributing to the collapse of firms. Most firms have failed due to poor corporate governance practices. The recent collapse of some firms in the financial and non-financial sectors in the Sub-region shows that there are challenges hindering effective corporate governance of firms in the Subregion. Consequently, this...

  7. The Relationship Between the Social Environment and Lifestyle-Related Physical Activity in a Low-Income African American Inner-City Southern Neighborhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Lori; Gustat, Jeanette; Becker, Adam B

    2015-10-01

    The social ecological model was used to examine individual, interpersonal, and neighborhood characteristics related to lifestyle-related physical activity (PA) in a low-income African American (AA) population in New Orleans, Louisiana. Interviewers administered surveys to randomly-sampled household participants from three low-income, AA neighborhoods in New Orleans, Louisiana. Questions included the social and physical environment, physical activity, interpersonal factors, demographics, height and weight. Logistic regression multivariable models were built predicting whether the respondent met PA guidelines, controlling for neighborhood. Females were less as likely to engage in lifestyle-related PA compared to males (OR 0.46, CI 0.30-0.70). Support specific for PA was correlated with engaging in lifestyle-related PA (OR 1.45, CI 1.14-1.83). The individual and social environment should be considered for increasing PA in AA. Interventions targeting the AA population could consider ways of enhancing social support for PA. PMID:25808676

  8. Coordinating the Elusive Playground Triad: Managing Children's Risk-Taking Behavior, (While) Facilitating Optimal Challenge Opportunities, (within) a Safe Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jambor, Tom

    While it is our responsibility as adults to protect our children from hazards that would inflict injury, it is also our responsibility to provide children with a safe play environment providing challenging opportunities to explore, practice, and reach personal levels of competence. Children learn their own play abilities and limitations through…

  9. Reading the African context

    OpenAIRE

    Musonda Bwalya

    2012-01-01

    There is so much alienation, pain and suffering in our today�s world. In this vein, African Christianity, a voice amongst many voices, should seek to be a transformational religion for the whole of life, affecting all facets of human life towards a fuller life of all in Africa. This article sought to highlight and point to some of the major societal challenges in the African context which African Christianity, as a life-affirming religion, should continue to embrace, re-embrace and engag...

  10. Geospace Environment Modeling 2008-2009 Challenge: Ground Magnetic Field Perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulkkinen, A.; Kuznetsova, M.; Ridley, A.; Raeder, J.; Vapirev, A.; Weimer, D.; Weigel, R. S.; Wiltberger, M.; Millward, G.; Rastatter, L.; Hesse, M.; Singer, H. J.; Chulaki, A.

    2011-01-01

    Acquiring quantitative metrics!based knowledge about the performance of various space physics modeling approaches is central for the space weather community. Quantification of the performance helps the users of the modeling products to better understand the capabilities of the models and to choose the approach that best suits their specific needs. Further, metrics!based analyses are important for addressing the differences between various modeling approaches and for measuring and guiding the progress in the field. In this paper, the metrics!based results of the ground magnetic field perturbation part of the Geospace Environment Modeling 2008 2009 Challenge are reported. Predictions made by 14 different models, including an ensemble model, are compared to geomagnetic observatory recordings from 12 different northern hemispheric locations. Five different metrics are used to quantify the model performances for four storm events. It is shown that the ranking of the models is strongly dependent on the type of metric used to evaluate the model performance. None of the models rank near or at the top systematically for all used metrics. Consequently, one cannot pick the absolute winner : the choice for the best model depends on the characteristics of the signal one is interested in. Model performances vary also from event to event. This is particularly clear for root!mean!square difference and utility metric!based analyses. Further, analyses indicate that for some of the models, increasing the global magnetohydrodynamic model spatial resolution and the inclusion of the ring current dynamics improve the models capability to generate more realistic ground magnetic field fluctuations.

  11. The role of Geophysics for a sustainable environment: potentials, challenges and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buske, Stefan

    2010-05-01

    The increasing worldwide demand for energy including the exploration of new resources are provoking prompt activities to guarantee a safe accomplishment together with a conscientious protection of the environment. Within this framework geophysical technologies play a key role for the profound assessment and characterization of the subsurface, which hosts most of the corresponding targets of human interest. These technologies (active- and passive-source seismology, electromagnetics, etc.) are expected to deliver a reliable and highly-resolved image of the subsurface including its structural inventory and the related rock-physical parameters on a broad scale and depending on the used inversion methodology. In particular in terms of energy and resources, i.e. the exploration and partly the storage and disposal of end-products, the existing geophysical imaging techniques are well suited for both, the over-the-years well established oil/gas industry as well as for newer emerging industry branches, e.g. geothermal energy. On the other hand the related problems, e.g. induced earthquakes, are currently stimulating various research areas and the development of new technologies for a better understanding and prediction of the inherent processes and a more reliable risk assessment. This applies in equally the same manner to natural phenomena, including but not limited to natural earthquakes, vulcanoes, landslides, etc. This presentation will summarize the key issues as well as the possibilities and potentials of existing geophysical monitoring and prediction approaches within this framework. Furthermore, some of the current challenges will be addressed, e.g. the required steps towards an improvement of image quality and resolution along with an increased computational efficiency of these methodologies. Finally, also the limitations of state-of-the-art technologies will be discussed with an assortment of successful and failed case studies that demonstrate the potential

  12. Social Media in the Sexual Lives of African American and Latino Youth: Challenges and Opportunities in the Digital Neighborhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Stevens

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There has been significant interest in the role of social media in the lives of adolescents, particularly as it relates to sexual risk. Researchers have focused on understanding usage behaviors, quantifying effects of social media exposure and activity, and using social media to intervene. Much of this work has focused on college students and non-minority youth. In this paper, we examine the growing body of literature around social media use among US minority youth and its intersection with sexual risk behavior. We introduce the concept of the “digital neighborhood” and examine the intersection of social media and sexual health in two domains: 1 sexual content in social media and 2 evidence of social media effects on sexual behavior. Finally, we discuss the opportunities and challenges for researchers and practitioners engaging youth of color.

  13. Tree growth and tree regeneration in two East African rain forests as related to the abiotic environment after human disturbance

    OpenAIRE

    Gliniars, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This study deals with the stem growth and seedling regeneration of different native tree species in two East African rainforests influenced by human disturbance in Kenya (Kakamega Forest) and Uganda (Budongo Forest), also considering spatially and temporally variable environmental influences. In the lower montane rainforest (1500 to 1700 m a.s.l.) Kakamega Forest (KF) surveys were conducted on trees ≥ 5 cm diameter at breast height (DBH) on an overall area of 2.08 ha (1 ha plot and 27 plot...

  14. Operating a railway system within a challenging environment: Economic history and experiences of Zimbabwe’s national railways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Mbohwa

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a historical background to the development of the railways in Zimbabwe and then discusses their current state. Besides being a landlocked country in Southern Africa, Zimbabwe has since 2000 been saddled with socio-economic and political challenges which have seen a decline in all economic indices, hence posing some challenges to its railways. This article discusses the challenges faced by the railways as a result of high inflation, unstable currency exchange rate, brain drain, poor management, government interference in management, customs border delays, and energy shortage. The problems have been addressed in unique ways and unusual solutions are proposed. These include customer financing for maintenance and spares and the resuscitation of steam locomotives. The presented solutions, lessons and issues from this experience contribute to discussions and study of railway logistics in challenging environments. Finally, current and future research issues, which have a global appeal, are presented.

  15. Institution Building for African Regionalism

    OpenAIRE

    Khadiagala, Gilbert M.

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1960s, African states have embraced regional integration as a vital mechanism for political cooperation and for pooling resources to overcome problems of small and fragmented economies. In building meaningful institutions for regionalism, however, Africans have faced the challenges of reconciling the diversities of culture, geography, and politics. As a result, African regional institutions are characterized by multiple and competing mandates and weak institutionalization. This stud...

  16. Emerging pollutants in the environment: A challenge for water resource management

    OpenAIRE

    V. Geissen; Mol, J.G.J.; Klumpp, Erwin; Umlauf, Günter; NADAL, M.; Ploeg, van der, A.J.; Zee, van, K.J.; C. J. Ritsema

    2015-01-01

    A significant number of emerging pollutants (EPs) resulting from point and diffuse pollution is present in the aquatic environment. These are chemicals that are not commonly monitored but have the potential to enter the environment and cause adverse ecological and human health effects. According to the NORMAN network, at least 700 substances categorized into 20 classes, have been identified in the European aquatic environment. In light of their potential impact action is urgently required.In ...

  17. Challenge of Using Passive Acoustic Monitoring in High-Energy Environments: UK Tidal Environments and Other Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Cormac G

    2016-01-01

    The use of passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) around marine developments is commonplace. A buffer-based PAM system (e.g., C-POD) is a cost-effective method for assessing cetacean acoustic presence. Devices have been deployed by Sea Mammal Research Unit (SMRU) Marine around the United Kingdom, allowing an examination of the performance of C-PODs with respect to background noise, tilt angle, and environmental factors. C-PODs were found to often only monitor for a few seconds of each minute, resulting in significant loss of monitoring time. Issues were likely driven by environmental and deployment factors. The practical limitations of buffer-based PAM systems in high-energy/noisy environments are indicated here. PMID:26610949

  18. African N Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekunda, M.; Galford, G. L.; Hickman, J. E.; Palm, C.

    2011-12-01

    Africa's smallholder agricultural systems face unique challenges in planning for reducing poverty, concurrent with adaptation and mitigation to climate change. At continental level, policy seeks to promote a uniquely African Green Revolution to increase crop yields and food production, and improve local livelihoods. However, the consequences on the environment and climate are not clear; these pro-economic development measures should be linked to climate change adaptation and mitigation measures, and research is required to help achieve these policy proposals by identifying options, and testing impacts. In particular, increased nitrogen (N) inputs are essential for increasing food production in Africa, but are accompanied by inevitable increases in losses to the environment. These losses appear to be low at input levels promoted in agricultural development programs, while the increased N inputs both increase current food production and appear to reduce the vulnerability of food production to changes in climate. We present field and remote sensing evidence from Malawi that subsidizing improved seed and fertilizers increases resilience to drought without adding excess N to the environment. In Kenya, field research identified thresholds in N2O losses, where emissions are very low at fertilization rates of less than 200 kg ha-1. Village-scale models have identified potential inefficiencies in the food production process where the largest losses of reactive N occur, and which could be targeted to reduce the amount of N released to the environment. We further review some on-going research activities and progress in Africa that compare different methods of managing resources that target resilience in food production and adaptation to climate change, using nutrient N as an indicator, while evaluating the effects of these resource management practices on ecosystems and the environment.

  19. One Medicine One Science: a framework for exploring challenges at the intersection of animals, humans, and the environment

    OpenAIRE

    Travis, Dominic A; Sriramarao, P.; Cardona, Carol; Steer, Clifford J.; Kennedy, Shaun; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Murtaugh, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    Characterizing the health consequences of interactions among animals, humans, and the environment in the face of climatic change, environmental disturbance, and expanding human populations is a critical global challenge in today's world. Exchange of interdisciplinary knowledge in basic and applied sciences and medicine that includes scientists, health professionals, key sponsors, and policy experts revealed that relevant case studies of monkeypox, influenza A, tuberculosis, and HIV can be use...

  20. Scaffolding Learners in Authentic, Problem Based e-Learning Environments: The "Geography Challenge"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brickell, Gwyn; Herrington, Jan

    2006-01-01

    The affordances of online learning technologies have enabled more widespread development of learning environments that facilitate the exploration and solving of complex and realistic problems. In this paper, we describe the design of a real world geography problem, embedded within a web environment that is facilitated by an onsite excursion for…

  1. LGBTQ Literature in Middle School Classrooms: Possibilities for Challenging Heteronormative Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinkins, Elizabeth G.; Englert, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses a case study approach to examine how the heteronormative nature of one middle school setting and classroom environment shapes the climate of safety, support and learning for LGBTQ students when they are engaged in studying a novel with a gay character. Heteronormative environments inform and shape positioning of and by students and…

  2. MORE CHINESE CARS ON AFRICAN ROADS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    China drives into the African vehicle market and meets the challenges head on with some advantages of its own High-quality but inexpensive Chinese automobiles have gradually won the confidence of the African market and are becoming a bright new link in Sino-African economic ties. On September 4, a total of 400 Polarsun minibuses, made in Shenyang, capital of northeast

  3. Effects of a complex housing environment on heart rate and blood pressure of rats at rest and after stressful challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Jody; Azar, Toni; Lawson, David

    2014-01-01

    Housing enrichment for rodents continues to be a discussion topic within the animal care community. The objective of this study was to determine the extent to which a complex housing environment affects heart rate, blood pressure, and activity of rats when undisturbed and after exposure to stressful challenges and whether autonomic controls of heart rate would be affected. Male and female Sprague-Dawley and Wistar rats with radiotelemetry transmitters were evaluated under nonenriched single-housing conditions and after acclimation to a complex environment of dim light and cohabitation with 3 conspecifics in large cages with hiding, food foraging, and nesting items. Telemetry data were collected when rats were undisturbed, after acute challenges (cage change, intraperitoneal injections, restraint), during a forced running protocol, and after cholinergic or adrenergic blockade. The complex environment reduced heart rate and increased activity in undisturbed rats but did not affect blood pressure. Heart rate responses to challenges were unaffected, decreased, or increased by complex housing, depending on the stock and sex of rats. Forced running was either unaffected or decreased, depending on the stock and sex of rats. Heart rate responses to cholinergic or β1-adrenergic blockade were not affected. We conclude that the complex housing did not reduce indices of stress (for example, heart rate) as compared with simpler housing. However, the possibility that some environmental elements interact negatively with each other must be considered in future studies. PMID:24411780

  4. Benefiting Africans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG ZHIPING

    2011-01-01

    Along with thriving Sino-African economic and trade ties,Chinese companies have attached greater importance to their social responsibility to Africans.More than 2,000 sweaters woven by Chinese mothers were sent to orphans and disabled children in Kenya and four other African countries in September.This activity was launched by Hengyuanxiang,a leading Chinese wool manufacturer.

  5. Benefiting Africans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Along with thriving Sino-African economic and trade ties,Chinese companies have attached greater importance to their social responsibility to Africans.More than 2,000 sweaters woven by Chinese mothers were sent to orphans and disabled children in Kenya and four other African countries in September. This activity was launched by Hengyuanxiang,aleading Chinese wool manufacturer.

  6. Where are they: The presence of female musicians with African background in the in Norwegian scene (2000-2010): challenges and strategies

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This is a dissertation for a Master degree in History. Through it, I analyze the situation of African female musicians in Norway, given their relationship with Norway. I analyze the examples of four female musicians with African background, who live and work in Norway. Supported on theoretical approaches on immigration, ethnicity and multiculturalism (and others), and placing the study in a historical context of immigration, as well as looking into the policies of integration and of mul...

  7. Simulation of GNSS reflected signals and estimation of position accuracy in GNSS-challenged environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jakob; Jensen, Anna B. O.; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2015-01-01

    The paper describes the development and testing of a simulation tool, called QualiSIM. The tool estimates GNSS-based position accuracy based on a simulation of the environment surrounding the GNSS antenna, with a special focus on city-scape environments with large amounts of signal reflections from...... non-line-of-sight satellites. The signal reflections are implemented using the extended geometric path length of the signal path caused by reflections from the surrounding buildings. Based on real GPS satellite positions, simulated Galileo satellite positions, models of atmospheric effect on the...... satellite signals, designs of representative environments e.g. urban and rural scenarios, and a method to simulate reflection of satellite signals within the environment we are able to estimate the position accuracy given several prerequisites as described in the paper. The result is a modelling of the...

  8. Linking Endotoxins, African Dust PM10 and Asthma in an Urban and Rural Environment of Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario G. Ortiz-Martínez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available African Dust Events (ADE are a seasonal phenomenon that has been suggested to exacerbate respiratory and proinflammatory diseases in Puerto Rico (PR. Increases in PM10 concentration and the effects of biological endotoxins (ENX are critical factors to consider during these storms. ENX promote proinflammatory responses in lungs of susceptible individuals through activation of the Toll-like receptors (TLR2/4 signaling pathways. The objective of the study was to evaluate the toxicological and proinflammatory responses stimulated by ADE PM10 ENX reaching PR using human bronchial epithelial cells. PM10 organic extracts from a rural and urban site in PR (March 2004 were obtained from ADE and non-ADE and compared. A retrospective data analysis (PM10 concentration, aerosol images, and pediatric asthma claims was performed from 2000 to 2012 with particular emphasis in 2004 to classify PM samples. Urban extracts were highly toxic, proinflammatory (IL-6/IL-8 secretion, and induced higher TLR4 expression and NF-κB activation compared to rural extracts. ENX were found to contribute to cytotoxicity and inflammatory responses provoked by urban ADE PM10 exposure suggesting a synergistic potency of local and natural ENX incoming from ADE. The contribution of ADE PM10 ENX is valuable in order to understand interactions and action mechanisms of airborne pollutants as asthma triggers in PR.

  9. Knowledge Gathering, Team Capabilities, and Project Performance in Challenging Work Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Martine R Haas

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge gathering can create problems as well as benefits for project teams in work environments characterized by overload, ambiguity, and politics. This paper proposes that the value of knowledge gathering in such environments is greater under conditions that enhance team processing, sensemaking, and buffering capabilities. The hypotheses were tested using independent quality ratings of 96 projects and survey data from 485 project-team members collected during a multimethod field study. Th...

  10. The Danger of a Destruction of the Human Environment: Challenge for Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to analyse legal problems related to the environment, to identify existing legal means to satisfy environmental requirements and to summarise the results already obtained at national and international levels. The author then discusses three current legal questions concerning the scope of civil liability in case of environmental deterioration, security of compensation for certain environmental damage and finally the right to go to court to protect the environment. (NEA)

  11. Sulfonamide and tetracycline resistance genes in total- and culturable-bacterial assemblages in South African aquatic environments

    OpenAIRE

    Satoru eSuzuki; Mitsuko eOgo; Tatsuya eKoike; Hideshige eTakada; Brent eNewman

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) are ubiquitous in the natural environment. The introduction of effluent derived antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) into aquatic environments is of concern in the spreading of genetic risk. This study showed the prevalence of sulfonamide and tetracycline resistance genes, sul1, sul2, sul3 and tet(M), in the total bacterial assemblage and colony forming bacterial assemblage in river and estuarine water and sewage treatment plants (STP) in South Africa. There ...

  12. Sulfonamide and tetracycline resistance genes in total- and culturable-bacterial assemblages in South African aquatic environments

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Satoru; Ogo, Mitsuko; Koike, Tatsuya; Takada, Hideshige; Newman, Brent

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic resistant bacteria are ubiquitous in the natural environment. The introduction of effluent derived antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) into aquatic environments is of concern in the spreading of genetic risk. This study showed the prevalence of sulfonamide and tetracycline resistance genes, sul1, sul2, sul3, and tet(M), in the total bacterial assemblage and colony forming bacterial assemblage in river and estuarine water and sewage treatment plants (STP) in South Africa. There was no ...

  13. Play, animals, resources: the need for a rich (and challenging) comparative environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burghardt, Gordon M

    2013-10-01

    Van de Vliert proposes a comprehensive explanation for differences in "freedoms" in diverse human populations based on climate and monetary resources. This intriguing approach, though derived from an evolutionary view covering all species, is based exclusively on human populations. This anthropocentric lens is challenged by ways of testing Van de Vliert's thesis more generally using playfulness as a surrogate for freedom. PMID:23985067

  14. Engineering Education and Students' Challenges: Strategies toward Enhancing the Educational Environment in Engineering Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkandari, Nabila Y.

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of this research is to gain an understanding of the challenges which have to be confronted by the engineering students at the College of Engineering and Petroleum at Kuwait University. The college has a large number of students, of which three hundred and eighty five were selected on a random basis for study purposes. The results…

  15. Teaching "the Devil's Own Tongue": The Challenges of Offering Japanese in a College Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessel, Van C.

    1997-01-01

    Overviews the numbers and kinds of students taking college-level Japanese courses currently, their motivations and challenges, and some of the ways in which Japanese is different from the more commonly taught languages. Notes that for the first time in United States history the study of a language outside the Indo-European family, i.e., Japanese…

  16. Medialogy – An Interdisciplinary Education Challenge in a Problem Based Learning Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordahl, Rolf; Kofoed, Lise B.

    Different new educations in the field of media and technology are constantly developing worldwide. Searching on the Internet almost every university has programs in both media and communication. Several universities are discussing the challenges to offer double degrees, so the students can combin...

  17. A Model Driven Framework to Address Challenges in a Mobile Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaddage, Ferial; Christensen, Rhonda; Lai, Wing; Knezek, Gerald; Norris, Cathie; Soloway, Elliot

    2015-01-01

    In this paper a review of the pedagogical, technological, policy and research challenges and concepts underlying mobile learning is presented, followed by a brief description of categories of implementations. A model Mobile learning framework and dynamic criteria for mobile learning implementations are proposed, along with a case study of one site…

  18. THE CHALLENGES FOR MARKETING DISTANCE EDUCATION IN ONLINE ENVIRONMENT An Integrated Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reweved by Natalija LEPKOVA

    2009-10-01

    public relations applicationson the web sites of the universities offering distance education opportunities.Cuadrado-Garcia and Ruiz-Molina, in Chapter 9, introduce e-learning as a pedagogical resource. They describe a collaboration e-learning project between two European universities in the scope of the agreements in the European Union. They explain the research authors undertook on student satisfaction with the online activities in theMoodle virtual learning environment and its influence on student performance. In Chapter 10, prepared by Richardson, Lane and Hancock, the intellectual property issues are described, which is very important when distance learning courses become globalised.Marketing in Global Context Section III starts from Chapter 11, which describes the global marketing for localdistance education programs, prepared by Kurubacak. The functional model for global marketing characterized by multicultural decision making task is presented in this Chapter. Telli Yamamoto, in Chapter 12, overviews the marketing implications of e-learning in aglobalised context. In Chapter 13, Ojo examines the marketing of e-learning and challenges facing distance education in Africa. This chapter also examines the socio-political and economic factors limiting its effectiveness on the continent. The marketing distanceeducation in Afrika is described. Guessoum, in Chapter 14, makes a focus on progress in online education in the ArabWorld. The author underlined the challenges to online learning in the Arab world. In Chapter 15, a new model for global online learning is proposed based on current international research and literature in this field. The model proposed by Linder-Vanberschot, Borden and Pagels. The authors also describe the learner characteristics.In Chapter 16, Rajesh from Indira Ghandi University expands Sir John Daniels‘ concept of movement from the triangle-pentagon to an octagon. That is, to the pentagon of Access, Quality, Cost, Governance, Relevance, Rajesh

  19. African Women Writing Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jennifer Browdy de Hernandez; Pauline Dongala; Omotayo; Jolaosho; Anne Serafin

    2011-01-01

    AFRICAN Women Writing Resistance is the first transnational anthology to focus on women's strategies of resistance to the challenges they face in Africa today.The anthology brings together personal narratives,testimony,interviews,short stories,poetry,performance scripts,folktales and lyrics.

  20. African Women Writing Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jennifer; Browdy; de; Hernandez; Pauline; Dongala; Omotayo; Jolaosho; Anne; Serafin

    2011-01-01

    An Anthology of Contemporary Voices AFRICAN Women Writing Resistance is the first transnational anthology to focus on women’s strategies of resistance to the challenges they face in Africa today.The anthology brings together personal narratives,testimony,interviews, short stories,po-

  1. The challenge of linguistic and cultural diversity: Does length of experience affect South African speech-language therapists’ management of children with language impairment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frenette Southwood

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: South African speech-language therapists (SLTs currently do not reflect the country’s linguistic and cultural diversity. The question arises as to who might be better equipped currently to provide services to multilingual populations: SLTs with more clinical experience in such contexts, or recently trained SLTs who are themselves linguistically and culturally diverse and whose training programmes deliberately focused on multilingualism and multiculturalism?Aims: To investigate whether length of clinical experience influenced: number of bilingual children treated, languages spoken by these children, languages in which assessment and remediation can be offered, assessment instrument(s favoured, and languages in which therapy material is required.Method: From questionnaires completed by 243 Health Professions Council of South Africa (HPCSA-registered SLTs who treat children with language problems, two groups were drawn:71 more experienced (ME respondents (20+ years of experience and 79 less experienced (LE respondents (maximum 5 years of experience.Results: The groups did not differ significantly with regard to (1 number of children(monolingual or bilingual with language difficulties seen, (2 number of respondents seeing child clients who have Afrikaans or an African language as home language, (3 number of respondents who can offer intervention in Afrikaans or English and (4 number of respondents who reported needing therapy material in Afrikaans or English. However, significantly more ME than LE respondents reported seeing first language child speakers of English, whereas significantly more LE than ME respondents could provide services, and required therapymaterial, in African languages.Conclusion: More LE than ME SLTs could offer remediation in an African language, but there were few other significant differences between the two groups. There is still an absence of appropriate assessment and remediation material for Afrikaans and

  2. CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES OF SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT IN A COMPETITIVE ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra Ioana FLOREA

    2014-01-01

    In a world where companies’ revenues strive not to decrease and market shares are under constant pressure, managers try to find ways to deliver the value demanded by clients. Supply chain seems to be lately the field where they can find space to act and to deliver performance. This paper intends to discover the challenges that the supply chain practitioners must face in order to implement a good supply chain strategy and which strategy will fit best the needs of each company.

  3. Delivering medicines in a challenging environment: the pharmaceutical sector in East Timor (a descriptive study)

    OpenAIRE

    Norris P; Dos Santos RB; Woods D; Tobata W

    2007-01-01

    Background: The health status of the East Timorese population is very poor and much of the health system was destroyed during the violence of 1999. As in other developing countries, the lack of appropriate and high quality medicines significantly compromises patient care throughout the health system. The aim of this study was to examine the purchase, distribution and supply of pharmaceuticals in East Timor, and to identify the challenges faced by the pharmaceutical sector.Methods: Key informa...

  4. HIV treatment and care in resource-constrained environments: challenges for the next decade

    OpenAIRE

    Serge-Paul Eholié; François Eba Aoussi; Ismael Songda Ouattara; Emmanuel Bissagnéné; Xavier Anglaret

    2012-01-01

    Many successes have been achieved in HIV care in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC): increased number of HIV-infected individuals receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART), wide decentralization, reduction in morbidity and mortality and accessibility to cheapest drugs. However, these successes should not hide existing failures and difficulties. In this paper, we underline several key challenges. First, ensure long-term financing, increase available resources, in order to meet the increasi...

  5. Financial regulation and risk management: addressing risk challenges in a changing financial environment

    OpenAIRE

    Ojo, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    Amongst other things, this paper aims to address complexities and challenges faced by regulators in identifying and assessing risk, problems arising from different perceptions of risk, and solutions aimed at countering problems of risk regulation. It will approach these issues through an assessment of explanations put forward to justify the growing importance of risks, well known risk theories such as cultural theory, risk society theory and governmentality theory. In addressing the problems ...

  6. THE CHALLENGES FOR MARKETING DISTANCE EDUCATION IN ONLINE ENVIRONMENT An Integrated Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Reviewed by Natalija LEPKOVA

    2009-01-01

    THE CHALLENGES FOR MARKETING DISTANCE EDUCATION IN ONLINEENVIRONMENT An Integrated ApproachEdited by Prof. Dr. Ugur DEMIRAY,Assist. Prof. Dr. N. Serdar SEVER,Print ISBN 978-975-06-0596-3, Electronic ISBN 978-975-98590-6-0,732pp. 2009, Anadolu University, Eskisehir-Turkey(Available from http://www.midasebook.com)Reviewed by Associate Professor, Natalija LEPKOVADoctor of technological sciencesDepartment of Construction Economicsand Property ManagementVilnius Gediminas Technical University,LITHU...

  7. WiMAX in Coastal Traffic and Performance Prediction in a Geographically Challenging Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Formanek, Jan Gerhardsen

    2009-01-01

    This thesis takes upon itself to describe the medium of the radio channel for a WiMAX installation in a difficult environment. Furthermore it investigates the possibility of modifying the WiMAX standard in order to increase per- formance in such an environment. Channel estimators are crucial in optimizing throughput in WiMAX. Their performance is dependent on the amount of information in the pilot subcarriers of WiMAX. A way of adding information to the channel esti- mators without takin...

  8. The environment as radical politics: Can ?Third World? education rise to the challenge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickling-Hudson, Anne

    1994-01-01

    The pattern of industrial development which has been adopted globally in the last two centuries by both capitalist and socialist economies has caused unprecedented damage to the physical and ecological health of our planet. This paper argues that any challenges to these systems, including educational challenges, will involve political understanding and activism. It examines the potential of educational structures in Third World regions, using the Caribbean as the main example, for implementing eco-political education. This would involve encouraging students to use ecological and social justice criteria for comparing consumerist with sustainable development approaches to rethinking and refashioning the international economy, particularly the Third World share of it. It would involve teachers and students exploring how political and economic structures could be challenged and altered to obtain a fairer quality of life for the majorities now living in poverty and an adjustment of the opulent and wasteful lifestyles of affluent minorities primarily responsible for environmental degradation. Finally, those in eco-political education would work to achieve such goals within broad movements and pressure groups in rich and poor countries.

  9. Regulatory challenges in today's changing economy - adapting SKI to the new environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Sweden there are 11 operating reactors contributing to about half of electricity demands. The installed capacity is about 10 GW electricity. Challenges facing nuclear safety are economic pressure on utilities due to deregulation, ageing reactors and final disposal of nuclear waste. European integration, enlargement of the European Union and the national energy policy are other challenges. The last one is creating uncertainty for the future of nuclear power in the country. Moreover, there is an increased demand from stakeholders of an efficient, open and transparent regulatory body. A nuclear accident must not happen - nuclear waste must be taken care of safely - nuclear material must be controlled. These are the overriding driving forces behind SKI's mission. SKI is the Swedish nuclear safety regulator employing some 110 persons. In my contribution I will develop some aspects of the new safety challenges, discuss how they manifest themselves and outline SKI's regulatory strategy. SKI continues to act in order to make sure nuclear safety is not compromised through the maintenance of a strong national safety regulator with an active international program. (author)

  10. Students’ Perceived Challenges in an Online Collaborative Learning Environment: A Case of Higher Learning Institutions in Nairobi, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maina Elizaphan Muuro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Earlier forms of distance education were characterized by minimal social interaction like correspondence, television, video and radio. However, the World Wide Web (WWW and online learning introduced the opportunity for much more social interaction, particularly among learners, and this has been further made possible through social media in Web 2.0. The increased availability of collaborative tools in Web 2.0 has made it possible to have online collaborative learning realized in Higher Learning Institutions (HLIs. However, learners can perceive the online collaborative learning process as challenging and they fail to utilize these collaborative tools effectively. Although a number of challenges have been mentioned in the literature, considerable diversity exists among countries due to diversity in infrastructure support for e-learning and learners’ background. This motivated this study to investigate components of online collaborative learning perceived as challenging by learners in HLIs in Kenya. Using a questionnaire, a survey was conducted in two public universities and two private universities to identify students’ perceived challenges in an online collaborative learning environment. Through purposive sampling the questionnaire was distributed to 210 students using e-mail and 183 students responded. Based on descriptive analysis the following five major challenges were rated as high: lack of feedback from instructors, lack of feedback from peers, lack of time to participate, slow internet connectivity, and low or no participation of other group members. There was also a relationship between the university type (private or public with the perceived challenges which included: lack of feedback from the instructor (p=0.046 and work load not shared equally among group members (p=0.000. Apart from slow internet connectivity the rest of the challenges were in line with the observed challenges in the literature.These key challenges identified in

  11. Steps to African Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The development of Africa is vital to the world’s sustainable development.However,African countries still face key challenges in achieving the meaningful expansion of their economies.At the High-Level Symposium on China-Africa Investment Cooperation in Xiamen,southeast China’s Fujian Province,held from September 8 to 10,Chen Deming,Minister of Commerce of China,elaborates on these challenges and sees

  12. Challenging the current strategy of radiological protection of the environment: arguments for an ecosystem approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brechignac, F., E-mail: francois.brechignac@irsn. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), Centre d' Etudes de Cadarache, Blg 229, 13115 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Doi, Masahiro [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, NIRS, Center for Radiation Protection, Regulatory Sciences Research Group, 4-9-1, Anagawa, Inage, Chiba, 263-8555 (Japan)

    2009-12-15

    The system of radiological protection of the environment that is currently under development is one contribution to the general need to adequately protect the environment against stress. Dominated by operational goals, it emphasizes conceptual and methodological approaches that are readily accessible today: reference organisms supported by individual-based traditional ecotoxicological data. Whilst there are immediate advantages to this approach (pragmatism, consistency with other approaches in use for man and biota), there are also clear limitations, especially in a longer run perspective, that need to be acknowledged and further considered. One can mention a few: uncertainties generated by the need for various extrapolations (from lower to higher levels of biological organisation, ...), various features missed such as potential ecological impact through impairment of ecosystem processes, trans-generational impacts as mediated through genomic instability, indirect effects mediated through trophic interactions or disruption of ecological balances, ... Such limitations have already been faced in other fields of environmental protection against other stressors, pushing a number of environment professionals to assign stronger emphasis on more systemic approaches. This review discusses the advantages and limitations of the current approach designed for the radiological protection of non-human biota in the broader context of environment protection as a whole, with especial reference to upcoming trends and evolutions. This leads in particular to advocating the need to boost scientific and methodological approaches featuring the ecosystem concept as a mean to access a unified goal of protection: preserving life sustainability through protection of ecosystem structure and functioning.

  13. Challenging the current strategy of radiological protection of the environment: arguments for an ecosystem approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The system of radiological protection of the environment that is currently under development is one contribution to the general need to adequately protect the environment against stress. Dominated by operational goals, it emphasizes conceptual and methodological approaches that are readily accessible today: reference organisms supported by individual-based traditional ecotoxicological data. Whilst there are immediate advantages to this approach (pragmatism, consistency with other approaches in use for man and biota), there are also clear limitations, especially in a longer run perspective, that need to be acknowledged and further considered. One can mention a few: uncertainties generated by the need for various extrapolations (from lower to higher levels of biological organisation, ...), various features missed such as potential ecological impact through impairment of ecosystem processes, trans-generational impacts as mediated through genomic instability, indirect effects mediated through trophic interactions or disruption of ecological balances, ... Such limitations have already been faced in other fields of environmental protection against other stressors, pushing a number of environment professionals to assign stronger emphasis on more systemic approaches. This review discusses the advantages and limitations of the current approach designed for the radiological protection of non-human biota in the broader context of environment protection as a whole, with especial reference to upcoming trends and evolutions. This leads in particular to advocating the need to boost scientific and methodological approaches featuring the ecosystem concept as a mean to access a unified goal of protection: preserving life sustainability through protection of ecosystem structure and functioning.

  14. The Social Semantic Web in Intelligent Learning Environments: State of the Art and Future Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovic, Jelena; Gasevic, Dragan; Torniai, Carlo; Bateman, Scott; Hatala, Marek

    2009-01-01

    Today's technology-enhanced learning practices cater to students and teachers who use many different learning tools and environments and are used to a paradigm of interaction derived from open, ubiquitous, and socially oriented services. In this context, a crucial issue for education systems in general, and for Intelligent Learning Environments…

  15. Quality of Learning Facilities and Learning Environment: Challenges for Teaching and Learning in Kenya's Public Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndirangu, Mwangi; Udoto, Maurice O.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to report findings on the perceptions of quality of educational facilities in Kenyan public universities, and the implications for teaching/learning, and the learning environment. Design/methodology/approach: The study adopted an exploratory descriptive design. A total of 332 and 107 undergraduate students…

  16. Prolonged depression-like behavior caused by immune challenge: influence of mouse strain and social environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelin Painsipp

    Full Text Available Immune challenge by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS causes short-term behavioral changes indicative of depression. The present study sought to explore whether LPS is able to induce long-term changes in depression-related behavior and whether such an effect depends on mouse strain and social context. LPS (0.83 mg/kg or vehicle was administered intraperitoneally to female CD1 and C57BL/6 mice that were housed singly or in groups of 4. Depression-like behavior was assessed with the forced swim test (FST 1 and 28 days post-treatment. Group-housed CD1 mice exhibited depression-like behavior 1 day post-LPS, an effect that leveled off during the subsequent 28 days, while the behavior of singly housed CD1 mice was little affected. In contrast, singly housed C57BL/6 mice responded to LPS with an increase in depression-like behavior that was maintained for 4 weeks post-treatment and confirmed by the sucrose preference test. Group-housed C57BL/6 mice likewise displayed an increased depression-like behavior 4 weeks post-treatment. The behavioral changes induced by LPS in C57BL/6 mice were associated with a particularly pronounced rise of interleukin-6 in blood plasma within 1 day post-treatment and with changes in the dynamics of the corticosterone response to the FST. The current data demonstrate that immune challenge with LPS is able to induce prolonged depression-like behavior, an effect that depends on genetic background (strain. The discovery of an experimental model of long-term depression-like behavior after acute immune challenge is of relevance to the analysis of the epigenetic and pathophysiologic mechanisms of immune system-related affective disorders.

  17. Management of type 2 diabetes mellitus: Adherence challenges in environments of low socio-economic status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Steyl

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The efficacy of treatment for clients with diabetes is highly dependent on the individual’s ability to manage the disease. Several constraints, such as poverty, illiteracy and insufficient resources (finances and specialised healthcare professionals, especially communities of low socio-economic status, could influence clients’ ability to manage their disease.Aim: The main aim of this study was to outline the obstacles encountered by individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus from an urban community with regard to management of their disease.Setting: The study was conducted at a primary health care facility in the Western Cape, South Africa.Methods: Ethical clearance was obtained from all relevant authorities. Eight (8 conveniently selected clients with type 2 diabetes mellitus per participating community healthcare centre (six approved centres in total were invited to take part in focus group discussions. Twenty six clients, 15 females and 11 males, with a mean age of 58.92 years (SD = 7.33, agreed to participate. Audiotaped data were transcribed verbatim followed by content analysis and identification of themes.Results: Themes that emerged were challenges with: a healthy eating plan, physical activity, financial constraints, other people’s understanding of the disease, and service received at the community healthcare centre. Verbatim quotes were used to exemplify the themes.Conclusion: Clients with type 2 diabetes mellitus experienced several challenges in the management of their disease. These challenges should be addressed to assist with better glycaemic control and to curb the emergence of diabetic complications and their attendant cost implications.

  18. Well construction hydraulics in challenging environments; Hidraulica de construcao de pocos em cenarios criticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Andre Leibsohn; Folsta, Mauricio Gimenes; Waldmann, Alex Tadeu de Almeida; Gandelman, Roni Abensur [Centro de Pesquisas da Petrobras (CENPES). Gerencia de Interacao Rocha-Fluido (Brazil)], e-mails: aleibsohn@petrobras.com.br, folsta@petrobras.com.br, awaldmann@petrobras.com.br, roniag@petrobras.com.br; Aragao, Atila Fernando Lima [E and P Construcao de Pocos Maritimos. Gerencia de Tecnologia de Fluidos (Brazil)], e-mail: atila-aragao@petrobras.com.br; Aranha, Pedro Esteves [Centro de Pesquisas da Petrobras (CENPES). Gerencia de Perfuracao e Completacao de Pocos (Brazil)], e-mail: pearanha@petrobras.com.br

    2009-12-15

    This article reports the main R and D efforts on well bore construction hydraulics which facilitated the technological development of major Brazilian offshore fields in challenging scenarios. These include: deep and ultra deep water exploratory campaigns, inclined, horizontal and complex trajectory development wells, extended reach wells, long horizontal section wells and drilling through sensitive formations (heavy oil reservoirs, salt zones and fractured carbonates). The relevant scenarios, technical aspects, project development strategies, the history of well bore hydraulics in the main PETROBRAS R and D programs, as well as the contribution of Brazilian universities are detailed. (author)

  19. Quality of Service challenges for Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) within the wireless environment

    OpenAIRE

    Peart, Amanda; Adda, Mo

    2008-01-01

    Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) is a rapidly growing user technology. Uptake in VoIP technology has significantly increased, especially more recently with the home user moving VoIP away from business dominance. The general population have become accustom to the excellent Quality of Service (QoS) that is now expected from the telecommunications industry both within the landline and mobile infrastructures. QoS within VoIP poses many challenges to be able to compete with the traditional tele...

  20. [Conflict management: challenges experienced by nurse-leaders in the hospital environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amestoy, Simone Coelho; Backes, Vânia Marli Schubert; Thofehrn, Maira Buss; Martini, Jussara Gue; Meirelles, Betina Hörner Schlindwein; Trindade, Letícia de Lima

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to understand the main conflicts experienced by nurses-leaders in the hospital environment, as well as the strategies adopted to face them.The study reflects a qualitative descriptive type approach, which was used in the case study as research strategy. The study included 25 nurses who worked in three hospitals in the city of Florianopolis, Santa Catarina. Information where obtained in the months of May to December of 2010 through semi-structured interviews, non-participant observation and dialogical workshops. Data were analyzed using the Thematic Analysis. The results demonstrated the predominant of interpersonal conflicts involving the multidisciplinary team, nurses and the nursing staff Adopting a participatory leadership, based on dialogue emerges as a strategy for coping with conflicts in the hospital environment. PMID:25158465

  1. THE PERCEPTIONS OF ROMANIAN YOUNG ENTREPRENEURS REGARDING THE CHALLENGES OF AN INNOVATIVE BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia DOVLEAC

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims the investigation of the relationship between entrepreneurial phenomenon among young people in Romania and the business environment, strongly marked by innovation and new technologies, as pillars of sustainable development in the knowledge-based society. For achieving the paper’s goal there are used the results of a qualitative research based on in-depth interview which aim to identify the views and experiences of young entrepreneurs on the advantages and disadvantages of starting an innovative business in Romania. Data analysis allowed the formulation of some recommendations to state institutions, business environment and the academic community to support young entrepreneurs in developing their business right after the launch. Access to new funding sources, guidance and informational support are the principal needs for entrepreneurs in their struggle to develop innovative sustainable businesses. The strong promotion of young entrepreneurs inside their community or at national level contributes to the development of a strong entrepreneurial culture for Romania.

  2. Toho Gas accepts the challenge of operational reform creation of an integrated OA environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toho Gas Co., Ltd. is Japan's third largest city gas supplier. In response to changes in the industrial environment, the company began the Integrated OA Project in 1994 promoting use of information technology while reforming its systems and culture. We made a proposal to distribute one personal computer connected to a company-wide network to each office worker. In addition, we attached importance to the creation of a database, which can integrate all information systems with a flexible structure and also play a central role in end user computing. A data model for the entire company has been already made and implemented into some operational systems and data-warehouses. Furthermore, to reform our business we are offering incremental goals, including the first step such as achieving a paper less working environment with a little effort. This methodology has achieved a great success. In the near future, we will expand the infrastructure with mobile computers and implementation of a database. (au)

  3. Outdoor-indoor air pollution in urban environment: challenges and opportunity

    OpenAIRE

    Leung, Dennis Y. C.

    2015-01-01

    With the continual improvement in our quality of life, indoor air quality has become an important area of concern in the twenty-first century. Indoor air quality is affected by many factors including the type and running conditions of indoor pollution sources, ventilation conditions, as well as indoor activities. Studies revealed that the outdoor environment is also an important factor that cannot be neglected for indoor air quality studies. In this review, the indoor and outdoor air pollutio...

  4. Localisation challenges in usability and customer relationship management of e-commerce environments

    OpenAIRE

    Minocha, Shailey; Hall, Pat; Dawson, Liisa

    2004-01-01

    With growing competition in the global E-Market place, the focus of E-Businesses is moving from customer acquisition to customer retention. Towards this, E-Businesses, in addition to providing a usable site, are integrating Customer-relationship Management (CRM) strategies into the design and usability of E-Commerce environments. These CRM strategies include personalisation, providing consistent customer service across different communication channels of the E-Business, meeting customers' exp...

  5. Call for papers: Fostering an Entrepreneurial Environment in an Emerging Nation: Lessons and Challenges from Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Albornoz

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The level of entrepreneurial activity is related to several factors such as the educational level of the local population, the business environment, and the legal conditions (Grilo and Thurik 2005; van Stel et al 2005; Bowen and De Clercq 2008. Some of these macro level factors can explain not only the entrepreneurial capabilities, but also the type of entrepreneurial activity that occurs. 

  6. Assessing some aspects of managerial ethics within the South African business environment / Lukas Daniël Barnard

    OpenAIRE

    Barnard, Lukas Daniël, 1983-

    2012-01-01

    Since the early 2000s there has been a growing awareness of the indivisible link between ethical conduct on the one hand and business practice on the other. A spate of corporate scandals, due to poor ethical management and deficient ethical decision making, has increased public scrutiny of organisational conduct. This indivisible link between ethics and management warranted investigation; consequently some aspects of managerial ethics in the corporate environment of South Africa were analysed...

  7. Delivering medicines in a challenging environment: the pharmaceutical sector in East Timor (a descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norris P

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The health status of the East Timorese population is very poor and much of the health system was destroyed during the violence of 1999. As in other developing countries, the lack of appropriate and high quality medicines significantly compromises patient care throughout the health system. The aim of this study was to examine the purchase, distribution and supply of pharmaceuticals in East Timor, and to identify the challenges faced by the pharmaceutical sector.Methods: Key informant interviews were held with health professionals and others involved in health care and the pharmaceutical sector in East Timor; documents (including regulations and rules were reviewed; and daily activities observed at the Central Store, health centers, pharmacies and retail shops. Results: Some of the major challenges facing the pharmaceutical sector include lack of trained staff, sub-optimal facilities and lack of basic equipment. These lead to unsafe practices, and reliance on outside agencies.Conclusions: There are significant threats to the supply and quality of medicines in East Timor. There is currently a high level of dependence on foreign expertise, which is unsustainable in the long term.

  8. Metrology of natural radionuclides. Current challenges in radiation protection for industry and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a range of industrial branches increased activity concentrations of natural radionuclides occur in various NORM materials processed. The ICRP 103 recommendation, and subsequent the IAEA International Basic Safety Standards and the European Basic Safety Standards for Radiation Protection, raised new challenges in radiation protection concerning natural radionuclide metrology and activity measurement methods - in particular for natural decay chain radionuclides (238U+, 232Th+, 235U+). Especially adequate traceability and optimized measurement uncertainties of applied activity measurement methods are of increasing concern. In this paper a review on radionuclide metrology of natural radionuclides and its implementation to end-user activity measurement methods and practice is presented. This includes an overview on current and emerging drivers, targets, challenges, deliverables, technologies and stakeholders in the field. Current research results on activity measurement standards and instrumentation for natural radionuclides, revised decay data, in-situ measurement methods, NORM reference materials, are covered as well as benefits of natural radionuclide metrology on radiation protection of workers and the public.

  9. Social Media in the Dental School Environment, Part A: Benefits, Challenges, and Recommendations for Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spallek, Heiko; Turner, Sharon P; Donate-Bartfield, Evelyn; Chambers, David; McAndrew, Maureen; Zarkowski, Pamela; Karimbux, Nadeem

    2015-10-01

    Social media consist of powerful tools that impact not only communication but relationships among people, thus posing an inherent challenge to the traditional standards of who we are as dental educators and what we can expect of each other. This article examines how the world of social media has changed dental education. Its goal is to outline the complex issues that social media use presents for academic dental institutions and to examine these issues from personal, professional, and legal perspectives. After providing an update on social media, the article considers the advantages and risks associated with the use of social media at the interpersonal, professional, and institutional levels. Policies and legal issues of which academic dental institutions need to be aware from a compliance perspective are examined, along with considerations and resources needed to develop effective social media policies. The challenge facing dental educators is how to capitalize on the benefits that social media offer, while minimizing risks and complying with the various forms of legal constraint. PMID:26427774

  10. Selection of sustainability indicators for health services in challenging environments: balancing scientific approach with political engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchet, Karl; Girois, Susan

    2013-06-01

    Sustainability evaluation has become a key component of international health. However, evaluators have faced a number of challenges linked to the lack of consensus on the meaning of the concept of "sustainability". This paper aims to describe a methodology, the Sustainability Analysis Process, based on several conceptual frameworks and tested in five different countries in the physical rehabilitation sector. The methodology consists of five successive steps: (i) overview of the context; (ii) system boundary; (iii) consensus vision of sustainability, and derivation of stakeholder perspectives; (iv) selection of sustainability indicators and characterization and analysis of local system sustainability; and (v) verification and modification. The paper also discusses the place of the evaluator and researcher in the process: the methodology aims to help evaluators objectively measure the level of sustainability of a health system with the challenge of dealing with a subjective notion, the concept of sustainability, and a diversity of actors. The Sustainability Analysis Process also aims to capture the dynamics of systems by repeating the process on a regular basis. The methodology highlights the need for evaluators build consensus amongst stakeholders on a common vision of the future of a health system. PMID:23266399

  11. Tracking changing environments using stable carbon isotopes in fossil tooth enamel: an example from the South African hominin sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Thorp, Julia A; Sponheimer, Matt; Luyt, Julie

    2007-11-01

    The environmental contexts of the karstic hominin sites in South Africa have been established largely by means of faunal associations; taken together these data suggest a trend from relatively closed and more mesic to open, drier environments from about 3 to 1.5 Ma. Vrba argued for a major shift within this trend ca. 2.4-2.6 Ma, an influential proposal that posited links between bovid (and hominin) radiation in Africa and the intensification of Northern Hemisphere Glaciation. Yet faunal approaches often rely on habitat and feeding preferences of modern taxa that may differ from those of their extinct predecessors. Here we explore ways of extending (13)C/(12)C data from fossil mammals beyond denoting "presence" or "absence" of C(4) grasses using the evolution of open environments in South Africa as a case study. To do so we calculated the relative proportions of C(3)-, mixed-, and C(4)-feeding herbivores for all the hominin sites for which we have sufficient data based on (13)C/(12)C analyses of fossil tooth enamel. The results confirm a general trend towards more open environments since 3 Ma, but they also emphasize a marked change to open grassy habitats in the latest Pliocene/early Pleistocene. Mean (13)C/(12)C for large felids also mirrored this trend. PMID:17920103

  12. Disruptions and Disturbance as Challenges in a Blended Learning (BL) Environment and the Role of Embodied Habit Orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Susanne; Ryberg, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we analyse two cases where BL courses have been run since the summer 2012 (Teachers´ and the radiography educational programmes at University College North in Denmark (UCN). In this study it was clear that the majority of students preferred face-to-face instructions and interaction...... over the implemented BL approach and they felt more disrupted and disturbed when required to work more online and from home. In the paper we therefore discuss how disruptions and disturbances have an influence on students’ study and learning activities in a BL environment. We argue how disturbances are...... and discuss how students’ orientation in different learning environments influence their navigation, and how disruptions and disturbances affect their orientation. The findings illustrate and discuss students’ challenges of adapting to the BL approach and how students’ prior experiences and habits...

  13. Modeling and Simulation of Scalable Cloud Computing Environments and the CloudSim Toolkit: Challenges and Opportunities

    CERN Document Server

    Buyya, Rajkumar; Calheiros, Rodrigo N

    2009-01-01

    Cloud computing aims to power the next generation data centers and enables application service providers to lease data center capabilities for deploying applications depending on user QoS (Quality of Service) requirements. Cloud applications have different composition, configuration, and deployment requirements. Quantifying the performance of resource allocation policies and application scheduling algorithms at finer details in Cloud computing environments for different application and service models under varying load, energy performance (power consumption, heat dissipation), and system size is a challenging problem to tackle. To simplify this process, in this paper we propose CloudSim: an extensible simulation toolkit that enables modelling and simulation of Cloud computing environments. The CloudSim toolkit supports modelling and creation of one or more virtual machines (VMs) on a simulated node of a Data Center, jobs, and their mapping to suitable VMs. It also allows simulation of multiple Data Centers to...

  14. Measurements of NO2, SO2, NH3, HNO3 and O3 in West African urban environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adon, Marcellin; Yoboué, Véronique; Galy-Lacaux, Corinne; Liousse, Catherine; Diop, Babakar; Doumbia, El Hadji Thierno; Gardrat, Eric; Ndiaye, Seydi Ababacar; Jarnot, Christian

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we present the measurements of atmospheric gas concentrations of NO2, SO2, NH3, HNO3, and O3 performed at two traffic sites in the context of the POLCA (Pollution of African Capitals) program. These gases were measured using a passive sampling technique from Jan. 2008 to Dec. 2009 at Dakar and from Jun. 2008 to Dec. 2009 at Bamako. In addition, during these periods there were two intensive measurement campaigns (from 19 Jan. to 2 Feb. 2009 at Bamako and from 30 Nov. to 13 Dec. 2009 at Dakar) where real-time active analysers were used to measure NO2 and SO2. Results show that Dakar has a pollution level for NO2 and SO2 higher than that of Bamako, whereas it is lower for NH3 concentrations. Monthly values of NO2 range between 21.1 and 43.5 ppb in Dakar with an annual mean concentration of 31.7 ppb (59.6 μg/m3). NO2 values in Bamako are 9.4-22.6 ppb with a mean of 16.2 ppb. At Dakar, the mean annual NO2 limit value (21.3 ppb or 40 μg/m3) recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) is widely exceeded. The mean annual concentration of SO2 is 15.9 ppb in Dakar and 3.6 ppb in Bamako. These differences may be explained by different sources of traffic between Bamako (with mainly gasoline vehicles) and Dakar (with mainly diesel vehicles). The annual mean NH3 concentration is about two times higher in Bamako (46.7 ppb) than in Dakar (21.1 ppb). In addition to other possible sources, we assume that the ammonia from domestic fires and uncontrolled garbage incineration may have more influence at Bamako than at Dakar. The mean annual concentrations of HNO3 and O3 are 1.3 ppb and 7.7 ppb in Dakar and 0.6 ppb and 5.1 ppb in Bamako, respectively. Seasonal variation in measured gas concentrations are low in Bamako and more pronounced in Dakar, except for HNO3 and NH3. At Dakar, NO2 and SO2 daily mean concentrations are higher during the weekdays than on weekends, when urban activities are reduced, whereas at Bamako, no significant difference was observed

  15. Energy and environment: the risks and the challenges of a predicted crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The human development is closely correlated to the energies use. And the energy consumption is correlated to the environmental pollution. This book allows to understand the nature of the difficulties and their importance, and to identify actions to fight against the crisis. Bringing many data, it provides information on the different energies sources, the primary, final and use energy, the reserves, the potential of the renewable energies, the risks for the health and the environment, the constraints and the 21 century perspectives. (A.L.B.)

  16. Hints of Habitable Environments on Mars Challenge Our Studies of Mars-Analog Sites on Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    desMarais, David J

    2009-01-01

    Life as we know it requires water with a chemical activity (alpha) >or approx.0.6 and sources of nutrients and useful energy. Some biota can survive even if favorable conditions occur only intermittently, but the minimum required frequency of occurrences is poorly understood. Recent discoveries have vindicated the Mars exploration strategy to follow the water. Mars Global Surveyor s Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) found coarse-grained hematite at Meridiani Planum. Opportunity rover confirmed this and also found evidence of ancient sulfate-rich playa lakes and near-surface groundwater. Elsewhere, TES found evidence of evaporitic halides in topographic depressions. But alpha might not have approached 0.6 in these evaporitic sulfate- and halide-bearing waters. Mars Express (MEX) and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) found extensive sulfate evaporites in Meridiani and Valles Marineris. MEX found phyllosilicates at several sites, most notably Mawrth Valles and Nili Fossae. MRO's CRISM near-IR mapper extended the known diversity and geographic distribution of phyllosilicates to include numerous Noachian craters. Phyllosilicates typically occur at the base of exposed ancient rock sections or in sediments in early Hesperian craters. It is uncertain whether the phyllosilicates developed in surface or subsurface aqueous environments and how long aqueous conditions persisted. Spirit rover found remarkably pure ferric sulfate, indicating oxidation and transport of Fe and S, perhaps in fumaroles or hot springs. Spirit also found opaline silica, consistent with hydrothermal activity. CRISM mapped extensive silica deposits in the Valles Marineris region, consistent with aqueous weathering and deposition. CRISM also found ultramafic rocks and magnesite at Nili Fossae, consistent with serpentinization, a process that can sustain habitable environments on Earth. The report of atmospheric methane implies subsurface aqueous conditions. A working hypothesis is that aqueous

  17. IoT Privacy and Security Challenges for Smart Home Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huichen Lin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Often the Internet of Things (IoT is considered as a single problem domain, with proposed solutions intended to be applied across a wide range of applications. However, the privacy and security needs of critical engineering infrastructure or sensitive commercial operations are very different to the needs of a domestic Smart Home environment. Additionally, the financial and human resources available to implement security and privacy vary greatly between application domains. In domestic environments, human issues may be as important as technical issues. After surveying existing solutions for enhancing IoT security, the paper identifies key future requirements for trusted Smart Home systems. A gateway architecture is selected as the most appropriate for resource-constrained devices, and for high system availability. Two key technologies to assist system auto-management are identified. Firstly, support for system auto-configuration will enhance system security. Secondly, the automatic update of system software and firmware is needed to maintain ongoing secure system operation.

  18. Performance management systems implementation challenges in South African municipalities :|bthe case of Dr Kenneth Kaunda District Municipality / M.P. Tšeole.

    OpenAIRE

    Tšeole, Molise Paul

    2013-01-01

    In the accomplishment of good governance South African municipalities need to develop measurable objectives related to performance measures and targets that capture strategically important aspects of performance. This allows performance to be easily monitored and aligned with municipal Integrated Development Plans (IDPs). Performance information should be used in conjunction with strategic planning, budgeting, policy analysis and evaluations, organisational reviews and performance apprais...

  19. Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    The term environment refers to the internal and external context in which organizations operate. For some scholars, environment is defined as an arrangement of political, economic, social and cultural factors existing in a given context that have an impact on organizational processes and structures....... For others, environment is a generic term describing a large variety of stakeholders and how these interact and act upon organizations. Organizations and their environment are mutually interdependent and organizational communications are highly affected by the environment. This entry examines the...... origin and development of organization-environment interdependence, the nature of the concept of environment and its relevance for communication scholarships and activities....

  20. Impact man and environment for a durable development, the challenge of the time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problems to the environment are complex and, are the object of a lot of research to the world level, while trying to pull profit to the maximum on use and the exploitation of the facilities during their operational life. It is essentially owed to the pollution hydrique and to the broadcasts of carbon oxide. In the cities and the regions to strong density of population, it is important to reduce the broadcasts of oxide nitrogen, carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons,because they produce ominous effects at a time on the human health and on the environment. It is important to keep in memory makes it that a human being gives out annually about 1.5 ton of carbon equivalent. The goal of the originality of this work is to face these questions that reveal a stake double-entendre: to invent an economy and, beyond, a civilization that doesn't run to its disappearance while ruining the conditions of its own existence, such is the consensus of the sense of the lasting development to the largest sense. One imagines tensions very well when one knows that the ultimate reserves will be concentrated between the hands of a number limited of country, what destabilizes the balance and the world peace, by a noon balanced use of the resources hydriques and energizing. The actuality confers to this problem a very immediate acuteness. How to decorate this inconvenience? Will the diversification of the sources of provision be sufficient it? How to preserve these sources qualitatively and quantitatively? the statistical results give a number of 40.000 deaths per year due to the atmospheric pollution, 85.000 children reached of the illnesses hydriques and the other sanitary curses as tobacco and the alcohol, and the lake of water to the level of the homes is responsible each of 50.000 to 60.000 cancers per year. To the total a number of more than ten (10) millions of deaths every year by a sick environment.(Author)

  1. Probing a Proactive Home: Challenges in Researching and Designing Everyday Smart Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans Mäyrä

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the results of a 3-year interdisciplinary study, this article presents an approach in which proactive information technology was introduced into homes, and discusses the derived design principles from a human-centered perspective. The application of proactive computing in homes will face particularly sensitive conditions, as familiar and reliable household elements remain strongly preferred. Since there is considerable resistance towards the increase of information technology in homes, both the calm system behaviors and the degree of variety in aesthetic designs will play major roles in the acceptance of proactive technology. If proactive technology will be an embedded part of a home’s structures and furniture, it needs to blend with the normal, cozy standards of a real living environment and aim to enhance the homeyness or the key social and aesthetic qualities of homes.

  2. Improving the food environment in UK schools: policy opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Anu; Surender, Rebecca; Rayner, Michael

    2010-07-01

    Childhood obesity and nutrition are high on the UK policy agenda because of their association with chronic illnesses and related costs. In 2007, to improve children's nutrition, the Government introduced new standards for all school food sources, including products sold from vending machines. Our research explores the factors influencing schools' decisions and children's food choices in relation to vending machines. We conducted in-depth interviews with staff and pupils in one English Local Education Authority. We found that pupils made food decisions based on cost considerations, and convenience, and they strongly valued individual choice. Schools' decisions to provide vending were influenced predominantly by fiscal and structural constraints. Although unhappy with the current quality of school food, staff and pupils criticised initiatives to restrict unhealthy foods. It appears that achieving a healthier school environment is a long-term project involving multiple strategies of education and incentives, as well as regulation. These must involve parents as well as pupils and schools. PMID:20535103

  3. Sulfonamide and tetracycline resistance genes in total- and culturable-bacterial assemblages in South African aquatic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Satoru; Ogo, Mitsuko; Koike, Tatsuya; Takada, Hideshige; Newman, Brent

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic resistant bacteria are ubiquitous in the natural environment. The introduction of effluent derived antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) into aquatic environments is of concern in the spreading of genetic risk. This study showed the prevalence of sulfonamide and tetracycline resistance genes, sul1, sul2, sul3, and tet(M), in the total bacterial assemblage and colony forming bacterial assemblage in river and estuarine water and sewage treatment plants (STP) in South Africa. There was no correlation between antibiotic concentrations and ARGs, suggesting the targeted ARGs are spread in a wide area without connection to selection pressure. Among sul genes, sul1 and sul2 were major genes in the total (over 10-2 copies/16S) and colony forming bacteria assemblages (∼10-1 copies/16S). In urban waters, the sul3 gene was mostly not detectable in total and culturable assemblages, suggesting sul3 is not abundant. tet(M) was found in natural assemblages with 10-3 copies/16S level in STP, but was not detected in colony forming bacteria, suggesting the non-culturable (yet-to-be cultured) bacterial community in urban surface waters and STP effluent possess the tet(M) gene. Sulfamethoxazole (SMX) resistant (SMXr) and oxytetracycline (OTC) resistant (OTCr) bacterial communities in urban waters possessed not only sul1 and sul2 but also sul3 and tet(M) genes. These genes are widely distributed in SMXr and OTCr bacteria. In conclusion, urban river and estuarine water and STP effluent in the Durban area were highly contaminated with ARGs, and the yet-to-be cultured bacterial community may act as a non-visible ARG reservoir in certain situations. PMID:26300864

  4. Variation of gene expression associated with colonisation of an anthropized environment: comparison between African and European populations of Drosophila simulans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Wurmser

    Full Text Available The comparison of transcriptome profiles among populations is a powerful tool for investigating the role of gene expression change in adaptation to new environments. In this study, we use massively parallel sequencing of 3' cDNAs obtained from large samples of adult males, to compare a population of Drosophila simulans from a natural reserve within its ancestral range (eastern Africa with a derived population collected in the strongly anthropized Rhône valley (France. The goal was to scan for adaptation linked to the invasion of new environments by the species. Among 15,090 genes retained for the analysis, 794 were found to be differentially expressed between the two populations. We observed an increase in expression of reproduction-related genes in eastern Africa, and an even stronger increase in expression of Cytochrome P450, Glutathione transferase and Glucuronosyl transferase genes in the derived population. These three gene families are involved in detoxification processes, which suggests that pesticides are a major environmental pressure for the species in this area. The survey of the Cyp6g1 upstream region revealed the insertion of a transposable element, Juan, in the regulatory sequence that is almost fixed in the Rhône Valley, but barely present in Mayotte. This shows that Cyp6g1 has undergone parallel evolution in derived populations of D. simulans as previously shown for D. melanogaster. The increasing amount of data produced by comparative population genomics and transcriptomics should permit the identification of additional genes associated with functional divergence among those differentially expressed.

  5. Sakhalin 2, phase 2 project : meeting the Arctic challenge in a sub-Arctic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakhalin Energy's objective is to commercially develop, operate and market the hydrocarbon resources and associated infrastructure governed by the Sakhalin 2 licenses for the sustainable benefit of shareholders, the Russian Federation, the Sakhalin Oblast and the wider community. This presentation discussed Sakhalin Energy's holdings including its investment company and hydrocarbon projects in eastern Russia. The Sakhalin area is a remote island that lacks infrastructure, has a low population density, with a rich onshore and offshore wildlife. It is a seismically active area, with seasonal operating windows, drifting pack ice from December to June, waves up to 18 metre maximum height, and frequent fog in spring and summer. The temperature also varies from 28 degrees Celsius to -40 degrees Celsius. The presentation also addressed the rerouting of offshore pipelines to ensure the least possible disturbance to western gray whale migration. Several photographs and illustrations of the phase 1 project were presented. Open water conditions were also illustrated. The phase 2 project was then outlined. This included illustrations of the platform, plant and export terminal, and onshore processing facility. Other photographs that were shown in the presentation included the offshore pipeline installation; a view of the shore approach to the pipeline installation; oil spill response; and escape, evacuation, and response. The design challenges and design philosophy of the project were also identified. The presentation concluded with a discussion of ice loading and platform response. figs

  6. Full shift arm inclinometry among dairy parlor workers: a feasibility study in a challenging work environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douphrate, David I; Fethke, Nathan B; Nonnenmann, Matthew W; Rosecrance, John C; Reynolds, Stephen J

    2012-05-01

    Over the last 20 years, the US dairy industry has experienced a significant transformation from small farm operations to an industrialization of the milking process. This transformation has resulted in improvements in process efficiency and product quality. Milking tasks in large-herd parlors are highly-repetitive involving awkward postures and high muscle loads of the upper extremity. Field-based direct measures of physical exposures have been limited in challenging work settings such as dairies. This study evaluated full-shift exposures of posture and motion of the upper extremity among large-herd parlor milkers using wireless inclinometry. Results suggest large-herd parlor workers may be exposed to high exposure levels (posture, movement velocity, repetition, and inadequate rest) associated with the development of shoulder pathology. Compared to other high-risk occupations involving shoulder-intensive work, parlor workers may have higher exposure levels. These findings warrant the need for continued field-based research with larger sample sizes to facilitate the development of cost-effective intervention strategies. PMID:22019358

  7. New (? African communication environment. A contribution to the study of communication and Africa / Una contribución al estudio sobre la comunicación y África.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Caffarel

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available For the editors of this special issue is a particular cause for hope and joy to present the set of selected papers now published in the journal index.Comunicación, among those authors who responded to the call for papers launched in February 2013, under the title New (? African communication environment.Para los editores de este número monográfico es un motivo de especial ilusión y alegría poder presentar el conjunto de trabajos seleccionados y publicados ahora en esta edición especial de la revista académica Index.Comunicación, de entre aquellos autores que respondieron a la llamada a contribuciones lanzada el pasado mes de febrero de 2013, bajo el título New (? African communication environment.

  8. Poverty and environment in Amazonia: a specific challenge for joint implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitschein, T.A.; Schreiber, V. [Federal University of Para (Brazil). Program Poverty and Environment in Amazonia

    1998-08-01

    The largest continuous tropical forest is found in Amazonia. Its destruction by burning for cattle pastures and subsistence agriculture contributes to the increases in concentrations of CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere and at the same time exhausts the extraordinary biodiversity of this region. In this sense, global ecological problems such as the greenhouse effect and genetic erosion and the future modes of development in Amazonia represent the same side of a coin. This means that the elaboration and implementation of strategies that understand the value of joint implementation as an indispensable element to reverse the tendencies of devastation which are underway in the regional context are required. It is from this principle that the Program Poverty and Environment in Amazonia of the Federal University of Para has been working since its creation in 1992. Through this approach, encroachment on primary forest areas is avoided, while agroforestry systems restore degraded areas in a manner which mimics the natural regeneration of the forest, enriched with species which produce natural products with potential for industrial use. (author)

  9. Dynamic and Interactive Mathematics Learning Environments: Opportunities and Challenges for Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Olive

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available New networking and social interaction technologies offer new media for learning and teaching both inside and outside the classroom. How and what kind of learning may take place in these new media is the main focus of this paper. An integrative theoretical framework for investigating these questions is posed based on the Didactic Tetrahedron (Olive and Makar, 2009. This didactic tetrahedron proposes that the student, supported by the teacher, task and technology form a space within which new mathematical knowledge may emerge. Examples of these new media are presented, including single player and multi-player web-based gaming environments; dynamic, web-based, interactive data visualization tools; dynamic computer-based tools for developing number and early algebra concepts; multi-touch apps for the iPad and iPhone; a web-based tutorial that raises a red flag for how mathematically flawed and cognitively dangerous some of this new media can be; and a research-based manipulative for developing children’s fractional knowledge that offers researchers the “possibility to make visible, the thinking of the user.” (Zbeik, Heid, Blume and Dick, 2007

  10. From Petascale to Exascale: Eight Focus Areas of R&D Challenges for HPC Simulation Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springmeyer, R; Still, C; Schulz, M; Ahrens, J; Hemmert, S; Minnich, R; McCormick, P; Ward, L; Knoll, D

    2011-03-17

    Programming models bridge the gap between the underlying hardware architecture and the supporting layers of software available to applications. Programming models are different from both programming languages and application programming interfaces (APIs). Specifically, a programming model is an abstraction of the underlying computer system that allows for the expression of both algorithms and data structures. In comparison, languages and APIs provide implementations of these abstractions and allow the algorithms and data structures to be put into practice - a programming model exists independently of the choice of both the programming language and the supporting APIs. Programming models are typically focused on achieving increased developer productivity, performance, and portability to other system designs. The rapidly changing nature of processor architectures and the complexity of designing an exascale platform provide significant challenges for these goals. Several other factors are likely to impact the design of future programming models. In particular, the representation and management of increasing levels of parallelism, concurrency and memory hierarchies, combined with the ability to maintain a progressive level of interoperability with today's applications are of significant concern. Overall the design of a programming model is inherently tied not only to the underlying hardware architecture, but also to the requirements of applications and libraries including data analysis, visualization, and uncertainty quantification. Furthermore, the successful implementation of a programming model is dependent on exposed features of the runtime software layers and features of the operating system. Successful use of a programming model also requires effective presentation to the software developer within the context of traditional and new software development tools. Consideration must also be given to the impact of programming models on both languages and the

  11. Radiation protection measurement techniques and the challenges encountered in industrial and medical environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowadays everybody is concerned by the use of ionizing radiations for diagnostic and therapy purposes. Radiation protection regulatory requirements are becoming more and more constraining and have an impact on the performance criteria required for measurement systems. The measurement of some radiation protection data requires the use of complex and costly devices, leading to hardly manageable constraints for the users. Do they have to be systematically implemented? How is it possible to reduce, control and optimize the medical exposures using new methodological approaches? During this conference the participants have shed light on some concrete situations and realisations in the environmental, nuclear industry and medical domains. The document brings together 34 presentations (slides) dealing with: 1 - Environmental monitoring and measurement meaning (P.Y. Emidy (EDF)); human radiation protection and measurement meaning (A. Rannou (IRSN)); Eye lens dosimetry, why and how? (J.M. Bordy (CEA)); critical and reasoned approach of the ISO 11929 standard about decision threshold and detection limit (A. Vivier (CEA)); Samples collection and low activities measurement in the environment (D. Claval (IRSN)); Dosemeters calibration, what is new? (J.M. Bordy (CEA)); Appropriateness of measurement means for radiological controls (P. Tranchant (Techman Industrie)); Pulsed fields dosimetric reference for interventional diagnosis (M. Denoziere (CEA)); Pulsed complex fields dosimetry (F. Trompier (IRSN)); DOSEO: a tool for dose optimization in radiological imaging (C. Adrien (CEA)); Eye lens dosimetry (R. Kramar, A. De Vita (AREVA)); Eye lens dosimetry - workers exposure and proper radiation protection practices (I. Clairand (IRSN)); Individual neutrons dosimetry - status of existing standards (F. Queinnec (IRSN)); Complex field neutron spectroscopy: any new tool? (V. Lacoste (IRSN)); Photon mini-beams dosimetry in radiotherapy: stakes and protocols (C. Huet (IRSN)); Reference and

  12. US - India Partnership in Science and Technology, Environment and Health: Opportunities and Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulkarni, Satish V [Georgetown University

    2010-10-06

    Today, the US – India strategic partnership is rooted in shared values and is broad in nature and scope, with our two countries working together on global and energy security, climate change and clean environment, life sciences and public health, economic prosperity and trade, and education. A key outcome of this partnership has been the signing of the historic Indo-US Civil Nuclear Deal. Science and technology (S&T) have always been important elements of this partnership, and US Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice and Indian S&T Minister Kapil Sibal signed an agreement on S&T Cooperation between the two countries in October 2005. In March 2006, recognizing the expanding role of S&T, President George Bush and Prime Minister Manmohan Singh formed a Bi-National S&T Commission and established a Joint S&T Endowment Fund focused on innovation, entrepreneurship and commercialization. In July 2009, US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton and Indian Foreign Minister Krishna signed the Endowment Agreement with a total equivalent funding of $30M (equal contribution from US and India). While these steps take our engagement to new heights, US-India collaboration in S&T is not new and has been ongoing for several decades, principally through agencies like NSF, NIH, EPA, DOE, NASA, NOAA, the PL480 US-India Fund, and the Indian Diaspora. However, acting as a damper, especially during the cold war days, this engagement has been plagued by sanctions and the resulting tensions and mistrust which continue to linger on even today. In this context, several ongoing activities in energy, space, climate change and education will be highlighted. Also, with the S&T and the Civil Nuclear Agreements and climate change as examples, the interplay of science, policy and politics will be discussed.

  13. Urban Extreme Weather: A Challenge for a Healthy Living Environment in Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olabode Abiodun Daniel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The increasing rate of heat in the climate in urban areas has become one of the striking problems in many developing countries. This study examined the relationships between the monthly temperature, rainfall and incidence of heat-rash between 2003 and 2012 in order to determine the impact of climate on occurrence of heat-rash in Akure, Ondo state, Nigeria. Data were obtained from Ondo State Specialist Hospital and Ondo State Meteorological Center. A line graph analysis was employed to identify the trend of the temperature, rainfall and incidence of this weather-based disease. Correlation analysis determined the relationship existing between the monthly temperature and the heat-rash. Tables and graphs were generally used for data presentation. The result shows that; the monthly temperature is low between the month of May and October when the minimum and maximum temperature is at 20.6 °C and 34.1 °C respectively; high temperature was recorded during the month of January, February, March and slightly different in April, November and December ranging from 24.6 °C to 35.1 °C.; the monthly temperature descends sharply during the month of March and remains low in April, May, June and July that characterized with high peak of rainfall; heat-rash has significant increase in 2003 (September, 2004 (September, 2007 (December, 2011 (November and 2012 (October. The study recommends that people in this area and other related environments should engage in sensitizing the public on awareness of temperature—rash relationship and put up a measure of avoiding the heat effect during the periods of high temperature.

  14. The challenge of linguistic and cultural diversity: Does length of experience affect South African speech-language therapists’ management of children with language impairment?

    OpenAIRE

    Frenette Southwood; Ondene van Dulm

    2015-01-01

    Background: South African speech-language therapists (SLTs) currently do not reflect the country’s linguistic and cultural diversity. The question arises as to who might be better equipped currently to provide services to multilingual populations: SLTs with more clinical experience in such contexts, or recently trained SLTs who are themselves linguistically and culturally diverse and whose training programmes deliberately focused on multilingualism and multiculturalism?Aims: To investigate wh...

  15. A Modified Vaccinia Ankara Virus (MVA) Vaccine Expressing African Horse Sickness Virus (AHSV) VP2 Protects Against AHSV Challenge in an IFNAR −/− Mouse Model

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo-Olivares, Javier; Calvo-Pinilla, Eva; Casanova, Isabel; Bachanek-Bankowska, Katarzyna; Chiam, Rachael; Maan, Sushila; Nieto, Jose Maria; Ortego, Javier; Mertens, Peter Paul Clement

    2011-01-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) is a lethal viral disease of equids, which is transmitted by Culicoides midges that become infected after biting a viraemic host. The use of live attenuated vaccines has been vital for the control of this disease in endemic regions. However, there are safety concerns over their use in non-endemic countries. Research efforts over the last two decades have therefore focused on developing alternative vaccines based on recombinant baculovirus or live viral vectors exp...

  16. ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL CHALLENGES IN A GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT. LABOUR MARKET CHANGES IN ROMANIA. FACTORS, CAUSES, ADJUSTMENT MECHANISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina VASILE

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The reform of labour market and the modification of the human capital management model evolved unsteadily, much behind the demand from the economic and social environment. Labour market was pushed to a secondary plane, considering that the adjustment of the other markets would cause necessary changes for ensuring the functioning of the labour market. Now, Romania is involved in consolidating the market economy, which requires integrated procedures of dealing with the policies able to respond efficiently to challenges. Similarly to the economic reform, the chances in the labour market were gradual but there were no coherence and no correlation of the measures taken, which caused non-typical behaviours, often contrary to reforms.

  17. Squeezing Every Drop of Value from Federal Hydropower under a Continually Challenging Changing Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriss, L.

    2011-12-01

    Western Area Power Administration sells and delivers hydropower from 56 plants at Federal dams as far east as the Missouri River to the San Juaquin River in California. Between these bookends lies the most litigated river in the nation-the Colorado and its tributaries. This river-now dammed and controlled-features vast recreational facilities and wildlife habitat scattered along its length. The river also sustains irrigated agricultural and provides water and power for 3.5 million people. The Upper Basin powerplants include Flaming Gorge on the Green in Wyoming, the Aspinall cascade on the Gunnison in western Colorado and Glen Canyon on the Utah-Arizona border. The three Federal dams in the lower basin are Hoover in southern Nevada and Parker and Davis on the Arizona-California border. Western's nearly 800 customers include municipalities, cooperatives, public utility and irrigation districts, state and Federal agencies and Federally recognized tribes. Western's goal in serving these communities across its 15-state territory is to maximize the value of that hydropower while providing least-cost service and facilitating widespread use of this Federal resource. As one of six Federal agencies charged with balancing the use of the Colorado's resources, Western must work with its Federal partners the seven basin states and a variety of stakeholders to protect the Federal hydropower resource while seeking to maximize its value as a clean, renewable, emission-free, reliable, low-cost source of electricity. These competing needs, uses and priorities include: 1. Providing streamflows and water quality sufficient to restore self-sustaining populations of four native endangered fish 2. Provide environments that support world class trout fisheries immediately below several of the Federal dams 3. Using river flows to retain sediment and shape sediment resources that provide camping beaches for river recreationists and habitat for riverine plant and animal communities 4

  18. How student teachers understand African philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsephe M. Letseka

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The question ‘What constitutes African philosophy?’ was first raised with the publication of Placide Tempels’s seminal work Bantu philosophy in 1959. Tempels’s book inevitably elicited considerable critical response from African philosophers, which culminated in a wide range of publications such as Wiredu’s (1980 Philosophy and an African culture, Hountondji’s (1983 African philosophy: Myth and reality, Oruka’s (1990 Sage philosophy: Indigenous thinkers and modern debate on African philosophy, Shutte’s (1993 Philosophy for Africa, Masolo’s (1994 African philosophy in search of identity and Gyekye’s (1995 An essay of African philosophical thought: The Akan conceptual scheme. It has been over 60 years since the publication of Temples’s book and there continues to be serious debate about African philosophy. This article sought to contribute to the debate on the various conceptions of African philosophy, but with a focus on the challenges of teaching African philosophy to Philosophy of Education students at an open distance learning institution in South Africa. This article discussed the tendency amongst undergraduate Philosophy of Education students to conflate and reduce African philosophy to African cultures and traditions, and to the notion of ubuntu, and sought to understand the reasons for students’ inclination to treat African philosophy in this way. It examined students’ background knowledge of African philosophy, their critical thinking skills and whether their official study materials are selected and packaged in a manner that, in fact, adds to the challenges they face. Finally, the article explored the ways in which Philosophy of Education lecturers can adapt their pedagogy to provide students with a better understanding of African philosophy.

  19. Active and legacy mining in an arid urban environment: challenges and perspectives for Copiapó, Northern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carkovic, Athena B; Calcagni, Magdalena S; Vega, Alejandra S; Coquery, Marina; Moya, Pablo M; Bonilla, Carlos A; Pastén, Pablo A

    2016-08-01

    Urban expansion in areas of active and legacy mining imposes a sustainability challenge, especially in arid environments where cities compete for resources with agriculture and industry. The city of Copiapó, with 150,000 inhabitants in the Atacama Desert, reflects this challenge. More than 30 abandoned tailings from legacy mining are scattered throughout its urban and peri-urban area, which include an active copper smelter. Despite the public concern generated by the mining-related pollution, no geochemical information is currently available for Copiapó, particularly for metal concentration in environmental solid phases. A geochemical screening of soils (n = 42), street dusts (n = 71) and tailings (n = 68) was conducted in November 2014 and April 2015. Organic matter, pH and elemental composition measurements were taken. Notably, copper in soils (60-2120 mg/kg) and street dusts (110-10,200 mg/kg) consistently exceeded international guidelines for residential and industrial use, while a lower proportion of samples exceeded international guidelines for arsenic, zinc and lead. Metal enrichment occurred in residential, industrial and agricultural areas near tailings and the copper smelter. This first screening of metal contamination sets the basis for future risk assessments toward defining knowledge-based policies and urban planning. Challenges include developing: (1) adequate intervention guideline values; (2) appropriate geochemical background levels for key metals; (3) urban planning that considers contaminated areas; (4) cost-effective control strategies for abandoned tailings in water-scarce areas; and (5) scenarios and technologies for tailings reprocessing. Assessing urban geochemical risks is a critical endeavor for areas where extreme events triggered by climate change are likely, as the mud flooding that impacted Copiapó in late March 2015. PMID:26758741

  20. The South African media's (re colonisation of Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Tyson

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available

    This paper seeks to reveal the patterns of power, influence and ownership that South African media houses are having over Namibians and Namibian media outlets. The hypothesis is that there has recently been an increased interest in Namibia as a source of further revenue for South African media businesses as well as an opportunity for further strengthening ties of cultural and language issues between the two countries. In addition there might also be increased opportunities for South African political perspectives to be further advanced through linkages with Namibian media outlets.
    The paper further seeks to expand academic discourse to include those countries, such as Namibia, living in South Africa’s cultural and economic shadow, and, in a larger sense, looks at the increasingly regional and even nature of media systems in Africa.
    It tries to move these discussions into everyday discourse, as opposed to the margins, where, as McMillin (2007:68 says:
    we fail to understand the incredible impact of colonialism on the development of their media systems, the regional influence of these systems, and the unique character they take on as they assert their postcolonial identities and meet the challenges of globilization.
    The research refers to the unique position of Namibia, having been, firstly, a German colony, and, later, a South African ‘administered territory’, and makes reference to the implications this had on the shaping and control over the media environment.
    The findings reveal an increase in South African influence and shareholding over Namibian media companies and content. This parallel has strengthened economic ties with South Africa, and in particular the influence of South African retail chains and their stock levels of Namibian versus South African publications.

  1. One Medicine One Science: a framework for exploring challenges at the intersection of animals, humans, and the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Dominic A; Sriramarao, P; Cardona, Carol; Steer, Clifford J; Kennedy, Shaun; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Murtaugh, Michael P

    2014-12-01

    Characterizing the health consequences of interactions among animals, humans, and the environment in the face of climatic change, environmental disturbance, and expanding human populations is a critical global challenge in today's world. Exchange of interdisciplinary knowledge in basic and applied sciences and medicine that includes scientists, health professionals, key sponsors, and policy experts revealed that relevant case studies of monkeypox, influenza A, tuberculosis, and HIV can be used to guide strategies for anticipating and responding to new disease threats such as the Ebola and Chickungunya viruses, as well as to improve programs to control existing zoonotic diseases, including tuberculosis. The problem of safely feeding the world while preserving the environment and avoiding issues such as antibiotic resistance in animals and humans requires cooperative scientific problem solving. Food poisoning outbreaks resulting from Salmonella growing in vegetables have demonstrated the need for knowledge of pathogen evolution and adaptation in developing appropriate countermeasures for prevention and policy development. Similarly, pesticide use for efficient crop production must take into consideration bee population declines that threaten the availability of the two-thirds of human foods that are dependent on pollination. This report presents and weighs the objective merits of competing health priorities and identifies gaps in knowledge that threaten health security, to promote discussion of major public policy implications such that they may be decided with at least an underlying platform of facts. PMID:25476836

  2. Analysis of Aviation Safety Reporting System Incident Data Associated with the Technical Challenges of the Atmospheric Environment Safety Technology Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withrow, Colleen A.; Reveley, Mary S.

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzed aircraft incidents in the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) that apply to two of the three technical challenges (TCs) in NASA's Aviation Safety Program's Atmospheric Environment Safety Technology Project. The aircraft incidents are related to airframe icing and atmospheric hazards TCs. The study reviewed incidents that listed their primary problem as weather or environment-nonweather between 1994 and 2011 for aircraft defined by Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR) Parts 121, 135, and 91. The study investigated the phases of flight, a variety of anomalies, flight conditions, and incidents by FAR part, along with other categories. The first part of the analysis focused on airframe-icing-related incidents and found 275 incidents out of 3526 weather-related incidents over the 18-yr period. The second portion of the study focused on atmospheric hazards and found 4647 incidents over the same time period. Atmospheric hazards-related incidents included a range of conditions from clear air turbulence and wake vortex, to controlled flight toward terrain, ground encounters, and incursions.

  3. The Good African Society Index

    OpenAIRE

    Ferdi Botha

    2014-01-01

    This paper constructs a Good Society Index for 45 African countries, termed the Good African Society Index (GASI). The GASI consists of nine main indexes: (i) economic sustainability, (ii) democracy and freedom, (iii) child well-being, (iv) environment and infrastructure, (v) safety and security, (vi) health and health systems, (vii) integrity and justice, (viii) education, and (xi) social sustainability and social cohesion. Each component is split into four sub-components for a total of 36 i...

  4. Cancer and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Black/African American > Cancer Cancer and African Americans African Americans have the highest mortality rate ... 65MB] At a glance – Top Cancer Sites for African Americans (2008-2012) Cancer Incidence Rates per 100, ...

  5. Students' reflections on the relationships between safe learning environments, learning challenge and positive experiences of learning in a simulated GP clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, J E; Williamson, M I; Egan, T G

    2016-03-01

    Learning environments are a significant determinant of student behaviour, achievement and satisfaction. In this article we use students' reflective essays to identify key features of the learning environment that contributed to positive and transformative learning experiences. We explore the relationships between these features, the students' sense of safety in the learning environment (LE), the resulting learning challenge with which they could cope and their positive reports of the experience itself. Our students worked in a unique simulation of General Practice, the Safe and Effective Clinical Outcomes clinic, where they consistently reported positive experiences of learning. We analysed 77 essays from 2011 and 2012 using an immersion/crystallisation framework. Half of the students referred to the safety of the learning environment spontaneously. Students described deep learning experiences in their simulated consultations. Students valued features of the LE which contributed to a psychologically safe environment. Together with the provision of constructive support and immediate, individualised feedback this feeling of safety assisted students to find their own way through clinical dilemmas. These factors combine to make students feel relaxed and able to take on challenges that otherwise would have been overwhelming. Errors became learning opportunities and students could practice purposefully. We draw on literature from medical education, educational psychology and sociology to interpret our findings. Our results demonstrate relationships between safe learning environments, learning challenge and powerful learning experiences, justifying close attention to the construction of learning environments to promote student learning, confidence and motivation. PMID:25952645

  6. Some Growth Points in African Child Development Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpell, Robert; Marfo, Kofi

    2014-01-01

    We reflect on ways in which research presented in earlier chapters responds to challenges of generating an African child development field and identify additional issues calling for the field's attention. The chapters collectively display a variety of African contexts and reflexive evidence of the authors' African cultural roots.…

  7. A Modified Vaccinia Ankara Virus (MVA) Vaccine Expressing African Horse Sickness Virus (AHSV) VP2 Protects Against AHSV Challenge in an IFNAR −/− Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Olivares, Javier; Calvo-Pinilla, Eva; Casanova, Isabel; Bachanek-Bankowska, Katarzyna; Chiam, Rachael; Maan, Sushila; Nieto, Jose Maria; Ortego, Javier; Mertens, Peter Paul Clement

    2011-01-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) is a lethal viral disease of equids, which is transmitted by Culicoides midges that become infected after biting a viraemic host. The use of live attenuated vaccines has been vital for the control of this disease in endemic regions. However, there are safety concerns over their use in non-endemic countries. Research efforts over the last two decades have therefore focused on developing alternative vaccines based on recombinant baculovirus or live viral vectors expressing structural components of the AHS virion. However, ethical and financial considerations, relating to the use of infected horses in high biosecurity installations, have made progress very slow. We have therefore assessed the potential of an experimental mouse-model for AHSV infection for vaccine and immunology research. We initially characterised AHSV infection in this model, then tested the protective efficacy of a recombinant vaccine based on modified vaccinia Ankara expressing AHS-4 VP2 (MVA-VP2). PMID:21298069

  8. Understanding the Rise of African Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorem, Kaja Tvedten; Hansen, Michael Wendelboe; Jeppesen, Søren

    2014-01-01

    enterprises, observing that while much research is focusing on the role of the African business environments for enterprise development, much less attention has been devoted to the role of firm-specific capabilities, strategies and management. The paper concludes by advocating a contingency approach to...... research on African enterprise development that emphasizes the interplay between firm-specific factors and the specificities of the African business environment. Originality/value: The paper provides a comprehensive literature review on African enterprise development and presents a novel framework for......Purpose: In light of recent enthusiasm over African private sector development, the purpose of this paper is to review the business literature on African enterprise development with a view of identifying lacunas in the literature and of developing an analytical framework that may guide future...

  9. Contributions of family environment and parenting processes to sexual risk and substance use of rural African American males: a 4-year longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murry, Velma M; Simons, Ronald L; Simons, Leslie G; Gibbons, Frederick X

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to identify factors that forecast sexual risk and alcohol or other substance use patterns among 411 rural African American males as they transitioned from middle childhood to late adolescence. In addition, an exploration was undertaken to examine the contribution of both risk and protective factors in distinguishing rural African American males at highest risk for engaging in risky sexual behavior and elevated substance use from those with relatively low risk of engaging in these behaviors. Findings revealed that exposure to negative life events during middle childhood has prognostic significance for rural African American males' susceptibility to engaging in HIV-related risk behaviors as they transition into adolescence and young adulthood. High-risk engaging males had significantly higher means on susceptibility to risk and marginally significantly higher means on substance-using peer affiliation. High-risk rural African American males also reported lower means on involved-vigilant parent than the normative group (low-risk group). However, economic hardship, family stress, parental psychological functioning, and harsh and inconsistent parenting did not emerge as significant predictors of high- or low-risk group membership. The implication for future research and preventive interventions is discussed. PMID:23889021

  10. Personality Similarity and Work-Related Outcomes among African-American Nursing Personnel: A Test of the Supplementary Model of Person-Environment Congruence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, David V.; Bedeian, Arthur G.

    1995-01-01

    Data from 206 nursing service employees (171 African American) and a 5-factor taxonomy of personality were used to test effects of personality similarity on job satisfaction, performance, and tenure. Tenure was significantly predicted by satisfaction and similarity in conscientiousness. No association was found between personality similarity and…

  11. Efficacy of a commercially available coryza vaccine against challenge with recent South African NAD-independent isolates of Haemophilus paragallinarum in chickens : research communication

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobs, A. A. C.; Werf, J. van der

    2000-01-01

    In South Africa the incidence of NAD-independent Haemophilus paragallinarum isolation from clinical cases is increasing. This study was carried out to test whether a commercially available coryza vaccine (Nobilis (r) Coryza, Intervet International BV) could protect chickens against challenge with recent NAD-independent isolates. SPF chickens were vaccinated twice at 3 and 7 weeks of age and were challenged at 9 weeks of age with 5 different NAD-independent isolates of serotype A or C-3. The r...

  12. Environment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tošovská, Eva

    Prague: Charles University in Prague, Center for Economic Research and Graduate Education , 2006 - (Zemčík, P.; Žigić, K.), s. 62-66 ISBN 80-7343-110-6 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : environment * Czech Republic Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/publications/books/

  13. Psychology and Ubuntu : therapeutic meetings in a South African context

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore therapeutic meetings in a South African context. Utilising a qualitative research method, I have examined how South African therapists work in a multicultural context, asking questions regarding challenges the therapists met, what elements existed in the African context that influence healing. I proposed that the concept of Ubuntu could provide an African perspective to balance the western notion of psychotherapy. I also explored what adjustments thera...

  14. A Review of the Turkish Straits System: Challenges for Modeling, Inter-Basin Coupling and the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özsoy, Emin; Sannino, Gianmaria; Sözer, Adil; Gürses, Özgür

    2015-04-01

    The Turkish Straits System (TSS), a highly energetic, strongly stratified system of hydraulically controlled, turbulent, upper ocean and straits intensified exchange flows, governs the coupling Mediterranean and Black Seas, and largely influences their combined mixing and renewal characteristics. The modeling of such a system is a 'grand challenge' not only because of the need to account for an existing mosaic of complex nonlinear and topographically controlled processes, but also because of the absolute need to capture the fine scales of the two straits, Dardanelles and Bosphorus and their exits, which dominate and determine the response of the system. A stepwise and complementary strategy has been used to develop models that explain the individual as well as systemic behavior, utilizing the variable resolution ROMS model for studies of the Bosphorus, the curvilinear coordinate MITgcm and the unstructured grid FEOM model for studies of the entire TSS, fully resolving the influence of the fine-scale processes at straits. A review of the modeling development and the results at different levels of complexity are given, along with inter-model comparisons and partial observational verification of the results. Details of the strait currents, mixing, fluxes, hydraulic controls, energy fluxes, Marmara Sea circulation, time-dependent response to atmospheric forcing and sensitivity to the selected parameterizations are discussed in relation to available observations. It is shown that the different components of the TSS have widely varying time scales of response, while the straits alone are responsible for the faster elements. The TSS cases with closed boundaries, including a realistic range of artificially produced net barotropic flow have demonstrated the expected changes in Marmara Sea circulation. Realistic coupling of the TSS model with the adjacent basins, taking full account of the hydrological cycle is a formidable problem where progress is currently being made. The

  15. The Heart of the Matter: Methodological Challenges in Developing a Contemporary 257-269 Reading Programme for Monolingual Lexicography, from the Perspective of the Dictionary Unit for South African English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leela Pienaar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: This article argues the importance of the reading programme as the pivotal issue inthe lexicographic process. It is essentially a practical article which outlines strategies for developingand implementing a reading programme for monolingual lexicography. The arguments are informedby theory, together with an examination of the data-collection procedures followed by theDictionary Unit for South African English (DSAE and a survey of current practice in major Englishdictionary units around the world, namely the Oxford English Dictionary, the Canadian OxfordDictionary, the Australian National Dictionary Centre and the New Zealand Dictionary Centre.The reading programme for the DSAE is first defined and contextualized within its mission statement.The article then explores the challenges inherent in sampling contemporary written and spokenEnglish in the South African multilingual context. It is intended to inform the DSAE's intakepolicy, in terms of the following critical issues:

    — the definition of South African English,

    — the monitoring and selection of print, oral and electronic sources,

    — the excerpting of citations and relevant bibliographic information, and

    — the recruiting and training of readers.

    These interlinked aspects of the reading programme have crucial implications for the quality andauthority of the monolingual dictionary on historical principles.

    Keywords: READING PROGRAMME, MONOLINGUAL DICTIONARY, HISTORICAL PRINCIPLES, CONTEMPORARY, INTAKE, CITATIONS, STRATEGIES

    Opsomming: Die kern van die saak: Metodologiese uitdagings by die ontwikkelingvan 'n eietydse leesprogram vir eentalige leksikografie, uit dieperspektief van die Dictionary Unit for South African English. Hierdie artikelbepleit die belangrikheid van die leesprogram as die kernsaak in die leksikografiese proses. Dit ishoofsaaklik 'n praktiese artikel wat stategieë vir die ontwikkeling en implementering van 'n

  16. African dance

    OpenAIRE

    Mumberson, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The RE Open will be shown at the Mall Gallery London and the international section was judged by major practitioners and educators, print dealers and collectors, President of RE and Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum Dr Bren Unwin, John Purcell, Deborah Roslund, Colin Harrison, Dave Ferry, and Mark Hampson. Piece selected "African Dance" print.

  17. Taking responsibility for reconciliation: a Christian response to the legacy and challenges of the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Barry

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available At the conclusion of the TRC, Desmond Tutu stated that the Commission’s task was to promote, not to achieve, reconci- liation. Reconciliation, he maintained, is the responsibility of all South Africans, and expressed the hope that the Christian churches would be in the forefront of this healing process.  This article explores how the Christian church can be in the forefront of binding up the wounds, facilitating the healing pro- cess, and living as a people and a sign of hope. The answers it seeks to offer fall under three interrelated themes, namely the church’s:  • spirituality of reconciliation; • ministry and mission of reconciliation; and • resources for its ministry and mission of reconciliation. Cultivating a spirituality of reconciliation would mean making reconciliation a lifestyle, rather than a series of strategies, pro- grammes or initiatives, yet remaining concrete, practical, mea- surable and accountable.   The church’s mission is primarily to proclaim the good news of God’s Kingdom that is already here, but not yet fully here and therefore still to come. This proclamation is the message of reconciliation between God, others and the self, and anticipates the unity of all creation in Jesus Christ.   The resources given to the church to fulfil this apostolic ministry include prophecy, evangelism, pastoral care and teaching, as well as its liturgical and sacramental life, its ministry of pre- sence, its people and its commitment to social justice.

  18. Pro-drinking messages and message environments for young adults: the case of alcohol industry advertising in African American, Latino, and Native American communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaniz, M L; Wilkes, C

    1998-01-01

    This paper examines targeted alcohol advertising in three ethnic communities: African Americans, Latinos, and Native Americans in the U.S. We focus on the appropriation of cultural systems and the reinvention of them as commodities to consumers. We outline the specific strategies used in each ethnic community. For African Americans, there is an emphasis on selling malt liquor to young adults through the use of "power" and gang-related images. For Latinos, there is an appropriation of historical and cultural symbols such as the national flags and maps of Mexico and Central America. Native Americans have coalesced to keep the image of a chief and warrior, Crazy Horse, from being used to market malt liquor. Each of the ethnic groups is engaged in action to prevent alcohol-related problems in their communities. Generating and implementing solutions is a universal social responsibility. PMID:9922620

  19. Gender differences in technology acceptance in selected South African companies: Implications for electronic learning

    OpenAIRE

    Willie T. Chinyamurindi; Gert J. Louw

    2010-01-01

    Orientation: Technology enhanced training is becoming popular as a means for the training of soft skills, especially in work-related environments. Men and women who use this type of training encounter some challenges with regard to their usage.Research: The objective of this study was to investigate trainees’ acceptance of electronic coursework as an instruction and learning technique in various industries in the South African context.Motivation for the study: A persistent gender imbalanc...

  20. Neighborhood disadvantage, physical activity barriers, and physical activity among African American breast cancer survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Antwan Jones; Paxton, Raheem J.

    2015-01-01

    In view of evidence that African American cancer survivors experience the greatest challenges in maintaining adequate levels of physical activity, this cross-sectional study was designed to determine whether individual and residential environment characteristics are associated with physical activity in this population. A total of 275 breast cancer survivors completed self-report items measuring sociodemographic variables, physical activity, and select barriers to physical activity in Spring o...

  1. Governance and Development of the East African Community : The Ethical Sustainability Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Kanakulya, Dickson

    2015-01-01

    The pursuit of sustainability of governance and development has become a major challenge in contemporary times because of increasing realization that: various ecological and social systems are interconnected; and the complexity of our natural and constructed environs requires holistic approaches to avoid catastrophic fissures in the systems on which humans depend. As regional governments such as the East African Community (EAC) become important in Africa (and other regions), they present oppo...

  2. Seeing African Americans as Competent Parents: Implications for Family Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkison-Bradley, Carla

    2011-01-01

    One of the primary roles of parents is to guide and socialize children to make meaningful life choices. African American parents, in particular, have the additional tasks of preparing their children to thrive in an environment that has historically been hostile toward African Americans. Yet, many African American parents are often depicted as…

  3. African migrants in South Africa : an interactional perspective / Shingairai Chigeza

    OpenAIRE

    Chigeza, Shingairai

    2012-01-01

    The movement of African migrants from their countries of origin to other countries in search of a better future will continue to increase. However, such movement is accompanied by many challenges. Literature indicates that African migrants in South Africa face challenges such as cultural differences, exploitation and xenophobia. In the context of migration, migrants and citizens constantly interact with one another. The relational patterns between African migrants and citizens accordingly nee...

  4. African Botanical Heritage for New Crop Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Van Damme

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The African continent is rather poor in plant biodiversity when compared to other continents on and around the equator. Nevertheless, lots of useful plant species have been domesticated from Sub-Sahara Africa material. Ethnobotanical research offers the possibility to collect information on the use and utility of wild plant species from traditional peoples often living in or close to a challenging natural environment. This type of information then allows us to find new candidates for domestication and subsequent crop development for income generation and increased food security. The case of Gnetum africanum illustrates the practical implications of developing a lesserknown species, and highlights the institutional problems that go together with niche crop development. The latter are subsequently presented and discussed in extenso, and solutions proposed in a second part of this review text.

  5. Obesity and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  6. Determination of the minimum fully protective dose of adenovirus-based DIVA vaccine against peste des petits ruminants virus challenge in East African goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, Barbara; Taylor, Geraldine; Rajko-Nenow, Paulina; Hodgson, Sophia; Okoth, Edward; Herbert, Rebecca; Toye, Philip; Baron, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) causes an economically important disease of sheep and goats, primarily in developing countries. It is becoming the object of intensive international control efforts. Current vaccines do not allow vaccinated and infected animals to be distinguished (no DIVA capability). We have previously shown that recombinant, replication-defective, adenovirus expressing the PPRV H glycoprotein (AdH) gives full protection against wild type PPRV challenge. We have now tested lower doses of the vaccine, as well as AdH in combination with a similar construct expressing the PPRV F glycoprotein (AdF). We show here that, in a local breed of goat in a country where PPR disease is common (Kenya), as little as 10(7) pfu of AdH gives significant protection against PPRV challenge, while a vaccine consisting of 10(8) pfu of each of AdH and AdF gives apparently sterile protection. These findings underline the utility of these constructs as DIVA vaccines for use in PPR control. PMID:26796101

  7. Challenges of Designing New Urban Quality in Historical Environment: Based on Final Projects of BA Students of the Department of Urban Design, FA, VGTU

    OpenAIRE

    Dijokienė, Dalia

    2013-01-01

    Historical urban heritage represents not only the accumulation of the wealth of civilization but also a foundation for identity of urban communities. However, a town is still a living system, the existence of which is supported by its constant development, change and growth. Creating a new urban quality in a historical environment without prejudice to the existing harmony is a complex and challenging task. This article looks into and summarizes knowledge accumulated from the final projects of...

  8. Possibilities and challenges for physical and social environment research in Brazil: a systematic literature review on health behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Belon

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This systematic review analyzed articles focused on the relationship between environment (physical, built, perceived, and social and smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity, diet, and obesity in Brazil. Studies published between 19952011 were retrieved from seven databases and hand searches. Based on the 42 articles reviewed, gaps were identified and recommendations were made for future research. Despite a growing number of studies, the Brazilian literature is still limited. The increase of articles in 2010-2011 coincided with the diversification of lifestyles studied, although physical activity domain remains predominant. Most studies analyzed neighborhood settings and used subjective measures for lifestyle and for environment. The presence of recreational facilities was the main physical environment aspect studied, while safety from crime was the prominent social environment factor. More research is needed to yield a rich body of evidence that leads to theoretical and methodological advances, and that supports interventions aimed at creating healthy environments.

  9. Second workshop of participants in the Joint FAO-IOC-WHO-IAEA-UNEP project on monitoring of pollution in the marine environment of the West and Central African Region (WACAF/2 - first phase)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Second Workshop of Participants in the Joint FAO-IOC-WHO-IAEA-UNEP Project on Monitoring of Pollution in the Marine Environment of the West and Central African Region (WACAF/2) was attended by 29 participants from 10 countries (Senegal, The Gambia, Sierra Leone, Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana, Benin, Nigeria, Cameroun, Congo and Gabon). Levels of metals, chlorinated hydrocarbons and petroleum components in marine biota were discussed in seven scientific reports which were presented by the participating scientists (Cote d'Ivoire, Sierra Leone, Nigeria, The Gambia, ghana and Cameroun). Three of the presented reports were on organochlorines and four dealt with trace metal levels in marine organisms. The Representative of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) reviewed the results obtained during the data quality assurance intercalibration exercises carried out in the region during the first phase. The result received are still within acceptable range. However, there seems to be a trend for values to be higher than the range of finally certified concentrations. Considering that most results were clearly better in the second exercise, after equipment service, part of the earlier deviation might be attributed to instrument malfunctions. These results can be regarded as fairly encouraging for the future development in the West and Central African marine pollution monitoring programme. Refs, tabs

  10. Post-Closure Challenges of U.S. Department of Energy Sites in Desert Environments of the Southwestern United States - 12095

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites located in harsh desert environments of the Four Corners region of the southwestern United States require diligence and continual maintenance to ensure the remediation systems function as designed to protect human health and the environment. The geology and climate of this area create issues that are unique to these sites. Geologic formations contain naturally occurring constituents that are often the same as the residual contaminants remaining from historical milling activities at the sites. Although annual precipitation is low, when precipitation events occur they can be of extreme intensity, resulting in erosion and flooding that can quickly destroy infrastructure and rapidly change site conditions. Winds can cause sand storms and sand mounding that effect site features. These challenging environmental conditions, along with the remote locations of the sites, require active management beyond what was originally envisioned for uranium disposal sites to address concerns in a safe and cost-effective manner. The unique environment of the Four Corners region creates many challenges to the LTSM of LM sites in southwestern United States. The remediation efforts and approaches to infrastructure have to be specifically structured to work in this environment. Often, the systems and structures have to be modified based on lessons learned on how to best adapt to these difficult conditions and remote locations. These sites require continual maintenance and additional efforts compared to many other LM sites. (authors)

  11. Rocks in the River: The Challenge of Piloting the Inquiry Process in Today's Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambusta, Patrice; Graham, Sandy; Letteri-Walker, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    School librarians in Newport News, Virginia, are meeting the challenges of integrating an Inquiry Process Model into instruction. In the original model the process began by asking students to develop questions to start their inquiry journey. As this model was taught it was discovered that students often did not have enough background knowledge to…

  12. Lamivudine monotherapy as a safe option for HIV-infected paediatric clients with adherence challenges: new evidence from a large South African cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Linder

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: HIV-infected children in resource-poor settings comprise a unique population who require antiretroviral therapy (ART in careful consideration of social and structural barriers to compliance. Given these aggregate challenges and emerging research into “holding” treatment options, we investigated the efficacy of lamivudine monotherapy (LM as an alternative to more complex second and third line therapies. Methods: A retrospective review of all eligible LM events (=6 months from a cohort of two linked health facilities in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa was undertaken. Events were disaggregated according to absolute CD4 count at initiation (Group 1: >200 cells/L, n=64; Group 2:=200cells/L, n=10. Study endpoints were defined as a decline of absolute CD4=200 cells/L (Group 1, WHO stage 3 or 4 event (Groups 1& 2, or initiation of second or third line (Groups 1 & 2. Results: Seventy-four eligible LM events were identified among 71 HIV-positive children (58% male; median age at LM 9.7 years and median LM duration 11.5 months. CD4 decreases and measured WHO stage 3 or 4 events did not yield overall significance between groups (Table 1. No deaths were recorded. Conclusions: LM offers a promising alternative approach to ART management in young patients with an absolute CD4 >200 cells/L pending availability and/or willingness to adhere to second or third line therapies. In more immunocompromised children, LM may be considered as a last option if either the child or caretaker has concerns about second or third line management, or has defaulted repeatedly.

  13. Expanding the Obesity Research Paradigm to Reach African American Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiriki K. Kumanyika, PhD, MPH

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is more prevalent among African Americans and other racial and ethnic minority populations than among whites. The behaviors that determine weight status are embedded in the core social and cultural processes and environments of day-to-day life in these populations. Therefore, identifying effective, sustainable solutions to obesity requires an ecological model that is inclusive of relevant contextual variables. Race and ethnicity are potent stratification variables in U.S. society and strongly influence life contexts, including many aspects that relate to eating and physical activity behaviors. This article describes a synthesis initiated by the African American Collaborative Obesity Research Network (AACORN to build and broaden the obesity research paradigm. The focus is on African Americans, but the expanded paradigm has broader implications and may apply to other populations of color. The synthesis involves both community and researcher perspectives, drawing on and integrating insights from an expanded set of knowledge domains to promote a deeper understanding of relevant contexts. To augment the traditional, biomedical focus on energy balance, the expanded paradigm includes insights from family sociology, literature, philosophy, transcultural psychology, marketing, economics, and studies of the built environment. We also emphasize the need for more attention to tensions that may affect African American or other researchers who identify or are identified as members of the communities they study. This expanded paradigm, for which development is ongoing, poses new challenges for researchers who focus on obesity and obesity-related health disparities but also promises discovery of new directions that can lead to new solutions.

  14. Information and Knowledge Management at South African Law Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T du Plessis

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Global and national law firms alike operate in a challenging business environment and managing the firm's information and knowledge assets is increasingly viewed as a key factor in efficient legal service delivery. In legal practice, information management technologies, for example intranets, portals, workflow management systems, document and content management systems, case and project management systems and online dispute resolution systems are becoming important means of legal service delivery. The reason for applying information management technologies and implementing knowledge management strategies in law firms is not only to satisfy clients' growing need for a trusted online platform to interact with legal service providers, but for law firms to capitalise on their intellectual assets, to continuously modernise legal practice management, to empower lawyers, to increase productivity, to use time efficiently, to transfer skills and knowledge from senior to junior professionals, to improve service delivery and to gain competitive advantage. This article firstly reviews the role of information and knowledge management in providing an effective legal service to clients and compares foreign and South African law firms' information management related contexts, challenges and benefits. Secondly, it presents the findings of a survey conducted at South African law firms based on their knowledge management practices. The aim of the article is to provide insights into law firm knowledge management and its effect on providing legal services in an online business environment.

  15. Managing Customer-Centric Information: The Challenges of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Deployment in Service Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Martin R. Fellenz; Mairead Brady

    2010-01-01

    Despite many years of business-orientated information and communication technology (ICT) deployment, contemporary organisations continue to struggle with customer-centric implementation of new technologies that are profitable and contribute to sustainable service business success. This paper reviews the difficulties inherent in using ICTs to manage customer-related information, and identifies the particular challenges for customer-centric deployment of ICTs. It provides a model of different l...

  16. 50 Years of Independence: Reflections on the Role of Publishing and Progressive African Intellectuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Bgoya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution, the role of progressive African intellectuals fifty years after independence in the context of African postcolonial, political and socio-economic conditions is examined. African intellectuals have been marginalized by the African state, and progressive intellectuals have been disunited in their struggle for relevance. The possibilities for African intellectual autonomy and international solidarity are shown through a recollection of the flourishing intellectual environment and local publishing output of post-independence Tanzania. The end of that era and the demise of publishing, including in African languages, has negatively impacted African economic and intellectual emancipation and can only be addressed by international solidarity among progressive intellectuals.

  17. African swine fever virus Georgia isolate harboring deletions of 9GL and MGF360/505 genes is highly attenuated in swine but does not confer protection against parental virus challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Vivian; Holinka, Lauren G; Sanford, Brenton; Krug, Peter W; Carlson, Jolene; Pacheco, Juan M; Reese, Bo; Risatti, Guillermo R; Gladue, Douglas P; Borca, Manuel V

    2016-08-01

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) produces a contagious disease of domestic pigs that results in severe economic consequences to the swine industry. Control of the disease has been hampered by the unavailability of vaccines. We recently reported the development of two experimental vaccine strains (ASFV-G-Δ9GL and ASFV-G-ΔMGF) based on the attenuation of the highly virulent and epidemiologically relevant Georgia2007 isolate. Deletion of the 9GL gene or six genes of the MGF360/505 group produced two attenuated ASFV strains which were able to confer protection to animals when challenged with the virulent parental virus. Both viruses, although efficient in inducing protection, present concerns regarding their safety. In an attempt to solve this problem we developed a novel virus strain, ASFV-G-Δ9GL/ΔMGF, based on the deletion of all genes deleted in ASFV-G-Δ9GL and ASFV-G-ΔMGF. ASFV-G-Δ9GL/ΔMGF is the first derivative of a highly virulent ASFV field strain subjected to a double round of recombination events seeking to sequentially delete specific genes. ASFV-G-Δ9GL/ΔMGF showed a decreased ability to replicate in primary swine macrophage cultures relative to that of ASFV-G and ASFV-G-ΔMGF but similar to that of ASFV-G-Δ9GL. ASFV-G-Δ9GL/ΔMGF was attenuated when intramuscularly inoculated into swine, even at doses as high as 10(6) HAD50. Animals infected with doses ranging from 10(2) to 10(6) HAD50 did not present detectable levels of virus in blood at any time post-infection and they did not develop detectable levels of anti-ASFV antibodies. Importantly, ASFV-G-Δ9GL/ΔMGF does not induce protection against challenge with the virulent parental ASFV-G isolate. Results presented here suggest caution towards approaches involving genomic manipulations when developing rationally designed ASFV vaccine strains. PMID:27182007

  18. Appropriateness of no-fault compensation for research-related injuries from an African perspective: an appeal for action by African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamalo, Patrick Dongosolo; Manda-Taylor, Lucinda; Rennie, Stuart

    2016-08-01

    Compensation for research-related injuries (RRIs) remains a challenge in the current environment of global collaborative biomedical research as exemplified by the continued reluctance of the US government, a major player in international biomedical research, to enact regulation for mandatory compensation for RRIs. This stance is in stark contrast to the mandatory compensation policies adopted by other democracies like the European Union (EU) countries. These positions taken by the USA and the EU create a nexus of confusion when research is exported to low-income and middle-income countries which have no laws guiding compensation for RRIs. In this paper, we begin by exploring the background to policies concerning RRIs, how they reflect on the traditional dispute resolution mechanisms in African societies, and how this compares with the no-fault compensation model. We then explore the underlying African ethical framework of Ubuntu in the sub-Saharan region, guiding traditional practices of dispute resolution and compensation, and how this framework can help to form the moral justification for no-fault compensation as the preferred compensation model for RRIs for African countries. Finally, we call upon countries in the African Union (AU), to adopt a no-fault policy for compensation of RRIs, and enact it into a regulatory requirement for insurance-based no-fault compensation for biomedical research, which will then be enforced by member states of the AU. PMID:27259545

  19. Heart Disease and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Heart Disease Heart Disease and African Americans Although African American adults are ... were 30 percent more likely to die from heart disease than non-Hispanic whites. African American women are ...

  20. Infant Mortality and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... African American > Infant Heath & Mortality Infant Mortality and African Americans African Americans have 2.2 times the infant mortality rate ... birthweight as compared to non-Hispanic white infants. African Americans had almost twice the sudden infant death syndrome ...

  1. Single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping by two colour melting curve analysis using the MGB Eclipse™ Probe System in challenging sequence environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belousov Yevgeniy S

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Probe and primer design for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP detection can be very challenging for A-T DNA-rich targets, requiring long sequences with lower specificity and stability, while G-C-rich DNA targets present limited design options to lower GC-content sequences only. We have developed the MGB Eclipsee™ Probe System, which is composed of the following elements: MGB Eclipse probes and primers, specially developed software for the design of probes and primers, a unique set of modified bases and a Microsoft Excel macro for automated genotyping, which ably solves, in large part, this challenge. Fluorogenic MGB Eclipse probes are modified oligo-nucleotides containing covalently attached duplex-stabilising dihydrocyclopyrroloindole tripeptide (DPI3, the MGB ligand (MGB™ is a trademark of Epoch Biosciences, Bothell, WA, which has the combined properties of allowing the use of short sequences and providing great mismatch discrimination. The MGB moiety prevents probe degradation during polymerase chain reaction (PCR, allowing the researcher to use real time data; alternatively, hybridisation can be accurately measured by a post-PCR two-colour melt curve analysis. Using MGB Eclipse probes and primers containing modified bases further enhances the analysis of difficult SNP targets. G- or C-rich sequences can be refractory to analysis due to Hoogsteen base pairing. Substitution of normal G with Epoch's modified G prevents Hoogsteen base pairing, allowing both superior PCR and probe-based analysis of GC-rich targets. The use of modified A and T bases allows better stabilisation by significantly increasing the Tm of the oligonucleotides. Modified A creates A-T base pairs that have a stability slightly lower than a G-C base pair, and modified T creates T-A base pairs that have a stability about 30 per cent higher than the unmodified base pair. Together, the modified bases permit the use of short probes, providing good mismatch

  2. Exploring the Energy-Environment Relationship in the EU: Perspectives and Challenges for Theorizing and Empirical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Solorio

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Environmental concerns have played a key role for institutionalizing energy policy at the level of the European Union. There is thus a tendency in research literature to assume that the objectives of these cognate policy areas are compatible and mutually reinforcing. There have been only few efforts, however, to critically assess the quality of this relationship. The contributions to this mini-special issue reveal that the instruments employed in these two policy fields are markedly different. Environmental policy instruments are mostly based on the command-and-control logic whereas environment-related European energy policy is characterized by the use of ‘softer’ measures. The second main finding is that despite the centrality of climate change concerns in the rhetoric of the European Commission, an effective integration of environmental goals into energy policy is difficult to achieve.

  3. Effect of rearing environment and dietary zinc oxide on the response of group-housed weaned pigs to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli O149 challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, R D; Kyriazakis, I; Carroll, S M; Reynolds, F H; Wellock, I J; Broom, L J; Miller, H M

    2011-06-01

    A 2 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted to determine the effects of rearing environment (indoor (In) v. outdoor (Out)) and dietary zinc oxide (ZnO) supplementation (0 (-Zn) v. 3100 (+Zn) mg/kg feed) on the response of weaned pigs to a challenge infection with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). Pigs from the two rearing environments were weaned onto trial diets at 4 weeks of age, moved into conventional accommodation and infected 3 days later with 109 CFU ETEC per os. Faecal ETEC shedding was determined before and after challenge. After 7 days of ETEC infection, all pigs were euthanized for gut lactic acid bacteria (LAB)-to-coliform ratio, pH and small intestine morphological measurements. Both ZnO and outdoor rearing reduced ETEC excretion, and these effects were additive. Outdoor rearing increased small intestine and colon tissue weight. ZnO increased villus height and goblet cell number in the upper small intestine, LAB-to-coliform ratio (through reduced coliforms) in the lower small intestine and proximal colon, and improved growth performance. There were interactive effects of rearing environment and ZnO supplementation on upper small intestine villus height and daily gain, as outdoor rearing conferred advantages on these variables only with ZnO dietary supplementation. Daily gains were 233, 174, 277 and 347 (s.e.m. 27.2) g/day for the In - Zn, Out - Zn, In + Zn and Out + Zn, respectively. These results suggest different, but complementary mechanisms of intestinal health and performance in outdoor-reared pigs and those offered ZnO supplemented diets. The results indicate that the benefits of ZnO to the weaned pig extend beyond suppression of ETEC and appear mediated through altered development of the small intestine mucosa. PMID:22440169

  4. A logistics sector’s perspective of factors and risks within the business environment that influence supply chains’ effectiveness: An explorative mixed method study

    OpenAIRE

    Johanna A. Badenhorst-Weiss; Beverley J. Waugh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Supply chains in South Africa operate in a challenging business environment. This environment influences the efficiency and effectiveness of South African businesses and supply chains. These factors further influence the competitiveness of products produced in the country, the economic growth and development of South Africa.Objectives: The purpose of this study was two-fold: Firstly, to obtain insight into the main business environment risks and other factors, from a logistics per...

  5. African Americans and Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Involved News About Us Donate In This Section African Americans and Glaucoma email Send this article to ... glaucoma is the leading cause of blindness in African Americans. Half of those with glaucoma don't ...

  6. Nanomaterials in the aquatic environment: A European Union-United States perspective on the status of ecotoxicity testing, research priorities, and challenges ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selck, Henriette; Handy, Richard D; Fernandes, Teresa F; Klaine, Stephen J; Petersen, Elijah J

    2016-05-01

    The European Union-United States Communities of Research were established in 2012 to provide a platform for scientists to develop a "shared repertoire of protocols and methods to overcome nanotechnology environmental health and safety (nanoEHS) research gaps and barriers" (www.us-eu.org/). Based on work within the Ecotoxicology Community of Research (2012-2015) the present Focus article provides an overview of the state of the art of nanomaterials (NMs) in the aquatic environment by addressing different research questions, with a focus on ecotoxicological test systems and the challenges faced when assessing NM hazards (e.g., uptake routes, bioaccumulation, toxicity, test protocols, and model organisms). The authors' recommendation is to place particular importance on studying the ecological effects of aged/weathered NMs, as-manufactured NMs, and NMs released from consumer products in addressing the following overarching research topics: 1) NM characterization and quantification in environmental and biological matrices; 2) NM transformation in the environment and consequences for bioavailability and toxicity; 3) alternative methods to assess exposure; 4) influence of exposure scenarios on bioavailability and toxicity; 5) development of more environmentally realistic bioassays; and 6) uptake, internal distribution, and depuration of NMs. Research addressing these key topics will reduce uncertainty in ecological risk assessment and support the sustainable development of nanotechnology. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1055-1067. © 2016 SETAC. PMID:27089437

  7. Diabetes in African Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, M.

    2005-01-01

    African Americans have a high risk for type 2 diabetes. Genetic traits, the prevalence of obesity, and insulin resistance all contribute to the risk of diabetes in the African American community. African Americans have a high rate of diabetic complications, because of poor glycaemic control and racial disparities in health care in the USA. African Americans with diabetes may have an atypical presentation that simulates type 1 diabetes, but then their subsequent clinical course is typical of t...

  8. Assessing the carcinogenic potential of low-dose exposures to chemical mixtures in the environment: the challenge ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodson, William H.; Lowe, Leroy; Carpenter, David O.; Gilbertson, Michael; Manaf Ali, Abdul; Lopez de Cerain Salsamendi, Adela; Lasfar, Ahmed; Carnero, Amancio; Azqueta, Amaya; Amedei, Amedeo; Charles, Amelia K.; Collins, Andrew R.; Ward, Andrew; Salzberg, Anna C.; Colacci, Anna Maria; Olsen, Ann-Karin; Berg, Arthur; Barclay, Barry J.; Zhou, Binhua P.; Blanco-Aparicio, Carmen; Baglole, Carolyn J.; Dong, Chenfang; Mondello, Chiara; Hsu, Chia-Wen; Naus, Christian C.; Yedjou, Clement; Curran, Colleen S.; Laird, Dale W.; Koch, Daniel C.; Carlin, Danielle J.; Felsher, Dean W.; Roy, Debasish; Brown, Dustin G.; Ratovitski, Edward; Ryan, Elizabeth P.; Corsini, Emanuela; Rojas, Emilio; Moon, Eun-Yi; Laconi, Ezio; Marongiu, Fabio; Al-Mulla, Fahd; Chiaradonna, Ferdinando; Darroudi, Firouz; Martin, Francis L.; Van Schooten, Frederik J.; Goldberg, Gary S.; Wagemaker, Gerard; Nangami, Gladys N.; Calaf, Gloria M.; Williams, Graeme P.; Wolf, Gregory T.; Koppen, Gudrun; Brunborg, Gunnar; Lyerly, H. Kim; Krishnan, Harini; Ab Hamid, Hasiah; Yasaei, Hemad; Sone, Hideko; Kondoh, Hiroshi; Salem, Hosni K.; Hsu, Hsue-Yin; Park, Hyun Ho; Koturbash, Igor; Miousse, Isabelle R.; Scovassi, A.Ivana; Klaunig, James E.; Vondráček, Jan; Raju, Jayadev; Roman, Jesse; Wise, John Pierce; Whitfield, Jonathan R.; Woodrick, Jordan; Christopher, Joseph A.; Ochieng, Josiah; Martinez-Leal, Juan Fernando; Weisz, Judith; Kravchenko, Julia; Sun, Jun; Prudhomme, Kalan R.; Narayanan, Kannan Badri; Cohen-Solal, Karine A.; Moorwood, Kim; Gonzalez, Laetitia; Soucek, Laura; Jian, Le; D’Abronzo, Leandro S.; Lin, Liang-Tzung; Li, Lin; Gulliver, Linda; McCawley, Lisa J.; Memeo, Lorenzo; Vermeulen, Louis; Leyns, Luc; Zhang, Luoping; Valverde, Mahara; Khatami, Mahin; Romano, Maria Fiammetta; Chapellier, Marion; Williams, Marc A.; Wade, Mark; Manjili, Masoud H.; Lleonart, Matilde E.; Xia, Menghang; Gonzalez Guzman, Michael J.; Karamouzis, Michalis V.; Kirsch-Volders, Micheline; Vaccari, Monica; Kuemmerle, Nancy B.; Singh, Neetu; Cruickshanks, Nichola; Kleinstreuer, Nicole; van Larebeke, Nik; Ahmed, Nuzhat; Ogunkua, Olugbemiga; Krishnakumar, P.K.; Vadgama, Pankaj; Marignani, Paola A.; Ghosh, Paramita M.; Ostrosky-Wegman, Patricia; Thompson, Patricia A.; Dent, Paul; Heneberg, Petr; Darbre, Philippa; Leung, Po Sing; Nangia-Makker, Pratima; Cheng, Qiang (Shawn); Robey, R.Brooks; Al-Temaimi, Rabeah; Roy, Rabindra; Andrade-Vieira, Rafaela; Sinha, Ranjeet K.; Mehta, Rekha; Vento, Renza; Di Fiore, Riccardo; Ponce-Cusi, Richard; Dornetshuber-Fleiss, Rita; Nahta, Rita; Castellino, Robert C.; Palorini, Roberta; Hamid, Roslida A.; Langie, Sabine A.S.; Eltom, Sakina E.; Brooks, Samira A.; Ryeom, Sandra; Wise, Sandra S.; Bay, Sarah N.; Harris, Shelley A.; Papagerakis, Silvana; Romano, Simona; Pavanello, Sofia; Eriksson, Staffan; Forte, Stefano; Casey, Stephanie C.; Luanpitpong, Sudjit; Lee, Tae-Jin; Otsuki, Takemi; Chen, Tao; Massfelder, Thierry; Sanderson, Thomas; Guarnieri, Tiziana; Hultman, Tove; Dormoy, Valérian; Odero-Marah, Valerie; Sabbisetti, Venkata; Maguer-Satta, Veronique; Rathmell, W.Kimryn; Engström, Wilhelm; Decker, William K.; Bisson, William H.; Rojanasakul, Yon; Luqmani, Yunus; Chen, Zhenbang; Hu, Zhiwei

    2015-01-01

    Lifestyle factors are responsible for a considerable portion of cancer incidence worldwide, but credible estimates from the World Health Organization and the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) suggest that the fraction of cancers attributable to toxic environmental exposures is between 7% and 19%. To explore the hypothesis that low-dose exposures to mixtures of chemicals in the environment may be combining to contribute to environmental carcinogenesis, we reviewed 11 hallmark phenotypes of cancer, multiple priority target sites for disruption in each area and prototypical chemical disruptors for all targets, this included dose-response characterizations, evidence of low-dose effects and cross-hallmark effects for all targets and chemicals. In total, 85 examples of chemicals were reviewed for actions on key pathways/mechanisms related to carcinogenesis. Only 15% (13/85) were found to have evidence of a dose-response threshold, whereas 59% (50/85) exerted low-dose effects. No dose-response information was found for the remaining 26% (22/85). Our analysis suggests that the cumulative effects of individual (non-carcinogenic) chemicals acting on different pathways, and a variety of related systems, organs, tissues and cells could plausibly conspire to produce carcinogenic synergies. Additional basic research on carcinogenesis and research focused on low-dose effects of chemical mixtures needs to be rigorously pursued before the merits of this hypothesis can be further advanced. However, the structure of the World Health Organization International Programme on Chemical Safety ‘Mode of Action’ framework should be revisited as it has inherent weaknesses that are not fully aligned with our current understanding of cancer biology. PMID:26106142

  9. Sensitivity of African easterly waves to boundary layer conditions

    OpenAIRE

    A. Lenouo; Mkankam Kamga, F.

    2008-01-01

    A linearized version of the quasi-geostrophic model (QGM) with an explicit Ekman layer and observed static stability parameter and profile of the African easterly jet (AEJ), is used to study the instability properties of the environment of the West African wave disturbances. It is found that the growth rate, the propagation velocity and the structure of the African easterly waves (AEW) can be well simulated. Two different lower boundary conditions are applied. One assumes a lack of vertical g...

  10. African American Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    African American Suicide Fact Sheet Based on 2012 Data (2014) Overview • In 2012, 2,357 African Americans completed suicide in the U.S. Of these, ... 46 per 100,000. • The suicide rate for African Americans ages 10-19 was 2.98 per ...

  11. An Exploration of African Students in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Irene Tan Ai

    2011-01-01

    The exploratory study is an attempt to understand the reasons that prompted African students to study in Malaysia, the challenges encountered and the coping strategies used. The research on such topics among international students is well documented, but studies on international students in Malaysia are scarce. The sample included 155 African…

  12. Co-evolution between the South African venture capital industry and the South [African] government

    OpenAIRE

    Aluko, Olumide Mayowa

    2011-01-01

    This thesis contributes to the current discourse around co-evolution, this study investigates co-evolution between the South African venture capital industry and the South African government. Using a qualitative method which involved gathering data from archival sources and contemporary interviews, this study extends the growing literature on the co-evolution of organizations and their institutional environment in three ways. First, the study shows that the co-evolution that occurs between or...

  13. Bites, stings, and rigors: clinical considerations in African operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, James H; Verlo, April R; Givens, Melissa L; Munoz, Cesar E

    2014-01-01

    The natural health threats in Africa pose daunting clinical challenges for any provider, as evidenced by the current Ebola epidemic in West Africa, but the threat is multiplied for the Special Operations provider on the continent who faces these challenges with limited resources and the tyranny of distance. The majority of operationally significant health risks can be mitigated by strict adherence to a comprehensive force health protection plan. The simplest, yet most effective, technique for preventing mosquito-borne diseases is the prevention of mosquito bites with repellent, bed nets, and appropriate clothing in addition to chemoprophylaxis. Some of the more likely or lethal infectious diseases encountered on the continent include malaria, Chikungunya, dengue, human immunodeficiency virus, and Ebola. Venomous snakes pose a particular challenge since the treatment can be as deadly as the injury. Providers supporting African operations should educate themselves on the clinical characteristics of possible envenomations in their area while promoting snake avoidance as the primary mitigation measure. To succeed in Africa, the Special Operations provider must consider how to meet these challenges in an environment where there may not be reliable evacuation, hospitalization, or logistics channels. PMID:25399379

  14. African Americans and Network Disadvantage: Enhancing Social Capital through Participation on Social Networking Sites

    OpenAIRE

    Danielle Taana Smith

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the participation of African Americans on social networking sites (SNS), and evaluates the degree to which African Americans engage in activities in the online environment to mitigate social capital deficits. Prior literature suggests that compared with whites, African Americans have less social capital that can enhance their socio-economic mobility. As such, my research question is: do African Americans enhance their social capital through their participation on SNS? I us...

  15. African Otter Workshop

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Reed-Smith; Hughes Akpona; Grace Yoxon

    2016-01-01

    All concerned thought this was an excellent workshop with important progress made towards creating a viable beginning of an African Otter Network. There is a long road ahead but the 2015 African Otter Workshop is a start on developing range country partners, activists and researchers as well as collaborating on issue identification and resolution which will assist in preserving at least some refugia for Africa’s otters. A list of actions was agreed on, including the creation of an African Ott...

  16. African and non-African admixture components in African Americans and an African Caribbean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Tanda; Beaty, Terri H; Mathias, Rasika A; Rafaels, Nicholas; Grant, Audrey Virginia; Faruque, Mezbah U; Watson, Harold R; Ruczinski, Ingo; Dunston, Georgia M; Barnes, Kathleen C

    2010-09-01

    Admixture is a potential source of confounding in genetic association studies, so it becomes important to detect and estimate admixture in a sample of unrelated individuals. Populations of African descent in the US and the Caribbean share similar historical backgrounds but the distributions of African admixture may differ. We selected 416 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) to estimate and compare admixture proportions using STRUCTURE in 906 unrelated African Americans (AAs) and 294 Barbadians (ACs) from a study of asthma. This analysis showed AAs on average were 72.5% African, 19.6% European and 8% Asian, while ACs were 77.4% African, 15.9% European, and 6.7% Asian which were significantly different. A principal components analysis based on these AIMs yielded one primary eigenvector that explained 54.04% of the variation and captured a gradient from West African to European admixture. This principal component was highly correlated with African vs. European ancestry as estimated by STRUCTURE (r(2)=0.992, r(2)=0.912, respectively). To investigate other African contributions to African American and Barbadian admixture, we performed PCA on approximately 14,000 (14k) genome-wide SNPs in AAs, ACs, Yorubans, Luhya and Maasai African groups, and estimated genetic distances (F(ST)). We found AAs and ACs were closest genetically (F(ST)=0.008), and both were closer to the Yorubans than the other East African populations. In our sample of individuals of African descent, approximately 400 well-defined AIMs were just as good for detecting substructure as approximately 14,000 random SNPs drawn from a genome-wide panel of markers. PMID:20717976

  17. Challenges of Diagnosing Acute HIV-1 Subtype C Infection in African Women: Performance of a Clinical Algorithm and the Need for Point-of-Care Nucleic-Acid Based Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Mlisana, Koleka; Sobieszczyk, Magdalena; Werner, Lise; Feinstein, Addi; van Loggerenberg, Francois; NAICKER, Nivashnee; Williamson, Carolyn; Garrett, Nigel

    2013-01-01

    Background Prompt diagnosis of acute HIV infection (AHI) benefits the individual and provides opportunities for public health intervention. The aim of this study was to describe most common signs and symptoms of AHI, correlate these with early disease progression and develop a clinical algorithm to identify acute HIV cases in resource limited setting. Methods 245 South African women at high-risk of HIV-1 were assessed for AHI and received monthly HIV-1 antibody and RNA testing. Signs and symp...

  18. The Heart of the Matter: Methodological Challenges in Developing a Contemporary 257-269 Reading Programme for Monolingual Lexicography, from the Perspective of the Dictionary Unit for South African English

    OpenAIRE

    Leela Pienaar

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: This article argues the importance of the reading programme as the pivotal issue inthe lexicographic process. It is essentially a practical article which outlines strategies for developingand implementing a reading programme for monolingual lexicography. The arguments are informedby theory, together with an examination of the data-collection procedures followed by theDictionary Unit for South African English (DSAE) and a survey of current practice in major Englishdictionary...

  19. Regulatory convergence of information and communication technology (ICT) sectors in the East African Community (EAC): challenges for the current legislative and regulatory frameworks and lessons from the European Union experience

    OpenAIRE

    Nyaga, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: The East African Community (EAC)’s Information and Communication Technology (ICT) sector has been confronted with the convergence phenomenon. This is a concept that describes the trend of blurring boundaries between the traditionally distinct ICT sectors, namely: Information Technology (IT), broadcasting and telecommunications. This is significant for the EAC since the driving force behind this convergence phenomenon is that of efficiency. It necessitates the need to rethink the cur...

  20. Convergence of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) sectors in the East African Community (EAC): Challenges for the current legislative and regulatory frameworks and lessons from the European Union experience

    OpenAIRE

    Kariuki Nyaga, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    The East African Community (EAC)'s Information and Communication Technology (ICT) sector has been confronted with the convergence phenomenon. This is a concept that describes the trend of blurring boundaries between the traditionally distinct ICT sectors, namely: Information Technology (IT), broadcasting and telecommunications. This is significant for the EAC since the driving force behind this convergence phenomenon is that of efficiency. It necessitates the need to rethink the current legis...

  1. Contemporary Sexism in the South African Navy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wijk, Charles H.

    2011-01-01

    The military traditionally embraces highly sexist attitudes. Over the past decade, the South African Navy (SAN) has been exposed to an increasingly progressive political environment. This study investigated contemporary expressions of sexism in the SAN. A representative sample of 476 sailors completed the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory, Modern Sexism…

  2. Mentoring African American Expatriates: Providing The Bridge To Success Abroad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria C. Crawley

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Employment predictions continue to forecast increasing racial diversity in the American workforce as firms face global competition and strive to grasp the challenges of a global business landscape.  As American multinational corporations use expatriate assignments; supplemented by flexipatriates and inpatriates to meet customer preferences in the global marketplace, growing racial diversity may generate more expatriates of color.  Global human resource management research has focused on issues such as adjustment and cross-cultural development and recently mentoring as critical factors for expatriate success.  A growing body of mentoring research details the career experiences of employees with diverse backgrounds, yet few studies center on the experiences of the African American expatriate.  This article aims to examine African Americans mentoring opportunities in a global environment, with a focus on understanding the role mentoring plays for this particular population group. This work is intended to contribute to the increasing literature on global mentoring and will help to influence the thinking of multinational corporations’ response to the increasing diversity of their global workforce.

  3. Environmental sensing by African trypanosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roditi, Isabel; Schumann, Gabriela; Naguleswaran, Arunasalam

    2016-08-01

    African trypanosomes, which divide their life cycle between mammals and tsetse flies, are confronted with environments that differ widely in temperature, nutrient availability and host responses to infection. In particular, since trypanosomes cannot predict when they will be transmitted between hosts, it is vital for them to be able to sense and adapt to their milieu. Thanks to technical advances, significant progress has been made in understanding how the parasites perceive external stimuli and react to them. There is also a growing awareness that trypanosomes use a variety of mechanisms to exchange information with each other, thereby enhancing their chances of survival. PMID:27131101

  4. Keeping African Masks Real

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddington, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Art is a good place to learn about our multicultural planet, and African masks are prized throughout the world as powerfully expressive artistic images. Unfortunately, multicultural education, especially for young children, can perpetuate stereotypes. Masks taken out of context lose their meaning and the term "African masks" suggests that there is…

  5. Empowering African States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China helps bring lasting peace and stability to Africa African think tanks expressed a high opinion of China’s role in helping build African peace and security at the first meeting of the China-Africa Think Tanks Forum. The

  6. African Literature as Celebration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achebe, Chinua

    1989-01-01

    Describes the Igbo tradition of "Mbari," a communal creative enterprise that celebrates the world and the life lived in it through art. Contrasts the cooperative, social dimension of pre-colonial African culture with the exclusion and denial of European colonialism, and sees new African literature again celebrating human presence and dignity. (AF)

  7. Chronic Pain in Older African American Grandparent Caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, Staja Q

    2016-06-01

    African American grandparent caregiving is increasing, and evidence shows that grandparent caregiving influences health and its management. As older adults age, their potential of experiencing chronic pain increases, and this is profound given that physiological research shows that African Americans, aside from aging, may have a predisposition for developing chronic pain. Research shows older African Americans experience significant chronic pain, but few have discussed the implications of managing chronic pain in older African Americans who have added parental responsibility. Many older African Americans receive home healthcare services and there is a unique role for home healthcare clinicians in caring for this vulnerable population. This article discusses the impact of pain on caregiving, challenges in pain management, and practice and policy implications to assist home healthcare clinicians maintain the safety and protection of both the older grandparent and grandchildren. PMID:27243429

  8. 'Great power' intervention in African armed conflicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Gorm Rye

    2015-01-01

    This paper asks why the United States (US), China and the European Union (EU) have intervened in a number of armed conflicts in Africa in the twenty-first century. Scrutiny and comparison of the motivations and interests of the three non-African actors in intervening in African crises are assumed...... to contribute to understanding the changing geopolitical environment and the current conditions for conflict management in Africa. The focus is not on trade and aid. The paper launches the hypothesis that the explanations why the US, China and the EU have intervened are basically identical. In spite...

  9. Polymeric Membrane Dressings for Topical Wound Management of Patients With Infected Wounds in a Challenging Environment: A Protocol With 3 Case Examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benskin, Linda L

    2016-06-01

    Patients with acute wounds often delay seeking medical assistance until an incapacitating infection has developed. When such patients come for help at a remote Christian clinic in northern Ghana, West Africa, the goals of care are to resolve and prevent a return of infection, decrease pain, enable an immediate return to normal activities, and facilitate healing. Because the local protocol of care, Edinburgh University Solution of Lime (EUSOL)-soaked gauze, did not meet these goals, the author tried using a variety of donated wound dressing regimens. Ultimately, polymeric membrane dressings (PMDs) were observed to meet patient care needs while also reducing clinic staff time and resources, and a PMD protocol of care was developed. Three (3) representative patients who presented with acute wounds and infection are described: a 20-year-old man with a hand abscess, a 16-year-old boy with a malleolus wound, and an approximately 20-year-old woman with an injection abscess, all otherwise relatively healthy, albeit undernourished. All 3 patients re- ceived oral antibiotics, their wounds were initially cleansed and debrided, and an appropriate configuration of either regular or silver-containing PMDs was applied to all exposed wound surfaces. Dressing changes were scheduled based upon the personalized plan of care. In all 3 patients, the pain-relieving properties of PMDs allowed resumption of activi- ties within 1 day of initiating treatment, the dressings' continuous wound cleansing system kept the wounds clean and free of infection despite the challenging environment, and the wounds healed steadily. Managing infected acute wounds with PMDs through complete wound closure was time efficient for clinic staff and met all 4 major patient goals of care. Randomized, controlled studies to compare wound and quality of life outcomes in patients whose infected wounds are managed with PMDs compared with those whose wounds are managed with other advanced dressings are warranted. PMID

  10. Venture funding for science-based African health innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daar Abdallah S

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While venture funding has been applied to biotechnology and health in high-income countries, it is still nascent in these fields in developing countries, and particularly in Africa. Yet the need for implementing innovative solutions to health challenges is greatest in Africa, with its enormous burden of communicable disease. Issues such as risk, investment opportunities, return on investment requirements, and quantifying health impact are critical in assessing venture capital’s potential for supporting health innovation. This paper uses lessons learned from five venture capital firms from Kenya, South Africa, China, India, and the US to suggest design principles for African health venture funds. Discussion The case study method was used to explore relevant funds, and lessons for the African context. The health venture funds in this study included publicly-owned organizations, corporations, social enterprises, and subsidiaries of foreign venture firms. The size and type of investments varied widely. The primary investor in four funds was the International Finance Corporation. Three of the funds aimed primarily for financial returns, one aimed primarily for social and health returns, and one had mixed aims. Lessons learned include the importance of measuring and supporting both social and financial returns; the need to engage both upstream capital such as government risk-funding and downstream capital from the private sector; and the existence of many challenges including difficulty of raising capital, low human resource capacity, regulatory barriers, and risky business environments. Based on these lessons, design principles for appropriate venture funding are suggested. Summary Based on the cases studied and relevant experiences elsewhere, there is a case for venture funding as one support mechanism for science-based African health innovation, with opportunities for risk-tolerant investors to make financial as well as social

  11. ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF THE SOUTH AFRICAN FLOWER INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    van Rooyen, I.M.; van Rooyen, Johan

    1998-01-01

    In this paper some interesting findings from recent studies regarding the economic aspects of the South African flower industry are highlighted. By looking at South Africa’s competitiveness and doing a comparative advantage study, an international perspective is firstly developed. The contribution of the flower industry in the South African economy is then discussed. This includes a case study on flower growers in the Gauteng Province. The final section notes some challenges for this indust...

  12. Revenue generation strategies in sub-Saharan African universities

    OpenAIRE

    Gebreyes, Fisseha Mamo

    2012-01-01

    Financial sustainability is one of the key challenges for public universities in both developed and developing countries. Using a resource dependence approach, this study explores the issue of revenue generation in Sub-Saharan African universities. It analyses the diversification strategies that four universities in three African countries (Ethiopia, Kenya, and South Africa) have implemented in order to improve their universities’ financial situation. Universities in Sub-Saharan Africa are fa...

  13. African and African American Children's and Adolescent Literature in the Classroom: A Critical Guide. Black Studies and Critical Thinking. Volume 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenika-Agbaw, Vivian, Ed.; Napoli, Mary, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The essays in this collection discuss multicultural issues in children's and adolescent literature, focusing particularly on African and African American cultures. They challenge everyone's understanding of what, in an age of globalization, multicultural texts really are. Cumulatively, these essays illustrate multicultural literature's power to…

  14. African Peacekeepers in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmanuel, Nikolas G.

    2015-01-01

    peacekeeping operations in the region. It is important to add that the international community has frequently tried to facilitate the deployment of African armed forces with aid and training. From this reality, the following study goes beyond the current literature by focusing on the international factors...... behind African participation in United Nations (UN) peacekeeping operations in Africa. In doing so, this research focuses on US military aid and foreign troop training from 2002 to 2012, and its impact on African deployments into UN peacekeeping missions in Africa. As can be expected, such third...

  15. Capitalism and African business cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Scott D.

    2014-01-01

    Scholars and practitioners once commonly linked 'African culture' to a distinctive 'African capitalism', at odds with genuine capitalism and the demands of modern business. Yet contemporary African business cultures reveal that a capitalist ethos has taken hold within both state and society. The success and visibility of an emergent, and celebrated, class of African big business reveals that business and profit are culturally acceptable. Existing theories of African capitalism are ill-equippe...

  16. The Politics of African Industrial Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Lindsay; Therkildsen, Ole; Buur, Lars;

    2015-01-01

    This book engages in the debate on growth versus economic transformation and the importance of industrial policy, presenting a comprehensive framework for explaining the politics of industrial policy. Using comparative research to theorize about the politics of industrial policy in countries in the...... early stages of capitalist transformation that also experience the pressures of elections due to democratization, this book provides four in-depth African country studies that illustrate the challenges to economic transformation and the politics of implementing industrial policies....

  17. Impact of regulatory requirements on medicine registration in African countries – perceptions and experiences of pharmaceutical companies in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Narsai, Kirti; Williams, Abeda; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje Kaija

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Access to medicines has long been and remains a challenge in African countries. The impact of medicines registration policies in these countries poses a challenge for pharmaceutical companies wanting to register medicines in these countries. The recent AMRHI (African Medicines Registration Harmonisation Initiative) has increased the focus on the need for harmonisation. Medicines registration regulations differ across African countries. Anecdotal evidence, based on the experience of...

  18. Challenges confronting the health workforce in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habte, Demissie; Dussault, Gilles; Dovlo, Delanyo

    2004-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa and the international health community face a daunting challenge to deal with an extraordinary disease burden and improve the health status of Africans. Despite decades of effort to provide effective, equitable and affordable health care services, the health indices of Africans have stagnated and in some instances have deteriorated. Africa is the only continent that has not fully benefited from recent advances in biomedical sciences that brought health tools and technologies to tackle most of the disease burden. The emergence of the HIV/AIDS epidemic has confounded the health scene and posed further challenges. Several factors are responsible for this state of affairs: macro factors, that represent the broader socio-cultural environment that impact on health, and micro factors, which are largely health sector specific. There is increasing recognition that the major limiting factor to improved health outcomes is not lack of financial resources or health technologies but the lack of implementation capacity which depends on the presence of a functional health system. The drivers and architects of this are health workers, 'the most important of the health system's input'. The Commission on Macroeconomics and Health advocates a greatly increased investment in health rising in low income countries to a per capita expenditure of US $34 per year and states that the problem in implementing this recommendation is not difficulty in raising funds but the capacity of the health sector itself to absorb the increased flow. Yet, until fairly recently sufficient attention has not been directed to the role of the health workforce. The failure to develop and deploy an appropriate and motivated health workforce, and the environment necessary for the workforce to perform optimally is clearly a critical determinant of the health status of Africans. This paper summarizes key issues facing the workforce and outlines a framework to develop strategies to address them

  19. A Review of Genetics, Arterial Stiffness, and Blood Pressure in African Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Jennifer L.; Duprez, Daniel A; Barac, Ana; Rich, Stephen S.

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of hypertension in African Americans in the United States is amongst the highest in the world and increasing. The identification of genes and pathways regulating blood pressure in African Americans has been challenging. An early predictor of hypertension is arterial stiffness. The prevalence of arterial stiffness is significantly higher in African Americans compared to Caucasians. Approximately 20% of the variance in arterial stiffness is estimated to be heritable. Identifying ...

  20. CAPTIVES COURAGEOUS: SOUTH AFRICAN PRISONERS OF WAR WORLD WAR II

    OpenAIRE

    David McLennan

    2012-01-01

    Captives Courageous; South African prisoners of war in World War II is the ninth work in the South Africans at War series published by Ashanti Press. Leigh has divided his book into two parts. In the first part, entitled "Into the bag", he details the capture of South Africans in the Western Desert and their rapid transition from efficient fighting men to often sickly and weak prisoners of war (POW). The Western Desert was an unforgiving environment in which to find oneself a prisoner of wa...

  1. Franco-African relations: no longer so exceptional?

    OpenAIRE

    Chafer, Tony

    2002-01-01

    Key developments in Franco-African relations since 1994 are reviewed. Reservations are expressed about the widely held view that these relations have undergone a process of normalization in recent years and that France is disengaging from its traditional pre carre (sphere of influence) in Black Africa. Instead, it is argued that, under pressure from a rapidly evolving international environment and a changing domestic policy context, a partial modernization of French African policy has taken p...

  2. Unheard and Unseen: How Housing Insecure African American Adolescents Experience the Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Addie Lucille; Geller, Kathy D.

    2016-01-01

    This narrative study is based on stories told by African American adolescents experiencing homelessness. It offers insights into their lived experiences and describes the challenges faced in negotiating the urban education system. African American youth are disproportionately represented in the adolescent homeless demographic. "Unheard and…

  3. African American Males and Literacy Development in Contexts That Are Characteristically Urban

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatum, Alfred W.; Muhammad, Gholnecsar E.

    2012-01-01

    Advancing the literacy development of African American males in contexts that are characteristically urban has been a challenging task for educators across the P-12 spectrum. Frames that have been traditionally used to improve the reading achievement of African American males have not reversed trends in reading achievement that find many of these…

  4. Connective Complexity: African American Adolescents and the Relational Context of Kinship Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Ann

    2008-01-01

    Attempts to address racial disproportionality in child welfare must include a focus on the benefits and challenges facing children in kinship care. African American children not only are overrepresented in the child welfare system, but also are placed disproportionately in kinship foster care. Using a sample of 18 African American adolescents ages…

  5. Taking Boys out of the Hood: Exile as a Parenting Strategy for African American Male Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Joseph B., Jr.; Van Brakle, Mischelle; St. Vil, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Research indicates that inner-city neighborhood effects are correlated with school dropout, substance abuse, crime, violence, homicide, HIV risk related behaviors, and incarceration for adolescent African American males. Parents of adolescent African American males face many challenges as they try to keep their children safe in high-risk…

  6. Students' Reflections on the Relationships between Safe Learning Environments, Learning Challenge and Positive Experiences of Learning in a Simulated GP Clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, J. E.; Williamson, M. I.; Egan, T. G.

    2016-01-01

    Learning environments are a significant determinant of student behaviour, achievement and satisfaction. In this article we use students' reflective essays to identify key features of the learning environment that contributed to positive and transformative learning experiences. We explore the relationships between these features, the students'…

  7. Characterizing the admixed African ancestry of African Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Zakharia, Fouad; Basu, Analabha; Absher, Devin; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Go, Alan S.; Hlatky, Mark A.; Iribarren, Carlos; Knowles, Joshua W.; Li, Jun; Narasimhan, Balasubramanian; Sidney, Steven; Southwick, Audrey; Myers, Richard M.; Quertermous, Thomas; Risch, Neil

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Accurate, high-throughput genotyping allows the fine characterization of genetic ancestry. Here we applied recently developed statistical and computational techniques to the question of African ancestry in African Americans by using data on more than 450,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped in 94 Africans of diverse geographic origins included in the...

  8. African-Americans and Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share Plus on Google Plus African-Americans and Alzheimer's alz.org | IHaveAlz Introduction 10 Warning Signs Brain ... African-Americans are at a higher risk for Alzheimer's disease. Many Americans dismiss the warning signs of ...

  9. THE ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM OF THE SOUTH AFRICAN NATIONAL DEFENCE FORCE AT THE GRAHAMSTOWN MILITARY INSTALLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bheki Magagula

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents preliminary findings on current environmental management practices used by the South African National Defence Force (SANDF at the Grahamstown Military Installation (GMI. These findings comprise interviews with SANDF officials and an analysis of official documents, which include the first and second editions of the Environmental Management Plan for Defence (2001 & 2008 respectively. The study on which this article reports, found that the emphasis placed on environmental protection within defence force activities worldwide has compelled the South African Department of Defence and Military Veterans (SA DODMV to regulate the management of the environment within its properties. Yet, these efforts have faced numerous challenges that range from financial to human resources deficiencies. Consequently, the military installation at Grahamstown does not have environmentally knowledgeable and qualified personnel to deal with environmental issues. From the analysis of official documents as well as interviews with respondents, it was established that the SA DODMV itself does not have a budget for environmental services. The combination of all these drawbacks has led to the failure of the implementation of the Environmental Management System (EMS for Defence at this military installation (i.e. GMI of the SANDF. Undoubtedly, all these challenges have severely compromised the commitment of the SA DODMV to honour its environmental management obligations. Moreover, the deficiencies of all these resources undermine the sustainable utilisation of these national assets (natural resources entrusted to the defence force. The study reported here proposes an ideal model for the successful implementation of the EMS in SANDF military installations.

  10. African diatom palaeoecology and biostratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasse, F.; Fourtanier, E.

    This paper illustrates the different types of information which can be deduced from African diatoms studies. The first section is devoted to the reconstruction of palaeoenvironments. The accuracy of ecological data (estimates of ecological variables e.g. types of habitats, water chemistry…) depends on the times scale and on the spatial scale considered: short-term environments in a given waterbody, environmental evolution during individual humid episodes considered locally or regionally, long-term changes in diatom flora induced by major climatic tendencies at a regional or continental scale. One then summarizes our present state of knowledge in diatom biostratigraphy in Africa. Several centric taxa, belonging to the genera Aulacoseira, Mesodictyon, Cyclotella, Stephanodiscus and Cyclostephanos appear to have limited stratigraphical ranges and to be good chronological markers.

  11. African Cultural Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Holbrook, Jarita C; Medupe, R. Thebe; Current Archaeoastronomy and Ethnoastronomy research in Africa

    2008-01-01

    Astronomy is the science of studying the sky using telescopes and light collectors such as photographic plates or CCD detectors. However, people have always studied the sky and continue to study the sky without the aid of instruments this is the realm of cultural astronomy. This is the first scholarly collection of articles focused on the cultural astronomy of Africans. It weaves together astronomy, anthropology, and Africa. The volume includes African myths and legends about the sky, alignments to celestial bodies found at archaeological sites and at places of worship, rock art with celestial imagery, and scientific thinking revealed in local astronomy traditions including ethnomathematics and the creation of calendars. Authors include astronomers Kim Malville, Johnson Urama, and Thebe Medupe; archaeologist Felix Chami, and geographer Michael Bonine, and many new authors. As an emerging subfield of cultural astronomy, African cultural astronomy researchers are focused on training students specifically for do...

  12. African names for American plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andel, van T.R.

    2015-01-01

    African slaves brought plant knowledge to the New World, sometimes applying it to related plants they found there and sometimes bringing Old World plants with them. By tracing the linguistic parallels between names for plants in African languages and in communities descended from African slaves, pie

  13. The Struggles over African Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maseko, Pam; Vale, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In this interview, African Language expert Pam Maseko speaks of her own background and her first encounter with culture outside of her mother tongue, isiXhosa. A statistical breakdown of South African languages is provided as background. She discusses Western (originally missionary) codification of African languages and suggests that this approach…

  14. African agricultural trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Sandrey, Ron

    2015-01-01

    This article starts with a profile of African agricultural trade. Using the pre-release version 9.2 of the GTAP database, we then show that the results for tariff elimination on intra-African trade are promising, but these tariff barriers are not as significant as the various trade-related barriers...... elimination, non-tariff barrier reductions and time in transit cost reductions are likely to be cumulative and would generate very large gains to Africa. The policy implications are clear: while cooperation will enhance the gains, much of the benefits will result from unilateral actions and regional...

  15. Role of inertial instability in the West African monsoon jump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Kerry H.

    2015-04-01

    The West African monsoon jump is a sudden shift in the latitude of the West African precipitation maximum from the Guinean coast near 4°N into Sahel near 12°N in late June or early July. An examination of reanalyses and observations indicates that the Sahel rainy season develops smoothly and the monsoon jump occurs because of an abrupt decrease in Guinean coast rainfall. We show that this abrupt end of the coastal rainy season occurs when inertial instability develops over the region, 1 month later than it develops in the vicinity of the marine Atlantic Intertropical Convergence Zone. The reason for this delay is the presence of the African easterly jet, which places strong negative meridional zonal wind gradients over the coast to preserve the inertially stable environment. When the African easterly jet moves farther north due to the seasonal solar forcing, these gradients weaken and then reverse to satisfy the threshold condition for inertial instability; the rapid end of the Guinean coast rainy season follows. The northward movement and intensity of the African easterly jet are controlled by the seasonal development of strong meridional land surface temperature gradients and are independent of the formation of the Atlantic cold tongue. This explanation for the West African monsoon jump relates the phenomenon to the shape and location of the African continent, including the low-latitude position of the Guinean coast and the large expanse of the continent to the north.

  16. Presence and Detection of Pharmaceutical Substances (Diclofenac, 17-β-estradiol, 17-α-etilinestradiol in the Environment. Future Challenges for Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Baranauskaitė

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence and migration of pharmaceutical substances in the aquatic cycles are among the most negotiable and environmentally relevant problems all over the world. On August 12, 2013 Directive 2013/39/EU of the European Parliament and Council was adopted; that Directive being the first document to contain pharmaceutical substances (diclofenac (DCF, 17-β-estradiol (E2 and 17-α-ethinylestradiol (EE2 included in the Monitoring list. According to the right-down research it is believed that the mentioned substances can cause a harmful effect on the biota and the natural environment.To predict and to control the penetration of pharmaceutical substances into the environment, as well as to reduce their escape into it, the sources of their formation, their consumers, and the ways of their penetration into the environment are to be analyzed, their ability to change and to accumulate in the environment should be realized.To achieve this objective the legal basis applicable to the pharmaceutical substances (DCF, E2 and EE2 is analyzed in this paper, the volumes of Lithuanian sales of pharmaceutical substances (DCF, E2 and EE2 are determined, and the tendencies of sales alterations are discussed. The research done in this field is reviewed through the analyses and evaluation of the toxicological significance of these substances in the environment, through flows and sources of their penetration into the natural environment, the materials decomposition in the aquatic environment, and through the global experience in removal of pharmaceutical substances from wastewater and wastewater disposal in Lithuania.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.68.2.7378

  17. The influences and experiences of African American undergraduate science majors at predominately White universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blockus, Linda Helen

    The purpose of this study is to describe and explore some of the social and academic experiences of successful African American undergraduate science majors at predominately White universities with the expectation of conceptualizing emerging patterns for future study. The study surveyed 80 upperclass African Americans at 11 public research universities about their perceptions of the influences that affect their educational experiences and career interests in science. The mailed survey included the Persistence/ voluntary Dropout Decision Scale, the Cultural Congruity Scale and the University Environment Scale. A variety of potential influences were considered including family background, career goals, psychosocial development, academic and social connections with the university, faculty relationships, environmental fit, retention factors, validation, participation in mentored research projects and other experiences. The students' sources of influences, opportunities for connection, and cultural values were considered in the context of a research university environment and investigated for emerging themes and direction for future research. Results indicate that performance in coursework appears to be the most salient factor in African American students' experience as science majors. The mean college gpa was 3.01 for students in this study. Challenging content, time demands, study habits and concern with poor grades all serve to discourage students; however, for most of the students in this study, it has not dissuaded them from their educational and career plans. Positive course performance provided encouragement. Science faculty provide less influence than family members, and more students find faculty members discouraging than supportive. Measures of faculty relations were not associated with academic success. No evidence was provided to confirm the disadvantages of being female in a scientific discipline. Students were concerned with lack of minority role models

  18. Conducting research in a resource-constrained environment: avoiding the pitfalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine I. Munsamy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Practical challenges affected the conducting of a retrospective drug use evaluation (DUE on the rational use of tenofovir in a resourceconstrained South African Antiretroviral Treatment Programme. The primary outcome measure was the percentage of patient records compliant with DUE criteria using initiation prescriptions from March 2009 to February 2010. Health system challenges encountered included stringent institutional administrative procedures, lack of efficient communication channels, reliance on overburdened personnel and fear of audit. Forty percent (222 of 556 of patient records identified for inclusion in the study had to be excluded, mainly due to poor record keeping. Research budgetary constraints also limited data collection. This experience highlighted real, unforeseen challenges when conducting a retrospective study in a resource-constrained environment. A sound understanding of the environment and adequate preparation is recommended. The lessons learnt may prove valuable to both firsttime and experienced researchers in a resource-limited setting using a similar methodology.

  19. The African Standby Force and Regional Security Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    , is illustrative of the African Union’s (AU) ambition when in 2002 it included in its formation an African Peace and Security Architecture (APSA). This was supposed to include both non-violent and robust control regimes mechanisms, providing the continent with an effective conflict management structure. The East...... challenges, been transformed from a grand idea into a real peace operations tool. This chapter starts with an apparent conundrum: Is it possible for weak and fragility-prone states to form and create effective regional security institutions? The logical answer would be no, since combining two weak units does....... Will it therefore ever be able to transform itself into an effective security management regime, with the ability to handle the challenges facing the region? The regional enmities between the states seem to be widespread, deep-rooted and nearly chronic in nature. In June 2015 the African Union and its member states...

  20. E-LEARNING AND THE GLOBAL DIVIDE: The Challenges Facing Distance Education in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bamidele A. OJO

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the question of distance education and its pivotal role in promoting social change and development in Africa. It also discussed within the context of the global digital divide and the ongoing need for collaborative effort at global education, the limitation imposed by the socio-economic and political environment on the continent. The paper in its findings conclude that the crisis within African societies constitutes a serious challenge to the implementation of and the effectiveness of distance education in Africa and therefore contributes to the widening of the digital divide rather than reducing it.

  1. A Review of Myxosporea, Microspora and Monogenea Infections in African Fish

    OpenAIRE

    J.F.N. Abowei; E.N. Ezekiel

    2011-01-01

    Myxosporea, Microspora and Monogenea infections in African fish was reviewed to educate fish culturists on some potential challenges in culture fisheries management. The description, taxonomy and diagnosis, Pathology, Life cycle and biology, Epizootiology and Control of Myxosporea, Microspora and Monogenea in African fish was reviewed to educate fish culturist on more challenges faced in culture fisheries. Myxoporidea is a class of protozoa which parasitize invertebrates and lower vertebrates...

  2. Childhood lead exposure in an enslaved African community in Barbados

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, Hannes; Shuler, Kristrina; Chenery, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Lead was ubiquitous on Caribbean sugar plantations, where it was used extensively in the production of sugar and rum. Previous studies suggest that skeletal lead contents can be used to identify African-born individuals (as opposed to Creoles) among slave burials found in the New World. To test....... Results show a clear association between low (i.e., below 1 ppm) enamel lead concentrations and higher enamel 87Sr/86Sr ratios which have previously been interpreted as being indicative of African birth, suggesting that individuals with low enamel lead levels were indeed born in Africa as opposed to the...... New World. Based on these results, we propose that enamel lead measurements provide an effective and inexpensive way to determine African birth from skeletal remains. Furthermore, the lead measurements can provide useful insights into the health status and childhood environment of enslaved Africans...

  3. Disaster management and humanitarian logistics – A South African perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilna L. Bean

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Disasters are becoming an unavoidable part of everyday life throughout the world, including South Africa. Even though South Africa is not a country affected by large-scale disasters such as earthquakes, the impact of disasters in South Africa is aggravated significantly by the vulnerability of people living in informal settlements. Humanitarian logistics, as a ‘new’ sub-field in the supply chain management context, has developed significantly recently to assist in disaster situations. This paper provides an overview of the South African humanitarian logistics context. Even though humanitarian logistics plays a critical role in the aftermath of disasters, it extends far beyond events that can typically be classified as ‘disasters’. Therefore the implication of the South African humanitarian logistics context on future research and collaboration opportunities in South African humanitarian logistics is also discussed. Finally, two recent case studies in the South African humanitarian logistics environment are discussed.

  4. Challenges of diagnosing acute HIV-1 subtype C infection in African women: performance of a clinical algorithm and the need for point-of-care nucleic-acid based testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koleka Mlisana

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prompt diagnosis of acute HIV infection (AHI benefits the individual and provides opportunities for public health intervention. The aim of this study was to describe most common signs and symptoms of AHI, correlate these with early disease progression and develop a clinical algorithm to identify acute HIV cases in resource limited setting. METHODS: 245 South African women at high-risk of HIV-1 were assessed for AHI and received monthly HIV-1 antibody and RNA testing. Signs and symptoms at first HIV-positive visit were compared to HIV-negative visits. Logistic regression identified clinical predictors of AHI. A model-based score was assigned to each predictor to create a risk score for every woman. RESULTS: Twenty-eight women seroconverted after a total of 390 person-years of follow-up with an HIV incidence of 7.2/100 person-years (95%CI 4.5-9.8. Fifty-seven percent reported ≥1 sign or symptom at the AHI visit. Factors predictive of AHI included age <25 years (OR = 3.2; 1.4-7.1, rash (OR = 6.1; 2.4-15.4, sore throat (OR = 2.7; 1.0-7.6, weight loss (OR = 4.4; 1.5-13.4, genital ulcers (OR = 8.0; 1.6-39.5 and vaginal discharge (OR = 5.4; 1.6-18.4. A risk score of 2 correctly predicted AHI in 50.0% of cases. The number of signs and symptoms correlated with higher HIV-1 RNA at diagnosis (r = 0.63; p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Accurate recognition of signs and symptoms of AHI is critical for early diagnosis of HIV infection. Our algorithm may assist in risk-stratifying individuals for AHI, especially in resource-limited settings where there is no routine testing for AHI. Independent validation of the algorithm on another cohort is needed to assess its utility further. Point-of-care antigen or viral load technology is required, however, to detect asymptomatic, antibody negative cases enabling early interventions and prevention of transmission.

  5. Deepening African Ties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Chinese President Hu Jintao has just embarked on his state visits to eight African countries that will take him to both the northern and southern tips of the continent. This is his first trip abroad this year, and also his third visit to Africa

  6. East African institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordby, Johannes Riber; Jacobsen, Katja

    For the past decade security in East Africa has gained focus internationally. However there is a growing ambition among African states to handle such issues by themselves, sometimes through regional institutions. This has been supported by many Western states but potential risks are often forgotten....

  7. West African Antislavery Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahonou, Eric Komlavi; Pelckmans, Lotte

    2011-01-01

    In the context of liberalization of West African political regimes, the upsurge of audacious political entrepreneurs who want to end chattel slavery in their nation-state, resulted in the legal criminalisation of slavery in both Mauritania (2007) and Niger (2003) and in a proposal to revise the...... cultures (or ‘mentalities’) go hand in hand....

  8. Immunizations and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Program Grants Other Grants Planning and Evaluation Grantee Best Practices Black/African American Asthma Cancer Chronic Liver Disease ... 13 to 17 years who ever received the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination, 2014 - Males # doses ... 240-453-2882 Office of Minority Health Resource Center Toll Free: 1-800-444-6472 / Fax: ...

  9. The African Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas; Mandrup, Bjørn

    2009-01-01

    . Moreover, the ‘African Security Architecture’, of which it is the central component, also includes sub-regional organisations to which responsibility is to be devolved for dealing with armed confl ict and other matters. These so-called Regional Economic Communities (RECs) are, likewise, constantly changing...

  10. African tick bite fever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jakob Aaquist; Thybo, Søren

    2011-01-01

    The incident of spotted fever imported to Denmark is unknown. We present a classic case of African Tick Bite Fever (ATBF) to highlight a disease, which frequently infects wildlife enthusiasts and hunters on vacation in South Africa. ATBF has a good prognosis and is easily treated with doxycyclin...

  11. Situating globality : African agency in the appropriation of global culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binsbergen, van W.M.J.; Dijk, van R.A.; Gewald, J.B.

    2004-01-01

    The papers in this volume were earlier presented at the conference 'Globalization and new questions of ownership', which was held in Leiden, The Netherlands, from 26-27 April 2002. The volume challenges the dominant view that globalization is a primary threat to African societies. Instead, it emphas

  12. Shifting South African Learners towards Greater Autonomy in Scientific Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramnarain, Umesh; Hobden, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This report describes how teachers support ninth-grade students who are doing scientific investigations in Natural Sciences in South African schools. This is of interest as allowing students to participate in inquiry-based investigations is a significant shift from traditional practices. It presents a new challenge to teachers as it signals an…

  13. Revenue generation strategies in sub-Saharan African universities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebreyes, Fisseha Mamo

    2015-01-01

    Financial sustainability is one of the key challenges for public universities in both developed and developing countries. Using a resource dependence approach, this study explores the issue of revenue generation in Sub-Saharan African universities. It analyses the diversification strategies that fou

  14. Social Contexts of Development in Natural Outdoor Environments: Children's Motor Activities, Personal Challenges and Peer Interactions at the River and the Creek

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, Cara; Vandermaas-Peeler, Maureen

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the influence of spending time outdoors on young children's physical and socioemotional development. We observed preschoolers' activities in two naturally provisioned outdoor environments over the course of one year. Eleven preschoolers were videotaped continuously for 16 days at a local river and 9 days at a creek adjacent to…

  15. Implementation of 3d Tools and Immersive Experience Interaction for Supporting Learning in a Library-Archive Environment. Visions and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeletaki, A.; Carrozzino, M.; Johansen, S.

    2013-07-01

    In this paper we present an experimental environment of 3D books combined with a game application that has been developed by a collaboration project between the Norwegian University of Science and Technology in Trondheim, Norway the NTNU University Library, and the Percro laboratory of Santa Anna University in Pisa, Italy. MUBIL is an international research project involving museums, libraries and ICT academy partners aiming to develop a consistent methodology enabling the use of Virtual Environments as a metaphor to present manuscripts content through the paradigms of interaction and immersion, evaluating different possible alternatives. This paper presents the results of the application of two prototypes of books augmented with the use of XVR and IL technology. We explore immersive-reality design strategies in archive and library contexts for attracting new users. Our newly established Mubil-lab has invited school classes to test the books augmented with 3D models and other multimedia content in order to investigate whether the immersion in such environments can create wider engagement and support learning. The metaphor of 3D books and game designs in a combination allows the digital books to be handled through a tactile experience and substitute the physical browsing. In this paper we present some preliminary results about the enrichment of the user experience in such environment.

  16. African Americans and Mathematics Outcomes on National Assessment of Educational Progress: Parental and Individual Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Richard, III; Morton, Crystal Hill

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated within group differences between African American female and male students who participated in the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress mathematics assessment. Using results from participating states, we compare average scale scores of African American students based on home regulatory environment and interest…

  17. Female genital mutilation in African and African American women's literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja Marinšek

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The article builds on the existing dispute between African and African American women writers on the competence of writing about female genital mutilation (FGM, and tries to determine the existence and nature of the differences between the writings of these two groups. The author uses comparative analysis of two popular African and African American novels, comparing their ways of describing FGM, its causes and consequences, the level ob objectivity and the style of the narrations.This is followed by a discussion on the reasons for such differences, incorporating a larger circle of both African and African American women authors, at the same time analysing the deviance within the two groups. While the differences between African American writers are not that great, as they mostly fail to present the issue from different points of view, which is often the result of their lack of direct knowledge of the topic, African authors' writing is in itself discovered to be ambivalent and not at all invariable. The reasons for such ambivalence are then discussed in greater context, focusing on the effect of the authors' personal contact with circumcision as well as their knowledge and acceptance of Western values. The author concludes by establishing the African ambivalent attitude towards FGM, which includes different aspects of the issue, as the most significant difference between their and African American writers' description of this practice.

  18. An investigation into the challenges facing the future provision of continuing professional development for allied health professionals in a changing healthcare environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper outlines current challenges facing healthcare providers and education providers in trying to ensure Allied Health Professionals (AHPs) are fit for practice, in a climate driven by financial constraints and service improvement directives from the Department of Health (DH). Research was undertaken in 2009 to investigate the current provision of Continuing Professional Development (CPD) in the southwest region of England. The purpose was to define exactly what problems existed with this provision, and to propose changes which could be implemented in order to ensure that the provision meets the needs of stakeholders in future years.

  19. Young Africans Tackle Their Continent's Environmental Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olwoch, Jane Mukarugwiza

    2008-11-01

    Young African Scientists Session at the Fourth International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme Congress; Cape Town, South Africa, 7 May 2008; Africa is often described as a unique and diverse continent. This is reflected in its biodiversity, economic and social circumstances, and diversity in culture and environment. The Young African Scientists (YAS) session at the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme Congress was one of the congress's highlights. Global environmental change research in Africa was presented to an audience that included visiting international and national scientists, policy makers, and a group of schoolchildren. From the uniqueness of Africa's paleoclimate to the diversity and complexity of current and future impacts of environmental change on Africa, the session not only provided an overview of current projects but also highlighted the problems that are intertwined with poverty. This session was sponsored by the Global Change System for Analysis, Research, and Training (START).

  20. Experiences of undergraduate African health sciences students: A hermeneutic inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inyama, Davis; Williams, Allison; McCauley, Kay

    2015-06-01

    While efforts have been made to understand the experiences of African students in predominantly white environments, the experiences of African students in clinical placement areas have rarely been explored. This paper is a report on a study designed to address the gap in educational research on the experiences of African health sciences students in clinical placements in predominantly white environments. Interviews adopting an open approach to conversations were conducted with nine African students from three health disciplines at one metropolitan university in Australia between 2012 and 2013. Interview transcripts were analyzed using philosophical hermeneutics, where shared meanings were arrived at by employing key Gadamerian hermeneutic components. Findings revealed a number of factors that had a direct effect on the meaning students derived from their clinical placement experiences. These, as revealed in the interlinked domains of body, space, relationships, and time included difference, acceptance, resilience, and cultural sensitivity. Insights from this study may lead to the adoption of strategies designed to improve the experiences of African students studying health sciences in predominantly white environments. PMID:24942056

  1. The Potential and Challenges of the Use of Dynamic Software in Upper Secondary Mathematics : Students’ and Teachers’ Work with Integrals in GeoGebra Based Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Mehanovic, Sanela

    2011-01-01

    An introduction of computer software into mathematics classrooms makes the didactical situation more complex compared with previous learning environments (Blomhøj, 2005). A technological tool becoming a mathematic work tool in the hands of the students is a process that has turned up unexpectedly complex (Artigue, 2002). In addition to this problem, the teachers as the users of the tool go through the same process, while, at the same time, trying to integrate the tool into their teaching acti...

  2. IMPLEMENTATION OF 3D TOOLS AND IMMERSIVE EXPERIENCE INTERACTION FOR SUPPORTING LEARNING IN A LIBRARY-ARCHIVE ENVIRONMENT. VISIONS AND CHALLENGES

    OpenAIRE

    Angeletaki, A.; Carrozzino, M.; Johansen, S

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present an experimental environment of 3D books combined with a game application that has been developed by a collaboration project between the Norwegian University of Science and Technology in Trondheim, Norway the NTNU University Library, and the Percro laboratory of Santa Anna University in Pisa, Italy. MUBIL is an international research project involving museums, libraries and ICT academy partners aiming to develop a consistent methodology enabling the use of ...

  3. Metrology of natural radionuclides. Current challenges in radiation protection for industry and the environment; Metrologie natuerlicher Radionuklide. Aktuelle Herausforderungen fuer den Strahlenschutz in Industrie und Umwelt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maringer, F.J. [Bundesamt fuer Eich- und Vermessungswesen, Wien (Austria). Referat fuer ionisierende Strahlung und Radioaktivitaet; Univ. fuer Bodenkultur, Wien (Austria). Low-Level Counting Lab. Arsenal; Moser, H.; Kabrt, F. [Bundesamt fuer Eich- und Vermessungswesen, Wien (Austria). Referat fuer ionisierende Strahlung und Radioaktivitaet; Baumgartner, A.; Stietka, M. [Univ. fuer Bodenkultur, Wien (Austria). Low-Level Counting Lab. Arsenal

    2015-07-01

    In a range of industrial branches increased activity concentrations of natural radionuclides occur in various NORM materials processed. The ICRP 103 recommendation, and subsequent the IAEA International Basic Safety Standards and the European Basic Safety Standards for Radiation Protection, raised new challenges in radiation protection concerning natural radionuclide metrology and activity measurement methods - in particular for natural decay chain radionuclides ({sup 238}U+, {sup 232}Th+, {sup 235}U+). Especially adequate traceability and optimized measurement uncertainties of applied activity measurement methods are of increasing concern. In this paper a review on radionuclide metrology of natural radionuclides and its implementation to end-user activity measurement methods and practice is presented. This includes an overview on current and emerging drivers, targets, challenges, deliverables, technologies and stakeholders in the field. Current research results on activity measurement standards and instrumentation for natural radionuclides, revised decay data, in-situ measurement methods, NORM reference materials, are covered as well as benefits of natural radionuclide metrology on radiation protection of workers and the public.

  4. Disruptions and Disturbance as Challenges in a Blended Learning (BL) Environment and the Role of Embodied Habit Orientation 

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Susanne; Ryberg, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we analyse two cases where BL courses have been run since the summer 2012 (Teachers´ and the radiography educational programmes at University College North in Denmark (UCN). In this study it was clear that the majority of students preferred face-to-face instructions and interaction...... over the implemented BL approach and they felt more disrupted and disturbed when required to work more online and from home. In the paper we therefore discuss how disruptions and disturbances have an influence on students’ study and learning activities in a BL environment. We argue how disturbances are...... and discuss how students’ orientation in different learning environments influence their navigation, and how disruptions and disturbances affect their orientation. The findings illustrate and discuss students’ challenges of adapting to the BL approach and how students’ prior experiences and habits...

  5. Leadership in the African context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Masango

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available The Western world has always viewed the African continent as plagued by corruption; dictatorship; military coups; rebellious leaders; greediness; misuse of power; and incompetent, politically unstable leaders - in effect, suspicious leaders who undermine their own democracies. This paper analyzes African leadership and its impact by concentrating on three historical eras, namely; the African Religious era; the Christian era, and the era of Globalization. These affected African leadership. In addition, many brilliant minds left the continent in search of greener pastures. A review of these three eras will help us understand how leadership shifted from African values into Western concepts. The role of missionaries lead African people to live with both an African and a Western concept of life. In spite of the above problems, our past leaders did their best in addressing the difficulties they faced during the three eras. African concepts of leadership were often regarded as barbaric and uncultured. Structures were evaluated by Western standards. Due to globalisation, African leaders, through programmes like NEPAD, are going back to basics, drawing on African concepts of unity among its leadership. Effectiveness or life-giving leadership is emerging and empowering villagers/communities in the continent. This type of leadership is innovative and has brought new hope for the continent.

  6. The genetic structure and history of Africans and African Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Tishkoff, Sarah A; Reed, Floyd A; Friedlaender, Françoise R; Ehret, Christopher; Ranciaro, Alessia; Froment, Alain; Hirbo, Jibril B.; Awomoyi, Agnes A; Bodo, Jean-Marie; Doumbo, Ogobara; Ibrahim, Muntaser; Juma, Abdalla T; Kotze, Maritha J.; Lema, Godfrey; Moore, Jason H.

    2009-01-01

    Africa is the source of all modern humans, but characterization of genetic variation and of relationships among populations across the continent has been enigmatic. We studied 121 African populations, four African American populations, and 60 non-African populations for patterns of variation at 1327 nuclear microsatellite and insertion/deletion markers. We identified 14 ancestral population clusters in Africa that correlate with self-described ethnicity and shared cultural and/or linguistic p...

  7. Biofuels: The African experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrillo, L.A.; Nkolo, M. [German Agency for Technical Cooperation GTZ, Delegation Regionale des Eaux et Forets, Bertoua (Cameroon)

    2009-07-01

    In July 2006, the African Non-Petroleum Producers Association was formed in Senegal, Africa to develop alternative energy sources. It involved 13 of Africa's poorest nations, who joined forces to become global suppliers of biofuels, and some have set mandatory mixing of ethanol into gasoline. Although several biofuel production projects have been launched in western Africa, many of the new projects and plantations have not yet reached maturity due to the time lag between plantation and full-scale production, which is about 6 years. Major projects that could be producing significant quantities of biofuels in the next few years are not yet reflected in production statistics. Although ethanol is not yet being produced in large quantities in Africa, short-term opportunities exist. Countries in the South African Development Community are using molasses from the sugar can industry to produce ethanol. Biodiesel is also not currently produced on a significant scale in western Africa, but several other countries are gaining experience with cotton and palm oil resources, and Jatropha. Biomass residue also represents a large potential for all African countries involved in timber production. Unlike biodiesel production, land use conflicts are not an issue with biomass residue production.

  8. Diversity among African pygmies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando V Ramírez Rozzi

    Full Text Available Although dissimilarities in cranial and post-cranial morphology among African pygmies groups have been recognized, comparative studies on skull morphology usually pull all pygmies together assuming that morphological characters are similar among them and different with respect to other populations. The main aim of this study is to compare cranial morphology between African pygmies and non-pygmies populations from Equatorial Africa derived from both the Eastern and the Western regions in order to test if the greatest morphological difference is obtained in the comparison between pygmies and non-pygmies. Thirty three-dimensional (3D landmarks registered with Microscribe in four cranial samples (Western and Eastern pygmies and non-pygmies were obtained. Multivariate analysis (generalized Procrustes analysis, Mahalanobis distances, multivariate regression and complementary dimensions of size were evaluated with ANOVA and post hoc LSD. Results suggest that important cranial shape differentiation does occur between pygmies and non-pygmies but also between Eastern and Western populations and that size changes and allometries do not affect similarly Eastern and Western pygmies. Therefore, our findings raise serious doubt about the fact to consider African pygmies as a homogenous group in studies on skull morphology. Differences in cranial morphology among pygmies would suggest differentiation after divergence. Although not directly related to skull differentiation, the diversity among pygmies would probably suggest that the process responsible for reduced stature occurred after the split of the ancestors of modern Eastern and Western pygmies.

  9. CAPTIVES COURAGEOUS: SOUTH AFRICAN PRISONERS OF WAR WORLD WAR II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David McLennan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Captives Courageous; South African prisoners of war in World War II is the ninth work in the South Africans at War series published by Ashanti Press. Leigh has divided his book into two parts. In the first part, entitled "Into the bag", he details the capture of South Africans in the Western Desert and their rapid transition from efficient fighting men to often sickly and weak prisoners of war (POW. The Western Desert was an unforgiving environment in which to find oneself a prisoner of war. If passing fighters or bombers (of either side did not "get" you the dysentry invariably did. The heat, lack of water and lack of compassion shown by Axis non-frontline troops towards South African prisoners of war are all documented by Leigh. He also highlights the differences South Africans experienced in the treatment meted out by Italians on the one hand and Germans on the other. Ironically this relationship was to change later in the war, when many South Africans were moved north into Germany after the collapse of Italy in mid-1943. The conditions in POW camps in Germany were much tougher than those experienced in Italy. 

  10. Energy challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satisfying the world's insatiable appetite for fuel without destroying the environment is the biggest challenge facing the energy industry. World energy consumption is expected to soar by 50% to a staggering 180 000 GW h per year by 2020, with the developing world demanding an ever-increasing share. Although oil and natural-gas reserves will last for several more decades, environmental concerns are increasingly dominating the agenda. Last year 178 countries agreed to a watered-down version of the original Kyoto protocol, which was designed to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases from industrialized countries by an average of 5.2% below 1990 levels. Under the new agreement, dubbed 'Kyoto lite' by environmentalists, emissions will be cut by just 2%. The relaxed targets are still not enough to convince the US, the world's biggest polluter, to sign the Kyoto treaty. Renewable technologies still make up less than 1% of the world's commercial energy. Distributed power is also likely to emerge from the development of fuel cells - devices that convert the chemical energy of hydrogen and oxygen directly into electricity, with only water as a by-product. The move away from carbon-based fossil fuels to hydrogen is also driving the hydrogen economy. A longer-term possibility is nuclear fusion. Despite the enormous progress in the performance of experiments over the past 30 years, nuclear fusion is still decades away from generating electricity. Advocates of fusion power claim that it could be a safe and sustainable source of energy that does not produce any greenhouse gases or long-lived nuclear waste. However, physicists have still to demonstrate that the energy produced by the fusion of deuterium and tritium can be sustained. Advances in physics and engineering are making energy from renewable sources increasingly affordable. But political will - as well as scientific progress - is just as crucial for safeguarding the environment for generations to come

  11. African Americans and Network Disadvantage: Enhancing Social Capital through Participation on Social Networking Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Taana Smith

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the participation of African Americans on social networking sites (SNS, and evaluates the degree to which African Americans engage in activities in the online environment to mitigate social capital deficits. Prior literature suggests that compared with whites, African Americans have less social capital that can enhance their socio-economic mobility. As such, my research question is: do African Americans enhance their social capital through their participation on SNS? I use nationally representative data collected from the Pew Internet and American Life Project to explore the research question. The results suggest that the online environment is potentially a space in which African Americans can lessen social capital deficits.

  12. African-Americans and Heart Disease, Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More African-Americans and Heart Disease, Stroke Updated:Apr 18, ... of getting those diseases are even higher for African-Americans. The good news is, African-Americans can ...

  13. Chronic Liver Disease and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... American > Chronic Liver Disease Chronic Liver Disease and African Americans Among African Americans, chronic liver disease is a ... white women. At a glance – Cancer Rates for African Americans (2008-2012) Cancer Incidence Rates per 100,000 – ...

  14. Centring radiological protection on today's global challenges in energy, climate change, environment and health-with nuclear energy playing a key role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The climate change issue includes meeting the growing demand for electricity while reducing the impacts from energy sources. Applying carbon capture and storage technology to fossil fuel energy and increasing renewable energy pose greater challenges than increasing nuclear energy. International Energy Agency's (IEA) electricity demand of 30 000 TWh by 2030 can be met with 10 000 TWh each from renewable, nuclear and fossil fuel energy. However, the ill-imposed very strict control of tiny public exposure to ionising radiation from nuclear energy continues to pose a serious hindrance. Effort needs to be re-balanced to produce an even-handed control of public exposure with emphasis on the most significant sources (i.e. natural background radiation and medical use) and vice versa. The on-going revision of the International Atomic Energy Agency Basic Safety Standards (BSS) provides an opportunity to achieve this internationally so that national regulations can be subsequently remediated. There can be no urgency in a BSS revision that fails to encompass such perspective. (authors)

  15. 开放式创新环境下技术创新面临的挑战%Challenges for Technology Innovation under Open Innovation Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文涛

    2012-01-01

    Collaboration innovation and open innovation are the main tendency in 21st century. This new tendency brings challenges in many fields, such as technology transaction market, technology innovation management mode and intellectual property system. In order to adapt to this tendency, outer innovation network, inner innovation platform and flexible intellectual property management patterns should be used.%21世纪的技术创新趋势是网络化合作创新和开放式创新.这一趋势对现有的技术创新提出了挑战,主要体现在技术交易市场、企业创新管理模式、知识产权制度.为了适应这一趋势,企业需要构建外部创新网络,逐步搭建内部创新平台,同时灵活运用知识产权管理方式.

  16. Informal learning in SME majors for African American female undergraduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezella McPherson

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates how eight undergraduate African American women in science, math, and engineering (SME majors accessed cultural capital and informal science learning opportunities from preschool to college. It uses the multiple case study methodological approach and cultural capital as the framework to better understand their opportunities to engage in free-choice science learning. The article demonstrates that African American women have access to cultural capital and informal science learning inside and outside of home and school environments in P-16 settings. In primary and secondary schools, African American girls acquire cultural capital and access to free-choice science learning in the home environment, museums, science fairs, student organizations and clubs. However, in high school African American female teenagers have fewer informal science learning opportunities like those such as those provided in primary school settings. In college, cultural capital is transmitted through informal science learning that consisted of involvement in student organizations, research projects, seminars, and conferences. These experiences contributed to their engagement and persistence in SME fields in K-16 settings. This research adds to cultural capital and informal science learning research by allowing scholars to better understand how African American women have opportunities to learn about the hidden curriculum of science through informal science settings throughout the educational pipeline.

  17. Englishising African Cultures: Revisiting Acculturated Forms of English in Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagwasi, Mompoloki Mmangaka

    2014-01-01

    Many "African English" researchers (see Kachru, B. B. (1983). "The Indianization of English." "The English language in India." Singapore: Singapore University Press.) have argued that when English is used in non-native environments, many aspects of its lexicon, grammar and pronunciation are modified and…

  18. Appropriate Management in an African Culture: Implications for Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duze, Chinelo O.

    2012-01-01

    Following continued search for reasons on the inability of African nations to realize appreciable economic development through education, the researcher investigated the influence of cultural environment on management in industry. Because input/output measures of productivity are not easily measured in education, the industry was used, hoping that…

  19. Neighborhood Matters: Racial Socialization of African American Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; Nettles, Saundra Murray; O'Campo, Patricia J.; Lohrfink, Kimberly Fraleigh

    2006-01-01

    Differences in racial socialization practices and their effects were examined in a sample of 241 African American 1st graders (average age 6.59 years) living in an urban area. Child outcomes included cognitive development, receptive language skills, and child problem behavior. The cultural environment of the home was associated with higher…

  20. What Are the Real Risk Factors for African American Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jacquelyne Faye

    1999-01-01

    Educators should banish the specter of African-American children as high-risk, budding disasters and closely examine these children's schooling environment. Black children of all incomes are schooled in highly segregated settings, due to residential segregation. Exposure to health hazards (lead-based paint) and corporal punishment are serious…

  1. Diary of an African-American Freshman at Harvard College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millner, Caille

    1998-01-01

    An African-American freshman at Harvard University keeps a diary of her first year at college, noting experiences of racial isolation and solidarity, and the difficulties in being both Black and female in the highly competitive Harvard environment. A recurring theme is that of her alienation from others. (SLD)

  2. Influences on Women’s Choices of Careers in Construction: A South African Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolosa Madikizela

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available  This paper analyses the factors influencing the choices of careers in construction by South African women. The literature on challenges which influence women‟s choices of careers in construction was reviewed and questionnaires were conducted with multiple samples, including construction organisations, construction students and professional women working in construction. The study found that women have a role to play in the construction industry and that they can build successful careers within the sector. However, it was not easy given the various barriers to entry such as gender-based discrimination against them, the harsh work environment of the construction site, the lack of sufficient knowledge about the industry itself and the shortage of successful women in construction as role models. There was evidence of discrimination and sexual harassment. All these factors impacted negatively on the choices of careers in construction by South African women. This study makes a contribution to our understanding of the factors that have marginalised women in a male dominated industry and provides some indication of approaches to attract more women into the sector. It is hoped that it will stimulate debate about how the low representation of women in construction can be addressed and how construction careers for women can be promoted and encouraged and that the resource pool will be enlarged given the prevalent acute skills shortage in the industry.  

  3. Influences on Women’s Choices of Careers in Construction: A South African Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theo Haupt

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available  This paper analyses the factors influencing the choices of careers in construction by South African women. The literature on challenges which influence women‟s choices of careers in construction was reviewed and questionnaires were conducted with multiple samples, including construction organisations, construction students and professional women working in construction. The study found that women have a role to play in the construction industry and that they can build successful careers within the sector. However, it was not easy given the various barriers to entry such as gender-based discrimination against them, the harsh work environment of the construction site, the lack of sufficient knowledge about the industry itself and the shortage of successful women in construction as role models. There was evidence of discrimination and sexual harassment. All these factors impacted negatively on the choices of careers in construction by South African women. This study makes a contribution to our understanding of the factors that have marginalised women in a male dominated industry and provides some indication of approaches to attract more women into the sector. It is hoped that it will stimulate debate about how the low representation of women in construction can be addressed and how construction careers for women can be promoted and encouraged and that the resource pool will be enlarged given the prevalent acute skills shortage in the industry.

  4. The global one health paradigm: challenges and opportunities for tackling infectious diseases at the human, animal, and environment interface in low-resource settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wondwossen A Gebreyes

    Full Text Available Zoonotic infectious diseases have been an important concern to humankind for more than 10,000 years. Today, approximately 75% of newly emerging infectious diseases (EIDs are zoonoses that result from various anthropogenic, genetic, ecologic, socioeconomic, and climatic factors. These interrelated driving forces make it difficult to predict and to prevent zoonotic EIDs. Although significant improvements in environmental and medical surveillance, clinical diagnostic methods, and medical practices have been achieved in the recent years, zoonotic EIDs remain a major global concern, and such threats are expanding, especially in less developed regions. The current Ebola epidemic in West Africa is an extreme stark reminder of the role animal reservoirs play in public health and reinforces the urgent need for globally operationalizing a One Health approach. The complex nature of zoonotic diseases and the limited resources in developing countries are a reminder that the need for implementation of Global One Health in low-resource settings is crucial. The Veterinary Public Health and Biotechnology (VPH-Biotec Global Consortium launched the International Congress on Pathogens at the Human-Animal Interface (ICOPHAI in order to address important challenges and needs for capacity building. The inaugural ICOPHAI (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2011 and the second congress (Porto de Galinhas, Brazil, 2013 were unique opportunities to share and discuss issues related to zoonotic infectious diseases worldwide. In addition to strong scientific reports in eight thematic areas that necessitate One Health implementation, the congress identified four key capacity-building needs: (1 development of adequate science-based risk management policies, (2 skilled-personnel capacity building, (3 accredited veterinary and public health diagnostic laboratories with a shared database, and (4 improved use of existing natural resources and implementation. The aim of this review is to

  5. Between history, amnesia and selective memory: The South African armed forces, a century’s perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Van der Waag

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available 2012 has a double significance for this year sees the centenary of the founding of the African National Congress (8 January and of the creation of the Union Defence Forces (1 July, two organisations that have for much of the twentieth century shared a contested history. Yet, in a remarkable bouleversement, South Africa has come through this difficult past and, over the past two decades, a new South African society has been recreated following an interesting period of adjustment following the end of the Cold War and the growth of democracy in the developing world. These changes have necessarily affected her armed forces and the roles defined for them. Some commentators, particularly in the years immediately following 1994, asserted that military power had lost all of its vaunted, Cold-War importance in a new postmodern environment. Others still, recognising future challenges, argued that South Africa, beset with far-reaching socio-economic crises, could no longer afford the burden of military forces. Most scholars agree now that these perspectives were short-sighted and that, while the risk of major conflict has receded, the events of 9/11, and its consequences, demonstrate that the continental and international landscapes are less certain, less stable and less predictable, than that for which many had hoped. Clearly, South African interests are intertwined inextricably in regional and global affairs and if she is to protect these interests and ensure her security, she must maintain credible military force capable of meeting an array of contingencies. It was with this in mind that the strategic arms deal, since the subject of much debate, was passed by parliament:[i] the promise of a full technological transformation, to accompany the human transformation, offered. [i] J Sylvester & A Seegers. “South Africa’s Strategic Arms Package: A Critical Analysis”. Scientia Militaria 36/1. 2008. 52-77.

  6. Modelling the African domain in Africa - A contribution to CORDEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennard, Chris

    2010-05-01

    The African continent has been identified by the Task Forcefor Regional Climate Downscaling as a region of special need and interest and prioritized as the region of preference to be downscaled in the CoOrdinated Regional Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX). The Climate Systems Analysis Group at the University of Cape Town is one of the few groups in Africa with the computational capacity to undertake numerical downscaling within the scope required by CORDEX. This paper addresses the particular challenges faced in an African context and presents initial results from runs using WRF and Precis models. These results are used to emphasize the importance of the co-ordinated downscaling effort over the African continent.

  7. The scent of stress: environmental challenge in the peripartum environment of mice affects emotional behaviours of the adult offspring in a sex-specific manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerch, S; Dormann, C; Brandwein, C; Gass, P; Chourbaji, S

    2016-06-01

    Early adverse experiences are known to influence the risk of developing psychiatric disorders later. To shed further light on the development of laboratory mice, we systematically examined the influence of a prenatal or postnatal olfactory stressor, namely unfamiliar male mouse faeces, presented to pregnant or nursing mouse dams. Maternal and offspring behaviours were then examined. Maternal behaviours relative to controls revealed changes in nest building by the pregnant dams exposed to the unfamiliar faeces. There were no differences among groups on pup retrieval or exploration by the dams. Behavioural phenotyping of male and female offspring as adults included measures of exploration, anxiety, social and depressive-like behaviours. Additionally, serum corticosterone was assessed as a marker of physiological stress response. Group differences were dependent on the sex of the adult offspring. Males raised by dams that were stressed during pregnancy presented elevated emotionality as indicated by increased numbers of faecal boluses in the open field paradigm. Consistent with the effects of prenatal stress on the males only the prenatally stressed females had higher body weights than their respective controls. Indeed, males in both experimental groups had higher circulating corticosterone levels. By contrast, female offspring of dams exposed to the olfactory stressor after parturition were more anxious in the O-maze as indicated by increased latencies in entering the exposed areas of the maze. These findings emphasize the necessity for researchers to consider the pre- and postnatal environments, even of mice with almost identical genetic backgrounds, in designing experiments and interpreting their data. PMID:26408077

  8. The African Diaspora, Civil Society and African Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Opoku-Mensah, Paul Yaw

    This paper, a work-in-progress, makes a contribution to the discussions on the appropriate modalities for incorporating the African diaspora in the African integration project.  It argues that the most appropriate entry points for incorporating the African diaspora into the integration project...... might not, necessarily, be in the formal political structures, although this is important. To the contrary, the most effective and sustainable might be within civil society---that is the links between the peoples and organizations of Africa and the diaspora. Using the case of the African academy-- as an...... institution of civil society--- the paper outlines a conceptual framework for incorporating the diaspora into the African integration project....

  9. Assessing vulnerability of urban African communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson Nyed, Patrik; Jean-Baptiste, Nathalie; Herslund, Lise Byskov

    2014-01-01

    East African cities are in the process of assessing their vulnerabilities to climate change, but face difficulties in capturing the complexity of the various facets of vulnerability. This holistic approach, captures four different dimensions of vulnerability to flooding - Assets, Institutions......, Attitudes and the Physical environment, with Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, as a case city. The methodology is actively involving the expertise of the stakeholders, and uses GIS to analyze and compile the data. The final output is presented as a comprehensible map, delineating the varying vulnerability to...

  10. Phytogeography of African Commelinaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Faden

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Africa (including Madagascar has nearly twice as many species of Commelinaceae as any other continent (approximately 270 species, or about 40% of the total in the family. Of the 17 genera which are native, seven (Anthericopsis, Coleotrype, Palisota, Polyspatha, Pseudoparis, Stanfieldiella and  Triceratella are endemic, the highest percentage generic endemism of any continent. Within Africa gcneric diversity is slightly higher in western than in eastern tropical floras. Species richness, however, is greatest in eastern Africa, mainly due to a high diversity of species of Commelina and Aneilema. Africa shares more genera with Asia (nine than with any other continent. Only one African genus, Buforrestia, is neither endemic nor shared with Asia. Its western African/northeastern South American distribution is unique in the family. Besides Buforrestia, only five other genera of Commelinaceae (out of a total of 50 in the family, occur in both the Old and New Worlds. These genera.  Aneilema, Commelina, Floscopa, Murdannia and  Pollia are all very widespread in the Old World, occurring in Australia and Asia in addition to Africa (both continental and Madagascar. Madagascar is relatively poor in species (31. but these include the endemic Madagascan genus Pseudoparis, the sole African species of Rhopalephora, and the largest number of species of the Afro-Malagasy endemic genus Coleotrype. The high rate of generic endemism of Commelinaceae in Africa probably indicates that Africa was one of the ancient centres of diversity for the family. The high species diversity is more likely due to relatively recent radiations by genera pre-adapted to survival in non-forest habitats. The occurrence of only a small number of genera on both sides of the Atlantic suggests that the Commelinaceae have been evolving independently in the eastern and western hemispheres for a long period.

  11. Booster for African Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China’s investment is fueling African growth SINCE 2000,driven by the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation,China’s foreign direct investment(FDI) in Africa has been growing rapidly.In the face of the global financial crisis,which led to global FDI flows falling,China’s investment in Africa has been on a steady, upbeat rise without any interruption.In 2009,China’s direct investment in Africa reached $1.44 billion,of which nonfinancial direct investment soared by 55.4 percent from the previous year.Africa

  12. African Conservation Tillage Network Website

    OpenAIRE

    African Conservation Tillage Network (ACT)

    2009-01-01

    Metadata only record Maintained by the African Conservation Tillage Network (ACT), this website provides information on Conservation Agriculture in an African context and gathered by stakeholders (NGOs) native to the continent. Resources on projects, practices, reports, and training courses are provided.

  13. A Call to African Unity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muchie, Mammo

    This month's paper, written by Professor Mammo Muchie, examines the necessity for a pan-African monetary union.  Professor Muchie argues for the "the creation of a unified African strategy and unified approach to dealing with the outside donor world by neutralising the poison of money as honey th...

  14. African Diaspora Associations in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vammen, Ida Marie; Trans, Lars Ove

    2011-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, an increasing number of African migrants have come to Denmark, where they have formed a large number of migrant associations. This chapter presents selected findings from a comprehensive survey of African diaspora associations in Denmark and focuses specifically on their...

  15. Examining Church Capacity to Develop and Disseminate a Religiously Appropriate HIV Tool Kit with African American Churches

    OpenAIRE

    Berkley-Patton, Jannette; Thompson, Carole Bowe; Martinez, David Alfonso; Hawes, Starlyn Montez; Moore, Erin; Williams, Eric; Wainright, Cassandra

    2012-01-01

    Increasingly, African American churches have been called upon to assist in efforts to address HIV/AIDS in underserved communities. African Americans churches may be well-positioned to provide HIV education, screening, and support services, particularly if they are equipped with church-appropriate, easy-to-deliver HIV tools that can be implemented through the naturalistic church environment. To inform the development of a church-based HIV tool kit, we examined church capacity with African Amer...

  16. Energetic challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Connecting the 2 billion people who have no access to commercial energy is the most important energy challenge facing the world community. Women and children, primarily in developing countries, spend their days collecting wood or cow dung for fuel for cooking and heating their homes in very inefficient stoves: this both harms the environment and directly threatens the health of their families. Outmoded boilers linked to central heating systems in most of the cities of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union pose another challenge. They are inefficient; they lack modern pollution control; and the end use of the heat is not metered, leading to more inefficiency and waste. Both of these problems cry out to the world for investment. Investing in energy solutions in these countries can bring about significant and immediate local environmental improvements, achieve greatly improved energy efficiency, and substantially reduce greenhouse gas emissions. But, energy and environmental policy tends to direct investment towards industrial countries, even though it would have a greater impact on the environment - not to mention the human condition in general - in the developing countries and transition economies. We need a new direction in energy policy. The World Energy Council has studied the needs and we believe a number of our proposed policy recommendations would lead towards greater investment in the countries where it is most needed. The political risk of key energy project investments must be addressed both by the countries seeking outside investment and by the global community at large. The countries must create an investor-friendly climate, which includes the rule of law and recognizes private property rights. The global community can contribute by developing new political risk insurance schemes rewarding the countries that create this climate. Energy must be priced to cover costs and ensure payment. In too many countries, blanket subsidies for energy

  17. Bioenergy and African transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynd, Lee R; Sow, Mariam; Chimphango, Annie Fa; Cortez, Luis Ab; Brito Cruz, Carlos H; Elmissiry, Mosad; Laser, Mark; Mayaki, Ibrahim A; Moraes, Marcia Afd; Nogueira, Luiz Ah; Wolfaardt, Gideon M; Woods, Jeremy; van Zyl, Willem H

    2015-01-01

    Among the world's continents, Africa has the highest incidence of food insecurity and poverty and the highest rates of population growth. Yet Africa also has the most arable land, the lowest crop yields, and by far the most plentiful land resources relative to energy demand. It is thus of interest to examine the potential of expanded modern bioenergy production in Africa. Here we consider bioenergy as an enabler for development, and provide an overview of modern bioenergy technologies with a comment on application in an Africa context. Experience with bioenergy in Africa offers evidence of social benefits and also some important lessons. In Brazil, social development, agricultural development and food security, and bioenergy development have been synergistic rather than antagonistic. Realizing similar success in African countries will require clear vision, good governance, and adaptation of technologies, knowledge, and business models to myriad local circumstances. Strategies for integrated production of food crops, livestock, and bioenergy are potentially attractive and offer an alternative to an agricultural model featuring specialized land use. If done thoughtfully, there is considerable evidence that food security and economic development in Africa can be addressed more effectively with modern bioenergy than without it. Modern bioenergy can be an agent of African transformation, with potential social benefits accruing to multiple sectors and extending well beyond energy supply per se. Potential negative impacts also cut across sectors. Thus, institutionally inclusive multi-sector legislative structures will be more effective at maximizing the social benefits of bioenergy compared to institutionally exclusive, single-sector structures. PMID:25709714

  18. Imagining Afrikaners musically: Reflections on the ‘African music’ of Stefans Grové

    OpenAIRE

    S. J. Muller

    2000-01-01

    For nearly two decades Stefans Grové has been composing music that absorbs the cultural “Other" of Africa in a manner that defies an easy classification of ‘‘indigenous’’ principles and “exotic” appropriation. His own conception of himself as an African who composes African music challenges the inhibition of “white” Afrikaner culture and revivifies Afrikaner culture as African culture. In so doing, Grové is consciously subverting the myth of a united Africa over against a monolithic "West” - ...

  19. Educational and socio-cultural experiences of immigrant students in South African schools

    OpenAIRE

    Vandeyar, Saloshna

    2010-01-01

    The advent of democracy and the easing of both legal and unauthorised entry to South Africa have made the country a new destination for Black asylum-seekers, long-distance traders, entrepreneurs, students and professionals. As this population continues to grow, its children have begun to experience South African schools in an array of uniquely challenging ways. In addition to opening their doors to all South African children irrespective of race, colour or creed, most public schools in South ...

  20. African Community Knowledge in Global Mainstream Education : A comparative study of urban and rural Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Throughout the history of the post-colonial era there has been an increasing call for utilizing and generating African solutions to meet the challenges and development in Africa, as opposed to blueprints of Western development solutions. A belief in African solutions implies a belief in ones own peoples’ knowledge and abilities, ultimately manifested in a strong identity. In this thesis I use Basil Bernstein's theories of educational knowledge and non-school everyday community knowledge, ...

  1. An investigation into youth entrepreneurship in selected South African secondary schools: an exploratory study

    OpenAIRE

    Athayde, R.; Steenekamp, Andre Gerard; Van der Merwe, Stephanus Petrus

    2011-01-01

    This research paper examines the status of entrepreneurship education in selected South African secondary schools to determine the impact thereof on young learners’ attitude towards entrepreneurship and their future plans. It highlights some challenges facing youth entrepreneurship development in Sedibeng secondary schools. The study is based on the attitude approach to entrepreneurship research and discusses the results of an empirical study involving 1 748 grade 10 learners. South African y...

  2. Validation of two prediction models of undiagnosed chronic kidney disease in mixed-ancestry South Africans

    OpenAIRE

    Mogueo, Amelie; Echouffo-Tcheugui, Justin B; Matsha, Tandi E.; Erasmus, Rajiv T; Kengne, Andre P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global challenge. Risk models to predict prevalent undiagnosed CKD have been published. However, none was developed or validated in an African population. We validated the Korean and Thai CKD prediction model in mixed-ancestry South Africans. Methods Discrimination and calibration were assessed overall and by major subgroups. CKD was defined as ‘estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)

  3. Critical prophecy and political leadership in biblical, African and Islamic worldviews

    OpenAIRE

    P.O. Abioje

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the socio-political influence of prophecy in traditional African and the biblical perspectives, in order to challenge contemporary African religious men and women to serve as the conscience of society. There is hardly any doubt that political leaders are usually prone to abuse of their positions and they need to be reprimanded and lampooned. A discussion on Islam is included, because, together with Christianity, it dominates, to a large extent, socio-political and econom...

  4. When HIV is ordinary and diabetes new: Remaking suffering in a South African Township

    OpenAIRE

    Mendenhall, Emily; Norris, Shane A.

    2015-01-01

    Escalation of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) among urban South African populations disproportionately afflicted by HIV/AIDS presents not only medical challenges but also new ways in which people understand and experience sickness. In Soweto, the psychological imprints of political violence of the Apartheid era and structural violence of HIV/AIDS have shaped social and health discourses. Yet, as NCDs increasingly become part of social and biomedical discussions in South African townships, ne...

  5. Court stories in selected African short narratives

    OpenAIRE

    E. Yewah

    1994-01-01

    This article attempts to cross-examine African Literature and African costumary, Islamic and inherited colonial laws. It opens a new topic in the study of African literature by showing how legal discourses are inscribed in certain African narratives and how these discourses link the narratives to the overall context of their production.

  6. 2002 Sino-African SHP Training Workshop

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The 2002 Sino-African SHP Training Workshop was held from 10 May to 18 June 2002 at Hangzhou Regional Center for Small Hydro Power(HRC). Attended altogether 9 participants from 5 African countries, i.e. Burundi, Nigeria, South African, Tanzania and Tunisia. This is the second training workshop on SHP that HRC conducted for African countries.

  7. Assimilation Differences among Africans in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodoo, F. Nii-Amoo

    1997-01-01

    Census data (1990) indicate that male African immigrants earn more than their Caribbean-born counterparts or native-born African Americans, but controlling for relevant earnings-related endowments erases the African advantage and elevates Caribbean earnings above those of the other groups. Also, African (but not Caribbean) university degree…

  8. The African Health Profession Regulatory Collaborative for Nurses and Midwives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCarthy Carey F

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background More than thirty-five sub-Saharan African countries have severe health workforce shortages. Many also struggle with a mismatch between the knowledge and competencies of health professionals and the needs of the populations they serve. Addressing these workforce challenges requires collaboration among health and education stakeholders and reform of health worker regulations. Health professional regulatory bodies, such as nursing and midwifery councils, have the mandate to reform regulations yet often do not have the resources or expertise to do so. In 2011, the United States of America Centers for Disease Control and Prevention began a four-year initiative to increase the collaboration among national stakeholders and help strengthen the capacity of health professional regulatory bodies to reform national regulatory frameworks. The initiative is called the African Health Regulatory Collaborative for Nurses and Midwives. This article describes the African Health Regulatory Collaborative for Nurses and Midwives and discusses its importance in implementing and sustaining national, regional, and global workforce initiatives. Discussion The African Health Profession Regulatory Collaborative for Nurses and Midwives convenes leaders responsible for regulation from 14 countries in East, Central and Southern Africa. It provides a high profile, south-to-south collaboration to assist countries in implementing joint approaches to problems affecting the health workforce. Implemented in partnership with Emory University, the Commonwealth Secretariat, and the East, Central and Southern African College of Nursing, this initiative also supports four to five countries per year in implementing locally-designed regulation improvement projects. Over time, the African Health Regulatory Collaborative for Nurses and Midwives will help to increase the regulatory capacity of health professional organizations and ultimately improve regulation and

  9. African voices on climate change. Policy concerns and potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication is the result of a process of building an understanding and facilitating a dialogue on the issues related to climate change, on the implications that climate change have to Africa, and on the relevance of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change for the continent. Research work was carried out over a year and twelve African countries were directly engaged in this projects, contributing with the work and expertise of their specialists. A whole process of discussions was started aiming not only at identifying questions concerning the countries directly involved but at illustrating the diversity of Africa's economies and societies, and attempting to raise common issues of interest for the whole of the continent. The objective of this publication is to provide a starting point for the discussions to take place during the African Conference on Policy Options and Responses to Climate Change, 5-8 December 1994, in Nairobi. This conference is not only the culmination of 'Climate and Africa' but, most of all, it opens a forum for discussions on climate issues among African policy makers and for building African positions in relation to the Climate Convention. The ideas expressed here are drawn from the material produced in the Climate and Africa Project. Therefore, this publication does not necessarily represent the positions of the Stockholm Environment Institute or the African Center for Technology Studies in relation to Africa and the Climate Convention

  10. Computing in research and development in Africa benefits, trends, challenges and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book describes the trends, challenges and solutions in computing use for scientific research and development within different domains in Africa, such as health, agriculture, environment, economy, energy, education and engineering. The benefits expected are discussed by a number of recognized, domain-specific experts, with a common theme being computing as solution enabler. This book is the first document providing such a representative up-to-date view on this topic at the continent level.   • Discusses computing for scientific research and development on the African continent, addressing domains such as engineering, health, agriculture, environment, economy, energy, and education; • Describes the state-of-the-art in usage of computing to address problems in developing countries pertaining to health, productivity, economic growth, and renewable energy; • Offers insights applicable to all developing countries on the use of computing technologies to address a variety of societal issues.

  11. The tuberculosis challenge in a rural South African HIV programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooke Graham S

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background South Africa remains the country with the greatest burden of HIV-infected individuals and the second highest estimated TB incidence per capita worldwide. Within South Africa, KwaZulu-Natal has one of the highest rates of TB incidence and an emerging epidemic of drug-resistant tuberculosis. Methods Review of records of consecutive HIV-infected people initiated onto ART between 1st January 2005 and 31st March 2006. Patients were screened for TB at initiation and incident episodes recorded. CD4 counts, viral loads and follow-up status were recorded; data was censored on 5th August 2008. Geographic cluster analysis was performed using spatial scanning. Results 801 patients were initiated. TB prevalence was 25.3%, associated with lower CD4 (AHR 2.61 p = 0.01 for CD4 25 copies/ml (OR 1.75 p = 0.11. A low-risk cluster for incident TB was identified for patients living near the local hospital in the geospatial analysis. Conclusion There is a large burden of TB in this population. Rate of incident TB stabilises at a rate higher than that of the overall population. These data highlight the need for greater research on strategies for active case finding in rural settings and the need to focus on strengthening primary health care.

  12. Challenging the Woodfuel Crisis in West African Woodlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansfort, Sofie Louise; Mertz, Ole

    2011-01-01

    Fear of an upcoming woodfuel crisis caused by increasing woodfuel consumption in Bamako has had great influence on forestry policies aiming to reduce the impacts of urban woodfuel consumption. During the last 20 years, energy gap analyses—the relationship between supply and demand of woodfuels...... evaluate its sustainability using a simple methodology such as the energy gap analysis. Trends over the last 20 years show a highly efficient woodfuel system that has adapted to changing circumstances, ensuring a continued affordable woodfuel supply for the urban residents. Better data on the productivity......—have been produced by the government of Mali to prove the impacts of woodfuel consumption in Bamako on surrounding woodlands. This study evaluates the methodology and data used to describe this woodfuel crisis through a comparison with regional and historical data. The results of the energy gap analyses are...

  13. Publication subsidies: challenges and dilemmas facing South African researchers

    OpenAIRE

    Woodiwiss, Angela J.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract In an attempt to encourage and enhance research productivity in higher educational institutions, various systems have been introduced. Currently in South Africa, a government subsidy is granted to higher educational institutions in reward for research outputs (primarily journal publications and postgraduate student graduations). The purpose of this article is not to attack the current or past publication subsidy systems but rather to enlighten researchers, especially emerging researc...

  14. African Poverty at the Millennium : Causes, Complexities, and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    White, Howard; Killick, Tony; Kayizzi-Mugerwa, Steve; Savane, Marie-Angelique

    2001-01-01

    The multifaceted nature of the poverty problem, and the widening gap between the levels of human well-being in Africa, compared with the other developing regions, are the central themes of this report. The key elements of poverty reduction strategies in the region are reviewed, pointing at the need for accelerated economic growth, if living standards are to improve in Africa. To this end, ...

  15. Challenging the Concept of "informal" urbanisation in African Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskemose Andersen, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    Current definitions of urbanity lead to claims that a large proportion of Sub-Saharan Africa’s (SSA) urban population is housed in ‘informal’ settlements, with up to 90% of the new housing stock provided ‘informally’. The key definition of ‘formality’ is that which is regulated or measured in som...

  16. Challenges Facing Adoption of Information Communication Technology in African Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgor, Titus Kiptoo

    2015-01-01

    A significant number of the universities and higher educational institutions have adopted the latest technology and implemented it productively, for the development of skilled human resource in respective area of specialization, as part of their responsibility. Information and communication Technology (ICT) has grown tremendously around the globe…

  17. Promoting Developmental Research: A Challenge for African Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamedbhai, Goolam

    2014-01-01

    There are two well-known and often-quoted facts about Sub-Saharan Africa. One is that, in spite of significant progress made in recent years, Africa remains the least developed region in the world and is unlikely to achieve all the Millennium Development Goals by 2015. The other is that Africa fares very poorly in terms of research and innovation;…

  18. Challenges in setting up a PET programme - South African experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron emission tomography has over the last two decades been established as an important modality in Nuclear Medicine, especially in the management of oncology patients. In most parts of the developed world it is accepted as an integral part of the standard of care for many patients. The growth was even faster since the introduction of PET-CT devices. In the developing world the expansion of PET facilities has been considerably slower, and in some regions no PET facilities are available. Numerous factors may be responsible for this phenomenon. As in the developed world, health care contraction and reform is also imminent in South Africa. There are numerous constraints to the development of PET in South Africa. In contrast to the developed world, it took very long to establish PET facilities in South Africa, with the first facilities only established in late 2005, primarily in the private sector. Presently there are five private PET-CT facilities, with more expected in the near future. In the public sector the development is much slower. One PET-CT camera has been delivered, but is not yet functional, while two more will be installed soon. PET imaging is developing rapidly elsewhere in the world. Hence health technology reviews performed one or two years ago are lagging behind. The time is ripe for a breakthrough with providing an organised national service for PET, also in South Africa. This technology development should be regarded as a necessity, and part of strategic planning of the National Department of Health. Numerous aspects of the recommendations of the Intercollegiate Standing Committee on Nuclear Medicine in the UK are also applicable in South Africa and can be used by all role players in the field. It is already clear from the current private practices that implementation of the technique is heavily influenced by reimbursement restrictions. These should also be addressed in collaboration with the health funders in South Africa, to ensure the viability of PET in the public and private sector

  19. How student teachers understand African philosophy

    OpenAIRE

    Matsephe M. Letseka; Elza Venter

    2012-01-01

    The question ‘What constitutes African philosophy?’ was first raised with the publication of Placide Tempels’s seminal work Bantu philosophy in 1959. Tempels’s book inevitably elicited considerable critical response from African philosophers, which culminated in a wide range of publications such as Wiredu’s (1980) Philosophy and an African culture, Hountondji’s (1983) African philosophy: Myth and reality, Oruka’s (1990) Sage philosophy: Indigenous thinkers and modern debate on African philoso...

  20. Featherweight Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Tyler S.; Ryan, Larry

    2012-01-01

    As science, technology education, and engineering programs suffer budget cuts, educators continue to seek cost-effective activities that engage students and reinforce standards. The featherweight challenge is a hands-on activity that challenges students to continually refine their design while not breaking the budget. This activity uses one of the…

  1. Relevance of the Nordic model for African development

    OpenAIRE

    Bigsten, Arne

    2001-01-01

    Can African countries learn from the development experiences of other regions? Or are the continent’s development challenges unique? This paper looks at the development experience of the Nordic countries, especially Sweden, from the nineteenth century and discusses the extent to which the observed patterns of development could have relevance for Africa. The paper argues that poverty is not immutable. Nordic countries were for centuries a poor agrarian outpost at the European periphery and yet...

  2. Extreme environment electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Cressler, John D

    2012-01-01

    Unfriendly to conventional electronic devices, circuits, and systems, extreme environments represent a serious challenge to designers and mission architects. The first truly comprehensive guide to this specialized field, Extreme Environment Electronics explains the essential aspects of designing and using devices, circuits, and electronic systems intended to operate in extreme environments, including across wide temperature ranges and in radiation-intense scenarios such as space. The Definitive Guide to Extreme Environment Electronics Featuring contributions by some of the world's foremost exp

  3. Job-hopping amongst African Black senior management in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanyile C.C. Nzukuma

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The study focuses on understanding labour turnover trends amongst African Black senior managers in South Africa. There is a perception that turnover amongst African Black senior managers is higher than average. There is also a perception that African Black senior managers are only motivated by financial rewards when considering job change.Research purpose: The study focused on understanding why African Black senior managers have a propensity to change jobs and how organisations can resolve the trend.Motivation for the study: To develop a better understanding of the push and pull factors for African Black senior managers in organisations.Research design, approach and method: The research was conducted in two phases, namely as part of a qualitative study and a quantitative study: Creswell (2003 refers to this approach as triangulation. The target population was African Black senior managers on the database of a large Human Resources Consultancy, The South African Rewards Association and the Association of Black Actuaries and Investment Professionals (ABSIP (n = 2600. A total of 208 usable responses were received.Main findings: The main findings and contribution to the field of study was that African Black senior managers do not trust organisations with their career development. They would rather take control of their own career development by moving from organisation to organisation to build their repertoire of skills and competence. They want to be in charge of their careers. This finding has profound implications for organisations employing African Black managers in the senior cadre.Practical/managerial implications: Managers of African Black senior managers need to create attractive employee value propositions that address the main findings. Contribution/value-add: The research shows that African Black senior managers generally seek corporate environments that encourage a sense of belonging and with a clear career growth plan.

  4. Struggles of agency and structure as cultural worlds collide as urban African American youth learn physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmesky, Rowhea

    This critical ethnography focused on five urban African American students, coming from economically disadvantaged homes in Philadelphia, who were considered at risk with regard to their position within society as well as within the small learning community of their low-academically performing school. As participants in the study, they were employed from June 11, 2001 from 9:00 AM until 1:00 PM and continuing until September 7, 2001 at $7.50 per hour under research grants from the Spencer Foundation and the National Science Foundation. Through this study, these five youth were provided with traditional and nontraditional opportunities to build understandings of some of the most essential concepts of physics as learners. Moreover, they also had the chance to work as research assistants, teacher educators and curriculum developers. The findings of the research conclusively reveal that African American, urban youth from some of the most challenging situations are capable of learning physics concepts. Moreover, the most success resulted when students' strategies of action were directed towards the objective of learning although, in the process of meaning-making, their personal goals unrelated to science were also met. In addition, the research results show that urban African American students come to school with strategies of action replete with cultural practices, symbols and their underlying meanings from fields outside of school including both the home and the neighborhood. These cultural resources, when triggered, then become apparent within learning environments and can powerfully assist learning when the desired outcomes of the student(s) are in tune with the objective of learning physics. Through the physics teaching and learning that occurred within this study, as well as their work as researchers, teacher educators and curriculum developers, April, Ebony, Markist, Pierre and Ya-Meer had opportunities to utilize their cultural capital to build new knowledge

  5. An analysis of buyer-supplier collaboration in the South African textile industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Parker

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this article is to explore perceptions regarding buyer and supplier collaboration around product development. The aim is to gain an understanding of which factors influence buyer-supplier collaboration outcomes in the South African textile industry. Methodology: This study comprised two data collection stages. The first stage comprised the design and administration of a questionnaire survey. The second stage utilised a qualitative interview methodology and entailed interviewing a subset of the questionnaire respondents in order to probe respondents’ own experiences in collaborative product developments and their perception of the factors that determine collaboration outcome. Findings: This study has shed light on the experiences of South African firms in the textile industry engaging in buyer-supplier collaboration around product development. While this study is exploratory, it has provided evidence that there are certain factors which are perceived to have a significant influence on collaboration. Implications: Under the past protective shield of tariffs, South African clothing and textile manufacturers could afford to allow an adversarial mode of operation to perpetuate inefficiencies. However, the increasing external pressures, including the very real threat of overseas competition, heighten the need for collaboration between buyers and suppliers. This relates, in particular, to collaboration aimed at new product development, which can be seen as a new imperative for the survival and growth of this industry. Currently, there are numerous barriers to effective collaboration. The overwhelming power of retailers in the value chain is one such barrier, as it creates an environment which is pressurised, strained and not conducive to buyer-supplier collaboration. Contribution and Value: Studies on collaborative new product development have primarily been done in developed countries, with a focus on technology intensive

  6. African high-level regional meeting on energy and sustainable development. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wamukonya, N. (ed.) [UNEP Collaborating Centre on Energy and Environment (Denmark)

    2001-07-01

    The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) jointly with the Government of Kenya and the UN Department for Economic and Social Affairs (DESA) organised the 'African High-Level Regional Meeting on Energy and Sustainable Development' in Januar 2001 at UNEP headquarters in Nairobi, Kenya. The purpose was to support the preparations for CSD 9 and enable African countries to discuss key issues related to energy for sustainable development in their regional context. This report presents the technical statements and papers prepared for the technical workshop. As the reader will quickly notice, the papers reflect the views of the range of experts who participated. Speakers and participants came from ministries or agencies dealing with energy issues, rural development and finance institutions, utilities, private enterprises, NGOs, and research institutions. The papers follow the thermes identified for the CSD 9 session but provide an Africa-specific perspective. In the region, increased access to energy is clearly still a major development issue and has strong links to another key theme - rural energy. A number of papers address these issues from the woodfuel or biomass side, as the majority of the rural population in African countries relies on this energy source and will continue to do so for the foreseeable future. At the same time, improved access to commercial energy forms, particularly through rural electrification programmes, received much attention and several papers present new approaches and experience gained in this area. On the commercial energy supply side the major challenge facing most African countries is the need to reform institutional structures, especially in the power sector. These reforms are generally part of larger economic reform packages promoted by the World Bank, International Monetary Fund, and other financial institutions. In the energy sector the reform process offers an opportunity to introduce more efficiency and competition

  7. African Ethnobotany in the Americas

    OpenAIRE

    Zent, Egleé L

    2013-01-01

    Review of African Ethnobotany in the Americas. Edited by Robert Voeks and John Rashford. 2013. Springer. Pp. 429, 105 illustrations, 69 color illustrations. $49.95 (paperback). ISBN 978‐1461408352.

  8. Mental Health and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Program Grants Other Grants Planning and Evaluation Grantee Best Practices Black/African American Asthma Cancer Chronic Liver Disease Diabetes Heart Disease Hepatitis HIV/AIDS Immunizations Infant Heath & Mortality Mental Health Obesity Organ and Tissue Donation Stroke Stay Connected ...

  9. African Ethnobotany in the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egleé L. Zent

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Review of African Ethnobotany in the Americas. Edited by Robert Voeks and John Rashford. 2013. Springer. Pp. 429, 105 illustrations, 69 color illustrations. $49.95 (paperback. ISBN 978‐1461408352.

  10. GREEN MARKETING : GREEN ENVIRONMENT - STRATEGIES AND CHALLENGES

    OpenAIRE

    Bhurelal Patidar; Dinesh Kumar Gupta; Prakash Garg

    2014-01-01

    -Green marketing is a phenomenon which has developed particular import in the modern market. This concept has enabled for the re-marketing and packing of existing products which already adhere to such guidelines. Additionally, the development of green marketing has opened the door of opportunity for companies to co-brand their products into separate line, lauding the green-friendliness of some while ignoring that of others. Such marketing techniques as will be explained are as...

  11. Counting whales in a challenging, changing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R; Kelly, N; Boebel, O; Friedlaender, A S; Herr, H; Kock, K-H; Lehnert, L S; Maksym, T; Roberts, J; Scheidat, M; Siebert, U; Brierley, A S

    2014-01-01

    Estimating abundance of Antarctic minke whales is central to the International Whaling Commission's conservation and management work and understanding impacts of climate change on polar marine ecosystems. Detecting abundance trends is problematic, in part because minke whales are frequently sighted within Antarctic sea ice where navigational safety concerns prevent ships from surveying. Using icebreaker-supported helicopters, we conducted aerial surveys across a gradient of ice conditions to estimate minke whale density in the Weddell Sea. The surveys revealed substantial numbers of whales inside the sea ice. The Antarctic summer sea ice is undergoing rapid regional change in annual extent, distribution, and length of ice-covered season. These trends, along with substantial interannual variability in ice conditions, affect the proportion of whales available to be counted by traditional shipboard surveys. The strong association between whales and the dynamic, changing sea ice requires reexamination of the power to detect trends in whale abundance or predict ecosystem responses to climate change. PMID:24622821

  12. Challenges of cloud technology in manufacturing environment

    OpenAIRE

    Yadekar, Yaser; Shehab, Essam; Mehnen, Jorn

    2013-01-01

    The rapid growth Information systems and advanced network technologies have significant impact on enterprises around the world. Enterprises are trying to gain competitive advantage in open global markets by using the latest technologies, along with advanced networks, to create collaboration, reduce costs, and maximize productivity. The combination of latest technologies and advanced manufacturing networks technologies lead to growth of new manufacturing model named Cloud Manufacturing which c...

  13. Counting whales in a challenging, changing environment

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, R.; Kelly, N; Boebel, O.; Friedlaender, A.; Herr, H.; Kock, K.H.; Lehnert, L. S.; Maksym, T.; Roberts, J.; Scheidat, M.; Siebert, U; A. Brierley

    2014-01-01

    Funding: Marie Curie International Incoming Fellowship within the 7th European Community Framework Programme (proposal Nu 253407 (call reference: FP7- PEOPLE-2009-IIF). Estimating abundance of Antarctic minke whales is central to the International Whaling Commission's conservation and management work and understanding impacts of climate change on polar marine ecosystems. Detecting abundance trends is problematic, in part because minke whales are frequently sighted within Antarctic sea ice ...

  14. Twin Sessions Through African Eyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ni Yanshuo

    2012-01-01

    Every year journalists from around China and the world flock to Beijing in March to cover the sessions of the National People's Congress (NPC) and the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC), known as the lianghui, or twin sessions. With the deepening of Sino-African relations in the past decades, an increasing number of African journalists are involved in reporting China's lianghui to their audiences in Africa.

  15. Training in African aquaculture development

    OpenAIRE

    Brummett, R. E.

    1994-01-01

    The article focuses on the types of training needed in African aquaculture development. The author suggested that rather than needing less training, extension agents and others who operate in the idiosyncratic world of the poor African farmer, need a far deeper understanding of fish culture (particularly the basics of pond dynamics and ecology) than do those who can take advantage of industrialized-country infrastructure.

  16. Dietary Digital Diaries: Documenting Adolescents' Obesogenic Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staiano, Amanda E.; Baker, Christina M.; Calvert, Sandra L.

    2012-01-01

    Obesogenic environments promote excessive caloric and fat intake. A total of 23 low-income, African American adolescents digitally photographed their lunchtime food environment at a school buffet during summer camp. Depicted food was coded for nutritional content on the platescape (own plate or others' plates) and the tablescape (open buffet).…

  17. Ethical Dilemmas In Management: An African Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolaji Joachim Abiodun

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The modern workplace is composed of people with diverse backgrounds in terms of nationality, culture, religion, age, education and socioeconomic status. Each of these people enters the work with different values, goals, and perceptions of acceptable behaviours. The diverse background creates ethical challenges for individuals as well as managers. There are issues and decisions that are to be made by workers in the organization that have implications for their job security and salary, and success of the organization. Pressure may be on the workers to protect their own interests, sometimes at the risk of losing personal and corporate integrity. This paper attempts to evaluate ethical dilemmas and conflicts from an Africa perspective, bearing in mind different value systems between western and African nations.

  18. 论新媒体环境下政府舆论引导的挑战和应对机制%On the Challenge and Handling Mechanism Guided by theGovernment Opinion Under the New Media Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘媛媛

    2012-01-01

    Hot issues of the public opinions under the new media environment spread faster, transmit in larger scale and bring about deeper influence, which needs better recognition to grasp their features and law and to offer scientific and effective guidance so as to lessen the interference and destruction of negative information and negative public opinions to the social life and order and the threat and challenge of the social public security. The Party and the government, which are the main forces guiding public options, can grasp the initiatives in guiding the public opinions under the new media environment by establishing pre-warning mechanism, setting up net information platform, fostering "opinion leaders", and perfecting law systems, etc.%新媒体环境下舆论热点形成速度快、传播范围广、影响层面深,需要更好地认识和把握其特点和规律,并给予科学而有效的引导,以减少不良信息和负面舆论对社会生活秩序的干扰和破坏、对社会公共安全的威胁和挑战。党和政府是舆论引导的主体力量,可以通过建立舆情预警机制、打造网络信息平台、培养“意见领袖”、完善法规制度等方式,掌握新媒体环境下舆论引导的主动权。

  19. The associations of perceived neighborhood disorder and physical activity with obesity among African American adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Dulin-Keita, Akilah; Kaur Thind, Herpreet; Affuso, Olivia; Baskin, Monica L.

    2013-01-01

    Background According to recent research studies, the built and socioeconomic contexts of neighborhoods are associated with African American adolescents’ participation in physical activity and obesity status. However, few research efforts have been devoted to understand how African American adolescents’ perceptions of their neighborhood environments may affect physical activity behaviors and obesity status. The objective of the current study was to use a perceived neighborhood disorder concept...

  20. African Metaphysics and Theocracy: A Case Study of Theocratic Politics in Ogba Land, Rivers State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Uche A. Dike

    2013-01-01

    The modus operandi of this paper is centered on governance and the metaphysical forces in Ogba Land. In other words the main focus of the article is that theocracy is concomitant with Ogba metaphysics. The salient points discussed include Maduabuchi Dukor’s reflection on African cosmic environment as posited in Dukor’s four great works on African philosophy. Others include Jewish theocratic tradition, Islamic theocratic tradition and Ogba theocracy and metaphysics in the light of Dukor’s phil...