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Sample records for challenge reveal potential

  1. Analysis of bacteria-challenged wild silkmoth, Antheraea mylitta (lepidoptera transcriptome reveals potential immune genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Serene H

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the recent years a strong resemblance has been observed between the insect immune system and the mammalian innate immune mechanisms suggesting their common origin. Among the insects, only the dipterans (Drosophila and various mosquito species have been widely investigated for their immune responses towards diverse pathogens. In the present study we constructed and analysed the immune transcriptome of the lepidopteran Antheraea mylitta, an economically important Indian tasar silkmoth with a view to unravel the potential immune-related genes and pathways. Results An expressed sequence tag (EST library was constructed from mRNA obtained from fat bodies of A. mylitta larvae that had been challenged by infection with Escherichia coli cells. We identified 719 unique ESTs from a total of 1412 sequences so generated. A third of the transcriptome showed similarity with previously characterized immune-related genes that included both the known and putative immune genes. Of the four putative novel defence proteins (DFPs annotated by PSI-BLAST three showed similarity to extracellular matrix proteins from vertebrates implicated in innate immunity, while the fourth was similar to, yet distinct from, the anti-microbial protein cecropin. Finally, we analysed the expression profiles of 15 potential immune-related genes, and the majority of them were induced more prominently with E. coli compared to Micrococcus luteus. We also identified several unknown proteins, some of which could have probable immune-related functions based on the results of the ProDom analysis. Conclusion The present study has identified many potential immune-related genes in A. mylitta some of which are vertebrate homologues and others are hitherto unreported putative defence proteins. Several genes were present as members of gene families, as has also been observed in other insect species.

  2. Mammary gene expression profiles during an intramammary challenge reveal potential mechanisms linking negative energy balance with impaired immune response

    OpenAIRE

    Moyes, Kasey M.; Drackley, James K.; Dawn E. Morin; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L.; Everts, Robin E; Harris A Lewin; Loor, Juan J.

    2010-01-01

    Our objective was to compare mammary tissue gene expression profiles during a Streptococcus uberis (S. uberis) mastitis challenge between lactating cows subjected to dietary-induced negative energy balance (NEB; n = 5) and cows fed ad libitum to maintain positive energy balance (PEB; n = 5) to better understand the mechanisms associated with NEB and risk of mastitis during the transition period. The NEB cows were feed-restricted to 60% of calculated net energy for lactation requirements for 7...

  3. Environmental Shotgun Sequencing: Its Potential and Challenges for Studying the Hidden World of Microbes

    OpenAIRE

    Eisen, Jonathan A.

    2007-01-01

    Environmental shotgun sequencing promises to reveal novel and fundamental insights into the hidden world of microbes, but the complexity of analysis required to realize this potential poses unique interdisciplinary challenges.

  4. Gene network and pathway analysis of bovine mammary tissue challenged with Streptococcus uberis reveals induction of cell profileration and inhibition of PPARγ signaling as potential mechanism for the negative relationships between immune response and lipid metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moyes, Kasey M; Drackley, James K; Morin, Dawn E;

    2009-01-01

    Background Information generated via microarrays might uncover interactions between the mammary gland and Streptococcus uberis (S. uberis) that could help identify control measures for the prevention and spread of S. uberis mastitis, as well as improve overall animal health and welfare, and....../or metabolic responses to mastitis challenge with S. uberis O140J. Results Streptococcus uberis IMI resulted in 2,102 (1,939 annotated) differentially expressed genes (DEG). Within this set of DEG, we uncovered 20 significantly enriched canonical pathways (with 20 to 61 genes each), the majority of which were...

  5. Gene network and pathway analysis of bovine mammary tissue challenged with Streptococcus uberis reveals induction of cell proliferation and inhibition of PPARγ signaling as potential mechanism for the negative relationships between immune response and lipid metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez-Zas Sandra L

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information generated via microarrays might uncover interactions between the mammary gland and Streptococcus uberis (S. uberis that could help identify control measures for the prevention and spread of S. uberis mastitis, as well as improve overall animal health and welfare, and decrease economic losses to dairy farmers. The main objective of this study was to determine the most affected gene networks and pathways in mammary tissue in response to an intramammary infection (IMI with S. uberis and relate these with other physiological measurements associated with immune and/or metabolic responses to mastitis challenge with S. uberis O140J. Results Streptococcus uberis IMI resulted in 2,102 (1,939 annotated differentially expressed genes (DEG. Within this set of DEG, we uncovered 20 significantly enriched canonical pathways (with 20 to 61 genes each, the majority of which were signaling pathways. Among the most inhibited were LXR/RXR Signaling and PPARα/RXRα Signaling. Pathways activated by IMI were IL-10 Signaling and IL-6 Signaling which likely reflected counter mechanisms of mammary tissue to respond to infection. Of the 2,102 DEG, 1,082 were up-regulated during IMI and were primarily involved with the immune response, e.g., IL6, TNF, IL8, IL10, SELL, LYZ, and SAA3. Genes down-regulated (1,020 included those associated with milk fat synthesis, e.g., LPIN1, LPL, CD36, and BTN1A1. Network analysis of DEG indicated that TNF had positive relationships with genes involved with immune system function (e.g., CD14, IL8, IL1B, and TLR2 and negative relationships with genes involved with lipid metabolism (e.g., GPAM, SCD, FABP4, CD36, and LPL and antioxidant activity (SOD1. Conclusion Results provided novel information into the early signaling and metabolic pathways in mammary tissue that are associated with the innate immune response to S. uberis infection. Our study indicated that IMI challenge with S. uberis (strain O140J elicited

  6. Making ESPON knowledge more tangible for detecting regional potentials and challenges : five territorial approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Smas, Lukas; Schmitt, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The ESPON DeTeC (Detecting Territorial Potential and Challenges) project has developed five territorial approaches that can support regional stakeholders in revealing and detecting challenges and potential within a wider territorial context from a European perspective. The objective of this article is to present these approaches, which can be used to make ESPON knowledge more tangible and which can help in navigating through the inherent tensions, associated with the policy concept of territo...

  7. Repurposing antipsychotics as glioblastoma therapeutics: Potentials and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    LEE, JIN-KU; NAM, DO-HYUN; LEE, JEONGWU

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and most lethal primary brain tumor, with tragically little therapeutic progress over the last 30 years. Surgery provides a modest benefit, and GBM cells are resistant to radiation and chemotherapy. Despite significant development of the molecularly targeting strategies, the clinical outcome of GBM patients remains dismal. The challenges inherent in developing effective GBM treatments have become increasingly clear, and include resistance to standard treatments, the blood-brain barrier, resistance of GBM stem-like cells, and the genetic complexity and molecular adaptability of GBM. Recent studies have collectively suggested that certain antipsychotics harbor antitumor effects and have potential utilities as anti-GBM therapeutics. In the present review, the anti-tumorigenic effects and putative mechanisms of antipsychotics, and the challenges for the potential use of antipsychotic drugs as anti-GBM therapeutics are reviewed. PMID:26893731

  8. Automation from lean perspective-potentials and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Zafarzadeh, Masoud; Jackson, Mats

    2013-01-01

    The competitive climate of production and high labour cost, motivate western companies to use technologies like automation as a mean to increase manufacturing competitiveness. On the other hand companies are aware about cost reductive policies like lean production which has shown noticeable achievement, consequently some manufacturers tend to follow such system. In this situation, in order to have lean enterprise, it is vital to find a clear picture of challenges and potentials of implementin...

  9. Innovation Inspired by Nature: Capabilities, Potentials and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2012-01-01

    Through evolution, nature came up with many effective solutions to its challenges and continually improving them. By mimicking, coping and being inspired, humans have been using Nature's solutions to address their own challenges. In recent years, the implementation of nature's capabilities has intensified with our growing understanding of the various biological and nastic mechanisms and processes. Successes include even the making of humanlike robots that perform such lifelike tasks as walking, talking, making eye-contact, interpreting speech and facial expressions, as well as many other humanlike functions. Generally, once humans are able to implement a function then, thru rapid advances in technology, capabilities are developed that can significantly exceed the original source of inspiration in Nature. Examples include flight where there is no species that can fly as high, carry so much mass, has so large dimensions and fly so fast, and operate at as such extreme conditions as our aircraft and other aerospace systems. However, using the capabilities of today's technology, there are many challenges that are not feasible to address in mimicking characteristics of species and plants. In this manuscript, state-of-the-art of biomimetic capabilities, potentials and challenges are reviewed.

  10. Challenges in the Management of Potentially Contaminated Scrap Metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summary: – The major challenge in managing potentially contaminated materials and equipment is earning and maintaining public confidence. – Public confidence relies not only on technical competence but on perception of competence and public interest. – Application of sound scientific methods are essential to establish the basis for confidence, but are insufficient by themselves. – “Professional antagonism” of a truly independent verification program readily builds public confidence in clearance programs; – Record keeping and transparency of operations is essential to maintaining public confidence

  11. The Health Challenges of Urban Latino College Students as Revealed through Student Journaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Amy L.

    2008-01-01

    Because of the unique health risks faced by the Hispanic population and the notoriously poor health habits of college students, this study examines the health challenges faced by Latino college students enrolled at an urban commuter institution. A thematic analysis reveals the top themes for males and females as healthy eating, weight management,…

  12. The challenge in Asia: Finding best value-creation potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The refining and marketing expansion opportunities in Asia are tremendous. Asia is home to nine of the world's 20 most populous countries, including the Indian subcontinent. The continent's sheer size, combined with rapid industrialization, translates into a large and surging demand for oil products. In fact, Asia will soon surpass Europe and North America to become the largest petroleum products consuming region in the world. The challenge facing managements of oil and gas companies is how to sort through all the opportunities and decide which have the highest value-creation potential for their companies. This challenge is complicated by the increasing competitive intensity in many Asian markets brought about by the growing number and strength of competitors, many of which may also be setting priorities and arriving at possibly similar conclusions. It is no longer the opportunity itself that will create value but rather the capability of the organization to turn the opportunity into operations faster and better than its competitors do. The paper discusses market growth, profitability, winning market share, where and when to enter, and the remaining opportunities

  13. Molecularly imprinted polymers--potential and challenges in analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the variety of biomimetic recognition schemes utilizing supramolecular approaches molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) have proven their potential as synthetic receptors in numerous applications ranging from liquid chromatography to assays and sensor technology. Their inherent advantages compared to biochemical/biological recognition systems include robustness, storage endurance and lower costs. However, until recently only few contributions throughout the relevant literature describe quantitative analytical applications of MIPs for practically relevant analyte molecules and real-world samples. Increased motivation to thoroughly evaluate the true potential of MIP technology is clearly attributed to the demands of modern analytical chemistry, which include enhanced sensitivity, selectivity and applicability of molecular recognition building blocks at decreasing costs. In particular, the areas of environmental monitoring, food and beverage analysis and industrial process surveillance require analytical tools capable of discriminating chemicals with high molecular specificity considering increasing numbers of complex environmental contaminants, pollution of raw products and rigorous quality control requested by legislation and consumer protection. Furthermore, efficient product improvement and development of new products requires precise qualitative and quantitative analytical methods. Finally, environmental, food and process safety control issues favor the application of on-line in situ analytical methods with high molecular selectivity. While biorecognition schemes frequently suffer from degrading bioactivity and long-term stability when applied in real-world sample environments, MIPs serving as synthetic antibodies have successfully been applied as stationary phase separation matrix (e.g. HPLC and SPE), recognition component in bioassays (e.g. ELISA) or biomimetic recognition layer in chemical sensor systems. Examples such as MIP-based selective analysis of

  14. Molecularly imprinted polymers--potential and challenges in analytical chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahony, J.O. [Dublin City University, School of Chemical Sciences, Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Nolan, K. [Dublin City University, School of Chemical Sciences, Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Smyth, M.R. [Dublin City University, School of Chemical Sciences, Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Mizaikoff, B. [Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, 770 State Street, Boggs Building, Atlanta, GA 30332-0400 (United States)]. E-mail: boris.mizaikoff@chemistry.gatech.edu

    2005-04-04

    Among the variety of biomimetic recognition schemes utilizing supramolecular approaches molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) have proven their potential as synthetic receptors in numerous applications ranging from liquid chromatography to assays and sensor technology. Their inherent advantages compared to biochemical/biological recognition systems include robustness, storage endurance and lower costs. However, until recently only few contributions throughout the relevant literature describe quantitative analytical applications of MIPs for practically relevant analyte molecules and real-world samples. Increased motivation to thoroughly evaluate the true potential of MIP technology is clearly attributed to the demands of modern analytical chemistry, which include enhanced sensitivity, selectivity and applicability of molecular recognition building blocks at decreasing costs. In particular, the areas of environmental monitoring, food and beverage analysis and industrial process surveillance require analytical tools capable of discriminating chemicals with high molecular specificity considering increasing numbers of complex environmental contaminants, pollution of raw products and rigorous quality control requested by legislation and consumer protection. Furthermore, efficient product improvement and development of new products requires precise qualitative and quantitative analytical methods. Finally, environmental, food and process safety control issues favor the application of on-line in situ analytical methods with high molecular selectivity. While biorecognition schemes frequently suffer from degrading bioactivity and long-term stability when applied in real-world sample environments, MIPs serving as synthetic antibodies have successfully been applied as stationary phase separation matrix (e.g. HPLC and SPE), recognition component in bioassays (e.g. ELISA) or biomimetic recognition layer in chemical sensor systems. Examples such as MIP-based selective analysis of

  15. Research recruitment using Facebook advertising: big potential, big challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapp, Julie M; Peters, Colleen; Oliver, Debra Parker

    2013-03-01

    To our knowledge, ours is the first study to report on Facebook advertising as an exclusive mechanism for recruiting women ages 35-49 years residing in the USA into a health-related research study. We directed our survey to women ages 35-49 years who resided in the USA exclusively using three Facebook advertisements. Women were then redirected to our survey site. There were 20,568,960 women on Facebook that met the eligibility criteria. The three ads resulted in 899,998 impressions with a reach of 374,225 women. Of the women reached, 280 women (0.075 %) clicked the ad. Of the women who clicked the ad, nine women (3.2 %) proceeded past the introductory page. Social networking, and in particular Facebook, is an innovative venue for recruiting participants for research studies. Challenges include developing an ad to foster interest without biasing the sample, and motivating women who click the ad to complete the survey. There is still much to learn about this potential method of recruitment. PMID:23292877

  16. The human oral metaproteome reveals potential biomarkers for caries disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belda-Ferre, Pedro; Williamson, James; Simón-Soro, Áurea;

    2015-01-01

    Tooth decay is considered the most prevalent human disease worldwide. We present the first metaproteomic study of the oral biofilm, using different mass spectrometry approaches that have allowed us to quantify individual peptides in healthy and caries-bearing individuals. A total of 7771 bacterial...... of the studied individuals with an estimated specificity and sensitivity over 96%. We propose that future validation of these potential biomarkers in larger sample size studies may serve to develop diagnostic tests of caries risk that could be used in tooth decay prevention......., iron metabolism and immune response. We applied multivariate analysis in order to find the minimum set of proteins that better allows discrimination of healthy and caries-affected dental plaque samples, detecting seven bacterial and five human protein functions that allow determining the health status...

  17. The human oral metaproteome reveals potential biomarkers for caries disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belda-Ferre, Pedro; Williamson, James; Simón-Soro, Áurea; Artacho, Alejandro; Jensen, Ole N; Mira, Alex

    2015-10-01

    Tooth decay is considered the most prevalent human disease worldwide. We present the first metaproteomic study of the oral biofilm, using different mass spectrometry approaches that have allowed us to quantify individual peptides in healthy and caries-bearing individuals. A total of 7771 bacterial and 853 human proteins were identified in 17 individuals, which provide the first available protein repertoire of human dental plaque. Actinomyces and Coryneybacterium represent a large proportion of the protein activity followed by Rothia and Streptococcus. Those four genera account for 60-90% of total diversity. Healthy individuals appeared to have significantly higher amounts of L-lactate dehydrogenase and the arginine deiminase system, both implicated in pH buffering. Other proteins found to be at significantly higher levels in healthy individuals were involved in exopolysaccharide synthesis, iron metabolism and immune response. We applied multivariate analysis in order to find the minimum set of proteins that better allows discrimination of healthy and caries-affected dental plaque samples, detecting seven bacterial and five human protein functions that allow determining the health status of the studied individuals with an estimated specificity and sensitivity over 96%. We propose that future validation of these potential biomarkers in larger sample size studies may serve to develop diagnostic tests of caries risk that could be used in tooth decay prevention. PMID:26272225

  18. Big data challenges: impact, potential responses and research needs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leimbach, Timo; Bachlechner, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Although reports on big data success stories have been accumulating in the media, most organizations dealing with high-volume, high-velocity and high-variety information assets still face challenges. Only a thorough understanding of these challenges puts organizations into a position in which they...... can make an informed decision for or against big data, and, if the decision is positive, overcome the challenges smoothly. The combination of a series of interviews with leading experts from enterprises, associations and research institutions, and focused literature reviews allowed not only...... framework are also relevant. For large enterprises and startups specialized in big data, it is typically easier to overcome the challenges than it is for other enterprises and public administration bodies....

  19. OIL PALM FIBERS AS PAPERMAKING MATERIAL: POTENTIALS AND CHALLENGES

    OpenAIRE

    Wan Rosli Wan Daud; Kwei Nam Law

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the physical and chemical characteristics of fibers from the stem, fronds, and empty fruit bunches of oil palm tree in relation to their papermaking properties. Challenges regarding the use of this nonwood material for papermaking are raised, and possible solutions to them are given. A vision for the complete utilization of oil palm biomass is also outlined.

  20. OIL PALM FIBERS AS PAPERMAKING MATERIAL: POTENTIALS AND CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Rosli Wan Daud

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the physical and chemical characteristics of fibers from the stem, fronds, and empty fruit bunches of oil palm tree in relation to their papermaking properties. Challenges regarding the use of this nonwood material for papermaking are raised, and possible solutions to them are given. A vision for the complete utilization of oil palm biomass is also outlined.

  1. Oxygen restriction as challenge test reveals early high-fat-diet-induced changes in glucose and lipid metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duivenvoorde, L.P.M.; Schothorst, van E.M.; Derous, D.; Stelt, van der I.; Masania, J.; Rabbani, N.; Thornalley, P.J.; Keijer, J.

    2015-01-01

    Challenge tests stress homeostasis and may reveal deviations in health that remain masked under unchallenged conditions. Ideally, challenge tests are non-invasive and applicable in an early phase of an animal experiment. Oxygen restriction (OxR; based on ambient, mild normobaric hypoxia) is a non-in

  2. A Review on Potential Issues and Challenges in MR Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasan Kathiravan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging is a noninvasive technique that has been developed for its excellent depiction of soft tissue contrasts. Instruments capable of ultra-high field strengths, ≥7 Tesla, were recently engineered and have resulted in higher signal-to-noise and higher resolution images. This paper presents various subsystems of the MR imaging systems like the magnet subsystem, gradient subsystem, and also various issues which arise due to the magnet. Further, it also portrays finer details about the RF coils and transceiver and also various limitations of the RF coils and transceiver. Moreover, the concept behind the data processing system and the challenges related to it were also depicted. Finally, the various artifacts associated with the MR imaging were clearly pointed out. It also presents a brief overview about all the challenges related to MR imaging systems.

  3. Development and application of modern agricultural biotechnology in Botswana: the potentials, opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batlang, Utlwang; Tsurupe, Gorata; Segwagwe, Amogelang; Obopile, Motshwari

    2014-07-01

    In Botswana, approximately 40% of the population live in rural areas and derive most of their livelihood from agriculture by keeping livestock and practising arable farming. Due to the nature of their farming practises livestock and crops are exposed to diseases and environmental stresses. These challenges offer opportunities for application of biotechnology to develop adaptable materials to the country's environment. On the other hand, the perceived risk of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) has dimmed the promise of the technology for its application in agriculture. This calls for a holistic approach to the application of biotechnology to address issues of biosafety of GMOs. We have therefore assessed the potentials, challenges and opportunities to apply biotechnology with specific emphasis on agriculture, taking cognisance of requirement for its research, development and application in research and teaching institutions. In order to achieve this, resource availability, infrastructure, human and laboratory requirements were analyzed. The analysis revealed that the country has the capacity to carry out research in biotechnology in the development and production of genetically modified crops for food and fodder crops. These will include gene discovery, genetic transformation and development of systems to comply with the world regulatory framework on biosafety. In view of the challenges facing the country in agriculture, first generation biotech crops could be released for production. Novel GM products for development may include disease diagnosis kits, animal disease vaccines, and nutrient use efficiency, drought, and pest and disease resistant food and fodder crops. PMID:25437237

  4. THE POTENTIAL AND CHALLENGES OF SUSTAINABLE TOURISM IN ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Flaviu Doru Neaga

    2015-01-01

    When talking about the concepts of tourism potential and heritage tourism, tourism professionals are using different terminologies and concepts, both in form and content. The tourism potential of a given space is defined as "all natural components, cultural-historical, socio-demographic, technical and economic, scientifically recognized, quantitatively, qualitatively, proven through practice and showing the possibilities for tourism and give specific functionality for tourism, to the extent t...

  5. Challenges in the Management of Potentially Contaminated Scrap Metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the background and current status of the management of potentially contaminated metals and materials at the US Department of Energy (DOE) sites across the USA. The current DOE policy prohibiting the release of metal scrap for recycling from radiation areas is explained. Finally, a potential path forward to competently assess, characterize and clear material from radiological control is proposed that uses a combination of administrative processes and empirical techniques that are valid irrespective of the standard used for clearance. (author)

  6. Enhanced male coloration after immune challenge increases reproductive potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velando, A; Beamonte-Barrientos, R; Torres, R

    2014-08-01

    In many animal species, females select a mate on the basis of the expression of secondary sexual traits. A prevalent theory suggests that male ornaments are reliable indicators of immunocompetence, because the cost of immune function prevents cheating. However, sexual signalling is a component of male reproductive effort, and an immune challenge may also alter his perceived future prospects and hence signalling effort. In this study, blue-footed booby males (Sula nebouxii) were inoculated with a diphtheria-tetanus vaccine during courtship to investigate the consequences of mounting an immune response on signalling effort. We found that, after this immune challenge, on average, males increased their signalling effort but lost more body mass compared with control males. Importantly, vaccination affected the partner's reproductive decisions: compared with control females, females paired with vaccinated males laid eggs earlier and increased clutch volume in pairs that laid early. Overall, our results suggest that blue-footed booby males invest more in sexual signals when future breeding opportunities are at risk, eliciting a greater reproductive investment by their partners. Increased signalling effort by infected individuals may contrast the idea of sexual ornaments as signals of infection status. PMID:24846565

  7. The Brahmaputra river system: its problems, challenges and potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brahmaputra river system with over hundred tributaries contains one of the biggest single concentration of hydel potential in the world in addition to the tremendous amount of navigable facilities. Ambitious development plans for utilisation of this vast untapped potential of the water resources will also help in solving the perennial problem caused by flood in Assam. A few long term projects for a near permanent solution to the flood problems and also for utilisation of the water resources of the system meaningfully for economic prosperity of the entire region have been suggested. (author). 3 figs., 3 tabs

  8. Transdermal Delivery of Drugs with Microneedles—Potential and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Ita

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Transdermal drug delivery offers a number of advantages including improved patient compliance, sustained release, avoidance of gastric irritation, as well as elimination of pre-systemic first-pass effect. However, only few medications can be delivered through the transdermal route in therapeutic amounts. Microneedles can be used to enhance transdermal drug delivery. In this review, different types of microneedles are described and their methods of fabrication highlighted. Microneedles can be fabricated in different forms: hollow, solid, and dissolving. There are also hydrogel-forming microneedles. A special attention is paid to hydrogel-forming microneedles. These are innovative microneedles which do not contain drugs but imbibe interstitial fluid to form continuous conduits between dermal microcirculation and an attached patch-type reservoir. Several microneedles approved by regulatory authorities for clinical use are also examined. The last part of this review discusses concerns and challenges regarding microneedle use.

  9. Revealing a quantum feature of dimensionless uncertainty in linear and quadratic potentials by changing potential intervals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheiri, R.

    2016-09-01

    As an undergraduate exercise, in an article (2012 Am. J. Phys. 80 780–14), quantum and classical uncertainties for dimensionless variables of position and momentum were evaluated in three potentials: infinite well, bouncing ball, and harmonic oscillator. While original quantum uncertainty products depend on {{\\hslash }} and the number of states (n), a dimensionless approach makes the comparison between quantum uncertainty and classical dispersion possible by excluding {{\\hslash }}. But the question is whether the uncertainty still remains dependent on quantum number n. In the above-mentioned article, there lies this contrast; on the one hand, the dimensionless quantum uncertainty of the potential box approaches classical dispersion only in the limit of large quantum numbers (n\\to ∞ )—consistent with the correspondence principle. On the other hand, similar evaluations for bouncing ball and harmonic oscillator potentials are equal to their classical counterparts independent of n. This equality may hide the quantum feature of low energy levels. In the current study, we change the potential intervals in order to make them symmetric for the linear potential and non-symmetric for the quadratic potential. As a result, it is shown in this paper that the dimensionless quantum uncertainty of these potentials in the new potential intervals is expressed in terms of quantum number n. In other words, the uncertainty requires the correspondence principle in order to approach the classical limit. Therefore, it can be concluded that the dimensionless analysis, as a useful pedagogical method, does not take away the quantum feature of the n-dependence of quantum uncertainty in general. Moreover, our numerical calculations include the higher powers of the position for the potentials.

  10. PBL in Educational Psychology – Potentials and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mogens Jensen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses practical and theoretical aspects related to PBL. In the first section of the article, potentials related to professional training of forthcoming educational psychologists following PBL-principles are analyzed. It is argued that PBL constitutes a good platform for creating stimulating interplays between theory and practice. In the second section of the article we discuss some of the theoretical underpinnings in PBL. We discuss whether PBL is prone to a ‘form-content-dualism’, in which attention is centred on the form (the problem and less on the content of learning. Afterwards, it is discussed whether PBL potentially leads to an individualization of the learning process. Finally, we discuss whether the PBL-literature primarily tends toward portraying student learning as a matter of acquisition of knowledge, and therefore ignores the ontogical and identity-related processes in learning.

  11. Cellular Underwater Wireless Optical CDMA Network: Potentials and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Akhoundi, Farhad; Jamali, Mohammad Vahid; Banihassan, Navid; Beyranvand, Hamzeh; Minoofar, Amir; Salehi, Jawad A.

    2016-01-01

    Underwater wireless optical communications is an emerging solution to the expanding demand for broadband links in oceans and seas. In this paper, a cellular underwater wireless optical code division multiple-access (UW-OCDMA) network is proposed to provide broadband links for commercial and military applications. The optical orthogonal codes (OOC) are employed as signature codes of underwater mobile users. Fundamental key aspects of the network such as its backhaul architecture, its potential...

  12. Overcoming challenges in the classification of deep geothermal potential

    OpenAIRE

    Breede, K.; Dzebisashvili, K.; Falcone, G.

    2015-01-01

    The geothermal community lacks a universal definition of deep geothermal systems. A minimum depth of 400 m is often assumed, with a further sub-classification into middle-deep geothermal systems for reservoirs found between 400 and 1000 m. Yet, the simplistic use of a depth cut-off is insufficient to uniquely determine the type of resource and its associated potential. Different definitions and criteria have been proposed in the past to frame deep geothermal systems. However...

  13. POTENTIAL AND CHALLENGES FOR RURAL FOOD INDUSTRY IN INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    D. D. Kadam; Shrikrishna Chandanshiv

    2015-01-01

    Food processing industry is of enormous significance for India’s development because of the vital linkages and synergies that it promotes between the two pillars of the economy; namely, ‘industry’ and ‘agriculture’. India is the second largest producer of food in the world and has the potential to become a leading producer of food. Food-processing industry is facing constraints like non-availability of adequate infrastructural facilities, lack of adequate quality control & testing infrastruct...

  14. Bending and Focusing with Plasmas and Crystals - Potential and Challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmermann, F

    2013-01-01

    This talk review the potential of plasmas and crystals for focusing and bending high-energy charged particle beams. It covers topics like plasma lenses, plasma wigglers, plasma dipoles, crystal channeling & reflection, radiation in crystals, crystal accelerators, crystalline beams and ultimate limitations. Past, ongoing or required R&D efforts are highlighted. Invited presentation at EuCARD'13 "Visions for the Future of Particle Accelerators," CERN, 11 June 2013.

  15. Implementing ecopharmacovigilance in practice: challenges and potential opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Gisela; Snape, Jason R; Murray-Smith, Richard; Talbot, John; Taylor, David; Sörme, Pernilla

    2013-07-01

    Ecopharmacovigilance (EPV) is a developing science and it is currently very unclear what it might mean in practice. We have performed a comparison between pharmacovigilance (PV) and EPV and have identified that there are similarities, but also some important differences that must be considered before any practical implementation of EPV. The biggest difference and greatest challenge concerns signal detection in the environment and the difficulty of identifying cause and effect. We reflect on the dramatic vulture decline in Asia, which was caused by the veterinary use of diclofenac, versus the relative difficulty in identifying the specific causes of intersex fish in European rivers. We explore what EPV might mean in practice and have identified that there are some practical measures that can be taken to assess environmental risks across product life cycle, particularly after launch of a new drug, to ensure that our risk assessments and scientific understanding of pharmaceuticals in the environment remain scientifically and ecologically relevant. These include: Tracking environmental risks after launch of the product, via literature monitoring for emerging data on exposure and effects Using Environmental Risk Management Plans (ERMPs) as a centralized resource to assess and manage the risks of a drug throughout its life cycle Further research, testing or monitoring in the environment when a risk is identified Keeping a global EPV perspective Increasing transparency and availability of environmental data for medicinal products. These measures will help to ensure that any significant environmental issues associated with pharmaceuticals in the environment (PIE) are identified in a timely way, and can be managed appropriately. PMID:23620169

  16. Overcoming challenges in the classification of deep geothermal potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breede, K.; Dzebisashvili, K.; Falcone, G.

    2015-04-01

    The geothermal community lacks a universal definition of deep geothermal systems. A minimum depth of 400 m is often assumed, with a further sub-classification into middle-deep geothermal systems for reservoirs found between 400 and 1000 m. Yet, the simplistic use of a depth cut-off is insufficient to uniquely determine the type of resource and its associated potential. Different definitions and criteria have been proposed in the past to frame deep geothermal systems. However, although they have valid assumptions, these frameworks lack systematic integration of correlated factors. To further complicate matters, new definitions such as hot dry rock (HDR), enhanced or engineered geothermal systems (EGSs) or deep heat mining have been introduced over the years. A clear and transparent approach is needed to estimate the potential of deep geothermal systems and be capable of distinguishing between resources of a different nature. In order to overcome the ambiguity associated with some past definitions such as EGS, this paper proposes the return to a more rigorous petrothermal versus hydrothermal classification. This would be superimposed with numerical criteria for the following: depth and temperature; predominance of conduction, convection or advection; formation type; rock properties; heat source type; requirement for formation stimulation and corresponding efficiency; requirement to provide the carrier fluid; well productivity (or injectivity); production (or circulation) flow rate; and heat recharge mode. Using the results from data mining of past and present deep geothermal projects worldwide, a classification of the same, according to the aforementioned criteria is proposed.

  17. Brazil's energy potential: a governance challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Except good quality anthracite, Brazil possesses all possible energy resources in large quantities: large natural gas and oil reserves, high hydroelectric capacities, but also high wind and solar capacities. Despite this potential, Brazil is often facing large electric power failures. After a first part which proposes an overview of characteristics of the hydrocarbon sector (overview of oil discoveries, evocation of the Petrobras monopoly, comments about shortfall in natural gas production, and about ethanol as adjustment variable in transports but insufficient to solve the external dependency of Brazil for oil-based products), the author tries to identify and understand the political management of this sector by the Workers Party since 2003 (law, local content and limits of oil at the service of the Brazilian economy, Petrobras as a state within the state, issues related to corruption). The author then focuses on electricity, tries to understand why, despite this high potential and constant investment in this sector, the country is still facing these power failures. In this respect, he notably comments the status and condition of electricity production, the reform of electricity pricing, and the lack of statistics on hydroelectricity, and outlines that improvements are long coming. He also highlights the role of politics in the management of this sector

  18. Resource potential of bamboo, challenges and future directions towards sustainable management and utilization in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getachew Desalegn

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Bamboo, the fastest growing and high yielding perennial plant of the world has more than 1500 species and 1500 versatile socio-economic uses and ecological services. Ethiopia has two indigenous bamboo species namely Yushania alpina and Oxytenantheria abyssinica, covering about one million ha with a wide distribution. The objective of this paper is to highlight the potential of bamboo resources, challenges including biodeterioration damage, opportunities and future research directions towards its sustainable management and rational utilization.Area of study: Bamboo resources of EthiopiaMaterial and Methods: Reconnaissance survey was done to some parts of the bamboo growing potential areas in Ethiopia besides the literature review. Main results: The bamboo resource, despite its socio-economic and environmental benefits, currently, in most areas has been under high pressure due to land use changes, bamboo mass- flowering, poor processing with low value addition, and damage by biodeteriorating agents (termites, beetles and fungi. The preservative tests on Ethiopian bamboos revealed low natural durability and highlighted the paramount importance of appropriate protection measures such as Tanalith and vehicles used motor oil to increase durability, service life and rational utilization of bamboo-based products and structures as potential alternative construction and furniture material.Research highlights: Therefore, integrated research and development interventions involving different propagation and managements techniques, harvesting season, processing, value addition including proper seasoning and preservation technologies and marketing are recommended to fill the information and technological gaps on sustainable management and rational utilization of this fast growing and multipurpose bamboo resources in Ethiopia.Key words: Bamboo; challenges; management; socio-economic and environmental significance; utilization.

  19. Topography-based flow-directional roughness: potential and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisani, Sebastiano; Cavalli, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Surface texture analysis applied to high-resolution digital terrain models (HRDTMs) is a promising approach for extracting useful fine-scale morphological information. Surface roughness, considered here as a synonym of surface texture, can have a discriminant role in the detection of different geomorphic processes and factors. Very often, the local morphology presents, at different scales, anisotropic characteristics that could be taken into account when calculating or measuring surface roughness. The high morphological detail of HRDTMs permits the description of different aspects of surface roughness, beyond an evaluation limited to isotropic measures of surface roughness. The generalization of the concept of roughness implies the need to refer to a family of specific roughness indices capable of capturing specific multiscale and anisotropic aspects of surface morphology. An interesting set of roughness indices is represented by directional measures of roughness that can be meaningful in the context of analyzed and modeled flow processes. Accordingly, we test the application of a flow-oriented directional measure of roughness based on the geostatistical bivariate index MAD (median of absolute directional differences), which is computed considering surface gravity-driven flow direction. MAD is derived from a modification of a variogram and is specifically designed for the geomorphometric analysis of HRDTMs. The presented approach shows the potential impact of considering directionality in the calculation of roughness indices. The results demonstrate that the use of flow-directional roughness can improve geomorphometric modeling (e.g., sediment connectivity and surface texture modeling) and the interpretation of landscape morphology.

  20. Soil Degradation in India: Challenges and Potential Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjan Bhattacharyya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil degradation in India is estimated to be occurring on 147 million hectares (Mha of land, including 94 Mha from water erosion, 16 Mha from acidification, 14 Mha from flooding, 9 Mha from wind erosion, 6 Mha from salinity, and 7 Mha from a combination of factors. This is extremely serious because India supports 18% of the world’s human population and 15% of the world’s livestock population, but has only 2.4% of the world’s land area. Despite its low proportional land area, India ranks second worldwide in farm output. Agriculture, forestry, and fisheries account for 17% of the gross domestic product and employs about 50% of the total workforce of the country. Causes of soil degradation are both natural and human-induced. Natural causes include earthquakes, tsunamis, droughts, avalanches, landslides, volcanic eruptions, floods, tornadoes, and wildfires. Human-induced soil degradation results from land clearing and deforestation, inappropriate agricultural practices, improper management of industrial effluents and wastes, over-grazing, careless management of forests, surface mining, urban sprawl, and commercial/industrial development. Inappropriate agricultural practices include excessive tillage and use of heavy machinery, excessive and unbalanced use of inorganic fertilizers, poor irrigation and water management techniques, pesticide overuse, inadequate crop residue and/or organic carbon inputs, and poor crop cycle planning. Some underlying social causes of soil degradation in India are land shortage, decline in per capita land availability, economic pressure on land, land tenancy, poverty, and population increase. In this review of land degradation in India, we summarize (1 the main causes of soil degradation in different agro-climatic regions; (2 research results documenting both soil degradation and soil health improvement in various agricultural systems; and (3 potential solutions to improve soil health in different regions using a

  1. Shrinking $\\hbar$ as a recipe for revealing classical-like contributions in optical potential cross sections

    OpenAIRE

    Anni, R.

    2001-01-01

    A simple recipe for revealing classical-like contributions in optical potential cross sections is proposed. The recipe is based on the fact that the classical-like properties are not expected to depend on the actual value of $\\hbar$. This allows us to identify the classical-like characteristics of an optical potential cross section by simply repeating the calculation with different values of $\\hbar$, and observing which properties of the cross section are invariant. This method is applied to ...

  2. BRAIN DYSFUNCTION OF PATIENTS WITH QIGONG INDUCED MENTAL DISORDER REVEALED BY EVOKED POTENTIALS RECORDING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Yingzhi; ZONG Wenbin; CHEN Xingshi

    2003-01-01

    Objective: In order to investigate the brain function of patients with Qigong induced mental disorder (QIMD), this study was carried out. Methods: Four kinds of evoked potentials, including contingent negative variation (CNV), auditory evoked potentials (AEP), visual evoked potentials (VEP), and somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP), were recorded from 12 patients with Qigong induced mental disorder.Comparison of their evoked potentials with the data from some normal controls was made. Results: The results revealed that there were 3 kinds of abnormal changes in evoked potentials of patients with QIMD that is latency prolongation, amplitude increase and amplitude decrease, as compared with normal controls. Conclusion: Brain dysfunction of patients with QIMD was confirmed. Its biological mechanism needs further studying.

  3. Potentials and challenges of using orbital angular momentum communications in optical interconnects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Siyuan

    2015-02-01

    Ultra-short- and short-reach optical interconnects are the new high growth applications for optical communications. High capacity density, high spectral efficiency, low cost, low power consumption, and fast configurability are some of the key requirements for potential optical transmission technology candidates. Based on recent progress in orbital angular momentum multiplexed optical transmission and optical device technologies, this paper discusses the potentials and challenges of using orbital angular momentum multiplexing in optical interconnect applications scenarios to meet above requirements. PMID:25836167

  4. Zero-Acreage Farming in the City of Berlin: An Aggregated Stakeholder Perspective on Potential Benefits and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Specht

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available How can buildings be combined with agricultural production and what are the major potential benefits and challenges for the introduction of zero-acreage farming (ZFarming in Berlin from the relevant stakeholders’ perspectives? These questions were explored through a series of interviews and stakeholder workshops held between 2011 and 2013. The aim was to identify the most suitable building-integrated farming model for the Berlin metropolitan area and to develop guidelines for the model’s successful and sustainable implementation through a stakeholder-driven approach. This paper provides an aggregated synthesis of the outcomes derived from the qualitative interviews and stakeholder workshops. As the results reveal, the stakeholders perceive potential benefits and challenges related to the issue of ZFarming in all dimensions (economic, social, environmental and political. They largely agreed on the importance of focusing on local resources, using energy-efficient production—including social and educational aspects—and developing new market structures when introducing ZFarming to the city of Berlin. The stakeholders identified urban rooftop greenhouses (RTG as the most promising farming model for Berlin. In a joint collaboration of all stakeholders, a manual for RTG was developed within the participatory innovation process that addresses the identified problems and challenges associated with future implementation and governance of RTG in Berlin and beyond.

  5. Metabolomics Reveals Metabolically Healthy and Unhealthy Obese Individuals Differ in their Response to a Caloric Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perreault, Maude; Zulyniak, Michael A.; Britz-McKibbin, Philip; Mutch, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine if metabolically healthy obese (MHO) individuals have a different metabolic response to a standardized diet compared to lean healthy (LH) and metabolically unhealthy obese (MUO) individuals. Methods Thirty adults (35–70 yrs) were classified as LH, MHO, and MUO according to anthropometric and clinical measurements. Participants consumed a standardized high calorie meal (~1330 kcal). Blood glucose and insulin were measured at fasting, and 15, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min postprandially. Additional blood samples were collected for the targeted analysis of amino acids (AAs) and derivatives, and fatty acids (FAs). Results The postprandial response (i.e., area under the curve, AUC) for serum glucose and insulin were similar between MHO and LH individuals, and significantly lower than MUO individuals (p < 0.05). Minor differences were found in postprandial responses for AAs between MHO and MUO individuals, while three polyunsaturated FAs (linoleic acid, γ-linolenic acid, arachidonic acid) showed smaller changes in serum after the meal in MHO individuals compared to MUO. Fasting levels for various AAs (notably branched-chain AA) and FAs (e.g., saturated myristic and palmitic acids) were found to correlate with glucose and insulin AUC. Conclusion MHO individuals show preserved insulin sensitivity and a greater ability to adapt to a caloric challenge compared to MUO individuals. PMID:26274804

  6. Part-Load Performance Characterization and Energy Savings Potential of the RTU Challenge Unit: Daikin Rebel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas

    2013-09-30

    In 2011, the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building Technology Office (DOE’s BTO), with help from the Better Buildings Alliance (BBA) members, developed a specification for high performance rooftop air-conditioning units (RTU Challenge) with capacity ranges between 10 and 20 tons (DOE 2013). Daikin’s Rebel for the first rooftop unit system that was recognized by DOE in May 2012 as meeting the RTU Challenge specifications. This report documents the development of part-load performance curves and its use with EnergyPlus simulation tool to estimate the potential savings from use of Rebel compared to other standard options.

  7. An integrative genomic and transcriptomic analysis reveals potential targets associated with cell proliferation in uterine leiomyomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirilo, Priscila Daniele Ramos; Marchi, Fábio Albuquerque; Barros Filho, Mateus de Camargo;

    2013-01-01

    integrated analysis identified the top 30 significant genes (P<0.01), which comprised genes associated with cancer, whereas the protein-protein interaction analysis indicated a strong association between FANCA and BRCA1. Functional in silico analysis revealed target molecules for drugs involved in cell...... transcriptomic approach indicated that FGFR1 and IGFBP5 amplification, as well as the consequent up-regulation of the protein products, plays an important role in the aetiology of ULs and thus provides data for potential drug therapies development to target genes associated with cellular proliferation in ULs....

  8. Proteomics reveals a core molecular response of Pseudomonas putida F1 to acute chromate challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCarthy Andrea T

    2010-05-01

    transport/metabolism, and amino acid transport/metabolism. These proteins might potentially serve as indicators of chromate stress in natural microbial communities.

  9. A REVIEW OF OIL PALM BIOCOMPOSITES FOR FURNITURE DESIGN AND APPLICATIONS: POTENTIAL AND CHALLENGES

    OpenAIRE

    Siti Suhaily,; Mohammad Jawaid; H. P. S. Abdul Khalil,; A. Rahman Mohamed; , F. Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    This review considers the potential and challenges of using agro-based oil palm biomasses, including the trunk, frond, empty fruit bunch, and palm press fiber biocomposites, for furniture applications. Currently, design and quality rather than price are becoming the primary concern for consumers when buying new furniture. Within this context, this paper focuses on the design of innovative, sustainable furniture from agro-based biocomposites to meet the needs of future population growth and te...

  10. Computational bacterial genome-wide analysis of phylogenetic profiles reveals potential virulence genes of Streptococcus agalactiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Po-Yen Lin

    Full Text Available The phylogenetic profile of a gene is a reflection of its evolutionary history and can be defined as the differential presence or absence of a gene in a set of reference genomes. It has been employed to facilitate the prediction of gene functions. However, the hypothesis that the application of this concept can also facilitate the discovery of bacterial virulence factors has not been fully examined. In this paper, we test this hypothesis and report a computational pipeline designed to identify previously unknown bacterial virulence genes using group B streptococcus (GBS as an example. Phylogenetic profiles of all GBS genes across 467 bacterial reference genomes were determined by candidate-against-all BLAST searches,which were then used to identify candidate virulence genes by machine learning models. Evaluation experiments with known GBS virulence genes suggested good functional and model consistency in cross-validation analyses (areas under ROC curve, 0.80 and 0.98 respectively. Inspection of the top-10 genes in each of the 15 virulence functional groups revealed at least 15 (of 119 homologous genes implicated in virulence in other human pathogens but previously unrecognized as potential virulence genes in GBS. Among these highly-ranked genes, many encode hypothetical proteins with possible roles in GBS virulence. Thus, our approach has led to the identification of a set of genes potentially affecting the virulence potential of GBS, which are potential candidates for further in vitro and in vivo investigations. This computational pipeline can also be extended to in silico analysis of virulence determinants of other bacterial pathogens.

  11. Revealing the potential of squid chitosan-based structures for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reys, L L; Silva, S S; Oliveira, J M; Caridade, S G; Mano, J F; Silva, T H; Reis, R L

    2013-08-01

    In recent years, much attention has been given to different marine organisms, namely as potential sources of valuable materials with a vast range of properties and characteristics. In this work, β-chitin was isolated from the endoskeleton of the giant squid Dosidicus gigas and further deacetylated to produce chitosan. Then, the squid chitosan was processed into membranes and scaffolds using solvent casting and freeze-drying, respectively, to assess their potential biomedical application. The developed membranes have shown to be stiffer and less hydrophobic than those obtained with commercial chitosan. On the other hand, the morphological characterization of the developed scaffolds, by SEM and micro-computed tomography, revealed that the matrices were formed with a lamellar structure. The findings also indicated that the treatment with ethanol prior to neutralization with sodium hydroxide caused the formation of larger pores and loss of some lamellar features. The in vitro cell culture study has shown that all chitosan scaffolds exhibited a non-cytotoxic effect over the mouse fibroblast-like cell line, L929 cells. Thus, chitosan produced from the endoskeletons of the giant squid Dosidicus gigas has proven to be a valuable alternative to existing commercial materials when considering its use as biomaterial. PMID:23715133

  12. Revealing the potential of squid chitosan-based structures for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, much attention has been given to different marine organisms, namely as potential sources of valuable materials with a vast range of properties and characteristics. In this work, β-chitin was isolated from the endoskeleton of the giant squid Dosidicus gigas and further deacetylated to produce chitosan. Then, the squid chitosan was processed into membranes and scaffolds using solvent casting and freeze-drying, respectively, to assess their potential biomedical application. The developed membranes have shown to be stiffer and less hydrophobic than those obtained with commercial chitosan. On the other hand, the morphological characterization of the developed scaffolds, by SEM and micro-computed tomography, revealed that the matrices were formed with a lamellar structure. The findings also indicated that the treatment with ethanol prior to neutralization with sodium hydroxide caused the formation of larger pores and loss of some lamellar features. The in vitro cell culture study has shown that all chitosan scaffolds exhibited a non-cytotoxic effect over the mouse fibroblast-like cell line, L929 cells. Thus, chitosan produced from the endoskeletons of the giant squid Dosidicus gigas has proven to be a valuable alternative to existing commercial materials when considering its use as biomaterial. (paper)

  13. Extroversion-related differences in speed of premotor and motor processing as revealed by lateralized readiness potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Jutta; Rammsayer, Thomas

    2008-03-01

    To further elucidate extroversion-related differences in speed of sensorimotor processing, the authors obtained behavioral and psychophysiological measures as participants (16 introverts and 16 extroverts) performed a visual go/no-go task. Although no extroversion-related differences in reaction time emerged, introverts showed faster premotor processing but slower central and peripheral motor processing--as indicated by latencies of the lateralized readiness potential (LRP) and electromyographic (EMG) data, respectively--than extroverts did. Additional regression analyses revealed that stimulus-locked LRP latency, response-locked LRP latency, and Nl EMG amplitude accounted for 40% of overall variability in individual extroversion scores. On the basis of the present results, the authors introduce a compensation hypothesis that accounts for the common failure of researchers to demonstrate extroversion-related differences in reaction time. The present results challenge J. Brebner and C. Cooper's (1985) model of extroversion in which stimulus analysis is not slower in introverts than in extroverts. However, the present findings support the assumption of faster motor processing in extroverts. PMID:18400680

  14. Genome sequence of the pattern forming Paenibacillus vortex bacterium reveals potential for thriving in complex environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leshkowitz Dena

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pattern-forming bacterium Paenibacillus vortex is notable for its advanced social behavior, which is reflected in development of colonies with highly intricate architectures. Prior to this study, only two other Paenibacillus species (Paenibacillus sp. JDR-2 and Paenibacillus larvae have been sequenced. However, no genomic data is available on the Paenibacillus species with pattern-forming and complex social motility. Here we report the de novo genome sequence of this Gram-positive, soil-dwelling, sporulating bacterium. Results The complete P. vortex genome was sequenced by a hybrid approach using 454 Life Sciences and Illumina, achieving a total of 289× coverage, with 99.8% sequence identity between the two methods. The sequencing results were validated using a custom designed Agilent microarray expression chip which represented the coding and the non-coding regions. Analysis of the P. vortex genome revealed 6,437 open reading frames (ORFs and 73 non-coding RNA genes. Comparative genomic analysis with 500 complete bacterial genomes revealed exceptionally high number of two-component system (TCS genes, transcription factors (TFs, transport and defense related genes. Additionally, we have identified genes involved in the production of antimicrobial compounds and extracellular degrading enzymes. Conclusions These findings suggest that P. vortex has advanced faculties to perceive and react to a wide range of signaling molecules and environmental conditions, which could be associated with its ability to reconfigure and replicate complex colony architectures. Additionally, P. vortex is likely to serve as a rich source of genes important for agricultural, medical and industrial applications and it has the potential to advance the study of social microbiology within Gram-positive bacteria.

  15. Incorporating intersectionality theory into population health research methodology: challenges and the potential to advance health equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Greta R

    2014-06-01

    Intersectionality theory, developed to address the non-additivity of effects of sex/gender and race/ethnicity but extendable to other domains, allows for the potential to study health and disease at different intersections of identity, social position, processes of oppression or privilege, and policies or institutional practices. Intersectionality has the potential to enrich population health research through improved validity and greater attention to both heterogeneity of effects and causal processes producing health inequalities. Moreover, intersectional population health research may serve to both test and generate new theories. Nevertheless, its implementation within health research to date has been primarily through qualitative research. In this paper, challenges to incorporation of intersectionality into population health research are identified or expanded upon. These include: 1) confusion of quantitative terms used metaphorically in theoretical work with similar-sounding statistical methods; 2) the question of whether all intersectional positions are of equal value, or even of sufficient value for study; 3) distinguishing between intersecting identities, social positions, processes, and policies or other structural factors; 4) reflecting embodiment in how processes of oppression and privilege are measured and analysed; 5) understanding and utilizing appropriate scale for interactions in regression models; 6) structuring interaction or risk modification to best convey effects, and; 7) avoiding assumptions of equidistance or single level in the design of analyses. Addressing these challenges throughout the processes of conceptualizing and planning research and in conducting analyses has the potential to improve researchers' ability to more specifically document inequalities at varying intersectional positions, and to study the potential individual- and group-level causes that may drive these observed inequalities. A greater and more thoughtful incorporation

  16. Low-Temperature Biodiesel Research Reveals Potential Key to Successful Blend Performance (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-02-01

    Relatively low-cost solutions could improve reliability while making biodiesel blends an affordable option. While biodiesel has very low production costs and the potential to displace up to 10% of petroleum diesel, until now, issues with cold weather performance have prevented biodiesel blends from being widely adopted. Some biodiesel blends have exhibited unexplained low-temperature performance problems even at blend levels as low as 2% by volume. The most common low-temperature performance issue is vehicle stalling caused by fuel filter clogging, which prevents fuel from reaching the engine. Research at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) reveals the properties responsible for these problems, clearing a path for the development of solutions and expanded use of energy-conserving and low-emissions alternative fuel. NREL researchers set out to study the unpredictable nature of biodiesel crystallization, the condition that impedes the flow of fuel in cold weather. Their research revealed for the first time that saturated monoglyceride impurities common to the biodiesel manufacturing process create crystals that can cause fuel filter clogging and other problems when cooling at slow rates. Biodiesel low-temperature operational problems are commonly referred to as 'precipitates above the cloud point (CP).' NREL's Advanced Biofuels team spiked distilled soy and animal fat-derived B100, as well as B20, B10, and B5 biodiesel blends with three saturated monoglycerides (SMGs) at concentration levels comparable to those of real-world fuels. Above a threshold or eutectic concentration, the SMGs (monomyristin, monopalmitin, and monostearin) were shown to significantly raise the biodiesel CP, and had an even greater impact on the final melting temperature. Researchers discovered that upon cooling, monoglyceride initially precipitates as a metastable crystal, but it transforms over time or upon slight heating into a more stable crystal with a much lower

  17. An assessment of BWR [boiling water reactor] Mark III containment challenges, failure modes, and potential improvements in performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes risk-significant challenges posed to Mark III containment systems by severe accidents as identified for Grand Gulf. Design similarities and differences between the Mark III plants that are important to containment performance are summarized. The accident sequences responsible for the challenges and the postulated containment failure modes associated with each challenge are identified and described. Improvements are discussed that have the potential either to prevent or delay containment failure, or to mitigate the offsite consequences of a fission product release. For each of these potential improvements, a qualitative analysis is provided. A limited quantitative risk analysis is provided for selected potential improvements. 21 refs., 5 figs., 46 tabs

  18. Molecular Expression Profile Reveals Potential Biomarkers and Therapeutic Targets in Canine Endometrial Lesions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Azevedo Voorwald

    Full Text Available Cystic endometrial hyperplasia (CEH, mucometra, and pyometra are common uterine diseases in intact dogs, with pyometra being a life threatening disease. This study aimed to determine the gene expression profile of these lesions and potential biomarkers for closed-cervix pyometra, the most severe condition. Total RNA was extracted from 69 fresh endometrium samples collected from 21 healthy female dogs during diestrus, 16 CEH, 15 mucometra and 17 pyometra (eight open and nine closed-cervixes. Global gene expression was detected using the Affymetrix Canine Gene 1.0 ST Array. Unsupervised analysis revealed two clusters, one mainly composed of diestrus and CEH samples and the other by 12/15 mucometra and all pyometra samples. When comparing pyometra with other groups, 189 differentially expressed genes were detected. SLPI, PTGS2/COX2, MMP1, S100A8, S100A9 and IL8 were among the top up-regulated genes detected in pyometra, further confirmed by external expression data. Notably, a particular molecular profile in pyometra from animals previously treated with exogenous progesterone compounds was observed in comparison with pyometra from untreated dogs as well as with other groups irrespective of exogenous hormone treatment status. In addition to S100A8 and S100A9 genes, overexpression of the inflammatory cytokines IL1B, TNF and IL6 as well as LTF were detected in the pyometra from treated animals. Interestingly, closed pyometra was more frequently detected in treated dogs (64% versus 33%, with IL1B, TNF, LBP and CXCL10 among the most relevant overexpressed genes. This molecular signature associated with potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets, such as CXCL10 and COX2, should guide future clinical studies. Based on the gene expression profile we suggested that pyometra from progesterone treated dogs is a distinct molecular entity.

  19. Molecular Expression Profile Reveals Potential Biomarkers and Therapeutic Targets in Canine Endometrial Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorwald, Fabiana Azevedo; Marchi, Fabio Albuquerque; Villacis, Rolando Andre Rios; Alves, Carlos Eduardo Fonseca; Toniollo, Gilson Hélio; Amorim, Renee Laufer; Drigo, Sandra Aparecida; Rogatto, Silvia Regina

    2015-01-01

    Cystic endometrial hyperplasia (CEH), mucometra, and pyometra are common uterine diseases in intact dogs, with pyometra being a life threatening disease. This study aimed to determine the gene expression profile of these lesions and potential biomarkers for closed-cervix pyometra, the most severe condition. Total RNA was extracted from 69 fresh endometrium samples collected from 21 healthy female dogs during diestrus, 16 CEH, 15 mucometra and 17 pyometra (eight open and nine closed-cervixes). Global gene expression was detected using the Affymetrix Canine Gene 1.0 ST Array. Unsupervised analysis revealed two clusters, one mainly composed of diestrus and CEH samples and the other by 12/15 mucometra and all pyometra samples. When comparing pyometra with other groups, 189 differentially expressed genes were detected. SLPI, PTGS2/COX2, MMP1, S100A8, S100A9 and IL8 were among the top up-regulated genes detected in pyometra, further confirmed by external expression data. Notably, a particular molecular profile in pyometra from animals previously treated with exogenous progesterone compounds was observed in comparison with pyometra from untreated dogs as well as with other groups irrespective of exogenous hormone treatment status. In addition to S100A8 and S100A9 genes, overexpression of the inflammatory cytokines IL1B, TNF and IL6 as well as LTF were detected in the pyometra from treated animals. Interestingly, closed pyometra was more frequently detected in treated dogs (64% versus 33%), with IL1B, TNF, LBP and CXCL10 among the most relevant overexpressed genes. This molecular signature associated with potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets, such as CXCL10 and COX2, should guide future clinical studies. Based on the gene expression profile we suggested that pyometra from progesterone treated dogs is a distinct molecular entity. PMID:26222498

  20. Potentials and challenges in implementing feed-in tariff policy in Indonesia and the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Located in Southeast Asia, Indonesia and the Philippines are characterized by a tropical climate and high amounts of rainfall that render their high potential for hydro-power and wind energy deployment. The volcanic geography of both countries also indicates their high geothermal potential compared with that of other countries, and their high solar radiation level makes them suitable areas to establish power plants. The present study is an archival-statistical overview of the potential generation of renewable energy in Indonesia and the Philippines and the implementation of the Feed-in-tariff (FiT) policy. This research focuses on the challenges encountered by politicians and policymakers and confirms the insufficient production of energy from wind, solar, and bio-gas sources despite the potential and the attempts to deploy FiT. Results show that the role of the government in providing support to investors is not clear in both countries. In addition, inflation rates have not been calculated. However, FiT has benefitted both countries by preventing degression during the primary years. - Highlights: • Both countries are unsuccessful in finalizing a fixed Feed-in-tariff payment. • Both have the same aims from FiT but they have different mechanisms. • The Philippines has shown good ability in managing geothermal energy. • Indonesia's energy generation from biomass is better managed than the Philippines. • Both do not have significant energy production from the wind, solar and biogas

  1. The neural origins of visual crowding as revealed by event-related potentials and oscillatory dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronconi, Luca; Bertoni, Sara; Bellacosa Marotti, Rosilari

    2016-06-01

    Visual crowding is the difficulty in perceiving a target in the presence of nearby flankers. Most neurophysiological studies of crowding employed functional neuroimaging, but because of its low temporal resolution, no definitive answer can be given to the question: is crowding arising at the earliest or at later stages of visual processing? Here, we used a classic letters crowding paradigm in combination with electroencephalography (EEG). We manipulated the critical space between peripheral target and flankers, while ensuring a proper control of basic stimulus characteristics. Analyses were focused on event-related potentials (ERPs) and oscillatory activity in the alpha (8-12 Hz), beta (15-30 Hz) and gamma (30-80 Hz) bands. At the ERP level, we found that the first sign of a crowding-induced modulation of EEG activity was a suppression of the N1 component. Oscillatory analysis revealed an early stimulus-evoked gamma enhancement and a later alpha reduction that, however, were not influenced by the amount of crowding. Importantly, reduction in the beta band reflected the amount of crowding (i.e., stronger reduction for strong relative to mid crowding condition) and correlated with individual behavioral performance. Collectively, these findings show that crowding for complex objects emerges at later stages of visual processing, possibly as a result of large-scale network interaction. PMID:27088616

  2. Metagenomic analysis reveals that modern microbialites and polar microbial mats have similar taxonomic and functional potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Allen White III

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Within the subarctic climate of Clinton Creek, Yukon, Canada, lies an abandoned and flooded open-pit asbestos mine that harbors rapidly growing microbialites. To understand their formation we completed a metagenomic community profile of the microbialites and their surrounding sediments. Assembled metagenomic data revealed that bacteria within the phylum Proteobacteria numerically dominated this system, although the relative abundances of taxa within the phylum varied among environments. Bacteria belonging to Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria were dominant in the microbialites and sediments, respectively. The microbialites were also home to many other groups associated with microbialite formation including filamentous cyanobacteria and dissimilatory sulfate-reducing Deltaproteobacteria, consistent with the idea of a shared global microbialite microbiome. Other members were present that are typically not associated with microbialites including Gemmatimonadetes and iron-oxidizing Betaproteobacteria, which participate in carbon metabolism and iron cycling. Compared to the sediments, the microbialite microbiome has significantly more genes associated with photosynthetic processes (e.g., photosystem II reaction centers, carotenoid and chlorophyll biosynthesis and carbon fixation (e.g., CO dehydrogenase. The Clinton Creek microbialite communities had strikingly similar functional potentials to non-lithifying microbial mats from the Canadian High Arctic and Antarctica, but are functionally distinct, from non-lithifying mats or biofilms from Yellowstone. Clinton Creek microbialites also share metabolic genes (R2 0.900. These metagenomic profiles from an anthropogenic microbialite-forming ecosystem provide context to microbialite formation on a human-relevant timescale.

  3. Genetic diversity and population structure of endangered Aquilaria malaccensis revealed potential for future conservation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pradeep Singh; Akshay Nag; Rajni Parmar; Sneha Ghosh; Brijmohan Singh Bhau; Ram Kumar Sharma

    2015-12-01

    The endangered Aquilaria malaccensis, is an important plant with high economic values. Characterization of genetic diversity and population structure is receiving tremendous attention for effective conservation of genetic resources. Considering important repositories of biological diversity, the genetic relationships of 127 A. malaccensis accessions from 10 home gardens of three states of northeast India were assessed using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). Of the 1153 fragments amplified with four AFLP primer combinations, 916 (79.4%) were found to be polymorphic. Polymorphic information content (PIC) and marker index (MI) of each primer combination correlate significantly with the number of genotypes resolved. Overall, a high genetic diversity (avg. 71.85%) was recorded. Further, high gene flow (m : 3.37), low genetic differentiation (ST : 0.069) and high within population genetic variation (93%) suggests that most of the genetic diversity is restricted within population. Neighbour joining (NJ), principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) and Bayesian-based STRUCTURE grouped all the accessions in two clusters with significant intermixing between populations, therefore, revealed that two genetically distinct gene pools are operating in the A. malaccensis populations cultivated in home gardens. Based on the various diversity inferences, five diverse populations (JOH, FN, HLF, DHM and ITN) were identified, which can be potentially exploited to develop conservation strategies for A. malaccensis.

  4. Metabolomics Analysis Reveals Specific Novel Tetrapeptide and Potential Anti-Inflammatory Metabolites in Pathogenic Aspergillus species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim-Chung Lee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Infections related to Aspergillus species have emerged to become an important focus in infectious diseases, as a result of the increasing use of immunosuppressive agents and high fatality associated with invasive aspergillosis. However, laboratory diagnosis of Aspergillus infections remains difficult. In this study, by comparing the metabolomic profiles of the culture supernatants of 30 strains of six pathogenic Aspergillus species (A. fumigatus, A. flavus, A. niger, A. terreus, A. nomius and A. tamarii and 31 strains of 10 non-Aspergillus fungi, eight compounds present in all strains of the six Aspergillus species but not in any strain of the non-Aspergillus fungi were observed. One of the eight compounds, Leu–Glu–Leu–Glu, is a novel tetrapeptide and represents the first linear tetrapeptide observed in Aspergillus species, which we propose to be named aspergitide. Two other closely related Aspergillus-specific compounds, hydroxy-(sulfooxybenzoic acid and (sulfooxybenzoic acid, may possess anti-inflammatory properties, as 2-(sulfooxybenzoic acid possesses a structure similar to those of aspirin [2-(acetoxybenzoic acid] and salicylic acid (2-hydroxybenzoic acid. Further studies to examine the potentials of these Aspergillus-specific compounds for laboratory diagnosis of aspergillosis are warranted and further experiments will reveal whether Leu–Glu–Leu–Glu, hydroxy-(sulfooxybenzoic acid and (sulfooxybenzoic acid are virulent factors of the pathogenic Aspergillus species.

  5. ECONOMIC POTENTIAL RECOVERY – A EUROPEAN CHALLENGE IN THE MEDIUM TERM

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    Rãdulescu Andrei

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The waves of the worst global financial and economic crisis since World War II have seriously affected the economy of the Euro Area. The first wave of the global crisis determined the worst recession in decades for the member states of the region. At present, the Monetary Union is confronted with the second wave of the crisis – the public debt problem. Despite the efforts adopted and implemented by the European policymakers over the past quarters, the sovereign debt crisis is far from over. Spain has recently become the “favourite target” of the financial markets. Among the consequences of the waves of the crisis for the Euro Area one can mention the potential output decline and the economic divergence (asymmetric evolution of member countries. In this context, the potential output recovery and the relaunch of the real economic convergence process represent the main challenges for the policymakers in the medium run. This paper analyses the evolution of potential GDP of the member countries of European Monetary Union (12. I employ the Hodrick-Prescott methodology on data from the World Bank Database. According to the results, the economic potential of the member states of the Euro Area (12 decreased to the lowest level of the past decades. At the same time, the analysis presents the differences exiting across the member states in terms of potential output. Some countries suffered an important potential output loss over the past quarters (it seems that Greece and Portugal have become asymmetric shocks in the Monetary Union. For these countries, the first wave of the global crisis transformed in a permanent shock. The decline of investments and the depreciation of human capital over the past quarters express a huge probability that potential output is going to maintain at a low level in the Euro Area over the following years. The recovery of potential GDP towards the pre-crisis levels is dependent on a higher participation rate

  6. Adaptive Treatment Strategies in Youth Mental Health: A Commentary on Advantages, Challenges, and Potential Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrill, Joel T

    2016-01-01

    This commentary underscores the importance and potential of the research approaches and intervention strategies described in the JCCAP special issue on the Science of Adaptive Treatment Strategies in Child and Adolescent Mental Health for addressing the widely observed heterogeneity in response to even our most promising research-informed interventions. First, the commentary briefly summarizes the advantages of these approaches and highlights how these programs of research are responsive to widely agreed-upon calls for more personalized, prescriptive interventions. Next, the commentary briefly discusses key common challenges and gaps in our knowledge that might be addressed to advance the development, testing, and implementation of adaptive intervention strategies. For example, research to identify robust moderators that might serve as potential tailoring variables for initial assignment and sequencing of interventions, efforts to operationalize surrogate endpoints for early identification of individuals who are unlikely to respond to first-line interventions, and research that helps define what constitutes an adequate exposure (i.e., dose) or response threshold (e.g., response that suggests the need to intensify, switch, or augment interventions) would inform decision rules for adaptive algorithms. The commentary concludes with a discussion of potential strategies and current initiatives that might ultimately help facilitate research on more targeted, prescriptive approaches to intervening, including efforts to encourage investigators to use common data elements, to share and integrate data across trials, and to employ a more mechanism-based approach to intervention development and testing. PMID:27347782

  7. The Internet and the oral healthcare professionals: potential and challenges of a new era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattheos, N

    2007-08-01

    The Internet is increasingly used as a means of continuous education for healthcare practitioners. At the same time, a rapidly growing number of patients rely on the Internet for the search and acquisition of healthcare-related information and services. This fact has introduced new challenges for the oral healthcare personnel, which must not only often face the misperceptions of ill-informed patients but also be able to redirect them to quality sources of healthcare-related information. Consequently, there is a great need for the whole oral healthcare team to further understand the potential and dangers of Internet-based information. The present paper aimed to briefly discuss the major implications of Internet use from two distinct points of view: (a) potential and risks of Internet use for lifelong learning and quality assessment of the oral healthcare team and (b) potential and dangers from the Internet as a means of patients' education. (1) generic Internet search; (2) search within healthcare-related databases; and (3) principles quality assessment of information and resources. PMID:17615024

  8. Near-Space Microwave Radar Remote Sensing: Potentials and Challenge Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qicong Peng

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Near-space, defined as the region between 20 km and 100 km, offers many new capabilities that are not accessible to low earth orbit (LEO satellites and airplanes, because it is above storm and not constrained by either the orbital mechanics of satellites or the high fuel consumption of airplanes. By placing radar transmitter/receiver in near-space platforms, many functions that are currently performed with satellites or airplanes could be performed in a cheaper way. Inspired by these advantages, this paper introduces several near-space vehicle-based radar configurations, such as near-space passive bistatic radar and high-resolution wide-swath (HRWS synthetic aperture radar (SAR. Their potential applications, technical challenges and possible solutions are investigated. It is shown that near-space is a satisfactory solution to some specific remote sensing applications. Firstly, near-space passive bistatic radar using opportunistic illuminators offers a solution to persistent regional remote sensing, which is particularly interest for protecting homeland security or monitoring regional environment. Secondly, near-space provides an optimal solution to relative HRWS SAR imaging. Moreover, as motion compensation is a common technical challenge for the described radars, an active transponder-based motion compensation is also described.

  9. Computational Challenge of Fractional Differential Equations and the Potential Solutions: A Survey

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    Chunye Gong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a survey of fractional differential equations and in particular of the computational cost for their numerical solutions from the view of computer science. The computational complexities of time fractional, space fractional, and space-time fractional equations are O(N2M, O(NM2, and O(NM(M + N compared with O(MN for the classical partial differential equations with finite difference methods, where M, N are the number of space grid points and time steps. The potential solutions for this challenge include, but are not limited to, parallel computing, memory access optimization (fractional precomputing operator, short memory principle, fast Fourier transform (FFT based solutions, alternating direction implicit method, multigrid method, and preconditioner technology. The relationships of these solutions for both space fractional derivative and time fractional derivative are discussed. The authors pointed out that the technologies of parallel computing should be regarded as a basic method to overcome this challenge, and some attention should be paid to the fractional killer applications, high performance iteration methods, high order schemes, and Monte Carlo methods. Since the computation of fractional equations with high dimension and variable order is even heavier, the researchers from the area of mathematics and computer science have opportunity to invent cornerstones in the area of fractional calculus.

  10. Transcriptome analysis reveals response regulator SO2426-mediated gene expression in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 under chromate challenge

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    Chourey Karuna

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 exhibits diverse metal ion-reducing capabilities and thus is of potential utility as a bioremediation agent. Knowledge of the molecular components and regulatory mechanisms dictating cellular responses to heavy metal stress, however, remains incomplete. In a previous work, the S. oneidensis so2426 gene, annotated as a DNA-binding response regulator, was demonstrated to be specifically responsive at both the transcript and protein levels to acute chromate [Cr(VI] challenge. To delineate the cellular function of SO2426 and its contribution to metal stress response, we integrated genetic and physiological approaches with a genome-wide screen for target gene candidates comprising the SO2426 regulon. Results Inactivation of so2426 by an in-frame deletion resulted in enhanced chromate sensitivity and a reduced capacity to remove extracellular Cr(VI relative to the parental strain. Time-resolved microarray analysis was used to compare transcriptomic profiles of wild-type and SO2426-deficient mutant S. oneidensis under conditions of chromate exposure. In total, 841 genes (18% of the arrayed genome were up- or downregulated at least twofold in the Δso2426 mutant for at least one of six time-point conditions. Hierarchical cluster analysis of temporal transcriptional profiles identified a distinct cluster (n = 46 comprised of co-ordinately regulated genes exhibiting significant downregulated expression (p e.g., siderophore biosynthetic enzymes, TonB-dependent receptors, and the iron-storage protein ferritin. A conserved hypothetical operon (so1188-so1189-so1190, previously identified as a potential target of Fur-mediated repression, as well as a putative bicyclomycin resistance gene (so2280 and cation efflux family protein gene (so2045 also were repressed in the so2426 deletion mutant. Furthermore, the temporal expression profiles of four regulatory genes including a cpxR homolog were perturbed in the

  11. GREEN TECHNOLOGY FORESIGHT OF HIGH TECHNOLOGY: HYPE OR POTENTIALS - THE CHALLENGES FROM NANOTECHNOLOGY, BIOTECHNOLOGY AND ICT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes the theoretical and methodological approach in an ongoing Danish technology foresight project focusing on the environmental potentials and risks of nanotechnology, biotechnology, and information and communication technology (ICT). The paper gives a short overview of some...... environmental aspects of the three technological areas and discusses the challenges, when assessing the environmental aspects related to long term development of technologies, which often are described with very promising words. The approach to assessment of the environmental aspects is based on identification...... and analysis of emerging applications of the technologies, research processes and their dynamics, and future techno-economic networks which the future technologies might need or enable. The environmental assessment is based on the following principles: life cycle thinking, systems approach, open...

  12. The Challenges and Potential of Nuclear Energy for Addressing Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The response to climate change and the stabilization of atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations has major implications for the global energy system. Stabilization of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations requires a peak and an indefinite decline of global CO2 emissions. Nuclear energy, along with other technologies, has the potential to contribute to the growing demand for energy without emitting CO2. Nuclear energy is of particular interest because of its global prevalence and its current significant contribution, nearly 20%, to the world's electricity supply. We have investigated the value of nuclear energy in addressing climate change, and have explored the potential challenges for the rapid and large-scale expansion of nuclear energy as a response to climate change. The scope of this study is long-term and the modeling time frame extends out a century because the nature of nuclear energy and climate change dictate that perspective. Our results indicate that the value of the nuclear technology option for addressing climate change is denominated in trillions of dollars. Several-fold increases to the value of the nuclear option can be expected if there is limited availability of competing carbon-free technologies, particularly fossil-fuel based technologies that can capture and sequester carbon. Challenges for the expanded global use of nuclear energy include the global capacity for nuclear construction, proliferation, uranium availability, and waste disposal. While the economic costs of nuclear fuel and power are important, non-economic issues transcend the issues of costs. In this regard, advanced nuclear technologies and new vision for the global use of nuclear energy are important considerations for the future of nuclear power and climate change.

  13. The Challenges and Potential of Nuclear Energy for Addressing Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Son H.; Edmonds, James A.

    2007-10-24

    The response to climate change and the stabilization of atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations has major implications for the global energy system. Stabilization of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations requires a peak and an indefinite decline of global CO2 emissions. Nuclear energy, along with other technologies, has the potential to contribute to the growing demand for energy without emitting CO2. Nuclear energy is of particular interest because of its global prevalence and its current significant contribution, nearly 20%, to the world’s electricity supply. We have investigated the value of nuclear energy in addressing climate change, and have explored the potential challenges for the rapid and large-scale expansion of nuclear energy as a response to climate change. The scope of this study is long-term and the modeling time frame extends out a century because the nature of nuclear energy and climate change dictate that perspective. Our results indicate that the value of the nuclear technology option for addressing climate change is denominated in trillions of dollars. Several-fold increases to the value of the nuclear option can be expected if there is limited availability of competing carbon-free technologies, particularly fossil-fuel based technologies that can capture and sequester carbon. Challenges for the expanded global use of nuclear energy include the global capacity for nuclear construction, proliferation, uranium availability, and waste disposal. While the economic costs of nuclear fuel and power are important, non-economic issues transcend the issues of costs. In this regard, advanced nuclear technologies and new vision for the global use of nuclear energy are important considerations for the future of nuclear power and climate change.

  14. Potential brain death organ donors - challenges and prospects: A single center retrospective review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef Al-Maslamani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Organ donation after brain death (BD is a major source for obtaining transplantable organs for patients with end-stage organ disease (ESOD. This retrospective, descriptive study was carried out on all potential BD patients admitted in different intensive care units (ICUs of the Hamad medical Corporation (HMC, Doha, Qatar during a period from January 2011 to April 2012. Our aim was to evaluate various demographic criteria and challenges of organ donation among potential BD organ donors and plan a strategy to improve the rate of organ donation in Qatar. Various aspects of BD patients in the ICUs and their possible effects on organ donation were studied. The time intervals analyzed to determine the possible causes of delay of organ retrieval were: time of diagnosing fixed dilated pupils in the ICU, to performing the first BD test, then to the second BD test, to family approach, to organ retrieval and/or circulatory death (CD without organ retrieval. There were a total of 116 potential BD organ donors of whom 96 (82.75% were males and 20 (17.25% were females. Brain hemorrhage and head injury contributed to 37 (31.9% and 32 (27.6% BD cases, respectively. Time interval between diagnosing fixed dilated pupil and performing the first test of BD was delayed >24 h in 79% of the cases and between the first and second BD tests was >6 h in 70.8% of the cases. This delay is not compatible with the Hamad Medical Corporation (HMC policy for BD diagnosis and resulted in a low number of organs retrieved. BD organ donation, a potential source for organs to save patients with ESOD has several pitfalls and every effort should be made to increase the awareness of the public as well as medical personnel to optimize donation efficacy.

  15. Consultancy on 'Implementing thorium in nuclear reactor fuel cycles: Potential benefits and challenges'. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this consultancy (CS) was to bring together experts from the MS to discuss R and D developments in the study of thorium fuel cycles and to identify MS needs in support of national activities in this area. The CS was also meant to define an appropriate IAEA response to these needs, e.g., recommend topics for information exchange and collaborative R andD activities to be implemented in a planned CRP. Presentations were made on past thorium-fuel-cycle activities at IAEA, and on R and D activities in Canada, India and the Russian Federation. Following these presentations and further discussions on topics of importance in thorium based fuel cycles, the CS arrived at a proposal for a new CRP entitled 'The Comparative Assessment of the Fuel-Cycle Aspects of Various Thorium-Based Reactor Concepts'. The CRP should be based on a unified systematic approach for a comparative assessment of the various designs for utilizing thorium fuel, and their potential benefits as compared to uranium-plutonium fuelled systems. The CS recommended a list of fuel-cycle performance parameters to be considered in the CRP for the above purpose. Finally, the CS proposed a plan of action for the initiation of the CRP by the Scientific Secretary. The meeting was very much appreciated by the participants and was a good opportunity to exchange information on research activities and methods, and discuss potential challenges to and solutions for the implementation of thorium fuel cycles. (author)

  16. Therapeutic potential and challenges of Natural killer cells in treatment of solid tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eGras Navarro

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells are innate lymphoid cells that hold tremendous potential for effective immunotherapy for a broad range of cancers. Due to the mode of NK cell killing requiring one–to-one target engagement and site directed release of cytolytic granules, the therapeutic potential of NK cells has been most extensively explored in hematological malignancies. However, their ability to precisely kill antibody coated cells, cancer stem cells (CSCs and genotoxically altered cells, while maintaining tolerance to healthy cells makes them appealing therapeutic effectors for all cancer forms, including metastases. Due to their release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, NK cells may potently reverse the anti-inflammatory tumor microenvironment (TME and augment adaptive immune responses by promoting differentiation, activation and/ or recruitment of accessory immune cells to sites of malignancy. Nevertheless, integrated and coordinated mechanisms of subversion of NK cell activity against the tumor and its microenvironment exist. Although our understanding of the receptor ligand interactions that regulate NK cell functionality has evolved remarkably, the diversity of ligands and receptors is complex, as is their mechanistic foundations in regulating NK cell function. In this article, we review the literature and highlight how the TME manipulates the NK cell phenotypes, genotypes and tropism to evade tumor recognition and elimination. We discuss counter strategies that may be adopted to augment the efficacy of NK cell anti-tumor surveillance, the clinical trials that have been undertaken so far in solid malignancies, critically weighing the challenges and opportunities with this approach.

  17. Current Challenges in Volatile Organic Compounds Analysis as Potential Biomarkers of Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Schmidt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are crucial in reducing mortality among people suffering from cancer. There is a lack of characteristic early clinical symptoms in most forms of cancer, which highlights the importance of investigating new methods for its early detection. One of the most promising methods is the analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs. VOCs are a diverse group of carbon-based chemicals that are present in exhaled breath and biofluids and may be collected from the headspace of these matrices. Different patterns of VOCs have been correlated with various diseases, cancer among them. Studies have also shown that cancer cells in vitro produce or consume specific VOCs that can serve as potential biomarkers that differentiate them from noncancerous cells. This review identifies the current challenges in the investigation of VOCs as potential cancer biomarkers, by the critical evaluation of available matrices for the in vivo and in vitro approaches in this field and by comparison of the main extraction and detection techniques that have been applied to date in this area of study. It also summarises complementary in vivo, ex vivo, and in vitro studies conducted to date in order to try to identify volatile biomarkers of cancer.

  18. The huge geothermal energy potential in the Danish subsurface - challenges and possibilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Lars H.; Mathiesen, A.; Kristensen, Lars; Weibel, R.; Olivarius, M.; Bidstrup, T.; Nielsen, Carsten M.; Laier, T.; Anthonsen, K.L.

    2011-05-15

    The Danish subsurface contains huge geothermal resources that may contribute to a safe, sustainable and reliable supply of energy. Geothermal energy may thus play an important role in the energy strategy in Denmark. The exploitation of the resources is especially attractive in urban areas where it can be combined with district heating systems. The challenge is to find areas where the adequate geological conditions in the subsurface coincide with the presence of essential infrastructure on the surface. The most promising geothermal reservoirs occur within the thick Triassic-Lower Cretaceous successions in the Danish and North German Basins. The potential resource is determined by a number of geological parameters of which the burial depth, thickness, net/gross ratio, continuity (presence of faults or lateral lithological changes) and porosity and permeability of the reservoir sandstones, and the chemistry and temperature of the formation water are the most important. These parameters are all dependent on geological processes and can be investigated by geological and geophysical methods. In most places a preliminary assessment of the geothermal potential can be carried out based on interpretations of data and samples from existing wells, seismic surveys and temperature measurements from the local area. Subsequently the initial assessment, if promising, may be followed by acquisition of new data and further investigations following a stepwise maturation method with a number of decision gates proposed in this paper. (Author)

  19. Potentials and challenges of integration for complex metal oxides in CMOS devices and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review focuses on recent accomplishments on complex metal oxide based multifunctional materials and the potential they hold in advancing integrated circuits. It begins with metal oxide based high-κ materials to highlight the success of their integration since 45 nm complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) devices. By simultaneously offering a higher dielectric constant for improved capacitance as well as providing a thicker physical layer to prevent the quantum mechanical tunnelling of electrons, high-κ materials have enabled the continued down-scaling of CMOS based devices. The most recent technology driver has been the demand to lower device power consumption, which requires the design and synthesis of novel materials, such as complex metal oxides that exhibit remarkable tunability in their ferromagnetic, ferroelectric and multiferroic properties. These properties make them suitable for a wide variety of applications such as magnetoelectric random access memory, radio frequency band pass filters, antennae and magnetic sensors. Single-phase multiferroics, while rare, offer unique functionalities which have motivated much scientific and technological research to ascertain the origins of their multiferroicity and their applicability to potential devices. However, due to the weak magnetoelectric coupling for single-phase multiferroics, engineered multiferroic composites based on magnetostrictive ferromagnets interfacing piezoelectrics or ferroelectrics have shown enhanced multiferroic behaviour from effective strain coupling at the interface. In addition, nanostructuring of the ferroic phases has demonstrated further improvement in the coupling effect. Therefore, single-phase and engineered composite multiferroics consisting of complex metal oxides are reviewed in terms of magnetoelectric coupling effects and voltage controlled ferromagnetic properties, followed by a review on the integration challenges that need to be overcome to realize the

  20. The role of Geophysics for a sustainable environment: potentials, challenges and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buske, Stefan

    2010-05-01

    The increasing worldwide demand for energy including the exploration of new resources are provoking prompt activities to guarantee a safe accomplishment together with a conscientious protection of the environment. Within this framework geophysical technologies play a key role for the profound assessment and characterization of the subsurface, which hosts most of the corresponding targets of human interest. These technologies (active- and passive-source seismology, electromagnetics, etc.) are expected to deliver a reliable and highly-resolved image of the subsurface including its structural inventory and the related rock-physical parameters on a broad scale and depending on the used inversion methodology. In particular in terms of energy and resources, i.e. the exploration and partly the storage and disposal of end-products, the existing geophysical imaging techniques are well suited for both, the over-the-years well established oil/gas industry as well as for newer emerging industry branches, e.g. geothermal energy. On the other hand the related problems, e.g. induced earthquakes, are currently stimulating various research areas and the development of new technologies for a better understanding and prediction of the inherent processes and a more reliable risk assessment. This applies in equally the same manner to natural phenomena, including but not limited to natural earthquakes, vulcanoes, landslides, etc. This presentation will summarize the key issues as well as the possibilities and potentials of existing geophysical monitoring and prediction approaches within this framework. Furthermore, some of the current challenges will be addressed, e.g. the required steps towards an improvement of image quality and resolution along with an increased computational efficiency of these methodologies. Finally, also the limitations of state-of-the-art technologies will be discussed with an assortment of successful and failed case studies that demonstrate the potential

  1. Forward and pressure retarded osmosis: potential solutions for global challenges in energy and water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaysom, Chalida; Cath, Tazhi Y; Depuydt, Tom; Vankelecom, Ivo F J

    2013-08-21

    Osmotically driven membrane processes (ODMP) have gained renewed interest in recent years and they might become a potential solution for the world's most challenging problems of water and energy scarcity. Though the concept of utilizing osmotic pressure difference between high and low salinity streams across semipermeable membranes has been explored for several decades, lack of optimal membranes and draw solutions hindered competition between forward osmosis (FO) and pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) with existing water purification and power generation technologies, respectively. Driven by growing global water scarcity and by energy cost and negative environmental impacts, novel membranes and draw solutions are being developed for ODMPs, mass and heat transfer in osmotic process are becoming better understood, and new applications of ODMPs are emerging. Therefore, OMDPs might become promising green technologies to provide clean water and clean energy from abundantly available renewable resources. This review focuses primarily on new insights into osmotic membrane transport mechanisms and on novel membranes and draw solutions that are currently being developed. Furthermore, the effects of operating conditions on the overall performance of osmotic membranes will be highlighted and future perspectives will be presented. PMID:23778699

  2. Seminar on Biogas in France and in Germany: Regulatory framework, potentials and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a Seminar on biogas in France and Germany. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, about 120 participants exchanged views on the legal framework, the characteristics of this industry, and the opportunities and technical challenges of biogas use in both countries. Differences and similarities were noticed in both countries, for instance regarding the use of energy cultures and digestates. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - The French biogas in the perspective of 2020 (Pierre-Marie Abadie); 2 - Biogas Opportunities in Germany - Status January 2014 (Katharina Boettcher); 3 - Biogas market in Germany (Sebastian Stolpp); 4 - Biogas in France and Germany, Current status and development outlooks in France (Eric Vincent); 5 - Biogas use in France and Germany - a comparison (Thibaut Chapron); 6 - Alternatives to the use of maize in biogas plants - Current research results from Germany (Andreas Schuette); 7 - Inter-crops in France: analysis of the potentials (Laurent Paquin); 8 - Digestates management in France, legislative and technical advances (Claire Ingremeau); 9 - The management of digestates in Germany: Fertilizer application and status of the art (Kurt Moeller); 10 - Status quo of Biomethane in Germany - Development, Technology and Costs (Marcus Trommler); 11 - GrDF's views and actions on biogas. Biomethane injection in France: state-of-the-art and first status (Valerie Bosso)

  3. A REVIEW OF OIL PALM BIOCOMPOSITES FOR FURNITURE DESIGN AND APPLICATIONS: POTENTIAL AND CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Suhaily,

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This review considers the potential and challenges of using agro-based oil palm biomasses, including the trunk, frond, empty fruit bunch, and palm press fiber biocomposites, for furniture applications. Currently, design and quality rather than price are becoming the primary concern for consumers when buying new furniture. Within this context, this paper focuses on the design of innovative, sustainable furniture from agro-based biocomposites to meet the needs of future population growth and technology. This research also discusses the need for biocomposite materials that do not depend on the growth of populations, but on the growth and development of the economy. This study focuses on globally available agro-based biocomposites, especially those from oil palm biomass: plywood, medium density fiberboard (MDF, wood plastic composite (WPC, laminated veneer lumber (LVL, oriented strand board (OSB, hardboards, and particleboard. Additional positive aspects of biocomposites are their environmentally friendly character, high quality, competitive design, and capacity to improve the value proposition of high-end products. These attributes increase the demand for agro-based biocomposite furniture on the international market.

  4. Potential analysis reveals changing number of climate states during the last 60 kyr

    OpenAIRE

    V. N. Livina; F. Kwasniok; Lenton, T. M.

    2010-01-01

    We develop and apply a new statistical method of potential analysis for detecting the number of states of a geophysical system, from its recorded time series. Estimation of the degree of a polynomial potential allows us to derive the number of potential wells in a system. The method correctly detects changes in the number of wells in artificial data. In ice-core proxy records of Greenland paleotemperature, a reduction in the number of climate states from two to one is detected sometime prior ...

  5. Revealing the potential of squid chitosan-based structures for biomedical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Reys, L. L.; S.S. Silva; Oliveira, Joaquim M.; Caridade, S. G.; Mano, J. F.; Silva, Tiago H.; Reis, R. L.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, much attention has been given to different marine organisms, namely as potential sources of valuable materials with a vast range of properties and characteristics. In this work, β-chitin was isolated from the endoskeleton of the giant squid Dosidicus gigas and further deacetylated to produce chitosan. Then, the squid chitosan was processed into membranes and scaffolds using solvent casting and freeze-drying, respectively, to assess their potential biomedical application. The ...

  6. Proteomic and genomic analysis reveals novel Campylobacter jejuni outer membrane proteins and potential heterogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor Watson

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Gram-negative bacterial outer membrane proteins play important roles in the interaction of bacteria with their environment including nutrient acquisition, adhesion and invasion, and antibiotic resistance. In this study we identified 47 proteins within the Sarkosyl-insoluble fraction of Campylobacter jejuni 81-176, using LC–ESI-MS/MS. Comparative analysis of outer membrane protein sequences was visualised to reveal protein distribution within a panel of Campylobacter spp., identifying several C. jejuni-specific proteins. Smith–Waterman analyses of C. jejuni homologues revealed high sequence conservation amongst a number of hypothetical proteins, sequence heterogeneity of other proteins and several proteins which are absent in a proportion of strains.

  7. Ecological succession reveals potential signatures of marine-terrestrial transition in salt marsh fungal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dini-Andreote, Francisco; Pylro, Victor Satler; Baldrian, Petr; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Salles, Joana Falcão

    2016-08-01

    Marine-to-terrestrial transition represents one of the most fundamental shifts in microbial life. Understanding the distribution and drivers of soil microbial communities across coastal ecosystems is critical given the roles of microbes in soil biogeochemistry and their multifaceted influence on landscape succession. Here, we studied the fungal community dynamics in a well-established salt marsh chronosequence that spans over a century of ecosystem development. We focussed on providing high-resolution assessments of community composition, diversity and ecophysiological shifts that yielded patterns of ecological succession through soil formation. Notably, despite containing 10- to 100-fold lower fungal internal transcribed spacer abundances, early-successional sites revealed fungal richnesses comparable to those of more mature soils. These newly formed sites also exhibited significant temporal variations in β-diversity that may be attributed to the highly dynamic nature of the system imposed by the tidal regime. The fungal community compositions and ecophysiological assignments changed substantially along the successional gradient, revealing a clear signature of ecological replacement and gradually transforming the environment from a marine into a terrestrial system. Moreover, distance-based linear modelling revealed soil physical structure and organic matter to be the best predictors of the shifts in fungal β-diversity along the chronosequence. Taken together, our study lays the basis for a better understanding of the spatiotemporally determined fungal community dynamics in salt marshes and highlights their ecophysiological traits and adaptation in an evolving ecosystem. PMID:26824176

  8. Potential analysis reveals changing number of climate states during the last 60 kyr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Livina

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available We develop and apply a new statistical method of potential analysis for detecting the number of states of a geophysical system, from its recorded time series. Estimation of the degree of a polynomial potential allows us to derive the number of potential wells in a system. The method correctly detects changes in the number of wells in artificial data. In ice-core proxy records of Greenland paleotemperature, a reduction in the number of climate states from two to one is detected sometime prior to the last glacial maximum (LGM, 23–19 kyr BP. This result is also found in analysis of Greenland Ca data. The bifurcation can be interpreted as loss of stability of the warm interstadial state of the Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO events. The proposed method can be applied to a wide range of geophysical time series exhibiting bifurcations.

  9. Potential analysis reveals changing number of climate states during the last 60 kyr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Livina

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We develop and apply a new statistical method of potential analysis for detecting the number of states of a geophysical system, from its recorded time series. Estimation of the degree of a polynomial potential allows us to derive the number of potential wells in a system. The method correctly detects changes in the number of wells in artificial data. In ice-core proxy records of Greenland paleotemperature, a reduction in the number of climate states from two to one is detected sometime prior to the last glacial maximum (LGM, 23–19 kyr BP. This bifurcation can be interpreted as loss of stability of the warm interstadial state of the Dansgaard-Oeschger events. In data spanning the last glacial termination, up to four climate states are detected, plausibly representing the LGM, Bolling-Allerod, Younger Dryas, and the Holocene. The proposed method can be applied to a wide range of geophysical time series exhibiting bifurcations.

  10. Infinite potential: what quantum physics reveals about how we should live

    CERN Document Server

    Schafer, Lothar

    2013-01-01

    A hopeful and controversial view of the universe and ourselves based on the principles of quantum physics, offering a way of making our lives and the world better, with a foreword by Deepak Chopra     In Infinite Potential, physical chemist Lothar Schäfer presents a stunning view of the universe as interconnected, nonmaterial, composed of a field of infinite potential, and conscious. With his own research as well as that of some of the most distinguished scientists of our time, Schäfer moves us from a reality of Darwinian competition to cooperation, a meaningless universe to a meaningful one, and a disconnected, isolated existence to an interconnected one. In so doing, he shows us that our potential is infinite and calls us to live in accordance with the order of the universe, creating a society based on the cosmic principle of connection, emphasizing cooperation and community.

  11. Predicting tumor sizes of ductal carcinoma in situ from immunohistochemical images using a novel approach of mathematical pathology: preliminary results, potentials and challenges ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Yao-Li; Edgerton, Mary; Macklin, Paul; Yang, Wei; Bearer, Elaine; Cristini, Vittorio

    2012-02-01

    Differential equation models have recently drawn increasing attentions as a useful tool to help advance the knowledge in cancer research. However, challenges remain for applying such models to clinical practices on a patient-specific basis to assist surgical decisions. Clinical diagnoses essentially at a single time point are often insufficient to fully constrain the time-dependent differential equations. Here we present a novel mathematical pathology approach, identifying robust indicators for time-invariant predictions of the model that can be used for surgical planning. We demonstrate this approach by predicting the sizes of ductal carcinoma in situ by calibrating model parameters from immunohistochemical images. Our preliminary studies of 17 excised tumor cases resulted in a better agreement with the actual measured sizes than the other estimates available to us, showing the potential of our approach for patient-specific cancer diagnosis. Conversely, our studies also revealed challenges to overcome before we can take this approach to the next level.

  12. Phytogenic Compounds as Alternatives to In-Feed Antibiotics: Potentials and Challenges in Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengbo Yang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article summarizes current experimental knowledge on the efficacy, possible mechanisms and feasibility in the application of phytogenic products as feed additives for food-producing animals. Phytogenic compounds comprise a wide range of plant-derived natural bioactive compounds and essential oils are a major group. Numerous studies have demonstrated that phytogenic compounds have a variety of functions, including antimicrobial/antiviral, antioxidative and anti-inflammation effects and improvement in the palatability of feed and gut development/health. However, the mechanisms underlying their functions are still largely unclear. In the past, there has been a lack of consistency in the results from both laboratory and field studies, largely due to the varied composition of products, dosages, purities and growing conditions of animals used. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of phytogenic compounds required for controlling enteric pathogens may not guarantee the best feed intake, balanced immunity of animals and cost-effectiveness in animal production. The lipophilic nature of photogenic compounds also presents a challenge in effective delivery to the animal gut and this can partially be resolved by microencapsulation and combination with other compounds (synergistic effect. Interestingly, the effects of photogenic compounds on anti-inflammation, gut chemosensing and possible disruption of bacterial quorum sensing could explain a certain number of studies with different animal species for the better production performance of animals that have received phytogenic feed additives. It is obvious that phytogenic compounds have good potential as an alternative to antibiotics in feed for food animal production and the combination of different phytogenic compounds appears to be an approach to improve the efficacy and safety of phytogenic compounds in the application. It is our expectation that the recent development of high-throughput and

  13. Clinical investigations of the therapeutic potential of ayahuasca: rationale and regulatory challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Dennis J

    2004-05-01

    Ayahuasca is a hallucinogenic beverage that is prominent in the ethnomedicine and shamanism of indigenous Amazonian tribes. Its unique pharmacology depends on the oral activity of the hallucinogen, N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), which results from inhibition of monoamine oxidase (MAO) by beta-carboline alkaloids. MAO is the enzyme that normally degrades DMT in the liver and gut. Ayahuasca has long been integrated into mestizo folk medicine in the northwest Amazon. In Brazil, it is used as a sacrament by several syncretic churches. Some of these organizations have incorporated in the United States. The recreational and religious use of ayahuasca in the United States, as well as "ayahuasca tourism" in the Amazon, is increasing. The current legal status of ayahuasca or its source plants in the United States is unclear, although DMT is a Schedule I controlled substance. One ayahuasca church has received favorable rulings in 2 federal courts in response to its petition to the Department of Justice for the right to use ayahuasca under the Religious Freedom Restoration Act. A biomedical study of one of the churches, the Uñiao do Vegetal (UDV), indicated that ayahuasca may have therapeutic applications for the treatment of alcoholism, substance abuse, and possibly other disorders. Clinical studies conducted in Spain have demonstrated that ayahuasca can be used safely in normal healthy adults, but have done little to clarify its potential therapeutic uses. Because of ayahuasca's ill-defined legal status and variable botanical and chemical composition, clinical investigations in the United States, ideally under an approved Investigational New Drug (IND) protocol, are complicated by both regulatory and methodological issues. This article provides an overview of ayahuasca and discusses some of the challenges that must be overcome before it can be clinically investigated in the United States. PMID:15163593

  14. Challenges and issues with building a potential railroad to Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On July 23, 2002, the President of the United States signed into law a joint resolution of the United States Congress designating the Yucca Mountain site in Nye County, Nevada, for development as a geologic repository for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. If the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission authorizes construction of the repository and receipt and possession of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive at Yucca Mountain, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) would be responsible for transporting these materials to the Yucca Mountain repository as part of its obligation under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act. Part of the site recommendation decision included the analysis of a nation-wide shipping campaign to the proposed repository site. The Final Environmental Impact Statement for a Geologic Repository for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada'' (February 2002) (Repository EIS) evaluated the potential impacts of the transportation of 70,000 Metric Tons of Heavy Metal spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste from 77 locations around the nation to the potential repository in Nevada over a 24 year shipping campaign. DOE believes that the Repository EIS provides the environmental impact information necessary to make certain broad transportation-related decisions, namely the choice of a national mode of transportation outside Nevada (mostly rail or mostly legal-weight truck), the choice among alternative transportation modes in Nevada (mostly rail, mostly legal-weight truck, or heavy-haul truck with use of an associated intermodal transfer station), and the choice among alternative rail corridors or heavy-haul truck routes with use of an associated intermodal transfer station in Nevada. In the Repository EIS, DOE identified mostly rail as its preferred mode of transportation, both nationally and in the State of Nevada. In December 2003, based on public

  15. HERG channel (dys)function revealed by dynamic action potential clamp technique

    OpenAIRE

    Berecki, G; Zegers, J.G.; Verkerk, A.O.; Bhuiyan, Z.A.; Jonge, de, M.J.I.; Veldkamp, M.W.; Wilders, R; Ginneken, van, CJJM Kees

    2005-01-01

    The human ether-a-go-go-related gene (HERG) encodes the rapid component of the cardiac delayed rectifier potassium current (IKr). Per-Arnt-Sim domain mutations of the HERG channel are linked to type 2 long-QT syndrome. We studied wild-type and/or type 2 long-QT syndrome-associated mutant (R56Q) HERG current (IHERG) in HEK-293 cells, at both 23 and 36°C. Conventional voltage-clamp analysis revealed mutation-induced changes in channel kinetics. To assess functional implication(s) of the mutatio...

  16. Gene co-expression networks and profiles reveal potential biomarkers of boar taint in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drag, Markus; Skinkyté-Juskiené, Rúta; Do, Duy Ngoc;

    synthesis. In testis, >80 DE genes were functionally classified by the PANTHER tool to “Gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor” and “Wnt signaling” pathways which play a role in reproductive maturation and proliferation of spermatogonia, respectively. WGCNA was used to build co-expression modules and...... enrichment analysis and semantic filtering revealed the GO terms “catalytic activity” and “transferase activity” to be overrepresented (p < 0.05) in liver and testis, respectively. Transferases include prenyltransferases which are involved in catalysis of the precursor of steroid hormones. Extraction of hub...

  17. Chemical analyses of wasp-associated streptomyces bacteria reveal a prolific potential for natural products discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Michael; Oh, Dong-Chan; Clardy, Jon;

    2011-01-01

    Identifying new sources for small molecule discovery is necessary to help mitigate the continuous emergence of antibiotic-resistance in pathogenic microbes. Recent studies indicate that one potentially rich source of novel natural products is Actinobacterial symbionts associated with social and...

  18. Perceptual Shift in Bilingualism: Brain Potentials Reveal Plasticity in Pre-Attentive Colour Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasopoulos, Panos; Dering, Benjamin; Wiggett, Alison; Kuipers, Jan-Rouke; Thierry, Guillaume

    2010-01-01

    The validity of the linguistic relativity principle continues to stimulate vigorous debate and research. The debate has recently shifted from the behavioural investigation arena to a more biologically grounded field, in which tangible physiological evidence for language effects on perception can be obtained. Using brain potentials in a colour…

  19. Metagenomes reveal microbial structures, functional potentials, and biofouling-related genes in a membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jinxing; Wang, Zhiwei; Li, Huan; Park, Hee-Deung; Wu, Zhichao

    2016-06-01

    Metagenomic sequencing was used to investigate the microbial structures, functional potentials, and biofouling-related genes in a membrane bioreactor (MBR). The results showed that the microbial community in the MBR was highly diverse. Notably, function analysis of the dominant genera indicated that common genes from different phylotypes were identified for important functional potentials with the observation of variation of abundances of genes in a certain taxon (e.g., Dechloromonas). Despite maintaining similar metabolic functional potentials with a parallel full-scale conventional activated sludge (CAS) system due to treating the identical wastewater, the MBR had more abundant nitrification-related bacteria and coding genes of ammonia monooxygenase, which could well explain its excellent ammonia removal in the low-temperature period. Furthermore, according to quantification of the genes involved in exopolysaccharide and extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) protein metabolism, the MBR did not show a much different potential in producing EPS compared to the CAS system, and bacteria from the membrane biofilm had lower abundances of genes associated with EPS biosynthesis and transport compared to the activated sludge in the MBR. PMID:26816093

  20. Comparative genomics of Gardnerella vaginalis strains reveals substantial differences in metabolic and virulence potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl J Yeoman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gardnerella vaginalis is described as a common vaginal bacterial species whose presence correlates strongly with bacterial vaginosis (BV. Here we report the genome sequencing and comparative analyses of three strains of G. vaginalis. Strains 317 (ATCC 14019 and 594 (ATCC 14018 were isolated from the vaginal tracts of women with symptomatic BV, while Strain 409-05 was isolated from a healthy, asymptomatic individual with a Nugent score of 9. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Substantial genomic rearrangement and heterogeneity were observed that appeared to have resulted from both mobile elements and substantial lateral gene transfer. These genomic differences translated to differences in metabolic potential. All strains are equipped with significant virulence potential, including genes encoding the previously described vaginolysin, pili for cytoadhesion, EPS biosynthetic genes for biofilm formation, and antimicrobial resistance systems, We also observed systems promoting multi-drug and lantibiotic extrusion. All G. vaginalis strains possess a large number of genes that may enhance their ability to compete with and exclude other vaginal colonists. These include up to six toxin-antitoxin systems and up to nine additional antitoxins lacking cognate toxins, several of which are clustered within each genome. All strains encode bacteriocidal toxins, including two lysozyme-like toxins produced uniquely by strain 409-05. Interestingly, the BV isolates encode numerous proteins not found in strain 409-05 that likely increase their pathogenic potential. These include enzymes enabling mucin degradation, a trait previously described to strongly correlate with BV, although commonly attributed to non-G. vaginalis species. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, our results indicate that all three strains are able to thrive in vaginal environments, and therein the BV isolates are capable of occupying a niche that is unique from 409-05. Each strain has significant virulence

  1. Plasma metabolomics and proteomics profiling after a postprandial challenge reveal subtle diet effects on human metabolic status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pellis, L.; Erk, M.J. van; Ommen, B. van; Bakker, G.C.M.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Cnubben, N.H.P.; Kleemann, R.; Someren, E.P. van; Bobeldijk, I.; Rubingh, C.M.; Wopereis, S.

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the metabolomics and proteomics based Postprandial Challenge Test (PCT) to quantify the postprandial response of multiple metabolic processes in humans in a standardized manner. The PCT comprised consumption of a standardized 500 ml dairy shake containing respectively 59, 30 and 12 ener

  2. Intragenomic matching reveals a huge potential for miRNA-mediated regulation in plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindow, Morten; Jacobsen, Anders; Nygaard, Sanne;

    2007-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are important post-transcriptional regulators, but the extent of this regulation is uncertain, both with regard to the number of miRNA genes and their targets. Using an algorithm based on intragenomic matching of potential miRNAs and their targets coupled with support vector ma...... conditions, while others can readily be recruited when organisms diverge and adapt to new niches....

  3. Revealing membrane potential by advanced impedance spectroscopy: theoretical and experimental aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In spite of recent advancement of novel optical and electrical techniques, availability of non-invasive, label-free methods to assess membrane potential of living cells is still an open issue. The theory linking membrane potential to the low frequency α dispersion exhibited by suspensions of spherical shelled particles (presenting a net charge distribution on the inner side of the shell) has been pioneered in our previous studies with emphasis on the permittivity spectra. We now report on both theoretical and experimental aspects showing that whereas α dispersion is related to a rather large variation exhibited by the permittivity spectrum the decrement presented by impedance magnitude spectrum is either extremely small, or occurs (for large cells) at very low frequencies (∼mHz) explaining the lack of experimental bioimpedance data on the matter. Based on the microscopic model we indicate that an appropriate design of the experiment may enable access to membrane potential as well as to other relevant parameters when investigating living cells and charged lipid vesicles. We discuss the effect on the low frequency of permittivity and impedance spectra of: I. Parameters pertaining to cell membrane i.e. (i) membrane potential, (ii) size of the cells/vesicles, (iii) conductivity; II. Conductivity of the outer medium. A novel measuring set-up has recently been developed within the International Centre of Biodynamics allowing for sensitive low frequency (∼10mHz) four point (bio)impedance assays. Its capability to test theoretical predictions is reported as well. The far reaching implications of this study applicability for life sciences (noninvasive access to the dynamics of relevant cell parameters) as well as for biosensing applications, e.g. assess the cytotoxicity of a wide range of stimuli, will be outlined.

  4. Combining genomic sequencing methods to explore viral diversity and reveal potential virus-host interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Chow, Cheryl-Emiliane T.; Danielle M Winget; White, Richard A.; Steven J Hallam; Suttle, Curtis A.

    2015-01-01

    Viral diversity and virus-host interactions in oxygen-starved regions of the ocean, also known as oxygen minimum zones (OMZs), remain relatively unexplored. Microbial community metabolism in OMZs alters nutrient and energy flow through marine food webs, resulting in biological nitrogen loss and greenhouse gas production. Thus, viruses infecting OMZ microbes have the potential to modulate community metabolism with resulting feedback on ecosystem function. Here, we describe viral communities in...

  5. Molecular Expression Profile Reveals Potential Biomarkers and Therapeutic Targets in Canine Endometrial Lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Fabiana Azevedo Voorwald; Fabio Albuquerque Marchi; Rolando Andre Rios Villacis; Carlos Eduardo Fonseca Alves; Gilson Hélio Toniollo; Renee Laufer Amorim; Sandra Aparecida Drigo; Silvia Regina Rogatto

    2015-01-01

    Cystic endometrial hyperplasia (CEH), mucometra, and pyometra are common uterine diseases in intact dogs, with pyometra being a life threatening disease. This study aimed to determine the gene expression profile of these lesions and potential biomarkers for closed-cervix pyometra, the most severe condition. Total RNA was extracted from 69 fresh endometrium samples collected from 21 healthy female dogs during diestrus, 16 CEH, 15 mucometra and 17 pyometra (eight open and nine closed-cervixes)....

  6. Pathway Analysis Revealed Potential Diverse Health Impacts of Flavonoids that Bind Estrogen Receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Hao; NG, HUI WEN; Sakkiah, Sugunadevi; Ge, Weigong; Perkins, Roger; Tong, Weida; Hong, Huixiao

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids are frequently used as dietary supplements in the absence of research evidence regarding health benefits or toxicity. Furthermore, ingested doses could far exceed those received from diet in the course of normal living. Some flavonoids exhibit binding to estrogen receptors (ERs) with consequential vigilance by regulatory authorities at the U.S. EPA and FDA. Regulatory authorities must consider both beneficial claims and potential adverse effects, warranting the increases in researc...

  7. Gene expression profiling of craniofacial fibrous dysplasia reveals ADAMTS2 overexpression as a potential marker

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Shang-Hui; Yang, Wen-Jun; Liu, Sheng-Wen; Li, Jiang; Zhang, Chun-Ye; Zhu, Yun; ZHANG, CHEN-PING

    2014-01-01

    Fibrous dysplasia (FD) as an abnormal bone growth is one of the common fibro-osseous leasions (FOL) in oral and maxillofacial region, however, its etiology still remains unclear. Here, we performed gene expression profiling of FD using microarray analysis to explore the key molecule events in FD development, and develop potential diagnostic markers or therapeutic targets for FD. We found that 1,881 genes exhibited differential expression with more than two-fold changes in FD compared to norma...

  8. Impaired cognitive reappraisal in panic disorder revealed by the late positive potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bing-Wei; Xu, Jing; Chang, Yi; Wang, He; Yao, Hong; Tang, Di

    2016-01-20

    According to the cognitive model of panic disorder (PD), panic attacks are triggered and maintained by catastrophic misappraisals of bodily sensations. Clinically, PD is associated with impaired cognitive emotion regulation strategies involving cognitive reappraisal. To investigate the neural correlates and time course of cognitive reappraisal in patients with PD, event-related potentials were recorded from patients with PD and demographically matched control group during passive viewing of affective images under three conditions: (a) neutral pictures preceded by neutral descriptions, (b) unpleasant pictures preceded by negative descriptions, and (c) unpleasant pictures preceded by neutral descriptions. The late positive potential (LPP), an event-related potential component sensitive to cognitive change strategies, was examined as an index of cognitive reappraisal. Consistent with previous results, the unpleasant pictures preceded by negative descriptions had decreased valence ratings, increased arousal ratings, and increased LPP amplitudes compared with the unpleasant pictures preceded by neutral descriptions in the control group. In contrast, no reliable effect of description condition was observed for valence ratings in the PD group. The patients demonstrated differing response patterns from the control participants, with higher arousal ratings and larger LPPs during the 1000-2000 ms window when unpleasant pictures were preceded by a neutral description than when unpleasant pictures were preceded by a negative description. The present study suggests that emotion regulation is impaired in patients with PD. These findings describe the first electrophysiological correlates of abnormal cognitive reappraisal in patients with PD. PMID:26656936

  9. Set potential regulation reveals additional oxidation peaks of Geobacter sulfurreducens anodic biofilms

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Xiuping

    2012-08-01

    Higher current densities produced in microbial fuel cells and other bioelectrochemical systems are associated with the presence of various Geobacter species. A number of electron transfer components are involved in extracellular electron transfer by the model exoelectrogen, Geobacter sulfurreducens. It has previously been shown that 5 main oxidation peaks can be identified in cyclic voltammetry scans. It is shown here that 7 separate oxidation peaks emerged over relatively long periods of time when a larger range of set potentials was used to acclimate electroactive biofilms. The potentials of oxidation peaks obtained with G. sulfurreducens biofilms acclimated at 0.60 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) were different from those that developed at - 0.46 V, and both of their peaks were different from those obtained for biofilms incubated at - 0.30 V, 0 V, and 0.30 V. These results expand the known range of potentials for which G. sulfurreducens produces identifiable oxidation peaks that could be important for extracellular electron transfer. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  10. In silico pathway analysis in cervical carcinoma reveals potential new targets for treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dam, Peter A.; van Dam, Pieter-Jan H. H.; Rolfo, Christian; Giallombardo, Marco; van Berckelaer, Christophe; Trinh, Xuan Bich; Altintas, Sevilay; Huizing, Manon; Papadimitriou, Kostas; Tjalma, Wiebren A. A.; van Laere, Steven

    2016-01-01

    An in silico pathway analysis was performed in order to improve current knowledge on the molecular drivers of cervical cancer and detect potential targets for treatment. Three publicly available Affymetrix gene expression data-sets (GSE5787, GSE7803, GSE9750) were retrieved, vouching for a total of 9 cervical cancer cell lines (CCCLs), 39 normal cervical samples, 7 CIN3 samples and 111 cervical cancer samples (CCSs). Predication analysis of microarrays was performed in the Affymetrix sets to identify cervical cancer biomarkers. To select cancer cell-specific genes the CCSs were compared to the CCCLs. Validated genes were submitted to a gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) and Expression2Kinases (E2K). In the CCSs a total of 1,547 probe sets were identified that were overexpressed (FDR interaction (PPI) network of 162 nodes (including 20 drugable kinases) and 1626 edges. This PPI-network consists of 5 signaling modules associated with MYC signaling (Module 1), cell cycle deregulation (Module 2), TGFβ-signaling (Module 3), MAPK signaling (Module 4) and chromatin modeling (Module 5). Potential targets for treatment which could be identified were CDK1, CDK2, ABL1, ATM, AKT1, MAPK1, MAPK3 among others. The present study identified important driver pathways in cervical carcinogenesis which should be assessed for their potential therapeutic drugability. PMID:26701206

  11. Chemical analyses of wasp-associated streptomyces bacteria reveal a prolific potential for natural products discovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Poulsen

    Full Text Available Identifying new sources for small molecule discovery is necessary to help mitigate the continuous emergence of antibiotic-resistance in pathogenic microbes. Recent studies indicate that one potentially rich source of novel natural products is Actinobacterial symbionts associated with social and solitary Hymenoptera. Here we test this possibility by examining two species of solitary mud dauber wasps, Sceliphron caementarium and Chalybion californicum. We performed enrichment isolations from 33 wasps and obtained more than 200 isolates of Streptomyces Actinobacteria. Chemical analyses of 15 of these isolates identified 11 distinct and structurally diverse secondary metabolites, including a novel polyunsaturated and polyoxygenated macrocyclic lactam, which we name sceliphrolactam. By pairing the 15 Streptomyces strains against a collection of fungi and bacteria, we document their antifungal and antibacterial activity. The prevalence and anti-microbial properties of Actinobacteria associated with these two solitary wasp species suggest the potential role of these Streptomyces as antibiotic-producing symbionts, potentially helping defend their wasp hosts from pathogenic microbes. Finding phylogenetically diverse and chemically prolific Actinobacteria from solitary wasps suggests that insect-associated Actinobacteria can provide a valuable source of novel natural products of pharmaceutical interest.

  12. Potentials and challenges for future sustainable grassland ultilisation in animal production

    OpenAIRE

    Leiber, F.; Jouven, M.; B. Martin; Priolo, A.; Coppa, M.; Prache, S.; Heckendorn, F.; Baumont, R

    2014-01-01

    The paper highlights particular benefits and challenges coming along with ruminant production on permanent grasslands and rangelands. A threefold synergy is i) the utilisation of a nutrient source which is independent of arable land, ii) the ecological benefits of maintained permanent pastures and iii) the production of food with a high nutritional and sensory quality. However, a sustainable use of these pastures requires appropriate management, facing very different challenges depending on t...

  13. Potentials and challenges for future sustainable grassland utilisation in animal production

    OpenAIRE

    Leiber, F; Jouven, Magali; Martin, Bruno; Priolo, Alessandro; Coppa, Mauro; PRACHE, Sophie; Heckendorn, F.; Baumont, René

    2014-01-01

    The paper highlights particular benefits and challenges coming along with ruminant production on permanent grasslands and rangelands. A threefold synergy is i) the utilisation of a nutrient source which is independent of arable land, ii) the ecological benefits of maintained permanent pastures and iii) the production of food with a high nutritional and sensory quality. However, a sustainable use of these pastures requires appropriate management, facing very different challenges depending on t...

  14. Shrinking ℎ as a recipe for revealing classical-like properties of optical-potential cross-sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple recipe for revealing classical-like properties of optical-potential cross-sections is proposed. The recipe is based on the fact that the classical properties are not expected to depend on the actual value of ℎ. This allows us to identify the classical-like characteristics of an optical-potential cross-section by simply repeating the calculation with different values of ℎ, and observing which properties of the cross-section are invariant. The method is applied to the cross-sections of a few optical potentials used to describe the recent data of light heavy-ion elastic scattering. An improved near-side/far-side decomposition is used to separate the near-side and far-side components of the optical-potential cross-sections. (orig.)

  15. Genome mining reveals unlocked bioactive potential of marine Gram-negative bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machado, Henrique; Sonnenschein, Eva; Melchiorsen, Jette;

    2015-01-01

    - and Gammaproteobacteria collected during the Galathea 3 expedition were sequenced and mined for natural product encoding gene clusters. Results: Independently of genome size, bacteria of all tested genera carried a large number of clusters encoding different potential bioactivities, especially within the Vibrionaceae...... and Pseudoalteromonas species that commonly live in close association with eukaryotic organisms in the environment. Chitin regulation by the ChiS histidine-kinase seems to be a general trait of the Vibrionaceae family, however it is absent in the Pseudomonadaceae. Hence, the degree to which chitin influences secondary...

  16. Dealing with others' physical pain reveals variance in empathic processes: Evidence from event-related potentials.

    OpenAIRE

    Meconi, Federica

    2014-01-01

    The present work consists of a review of 5 event-related potentials (i.e., ERPs) experiments I conducted, which deal with the multifaceted nature of human empathy for pain (Experiment 1) and variances in empathic processes, as a function of others’ race (Experiment 2) and others’ perceived trustworthiness, i.e. driven by facial features (Experiments 4-5), addressed through classical and modified versions of the pain decision task. The classical version of the pain decision task requires p...

  17. Atom Diffraction Reveals the Impact of Atomic Core Electrons on Atom-Surface Potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We measured ratios of van der Waals potential coefficients (C3) for different atoms (Li, Na, K, and Rb) interacting with the same surface by studying atom diffraction from a nanograting. These measurements are a sensitive test of atomic structure calculations because C3 ratios are strongly influenced by core electrons and only weakly influenced by the permittivity and geometry of the surface. Our measurement uncertainty of 2% in the ratio C3K/C3Na is close to the uncertainty of the best theoretical predictions, and some of these predictions are inconsistent with our measurement.

  18. C1 inhibitor serpin domain structure reveals the likely mechanism of heparin potentiation and conformational disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beinrohr, László; Harmat, Veronika; Dobó, József; Lörincz, Zsolt; Gál, Péter; Závodszky, Péter

    2007-07-20

    C1 inhibitor, a member of the serpin family, is a major down-regulator of inflammatory processes in blood. Genetic deficiency of C1 inhibitor results in hereditary angioedema, a dominantly inheritable, potentially lethal disease. Here we report the first crystal structure of the serpin domain of human C1 inhibitor, representing a previously unreported latent form, which explains functional consequences of several naturally occurring mutations, two of which are discussed in detail. The presented structure displays a novel conformation with a seven-stranded beta-sheet A. The unique conformation of the C-terminal six residues suggests its potential role as a barrier in the active-latent transition. On the basis of surface charge pattern, heparin affinity measurements, and docking of a heparin disaccharide, a heparin binding site is proposed in the contact area of the serpin-proteinase encounter complex. We show how polyanions change the activity of the C1 inhibitor by a novel "sandwich" mechanism, explaining earlier reaction kinetic and mutagenesis studies. These results may help to improve therapeutic C1 inhibitor preparations used in the treatment of hereditary angioedema, organ transplant rejection, and heart attack. PMID:17488724

  19. Genomic characterization of brain metastases reveals branched evolution and potential therapeutic targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santagata, Sandro; Cahill, Daniel P.; Taylor-Weiner, Amaro; Jones, Robert T.; Van Allen, Eliezer M.; Lawrence, Michael S.; Horowitz, Peleg M.; Cibulskis, Kristian; Ligon, Keith L.; Tabernero, Josep; Seoane, Joan; Martinez-Saez, Elena; Curry, William T.; Dunn, Ian F.; Paek, Sun Ha; Park, Sung-Hye; McKenna, Aaron; Chevalier, Aaron; Rosenberg, Mara; Barker, Frederick G.; Gill, Corey M.; Van Hummelen, Paul; Thorner, Aaron R.; Johnson, Bruce E.; Hoang, Mai P.; Choueiri, Toni K.; Signoretti, Sabina; Sougnez, Carrie; Rabin, Michael S.; Lin, Nancy U.; Winer, Eric P.; Stemmer-Rachamimov, Anat; Meyerson, Matthew; Garraway, Levi; Gabriel, Stacey; Lander, Eric S.; Beroukhim, Rameen; Batchelor, Tracy T.; Baselga, Jose; Louis, David N.

    2016-01-01

    Brain metastases are associated with a dismal prognosis. Whether brain metastases harbor distinct genetic alterations beyond those observed in primary tumors is unknown. We performed whole-exome sequencing of 86 matched brain metastases, primary tumors and normal tissue. In all clonally related cancer samples, we observed branched evolution, where all metastatic and primary sites shared a common ancestor yet continued to evolve independently. In 53% of cases, we found potentially clinically informative alterations in the brain metastases not detected in the matched primary-tumor sample. In contrast, spatially and temporally separated brain metastasis sites were genetically homogenous. Distal extracranial and regional lymph node metastases were highly divergent from brain metastases. We detected alterations associated with sensitivity to PI3K/AKT/mTOR, CDK, and HER2/EGFR inhibitors in the brain metastases. Genomic analysis of brain metastases provides an opportunity to identify potentially clinically informative alterations not detected in clinically sampled primary tumors, regional lymph nodes, or extracranial metastases. PMID:26410082

  20. Gene expression profiling of craniofacial fibrous dysplasia reveals ADAMTS2 overexpression as a potential marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shang-Hui; Yang, Wen-Jun; Liu, Sheng-Wen; Li, Jiang; Zhang, Chun-Ye; Zhu, Yun; Zhang, Chen-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Fibrous dysplasia (FD) as an abnormal bone growth is one of the common fibro-osseous leasions (FOL) in oral and maxillofacial region, however, its etiology still remains unclear. Here, we performed gene expression profiling of FD using microarray analysis to explore the key molecule events in FD development, and develop potential diagnostic markers or therapeutic targets for FD. We found that 1,881 genes exhibited differential expression with more than two-fold changes in FD compared to normal bone tissues, including 1,200 upregulated genes and 681 downregulated genes. Pathway analysis indicated that obviously activated pathways are Ribosome and ECM-receptor interaction pathways; downregulated pathways are "Hepatitis C" and "cancer" signaling pathways. We further validated the expression of ADAMTS2, one of most differentiated expressed genes, by Immunohistochemistry (IHC) in 40 of FD cases. Results showed that ADAMTS2 was significantly overexpressed in FD tissues, but rarely expressed in normal bone tissues, suggesting that ADAMTS2 could be a potential biomarker for FD. Thus, this study uncovered differentially expressed candidate genes in FD, which provides pilot data for understanding FD pathogenesis, and developing novel biomarkers for diagnosis and targeting of FD. PMID:25674217

  1. iTRAQ-Based Proteomics Reveals Novel Members Involved in Pathogen Challenge in Sea Cucumber Apostichopus japonicus

    OpenAIRE

    Pengjuan Zhang; Chenghua Li; Peng Zhang; Chunhua Jin; Daodong Pan; Yongbo Bao

    2014-01-01

    Skin ulceration syndrome (SUS) is considered to be a major constraint for the stable development of Apostichopus japonicus culture industries. In this study, we investigated protein changes in the coelomocytes of A. japonicus challenged by Vibrio splendidus using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) over a 96 h time course. Consequently, 228 differentially expressed proteins were identified in two iTRAQs. A comparison of the protein expression profiles among differen...

  2. The complete genome and proteome of Laribacter hongkongensis reveal potential mechanisms for adaptations to different temperatures and habitats.

    OpenAIRE

    Woo, Patrick C. Y.; Lau, Susanna K. P.; Herman Tse; Teng, Jade L. L.; Curreem, Shirly O. T.; Alan K. L. Tsang; Fan, Rachel Y. Y.; Wong, Gilman K. M.; Yi Huang; Loman, Nicholas J; Snyder, Lori A. S.; Cai, James J.; Jian-Dong Huang; William Mak; Pallen, Mark J.

    2009-01-01

    Laribacter hongkongensis is a newly discovered Gram-negative bacillus of the Neisseriaceae family associated with freshwater fish-borne gastroenteritis and traveler's diarrhea. The complete genome sequence of L. hongkongensis HLHK9, recovered from an immunocompetent patient with severe gastroenteritis, consists of a 3,169-kb chromosome with G+C content of 62.35%. Genome analysis reveals different mechanisms potentially important for its adaptation to diverse habitats of human and freshwater f...

  3. The complete genome and proteome of laribacter hongkongensis reveal potential mechanisms for adaptations to different temperatures and habitats

    OpenAIRE

    Woo, Patrick C. Y.; Lau, Susanna K. P.; Tse, Herman; Teng, Jade L. L.; Curreem, Shirly O. T.; Alan K. L. Tsang; Fan, Rachel Y. Y.; Wong, Gilman K. M.; Huang, Yi; Loman, Nicholas J; Snyder, Lori A. S.; Cai, James J.; Huang, Jian-Dong; Mak, William; Pallen, Mark J.

    2009-01-01

    Laribacter hongkongensis is a newly discovered Gram-negative bacillus of the Neisseriaceae family associated with freshwater fish-borne gastroenteritis and traveler's diarrhea. The complete genome sequence of L. hongkongensis HLHK9, recovered from an immunocompetent patient with severe gastroenteritis, consists of a 3,169-kb chromosome with G+C content of 62.35%. Genome analysis reveals different mechanisms potentially important for its adaptation to diverse habitats of human and freshwater f...

  4. Potential microRNA-mediated oncogenic intercellular communication revealed by pan-cancer analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue; Zhang, Zhaolei

    2014-11-01

    Carcinogenesis consists of oncogenesis and metastasis, and intriguingly microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in both processes. Although aberrant miRNA activities are prevalent in diverse tumor types, the exact mechanisms for how they regulate cancerous processes are not always clear. To this end, we performed a large-scale pan-cancer analysis via a novel probabilistic approach to infer recurrent miRNA-target interactions implicated in 12 cancer types using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas. We discovered ~20,000 recurrent miRNA regulations, which are enriched for cancer-related miRNAs/genes. Notably, miRNA 200 family (miR-200/141/429) is among the most prominent miRNA regulators, which is known to be involved in metastasis. Importantly, the recurrent miRNA regulatory network is not only enriched for cancer pathways but also for extracellular matrix (ECM) organization and ECM-receptor interactions. The results suggest an intriguing cancer mechanism involving miRNA-mediated cell-to-cell communication, which possibly involves delivery of tumorigenic miRNA messengers to adjacent cells via exosomes. Finally, survival analysis revealed 414 recurrent-prognostic associations, where both gene and miRNA involved in each interaction conferred significant prognostic power in one or more cancer types. Together, our comprehensive pan-cancer analysis provided not only biological insights into metastasis but also brought to bear the clinical relevance of the proposed recurrent miRNA-gene associations.

  5. An integrative systems genetics approach reveals potential causal genes and pathways related to obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kogelman, Lisette; Zhernakova, Daria V.; Westra, Harm-Jan; Cirera Salicio, Susanna; Fredholm, Merete; Franke, Lude; Kadarmideen, Haja

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obesity is a multi-factorial health problem in which genetic factors play an important role. Limited results have been obtained in single-gene studies using either genomic or transcriptomic data. RNA sequencing technology has shown its potential in gaining accurate knowledge about the...... porcine model to investigate the mechanisms involved in obesity using a systems genetics approach. METHODS: Using a selective gene expression profiling approach, we selected 36 animals based on a previously created genomic Obesity Index for RNA sequencing of subcutaneous adipose tissue. Differential...... expression analysis was performed using the Obesity Index as a continuous variable in a linear model. eQTL mapping was then performed to integrate 60 K porcine SNP chip data with the RNA sequencing data. Results were restricted based on genome-wide significant single nucleotide polymorphisms, detected...

  6. Comparative Genomic Analysis Reveals a Possible Novel Non-Tuberculous Mycobacterium Species with High Pathogenic Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Siew Woh; Dutta, Avirup; Wong, Guat Jah; Wee, Wei Yee; Ang, Mia Yang; Siow, Cheuk Chuen

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacteria have been reported to cause a wide range of human diseases. We present the first whole-genome study of a Non-Tuberculous Mycobacterium, Mycobacterium sp. UM_CSW (referred to hereafter as UM_CSW), isolated from a patient diagnosed with bronchiectasis. Our data suggest that this clinical isolate is likely a novel mycobacterial species, supported by clear evidence from molecular phylogenetic, comparative genomic, ANI and AAI analyses. UM_CSW is closely related to the Mycobacterium avium complex. While it has characteristic features of an environmental bacterium, it also shows a high pathogenic potential with the presence of a wide variety of putative genes related to bacterial virulence and shares very similar pathogenomic profiles with the known pathogenic mycobacterial species. Thus, we conclude that this possible novel Mycobacterium species should be tightly monitored for its possible causative role in human infections. PMID:27035710

  7. Potentials and challenges associated with automated closed dynamic chamber measurements of soil CO2 fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görres, Carolyn-Monika; Kammann, Claudia; Ceulemans, Reinhart

    2015-04-01

    Soil respiration fluxes are influenced by natural factors such as climate and soil type, but also by anthropogenic activities in managed ecosystems. As a result, soil CO2 fluxes show a large intra- and interannual as well as intra- and intersite variability. Most of the available soil CO2 flux data giving insights into this variability have been measured with manually closed static chambers, but technological advances in the past 15 years have also led to an increased use of automated closed chamber systems. The great advantage of automated chambers in comparison to manually operated chambers is the higher temporal resolution of the flux data. This is especially important if we want to better understand the effects of short-term events, e.g. fertilization or heavy rainfall, on soil CO2 flux variability. However, the chamber method is an invasive measurement method which can potentially alter soil CO2 fluxes and lead to biased measurement results. In the peer-reviewed literature, many papers compare the field performance and results of different closed static chamber designs, or compare manual chambers with automated chamber systems, to identify potential biases in CO2 flux measurements, and thus help to reduce uncertainties in the flux data. However, inter-comparisons of different automated closed dynamic chamber systems are still lacking. Here we are going to present a field comparison of the most-cited automated chamber system, the LI-8100A Automated Soil Flux System, with the also commercially available Greenhouse Gas Monitoring System AGPS. Both measurement systems were installed side by side at a recently harvested poplar bioenergy plantation (POPFULL, http://uahost.uantwerpen.be/popfull/) from April 2014 until August 2014. The plantation provided optimal comparison conditions with a bare field situation after the harvest and a regrowing canopy resulting in a broad variety of microclimates. Furthermore, the plantation was planted in a double-row system with

  8. Genetic and genomic dissection of Prolactin revealed potential association with milk production traits in riverine buffalo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, A; Maryam, J

    2016-08-01

    Milk yield and quality has been a major selection criterion for genetic improvement in livestock species. Role of Prolactin gene in determining milk quality in terms of protein profile, lactose, lipids and other imperative macromolecules is very important. In this context, genetic profiling of Prolactin gene in riverine buffalo of Pakistan was performed and potential genetic markers were identified illustrating worth of this gene in marker-assisted selection of superior dairy buffaloes. Series of wet and dry lab experimentation was performed starting with genomic DNA isolation from true to breed representatives of indigenous river buffalo (Nili-Ravi). After amplification of coding regions of Prolactin gene, products were eluted and sequenced by Sanger's chain termination method and aligned to get variations in genomic region. A total of 15 novel variations were identified and analyzed statistically for their significance at population level, haplotypes were constructed, and association was estimated. Phylogenetic analysis was performed to evaluate the rate of evolution for Prolactin gene in various mammalian species. Lastly, biological networking for this molecule was predicted to get the bigger pictorial of its functional machinery. Pathway analysis was performed to find its physiological mode of action in milk synthesis. This is a first report toward complete genetic screening of Prolactin gene in Pakistani buffaloes. Results of this study not only provide an insight for potential role of Prolactin gene in milk-producing abilities of buffalo but also suggest new directions for exploration of more genes that may have promising role to enhance future milk production capabilities of river buffalo breeds of Asian region through marker-assisted selection. PMID:27240674

  9. Combining genomic sequencing methods to explore viral diversity and reveal potential virus-host interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl-Emiliane Tien Chow

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Viral diversity and virus-host interactions in oxygen-starved regions of the ocean, also known as oxygen minimum zones (OMZs, remain relatively unexplored. Microbial community metabolism in OMZs alters nutrient and energy flow through marine food webs, resulting in biological nitrogen loss and greenhouse gas production. Thus, viruses infecting OMZ microbes have the potential to modulate community metabolism with resulting feedback on ecosystem function. Here, we describe viral communities inhabiting oxic surface (10m and oxygen-starved basin (200m waters of Saanich Inlet, a seasonally anoxic fjord on the coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia using viral metagenomics and complete viral fosmid sequencing on samples collected between April 2007 and April 2010. Of 6459 open reading frames (ORFs predicted across all 34 viral fosmids, 77.6% (n=5010 had no homology to reference viral genomes. These fosmids recruited a higher proportion of viral metagenomic sequences from Saanich Inlet than from nearby northeastern subarctic Pacific Ocean (Line P waters, indicating differences in the viral communities between coastal and open ocean locations. While functional annotations of fosmid ORFs were limited, recruitment to NCBI’s non-redundant ‘nr’ database and publicly available single-cell genomes identified putative viruses infecting marine thaumarchaeal and SUP05 proteobacteria to provide potential host linkages with relevance to coupled biogeochemical cycling processes in OMZ waters. Taken together, these results highlight the power of coupled analyses of multiple sequence data types, such as viral metagenomic and fosmid sequence data with prokaryotic single cell genomes, to chart viral diversity, elucidate genomic and ecological contexts for previously unclassifiable viral sequences, and identify novel host interactions in natural and engineered ecosystems.

  10. Revealing the biotechnological potential of Delftia sp. JD2 by a genomic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María A. Morel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Delftia sp. JD2 is a chromium-resistant bacterium that reduces Cr(VI to Cr(III, accumulates Pb(II, produces the phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid and siderophores, and increases the plant growth performance of rhizobia in co-inoculation experiments. We aimed to analyze the biotechnological potential of JD2 using a genomic approach. JD2 has a genome of 6.76Mb, with 6,051 predicted protein coding sequences and 93 RNA genes (tRNA and rRNA. The indole-acetamide pathway was identified as responsible for the synthesis of indole-3-acetic acid. The genetic information involved in chromium resistance (the gene cluster, chrBACF, was found. At least 40 putative genes encoding for TonB-dependent receptors, probably involved in the utilization of siderophores and biopolymers, and genes for the synthesis, maturation, exportation and uptake of pyoverdine, and acquisition of Fe-pyochelin and Fe-enterobactin were also identified. The information also suggests that JD2 produce polyhydroxybutyrate, a carbon reserve polymer commonly used for manufacturing petrochemical free bioplastics. In addition, JD2 may degrade lignin-derived aromatic compounds to 2-pyrone-4,6-dicarboxylate, a molecule used in the bio-based polymer industry. Finally, a comparative genomic analysis of JD2, Delftia sp. Cs1-4 and Delftia acidovorans SPH-1 is also discussed. The present work provides insights into the physiology and genetics of a microorganism with many potential uses in biotechnology.

  11. Systematically Altering Bacterial SOS Activity under Stress Reveals Therapeutic Strategies for Potentiating Antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Charlie Y; Manning, Sara A; Roggiani, Manuela; Culyba, Matthew J; Samuels, Amanda N; Sniegowski, Paul D; Goulian, Mark; Kohli, Rahul M

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial SOS response is a DNA damage repair network that is strongly implicated in both survival and acquired drug resistance under antimicrobial stress. The two SOS regulators, LexA and RecA, have therefore emerged as potential targets for adjuvant therapies aimed at combating resistance, although many open questions remain. For example, it is not well understood whether SOS hyperactivation is a viable therapeutic approach or whether LexA or RecA is a better target. Furthermore, it is important to determine which antimicrobials could serve as the best treatment partners with SOS-targeting adjuvants. Here we derived Escherichia coli strains that have mutations in either lexA or recA genes in order to cover the full spectrum of possible SOS activity levels. We then systematically analyzed a wide range of antimicrobials by comparing the mean inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and induced mutation rates for each drug-strain combination. We first show that significant changes in MICs are largely confined to DNA-damaging antibiotics, with strains containing a constitutively repressed SOS response impacted to a greater extent than hyperactivated strains. Second, antibiotic-induced mutation rates were suppressed when SOS activity was reduced, and this trend was observed across a wider spectrum of antibiotics. Finally, perturbing either LexA or RecA proved to be equally viable strategies for targeting the SOS response. Our work provides support for multiple adjuvant strategies, while also suggesting that the combination of an SOS inhibitor with a DNA-damaging antibiotic could offer the best potential for lowering MICs and decreasing acquired drug resistance. IMPORTANCE Our antibiotic arsenal is becoming depleted, in part, because bacteria have the ability to rapidly adapt and acquire resistance to our best agents. The SOS pathway, a widely conserved DNA damage stress response in bacteria, is activated by many antibiotics and has been shown to play central role in

  12. Systematically Altering Bacterial SOS Activity under Stress Reveals Therapeutic Strategies for Potentiating Antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Charlie Y.; Manning, Sara A.; Roggiani, Manuela; Culyba, Matthew J.; Samuels, Amanda N.; Sniegowski, Paul D.; Goulian, Mark

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The bacterial SOS response is a DNA damage repair network that is strongly implicated in both survival and acquired drug resistance under antimicrobial stress. The two SOS regulators, LexA and RecA, have therefore emerged as potential targets for adjuvant therapies aimed at combating resistance, although many open questions remain. For example, it is not well understood whether SOS hyperactivation is a viable therapeutic approach or whether LexA or RecA is a better target. Furthermore, it is important to determine which antimicrobials could serve as the best treatment partners with SOS-targeting adjuvants. Here we derived Escherichia coli strains that have mutations in either lexA or recA genes in order to cover the full spectrum of possible SOS activity levels. We then systematically analyzed a wide range of antimicrobials by comparing the mean inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and induced mutation rates for each drug-strain combination. We first show that significant changes in MICs are largely confined to DNA-damaging antibiotics, with strains containing a constitutively repressed SOS response impacted to a greater extent than hyperactivated strains. Second, antibiotic-induced mutation rates were suppressed when SOS activity was reduced, and this trend was observed across a wider spectrum of antibiotics. Finally, perturbing either LexA or RecA proved to be equally viable strategies for targeting the SOS response. Our work provides support for multiple adjuvant strategies, while also suggesting that the combination of an SOS inhibitor with a DNA-damaging antibiotic could offer the best potential for lowering MICs and decreasing acquired drug resistance. IMPORTANCE Our antibiotic arsenal is becoming depleted, in part, because bacteria have the ability to rapidly adapt and acquire resistance to our best agents. The SOS pathway, a widely conserved DNA damage stress response in bacteria, is activated by many antibiotics and has been shown to play central role

  13. Assertiveness predicts threat and challenge reactions to potential stress among women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaka, J; Palacios, R; Schneider, K T; Colotla, M; Concha, J B; Herrald, M M

    1999-06-01

    In this study assertiveness as a moderator of stress reactions among women was examined. Specifically, the experimenters examined how high and low assertive women cognitively appraised, affectively and physiologically responded to, and behaviorally coped with the stress of giving an impromptu speech. High assertive women appraised the speech stressor as challenging, whereas low assertive women appraised the stressor as threatening. High assertive women also had a challenge pattern of autonomic response during the task, compared with the threat response of low assertive women. Afterward, the high assertive women reported experiencing less stress and negative emotion and greater positive emotion than did the low assertive women. Overall, the high assertive women's stress-related reactions indicated challenge, whereas the low assertive women's reactions indicated threat (see J. Tomaka, J. Blascovich, R. M. Kelsey, & C. L. Leitten, 1993). PMID:10402683

  14. Gene expression analysis after receptor tyrosine kinase activation reveals new potential melanoma proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melanoma is an aggressive tumor with increasing incidence. To develop accurate prognostic markers and targeted therapies, changes leading to malignant transformation of melanocytes need to be understood. In the Xiphophorus melanoma model system, a mutated version of the EGF receptor Xmrk (Xiphophorus melanoma receptor kinase) triggers melanomagenesis. Cellular events downstream of Xmrk, such as the activation of Akt, Ras, B-Raf or Stat5, were also shown to play a role in human melanomagenesis. This makes the elucidation of Xmrk downstream targets a useful method for identifying processes involved in melanoma formation. Here, we analyzed Xmrk-induced gene expression using a microarray approach. Several highly expressed genes were confirmed by realtime PCR, and pathways responsible for their induction were revealed using small molecule inhibitors. The expression of these genes was also monitored in human melanoma cell lines, and the target gene FOSL1 was knocked down by siRNA. Proliferation and migration of siRNA-treated melanoma cell lines were then investigated. Genes with the strongest upregulation after receptor activation were FOS-like antigen 1 (Fosl1), early growth response 1 (Egr1), osteopontin (Opn), insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (Igfbp3), dual-specificity phosphatase 4 (Dusp4), and tumor-associated antigen L6 (Taal6). Interestingly, most genes were blocked in presence of a SRC kinase inhibitor. Importantly, we found that FOSL1, OPN, IGFBP3, DUSP4, and TAAL6 also exhibited increased expression levels in human melanoma cell lines compared to human melanocytes. Knockdown of FOSL1 in human melanoma cell lines reduced their proliferation and migration. Altogether, the data show that the receptor tyrosine kinase Xmrk is a useful tool in the identification of target genes that are commonly expressed in Xmrk-transgenic melanocytes and melanoma cell lines. The identified molecules constitute new possible molecular players in melanoma development

  15. Multi-Analytical Approach Reveals Potential Microbial Indicators in Soil for Sugarcane Model Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, Acacio Aparecido; Diniz, Tatiana Rosa; Braga, Lucas Palma Perez; Silva, Genivaldo Gueiros Zacarias; Franchini, Julio Cezar; Rossetto, Raffaella; Edwards, Robert Alan; Tsai, Siu Mui

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on the effects of organic and inorganic amendments and straw retention on the microbial biomass (MB) and taxonomic groups of bacteria in sugarcane-cultivated soils in a greenhouse mesocosm experiment monitored for gas emissions and chemical factors. The experiment consisted of combinations of synthetic nitrogen (N), vinasse (V; a liquid waste from ethanol production), and sugarcane-straw blankets. Increases in CO2-C and N2O-N emissions were identified shortly after the addition of both N and V to the soils, thus increasing MB nitrogen (MB-N) and decreasing MB carbon (MB-C) in the N+V-amended soils and altering soil chemical factors that were correlated with the MB. Across 57 soil metagenomic datasets, Actinobacteria (31.5%), Planctomycetes (12.3%), Deltaproteobacteria (12.3%), Alphaproteobacteria (12.0%) and Betaproteobacteria (11.1%) were the most dominant bacterial groups during the experiment. Differences in relative abundance of metagenomic sequences were mainly revealed for Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Verrucomicrobia with regard to N+V fertilization and straw retention. Differential abundances in bacterial groups were confirmed using 16S rRNA gene-targeted phylum-specific primers for real-time PCR analysis in all soil samples, whose results were in accordance with sequence data, except for Gammaproteobacteria. Actinobacteria were more responsive to straw retention with Rubrobacterales, Bifidobacteriales and Actinomycetales related to the chemical factors of N+V-amended soils. Acidobacteria subgroup 7 and Opitutae, a verrucomicrobial class, were related to the chemical factors of soils without straw retention as a surface blanket. Taken together, the results showed that MB-C and MB-N responded to changes in soil chemical factors and CO2-C and N2O-N emissions, especially for N+V-amended soils. The results also indicated that several taxonomic groups of bacteria, such as Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria and

  16. Population transcriptomics reveals a potentially positive role of expression diversity in adaptation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin Xu; Fei Shang; Lifang Kang; Wenli Chen; Juan Yan; Jianqiang Li; Tao Sang; Shilai Xing; Caiyun Zhu; Wei Liu; Yangyang Fan; Qian Wang; Zhihong Song; Wenhui Yang; Fan Luo

    2015-01-01

    While it is widely accepted that genetic diversity determines the potential of adaptation, the role that gene expression variation plays in adaptation remains poorly known. Here we show that gene expression diversity could have played a positive role in the adaptation of Miscanthus lutarioriparius. RNA‐seq was conducted for 80 individuals of the species, with half planted in the energy crop domestication site and the other half planted in the control site near native habitats. A leaf reference transcriptome consisting of 18,503 high‐quality tran-scripts was obtained using a pipeline developed for de novo assembling with population RNA‐seq data. The population structure and genetic diversity of M. lutarioriparius were estimated based on 30,609 genic single nucleotide polymor-phisms. Population expression (Ep) and expression diversity (Ed) were defined to measure the average level and the magnitude of variation of a gene expression in the population, respectively. It was found that expression diversity increased while genetic diversity decreased after the species was transplanted from the native habitats to the harsh domestication site, especial y for genes involved in abiotic stress resistance, histone methylation, and biomass synthesis under water limitation. The increased expression diversity could have enriched phenotypic variation directly subject to selections in the new environment.

  17. Event-related potentials reveal the relations between feature representations at different levels of abstraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannah, Samuel D; Shedden, Judith M; Brooks, Lee R; Grundy, John G

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we use behavioural methods and event-related potentials (ERPs) to explore the relations between informational and instantiated features, as well as the relation between feature abstraction and rule type. Participants are trained to categorize two species of fictitious animals and then identify perceptually novel exemplars. Critically, two groups are given a perfectly predictive counting rule that, according to Hannah and Brooks (2009. Featuring familiarity: How a familiar feature instantiation influences categorization. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology/Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale, 63, 263-275. Retrieved from http://doi.org/10.1037/a0017919), should orient them to using abstract informational features when categorizing the novel transfer items. A third group is taught a feature list rule, which should orient them to using detailed instantiated features. One counting-rule group were taught their rule before any exposure to the actual stimuli, and the other immediately after training, having learned the instantiations first. The feature-list group were also taught their rule after training. The ERP results suggest that at test, the two counting-rule groups processed items differently, despite their identical rule. This not only supports the distinction that informational and instantiated features are qualitatively different feature representations, but also implies that rules can readily operate over concrete inputs, in contradiction to traditional approaches that assume that rules necessarily act on abstract inputs. PMID:26513169

  18. Perilipin Expression Reveals Adipogenic Potential of hADSCs inside Superporous Polymeric Cellular Delivery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorina Dinescu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent progress in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine envisages the use of cell-scaffold bioconstructs to best mimic the natural in vivo microenvironment. Our aim was not only to develop novel 3D porous scaffolds for regenerative applications by the association of gelatin (G, alginate (A, and polyacrylamide (PAA major assets but also to evaluate their in vitro potential to support human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs adipogenesis. G-A-PAA biomatrix investigated in this work is an interesting substrate combining the advantages of the three individual constituents, namely, biodegradability of G, hydrophilicity of A and PAA, superior elasticity at compression with respect to the G-A and PAA controls, and the capacity to generate porous scaffolds. hADSCs inside these novel interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs were able to populate the entire scaffold structure and to display their characteristic spindle-like shape as a consequence of a good interaction with G component of the matrices. Additionally, hADSCs proved to display the capacity to differentiate towards mature adipocytes, to accumulate lipids inside their cytoplasm, and to express perilipin late adipogenic marker inside novel IPNs described in this study. On long term, this newly designed biomatrix aims to represent a stem cell delivery system product dedicated for modern regenerative strategies.

  19. Crystal Structure of the APOBEC3G Catalytic Domain Reveals Potential Oligomerization Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shandilya, Shivender M.D.; Nalam, Madhavi N.L.; Nalivaika, Ellen A.; Gross, Phillip J.; Valesano, Johnathan C.; Shindo, Keisuke; Li, Ming; Munson, Mary; Royer, William E.; Harjes, Elena; Kono, Takahide; Matsuo, Hiroshi; Harris, Reuben S.; Somasundaran, Mohan; Schiffer, Celia A. (UMASS, MED); (UMM)

    2010-02-11

    APOBEC3G is a DNA cytidine deaminase that has antiviral activity against HIV-1 and other pathogenic viruses. In this study the crystal structure of the catalytically active C-terminal domain was determined to 2.25 {angstrom}. This structure corroborates features previously observed in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies, a bulge in the second {beta} strand and a lengthening of the second {alpha} helix. Oligomerization is postulated to be critical for the function of APOBEC3G. In this structure, four extensive intermolecular interfaces are observed, suggesting potential models for APOBEC3G oligomerization. The structural and functional significance of these interfaces was probed by solution NMR and disruptive variants were designed and tested for DNA deaminase and anti-HIV activities. The variant designed to disrupt the most extensive interface lost both activities. NMR solution data provides evidence that another interface, which coordinates a novel zinc site, also exists. Thus, the observed crystallographic interfaces of APOBEC3G may be important for both oligomerization and function.

  20. Antifungal susceptibility profiles of 1698 yeast reference strains revealing potential emerging human pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Desnos-Ollivier

    Full Text Available New molecular identification techniques and the increased number of patients with various immune defects or underlying conditions lead to the emergence and/or the description of novel species of human and animal fungal opportunistic pathogens. Antifungal susceptibility provides important information for ecological, epidemiological and therapeutic issues. The aim of this study was to assess the potential risk of the various species based on their antifungal drug resistance, keeping in mind the methodological limitations. Antifungal susceptibility profiles to the five classes of antifungal drugs (polyens, azoles, echinocandins, allylamines and antimetabolites were determined for 1698 yeast reference strains belonging to 992 species (634 Ascomycetes and 358 Basidiomycetes. Interestingly, geometric mean minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of all antifungal drugs tested were significantly higher for Basidiomycetes compared to Ascomycetes (p<0.001. Twenty four strains belonging to 23 species of which 19 were Basidiomycetes seem to be intrinsically "resistant" to all drugs. Comparison of the antifungal susceptibility profiles of the 4240 clinical isolates and the 315 reference strains belonging to 53 shared species showed similar results. Even in the absence of demonstrated in vitro/in vivo correlation, knowing the in vitro susceptibility to systemic antifungal agents and the putative intrinsic resistance of yeast species present in the environment is important because they could become opportunistic pathogens.

  1. An Integrative Genomic and Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals Potential Targets Associated with Cell Proliferation in Uterine Leiomyomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirilo, Priscila Daniele Ramos; Marchi, Fábio Albuquerque; Barros Filho, Mateus de Camargo; Rocha, Rafael Malagoli; Domingues, Maria Aparecida Custódio; Jurisica, Igor; Pontes, Anagloria; Rogatto, Silvia Regina

    2013-01-01

    Background Uterine Leiomyomas (ULs) are the most common benign tumours affecting women of reproductive age. ULs represent a major problem in public health, as they are the main indication for hysterectomy. Approximately 40–50% of ULs have non-random cytogenetic abnormalities, and half of ULs may have copy number alterations (CNAs). Gene expression microarrays studies have demonstrated that cell proliferation genes act in response to growth factors and steroids. However, only a few genes mapping to CNAs regions were found to be associated with ULs. Methodology We applied an integrative analysis using genomic and transcriptomic data to identify the pathways and molecular markers associated with ULs. Fifty-one fresh frozen specimens were evaluated by array CGH (JISTIC) and gene expression microarrays (SAM). The CONEXIC algorithm was applied to integrate the data. Principal Findings The integrated analysis identified the top 30 significant genes (PTranscriptional and protein analyses showed that FGFR1 (P = 0.006 and P<0.01, respectively) and IGFBP5 (P = 0.0002 and P = 0.006, respectively) were up-regulated in the tumours when compared with the adjacent normal myometrium. Conclusions The integrative genomic and transcriptomic approach indicated that FGFR1 and IGFBP5 amplification, as well as the consequent up-regulation of the protein products, plays an important role in the aetiology of ULs and thus provides data for potential drug therapies development to target genes associated with cellular proliferation in ULs. PMID:23483937

  2. Wavelet analysis of corneal endothelial electrical potential difference reveals cyclic operation of the secretory mechanism

    CERN Document Server

    Cacace, Veronica Ines; Kusnier, Carlos; Gomez, Martin Pedro; Fischbarg, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    There is evidence that the electrical potential difference of corneal endothelium (TEPD) is related electro-osmotically to fluid transport. Hence, determination of the TEPD would serve as a measure of the fluid movement. The oscillatory nature of the TEPD has been recognized recently using the Fourier transform; the oscillations of the highest amplitude were linked to the operation of electrogenic sodium-bicarbonate cotransporters. However, no time localization of that activity could be obtained with the Fourier methodology utilized. For that reason we now characterize the TEPD using wavelet analysis for the first time in the epithelial physiology field, with the aim to localize in time the variations in TEPD. We find that the high-amplitude oscillations of the TEPD are cyclic, with a period of 4.6 \\pm 0.4 s in the average (n=4). The wavelet power value at the peak of such oscillations is 1.5 \\pm 0.1 mV2 Hz in the average (n=4), and is remarkably narrow in its distribution.

  3. Event-related potentials reveal rapid registration of features of infrequent changes during change blindness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astikainen Piia

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Change blindness refers to a failure to detect changes between consecutively presented images separated by, for example, a brief blank screen. As an explanation of change blindness, it has been suggested that our representations of the environment are sparse outside focal attention and even that changed features may not be represented at all. In order to find electrophysiological evidence of neural representations of changed features during change blindness, we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs in adults in an oddball variant of the change blindness flicker paradigm. Methods ERPs were recorded when subjects performed a change detection task in which the modified images were infrequently interspersed (p = .2 among the frequently (p = .8 presented unmodified images. Responses to modified and unmodified images were compared in the time window of 60-100 ms after stimulus onset. Results ERPs to infrequent modified images were found to differ in amplitude from those to frequent unmodified images at the midline electrodes (Fz, Pz, Cz and Oz at the latency of 60-100 ms even when subjects were unaware of changes (change blindness. Conclusions The results suggest that the brain registers changes very rapidly, and that changed features in images are neurally represented even without participants' ability to report them.

  4. Cognitive impairment in generalized anxiety disorder revealed by event-related potential N270

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Y

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Yingxue Yang,1,2 Xiating Zhang,1,2 Yu Zhu,1,2 Yakang Dai,3 Ting Liu,3 Yuping Wang1,2 1Department of Neurology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, 2Beijing Key Laboratory of Neuromodulation, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 3Suzhou Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou, People’s Republic of China Background: Cognitive function in anxiety disorders has been the subject of limited investigation, especially in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD. The purpose of this study was to investigate the cognitive function in subjects with GAD using mismatch-triggered negativity N270.Methods: Fifteen medication-free patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of GAD, and 15 well-matched healthy controls performed a dual-feature delayed matching task while event-related potentials were recorded from their scalp.Results: The GAD group was characterized by the decreased N270 amplitude in the left hemisphere. The smaller N270 amplitude was associated with greater symptoms of anxiety and depression.Conclusion: Since N270 is thought to index cognitive function in different domains, including attention and memory, our results suggest that individuals with GAD have an impaired cognitive function, particularly in selective attention and working memory. These cognitive deficits may have clinical significance in subjects with GAD and should be considered in treatment planning. Keywords: generalized anxiety disorder, N270, cognitive function, selective attention, working memory

  5. ITS as an environmental DNA barcode for fungi: an in silico approach reveals potential PCR biases

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    Taberlet Pierre

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the last 15 years the internal transcribed spacer (ITS of nuclear DNA has been used as a target for analyzing fungal diversity in environmental samples, and has recently been selected as the standard marker for fungal DNA barcoding. In this study we explored the potential amplification biases that various commonly utilized ITS primers might introduce during amplification of different parts of the ITS region in samples containing mixed templates ('environmental barcoding'. We performed in silico PCR analyses with commonly used primer combinations using various ITS datasets obtained from public databases as templates. Results Some of the ITS primers, such as ITS1-F, were hampered with a high proportion of mismatches relative to the target sequences, and most of them appeared to introduce taxonomic biases during PCR. Some primers, e.g. ITS1-F, ITS1 and ITS5, were biased towards amplification of basidiomycetes, whereas others, e.g. ITS2, ITS3 and ITS4, were biased towards ascomycetes. The assumed basidiomycete-specific primer ITS4-B only amplified a minor proportion of basidiomycete ITS sequences, even under relaxed PCR conditions. Due to systematic length differences in the ITS2 region as well as the entire ITS, we found that ascomycetes will more easily amplify than basidiomycetes using these regions as targets. This bias can be avoided by using primers amplifying ITS1 only, but this would imply preferential amplification of 'non-dikarya' fungi. Conclusions We conclude that ITS primers have to be selected carefully, especially when used for high-throughput sequencing of environmental samples. We suggest that different primer combinations or different parts of the ITS region should be analyzed in parallel, or that alternative ITS primers should be searched for.

  6. Rare human papillomavirus 16 E6 variants reveal significant oncogenic potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommasino Massimo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to determine whether low prevalence human papillomavirus (HPV 16 E6 variants differ from high prevalence types in their functional abilities. We evaluated functions relevant to carcinogenesis for the rarely-detected European variants R8Q, R10G and R48W as compared to the commonly detected L83V. Human immortalized keratinocytes (NIKS stably transduced with the E6 variants were used in most functional assays. Low and high prevalence E6 variants displayed similar abilities in abrogation of growth arrest and inhibition of p53 elevation induced by actinomycin D. Differences were detected in the abilities to dysregulate stratification and differentiation of NIKS in organotypic raft cultures, modulate detachment induced apoptosis (anoikis and hyperactivate Wnt signaling. No distinctive phenotype could be assigned to include all rare variants. Like L83V, raft cultures derived from variants R10G and R48W similarly induced hyperplasia and aberrantly expressed keratin 5 in the suprabasal compartment with significantly lower expression of keratin 10. Unlike L83V, both variants, and particularly R48W, induced increased levels of anoikis upon suspension in semisolid medium. R8Q induced a unique phenotype characterized by thin organotypic raft cultures, low expression of keratin 10, and high expression of keratins 5 and 14 throughout all raft layers. Interestingly, in a reporter based assay R8Q exhibited a higher ability to augment TCF/β-catenin transcription. The data suggests that differences in E6 variant prevalence in cervical carcinoma may not be related to the carcinogenic potential of the E6 protein.

  7. Metabolomic analysis revealed the differential responses in two pedigrees of clam Ruditapes philippinarum towards Vibrio harveyi challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoli; Zhao, Jianmin; Wu, Huifeng; Wang, Qing

    2013-12-01

    Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum is an important marine aquaculture shellfish. This species has several pedigrees including White, Zebra, Liangdao Red and Marine Red distributing in the coastal areas in North China. In this work, we studied the metabolic differences induced by Vibrio harveyi in hepatopancreas from White and Zebra clams using NMR-based metabolomics. Metabolic responses (e.g., amino acids, glucose, glycogen, ATP and succinate) and altered mRNA expression levels of related genes (ATP synthase, heat shock protein 90, defensin and lysozyme) suggested that V. harveyi induced clear disruption in energy metabolism and immune stresses in both White and Zebra clam hepatopancreas. However, V. harveyi caused obvious osmotic stress in Zebra clam hepatopancreas, which was not observed in V. harveyi-challenged White clams samples. In addition, V. harveyi challenge induced more severe disruption in energy metabolism and immune stress in White clams than in Zebra clams. Overall, our results indicated that the biological differences between different pedigrees of R. philippinarum should be considered in immunity studies. PMID:24161758

  8. Challenges in the Use of Social Networking Sites to Trace Potential Research Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Jackie; Bishop, Julia C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on a number of challenges faced in tracing contributors to research projects that were originally conducted many decades previously. The need to trace contributors in this way arises in projects which focus on involving research participants in previous studies who have not been maintained on a database, or with whom the…

  9. The exposome concept: a challenge and a potential driver for environmental health research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Siroux

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The exposome concept was defined in 2005 as encompassing all environmental exposures from conception onwards, as a new strategy to evidence environmental disease risk factors. Although very appealing, the exposome concept is challenging in many respects. In terms of assessment, several hundreds of time-varying exposures need to be considered, but increasing the number of exposures assessed should not be done at the cost of increased exposure misclassification. Accurately assessing the exposome currently requires numerous measurements, which rely on different technologies; resulting in an expensive set of protocols. In the future, high-throughput ‘omics technologies may be a promising technique to integrate a wide range of exposures from a small numbers of biological matrices. Assessing the association between many exposures and health raises statistical challenges. Due to the correlation structure of the exposome, existing statistical methods cannot fully and efficiently untangle the exposures truly affecting the health outcome from correlated exposures. Other statistical challenges relate to accounting for exposure misclassification or identifying synergistic effects between exposures. On-going exposome projects are trying to overcome technical and statistical challenges. From a public health perspective, a better understanding of the environmental risk factors should open the way to improved prevention strategies.

  10. The exposome concept: a challenge and a potential driver for environmental health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siroux, Valérie; Agier, Lydiane; Slama, Rémy

    2016-06-01

    The exposome concept was defined in 2005 as encompassing all environmental exposures from conception onwards, as a new strategy to evidence environmental disease risk factors. Although very appealing, the exposome concept is challenging in many respects. In terms of assessment, several hundreds of time-varying exposures need to be considered, but increasing the number of exposures assessed should not be done at the cost of increased exposure misclassification. Accurately assessing the exposome currently requires numerous measurements, which rely on different technologies; resulting in an expensive set of protocols. In the future, high-throughput 'omics technologies may be a promising technique to integrate a wide range of exposures from a small numbers of biological matrices. Assessing the association between many exposures and health raises statistical challenges. Due to the correlation structure of the exposome, existing statistical methods cannot fully and efficiently untangle the exposures truly affecting the health outcome from correlated exposures. Other statistical challenges relate to accounting for exposure misclassification or identifying synergistic effects between exposures. On-going exposome projects are trying to overcome technical and statistical challenges. From a public health perspective, a better understanding of the environmental risk factors should open the way to improved prevention strategies. PMID:27246588

  11. iTRAQ-Based Proteomics Reveals Novel Members Involved in Pathogen Challenge in Sea Cucumber Apostichopus japonicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pengjuan; Li, Chenghua; Zhang, Peng; Jin, Chunhua; Pan, Daodong; Bao, Yongbo

    2014-01-01

    Skin ulceration syndrome (SUS) is considered to be a major constraint for the stable development of Apostichopus japonicus culture industries. In this study, we investigated protein changes in the coelomocytes of A. japonicus challenged by Vibrio splendidus using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) over a 96 h time course. Consequently, 228 differentially expressed proteins were identified in two iTRAQs. A comparison of the protein expression profiles among different time points detected 125 proteins primarily involved in response to endogenous stimuli at 24 h. At 48 h, the number of differentially expressed proteins decreased to 67, with their primary function being oxidation reduction. At the end of pathogen infection, proteins responsive to amino acid stimuli and some metabolic processes were classified as the predominant group. Fifteen proteins were differentially expressed at all time points, among which eight proteins related to pathologies in higher animals were shown to be down-regulated after V. splendidus infection: paxillin, fascin-2, aggrecan, ololfactomedin-1, nesprin-3, a disintegrin-like and metallopeptidase with thrombospondin type 1 motif (Adamts7), C-type lectin domain family 4 (Clec4g) and n-myc downstream regulated gene 1 (Ndrg1). To gain more insight into two SUS-related miRNA (miR-31 and miR-2008) targets at the protein level, all 129 down-regulated proteins were further analyzed in combination with RNA-seq. Twelve and eight proteins were identified as putative targets for miR-31 and miR-2008, respectively, in which six proteins (5 for miR-31 and 1 for miR-2008) displayed higher possibilities to be regulated at the level of translation. Overall, the present work enhances our understanding of the process of V. splendidus-challenged sea cucumber and provides a new method for screening miRNAs targets at the translation level. PMID:24949634

  12. iTRAQ-based proteomics reveals novel members involved in pathogen challenge in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengjuan Zhang

    Full Text Available Skin ulceration syndrome (SUS is considered to be a major constraint for the stable development of Apostichopus japonicus culture industries. In this study, we investigated protein changes in the coelomocytes of A. japonicus challenged by Vibrio splendidus using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ over a 96 h time course. Consequently, 228 differentially expressed proteins were identified in two iTRAQs. A comparison of the protein expression profiles among different time points detected 125 proteins primarily involved in response to endogenous stimuli at 24 h. At 48 h, the number of differentially expressed proteins decreased to 67, with their primary function being oxidation reduction. At the end of pathogen infection, proteins responsive to amino acid stimuli and some metabolic processes were classified as the predominant group. Fifteen proteins were differentially expressed at all time points, among which eight proteins related to pathologies in higher animals were shown to be down-regulated after V. splendidus infection: paxillin, fascin-2, aggrecan, ololfactomedin-1, nesprin-3, a disintegrin-like and metallopeptidase with thrombospondin type 1 motif (Adamts7, C-type lectin domain family 4 (Clec4g and n-myc downstream regulated gene 1 (Ndrg1. To gain more insight into two SUS-related miRNA (miR-31 and miR-2008 targets at the protein level, all 129 down-regulated proteins were further analyzed in combination with RNA-seq. Twelve and eight proteins were identified as putative targets for miR-31 and miR-2008, respectively, in which six proteins (5 for miR-31 and 1 for miR-2008 displayed higher possibilities to be regulated at the level of translation. Overall, the present work enhances our understanding of the process of V. splendidus-challenged sea cucumber and provides a new method for screening miRNAs targets at the translation level.

  13. Molecular Docking and In Silico ADMET Study Reveals Acylguanidine 7a as a Potential Inhibitor of β-Secretase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisha, Chaluveelaveedu Murleedharan; Kumar, Ashwini; Nair, Prateek; Gupta, Nityasha; Silakari, Chitrangda; Tripathi, Timir; Kumar, Awanish

    2016-01-01

    Amyloidogenic pathway in Alzheimer's disease (AD) involves breakdown of APP by β-secretase followed by γ-secretase and results in formation of amyloid beta plaque. β-secretase has been a promising target for developing novel anti-Alzheimer drugs. To test different molecules for this purpose, test ligands like acylguanidine 7a, rosiglitazone, pioglitazone, and tartaric acid were docked against our target protein β-secretase enzyme retrieved from Protein Data Bank, considering MK-8931 (phase III trial, Merck) as the positive control. Docking revealed that, with respect to their free binding energy, acylguanidine 7a has the lowest binding energy followed by MK-8931 and pioglitazone and binds significantly to β-secretase. In silico ADMET predictions revealed that except tartaric acid all other compounds had minimal toxic effects and had good absorption as well as solubility characteristics. These compounds may serve as potential lead compound for developing new anti-Alzheimer drug.

  14. Prophylactic potential of resiquimod against very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) challenge in the chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annamalai, Arunsaravanakumar; Ramakrishnan, Saravanan; Sachan, Swati; Kumar, B S Anand; Sharma, Bal Krishan; Kumar, Vimal; Palanivelu, Munuswamy; Varghese, Berin P; Kumar, Ajay; Saravanan, B C; Krishnaswamy, Narayanan

    2016-05-01

    The study evaluated the prophylactic potential of resiquimod (R-848), a synthetic TLR7 agonist, against very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) infection in chicken. Specific pathogen free White Leghorn chicks of three week age were treated with R-848 (50μg/bird, intramuscular) or PBS (n=26/group). Twenty four hour later, half of the birds from each group were challenged with 10(5) ELD50 of vvIBDV and observed for 10days. To understand the effect of R-848, immune response genes such as interferon (IFN)-β, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-4, iNOS and TLR7 were analyzed at 24 and 48h post-challenge in PBMCs ex vivo by real-time PCR (n=6/group). On day 4 post-challenge, representative birds (n=3/group) were sacrificed to study the bursal damage and IBDV antigen clearance. Immunosuppression was assessed by antibody response against live Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine, which was administered on day 10 post-challenge. R-848 pre-treatment significantly upregulated the transcripts of each immune response gene studied (Pchicken when challenged with vvIBDV, which could be due to the upregulation of immune response genes. PMID:27066705

  15. Primary Schools Facing Challenging Circumstances: Effective leadership and the potential contribution of complexity theory.

    OpenAIRE

    Harcourt-Heath, Michèle Jean

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Schools operate in a multitude of different contexts, with some facing more difficult situations than others. The central question this research seeks to investigate is, ‘What happens in primary schools facing challenging circumstances that results in their improvement or decline?’ It reports on a study of three English primary schools either subject to an Ofsted (Office for Standards in Education) improvement category following inspection and/or coping without a permanent head...

  16. The exposome concept: a challenge and a potential driver for environmental health research

    OpenAIRE

    Valérie Siroux; Lydiane Agier; Rémy Slama

    2016-01-01

    The exposome concept was defined in 2005 as encompassing all environmental exposures from conception onwards, as a new strategy to evidence environmental disease risk factors. Although very appealing, the exposome concept is challenging in many respects. In terms of assessment, several hundreds of time-varying exposures need to be considered, but increasing the number of exposures assessed should not be done at the cost of increased exposure misclassification. Accurately assessing the exposom...

  17. POTENTIAL AND CHALLENGES FOR THE EVENT´S PROFESSIONAL TRAINING IN THE BRAZILIAN MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Helena Vieira Maia

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the growth of market events and their adoption by companies as marketing and communication strategy. Analyzes the economic impact of this outbreak sector in the tourism and hospitality. Bringing research data, the author addresses the unique opportunity and importance of Brazil as "the flavor of the month", to host the major events World Cup and the Olympics. Then highlights existing challenges such as infrastructure and the formation of specialized labor, deepening thi...

  18. Report from the second international symposium on animal genomics for animal health:critical needs, challenges and potential solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Bishop Steve C; Lunney Joan K; Pinard-van der Laan Marie-Hélène; Gay Cyril G

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The second International Symposium on Animal Genomics for Animal Health held in Paris, France 31 May-2 June, 2010, assembled more than 140 participants representing research organizations from 40 countries. The symposium included a roundtable discussion on critical needs, challenges and opportunities, and a forward look at the potential applications of animal genomics in animal health research. The aim of the roundtable discussion was to foster a dialogue between scientists working a...

  19. Mammary gene expression profiles during an intramammary challenge reveal potential mechanisms linking negative energy balance with impaired immune response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moyes, Kasey; Drackley, J K; Morin, D E;

    2010-01-01

    order to better understand the mechanisms associated with NEB and risk of mastitis during the transition period. The NEB cows were feed-restricted to 60% of calculated net energy for lactation requirements for 7 d, and cows assigned to PEB were fed the same diet for ad libitum intake. Five days after...... 0.05), with 86 DEG up-regulated and 201 DEG down-regulated. Canonical pathways most affected by NEB were IL-8 Signaling (10 genes), Glucocorticoid Receptor Signaling (13), and NRF2-mediated Oxidative Stress Response (10). Among genes differentially expressed by NEB, Cell Growth and Proliferation (48......) and Cellular Development (36) were the most enriched functions. Regarding immune response, HLA-A was up-regulated due to NEB, whereas the majority of genes involved in immune response were down-regulated (e.g., AKT1, IRAK1, MAPK9, and TRAF6). This study provided new avenues for investigation into the...

  20. Competition between inverse piezoelectric effect and deformation potential mechanism in undoped GaAs revealed by ultrafast acoustics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pezeril T.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available By using the picosecond ultrasonics technique, piezoelectric effect in GaAs undoped sample at both faces (A[111] and B[-1-1-1] is experimentally studied. We demonstrate that piezoelectric generation of sound can dominate in GaAs material over the deformation potential mechanism even in the absence of static externally applied or built-in electric field in the semiconductor material. In that case, the Dember field, caused by the separation of photo-generated electrons and holes in the process of supersonic diffusion, is sufficient for the dominance of the piezoelectric mechanism during the optoacoustic excitation. The experimental results on the sample at both faces reveal that in one case (A face, the two mechanisms, piezoelectric effect and deformation potential, can compensate each other leading to a large decrease of the measured Brillouin oscillation magnitude.

  1. Spray-on Thin Film PV Solar Cells: Advances, Potentials and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Eslamian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The capability to fabricate photovoltaic (PV solar cells on a large scale and at a competitive price is a milestone waiting to be achieved. Currently, such a fabrication method is lacking because the effective methods are either difficult to scale up or expensive due to the necessity for fabrication in a vacuum environment. Nevertheless, for a class of thin film solar cells, in which the solar cell materials can be processed in a solution, up scalable and vacuum-free fabrication techniques can be envisioned. In this context, all or some layers of polymer, dye-sensitized, quantum dot, and copper indium gallium selenide thin film solar cells illustrate some examples that may be processed in solution. The solution-processed materials may be transferred to the substrate by atomizing the solution and carrying the spray droplets to the substrate, a process that will form a thin film after evaporation of the solvent. Spray coating is performed at atmospheric pressure using low cost equipment with a roll-to-roll process capability, making it an attractive fabrication technique, provided that fairly uniform layers with high charge carrier separation and transport capability can be made. In this paper, the feasibility, the recent advances and challenges of fabricating spray-on thin film solar cells, the dynamics of spray and droplet impaction on the substrate, the photo-induced electron transfer in spray-on solar cells, the challenges on characterization and simulation, and the commercialization status of spray-on solar cells are discussed.

  2. Modern bioenergy from agricultural and forestry residues in Cameroon: Potential, challenges and the way forward

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ackom, Emmanuel; Alemagi, Dieudonne; Ackom, Nana B.;

    2013-01-01

    Environmentally benign modern bioenergy is widely acknowledged as a potential substitute for fossil fuels to offset the human dependence on fossil fuels for energy. We have profiled Cameroon, a country where modern bioenergy remains largely untapped due to a lack of availability of biomass data...... and gaps in existing policies. This study assessed the biomass resource potential in Cameroon from sustainably extracted agricultural and forest residues. We estimated that environmentally benign residues amount to 1.11 million bone dry tons per year. This has the potential to yield 0.12–0.32 billion.......76–2.02 TW h, which is the equivalent of 15–38% of Cameroon’s current electricity consumption. This could help spread electricity throughout the country, especially in farming communities where the residues are plentiful. The residues could, however, offset only 3% of the national consumption of traditional...

  3. Molecular mechanisms underlying chemopreventive potential of curcumin: Current challenges and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Gaurav; Mittal, Sonam; Sak, Katrin; Tuli, Hardeep Singh

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, natural compounds have received considerable attention in preventing and curing most dreadful diseases including cancer. The reason behind the use of natural compounds in chemoprevention is associated with fewer numbers of side effects than conventional chemotherapeutics. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane, PubMed CID: 969516), a naturally occurring polyphenol, is derived from turmeric, which is used as a common Indian spice. It governs numerous intracellular targets, including proteins involved in antioxidant response, immune response, apoptosis, cell cycle regulation and tumor progression. A huge mass of available studies strongly supports the use of Curcumin as a chemopreventive drug. However, the main challenge encountered is the low bioavailability of Curcumin. This extensive review covers various therapeutic interactions of Curcumin with its recognized cellular targets involved in cancer treatment, strategies to overcome the bioavailability issue and adverse effects associated with Curcumin consumption. PMID:26876915

  4. The Controversy, Challenges, and Potential Benefits of Putative Female Germline Stem Cells Research in Mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zezheng Pan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The conventional view is that female mammals lose their ability to generate new germ cells after birth. However, in recent years, researchers have successfully isolated and cultured a type of germ cell from postnatal ovaries in a variety of mammalian species that have the abilities of self-proliferation and differentiation into oocytes, and this finding indicates that putative germline stem cells maybe exist in the postnatal mammalian ovaries. Herein, we review the research history and discovery of putative female germline stem cells, the concept that putative germline stem cells exist in the postnatal mammalian ovary, and the research progress, challenge, and application of putative germline stem cells in recent years.

  5. Engineered nanomaterial risk. Lessons learnt from completed nanotoxicology studies: potential solutions to current and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Helinor; Pojana, Giulio; Zuin, Stefano; Jacobsen, Nicklas Raun; Møller, Peter; Loft, Steffen; Semmler-Behnke, Manuela; McGuiness, Catherine; Balharry, Dominique; Marcomini, Antonio; Wallin, Håkan; Kreyling, Wolfgang; Donaldson, Ken; Tran, Lang; Stone, Vicki

    2013-01-01

    PARTICLE_RISK was one of the first multidisciplinary projects funded by the European Commission's Framework Programme that was responsible for evaluating the implications of nanomaterial (NM) exposure on human health. This project was the basis for this review which identifies the challenges that exist within the assessment of NM risk. We have retrospectively reflected on the findings of completed nanotoxicology studies to consider what progress and advances have been made within the risk assessment of NMs, as well as discussing the direction that nanotoxicology research is taking and identifying the limitations and failings of existing research. We have reflected on what commonly encountered challenges exist and explored how these issues may be resolved. In particular, the following is discussed (i) NM selection (ii) NM physico-chemical characterisation; (iii) NM dispersion; (iv) selection of relevant doses and concentrations; (v) identification of relevant models, target sites and endpoints; (vi) development of alternatives to animal testing; and (vii) NM risk assessment. These knowledge gaps are relatively well recognised by the scientific community and recommendations as to how they may be overcome in the future are provided. It is hoped that this will help develop better defined hypothesis driven research in the future that will enable comprehensive risk assessments to be conducted for NMs. Importantly, the nanotoxicology community has responded and adapted to advances in knowledge over recent years to improve the approaches used to assess NM hazard, exposure and risk. It is vital to learn from existing information provided by ongoing or completed studies to avoid unnecessary duplication of effort, and to offer guidance on aspects of the experimental design that should be carefully considered prior to the start of a new study. PMID:23126553

  6. Challenging the claims on the potential of biochar to mitigate climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francischinelli Rittl, T.

    2015-01-01

    Summary In this PhD thesis I studied the influence of biochar discourses on the political practices in Brazil and the impact of biochar on soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks, thus contributing to the current debate on the potential of biochar to mitigate climate change. Biochar is the solid material o

  7. Challenges for CTC-based liquid biopsies: low CTC frequency and diagnostic leukapheresis as a potential solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoecklein, Nikolas H; Fischer, Johannes C; Niederacher, Dieter; Terstappen, Leon W M M

    2016-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are very attractive surrogate markers for systemic cancer. Currently, major efforts are being made to use these rare cells in the sense of a liquid biopsy to gain molecular information for rational therapeutic decision-making. The advancements in molecular analyses of CTCs down to the single-cell level have been significant in recent years and some applications are ready to be used in clinical studies. As discussed in this review, a major challenge for translating such molecular CTC-based assays into the clinic is the extremely low frequency of CTCs and the associated problems of their reliable detection and isolation. A potential solution to overcome the low CTC frequency is the recently introduced diagnostic leukapheresis that permits screening of liters of blood. Discussed here are the challenges as well as the current efforts implementing this method into clinical workflows to realize more reliable liquid biopsies. PMID:26587751

  8. Dual RNA-sequencing of Eucalyptus nitens during Phytophthora cinnamomi challenge reveals pathogen and host factors influencing compatibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Febe Elizabeth Meyer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Damage caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands remains an important concern on forest tree species. The pathogen causes root and collar rot, stem cankers and dieback of various economically important Eucalyptus spp. In South Africa, susceptible cold tolerant Eucalyptus plantations have been affected by various Phytophthora spp. with P. cinnamomi considered one of the most virulent. The molecular basis of this compatible interaction is poorly understood. In this study, susceptible Eucalyptus nitens plants were stem inoculated with P. cinnamomi and tissue was harvested five days post inoculation. Dual RNA-sequencing, a technique which allows the concurrent detection of both pathogen and host transcripts during infection, was performed. Approximately 1% of the reads mapped to the draft genome of P. cinnamomi while 78% of the reads mapped to the Eucalyptus grandis genome. The highest expressed P. cinnamomi gene in planta was a putative crinkler effector (CRN1. Phylogenetic analysis indicated the high similarity of this P. cinnamomi CRN1 to that of Phytophthora infestans. Some CRN effectors are known to target host nuclei to suppress defense. In the host, over 1400 genes were significantly differentially expressed in comparison to mock inoculated trees, including suites of pathogenesis related (PR genes. In particular, a PR-9 peroxidase gene with a high similarity to a Carica papaya PR-9 ortholog previously shown to be suppressed upon infection by Phytophthora palmivora was down-regulated two-fold. This PR-9 gene may represent a cross-species effector target during P. cinnamomi infection. This study identified pathogenicity factors, potential manipulation targets and attempted host defense mechanisms activated by E. nitens that contributed to the susceptible outcome of the interaction.

  9. Dual RNA-Sequencing of Eucalyptus nitens during Phytophthora cinnamomi Challenge Reveals Pathogen and Host Factors Influencing Compatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Febé E; Shuey, Louise S; Naidoo, Sitha; Mamni, Thandekile; Berger, Dave K; Myburg, Alexander A; van den Berg, Noëlani; Naidoo, Sanushka

    2016-01-01

    Damage caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands remains an important concern on forest tree species. The pathogen causes root and collar rot, stem cankers, and dieback of various economically important Eucalyptus spp. In South Africa, susceptible cold tolerant Eucalyptus plantations have been affected by various Phytophthora spp. with P. cinnamomi considered one of the most virulent. The molecular basis of this compatible interaction is poorly understood. In this study, susceptible Eucalyptus nitens plants were stem inoculated with P. cinnamomi and tissue was harvested five days post inoculation. Dual RNA-sequencing, a technique which allows the concurrent detection of both pathogen and host transcripts during infection, was performed. Approximately 1% of the reads mapped to the draft genome of P. cinnamomi while 78% of the reads mapped to the Eucalyptus grandis genome. The highest expressed P. cinnamomi gene in planta was a putative crinkler effector (CRN1). Phylogenetic analysis indicated the high similarity of this P. cinnamomi CRN1 to that of Phytophthora infestans. Some CRN effectors are known to target host nuclei to suppress defense. In the host, over 1400 genes were significantly differentially expressed in comparison to mock inoculated trees, including suites of pathogenesis related (PR) genes. In particular, a PR-9 peroxidase gene with a high similarity to a Carica papaya PR-9 ortholog previously shown to be suppressed upon infection by Phytophthora palmivora was down-regulated two-fold. This PR-9 gene may represent a cross-species effector target during P. cinnamomi infection. This study identified pathogenicity factors, potential manipulation targets, and attempted host defense mechanisms activated by E. nitens that contributed to the susceptible outcome of the interaction. PMID:26973660

  10. Challenge of pigs with classical swine fever viruses after C-strain vaccination reveals remarkably rapid protection and insights into early immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon P Graham

    Full Text Available Pre-emptive culling is becoming increasingly questioned as a means of controlling animal diseases, including classical swine fever (CSF. This has prompted discussions on the use of emergency vaccination to control future CSF outbreaks in domestic pigs. Despite a long history of safe use in endemic areas, there is a paucity of data on aspects important to emergency strategies, such as how rapidly CSFV vaccines would protect against transmission, and if this protection is equivalent for all viral genotypes, including highly divergent genotype 3 strains. To evaluate these questions, pigs were vaccinated with the Riemser® C-strain vaccine at 1, 3 and 5 days prior to challenge with genotype 2.1 and 3.3 challenge strains. The vaccine provided equivalent protection against clinical disease caused by for the two challenge strains and, as expected, protection was complete at 5 days post-vaccination. Substantial protection was achieved after 3 days, which was sufficient to prevent transmission of the 3.3 strain to animals in direct contact. Even by one day post-vaccination approximately half the animals were partially protected, and were able to control the infection, indicating that a reduction of the infectious potential is achieved very rapidly after vaccination. There was a close temporal correlation between T cell IFN-γ responses and protection. Interestingly, compared to responses of animals challenged 5 days after vaccination, challenge of animals 3 or 1 days post-vaccination resulted in impaired vaccine-induced T cell responses. This, together with the failure to detect a T cell IFN-γ response in unprotected and unvaccinated animals, indicates that virulent CSFV can inhibit the potent antiviral host defences primed by C-strain in the early period post vaccination.

  11. Textiles as Tangible Working Materials in Participatory Design Processes: Potentials and Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heimdal, Elisabeth Jacobsen; Rosenqvist, Tanja Schultz

    Participatory design (PD) methods are currently of little use in the textile industry, even though the need for multiple stakeholder involvement in the industry is growing. In this paper, we argue that PD represents a potential for innovation in the textile industry, due to PD’s collaborative...... nature facilitating dialogue between different stakeholders and its ability to move stakeholder participation to the early stages of the design process. We have explored PD tools in a design process engaging architects and textile designers in designing textile products for Danish hospitals. From this we...... have realized a potential in dividing the materials into three types with different attributes, which should consequently be staged differently in a PD process. We have thereby seen that exploring PD in a textile design process improves the understanding of the role of tangible working materials in PD...

  12. Deep sequencing-based transcriptome profiling analysis of bacteria-challenged Lateolabrax japonicus reveals insight into the immune-relevant genes in marine fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Li-xin

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systematic research on fish immunogenetics is indispensable in understanding the origin and evolution of immune systems. This has long been a challenging task because of the limited number of deep sequencing technologies and genome backgrounds of non-model fish available. The newly developed Solexa/Illumina RNA-seq and Digital gene expression (DGE are high-throughput sequencing approaches and are powerful tools for genomic studies at the transcriptome level. This study reports the transcriptome profiling analysis of bacteria-challenged Lateolabrax japonicus using RNA-seq and DGE in an attempt to gain insights into the immunogenetics of marine fish. Results RNA-seq analysis generated 169,950 non-redundant consensus sequences, among which 48,987 functional transcripts with complete or various length encoding regions were identified. More than 52% of these transcripts are possibly involved in approximately 219 known metabolic or signalling pathways, while 2,673 transcripts were associated with immune-relevant genes. In addition, approximately 8% of the transcripts appeared to be fish-specific genes that have never been described before. DGE analysis revealed that the host transcriptome profile of Vibrio harveyi-challenged L. japonicus is considerably altered, as indicated by the significant up- or down-regulation of 1,224 strong infection-responsive transcripts. Results indicated an overall conservation of the components and transcriptome alterations underlying innate and adaptive immunity in fish and other vertebrate models. Analysis suggested the acquisition of numerous fish-specific immune system components during early vertebrate evolution. Conclusion This study provided a global survey of host defence gene activities against bacterial challenge in a non-model marine fish. Results can contribute to the in-depth study of candidate genes in marine fish immunity, and help improve current understanding of host

  13. Challenging the claims on the potential of biochar to mitigate climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Francischinelli Rittl, T.

    2015-01-01

    Summary In this PhD thesis I studied the influence of biochar discourses on the political practices in Brazil and the impact of biochar on soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks, thus contributing to the current debate on the potential of biochar to mitigate climate change. Biochar is the solid material obtained from the carbonization of biomass. The deliberate production and application to soil distinguishes biochar from other carbonized products, e.g. charcoal. Inspired by the aged charcoal found...

  14. Challenges and potential for linking tourism and agriculture to achieve pro-poor tourism objectives

    OpenAIRE

    Rebecca Torres; Janet Henshall Momsen

    2004-01-01

    With tourism rapidly increasing in developing nations there is an emerging focus on integrating pro-poor tourism into both the international tourism and aid agendas. Following a brief review of the pro-poor tourism literature, this article argues for the explicit creation of tourism and agriculture linkages to achieve pro-poor tourism objectives. To understand both the potential and the problems associated with linking the two sectors, we present an in-depth case study of tourism and agricult...

  15. A national, geographic database of CDC-funded HIV prevention services: development challenges and potential applications

    OpenAIRE

    Fogarty Kieran J; Gilliam Aisha; Gibbs Deborah A; Hanchette Carol L; Bruhn Mark

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background From 2000–2002, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) funded a study that was designed to improve the information available to program planners about the geographic distribution of CDC-funded HIV prevention services provided by community-based organizations (CBOs). Program managers at CDC recognized the potential of a geographic information system (GIS) to organize and analyze information about HIV prevention services and they made GIS a critical component o...

  16. Operational challenges in managing multicultural events; Finnish perspectives for potential companies

    OpenAIRE

    Touray, Lamin; Mndeme, Adam

    2010-01-01

    As international activities are increasing very fast, the world is becoming smaller day by day. Customer’s needs are becoming more complex which makes it very important to make a good research in different cultural perspectives as to how to serve potential customers in order to survive in multicultural event management business. As event management emerges to become a key sector of the tourism and leisure industries worldwide there is increasing need for professionals in multicultural event m...

  17. Wearable Technology in a Swedish Dentistry Study Programme : Potential and Challenges of Google Glass

    OpenAIRE

    Mårell-Olsson, Eva; Janke, Isa

    2014-01-01

    In this workshop, we report and demonstrate the use of new emergent technology in higher education. We present the example of Google Glass in a dentistry study programme at a Swedish University. The technology has been adopted for supporting the communication among teachers and students and to bridge the different places and spaces in which they study and work. With the explorative study, we want to illustrate the potential of technology and how it can be adopted for higher education. This im...

  18. Integrated Product Service Offerings for Rail Infrastructure : Potential Benefits and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Lingegård, Sofia

    2012-01-01

    Large amounts of different materials are used when building and maintaining railway infrastructure, and the environmental impacts from the upstream production stages are significant. Industry’s motivation to innovate is low, new products or methods are rarely used, and the lowest price is the main driver for selecting a tender. Integrated Product Service Offerings, or IPSO, has been put forward in the research literature as a potential concept to, from a life-cycle perspective, reduce the env...

  19. From Amazonia to the Atlantic forest: molecular phylogeny of Phyzelaphryninae frogs reveals unexpected diversity and a striking biogeographic pattern emphasizing conservation challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouquet, Antoine; Loebmann, Daniel; Castroviejo-Fisher, Santiago; Padial, José M; Orrico, Victor G D; Lyra, Mariana L; Roberto, Igor Joventino; Kok, Philippe J R; Haddad, Célio F B; Rodrigues, Miguel T

    2012-11-01

    Documenting the Neotropical amphibian diversity has become a major challenge facing the threat of global climate change and the pace of environmental alteration. Recent molecular phylogenetic studies have revealed that the actual number of species in South American tropical forests is largely underestimated, but also that many lineages are millions of years old. The genera Phyzelaphryne (1 sp.) and Adelophryne (6 spp.), which compose the subfamily Phyzelaphryninae, include poorly documented, secretive, and minute frogs with an unusual distribution pattern that encompasses the biotic disjunction between Amazonia and the Atlantic forest. We generated >5.8 kb sequence data from six markers for all seven nominal species of the subfamily as well as for newly discovered populations in order to (1) test the monophyly of Phyzelaphryninae, Adelophryne and Phyzelaphryne, (2) estimate species diversity within the subfamily, and (3) investigate their historical biogeography and diversification. Phylogenetic reconstruction confirmed the monophyly of each group and revealed deep subdivisions within Adelophryne and Phyzelaphryne, with three major clades in Adelophryne located in northern Amazonia, northern Atlantic forest and southern Atlantic forest. Our results suggest that the actual number of species in Phyzelaphryninae is, at least, twice the currently recognized species diversity, with almost every geographically isolated population representing an anciently divergent candidate species. Such results highlight the challenges for conservation, especially in the northern Atlantic forest where it is still degraded at a fast pace. Molecular dating revealed that Phyzelaphryninae originated in Amazonia and dispersed during early Miocene to the Atlantic forest. The two Atlantic forest clades of Adelophryne started to diversify some 7 Ma minimum, while the northern Amazonian Adelophryne diversified much earlier, some 13 Ma minimum. This striking biogeographic pattern coincides with

  20. An assessment of BWR [boiling water reactor] Mark-II containment challenges, failure modes, and potential improvements in performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report assesses challenges to BWR Mark II containment integrity that could potentially arise from severe accidents. Also assessed are some potential improvements that could prevent core damage or containment failure, or could mitigate the consequences of such failure by reducing the release of fission products to the environment. These challenges and improvements are analyzed via a limited quantitative risk/benefit analysis of a generic BWR/4 reactor with Mark II containment. Point estimate frequencies of the dominant core damage sequences are obtained and simple containment event trees are constructed to evaluate the response of the containment to these severe accident sequences. The resulting containment release modes are then binned into source term release categories, which provide inputs to the consequence analysis. The output of the consequences analysis is used to construct an overall base case risk profile. Potential improvements and sensitivities are evaluated by modifying the event tree spilt fractions, thus generating a revised risk profile. Several important sensitivity cases are examined to evaluate the impact of phenomenological uncertainties on the final results. 75 refs., 25 figs., 65 tabs

  1. The potential, limitations, and challenges of divide and conquer quantum electronic structure calculations on energetic materials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tucker, Jon R.; Magyar, Rudolph J.

    2012-02-01

    High explosives are an important class of energetic materials used in many weapons applications. Even with modern computers, the simulation of the dynamic chemical reactions and energy release is exceedingly challenging. While the scale of the detonation process may be macroscopic, the dynamic bond breaking responsible for the explosive release of energy is fundamentally quantum mechanical. Thus, any method that does not adequately describe bonding is destined to lack predictive capability on some level. Performing quantum mechanics calculations on systems with more than dozens of atoms is a gargantuan task, and severe approximation schemes must be employed in practical calculations. We have developed and tested a divide and conquer (DnC) scheme to obtain total energies, forces, and harmonic frequencies within semi-empirical quantum mechanics. The method is intended as an approximate but faster solution to the full problem and is possible due to the sparsity of the density matrix in many applications. The resulting total energy calculation scales linearly as the number of subsystems, and the method provides a path-forward to quantum mechanical simulations of millions of atoms.

  2. Detecting Power Outages with the VIIRS DNB Images - potentials and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, C.; Uprety, S.; Shao, X.

    2012-12-01

    Power outages after a major storm or hurricane affect millions of people. The launch of the Suomi NPP with the VIIRS significantly enhances our capability to monitor and detect power outages on a daily basis with the Day Night Band (DNB) which outperforms the traditional OSL on DMSP satellites in both spatial and radiometric resolutions. This study explores the use of the DNB for detecting power outages in the Washington DC metropolitan area in June 2012, which was the largest non-hurricane power outage in history for the region with millions of people lost power, and state of emergency declared in some states such as Virginia. The DNB data were analyzed for the period one week before and after the storm. The light loss is estimated through image differencing techniques for spatial patterns, as well as total radiance and irradiance changes as a time series. The effects of cloud absorption and scattering are evaluated using the cloud masks from VIIRS products, and the long wave thermal infrared images are also used to assist the assessment. The results show that the DNB data are very useful for both spatial and radiometric detection of light loss, but also with some challenges due to clouds and the known terminator straylight effect of the instrument for the region during summer solstice. It is expected that further refinements in the methodology will significantly reduce the uncertainties. A VIIRS Data Robotics system is also being developed which will allow the routine detection of power outages for any given location worldwide.

  3. Introducing Teacher Mentoring in Kosovo Schools – Potential and Challenges for Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eda Vula

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the lessons learned from the introduction of a teacher mentoring culture within a teacher professional development program in selected pilot schools in Kosovo. Four mentor teachers and four mentee focus groups were involved in the open interviews, and their portfolios were examined. The important themes in terms of developing a school mentoring culture in a system that had lacked mentoring practices and is embarking on an ambitious curricular reform were identified. The study revealed that individual, collegial and institutional dimensions are critical in attempting to introduce the mentoring culture. The study concluded that mentoring is a mixed concept and is viewed as hierarchical but is, nevertheless, an important professional development tool for teachers who are facing the pressure of the reform. This formalized way, known as “Balkanization” culture, marks a critical step towards developing a collaborative school culture as the desired end point.

  4. Functional protein network activation mapping reveals new potential molecular drug targets for poor prognosis pediatric BCP-ALL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetta Accordi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In spite of leukemia therapy improvements obtained over the last decades, therapy is not yet effective in all cases. Current approaches in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL research focus on identifying new molecular targets to improve outcome for patients with a dismal prognosis. In this light phosphoproteomics seems to hold great promise for the identification of proteins suitable for targeted therapy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We employed Reverse Phase Protein Microarrays to identify aberrantly activated proteins in 118 pediatric B-cell precursor (BCP-ALL patients. Signal transduction pathways were assayed for activation/expression status of 92 key signalling proteins. We observed an increased activation/expression of several pathways involved in cell proliferation in poor clinical prognosis patients. MLL-rearranged tumours revealed BCL-2 hyperphosphorylation through AMPK activation, which indicates that AMPK could provide a functional role in inhibiting apoptosis in MLL-rearranged patients, and could be considered as a new potential therapeutic target. Second, in patients with poor clinical response to prednisone we observed the up-modulation of LCK activity with respect to patients with good response. This tyrosine-kinase can be down-modulated with clinically used inhibitors, thus modulating LCK activity could be considered for further studies as a new additional therapy for prednisone-resistant patients. Further we also found an association between high levels of CYCLIN E and relapse incidence. Moreover, CYCLIN E is more expressed in early relapsed patients, who usually show an unfavourable prognosis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that functional protein pathway activation mapping revealed specific deranged signalling networks in BCP-ALL that could be potentially modulated to produce a better clinical outcome for patients resistant to standard-of-care therapies.

  5. POTENTIALLY GRAVE GASTRO-INTESTINAL TRACT PROBLEMS IN PREGNANCY - A CHALLENGE TO THE OBSTETRICIAN!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaitra

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT Acute surgical pathology may be overlooked in pregnancy. Despite advances in medical technology, preoperative diagnosis of potentially grave pathologies of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT is often delayed due to overlap with symptoms of pregnancy non-specific elevation of some laboratory parameters due to pregnancy and a dilemma for obstetricians and surgeons in ordering radiological imaging modalities given the risk associated with fetal exposure to ionizing radiation and contrast. AIMS The aim of this study is to analyse the cases of gastrointestinal tract problems encountered in pregnancy so that increasing awareness can be created among obstetricians. This is important because early diagnosis and timely intervention can significantly improve maternal and fetal outcome in these cases. SETTINGS AND DESIGN There is a retrospective case study of potentially grave GIT problems encountered at Vanivilas hospital, Bangalore, a tertiary referral institute wherein the clinical presentation was confounded by pregnancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS All the included cases were analysed for age of the patient, pre-existing gastrointestinal tract disorders, gestational age at diagnosis, maternal and fetal outcome. RESULTS A total of 8 cases of GIT problems in pregnancy were studied. Though acute appendicitis is the most common cause of GIT emergency in pregnancy as quoted in literature 5, we did not encounter any case of acute appendicitis in pregnancy in the study period. Other conditions which were encountered were small bowel obstruction, stomach and bowel perforation and bleeding oesophageal varices. Whilst few of the conditions could be managed conservatively without harm to the pregnancy, others required a laparotomy and reparative procedures. Delay in diagnosis and intervention proved to be fatal in some of these women. CONCLUSIONS Knowledge about potentially grave gastrointestinal tract problems during pregnancy, high index of clinical suspicion

  6. Modern bioenergy from agricultural and forestry residues in Cameroon: Potential, challenges and the way forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmentally benign modern bioenergy is widely acknowledged as a potential substitute for fossil fuels to offset the human dependence on fossil fuels for energy. We have profiled Cameroon, a country where modern bioenergy remains largely untapped due to a lack of availability of biomass data and gaps in existing policies. This study assessed the biomass resource potential in Cameroon from sustainably extracted agricultural and forest residues. We estimated that environmentally benign residues amount to 1.11 million bone dry tons per year. This has the potential to yield 0.12–0.32 billion liters of ethanol annually to displace 18–48% of the national consumption of gasoline. Alternatively, the residues could provide 0.08–0.22 billion liters of biomass to Fischer Tropsch diesel annually to offset 17–45% of diesel fuel use. For the generation of bioelectricity, the residues could supply 0.76–2.02 TW h, which is the equivalent of 15–38% of Cameroon's current electricity consumption. This could help spread electricity throughout the country, especially in farming communities where the residues are plentiful. The residues could, however, offset only 3% of the national consumption of traditional biomass (woodfuel and charcoal). Policy recommendations that promote the wider uptake of modern bioenergy applications from residues are provided. - Highlights: • Environmentally benign residues amount to 1.11×106 bone dry tonnes per annum. • 0.12–0.32 billion litres of bio ethanol annually to displace 18–48% national gasoline use. • 0.08–0.22 billion litres of biomass to BTL diesel per year to offset 17–45% of diesel use. • 0.76–2.02 TW h of electricity, representing 15–38% of Cameroon's consumption. • Residues could offset only 3% of national consumption of traditional biomass

  7. Challenges in testing genetically modified crops for potential increases in endogenous allergen expression for safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, R; Ariyarathna, H; Amnuaycheewa, P; Tetteh, A; Pramod, S N; Taylor, S L; Ballmer-Weber, B K; Goodman, R E

    2013-02-01

    Premarket, genetically modified (GM) plants are assessed for potential risks of food allergy. The major risk would be transfer of a gene encoding an allergen or protein nearly identical to an allergen into a different food source, which can be assessed by specific serum testing. The potential that a newly expressed protein might become an allergen is evaluated based on resistance to digestion in pepsin and abundance in food fractions. If the modified plant is a common allergenic source (e.g. soybean), regulatory guidelines suggest testing for increases in the expression of endogenous allergens. Some regulators request evaluating endogenous allergens for rarely allergenic plants (e.g. maize and rice). Since allergic individuals must avoid foods containing their allergen (e.g. peanut, soybean, maize, or rice), the relevance of the tests is unclear. Furthermore, no acceptance criteria are established and little is known about the natural variation in allergen concentrations in these crops. Our results demonstrate a 15-fold difference in the major maize allergen, lipid transfer protein between nine varieties, and complex variation in IgE binding to various soybean varieties. We question the value of evaluating endogenous allergens in GM plants unless the intent of the modification was production of a hypoallergenic crop. PMID:23205714

  8. Potential use and challenges of functional connectivity mapping in intractable epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Todd Constable

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on the use of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data to assess functional connectivity in the human brain for surgical planning in intractable epilepsy. This approach has the potential to predict outcomes for a given surgical procedure based on the pre-surgical functional organization of the brain. Functional connectivity can also identify cortical regions that are organized differently in epilepsy patients either as a direct function of the disease or through indirect compensatory responses. Functional connectivity mapping can also potentially help identify epileptogenic tissue, whether this is a single focal location or a network of seizure-generating tissues and this information can assist in guiding the implantation of electrodes for invasive monitoring. This review covers the basics of connectivity analysis and discusses particular issues associated with analyzing such data. These issues include how to define nodes, as well as differences between connectivity analyses of individual nodes, groups of nodes, and whole-brain assessment at the voxel level. The need for arbitrary thresholds in some connectivity analyses is discussed and a solution to this problem is reviewed. Overall, functional connectivity analysis is becoming an important tool for assessing functional brain organization in surgical planning in epilepsy.

  9. Post-genomic analyses of fungal lignocellulosic biomass degradation reveal the unexpected potential of the plant pathogen Ustilago maydis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Couturier Marie

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Filamentous fungi are potent biomass degraders due to their ability to thrive in ligno(hemicellulose-rich environments. During the last decade, fungal genome sequencing initiatives have yielded abundant information on the genes that are putatively involved in lignocellulose degradation. At present, additional experimental studies are essential to provide insights into the fungal secreted enzymatic pools involved in lignocellulose degradation. Results In this study, we performed a wide analysis of 20 filamentous fungi for which genomic data are available to investigate their biomass-hydrolysis potential. A comparison of fungal genomes and secretomes using enzyme activity profiling revealed discrepancies in carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes sets dedicated to plant cell wall. Investigation of the contribution made by each secretome to the saccharification of wheat straw demonstrated that most of them individually supplemented the industrial Trichoderma reesei CL847 enzymatic cocktail. Unexpectedly, the most striking effect was obtained with the phytopathogen Ustilago maydis that improved the release of total sugars by 57% and of glucose by 22%. Proteomic analyses of the best-performing secretomes indicated a specific enzymatic mechanism of U. maydis that is likely to involve oxido-reductases and hemicellulases. Conclusion This study provides insight into the lignocellulose-degradation mechanisms by filamentous fungi and allows for the identification of a number of enzymes that are potentially useful to further improve the industrial lignocellulose bioconversion process.

  10. The Temptation of Documentation: Potential and Challenges of Videographic Documentation and Interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Winckler

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Insights into the civic education classroom can be gained through videographic documentation. Videographic material offers, as I argue in this article, great possibilities: Through a reconstructive approach insights into dimensions of civic education such as spatial organisation, symbolic representation and non-verbal communication may emerge. In this way, a deeper understanding of informal political learning in school can be obtained. These aspects have not yet been considered in depth with videographic documentation primarily employed to date in teacher training contexts and lesson evaluation. The case study I present here was inspired by the documentary method and both the potential and limitations of videographic interpretation are discussed in this context. The study also suggests that what is not offered by videographic documentation includes insights into the individual and collective integration of experiences in civic education lessons.

  11. The Potential of RFID Technology in the Textile and Clothing Industry: Opportunities, Requirements and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legnani, Elena; Cavalieri, Sergio; Pinto, Roberto; Dotti, Stefano

    In the current competitive environment, companies need to extensively exploit the use of advanced technologies in order to develop a sustainable advantage, enhance their operational efficiency and better serve customers. In this context, RFID technology has emerged as a valid support for the company progress and its value is becoming more and more apparent. In particular, the textile and clothing industry, characterised by short life-cycles , quick response production , fast distribution, erratic customer preferences and impulsive purchasing, is one of the sectors which can extensively benefit from the RFID technology. However, actual applications are still very limited, especially in the upstream side of the supply network. This chapter provides an insight into the main benefits and potentials of this technology and highlights the main issues which are currently inhibiting its large scale development in the textile and clothing industry. The experience of two industry-academia projects and the relative fallouts are reported.

  12. Event-related potentials reveal preserved attention allocation but impaired emotion regulation in patients with epilepsy and comorbid negative affect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leen De Taeye

    Full Text Available Patients with epilepsy have a high prevalence of comorbid mood disorders. This study aims to evaluate whether negative affect in epilepsy is associated with dysfunction of emotion regulation. Event-related potentials (ERPs are used in order to unravel the exact electrophysiological time course and investigate whether a possible dysfunction arises during early (attention and/or late (regulation stages of emotion control. Fifty epileptic patients with (n = 25 versus without (n = 25 comorbid negative affect plus twenty-five matched controls were recruited. ERPs were recorded while subjects performed a face- or house-matching task in which fearful, sad or neutral faces were presented either at attended or unattended spatial locations. Two ERP components were analyzed: the early vertex positive potential (VPP which is normally enhanced for faces, and the late positive potential (LPP that is typically larger for emotional stimuli. All participants had larger amplitude of the early face-sensitive VPP for attended faces compared to houses, regardless of their emotional content. By contrast, in patients with negative affect only, the amplitude of the LPP was significantly increased for unattended negative emotional expressions. These VPP results indicate that epilepsy with or without negative affect does not interfere with the early structural encoding and attention selection of faces. However, the LPP results suggest abnormal regulation processes during the processing of unattended emotional faces in patients with epilepsy and comorbid negative affect. In conclusion, this ERP study reveals that early object-based attention processes are not compromised by epilepsy, but instead, when combined with negative affect, this neurological disease is associated with dysfunction during the later stages of emotion regulation. As such, these new neurophysiological findings shed light on the complex interplay of epilepsy with negative affect during the processing of

  13. Effect of mental challenge induced by movie clips on action potential duration in normal human subjects independent of heart rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child, Nicholas; Hanson, Ben; Bishop, Martin; Rinaldi, Christopher A; Bostock, Julian; Western, David; Cooklin, Michael; O’Neil, Mark; Wright, Matthew; Razavi, Reza; Gill, Jaswinder; Taggart, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background Mental stress and emotion have long been associated with ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death in animal models and humans. The effect of mental challenge on ventricular action potential duration (APD) in conscious healthy humans has not been reported. Methods and Results Activation recovery intervals (ARI) measured from unipolar electrograms as a surrogate for APD (n=19) were recorded from right and left ventricular endocardium during steady state pacing while subjects watched an emotionally charged film clip. To assess the possible modulating role of altered respiration on APD, the subjects then repeated the same breathing pattern they had during the stress, but without the movie clip. Haemodynamic parameters (mean, systolic, and diastolic blood pressure, and rate of pressure increase) and respiration rate increased during the stressful part of the film clip (p=0.001). APD decreased during the stressful parts of the film clip, eg for global RV ARI at end of film clip 193.8ms (SD 14) vs 198.0ms (SD13) during the matched breathing control (end film LV 199.8ms (SD16) vs control 201.6ms (SD15), p=0.004. Respiration rate increased during the stressful part of the film clip (by 2 breaths/minute), and was well matched in the respective control period without any haemodynamic or ARI changes. Conclusions Our results document for the first time direct recordings of the effect of a mental challenge protocol on ventricular action potential duration in conscious humans. The effect of mental challenge on APD was not secondary to emotionally-induced altered respiration or heart rate. PMID:24833641

  14. Ice thickness estimations based on multi-temporal glacier inventories - potential and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfricht, Kay; Huss, Matthias; Otto, Jan-Christoph

    2016-04-01

    The ongoing glacier retreat exposes a large number of surface depressions in the former glacier bed that can be filled with water or act as sediment traps. This has already been observed at various sites in Austria and in other mountain areas worldwide. The formation of glacial lakes can constitute an important environmental and socio-economic impact on high mountain systems including water resource management, sediment delivery, natural hazards, energy production and tourism. In general, information on ice thickness distribution is the basis for simulating future glacier change. We used the approach proposed by Huss and Farinotti (2012) to model the ice thickness distribution and potential locations of subglacial depressions. The study is part of the FUTURELAKE project that seeks to model the formation of new glacier lakes and their possible future evolution in the Austria Alps. The required data on glacier extent, surface elevation and slope were taken from the Austrian Glacier Inventories GI1 from 1969, GI2 from 1998 and GI3 from2006 (Fischer et al., 2015). The different glacier outlines and surface elevations from the inventories enable us to evaluate (i) the robustness of the modelled bedrock depressions with respect to different glacier settings, (ii) the power of the model to simulate recently formed glacial lakes, (iii) the similarities in calculated ice thickness distributions across the inventories and (iv) the feasibility of simulating observed changes in ice thickness and glacier volume. In general, the modelled localization of large potential depressions was relatively stable using the observed glacier settings. A number of examples show that recently formed glacial lakes could be detected by the model based on previous glacier extents. The locations of maximum ice depths within different elevation zones appeared to be sensitive to changes in glacier width. However, observed ice thickness changes and, thus, volume changes between the inventories could

  15. In Metabolic Engineering of Eukaryotic Microalgae: Potential and Challenges Come with Great Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimpel, Javier A.; Henríquez, Vitalia; Mayfield, Stephen P.

    2015-01-01

    The great phylogenetic diversity of microalgae is corresponded by a wide arrange of interesting and useful metabolites. Nonetheless metabolic engineering in microalgae has been limited, since specific transformation tools must be developed for each species for either the nuclear or chloroplast genomes. Microalgae as production platforms for metabolites offer several advantages over plants and other microorganisms, like the ability of GMO containment and reduced costs in culture media, respectively. Currently, microalgae have proved particularly well suited for the commercial production of omega-3 fatty acids and carotenoids. Therefore most metabolic engineering strategies have been developed for these metabolites. Microalgal biofuels have also drawn great attention recently, resulting in efforts for improving the production of hydrogen and photosynthates, particularly triacylglycerides. Metabolic pathways of microalgae have also been manipulated in order to improve photosynthetic growth under specific conditions and for achieving trophic conversion. Although these pathways are not strictly related to secondary metabolites, the synthetic biology approaches could potentially be translated to this field and will also be discussed. PMID:26696985

  16. In Metabolic Engineering of Eukaryotic Microalgae: Potential and Challenges Come with Great Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimpel, Javier A; Henríquez, Vitalia; Mayfield, Stephen P

    2015-01-01

    The great phylogenetic diversity of microalgae is corresponded by a wide arrange of interesting and useful metabolites. Nonetheless metabolic engineering in microalgae has been limited, since specific transformation tools must be developed for each species for either the nuclear or chloroplast genomes. Microalgae as production platforms for metabolites offer several advantages over plants and other microorganisms, like the ability of GMO containment and reduced costs in culture media, respectively. Currently, microalgae have proved particularly well suited for the commercial production of omega-3 fatty acids and carotenoids. Therefore most metabolic engineering strategies have been developed for these metabolites. Microalgal biofuels have also drawn great attention recently, resulting in efforts for improving the production of hydrogen and photosynthates, particularly triacylglycerides. Metabolic pathways of microalgae have also been manipulated in order to improve photosynthetic growth under specific conditions and for achieving trophic conversion. Although these pathways are not strictly related to secondary metabolites, the synthetic biology approaches could potentially be translated to this field and will also be discussed. PMID:26696985

  17. Potential Challenges Faced by the U.S. Chemicals Industry under a Carbon Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bassi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Chemicals have become the backbone of manufacturing within industrialized economies. Being energy-intensive materials to produce, this sector is threatened by policies aimed at combating and adapting to climate change. This study examines the worst-case scenario for the U.S. chemicals industry when a medium CO2 price policy is employed. After examining possible industry responses, the study goes on to identify and provide a preliminary evaluation of potential opportunities to mitigate these impacts. If climate regulations are applied only in the United States, and no action is taken to invest in advanced low- and no-carbon technologies to mitigate the impacts of rising energy costs, the examination shows that climate policies that put a price on carbon could have substantial impacts on the competiveness of the U.S. chemicals industry over the next two decades. In the long run, there exist technologies that are available to enable the chemicals sector to achieve sufficient efficiency gains to offset and manage the additional energy costs arising from a climate policy.

  18. The complete genome and proteome of Laribacter hongkongensis reveal potential mechanisms for adaptations to different temperatures and habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Patrick C Y; Lau, Susanna K P; Tse, Herman; Teng, Jade L L; Curreem, Shirly O T; Tsang, Alan K L; Fan, Rachel Y Y; Wong, Gilman K M; Huang, Yi; Loman, Nicholas J; Snyder, Lori A S; Cai, James J; Huang, Jian-Dong; Mak, William; Pallen, Mark J; Lok, Si; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2009-03-01

    Laribacter hongkongensis is a newly discovered Gram-negative bacillus of the Neisseriaceae family associated with freshwater fish-borne gastroenteritis and traveler's diarrhea. The complete genome sequence of L. hongkongensis HLHK9, recovered from an immunocompetent patient with severe gastroenteritis, consists of a 3,169-kb chromosome with G+C content of 62.35%. Genome analysis reveals different mechanisms potentially important for its adaptation to diverse habitats of human and freshwater fish intestines and freshwater environments. The gene contents support its phenotypic properties and suggest that amino acids and fatty acids can be used as carbon sources. The extensive variety of transporters, including multidrug efflux and heavy metal transporters as well as genes involved in chemotaxis, may enable L. hongkongensis to survive in different environmental niches. Genes encoding urease, bile salts efflux pump, adhesin, catalase, superoxide dismutase, and other putative virulence factors-such as hemolysins, RTX toxins, patatin-like proteins, phospholipase A1, and collagenases-are present. Proteomes of L. hongkongensis HLHK9 cultured at 37 degrees C (human body temperature) and 20 degrees C (freshwater habitat temperature) showed differential gene expression, including two homologous copies of argB, argB-20, and argB-37, which encode two isoenzymes of N-acetyl-L-glutamate kinase (NAGK)-NAGK-20 and NAGK-37-in the arginine biosynthesis pathway. NAGK-20 showed higher expression at 20 degrees C, whereas NAGK-37 showed higher expression at 37 degrees C. NAGK-20 also had a lower optimal temperature for enzymatic activities and was inhibited by arginine probably as negative-feedback control. Similar duplicated copies of argB are also observed in bacteria from hot springs such as Thermus thermophilus, Deinococcus geothermalis, Deinococcus radiodurans, and Roseiflexus castenholzii, suggesting that similar mechanisms for temperature adaptation may be employed by other

  19. The complete genome and proteome of Laribacter hongkongensis reveal potential mechanisms for adaptations to different temperatures and habitats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick C Y Woo

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Laribacter hongkongensis is a newly discovered Gram-negative bacillus of the Neisseriaceae family associated with freshwater fish-borne gastroenteritis and traveler's diarrhea. The complete genome sequence of L. hongkongensis HLHK9, recovered from an immunocompetent patient with severe gastroenteritis, consists of a 3,169-kb chromosome with G+C content of 62.35%. Genome analysis reveals different mechanisms potentially important for its adaptation to diverse habitats of human and freshwater fish intestines and freshwater environments. The gene contents support its phenotypic properties and suggest that amino acids and fatty acids can be used as carbon sources. The extensive variety of transporters, including multidrug efflux and heavy metal transporters as well as genes involved in chemotaxis, may enable L. hongkongensis to survive in different environmental niches. Genes encoding urease, bile salts efflux pump, adhesin, catalase, superoxide dismutase, and other putative virulence factors-such as hemolysins, RTX toxins, patatin-like proteins, phospholipase A1, and collagenases-are present. Proteomes of L. hongkongensis HLHK9 cultured at 37 degrees C (human body temperature and 20 degrees C (freshwater habitat temperature showed differential gene expression, including two homologous copies of argB, argB-20, and argB-37, which encode two isoenzymes of N-acetyl-L-glutamate kinase (NAGK-NAGK-20 and NAGK-37-in the arginine biosynthesis pathway. NAGK-20 showed higher expression at 20 degrees C, whereas NAGK-37 showed higher expression at 37 degrees C. NAGK-20 also had a lower optimal temperature for enzymatic activities and was inhibited by arginine probably as negative-feedback control. Similar duplicated copies of argB are also observed in bacteria from hot springs such as Thermus thermophilus, Deinococcus geothermalis, Deinococcus radiodurans, and Roseiflexus castenholzii, suggesting that similar mechanisms for temperature adaptation may be

  20. World Biofuels Production Potential Understanding the Challenges to Meeting the U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sastri, B.; Lee, A.

    2008-09-15

    This study by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) estimates the worldwide potential to produce biofuels including biofuels for export. It was undertaken to improve our understanding of the potential for imported biofuels to satisfy the requirements of Title II of the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) in the coming decades. Many other countries biofuels production and policies are expanding as rapidly as ours. Therefore, we modeled a detailed and up-to-date representation of the amount of biofuel feedstocks that are being and can be grown, current and future biofuels production capacity, and other factors relevant to the economic competitiveness of worldwide biofuels production, use, and trade. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) identified and prepared feedstock data for countries that were likely to be significant exporters of biofuels to the U.S. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) calculated conversion costs by conducting material flow analyses and technology assessments on biofuels technologies. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) integrated the country specific feedstock estimates and conversion costs into the global Energy Technology Perspectives (ETP) MARKAL (MARKet ALlocation) model. The model uses least-cost optimization to project the future state of the global energy system in five year increments. World biofuels production was assessed over the 2010 to 2030 timeframe using scenarios covering a range U.S. policies (tax credits, tariffs, and regulations), as well as oil prices, feedstock availability, and a global CO{sub 2} price. All scenarios include the full implementation of existing U.S. and selected other countries biofuels policies (Table 4). For the U.S., the most important policy is the EISA Title II Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS). It progressively increases the required volumes of renewable fuel used in motor vehicles (Appendix B). The RFS requires 36 billion (B) gallons (gal) per year of renewable fuels by 2022

  1. Environmental engineering of navigation infrastructure: a survey of existing practices, challenges, and potential opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredette, Thomas J; Foran, Christy M; Brasfield, Sandra M; Suedel, Burton C

    2012-01-01

    Navigation infrastructure such as channels, jetties, river training structures, and lock-and-dam facilities are primary components of a safe and efficient water transportation system. Planning for such infrastructure has until recently involved efforts to minimize impacts on the environment through a standardized environmental assessment process. More recently, consistent with environmental sustainability concepts, planners have begun to consider how such projects can also be constructed with environmental enhancements. This study examined the existing institutional conditions within the US Army Corps of Engineers and cooperating federal agencies relative to incorporating environmental enhancements into navigation infrastructure projects. The study sought to (1) investigate institutional attitudes towards the environmental enhancement of navigation infrastructure (EENI) concept, (2) identify potential impediments to implementation and solutions to such impediments, (3) identify existing navigation projects designed with the express intent of enhancing environmental benefit in addition to the primary project purpose, (4) identify innovative ideas for increasing environmental benefits for navigation projects, (5) identify needs for additional technical information or research, and (6) identify laws, regulations, and policies that both support and hinder such design features. The principal investigation tool was an Internet-based survey with 53 questions. The survey captured a wide range of perspectives on the EENI concept including ideas, concerns, research needs, and relevant laws and policies. Study recommendations included further promotion of the concept of EENI to planners and designers, documentation of existing projects, initiation of pilot studies on some of the innovative ideas provided through the survey, and development of national goals and interagency agreements to facilitate implementation. PMID:21796771

  2. Reproductive concerns of children and adolescents with cancer: challenges and potential solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stern C

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Catharyn Stern,1 Rachel Conyers,2 Lisa Orme,2 Shlomi Barak,1,3 Franca Agresta,1 John Seymour2 1Melbourne IVF and Royal Women's Hospital, 2Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, and University of Melbourne, 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia Abstract: The diagnosis of a potentially life-threatening cancer is one of the most traumatic events that can befall a young person and his or her family. However, fortunately, most young people will survive their cancer and its treatment and go on to lead a long and healthy life, with an appropriate expectation of being able to have their own genetic family. However, cancer treatment, including surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy, can have temporary and permanent effects on fertility, including damage to the uterus and pituitary gland, and reduction, or obliteration, of gonadal function, with consequential loss of oocytes or spermatozoa, which may result in ovarian or testicular failure. As the gamete pool is nonrenewable, permanent gonadal failure precludes subsequent fertility with a patient's own genetic material. Awareness and acknowledgement of the likely future fertility implications of cancer treatment is an essential part of any discussion about proposed therapies. Options for girls and young women include freezing mature oocytes and ovarian tissue, as well as attempting to protect the ovaries from the gonadotoxic effects of treatment. Options for boys and young men include semen collection and storage as well as testicular biopsy with freezing of testicular tissue or spermatozoa retrieved from the tissue. Fertility options can now be offered with increasing optimism about success and the provision of a genuine opportunity for having a family. While the initiation of cancer treatment is sometimes truly urgent, the opportunity for a detailed discussion about implications for fertility is of paramount importance for patients and

  3. Proteomic analysis of imatinib-resistant CML-T1 cells reveals calcium homeostasis as a potential therapeutic target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toman, O.; Kabickova, T.; Vit, O.; Fiser, R.; Polakova, K. Machova; Zach, J.; Linhartova, J.; Vyoral, D.; Petrak, J.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) therapy has markedly improved patient prognosis after introduction of imatinib mesylate for clinical use. However, a subset of patients develops resistance to imatinib and other tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), mainly due to point mutations in the region encoding the kinase domain of the fused BCR-ABL oncogene. To identify potential therapeutic targets in imatinib-resistant CML cells, we derived imatinib-resistant CML-T1 human cell line clone (CML-T1/IR) by prolonged exposure to imatinib in growth media. Mutational analysis revealed that the Y235H mutation in BCR-ABL is probably the main cause of CML-T1/IR resistance to imatinib. To identify alternative therapeutic targets for selective elimination of imatinib-resistant cells, we compared the proteome profiles of CML-T1 and CML-T1/IR cells using 2-DE-MS. We identified eight differentially expressed proteins, with strongly upregulated Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor 1 (NHERF1) in the resistant cells, suggesting that this protein may influence cytosolic pH, Ca2+ concentration or signaling pathways such as Wnt in CML-T1/IR cells. We tested several compounds including drugs in clinical use that interfere with the aforementioned processes and tested their relative toxicity to CML-T1 and CML-T1/IR cells. Calcium channel blockers, calcium signaling antagonists and modulators of calcium homeostasis, namely thapsigargin, ionomycin, verapamil, carboxyamidotriazole and immunosuppressive drugs cyclosporine A and tacrolimus (FK-506) were selectively toxic to CML-T1/IR cells. The putative cellular targets of these compounds in CML-T1/IR cells are postulated in this study. We propose that Ca2+ homeostasis can be a potential therapeutic target in CML cells resistant to TKIs. We demonstrate that a proteomic approach may be used to characterize a TKI-resistant population of CML cells enabling future individualized treatment options for patients. PMID:27430982

  4. Sex-specific automatic responses to infant cries: TMS reveals greater excitability in females than males in motor evoked potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene eMessina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging reveals that infant cries activate parts of the premotor cortical system. To validate this effect in a more direct way, we used event-related transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS. Here, we investigated the presence and the time course of modulation of motor cortex excitability in young adults who listened to infant cries. Specifically, we recorded motor evoked potentials (MEPs from the biceps brachii (BB and interosseus dorsalis primus (ID1 muscles as produced by TMS delivered from 0 to 250 ms from sound onset in six steps of 50 ms in 10 females and 10 males. We observed an excitatory modulation of MEPs at 100 ms from the onset of the infant cry specific to females and to the ID1 muscle. We regard this modulation as a response to natural cry sounds because it was delayed, attenuated to stimuli increasingly different from natural cry, and was absent in a separate group of females who listened to non-cry stimuli physically matched to natural infant cries. Furthermore, the 100-ms latency of this modulation is not compatible with a voluntary reaction to the stimulus but suggests an automatic, bottom-up audiomotor association. The brains of adult females appear to be tuned to respond to infant cries with automatic motor excitation. This effect may reflect the greater and longstanding burden on females in caregiving infants.

  5. Potential chromosomal introgression barriers revealed by linkage analysis in a hybrid of Pinus massoniana and P. hwangshanensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Tongming

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exploring the genetic mechanisms underlying speciation is a hot topic in modern genetics and evolutionary studies. Distortion of marker transmission ratio is frequently ascribed to selection against alleles that cause hybrid incompatibility. The natural introgression between P. massoniana and P. hwangshanensis and their distribution ranges lead to the emergence of the two species as desirable organisms to study the genetic mechanisms for speciation. Results Using seeds sampled from trees at different elevations, we consistently detected sharp decreases in seed germination rates of trees in the hybrid zone, which might be due largely to the hybrid incompatibility. A genetic map was established using 192 megagametophytes from a single tree in the hybrid zone of the two species. Segregation distortion analysis revealed that the percentage of significant-segregation-distortion (SSD markers was extremely high, accounting for more than 25% of the segregating markers. The extension range, the distortion direction, and the distortion intensity of SSD markers also varied dramatically on different linkage groups. Conclusions In this study, we display the potential chromosomal introgression barriers between P. massoniana and P. hwangshanensis. Our study provides a valuable platform for conducting genome-wide association of hybrid incompatible QTLs and/or candidate genes with marker transmission ratio distortion in the hybrid.

  6. Sex-Specific Automatic Responses to Infant Cries: TMS Reveals Greater Excitability in Females than Males in Motor Evoked Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Irene; Cattaneo, Luigi; Venuti, Paola; de Pisapia, Nicola; Serra, Mauro; Esposito, Gianluca; Rigo, Paola; Farneti, Alessandra; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2016-01-01

    Neuroimaging reveals that infant cries activate parts of the premotor cortical system. To validate this effect in a more direct way, we used event-related transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Here, we investigated the presence and the time course of modulation of motor cortex excitability in young adults who listened to infant cries. Specifically, we recorded motor evoked potentials (MEPs) from the biceps brachii (BB) and interosseus dorsalis primus (ID1) muscles as produced by TMS delivered from 0 to 250 ms after sound onset in six steps of 50 ms in 10 females and 10 males. We observed an excitatory modulation of MEPs at 100 ms from the onset of infant cry specific to females and to the ID1 muscle. We regard this modulation as a response to natural cry sounds because it was attenuated to stimuli increasingly different from natural cry and absent in a separate group of females who listened to non-cry stimuli physically matched to natural infant cries. Furthermore, the 100-ms latency of this response is not compatible with a voluntary reaction to the stimulus but suggests an automatic, bottom-up audiomotor association. The brains of adult females appear to be tuned to respond to infant cries with automatic motor excitation. PMID:26779061

  7. Comparative Analysis of JmjC Domain-containing Proteins Reveals the Potential Histone Demethylases in Arabidopsis and Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Falong Lu; Guanglin Li; Xia Cui; Chunyan Liu; Xiu-Jie Wang; Xiaofeng Cao

    2008-01-01

    Histone methylation homeostasis is achieved by controlling the balance between methylation and demethylation to maintain chromatin function and developmental regulation. In animals, a conserved Jumonji C (JmjC) domain was found In a large group of histone demethylases. However, it is still unclear whether plants also contain the JmjC domaincontaining active histone demethylases. Here we performed genome-wide screen and phylogenetic analysis of JmjC domaincontaining proteins in the dicot plant, Arabidopsis, and monocot plant rice, and found 21 and 20 JmjC domain-containing, respectively. We also examined the expression of JmjC domain-containing proteins and compared them to human JmjC counterparts for potential enzymatic activity. The spatial expression patterns of the Arabidopsis JmjC domaincontaining genes revealed that they are all actively transcribed genes. These active plant JmjC domain-containing genes could possibly function in epigenetic regulation to antagonize the activity of the large number of putative SET domaincontaining histone methyltransferase activity to dynamically regulate histone methylation homeostasis.

  8. Proteomic analysis of imatinib-resistant CML-T1 cells reveals calcium homeostasis as a potential therapeutic target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toman, O; Kabickova, T; Vit, O; Fiser, R; Polakova, K Machova; Zach, J; Linhartova, J; Vyoral, D; Petrak, J

    2016-09-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) therapy has markedly improved patient prognosis after introduction of imatinib mesylate for clinical use. However, a subset of patients develops resistance to imatinib and other tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), mainly due to point mutations in the region encoding the kinase domain of the fused BCR-ABL oncogene. To identify potential therapeutic targets in imatinib‑resistant CML cells, we derived imatinib-resistant CML-T1 human cell line clone (CML-T1/IR) by prolonged exposure to imatinib in growth media. Mutational analysis revealed that the Y235H mutation in BCR-ABL is probably the main cause of CML-T1/IR resistance to imatinib. To identify alternative therapeutic targets for selective elimination of imatinib-resistant cells, we compared the proteome profiles of CML-T1 and CML-T1/IR cells using 2-DE-MS. We identified eight differentially expressed proteins, with strongly upregulated Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor 1 (NHERF1) in the resistant cells, suggesting that this protein may influence cytosolic pH, Ca2+ concentration or signaling pathways such as Wnt in CML-T1/IR cells. We tested several compounds including drugs in clinical use that interfere with the aforementioned processes and tested their relative toxicity to CML-T1 and CML-T1/IR cells. Calcium channel blockers, calcium signaling antagonists and modulators of calcium homeostasis, namely thapsigargin, ionomycin, verapamil, carboxyamidotriazole and immunosuppressive drugs cyclosporine A and tacrolimus (FK-506) were selectively toxic to CML-T1/IR cells. The putative cellular targets of these compounds in CML-T1/IR cells are postulated in this study. We propose that Ca2+ homeostasis can be a potential therapeutic target in CML cells resistant to TKIs. We demonstrate that a proteomic approach may be used to characterize a TKI-resistant population of CML cells enabling future individualized treatment options for patients. PMID:27430982

  9. Clausmarin A, Potential Immunosuppressant Revealed by Yeast-Based Assay and Interleukin-2 Production Assay in Jurkat T Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitipreya Suauam

    Full Text Available Small-molecule inhibitors of Ca2+-signaling pathways are of medicinal importance, as exemplified by the immunosuppressants FK506 and cyclosporin A. Using a yeast-based assay devised for the specific detection of Ca2+-signaling inhibitors, clausmarin A, a previously reported terpenoid coumarin, was identified as an active substance. Here, we investigated the likely mechanism of clausmarin A action in yeast and Jurkat T-cells. In the presence of 100 mM CaCl2 in the growth medium of Ca2+-sensitive Δzds1 strain yeast, clausmarin A exhibited a dose-dependent alleviation of various defects due to hyperactivation of Ca2+ signaling, such as growth inhibition, polarized bud growth and G2 phase cell-cycle arrest. Furthermore, clausmarin A inhibited the growth of Δmpk1 (lacking the Mpk1 MAP kinase pathway but not Δcnb1 (lacking the calcineurin pathway strain, suggesting that clausmarin A inhibited the calcineurin pathway as presumed from the synthetic lethality of these pathways. Furthermore, clausmarin A alleviated the serious defects of a strain expressing a constitutively active form of calcineurin. In the human Jurkat T-cell line, clausmarin A exhibited a dose-dependent inhibition of IL-2 production and IL-2 gene transcription, as well as an inhibition of NFAT dephosphorylation. The effects of clausmarin A observed in both yeast and Jurkat cells are basically similar to those of FK506. Our study revealed that clausmarin A is an inhibitor of the calcineurin pathway, and that this is probably mediated via inhibition of calcineurin phosphatase activity. As such, clausmarin A is a potential immunosuppressant.

  10. Transcriptomic gene-network analysis of exposure to silver nanoparticle reveals potentially neurodegenerative progression in mouse brain neural cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ho-Chen; Huang, Chin-Lin; Huang, Yuh-Jeen; Hsiao, I-Lun; Yang, Chung-Wei; Chuang, Chun-Yu

    2016-08-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are commonly used in daily living products. AgNPs can induce inflammatory response in neuronal cells, and potentially develop neurological disorders. The gene networks in response to AgNPs-induced neurodegenerative progression have not been clarified in various brain neural cells. This study found that 3-5nm AgNPs were detectable to enter the nuclei of mouse neuronal cells after 24-h of exposure. The differentially expressed genes in mouse brain neural cells exposure to AgNPs were further identified using Phalanx Mouse OneArray® chip, and permitted to explore the gene network pathway regulating in neurodegenerative progression according to Cytoscape analysis. In focal adhesion pathway of ALT astrocytes, AgNPs induced the gene expression of RasGRF1 and reduced its downstream BCL2 gene for apoptosis. In cytosolic DNA sensing pathway of microglial BV2 cells, AgNPs reduced the gene expression of TREX1 and decreased IRF7 to release pro-inflammatory cytokines for inflammation and cellular activation. In MAPK pathway of neuronal N2a cells, AgNPs elevated GADD45α gene expression, and attenuated its downstream PTPRR gene to interfere with neuron growth and differentiation. Moreover, AgNPs induced beta amyloid deposition in N2a cells, and decreased PSEN1 and PSEN2, which may disrupt calcium homeostasis and presynaptic dysfunction for Alzheimer's disease development. These findings suggested that AgNPs exposure reveals the potency to induce the progression of neurodegenerative disorder. PMID:27131904

  11. The therapeutic potential, challenges and future clinical directions of stem cells from the Wharton's jelly of the human umbilical cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongso, Ariff; Fong, Chui-Yee

    2013-04-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from bone marrow, adult organs and fetuses face the disadvantages of invasive isolation, limited cell numbers and ethical constraints while embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) face the clinical hurdles of potential immunorejection and tumorigenesis respectively. These challenges have prompted interest in the study and evaluation of stem cells from birth-associated tissues. The umbilical cord (UC) has been the most popular. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) harvested from cord blood have been successfully used for the treatment of hematopoietic diseases. Stem cell populations have also been reported in other compartments of the UC viz., amnion, subamnion, perivascular region, Wharton's jelly, umbilical blood vessel adventia and endothelium. Differences in stemness characteristics between compartments have been reported and hence derivation protocols using whole UC pieces containing all compartments yield mixed stem cell populations with varied characteristics. Stem cells derived directly from the uncontaminated Wharton's jelly (hWJSCs) appear to offer the best clinical utility because of their unique beneficial properties. They are non-controversial, can be harvested painlessly in abundance, proliferative, possess stemness properties that last several passages in vitro, multipotent, hypoimmunogenic and do not induce tumorigenesis even though they have some ESC markers. hWJSCs and its extracts (conditioned medium and lysate) also possess anti-cancer properties and support HSC expansion ex vivo. They are thus attractive autologous or allogeneic agents for the treatment of malignant and non-malignant hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic diseases. This review critically evaluates their therapeutic value, the challenges and future directions for their clinical application. PMID:23233233

  12. Development of computational fluid dynamics--habitat suitability (CFD-HSI) models to identify potential passage--Challenge zones for migratory fishes in the Penobscot River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haro, Alexander J.; Dudley, Robert W.; Chelminski, Michael

    2012-01-01

    A two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics-habitat suitability (CFD–HSI) model was developed to identify potential zones of shallow depth and high water velocity that may present passage challenges for five anadromous fish species in the Penobscot River, Maine, upstream from two existing dams and as a result of the proposed future removal of the dams. Potential depth-challenge zones were predicted for larger species at the lowest flow modeled in the dam-removal scenario. Increasing flows under both scenarios increased the number and size of potential velocity-challenge zones, especially for smaller species. This application of the two-dimensional CFD–HSI model demonstrated its capabilities to estimate the potential effects of flow and hydraulic alteration on the passage of migratory fish.

  13. 89Zr, a Radiometal Nuclide with High Potential for Molecular Imaging with PET: Chemistry, Applications and Remaining Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Schirrmacher

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Molecular imaging—and especially Positron Emission Tomography (PET—is of increasing importance for the diagnosis of various diseases and thus is experiencing increasing dissemination. Consequently, there is a growing demand for appropriate PET tracers which allow for a specific accumulation in the target structure as well as its visualization and exhibit decay characteristics matching their in vivo pharmacokinetics. To meet this demand, the development of new targeting vectors as well as the use of uncommon radionuclides becomes increasingly important. Uncommon nuclides in this regard enable the utilization of various selectively accumulating bioactive molecules such as peptides, antibodies, their fragments, other proteins and artificial structures for PET imaging in personalized medicine. Among these radionuclides, 89Zr (t1/2 = 3.27 days and mean Eβ+ = 0.389 MeV has attracted increasing attention within the last years due to its favorably long half-life, which enables imaging at late time-points, being especially favorable in case of slowly-accumulating targeting vectors. This review outlines the recent developments in the field of 89Zr-labeled bioactive molecules, their potential and application in PET imaging and beyond, as well as remaining challenges.

  14. Incorporating Indigenous Rights and Environmental Justice into Fishery Management: Comparing Policy Challenges and Potentials from Alaska and Hawaíi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Laurie

    2013-11-01

    Colonial processes including the dispossession of indigenous lands and resources and the development of Western management institutions to govern the use of culturally important fish resources have served in many ways to marginalize indigenous interests within the United States fisheries. In recent years, several US fishery institutions have begun to develop policies that can confront this colonial legacy by better accommodating indigenous perspectives and rights in fishery management practices. This paper analyzes two such policies: the 2005 community quota entity program in Alaska which permits rural communities (predominantly Alaska Native villages) to purchase and lease commercial halibut fishing privileges and the 1994 State of Hawaíi community-based subsistence fishing area (CBSFA) legislation through which Native Hawaiian communities can designate marine space near their community as CBSFAs and collaborate with the state of Hawaíi to manage those areas according to traditional Hawaiian practices. The analysis reveals a striking similarity between the trajectories of these two policies. While they both offered significant potential for incorporating indigenous rights and environmental justice into state or federal fishery management, they have so far largely failed to do so. Environmental managers can gain insights from the challenges and potentials of these two policies. In order to introduce meaningful change, environmental policies that incorporate indigenous rights and environmental justice require a commitment of financial and institutional support from natural resource agencies, a commitment from indigenous groups and communities to organize and develop capacity, and careful consideration of contextual and cultural factors in the design of the policy framework.

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of the Deep-Sea Ascomycetous Filamentous Fungus Cadophora malorum Mo12 from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge Reveals Its Biotechnological Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rédou, Vanessa; Kumar, Abhishek; Hainaut, Matthieu; Henrissat, Bernard; Record, Eric; Barbier, Georges

    2016-01-01

    Cadophora malorum Mo12 was isolated from the Rainbow hydrothermal site on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. We present the draft genome sequence of this filamentous fungal strain, which has high biotechnological potentials as revealed by the presence of genes encoding biotechnologically important enzymes and genes involved in the synthesis of secondary metabolites. PMID:27389260

  16. Effect of endophytic Bacillus cereus ERBP inoculation into non-native host: Potentials and challenges for airborne formaldehyde removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaksar, Gholamreza; Treesubsuntorn, Chairat; Thiravetyan, Paitip

    2016-10-01

    Phytoremediation could be a cost-effective, environmentally friendly approach for the treatment of indoor air. However, some drawbacks still dispute the expediency of phytotechnology. Our objectives were to investigate the competency of plant growth-promoting (PGP) endophytic Bacillus cereus ERBP (endophyte root blue pea), isolated from the root of Clitoria ternatea, to colonize and stabilize within Zamioculcas zamiifolia and Euphorbia milii as non-native hosts without causing any disease or stress symptoms. Moreover, the impact of B. cereus ERBP on the natural shoot endophytic community and for the airborne formaldehyde removal capability of non-native hosts was assessed. Non-native Z. zamiifolia was effectively inoculated with B. cereus ERBP through soil as the most efficient method of endophyte inoculation. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiling of the shoot endophytic community verified the colonization and stability of B. cereus ERBP within its non-native host during a 20-d fumigation period without interfering with the natural shoot endophytic diversity of Z. zamiifolia. B. cereus ERBP conferred full protection to its non-native host against formaldehyde phytotoxicity and enhanced airborne formaldehyde removal of Z. zamiifolia whereas non-inoculated plants suffered from formaldehyde phytotoxicity because their natural shoot endophytic community was detrimentally affected by formaldehyde. In contrast, B. cereus ERBP inoculation into non-native E. milii deteriorated airborne formaldehyde removal of the non-native host (compared to a non-inoculated one) as B. cereus ERBP interfered with natural shoot endophytic community of E. milii, which caused stress symptoms and stimulated ethylene biosynthesis. Non-native host inoculation with PGP B. cereus ERBP could bear potentials and challenges for airborne formaldehyde removal. PMID:27362296

  17. Challenges and potentials in using alternative landscape futures during climate change: A literature review and survey study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Rastandeh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the feasibility of applying alternative futures and scenario analysis in landscape planning during climate change to provide a wider perspective and deeper understanding of this approach for better use and more effective application in the future. The study consists of a literature review and an analysis of recent applied projects carried out worldwide. In addition, an electronic survey was conducted from March to September 2014 to examine viewpoints on the use and application of this approach with reference to climate-change impacts. The survey participants were a group of highly experienced researchers from eighteen countries involved in at least one applied project since 2000 relating to this topic. After analysis of more than forty applied projects, the survey results were incorporated into the analysis to create a comprehensive picture regarding the potentials and limitations of alternative futures and scenario analysis in landscape planning with particular attention to climate change. The findings show that this method is one of the most effective decision-making approaches for adopting landscape policies where landscapes change rapidly under the pressure of urbanisation and climate change. Nevertheless, there is a gap between the advances offered by the approach in various dimensions and the complexity of patterns, uncertainties and upheavals in landscapes due to climate-change impacts in the urbanising world. The research indicates that the approach opens up a great opportunity for decision-makers to expand their perspective and adopt appropriate landscape policies before reaching a point of no return from the sustainability point of view. Meanwhile, there are challenges and barriers in the application of alternative futures and scenario analysis for envisioning the landscapes influenced by climate change and urbanisation that should be pushed back. Although informative, this research raises new questions about this

  18. Forecasting the effects of land use scenarios on farmland birds reveal a potential mitigation of climate change impacts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Princé

    Full Text Available Climate and land use changes are key drivers of current biodiversity trends, but interactions between these drivers are poorly modeled, even though they could amplify or mitigate negative impacts of climate change. Here, we attempt to predict the impacts of different agricultural change scenarios on common breeding birds within farmland included in the potential future climatic suitable areas for these species. We used the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES to integrate likely changes in species climatic suitability, based on species distribution models, and changes in area of farmland, based on the IMAGE model, inside future climatic suitable areas. We also developed six farmland cover scenarios, based on expert opinion, which cover a wide spectrum of potential changes in livestock farming and cropping patterns by 2050. We ran generalized linear mixed models to calibrate the effects of farmland cover and climate change on bird specific abundance within 386 small agricultural regions. We used model outputs to predict potential changes in bird populations on the basis of predicted changes in regional farmland cover, in area of farmland and in species climatic suitability. We then examined the species sensitivity according to their habitat requirements. A scenario based on extensification of agricultural systems (i.e., low-intensity agriculture showed the greatest potential to reduce reverse current declines in breeding birds. To meet ecological requirements of a larger number of species, agricultural policies accounting for regional disparities and landscape structure appear more efficient than global policies uniformly implemented at national scale. Interestingly, we also found evidence that farmland cover changes can mitigate the negative effect of climate change. Here, we confirm that there is a potential for countering negative effects of climate change by adaptive management of landscape. We argue that such studies will help inform

  19. Targeted Capture Sequencing in Whitebark Pine Reveals Range-Wide Demographic and Adaptive Patterns Despite Challenges of a Large, Repetitive Genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syring, John V.; Tennessen, Jacob A.; Jennings, Tara N.; Wegrzyn, Jill; Scelfo-Dalbey, Camille; Cronn, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) inhabits an expansive range in western North America, and it is a keystone species of subalpine environments. Whitebark is susceptible to multiple threats – climate change, white pine blister rust, mountain pine beetle, and fire exclusion – and it is suffering significant mortality range-wide, prompting the tree to be listed as ‘globally endangered’ by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and ‘endangered’ by the Canadian government. Conservation collections (in situ and ex situ) are being initiated to preserve the genetic legacy of the species. Reliable, transferrable, and highly variable genetic markers are essential for quantifying the genetic profiles of seed collections relative to natural stands, and ensuring the completeness of conservation collections. We evaluated the use of hybridization-based target capture to enrich specific genomic regions from the 27 GB genome of whitebark pine, and to evaluate genetic variation across loci, trees, and geography. Probes were designed to capture 7,849 distinct genes, and screening was performed on 48 trees. Despite the inclusion of repetitive elements in the probe pool, the resulting dataset provided information on 4,452 genes and 32% of targeted positions (528,873 bp), and we were able to identify 12,390 segregating sites from 47 trees. Variations reveal strong geographic trends in heterozygosity and allelic richness, with trees from the southern Cascade and Sierra Range showing the greatest distinctiveness and differentiation. Our results show that even under non-optimal conditions (low enrichment efficiency; inclusion of repetitive elements in baits), targeted enrichment produces high quality, codominant genotypes from large genomes. The resulting data can be readily integrated into management and gene conservation activities for whitebark pine, and have the potential to be applied to other members of 5-needle pine group (Pinus subsect. Quinquefolia) due to

  20. Targeted capture sequencing in whitebark pine reveals range-wide demographic and adaptive patterns despite challenges of a large, repetitive genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John eSyring

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis inhabits an expansive range in western North America, and it is a keystone species of subalpine environments. Whitebark is susceptible to multiple threats – climate change, white pine blister rust, mountain pine beetle, and fire exclusion – and it is suffering significant mortality range-wide, prompting the tree to be listed as ‘globally endangered’ by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN and ‘endangered’ by the Canadian government. Conservation collections (in situ and ex situ are being initiated to preserve the genetic legacy of the species. Reliable, transferrable, and highly variable genetic markers are essential for quantifying the genetic profiles of seed collections relative to natural stands, and ensuring the completeness of conservation collections. We evaluated the use of hybridization-based target capture to enrich specific genomic regions from the 30+ GB genome of whitebark pine, and to evaluate genetic variation across loci, trees, and geography. Probes were designed to capture 7,849 distinct genes, and screening was performed on 48 trees. Despite the inclusion of repetitive elements in the probe pool, the resulting dataset provided information on 4,452 genes and 32% of targeted positions (528,873 bp, and we were able to identify 12,390 segregating sites from 47 trees. Variations reveal strong geographic trends in heterozygosity and allelic richness, with trees from the southern Cascade and Sierra Range showing the greatest distinctiveness and differentiation. Our results show that even under non-optimal conditions (low enrichment efficiency; inclusion of repetitive elements in baits, targeted enrichment produces high quality, codominant genotypes from large genomes. The resulting data can be readily integrated into management and gene conservation activities for whitebark pine, and have the potential to be applied to other members of 5-needle pine group (Pinus subsect

  1. Genomic analysis reveals the biotechnological and industrial potential of levan producing halophilic extremophile, Halomonas smyrnensis AAD6T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diken, Elif; Ozer, Tugba; Arikan, Muzaffer; Emrence, Zeliha; Oner, Ebru Toksoy; Ustek, Duran; Arga, Kazim Yalcin

    2015-01-01

    Halomonas smyrnensis AAD6T is a gram negative, aerobic, and moderately halophilic bacterium, and is known to produce high levels of levan with many potential uses in foods, feeds, cosmetics, pharmaceutical and chemical industries due to its outstanding properties. Here, the whole-genome analysis was performed to gain more insight about the biological mechanisms, and the whole-genome organization of the bacterium. Industrially crucial genes, including the levansucrase, were detected and the genome-scale metabolic model of H. smyrnensis AAD6T was reconstructed. The bacterium was found to have many potential applications in biotechnology not only being a levan producer, but also because of its capacity to produce Pel exopolysaccharide, polyhydroxyalkanoates, and osmoprotectants. The genomic information presented here will not only provide additional information to enhance our understanding of the genetic and metabolic network of halophilic bacteria, but also accelerate the research on systematical design of engineering strategies for biotechnology applications. PMID:26251777

  2. Genomic analysis reveals the biotechnological and industrial potential of levan producing halophilic extremophile, Halomonas smyrnensis AAD6T

    OpenAIRE

    Diken, Elif; Ozer, Tugba; ARIKAN, Muzaffer; Emrence, Zeliha; Oner, Ebru Toksoy; Ustek, Duran; Arga, Kazim Yalcin

    2015-01-01

    Halomonas smyrnensis AAD6T is a gram negative, aerobic, and moderately halophilic bacterium, and is known to produce high levels of levan with many potential uses in foods, feeds, cosmetics, pharmaceutical and chemical industries due to its outstanding properties. Here, the whole-genome analysis was performed to gain more insight about the biological mechanisms, and the whole-genome organization of the bacterium. Industrially crucial genes, including the levansucrase, were detected and the ge...

  3. Crystal structure of the papain-like protease of MERS coronavirus reveals unusual, potentially druggable active-site features

    OpenAIRE

    Lei, Jian; Mesters, Jeroen R.; Drosten, Christian; Anemüller, Stefan; Ma, Qingjun; Hilgenfeld, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    The Middle-East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes severe acute pneumonia and renal failure. The MERS-CoV papain-like protease (PLpro) is a potential target for the development of antiviral drugs. To facilitate these efforts, we determined the three-dimensional structure of the enzyme by X-ray crystallography. The molecule consists of a ubiquitin-like domain and a catalytic core domain. The catalytic domain displays an extended right-hand fold with a zinc ribbon and embraces a...

  4. Imaginative Language: What Event-Related Potentials have Revealed about the Nature and Source of Concreteness Effects*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsu-Wen; Federmeier, Kara D.

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral and neuropsychological evidence suggest that abstract and concrete concepts may be represented, retrieved, and processed differently in the human brain. As reviewed in this paper, data using event-related potential measures, some in combination with visual half-field presentation methods, have offered a detailed picture of the nature and source of concreteness effects. In particular, the results provide strong evidence for multiple mechanisms underlying the behavioral processing differences that have long been noted for concrete and abstract words and, further, suggest an intriguing, unique role for the right hemisphere in associating words with sensory imagery.

  5. Comparative analyses reveal potential uses of Brachypodium distachyon as a model for cold stress responses in temperate grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chuan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the potential of Brachypodium distachyon as a model for low temperature stress responses in Pooideae. The ice recrystallization inhibition protein (IRIP genes, fructosyltransferase (FST genes, and many C-repeat binding factor (CBF genes are Pooideae specific and important in low temperature responses. Here we used comparative analyses to study conservation and evolution of these gene families in B. distachyon to better understand its potential as a model species for agriculturally important temperate grasses. Results Brachypodium distachyon contains cold responsive IRIP genes which have evolved through Brachypodium specific gene family expansions. A large cold responsive CBF3 subfamily was identified in B. distachyon, while CBF4 homologs are absent from the genome. No B. distachyon FST gene homologs encode typical core Pooideae FST-motifs and low temperature induced fructan accumulation was dramatically different in B. distachyon compared to core Pooideae species. Conclusions We conclude that B. distachyon can serve as an interesting model for specific molecular mechanisms involved in low temperature responses in core Pooideae species. However, the evolutionary history of key genes involved in low temperature responses has been different in Brachypodium and core Pooideae species. These differences limit the use of B. distachyon as a model for holistic studies relevant for agricultural core Pooideae species.

  6. Genetic analysis of the isolated Faroe Islands reveals SORCS3 as a potential multiple sclerosis risk gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binzer, Stefanie; Stenager, Egon; Binzer, Michael; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Hillert, Jan; Imrell, Kerstin

    genetically homogenous population of the isolated Faroe Islands. METHODS: Twenty-nine Faroese MS cases and 28 controls were genotyped with the HumanOmniExpressExome-chip. The individuals make up 1596 pair-combinations in which we searched for identical-by-descent shared segments using the PLINK-program....... RESULTS: A segment spanning 63 SNPs with excess case-case-pair sharing was identified (0.00173 < p > 0.00212). A haplotype consisting of 42 of the 63 identified SNPs which spanned the entire the Sortilin-related vacuolar protein sorting 10 domain containing receptor 3 (SORCS3) gene had a carrier frequency...... of 0.34 in cases but was not present in any controls (p = 0.0008). CONCLUSION: This study revealed an oversharing in case-case-pairs of a segment spanning 63 SNPs and the entire SORCS3. While not previously associated with MS, SORCS3 appears to be important in neuronal plasticity through its binding...

  7. Bacterial communities potentially involved in iron-cycling in Baltic Sea and North Sea sediments revealed by pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Carolina; Dellwig, Olaf; Dähnke, Kirstin; Gehre, Matthias; Noriega-Ortega, Beatriz E; Böttcher, Michael E; Meister, Patrick; Friedrich, Michael W

    2016-04-01

    To gain insight into the bacterial communities involved in iron-(Fe) cycling under marine conditions, we analysed sediments with Fe-contents (0.5-1.5 wt %) from the suboxic zone at a marine site in the Skagerrak (SK) and a brackish site in the Bothnian Bay (BB) using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Several bacterial families, including Desulfobulbaceae, Desulfuromonadaceae and Pelobacteraceae and genera, includingDesulfobacterandGeobacter, known to reduce Fe were detected and showed highest abundance near the Fe(III)/Fe(II) redox boundary. Additional genera with microorganisms capable of coupling fermentation to Fe-reduction, includingClostridiumandBacillus, were observed. Also, the Fe-oxidizing families Mariprofundaceae and Gallionellaceae occurred at the SK and BB sites, respectively, supporting Fe-cycling. In contrast, the sulphate (SO4 (2-)) reducing bacteriaDesulfococcusandDesulfobacteriumwere more abundant at greater depths concurring with a decrease in Fe-reducing activity. The communities revealed by pyrosequencing, thus, match the redox stratification indicated by the geochemistry, with the known Fe-reducers coinciding with the zone of Fe-reduction. Not the intensely studied model organisms, such asGeobacterspp., but rather versatile microorganisms, including sulphate reducers and possibly unknown groups appear to be important for Fe-reduction in these marine suboxic sediments. PMID:26960392

  8. Proteomics Reveals that Proteins Expressed During the Early Stage of Bacillus anthracis Infection Are Potential Targets for the Development of Vaccines and Drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Ming Huang; Craig A. Elmets; De-chu C. Tang; Fuming Li; Nabiha Yusuf

    2004-01-01

    In this review, we advance a new concept in developing vaccines and/or drugs to target specific proteins expressed during the early stage of Bacillus anthracis (an thrax) infection and address existing challenges to this concept. Three proteins (immune inhibitor A, GPR-like spore protease, and alanine racemase) initially identified by proteomics in our laboratory were found to have differential expres sions during anthrax spore germination and early outgrowth. Other studies of different bacillus strains indicate that these three proteins are involved in either germination or cytotoxicity of spores, suggesting that they may serve as potential targets for the design of anti-anthrax vaccines and drugs.

  9. Proteomics analysis of human obesity reveals the epigenetic factor HDAC4 as a potential target for obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abu-Farha

    Full Text Available Sedentary lifestyle and excessive energy intake are prominent contributors to obesity; a major risk factors for the development of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying these chronic conditions is of relevant importance as it might lead to the identification of novel anti-obesity targets. The purpose of the current study is to investigate differentially expressed proteins between lean and obese subjects through a shot-gun quantitative proteomics approach using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs extracts as well as potential modulation of those proteins by physical exercise. Using this approach, a total of 47 proteins showed at least 1.5 fold change between lean and obese subjects. In obese, the proteomic profiling before and after 3 months of physical exercise showed differential expression of 38 proteins. Thrombospondin 1 (TSP1 was among the proteins that were upregulated in obese subjects and then decreased by physical exercise. Conversely, the histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4 was downregulated in obese subjects and then induced by physical exercise. The proteomic data was further validated by qRT-PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry in both PBMCs and adipose tissue. We also showed that HDAC4 levels correlated positively with maximum oxygen consumption (VO2 Max but negatively with body mass index, percent body fat, and the inflammatory chemokine RANTES. In functional assays, our data indicated that ectopic expression of HDAC4 significantly impaired TNF-α-dependent activation of NF-κB, establishing thus a link between HDAC4 and regulation of the immune system. Together, the expression pattern of HDAC4 in obese subjects before and after physical exercise, its correlation with various physical, clinical and metabolic parameters along with its inhibitory effect on NF-κB are suggestive of a protective role of HDAC4 against obesity. HDAC4 could therefore represent

  10. Interspecific proteomic comparisons reveal ash phloem genes potentially involved in constitutive resistance to the emerald ash borer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin G A Whitehill

    Full Text Available The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis is an invasive wood-boring beetle that has killed millions of ash trees since its accidental introduction to North America. All North American ash species (Fraxinus spp. that emerald ash borer has encountered so far are susceptible, while an Asian species, Manchurian ash (F. mandshurica, which shares an evolutionary history with emerald ash borer, is resistant. Phylogenetic evidence places North American black ash (F. nigra and Manchurian ash in the same clade and section, yet black ash is highly susceptible to the emerald ash borer. This contrast provides an opportunity to compare the genetic traits of the two species and identify those with a potential role in defense/resistance. We used Difference Gel Electrophoresis (DIGE to compare the phloem proteomes of resistant Manchurian to susceptible black, green, and white ash. Differentially expressed proteins associated with the resistant Manchurian ash when compared to the susceptible ash species were identified using nano-LC-MS/MS and putative identities assigned. Proteomic differences were strongly associated with the phylogenetic relationships among the four species. Proteins identified in Manchurian ash potentially associated with its resistance to emerald ash borer include a PR-10 protein, an aspartic protease, a phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductase (PCBER, and a thylakoid-bound ascorbate peroxidase. Discovery of resistance-related proteins in Asian species will inform approaches in which resistance genes can be introgressed into North American ash species. The generation of resistant North American ash genotypes can be used in forest ecosystem restoration and urban plantings following the wake of the emerald ash borer invasion.

  11. Revealing polychaetes invasion patterns: Identification, reproduction and potential risks of the Korean ragworm, Perinereis linea (Treadwell), in the Western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Andrés; Richter, Alexandra; Anadón, Nuria; Glasby, Christopher J.

    2013-10-01

    An established population of the polychaetous annelid Perinereis linea (Treadwell) is reported for the first time outside its native distribution range (NW Pacific). This exotic worm has reached the Western Mediterranean (Mar Menor lagoon) via importing live fishing-bait as it is commonly used by anglers in Mar Menor lagoon, an area largely used for recreational fishing. To avoid confusion with other related species, and because the scientific name has been in synonymy for many years, P. linea is redescribed and illustrated. We focus on the reproductive biology and ecology of P. linea to help to understand its introduction, naturalization and spread along this coastal lagoon. Comparison between the Mediterranean population with a native population from South Korea revealed that the species exhibits a great reproductive plasticity and adaptability, which depends on the environmental conditions. Perinereis linea can reproduce after acquiring the epitokous form or prior to complete epitokal modification. In the Mar Menor lagoon population females release eggs asynchronically without completing epitokal modifications. However, under particular laboratory conditions females produce eggs synchronically and release them after complete epitokal transformations. Fertilization can occur internally in the female coelom, and females release zygotes and larvae through openings in their body walls; they are then incubated in gelatinous masses attached to the female parapodia. The sperm morphology is of the ent-aquasperm type. The eggs and larvae are attacked by symbiotic ciliate protozoa that feed on their yolk reserves. These foreign ciliates may act as carriers of disease in native beachworms and constitute an important risk for the ecosystem health. Finally, we provide recommendations on the prevention of the adverse effects that this exotic ragworm can cause in receiving ecosystems.

  12. Genomic analysis reveals a potential role for cell cycle perturbation in HCV-mediated apoptosis of cultured hepatocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathie-Anne Walters

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms of liver injury associated with chronic HCV infection, as well as the individual roles of both viral and host factors, are not clearly defined. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that direct cytopathic effects, in addition to immune-mediated processes, play an important role in liver injury. Gene expression profiling during multiple time-points of acute HCV infection of cultured Huh-7.5 cells was performed to gain insight into the cellular mechanism of HCV-associated cytopathic effect. Maximal induction of cell-death-related genes and appearance of activated caspase-3 in HCV-infected cells coincided with peak viral replication, suggesting a link between viral load and apoptosis. Gene ontology analysis revealed that many of the cell-death genes function to induce apoptosis in response to cell cycle arrest. Labeling of dividing cells in culture followed by flow cytometry also demonstrated the presence of significantly fewer cells in S-phase in HCV-infected relative to mock cultures, suggesting HCV infection is associated with delayed cell cycle progression. Regulation of numerous genes involved in anti-oxidative stress response and TGF-beta1 signaling suggest these as possible causes of delayed cell cycle progression. Significantly, a subset of cell-death genes regulated during in vitro HCV infection was similarly regulated specifically in liver tissue from a cohort of HCV-infected liver transplant patients with rapidly progressive fibrosis. Collectively, these data suggest that HCV mediates direct cytopathic effects through deregulation of the cell cycle and that this process may contribute to liver disease progression. This in vitro system could be utilized to further define the cellular mechanism of this perturbation.

  13. Next generation sequencing of the hepatitis C virus NS5B gene reveals potential novel S282 drug resistance mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Hezhao; Kozak, Robert A; Biondi, Mia J; Pilon, Richard; Vallee, Dominic; Liang, Ben Binhua; La, David; Kim, John; Van Domselaar, Gary; Leonard, Lynne; Sandstrom, Paul; Brooks, James

    2015-03-01

    Identifying HCV drug resistance mutations (DRMs) is increasingly important as new direct acting antiviral therapies (DAA) become available. Tagged pooled pyrosequencing (TPP) was originally developed as cost-effective approach for detecting low abundance HIV DRMs. Using 127 HCV-positive samples from a Canadian injection drug user cohort, we demonstrated the suitability and efficiency of TPP for evaluating DRMs in HCV NS5B gene. At a mutation identification threshold of 1%, no nucleoside inhibitor DRMs were detected among these DAA naïve subjects. Clinical NS5B resistance to non-nucleoside inhibitors and interferon/ribavirin was predicted to be low within this cohort. S282T mutation, the primary mutation selected by sofosbuvir in vitro, was not identified while S282G/C/R variants were detected in 9 subjects. Further characterization on these new S282 variants using in silico molecular modeling implied their potential association with resistance. Combining TPP with in silico analysis detects NS5B polymorphisms that may explain differences in treatment outcomes. PMID:25600207

  14. Differential gene expression profiling of Listeria monocytogenes in Cacciatore and Felino salami to reveal potential stress resistance biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mataragas, M; Rovetto, F; Bellio, A; Alessandria, V; Rantsiou, K; Decastelli, L; Cocolin, L

    2015-04-01

    The current study reports a) the in situ transcriptional profiles of Listeria monocytogenes in response to fermented sausage stress and b) an approach in which in situ RT-qPCR data have been combined with advanced statistical techniques to discover potential stress resistance or cell viability biomarkers. Gene expression profiling of the pathogen has been investigated using RT-qPCR to understand how L. monocytogenes responds to the conditions encountered during the fermentation and ripening of sausages. A cocktail of five L. monocytogenes strains was inoculated into the batter of Cacciatore and Felino sausages. The RT-qPCR data showed that the acidic and osmotic stress-related genes were up-regulated. The transcripts of the lmo0669 gene increased during the fermentation and ripening of Cacciatore, whereas gbuA and lmo1421 were up-regulated during the ripening of Felino and Cacciatore, respectively. sigB expression was induced in both sausages throughout the whole process. Finally, the virulence-related gene prfA was down-regulated during the fermentation of Cacciatore. The multivariate gene expression profiling analysis suggested that sigB and lmo1421 or sigB and gbuA could be used as different types of stress resistance biomarkers to track, for example, stress resistance or cell viability in fermented sausages with short (Cacciatore) or long (Felino) maturation times, respectively. PMID:25475310

  15. Metagenome reveals potential microbial degradation of hydrocarbon coupled with sulfate reduction in an oil-immersed chimney from Guaymas Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying eHe

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimneys contain a high diversity of microorganisms, yet the metabolic activity and the ecological functions of the microbial communities remain largely unexplored. In this study, a metagenomic approach was applied to characterize the metabolic potential in a Guaymas hydrothermal vent chimney and to conduct comparative genomic analysis among a variety of environments with sequenced metagenomes. Complete clustering of functional gene categories with a comparative metagenomic approach showed that this Guaymas chimney metagenome was clustered most closely with a chimney metagenome from Juan de Fuca. All chimney samples were enriched with genes involved in recombination and repair, chemotaxis and flagellar assembly, highlighting their roles in coping with the fluctuating extreme deep-sea environments. A high proportion of transposases was observed in all the metagenomes from deep-sea chimneys, supporting the previous hypothesis that horizontal gene transfer may be common in the deep-sea vent chimney biosphere. In the Guaymas chimney metagenome, thermophilic sulfate reducing microorganisms including bacteria and archaea were found predominant, and genes coding for the degradation of refractory organic compounds such as cellulose, lipid, pullullan, as well as a few hydrocarbons including toluene, ethylbenzene and o-xylene were identified. Therefore, this oil-immersed chimney supported a thermophilic microbial community capable of oxidizing a range of hydrocarbons that served as electron donors for sulphate reduction under anaerobic conditions.

  16. Involvement of potential pathways in malignant transformation from Oral Leukoplakia to Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma revealed by proteomic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jing

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC is one of the most common forms of cancer associated with the presence of precancerous oral leukoplakia. Given the poor prognosis associated with oral leukoplakia, and the difficulties in distinguishing it from cancer lesions, there is an urgent need to elucidate the molecular determinants and critical signal pathways underlying the malignant transformation of precancerous to cancerous tissue, and thus to identify novel diagnostic and therapeutic target. Results We have utilized two dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE followed by ESI-Q-TOF-LC-MS/MS to identify proteins differentially expressed in six pairs of oral leukoplakia tissues with dysplasia and oral squamous cancer tissues, each pair was collected from a single patient. Approximately 85 differentially and constantly expressed proteins (> two-fold change, P Conclusion Varying levels of differentially expressed proteins were possibly involved in the malignant transformation of oral leukoplakia. Their expression levels, bioprocess, and interaction networks were analyzed using a bioinformatics approach. This study shows that the three homologs of PA28 may play an important role in malignant transformation and is an example of a systematic biology study, in which functional proteomics were constructed to help to elucidate mechanistic aspects and potential involvement of proteins. Our results provide new insights into the pathogenesis of oral cancer. These differentially expressed proteins may have utility as useful candidate markers of OSCC.

  17. Cortical Auditory Evoked Potentials Reveal Changes in Audibility with Nonlinear Frequency Compression in Hearing Aids for Children: Clinical Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Teresa Y C; Zhang, Vicky W; Hou, Sanna; Van Buynder, Patricia

    2016-02-01

    Hearing loss in children is detected soon after birth via newborn hearing screening. Procedures for early hearing assessment and hearing aid fitting are well established, but methods for evaluating the effectiveness of amplification for young children are limited. One promising approach to validating hearing aid fittings is to measure cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEPs). This article provides first a brief overview of reports on the use of CAEPs for evaluation of hearing aids. Second, a study that measured CAEPs to evaluate nonlinear frequency compression (NLFC) in hearing aids for 27 children (between 6.1 and 16.8 years old) who have mild to severe hearing loss is reported. There was no significant difference in aided sensation level or the detection of CAEPs for /g/ between NLFC on and off conditions. The activation of NLFC was associated with a significant increase in aided sensation levels for /t/ and /s/. It also was associated with an increase in detection of CAEPs for /t/ and /s/. The findings support the use of CAEPs for checking audibility provided by hearing aids. Based on the current data, a clinical protocol for using CAEPs to validate audibility with amplification is presented. PMID:27587920

  18. A large survey of Croatian wild mammals for Giardia duodenalis reveals a low prevalence and limited zoonotic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Relja; Sprong, Hein; Lucinger, Snjezana; Pozio, Edoardo; Cacciò, Simone M

    2011-08-01

    Wild mammals are considered an important source of potentially zoonotic Giardia duodenalis parasites, yet surprisingly little information is available on the actual prevalence and the genetic identity of the species they harbor. A large survey was conducted in Croatia by collecting 832 fecal samples from red deer (Cervus elaphus, n = 374), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus, n = 21), wild boars (Sus scrofa, n = 144), foxes (Vulpes vulpes, n = 66), bears (Ursus arctos, n = 19), wolves (Canis lupus, n = 127), jackals (Canis aureus, n = 8), and hares (Lepus europeus, n = 73). Fecal samples were tested for the presence of Giardia cysts using fluorescent microscopy. The observed prevalence ranged from low (1% in red deer, 1.7% in wild boars, and 4.5% in foxes) to moderate (10% in wolves and 12.5% in jackals) to high (24% in roe deer). No cysts were observed in bears and hares. Polymerase chain reaction was performed on microscopically positive samples to amplify fragments of the small subunit ribosomal gene, the ribosomal 5.8S gene and the two flanking internal transcribed sequences, and the triose phosphate isomerase gene. Sequence analysis showed a predominance of G. duodenalis assemblage A in both ruminants (genotypes A1 and A3) and carnivores (genotype A1). G. duodenalis assemblages B, C, and D, as well as Giardia microti, were also detected in this study. This is the first molecular description of the parasite from the red deer, the wolf, and the jackal. The data point to a minor role of wild mammals as reservoirs of zoonotic assemblages of G. duodenalis, albeit cycling between sylvatic and domestic animals is possible. PMID:21142957

  19. Sound Classification and Call Discrimination Are Decoded in Order as Revealed by Event-Related Potential Components in Frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Guangzhan; Yang, Ping; Xue, Fei; Cui, Jianguo; Brauth, Steven E; Tang, Yezhong

    2015-01-01

    Species that use communication sounds to coordinate social and reproductive behavior must be able to distinguish vocalizations from nonvocal sounds as well as to identify individual vocalization types. In this study we sought to identify the neural localization of the processes involved and the temporal order in which they occur in an anuran species, the music frog Babina daunchina. To do this we measured telencephalic and mesencephalic event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by synthesized white noise (WN), highly sexually attractive (HSA) calls produced by males from inside nests and male calls of low sexual attractiveness (LSA) produced outside of nests. Each stimulus possessed similar temporal structures. The results showed the following: (1) the amplitudes of the first negative ERP component (N1) at ∼ 100 ms differed significantly between WN and conspecific calls but not between HSA and LSA calls, indicating that discrimination between conspecific calls and nonvocal sounds occurs in ∼ 100 ms, (2) the amplitudes of the second positive ERP component (P2) at ∼ 200 ms in the difference waves between HSA calls and WN were significantly higher than between LSA calls and WN in the right telencephalon, implying that call characteristic identification occurs in ∼ 200 ms and (3) WN evoked a larger third positive ERP component (P3) at ∼ 300 ms than conspecific calls, suggesting the frogs had classified the conspecific calls into one category and perceived WN as novel. Thus, both the detection of sounds and the identification of call characteristics are accomplished quickly in a specific temporal order, as reflected by ERP components. In addition, the most dynamic ERP patterns appeared in the left mesencephalon and the right telencephalon, indicating the two brain regions might play key roles in anuran vocal communication. PMID:26613526

  20. Different frontal involvement in ALS and PLS revealed by Stroop event-related potentials and reaction times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninfa eAmato

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A growing body of evidence suggests a link between cognitive and pathological changes in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and in frontotemporal lobar dementia (FTLD. Cognitive deficits have been investigated much less extensively in primary lateral sclerosis (PLS than in ALS. OBJECTIVE: to investigate bioelectrical activity to Stroop test, assessing frontal function, in ALS, PLS and control groups. METHODS: 32 non-demented ALS patients, 10 non-demented PLS patients and 27 healthy subjects were included. Twenty-nine electroencephalography (EEG channels with binaural reference were recorded during covert Stroop task performance, involving mental discrimination of the stimuli and not vocal or motor response. Group effects on event related potentials (ERPs latency were analyzed using statistical multivariate analysis. Topographic analysis was performed using low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA. RESULTS: ALS patients committed more errors in the execution of the task but they were not slower, whereas PLS patients did not show reduced accuracy, despite a slowing of reaction times (RTs. The main ERP components were delayed in ALS, but not in PLS, compared with controls. Moreover, RTs speed but not ERP latency correlated with clinical scores. ALS had decreased frontotemporal activity in the P2, P3 and N4 time windows compared to controls. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest a different pattern of psychophysiological involvement in ALS compared with PLS. The former is increasingly recognized to be a multisystems disorder, with a spectrum of executive and behavioural impairments reflecting frontotemporal dysfunction. The latter seems to mainly involve the motor system, with largely spared cognitive functions. Moreover, our results suggest that the covert version of the Stroop task used in the present study, may be useful to assess cognitive state in the very advanced stage of the disease, when other cognitive tasks are not

  1. Suppression subtractive hybridization profiles of radial growth phase and metastatic melanoma cell lines reveal novel potential targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    great potential of involvement in tumor progression for several of the genes identified here. A few sequences obtained here may also contribute to extend annotated mRNAs or to the identification of novel transcripts

  2. Characterization of global microRNA expression reveals oncogenic potential of miR-145 in metastatic colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MicroRNAs (MiRNAs) are short non-coding RNAs that control protein expression through various mechanisms. Their altered expression has been shown to be associated with various cancers. The aim of this study was to profile miRNA expression in colorectal cancer (CRC) and to analyze the function of specific miRNAs in CRC cells. MirVana miRNA Bioarrays were used to determine the miRNA expression profile in eight CRC cell line models, 45 human CRC samples of different stages, and four matched normal colon tissue samples. SW620 CRC cells were stably transduced with miR-143 or miR-145 expression vectors and analyzed in vitro for cell proliferation, cell differentiation and anchorage-independent growth. Signalling pathways associated with differentially expressed miRNAs were identified using a gene set enrichment analysis. The expression analysis of clinical CRC samples identified 37 miRNAs that were differentially expressed between CRC and normal tissue. Furthermore, several of these miRNAs were associated with CRC tumor progression including loss of miR-133a and gain of miR-224. We identified 11 common miRNAs that were differentially expressed between normal colon and CRC in both the cell line models and clinical samples. In vitro functional studies indicated that miR-143 and miR-145 appear to function in opposing manners to either inhibit or augment cell proliferation in a metastatic CRC model. The pathways targeted by miR-143 and miR-145 showed no significant overlap. Furthermore, gene expression analysis of metastatic versus non-metastatic isogenic cell lines indicated that miR-145 targets involved in cell cycle and neuregulin pathways were significantly down-regulated in the metastatic context. MiRNAs showing altered expression at different stages of CRC could be targets for CRC therapies and be further developed as potential diagnostic and prognostic analytes. The identified biological processes and signalling pathways collectively targeted by co-expressed miRNAs in

  3. Part-load performance characterization and energy savings potential of the RTU challenge unit: Carrier weather expert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Weimin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Katipamula, Srinivas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taasevigen, Danny J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-29

    This report documents the development of part-load performance curves and there use with the EnergyPlus simulation tool to estimate the potential savings from the use of WeatherExpert units compared to other standard options.

  4. Investigation of Potential Challenges and Opportunities in the Dutch Real Estate Market : Case company: Present Properties Ltd

    OpenAIRE

    Udalova, Anfisa

    2016-01-01

    In the events of recent economic recovery in the Netherlands, the local market of real estate has seen prerequisites for rehabilitation after the negative consequences of the financial crisis of 2007-08. Following this occasion, many potential entrants, both local and foreign, started seeing this market as a lucrative place for potential expansion. As Present Properties Ltd is particularly interested in entering the Dutch real estate market, yet lacks necessary information about this market, ...

  5. Identification of a gene expression core signature for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) via integrative analysis reveals novel potential compounds for treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Ichim-Moreno, Norú

    2010-05-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a recessive X-linked form of muscular dystrophy and one of the most prevalent genetic disorders of childhood. DMD is characterized by rapid progression of muscle degeneration, and ultimately death. Currently, glucocorticoids are the only available treatment for DMD, but they have been shown to result in serious side effects. The purpose of this research was to define a core signature of gene expression related to DMD via integrative analysis of mouse and human datasets. This core signature was subsequently used to screen for novel potential compounds that antagonistically affect the expression of signature genes. With this approach we were able to identify compounds that are 1) already used to treat DMD, 2) currently under investigation for treatment, and 3) so far unknown but promising candidates. Our study highlights the potential of meta-analyses through the combination of datasets to unravel previously unrecognized associations and reveal new relationships. © IEEE.

  6. Breath gas monitoring during a glucose challenge by a combined PTR-QMS/GC×GC-TOFMS approach for the verification of potential volatile biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Beate; Keller, Stefan; Groeger, Thomas; Matuschek, Georg; Szymczak, Wilfried; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Breath gas profiles, which reflect metabolic disorders like diabetes, are the subject of scientific focus. Nevertheless, profiling is still a challenging task that requires complex and standardized methods. This study was carried out to verify breath gas patterns that were obtained in previous proton-transfer reaction-quadrupole mass spectrometry (PTR-QMS) studies and that can be linked to glucose metabolism. An experimental setup using simultaneous PTR-QMS and complementary highly time-resolved needle trap micro extraction (NTME) combined with comprehensive 2D gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS) was established for the analysis of highly polar volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The method was applied to the breath gas analysis of three volunteers during a glucose challenge, whereby subjects ingested a glucose solution orally. Challenge responsive PTR-QMS target VOCs could be linked to small n-carbonic (C2-C4) alcohols and short chain fatty acids (SCFA). Specific isomers could be identified by simultaneously applied NTME-GC×GC-TOFMS and further verified by their characteristic time profiles and concentrations. The identified VOCs potentially originate from bacteria that are found in the oral cavity and gastrointestinal tract. In this study breath gas monitoring enabled the identification of potential VOC metabolites that can be linked to glucose metabolism. PMID:27341456

  7. Alkali metal Rankine cycle boiler technology challenges and some potential solutions for space nuclear power and propulsion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, J.R.

    1994-07-01

    Alkali metal boilers are of interest for application to future space Rankine cycle power conversion systems. Significant progress on such boilers was accomplished in the 1960's and early 1970's, but development was not continued to operational systems since NASA's plans for future space missions were drastically curtailed in the early 1970's. In particular, piloted Mars missions were indefinitely deferred. With the announcement of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) in July 1989 by President Bush, interest was rekindled in challenging space missions and, consequently in space nuclear power and propulsion. Nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) and nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) were proposed for interplanetary space vehicles, particularly for Mars missions. The potassium Rankine power conversion cycle became of interest to provide electric power for NEP vehicles and for 'dual-mode' NTP vehicles, where the same reactor could be used directly for propulsion and (with an additional coolant loop) for power. Although the boiler is not a major contributor to system mass, it is of critical importance because of its interaction with the rest of the power conversion system; it can cause problems for other components such as excess liquid droplets entering the turbine, thereby reducing its life, or more critically, it can drive instabilities-some severe enough to cause system failure. Funding for the SEI and its associated technology program from 1990 to 1993 was not sufficient to support significant new work on Rankine cycle boilers for space applications. In Fiscal Year 1994, funding for these challenging missions and technologies has again been curtailed, and planning for the future is very uncertain. The purpose of this paper is to review the technologies developed in the 1960's and 1970's in the light of the recent SEI applications. In this way, future Rankine cycle boiler programs may be conducted most efficiently.

  8. A 30-Year Multi-Sensor Vegetation Index and Land Surface Phenology Data Record: Methods Challenges and Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didan, K.; Barreto-munoz, A.; Miura, T.; Tsend-Ayush, J.

    2013-12-01

    During the last five years the Vegetation Index and Phenology Lab. (vip.arizona.edu) embarked on an effort to process a global multi-sensor Earth Science Data Record of NDVI, EVI2, and land surface Phenology. Data from AVHRR, MODIS, and SPOT-VGT, covering the period 1981 to present, were processed into a seamless and sensor independent record using a suite of community algorithms for data filtering, across-sensor continuity, Vegetation Index (NDVI and EVI2), land surface Phenology, and spatial and temporal gap filling. Currently at Version 3.0 these ESDRs are suitable for the study of land surface vegetation dynamics, long term change and trends, anomalies, and can support various ecosystem and climate modeling efforts by providing key parameters. While adapting the various algorithms to processing this new data record many challenges emerged, ranging from excessive missing and poor quality data to complex and temporally dependent divergence across the various sensors making continuity quite difficult. The first step to addressing these challenges was the adoption of very strict and low tolerance to noise data filters, where the intrinsic input data quality is used along with the long term expected dynamic range to screen for outliers and poor quality. A sophisticated and explicit per-pixel and seasonally dependent across-sensor translation algorithm was developed to address the continuity more properly. To generate the land surface phenology we adapted various community algorithms to work with and take advantage of this new record. Both the standard MODIS Vegetation dynamic algorithm and an in-house homogeneous cluster algorithm were applied to the data. We've also completed a spatially and temporally explicit error and uncertainty characterization of this record. Results indicate a VI error in the range of 5-10% VI units and a 5-40 days error in the date dependent phenology parameters, with an average error of 15 days. This VIP record accounts now for more than

  9. Renewable energy-driven desalination technologies: A comprehensive review on challenges and potential applications of integrated systems

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffour, Noreddine

    2015-01-01

    Despite the tremendous improvements in conventional desalination technologies, its wide use is still limited due primarily to high energy requirements which are currently met with expensive fossil fuels. The use of alternative energy sources is essential to meet the growing demand for water desalination. In the last few decades a lot of effort has being directed in the use of different renewable energy (RE) sources to run desalination processes. However, the expansion of these efforts towards larger scale plants is hampered by several techno-economic challenges. Several medium-scale RE-driven desalination plants have been installed worldwide. Nevertheless, most of these plants are connected to the electrical grid to assure a continuous energy supply for stable operation. Furthermore, RE is mostly used to produce electric power which can be used to run desalination systems. This review paper focuses on an integrated approach in using RE-driven with an emphasis on solar and geothermal desalination technologies. Innovative and sustainable desalination processes which are suitable for integrated RE systems are presented. An assessment of the benefits of these technologies and their limitations are also discussed.

  10. Record of proceedings: Conference on state regulation and the market potential for natural gas: Challenges and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference was convened by the US Department of Energy and the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners to provide a forum for state and federal policymakers, sate and federal regulators, and all segments of the natural gas industry to address issues of significance to the current and future use of natural gas, with particular emphasis on sate regulation. The conference brought together a cross-section of interested parties to begin the process of identifying the barriers to natural gas achieving its market potential and developing better communication between Federal officials, State officials and different segments of the natural gas and electric industries

  11. Determination of genetic toxicity and potential carcinogenicity in vitro--challenges post the Seventh Amendment to the European Cosmetics Directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tweats, D J; Scott, A D; Westmoreland, C; Carmichael, P L

    2007-01-01

    Genetic toxicology and its role in the detection of carcinogens is currently undergoing a period of reappraisal. There is an increasing interest in developing alternatives to animal testing and the three R's of reduction, refinement and replacement are the basis for EU and national animal protection laws the Seventh Amendment to the EU Cosmetics Directive will ban the marketing of cosmetic/personal care products that contain ingredients that have been tested in animal models. Thus in vivo tests such as the bone marrow micronucleus test, which has a key role in current testing strategies for genotoxicity, will not be available for this class of products. The attrition rate for new, valuable and safe chemicals tested in an in vitro-only testing battery, using the in vitro tests currently established for genotoxicity screening, will greatly increase once this legislation is in place. In addition there has been an explosion of knowledge concerning the cellular and molecular events leading to carcinogenesis. This knowledge has not yet been fully factored into screening chemicals for properties that are not directly linked to mutation induction. Thus there is a pressing need for new, more accurate approaches to determine genotoxicity and carcinogenicity. However, a considerable challenge is presented for these new approaches to be universally accepted and new tests sufficiently validated by March 2009 when the animal testing and marketing bans associated with the Seventh Amendment are due to come into force. This commentary brings together ideas and approaches from several international workshops and meetings to consider these issues. PMID:17142828

  12. Food waste collection and recycling for value-added products: potential applications and challenges in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Irene M C; Woon, Kok Sin

    2016-04-01

    About 3600 tonnes food waste are discarded in the landfills in Hong Kong daily. It is expected that the three strategic landfills in Hong Kong will be exhausted by 2020. In consideration of the food waste management environment and community needs in Hong Kong, as well as with reference to the food waste management systems in cities such as Linköping in Sweden and Oslo in Norway, a framework of food waste separation, collection, and recycling for food waste valorization is proposed in this paper. Food waste can be packed in an optic bag (i.e., a bag in green color), while the residual municipal solid waste (MSW) can be packed in a common plastic bag. All the wastes are then sent to the refuse transfer stations, in which food waste is separated from the residual MSW using an optic sensor. On the one hand, the sorted food waste can be converted into valuable materials (e.g., compost, swine feed, fish feed). On the other hand, the sorted food waste can be sent to the proposed Organic Waste Treatment Facilities and sewage treatment works for producing biogas. The biogas can be recovered to produce electricity and city gas (i.e., heating fuel for cooking purpose). Due to the challenges faced by the value-added products in Hong Kong, the biogas is recommended to be upgraded as a biogas fuel for vehicle use. Hopefully, the proposed framework will provide a simple and effective approach to food waste separation at source and promote sustainable use of waste to resource in Hong Kong. PMID:25772864

  13. Cross-Platform Assessment of Genomic Imbalance Confirms the Clinical Relevance of Genomic Complexity and Reveals Loci with Potential Pathogenic Roles in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Lizalynn M.; Thodima, Venkata; Friedman, Julia; Ma, Charles; Guttapalli, Asha; Mendiratta, Geetu; Siddiqi, Imran N.; Syrbu, Sergei; Chaganti, R. S. K.; Houldsworth, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Genomic copy number alterations (CNAs) in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) have roles in disease pathogenesis but overall clinical relevance remains unclear. Herein, an unbiased algorithm was uniformly applied across three genome profiling datasets comprising 392 newly-diagnosed DLBCL specimens that defined 32 overlapping CNAs, involving 36 minimal common regions (MCRs). Scoring criteria were established for 50 aberrations within the MCRs while considering peak gains/losses. Application of these criteria to independent datasets revealed novel candidate genes with coordinated expression, such as CNOT2, potentially with pathogenic roles. No one single aberration significantly associated with patient outcome across datasets, but genomic complexity, defined by imbalance in more than one MCR, significantly portended adverse outcome in two of three independent datasets. Thus, the standardized scoring of CNAs currently developed can be uniformly applied across platforms, affording robust validation of genomic imbalance and complexity in DLBCL and overall clinical utility as biomarkers of patient outcome. PMID:26294112

  14. Intramolecular telomeric G-quadruplexes dramatically inhibit DNA synthesis by replicative and translesion polymerases, revealing their potential to lead to genetic change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deanna N Edwards

    Full Text Available Recent research indicates that hundreds of thousands of G-rich sequences within the human genome have the potential to form secondary structures known as G-quadruplexes. Telomeric regions, consisting of long arrays of TTAGGG/AATCCC repeats, are among the most likely areas in which these structures might form. Since G-quadruplexes assemble from certain G-rich single-stranded sequences, they might arise when duplex DNA is unwound such as during replication. Coincidentally, these bulky structures when present in the DNA template might also hinder the action of DNA polymerases. In this study, single-stranded telomeric templates with the potential to form G-quadruplexes were examined for their effects on a variety of replicative and translesion DNA polymerases from humans and lower organisms. Our results demonstrate that single-stranded templates containing four telomeric GGG runs fold into intramolecular G-quadruplex structures. These intramolecular G quadruplexes are somewhat dynamic in nature and stabilized by increasing KCl concentrations and decreasing temperatures. Furthermore, the presence of these intramolecular G-quadruplexes in the template dramatically inhibits DNA synthesis by various DNA polymerases, including the human polymerase δ employed during lagging strand replication of G-rich telomeric strands and several human translesion DNA polymerases potentially recruited to sites of replication blockage. Notably, misincorporation of nucleotides is observed when certain translesion polymerases are employed on substrates containing intramolecular G-quadruplexes, as is extension of the resulting mismatched base pairs upon dynamic unfolding of this secondary structure. These findings reveal the potential for blockage of DNA replication and genetic changes related to sequences capable of forming intramolecular G-quadruplexes.

  15. Genome‐wide analysis reveals conserved transcriptional responses downstream of resting potential change in Xenopus embryos, axolotl regeneration, and human mesenchymal cell differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Vaibhav P.; Martyniuk, Christopher J.; Echeverri, Karen; Sundelacruz, Sarah; Kaplan, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Endogenous bioelectric signaling via changes in cellular resting potential (V mem) is a key regulator of patterning during regeneration and embryogenesis in numerous model systems. Depolarization of V mem has been functionally implicated in dedifferentiation, tumorigenesis, anatomical re‐specification, and appendage regeneration. However, no unbiased analyses have been performed to understand genome‐wide transcriptional responses to V mem change in vivo. Moreover, it is unknown which genes or gene networks represent conserved targets of bioelectrical signaling across different patterning contexts and species. Here, we use microarray analysis to comparatively analyze transcriptional responses to V mem depolarization. We compare the response of the transcriptome during embryogenesis (Xenopus development), regeneration (axolotl regeneration), and stem cell differentiation (human mesenchymal stem cells in culture) to identify common networks across model species that are associated with depolarization. Both subnetwork enrichment and PANTHER analyses identified a number of key genetic modules as targets of V mem change, and also revealed important (well‐conserved) commonalities in bioelectric signal transduction, despite highly diverse experimental contexts and species. Depolarization regulates specific transcriptional networks across all three germ layers (ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm) such as cell differentiation and apoptosis, and this information will be used for developing mechanistic models of bioelectric regulation of patterning. Moreover, our analysis reveals that V mem change regulates transcripts related to important disease pathways such as cancer and neurodegeneration, which may represent novel targets for emerging electroceutical therapies. PMID:27499876

  16. ITRAQ-based quantitative proteomics reveals apolipoprotein A-I and transferrin as potential serum markers in CA19-9 negative pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chao; Wu, Wen-Chuan; Zhao, Guo-Chao; Wang, Dan-Song; Lou, Wen-Hui; Jin, Da-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Currently the diagnosis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) relies on CA19-9 and radiological means, whereas some patients do not have elevated levels of CA19-9 secondary to pancreatic cancer. The purpose of this study was to identify potential serum biomarkers for CA19-9 negative PDAC. A total of 114 serum samples were collected from 3 groups: CA19-9 negative PDAC patients (n = 34), CA19-9 positive PDAC patients (n = 44), and healthy volunteers (n = 36), whereas the first 12 samples from each group were used for isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) analysis. Thereafter, candidate biomarkers were selected for validation by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with the rest specimens. Using the iTRAQ approach, a total of 5 proteins were identified as significantly different between CA19-9 negative PDAC patients and healthy subjects according to our defined criteria. Apolipoprotein A-I (APOA-I) and transferrin (TF) were selected to validate the proteomic results by ELISA in a further 78 serum specimens. It revealed that TF significantly correlated with the degree of histological differentiation (P = 0.042), and univariate and multivariate analyses indicated that TF is an independent prognostic factor for survival (hazard ratio, 0.302; 95% confidence interval, 0.118–0.774; P = 0.013) of patients with PDAC after curative surgery. ITRAQ-based quantitative proteomics revealed that APOA-I and TF may be potential CA19-9 negative PDAC serum markers. PMID:27495108

  17. A New Coupling Potential for the Scattering of Deformed Light Heavy-Ions A Challenge to the Standard Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Boztosun, I

    2000-01-01

    We present new findings for a number of systems over a wide energy range. This investigation addresses the problems that previous models could not account for within the framework of the coupled-channels theory for light heavy-ion reactions such as $^{16}$O+$^{28}$Si, $^{12}$C+$^{24}$Mg and $^{12}$C+$^{12}$C. The present letter shows the limitations of the standard coupled-channels theory and also demonstrates that a global solution, which accounts for the scattering observables over a wide energy range, can be found using a new second-derivative coupling potential in the coupled-channels formalism. This new approach consistently improves the agreement with the experimental data for the elastic and inelastic scattering as well as for their excitation functions using constant or slightly energy-dependent parameters.

  18. The challenges of big data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardis, Elaine R

    2016-05-01

    The largely untapped potential of big data analytics is a feeding frenzy that has been fueled by the production of many next-generation-sequencing-based data sets that are seeking to answer long-held questions about the biology of human diseases. Although these approaches are likely to be a powerful means of revealing new biological insights, there are a number of substantial challenges that currently hamper efforts to harness the power of big data. This Editorial outlines several such challenges as a means of illustrating that the path to big data revelations is paved with perils that the scientific community must overcome to pursue this important quest. PMID:27147249

  19. The challenges of big data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The largely untapped potential of big data analytics is a feeding frenzy that has been fueled by the production of many next-generation-sequencing-based data sets that are seeking to answer long-held questions about the biology of human diseases. Although these approaches are likely to be a powerful means of revealing new biological insights, there are a number of substantial challenges that currently hamper efforts to harness the power of big data. This Editorial outlines several such challenges as a means of illustrating that the path to big data revelations is paved with perils that the scientific community must overcome to pursue this important quest. PMID:27147249

  20. Immunization with a synthetic robustoxin derivative lacking disulphide bridges protects against a potentially lethal challenge with funnel-web spider (Atrax robustus) venom

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Alfio Comis; Margaret Tyler; Ewan Mylecharane; Ian Spence; Merlin Howden

    2009-03-01

    The venom of male Atrax robustus spiders is potentially lethal to primates. These spiders have been responsible for a number of human deaths. Robustoxin is the lethal toxin in the venom. It is a highly cross-linked polypeptide that has 42 amino acid residues and four disulphide bridges. If these bridges are broken, the resulting polypeptide is nontoxic. Robustoxin was chemically synthesized with all of its eight cysteine residues protected with acetamidomethyl groups in order to avoid formation of disulphide bridges. The resulting derivative was co-polymerized with keyhole limpet haemocyanin. Two Macaca fascicularis monkeys were immunized with this conjugate. The monkeys were challenged, under anaesthesia, with a potentially lethal dose of male A. robustus crude venom. Both monkeys showed some minor symptoms of intoxication but recovered fully with no adverse after-effects. Immunization with the same immunogen, in the absence of keyhole limpet haemocyanin, did not protect a third monkey. The N-terminal 23 amino acid peptide derived from the sequence of robustoxin was synthesized and conjugated with ovalbumin. A fourth monkey was immunized with this conjugate. However, it was not protected against challenge. The implications of these results for the preparation of synthetic peptide vaccines are discussed.

  1. Pressurized HxCyOz Cells at ca. 250 °C: Potential and Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg; Chatzichristodoulou, Christodoulos; Allebrod, Frank;

    2013-01-01

    focus on cells that may have a potential of forming or using HxCyOz in electrolysis or fuel cell mode, respectively. Examples of HxCyOz are hydrogen with (x,y,z) = (2,0,0), carbon monoxide with (x,y,z) = (0,1,1), methane with (x,y,z) = (4,1,0), gasoline with approximately (x,y,z) = (18,8,0), methanol...... with (x,y,z) = (4,1,1), and dimethyl ether (DME) with (x,y,z) = (6,2,1). The temperature about 200 – 300 °C is of particular interest because if the direct electrochemical reduction products from electrolysis of H2O and CO2 mixtures are H2 and CO (syngas) then this temperature together with increased...... acid, and BaZr1-u-vCeuYvO3-δ proton conducting electrolytes have been constructed and tested. Reduction of CO2 seems significantly more difficult than reduction of H2O. This and many other challenges appear from our work. The apparent challenges and the potential benefits that make it worthwhile to...

  2. Consideration on the potential increasing risk of the proliferation of nuclear materials vs. Nonproliferation challenges from nuclear renaissance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Managing Proliferation Risk in the Global Expansion of Nuclear Energy, enhancing the Security and Safety for the management of Nuclear Material (NM) is of high level of importance. It is to be noted that the IAEA has proposed the nuclear fuel cycle center concept for international management aiming at decreasing the Proliferation Risk of NM. The paper will presents some specific Security and Safety aspects need in order to apply and to improve its Nuclear Security Regime (Framework), the State Nuclear Security Risk Management associated with the transport of NM since sabotage or a malicious may happen during transport and potentially can involve the intentional increasing of the proliferation risk of such material. Such actions could result in severe deterministic health effects to population. Some additional or improved measures related to Nuclear Security, efforts to secure nuclear material and other radioactive material there will be also presented. An assessment of vulnerability of possible transport routes will be approached. It is to be noted that this paper considers some results carried out under the IAEA Scientific Research Contract on The State Management of Nuclear Security Regime (Framework), where the author is the CSI (Chief Scientific Investigator). (author)

  3. Identification of Novel Proteins Co-Purifying with Cockayne Syndrome Group B (CSB Reveals Potential Roles for CSB in RNA Metabolism and Chromatin Dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Nicolai

    Full Text Available The CSB protein, a member of the SWI/SNF ATP dependent chromatin remodeling family of proteins, plays a role in a sub-pathway of nucleotide excision repair (NER known as transcription coupled repair (TCR. CSB is frequently mutated in Cockayne syndrome group B, a segmental progeroid human autosomal recessive disease characterized by growth failure and degeneration of multiple organs. Though initially classified as a DNA repair protein, recent studies have demonstrated that the loss of CSB results in pleiotropic effects. Identification of novel proteins belonging to the CSB interactome may be useful not only for predicting the molecular basis for diverse pathological symptoms of CS-B patients but also for unraveling the functions of CSB in addition to its authentic role in DNA repair. In this study, we performed tandem affinity purification (TAP technology coupled with mass spectrometry and co-immunoprecipitation studies to identify and characterize the proteins that potentially interact with CSB-TAP. Our approach revealed 33 proteins that were not previously known to interact with CSB. These newly identified proteins indicate potential roles for CSB in RNA metabolism involving repression and activation of transcription process and in the maintenance of chromatin dynamics and integrity.

  4. Burkholderia genome mining for nonribosomal peptide synthetases reveals a great potential for novel siderophores and lipopeptides synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeel, Qassim; Pupin, Maude; Kieu, Nam Phuong; Chataigné, Gabrielle; Béchet, Max; Deravel, Jovana; Krier, François; Höfte, Monica; Jacques, Philippe; Leclère, Valérie

    2016-06-01

    Burkholderia is an important genus encompassing a variety of species, including pathogenic strains as well as strains that promote plant growth. We have carried out a global strategy, which combined two complementary approaches. The first one is genome guided with deep analysis of genome sequences and the second one is assay guided with experiments to support the predictions obtained in silico. This efficient screening for new secondary metabolites, performed on 48 gapless genomes of Burkholderia species, revealed a total of 161 clusters containing nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs), with the potential to synthesize at least 11 novel products. Most of them are siderophores or lipopeptides, two classes of products with potential application in biocontrol. The strategy led to the identification, for the first time, of the cluster for cepaciachelin biosynthesis in the genome of Burkholderia ambifaria AMMD and a cluster corresponding to a new malleobactin-like siderophore, called phymabactin, was identified in Burkholderia phymatum STM815 genome. In both cases, the siderophore was produced when the strain was grown in iron-limited conditions. Elsewhere, the cluster for the antifungal burkholdin was detected in the genome of B. ambifaria AMMD and also Burkholderia sp. KJ006. Burkholderia pseudomallei strains harbor the genetic potential to produce a novel lipopeptide called burkhomycin, containing a peptidyl moiety of 12 monomers. A mixture of lipopeptides produced by Burkholderia rhizoxinica lowered the surface tension of the supernatant from 70 to 27 mN·m(-1) . The production of nonribosomal secondary metabolites seems related to the three phylogenetic groups obtained from 16S rRNA sequences. Moreover, the genome-mining approach gave new insights into the nonribosomal synthesis exemplified by the identification of dual C/E domains in lipopeptide NRPSs, up to now essentially found in Pseudomonas strains. PMID:27060604

  5. High-resolution GPS tracking reveals habitat selection and the potential for long-distance seed dispersal by Madagascan flying foxes Pteropus rufus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Oleksy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-distance seed dispersal can be important for the regeneration of forested habitats, especially in regions where deforestation has been severe. Old World fruit bats (Pteropodidae have considerable potential for long-distance seed dispersal. We studied the movement patterns and feeding behaviour of the endemic Madagascan flying fox Pteropus rufus, in Berenty Reserve, southeast Madagascar. Between July and September 2012 (the dry season nine males and six females were tagged with customised GPS loggers which recorded fixes every 2.5 min between 18.00 and 06.00 h. The combined home range of all of the tagged bats during 86 nights exceeded 58,000 ha. Females had larger home ranges and core foraging areas and foraged over longer distances (average 28.1 km; median 26.7 km than males (average 15.4 km; median 9.5 km. Because the study was conducted during the gestation period, the increased energy requirements of females may explain their greater mean foraging area. Compositional analysis revealed that bats show strong preferences for overgrown sisal (Agave sisalana plantations (a mix of shrub, trees and sisal plants and remnant riverside forest patches. Sisal nectar and pollen were abundant food sources during the tracking period and this probably contributed to the selective use of overgrown sisal plantations. The bats also ate large quantities of figs (Ficus grevei during the study, and dispersed seeds of this important pioneer species. The bats flew at an average speed of 9.13 m/s, perhaps to optimise gliding performance. The study confirms that P. rufus has the potential to be a long-distance seed disperser, and is able to fly over a large area, often crossing cleared parts of its habitat. It potentially plays an important role in the regeneration of threatened forest habitats in this biodiversity hotspot.

  6. The Crystal Structure of the Ivy delta4-16:0-ACP Desaturase Reveals Structural Details of the Oxidized Active Site and Potential Determinants of Regioselectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guy,J.; Whittle, E.; Kumaran, D.; Lindqvist, Y.; Shanklin, J.

    2007-01-01

    The multifunctional acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) desaturase from Hedera helix (English ivy) catalyzes the {Delta}{sup 4} desaturation of 16:0-ACP and the{Delta}{sup 9} desaturation of 18:0-ACP and further desaturates{Delta}{sup 9}-16:1 or {Delta}{sup 9}-18:1 to the corresponding {Delta}{sup 4,9} dienes. The crystal structure of the enzyme has been solved to 1.95{angstrom} resolution, and both the iron-iron distance of 3.2{angstrom} and the presence of a {mu}-oxo bridge reveal this to be the only reported structure of a desaturase in the oxidized FeIII-FeIII form. Significant differences are seen between the oxidized active site and the reduced active site of the Ricinus communis (castor) desaturase; His{sup 227} coordination to Fe2 is lost, and the side chain of Glu{sup 224}, which bridges the two iron ions in the reduced structure, does not interact with either iron. Although carboxylate shifts have been observed on oxidation of other diiron proteins, this is the first example of the residue moving beyond the coordination range of both iron ions. Comparison of the ivy and castor structures reveal surface amino acids close to the annulus of the substrate-binding cavity and others lining the lower portion of the cavity that are potential determinants of their distinct substrate specificities. We propose a hypothesis that differences in side chain packing explains the apparent paradox that several residues lining the lower portion of the cavity in the ivy desaturase are bulkier than their equivalents in the castor enzyme despite the necessity for the ivy enzyme to accommodate three more carbons beyond the diiron site.

  7. IL-2 immunotherapy reveals potential for innate beta cell regeneration in the non-obese diabetic mouse model of autoimmune diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaiza Diaz-de-Durana

    Full Text Available Type-1 diabetes (T1D is an autoimmune disease targeting insulin-producing beta cells, resulting in dependence on exogenous insulin. To date, significant efforts have been invested to develop immune-modulatory therapies for T1D treatment. Previously, IL-2 immunotherapy was demonstrated to prevent and reverse T1D at onset in the non-obese diabetic (NOD mouse model, revealing potential as a therapy in early disease stage in humans. In the NOD model, IL-2 deficiency contributes to a loss of regulatory T cell function. This deficiency can be augmented with IL-2 or antibody bound to IL-2 (Ab/IL-2 therapy, resulting in regulatory T cell expansion and potentiation. However, an understanding of the mechanism by which reconstituted regulatory T cell function allows for reversal of diabetes after onset is not clearly understood. Here, we describe that Ab/IL-2 immunotherapy treatment, given at the time of diabetes onset in NOD mice, not only correlated with reversal of diabetes and expansion of Treg cells, but also demonstrated the ability to significantly increase beta cell proliferation. Proliferation appeared specific to Ab/IL-2 immunotherapy, as anti-CD3 therapy did not have a similar effect. Furthermore, to assess the effect of Ab/IL-2 immunotherapy well after the development of diabetes, we tested the effect of delaying treatment for 4 weeks after diabetes onset, when beta cells were virtually absent. At this late stage after diabetes onset, Ab/IL-2 treatment was not sufficient to reverse hyperglycemia. However, it did promote survival in the absence of exogenous insulin. Proliferation of beta cells could not account for this improvement as few beta cells remained. Rather, abnormal insulin and glucagon dual-expressing cells were the only insulin-expressing cells observed in islets from mice with established disease. Thus, these data suggest that in diabetic NOD mice, beta cells have an innate capacity for regeneration both early and late in disease

  8. Potentiation of the bioavailability of blueberry phenolic compounds by co-ingested grape phenolic compounds in mice, revealed by targeted metabolomic profiling in plasma and feces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudonné, Stéphanie; Dal-Pan, Alexandre; Dubé, Pascal; Varin, Thibault V; Calon, Frédéric; Desjardins, Yves

    2016-08-10

    The low bioavailability of dietary phenolic compounds, resulting from poor absorption and high rates of metabolism and excretion, is a concern as it can limit their potential beneficial effects on health. Targeted metabolomic profiling in plasma and feces of mice supplemented for 15 days with a blueberry extract, a grape extract or their combination revealed significantly increased plasma concentrations (3-5 fold) of blueberry phenolic metabolites in the presence of a co-ingested grape extract, associated with an equivalent decrease in their appearance in feces. Additionally, the repeated daily administration of the blueberry-grape combination significantly increased plasma phenolic concentrations (2-3-fold) compared to animals receiving only a single acute dose, with no such increase being observed with individual extracts. These findings highlight a positive interaction between blueberry and grape constituents, in which the grape extract enhanced the absorption of blueberry phenolic compounds. This study provides for the first time in vivo evidence of such an interaction occurring between co-ingested phenolic compounds from fruit extracts leading to their improved bioavailability. PMID:27443888

  9. Identification of miRNomes reveals ssc-miR-30d-R_1 as a potential therapeutic target for PRRS viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengmin; Zhang, Yanyu; Luo, Jing; Ding, Hua; Liu, Shelan; Amer, Said; Xie, Li; Lyv, Wenting; Su, Wen; Li, Meng; Sun, Qinmiao; Dai, Jiayin; He, Hongxuan

    2016-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is known to cause reproductive disorders, such as abortion, in pregnant sows as well as immunosuppressive respiratory complications, leading to severe respiratory tract infections in young pigs. In this study, an in-depth analysis of the miRNomes in mock- and virus-infected pig lungs was carried out. We found that highly expressed ssc-miR-30d-R_1 was decreased in infected lungs, and reduced levels were significantly correlated with infection by PRRSV. Moreover, ssc-miR-30d-R_1 was shown to target Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and to suppress the production of immune cytokines through inhibition of the TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB pathway. ssc-miR-30d-R_1 significantly reduced viral infections and pathological changes in pig lungs in vivo. Our current study reveals the miRNomes of PRRSV-infected pig lungs and indicates that ssc-miR-30d-R_1 is potential therapeutic agent for controlling PRRSV infection. PMID:27117627

  10. Working pupils: challenges and potential

    OpenAIRE

    Howieson, Cathy; McKechnie, J.; Semple, Sheila

    2012-01-01

    Successive governments, agencies and employer organisations have stressed the need for school leavers to be better prepared for working life, in particular, to achieve what are frequently termed employability skills; schools are expected to contribute to this policy agenda. Some academic commentators, however, criticise the concept of employability and schools’ role in it although others argue that the concept does have value and utility. While there are strongly held opposing stances on empl...

  11. Ubiquitous Computing: Potentials and Challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Sen, Jaydip

    2010-01-01

    The world is witnessing the birth of a revolutionary computing paradigm that promises to have a profound effect on the way we interact with computers, devices, physical spaces, and other people. This new technology, called ubiquitous computing, envisions a world where embedded processors, computers, sensors, and digital communications are inexpensive commodities that are available everywhere. Ubiquitous computing will surround users with a comfortable and convenient information environment that merges physical and computational infrastructures into an integrated habitat. This habitat will feature a proliferation of hundreds or thousands of computing devices and sensors that will provide new functionality, offer specialized services, and boost productivity and interaction. This paper presents a comprehensive discussion on the central trends in ubiquitous computing considering them form technical, social and economic perspectives. It clearly identifies different application areas and sectors that will benefit f...

  12. Working Pupils: Challenges and Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howieson, C.; McKechnie, J.; Semple, S.

    2012-01-01

    Successive governments, agencies and employer organisations have stressed the need for school leavers to be better prepared for working life, in particular, to achieve what are frequently termed employability skills; schools are expected to contribute to this policy agenda. Some academic commentators, however, criticise the concept of…

  13. Garlic, from Remedy to Stimulant: Evaluation of Antifungal Potential Reveals Diversity in Phytoalexin Allicin Content among Garlic Cultivars; Allicin Containing Aqueous Garlic Extracts Trigger Antioxidants in Cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, Sikandar; Cheng, Zhihui; Ahmad, Husain; Ali, Muhammad; Chen, Xuejin; Wang, Mengyi

    2016-01-01

    Garlic has the charisma of a potent remedy and holds its repute of a therapeutic panacea since the dawn of civilization. An integrated approach was adopted to evaluate the genetic diversity among Chinese garlic cultivars for their antifungal potency as well as allicin content distribution and, furthermore; a bioassay was performed to study the bio-stimulation mechanism of aqueous garlic extracts (AGE) in the growth and physiology of cucumber (Cucumis sativus). Initially, 28 garlic cultivars were evaluated against four kinds of phytopathogenic fungi; Fusarium oxysporum, Botrytis cinerea, Verticillium dahliae and Phytophthora capsici, respectively. A capricious antifungal potential among the selected garlic cultivars was observed. HPLC fingerprinting and quantification confirmed diversity in allicin abundance among the selected cultivars. Cultivar G025, G064, and G074 had the highest allicin content of 3.98, 3.7, and 3.66 mg g(-1), respectively, whereas G110 was found to have lowest allicin content of 0.66 mg g(-1). Cluster analysis revealed three groups on the basis of antifungal activity and allicin content among the garlic cultivars. Cultivar G025, G2011-4, and G110 were further evaluated to authenticate the findings through different solvents and shelf life duration and G025 had the strongest antifungal activity in all conditions. minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum fungicidal concentration of Allicin aqueous standard (AAS) and AGE showed significant role of allicin as primary antifungal substance of AGE. Leaf disk bioassay against P. capsici and V. dahliae to comparatively study direct action of AGE and AAS during infection process employing eggplant and pepper leaves showed a significant reduction in infection percentage. To study the bioactivity of AGE, a bioassay was performed using cucumber seedlings and results revealed that AGE is biologically active inside cucumber seedlings and alters the defense mechanism of the plant probably activating

  14. Immunohistochemical determination of HER-2/neu overexpression in malignant melanoma reveals no prognostic value, while c-Kit (CD117 overexpression exhibits potential therapeutic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potti Anil

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HER-2/neu and c-kit (CD117 onco-protein are increasingly being recognized as targets for therapy in solid tumors, but data on their role in malignant melanoma is currently limited. We studied the prevalence of overexpression of HER-2/neu and c-Kit in 202 patients with malignant melanoma to evaluate a possible prognostic value of these molecular targets in malignant melanoma. Methods Overexpression of HER-2/neu and c-Kit was evaluated using immunohistochemical assays in 202 archival tissue specimens. Results Between 1991 and 2001, 202 subjects (109 males; 54% and 93 females; 46% with malignant melanoma were studied with a mean age of 57 years (age range: 15–101 years. The most common histologic type was amelanotic melanoma (n = 62; 30.7% followed by superficial spreading melanoma (n = 54; 26.7%. The depth of penetration of melanoma (Breslow thickness, pT Stage ranged from 0.4 mm (stage pT1 to 8.0 mm (stage pT4A. Mean thickness was 2.6 mm (stage pT3A. The ECOG performance scores ranged from 0 to 3. Only 2 patients (0.9% revealed HER-2/neu overexpression, whereas 46 (22.8% revealed c-Kit overexpression. Multivariate analysis performed did not show a significant difference in survival between c-Kit positive and negative groups (p = 0.36. Interestingly, not only was c-Kit more likely to be overexpressed in the superficial spreading type, a preliminary association between the presence or absence of c-Kit overexpression and the existence of another second primary tumor was also observed. Conclusions The results of our large study indicate that the HER-2/neu onco-protein neither has a role in melanogenesis nor is a potential target for clinical trials with monoclonal antibody therapy. This indicates there is no role for its testing in patients with malignant melanoma. Although c-Kit, expressed preferentially in the superficial spreading type, may not have prognostic value, it does have significant therapeutic implications as a

  15. RNA-seq-based metatranscriptomic and microscopic investigation reveals novel metalloproteases of Neobodo sp. as potential virulence factors for soft tunic syndrome in Halocynthia roretzi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Bin Jang

    Full Text Available Bodonids and trypanosomatids are derived from a common ancestor with the bodonids being a more primitive lineage. The Neobodonida, one of the three clades of bodonids, can be free-living, commensal or parasitic. Despite the ecological and evolutionary significance of these organisms, however, many of their biological and pathological features are currently unknown. Here, we employed metatranscriptomics using RNA-seq technology combined with field-emission microscopy to reveal the virulence factors of a recently described genus of Neobodonida that is considered to be responsible for ascidian soft tunic syndrome (AsSTS, but whose pathogenesis is unclear. Our microscopic observation of infected tunic tissues suggested putative virulence factors, enabling us to extract novel candidate transcripts; these included cysteine proteases of the families C1 and C2, serine proteases of S51 and S9 families, and metalloproteases grouped into families M1, M3, M8, M14, M16, M17, M24, M41, and M49. Protease activity/inhibition assays and the estimation of expression levels within gene clusters allowed us to identify metalloprotease-like enzymes as potential virulence attributes for AsSTS. Furthermore, a multimarker-based phylogenetic analysis using 1,184 concatenated amino acid sequences clarified the order Neobodo sp. In sum, we herein used metatranscriptomics to elucidate the in situ expression profiles of uncharacterized putative transcripts of Neobodo sp., combined these results with microscopic observation to select candidate genes relevant to pathogenesis, and used empirical screening to define important virulence factors.

  16. Stem cell-like differentiation potentials of endometrial side population cells as revealed by a newly developed in vivo endometrial stem cell assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaoru Miyazaki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Endometrial stem/progenitor cells contribute to the cyclical regeneration of human endometrium throughout a woman's reproductive life. Although the candidate cell populations have been extensively studied, no consensus exists regarding which endometrial population represents the stem/progenitor cell fraction in terms of in vivo stem cell activity. We have previously reported that human endometrial side population cells (ESP, but not endometrial main population cells (EMP, exhibit stem cell-like properties, including in vivo reconstitution of endometrium-like tissues when xenotransplanted into immunodeficient mice. The reconstitution efficiency, however, was low presumably because ESP cells alone could not provide a sufficient microenvironment (niche to support their stem cell activity. The objective of this study was to establish a novel in vivo endometrial stem cell assay employing cell tracking and tissue reconstitution systems and to examine the stem cell properties of ESP through use of this assay. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: ESP and EMP cells isolated from whole endometrial cells were infected with lentivirus to express tandem Tomato (TdTom, a red fluorescent protein. They were mixed with unlabeled whole endometrial cells and then transplanted under the kidney capsule of ovariectomized immunodeficient mice. These mice were treated with estradiol and progesterone for eight weeks and nephrectomized. All of the grafts reconstituted endometrium-like tissues under the kidney capsules. Immunofluorescence revealed that TdTom-positive cells were significantly more abundant in the glandular, stromal, and endothelial cells of the reconstituted endometrium in mice transplanted with TdTom-labeled ESP cells than those with TdTom-labeled EMP cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have established a novel in vivo endometrial stem cell assay in which multi-potential differentiation can be identified through cell tracking during in vivo

  17. Proteomic analysis in type 2 diabetes patients before and after a very low calorie diet reveals potential disease state and intervention specific biomarkers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A Sleddering

    Full Text Available Very low calorie diets (VLCD with and without exercise programs lead to major metabolic improvements in obese type 2 diabetes patients. The mechanisms underlying these improvements have so far not been elucidated fully. To further investigate the mechanisms of a VLCD with or without exercise and to uncover possible biomarkers associated with these interventions, blood samples were collected from 27 obese type 2 diabetes patients before and after a 16-week VLCD (Modifast ∼ 450 kcal/day. Thirteen of these patients followed an exercise program in addition to the VCLD. Plasma was obtained from 27 lean and 27 obese controls as well. Proteomic analysis was performed using mass spectrometry (MS and targeted multiple reaction monitoring (MRM and a large scale isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ approach. After the 16-week VLCD, there was a significant decrease in body weight and HbA1c in all patients, without differences between the two intervention groups. Targeted MRM analysis revealed differences in several proteins, which could be divided in diabetes-associated (fibrinogen, transthyretin, obesity-associated (complement C3, and diet-associated markers (apolipoproteins, especially apolipoprotein A-IV. To further investigate the effects of exercise, large scale iTRAQ analysis was performed. However, no proteins were found showing an exercise effect. Thus, in this study, specific proteins were found to be differentially expressed in type 2 diabetes patients versus controls and before and after a VLCD. These proteins are potential disease state and intervention specific biomarkers.Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN76920690.

  18. DNA microarray data integration by ortholog gene analysis reveals potential molecular mechanisms of estrogen-dependent growth of human uterine fibroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shou Jianyong

    2007-04-01

    acid (RA synthesis and mobilization by regulating expression of CRABP2 and ALDH1A1. RA has been shown to play a significant role in the development of uterine fibroids in an animal model. Conclusion Integrated analysis of multiple array datasets revealed twelve human and rat ortholog genes that were differentially expressed in human uterine fibroids and transcriptionally responsive to estrogen in the rat uterus. Functional and pathway analysis of these genes suggest multiple potential molecular mechanisms for the poorly understood estrogen-dependent growth of uterine fibroids. Fully understanding the exact molecular interactions among these gene products requires further study to validate their roles in uterine fibroids. This work provides new avenues of study which could influence the future direction of therapeutic intervention for the disease.

  19. Bioprospection of marine microorganisms: potential and challenges for Argentina Bioprospección de microorganismos marinos: potencialidades y desafíos para Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hebe M Dionisi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The marine environments of Argentina have a remarkable extension, as well as high biological productivity and biodiversity of both macro- and microorganisms. Despite having a great potential for biotechnological applications, the microorganisms inhabiting these ecosystems remain mostly unexplored and unexploited. In this review, we study the research topics and the interactions among Argentinean laboratories, by analyzing current articles published on biotechnology-related marine microbiology by researchers of this country. In addition, we identify the challenges and opportunities for Argentina to take advantage of the genetic potential of its marine microorganisms. Finally, we suggest possible actions that could improve the development of this research field, as well as the utilization of this knowledge to solve societal needs.El medio ambiente marino de la Argentina tiene una notable extensión, como así también una alta productividad biológica y biodiversidad de macro y microorganismos. A pesar de presentar un gran potencial para aplicaciones biotecnológicas, los microorganismos que habitan estos ecosistemas permanecen mayormente inexplorados y sus propiedades aún no explotadas. En este trabajo de revisión, estudiamos los temas de investigación y las interacciones entre grupos de investigación argentinos, por medio del análisis de los artículos publicados hasta el momento en temáticas relacionadas con la aplicación biotecnológica de microorganismos marinos. Además, identificamos los desafíos y las oportunidades para que la Argentina tome ventaja del potencial genético de sus microorganismos marinos. Por último, sugerimos posibles acciones que podrían mejorar el desarrollo de este campo de estudio, como así también la utilización de este conocimiento para resolver las necesidades de la sociedad.

  20. The potential and challenges of thin-film electrolyte and nanostructured electrode for yttria-stabilized zirconia-base anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Ho-Sung; Yoon, Kyung Joong; Kim, Byung-Kook; Je, Hae-June; Lee, Hae-Weon; Lee, Jong-Ho; Son, Ji-Won

    2014-02-01

    Thin-film electrolytes and nanostructured electrodes are essential components for lowering the operation temperature of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs); however, reliably implementing thin-film electrolytes and nano-structure electrodes over a realistic SOFC platform, such as a porous anode-support, has been extremely difficult. If these components can be created reliably and reproducibly on porous substrates as anode supports, a more precise assessment of their impact on realistic SOFCs would be possible. In this work, structurally sound thin-film and nano-structured SOFC components consisting of a nano-composite NiO-yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) anode interlayer, a thin YSZ and gadolinia-doped ceria (GDC) bi-layer electrolyte, and a nano-structure lanthanum strontium cobaltite (LSC)-base cathode, are sequentially fabricated on a porous NiO-YSZ anode support using thin-film technology. Using an optimized cell testing setup makes possible a more exact investigation of the potential and challenges of thin-film electrolyte and nanostructured electrode-based anode-supported SOFCs. Peak power densities obtained at 500 °C surpass 500 mW cm-2, which is an unprecedented low-temperature performance for the YSZ-based anode-supported SOFC. It is found that this critical, low-temperature performance for the anode-supported SOFC depends more on the electrode performance than the resistance of the thin-film electrolyte during lower temperature operation.

  1. Health access livelihood framework reveals potential barriers in the control of schistosomiasis in the dongting lake area of hunan province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Julie Balen; Zhao-Chun Liu; McManus, Donald P.; Giovanna Raso; Jürg Utzinger; Shui-Yuan Xiao; Dong-Bao Yu; Zheng-Yuan Zhao; Yue-Sheng Li

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Access to health care is a major requirement in improving health and fostering socioeconomic development. In the People's Republic of China (P.R. China), considerable changes have occurred in the social, economic, and health systems with a shift from a centrally planned to a socialist market economy. This brought about great benefits and new challenges, particularly for vertical disease control programs, including schistosomiasis. We explored systemic barriers in access to equitab...

  2. Predictive validity of a MK-801-induced cognitive impairment model in mice: implications on the potential limitations and challenges of modeling cognitive impairment associated with schizophrenia preclinically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jordan W; Rueter, Lynne E; Zhang, Min

    2014-03-01

    Cognitive impairment associated with schizophrenia (CIAS) is a major and disabling symptom domain of the disease that is generally unresponsive to current pharmacotherapies. Critically important to the discovery of novel therapeutics for CIAS is the utilization of preclinical models with robust predictive validity. We investigated the predictive validity of MK-801-induced memory impairments in mouse inhibitory avoidance (MK-IA) as a preclinical model for CIAS by investigating compounds that have been tested in humans, including antipsychotics, sodium channel blocker mood stabilizers, and putative cognitive enhancers. The atypical antipsychotic clozapine, as well as risperidone and olanzapine (see Brown et al., 2013), had no effect on MK-801-induced memory impairments. For sodium channel blockers, carbamazepine significantly attenuated memory impairments induced by MK-801, whereas lamotrigine had no effect. Nicotine, donepezil, modafinil, and xanomeline all significantly attenuated MK-801-induced memory impairments, but the magnitude of effects and the dose-responses observed varied across compounds. Clinically, only acute administration of nicotine has demonstrated consistent positive effects on CIAS, while inconsistent results have been reported for lamotrigine, donepezil, and modafinil; atypical antipsychotics produce only moderate improvements at best. A positive clinical signal has been observed with xanomeline, but only in a small pilot trial. The results presented here suggest that the MK-IA model lacks robust predictive validity for CIAS as the model is likely permissive and may indicate false positive signals for compounds and mechanisms that lack clear clinical efficacy for CIAS. Our findings also highlight the potential limitations and challenges of using NMDA receptor antagonists in rodents to model CIAS. PMID:24269664

  3. Evaluation of Lactococcus lactis Isolates from Nondairy Sources with Potential Dairy Applications Reveals Extensive Phenotype-Genotype Disparity and Implications for a Revised Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Daniel; Casey, Aidan; Altermann, Eric; Cotter, Paul D; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; McAuliffe, Olivia

    2015-06-15

    Lactococcus lactis is predominantly associated with dairy fermentations, but evidence suggests that the domesticated organism originated from a plant niche. L. lactis possesses an unusual taxonomic structure whereby strain phenotypes and genotypes often do not correlate, which in turn has led to confusion in L. lactis classification. A bank of L. lactis strains was isolated from various nondairy niches (grass, vegetables, and bovine rumen) and was further characterized on the basis of key technological traits, including growth in milk and key enzyme activities. Phenotypic analysis revealed all strains from nondairy sources to possess an L. lactis subsp. lactis phenotype (lactis phenotype); however, seven of these strains possessed an L. lactis subsp. cremoris genotype (cremoris genotype), determined by two separate PCR assays. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) showed that strains with lactis and cremoris genotypes clustered together regardless of habitat, but it highlighted the increased diversity that exists among "wild" strains. Calculation of average nucleotide identity (ANI) and tetranucleotide frequency correlation coefficients (TETRA), using the JSpecies software tool, revealed that L. lactis subsp. cremoris and L. lactis subsp. lactis differ in ANI values by ∼14%, below the threshold set for species circumscription. Further analysis of strain TIFN3 and strains from nonindustrial backgrounds revealed TETRA values of revision of L. lactis taxonomy. PMID:25841018

  4. Structural changes in single membranes in response to an applied transmembrane electric potential revealed by time-resolved neutron/X-ray interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Time-resolved (or transient) neutron/X-ray reflectivity. ► Neutron/X-ray reflectivity enhanced by interferometric techniques. ► Electric potential induced changes in a hybrid lipid bilayer membrane. ► Electric potential induced changes in a voltage-sensor protein membrane. - Abstract: The profile structure of a hybrid lipid bilayer, tethered to the surface of an inorganic substrate and fully hydrated with a bulk aqueous medium in an electrochemical cell, was investigated as a function of the applied transbilayer electric potential via time-resolved neutron reflectivity, enhanced by interferometry. Significant, and fully reversible structural changes were observed in the distal half (with respect to the substrate surface) of the hybrid bilayer comprised of a zwitterionic phospholipid in response to a +100 mV potential with respect to 0 mV. These arise presumably due to reorientation of the electric dipole present in the polar headgroup of the phospholipid and its resulting effect on the thickness of the phospholipid’s hydrocarbon chain layer within the hybrid bilayer’s profile structure. The profile structure of the voltage-sensor domain from a voltage-gated ion channel protein within a phospholipid bilayer membrane, tethered to the surface of an inorganic substrate and fully hydrated with a bulk aqueous medium in an electrochemical cell, was also investigated as a function of the applied transmembrane electric potential via time-resolved X-ray reflectivity, enhanced by interferometry. Significant, fully-reversible, and different structural changes in the protein were detected in response to ±100 mV potentials with respect to 0 mV. The approach employed is that typical of transient spectroscopy, shown here to be applicable to both neutron and X-ray reflectivity of thin films

  5. Pharmacologic inhibition of small-conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK) channels by NS8593 reveals atrial antiarrhythmic potential in horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Maria Mathilde; Hesselkilde, Eva Zander; Pehrson, Steen Michael;

    2015-01-01

    . METHODS: Cardiac biopsies were analyzed to investigate the expression level of the most prominent cardiac ion channels, with special focus on SK channels, in the equine heart. Subcellular distribution of SK isoform 2 (SK2) was assessed by immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy. The...... ventricular depolarization and repolarization times. RESULTS: Analysis revealed equivalent mRNA transcript levels of the 3 SK channel isoforms in atria compared to ventricles. Immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy displayed a widespread distribution of SK2 in both atrial and ventricular cardiomyocytes...

  6. Insight from the draft genome of Dietzia cinnamea P4 reveals mechanisms of survival in complex tropical soil habitats and biotechnology potential

    OpenAIRE

    Procópio, Luciano; Alvarez, Vanessa M.; Jurelevicius, Diogo A.; Hansen, Lars H.; Sørensen, Søren Johannes; Cardoso, Janine S.; de Pádula, Marcelo; Leitao, Álvaro C.; Seldin, Lucy; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2012-01-01

    The draft genome of Dietzia cinnamea strain P4 was determined using pyrosequencing. In total, 428 supercontigs were obtained and analyzed. We here describe and interpret the main features of the draft genome. The genome contained a total of 3,555,295 bp, arranged in a single replicon with an average G+C percentage of 70.9%. It revealed the presence of complete pathways for basically all central metabolic routes. Also present were complete sets of genes for the glyoxalate and reductive carboxy...

  7. The Memory That's Right and the Memory That's Left: Event-Related Potentials Reveal Hemispheric Asymmetries in the Encoding and Retention of Verbal Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Karen M.; Federmeier, Kara D.

    2007-01-01

    We examined the nature and timecourse of hemispheric asymmetries in verbal memory by recording event-related potentials (ERPs) in a continuous recognition task. Participants made overt recognition judgments to test words presented in central vision that were either novel (new words) or had been previously presented in the left or right visual…

  8. Separating water-potential induced swelling and shrinking from measured radial stem variations reveals a cambial growth and osmotic concentration signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Tommy; Hölttä, Teemu; Berninger, Frank; Mäkinen, Harri; Nöjd, Pekka; Mencuccini, Maurizio; Nikinmaa, Eero

    2016-02-01

    The quantification of cambial growth over short time periods has been hampered by problems to discern between growth and the swelling and shrinking of a tree stem. This paper presents a model, which separates cambial growth and reversible water-potential induced diurnal changes from simultaneously measured whole stem and xylem radial variations, from field-measured Scots pine trees in Finland. The modelled growth, which includes osmotic concentration changes, was compared with (direct) dendrometer measurements and microcore samples. In addition, the relationship of modelled growth and dendrometer measurements to environmental factors was analysed. The results showed that the water-potential induced changes of tree radius were successfully separated from stem growth. Daily growth predicted by the model exhibited a high correlation with the modelled daily changes of osmotic concentration in phloem, and a temperature dependency in early summer. Late-summer growth saw higher dependency on water availability and temperature. Evaluation of the model against dendrometer measurements showed that the latter masked a true environmental signal in stem growth due to water-potential induced changes. The model provides better understanding of radial growth physiology and offers potential to examine growth dynamics and changes due to osmotic concentration, and how the environment affects growth. PMID:25808847

  9. Spontaneous Decoding of the Timing and Content of Human Object Perception from Cortical Surface Recordings Reveals Complementary Information in the Event-Related Potential and Broadband Spectral Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kai J; Schalk, Gerwin; Hermes, Dora; Ojemann, Jeffrey G; Rao, Rajesh P N

    2016-01-01

    The link between object perception and neural activity in visual cortical areas is a problem of fundamental importance in neuroscience. Here we show that electrical potentials from the ventral temporal cortical surface in humans contain sufficient information for spontaneous and near-instantaneous identification of a subject's perceptual state. Electrocorticographic (ECoG) arrays were placed on the subtemporal cortical surface of seven epilepsy patients. Grayscale images of faces and houses were displayed rapidly in random sequence. We developed a template projection approach to decode the continuous ECoG data stream spontaneously, predicting the occurrence, timing and type of visual stimulus. In this setting, we evaluated the independent and joint use of two well-studied features of brain signals, broadband changes in the frequency power spectrum of the potential and deflections in the raw potential trace (event-related potential; ERP). Our ability to predict both the timing of stimulus onset and the type of image was best when we used a combination of both the broadband response and ERP, suggesting that they capture different and complementary aspects of the subject's perceptual state. Specifically, we were able to predict the timing and type of 96% of all stimuli, with less than 5% false positive rate and a ~20ms error in timing. PMID:26820899

  10. High-throughput Screening of ToxCast™ Phase I Chemicals in a Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell (mESC) Assay Reveals Disruption of Potential Toxicity Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little information is available regarding the potential for many commercial chemicals to induce developmental toxicity. The mESC Adherent Cell Differentiation and Cytoxicity (ACDC) assay is a high-throughput screen used to close this data gap. Thus, ToxCast™ Phase I chemicals wer...

  11. "Spacecraft Reveals Recent Geological Activity on the Moon": Exploring the Features of NASA Twitter Posts and Their Potential to Engage Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesley, Mellinee

    2014-01-01

    Through a content analysis of 200 "tweets," this study was an exploration into the distinct features of text posted to NASA's "Twitter" site and the potential for these posts to serve as more engaging scientific text than traditional textbooks for adolescents. Results of the content analysis indicated the tweets and linked…

  12. Assets at Risk: Menstrual Cycle Variation in the Envisioned Formidability of a Potential Sexual Assailant Reveals a Component of Threat Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Fessler, Daniel M.T.; Holbrook, Colin; Fleischman, Diana Santos

    2014-01-01

    Situations of potential agonistic conflict demand rapid and effective decision-making. The process of threat assessment includes assessments of relative fighting capacity, assessments of the likelihood of attack, and assessments of the extent to which one′s assets are at risk. The dimensions of physical size and strength appear to serve as key parameters in a cognitive representation summarizing multiple constituents of threat assessment. Here, we examine the thesis that this same representat...

  13. Antioxidant assays - consistent findings from FRAP and ORAC reveal a negative impact of organic cultivation on antioxidant potential in spinach but not watercress or rocket leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Payne, Adrienne C.; Mazzer, Alice; Graham J.J. Clarkson; Taylor, Gail

    2013-01-01

    Watercress (Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum), wild rocket (Diplotaxis tenuifolia), and spinach (Spinacia oleracea) are commercial crops reported to have high concentrations of antioxidants, possibly contributing to disease prevention following human consumption. Following analysis of supermarket-purchased salad leaves, we report the antioxidant content potential of these species using two comparable techniques assessing the consistency between the assays – by the ferric reducing antioxidant powe...

  14. Computational modeling of protein mutant stability: analysis and optimization of statistical potentials and structural features reveal insights into prediction model development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhinandan Madenhalli

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding and predicting protein stability upon point mutations has wide-spread importance in molecular biology. Several prediction models have been developed in the past with various algorithms. Statistical potentials are one of the widely used algorithms for the prediction of changes in stability upon point mutations. Although the methods provide flexibility and the capability to develop an accurate and reliable prediction model, it can be achieved only by the right selection of the structural factors and optimization of their parameters for the statistical potentials. In this work, we have selected five atom classification systems and compared their efficiency for the development of amino acid atom potentials. Additionally, torsion angle potentials have been optimized to include the orientation of amino acids in such a way that altered backbone conformation in different secondary structural regions can be included for the prediction model. This study also elaborates the importance of classifying the mutations according to their solvent accessibility and secondary structure specificity. The prediction efficiency has been calculated individually for the mutations in different secondary structural regions and compared. Results Results show that, in addition to using an advanced atom description, stepwise regression and selection of atoms are necessary to avoid the redundancy in atom distribution and improve the reliability of the prediction model validation. Comparing to other atom classification models, Melo-Feytmans model shows better prediction efficiency by giving a high correlation of 0.85 between experimental and theoretical ΔΔG with 84.06% of the mutations correctly predicted out of 1538 mutations. The theoretical ΔΔG values for the mutations in partially buried β-strands generated by the structural training dataset from PISCES gave a correlation of 0.84 without performing the Gaussian apodization of the

  15. Crystal Structures of GII.10 and GII.12 Norovirus Protruding Domains in Complex with Histo-Blood Group Antigens Reveal Details for a Potential Site of Vulnerability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansman, Grant S.; Biertümpfel, Christian; Georgiev, Ivelin; McLellan, Jason S.; Chen, Lei; Zhou, Tongqing; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Kwong, Peter D. (NIH); (NIID-Japan)

    2011-10-10

    Noroviruses are the dominant cause of outbreaks of gastroenteritis worldwide, and interactions with human histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) are thought to play a critical role in their entry mechanism. Structures of noroviruses from genogroups GI and GII in complex with HBGAs, however, reveal different modes of interaction. To gain insight into norovirus recognition of HBGAs, we determined crystal structures of norovirus protruding domains from two rarely detected GII genotypes, GII.10 and GII.12, alone and in complex with a panel of HBGAs, and analyzed structure-function implications related to conservation of the HBGA binding pocket. The GII.10- and GII.12-apo structures as well as the previously solved GII.4-apo structure resembled each other more closely than the GI.1-derived structure, and all three GII structures showed similar modes of HBGA recognition. The primary GII norovirus-HBGA interaction involved six hydrogen bonds between a terminal {alpha}fucose1-2 of the HBGAs and a dimeric capsid interface, which was composed of elements from two protruding subdomains. Norovirus interactions with other saccharide units of the HBGAs were variable and involved fewer hydrogen bonds. Sequence analysis revealed a site of GII norovirus sequence conservation to reside under the critical {alpha}fucose1-2 and to be one of the few patches of conserved residues on the outer virion-capsid surface. The site was smaller than that involved in full HBGA recognition, a consequence of variable recognition of peripheral saccharides. Despite this evasion tactic, the HBGA site of viral vulnerability may provide a viable target for small molecule- and antibody-mediated neutralization of GII norovirus.

  16. Extracting a low-dimensional description of multiple gene expression datasets reveals a potential driver for tumor-associated stroma in ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Safiye; Logsdon, Benjamin A; Battle, Stephanie; Drescher, Charles W; Rendi, Mara; Hawkins, R David; Lee, Su-In

    2016-01-01

    Patterns in expression data conserved across multiple independent disease studies are likely to represent important molecular events underlying the disease. We present the INSPIRE method to infer modules of co-expressed genes and the dependencies among the modules from multiple expression datasets that may contain different sets of genes. We show that INSPIRE infers more accurate models than existing methods to extract low-dimensional representation of expression data. We demonstrate that applying INSPIRE to nine ovarian cancer datasets leads to a new marker and potential driver of tumor-associated stroma, HOPX, followed by experimental validation. The implementation of INSPIRE is available at http://inspire.cs.washington.edu . PMID:27287041

  17. Health access livelihood framework reveals potential barriers in the control of schistosomiasis in the Dongting Lake area of Hunan Province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Balen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Access to health care is a major requirement in improving health and fostering socioeconomic development. In the People's Republic of China (P.R. China, considerable changes have occurred in the social, economic, and health systems with a shift from a centrally planned to a socialist market economy. This brought about great benefits and new challenges, particularly for vertical disease control programs, including schistosomiasis. We explored systemic barriers in access to equitable and effective control of schistosomiasis. METHODOLOGY: Between August 2002 and February 2003, 66 interviews with staff from anti-schistosomiasis control stations and six focus group discussions with health personnel were conducted in the Dongting Lake area, Hunan Province. Additionally, 79 patients with advanced schistosomiasis japonica were interviewed. The health access livelihood framework was utilized to examine availability, accessibility, affordability, adequacy, and acceptability of schistosomiasis-related health care. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found sufficient availability of infrastructure and human resources at most control stations. Many patients with advanced schistosomiasis resided in non-endemic or moderately endemic areas, however, with poor accessibility to disease-specific knowledge and specialized health services. Moreover, none of the patients interviewed had any form of health insurance, resulting in high out-of-pocket expenditure or unaffordable care. Reports on the adequacy and acceptability of care were mixed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: There is a need to strengthen health awareness and schistosomiasis surveillance in post-transmission control settings, as well as to reduce diagnostic and treatment costs. Further studies are needed to gain a multi-layered, in-depth understanding of remaining barriers, so that the ultimate goal of schistosomiasis elimination in P.R. China can be reached.

  18. A novel role for peptidylarginine deiminases in microvesicle release reveals therapeutic potential of PAD inhibition in sensitizing prostate cancer cells to chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharad Kholia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Protein deimination, defined as the post-translational conversion of protein-bound arginine to citrulline, is carried out by a family of 5 calcium-dependent enzymes, the peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs and has been linked to various cancers. Cellular microvesicle (MV release, which is involved in cancer progression, and deimination have not been associated before. We hypothesize that elevated PAD expression, observed in cancers, causes increased MV release in cancer cells and contributes to cancer progression. Background: We have previously reported that inhibition of MV release sensitizes cancer cells to chemotherapeutic drugs. PAD2 and PAD4, the isozymes expressed in patients with malignant tumours, can be inhibited with the pan-PAD-inhibitor chloramidine (Cl-am. We sought to investigate whether Cl-am can inhibit MV release and whether this pathway could be utilized to further increase the sensitivity of cancer cells to drug-directed treatment. Methods: Prostate cancer cells (PC3 were induced to release high levels of MVs upon BzATP stimulation of P2X7 receptors. Western blotting with the pan-protein deimination antibody F95 was used to detect a range of deiminated proteins in cells stimulated to microvesiculate. Changes in deiminated proteins during microvesiculation were revealed by immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting, and mass spectrometry identified deiminated target proteins with putative roles in microvesiculation. Conclusion: We report for the first time a novel function of PADs in the biogenesis of MVs in cancer cells. Our results reveal that during the stimulation of prostate cancer cells (PC3 to microvesiculate, PAD2 and PAD4 expression levels and the deimination of cytoskeletal actin are increased. Pharmacological inhibition of PAD enzyme activity using Cl-am significantly reduced MV release and abrogated the deimination of cytoskeletal actin. We demonstrated that combined Cl-am and methotrexate (MTX treatment of

  19. Intra-Section Analysis of Human Coronary Arteries Reveals a Potential Role for Micro-Calcifications in Macrophage Recruitment in the Early Stage of Atherosclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martijn L L Chatrou

    in combination with calcification, suggesting a pro-inflammatory effect of micro-calcifications. In vitro, invasion assays revealed chemoattractant properties of cell-culture medium of calcifying vascular smooth muscle cells towards THP-1 cells, which implies pro-inflammatory effect of calcium deposits. Additionally, calcifying hVSMCs revealed a pro-inflammatory profile as compared to non-calcifying hVSMCs.Our data indicate that calcification of VSMCs is one of the earliest events in the genesis of atherosclerosis, which strongly correlates with ucMGP staining. Our findings suggest that loss of calcification inhibitors and/or failure of inhibitory capacity is causative for the early precipitation of calcium, with concomitant increased inflammation followed by osteochondrogenic transdifferentiation of VSMCs.

  20. Development of geothermal field following the 2000 eruption of Usu volcano as revealed by ground temperature, resistivity and self-potential variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Mogi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The 2000 eruption of Usu volcano, NE Japan, took place on the foot of the somma, and formed a cryptodome of 65 m high accompanying numerous faults. We made repeated measurements of ground temperature, Self-Potential (SP and electrical resistivity, in order to clarify the mechanism of development of the newly formed geothermal field on the fault zone. Prior to the expansion of the geothermal field, we detected a resistive zone at the center of the geothermal zone and it supposed to evidence that the zone involving dry steam phase had been formed beneath the fault zone. A rapid expansion of the geothermal field followed along the fault zone away from the craters. The place of maximum amplitude of the SP field also migrated following the expansion of the high ground temperature zone. The high resistive part has shrunk as a consequence of the progress of condensation to warm the surroundings. Based on the observations, we delineated the process of the hydrothermal circulation. Considering the topographic effect of the SP field observed on the highly permeable zone in the Usu somma, the potential flow along the slope of the soma was expected to play an important role to promote the rapid expansion of the geothermal field and the migration of the most active part.

  1. Ground-based thermography of fluvial systems at low and high discharge reveals potential complex thermal heterogeneity driven by flow variation and bioroughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas, M.B.; Harvey, J.W.; Packman, A.I.; Scott, D.T.

    2008-01-01

    Temperature is a primary physical and biogeochemical variable in aquatic systems. Field-based measurement of temperature at discrete sampling points has revealed temperature variability in fluvial systems, but traditional techniques do not readily allow for synoptic sampling schemes that can address temperature-related questions with broad, yet detailed, coverage. We present results of thermal infrared imaging at different stream discharge (base flow and peak flood) conditions using a handheld IR camera. Remotely sensed temperatures compare well with those measured with a digital thermometer. The thermal images show that periphyton, wood, and sandbars induce significant thermal heterogeneity during low stages. Moreover, the images indicate temperature variability within the periphyton community and within the partially submerged bars. The thermal heterogeneity was diminished during flood inundation, when the areas of more slowly moving water to the side of the stream differed in their temperature. The results have consequences for thermally sensitive hydroelogical processes and implications for models of those processes, especially those that assume an effective stream temperature. Copyright ?? 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Human 45,X Fibroblast Transcriptome Reveals Distinct Differentially Expressed Genes Including Long Noncoding RNAs Potentially Associated with the Pathophysiology of Turner Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patowary, Ashok; Scaria, Vinod; Sivasubbu, Sridhar; Deobagkar, Deepti D.

    2014-01-01

    Turner syndrome is a chromosomal abnormality characterized by the absence of whole or part of the X chromosome in females. This X aneuploidy condition is associated with a diverse set of clinical phenotypes such as gonadal dysfunction, short stature, osteoporosis and Type II diabetes mellitus, among others. These phenotypes differ in their severity and penetrance among the affected individuals. Haploinsufficiency for a few X linked genes has been associated with some of these disease phenotypes. RNA sequencing can provide valuable insights to understand molecular mechanism of disease process. In the current study, we have analysed the transcriptome profiles of human untransformed 45,X and 46,XX fibroblast cells and identified differential expression of genes in these two karyotypes. Functional analysis revealed that these differentially expressing genes are associated with bone differentiation, glucose metabolism and gonadal development pathways. We also report differential expression of lincRNAs in X monosomic cells. Our observations provide a basis for evaluation of cellular and molecular mechanism(s) in the establishment of Turner syndrome phenotypes. PMID:24932682

  3. Human 45,X fibroblast transcriptome reveals distinct differentially expressed genes including long noncoding RNAs potentially associated with the pathophysiology of Turner syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shriram N Rajpathak

    Full Text Available Turner syndrome is a chromosomal abnormality characterized by the absence of whole or part of the X chromosome in females. This X aneuploidy condition is associated with a diverse set of clinical phenotypes such as gonadal dysfunction, short stature, osteoporosis and Type II diabetes mellitus, among others. These phenotypes differ in their severity and penetrance among the affected individuals. Haploinsufficiency for a few X linked genes has been associated with some of these disease phenotypes. RNA sequencing can provide valuable insights to understand molecular mechanism of disease process. In the current study, we have analysed the transcriptome profiles of human untransformed 45,X and 46,XX fibroblast cells and identified differential expression of genes in these two karyotypes. Functional analysis revealed that these differentially expressing genes are associated with bone differentiation, glucose metabolism and gonadal development pathways. We also report differential expression of lincRNAs in X monosomic cells. Our observations provide a basis for evaluation of cellular and molecular mechanism(s in the establishment of Turner syndrome phenotypes.

  4. Anti-inflammatory mechanisms of IFN-γ studied in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis reveal neutrophils as a potential target in multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nichole M Miller

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS mediated by T helper (h1 and/or Th17 CD4 T cells that drive inflammatory lesion development along with demyelination and neuronal damage. Defects in immune regulatory mechanisms are thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of MS. While an early clinical trial indicated that IFN-γ administration was detrimental to MS, studies in the mouse model of MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, indicated that IFN-γ exhibits a number of anti-inflammatory properties within the CNS. These mechanisms include inhibition of IL-17 production, induction of regulatory T cells, T cell apoptosis and regulation of chemokine production. Mice deficient in IFN-γ or its receptor were instrumental in deciphering the anti-inflammatory properties of IFN-γ in the CNS. In particular, they revealed that IFN-γ is a major regulator of neutrophil recruitment into the CNS, which by a variety of mechanisms including disruption of the blood-brain-barrier (BBB and production of reactive oxygen species are thought to contribute to the onset and progression of EAE. Neutrophils were also shown to be instrumental in EAE relapses. To date neutrophils have not been appreciated as a driver of MS, but more recently based largely on the strong EAE data this view is being reevaluated by some investigators in the field.

  5. Solution Binding and Structural Analyses Reveal Potential Multidrug Resistance Functions for SAV2435 and CTR107 and Other GyrI-like Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Andrew; Froehlig, John R; Bachas, Sharrol; Gunio, Drew; Alexander, Teressa; Vanya, Aaron; Wade, Herschel

    2016-08-30

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) refers to the acquired ability of cells to tolerate a broad range of toxic compounds. One mechanism cells employ is to increase the level of expression of efflux pumps for the expulsion of xenobiotics. A key feature uniting efflux-related mechanisms is multidrug (MD) recognition, either by efflux pumps themselves or by their transcriptional regulators. However, models describing MD binding by MDR effectors are incomplete, underscoring the importance of studies focused on the recognition elements and key motifs that dictate polyspecific binding. One such motif is the GyrI-like domain, which is found in several MDR proteins and is postulated to have been adapted for small-molecule binding and signaling. Here we report the solution binding properties and crystal structures of two proteins containing GyrI-like domains, SAV2435 and CTR107, bound to various ligands. Furthermore, we provide a comparison with deposited crystal structures of GyrI-like proteins, revealing key features of GyrI-like domains that not only support polyspecific binding but also are conserved among GyrI-like domains. Together, our studies suggest that GyrI-like domains perform evolutionarily conserved functions connected to multidrug binding and highlight the utility of these types of studies for elucidating mechanisms of MDR. PMID:27505298

  6. A Multiple Interaction Analysis Reveals ADRB3 as a Potential Candidate for Gallbladder Cancer Predisposition via a Complex Interaction with Other Candidate Gene Variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Rajani; Kim, Jong Joo; Misra, Sanjeev; Kumar, Ashok; Mittal, Balraj

    2015-01-01

    Gallbladder cancer is the most common and a highly aggressive biliary tract malignancy with a dismal outcome. The pathogenesis of the disease is multifactorial, comprising the combined effect of multiple genetic variations of mild consequence along with numerous dietary and environmental risk factors. Previously, we demonstrated the association of several candidate gene variations with GBC risk. In this study, we aimed to identify the combination of gene variants and their possible interactions contributing towards genetic susceptibility of GBC. Here, we performed Multifactor-Dimensionality Reduction (MDR) and Classification and Regression Tree Analysis (CRT) to investigate the gene-gene interactions and the combined effect of 14 SNPs in nine genes (DR4 (rs20576, rs6557634); FAS (rs2234767); FASL (rs763110); DCC (rs2229080, rs4078288, rs7504990, rs714); PSCA (rs2294008, rs2978974); ADRA2A (rs1801253); ADRB1 (rs1800544); ADRB3 (rs4994); CYP17 (rs2486758)) involved in various signaling pathways. Genotyping was accomplished by PCR-RFLP or Taqman allelic discrimination assays. SPSS software version 16.0 and MDR software version 2.0 were used for all the statistical analysis. Single locus investigation demonstrated significant association of DR4 (rs20576, rs6557634), DCC (rs714, rs2229080, rs4078288) and ADRB3 (rs4994) polymorphisms with GBC risk. MDR analysis revealed ADRB3 (rs4994) to be crucial candidate in GBC susceptibility that may act either alone (p ADRB3 rs4994 as candidate influencing GBC susceptibility. PMID:26602921

  7. Revealing the effect of electrode materials on the performance of low-voltage pentacene thin film transistor by in-situ surface potential measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Q. L.; Ouyang, M.; Liu, Q. C.; Jin, H. Y.; Xie, W. G.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the effect of contact potential between Au, CuOx and Au-CuOx, and pentacene thin films by Kevin Probe microscopy Compared to the Au contact, although the injection barrier is lower for CuOx contact, the extraction barrier is higher, and the total contact resistance is only slightly smaller. The better performance of CuOx contact device results from the doping effect from the p-type CuOx. The introduction of additional Au top layer deposited on the thin CuOx layer lowersthe extraction barrier and facilitates better carrier transfer, which further reduces the contact resistance. Therefore, both the apparent mobility and channel mobility are the best in the device with Au-CuOx double layer contact.

  8. miR-22-5p revealed as a potential biomarker involved in the acute phase of myocardial infarction via profiling of circulating microRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejak, Agata; Kiliszek, Marek; Opolski, Grzegorz; Segiet, Agnieszka; Matlak, Krzysztof; Dobrzycki, Slawomir; Tulacz, Dorota; Sygitowicz, Grazyna; Burzynska, Beata; Gora, Monika

    2016-09-01

    Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a life-threatening episode of coronary artery disease. Recently, circulating myocardial-derived microRNAs (miRNAs) have been reported as potential biomarkers of infarction. The present study aimed to identify differentially expressed miRNAs in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction that could be potentially dysregulated in response to early myocardial damage. miRNA expression profile analysis was performed using the Serum/Plasma Focus miRNA Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) panel of Exiqon A/S (Vedbaek, Denmark) on plasma samples of patients on the first day of AMI (admission) and on samples from the identical patients collected six months following AMI. Selected miRNAs were validated by reverse transcription‑quantitative PCR (RT‑qPCR) using independent patients with AMI and a control group of patients with a stable coronary artery disease. Thirty‑two species of plasma miRNA were differentially expressed (P<0.05) on admission compared with six months following AMI. Subsequent validation in an independent patient group confirmed that miR‑133b and miR‑22‑5p were significantly up‑regulated in the serum of patients with AMI. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis demonstrated a diagnostic utility for miR-22-5p, which has not previously been reported to be associated with AMI. Among the selected miRNAs, miR‑22‑5p represents a novel promising biomarker for the diagnosis of AMI. PMID:27484208

  9. Event Related Potentials Reveal Early Phonological and Orthographic Processing of Single Letters in Letter-Detection and Letter-Rhyme Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bann, Sewon A.; Herdman, Anthony T.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: When and where phonological processing occurs in the brain is still under some debate. Most paired-rhyme and phonological priming studies used word stimuli, which involve complex neural networks for word recognition and semantics. This study investigates early (300 ms) orthographic and phonological processing of letters. Methods: Fifteen participants aged 20–35 engaged in three two-forced choice experiments, one letter-detection (LetterID) and two letter-rhyme (Paired-Rhyme and Letter-Rhyme) tasks. From the EEG recordings, event related potential (ERP) differences within and across task stimuli were found. We also calculated the global field power (GFP) for each participant. Accuracies and reaction times were also measured from their button presses for each task. Results: Behavioral: Reaction times were 18 ms faster to letter than pseudoletter stimuli, and 27 ms faster to rhyme than nonrhyme stimuli. ERP/GFP: In the LetterID task, grand-mean evoked potentials (EPs) showed typical P1, N1, P2, and P3 waveform morphologies to letter and pseudoletter stimuli, with GFPs to pseudoletters being greater than letters from 160–600 ms. Across both rhyme tasks, there were greater negativities for nonrhyme than for rhyme stimuli at 145 ms and 426 ms. The P2 effect for rhyme stimuli was smaller than letter stimuli when compared across tasks. Conclusion: Differences in early processing of letters vs. pseudoletters between 130–190 ms suggest that letters are processed earlier and perhaps faster in the brain than pseudoletters. The P2 effect between letter and rhyme stimuli likely reflect sublexical phonological processing. Together, findings from our study fill in evidence for the temporal dynamics of orthographic and phonological processing of single letters. PMID:27148023

  10. PTCH 1 staining of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PNET) samples from patients with and without multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN-1) syndrome reveals a potential therapeutic target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurung, Buddha; Hua, Xianxin; Runske, Melissa; Bennett, Bonita; LiVolsi, Virginia; Roses, Robert; Fraker, Douglas A; Metz, David C

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) are rare, indolent tumors that may occur sporadically or develop in association with well-recognized hereditary syndromes, particularly multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN-1). We previously demonstrated that the hedgehog (HH) signaling pathway was aberrantly up-regulated in a mouse model that phenocopies the human MEN-1 syndrome, Men1l/l;RipCre, and that inhibition of this pathway suppresses MEN-1 tumor cell proliferation. We hypothesized that the HH signaling pathway is similarly upregulated in human PNETs. We performed immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for PTCH1 in human fresh and archival PNET specimens to examine whether human sporadic and MEN-1-associated PNETs revealed similar abnormalities as in our mouse model and correlated the results with clinical and demographic factors of the study cohort. PTCH1 staining was positive in 12 of 22 PNET patients (55%). Four of 5 MEN-1 patients stained for PTCH1 (p = 0.32 as compared with sporadic disease patients). Nine of 16 patients with metastatic disease stained for PTCH1 as compared with zero of 3 with localized disease only (p = 0.21). No demographic or clinical features appeared to be predictive of PTCH 1 positivity and PTCH 1 positivity per se was not predictive of clinical outcome. PTCH1, a marker of HH pathway up regulation, is detectable in both primary and metastatic tumors in more than 50% of PNET patients. Although no clinical or demographic factors predict PTCH1 positivity and PTCH1 positivity does not predict clinical outcome, the frequency of expression alone indicates that perturbation of this pathway with agents such as Vismodegib, an inhibitor of Smoothened (SMO), should be examined in future clinical trials. PMID:25482929

  11. A Multiple Interaction Analysis Reveals ADRB3 as a Potential Candidate for Gallbladder Cancer Predisposition via a Complex Interaction with Other Candidate Gene Variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajani Rai

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Gallbladder cancer is the most common and a highly aggressive biliary tract malignancy with a dismal outcome. The pathogenesis of the disease is multifactorial, comprising the combined effect of multiple genetic variations of mild consequence along with numerous dietary and environmental risk factors. Previously, we demonstrated the association of several candidate gene variations with GBC risk. In this study, we aimed to identify the combination of gene variants and their possible interactions contributing towards genetic susceptibility of GBC. Here, we performed Multifactor-Dimensionality Reduction (MDR and Classification and Regression Tree Analysis (CRT to investigate the gene–gene interactions and the combined effect of 14 SNPs in nine genes (DR4 (rs20576, rs6557634; FAS (rs2234767; FASL (rs763110; DCC (rs2229080, rs4078288, rs7504990, rs714; PSCA (rs2294008, rs2978974; ADRA2A (rs1801253; ADRB1 (rs1800544; ADRB3 (rs4994; CYP17 (rs2486758 involved in various signaling pathways. Genotyping was accomplished by PCR-RFLP or Taqman allelic discrimination assays. SPSS software version 16.0 and MDR software version 2.0 were used for all the statistical analysis. Single locus investigation demonstrated significant association of DR4 (rs20576, rs6557634, DCC (rs714, rs2229080, rs4078288 and ADRB3 (rs4994 polymorphisms with GBC risk. MDR analysis revealed ADRB3 (rs4994 to be crucial candidate in GBC susceptibility that may act either alone (p < 0.0001, CVC = 10/10 or in combination with DCC (rs714 and rs2229080, p < 0.0001, CVC = 9/10. Our CRT results are in agreement with the above findings. Further, in-silico results of studied SNPs advocated their role in splicing, transcriptional and/or protein coding regulation. Overall, our result suggested complex interactions amongst the studied SNPs and ADRB3 rs4994 as candidate influencing GBC susceptibility.

  12. Integrated analysis of noncoding RNAs and mRNAs reveals their potential roles in the biological activities of the growth hormone receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Lei; Qi, Haolong; Xiao, Yusha; Li, Changsheng; Wang, Yitao; Guo, Tao; Liu, Zhisu; Liu, Quanyan

    2016-08-01

    Accumulating evidence has indicated that noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) have important regulatory potential in various biological processes. The molecular mechanisms by which growth hormone receptor (GHR) deficiency protects against age-related pathologies, reduces the incidence and delays the occurrence of fatal neoplasms are unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate miRNA, lncRNA and mRNA expression profiles and the potential functional roles of these RNA molecules in GHR knockout (GHR-KO) mice. Microarray expression profiles of miRNAs, lncRNAs and mRNAs were determined in wild type control mice and in GHR-KO mice. Differential expression, pathway and gene network analyses were developed to identify the possible biological roles of functional RNA molecules. Compared to wild type control mice, 1695 lncRNAs, 914 mRNAs and 9 miRNAs were upregulated and 1747 lncRNAs, 786 mRNAs and 21 miRNAs were downregulated in female GHR-KO mice. Moreover, 1265 lncRNAs, 724 mRNAs and 41 miRNAs were upregulated and 1377 lncRNAs, 765 mRNAs and 16 miRNAs were downregulated in male GHR-KO mice compared to wild type mice. Co-expression analysis of mRNAs, lncRNAs, and miRNAs showed that mRNAs including Hemxi2, Ero1Ib, 4933434i20RIK, Pde7a and Lgals1, lncRNAs including ASMM9PARTA014848, EL605414-P1, ASMM9PARTA051724, ASMM9PARTA045378 and ASMM9PARTA049185, and miRNAs including miR-188-3p, miR-690, miR-709 and miR-710 are situated at the core position of a three-dimensional lncRNA-mRNA-miRNA regulatory network. KEGG analysis showed that the most significantly regulated pathway was steroid hormone biosynthesis. We identified a set of lncRNAs, miRNAs and mRNAs that were aberrantly expressed in GHR-KO mice. Our results provide a foundation and an expansive view of the biological activities of the GHR. PMID:27064376

  13. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes in fecal samples reveals high diversity of hindgut microflora in horses and potential links to chronic laminitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steelman Samantha M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The nutrition and health of horses is closely tied to their gastrointestinal microflora. Gut bacteria break down plant structural carbohydrates and produce volatile fatty acids, which are a major source of energy for horses. Bacterial communities are also essential for maintaining gut homeostasis and have been hypothesized to contribute to various diseases including laminitis. We performed pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA bacterial genes isolated from fecal material to characterize hindgut bacterial communities in healthy horses and those with chronic laminitis. Results Fecal samples were collected from 10 normal horses and 8 horses with chronic laminitis. Genomic DNA was extracted and the V4-V5 segment of the 16S rRNA gene was PCR amplified and sequenced on the 454 platform generating a mean of 2,425 reads per sample after quality trimming. The bacterial communities were dominated by Firmicutes (69.21% control, 56.72% laminitis and Verrucomicrobia (18.13% control, 27.63% laminitis, followed by Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Spirochaetes. We observed more OTUs per individual in the laminitis group than the control group (419.6 and 355.2, respectively, P = 0.019 along with a difference in the abundance of two unassigned Clostridiales genera (P = 0.03 and P = 0.01. The most abundant bacteria were Streptococcus spp., Clostridium spp., and Treponema spp.; along with unassigned genera from Subdivision 5 of Verrucomicrobia, Ruminococcaceae, and Clostridiaceae, which together constituted ~ 80% of all OTUs. There was a high level of individual variation across all taxonomic ranks. Conclusions Our exploration of the equine fecal microflora revealed higher bacterial diversity in horses with chronic laminitis and identification of two Clostridiales genera that differed in abundance from control horses. There was large individual variation in bacterial communities that was not explained in our study. The core hindgut microflora was

  14. The synthesis and characterisation of MDMA derived from a catalytic oxidation of material isolated from black pepper reveals potential route specific impurities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Christopher M; Breadon, Thomas W; Pearson, James R; Jones, Oliver A H

    2016-05-01

    This work examines the chemical synthesis of 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA) from piperonal prepared via a catalytic ruthenium tetroxide oxidation of piperine extracted from black pepper. A variety of oxidation conditions were experimented with including different solvent systems and co-oxidants. A sample of prepared piperonal was successfully converted into MDMA via 3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl-2-nitropropene (MDP2NP) and 3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl-2-propanone (MDP2P) and the impurities within each product characterised by GC-MS to give a contaminant profile of the synthetic pathway. Interestingly, it was discovered that a chlorinated analogue of piperonal (6-chloropiperonal) was created during the oxidation process by an as yet unknown mechanism. This impurity reacted alongside piperonal to give chlorinated analogues of each precursor, ultimately yielding 2-chloro-4,5-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (6-Cl-MDMA) as an impurity within the MDMA sample. The methodology developed is a simple way to synthesise a substantial amount of precursor material with easy to obtain reagents. The results also show that chlorinated MDMA analogues, previously thought to be deliberately included adulterants, may in fact be route specific impurities with potential application in determining the origin and synthesis method of seized illicit drugs. PMID:27162021

  15. Crystal structure and biochemical characterization of Chlamydomonas FDX2 reveal two residues that, when mutated, partially confer FDX2 the redox potential and catalytic properties of FDX1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Marko; Alahuhta, Markus; Mulder, David W; Peden, Erin A; Long, Hai; Brunecky, Roman; Lunin, Vladimir V; King, Paul W; Ghirardi, Maria L; Dubini, Alexandra

    2016-04-01

    The green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii contains six plastidic [2Fe2S]-cluster ferredoxins (FDXs), with FDX1 as the predominant isoform under photoautotrophic growth. FDX2 is highly similar to FDX1 and has been shown to interact with specific enzymes (such as nitrite reductase), as well as to share interactors with FDX1, such as the hydrogenases (HYDA), ferredoxin:NAD(P) reductase I (FNR1), and pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFR1), albeit performing at low catalytic rates. Here we report the FDX2 crystal structure solved at 1.18 Å resolution. Based on differences between the Chlorella fusca FDX1 and C. reinhardtii FDX2 structures, we generated and purified point-mutated versions of the FDX2 protein and assayed them in vitro for their ability to catalyze hydrogen and NADPH photo-production. The data show that structural differences at two amino acid positions contribute to functional differences between FDX1 and FDX2, suggesting that FDX2 might have evolved from FDX1 toward a different physiological role in the cell. Moreover, we demonstrate that the mutations affect both the midpoint potentials of the FDX and kinetics of the FNR reaction, possibly due to altered binding between FDX and FNR. An effect on H2 photo-production rates was also observed, although the kinetics of the reaction were not further characterized. PMID:26526668

  16. Cost-of-illness analysis reveals potential healthcare savings with reductions in type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease following recommended intakes of dietary fibre in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad eAbdullah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Consumption of fibre-rich diets is associated with favourable impacts on type 2 diabetes (T2D and cardiovascular disease (CVD, two of the most costly ailments worldwide, however the economic value of altered fibre intakes remains poorly understood. Methods: A cost-of-illness analysis was conducted to identify the percentage of adults expected to consume fibre-rich diets in Canada, estimate fibre intakes in relation to T2D and CVD reductions, and assess the potential annual savings in healthcare costs with reductions in rates of these two epidemics. Results: Non-trivial healthcare and related savings of CAD$35.9-$718.8 million in T2D costs and CAD$64.8-$1,295.7 million in CVD costs were calculated under a scenario where cereal fibre was used to increase current intakes of dietary fibre to the recommended levels of 38 g per day for men and 25 g per day for women. Each 1 g per day increase in fibre consumption resulted in annual CAD$2.6-$51.1 and $4.6-$92.1 million savings for T2D and CVD, respectively. Conclusions: Strategies to increase consumers’ knowledge of the recommended dietary fibre intakes, as part of healthy diet, and to facilitate stakeholder synergy are warranted to enable better management of costs associated with T2D and CVD in Canada.

  17. Characterization of long non-coding RNA-associated ceRNA network to reveal potential prognostic lncRNA biomarkers in human ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Meng; Wang, Xiaojun; Shi, Hongbo; Cheng, Liang; Wang, Zhenzhen; Zhao, Hengqiang; Yang, Lei; Sun, Jie

    2016-03-15

    Accumulating evidence has underscored the important roles of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) acting as competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) in cancer initiation and progression. In this study, we used an integrative computational method to identify miRNA-mediated ceRNA crosstalk between lncRNAs and mRNAs, and constructed global and progression-related lncRNA-associated ceRNA networks (LCeNETs) in ovarian cancer (OvCa) based on "ceRNA hypothesis". The constructed LCeNETs exhibited small world, modular architecture and high functional specificity for OvCa. Known OvCa-related genes tended to be hubs and occurred preferentially in the functional modules. Ten lncRNA ceRNAs were identified as potential candidates associated with stage progression in OvCa using ceRNA-network driven method. Finally, we developed a ten-lncRNA signature which classified patients into high- and low-risk subgroups with significantly different survival outcomes. Our study will provide novel insight for better understanding of ceRNA-mediated gene regulation in progression of OvCa and facilitate the identification of novel diagnostic and therapeutic lncRNA ceRNAs for OvCa. PMID:26863568

  18. First study on gene expression of cement proteins and potential adhesion-related genes of a membranous-based barnacle as revealed from Next-Generation Sequencing technology

    KAUST Repository

    Lin, Hsiu Chin

    2013-12-12

    This is the first study applying Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) technology to survey the kinds, expression location, and pattern of adhesion-related genes in a membranous-based barnacle. A total of 77,528,326 and 59,244,468 raw sequence reads of total RNA were generated from the prosoma and the basis of Tetraclita japonica formosana, respectively. In addition, 55,441 and 67,774 genes were further assembled and analyzed. The combined sequence data from both body parts generates a total of 79,833 genes of which 47.7% were shared. Homologues of barnacle cement proteins - CP-19K, -52K, and -100K - were found and all were dominantly expressed at the basis where the cement gland complex is located. This is the main area where transcripts of cement proteins and other potential adhesion-related genes were detected. The absence of another common barnacle cement protein, CP-20K, in the adult transcriptome suggested a possible life-stage restricted gene function and/or a different mechanism in adhesion between membranous-based and calcareous-based barnacles. © 2013 © 2013 Taylor & Francis.

  19. The challenge of governance in crossborder territories: potentialities and loopholes of a recent European tool, the European grouping for territorial cooperation (EGTC).

    OpenAIRE

    Biot, Valérie

    2012-01-01

    Governance has since long been a real challenge for the European Union (COM (2001) 428 final) White Paper on European Governance). With the inclusion of territorial cohesion in the EU Treaty (Lisbon Treaty, 2009), territorial governance was also acknowledged as a major issue at stake (Barca report on Cohesion policy reform, 2009; CoR 89/2009fin, White Paper on multilevel governance). Territorial governance can be understood in two ways: governance of territories (how is a territory organised)...

  20. Mathematics revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Elizabeth

    1979-01-01

    Mathematics Revealed focuses on the principles, processes, operations, and exercises in mathematics.The book first offers information on whole numbers, fractions, and decimals and percents. Discussions focus on measuring length, percent, decimals, numbers as products, addition and subtraction of fractions, mixed numbers and ratios, division of fractions, addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. The text then examines positive and negative numbers and powers and computation. Topics include division and averages, multiplication, ratios, and measurements, scientific notation and estim

  1. Revealed Attention

    OpenAIRE

    Masatlioglu, Yusufcan; NAKAJIMA, Daisuke; Ozbay, Erkut Y

    2012-01-01

    The standard revealed preference argument relies on an implicit assumption that a decision maker considers all feasible alternatives. The marketing and psychology literatures, however, provide wellestablished evidence that consumers do not consider all brands in a given market before making a purchase (Limited Attention). In this paper, we illustrate how one can deduce both the decision maker's preference and the alternatives to which she pays attention and inattention from the observed behav...

  2. Revealed Attention

    OpenAIRE

    Yusufcan Masatlioglu; Daisuke Nakajima; Ozbay, Erkut Y

    2012-01-01

    The standard revealed preference argument relies on an implicit assumption that a decision maker considers all feasible alternatives. The marketing and psychology literatures, however, provide well-established evidence that consumers do not consider all brands in a given market before making a purchase (Limited Attention). In this paper, we illustrate how one can deduce both the decision maker's preference and the alternatives to which she pays attention and inattention from the observed beha...

  3. STOP-EVENT-RELATED POTENTIALS FROM INTRACRANIAL ELECTRODES REVEAL A KEY ROLE OF PREMOTOR AND MOTOR CORTICES IN STOPPING ONGOING MOVEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Mattia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In humans, the ability to withhold manual motor responses seems to rely on a right-lateralized frontal–basal ganglia–thalamic network, including the pre-supplementary motor area and the inferior frontal gyrus. These areas should drive subthalamic nuclei to implement movement inhibition via the hyperdirect pathway. The output of this network is expected to influence those cortical areas underlying limb movement preparation and initiation, i.e. premotor (PMA and primary motor (M1 cortices. Electroencephalographic (EEG studies have shown an enhancement of the N200/P300 complex in the event-related potentials (ERPs when a planned reaching movement is successfully stopped after the presentation of an infrequent stop-signal. PMA and M1 have been suggested as possible neural sources of this ERP complex but, due to the limited spatial resolution of scalp EEG, it is not yet clear which cortical areas contribute to its generation. To elucidate the role of motor cortices, we recorded epicortical ERPs from the lateral surface of the fronto-temporal lobes of five pharmacoresistant epileptic patients performing a reaching version of the countermanding task while undergoing presurgical monitoring. We consistently found a stereotyped ERP complex on a single-trial level when a movement was successfully cancelled. These ERPs were selectively expressed in M1, PMA and Brodmann's area (BA 9 and their onsets preceded the end of the stop process, suggesting a causal involvement in this executive function. Such ERPs also occurred in unsuccessful-stop trials, that is, when subjects moved despite the occurrence of a stop-signal, mostly when they had long reaction times. These findings support the hypothesis that motor cortices are the final target of the inhibitory command elaborated by the frontal–basal ganglia–thalamic network.

  4. Modeling of region-specific fMRI BOLD neurovascular response functions in rat brain reveals residual differences that correlate with the differences in regional evoked potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawela, Christopher P; Hudetz, Anthony G; Ward, B Douglas; Schulte, Marie L; Li, Rupeng; Kao, Dennis S; Mauck, Matthew C; Cho, Younghoon R; Neitz, Jay; Hyde, James S

    2008-06-01

    The response of the rat visual system to flashes of blue light has been studied by blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The BOLD temporal response is dependent on the number of flashes presented and demonstrates a refractory period that depends on flash frequency. Activated brain regions included the primary and secondary visual cortex, superior colliculus (SC), dorsal lateral geniculate (DLG), and lateral posterior nucleus (LP), which were found to exhibit differing temporal responses. To explain these differences, the BOLD neurovascular response function was modeled. A second-order differential equation was developed and solved numerically to arrive at region-specific response functions. Included in the model are the light input from the diode (duty cycle), a refractory period, a transient response following onset and cessation of stimulus, and a slow adjustment to changes in the average level of the signal. Constants in the differential equation were evaluated for each region by fitting the model to the experimental BOLD response from a single flash, and the equation was then solved for multiple flashes. The simulation mimics the major features of the data; however, remaining differences in the frequency dependence of the response between the cortical and subcortical regions were unexplained. We hypothesized that these discrepancies were due to regional-specific differences in neuronal response to flash frequency. To test this hypothesis, cortical visual evoked potentials (VEPs) were recorded using the same stimulation protocol as the fMRI. Cortical VEPs were more suppressed than subcortical VEPs as flash frequency increased, supporting our hypothesis. This is the first report that regional differences in neuronal activation to the same stimulus lead to differential BOLD activation. PMID:18406628

  5. Epidemiological survey in Łęczyńsko-Włodawskie Lake District of eastern Poland reveals new evidence of zoonotic potential of Giardia intestinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojecki, Krzysztof; Sroka, Jacek; Cencek, Tomasz; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Faecal samples from 297 farm animals were collected from 18 households in distinct sites of the Łęczyńsko-Włodawskie Lake District of eastern Poland. They included samples from 86 cattle (Bos taurus), 84 pigs (Sus scrofa f. domestica), 81 sheep (Ovis aries), 10 horses (Equus caballus), and 36 dogs (Canis lupus familiaris). The samples were examined for the presence of Giardia intestinalis by the Direct Fluorescence Assay (DFA) and semi-nested PCR. All amplicons were sequenced on both strands. By DFA, cysts of Giardia spp. were detected in 66 of 297 faecal samples (22.2%). Positive specimens for Giardia spp. were derived from 29.8% of examined pigs, 21.0% of sheep, 18.6% of cattle, 10% of horses, and 19.4% of dogs. Based on the detection of the β-giardin gene by PCR, 39 (13.1%) of the 297 examined samples were recognized as positive. Detection of the presence of Giardia cysts by DFA test was overall significantly higher compared to PCR (p=0.0045). By PCR, Giardia was found in 28.1% of sheep, 11.6% of cattle, 10% of horses, 9.5% of pigs and 5.6% of dogs. Partial β-giardin gene sequences were obtained for 73.7% of the PCR positive samples. From sequenced samples derived from the studied animals, Giardia were identified as assemblage A (8 samples), B (1 sample) and E (18 samples). As assemblages A and B may be zoonotic, the farm animals living in eastern Poland could be regarded as a potential source of Giardia infection for humans. PMID:26706961

  6. Gene expression analysis and enzyme assay reveal a potential role of the carboxylesterase gene CpCE-1 from Cydia pomonella in detoxification of insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xue-Qing

    2016-05-01

    Carboxylesterases (CarEs) are responsible for metabolism of xenobiotics including insecticides in insects. Understanding the expression patterns of a such detoxifying gene and effect of insecticides on its enzyme activity are important to clarify the function of this gene relevant to insecticides-detoxifying process, but little information is available in the codling moth Cydia pomonella (L.). In this study, we investigated the expression profiles of CarE gene CpCE-1 at different developmental stages and in different tissues of C. pomonella, as well as the larvae exposed to chlorpyrifos-ethyl and lambda-cyhalothrin by using absolute real-time quantitative PCR (absolute RT-qPCR). Results indicated that CpCE-1 expression was significantly altered during C. pomonella development stages, and this expression differed between sexes, with a higher transcript in females than males. Meanwhile, CpCE-1 is overexpressed in cuticle, midgut and head than silk gland, fat body and Malpighian tubules. Exposure of third instar larvae to a non-lethal dosage of chlorpyrifos-ethyl and lambda-cyhalothrin resulted in induction of CpCE-1 transcript. The total carboxylesterase enzyme activity was inhibited by chlorpyrifos-ethyl in vivo; in contrast, the activity of Escherichia coli produced recombinant CpCE-1 was significantly inhibited by both lambda-cyhalothrin and chlorpyrifos-ethyl in vitro. These results suggested that CpCE-1 in C. pomonella is potentially involved in the development and in detoxification of chlorpyrifos-ethyl and lambda-cyhalothrin. PMID:27017882

  7. Stop-event-related potentials from intracranial electrodes reveal a key role of premotor and motor cortices in stopping ongoing movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattia, M.; Spadacenta, S.; Pavone, L.; Quarato, P.; Esposito, V.; Sparano, A.; Sebastiano, F.; Di Gennaro, G.; Morace, R.; Cantore, G.; Mirabella, G.

    2012-01-01

    In humans, the ability to withhold manual motor responses seems to rely on a right-lateralized frontal–basal ganglia–thalamic network, including the pre-supplementary motor area and the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). These areas should drive subthalamic nuclei to implement movement inhibition via the hyperdirect pathway. The output of this network is expected to influence those cortical areas underlying limb movement preparation and initiation, i.e., premotor (PMA) and primary motor (M1) cortices. Electroencephalographic (EEG) studies have shown an enhancement of the N200/P300 complex in the event-related potentials (ERPs) when a planned reaching movement is successfully stopped after the presentation of an infrequent stop-signal. PMA and M1 have been suggested as possible neural sources of this ERP complex but, due to the limited spatial resolution of scalp EEG, it is not yet clear which cortical areas contribute to its generation. To elucidate the role of motor cortices, we recorded epicortical ERPs from the lateral surface of the fronto-temporal lobes of five pharmacoresistant epileptic patients performing a reaching version of the countermanding task while undergoing presurgical monitoring. We consistently found a stereotyped ERP complex on a single-trial level when a movement was successfully cancelled. These ERPs were selectively expressed in M1, PMA, and Brodmann's area (BA) 9 and their onsets preceded the end of the stop process, suggesting a causal involvement in this executive function. Such ERPs also occurred in unsuccessful-stop (US) trials, that is, when subjects moved despite the occurrence of a stop-signal, mostly when they had long reaction times (RTs). These findings support the hypothesis that motor cortices are the final target of the inhibitory command elaborated by the frontal–basal ganglia–thalamic network. PMID:22754525

  8. Directed coupling in local field potentials of macaque V4 during visual short-term memory revealed by multivariate autoregressive models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor M Hoerzer

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Processing and storage of sensory information is based on the interaction between different neural populations rather than the isolated activity of single neurons. In order to characterize the dynamic interaction and transient cooperation of sub-circuits within a neural network, multivariate autoregressive (MVAR models have proven to be an important analysis tool. In this study, we apply directed functional coupling based on MVAR models and describe the temporal and spatial changes of functional coupling between simultaneously recorded local field potentials (LFP in extrastriate area V4 during visual memory. Specifically, we compare the strength and directional relations of coupling based on Generalized Partial Directed Coherence (GDPC measures while two rhesus monkeys perform a visual short-term memory task. In both monkeys we find increases in theta power during the memory period that are accompanied by changes in directed coupling. These interactions are most prominent in the low frequency range encompassing the theta band (3-12~Hz and, more importantly, are asymmetric between pairs of recording sites. Furthermore, we find that the degree of interaction decreases as a function of distance between electrode positions, suggesting that these interactions are a predominantly local phenomenon. Taken together, our results show that directed coupling measures based on MVAR models are able to provide important insights into the spatial and temporal formation of local functionally coupled ensembles during visual memory in V4. Moreover, our findings suggest that visual memory is accompanied not only by a temporary increase of oscillatory activity in the theta band, but by a direction-dependent change in theta coupling, which ultimately represents a change in functional connectivity within the neural circuit.

  9. Directed coupling in local field potentials of macaque v4 during visual short-term memory revealed by multivariate autoregressive models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerzer, Gregor M; Liebe, Stefanie; Schloegl, Alois; Logothetis, Nikos K; Rainer, Gregor

    2010-01-01

    Processing and storage of sensory information is based on the interaction between different neural populations rather than the isolated activity of single neurons. In order to characterize the dynamic interaction and transient cooperation of sub-circuits within a neural network, multivariate autoregressive (MVAR) models have proven to be an important analysis tool. In this study, we apply directed functional coupling based on MVAR models and describe the temporal and spatial changes of functional coupling between simultaneously recorded local field potentials in extrastriate area V4 during visual memory. Specifically, we compare the strength and directional relations of coupling based on generalized partial directed coherence (GPDC) measures while two rhesus monkeys perform a visual short-term memory task. In both monkeys we find increases in theta power during the memory period that are accompanied by changes in directed coupling. These interactions are most prominent in the low frequency range encompassing the theta band (3-12 Hz) and, more importantly, are asymmetric between pairs of recording sites. Furthermore, we find that the degree of interaction decreases as a function of distance between electrode positions, suggesting that these interactions are a predominantly local phenomenon. Taken together, our results show that directed coupling measures based on MVAR models are able to provide important insights into the spatial and temporal formation of local functionally coupled ensembles during visual memory in V4. Moreover, our findings suggest that visual memory is accompanied not only by a temporary increase of oscillatory activity in the theta band, but by a direction-dependent change in theta coupling, which ultimately represents a change in functional connectivity within the neural circuit. PMID:20577632

  10. The secretion of the bacterial phytase PHY-US417 by Arabidopsis roots reveals its potential for increasing phosphate acquisition and biomass production during co-growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belgaroui, Nibras; Berthomieu, Pierre; Rouached, Hatem; Hanin, Moez

    2016-09-01

    Phytic acid (PA) is a major source of inorganic phosphate (Pi) in the soil; however, the plant lacks the capacity to utilize it for Pi nutrition and growth. Microbial phytases constitute a group of enzymes that are able to remobilize Pi from PA. Thus, the use of these phytases to increase the capacity of higher plants to remobilize Pi from PA is of agronomical interest. In the current study, we generate transgenic Arabidopsis lines (ePHY) overexpressing an extracellular form of the phytase PHY-US417 of Bacillus subtilis, which are characterized by high levels of secreted phytase activity. In the presence of PA as sole source of Pi, while the wild-type plants show hallmark of Pi deficiency phenotypes, including the induction of the expression of Pi starvation-induced genes (PSI, e.g. PHT1;4) and the inhibition of growth capacity, the ePHY overexpressing lines show a higher biomass production and no PSI induction. Interestingly, when co-cultured with ePHY overexpressors, wild-type Arabidopsis plants (or tobacco) show repression of the PSI genes, improvement of Pi content and increases in biomass production. In line with these results, mutants in the high-affinity Pi transporters, namely pht1;1 and pht1;1-1;4, both fail to accumulate Pi and to grow when co-cultured with ePHY overexpressors. Taken together, these data demonstrate the potential of secreted phytases in improving the Pi content and enhancing growth of not only the transgenic lines but also the neighbouring plants. PMID:26914451

  11. Characterization of Missouri surface waters near point sources of pollution reveals potential novel atmospheric route of exposure for bisphenol A and wastewater hormonal activity pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassotis, Christopher D; Alvarez, David A; Taylor, Julia A; vom Saal, Frederick S; Nagel, Susan C; Tillitt, Donald E

    2015-08-15

    Surface water contamination by chemical pollutants increasingly threatens water quality around the world. Among the many contaminants found in surface water, there is growing concern regarding endocrine disrupting chemicals, based on their ability to interfere with some aspect of hormone action in exposed organisms, including humans. This study assessed water quality at several sites across Missouri (near wastewater treatment plants and airborne release sites of bisphenol A) based on hormone receptor activation potencies and chemical concentrations present in the surface water. We hypothesized that bisphenol A and ethinylestradiol would be greater in water near permitted airborne release sites and wastewater treatment plant inputs, respectively, and that these two compounds would be responsible for the majority of activities in receptor-based assays conducted with water collected near these sites. Concentrations of bisphenol A and ethinylestradiol were compared to observed receptor activities using authentic standards to assess contribution to total activities, and quantitation of a comprehensive set of wastewater compounds was performed to better characterize each site. Bisphenol A concentrations were found to be elevated in surface water near permitted airborne release sites, raising questions that airborne releases of BPA may influence nearby surface water contamination and may represent a previously underestimated source to the environment and potential for human exposure. Estrogen and androgen receptor activities of surface water samples were predictive of wastewater input, although the lower sensitivity of the ethinylestradiol ELISA relative to the very high sensitivity of the bioassay approaches did not allow a direct comparison. Wastewater-influenced sites also had elevated anti-estrogenic and anti-androgenic equivalence, while sites without wastewater discharges exhibited no antagonist activities. PMID:25917777

  12. Characterization of Missouri surface waters near point sources of pollution reveals potential novel atmospheric route of exposure for bisphenol A and wastewater hormonal activity pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassotis, Christopher D.; Alvarez, David A.; Taylor, Julia A.; vom Saal, Frederick S.; Nagel, Susan C.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2015-01-01

    Surface water contamination by chemical pollutants increasingly threatens water quality around the world. Among the many contaminants found in surface water, there is growing concern regarding endocrine disrupting chemicals, based on their ability to interfere with some aspect of hormone action in exposed organisms, including humans. This study assessed water quality at several sites across Missouri (near wastewater treatment plants and airborne release sites of bisphenol A) based on hormone receptor activation potencies and chemical concentrationspresent in the surface water. We hypothesized that bisphenol A and ethinylestradiol would be greater in water near permitted airborne release sites and wastewater treatment plant inputs, respectively, and that these two compounds would be responsible for the majority of activities in receptor-based assays conducted with water collected near these sites. Concentrations of bisphenol A and ethinylestradiol were compared to observed receptor activities using authentic standards to assess contribution to total activities, and quantitation of a comprehensive set of wastewater compounds was performed to better characterize each site. Bisphenol A concentrations were found to be elevated in surface water near permitted airborne release sites, raising questions that airborne releases of BPA may influence nearby surface water contamination and may represent a previously underestimated source to the environment and potential for human exposure. Estrogen and androgen receptor activities of surface water samples were predictive of wastewater input, although the lower sensitivity of the ethinylestradiol ELISA relative to the very high sensitivity of the bioassay approaches did not allow a direct comparison. Wastewater-influenced sites also had elevated anti-estrogenic and anti-androgenic equivalence, while sites without wastewater discharges exhibited no antagonist activities.

  13. Challenges of serious games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Fernández-Manjón

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Although educational games have revealed to be a very effective focus in diverse situations, their use in education is still very limited. In this paper we analyse the main challenges concerning educational games that, from our perspective, have to be approached so that the use of this kind of games can be widespread. These challenges are classified in three main dimensions: socio-cultural, educational and technological. Once the challenges are identified, some possible measures are suggested to address or reduce these problems so that the use of educational games may be widespread.

  14. A retinoid X receptor (RXR)-selective retinoid reveals that RXR-α is potentially a therapeutic target in breast cancer cell lines, and that it potentiates antiproliferative and apoptotic responses to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Certain lipids have been shown to be ligands for a subgroup of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily known as the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). Ligands for these transcription factors have been used in experimental cancer therapies. PPARs heterodimerize and bind DNA with retinoid X receptors (RXRs), which have homology to other members of the nuclear receptor superfamily. Retinoids have been found to be effective in treating many types of cancer. However, many breast cancers become resistant to the chemotherapeutic effects of these drugs. Recently, RXR-selective ligands were discovered that inhibited proliferation of all-trans retinoic acid resistant breast cancer cells in vitro and caused regression of the disease in animal models. There are few published studies on the efficacy of combined therapy using PPAR and RXR ligands for breast cancer prevention or treatment. We determined the effects of selective PPAR and RXR ligands on established human breast cancer cell lines in vitro. PPAR-α and PPAR-γ ligands induced apoptotic and antiproliferative responses in human breast cancer cell lines, respectively, which were associated with specific changes in gene expression. These responses were potentiated by the RXR-selective ligand AGN194204. Interestingly, RXR-α-overexpressing retinoic acid resistant breast cancer cell lines were more sensitive to the effects of the RXR-selective compound. RXR-selective retinoids can potentiate the antiproliferative and apoptotic responses of breast cancer cell lines to PPAR ligands

  15. Featherweight Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Tyler S.; Ryan, Larry

    2012-01-01

    As science, technology education, and engineering programs suffer budget cuts, educators continue to seek cost-effective activities that engage students and reinforce standards. The featherweight challenge is a hands-on activity that challenges students to continually refine their design while not breaking the budget. This activity uses one of the…

  16. Potentiation of the bronchoprotective effects of vasoactive intestinal peptide, isoprenaline, and theophylline against histamine challenge in anaesthetised guinea pigs by adrenomedullin.

    OpenAIRE

    Kanazawa, H; Kawaguchi, T.; Fujii, T.; Shoji, S; Hirata, K; Kudoh, S.; Kurihara, N.; Yoshikawa, J

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adrenomedullin is a hypotensive peptide recently discovered in human phaeochromocytoma which has been found to inhibit bronchoconstriction induced by histamine and acetylcholine. This study was designed to determine the manner in which adrenomedullin and other bronchodilators interact in modulating airway function. METHODS: A study was undertaken to determine whether adrenomedullin potentiated the bronchoprotective effects of isoprenaline, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), and ...

  17. Regulatory challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem for policy makers wanting to liberalize natural gas markets is that its concentrated structure may also be the socially most efficient one. Because of scale economies, more firms operating in the market may incur higher transportation costs unless the market grows sufficiently in each geographic segment. This argument goes for product extension through vertical (or horizontal) integration and the exploitation of economies of scope as well. Thus, the challenge for governments is to intervene in a way that preserves a market structure that has the potential to minimize cost, and at the same lime change its behavior in order to avoid possible lax cost control and exploitation of market power. The existence of scope advantages indicates that liberalization of the market should open for the possibility to bundle services in competition with provision of unbundled services. If operations are unbundled and there exist economies of scope, the gain from increased competition should be weighed against the losses of less efficient operations of each firm. Thus, with the growth in the European market, gradually more arguments support the idea of unbundling. The significant scale economy in trunk pipelines, sunk investments and capital immobility, possible economies of scope in vertical integration and companies' bundling of services influences vertical and horizontal ownership relations and contractual terms in the European gas market. In specific segments of the markets, these relationships may promote efficient investments and pricing without public interference, but the strong concentration of market power indicates that this is rather the exception than the rule. In order to design an efficient and welfare maximizing way of regulating the market one needs a closer identification of the actual goal of the regulation. Microeconomic theory is often used for this purpose. The author discusses the alternatives of laissez-faire, nationalization or regulation for the

  18. Challenges of predicting the potential distribution of a slow-spreading invader: a habitat suitability map for an invasive riparian tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Reynolds, Lindsay V.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the potential spread of invasive species is essential for land managers to prevent their establishment and restore impacted habitat. Habitat suitability modeling provides a tool for researchers and managers to understand the potential extent of invasive species spread. Our goal was to use habitat suitability modeling to map potential habitat of the riparian plant invader, Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia). Russian olive has invaded riparian habitat across North America and is continuing to expand its range. We compiled 11 disparate datasets for Russian olive presence locations (n = 1,051 points and 139 polygons) in the western US and used Maximum entropy (Maxent) modeling to develop two habitat suitability maps for Russian olive in the western United States: one with coarse-scale water data and one with fine-scale water data. Our models were able to accurately predict current suitable Russian olive habitat (Coarse model: training AUC = 0.938, test AUC = 0.907; Fine model: training AUC = 0.923, test AUC = 0.885). Distance to water was the most important predictor for Russian olive presence in our coarse-scale water model, but it was only the fifth most important variable in the fine-scale model, suggesting that when water bodies are considered on a fine scale, Russian olive does not necessarily rely on water. Our model predicted that Russian olive has suitable habitat further west from its current distribution, expanding into the west coast and central North America. Our methodology proves useful for identifying potential future areas of invasion. Model results may be influenced by locations of cultivated individuals and sampling bias. Further study is needed to examine the potential for Russian olive to invade beyond its current range. Habitat suitability modeling provides an essential tool for enhancing our understanding of invasive species spread.

  19. Revealing Rembrandt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Parker

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The power and significance of artwork in shaping human cognition is self-evident. The starting point for our empirical investigations is the view that the task of neuroscience is to integrate itself with other forms of knowledge, rather than to seek to supplant them. In our recent work, we examined a particular aspect of the appreciation of artwork using present-day functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Our results emphasised the continuity between viewing artwork and other human cognitive activities. We also showed that appreciation of a particular aspect of artwork, namely authenticity, depends upon the co-ordinated activity between the brain regions involved in multiple decision making and those responsible for processing visual information. The findings about brain function probably have no specific consequences for understanding how people respond to the art of Rembrandt in comparison with their response to other artworks. However, the use of images of Rembrandt’s portraits, his most intimate and personal works, clearly had a significant impact upon our viewers, even though they have been spatially confined to the interior of an MRI scanner at the time of viewing. Neuroscientific studies of humans viewing artwork have the capacity to reveal the diversity of human cognitive responses that may be induced by external advice or context as people view artwork in a variety of frameworks and settings.

  20. Developing Walvis Bay Port into a logistics gateway for southern Africa: Issues, challenges and the potential implications for Namibia’s future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Savage

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Many developing countries wish to become the ‘gateway’ to a region or part of a continent.One strategy involves encouraging logistics cluster development. These hubs support global supply chains and may enable the economic growth of the host country through the resulting trade, as well as providing direct and indirect employment opportunities during the build and subsequent operation of the hub. Namibia intends to develop the Port of Walvis Bay to be come the preferred gateway to southern Africa and the Southern African Development Community region. This article builds on research on Caribbean cluster potential and Namibian logistics to identify the potential benefits and impact on development, as well as the drawbacks and risks of such a strategy.

  1. Identification, expression pattern and potential role of variable lymphocyte receptor Aj-VLRA from Apostichopus japonicus in response to bacterial challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Yao, Feng; Ba, Huazhong; Qin, Tong; Luan, Hong; Li, Zhengmin; Hou, Lin; Zou, Xiangyang

    2015-08-01

    The variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs) are found in jawless vertebrates (agnathans), and specifically recognize bacteria and viruses via their leucine-rich repeats (LRRs). VLRs are believed to be adaptive immune response molecules. Echinoderms do not have adaptive immune systems; however, in the present study, a VLR cDNA named Aj-VLRA was cloned and characterized from sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus. The complete cDNA of Aj-VLRA was 3072 bp, including a 1995 bp open reading frame encoding 664 amino acids comprising LRR domains, a predicted transmembrane helix and an N-terminal signal peptide. As determined by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, Aj-VLRA transcripts are ubiquitously expressed in the body wall, longitudinal muscles, intestine and respiratory tree of A. japonicus. The expression level of Aj-VLRA was upregulated after challenge with four common marine bacteria. In situ hybridization showed that the expression of Aj-VLRA was widely distributed in the four tissues, particularly in the cytoplasm of epidermal cells. Recombinantly expressed Aj-VLRA (including the LRR domains) could bind to bacteria including Micrococcus lysodeikticus (Gram+) and Vibrio anguillarum (Gram-). Collectively, the results suggested that Aj-VLRA is related to an innate immune response of A. japonicus. PMID:25896798

  2. Microarray Analysis of Rice d1 (RGA1) Mutant Reveals the Potential Role of G-Protein Alpha Subunit in Regulating Multiple Abiotic Stresses Such as Drought, Salinity, Heat, and Cold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jangam, Annie P; Pathak, Ravi R; Raghuram, Nandula

    2016-01-01

    The genome-wide role of heterotrimeric G-proteins in abiotic stress response in rice has not been examined from a functional genomics perspective, despite the availability of mutants and evidences involving individual genes/processes/stresses. Our rice whole transcriptome microarray analysis (GSE 20925 at NCBI GEO) using the G-alpha subunit (RGA1) null mutant (Daikoku 1 or d1) and its corresponding wild type (Oryza sativa Japonica Nipponbare) identified 2270 unique differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Out of them, we mined for all the potentially abiotic stress-responsive genes using Gene Ontology terms, STIFDB2.0 and Rice DB. The first two approaches produced smaller subsets of the 1886 genes found at Rice DB. The GO approach revealed similar regulation of several families of stress-responsive genes in RGA1 mutant. The Genevestigator analysis of the stress-responsive subset of the RGA1-regulated genes from STIFDB revealed cold and drought-responsive clusters. Meta data analysis at Rice DB revealed large stress-response categories such as cold (878 up/810 down), drought (882 up/837 down), heat (913 up/777 down), and salt stress (889 up/841 down). One thousand four hundred ninety-eight of them are common to all the four abiotic stresses, followed by fewer genes common to smaller groups of stresses. The RGA1-regulated genes that uniquely respond to individual stresses include 111 in heat stress, eight each in cold only and drought only stresses, and two genes in salt stress only. The common DEGs (1498) belong to pathways such as the synthesis of polyamine, glycine-betaine, proline, and trehalose. Some of the common DEGs belong to abiotic stress signaling pathways such as calcium-dependent pathway, ABA independent and dependent pathway, and MAP kinase pathway in the RGA1 mutant. Gene ontology of the common stress responsive DEGs revealed 62 unique molecular functions such as transporters, enzyme regulators, transferases, hydrolases, carbon and protein metabolism

  3. Microarray Analysis of Rice d1 (RGA1) Mutant Reveals the Potential Role of G-Protein Alpha Subunit in Regulating Multiple Abiotic Stresses Such as Drought, Salinity, Heat, and Cold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jangam, Annie P.; Pathak, Ravi R.; Raghuram, Nandula

    2016-01-01

    The genome-wide role of heterotrimeric G-proteins in abiotic stress response in rice has not been examined from a functional genomics perspective, despite the availability of mutants and evidences involving individual genes/processes/stresses. Our rice whole transcriptome microarray analysis (GSE 20925 at NCBI GEO) using the G-alpha subunit (RGA1) null mutant (Daikoku 1 or d1) and its corresponding wild type (Oryza sativa Japonica Nipponbare) identified 2270 unique differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Out of them, we mined for all the potentially abiotic stress-responsive genes using Gene Ontology terms, STIFDB2.0 and Rice DB. The first two approaches produced smaller subsets of the 1886 genes found at Rice DB. The GO approach revealed similar regulation of several families of stress-responsive genes in RGA1 mutant. The Genevestigator analysis of the stress-responsive subset of the RGA1-regulated genes from STIFDB revealed cold and drought-responsive clusters. Meta data analysis at Rice DB revealed large stress-response categories such as cold (878 up/810 down), drought (882 up/837 down), heat (913 up/777 down), and salt stress (889 up/841 down). One thousand four hundred ninety-eight of them are common to all the four abiotic stresses, followed by fewer genes common to smaller groups of stresses. The RGA1-regulated genes that uniquely respond to individual stresses include 111 in heat stress, eight each in cold only and drought only stresses, and two genes in salt stress only. The common DEGs (1498) belong to pathways such as the synthesis of polyamine, glycine-betaine, proline, and trehalose. Some of the common DEGs belong to abiotic stress signaling pathways such as calcium-dependent pathway, ABA independent and dependent pathway, and MAP kinase pathway in the RGA1 mutant. Gene ontology of the common stress responsive DEGs revealed 62 unique molecular functions such as transporters, enzyme regulators, transferases, hydrolases, carbon and protein metabolism

  4. Energy in the focus. Potentials and challenges of the municipal water management and wastewater management; Energie im Fokus. Potenziale und Herausforderungen der kommunalen Wasser- und Abwasserwirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benz, Philipp [EWE Wasser GmbH, Oldenburg (Germany); Blotenberg, Ute [Muenchner Stadtentwaesserung, Muenchen (Germany); Eimer, Bernhard [Berliner Wasserbetriebe AoeR, Berlin (Germany)] [and others

    2012-11-15

    The supply of water and the sewage disposal are energy-intensive tasks of the municipal general interest. The brochure under consideration is the result of the VKU working group ''Energy efficiency in the water management''. Municipal companies exploit the present potentials of energy efficiency by means of a purely technical maintenance continuously and target-oriented. With this, the water suppliers and sewerage providers document their intention to optimise the plant operation continuously and to increase the yield of the internal energy without legal target values. An implementation in superordinated municipal energy concepts may be useful as long as the core task drinking water supply and sewage disposal have priority.

  5. Banking of pluripotent adult stem cells as an unlimited source for red blood cell production: potential applications for alloimmunized patients and rare blood challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyrard, Thierry; Bardiaux, Laurent; Krause, Claire; Kobari, Ladan; Lapillonne, Hélène; Andreu, Georges; Douay, Luc

    2011-07-01

    The transfusion of red blood cells (RBCs) is now considered a well-settled and essential therapy. However, some difficulties and constraints still occur, such as long-term blood product shortage, blood donor population aging, known and yet unknown transfusion-transmitted infectious agents, growing cost of the transfusion supply chain management, and the inescapable blood group polymorphism barrier. Red blood cells can be now cultured in vitro from human hematopoietic, human embryonic, or human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). The highly promising hiPSC technology represents a potentially unlimited source of RBCs and opens the door to the revolutionary development of a new generation of allogeneic transfusion products. Assuming that in vitro large-scale cultured RBC production efficiently operates in the near future, we draw here some futuristic but realistic scenarios regarding potential applications for alloimmunized patients and those with a rare blood group. We retrospectively studied a cohort of 16,486 consecutive alloimmunized patients (10-year period), showing 1 to 7 alloantibodies with 361 different antibody combinations. We showed that only 3 hiPSC clones would be sufficient to match more than 99% of the 16,486 patients in need of RBC transfusions. The study of the French National Registry of People with a Rare Blood Phenotype/Genotype (10-year period) shows that 15 hiPSC clones would cover 100% of the needs in patients of white ancestry. In addition, one single hiPSC clone would meet 73% of the needs in alloimmunized patients with sickle cell disease for whom rare cryopreserved RBC units were required. As a result, we consider that a very limited number of RBC clones would be able to not only provide for the need for most alloimmunized patients and those with a rare blood group but also efficiently allow for a policy for alloimmunization prevention in multiply transfused patients. PMID:21377319

  6. Reassessing the discovery potential of the B →K*ℓ+ℓ- decays in the large-recoil region: SM challenges and BSM opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, S.; Martin Camalich, J.

    2016-01-01

    We critically examine the potential to disentangle the Standard Model (SM) and new physics (NP) in B →K*μ+μ- and B →K*e+e- decays, focusing on (i) the LHCb anomaly, (ii) the search for right-handed currents, and (iii) lepton-universality violation. Restricting ourselves to the large-recoil region, we advocate a parametrization of the hadronic matrix elements that separates model-independent information about nonperturbative QCD from the results of model calculations. We clarify how to estimate corrections to the heavy-quark limit that would generate a right-handed (virtual) photon in the b →s γ contribution to the decay. We then apply this approach to the discussion of various sets of observables of increasing theoretical cleanness. First, we show that angular observables in the optimized Pi(') basis are, in general, still not robust against the long-distance QCD effects, both numerically and by examining analytically the dependence on corrections to the (model-independent) heavy-quark limit. As a result, while a fit to data favors a NP contribution to the semileptonic operators of the type δ C9≃-1.5 , this comes at a relatively small statistical significance of ≲2 σ once such power corrections are properly accounted for. Second, two of these observables, P1 and P3C P, are particularly clean at very low q2 and sensitive probes of right-handed quark currents. We discuss their potential to set stringent bounds on the Wilson coefficient C7', especially using data of the electronic mode, and we update the bounds with current angular data in the muonic channel. Finally, in light of the recent hint of lepton-universality violation in B+→K+ℓℓ , we introduce and investigate new lepton-universality observables involving angular observables of the muonic and electronic modes and their zero crossings and show that, if the effect is of the size suggested by experiment, these can clearly distinguish between different NP explanations in terms of underlying

  7. How stem cells manage to escape senescence and ageing - while they can: A recent study reveals that autophagy is responsible for senescence-dependent loss of regenerative potential of muscle stem cells during ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricchetti, Miria

    2016-09-01

    Skeletal muscle stem cells or satellite cells are responsible for muscle regeneration in the adult. Although satellite cells are highly resistant to stress, and display greater capacity to repair molecular damage than the committed progeny, their regenerative potential declines with age. During ageing, satellite cells switch to a state of permanent cell cycle arrest or senescence which prevents their activation. A recent study reveals that the senescence of satellite cell relies on defective autophagy, the quality control mechanism that degrades damaged proteins and organelles. Molecular damage is generated by oxidative stress that also promotes epigenetic changes that activate the expression of master genes, in a double-hit mechanism that ensures senescence. Importantly, genetic, and pharmacological correction of defective autophagy reverses satellite cell senescence and restores muscle regeneration in geriatric mice, with perspectives of modulating age-related functional decline of muscle. This study provides new clues to understand stem cell and organismal ageing. PMID:27389857

  8. Logistical challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Matthews

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the Asian tsunami was unprecedented and the logistical challenges of meeting the needs of those affected were enormous. Had the tsunami happened even five years ago, World Vision would not have been able to respond nearly as effectively as it did.

  9. Mobility Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Lassen, Claus

    2011-01-01

    This article takes point of departure in the challenges to understand the importance of contemporary mobility. The approach advocated is a cross-disciplinary one drawing on sociology, geography, urban planning and design, and cultural studies. As such the perspective is to be seen as a part of th...

  10. Ethical Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Michael

    2004-01-01

    All evaluators face the challenge of striving to adhere to the highest possible standards of ethical conduct. Translating the AEA's Guiding Principles and the Joint Committee's Program Evaluation Standards into everyday practice, however, can be a complex, uncertain, and frustrating endeavor. Moreover, acting in an ethical fashion can require…

  11. Editorial Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Budin, Wendy C.

    2008-01-01

    In this column, the editor of The Journal of Perinatal Education (JPE) discusses some of the challenges involved in becoming the new editor of JPE. The editor also describes the contents of this issue, which offer a broad range of resources, research, and inspiration for childbirth educators in their efforts to promote normal birth.

  12. Archiving challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Ringersma, J.

    2010-01-01

    Teaching slides on: What is a digital archive? Parties involved in digital archiving Archiving challenges organization of data coherence and persistency access and safety Language archiving software Different users, different needs For: Saami Language Documentation and Revitalization. Winter school, Bodø, Norway

  13. CHALLENGES IN BRONCHIAL CHALLENGE TESTING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lexmond, A. J.; Hagedoorn, P.; Frijlink, H. W.; de Boer, A. H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In the adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) bronchial challenge test, AMP is usually administered according to dosing protocols developed for histamine/methacholine. It has never been thoroughly investigated whether these protocols are suitable for AMP as well. Methods: The setup of the two-

  14. Gene network and pathway analysis of bovine mammary tissue challenged with Streptococcus uberis reveals induction of cell proliferation and inhibition of PPARγ signaling as potential mechanism for the negative relationships between immune response and lipid metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez-Zas Sandra L; Bionaz Massimo; Morin Dawn E; Drackley James K; Moyes Kasey M; Everts Robin E; Lewin Harris A; Loor Juan J

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Information generated via microarrays might uncover interactions between the mammary gland and Streptococcus uberis (S. uberis) that could help identify control measures for the prevention and spread of S. uberis mastitis, as well as improve overall animal health and welfare, and decrease economic losses to dairy farmers. The main objective of this study was to determine the most affected gene networks and pathways in mammary tissue in response to an intramammary infection...

  15. Mining in Uruguay: Potential and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss the geological, economic and environmental feasibility of mining in Uruguay. Whereas the present contribution of mining to GDP of Uruguay is only 0.33%, this contribution would grow in 2015 to between 2 and 5.4% (depending on the price of iron ore) as a result of the implementation of new projects. The mining operations and short term projects include mainly limestone for cement and lime, gold, agate, amethyst and iron. Another set of resources, such as black sands, dolomite, manganese and talc, still require geological and / or economic feasibility studies. To develop sustainable mining, it is indispensable human resource training, especially more geologists, mining technicians and skilled operators. Several reasons make it imperative to develop our mineral resources: diversification of the production, development of neglected areas, decentralization, creation of industrial chains and employment generation. On this last point, mining creates ca. 20 times more jobs than extensive livestock per unit area. It is also shown that, in the example of metallic minerals and cement, earnings of mining companies are ca. 1000 times larger than those of extensive livestock per hectare. The current legal framework is considered sufficient, and is in the enforcement of these regulations where emphasis should be placed. It is necessary to create a state agency to assume the functions of a Geological Survey, conducting basic and applied geological research. This body should be independent of that responsible for the management of mineral resources, as in the example of Brazil (CPRM and DNPM). From the environmental point of view we present examples of successful recovery of land previously dedicated to mining in neighboring countries. Caring for the environment is in fact implicit in all mining projects now, given the current legislation. We suggest the creation of a guarantee fund for the recovery of mining areas and the use of funds raised from mining royalties for industrial activities in renewable resources (mineral water, wind farms, fisheries and others),

  16. Gluten tolerance; potential challenges in treatment strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Bold, Justine; Rostami, Kamran

    2011-01-01

    Tolerable gluten thresholds in gluten free products have long been debated together with issues of cross contamination of gluten free cereals during the milling process. It is well established that a totally gluten free diet is virtually impossible owing to the presence of traces of gluten. It is estimated that daily consumption of gluten from contaminated gluten free foods is in the range of 5 to 50 mg. We believe evidence is mounting that it may be possible for some coeliac patients to tole...

  17. Thorium fuel cycle - Potential benefits and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There has been significant interest among Member States in developing advanced and innovative technologies for safe, proliferation resistant and economically efficient nuclear fuel cycles, while minimizing waste and environmental impacts. This publication provides an insight into the reasons for renewed interest in the thorium fuel cycle, different implementation scenarios and options for the thorium cycle and an update of the information base on thorium fuels and fuel cycles. The present TECDOC focuses on the upcoming thorium based reactors, current information base, front and back end issues, including manufacturing and reprocessing of thorium fuels and waste management, proliferation-resistance and economic issues. The concluding chapter summarizes future prospects and recommendations pertaining to thorium fuels and fuel cycles

  18. A Window-Washing Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    Skyscrapers sure do have a lot of windows, and these windows are cleaned and checked regularly. All this takes time, money, and puts workers at potential risk. Might there be a better way to do it? In this article, the author discusses a window-washing challenge and describes how students can tackle this task, pick up the challenge, and creatively…

  19. Global challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A major challenge now facing the world is the supply of energy needed for growth and development in a manner which is not only economically viable but also environmentally acceptable and sustainable in view of the demands of and risks to future generations. The internationally most significant pollutants from energy production through fossil fuels are SO2 and NOx which cause acid rain, and CO2 which is the most significant contributor to the greenhouse effect. Nuclear power, now providing about 17% of the world's electricity and 5% of the primary energy already is making a notable contribution to avoiding these emissions. While the industrialized countries will need more energy and especially electricity in the future, the needs of the developing countries are naturally much larger and present a tremendous challenge to the shaping of the world's future energy supply system. The advanced countries will have to accept special responsibilities, as they can most easily use advanced technologies and they have been and remain the main contributors to the environmental problems we now face. Energy conservation and resort to new renewable energy sources, though highly desirable, appear inadequate alone to meet the challenges. The world can hardly afford to do without an increased use of nuclear power, although it is strongly contested in many countries. The objections raised against the nuclear option focus on safety, waste management and disposal problems and the risk for proliferation of nuclear weapons. These issues are not without their problems. The risk of proliferation exists but will not appreciably diminish with lesser global reliance on nuclear power. The waste issue is more of a political than a technical problem. The use of nuclear power, or any other energy source, will never be at zero risk, but the risks are constantly reduced by new techniques and practices. The IAEA sees it as one of its priority tasks to promote such techniques. (author)

  20. Data Challenges

    CERN Multimedia

    McCubbin, N A

    Some two years ago we planned a series of Data Challenges starting at the end of 2001. At the time, that seemed to be comfortingly far in the future... Well, as the saying goes, doesn't time fly when you are having fun! ATLAS Computing is now deep in the throes of getting the first Data Challenge (DC0) up and running. One of the main aims of DC0 is to have a software 'release' in which we can generate full physics events, track all particles through the detector, simulate the detector response, reconstruct the event, and study it, with appropriate data storage en route. As all software is "always 95% ready" (!), we have been able to do most of this, more or less, for some time. But DC0 forces us to have everything working, together, at the same time: a reality check. DC0 should finish early next year, and it will be followed almost immediately afterwards by DC1 (DC0 was foreseen as the 'check' for DC1). DC1 will last into the middle of 2002, and has two major goals. The first is generation, simulation, and r...

  1. Challenges in radioecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today, radioecology covers a broad scientific field; from the source to long term environmental impact from ionizing radiation. To summarize key challenges within radioecology, the present paper focuses upon knowledge gaps related to processes, mechanisms and variables contributing most to the overall uncertainties in environmental impact assessments. A series of sources related to the nuclear weapon cycle and the civil nuclear cycle has contributed, is still contributing or can potentially contribute to release of radionuclides to the environment in the future. The speciation of most radionuclides depends on the source and release conditions, and will influence ecosystem transport, biological uptake, doses and effects in flora and fauna. Radionuclides may also co-occur in contaminant mixtures (e.g., metals, organics), which potentially could lead to synergisms or antagonisms. Thus, challenges associated with the links between the source or release term - radionuclide speciation - ecosystem transfer - exposure - response relationships are highlighted.

  2. The pharmacology of TUG-891, a potent and selective agonist of the free fatty acid receptor 4 (FFA4/GPR120), demonstrates both potential opportunity and possible challenges to therapeutic agonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Brian D; Shimpukade, Bharat; Mackenzie, Amanda E; Butcher, Adrian J; Pediani, John D; Christiansen, Elisabeth; Heathcote, Helen; Tobin, Andrew B; Ulven, Trond; Milligan, Graeme

    2013-11-01

    TUG-891 [3-(4-((4-fluoro-4'-methyl-[1,1'-biphenyl]-2-yl)methoxy)phenyl)propanoic acid] was recently described as a potent and selective agonist for the long chain free fatty acid (LCFA) receptor 4 (FFA4; previously G protein-coupled receptor 120, or GPR120). Herein, we have used TUG-891 to further define the function of FFA4 and used this compound in proof of principle studies to indicate the therapeutic potential of this receptor. TUG-891 displayed similar signaling properties to the LCFA α-linolenic acid at human FFA4 across various assay end points, including stimulation of Ca²⁺ mobilization, β-arrestin-1 and β-arrestin-2 recruitment, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation. Activation of human FFA4 by TUG-891 also resulted in rapid phosphorylation and internalization of the receptor. While these latter events were associated with desensitization of the FFA4 signaling response, removal of TUG-891 allowed both rapid recycling of FFA4 back to the cell surface and resensitization of the FFA4 Ca²⁺ signaling response. TUG-891 was also a potent agonist of mouse FFA4, but it showed only limited selectivity over mouse FFA1, complicating its use in vivo in this species. Pharmacologic dissection of responses to TUG-891 in model murine cell systems indicated that activation of FFA4 was able to mimic many potentially beneficial therapeutic properties previously reported for LCFAs, including stimulating glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion from enteroendocrine cells, enhancing glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, and inhibiting release of proinflammatory mediators from RAW264.7 macrophages, which suggests promise for FFA4 as a therapeutic target for type 2 diabetes and obesity. Together, these results demonstrate both potential but also significant challenges that still need to be overcome to therapeutically target FFA4. PMID:23979972

  3. SPS Challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Chapochnikova, Elena

    2008-01-01

    In future the SPS should be able to transfer to the LHC the beam produced by a completely new pre-injector chain and required by the LHC for different upgrade scenarios. The issues related to this extremely challenging task are presented together with some possible ways of overcoming the problems that arise. Besides an increase in injection energy provided by PS2, these measures can include both an SPS vacuum chamber upgrade against the e-cloud and operation with larger longitudinal emittance for beam stability. As a result the power plant of the SPS RF system must be doubled. The SPS upgrade will also need the improvement or replacement of many other machine elements.

  4. Adaptive challenges in medical practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daiker, Barbara L

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative grounded theory study was to describe the theoretical structures of the strategies used by medical practices to navigate adaptive challenges. The process of responding to adaptive challenges in five medical practices was studied using a grounded theory approach, collecting data from interviews with the organizations' leaders and managers. The leadership of these medical practices had successfully navigated adaptive challenges within two years of the study. The analysis revealed a model that describes the key elements in finding solutions to adaptive challenges. The model was named the Adaptation Solution Dynamic, which explains the elements of Rational Tools, Relationship Commitment, and Achievement Drive. The findings from the results of this study provide a theoretical basis for studying how leaders support identifying solutions to adaptive challenges. PMID:23866647

  5. Scrapheap Challenge

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Three British guys at CERN recently took a break from work to try their hand at Scrapheap Challenge. Shown on Channel 4 in the UK, it is a show where two teams must construct a machine for a specific task using only the junk they can scavenge from the scrap yard around them. And they have just 10 hours to build their contraption before it is put to the test. The first round, aired 19 September, pitted a team of three women, from the British Army's Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers, against the CERN guys - the Up 'n Atoms: Ali Day, David McFarlane and James Ridewood. Each team, with the help of an appointed expert, had the task of making a giant, 3-metre self-propelled "bowling ball", to roll down a 50 metre bowling alley at skittles 4 metres high. The Up 'n Atoms' contraption featured a small car with a huge wheel on its back. Once up to speed, slamming on the brakes caused the wheel to roll over and take the car with it. On their very last run they managed to take out seven pins. Luckily, though, ...

  6. Potential and Challenges of Low-Cost and High-Tech Crowd-sensing Approaches in Hydrometeorology for Better Water Resources Management - Insights and Learnings from the Global iMoMo Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegfried, Tobias

    2016-04-01

    In developing and transition countries and despite significant global investments in hydrometeorology, data on water remain scarce/fragmented. One key reason is that traditional sensing in hydrology, hydro- and agro-meteorology does not scale because of high investment costs and difficult maintenance of traditional technology, esp. in remote and/or poor regions. Even where there are data, these are often difficult to access and interpret for local stakeholders due outdated data transmission and the lack of access to modern tools for data management/analysis/synthesis and exchange. In recent years, there have been substantial technology developments in environmental sensing and mobile communication technology that enable the application and deployment of affordable and scalable high-tech solutions for better water monitoring at different scales (local to transboundary levels). The WMO is acknowledging and promoting the potential for application of these technologies. One key aspect is to anchor these technologies in local communities that perform crowd-sensing tasks on a regular basis. The merits as well as challenges (including introduction of human factor, less accuracy as compared to traditional sensing, intermittency of data, …) of such approaches will be discussed in the context of the WMO-led Global iMoMo Initiative and its numerous activities on the ground in Eastern and Southern Africa as well as in Central Asia.

  7. Energetic challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Connecting the 2 billion people who have no access to commercial energy is the most important energy challenge facing the world community. Women and children, primarily in developing countries, spend their days collecting wood or cow dung for fuel for cooking and heating their homes in very inefficient stoves: this both harms the environment and directly threatens the health of their families. Outmoded boilers linked to central heating systems in most of the cities of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union pose another challenge. They are inefficient; they lack modern pollution control; and the end use of the heat is not metered, leading to more inefficiency and waste. Both of these problems cry out to the world for investment. Investing in energy solutions in these countries can bring about significant and immediate local environmental improvements, achieve greatly improved energy efficiency, and substantially reduce greenhouse gas emissions. But, energy and environmental policy tends to direct investment towards industrial countries, even though it would have a greater impact on the environment - not to mention the human condition in general - in the developing countries and transition economies. We need a new direction in energy policy. The World Energy Council has studied the needs and we believe a number of our proposed policy recommendations would lead towards greater investment in the countries where it is most needed. The political risk of key energy project investments must be addressed both by the countries seeking outside investment and by the global community at large. The countries must create an investor-friendly climate, which includes the rule of law and recognizes private property rights. The global community can contribute by developing new political risk insurance schemes rewarding the countries that create this climate. Energy must be priced to cover costs and ensure payment. In too many countries, blanket subsidies for energy

  8. Energy challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satisfying the world's insatiable appetite for fuel without destroying the environment is the biggest challenge facing the energy industry. World energy consumption is expected to soar by 50% to a staggering 180 000 GW h per year by 2020, with the developing world demanding an ever-increasing share. Although oil and natural-gas reserves will last for several more decades, environmental concerns are increasingly dominating the agenda. Last year 178 countries agreed to a watered-down version of the original Kyoto protocol, which was designed to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases from industrialized countries by an average of 5.2% below 1990 levels. Under the new agreement, dubbed 'Kyoto lite' by environmentalists, emissions will be cut by just 2%. The relaxed targets are still not enough to convince the US, the world's biggest polluter, to sign the Kyoto treaty. Renewable technologies still make up less than 1% of the world's commercial energy. Distributed power is also likely to emerge from the development of fuel cells - devices that convert the chemical energy of hydrogen and oxygen directly into electricity, with only water as a by-product. The move away from carbon-based fossil fuels to hydrogen is also driving the hydrogen economy. A longer-term possibility is nuclear fusion. Despite the enormous progress in the performance of experiments over the past 30 years, nuclear fusion is still decades away from generating electricity. Advocates of fusion power claim that it could be a safe and sustainable source of energy that does not produce any greenhouse gases or long-lived nuclear waste. However, physicists have still to demonstrate that the energy produced by the fusion of deuterium and tritium can be sustained. Advances in physics and engineering are making energy from renewable sources increasingly affordable. But political will - as well as scientific progress - is just as crucial for safeguarding the environment for generations to come

  9. Seven challenges for neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markram, Henry

    2013-01-01

    Although twenty-first century neuroscience is a major scientific enterprise, advances in basic research have not yet translated into benefits for society. In this paper, I outline seven fundamental challenges that need to be overcome. First, neuroscience has to become "big science" - we need big teams with the resources and competences to tackle the big problems. Second, we need to create interlinked sets of data providing a complete picture of single areas of the brain at their different levels of organization with "rungs" linking the descriptions for humans and other species. Such "data ladders" will help us to meet the third challenge - the development of efficient predictive tools, enabling us to drastically increase the information we can extract from expensive experiments. The fourth challenge goes one step further: we have to develop novel hardware and software sufficiently powerful to simulate the brain. In the future, supercomputer-based brain simulation will enable us to make in silico manipulations and recordings, which are currently completely impossible in the lab. The fifth and sixth challenges are translational. On the one hand we need to develop new ways of classifying and simulating brain disease, leading to better diagnosis and more effective drug discovery. On the other, we have to exploit our knowledge to build new brain-inspired technologies, with potentially huge benefits for industry and for society. This leads to the seventh challenge. Neuroscience can indeed deliver huge benefits but we have to be aware of widespread social concern about our work. We need to recognize the fears that exist, lay them to rest, and actively build public support for neuroscience research. We have to set goals for ourselves that the public can recognize and share. And then we have to deliver on our promises. Only in this way, will we receive the support and funding we need. PMID:24139651

  10. Challenges and Advances in Nanotoxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L. Tanguay

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This Special Issue of Nanomaterials examines the potential for engineered nanomaterials to negatively impact biological systems and highlights some advances in evaluating key areas of their hazard potential. Nanomaterial science is evolving rapidly with the generation of more complex nanostructures with exciting potential applications. Keeping modern toxicology abreast of this innovation to the point that it guides a safer nanotechnology presents an equally exciting and eminently worthwhile challenge. [...

  11. Health Care Challenges in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Davari

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available All health systems across the world have faced new challenges, which is primarily referable to increasing the cost of health care services as well as growing demands for new and expensive health technologies. The aim of this study is to analyse the main challenges facing the Iranian health system. A review of available governmental and relevant publications about Iranian health care system was undertaken to assess the direction of future healthcare policy. Electronic news agencies, newspapers, and parliament’s electronic news also reviewed to realise policy-makers points of view about the health system. Healthcare services in Iran have had a great success in primary healthcare services in last 25 years, which is mainly attributable to National Health Networks policy. Between 1979 and 2003, average life expectancy at birth increased from 57 to 70 and infant mortality rate fell from 104 to 26 per thousand live births. Active vaccination system, very good distribution and coverage, free end point services, family planning, maternal teaching, and primary referral system are of strong advantages of health networks in Iran. However, the healthcare system is now subject to a range of new pressures that must be addressed. Many of these pressures are common to all health services (rising consumer demands and expectations for expensive new technologies, changing disease patterns, and resources shortage, but some are largely specific to Iran. Financial fairness contribution of the population to health system, responsiveness of health system, overusing new technologies, inadequate integration of health services, and inequitable distribution of the resources are of the main challenges of health system in Iran. In addition, considering demographic changes of the Iranian population in recent decades, which made Iranian population young, potential pressures due to an aging population will reveal in coming years. Many of these pressures relate to policies and

  12. Social media and physicians: Exploring the benefits and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahi, Sirous; Watson, Jason; Partridge, Helen

    2016-06-01

    Healthcare professionals' use of social media platforms, such as blogs, wikis, and social networking web sites has grown considerably in recent years. However, few studies have explored the perspectives and experiences of physicians in adopting social media in healthcare. This article aims to identify the potential benefits and challenges of adopting social media by physicians and demonstrates this by presenting findings from a survey conducted with physicians. A qualitative survey design was employed to achieve the research goal. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 24 physicians from around the world who were active users of social media. The data were analyzed using the thematic analysis approach. The study revealed six main reasons and six major challenges for physicians adopting social media. The main reasons to join social media were as follows: staying connected with colleagues, reaching out and networking with the wider community, sharing knowledge, engaging in continued medical education, benchmarking, and branding. The main challenges of adopting social media by physicians were also as follows: maintaining confidentiality, lack of active participation, finding time, lack of trust, workplace acceptance and support, and information anarchy. By revealing the main benefits as well as the challenges of adopting social media by physicians, the study provides an opportunity for healthcare professionals to better understand the scope and impact of social media in healthcare, and assists them to adopt and harness social media effectively, and maximize the benefits for the specific needs of the clinical community. PMID:25038200

  13. Challenges in plastics recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Jakobsen, L. G.; Eriksen, Marie Kampmann;

    2015-01-01

    undertaken to investigate the factors affecting quality in plastics recycling. The preliminary results showed factors primarily influencing quality of plastics recycling to be polymer cross contamination, presence of additives, non-polymer impurities, and polymer degradation. Deprivation of plastics quality......Recycling of waste plastics still remains a challenging area in the waste management sector. The current and potential goals proposed on EU or regional levels are difficult to achieve, and even to partially fullfil them the improvements in collection and sorting should be considerable. A study was......, with respect to recycling, has been shown to happen throughout the plastics value chain, but steps where improvements may happen have been preliminary identified. Example of Cr in plastic samples analysed showed potential spreading and accumulation of chemicals ending up in the waste plastics. In order...

  14. The Biofilm Challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alhede, Maria; Alhede, Morten

    2014-01-01

    The concept of biofilms has emerged in the clinical setting during the last decade. Infections involving biofilms have been documented in all parts of the human body, and it is currently believed that the presence of biofilm-forming bacteria is equivalent to chronic infection. A quick Pubmed search...... reveals the significance of biofilms, as evidenced by a dramatic increase in scientific publications on the topic, as well as in publications concerning wounds with biofilms, which reached 600 publications in 2013. Judged from the number of publications, it appears that biofilms play a significant role in...... wounds. However, the impact of biofilms is often debated, because infected wounds were also treated before the concept of biofilms was coined. In this short review, we will address the significance of biofilms and their role in wounds, and discuss the future tasks of the biofilm challenge....

  15. National Drug IQ Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drug & Alcohol IQ Challenge 2016 National Drug & Alcohol IQ Challenge Get Started! Correct/Total Questions: Score: Other ... accessible version of the 2016 National Drug & Alcohol IQ Challenge , [PDF, 637KB]. Download an accessible version of ...

  16. A summary of the REVERB challenge: state-of-the-art and remaining challenges in reverberant speech processing research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Keisuke; Delcroix, Marc; Gannot, Sharon; Habets, Emanuël A. P.; Haeb-Umbach, Reinhold; Kellermann, Walter; Leutnant, Volker; Maas, Roland; Nakatani, Tomohiro; Raj, Bhiksha; Sehr, Armin; Yoshioka, Takuya

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, substantial progress has been made in the field of reverberant speech signal processing, including both single- and multichannel dereverberation techniques and automatic speech recognition (ASR) techniques that are robust to reverberation. In this paper, we describe the REVERB challenge, which is an evaluation campaign that was designed to evaluate such speech enhancement (SE) and ASR techniques to reveal the state-of-the-art techniques and obtain new insights regarding potential future research directions. Even though most existing benchmark tasks and challenges for distant speech processing focus on the noise robustness issue and sometimes only on a single-channel scenario, a particular novelty of the REVERB challenge is that it is carefully designed to test robustness against reverberation, based on both real, single-channel, and multichannel recordings. This challenge attracted 27 papers, which represent 25 systems specifically designed for SE purposes and 49 systems specifically designed for ASR purposes. This paper describes the problems dealt within the challenge, provides an overview of the submitted systems, and scrutinizes them to clarify what current processing strategies appear effective in reverberant speech processing.

  17. The structure of SSO2064, the first representative of Pfam family PF01796, reveals a novel two-domain zinc-ribbon OB-fold architecture with a potential acyl-CoA-binding role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crystal structure of SSO2064, the first structural representative of Pfam family PF01796 (DUF35), reveals a two-domain architecture comprising an N-terminal zinc-ribbon domain and a C-terminal OB-fold domain. Analysis of the domain architecture, operon organization and bacterial orthologs combined with the structural features of SSO2064 suggests a role involving acyl-CoA binding for this family of proteins. SSO2064 is the first structural representative of PF01796 (DUF35), a large prokaryotic family with a wide phylogenetic distribution. The structure reveals a novel two-domain architecture comprising an N-terminal, rubredoxin-like, zinc ribbon and a C-terminal, oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide-binding (OB) fold domain. Additional N-terminal helical segments may be involved in protein–protein interactions. Domain architectures, genomic context analysis and functional evidence from certain bacterial representatives of this family suggest that these proteins form a novel fatty-acid-binding component that is involved in the biosynthesis of lipids and polyketide antibiotics and that they possibly function as acyl-CoA-binding proteins. This structure has led to a re-evaluation of the DUF35 family, which has now been split into two entries in the latest Pfam release (v.24.0)

  18. Revealing and Concealing in Antiquity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secrecy and the act of concealing and revealing knowledge effectually segregate the initiated and the uninitiated. The act of sharing or hiding knowledge plays a central role in all human relations private or public, political or religious. This volume explores the concept of secrecy and its impl...... the concept of secrecy and its potential for illuminating the agendas behind identity constructions, political propaganda, literary works, religous practices and shared history....

  19. Challenges and counter challenges in HIV/AIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingsheng Li; Charles Wood

    2010-01-01

    @@ Since the beginning of the HIV/AIDS pandemic, there has been significant progress in combating the virus.In addition to identifying HIV,1 scientists have developed an array of antiretroviral drugs and successfully converted the once deadly disease into a treatable and chronic condition.2 Nevertheless, this battle is far from over and HIV still outsmarts humans in multiple ways and poses tremendous challenges. Within this context, the Chinese Medical Journal has timely published this special issue on HIV/AIDS, highlighting the ongoing challenges posed by HIV and potential solutions to these problems.

  20. Proteomics Technologies and Challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Proteomics is the study of proteins and their interactions in a cell. With the completion of the Human Genome Project, the emphasis is shifting to the protein compliment of the human organism. Because proteome reflects more accurately on the dynamic state of a cell, tissue, or organism, much is expected from proteomics to yield better disease markers for diagnosis and therapy monitoring. The advent of proteomics technologies for global detection and quantitation of proteins creates new opportunities and challenges for those seeking to gain greater understanding of diseases. High-throughput proteomics technologies combining with advanced bioinformatics are extensively used to identify molecular signatures of diseases based on protein pathways and signaling cascades. Mass spectrometry plays a vital role in proteomics and has become an indispensable tool for molecular and cellular biology. While the potential is great, many challenges and issues remain to be solved, such as mining low abundant proteins and integration of proteomics with genomics and metabolomics data. Nevertheless, proteomics is the foundation for constructing and extracting useful knowledge to biomedical research. In this review, a snapshot of contemporary issues in proteomics technologies is discussed.

  1. Developing a Watershed Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a watershed challenge that gives students an opportunity to investigate the challenge of using a watershed area as a site for development, examining the many aspects of this multifaceted problem. This design challenge could work well in a team-based format, with students taking on specific aspects of the challenges and…

  2. Media challenging capitalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil

    Digital media and especially so-called ‘social media’ have on the one hand been ascribed the power to change societies and empower democratic movements following the thoughts of e.g. Rheingold (2004), recently fueled by the democratic uprising in Arabic countries such as Egypt, Tunisia, Iran...... and communication research is currently engaging in a longer and deeper process of examining and assessing the cultural consequences of networked communication. One present challenge is to understand digital media and networked communication at the intersection of established and countercultural, utopian...... and dystopian trends in contemporary culture (Turner 2006). On that note, this paper examines the Occupy Wall Street-movement as an example on how social media with its democratic potential and its modes of communication through network structures – along with a variety of both historical and socio...

  3. Managing Service Quality within the Knowledge-Based Economy: Opportunities and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Ion Plumb; Andreea Zamfir

    2009-01-01

    The knowledge-based economy, along with the impact of information society technologies, presents the service organizations and their customers with many potential opportunities as well as challenges. Therefore, this study explores how the knowledge-based economy could influence the quality management of service organizations. The study reveals that the actors within the service sector have vast new opportunities in terms of communication and value co-creation, but in the same time, the requir...

  4. Security challenge to using smartphones for SHM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abueh, Yeka; Liu, Hong

    2016-04-01

    Pervasive smartphones have demonstrated great potential in structural health monitoring (SHM) of civil infrastructures. Their sensing, processing, and communication capabilities along with crowdsourcing facility ease technical difficulties and reduce financial burdens of instrumentation and monitoring for SHM in civil infrastructures. However, smartphones are vulnerable to unintentional misuses and malicious attacks. This paper analyzes the vulnerabilities of smartphones in performing SHM and reveals the exploitation of those vulnerabilities. The work probes the attack surface of both devices and data. Device attack scenarios include hacking individual smartphones to modify the data stored on them and orchestrating smartphones to launch a distributed denial-of-service attack. Specifically, experiments are conducted to remotely access an Android smartphone and modify the sensing data of structural health stored on it. The work also presents a case study that reveals the sensitivity of a popular perturbation analysis method to faulty data delivered by a smartphone. The paper provides the direction of meeting the security challenge to using smartphones for SHM. As the first line of defense, device authentication is implemented in the smartphone to stop spoofing. Subsequently, message authentication is devised to maintain data integrity. There is a need to apply data science for the SHM immunity system against the sensitivity to data inaccuracy. The work also evaluates the cost-effectiveness of the proposed security measures, recommending varying levels of security to mitigate the adversaries to smartphones used in SHM systems. It calls for security solutions at the design stage of SHM systems rather than patching up after their implementations.

  5. Challenges in the transition toward a hydrogen-based society. An in-depth study to assess the potential of a transition to a hydrogen-based energy supply in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hysociety project, financed under the FP5 framework of the European Commission, aimed to contribute to European policies on hydrogen-related issues through the development of an action plan for the introduction of hydrogen. The geographic target was Europe, focusing on the 15 European Union member states, plus Norway and Iceland. In addition, demonstration projects in Canada, the United States, Japan, Brazil, and China were analyzed. Work package 1 addressed the technological, infrastructural, ecological, economic, political, and cultural challenges of the transition to a hydrogen-based society. The work built upon an analysis of the challenges identified in demonstration projects in all participating countries. In this article we first discuss the transition theory and the methodology used in Hysociety work package 1 and conclude with a discussion of results of the Hysociety project

  6. Stable isotope views on ecosystem function: challenging or challenged?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resco, Víctor; Querejeta, José I.; Ogle, Kiona; Voltas, Jordi; Sebastià, Maria-Teresa; Serrano-Ortiz, Penélope; Linares, Juan C.; Moreno-Gutiérrez, Cristina; Herrero, Asier; Carreira, José A.; Torres-Cañabate, Patricia; Valladares, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Stable isotopes and their potential for detecting various and complex ecosystem processes are attracting an increasing number of scientists. Progress is challenging, particularly under global change scenarios, but some established views have been challenged. The IX meeting of the Spanish Association of Terrestrial Ecology (AAET, Úbeda, 18–22 October 2009) hosted a symposium on the ecology of stable isotopes where the linear mixing model approach of partitioning sinks and sources of carbon and water fluxes within an ecosystem was challenged, and new applications of stable isotopes for the study of plant interactions were evaluated. Discussion was also centred on the need for networks that monitor ecological processes using stable isotopes and key ideas for fostering future research with isotopes. PMID:20015858

  7. The Challenges of Becoming Agile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovesen, Nis

    use of a radically different and empirically based process control model originating from the domain of software development, namely the process framework called Scrum. Scrum as a process framework is often identified with the overall development paradigm coined as Agile Development and during the...... last decade it has gained a vast success in software development due to its lightweight character and efficient way of handling the challenges of increased market speed, change and product complexity. Now, traditional product development companies are beginning to discover the Scrum framework as a...... potential solution to their struggles with similar challenges. This Ph.D. project is based on case studies of the development environments of seven Danish companies working with the implementation of Scrum. The outcome of the project is an identification and overview of the challenges of implementing and...

  8. Expression of organic anion-transporting polypeptides 1B3, 1B1, and 1A2 in human pancreatic cancer reveals a new class of potential therapeutic targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kounnis V

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Valentinos Kounnis1, Elli Ioachim2, Martin Svoboda3, Andreas Tzakos4, Ioannis Sainis1, Theresia Thalhammer3, Georg Steiner5, Evangelos Briasoulis11Cancer Biobank Center of the University of Ioannina, Greece; 2Pathology Department of Hatzikosta General Hospital, Ioannina Greece; 3Department of Pathophysiology and Allergy Research, Medical University of Vienna, Austria; 4Department of Chemistry, University of Ioannina, Greece; 5TissueGnostics GmbH, Vienna, AustriaBackground: Organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATPs are influx transporters that mediate intracellular uptake of selective endogenous and xenobiotic compounds. Identification of new molecular targets and discovery of novel targeted therapies is top priority for pancreatic cancer, which lacks any effective therapy.Materials and methods: We studied expression of OATP 1A2, 1B1, and 1B3 in pancreatic cancer tissue and in cell lines. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded biopsy material of 12 human pancreatic cancers was immunohistochemically assessed for protein expression of the three studied influx transporters. Immunohistochemistry was evaluated by experienced pathologists and quantified by use of an automated image analysis system. BxPC-3 and MIA PaCa-2 pancreatic cancer cell lines were used to quantify transcripts of OATP 1B1 and 1B3.Results: OATP 1A2, 1B1, and 1B3 proteins were found ubiquitously expressed in all studied cases. Quantification performed by HistoQuest system revealed that mean intensity was 53 for 1A2, 45 for 1B1, and 167 for OATP 1B1/1B3 on a range scale 0–250 units. At mRNA level, 1B1 and 1B3 were overexpressed in both studied cancer cell lines but not in normal pancreatic tissue.Conclusion: OATPs 1A2, 1B1, and 1B3 are highly expressed in pancreatic adenocarcinoma. We suggest that expression of these transporters in pancreatic cancer justify research efforts towards discovery of novel therapeutics targeting OATPs.Keywords: organic anion-transporting polypeptides

  9. Expression profile of heat shock proteins in acute myeloid leukaemia patients reveals a distinct signature strongly associated with FLT3 mutation status--consequences and potentials for pharmacological intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reikvam, Håkon; Hatfield, Kimberley J; Ersvaer, Elisabeth; Hovland, Randi; Skavland, Jørn; Gjertsen, Bjørn T; Petersen, Kjell; Bruserud, Oystein

    2012-02-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are molecular chaperones that assist proteins in their folding to native structures. HSPs are regarded as possible therapeutic targets in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). We used bioinformatical approaches to characterize the HSP profile in AML cells from 75 consecutive patients, in addition to the effect of the HSP90 inhibitor 17-DMAG. Patients harbouring a FLT3-internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD) were extensively overrepresented in the cluster with high HSP levels, indicating a strong dependence of HSPs in stabilizing FLT3-ITD encoded oncoproteins. FLT3 ligation further increased the levels of HSP90 and its co-chaperone HSP70. HSP90 inhibition had a stronger pro-apoptotic effect for AML cells with FLT3-ITD than for cells with wild-type FLT3, whereas the anti-proliferative effect of HSP90 inhibition was similar for the two patient subsets. HSP90 inhibition altered the constitutive cytokine release profile in an anti-angiogenic direction independent of FLT3 mutational status: (i) pro-angiogenic CXCL8, MMP-2 and MMP-9 showed a stronger decrease than anti-angiogenic CXCL9-11, (ii) the Tie-2 agonist Ang-1 showed a stronger decrease than the potentially antagonistic Ang-2, and (iii) VEGF and HGF levels were decreased. Finally, HSP90 inhibition counteracted the leukaemia-stimulating effect of endothelial cells. Our studies demonstrate that HSP90 inhibition mediates anti-leukaemic effects through both direct and indirect activity. PMID:22150087

  10. 78 FR 49296 - Centennial Challenges 2014 Sample Return Robot Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Centennial Challenges 2014 Sample Return Robot Challenge AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of Centennial Challenges 2014 Sample Return Robot... Robot Challenge is scheduled and teams that wish to compete may register. Centennial Challenges is...

  11. Challenges of Parenting Multiples

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the American Society for Reproductive Medicine Challenges of Parenting Multiples There are many psychological, social, and economic ... the unique challenges and rewards that come from parenting multiples. For more information on the medical aspects ...

  12. Overcoming Breastfeeding Challenges

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... on Women's Health Skip Navigation Skip top navigation Home A-Z Health Topics ePublications News About Us ... Only Natural email updates. Enter email address Submit Home > It's Only Natural > Overcoming challenges Overcoming breastfeeding challenges ...

  13. Overcoming Breastfeeding Challenges

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... size | Print | Skip left navigation It's Only Natural Planning ahead Overcoming challenges Overcoming breastfeeding challenges Dealing with lack of family support Is my baby getting enough milk? Breastfeeding ...

  14. Overcoming Breastfeeding Challenges

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available A project of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office on Women's Health Skip Navigation ... challenges Overcoming breastfeeding challenges Dealing with lack of family support Is my baby getting enough ...

  15. New challenges in gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandil, C. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France); Chabrelie, M.F. [Cedigaz, 92 - Rueil Malmaison (France); Streicher, C. [Prosernat, 92 - Paris la Defense (France)] [and others

    2003-07-01

    New developments in the area of gas treatment will be to a large extent driven by the need to find appropriate solutions to the fundamental need of sustainable development. New gas treatment processes are developed with the aim to minimise contaminant emissions and meet most stringent environmental specifications. A new major challenge for the industry will be to implement new cost effective technologies for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions. Industry has also to minimise its costs, and therefore, in order to ensure at the same time a better protection of the environment and a better safety, it is necessary to innovate. The purpose of this seminar is precisely to identify better the innovations which are required in the area of gas treatment. These proceedings comprise 8 papers and a summary of the contributions to a round-table discussion dealing with the options for CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration. The presentations treat of: the future prospects for the gas industry (M.F. Chabrelie, Cedigaz); the solutions for offshore gas treatment (C. Streicher, Prosernat); gas treatment with membranes (H. Meyer, GTI); the Axens Multibed{sub TM} technology for natural gas treatment (G. Jochem, Axens); the potentials and applications for the Propure co-current contactors (F.P. Nilsen, ProPure); the production of very-sour and super-sour large gas reserves: the new challenges (F. Lallemand, TotalFinaElf); Hybrisol, a new gas treatment process for sour natural gases (F. Lecomte, IFP); and the conception and building of large acid-gas removal units (J. Castel, Technip-Coflexip). (J.S.)

  16. ITER safety challenges and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on results of the Conceptual Design Activity (CDA) for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) suggest challenges and opportunities. ITER is capable of meeting anticipated regulatory dose limits, but proof is difficult because of large radioactive inventories needing stringent radioactivity confinement. Much research and development (R ampersand D) and design analysis is needed to establish that ITER meets regulatory requirements. There is a further oportunity to do more to prove more of fusion's potential safety and environmental advantages and maximize the amount of ITER technology on the path toward fusion power plants. To fulfill these tasks, three programmatic challenges and three technical challenges must be overcome. The first step is to fund a comprehensive safety and environmental ITER R ampersand D plan. Second is to strengthen safety and environment work and personnel in the international team. Third is to establish an external consultant group to advise the ITER Joint Team on designing ITER to meet safety requirements for siting by any of the Parties. The first of three key technical challenges is plasma engineering - burn control, plasma shutdown, disruptions, tritium burn fraction, and steady state operation. The second is the divertor, including tritium inventory, activation hazards, chemical reactions, and coolant disturbances. The third technical challenge is optimization of design requirements considering safety risk, technical risk, and cost

  17. The Backpack Design Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    Something as simple as carrying books to school can be an interesting design challenge for students. It's an old problem that gets reinvented from time to time. In this article, the author discusses a backpack design challenge in which teachers work with students to design another way to carry books to school. The challenge started by trying to…

  18. Energy transition - economic challenge, climate challenge, industrial challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document highlights and discusses the different economic, climate and industrial challenges, identifies and discusses the different objectives and main results for a successful energy transition respectively in its relationships with the energy mix (the result is to divide emissions by a factor 4), with governance (the result should be a balanced distribution of energy governance), with energy consumption

  19. Machine Learning wins the Higgs Challenge

    CERN Multimedia

    Abha Eli Phoboo

    2014-01-01

    The winner of the four-month-long Higgs Machine Learning Challenge, launched on 12 May, is Gábor Melis from Hungary, followed closely by Tim Salimans from the Netherlands and Pierre Courtiol from France. The challenge explored the potential of advanced machine learning methods to improve the significance of the Higgs discovery.   Winners of the Higgs Machine Learning Challenge: Gábor Melis and Tim Salimans (top row), Tianqi Chen and Tong He (bottom row). Participants in the Higgs Machine Learning Challenge were tasked with developing an algorithm to improve the detection of Higgs boson signal events decaying into two tau particles in a sample of simulated ATLAS data* that contains few signal and a majority of non-Higgs boson “background” events. No knowledge of particle physics was required for the challenge but skills in machine learning - the training of computers to recognise patterns in data – were essential. The Challenge, hosted by Ka...

  20. Electrochemistry reveals archaeological materials

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Virginia; Leyssens, Karen; Adriaens, Annemie; Richard, N.; Scholz, Fritz

    2010-01-01

    The characterization of materials constituting cultural artefacts is a challenging step in their conservation, due to the object’s uniqueness and the reduced number of conservation institutes able to supply non-destructive analysis. We propose an alternative analytical tool, which combines accessibility (low cost and portable) and high sensitivity, based on electrochemical linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) with paraffin impregnated graphite electrode (PIGE). To investigate the composition of “wh...

  1. ITER safety challenges and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of the Conceptual Design Activity (CDA) for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) suggest challenges and opportunities. ''ITER is capable of meeting anticipated regulatory dose limits,'' but proof is difficult because of large radioactive inventories needing stringent radioactivity confinement. We need much research and development (R ampersand D) and design analysis to establish that ITER meets regulatory requirements. We have a further opportunity to do more to prove more of fusion's potential safety and environmental advantages and maximize the amount of ITER technology on the path toward fusion power plants. To fulfill these tasks, we need to overcome three programmatic challenges and three technical challenges. The first programmatic challenge is to fund a comprehensive safety and environmental ITER R ampersand D plan. Second is to strengthen safety and environment work and personnel in the international team. Third is to establish an external consultant group to advise the ITER Joint Team on designing ITER to meet safety requirements for siting by any of the Parties. The first of the three key technical challenges is plasma engineering -- burn control, plasma shutdown, disruptions, tritium burn fraction, and steady state operation. The second is the divertor, including tritium inventory, activation hazards, chemical reactions, and coolant disturbances. The third technical challenge is optimization of design requirements considering safety risk, technical risk, and cost. Some design requirements are now too strict; some are too lax. Fuel cycle design requirements are presently too strict, mandating inappropriate T separation from H and D. Heat sink requirements are presently too lax; they should be strengthened to ensure that maximum loss of coolant accident temperatures drop

  2. Mammalian phylogeny reveals recent diversification rate shifts

    OpenAIRE

    Stadler, Tanja

    2011-01-01

    Phylogenetic trees of present-day species allow investigation of the rate of evolution that led to the present-day diversity. A recent analysis of the mammalian phylogeny challenged the view of explosive mammalian evolution after the Cretaceous–Tertiary (K/T) boundary (65 Mya). However, due to lack of appropriate methods, the diversification (speciation minus extinction) rates in the more recent past of mammalian evolution could not be determined. In this paper, I provide a method that reveal...

  3. Social Media Use as Urban Acupuncture for Empowering Socially Challenged Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Messeter, Jörn

    2015-01-01

    counteract negative influences in the community, e.g., drug abuse and gangsterism. Interviews with staff and participants reveal that use of social media in the context of a socially challenged community results in social media use, and connections between online and offline activities, that stands...... in contrast to earlier social media research. These differences may inform design and social innovation for disruptive interaction to address negative influences, such as drugs and gangsterism, in socially challenged communities.......This article explores potential roles of social media in community empowerment, based on a study of a non-profit NGO in a socially challenged suburb of Cape Town, South Africa. In particular, it focuses on the relation between on-line and off-line behavior, and how the use of social media can...

  4. Revealing Television's Analogue Heroes

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    abstractIn this article I will argue that we need to create new archival models in order to preserve and share knowledge of historical, ‘hidden’ television professions and production cultures. Oral history traditions of recording life stories give us a useful starting point. Engineering ‘encounters’ between skilled television technicians, and the now obsolete equipment they operated in the 1970s and 80s, is challenging for a myriad of reasons, but videoing the interaction of man and machine p...

  5. Recruiting and Advising Challenges in Actuarial Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Bettye Anne; Guan, Yuanying Michelle; Paris, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Some challenges to increasing actuarial science program size through recruiting broadly among potential students are identified. Possible solutions depend on the structures and culture of the school. Up to three student cohorts may result from partition of potential students by the levels of academic progress before program entry: students…

  6. The GREAT3 Challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Miyatake, Hironao; Mandelbaum, Rachel; collaboration, Barnaby Rowe on behalf of the GREAT3

    2014-01-01

    The GRavitational lEnsing Accuracy Testing 3 (GREAT3) challenge is an image analysis competition that aims to test algorithms to measure weak gravitational lensing from astronomical images. The challenge started in October 2013 and ends 30 April 2014. The challenge focuses on testing the impact on weak lensing measurements of realistically complex galaxy morphologies, realistic point spread function, and combination of multiple different exposures. It includes simulated ground- and space-base...

  7. Challenges of Relativistic Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Opher, Reuven

    2013-01-01

    I discuss some of the most outstanding challenges in relativistic astrophysics in the subjects of: compact objects (Black Holes and Neutron Stars); dark sector (Dark Matter and Dark Energy); plasma astrophysics (Origin of Jets, Cosmic Rays and Magnetic Fields) and the primordial universe (Physics at the beginning of the Universe). In these four subjects, I discuss twelve of the most important challenges. These challenges give us insight into new physics that can only be studied in the large scale Universe. The near future possibilities, in observations and theory, for addressing these challenges, are also discussed.

  8. The Pharmacology of TUG-891, a Potent and Selective Agonist of the Free Fatty Acid Receptor 4 (FFA4/GPR120), Demonstrates Both Potential Opportunity and Possible Challenges to Therapeutic Agonism

    OpenAIRE

    Hudson, Brian D.; Shimpukade, Bharat; MacKenzie, Amanda E.; Butcher, Adrian J; Pediani, John D; Christiansen, Elisabeth; Heathcote, Helen; Tobin, Andrew B.; Ulven, Trond; Milligan, Graeme

    2013-01-01

    TUG-891 [3-(4-((4-fluoro-4′-methyl-[1,1′-biphenyl]-2-yl)methoxy)phenyl)propanoic acid] was recently described as a potent and selective agonist for the long chain free fatty acid (LCFA) receptor 4 (FFA4; previously G protein–coupled receptor 120, or GPR120). Herein, we have used TUG-891 to further define the function of FFA4 and used this compound in proof of principle studies to indicate the therapeutic potential of this receptor. TUG-891 displayed similar signaling properties to the LCFA α-...

  9. Proverbs Reveal Culture Diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Hou, Rong

    2013-01-01

    Through the analysis of property of culture and proverb, it can be known that proverb can help one to understand a culture. The way proverb reveals culture diversity can be connected with the patterns of value dimension, which conveys the information of a culture’s deep meaning. From the perspective of uncertainty-avoidance, it can be seen that although Ireland and America both are low-uncertainty-avoidance cultures, they mainly have different life attitudes, because that Americans put more e...

  10. Challenges of the management of severe hemophilia A with inhibitors: two case reports emphasizing the potential interest of a high-purity human Factor VIII/von Willebrand factor concentrate and individually tailored prophylaxis guided by thrombin-generation test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Sophie; Crampe, Carine; Dargaud, Yesim; Lavigne-Lissalde, Géraldine; Escuriola-Ettingshausen, Carmen; Tardy, Brigitte; Meley, Roland; Thouvenin, Sandrine; Stephan, Jean L; Berger, Claire

    2015-12-01

    Severe hemophilia A is an X-linked bleeding disorder. Immune tolerance induction (ITI) is the best strategy of treatment when patients develop inhibitors. The objective is to illustrate the benefit of a high-purity human factor VIII/von Willebrand factor (VWF) concentrate (Octanate) in the management of ITI. We also wanted to raise the potential interest of laboratory assays such as thrombin-generation test (TGT) and epitope mapping. Two patients were treated during ITI, first with a recombinant FVIII and then with plasma-derived factor VIII without success, and, finally, with Octanate. Bypassing agents were used based on the results of TGT. Epitope mapping was performed during ITI therapy. These observations suggest the potential contribution of Octanate in the management of ITI in difficult cases. The use of bypassing agents can be necessary in prophylaxis or to treat bleedings, and may be guided by TGT results. Epitope mapping is used to describe the inhibitor. This article shows a decrease of the inhibitor directed against the C2 domain after initiation of Octanate. A high-purity human factor VIII/von Willebrand factor concentrate (Octanate) may be a valuable therapeutical option for ITI therapy. TGT and epitope mapping could be of help in the management of ITI. PMID:26517064

  11. Big Data and Analytics in Higher Education: Opportunities and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Institutions of higher education are operating in an increasingly complex and competitive environment. This paper identifies contemporary challenges facing institutions of higher education worldwide and explores the potential of Big Data in addressing these challenges. The paper then outlines a number of opportunities and challenges associated…

  12. Science Challenge Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Science fairs can be good motivators, but as extracurricular activities, they leave some students behind. However, by staging a Science Challenge Day at school, educators can involve all students in doing everything from choosing activities to judging projects. This article presents a model for running a successful Science Challenge Day. The…

  13. Overcoming Breastfeeding Challenges

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... size | Print | Skip left navigation It's Only Natural Planning ahead Overcoming challenges Overcoming breastfeeding challenges Dealing with ... it into your life My breastfeeding story Partner resources Subscribe ... at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services 200 Independence Avenue, S.W. • Washington, DC 20201 ...

  14. First Aid Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a challenge wherein students will be asked to design a portable first aid kit that is normally carried in a recreational vehicle (RV), but can also be hand-carried or backpacked off road for distances of approximately 1-2 miles. This can be a very practical challenge for the students because it touches everyone. Everybody…

  15. The Pharmacology of TUG-891, a Potent and Selective Agonist of the Free Fatty Acid Receptor 4 (FFA4/GPR120), Demonstrates Both Potential Opportunity and Possible Challenges to Therapeutic Agonism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hudson, Brian D; Shimpukade, Bharat; Mackenzie, Amanda E;

    2013-01-01

    TUG-891 [3-(4-((4-fluoro-4'-methyl-[1,1'-biphenyl]-2-yl)methoxy)phenyl)propanoic acid] was recently described as a potent and selective agonist for the long chain free fatty acid (LCFA) receptor 4 (FFA4; previously G protein-coupled receptor 120, or GPR120). Herein, we have used TUG-891 to further...... define the function of FFA4 and used this compound in proof of principle studies to indicate the therapeutic potential of this receptor. TUG-891 displayed similar signaling properties to the LCFA α-linolenic acid at human FFA4 across various assay end points, including stimulation of Ca(2+) mobilization......, β-arrestin-1 and β-arrestin-2 recruitment, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation. Activation of human FFA4 by TUG-891 also resulted in rapid phosphorylation and internalization of the receptor. While these latter events were associated with desensitization of the FFA4 signaling...

  16. DIGITAL PAKISTAN: OPPORTUNITIES & CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Muhammad Kundi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT IT has revolutionized the social and organizational life around the globe. Given the newness of IT as a technology, there is a lot of potential that needs to be explored. It is however, argued that as IT can revolutionize the economic development, by the same coin, although its mismanagement in adoption process can end up in problems or even straight failure of the technology at the business-end. This study was conducted with reference to opportunities and challenges in the IT adoption process in Pakistan. The aim of the study was to point out the barriers that are impeding the country’s computerization process in order to provide facts to the policy makers for smooth computerization. The primary data collected through structured questionnaires was analyzed and tested through correlation, regressions analysis and t-test. Out of 10 hypotheses, 3 were accepted while in the rest null hypotheses were not substantiated. Based on primary and secondary data analysis this study has found that all independent bureaucratic, political, education and social and cultural variables are mutually correlated and have significant impact on shaping and reshaping of IT in Pakistan, while the Pakistan IT policy is inconsistent, administrative machinery attitude is negative and non cooperative, procedures are cumbersome and implementation is weak and ineffective, not to mention the lack of IT knowledge on the bureaucratic side. The political environment is instable and law and order is worse which is discouraging the investment. Moreover, physical and legal infrastructure is insufficient and the country is lacking good quality IT professionals. IT organization alignment is another serious issue in Pakistan. However, government incentives and growing interest from the private sector indicate positive attitude towards computerization of the country.

  17. DIGITAL PAKISTAN: OPPORTUNITIES & CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Muhammad Kundi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available IT has revolutionized the social and organizational life around the globe. Given the newness of IT as a technology, there is a lot of potential that needs to be explored. It is however, argued that as IT can revolutionize the economic development, by the same coin, although its mismanagement in adoption process can end up in problems or even straight failure of the technology at the business-end. This study was conducted with reference to opportunities and challenges in the IT adoption process in Pakistan. The aim of the study was to point out the barriers that are impeding the country’s computerization process in order to provide facts to the policy makers for smooth computerization. The primary data collected through structured questionnaires was analyzed and tested through correlation, regressions analysis and t-test. Out of 10 hypotheses, 3 were accepted while in the rest null hypotheses were not substantiated. Based on primary and secondary data analysis this study has found that all independent bureaucratic, political, education and social and cultural variables are mutually correlated and have significant impact on shaping and reshaping of IT in Pakistan, while the Pakistan IT policy is inconsistent, administrative machinery attitude is negative and non cooperative, procedures are cumbersome and implementation is weak and ineffective, not to mention the lack of IT knowledge on the bureaucratic side. The political environment is instable and law and order is worse which is discouraging the investment. Moreover, physical and legal infrastructure is insufficient and the country is lacking good quality IT professionals. IT organization alignment is another serious issue in Pakistan. However, government incentives and growing interest from the private sector indicate positive attitude towards computerization of the country.

  18. Revealing the programming process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Jens; Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard

    2005-01-01

    One of the most important goals of an introductory programming course is that the students learn a systematic approach to the development of computer programs. Revealing the programming process is an important part of this; however, textbooks do not address the issue -- probably because...... the textbook medium is static and therefore ill-suited to expose the process of programming. We have found that process recordings in the form of captured narrated programming sessions are a simple, cheap, and efficient way of providing the revelation.We identify seven different elements of the programming...

  19. TypeScript revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Maharry, Dan

    2013-01-01

    TypeScript Revealed is a quick 100-page guide to Anders Hejlsberg's new take on JavaScript. With this brief, fast-paced introduction to TypeScript, .NET, Web and Windows 8 application developers who are already familiar with JavaScript will easily get up to speed with TypeScript and decide whether or not to start incorporating it into their own development. TypeScript is 'JavaScript for Application-scale development'; a superset of JavaScript that brings to it an additional object-oriented-like syntax familiar to .NET programmers that compiles down into simple, clean JavaScript that any browse

  20. Nonlinear dynamics: Challenges and perspectives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Lakshmanan

    2005-04-01

    The study of nonlinear dynamics has been an active area of research since 1960s, after certain path-breaking discoveries, leading to the concepts of solitons, integrability, bifurcations, chaos and spatio-temporal patterns, to name a few. Several new techniques and methods have been developed to understand nonlinear systems at different levels. Along with these, a multitude of potential applications of nonlinear dynamics have also been enunciated. In spite of these developments, several challenges, some of them fundamental and others on the efficacy of these methods in developing cutting edge technologies, remain to be tackled. In this article, a brief personal perspective of these issues is presented.

  1. What the voice reveals.

    OpenAIRE

    Ko, Sei Jin

    2007-01-01

    Given that the voice is our main form of communication, we know surprisingly little about how it impacts judgment and behavior. Furthermore, the modern advancement in telecommunication systems, such as cellular phones, has meant that a large proportion of our everyday interactions are conducted vocally and these interactions can have important consequences. For example, imagine two people, who met through an internet-dating service, having their first phone conversation or potential employees...

  2. The challenges of dismantling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document gathers Power Point presentations which address the contexts and challenges of dismantling (legal framework, safety and radiation protection challenges, waste processing industry), and propose illustrations of dismantling challenges (example of operations to prepare EURODIF dismantling and CLIGEET work-group on EURODIF dismantling, examples of dismantling of EDF installations and CLIs' opinion on the dismantling of EDF installations, Brennilis dismantling follow-up performed by the CLI, examples of dismantling of CEA installations and opinion of a CLI on the dismantling of CEA installations)

  3. Big Data Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Adrian TOLE

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The amount of data that is traveling across the internet today, not only that is large, but is complex as well. Companies, institutions, healthcare system etc., all of them use piles of data which are further used for creating reports in order to ensure continuity regarding the services that they have to offer. The process behind the results that these entities requests represents a challenge for software developers and companies that provide IT infrastructure. The challenge is how to manipulate an impressive volume of data that has to be securely delivered through the internet and reach its destination intact. This paper treats the challenges that Big Data creates.

  4. THE OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES OF MICROINSURANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bente Corneliu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Microinsurance is a term increasingly used to refer to insurance characterized by low premium and low caps or low coverage limits, sold as part of a typical risk-pooling and marketing arrangements, and designed to service low-income people and businesses not served by typical social or commercial insurance schemes. As a relatively new field, few studies evaluating the impact of microinsurance projects exist. Of these, even fewer have a rigorous methodology leading to reliable results. Our research aimed to: - examine the viability of microinsurance as a mechanism of risk transfer and tool for risk management in developing countries; - provide a state of the art analysis of microinsurance for a better understanding of currently operational microinsurance schemes; - reflect on the opportunities and challenges of microinsurance in developing countries, highlighting both the potential benefits and limitations of microinsurance as an instrument for transferring risk; - consider the interests and perspectives of different stakeholders and the incentives and disincentives for participating and investing in a micro-insurance scheme; - enhance dialogue and collaboration on this topic between and within the commercial insurance sector and the disaster risk reduction communities; - assess the opportunity of introducing microinsurance in Romania. Reflecting on the opportunities and challenges of introducing microinsurance in Romania, there is absolutely necessary to understand both the supply side (current insurance market and the demand side (risks faced by low-income persons and the coping strategies used to manage these risks. The majority of the primary research was conducted on-site in Romania, in Oradea and its environs, during the month of December 2010. Qualitative research techniques were utilized, including focus group discussions (FGD and guided individual interviews with members of both the public and private sector, as well as with

  5. Android Emotions Revealed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlachos, Evgenios; Schärfe, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    This work presents a method for designing facial interfaces for sociable android robots with respect to the fundamental rules of human affect expression. Extending the work of Paul Ekman towards a robotic direction, we follow the judgment-based approach for evaluating facial expressions to test in...... which case an android robot like the Geminoid|DK –a duplicate of an Original person- reveals emotions convincingly; when following an empirical perspective, or when following a theoretical one. The methodology includes the processes of acquiring the empirical data, and gathering feedback on them. Our...... findings are based on the results derived from a number of judgments, and suggest that before programming the facial expressions of a Geminoid, the Original should pass through the proposed procedure. According to our recommendations, the facial expressions of an android should be tested by judges, even in...

  6. Chemistry of plutonium revealed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1941 one goal of the Manhattan Project was to unravel the chemistry of the synthetic element plutonium as rapidly as possible. In this paper the work carried out at Berkeley from the spring of 1942 to the summer of 1945 is described briefly. The aqueous chemistry of plutonium is quite remarkable. Important insights were obtained from tracer experiments, but the full complexity was not revealed until macroscopic amounts (milligrams) became available. Because processes for separation from fission products were based on aqueous solutions, such solution chemistry was emphasized, particularly precipitation and oxidation-reduction behavior. The latter turned out to be unusually intricate when it was discovered that two more oxidation states existed in aqueous solution than had previously been suspected. Further, an equilibrium was rapidly established among the four aqueous oxidation states, while at the same time any three were not in equilibrium. These and other observations made while doing a crash study of a previously unknown element are reported

  7. Revealing Cosmic Rotation

    CERN Document Server

    Yadav, Amit P S; Keating, Brian G

    2012-01-01

    Cosmological Birefringence (CB), a rotation of the polarization plane of radiation coming to us from distant astrophysical sources, may reveal parity violation in either the electromagnetic or gravitational sectors of the fundamental interactions in nature. Until only recently this phenomenon could be probed with only radio observations or observations at UV wavelengths. Recently, there is a substantial effort to constrain such non-standard models using observations of the rotation of the polarization plane of cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. This can be done via measurements of the $B$-modes of the CMB or by measuring its TB and EB correlations which vanish in the standard model. In this paper we show that $EB$ correlations-based estimator is the best for upcoming polarization experiments. The $EB$ based estimator surpasses other estimators because it has the smallest noise and of all the estimators is least affected by systematics. Current polarimeters are optimized for the detection of $B$-mode...

  8. Challenging behaviour: a challenge to change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Berckelaer-Onnes, I A; van Loon, J; Peelen, A

    2002-09-01

    People with intellectual disability often exhibit severe behavioural problems. Treatment of these problems is frequently very difficult. In The Netherlands, parents, institutes, schools and others can request the services of an independent advisory team with a pool of professionals who have experience with individuals who exhibit challenging behaviour. In this article the methods of the team will be described using a 24-year-old man as an example. The process took almost 7 years. Finally, this man, who had been living full time in one room in total isolation from the rest of the world, fulfilled his heart's desire--visiting the UK by Hovercraft. PMID:12212917

  9. Community Challenge Grantees

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HUD's Community Challenge Grants aim to reform and reduce barriers to achieving affordable, economically vital and sustainable communities. The funds are awarded to...

  10. Brazil World Cup Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    MANSUR, R.

    2012-01-01

    Overcoming the productivity challenge is the main benefit of the 2014 World Cup for Brazilian people. The sustainable development of our cultural tourism industry will catapult the new middle class growing up rate.

  11. Better Buildings Challenge Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-06-01

    The Better Buildings Challenge is a national leadership initiative calling on corporate chief executive officers, university presidents, and state and local leaders to make a significant commitment to building energy efficiency.

  12. Challenging Fieldwork Situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Thomas; Østergaard Steenfeldt, Vibeke

    2013-01-01

    understanding on the phenomenon of awkwardness as a natural way for researchers to respond to challenging fieldwork situations. Finally, they propose and unfold mutual interviewing and cooperative analysis as methods of investigating researcher’s subjectivity in facing such situations....

  13. The Electric Car Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Brian E.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the Electric Car Challenge during which students applied methods of construction to build lightweight, strong vehicles that were powered by electricity. The activity required problem solving, sheet metal work, electricity, design, and construction skills. (JOW)

  14. A challenging read

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy Foley

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Andrei Mourachkine uses his new book to argue that superconductivity could be achieved at room temperature and, while his thesis may rest on some unconfirmed evidence, it does challenge preconceptions, says Cathy Foley.

  15. Brazil World Cup Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANSUR, R.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Overcoming the productivity challenge is the main benefit of the 2014 World Cup for Brazilian people. The sustainable development of our cultural tourism industry will catapult the new middle class growing up rate.

  16. Challenges in marine instrumentation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Afzulpurkar, S.; Desa, E.; Joseph, A.; Chakraborty, B.; Nayak, M.R.; Ranade, G.

    challenge for technology. Biosensors which can detect bioluminescence and other biological activities would play a major role. Autonomous instrumentation outfitted with different types of in-situ sensors would collect data without disturbing the system...

  17. Big Data Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandru Adrian TOLE

    2013-01-01

    The amount of data that is traveling across the internet today, not only that is large, but is complex as well. Companies, institutions, healthcare system etc., all of them use piles of data which are further used for creating reports in order to ensure continuity regarding the services that they have to offer. The process behind the results that these entities requests represents a challenge for software developers and companies that provide IT infrastructure. The challenge is how to manipul...

  18. Anthropocene Age Wicked Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edgeman, Rick; Wu, Zhaohui

    2015-01-01

    weather events, drought, and desertification; threatened food supplies; water pollution, air pollution, and soil contamination; and the connection of these to disease, violence, and terrorism. Wicked challenges are discussed in relation to enterprise excellence, sustainability, resilience and robustness......Grand global challenges, including wicked human caused or influenced ones key to sustainability, characterize the Anthropocene Age. Among these are climate change driven by increased methane and CO2 in the atmosphere; consequent global warming and increasing intensity and incidence of extreme...

  19. Challenges in obesity research

    OpenAIRE

    Andreu Palou; Luisa Bonet, M.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is the main nutritional problem and one of the most important health problems in developed societies. Central to the challenge of obesity prevention and management is a thoroughly understanding of its determinants. Multiple socio-cultural, socio-economic, behavioural and biological factors -often interrelated and many of them still unknown or poorly understood- can contribute to the establishment and perpetuation of obese phenotypes. Here, we address current research challenges regard...

  20. Overcoming Safeguards Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The focus of the 2010 IAEA International Safeguards Symposium was how best, from a technical perspective, to prepare for future verification challenges during this time of change. By bringing together the leading experts in the field from across the world, this symposium provided an opportunity for stakeholders to explore possible solutions in support of the IAEA's nuclear verification mission, and to identify areas where the different stakeholders in the safeguards business can help address these challenges

  1. Optimal challenges in tennis

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, S. R.; Norman, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    The use of technology in sport to assist umpires has been gradually introduced into several sports. This has now been extended to allow players to call upon technology to arbitrate when they disagree with the umpire's decision. Both tennis and cricket now allow the players to challenge a doubtful decision, which is reversed if the evidence shows it to be incorrect. However, the number of challenges is limited, and players must balance any possible immediate gain with the loss of a future righ...

  2. Future challenges in renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, H; Clancy, M; Jardine, A

    2012-02-01

    There is a worldwide increase in the incidence of end-stage renal disease. Renal transplantation has been shown to be cost effective, prolong survival and provide a better quality of life in comparison to dialysis. Consequently, there has been a steady increase in demand for organs leading to a shortage of available kidneys, and an increase in transplant waiting lists. Renal transplantation is therefore an expanding field with a number of unique future challenges to address. This article outlines strategies that may be employed to expand organ supply in order to meet increased demand. The ethical issues surrounding this are also summarized. Furthermore, we highlight techniques with the potential to minimize peri-transplant injury to the kidney on its journey from donor to recipient. Current and potential future management strategies to optimize graft and patient survival are also discussed. PMID:22361673

  3. The ambiguous challenge of intranets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thommesen, Jacob

    2003-01-01

    ambiguity and interpretation. Based on the ideal of rationality I emphasize the ‘challenges’ of ambiguity, which is inhibitive to rational processes, but also holds a potential for a rational and universalising resolution. In the second chapter I identify the role of ambiguity in organisations. Ambiguity...... increases with tendencies to cooperate and communicate across organisational boundaries, mainly as a reaction to developments in markets and industrial knowledge base, but also due to the potential provided by computer network. In the third chapter I identify some characteristics of two fundamental intranet...... media, email and the web, partly in the perspective of media richness theory, partly compared with philosophical discussions of classical media. The fourth chapter presents an intranet in a global company, in which problems and challenges related to ambiguity have proven significant....

  4. Crowdsourcing. A Citizen Participation Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junia Borges

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a work in progress on Crowdsourcing. First, its concepts and importance are discussed and then its value for citizenship and urban planning. The motivation for participation and the display of geo-tagged information, as well as its possible applications in dynamic spatial temporal issues are presented, as well as its different approaches and applications. Furthermore, Crowdsourcing is discussed when the “ONVCêVIU”, a VGI case study, is presented, revealing its origin, objective, free platform comparison - to select the proper tool to implement, the project’s main challenges, results so far and further steps to be taken. To conclude a short review of the author’s vision about what is to come in the future research.

  5. Challenging industry conceptions with provotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boer, Laurens; Donovan, Jared; Buur, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    how conceptions currently are, and fuel the front end of a development process by speculating how conceptions could be different. In this article we start by making explicit the relation between provotypes, practices of critical design and organizational sense-making. We then illustrate through a...... services. However, ethnographic findings can reveal issues that are at tension with conceptions of the project members from industry. Other than brushing these tensions aside, we propose provotyping (provocative prototyping) as an approach to constructively build on them as a resource for change....... Provotypes are ethnographically rooted, technically working, robust artefacts that deliberately challenge stakeholder conceptions by reifying and exposing tensions that surround a field of organizational interest. The daily and local experience of provotypes aim to stir dialectical processes of reflection on...

  6. Theory Challenges of the Accelerating Universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linder, Eric V.

    2007-03-05

    The accelerating expansion of the universe presents an exciting, fundamental challenge to the standard models of particle physics and cosmology. I highlight some of the outstanding challenges in both developing theoretical models and interpreting without bias the observational results from precision cosmology experiments in the next decade that will return data to help reveal the nature of the new physics. Examples given focus on distinguishing a new component of energy from a new law of gravity, and the effect of early dark energy on baryon acoustic oscillations.

  7. Theory Challenges of the Accelerating Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accelerating expansion of the universe presents an exciting, fundamental challenge to the standard models of particle physics and cosmology. I highlight some of the outstanding challenges in both developing theoretical models and interpreting without bias the observational results from precision cosmology experiments in the next decade that will return data to help reveal the nature of the new physics. Examples given focus on distinguishing a new component of energy from a new law of gravity, and the effect of early dark energy on baryon acoustic oscillations

  8. Challenges in obesity research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palou, Andreu; Bonet, M Luisa

    2013-09-01

    Obesity is the main nutritional problem and one of the most important health problems in developed societies. Central to the challenge of obesity prevention and management is a thoroughly understanding of its determinants. Multiple socio-cultural, socio-economic, behavioural and biological factors--often interrelated and many of them still unknown or poorly understood--can contribute to the establishment and perpetuation of obese phenotypes. Here, we address current research challenges regarding basic aspects of obesity and emerging science for its control, including brown adipose tissue thermogenesis and browning of white fat as possible therapeutic targets for obesity, the influence of the microbioma, and genetics, epigenetics, nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics of obesity. We also highlight hot topics in relation to food and lifestyle as determinants of obesity, including the brain mechanisms underlying environmental motivation to eat, the biological control of spontaneous physical activity, the possible role of concrete foods and food components, and the importance of early life nutrition and environment. Challenges regarding the connections of obesity with other alterations and pathologies are also briefly addressed, as well as social and economical challenges in relation to healthy food production and lifestyle for the prevention of obesity, and technological challenges in obesity research and management. The objective is to give a panoramic of advances accomplished and still ahead relevant to the different stakeholders engaged in understanding and combating obesity. PMID:24010755

  9. Challenges in obesity research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreu Palou

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is the main nutritional problem and one of the most important health problems in developed societies. Central to the challenge of obesity prevention and management is a thoroughly understanding of its determinants. Multiple socio-cultural, socio-economic, behavioural and biological factors -often interrelated and many of them still unknown or poorly understood- can contribute to the establishment and perpetuation of obese phenotypes. Here, we address current research challenges regarding basic aspects of obesity and emerging science for its control, including brown adipose tissue thermogenesis and browning of white fat as possible therapeutic targets for obesity, the influence of the microbioma, and genetics, epigenetics, nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics of obesity. We also highlight hot topics in relation to food and lifestyle as determinants of obesity, including the brain mechanisms underlying environmental motivation to eat, the biological control of spontaneous physical activity, the possible role of concrete foods and food components, and the importance of early life nutrition and environment. Challenges regarding the connections of obesity with other alterations and pathologies are also briefly addressed, as well as social and economical challenges in relation to healthy food production and lifestyle for the prevention of obesity, and technological challenges in obesity research and management. The objective is to give a panoramic of advances accomplished and still ahead relevant to the different stakeholders engaged in understanding and combating obesity.

  10. The challenge of sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses sustainability in a world that has changed rapidly. The author suggests that ecological assumptions embedded in communism and capitalism are badly flawed, but the flaws were not apparent when there were fewer than a billion people on earth living at low technology levels. Sustaining the earth's vital signs is a challenge to our perception of time, and the numbers - population, environmental damage, oil consumption, waste disposal - are too large to comprehend easily. There is a global debate about what sustainability means. In fact the challenge of sustainability is 6 different challenges: overcoming the tendency to deny inconvenient realities; establishing accurate indicators of human and ecological health; questions about the kinds of technology necessary to make the transition to sustainability; education; the need for an emotional bond between man and nature; rebuilding the existing democratic institutions. 16 refs

  11. Meeting the Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Reg Bott

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The first Chempor Conference held in Lisbon in 1975 under the auspices of the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation, heralded a regular wide-ranging review of research and development in Portugal and the UK Progressively in later years the Conferences have attracted contributions from other European countries and indeed further afield. There is an increasing awareness of the problems for the environment, notably global warming, brought about by human activities. Recent predictions about the future are dire, particularly regarding food and water for a rapidly growing world population. They represent a substantial challenge to the scientific and technical fraternity. In response to that challenge it is important to keep up to date with technical developments, to meet and keep in touch with coworkers in associated fields, and to cooperate wherever possible. The papers presented at the Chempor and other conferences have made and continue to make a significant contribution to that objective of meeting the challenge.

  12. British Muslims: A Challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel-Hady, Zakaryya Mohamed [زكريا محمد عبد الهادي

    2007-01-01

    The Muslim community in Britain today face multiple challenges covering a wide range of spectrum from the basic right to exists, fighting the increasing trends of Islamophobia, having equal opportunities, to participate in public life, fully integrate within the society and be a positive member of the community. The recent events of September 11th in the US, July 7th in UK and the more recent row over the ban of the headscarf in UK and other European countries have placed tremendous challenge...

  13. Banff Challenge 2

    CERN Document Server

    Junk, Thomas R

    2011-01-01

    Experimental particle physics collaborations constantly seek newer and better ideas for improving the sensitivity of their searches for new particles and phenomena. Statistical techniques are the last step in interpreting the results of an experiment; they are used to make discoveries (hypothesis testing), and to measure parameters (point estimation). They are also used in the first step - experiment and analysis design. Banff Challenge 2 asks participants to test their methods of disco vering hidden signals in simulated datasets and of measuring the properties of these signals. The Challenge problems are described, and the performances of the submitted entries is summarized, for datasets with and without simulated signals present.

  14. Challenges facing production grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pordes, Ruth; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    Today's global communities of users expect quality of service from distributed Grid systems equivalent to that their local data centers. This must be coupled to ubiquitous access to the ensemble of processing and storage resources across multiple Grid infrastructures. We are still facing significant challenges in meeting these expectations, especially in the underlying security, a sustainable and successful economic model, and smoothing the boundaries between administrative and technical domains. Using the Open Science Grid as an example, I examine the status and challenges of Grids operating in production today.

  15. The challenge of conceiving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus Thorp; Jørgensen, Ulrik

    2011-01-01

    One of the big challenges in the CDIO approach to engineering education is the first part focusing on conceiving problems to be handled and eventually solved. Traditional engineering education has been dominated by its focus on technical disciplines emphasising their individual tool box of problem...... problem from the perspective of engineering design challenges where the need for problem identification is obvious to avoid the pitfall to reproduce and piecemeal engineer already existing product or service concepts. Problem identification is not a simple desk research task as it often involves a...

  16. International Collaboration: Promises and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Jay Widmer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Rambam Maimonides Medical Journal 2015 April; 6(2: e0012. ISSN: 2076-9172 Published online 2015 April 29. Special Issue on the Rambam-Mayo Collaboration Guest Editor: John H. Davidson, M.D., M.A.H.L. doi: 10.5041/RMMJ.10196. International Collaboration: Promises and Challenges R. Jay Widmer, M.D., Ph.D.,1 Jocelyn M. Widmer, Ph.D., M.P.H.,2 and Amir Lerman, M.D.1* 1Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic and College of Medicine, Rochester, MN, USA; 2Department of Urban and Regional Planning, College of Design, Construction and Planning, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA Conflict of interest: No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported. * To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: lerman.amir@mayo.edu Copyright: © 2015 Widmer et al. This is an open-access article. All its content, except where otherwise noted, is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract We currently face a myriad of grand global challenges in fields such as poverty, the environment, education, science, and medicine. However, our current means of dealing with such challenges has fallen short, and ingenious solutions are required to overcome the inherent resistance to progress toward ameliorating such difficulties. Here, we highlight the promises and challenges of international collaboration in achieving success toward these trials. We note prior successes in fields such as education, medicine, science, and environmental issues made to date, yet at the same time we do note deficiencies and shortcomings in these efforts. Hence, the notion of international collaboration should be strengthened and encouraged by governments, non-profit organizations, and others moving forward using creative

  17. Meeting the Challenge of Preparing Reflective Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrivee, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Preparing teachers to be reflective practitioners is the goal embraced by most teacher education programs. Reflective practitioners infuse personal beliefs and values into a professional identity, resulting in the development of a deliberate code of conduct. They challenge assumptions and expectations that may limit their potential for tolerance…

  18. Strategic challenges in neurotherapeutic pharmaceutical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallen, Christopher C

    2004-01-01

    Developing new therapeutics presents formidable economic, scientific, and medical challenges that are exacerbated by special factors in neurotherapeutics development, e.g., the complexity of the CNS with its attendant need to sometimes affect multiple pathways, the lack of clarity of disease etiology, inadequacy of available animal models, and difficulties in defining disease populations and quantifying treatment response. This paper reviews the economic challenges faced by therapeutics developers in general and neurotherapeutics developers in particular. It discusses key scientific challenges, particularly those pertinent to neurotherapeutics development, as a background to proposing a different industrial strategy to drive future therapeutics development. This Biodesign strategy potentially surpasses previous paradigms by incorporating elements such as the use of disease modeling to select better targets and potential therapies, information science-based approaches to enhance small molecule chemistry, exploitation of the potential for biological technologies to rapidly generate mechanistic probes, and development of improved approaches for using animal models and studying human molecules mechanistically and biologically. Synergistic use of these elements can change the overall business model of companies engaged in neurotherapeutics development. The Biodesign paradigm has the potential to both markedly enhance the development of new therapies and to address some of the economic challenges facing healthcare systems and therapeutics developers alike. PMID:15717016

  19. Methodological challenges in retailer buying behaviour research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tommy Holm; Skytte, Hans

    This paper presents a review of studies on retailer buying behaviour with focus on the methodological issues. It is argued that the researcher of retailer buying behaviour is faced with particular challenges regarding the sample frame, defining th of analysis, potentially small populations and low...

  20. A Radio-Controlled Car Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    Watching a radio-controlled car zip along a sidewalk or street has become a common sight. Within this toy are the basic ingredients of a mobile robot, used by industry for a variety of important and potentially dangerous tasks. In this challenge, students consider modifying an of-the-shelf, radio-controlled car, adapting it for a robotic task.

  1. FAMILY HEALTH PROGRAM: CHALLENGES AND POTENTIALITIES REGARDING DRUGS USE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelle Aparecida de Barros

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Epidemiological studies on drugs use point towards this phenomenon as a public health problem. Nowadays, the Family Health Program (FHP is presented by the Health Ministry as a model to restructure primary health care and aims to offer family-centered care, permeated by integrality, problem solving and community bonds. This article aims to discuss action possibilities of Family Health Care professionals involving drugs patients. It is evident that, as opposed to other actions already developed by FHP professionals in other health care areas, which has appeared clearly and objectively. This fact is observed in the daily activities of FHP professionals, which give little attention to drugs-related problems. However, research emphasizes that there exists a broad range of action possibilities for FHP professionals. Although other studies evidence this team’s fragilities in terms of care for drugs users, these can be overcome by investing in the training and valuation of these professionals. KEY WORDS: Family Health Program; Street drugs; Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice.

  2. Social Networking and the Potential Challenges for Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Zupanoska, Biljana

    2009-01-01

    Today, marketers and media companies face a changed environment, affected mostly by the rise of the Internet era. The emergence of various technology applications, combined with the global change of customers is affecting the communication between marketers and consumers. Consumers and marketers are changing their roles; consumers are now media producers, programmers, and distributors, through the use of the social networking applications. The aim of the thesis is to analyze this trend, to pr...

  3. Comparative qualitative research in cultural psychology: challenges and potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Demuth, Carolin; Fatigante, Marilena

    2012-01-01

    "The present paper aims to provide an approach that allows to study the interplay of culture and psychological human functioning in comparative study designs. Starting out with a brief overview of how qualitative, cultural, and comparative research is addressed in the field of psychology we will take a Cultural Psychology approach to suggest that the unit of analysis for comparative research needs to be situated social interaction. We will then suggest an inte...

  4. The Potential and Challenges of Critical Realist Ethnography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Ian

    2013-01-01

    This article revisits the critical realist ethnographic process that was adopted in my doctoral thesis, which was concerned with the experiences of ethnic identity of white British and Pakistani British children as they started kindergarten in the northwest of England. The article focuses on the ethnography that emerged from the visits that I…

  5. Millimeter Wave Cellular Wireless Networks: Potentials and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Rangan, Sundeep; Rappaport, Theodore S.; Erkip, Elza

    2014-01-01

    Millimeter wave (mmW) frequencies between 30 and 300 GHz are a new frontier for cellular communication that offers the promise of orders of magnitude greater bandwidths combined with further gains via beamforming and spatial multiplexing from multi-element antenna arrays. This paper surveys measurements and capacity studies to assess this technology with a focus on small cell deployments in urban environments. The conclusions are extremely encouraging; measurements in New York City at 28 and ...

  6. Adaptive potential of a Pacific salmon challenged by climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Nicolas J.; Farrell, Anthony P.; Heath, John W.; Neff, Bryan D.

    2015-02-01

    Pacific salmon provide critical sustenance for millions of people worldwide and have far-reaching impacts on the productivity of ecosystems. Rising temperatures now threaten the persistence of these important fishes, yet it remains unknown whether populations can adapt. Here, we provide the first evidence that a Pacific salmon has both physiological and genetic capacities to increase its thermal tolerance in response to rising temperatures. In juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), a 4 °C increase in developmental temperature was associated with a 2 °C increase in key measures of the thermal performance of cardiac function. Moreover, additive genetic effects significantly influenced several measures of cardiac capacity, indicative of heritable variation on which selection can act. However, a lack of both plasticity and genetic variation was found for the arrhythmic temperature of the heart, constraining this upper thermal limit to a maximum of 24.5 +/- 2.2 °C. Linking this constraint on thermal tolerance with present-day river temperatures and projected warming scenarios, we predict a 17% chance of catastrophic loss in the population by 2100 based on the average warming projection, with this chance increasing to 98% in the maximum warming scenario. Climate change mitigation is thus necessary to ensure the future viability of Pacific salmon populations.

  7. Working Paper 45 - Commercial Infrastructure in Africa: Potentials and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Claude V Chang

    2002-01-01

    L'analyse ci-dessus est axée sur la commercialisation de l'infrastructure africaine depuis le début des années 90. D'après cette analyse, les pays africains manifestaient une certaine réticence à l'égard de la privatisation de l'infrastructure, car ils avaient pressenti l'importance du secteur dans l’économie. En effet, même après avoir opté pour la privatisation, après la commercialisation et les contrats-plans au titre des entreprises publiques, cette privatisation avait essentiellement pou...

  8. Biomarkers for diet and cancer prevention research: potentials and challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cindy D DAVIS; John A MILNER

    2007-01-01

    As cancer incidence is projected to increase for decades there is a need for effec-tive preventive strategies. Fortunately, evidence continues to mount that altering dietary habits is an effective and cost-efficient approach for reducing cancer risk and for modifying the biological behavior of tumors. Predictive, validated and sensitive biomarkers, including those that reliably evaluate "intake" or exposure to a specific food or bioactive component, that assess one or more specific bio-logical "effects" that are linked to cancer, and that effectively predict individual "susceptibility" as a function of nutrient-nutrient interactions and genetics, are fundamental to evaluating who will benefit most from dietary interventions. These biomarkers must be readily accessible, easily and reliably assayed, and predictive of a key process(es) involved in cancer. The response to a food is determined not only by the effective concentration of the bioactive food component(s) reaching the target tissue, but also by the amount of the target requiring modification.Thus, this threshold response to foods and their components will vary from indi-vidual to individual. The key to understanding a personalized response is a greater knowledge of nutrigenomics, proteomics and metabolomics.

  9. Production Potential of Rubberwood in Malaysia: Its Economic Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jegatheswaran RATNASINGAM

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis has emerged as the most important source of wood raw material in Malaysia. Being a plantation crop, it is regarded as a green and environmental-friendly material that has found applications in almost all sectors of the wood industry. Despite its importance as a socio-economic sector, the future of the rubberwood industry in Malaysia is under scrutiny. The steadily declining rubber cultivation area in the country is raising alarms about the future supply of rubberwood. Although the government provides a replanting subsidy for smallholders, who make up the large proportion of the growers, there is an urgent need to enhance the profitability of rubber growing activities. Efforts to enhance the full recovery of wood biomass available and also expanding the use of rubberwood in high value applications must be pursued rigorously, to arrest the declining interests in rubber cultivation. Policy makers must ensure that rubber cultivation remains economical and the net value of rubberwood is further enhanced through application in non-traditional sectors.

  10. Production Potential of Rubberwood in Malaysia: Its Economic Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Jegatheswaran RATNASINGAM; Geetha RAMASAMY; Florin IORAS; Jake KANER; Lu WENMING

    2012-01-01

    Rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis) has emerged as the most important source of wood raw material in Malaysia. Being a plantation crop, it is regarded as a green and environmental-friendly material that has found applications in almost all sectors of the wood industry. Despite its importance as a socio-economic sector, the future of the rubberwood industry in Malaysia is under scrutiny. The steadily declining rubber cultivation area in the country is raising alarms about the future supply of rubb...

  11. Leadership conversations challenging high potential managers to become great leaders

    CERN Document Server

    Berson, Alan S

    2012-01-01

    Conversation techniques and tools that can help strong managers become great leaders Often the very same skills and traits that enable rising stars to achieve success ""tenacity, aggressiveness, self-confidence"" become liabilities when promoted into a leadership track. While managers'' conversations are generally transactional and centered on the task at hand, leaders must focus on people, asking great questions and aligning them with the vision for the future. Leadership mindsets and skills can be developed, and Leadership Conversations provides practical guidance for connecting with others

  12. Children's acceptance learning of New Nordic components and potential challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvig, Ditte Luise

    It has been suggested that dietary recommendations should be tailored to regional conditions to bridge gastronomi, health and sustainability. The New Nordic diet (NND) has been defined as part of the OPUS project:”Optimal well-being, development and health of school children through a New Nordic...

  13. FAMILY HEALTH PROGRAM: CHALLENGES AND POTENTIALITIES REGARDING DRUGS USE

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelle Aparecida de Barros; Sandra Cristina Pillon

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Epidemiological studies on drugs use point towards this phenomenon as a public health problem. Nowadays, the Family Health Program (FHP) is presented by the Health Ministry as a model to restructure primary health care and aims to offer family-centered care, permeated by integrality, problem solving and community bonds. This article aims to discuss action possibilities of Family Health Care professionals involving drugs patients. It is evident that, as opposed to other actions alrea...

  14. Comparative qualitative research in Cultural Psychology:Challenges und Potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Demuth, Carolin; Fatigante, Marilena

    2012-01-01

    The present paper aims to provide an approach that allows to study the interplay of culture and psychological human functioning in comparative study designs. Starting out with a brief overview of how qualitative, cultural, and comparative research is addressed in the field of psychology we will take a Cultural Psychology approach to suggest that the unit of analysis for comparative research needs to be situated social interaction. We will then suggest an integrative approach that allows us to...

  15. Methodological triangulation in work life research - potentials and challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warring, Niels

    2015-01-01

    for individual interviews and informal talks with employees. The interviews and conversations were based on a critical hermeneutic approach. The analysis of observations and interviews constituted a knowledge base as the project went in to the last phase: action research workshops. In the workshops...... findings from observations and interviews were brought in dialogue with participants' everyday experiences and knowledge....

  16. SMR for desalination of seawater: Potential and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The demand for fresh water and electricity will continue to rise over the next decades. These are driven by four main factors: population growth, economic development, technological advancement, and environmental related aspects. One of the most promising approaches for securing abundant fresh water is seawater desalination and the best energy source (for electricity and/or heat) is a small or medium sized nuclear reactor if we are also looking for reduction in the level of GHG and CO2. Seawater is inexhaustibly available, and desalination technologies are well developed. About three decades of experience have been gained in the use of nuclear desalination, and several countries are actively involved in developing this technology and are moving towards implementing a nuclear desalination program. International co-operation in nuclear desalination is not only following the new trends all over the world, but it also provides the best means to ensure safe and reliable application of nuclear energy. (author)

  17. Attestation in Trusted Computing: Challenges and Potential Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Lee-Thorp, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    This report examines the state of play in TCG attestation. It asks the question: how practical is the attestation specification and does it meet the needs of designs that propose to take advantage of trusted computing functionality? It is shown that, broadly speaking, both specification and implementation falls short of its stated goals. Application designs expect different semantics. Straightforward application of attestation to a running system does not provide adequate assurance nor does i...

  18. Democratic challenges and potentials in pre-schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampmann, Jan; Ahrenkiel, Annegrethe; Røn Larsen, Maja; Stanek, Anja Hvidtfeldt

    children in a Danish nursery. On the one hand the paper highlight the situated processes of developing a pedagogical practice of influence and democracy for children, emphasising the explorative and experimenting character of such processes, and on the other hand show, how exactly processes like these tend...

  19. Organic livestock production in Uganda: potentials, challenges and prospects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nalubwama, Sylvia Muwanga; Mugisha, Anthony; Vaarst, Mette

    2011-01-01

    development in Uganda has focused more on the crop sector than livestock sector and has primarily involved the private sector, like organic products export companies and non-governmental organizations. Agriculture in Uganda and many African countries is predominantly traditional, less mechanized, and is...... production. The prospects of organic livestock development in Uganda can be enhanced with more scientific research in organic livestock production under local conditions and strengthening institutional support....

  20. Therapeutic application of hydrogen sulfide donors: the potential and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dan; Hu, Qingxun; Zhu, Yizhun

    2016-03-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a colorless gas smelling of rotten egg, has long been considered a toxic gas and environment hazard. However, evidences show that H2S plays a great role in many physiological and pathological activities, and it exhibits different effects when applied at various doses. In this review, we summarize the chemistry and biomedical applications of H2S-releasing compounds, including inorganic salts, phosphorodithioate derivatives, derivatives of Allium sativum extracts, derivatives of thioaminoacids, and derivatives of antiinflammatory drugs. PMID:26597301

  1. Puerto Rico Revealed Preference data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Revealed preference models provide insights into recreational angler behavior and the economic value of recreational fishing trips. Revealed preference data is...

  2. 76 FR 56819 - Centennial Challenges 2012 Sample Return Robot Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Centennial Challenges 2012 Sample Return Robot Challenge AGENCY: National... 42 U.S.C. 2451(314)(d). The 2012 Sample Return Robot Challenge is scheduled and teams that wish to... technologies of interest and value to NASA and the nation. The 2012 Sample Return Robot Challenge is a...

  3. 77 FR 70835 - Centennial Challenges 2013 Sample Return Robot Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-27

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Centennial Challenges 2013 Sample Return Robot Challenge AGENCY: National... in accordance with 51 U.S.C. 20144(c). The 2013 Sample Return Robot Challenge is scheduled and teams... Robot Challenge is a prize competition designed to encourage development of new technologies...

  4. Asia's new challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brach, Juliana; Vang, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Asian countries are currently undergoing significant changes with respect to their role in and interaction with the international economy. Despite their heterogeneity, Asian countries share the common aim to upgrade capacities, skills and capabilities. This paper aims at unpacking the challenges...

  5. The challenge of implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Karen Heide Hauge

    2015-01-01

    concepts in daily teaching, as it is strongly encouraged by policy makers and educations. This paper aims to discuss how lecturers experience the challenge of teaching their own discipline while being imposed to embrace and promote innovation and entrepreneurship teaching. Through a single study case of...

  6. Tackling the Unemployment Challenge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    As the world's largest economy in transition, Chinafaces a severe unemployment challenge. With aworking population of 751 million, China'sunemployment rate stands at more than l O% in urbanareas," including rural surplus laborers, it is astaggering 20%. Since assuming office in March

  7. The blind hens’ challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Hocking, Paul M.; Forkman, Björn;

    2014-01-01

    repellent, yet 'welfare-only' positions appear to be committed to endorsing this possibility if it produces welfare gains. We call this the 'Blind Hens' Challenge'. In this paper, we argue that there are both empirical and theoretical reasons why even those adopting 'welfare-only' views should be concerned...

  8. MALL: The Pedagogical Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burston, Jack

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the development of mobile-assisted language learning (MALL) over the past 20 years is reviewed with a particular focus on the pedagogical challenges facing its exploitation. Following a consideration of the definition of mobile learning, the paper describes the dominant mobile technologies upon which MALL applications have been…

  9. Overcoming Breastfeeding Challenges

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Human Services Office on Women's Health Skip Navigation Skip top navigation Home A-Z Health Topics ePublications News About Us Contact Us Text size | Print | Skip left navigation It's Only Natural Planning ahead Overcoming challenges Overcoming ...

  10. Electric Vehicle Battery Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    A serious drawback to electric vehicles [batteries only] is the idle time needed to recharge their batteries. In this challenge, students can develop ideas and concepts for battery change-out at automotive service stations. Such a capability would extend the range of electric vehicles.

  11. A Challenge to Watson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detterman, Douglas K.

    2011-01-01

    Watson's Jeopardy victory raises the question of the similarity of artificial intelligence and human intelligence. Those of us who study human intelligence issue a challenge to the artificial intelligence community. We will construct a unique battery of tests for any computer that would provide an actual IQ score for the computer. This is the same…

  12. The Moon Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimmons, Pat; Leddy, Diana; Johnson, Lindy; Biggam, Sue; Locke, Suzan

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a first-grade research project that incorporates trade books and challenges misconceptions. Educators see the power of their students' wonder at work in their classrooms on a daily basis. This wonder must be nourished by students' own experiences--observing the moon on a crystal clear night--as well as by having…

  13. Ecommerce: Ongoing Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Mohammed

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines some of the challenges of online marketing, including the importance of adding online marketing to corporation budgets. A review of the pros and cons of social networking on the Internet, when used as a marketing tool by companies is presented. In addition, new forms of Internet shoppers and new niches for companies are identified

  14. Challenging the Boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Nina

    2004-01-01

    To many people, challenging the boundaries between the traditional disciplines in foreign language studies means doing cultural studies. The aim of this article is to pull in a different direction by suggesting how the interface between linguistics and literature may be another fertile field to e...

  15. Challenging and valuable

    OpenAIRE

    Van Hal, J.D.M.

    2008-01-01

    Challenging and valuable Inaugural speech given on May 7th 2008 at the occasion of the acceptance of the position of Professor Sustainable Housing Transformation at the faculty of Architeeture of the Delft University of Technology by Prof. J.D.M. van Hal MSc PhD.

  16. Hopes and Challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China tops the medal tally again at the Asian Games but still faces challenges in some events The curtain of the 16th Asian Games has fallen, but the 15 days of exciting competitions will be recorded in the history of the Games.

  17. Ecommerce: Ongoing Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Derek Mohammed

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines some of the challenges of online marketing, including the importance of adding online marketing to corporation budgets. A review of the pros and cons of social networking on the Internet, when used as a marketing tool by companies is presented. In addition, new forms of Internet shoppers and new niches for companies are identified

  18. The diesel challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article is focused on the challenges being faced by the diesel producer and these include a number of interesting developments which illustrate the highly competitive world of the European refiner. These include: The tightening quality requirements being legislated coupled with the availability of the ''city diesel'' from Scandinavia and elsewhere which is already being sold into the market. For a time there will be a clear means of product differentiation. One of the key questions is whether the consumer will value the quality difference; a growing demand for diesel which is outstripping the growth in gasoline demand and causing refiners headaches when it comes to balancing their supply/demand barrels; the emergence of alternative fuels which are challenging the traditional markets of the refiner and in particular, the niche markets for the higher quality diesel fuels. All of this at a time of poor margins and over-capacity in the industry with further major challenges ahead such as fuel oil disposal, tighter environmental standards and the likelihood of heavier, higher sulphur crude oils in the future. Clearly, in such a difficult and highly-competitive business environment it will be important to find low-cost solutions to the challenges of the diesel quality changes. An innovative approach will be required to identify the cheapest and best route to enable the manufacture of the new quality diesel. (Author)

  19. Fortification Challenges and Needs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Experience in many parts of the developing world has shown thatfood fortification offers a cost-effective and sustainable solution to the problem of micronutrient malnutrition. Building on the advances in science and technology and backed by studies on the economic benefits of fortification programs, governments and industry are beginning to respond positively to the call of nutrition advocates to adopt fortification as a long-term strategy. On the other hand, formidable challenges still remain in many countries in Asia, constraining the widespread adoption of this strategy. The science and technology community needs to provide adequate scientific and technological information as basis for planning and decision making. The government faces the challenge of providing the enabling environment for all stakeholders to cooperate in the fortification effort. Industry faces the challenge of adapting its production system to the requirements of fortification in order that they can contribute to social objectives while pursuing their economic objectives. The international and bilateral aid agencies need to seek tried and innovative ways to support the multiple players of food fortification, as these players in turn face the challenges that confront them.

  20. Fortification Challenges and Needs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RODOLFOF.FLORENTINO

    2001-01-01

    Experience in many parts of the developing world has shown that food fortification offers a costeffective and sustainable solution to the problem of micronutrient malnutrition.Building on the advances in science and technology and backed by studies on the economic benefits of fortification programs,govenments and industry are beginning to respond positively to the call of nutrition advocates to adopt fortification as a long-term strategy.On the other hand,formidable challenges still remain in many countries in Asia,constraining the widespread adoption of this strategy,The science and technology community needs to provide adequate scientific and technological information as basis for planning and decision making,The governent faces the challenge of providing the enabling environment for all stakeholders to cooperate in the fortification effort.Industry faces the challenge of adapting its production system to the requirements of fortification in oreder that they can contribute to social bojectives while pursuing their economic objectives,The international and bilateral aid agencies need to seek tried and innovative ways to support the multiple players of food fortification,as these players in turn face the challenges that confront them.