WorldWideScience

Sample records for chalk river nuclear labs

  1. Canada, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), Chalk River Labs: Reuse and Licence Termination of a Number of Facilities at the Chalk River Labs to Allow for Refurbishment of the Site. Annex A. I-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalk River Labs is located along the Ottawa River in Ontario, Canada, approximately 200 km north-west of Ottawa. The site began construction in 1944 following the expropriation of approximately 1 500 ha of land. A number of research reactors were constructed at the site along with numerous nuclear labs, hot cells and administrative facilities in support of the research and development work planned for the site. The principal occupants of the Chalk River site are AECL employees with a strong presence from National Resources Canada (NRC) and other small research groups. The site is undergoing substantial changes with an emphasis on minimizing the impact of increasing the builtup area footprint in conjunction with site upgrades and new build projects. To accomplish this task, a number of refurbishment and decommissioning projects were planned. Decommissioning projects were initiated to make room for new development through a number of initiatives. The decommissioning mandate includes the removal of a select group of original deteriorating facilities to make room for new construction and to decommission other facilities to facilitate redevelopment and reuse of the available space. In Canada, the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) issues nuclear licences. The licensees must demonstrate that it is safe to continue operations of the nuclear site and request a renewal of their licence. CNSC will issue a new operating licence for a specific period of time at which the licensee must demonstrate that it is safe to proceed with a licence renewal. A request to terminate a licensable activity must be submitted to the CNSC. Upon approval to proceed, it must be demonstrated that the licensable activities have ceased and the facility has been appropriately decommissioned. Licence termination requires a demonstration that the land or previous activities presents a low risk and that the process can be used to support redevelopment because it results in a scrutinized

  2. Management of legacy spent nuclear fuel wastes at the Chalk River Laboratories: the challenges and innovative solutions implemented

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AECL has operated research reactors at the Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) site since 1947, for the purpose of nuclear energy and scientific research and for the production of radioisotopes. During the 1950s and 60s, a variety of spent nuclear fuel wastes were produced by irradiating metallic uranium and other prototype fuels. These legacy waste fuels were initially stored in water-filled fuel storage bays for a period of several years before being placed in storage containers and transferred to the CRL Waste Management Areas (WMAs), where they have been stored in below-grade, vertical cylindrical steel and concrete structures called 'tile holes'. (author)

  3. Ecologically acceptable flows in Chalk rivers

    OpenAIRE

    Acreman, Mike; Dunbar, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The term ‘Chalk rivers’ is used to describe all those water courses dominated by groundwater discharge from Chalk geology. Natural conditions and historical modification have generated an ecosystem, with rich and unique assemblages and with high value to society (e.g. SACs, SSSIs, visual amenity and fisheries. Chalk rivers are considered to be sensitive to hydrological and morphological change and there is concern that flood defence and land drainage schemes, catchment agriculture, urbanisati...

  4. Reactor loops at Chalk River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes broadly the nine in-reactor loops, and their components, located in and around the NRX and NRU reactors at Chalk River. First an introduction and general description is given of the loops and their function, supplemented with a table outlining some loop specifications and nine simplified flow sheets, one for each individual loop. The report then proceeds to classify each loop into two categories, the 'main loop circuit' and the 'auxiliary circuit', and descriptions are given of each circuit's components in turn. These components, in part, are comprised of the main loop pumps, the test section, loop heaters, loop coolers, delayed-neutron monitors, surge tank, Dowtherm coolers, loop piping. Here again photographs, drawings and tables are included to provide a clearer understanding of the descriptive literature and to include, in tables, some specifications of the more important components in each loop. (author)

  5. US team measurements during the June 1987 experimental HT release at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories, Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In June 1987, an experiment was performed at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories in Ontario, Canada, to study the oxidation of HT in the environment. The experiment involved a 30-minute release of 100 Ci of HT to the atmosphere at an elevation of one meter. The HTOHT ratios were shown to slowly increase downwind (/approximately/4 /times/ 10/sup /minus/5/ at 50 meters to almost 10/sup /minus/3 at 400 meters) as conversion of HT takes place. For several days after the release, HTO concentrations in the atmosphere remained elevated. Freeze-dried water from vegetation samples was found to be very low in HTO immediately after the release suggesting a very low direct uptake of HTO in air by vegetation. The tritiated water concentration increased during the first day, peaking during the second day (about 400 to 600 pCiml of water at 50 meters from the source) and decreasing by the end of the second day. The organically bound tritium continued to accumulate during the period following exposure (about 10 pCigm dry weight at 50 meters after two days). 4 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Anthropogenic radionuclides in Ottawa River sediment near Chalk River Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ottawa River has received nuclear reactor effluent from Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) for more than 60 years, including releases from a NRX accident in 1952. Recent interest in the potential impact of these historical releases and the possible need for remediation of a small region immediately downstream from the release point has led to comprehensive studies to assess risk to people and wildlife. In this paper, the results of an extensive survey of gamma-emitting anthropogenic radionuclides in Ottawa River sediment in the vicinity of CRL are presented. Anthropogenic radionuclides detected in Ottawa River sediment include 60Co, 94Nb, 137Cs, 152Eu, 154Eu, 155Eu and 241Am. Concentrations of all anthropogenic radionuclides decline rapidly with distance downstream of the process outfall, reaching stable concentrations about 2 km downstream. All of these radionuclides are found at some sites within 2 km upstream of the process outfall suggesting limited upstream transport and sedimentation. Comparison of anthropogenic radionuclides with several representative primordial radionuclides shows that with the exception of sites at the process outfall and within 2 km downstream of the process outfall, primordial radionuclide concentrations greatly exceed CRL derived anthropogenic radionuclide concentrations. Thus, over 60 years of radionuclide releases from operations at CRL have had little impact on radionuclide concentrations in Ottawa River sediment, except at a few sites immediately adjacent to the process outfall. (author)

  7. Mortality study of Canadian military personnel exposed to radiation: atomic test blasts and Chalk River nuclear reactor clean-ups, 1950's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes a historical cohort study of the group of Canadian military personnel exposed to radiation in the 1950s at atomic bomb test blasts in the U.S. and Australia, and at clean-up operations at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories. Overall and cause-specific mortality in the exposed group was compared to that of the control cohort of unexposed military personnel, matched on age, service, rank and trade. Analyses indicated no elevation in the exposed cohort, in overall or cause-specific mortality due to diseases associated with radiation. Since this study was restricted to an investigation of mortality, we must stress that we cannot generalize these results or conclusions to current morbidity experienced by the exposed cohort

  8. Risk-based Prioritization of Facility Decommissioning and Environmental Restoration Projects in the National Nuclear Legacy Liabilities Program at the Chalk River Laboratory - 13564

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Jerel G.; Kruzic, Michael [WorleyParsons, Mississauga, ON, L4W 4H2 (United States); Castillo, Carlos [WorleyParsons, Las Vegas, NV 89128 (United States); Pavey, Todd [WorleyParsons, Idaho Falls, ID 83402 (United States); Alexan, Tamer [WorleyParsons, Burnaby, BC, V5C 6S7 (United States); Bainbridge, Ian [Atomic Energy Canada Limited, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, ON, K0J1J0 (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    Chalk River Laboratory (CRL), located in Ontario Canada, has a large number of remediation projects currently in the Nuclear Legacy Liabilities Program (NLLP), including hundreds of facility decommissioning projects and over one hundred environmental remediation projects, all to be executed over the next 70 years. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) utilized WorleyParsons to prioritize the NLLP projects at the CRL through a risk-based prioritization and ranking process, using the WorleyParsons Sequencing Unit Prioritization and Estimating Risk Model (SUPERmodel). The prioritization project made use of the SUPERmodel which has been previously used for other large-scale site prioritization and sequencing of facilities at nuclear laboratories in the United States. The process included development and vetting of risk parameter matrices as well as confirmation/validation of project risks. Detailed sensitivity studies were also conducted to understand the impacts that risk parameter weighting and scoring had on prioritization. The repeatable prioritization process yielded an objective, risk-based and technically defendable process for prioritization that gained concurrence from all stakeholders, including Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) who is responsible for the oversight of the NLLP. (authors)

  9. Risk-based Prioritization of Facility Decommissioning and Environmental Restoration Projects in the National Nuclear Legacy Liabilities Program at the Chalk River Laboratory - 13564

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalk River Laboratory (CRL), located in Ontario Canada, has a large number of remediation projects currently in the Nuclear Legacy Liabilities Program (NLLP), including hundreds of facility decommissioning projects and over one hundred environmental remediation projects, all to be executed over the next 70 years. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) utilized WorleyParsons to prioritize the NLLP projects at the CRL through a risk-based prioritization and ranking process, using the WorleyParsons Sequencing Unit Prioritization and Estimating Risk Model (SUPERmodel). The prioritization project made use of the SUPERmodel which has been previously used for other large-scale site prioritization and sequencing of facilities at nuclear laboratories in the United States. The process included development and vetting of risk parameter matrices as well as confirmation/validation of project risks. Detailed sensitivity studies were also conducted to understand the impacts that risk parameter weighting and scoring had on prioritization. The repeatable prioritization process yielded an objective, risk-based and technically defendable process for prioritization that gained concurrence from all stakeholders, including Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) who is responsible for the oversight of the NLLP. (authors)

  10. Use of borehole-geophysical logs and hydrologic tests to characterize crystalline rock for nuclear-waste storage, Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment, Manitoba, and Chalk River Nuclear Laboratory, Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of borehole methods were used in the investigation of crystalline rocks at Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment and Chalk River Nuclear Laboratory in Canada. The selection of a crystalline-rock mass for the storage of nuclear waste likely will require the drilling and testing of a number of deep investigative boreholes in the rock mass. Although coring of at least one hole in each new area is essential, methods for making in-situ geophysical and hydrologic measurements can substitute for widespread coring and result in significant savings in time and money. Borehole-geophysical logging techniques permit the lateral extrapolation of data from a core hole. Log response is related to rock type, alteration, and the location and character of fractures. The geophysical logs that particularly are useful for these purposes are the acoustic televiewer and acoustic waveform, neutron and gamma, resistivity, temperature, and caliper. The acoustic-televiewer log of the borehole wall can provide high resolution data on the orientation and apparent width of fractures. In situ hydraulic tests of single fractures or fracture zones isolated by packers provide quantitative information on permeability, extent, and interconnection. The computer analysis of digitized acoustic waveforms has identified a part of the waveform that has amplitude variations related to permeabilities measured in the boreholes by packer tests. 38 refs., 37 figs., 4 tabs

  11. Isotope hydrology of the Chalk River Laboratories site, Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman, Zell; Neymark, Leonid; King-Sharp, K.J.; Gascoyne, Mel

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents results of hydrochemical and isotopic analyses of groundwater (fracture water) and porewater, and physical property and water content measurements of bedrock core at the Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) site in Ontario. Density and water contents were determined and water-loss porosity values were calculated for core samples. Average and standard deviations of density and water-loss porosity of 50 core samples from four boreholes are 2.73 ± 12 g/cc and 1.32 ± 1.24 percent. Respective median values are 2.68 and 0.83 indicating a positive skewness in the distributions. Groundwater samples from four deep boreholes were analyzed for strontium (87Sr/86Sr) and uranium (234U/238U) isotope ratios. Oxygen and hydrogen isotope analyses and selected solute concentrations determined by CRL are included for comparison. Groundwater from borehole CRG-1 in a zone between approximately +60 and −240 m elevation is relatively depleted in δ18O and δ2H perhaps reflecting a slug of water recharged during colder climatic conditions. Porewater was extracted from core samples by centrifugation and analyzed for major dissolved ions and for strontium and uranium isotopes. On average, the extracted water contains 15 times larger concentration of solutes than the groundwater. 234U/238U and correlation of 87Sr/86Sr with Rb/Sr values indicate that the porewater may be substantially older than the groundwater. Results of this study show that the Precambrian gneisses at Chalk River are similar in physical properties and hydrochemical aspects to crystalline rocks being considered for the construction of nuclear waste repositories in other regions.

  12. Widespread methanotrophic primary production in lowland chalk rivers

    OpenAIRE

    Shelley, Felicity; Grey, Jonathan; Trimmer, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Methane is oversaturated relative to the atmosphere in many rivers, yet its cycling and fate is poorly understood. While photosynthesis is the dominant source of autotrophic carbon to rivers, chemosynthesis and particularly methane oxidation could provide alternative sources of primary production where the riverbed is heavily shaded or at depth beneath the sediment surface. Here, we highlight geographically widespread methanotrophic carbon fixation within the gravel riverbeds of over 30 chalk...

  13. Molten fuel moderator interaction program at Chalk River Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitheanandan, T.; Kyle, G.; O' Connor, R.; Sanderson, D.B. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2006-12-15

    The Canadian nuclear power generation industry, represented by the CANDU Owners Group (COG), has been funding an experimental program at Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) to study the interaction between molten material ejected from a fuel channel and the moderator. These experiments were designed to address one of the very low probability postulated accident events considered for CANDU Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors. The reactor consists of an array of horizontal fuel channels that contain the UO{sub 2}, nuclear fuel and high-temperature, high-pressure heavy water coolant. Under severely restricted flow blockage conditions, approaching 100% reduction of the flow area, postulated in a fuel channel, the temperature excursion could result in fuel melting, consequential failure of the fuel channel, and ejection of the molten fuel at high pressures into the heavy water moderator at near atmospheric pressure. In preparation for these tests, a chemical mixture called a thermite, that could produce a simulated molten fuel when ignited, was developed in partnership with Argonne National Laboratory (USA). Following this thermite development, two base-case reference tests were completed. The two base-case reference tests, with no molten material present, were performed in the Molten-Fuel Moderator-Interaction (MFMI) facility at CRL. Following the base-case reference tests, a high-pressure melt ejection test using prototypical corium was conducted. The objectives of this paper are to provide an overview of the MFMI program and present the results obtained from thermite development, base-case and melt ejection experiments. (author)

  14. Molten fuel moderator interaction program at Chalk River Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian nuclear power generation industry, represented by the CANDU Owners Group (COG), has been funding an experimental program at Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) to study the interaction between molten material ejected from a fuel channel and the moderator. These experiments were designed to address one of the very low probability postulated accident events considered for CANDU Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors. The reactor consists of an array of horizontal fuel channels that contain the UO2, nuclear fuel and high-temperature, high-pressure heavy water coolant. Under severely restricted flow blockage conditions, approaching 100% reduction of the flow area, postulated in a fuel channel, the temperature excursion could result in fuel melting, consequential failure of the fuel channel, and ejection of the molten fuel at high pressures into the heavy water moderator at near atmospheric pressure. In preparation for these tests, a chemical mixture called a thermite, that could produce a simulated molten fuel when ignited, was developed in partnership with Argonne National Laboratory (USA). Following this thermite development, two base-case reference tests were completed. The two base-case reference tests, with no molten material present, were performed in the Molten-Fuel Moderator-Interaction (MFMI) facility at CRL. Following the base-case reference tests, a high-pressure melt ejection test using prototypical corium was conducted. The objectives of this paper are to provide an overview of the MFMI program and present the results obtained from thermite development, base-case and melt ejection experiments. (author)

  15. An Investigation into the Transportation of Irradiated Uranium/Aluminum Targets from a Foreign Nuclear Reactor to the Chalk River Laboratories Site in Ontario, Canada - 12249

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This investigation required the selection of a suitable cask and development of a device to hold and transport irradiated targets from a foreign nuclear reactor to the Chalk River Laboratories in Ontario, Canada. The main challenge was to design and validate a target holder to protect the irradiated HEU-Al target pencils during transit. Each of the targets was estimated to have an initial decay heat of 118 W prior to transit. As the targets have little thermal mass the potential for high temperature damage and possibly melting was high. Thus, the primary design objective was to conceive a target holder to dissipate heat from the targets. Other design requirements included securing the targets during transportation and providing a simple means to load and unload the targets while submerged five metres under water. A unique target holder (patent pending) was designed and manufactured together with special purpose experimental apparatus including a representative cask. Aluminum dummy targets were fabricated to accept cartridge heaters, to simulate decay heat. Thermocouples were used to measure the temperature of the test targets and selected areas within the target holder and test cask. After obtaining test results, calculations were performed to compensate for differences between experimental and real life conditions. Taking compensation into consideration the maximum target temperature reached was 231 deg. C which was below the designated maximum of 250 deg. C. The design of the aluminum target holder also allowed generous clearance to insert and unload the targets. This clearance was designed to close up as the target holder is placed into the cavity of the transport cask. Springs served to retain and restrain the targets from movement during transportation as well as to facilitate conductive heat transfer. The target holder met the design requirements and as such provided data supporting the feasibility of transporting targets over a relatively long period of time

  16. The role of alluvial valley deposits in groundwater–surface water exchange in a Chalk river

    OpenAIRE

    Abesser, Corinna; Shand, Paul; Gooddy, Daren; Peach, Denis

    2008-01-01

    To understand the processes of surface water–groundwater exchange in Chalk catchments, a detailed hydrogeochemical study was carried out in the Lambourn catchment in southeast England. Monthly monitoring of river flow and groundwater levels and water chemistry has highlighted a large degree of heterogeneity at the river-corridor scale. The data suggest an irregular connection between the river, the alluvial deposits, and the Chalk aquifer at the study site. The groundwaters in the alluvial gr...

  17. Proceedings of a workshop on geophysical and related geoscientific research at Chalk River, Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large part of the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program is geoscience research and development aimed at obtaining information to quantify the transport of radionuclides through the geosphere and at determining the geotechnical properties required for disposal vault design. The geosphere at potential disposal sites is characterized in part by the use of remote sensing (geophysical) methods. In 1977 public concern about the disposal of radioactive waste resulted in field work being restricted to the site of Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories, which was used to develop, evaluate and compare various techniques in order to optimize the methods for obtaining geoscience information. Methods tested at Chalk River are to be applied at other research sites. Most investigations have been carried out around Maskinonge Lake, using about thirty boreholes sink into bedrock. The boreholes provide subsurface geological information that can be used as a reference to compare the responses of various geophysical methods and equipment. Regional studies, including airborne geophysical surveys, have also been conducted. The 25 papers presented at this workshop provide comprehensive documentation of the most significant results of geophysical studies. The workshop also provided an evaluation of geophysical techniques and their utility to the Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program

  18. Experience at Chalk River with a cw electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For several years a group at Chalk River has been studying the behaviour of structures operated in the cw mode under heavy beam loading. Three side-coupled structures, modelled on the LAMPF design, have been built and tests up to 50% beam loading have been performed on two of them. Control systems have been developed to regulate the disturbances arising from high average power in a multi-tank accelerator and procedures worked out to handle beam currents up to 20 mA at 4 MeV. A pancake-coupled structure has been designed for high power operation and results of low power tests on an aluminum model are presented. Tests at high power with a 50 mA electron beam are planned. (author)

  19. Edibility of sport fishes in the Ottawa River near Chalk River Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To address the question of edibility of fish in the Ottawa River near Chalk River Laboratories (CRL), 123 game fish were collected for analysis from four locations: Mackey and Rolphton (45 km and 35 km upstream of Chalk River Laboratories (CRL), respectively), the Sandspit (Pointe au Bapteme) and Cotnam Island (1.6 km and 45 km downstream of CRL, respectively). Twenty-six to thirty-six game fish were collected at each location in 2007 and samples of flesh or bone were analyzed. Trap nets were used to collect only the fish required, allowing release of management-sensitive species. The focus was on walleye (Sander vitreus) because they are abundant and popular among anglers. A few northern pike (Esox lucius) and a smaller number of smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui) were also collected at three of the four sites. Samples of the fish were analyzed for cesium-137 (137Cs), strontium-90 (90Sr), mercury (Hg), and selected organo-chlorine compounds. Concentrations of 137Cs in the flesh and 90Sr in the bones of sport fish were low and similar at all four locations and appear to reflect the global residuals from nuclear weapons testing (primarily in the 1960's) as opposed to releases from CRL. Possible explanations are: 1) Reductions in radionuclide releases from CRL in recent decades and 2) Relatively large foraging ranges of sport fish. Mercury concentrations were elevated in fishes in the Ottawa River and were significantly higher at the Sandspit and Rolphton than at Mackey and Cotnam Island (p<0.001). Mercury concentrations from the four sites are comparable to concentrations in other Ontario and Quebec lakes. It is advisable therefore, that consumers follow the fish consumption guidelines issued by provincial authorities when eating fish from the Ottawa River. Organo-chlorine compounds were not detected in walleye; however, they were detected in all eight of the pike collected at Cotnam Island. The highest organo-chlorine concentrations were measured in two of the

  20. The Canadian HT dispersion experiment at Chalk River - June 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A trace amount (3.54TBq) of tritiated hydrogen, HT, was released to the atmosphere at an experimental field at the Chalk River Laboratories on June 10, 1987 in order to study the environmental behaviour of HT. Experimental results showed that direct oxidation of HT in the atmosphere was small and confirmed that surface soils convert atmospheric HT to HTO. The HTO formed in the soil was slowly emitted to the atmosphere giving rise to the small concentrations of HTO observed in the air during the release and for a period of several weeks thereafter. HTO/HT ratios in air during the plume passage increased with downwind distance from a value of order 10-5 at 5 m to values between 4 x 10-4 and 8 x 10-4 at 400 m. Deposition velocities for HT to soil were in the range 10-4 to 10-3 m s-1. Rates of reemission of tritium from the soil to the atmosphere were typically a few percent per hour within one to two days of the release, declining to less than one percent per hour over two weeks. Tritium deposition velocities and reemission rates determined for soils in the field agreed well with laboratory measurements on field samples, and were similar in range to previous exposure chamber experiments carried out in various countries in the laboratory and field under non-winter conditions. Direct uptake of HT by vegetation was not detected. The time history of vegetation tritium was consistent with uptake of HTO from soil and atmosphere and with incorporation of tritium into the organically bound form through photosynthesis. The experiment provides an extensive data base suitable for the detailed evaluation of mathematical models describing the short range dispersion of tritium. The results indicate that the short range dose from a release of HT would be much less than the dose from an equivalent release of HTO

  1. Contaminated groundwater characterization at the Chalk River Laboratories, Ontario, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schilk, A.J.; Robertson, D.E.; Thomas, C.W.; Lepel, E.A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Champ, D.R.; Killey, R.W.D.; Young, J.L.; Cooper, E.L. [Chalk River Labs., Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    1993-03-01

    The licensing requirements for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste (10 CFR 61) specify the performance objectives and technical requisites for federal and commercial land disposal facilities, the ultimate goal of which is to contain the buried wastes so that the general population is adequately protected from harmful exposure to any released radioactive materials. A major concern in the operation of existing and projected waste disposal sites is subterranean radionuclide transport by saturated or unsaturated flow, which could lead to the contamination of groundwater systems as well as uptake by the surrounding biosphere, thereby directly exposing the general public to such materials. Radionuclide transport in groundwater has been observed at numerous commercial and federal waste disposal sites [including several locations within the waste management area of Chalk River Laboratories (CRL)], yet the physico-chemical processes that lead to such migration are still not completely understood. In an attempt to assist in the characterization of these processes, an intensive study was initiated at CRL to identify and quantify the mobile radionuclide species originating from three separate disposal sites: (a) the Chemical Pit, which has received aqueous wastes containing various radioisotopes, acids, alkalis, complexing agents and salts since 1956, (b) the Reactor Pit, which has received low-level aqueous wastes from a reactor rod storage bay since 1956, and (c) the Waste Management Area C, a thirty-year-old series of trenches that contains contaminated solid wastes from CRL and various regional medical facilities. Water samples were drawn downgradient from each of the above sites and passed through a series of filters and ion-exchange resins to retain any particulate and dissolved or colloidal radionuclide species, which were subsequently identified and quantified via radiochemical separations and gamma spectroscopy. These groundwaters were also analyzed for anions

  2. Inventory of radioactivity in Ottawa River-bed sediments near the Chalk River Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AECL's Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) are situated on the Ontario side of the Ottawa River about 200 km NW of the City of Ottawa. Since 1947, water for cooling CRL's research reactors has been piped from and returned to the Ottawa River. From 1952 to the present time, cooling water has been discharged through the Process Sewer at a rate of 1.5 to 2 m3/s. The Outfall, which is the discharge from the Process Sewer, is in 18 m of water, 65 m offshore. Flow is directed toward the river surface through three 'diffuser vents,' creating a turbulent swirl at the surface and maintaining a patch of open water in winter. In addition to cooling water, the Outfall has, over the years, included small additional effluents from a heavy water recovery plant, a decontamination centre and a waste treatment centre. Although the effluent has been monitored and has met applicable regulatory requirements, investigations of the riverbed near the Outfall revealed radioactivity. In 2001, a riverbed reconnaissance and a detailed coring program were initiated for the purpose of determining the inventory of residual radioactivity. (author)

  3. Post-irradiation examination of the 37M fuel bundle at Chalk River Laboratories (AECL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, J. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Daniels, T. [Ontario Power Generation, Pickering, Ontario (Canada); Montin, J. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-03-15

    The modified (-element (37M) fuel bundle was designed by Ontario Power Generation (OPG) to improve Critical Heat Flux (CHF) performance in ageing pressure tubes. A modification of the conventional 37-element fuel bundle design, the 37M fuel bundle allows more coolant flow through the interior sub-channels by way of a smaller central element. A demonstration irradiation (DI) of thirty-two fuel bundles was completed in 2011 at OPG's Darlington Nuclear Generating Station to confirm the suitability of the 37M fuel bundles for full core implementation. In support of the DI, fuel elements were examined in the Chalk River Laboratories Hot Cells. Inspection activities included: Bundle and element visual examination; Bundle and element dimensional measurements; Verification of bundle and element integrity; and Internal Gas Volume Measurements. The inspection results for 37M were comparable to that of conventional 37-element CANDU fuel. Fuel performance parameters of the 37M DI fuel bundle and fuel elements were within the range observed for similarly operated conventional 37-element CANDU fuel. Based on these Post Irradiation Examination (PIE) results, 37M fuel performed satisfactorily. (author)

  4. Nuclear magnetic resonance and sound velocity measurements of chalk saturated with magnesium rich brine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katika, Konstantina; Alam, Mohammad Monzurul; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2013-01-01

    The use of low field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) to determine petrophysical properties of reservoirs has proved to be a good technique. Together with sonic and electrical resistivity measurements, NMR can contribute to illustrate the changes on chalk elasticity due to different pore water...

  5. Response of invertebrates from the hyporheic zone of chalk rivers to eutrophication and land use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacioglu, Octavian; Moldovan, Oana Teodora

    2016-03-01

    Whereas the response of lotic benthic macroinvertebrates to different environmental stressors is a widespread practice nowadays in assessing the water and habitat quality, the use of hyporheic zone invertebrates is still in its infancy. In this study, classification and regression trees analysis were employed in order to assess the ecological requirements and the potential as bioindicators for the hyporheic zone invertebrates inhabiting four lowland chalk rivers (south England) with contrasting eutrophication levels (based on surface nitrate concentrations) and magnitude of land use (based on percentage of fine sediments load and median interstitial space). Samples of fauna, water and sediment were sampled twice, during low (summer) and high (winter) groundwater level, at depths of 20 and 35 cm. Certain groups of invertebrates (Glossosomatidae and Psychomyiidae caddisflies, and riffle beetles) proved to be good indicators of rural catchments, moderately eutrophic and with high fine sediment load. A diverse community dominated by microcrustaceans (copepods and ostracods) were found as good indicators of highly eutrophic urban streams, with moderate-high fine sediment load. However, the use of other taxonomic groups (e.g. chironomids, oligochaetes, nematodes, water mites and the amphipod Gammarus pulex), very widespread in the hyporheic zone of all sampled rivers, is of limited use because of their high tolerance to the analysed stressors. We recommend the use of certain taxonomic groups (comprising both meiofauna and macroinvertebrates) dwelling in the chalk hyporheic zone as indicators of eutrophication and colmation and, along with routine benthic sampling protocols, for a more comprehensive water and habitat quality assessment of chalk rivers.

  6. Field test of wireless sensor network in the nuclear environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are appealing options for the health monitoring of nuclear power plants due to their low cost and flexibility. Before they can be used in highly regulated nuclear environments, their reliability in the nuclear environment and compatibility with existing devices have to be assessed. In situ electromagnetic interference tests, wireless signal propagation tests, and nuclear radiation hardness tests conducted on candidate WSN systems at AECL Chalk River Labs are presented. The results are favourable to WSN in nuclear applications. (author)

  7. Field test of wireless sensor network in the nuclear environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, L., E-mail: lil@aecl.ca [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Wang, Q.; Bari, A. [Univ. of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Deng, C.; Chen, D. [Univ. of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, Sichuan (China); Jiang, J. [Univ. of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Alexander, Q.; Sur, B. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-06-15

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are appealing options for the health monitoring of nuclear power plants due to their low cost and flexibility. Before they can be used in highly regulated nuclear environments, their reliability in the nuclear environment and compatibility with existing devices have to be assessed. In situ electromagnetic interference tests, wireless signal propagation tests, and nuclear radiation hardness tests conducted on candidate WSN systems at AECL Chalk River Labs are presented. The results are favourable to WSN in nuclear applications. (author)

  8. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Elastic Wave Velocity of Chalk Saturated with Brines Containing Divalent Ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katika, Konstantina; Alam, Mohammad Monzurul; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has proven a good technique for measuring pore size distribution in reservoir rocks. The use of low field NMR together with sonic and electrical resistivity measurements, can contribute to illustrate the effect of adsorbing ions on chalk elasticity. NMR is useful...... for the study of the physical and chemical phenomena within saturated cores and sonic velocity is intimately connected to density and elastic constants of the rock. In this study we relate NMR data to changes in P-wave velocity due to ion adsorption. Core plugs from outcrop Stevns chalk, of ~45% porosity, were...... of the relaxation time. Core samples saturated with calcium chloride solution relaxed slower and those saturated with magnesium chloride solution relaxed faster than the rest of the samples. Along with the changes in relaxation the samples experienced smaller velocities of elastic waves when saturated with MgCl2...

  9. Drivers of abundance and community composition of benthic macroinvertebrates in Ottawa River sediment near Chalk River Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, M.J.; Rowan, D.; Silke, R.; Carr, J., E-mail: bondm@aecl.ca [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-12-15

    The Ottawa River has received effluent from Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) for more than 60 years. Some radionuclides and contaminants released in effluents are bound rapidly to particles and deposited in bottom sediments where they may be biologically available to benthic invertebrates and other aquatic biota. As part of a larger ecological assessment, we assess the potential impact of contaminated sediments in the vicinity of CRL on local benthic community structure. Using bivariate and multivariate approaches, we demonstrate that CRL operations have had little impact on the local benthic community. Despite elevated anthropogenic radionuclide activity concentrations in sediment near CRL's process outfall, the benthic community is no less abundant or diverse than what is observed upstream at background levels. The Ottawa River benthic invertebrate community is structured predominantly by natural physical and biological conditions in the sediment, specifically sediment water content and organic content. These natural habitat conditions have a stronger influence on macroinvertebrate communities than sediment contamination. (author)

  10. Using environmental tracers to assess the extent of river-groundwater interaction in a quarried area of the English Chalk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darling, W.G., E-mail: wgd@bgs.ac.uk [British Geological Survey, Maclean Building, Wallingford OX10 8BB (United Kingdom); Gooddy, D.C. [British Geological Survey, Maclean Building, Wallingford OX10 8BB (United Kingdom); Riches, J. [Thames Water Utilities Limited, Rose Kiln Court, Rose Kiln Lane, Reading RG2 0BY (United Kingdom); Wallis, I. [British Geological Survey, Maclean Building, Wallingford OX10 8BB (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-15

    The Swanscombe area of Kent, SE England represents a typical example of a heavily quarried Chalk area currently undergoing re-development. Because the Chalk is also an important aquifer, a good understanding of groundwater movement is required if environmental impacts are to be minimised and the water resource maximised. In particular, the nature of the relationship between the River Darent and groundwater in the Swanscombe Chalk Block requires better characterisation. Here, 'environmental tracers' in the form of ambient concentrations of stable isotopes, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) and tritium ({sup 3}H) are used to investigate this and other aspects of groundwater movement in the vicinity of the quarries. Stable isotopic contrasts indicate little evidence for widespread river infiltration to the regional Chalk aquifer, although stable isotope and {sup 3}H data suggest that 20-35% of the abstraction by river-valley public water supply boreholes may be derived from the river. The CFCs, while present at above-modern concentrations in almost all groundwaters, can be used as tracers, indicating basically S-N flowpaths in the area south of the quarries, though sub-karstic conduits associated with areas of Palaeogene cover add a level of uncertainty at the local scale. Simple piston flow residence times based on SF{sub 6} range from 1 to 17 a, but the data are probably better interpreted in terms of mixing between varying amounts of modern recharge derived from the south and deeper stored groundwater. The information gained from environmental tracers can therefore contribute to effective resource management.

  11. Seasonal nutrient dynamics in a chalk stream: the River Frome, Dorset, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowes, M J; Leach, D V; House, W A

    2005-01-01

    Chalk streams provide unique, environmentally important habitats, but are particularly susceptible to human activities, such as water abstraction, fish farming and intensive agricultural activity on their fertile flood-meadows, resulting in increased nutrient concentrations. Weekly phosphorus, nitrate, dissolved silicon, chloride and flow measurements were made at nine sites along a 32 km stretch of the River Frome and its tributaries, over a 15 month period. The stretch was divided into two sections (termed the middle and lower reach) and mass balances were calculated for each determinand by totalling the inputs from upstream, tributaries, sewage treatment works and an estimate of groundwater input, and subtracting this from the load exported from each reach. Phosphorus and nitrate were retained within the river channel during the summer months, due to bioaccumulation into river biota and adsorption of phosphorus to bed sediments. During the autumn to spring periods, there was a net export, attributed to increased diffuse inputs from the catchment during storms, decomposition of channel biomass and remobilisation of phosphorus from the bed sediment. This seasonality of retention and remobilisation was higher in the lower reach than the middle reach, which was attributed to downstream changes in land use and fine sediment availability. Silicon showed much less seasonality, but did have periods of rapid retention in spring, due to diatom uptake within the river channel, and a subsequent release from the bed sediments during storm events. Chloride did not produce a seasonal pattern, indicating that the observed phosphorus and nitrate seasonality was a product of annual variation in diffuse inputs and internal riverine processes, rather than an artefact of sampling, flow gauging and analytical errors.

  12. Groundwater monitoring and plume discharge zone characterization for the NRX radiostrontium plume at Chalk River Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olfert, J.M.; Audet, M.; Killey, D., E-mail: olfertjm@aecl.ca [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-12-15

    Groundwater is the principal pathway for the migration of most radiological and non-radiological compounds from past and present operating areas at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited's Chalk River Laboratories (CRL). The CRL Groundwater Monitoring Program (GWMP) was established to measure the groundwater quality around the perimeters of areas affected, or potentially affected, by groundwater plumes. One of these is the NRX Rod Bays plume, a legacy plume that originated from the fuel storage bays of the National Research Experimental (NRX) reactor. This plume contains primarily {sup 90}Sr migrating along the groundwater flow system to the Ottawa River. A characterization study of the shoreline region was completed recently to map the plume discharge zone by collecting samples from mini-piezometers and groundwater seeps (springs) during a period of low river level. Analysis of discharging groundwaters determined that the {sup 90}Sr concentrations were very similar to those sampled from nearby (upgradient) GWMP monitoring wells. With this favorable correlation, the high density of seep and mini-piezometer sampling along the shoreline allowed refinements to be made in defining the northerly and southerly boundaries of the radiostrontium plume. The seep and mini-piezometer sampling also provided evidence that the monitoring wells sampled routinely within the CRL GWMP are positioned appropriately for providing representative sampling of the plume. Shoreline seep and mini-piezometer sampling can lead to refinements in the conceptual site model for plumes with limited effort and cost. The supplemental characterization work can also potentially identify other targets for routine groundwater monitoring. (author)

  13. Simulating Heterogeneous Infiltration and Contaminant leaching Processes at Chalk River, Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M. A.; Ireson, A. M.; Keim, D.

    2015-12-01

    A study is conducted at a waste management area in Chalk River, Ontario to characterize flow and contaminant transport with the aim of contributing to improved hydrogeological risk assessment in the context of waste management. Field monitoring has been performed to gain insights into the unsaturated zone characteristics, moisture dynamics, and contaminant transport rates. The objective is to provide quantitative estimates of surface fluxes (quantification of infiltration and evaporation) and investigations of unsaturated zone processes controlling water infiltration and spatial variability in head distributions and flow rates. One particular issue is to examine the effectiveness of the clayey soil cap installed to prevent infiltration of water into the waste repository and the top sand soil cover above the clayey layer to divert the infiltrated water laterally. The spatial variability in the unsaturated zone properties and associated effects on water flow and contaminant transport observed at the site, have led to a concerted effort to develop improved model of flow and transport based on stochastic concepts. Results obtained through the unsaturated zone model investigations are combined with the hydrogeological and geochemical components and develop predictive tools to assess the long term fate of the contaminants at the waste management site.

  14. Current status of the waste identification program at AECL's Chalk River Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The management of routine operating waste by Waste Management and Decommissioning (WM and D) at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited's (AECL) Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) is supported by the Waste Identification (WI) Program. The principal purpose of the WI Program is to minimize the cost and the effort associated with waste characterization and waste tracking, which are needed to optimize waste handling, storage and disposal. The major steps in the WI Program are: (1) identify and characterize the processes that generate the routine radioactive wastes accepted by WM and D - radioisotope production, radioisotope use, reactor operation, fuel fabrication, et cetera (2) identify and characterize the routine blocks of waste generated by each process or activity - the initial characterization is based on inference (process knowledge) (3) prepare customized, template data sheets for each routine waste block - templates contain information such as package type, waste material, waste type, solidifying agent, the average non-radiological contaminant inventory, the average radiological contaminant inventory, and the waste class (4) ensure generators 'use the right piece of paper with the right waste' when they transfer waste to WM and D - that is they use the correct template data sheets to transfer routine wastes, by: identifying and marking waste collection points in the generator's facility; ensuring that generators implement effective waste collection/segregation procedures; implementing standard procedures to transfer waste to WM and D; and, auditing waste collection and segregation within a generator's facility (5) determine any additional waste block characterization requirements (is anything needed beyond the original characterization by process knowledge?) This paper describes the WI Program, it provides an example of its implementation, and it summarizes the current status of its implementation for both CRL and non-CRL waste generators. (author)

  15. The results from the second high-pressure melt ejection test completed in the Molten Fuel Moderator Interaction Facility at Chalk River Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitheanandan, T.; Kyle, G.; O' Connor, R. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2007-09-15

    The Canadian nuclear power generation industry, represented by the CANDU Owners Group (COG), is funding an experimental program at Chalk River Laboratories to study the interaction between the molten material ejected from the fuel channel and the moderator. These experiments are designed to address one of the very low probability postulated accident events considered for CANDU Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs), where an array of fuel channels contain the nuclear fuel and high-temperature, high-pressure coolant. Under severely restricted flow blockage conditions postulated in a fuel channel, the temperature excursion could result in fuel melting, consequential failure of the fuel channel, and ejection of the molten fuel at high pressures into the heavy water moderator at near atmospheric pressure. The objective of the experimental program is to demonstrate that a highly energetic Molten Fuel Moderator Interaction (MFMI) and associated high-pressure pulse can be ruled out. The second high-pressure melt ejection test using 22 kg of prototypical corium was completed recently at Chalk River Laboratories. The second test consisted of heating a thermite mixture of U, U{sub 3}O{sub 8}, Zr, and CrO{sub 3}, simulating the molten material expected in a fuel channel, inside a 1 m length of insulated pressure tube. Once the molten material reached the desired temperature of {approx}2400{sup o}C, the molten material was ejected into the surrounding tank of 63{sup o}C water. At the time of melt ejection, the static pressure in the test section was 3.35 MPa. The confinement vessel pressure reached a peak volume of 201 kPa following the rupture of the test section. The peak dynamic pressure measured on the inner vessel walls ranged between 0.7 MPa and 1 MPa. The dynamic pressure history, debris size, and the effects of the material interacting with tubes representing neighbouring fuel channels were investigated. (author)

  16. The results from the second high-pressure melt ejection test completed in the Molten Fuel Moderator Interaction Facility at Chalk River Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian nuclear power generation industry, represented by the CANDU Owners Group (COG), is funding an experimental program at Chalk River Laboratories to study the interaction between the molten material ejected from the fuel channel and the moderator. These experiments are designed to address one of the very low probability postulated accident events considered for CANDU Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs), where an array of fuel channels contain the nuclear fuel and high-temperature, high-pressure coolant. Under severely restricted flow blockage conditions postulated in a fuel channel, the temperature excursion could result in fuel melting, consequential failure of the fuel channel, and ejection of the molten fuel at high pressures into the heavy water moderator at near atmospheric pressure. The objective of the experimental program is to demonstrate that a highly energetic Molten Fuel Moderator Interaction (MFMI) and associated high-pressure pulse can be ruled out. The second high-pressure melt ejection test using 22 kg of prototypical corium was completed recently at Chalk River Laboratories. The second test consisted of heating a thermite mixture of U, U3O8, Zr, and CrO3, simulating the molten material expected in a fuel channel, inside a 1 m length of insulated pressure tube. Once the molten material reached the desired temperature of ∼2400oC, the molten material was ejected into the surrounding tank of 63oC water. At the time of melt ejection, the static pressure in the test section was 3.35 MPa. The confinement vessel pressure reached a peak volume of 201 kPa following the rupture of the test section. The peak dynamic pressure measured on the inner vessel walls ranged between 0.7 MPa and 1 MPa. The dynamic pressure history, debris size, and the effects of the material interacting with tubes representing neighbouring fuel channels were investigated. (author)

  17. Overview of Nuclear Physics at Jefferson Lab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKeown, Robert D. [JLAB

    2013-08-01

    The Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) and associated experimental equipment at Jefferson Lab comprise a unique facility for experimental nuclear physics. This facility is presently being upgraded, which will enable a new experimental program with substantial discovery potential to address important topics in nuclear, hadronic, and electroweak physics. Further in the future, it is envisioned that the Laboratory will evolve into an electron-ion colliding beam facility.

  18. The effect of divalent ions on the elasticity and pore collapse of chalk evaluated from compressional wave velocity and low-field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katika, Konstantina; Addassi, Mouadh; Alam, Mohammad Monzurul;

    2015-01-01

    The effects of divalent ions on the elasticity and the pore collapse of chalk were studied through rock-mechanical testing and low-field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) measurements. Chalk samples saturated with deionized water and brines containing sodium, magnesium, calcium and sulfate ions were...... subjected to petrophysical experiments, rock mechanical testing and low-field NMR spectroscopy. Petrophysical characterization involving ultrasonic elastic wave velocities in unconfined conditions, porosity and permeability measurements, specific surface and carbonate content determination and backscatter...... electron microscopy of the materials were conducted prior to the experiments. The iso-frame model was used to predict the bulk moduli in dry and saturated conditions from the compressional modulus of water-saturated rocks. The effective stress coefficient, as introduced by Biot, was also determined from...

  19. Chalk as a reservoir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    , or be partly or fully cemented where diagenesis is more pronounced. It is a chalk characteristic that permea bility is controlled by the porosity and internal surface of the mud matrix, whereas the larger pores play an insignificant role. Cemented microfossils may take up a significant volume in a wackestone......Reservoir properties of chalk depend on the primary sediment composition as well as on subsequent diagenesis and tectonic events. Chalks of the North Sea almost exclusively have mudstone or wackestone texture. Microfossils may have retained their porosity where degree of diagenesis is low...... reduces porosity at the same time as it increases specific surface and thus cause permeability to be low. In the Central North Sea the silica is quartzitic. Silica rich chalk intervals are typically found in the Ekofisk and Hod formations. In addition to silica, Upper Cretaceous and Palæogene chalks...

  20. Model description of CHERPAC (Chalk River Environmental Research Pathways Analysis Code); results of testing with post-Chernobyl data from Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CHERPAC (Chalk River Environmental Research Pathways Analysis Code), a time-dependent code for assessing doses from accidental and routine releases of radionuclides, has been under development since 1987. A complete model description is provide here with equations, parameter values, assumptions and information on parameter distributions for uncertainty analysis. Concurrently, CHERPAC has been used to participate in the two internal model validation exercises BIOMOVS (BIOspheric MOdel Validation Study) and VAMP (VAlidation of Assessment Model Predictions, a co-ordinated research program of the International Atomic Energy Agency). CHERPAC has been tested for predictions of concentrations of 137Cs in foodstuffs, body burden and dose over time using data collected after the Chernobyl accident of 1986 April. CHERPAC's results for the recent VAMP scenario for southern Finland are particularly accurate and should represent what the code can do under Canadian conditions. CHERPAC's predictions are compared with the observations from Finland for four and one-half years after the accident as well as with the results of the other participating models from nine countries. (author). 18 refs., 23 figs., 2 appendices

  1. Nuclear Medicine at Berkeley Lab: From Pioneering Beginnings to Today (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summer Lecture Series 2006: Thomas Budinger, head of Berkeley Lab's Center for Functional Imaging, discusses Berkeley Lab's rich history pioneering the field of nuclear medicine, from radioisotopes to medical imaging.

  2. Nuclear fuels accounting interface: River Bend experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barry, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    This presentation describes nuclear fuel accounting activities from the perspective of nuclear fuels management and its interfaces. Generally, Nuclear Fuels-River Bend Nuclear Group (RBNG) is involved on a day-by-day basis with nuclear fuel materials accounting in carrying out is procurement, contract administration, processing, and inventory management duties, including those associated with its special nuclear materials (SNM)-isotopics accountability oversight responsibilities as the Central Accountability Office for the River Bend Station. As much as possible, these duties are carried out in an integrated, interdependent manner. From these primary functions devolve Nuclear Fuels interfacing activities with fuel cost and tax accounting. Noting that nuclear fuel tax accounting support is of both an esoteric and intermittent nature, Nuclear Fuels-RBNG support of developments and applications associated with nuclear fuel cost accounting is stressed in this presentation.

  3. Nuclear fuels accounting interface: River Bend experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation describes nuclear fuel accounting activities from the perspective of nuclear fuels management and its interfaces. Generally, Nuclear Fuels-River Bend Nuclear Group (RBNG) is involved on a day-by-day basis with nuclear fuel materials accounting in carrying out is procurement, contract administration, processing, and inventory management duties, including those associated with its special nuclear materials (SNM)-isotopics accountability oversight responsibilities as the Central Accountability Office for the River Bend Station. As much as possible, these duties are carried out in an integrated, interdependent manner. From these primary functions devolve Nuclear Fuels interfacing activities with fuel cost and tax accounting. Noting that nuclear fuel tax accounting support is of both an esoteric and intermittent nature, Nuclear Fuels-RBNG support of developments and applications associated with nuclear fuel cost accounting is stressed in this presentation

  4. The results from the second high-pressure melt ejection test completed in the molten fuel moderator interaction facility at Chalk River Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For a Candu reactor and under severely restricted flow blockage conditions postulated in a fuel channel, the temperature excursion could result in fuel melting, consequential failure of the fuel channel, and ejection of the molten fuel at high pressures into the heavy water moderator at near atmospheric pressure. The objective of the experimental program is to demonstrate that a highly energetic Molten Fuel Moderator Interaction (MFMI) and associated high-pressure pulse can be ruled out for a Candu reactor. The second high-pressure melt ejection test using 22 kg of prototypical corium was completed recently at Chalk River Laboratories. The second test consisted in heating a thermite mixture of U, U3O8, Zr, and CrO3, simulating the molten material expected in a fuel channel, inside a 1 m length of insulated pressure tube. Once the molten material reached the desired temperature of about 2400 C degrees, the molten material was ejected into the surrounding tank of 63 C water. At the time of melt ejection, the static pressure in the test section was 3.35 MPa. The confinement vessel pressure reached a peak value of 201 kPa following the rupture of the test section. The peak dynamic pressure measured on the inner vessel walls ranged between 0.7 MPa and 1 MPa. The total debris collected inside the tank was 22.65 kg. The debris inside the inner tank consists of corium, quartz and Zircar. The majority of the corium particles were less than 1 mm in diameter and the calculated value of the mean size of the debris appears to be 0.581 mm. An analysis of the confinement vessel gas inventory indicated 17.6% hydrogen

  5. The results from the second high-pressure melt ejection test completed in the molten fuel moderator interaction facility at Chalk River Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitheanandan, T.; Kyle, G.; O' Connor, R. [Chalk River Laboratories, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    For a Candu reactor and under severely restricted flow blockage conditions postulated in a fuel channel, the temperature excursion could result in fuel melting, consequential failure of the fuel channel, and ejection of the molten fuel at high pressures into the heavy water moderator at near atmospheric pressure. The objective of the experimental program is to demonstrate that a highly energetic Molten Fuel Moderator Interaction (MFMI) and associated high-pressure pulse can be ruled out for a Candu reactor. The second high-pressure melt ejection test using 22 kg of prototypical corium was completed recently at Chalk River Laboratories. The second test consisted in heating a thermite mixture of U, U{sub 3}O{sub 8}, Zr, and CrO{sub 3}, simulating the molten material expected in a fuel channel, inside a 1 m length of insulated pressure tube. Once the molten material reached the desired temperature of about 2400 C degrees, the molten material was ejected into the surrounding tank of 63 C water. At the time of melt ejection, the static pressure in the test section was 3.35 MPa. The confinement vessel pressure reached a peak value of 201 kPa following the rupture of the test section. The peak dynamic pressure measured on the inner vessel walls ranged between 0.7 MPa and 1 MPa. The total debris collected inside the tank was 22.65 kg. The debris inside the inner tank consists of corium, quartz and Zircar. The majority of the corium particles were less than 1 mm in diameter and the calculated value of the mean size of the debris appears to be 0.581 mm. An analysis of the confinement vessel gas inventory indicated 17.6% hydrogen.

  6. Report on interlaboratory comparisons of 14C measurements organized by the environmental research branch, Chalk River Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need for increased quality assurance for measurements performed by the monitoring laboratories at nuclear stations has spurred the introduction of a number of laboratory intercomparisons. This report provides details of two intercomparisons of 14C measurements, including the preparation of potential secondary reference materials, the range of analytical techniques in use at the participating laboratories, and a statistical analysis of the results reported. The agreement evident in the two sets of materials - milk and vegetation - was good. (author)

  7. Results of detailed ground geophysical surveys for locating and differentiating waste structures in waste management area 'A' at Chalk River Laboratories, Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomsons, D.K.; Street, P.J.; Lodha, G.S

    1999-07-01

    Waste Management Area 'A' (WMA 'A'), located in the outer area of the Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) was in use as a waste burial site from 1946 to 1955. Waste management structures include debris-filled trenches, concrete bunkers and miscellaneous contaminated solid materials, and ditches and pits used for liquid dispersal. In order to update historical records, it was proposed to conduct detailed ground geophysical surveys to define the locations of waste management structures in WMA 'A', assist in planning of the drilling and sampling program to provide ground truth for the geophysics investigation and to predict the nature and locations of unknown/undefined shallow structures. A detailed ground geophysical survey grid was established with a total of 127 grid lines, oriented NNE and spaced one metre apart. The geophysical surveys were carried out during August and September, 1996. The combination of geophysical tools used included the Geonics EM61 metal detector, the GSM-19 magnetometer/gradiometer and a RAMAC high frequency ground penetrating radar system. The geophysical surveys were successful in identifying waste management structures and in characterizing to some extent, the composition of the waste. The geophysical surveys are able to determine the presence of most of the known waste management structures, especially in the western and central portions of the grid which contain the majority of the metallic waste. The eastern portion of the grid has a completely different geophysical character. While historical records show that trenches were dug, they are far less evident in the geophysical record. There is clear evidence for a trench running between lines 30E and 63E at 70 m. There are indications from the radar survey of other trench-like structures in the eastern portion. EM61 data clearly show that there is far less metallic debris in the eastern portion. The geophysical surveys were also successful in identifying

  8. Results from the fourth high-pressure melt ejection test completed in the molten fuel moderator interaction facility at Chalk River Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fourth high-pressure melt ejection test using prototypical corium was completed at Chalk River Laboratories. This test was one of four tests planned by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited to study the potential for energetic interaction between molten fuel and water. The experiments were designed to address one of the very low probability postulated accident events considered for Candu Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs). The accident event considered is the severe reduction in the coolant flow to a single channel. This reduction could result from a blockage in the flow or a break in the inlet piping to a fuel channel. If the reduction in the flow is severe (approaching complete cessation of the flow), the fuel channel will overheat and fail. Such a failure is not predicted to propagate to other fuel channels; the scenario is terminated with the emergency coolant injection. Under severely restricted flow blockage conditions, the temperature excursion could result in fuel melting. Conservative safety analysis assessments consider the implications of the worst-case scenario, which can involve the ejection of the molten material from the fuel channel into the heavy-water moderator. The predictions are that the melt will be finely fragmented and will transfer energy to the moderator as it is dispersed, creating a modest pressure pulse in the calandria vessel. The high-pressure melt ejection experiments funded by the Candu Owners Group have been performed to confirm these predictions and to show that a highly energetic 'steam explosion, ' and associated high-pressure pulse, is not possible. The high-pressure melt ejection test described here consisted of heating 12.5 kg of a thermite mixture U, UO2, Zr, and CrO3, representing the molten material in a fuel channel, inside an insulated pressure tube. When the molten material reached the desired temperature of ∼2400 deg.C, the pressure inside the tube was raised to about 10.5 MP a, and the pressure tube failed due

  9. PAH occurrence in chalk river systems from the Jura region (France). Pertinence of suspended particulate matter and sediment as matrices for river quality monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiffre, Axelle; Degiorgi, François; Morin-Crini, Nadia; Bolard, Audrey; Chanez, Etienne; Badot, Pierre-Marie

    2015-11-01

    This study investigates the variations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) levels in surface water, suspended particulate matter (SPM) and sediment upstream and downstream of the discharges of two wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents. Relationships between the levels of PAHs in these different matrices were also investigated. The sum of 16 US EPA PAHs ranged from 73.5 to 728.0 ng L(-1) in surface water and from 85.4 to 313.1 ng L(-1) in effluent. In SPM and sediment, ∑16PAHs ranged from 749.6 to 2,463 μg kg(-1) and from 690.7 μg kg(-1) to 3,625.6 μg kg(-1), respectively. Investigations performed upstream and downstream of both studied WWTPs showed that WWTP discharges may contribute to the overall PAH contaminations in the Loue and the Doubs rivers. Comparison between gammarid populations upstream and downstream of WWTP discharge showed that biota was impacted by the WWTP effluents. When based only on surface water samples, the assessment of freshwater quality did not provide evidence for a marked PAH contamination in either of the rivers studied. However, using SPM and sediment samples, we found PAH contents exceeding sediment quality guidelines. We conclude that sediment and SPM are relevant matrices to assess overall PAH contamination in aquatic ecosystems. Furthermore, we found a positive linear correlation between PAH contents of SPM and sediment, showing that SPM represents an integrating matrix which is able to provide meaningful data about the overall contamination over a given time span.

  10. Evaluation of distribution and sources of sewage molecular marker (LABs) in selected rivers and estuaries of Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magam, Sami M; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Halimoon, Normala; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin; Kannan, Narayanan; Masood, Najat; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Alkhadher, Sadeq; Keshavarzifard, Mehrzad; Vaezzadeh, Vahab; Sani, Muhamad S A; Latif, Mohd Talib

    2016-03-01

    This is the first extensive report on linear alkylbenzenes (LABs) as sewage molecular markers in surface sediments collected from the Perlis, Kedah, Merbok, Prai, and Perak Rivers and Estuaries in the west of Peninsular Malaysia. Sediment samples were extracted, fractionated, and analyzed using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The concentrations of total LABs ranged from 68 to 154 (Perlis River), 103 to 314 (Kedah River), 242 to 1062 (Merbok River), 1985 to 2910 (Prai River), and 217 to 329 ng g(-1) (Perak River) dry weight (dw). The highest levels of LABs were found at PI3 (Prai Estuary) due to the rapid industrialization and population growth in this region, while the lowest concentrations of LABs were found at PS1 (upstream of Perlis River). The LABs ratio of internal to external isomers (I/E) in this study ranged from 0.56 at KH1 (upstream of Kedah River) to 1.35 at MK3 (Merbok Estuary) indicating that the rivers receive raw sewage and primary treatment effluents in the study area. In general, the results of this paper highlighted the necessity of continuation of water treatment system improvement in Malaysia. PMID:26581689

  11. The sedimentology of redeposited chalk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderskouv, Kresten; Surlyk, Finn; Gale, Andy

    , interpretation, and predictability of redeposited chalk facies remain uncertain. This project aims to improve existing facies models by investigating and comparing redeposited chalk units from a variety of settings. Long cores from the Danish and British sectors are interpreted in terms of depositional process......Redeposited facies in the Upper Cretaceous Chalk Group constitute major hydrocarbon reservoirs in the North Sea Central Graben. Existing facies models are largely based on publications from the early 1980's dealing with core material from the Norwegian sector. However, the recognition...

  12. Permeability prediction in chalks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alam, Mohammad Monzurul; Fabricius, Ida Lykke; Prasad, Manika

    2011-01-01

    The velocity of elastic waves is the primary datum available for acquiring information about subsurface characteristics such as lithology and porosity. Cheap and quick (spatial coverage, ease of measurement) information of permeability can be achieved, if sonic velocity is used for permeability......-permeability relationships were replaced by relationships between velocity of elastic waves and permeability using laboratory data, and the relationships were then applied to well-log data. We found that the permeability prediction in chalk and possibly other sediments with large surface areas could be improved...... significantly using the effective specific surface as the fluid-flow concept. The FZI unit is appropriate for highly permeable sedimentary rocks such as sandstones and limestones that have small surface areas....

  13. Less chalk more action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitriceski Andelkovic, Bojana; Jovic, Sladjana

    2016-04-01

    Less chalk more action Education should not be a mechanical system that operates according to the principles of the orders and implementation. Education should respect the basic laws of the develop and progress. Curiosity is the engine of achievement and children spontaneously and happily learn only if they get interested, if teacher wake up and stimulate their creativity and individuality. We would like to present classes that are realized as thematic teaching with several subjects involved: chemistry, geography, math, art and biology. Classes were organized for students at age from 10 to 13 years, every month during autumn and winter 2015. Better students identified themselves as teachers and presented peer education .Teachers were monitoring the process of teaching and help to develop links between younger and older students, where older students were educators to younger students. Also one student with special needs was involved in this activities and was supported by other students during the workshops The benefit from this project will be represented with evaluation marks. Evaluation table shows that group of ten students(age 10 to13 years) which are selected in October as children with lack of motivation for learning, got better marks, at the end of January , then they had it in the beginning of the semester.

  14. Sister Lab Program Prospective Partner Nuclear Profile: Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bissani, M; Tyson, S

    2006-12-14

    The Malaysian Deputy Prime Minister Tun Dr Ismail Abdul Rahman suggested in the early 1970s that Malaysia should have a role in the development of nuclear science and technology for peaceful purposes. Accordingly, the Center for the Application of Nuclear Energy (CRANE) was established, with a focus on the development of a scientific and technical pool critical to a national nuclear power program. The Malaysian Cabinet next established the Tun Ismail Atomic Research Center (TIARC) under the Ministry of Science, Technology and the Environment on 19 September 1972, at a site in Bangi, about 35 km south of Kuala Lampur. On 28 June 1982, the PUSPATI reactor, a 1-MW TRIGA MK-II research reactor, first reached criticality. On 10 August 1994, TIARC was officially renamed as the Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT). In addition to radioisotope production and neutron radiography conducted at the PUSPATI research reactor, MINT also supports numerous programs employing nuclear technology for medicine, agriculture and industry, and has been involved in both bilateral and multilateral technical cooperation to extend its capabilities. As an energy exporting country, Malaysia has felt little incentive to develop a nuclear energy program, and high level opposition within the government discouraged it further. A recent statement by Malaysia's Science, Technology and Innovation Minister supported this view, indicating that only a near-catastrophic jump in world oil prices might change the government's view. However, the rate at which Malaysia is using its natural gas and oil reserves is expected to force it to reassess the role of nuclear energy in the near future. In addition, the government does intend to construct a radioactive waste repository to dispose of naturally occurring radioactive materials (extracted during tin mining, in particular). Also, Malaysia's growing economy could encourage expansion in Malaysia's existing nuclear

  15. Technical progress report. [Nuclear Physics Lab. , Univ. of Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-11-01

    This report summarizes the work carried out at the Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the University of Colorado during the period November 1, 1977 to November 1, 1978, under Contract EY-76-C-02-0535.A002 between the University of Colorado and the United States Department of Energy. The research activities of the Laboratory spanned a broad range of interests over the past year. Numerous topics in charged-particle spectroscopy and reaction studies, neutron time-of-flight measurements, and gamma-ray investigations performed at the cyclotron laboratory are covered in this report. In addition, several items in intermediate energy nuclear physics as studied at Los Alamos and Indiana University by members of the Laboratory are reported. The efforts in nuclear theory include studies in nuclear reaction mechanisms and pion scattering as related to the experimental program. Information is also included on apparatus and facility development, cyclotron operation, outside users, publications, and reports. Separate abstracts were written for thirty items in this report having significant amounts of data. (RWR)

  16. Design and Development of Mode System for Sealed Radioactive Sources at Nuclear Instrumentation Lab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactivity is a major health hazard in nuclear field. In this project, a facility has been developed for monitoring sealed radioactive radiation sources using a computational and identification software based approach. This design software is a hybrid software using Visual Basic for computational analysis and Image Processing in MATLAB for identification of sources. This facility is developed to prevent students, lab officers and lab staff from unnecessary radiation hazards. A modular software based design has been addressed in this project with dynamic monitoring and identification of sealed radioactive radiation sources. The facility is fully automated and can controlled and handled remotely though a desktop computer based graphical user interface. This facility provides on - line activity measurement and computation features. This facility is a new state of the art design for nuclear instrumentation laboratory fulfilling the safety requirement of Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority and Directorate of Safety. (author)

  17. Sister Lab Program Prospective Partner Nuclear Profile: Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bissani, M; Tyson, S

    2006-12-14

    Indonesia has participated in cooperative technical programs with the IAEA since 1957, and has cooperated with regional partners in all of the traditional areas where nuclear science is employed: in medicine, public health (such as insect control and eradication programs), agriculture (e.g. development of improved varieties of rice), and the gas and oil industries. Recently, Indonesia has contributed significantly to the Reduced Enrichment Research and Training Reactor (RERTR) Program by conducting experiments to confirm the feasibility of Mo-99 production using high-density low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel, a primary goal of the RERTR Program. Indonesia's first research reactor, the TRIGA Mark II at Bandung, began operation in 1964 at 250 kW and was subsequently upgraded in 1971 to 1 MW and further upgraded in 2000 to 2 MW. This reactor was joined by another TRIGA Mark II, the 100-kW Kartini-PPNY at Yogyakarta, in 1979, and by the 30-MW G.A. Siwabessy multipurpose reactor in Serpong, which achieved criticality in July 1983. A 10-MW radioisotope production reactor, to be called the RPI-10, also was proposed for construction at Serpong in the late 1990s, but the project apparently was not carried out. In the five decades since its nuclear research program began, Indonesia has trained a cadre of scientific and technical staff who not only operate and conduct research with the current facilities, but also represent the nucleus of a skilled labor pool to support development of a nuclear power program. Although Indonesia's previous on-again, off-again consideration of nuclear power has not gotten very far in the past, it now appears that Indonesia again is giving serious consideration to beginning a national nuclear energy program. In June 2006, Research and Technology Minister Kusmayanto Kadiman said that his ministry was currently putting the necessary procedures in place to speed up the project to acquire a nuclear power plant, indicating that, &apos

  18. Sister Lab Program Prospective Partner Nuclear Profile: Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vietnam's nuclear program began in the 1960s with the installation at Dalat of a 250 kW TRIGA Mk-II research reactor under the U.S. Atoms for Peace Program. The reactor was shut down and its core removed only a few years later, and the nuclear research program was suspended until after the end of the civil war in the late 1970s. The Soviet Union assisted Vietnam in restoring the Dalat reactor to an operational status in 1984, trained a cadre of scientific and technical staff in its operation, and contributed to the development of nuclear science for the medical and agricultural sectors. In the agricultural area in particular, Vietnamese experts have been very successful in developing mutant strains of rice, and continue to work with the IAEA to yield strains that have a shorter growing period, increased resistance to disease, and other desirable characteristics. Rice has always been the main crop in Vietnam, but technical cooperation with the IAEA and other states has enabled the country to become one of the top rice producers in the world, exporting much of its annual crop to over two dozen countries annually. More recently, Vietnam's government has shown increasing interest in developing a civil nuclear program to supplement its fossil fuel and other energy resources. Projections from a variety of open sources, ranging from the IAEA, the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (EIA), the Vietnamese government, energy corporations, and think tanks all predict a massive increase in energy consumption--especially electricity--within Vietnam and the region as a whole. This growth in consumption will require a corresponding increase in energy production, which in Vietnam is currently satisfied mainly by fossil fuels (coal) and renewable energy (hydropower and biomass); Vietnam has a refining capacity of about 800 barrels/day. Most of its crude oil is exported to generate export income, and is not used to generate electricity. Although Vietnam is

  19. Sister Lab Program Prospective Partner Nuclear Profile: Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bissani, M; Tyson, S

    2006-12-14

    Vietnam's nuclear program began in the 1960s with the installation at Dalat of a 250 kW TRIGA Mk-II research reactor under the U.S. Atoms for Peace Program. The reactor was shut down and its core removed only a few years later, and the nuclear research program was suspended until after the end of the civil war in the late 1970s. The Soviet Union assisted Vietnam in restoring the Dalat reactor to an operational status in 1984, trained a cadre of scientific and technical staff in its operation, and contributed to the development of nuclear science for the medical and agricultural sectors. In the agricultural area in particular, Vietnamese experts have been very successful in developing mutant strains of rice, and continue to work with the IAEA to yield strains that have a shorter growing period, increased resistance to disease, and other desirable characteristics. Rice has always been the main crop in Vietnam, but technical cooperation with the IAEA and other states has enabled the country to become one of the top rice producers in the world, exporting much of its annual crop to over two dozen countries annually. More recently, Vietnam's government has shown increasing interest in developing a civil nuclear program to supplement its fossil fuel and other energy resources. Projections from a variety of open sources, ranging from the IAEA, the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (EIA), the Vietnamese government, energy corporations, and think tanks all predict a massive increase in energy consumption--especially electricity--within Vietnam and the region as a whole. This growth in consumption will require a corresponding increase in energy production, which in Vietnam is currently satisfied mainly by fossil fuels (coal) and renewable energy (hydropower and biomass); Vietnam has a refining capacity of about 800 barrels/day. Most of its crude oil is exported to generate export income, and is not used to generate electricity

  20. Neutron Stars, the Most Exotic Nuclear Lab in the Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Pizzochero, Pierre M

    2010-01-01

    In this lecture, we give a first introduction to neutron stars, based on fundamental physical principles. After outlining their amazing macroscopic properties, as obtained from observations, we infer the extreme conditions of matter in their interiors. We then describe two crucial physical phenomena which characterize compact stars, gravitational stability of strongly degenerate matter and neutronization of nuclear matter with increasing density, and explain how the formation and properties of neutron stars are a consequence of the extreme compression of matter under gravity. Finally, we describe how astronomical observations of various external macroscopic features can give invaluable information about the exotic microscopic scenario inside: neutrons stars represent a unique probe to study super-dense, isospin-asymmetric, superfluid, bulk hadronic matter.

  1. A novel representation of chalk hydrology in a land surface model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mostaquimur; Rosolem, Rafael

    2016-04-01

    Unconfined chalk aquifers contain a significant portion of water in the United Kingdom. In order to optimize the assessment and management practices of water resources in the region, modelling and monitoring of soil moisture in the unsaturated zone of the chalk aquifers are of utmost importance. However, efficient simulation of soil moisture in such aquifers is difficult mainly due to the fractured nature of chalk, which creates high-velocity preferential flow paths in the unsaturated zone. In this study, the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES) is applied on a study area encompassing the Kennet catchment in Southern England. The fluxes and states of the coupled water and energy cycles are simulated for 10 consecutive years (2001-2010). We hypothesize that explicit representation for the soil-chalk layers and the inclusion of preferential flow in the fractured chalk aquifers improves the reproduction of the hydrological processes in JULES. In order to test this hypothesis, we propose a new parametrization for preferential flow in JULES. This parametrization explicitly describes the flow of water in soil matrices and preferential flow paths using a simplified approach which can be beneficial for large-scale hydrometeorological applications. We also define the overlaying soil properties obtained from the Harmonized World Soil Database (HWSD) in the model. Our simulation results are compared across spatial scales with measured soil moisture and river discharge, indicating the importance of accounting for the physical properties of the medium while simulating hydrological processes in the chalk aquifers.

  2. Poroelasticity of high porosity chalk under depletion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Katrine Alling; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2013-01-01

    levels of pore pressure. The chalk is oil-saturated Lixhe chalk from a quarry near Liège, Belgium, with a general porosity of 45%. Additionally, we compare the theoretical lateral stress to the experimentally determined lateral stress at the onset of pore collapse. The static Biot coefficient based...

  3. Self Compacting Concrete with Chalk Filler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eigil V.

    2007-01-01

    at 28 days from about 35 MPa down to about 13 MPa. The cementing efficiency factor of the chalk filler was found to be in the range 0.21 - 0.42. The chalk filler performed equally well with a grey and a white cement; the latter opens the possibility to produce white SCC more cost effectively....

  4. Risk assessment for nuclear processes at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Savannah River Site, one of the US Department of Energy's nuclear materials processing facilities, has for many years conducted risk-based safety analyses for the nuclear processes conducted at the facilities. This approach has allowed comparisons of risks to established criteria for acceptability. When the risk-based program was begun, it was evident that its success would depend upon having a compilation of data that was site specific. The decision was made to create a data bank of undesirable events that had occurred at the site's nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities. From this modest beginning, five data banks have been created for nuclear fuel reprocessing, waste management, nuclear fuel fabrication, tritium operations, and the Savannah River Technology Center. In addition to the primary purpose of providing a sound basis for risk-based safety analyses, these highly versatile data banks are routinely used for equipment breakdown histories, incident investigations, design studies, project justifications, reliability studies, process problem solving, training, and audits

  5. Medical isotopes and emerging nuclear medicine technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation discusses medical isotopes and the emerging nuclear medicine technologies as well as the impact of Chalk River reactor shutdown on patient management and diseases. It outlines the chain of supply of isotopes across the globe and isotope shortage impact. It recommends the following mitigating strategies: modifications of scanning techniques, adjustment of patient scheduling, optimization of Tc-99m generator use, patient prioritization, alternate procedures and PET scanning.

  6. Nickel adsorption on chalk and calcite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belova, Dina Alexandrovna; Lakshtanov, Leonid; Carneiro, J.F.;

    2014-01-01

    Nickel uptake from solution by two types of chalk and calcite was investigated in batch sorption studies. The goal was to understand the difference in sorption behavior between synthetic and biogenic calcite. Experiments at atmospheric partial pressure of CO2, in solutions equilibrated with calcite...... = - 1.12 on calcite and log KNi = - 0.43 and - 0.50 on the two chalk samples. The study confirms that synthetic calcite and chalk both take up nickel, but Ni binds more strongly on the biogenic calcite than on inorganically precipitated, synthetic powder, because of the presence of trace amounts...

  7. The North Sea reservoir chalk characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Kallesten, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    A significant amount of the hydrocarbon production in the North Sea is related to chalk reservoirs. Since 1969, the chalk play remains one of the most important oil sources in Norway. With the initial expected recovery factor 17%, development in technologies and methods contributed to a substantial increase in oil recovery to an approximately 40%. Much of the reserves in place are yet to be extracted, and secondary and tertiary recovery methods need to advance in order to mobilize the remaini...

  8. Chalk: composition, diagenesis and physical properties

    OpenAIRE

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2007-01-01

    Chalk is a sedimentary rock of unusually high homogeneity on the scale where physical properties are measured, but the properties fall in wide ranges. Chalk may thus be seen as the ideal starting point for a physical understanding of rocks in general. Properties as porosity, permeability, capillary entry pressure, and elastic moduli are consequences of primary sediment composition and ofsubsequent diagenetic history as caused by microbial action, burial stress, temperature, and pore pressure....

  9. Subsidence and capillary effects in chalks

    OpenAIRE

    Delage, Pierre; Schroeder, Christian; Cui, Yu-Jun

    1996-01-01

    Based on the concepts of the mechanics of unsaturated soils where capillary phenomena arise between the wetting fluid (water) and the non-wetting one (air), the subsidence of chalks containing oil (non-wetting fluid) during water injection (wetting fluid) is analysed. It is shown that the collapse phenomenon of unsaturated soils under wetting provides a physical explanation and a satisfactory prediction of the order of magnitude of the subsidence of the chalk. The use of a well established co...

  10. Approaches at KAIST NICIE Lab to quantifying situation awareness in nuclear power plant MCRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Situation awareness (SA) continues to receive a considerable amount of attention from the ergonomics community. But, techniques to measure SA have normally used expert judgment or a self-rating method so far. One of the problems of these techniques is inconsistency of results. So, empirical and analytical studies on an objective and quantitative SA measurement methods have been carried out at Nuclear I and C and Information Engineering Lab (NICIE Lab) in Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST). Empirical studies are based on physical and cognitive human behaviors, whereas analytical studies are mainly based on Bayesian inference. Eye movement signals and verbal protocol analysis were used for empirical approaches to obtain objective measures. FIR and SAE measures showed feasibility of an eye-tracking method for robust application. TSA score based on a verbal protocol analysis also showed its possibility of team SA (TSA) quantification. Bayesian inference was used for analytical approaches of SA quantification. The analytical quantification method was further expanded to consider some of the important human properties, and a SA modelling tool called ‘CoRSAGE, ver01” was developed. (author)

  11. Chalk Formations as Natural Barriers towards Radionuclide Migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Walther Batsberg; Carlsen, Lars; Jensen, Bror Skytte

    1985-01-01

    A series of chalk samples from the cretaceous formation overlying the Erslev salt dome have been studied in order to establish permeabilities, porosities, dispersion-, diffusion-, and sorption characteristics of the chalk. The chalk was found to be porous (∊≈0.4), however, of rather low permeabil...

  12. Microdeformation and subcritical cracking in chalk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergsaker, Anne; Dysthe, Dag Kristian

    2016-04-01

    Deformation processes in chalks, both in relation to changing pore fluids and stress conditions has been of great interest as chalk is an important reservoir rock for both hydrocarbons and ground water. Lately it has also gained interest as a potential reservoir rock for captured CO2. Chalks are composed of large amounts of biogenic calcite grains, the skeletal debris of marine microorganisms. Its deformation is highly time and stress dependent, and governed by a transition from distributed to localized deformation at the onset of yield, affected by mechanisms such as subcritical crack growth and pore collapse. We present a microdeformation rig which makes use of thermal expansion as a means of subjecting small samples to strictly controlled tensile stresses. High resolution imaging provides resolutions down to 0.5 micrometers, enabling study of pore scale processes during slow deformation. Examples of localized and distributed deformation are presented.

  13. Elastic behaviour of North Sea chalk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gommesen, Lars; Fabricius, Ida Lykke; Mukerji, T.;

    2007-01-01

    -consistent approximation, which here represents the unrelaxed scenario where the pore spaces of the rock are assumed to be isolated, and the Gassmann theory, which assumes that pore spaces are connected, as tools for predicting the effect of hydrocarbons from the elastic properties of brine-saturated North Sea reservoir......We present two different elastic models for, respectively, cemented and uncemented North Sea chalk well-log data. We find that low Biot coefficients correlate with anomalously low cementation factors from resistivity measurements at low porosity and we interpret this as an indication of cementation...... chalk. In the acoustic impedance–Poisson's ratio plane, we forecast variations in porosity and hydrocarbon saturation from their influence on the elastic behaviour of the chalk. The Gassmann model and the self-consistent approximation give roughly similar predictions of the effect of fluid on acoustic...

  14. Whiteshell labs closure: crisis or opportunity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L. Simpson, Mayor, Local Government District of Pinawa, Manitoba, described the impacts and public concerns produced by a hastily planned and executed withdrawal of the primary employer from a dependent company town. The Whiteshell Laboratories of the Crown corporation Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) were established in Eastern Manitoba in 1963, and Pinawa was created 15 kilometres away. Located in a provincial park region, Pinawa has also become a popular holiday cottage area with 20 000 residents inside a 30-minute radius. In 1995, the AECL Reactor Safety Research Program was moved to Chalk River, and the Nuclear Waste Management Program (NWMP) was left in limbo. Commercial negotiations to go on operating business on the site broke down. The town of Pinawa, the major stakeholder, was kept at arm's length from all discussions. (author)

  15. Late Maastrichtian chalk mounds, Stevns Klint, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderskouv, Kresten; Damholt, Tove; Surlyk, Finn

    2007-01-01

    Upper Maastrichtian chalk exposed at the Sigerslev quarry, Stevns Klint, Denmark is characterized by wavy and mound-like bedding geometries outlined by bands of black flint nodules. Four morphological elements are recognized, although bedding geometries are highly variable: southward migrating...

  16. Late Maastrichtian chalk mounds, Stevns Klint, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderskouv, Kresten; Damholt, Tove; Surlyk, Finn

    Upper Maastrichtian chalk exposed in the Sigerslev quarry, Stevns Klint, Denmark shows wavy and mound-like bedding geometries outlined by bands of black flint nodules. Bedding geometries are highly variable, but four morphological elements are recognized: Southward migrating mounds, eastward...

  17. Slope failure of chalk channel margins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gale, A.; Anderskouv, Kresten; Surlyk, Finn;

    2015-01-01

    The importance of mass transport and bottom currents is now widely recognized in the Upper Cretaceous Chalk Group of Northern Europe. The detailed dynamics and interaction of the two phenomena are difficult to study as most evidence is based on seismic data and drill core. Here, field observation...

  18. Competitive sorption of organic contaminants in chalk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graber, E. R.; Borisover, M.

    2003-12-01

    In the Negev desert, Israel, a chemical industrial complex is located over fractured Eocene chalk formations where transfer of water and solutes between fracture voids and matrix pores affects migration of contaminants in the fractures due to diffusion into the chalk matrix. This study tests sorption and sorption competition between contaminants in the chalk matrix to make it possible to evaluate the potential for contaminant attenuation during transport in fractures. Single solute sorption isotherms on chalk matrix material for five common contaminants ( m-xylene, ametryn, 1,2-dichloroethane, phenanthrene, and 2,4,6-tribromophenol) were found to be nonlinear, as confirmed in plots of Kd versus initial solution concentration. Over the studied concentration ranges, m-xylene Kd varied by more than a factor of 100, ametryn Kd by a factor of 4, 1,2-dichloroethane Kd by more than a factor of 3, phenanthrene Kd by about a factor of 2, and 2,4,6-tribromophenol Kd by a factor of 10. It was earlier found that sorption is to the organic matter component of the chalk matrix and not to the mineral phases (Chemosphere 44 (2001) 1121). Nonlinear sorption isotherms indicate that there is at least some finite sorption domain. Bi-solute competition experiments with 2,4,6-tribromophenol as the competitor were designed to explore the nature of the finite sorption domain. All of the isotherms in the bi-solute experiments are more linear than in the single solute experiments, as confirmed by smaller variations in Kd as a function of initial solution concentration. For both m-xylene and ametryn, there is a small nonlinear component or domain that was apparently not susceptible to competition by 2,4,6-tribromophenol. The nonlinear sorption domain(s) is best expressed at low solution concentrations. Inert-solvent-normalized single and bi-solute sorption isotherms demonstrate that ametryn undergoes specific force interactions with the chalk sorbent. The volume percent of phenanthrene

  19. Chalk: composition, diagenesis and physical properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2007-01-01

    entry pressure, and elastic moduli are consequences of primary sediment composition and of subsequent diagenetic history as caused by microbial action, burial stress, temperature, and pore pressure. Porosity is a main determining factor for other properties. For a given porosity, the specific surface......Chalk is a sedimentary rock of unusually high homogeneity on the scale where physical properties are measured, but the properties fall in wide ranges. Chalk may thus be seen as the ideal starting point for a physical understanding of rocks in general. Properties as porosity, permeability, capillary...... of the sediment controls permeability and capillary entry pressure. As diagenesis progresses, the specific surface is less and less due to the calcite component and more and more due to the fine-grained silicates, as a reflection of the coarsening and cementation of the calcite crystals. The elastic moduli, which...

  20. Costs of nuclear waste glassmaking at Savannah River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently developed reference schedules for processing high-level nuclear wastes into solid glass froms at Savannah River provide bases for economic evaluations of potential improvements of glass melter design and operation. Greater melter output is achieved through increases in capacity and attainment and possible higher glass waste loadings. The economic evaluation indicates only minor beneficial impacts on total waste disposal costs for melter outputs greater than current reference values. In contrast, cost impacts are detrimentally large for outputs less than reference values, providing important incentives for development to ensure the reference output. The limits on cost benefits for greater-than-reference output are not intrinsic to on melter feed specified to control radiation and heat loads of the product glass waste form. 14 ref., 3 figs., 1 tab

  1. Design and implementation progress of multi-purpose simulator for nuclear research reactor using LabVIEW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arafa, Amany Abdel Aziz; Saleh, Hassan Ibrahim [Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt). Radiation Engineering Dept.; Ashoub, Nagieb [Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt). Nuclear Research Center

    2015-11-15

    This paper illustrates the neutronic and thermal hydraulic models that were implemented in the nuclear research reactor simulator based on LabVIEW. It also describes the system and transient analysis of the simulator that takes into consideration the temperature effects and poisoning. This simulator is designed to be a multi-purpose in which the operator could understand the effects of the input parameters on the reactor. A designer can study different solutions for virtual reactor accident scenarios. The main features of the simulator are the flexibility to design and maintain the interface and the ability to redesign and remodel the reactor core engine. The developed reactor simulator permits to acquire hands-on the experience of the physics and technology of nuclear reactors including reactivity control, thermodynamics, technology design and safety system design. This simulator can be easily customizable and upgradable and new opportunities for collaboration between academic groups could be conducted.

  2. Used nuclear materials at Savannah River Site: asset or waste?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear industry, both in the commercial and the government sectors, has generated large quantities of material that span the spectrum of usefulness, from highly valuable ''assets'' to worthless ''wastes''. In many cases, the decision parameters are clear. Transuranic waste and high level waste, for example, have no value, and is either in a final disposition path today, or - in the case of high level waste - awaiting a policy decision about final disposition. Other materials, though discardable, have intrinsic scientific or market value that may be hidden by the complexity, hazard, or cost of recovery. An informed decision process should acknowledge the asset value, or lack of value, of the complete inventory of materials, and the structure necessary to implement the range of possible options. It is important that informed decisions are made about the asset value for the variety of nuclear materials available. For example, there is a significant quantity of spent fuel available for recycle (an estimated $4 billion value in the Savannah River Site's (SRS) L area alone); in fact, SRS has already blended down more than 300 metric tons of uranium for commercial reactor use. Over 34 metric tons of surplus plutonium is also on a path to be used as commercial fuel. There are other radiological materials that are routinely handled at the site in large quantities that should be viewed as strategically important and / or commercially viable. In some cases, these materials are irreplaceable domestically, and failure to consider their recovery could jeopardize our technological leadership or national defense. The inventories of nuclear materials at SRS that have been characterized as ''waste'' include isotopes of plutonium, uranium, americium, and helium. Although planning has been performed to establish the technical and regulatory bases for their discard and disposal, recovery of these materials is both economically attractive and in the national interest.

  3. USED NUCLEAR MATERIALS AT SAVANNAH RIVER SITE: ASSET OR WASTE?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magoulas, V.

    2013-06-03

    The nuclear industry, both in the commercial and the government sectors, has generated large quantities of material that span the spectrum of usefulness, from highly valuable (“assets”) to worthless (“wastes”). In many cases, the decision parameters are clear. Transuranic waste and high level waste, for example, have no value, and is either in a final disposition path today, or – in the case of high level waste – awaiting a policy decision about final disposition. Other materials, though discardable, have intrinsic scientific or market value that may be hidden by the complexity, hazard, or cost of recovery. An informed decision process should acknowledge the asset value, or lack of value, of the complete inventory of materials, and the structure necessary to implement the range of possible options. It is important that informed decisions are made about the asset value for the variety of nuclear materials available. For example, there is a significant quantity of spent fuel available for recycle (an estimated $4 billion value in the Savannah River Site’s (SRS) L area alone); in fact, SRS has already blended down more than 300 metric tons of uranium for commercial reactor use. Over 34 metric tons of surplus plutonium is also on a path to be used as commercial fuel. There are other radiological materials that are routinely handled at the site in large quantities that should be viewed as strategically important and / or commercially viable. In some cases, these materials are irreplaceable domestically, and failure to consider their recovery could jeopardize our technological leadership or national defense. The inventories of nuclear materials at SRS that have been characterized as “waste” include isotopes of plutonium, uranium, americium, and helium. Although planning has been performed to establish the technical and regulatory bases for their discard and disposal, recovery of these materials is both economically attractive and in the national

  4. Design basis flood for nuclear power plants on river sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Guide presents techniques for determining the design basis flood (DBF) to be used for siting nuclear power plants at or near non-tidal reaches of rivers and for protecting nuclear power plants against floods. Since flooding of a nuclear power plant can have repercussions on safety, the DBF is always chosen to have a very low probability of exceedance per annum. The DBF may result from one or more of the following causes: (1) Precipitation, snowmelt; (2) Failure of water control structures, either from seismic or hydrological causes or from faulty operation of these structures; (3) Channel obstruction such as landslide, ice effects, log or debris jams, and effects of vulcanism. Normally the DBF is not less than any recorded or historical flood occurrence. For flood evaluation two types of methods are discussed in this Guide: probabilistic and deterministic. Simple probabilistic methods to determine floods of such low exceedance probability have a great degree of uncertainty and are presented for use only during the site survey. However, the more sophisticated probabilistic methods, the so-called stochastic methods, may give an acceptable result, as outlined in this Guide. The preferred method of evaluating the component of the DBF due to precipitation, as described in this Guide, is the deterministic one, based on the concept of a limit to the probable maximum precipitation (PMP) and on the unit hydrograph technique. Dam failures may generate a flood substantially more severe than that due to precipitation. The methodology for evaluating these types of floods is therefore presented in this Guide. Making allowance for the possible simultaneous occurrence of two or more important flood-producing events is also discussed here. The Guide does not deal with floods caused by sabotage

  5. 78 FR 20625 - Spent Nuclear Fuel Management at the Savannah River Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... of Decision (ROD) pursuant to the Savannah River Site Spent Nuclear Fuel Management Final... Concerning Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Environmental Impact Statement (DOE/EIS-0218, 1996... to create LEU feedstock for fuel fabrication for commercial nuclear reactors. The shipments of...

  6. Effect of Fluid Dynamic Viscosity on the Strength of Chalk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, K.; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    The mechanical strength of high porosity and weakly cemented chalk is affected by the fluid in the pores. In this study, the effect of the dynamic viscosity of non-polar fluids has been measured on outcrop chalk from Sigerslev Quarry, Stevns, Denmark. The outcome is that the measured strength...

  7. The Beauty of the Beasts in Chalk Pastels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skophammer, Karen

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how her seventh-grade art students captured an image of a stuffed animal in the "whole-to-part" drawing technique using chalk pastels. Shading with chalk pastels can give a gradual change in value from dark to light. The shading and color changes the mood of the original drawing, and adds texture, too. Chalk…

  8. The Effect of Bacteria Penetration on Chalk Permeability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halim, Amalia Yunita; Shapiro, Alexander; Nielsen, Sidsel Marie;

    into reservoirs, however, a complete understanding of the penetration behavior of bacteria is lacking, especially in chalk formations where the pore throat sizes are almost comparable with the sizes of bacteria vegetative cells. This study investigates the penetration of bacteria into chalk. Two bacteria types...

  9. Compaction of North-sea chalk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keszthelyi, Dániel; Dysthe, Dag Kristian; Jamtveit, Bjørn

    2014-05-01

    The Ekofisk field is the largest petroleum field in the Norwegian North Sea territory where oil is produced from chalk formations. Early stage of oil production caused considerable changes in pore fluid pressure which led to a reservoir compaction. Pore collapse mechanism caused by the dramatic increase of effective stress, which in turn was caused by the pressure reduction by hydrocarbon depletion, was early identified as a principal reason for the reservoir compaction (Sulak et al. 1991). There have been several attempts to model this compaction. They performed with variable success on predicting the Ekofisk subsidence. However, the most of these models are based on empirical relations and do not investigate in detail the phenomena involved in the compaction. In sake of predicting the Ekofisk subsidence while using only independently measurable variables we used a chalk compaction model valid on geological time-scales (Japsen et al. 2011) assuming plastic pore-collapse mechanism at a threshold effective stress level. We identified the phenomena involved in the pore collapse. By putting them in a sequential order we created a simple statistical analytical model. We also investigated the time-dependence of the phenomena involved and by assuming that one of the phenomena is rate-limiting we could make estimations of the compaction rate at smaller length-scales. By carefully investigating the nature of pressure propagation we could upscale our model to reservoir scale. We found that the predicted compaction rates are close enough to the measured rates. We believe that we could further increase accuracy by refining our model. Sulak, R. M., Thomas, L. K., Boade R. R. (1991) 3D reservoir simulation of Ekofisk compaction drive. Journal of Petroleum Technology, 43(10):1272-1278, 1991. Japsen, P., Dysthe, D. K., Hartz, E. H., Stipp, S. L. S., Yarushina, V. M., Jamtveit. (2011) A compaction front in North Sea chalk. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth (1978

  10. Chalk effect on PVC cross-linking under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of nonmodified and modified chalk on curing degree of polymer matrix was studied under-irradiation of PVC-compositions. Films of the compositions (100 mass part 7 PVC, 0-100 mas.part of chalk, 2.5 - lead sulfate, 1.5 - lead stearate and 0.3 - glycerin) were irradiated up to absorbed dose 0.1 MGy in an inert medium. Content of gel-fraction after boiling in THF was determined with use of IR spectroscopy. It was established, that intensive dehydrochlorination and polymer curing took place on chalk particle surface. Network fixed strongly chalk particles. However, chalk inhibited processes of dehydrochlorination and PVC curing, increasing amount of noncured PVC in polymer matrix

  11. Dosimetry of upper extremities of personnel in nuclear medicine hot labs

    OpenAIRE

    Παπαδόγιαννης, Παναγιώτης

    2012-01-01

    The specific nature of work in nuclear medicine departments involves the use of isotopes and handling procedures, which contribute to the considerable value of the equivalent dose received, in particular, by the fingertips. Workers of nuclear medicine units who label radiopharmaceuticals are exposed to ionizing radiation. The doses of nuclear medicine workers determined by individual dosimeters, which supply data on the magnitude of personal dose equivalent. The dosimetry pointing to a con...

  12. From the lab to the battlefield? Nanotechnology and fourth generation nuclear weapons

    CERN Document Server

    Gsponer, A

    2002-01-01

    The paper addresses some major implications of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) engineering and nanotechnology for the improvement of existing types of nuclear weapons, and the development of more robust versions of these weapons, as well as for the development of fourth generations nuclear weapons in which nanotechnology will play an essential role.

  13. Taking the Lab into the Field. Nuclear Applications Rapidly Diagnose Animal Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livestock supports the livelihoods and food security of almost a billion people worldwide. As populations increase, countries not only need to increase livestock production, but also need more efficient tools for the prevention, diagnosis and control of animal diseases. Nuclear and nuclear-related technologies have an essential role to play in maintaining animal health and protecting vulnerable communities.

  14. Temporal variability of micro-organic contaminants in lowland chalk catchments: New insights into contaminant sources and hydrological processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manamsa, K; Lapworth, D J; Stuart, M E

    2016-10-15

    This paper explores the temporal variation of a broad suite of micro organic (MO) compounds within hydrologically linked compartments of a lowland Chalk catchment, the most important drinking water aquifer in the UK. It presents an assessment of results from relatively high frequency monitoring at a well-characterised site, including the type and concentrations of compounds detected and how they change under different hydrological conditions including exceptionally high groundwater levels and river flow conditions during 2014 and subsequent recovery. This study shows for the first time that within the Chalk groundwater there can be a greater diversity of the MOs compared to surface waters. Within the Chalk 26 different compounds were detected over the duration of the study compared to 17 in the surface water. Plasticisers (0.06-39μg/L) were found to dominate in the Chalk groundwater on 5 visits (38.4%) accounting for 14.5% of detections but contributing highest concentrations whilst other compounds dominated in the surface water. Trichloroethene and atrazine were among the most frequently detected compounds. The limit for the total pesticide concentration detected did not exceed EU/UK prescribed concentration values for drinking water. Emerging organic compounds such as caffeine, which currently do not have water quality limits, were also detected. The low numbers of compounds found within the hyporheic zone highlight the role of this transient interface in the attenuation and breakdown of the MOs, and provision of an important ecosystem service. PMID:26850859

  15. Controls on the spatial and temporal variability of Rn-222 in riparian groundwater in a lowland Chalk catchment.

    OpenAIRE

    Mullinger, Neil J.; Pates, Jackie M.; Binley, Andrew M.; Crook, N. P.

    2009-01-01

    Radon is a powerful tracer of stream-aquifer interactions. However, it is important to consider the source and behaviour of radon in groundwater when interpreting observations of river radon in relation to groundwater discharge. Here we characterise the variability in groundwater radon concentrations in the riparian zone of a Chalk catchment. Groundwater 222Rn (radon) concentrations were determined in riparian zone boreholes at two sites in the Lambourn catchment, Berkshire, UK, over a two ye...

  16. Intrinsic and Carrier Colloid-facilitated transport of lanthanides through discrete fractures in chalk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisbrod, N.; Tran, E. L.; Klein-BenDavid, O.; Teutsch, N.

    2015-12-01

    Geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste is the long term solution for the disposal of long lived radionuclides and spent fuel. However, some radionuclides might be released from these repositories into the subsurface as a result of leakage, which ultimately make their way into groundwater. Engineered bentonite barriers around nuclear waste repositories are generally considered sufficient to impede the transport of radionuclides from their source to the groundwater. However, colloidal-sized mobile bentonite particles ("carrier" colloids) originating from these barriers have come under investigation as a potential transport vector for radionuclides sorbed to them. As lanthanides are generally accepted to have the same chemical behaviors as their more toxic actinide counterparts, lanthanides are considered an acceptable substitute for research on radionuclide transportation. This study aims to evaluate the transport behaviors of lanthanides in colloid-facilitated transport through a fractured chalk matrix and under geochemical conditions representative the Negev desert, Israel. The migration of Ce both with and without colloidal particles was explored and compared to the migration of a conservative tracer (bromide) using a flow system constructed around a naturally fractured chalk core. Results suggest that mobility of Ce as a solute is negligible. In experiments conducted without bentonite colloids, the 1% of the Ce that was recovered migrated as "intrinsic" colloids in the form of carbonate precipitates. However, the total recovery of the Ce increased to 9% when it was injected into the core in the presence of bentonite colloids and 13% when both bentonite and precipitate colloids were injected. This indicates that lanthanides are essentially immobile in chalk as a solute but may be mobile as carbonate precipitates. Bentonite colloids, however, markedly increase the mobility of lanthanides through fractured chalk matrices.

  17. 76 FR 5216 - Florida Power Corporation, Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... COMMISSION Florida Power Corporation, Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant; Exemption 1.0 Background Florida Power Corporation (the licensee) is the holder of Facility Operating License No. DPR-72, which.... Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC, the Commission) now or hereafter in effect. The facility consists...

  18. The use of borehole geophysical logs and hydrologic tests to characterize plutonic rock for nuclear fuel waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The selection of an igneous rock body for the disposal of nuclear fuel waste will likely require the drilling and testing of a number of deep investigative boreholes in the rock body. Although coring of at least one hole at each Research Area will be essential, methods for making in situ geophysical and hydrological measurements can substitute for widespread coring and result in significant savings in time and money. A number of borehole methods have been applied to the investigation of plutonic rocks at Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment and Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories in Canada

  19. Yields of underground nuclear explosions at Azgir and Shagan River, USSR and implications for identifying decoupled nuclear testing in salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sykes, L.R.

    1991-12-05

    Bodywave magnitudes, mb, are recomputed using station corrections for all known Soviet underground nuclear explosions at Shagan River and Azgir. The mb values for explosions of announced yield, Y, in various parts of the world in either hard rock or below the water table were normalized to the SW part of the Shagan River testing area using previously published values of t* and mb bias. The resulting relationship, mb = 4.48 + 0.79 logY, which includes yields published by Bocharov et al. (1989) for Shagan River, differs very little from a regression that does not include those data. Using magnitudes determined from Lg at NORSAR as a standard, the Shagan River site is divided into three subareas. Yields calculated from these revised mb values and from m(Lg) are much more consistent for the same explosion; each agrees closely with the yields published by Bocharov et al. for large explosions in 1971 and 1972 in the NE and SW parts of the testing area. Yields calculated by averaging determinations from Lg and body waves for 66 explosions have a high precision at 95% confidence (mean value 1. 14) for Y > 10 kt. The explosion of 23 July 1973 of Y = 193 kt is clearly the largest underground explosion at Shagan River. The newly calculated values provide strong evidence of clustering in the distribution of yields of Soviet tests. In a special study yields of Soviet nuclear explosions, nuclear tests in salt, decoupling, evasion

  20. Kolmanda aastatuhande piraadid / kommenteerinud Peter Chalk ja Gordan Van Hook

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Piraatlusest Somaalia piirkonnas ja rahvusvahelistest dokumentidest piraatluse vastu võitlemiseks 21. sajandil. Kommenteerivad uurimiskeskuse RAND Corporation vanempoliitanalüütik Peter Chalk ja transpordikompanii Maersk Line innovatsiooni ja arenduse vanemdirektor Gordan Van Hook

  1. Compaction of microfossil and clay-rich chalk sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2001-01-01

    of microfossils and fine-grained silica and clay. Samples with relatively pure chalk mud supported texture compact along a common stress - matrix porosity trend. Microfossils thus have a passive role, apparently because they are supported by the chalk mud. Samples with fine-grained silica and clay can be modelled...... to Follow the same trend if we assume that a part of the fine-grained silica and clay are in the supporting frame and that the remaining silica and clay has a passive pore-filling role. The modelled part of the day and silica in the frame varies from 0% to 100%. Porosity and sonic velocity variations......The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of microfossils and clay in the compaction of chalk facies sediments. To meet this aim, chalk sediments with varying micro texture were studied. The sediments have been tested uniaxially confined in a stainless-steel compaction cell. The sediments are...

  2. Quantitative 1D saturation profiles on chalk by NMR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Dan; Topp, Simon; Stensgaard, Anders;

    1996-01-01

    Quantitative one-dimensional saturation profiles showing the distribution of water and oil in chalk core samples are calculated from NMR measurements utilizing a 1D CSI spectroscopy pulse sequence. Saturation profiles may be acquired under conditions of fluid flow through the sample. Results reveal...... that strong saturation gradients exist in chalk core samples after core floods, due to capillary effects. The method is useful in analysis of corefloods, e.g., for determination of capillary pressure functions...

  3. The invertebrate ecology of the Chalk aquifer in England (UK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurice, L.; Robertson, A. R.; White, D.; Knight, L.; Johns, T.; Edwards, F.; Arietti, M.; Sorensen, J. P. R.; Weitowitz, D.; Marchant, B. P.; Bloomfield, J. P.

    2016-03-01

    The Chalk is an important water supply aquifer, yet ecosystems within it remain poorly understood. Boreholes (198) in seven areas of England (UK) were sampled to determine the importance of the Chalk aquifer as a habitat, and to improve understanding of how species are distributed. Stygobitic macro-invertebrates were remarkably common, and were recorded in 67 % of boreholes in unconcealed Chalk, although they were not recorded in Chalk that is concealed by low-permeability strata and thus likely to be confined. Most species were found in shallow boreholes (50 m) water tables, indicating that the habitat is vertically extensive. Stygobites were present in more boreholes in southern England than northern England (77 % compared to 38 %). Only two species were found in northern England compared to six in southern England, but overall seven of the eight stygobitic macro-invertebrate species found in England were detected in the Chalk. Two species are common in southern England, but absent from northern England despite the presence of a continuous habitat prior to the Devensian glaciation. This suggests that either they did not survive glaciations in the north where glaciers were more extensive, or dispersal rates are slow and they have never colonised northern England. Subsurface ecosystems comprising aquatic macro-invertebrates and meiofauna, as well as the microbial organisms they interact with, are likely to be widespread in the Chalk aquifer. They represent an important contribution to biodiversity, and may influence biogeochemical cycles and provide other ecosystem services.

  4. Early years of nuclear energy research in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first experimental attempts in Canada to obtain energy from uranium fission were carried out by the author in the Ottawa laboratories of the National Research Council from 1940 to 42. This program grew into a joint British-Canadian laboratory in Montreal. Work done at this laboratory, which moved to Chalk River in 1946, led to the construction of ZEEP (the first nuclear reactor to operate outside of the United States) NRX, and ultimately to the development of the CANDU power reactors. People involved in the work and events along the way are covered in detail. (LL)

  5. Change in Biot's effective stress coefficient of chalk during pore collapse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alam, M. Monzurul; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2013-01-01

    the grains could also change during elastic deformation of the grains in a rock mechanics test. Diagenetic change in grain contact cement of chalk can be compared with stress-induced change in the laboratory. The change in porosity is studied with reference to the change in effective stress on grain contacts......Biot's effective stress coefficient (α) is a measure of how well grains in the rocks are connected with each other. The amount of contact cements between the grains determines the stiffness of rocks. Change in grain contact occurs during natural diagenesis of sedimentary rock. Contact between...... and porosity reduces at a slower rate. We noticed that presence of non carbonates and hydrocarbon could increase σ'm. During rock mechanics test in the lab, with increased applied stress, σ'm increases, Biot's effective stress coefficient shows a decreasing trend, while a minor porosity reduction was observed...

  6. Vision Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Vision Lab personnel perform research, development, testing and evaluation of eye protection and vision performance. The lab maintains and continues to develop...

  7. Understanding heterogeneity in UK Chalk catchments and its influence on groundwater flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peach, D. W.; Vounaki, T.; Jackson, C. R.; Hughes, A. G.; Wheater, H. S.

    2008-12-01

    The numerical simulation of groundwater flooding is increasingly necessary as this problem is gaining recognition from government and regulators and climate change may bring more extreme events. The Natural Environment Research Council of the UK is funding the British Geological Survey, Imperial College, and the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology to examine the problem of groundwater flooding in the Cretaceous Chalk of Berkshire, 50 kilometres west of London. Typically regional resource issues can be examined using traditional groundwater models that do not consider in detail the influence of flow in the unsaturated zone, but the delays in recharge transmission through this zone to the water table may be very significant in terms of flood timing and prediction. The position of ground elevation relative to water table is clearly important but not often considered in groundwater resource modelling. Groundwater level and stream (and flood) flow responses are important data that may be hard to gather from typical groundwater monitoring systems. These problems have been examined in a Chalk catchment in Berkshire where good records of the 2000-1 and 2003 flooding events have been collected, including flooded extent, rainfall, groundwater levels, river and spring flows. From this analysis, it appears that two groundwater mounds develop in the upper part of the Pang and Lambourn catchments. These mounds intersect dry valleys, which flowed for several months, the consequent flooding causing considerably disruption. Modelling of these events is providing new insight into the heterogeneity of Chalk transmissivity and storage parameters, enhanced knowledge of its dual permeability and porosity and demonstrating the importance of understanding the post-depositional hydrogeological history of the aquifer.

  8. 78 FR 16302 - Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant, Application for Amendment to Facility Operating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... Consideration of Issuance of Amendment published in the Federal Register on January 11, 2012 (77 FR 1743), and a... published in the Federal Register on January 16, 2013 (78 FR 3458). However, by letter dated February 7... COMMISSION Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant, Application for Amendment to Facility...

  9. Safety aspects of receipt and storage of spent nuclear fuel at the Savannah River site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busby, A.S.; Andes, T.C. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The Savannah River Site receives and stores aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel from research reactors world-wide in support of the U.S. Department of Energy's take back policy for U.S. origin enriched uranium. For over 35 years the Savannah River Site has supported this policy in a safe and deliberate manner. Facilities dedicated to this mission include the Receiving Basin for Offsite Fuels and L-Basin. Current inventories are about 6,500 aluminum-based research reactor assemblies and about 700 stainless steel or zirconium clad prototype power reactor assemblies. The purpose of this paper is to briefly describe the processes that the Savannah River Site employs to safely receive, handle, and store spent nuclear fuel. (author)

  10. Stylolites, porosity, depositional texture, and silicates in chalk facies sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke; Borre, Mai K.

    2007-01-01

    and sediments as counteracted by the pressure in the pore fluid, so the regional overpressure in the Central North Sea is one reason why the two localities have different relationships between temperature and effective burial stress. In the chalk of the Ontong Java Plateau the onset of calcite-silicate pressure......Comparison of chalk on the Ontong Java Plateau and chalk in the Central North Sea indicates that, whereas pressure dissolution is controlled by effective burial stress, pore-filling cementation is controlled by temperature. Effective burial stress is caused by the weight of all overlying water...... equilibrated to quartz before the onset of pressure dissolution and thus, in this case, dissolution and precipitation of calcite have no lag. This temperature versus effective burial stress induced difference in diagenetic history is of particular relevance when exploring for hydrocarbons in normally pressured...

  11. Chemical and Mechanical processes during burial diagenesis of chalk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borre, Mai Kirstine; Lind, Ida

    1998-01-01

    or larger influence on the textural development. In the chalk interval below, compaction is not the only porosity reducing agent but it has a larger influence on texture than concurrent recrystallization. Below 850 m grain-bridging cementation becomes important resulting in a lithified limestone below 1100......Burial diagenesis of chalk is a combination of mechanical compaction and chemical recrystallization as well as cementation. We have predicted the characteristic trends in specific surface resulting from these processes. The specific surface is normally measured by nitrogen adsorption but is here...... in the Pacific, where a > 1 km thick package of chalk facies sediments accumulated from the Cretaceous to the present. In the upper 200-300 m the sediment is unconsolidated carbonate ooze, throughout this depth interval compaction is the principal porosity reducing agent, but recrystallization has an equal...

  12. What are the governing processes during low-flows in a chalk catchment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubega Musuuza, Jude; Coxon, Gemma; Hutton, Chris; Howden, Nicholas; Woods, Ross; Freer, Jim; Wagener, Thorsten

    2016-04-01

    Low flows are important because they lead to the prioritisation of different consumptive water usages, imposition of restrictions and bans, raising of water tariffs and higher production costs to industry. The partitioning of precipitation into evaporation, storage and runoff depends on the local variability in meteorological variables and site-specific characteristics e.g., topography, soils and vegetation. The response of chalk catchments to meteorological forcing especially precipitation is of particular interest because of the preferential flow through the weathered formation. This makes the observed stream discharge groundwater-dominated and hence, out of phase with precipitation. One relevant question is how sensitive the low flow characteristics of such a chalk catchment is to changes in climate and land use. It is thus important to understand all the factors that control low stream discharge periods. In this study we present the results from numerical sensitivity analysis experiments performed with a detailed physically-based model on the Kennet, a sub-catchment of the River Thames, in the UK during the historical drought years of the 1970's.

  13. Exploitation of the nuclear plant Asco and the benthic community of the river Ebro; Explotacion de la central nuclear Asco y la comunidad bentonica del rio Ebro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esparza Martin

    2015-07-01

    The Ebro river passing through the town of Asco in the province of Tarragona, provides the necessary water for the operation of the nuclear plant. water of circulation flows and service components are returned completely to the river, or if operation of cooling towers, decreased in a small part. Evaporative losses account for approximately 1% of the total flow used for two nuclear groups. (Author)

  14. Ottawa river nuclear spill contingency model development. Phase 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This manual describes the calibration and application of a series of spill model programs. The programs simulate the receiving water concentrations in rivers, resulting from discharges/spill which can vary in time as well as being intermittent. The programs incorporate computer graphic outputs of the spill distribution at given times after the beginning of the spill, and at given downstream distances as a function of time. The manual outlines the procedure to calibrate the models based on site specific data. Detailed technical discussions on various components of the models are also included. The programs have been set up in an interactive (inquiry-response) mode. The series of programs are written on Fortran 77 and run on all IBM PC and compatible computers

  15. Chalk porosity and sonic velocity versus burial depth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke; Gommesen, Lars; Krogsbøll, Anette Susanne;

    2008-01-01

    Seventy chalk samples from four formations in the overpressured Danish central North Sea have been analyzed to investigate how correlations of porosity and sonic velocity with burial depth are affected by varying mineralogy, fluid pressure, and early introduction of petroleum. The results show th...

  16. Nano sized clay detected on chalk particle surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbjerg, Lone; Hassenkam, Tue; Makovicky, Emil;

    2012-01-01

    that in calcite saturated water, both the polar and the nonpolar functional groups adhere to the nano sized clay particles but not to calcite. This is fundamentally important information for the development of conceptual and chemical models to explain wettability alterations in chalk reservoirs...

  17. Sediment transport and siltation of brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) spawning gravels in chalk streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acornley, R. M.; Sear, D. A.

    1999-02-01

    Deposition rates of fine sediment into brown trout spawning gravels were measured at monthly intervals for a period of one year in a small channel of the River Test, Hampshire. Data were also collected on stream discharge, water depth, flow velocity and suspended sediment concentrations. Deposition rates followed a seasonal pattern and were maximal during periods of high discharge in the late winter/early spring when suspended sediment concentrations were high. The material deposited in the spawning gravels included silts and fine sands (<250 m) that were transported in suspension and coarser fragments of low density tufa-like material that were transported as bed load. The ecological implications of fine sediment deposition for salmonid egg survival in chalk streams are considered.

  18. Ekofisk chalk: core measurements, stochastic reconstruction, network modeling and simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talukdar, Saifullah

    2002-07-01

    This dissertation deals with (1) experimental measurements on petrophysical, reservoir engineering and morphological properties of Ekofisk chalk, (2) numerical simulation of core flood experiments to analyze and improve relative permeability data, (3) stochastic reconstruction of chalk samples from limited morphological information, (4) extraction of pore space parameters from the reconstructed samples, development of network model using pore space information, and computation of petrophysical and reservoir engineering properties from network model, and (5) development of 2D and 3D idealized fractured reservoir models and verification of the applicability of several widely used conventional up scaling techniques in fractured reservoir simulation. Experiments have been conducted on eight Ekofisk chalk samples and porosity, absolute permeability, formation factor, and oil-water relative permeability, capillary pressure and resistivity index are measured at laboratory conditions. Mercury porosimetry data and backscatter scanning electron microscope images have also been acquired for the samples. A numerical simulation technique involving history matching of the production profiles is employed to improve the relative permeability curves and to analyze hysteresis of the Ekofisk chalk samples. The technique was found to be a powerful tool to supplement the uncertainties in experimental measurements. Porosity and correlation statistics obtained from backscatter scanning electron microscope images are used to reconstruct microstructures of chalk and particulate media. The reconstruction technique involves a simulated annealing algorithm, which can be constrained by an arbitrary number of morphological parameters. This flexibility of the algorithm is exploited to successfully reconstruct particulate media and chalk samples using more than one correlation functions. A technique based on conditional simulated annealing has been introduced for exact reproduction of vuggy

  19. Dual FIB-SEM 3D Imaging and Lattice Boltzmann Modeling of Porosimetry and Multiphase Flow in Chalk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinehart, A. J.; Yoon, H.; Dewers, T. A.; Heath, J. E.; Petrusak, R.

    2010-12-01

    Mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) is an often-applied technique for determining pore throat distributions and seal analysis of fine-grained rocks. Due to closure effects, potential pore collapse, and complex pore network topologies, MIP data interpretation can be ambiguous, and often biased toward smaller pores in the distribution. We apply 3D imaging techniques and lattice-Boltzmann modeling in interpreting MIP data for samples of the Cretaceous Selma Group Chalk. In the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, the Selma Chalk is the apparent seal for oil and gas fields in the underlying Eutaw Fm., and, where unfractured, the Selma Chalk is one of the regional-scale seals identified by the Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership for CO2 injection sites. Dual focused ion - scanning electron beam and laser scanning confocal microscopy methods are used for 3D imaging of nanometer-to-micron scale microcrack and pore distributions in the Selma Chalk. A combination of image analysis software is used to obtain geometric pore body and throat distributions and other topological properties, which are compared to MIP results. 3D data sets of pore-microfracture networks are used in Lattice Boltzmann simulations of drainage (wetting fluid displaced by non-wetting fluid via the Shan-Chen algorithm), which in turn are used to model MIP procedures. Results are used in interpreting MIP results, understanding microfracture-matrix interaction during multiphase flow, and seal analysis for underground CO2 storage. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences as part of an Energy Frontier Research Center. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Company, for the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  20. Study of a conceptual nuclear energy center at Green River, Utah: regional considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document constitutes one segment of a feasibility study investigating the ramifications of constructing a nuclear energy center in an arid and remote Western region. This phase of the study discusses regional considerations involved in nuclear energy center development at Green River, Utah. Regional support for NEC development is assessed. In addition, possible regulatory constraints to NEC development are identified and analyzed. Possible resource allocation shortages resulting from NEC development are also considered. A comparison with a similar study on NEC development in the Southeastern United States is also included

  1. Socioeconomic impacts: study of a conceptual nuclear energy center at Green River, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document constitutes a segment of a feasibility study investigating the ramifications of constructing a nuclear energy center (NEC) in an arid western region. In this phase of the study, the impacts on socioeconomic conditions in the surrounding communities and possible ways of financing and mitigating these impacts were examined. The general conclusion reached is that the socioeconomic impacts of a nuclear energy center in the Green River area of Southeastern Utah would not impose an absolute bar to NEC development. The economy of the NEC impact area would be substantially transformed by the NEC. In particular, Green River city itself would change from its current status as a relatively stable rural economy with an agricultural, mining, and recreation base to a major city with over 20,000 permanent relatively high income residents. The NEC, by itself, would provide a tax base more than adequate to finance required expansion of public facilities and public human service provisions

  2. Nuclear power plant accident handbook: a CNSC emergency operations centre tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In response to the Fukushima Nuclear Emergency and the subsequent Emergency Operations Centre (EOC) response, the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) Fukushima Task Force recommended that hardcopy and electronic version reference packages for all Canadian nuclear reactor sites are readily available to the Technical Support Team. CNSC staff, in a cooperative agreement with Atomic Energy of Canada Limited at Chalk River Laboratories (AECL-CRL), has begun implementing this recommendation through the development of the Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Accident Handbook. The NPP Accident Handbook will provide readily available reference material for technical staff involved in EOC operations. The NPP Accident Handbook will assist technical staff in finding site-specific and accident-specific details that will help them provide expert advice to the EOC team during a nuclear power plant accident. (author)

  3. Changes in Specific Surface as observed by NMR, caused by saturation of Chalk with porewater bearing divalent Ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katika, Konstantina; Addassi, Mouadh; Alam, Mohammad Monzurul;

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectrometry has proved to be a good technique for determining the petrophysical properties of reservoir rocks; such as porosity and pore size distribution. We investigated how pore water rich in divalent ions affect the NMR signal from chalk with two different...... samples where precipitation takes place were found to show shifts in the T2 relaxation curve due to the creation of crystals. We were able to identify how differences in the rock texture and precipitants within the pore space may affect the transverse relaxation time by altering the surface...

  4. Horizontal spacing, depletion, and infill potential in the Austin chalk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyte, D.G.; Meehan, D.N.

    1996-12-31

    Estimated ultimate recoveries on a barrels per acre basis for Austin chalk wells were discussed. The study showed that the maximum six months consecutive production through the life of the well can be used to estimate ultimate recovery in horizontally drilled reservoirs. A statistical approach was used to help identify where the Austin chalk has been overdrilled and areas where infill potential exists. The barrels per acre data were analyzed by a method known as `moving domain`. This procedure involves stepping through the reservoir well by well and looking at it with respect to its nearest neighbors. To analyze for depletion, barrels per acre is compared to date of first production for groups of wells in an area, looking for declining values with time. Areas showing no evidence of depletion and having good recoveries are further studied for infill potential. By comparing effective densities in areas which are not yet being fully drained, an optimum spacing between wells can be determined for horizontal wells in a fractured chalk reservoir. An artificial neural network can also be used to provide qualitative predictions of well performance in developed reservoirs. 6 refs., 15 figs.

  5. Contamination of the rivers Limmat and Lower Aare by 131I from nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In both rivers the 131I content was determined, Limmat/Aare intermixture having been considered. It was found that inspite of the prior contamination of the main water source 131I discharges from the nuclear research center EIR can still be measured downstream. The radiation doses of the population by permanent consumption of fish were calculated. (River water is not used as drinking water in the whole area). For a daily consumption of 1.1 l of Limmat water there were to be expected thyroid doses of 3 mrem/y, for that of left-shore Aare water a smaller exposure by a factor 2-3. The thyroid dose that could result from a more than average consumption of fish meat (100 g/d; total Swiss average 0.7 g/d) would be 14 mrem/y. (HP) 891 HP/HP 892 MB

  6. Savannah River Site Spent Nuclear Fuel Management Final Environmental Impact Statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    2000-04-14

    The proposed DOE action considered in this environmental impact statement (EIS) is to implement appropriate processes for the safe and efficient management of spent nuclear fuel and targets at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken County, South Carolina, including placing these materials in forms suitable for ultimate disposition. Options to treat, package, and store this material are discussed. The material included in this EIS consists of approximately 68 metric tons heavy metal (MTHM) of spent nuclear fuel 20 MTHM of aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel at SRS, as much as 28 MTHM of aluminum-clad spent nuclear fuel from foreign and domestic research reactors to be shipped to SRS through 2035, and 20 MTHM of stainless-steel or zirconium-clad spent nuclear fuel and some Americium/Curium Targets stored at SRS. Alternatives considered in this EIS encompass a range of new packaging, new processing, and conventional processing technologies, as well as the No Action Alternative. A preferred alternative is identified in which DOE would prepare about 97% by volume (about 60% by mass) of the aluminum-based fuel for disposition using a melt and dilute treatment process. The remaining 3% by volume (about 40% by mass) would be managed using chemical separation. Impacts are assessed primarily in the areas of water resources, air resources, public and worker health, waste management, socioeconomic, and cumulative impacts.

  7. Virtual Labs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Ruth

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the potential of computers in teaching laboratories to spare the lives of animals; however, it is felt that in areas of physiology education, virtual labs are not as desirable a learning experience for advanced students as live animal labs. (Author/AIM)

  8. H CANYON PROCESSING IN CORRELATION WITH FH ANALYTICAL LABS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinheimer, E.

    2012-08-06

    Management of radioactive chemical waste can be a complicated business. H Canyon and F/H Analytical Labs are two facilities present at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, SC that are at the forefront. In fact H Canyon is the only large-scale radiochemical processing facility in the United States and this processing is only enhanced by the aid given from F/H Analytical Labs. As H Canyon processes incoming materials, F/H Labs provide support through a variety of chemical analyses. Necessary checks of the chemical makeup, processing, and accountability of the samples taken from H Canyon process tanks are performed at the labs along with further checks on waste leaving the canyon after processing. Used nuclear material taken in by the canyon is actually not waste. Only a small portion of the radioactive material itself is actually consumed in nuclear reactors. As a result various radioactive elements such as Uranium, Plutonium and Neptunium are commonly found in waste and may be useful to recover. Specific processing is needed to allow for separation of these products from the waste. This is H Canyon's specialty. Furthermore, H Canyon has the capacity to initiate the process for weapons-grade nuclear material to be converted into nuclear fuel. This is one of the main campaigns being set up for the fall of 2012. Once usable material is separated and purified of impurities such as fission products, it can be converted to an oxide and ultimately turned into commercial fuel. The processing of weapons-grade material for commercial fuel is important in the necessary disposition of plutonium. Another processing campaign to start in the fall in H Canyon involves the reprocessing of used nuclear fuel for disposal in improved containment units. The importance of this campaign involves the proper disposal of nuclear waste in order to ensure the safety and well-being of future generations and the environment. As processing proceeds in the fall, H Canyon will have a substantial

  9. Advanced LabVIEW Labs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the world of computer-based data acquisition and control, the graphical interface program LabVIEW from National Instruments is so ubiquitous that in many ways it has almost become the laboratory standard. To date, there have been approximately fifteen books concerning LabVIEW, but Professor Essick's treatise takes on a completely different tack than all of the previous discussions. In the more standard treatments of the ways and wherefores of LabVIEW such as LabVIEW Graphical Programming: Practical Applications in Instrumentation and Control by Gary W. Johnson (McGraw Hill, NY 1997), the emphasis has been instructing the reader how to program LabVIEW to create a Virtual Instrument (VI) on the computer for interfacing to a particular instruments. LabVIEW is written in ''G'' a graphical programming language developed by National Instruments. In the past the emphasis has been on training the experimenter to learn ''G''. Without going into details here, ''G'' incorporates the usual loops, arithmetic expressions, etc., found in many programming languages, but in an icon (graphical) environment. The net result being that LabVIEW contains all of the standard methods needed for interfacing to instruments, data acquisition, data analysis, graphics, and also methodology to incorporate programs written in other languages into LabVIEW. Historically, according to Professor Essick, he developed a series of experiments for an upper division laboratory course for computer-based instrumentation. His observation was that while many students had the necessary background in computer programming languages, there were students who had virtually no concept about writing a computer program let alone a computer- based interfacing program. Thus the beginnings of a concept for not only teaching computer- based instrumentation techniques, but aiso a method for the beginner to experience writing a com- puter program. Professor Essick saw LabVIEW as the ''perfect environment in which to

  10. Dynamic and static elastic moduli of North Sea and deep sea chalk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gommesen, Lars; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2001-01-01

    We have established an empirical relationship between the dynamic and the static mechanical properties of North Sea and deep sea chalk for a large porosity interval with respect to porosity, effective stress history and textural composition. The chalk investigated is from the Tor and Hod Formations...

  11. Diagenetic Variations between Upper Cretaceous Outcrop and Deeply Buried Reservoir Chalks of the North Sea Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjuler, Morten Leth; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2007-01-01

    -particle connections and less altered particle shapes. The non-carbonate mineralogy of outcrop chalks is dominated by quartz, occasionally opal-CT and clinoptilolite, and the clay mineral smectite. In offshore chalks quartz still dominates, opal-CT has recrystallized into submicron-size quartz crystals and smectite...

  12. Draft environmental impact statement. River Bend Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federal financing of an undivided ownership interest of River Bend Nuclear Power Station Unit 1 on a 3293-acre site near St. Francisville, Louisiana is proposed in a supplement to the final environmental impact statement of September 1974. The facility would consist of a boiling-water reactor that would produce a maximum of 2894 megawatts (MW) of electrical power. A design level of 3015 MW of electric power could be realized at some time in the future. Exhaust steam would be cooled by mechanical cooling towers using makeup water obtained from and discharged to the Mississippi River. Power generated by the unit would be transmitted via three lines totaling 140 circuit miles traversing portions of the parishes of West Feliciana, East Feliciana, East Baton Rouge, West Baton Rouge, Pointe Coupee, and Iberville. The unit would help the applicant meet the power needs of rural electric consumers in the region, and the applicant would contribute significanlty to area tax base and employment rolls during the life of the unit. Construction related activities would disturb 700 forested acres on the site and 1156 acres along the transmission routes. Of the 60 cubic feet per second (cfs) taken from the river, 48 cfs would evaporate during the cooling process and 12 cfs would return to the river with dissolved solids concentrations increased by 500%. The terrace aquifer would be dewatered for 16 months in order to lower the water table at the building site, and Grants Bayou would be transformed from a lentic to a lotic habitat during this period. Fogging and icing due to evaporation and drift from the cooling towers would increase slightly. During the construction period, farming, hunting, and fishing on the site would be suspended, and the social infractructure would be stressed due to the influx of a maximum of 2200 workers

  13. Impact of supercritical CO2 injection on petrophysical and rock mechanics properties of chalk: an experimental study on chalk from South Arne field, North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alam, Mohammad Monzurul; Hjuler, Morten Leth; Christensen, Helle Foged;

    2011-01-01

    Changes in chalk due to EOR by injecting supercritical CO2 (CO2-EOR) can ideally be predicted by applying geophysical methods designed from laboratory-determined petrophysical and rock mechanics properties. A series of petrophysical and rock mechanics tests were performed on Ekofisk Formation...... and Tor Formation chalk of the South Arne field to reveal the changes in petrophysical and rock mechanics properties of chalk due to the injection of CO2 at supercritical state. An increase in porosity and decrease in specific surface was observed due to injection of supercritical CO2. This indicates...... as indicated by NMR T2 relaxation time was observed. Rock mechanics testing indicates that in 30% porosity chalk from the South Arne field, injection of supercritical CO2 has no significant effect on shear strength and compaction properties, while there is probably a slight decrease in stiffness properties...

  14. Biot Critical Frequency Applied to Description of Failure and Yield of Highly Porous Chalk with Different Pore Fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Katrine Alling; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2010-01-01

    Injection of water into chalk hydrocarbon reservoirs has led to mechanical yield and failure. Laboratory experiments on chalk samples correspondingly show that the mechanical properties of porous chalk depend on pore fluid and temperature. In case of water-saturated samples, the concentration and...

  15. Groundwater recharge dynamics in unsaturated fractured chalk: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherubini, Claudia; Pastore, Nicola; Giasi, Concetta I.; Allegretti, Nicolaetta M.

    2016-04-01

    The heterogeneity of the unsaturated zone controls its hydraulic response to rainfall and the extent to which pollutants are delayed or attenuated before reaching groundwater. It plays therefore a very important role in the recharge of aquifers and the transfer of pollutants because of the presence of temporary storage zones and preferential flows. A better knowledge of the physical processes in the unsaturated zone would allow an improved assessment of the natural recharge in a heterogeneous aquifer and of its vulnerability to surface-applied pollution. The case study regards the role of the thick unsaturated zone of the Cretaceous chalk aquifer in Picardy (North of France) that controls the hydraulic response to rainfall. In the North Paris Basin, much of the recharge must pass through a regional chalk bed that is composed of a porous matrix with embedded fractures. Different types of conceptual models have been formulated to explain infiltration and recharge processes in the unsaturated fractured rock. The present study analyses the episodic recharge in fractured Chalk aquifer using the kinematic diffusion theory to predict water table fluctuation in response to rainfall. From an analysis of the data, there is the evidence of 1) a seasonal behavior characterized by a constant increase in the water level during the winter/spring period and a recession period, 2) a series of episodic behaviors during the summer/autumn. Kinematic diffusion models are useful for predict preferential fluxes and dynamic conditions. The presented approach conceptualizes the unsaturated flow as a combination of 1) diffusive flow refers to the idealized portion of the pore space of the medium within the flow rate is driven essentially by local gradient of potential; 2) preferential flow by which water moves across macroscopic distances through conduits of macropore length.

  16. Sulfur isotope patterns of iron sulfide and barite nodules in the Upper Cretaceous Chalk of England and their regional significance in the origin of coloured chalks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeans, Christopher V.; Turchyn, Alexandra V.; Hu, Xu-Fang

    2016-06-01

    The relationship between the development of iron sulfide and barite nodules in the Cenomanian Chalk of England and the presence of a red hematitic pigment has been investigated using sulfur isotopes. In southern England where red and pink chalks are absent, iron sulfide nodules are widespread. Two typical large iron sulfide nodules exhibit δ34S ranging from -48.6‰ at their core to -32.6‰ at their outer margins. In eastern England, where red and pink chalks occur in three main bands, there is an antipathetic relationship between the coloured chalks and the occurrence of iron sulfide or barite nodules. Here iron sulfide, or its oxidised remnants, are restricted to two situations: (1) in association with hard grounds that developed originally in chalks that contained the hematite pigment or its postulated precursor FeOH3, or (2) in regional sulfidization zones that cut across the stratigraphy. In the Cenomanian Chalk exposed in the cliffs at Speeton, Yorkshire, pyrite and marcasite (both iron sulfide) nodules range in δ34S from -34.7‰ to +40.0‰. In the lower part of the section δ34S vary from -34.8‰ to +7.8‰, a single barite nodule has δ34S between +26.9‰ and +29.9‰. In the middle part of the section δ34S ranges from +23.8‰ to +40.0‰. In the sulfidization zones that cut across the Cenomanian Chalk of Lincolnshire the iron sulfide nodules are typically heavily weathered but these may contain patches of unoxidised pyrite. In these zones, δ34S ranges from -32.9‰ to +7.9‰. The cross-cutting zones of sulfidization in eastern England are linked to three basement faults - the Flamborough Head Fault Zone, the Caistor Fault and the postulated Wash Line of Jeans (1980) - that have affected the deposition of the Chalk. It is argued that these faults have been both the conduits by which allochthonous fluids - rich in hydrogen sulfide/sulfate, hydrocarbons and possibly charged with sulfate-reducing bacteria - have penetrated the Cenomanian Chalk as

  17. Static and dynamic effective stress coefficient of chalk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alam, M. Monzurul; Fabricius, Ida Lykke; Christensen, Helle Foged

    2012-01-01

    stress coefficient is thus relevant for studying reservoir deformation and for evaluating 4D seismic for the correct pore pressure prediction. The static effective stress coefficient n is estimated from mechanical tests and is highly relevant for effective stress prediction because it is directly related...... to mechanical strain in the elastic stress regime. The corresponding dynamic effective stress coefficient α is easy to estimate from density and velocity of acoustic (elastic) waves. We studied n and α of chalk from the reservoir zone of the Valhall field, North Sea, and found that n and α vary...

  18. Dynamic up-scaling of relative permeability in chalk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frykman, P.; Lindgaard, H.F.

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes how fine-scale geo-statistic reservoir models can be utilised for the up-scaling of two-phase flow properties, including both relative permeability and capillary pressure function. The procedure is applied to a North Sea chalk carbonate reservoir example, which is a high-porosity/low-permeability reservoir type. The study focuses on waterflooding as the main recovery scheme and for the given flow regime in the reservoir. The main purpose of the paper is to demonstrate the use of dynamic multi-step up-scaling methods in the preparation of detailed geological information for full field reservoir simulation studies. (au) EFP-96. 39 refs.

  19. Specific surface as a measure of burial diagenesis of chalk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borre, Mai Kirstine; Lind, Ida; Mortensen, Jeanette

    1997-01-01

    ODP Leg 130, Site 807, in the western equatorial Pacific, penetrates a sequence of pelagic carbonate ooze, chalk and limestone. Compaction, recrystallisation and cementation of the carbonate matrix are diagenetic processes expected to be taking place more or less simultaneously. In order to assess...... the relative importance of the three processes, simple models have been established to illustrate changes in pore space, particle size and -shape and the resulting trends in the specific surface. Specific surface and porosity of the samples were measured using image analysis on electron micrographs of polished...

  20. Advanced waterflooding in chalk reservoirs: Understanding of underlying mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahid, Adeel; Sandersen, Sara Bülow; Stenby, Erling Halfdan;

    2011-01-01

    pressure. We have also observed formation of a microemulsion phase between brine and oil with the increase in sulfate ion concentration at high temperature and pressure. In addition, sulfate ions can reduce interfacial tension (IFT) between oil and water. We propose that the decrease in viscosity and...... formation of a microemulsion phase could be the possible reasons for the observed increase in oil recovery with sulfate ions at high temperature in chalk reservoirs besides the mechanism of the rock wettability alteration, which has been reported in most previous studies....

  1. Improved Oil Recovery in Chalk. Spontaneous Imbibition affected by Wettability, Rock Framework and Interfacial Tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milter, J.

    1996-12-31

    The author of this doctoral thesis aims to improve the oil recovery from fractured chalk reservoirs, i.e., maximize the area of swept zones and their displacement efficiencies. In order to identify an improved oil recovery method in chalk, it is necessary to study wettability of calcium carbonate and spontaneous imbibition potential. The thesis contains an investigation of thin films and wettability of single calcite surfaces. The results of thin film experiments are used to evaluate spontaneous imbibition experiments in different chalk types. The chalk types were described detailed enough to permit considering the influence of texture, pore size and pore throat size distributions, pore geometry, and surface roughness on wettability and spontaneous imbibition. Finally, impacts of interfacial tension by adding anionic and cationic surfactants to the imbibing water phase are studied at different wettabilities of a well known chalk material. 232 refs., 97 figs., 13 tabs.

  2. Grain size distributions of chalk from image analysis of electron micrographs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røgen, Birte; Gommesen, Lars; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2001-01-01

    In the chalk of the Ekofisk formation in the Chalk Group of the North Sea, substantial depth-related variations in porosityare observed. With the aim of obtaining a textural interpretation of these porositydata, we have developed a method to assess the grain size distribution of the chalk from...... image analysis. The chalk is composed of a fine-grained matrix of nannofossils and predominantlycalcitic fossil debris with larger microfossil grains, but the chalk may also contain significant amounts of silica and siliciclastic clay. For image analysis, we used backscatter electron images of epoxy......-impregnated, polished samples from the Ekofisk Formation, Tyra field, Danish North Sea. On backscatter images the calcite phase will appear light as opposed to the dark pore space. The procedure involves the combination of data acquired at two magnifications and bythis method analysis of only four images per sample...

  3. Applications of nuclear analytical techniques for identifying the origin and composition of found radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive materials and sources have been used worldwide for the last 100 years - for medical diagnosis and therapy, industrial imaging and process monitoring, consumer applications, materials and biological research, and for generating nuclear energy - among other peaceful purposes. Many of the radioactive materials have been produced, and the associated nuclear science and technology developed, at major research sites such as the Chalk River Laboratories in Ontario, Canada. Sometimes undocumented radioactive materials associated with production, development or use are found, usually in the context of a legacy setting, and their composition and origin needs to be determined in order for these materials to be safely handled and securely dispositioned. The novel applications of nuclear analytical techniques, including mass spectroscopy, gamma and x-ray spectroscopy and neutron beam irradiation techniques, is presented in the context of some recent investigations. (author)

  4. Geochemical criteria for reservoir quality variations in chalk from the North Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of chalk geochemistry on petrophysical parameters determining porosity and permeability is investigated. The central well TWB-8 and eastern marginal well E-lx of the North Sea Tyra gas field were chosen. Drill core sections of Upper Maastrichtian and Danian chalk were selected. Chemical data on chalk samples were gathered by using X-ray fluorescence and instrumental neutron activation. Geochemical data are compared with the well-logging results. Geophysical logging suggests that there is reduced porosity in the Danian reservoir units LDP and UDT in both wells. The chalk drill core samples from the section with reduced porosity also show a lower Ca content. A high Si content is observed in these samples and a number of trace elements in chalk show a similar distribution with depth. Reservoir porosity may be estimated from the Si content of chalk. Chalk permeability may also be elements Al, Fe and Sc show the same trends as that for Si. Diagenetic changes in chalk also include clay minerals. The gas zone in TWB-8 is characterized by low contents of Na and Cl, i.e. lower water saturation is indicated. Low concentrations of rare earths in all chalk samples show a shale-normalized pattern that is characteristic of marine sediments laid down under oxic conditions. Some changes that occur with depth in the Ce anomaly may indicate a slight change in the depositional environment. The content of manganese continuously decreases with depth, from Danian (about 2000 ppm) to Maastrichtian strata (less than 200 ppm). In this respect, no other chemical element in chalk correlates with Mn. There is no indication as to which mineral or mineral phase one is likely to find in the element. (AB) 14 tabs., 49 ills., 147 refs

  5. Savannah River Site, spent nuclear fuel management, draft environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The management of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) has been an integral part of the mission of the Savannah River Site (SRS) for more than 40 years. Until the early 1990s, SNF management consisted primarily of short-term onsite storage and reprocessing in the SRS chemical separation facilities to produce strategic nuclear materials. With the end of the Cold War, the US Department of Energy (DOE) decided to phase out reprocessing of SNF for the production of nuclear weapons materials. Therefore, the management strategy for this fuel has shifted from short-term storage and reprocessing for the recovery of highly-enriched uranium and transuranic isotopes to stabilization, when necessary, and interim storage pending final disposition that includes preparing aluminum-based SNF for placement in a geologic repository. In addition to the fuel already onsite, the SRS will receive SNF from foreign research reactors until 2009 and from domestic research reactors until, potentially, 2035. As a result, the safe and efficient management of SNF will continue to be an important SRS mission. This EIS evaluates the potential environmental impacts of DOE's proposed plans for management SNF assigned to SRS

  6. 78 FR 14842 - Crystal River Nuclear Generating Plant, Unit 3; Application for Renewal of License to Facility...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    ... application in the Federal Register on March 9, 2009 (74 FR 10099). The FPC requested withdrawal of the... renewal, which was published in the Federal Register on June 3, 2011 (76 FR 32237). However, since the... COMMISSION Crystal River Nuclear Generating Plant, Unit 3; Application for Renewal of License to...

  7. Principle and methodology of nuclear power plant site selection. Application to radiocobalt cycle in the Rhone river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a first bibliographic part, after some generalities on radioactivity and nuclear power, general principles of radiation protection and national and international regulations are presented. The methodology of the radioecological study involved in site selection is developed. In a second more experimental part, the processing of radiocobalt gamma radioactivity measurement in water, fishes, plants and Rhone river sediments demonstrates the influence of age and geographical situation of the nuclear power stations located along the river. A laboratory experiment of cobalt 60 transfer from chironomes larvae to carp is carried out. Comparison with the results of other laboratory experiments makes it possible to propose an experimental model of cobalt transfer within a fresh water ecosystem; radioactivity levels calculated for various compartments seem to be consistent with the Rhone river levels

  8. Investigation of cable deterioration in the containment building of the Savannah River Nuclear Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillen, K.T.; Clough, R.L.; Jones, L.H.

    1982-08-01

    This report describes an investigation of the deterioration of polyethylene and polyvinylchloride cable materials which occurred in the containment building of the Savannah River nuclear reactor located at Aiken, South Carolina. Radiation dosimetry and temperature mapping data of the containment area indicated that the maximum dose experienced by the cable materials was only 2.5 Mrad at an average operating temperature of 43/sup 0/C. Considering this relatively moderate environment, the amount of material degradation seemed surprising. To understand these findings, an experimental program was performed on the commercial polyethylene and polyvinylchloride materials used at the plant to investigate their degradation behavior under combined ..gamma..-radiation and elevated temperature conditions. It is established that the material deterioration at the plant resulted from radiation-induced oxidation and that the degradation rate can be correlated with local levels of radiation intensity in the containment area.

  9. Investigation of cable deterioration in the containment building of the Savannah River Nuclear Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes an investigation of the deterioration of polyethylene and polyvinylchloride cable materials which occurred in the containment building of the Savannah River nuclear reactor located at Aiken, South Carolina. Radiation dosimetry and temperature mapping data of the containment area indicated that the maximum dose experienced by the cable materials was only 2.5 Mrad at an average operating temperature of 430C. Considering this relatively moderate environment, the amount of material degradation seemed surprising. To understand these findings, an experimental program was performed on the commercial polyethylene and polyvinylchloride materials used at the plant to investigate their degradation behavior under combined γ-radiation and elevated temperature conditions. It is established that the material deterioration at the plant resulted from radiation-induced oxidation and that the degradation rate can be correlated with local levels of radiation intensity in the containment area

  10. Novel insights into Fukushima nuclear accident from isotopic evidence of plutonium spread along coastal rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evrard, Olivier; Pointurier, Fabien; Onda, Yuichi; Chartin, Caroline; Hubert, Amélie; Lepage, Hugo; Pottin, Anne-Claire; Lefèvre, Irène; Bonté, Philippe; Laceby, J Patrick; Ayrault, Sophie

    2014-08-19

    The Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident led to important releases of radionuclides into the environment, and trace levels of plutonium (Pu) were detected in northeastern Japan. However, measurements of Pu isotopic atom and activity ratios are required to differentiate between the contributions of global nuclear test fallout and FDNPP emissions. In this study, we used a double-focusing sector field ICP-MS to measure Pu atom and activity ratios in recently deposited sediment along rivers draining the most contaminated part of the inland radioactive plume. Results showed that plutonium isotopes (i.e., (239)Pu, (240)Pu, (241)Pu, and (242)Pu) were detected in all samples, although in extremely low concentrations. The (241)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios measured in sediment deposits (0.0017-0.0884) were significantly higher than the corresponding values attributed to the global fallout (0.00113 ± 0.00008 on average for the Northern Hemisphere between 31°-71° N: Kelley, J. M.; Bond, L. A.; Beasley, T. M. Global distribution of Pu isotopes and (237)Np. Sci. Total. Env. 1999, 237/238, 483-500). The results indicated the presence of Pu from FDNPP, in slight excess compared to the Pu background from global fallout that represented up to ca. 60% of Pu in the analyzed samples. These results demonstrate that this radionuclide has been transported relatively long distances (∼45 km) from FDNPP and been deposited in rivers representing a potential source of Pu to the ocean. In future, the high (241)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratio of the Fukushima accident sourced-Pu should be measured to quantify the supply of continental-originating material from Fukushima Prefecture to the Pacific Ocean.

  11. Study of a conceptual nuclear energy center at Green River, Utah: licensing considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report examines the laws governing the location of a 9-unit nuclear energy center (NEC) near Green River, Utah. The time frame being considered for development of the conceptual NEC is from 1995 to 2013. Accordingly, the report is forced to speculate about some aspects of the plant, its site and its construction. Most of the report examines existing legal requirements for constructing an NEC. Where pertinent, changes in the law are discussed that would affect an NEC that is to be licensed in one or two decades. In general, no insurmountable legal problems exist that would prevent an NEC from being licensed at the Green River location. Several legal requirements pose significant concerns and would have to be faced before an NEC could be built. Among the major legal constraints are radiation protection, regulatory approval of financing, access to water, and local zoning restrictions. Two other constraints that involve legal matters are the wisdom of standardization of the units and the responsibility of the NEC builder to correct socio-economic impacts on the local area

  12. TELECOM LAB

    CERN Multimedia

    IT-CS-TEL Section

    2001-01-01

    The Telecom Lab is moving from Building 104 to Building 31 S-026, with its entrance via the ramp on the side facing Restaurant n°2. The help desk will thus be closed to users on Tuesday 8 May. On May 9, the Lab will only be able to deal with problems of a technical nature at the new address and it will not be able to process any new subscription requests throughout the week from 7 to 11 May. We apologise for any inconvenience this may cause and thank you for your understanding.

  13. Nonproliferation impacts assessment for the management of the Savannah River Site aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    On May 13, 1996, the US established a new, 10-year policy to accept and manage foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel containing uranium enriched in the US. The goal of this policy is to reduce civilian commerce in weapons-usable highly enriched uranium (HEU), thereby reducing the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation. Two key disposition options under consideration for managing this fuel include conventional reprocessing and new treatment and packaging technologies. The Record of Decision specified that, while evaluating the reprocessing option, ``DOE will commission or conduct an independent study of the nonproliferation and other (e.g., cost and timing) implications of chemical separation of spent nuclear fuel from foreign research reactors.`` DOE`s Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation conducted this study consistent with the aforementioned Record of Decision. This report addresses the nonproliferation implications of the technologies under consideration for managing aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel at the Savannah River Site. Because the same technology options are being considered for the foreign research reactor and the other aluminum-based spent nuclear fuels discussed in Section ES.1, this report addresses the nonproliferation implications of managing all the Savannah River Site aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel, not just the foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel. The combination of the environmental impact information contained in the draft EIS, public comment in response to the draft EIS, and the nonproliferation information contained in this report will enable the Department to make a sound decision regarding how to manage all aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel at the Savannah River Site.

  14. Nonproliferation impacts assessment for the management of the Savannah River Site aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On May 13, 1996, the US established a new, 10-year policy to accept and manage foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel containing uranium enriched in the US. The goal of this policy is to reduce civilian commerce in weapons-usable highly enriched uranium (HEU), thereby reducing the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation. Two key disposition options under consideration for managing this fuel include conventional reprocessing and new treatment and packaging technologies. The Record of Decision specified that, while evaluating the reprocessing option, ''DOE will commission or conduct an independent study of the nonproliferation and other (e.g., cost and timing) implications of chemical separation of spent nuclear fuel from foreign research reactors.'' DOE's Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation conducted this study consistent with the aforementioned Record of Decision. This report addresses the nonproliferation implications of the technologies under consideration for managing aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel at the Savannah River Site. Because the same technology options are being considered for the foreign research reactor and the other aluminum-based spent nuclear fuels discussed in Section ES.1, this report addresses the nonproliferation implications of managing all the Savannah River Site aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel, not just the foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel. The combination of the environmental impact information contained in the draft EIS, public comment in response to the draft EIS, and the nonproliferation information contained in this report will enable the Department to make a sound decision regarding how to manage all aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel at the Savannah River Site

  15. Study of a conceptual nuclear energy center at Green River, Utah. Final summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document summarizes a conceptual study on the feasibility and practicality of developing a nuclear energy center (NEC) at a representative Western site. The site selected for this conceptual study, an area of about 50 square miles, is located 15 miles south of Green River, Utah. The conceptual NEC would consist of nine nuclear electric generating units, arranged on the site in three clusters of three reactors each (triads), separated by about 2 1/2 miles. Of the total electric output of 11,250 MWe that the NEC could produce, about 82% is assumed to be transmitted out of Utah to Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, and California. The technical engineering issues studied included geology and seismology, plant design, low-level radioactive waste disposal, transmission, and construction schedules and costs. Socioeconomic issues included were demographics, land use, community service needs, and fiscal impacts. Environmental considerations included terrestrial and aquatic ecology, visual impact, and secondary population impacts. Radiological issues were concerned with the safety and risks of an NEC and an on-site low-level waste facility. Institutional issues included methods of ownership, taxation, implications of energy export, and water allocation. The basic finding was that an NEC would be technically feasible, but a number of socioeconomic and institutional issues would require resolution before a Western regional NEC could be considered a viable power plant siting option

  16. Ecology of Legionella within water cooling circuits of nuclear power plants along the French Loire River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cooling circuits of nuclear power plants, by their mode of operating, can select thermophilic microorganisms including the pathogenic organism Legionella pneumophila. To control the development of this genus, a disinfection treatment of water cooling systems with monochloramine can be used. To participate in the management of health and environmental risks associated with the physico-chemical and microbiological modification of water collected from the river, EDF is committed to a process of increasing knowledge about the ecology of Legionella in cooling circuits and its links with its environment (physical, chemical and microbiological) supporting or not their proliferation. Thus, diversity and dynamics of culturable Legionella pneumophila were determined in the four nuclear power plants along the Loire for a year and their links with physico-chemical and microbiological parameters were studied. This study revealed a high diversity of Legionella pneumophila subpopulations and their dynamic seems to be related to the evolution of a small number of subpopulations. Legionella subpopulations seem to maintain strain-specific relationships with biotic parameters and present different sensitivities to physico-chemical variations. The design of cooling circuits could impact the Legionella community. The use of monochloramine severely disrupts the ecosystem but does not select biocide tolerant subpopulations. (author)

  17. Radioactivity levels in Winnipeg river fish at the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment near Pinawa, Manitoba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Routine monitoring of biologically important radioactivity levels in Winnipeg River fish started in 1963, two years before operation of the Hot Cell Facility and the WR-1 reactor commenced at the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment (WNRE), near Pinawa, Manitoba, Canada. Fish were captured with commercial-size fishing nets set twice a year near the town of Pinawa (upstream of WNRE and the Seven Sisters Hydroelectric Generating Station) and 0.5 and 5 km downstream from WNRE. Radioactivity levels in fish taken downstream of WNRE showed a general increase in the late sixties, due to fallout from global nuclear weapons testing, and some increase in the late seventies, due to radio-nuclide releases from the Hot Cell Facility of WNRE. The average concentration of radioactive cesium in the flesh of fish caught downstream of WNRE varied between 0.003 and 0.027 Bq/g wet weight prior to 1971 and between 0.002 and 0.075 Bq/g wet weight in the period 1976 to 1978, depending on species. The radiological dose to a human (committed effective dose equivalent) from the consumption of 20 kg of downstream pickerel in 1978 was approximately 0.013 mSv due to 137Cs

  18. Savannah River Site, spent nuclear fuel management, draft environmental impact statement: Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proposed DOE action described in this environmental impact statement (EIS) is to implement appropriate processes for the safe and efficient management of spent nuclear fuel and targets assigned to the Savannah River Site (SRS), including placing these materials informs suitable for ultimate disposition. Options to treat, package, and store this material are discussed. The material included in this EIS consists of approximately 68 metric tons heavy metal (MTHM) of spent nuclear fuel. Alternatives considered in this EIS encompass a range of new packaging, new processing, and conventional reprocessing technologies, as well as the No Action Alternative. A preferred alternative is identified in which DOE's preference is to prepare about 97% by volume (about 60% by mass) of the aluminum-based fuel for disposition using a melt and dilute treatment process. The remaining 3% by volume (about 40% by mass) would be managed using conventional processing. Impacts are assessed primarily in the areas of water resources, air resources, public and worker health, waste management, socioeconomic, and cumulative impacts

  19. Origin of channel systems in the Upper Cretaceous chalk group of the Paris Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esmerode, E. V.; Surlyk, Finn

    2009-01-01

    The Upper Cretaceous Chalk Group of the Anglo-Paris Basin is known to show wedging beds and channel-like features which disrupt the quietly deposited pelagic chalk that covered most of NW Europe in the Late Cretaceous. Two-D reflection seismic data from the Brie region, SE of Paris, show...... is suggested due to the uninterrupted deep-marine chalk facies below and above both unconformities, and the unrealistically large sea-level drop of more than 200 m, which would be necessary for subaerial exposure of the central Paris Basin during the Campanian. The channels are oriented parallel to the margins...

  20. Nuclear industry prospects: A Canadian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada, with its proven, safe and versatile CANDU reactor is well poised for the second half-century of nuclear fission. Canada's nuclear pedigree goes back to the turn-of-the-century work of Ernest Rutherford in Montreal. This year, Canada's nuclear industry celebrates the 50th anniversary of the start-up of its first research reactor at Chalk River. Last year, the pioneering work of Bert ram Blockhouse in Physics was honoured with a Nobel Prize. Future international success for the nuclear industry, such as has been achieved here in Korea, depends on continued cooperative and collaborative team work between the public and private sectors, continued strong research and development backing by the government, and new strategic partnerships. The biggest challenge is financing for the emerging markets. The brightness or dimness of future prospects are relative to the intensity of the lessons learned from history. In Canada we have a fairly long nuclear pedigree, It goes back almost a century to 1898, when Ernest Rutherford set up a world centre at McGill University in Montreal for research into the structure of the atom and into radioactivity

  1. Setting-up of remote reactor LAB and tapping into CARRN for distance education and training in nuclear field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Eugene [The Nelson Mandeal African Institute of Science and Technology, Arusha (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    For a developing country embarking on a research reactor project, building adequate human resource capacity is one of the biggest challenges. Tanzania has been considering a research reactor for some time. The success of future research reactor project impinges on vigorous education and training of necessary personnel to operate and fully utilize the facility. In Africa, underutilization of research reactors is a chronic issue. It is not only misuse of valuable resources but also poses potential safety and security concerns. To mitigate such concerns and to promote education and training, Central African Research Reactor Network (CARRN) was formed in June of 2011. Borrowing from Jordan's success, this paper presents customised curricula to take advantage of CARRN for distance education and training in nuclear field.

  2. Coherent-states dynamics of the H{sup +} + HF reaction at E{sub Lab} = 30 eV: A complete electron nuclear dynamics investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiti, Buddhadev [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Texas Tech University, P.O. Box 41061, Lubbock, TX 79409-1061 (United States); Sadeghi, Raymond [Department of Chemistry, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249-0698 (United States); Austin, Anthony [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Texas Tech University, P.O. Box 41061, Lubbock, TX 79409-1061 (United States); Morales, Jorge A. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Texas Tech University, P.O. Box 41061, Lubbock, TX 79409-1061 (United States)], E-mail: jorge.morales@ttu.edu

    2007-11-09

    Results of a complete investigation of the H{sup +} + HF reaction at E{sub Lab} = 30 eV with the electron nuclear dynamics (END) and the coherent-states dynamics (CSD) theories are herein presented. Current END-CSD methodology employs frozen Gaussian wave packet in the semiclassical limit of h {yields} 0 for the nuclei, and a single-determinantal Thouless coherent state (CS) for the electrons. The simulated 400 CS trajectories from five independent HF target orientations provide a complete description of the reactive processes in this system, including: non-charge-transfer scattering (NCTS), charge-transfer scattering (CTS), hydrogen fluoride dissociation (H-F D), and hydrogen rearrangement (HR). Several aspects of the reactions dynamics, such as mechanistic details and rainbow angles effects, are discussed. Differential and integral cross sections are evaluated via a novel CS formulation of those properties in conjunction with semiclassical techniques. The calculated total differential cross section shows an excellent agreement with available experimental results.

  3. Nuclear spectroscopic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Physics group at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville is involved in several aspects of heavy-ion physics including both nuclear structure and reaction mechanisms. While our main emphasis is on experimental problems involving heavy-ion accelerators, we have maintained a strong collaboration with several theorists in order to best pursue the physics of our measurements. During the last year we have led experiments at the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility, the SuperHILAC at Berkeley, and Chalk River Tandem Accelerator. Also, we have joined a collaboration to study ultra-relativistic heavy ion physics and one of our group has spent all of 1987 at CERN to work on the WA80 experiment. Our experimental work is in four broad areas: (1) the structure of nuclei at high angular momentum, (2) heavy-ion induced transfer reactions, (3) the structure of nuclei far from stability, and (4) ultra-relativistic heavy-ion physics. These results will be described in this document in sections 2A, 2B, 2C, and 2D, respectively. Areas (1), (3), and (4) concentrate on the structure of nuclear matter in extreme conditions of rotational motion, imbalance of neutrons and protons or very high temperature and density. Area (2) pursues the transfer of nucleons to states with high angular momentum, both to learn about their structure and to understand the transfer of particles, energy and angular momentum in collisions between heavy ions. An important component of our program is the strong emphasis on the theoretical aspects of nuclear structure and reactions

  4. Nuclear spectroscopic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Physics group at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville is involved in several aspects of heavy-ion physics including both nuclear structure and reaction mechanisms. While our main emphasis is on experimental problems involving heavy-ion accelerators, we have maintained a strong collaboration with several theorists in order to best pursue the physics of our measurements. During the last year we have led experiments at the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility, the SuperHILAC at Berkeley, and Chalk River Tandem Accelerator. Also, we have joined a collaboration to study ultra-relativistic heavy ion physics and one of our group has spent all of 1987 at CERN to work on the WA80 experiment. Our experimental work is in four broad areas: (1) the structure of nuclei at high angular momentum, (2) heavy-ion induced transfer reactions, (3) the structure of nuclei far from stability, and (4) ultra-relativistic heavy-ion physics. These results will be described in this document in sections IIA, IIB, and IID, respectively. Areas (1), (3), and (4) concentrate on the structure of nuclear matter in extreme conditions of rotational motion, imbalance of neutrons and protons, or very high temperature and density. Area (2) pursues the transfer of nucleons to states with high angular momentum, both to learn about their structure and to understand the transfer of particles, energy and angular momentum in collisions between heavy ions. An important component of our program is the strong emphasis on the theoretical aspects of nuclear structure and reactions

  5. Biot Critical Frequency Applied as Common Friction Factor for Chalk with Different Pore Fluids and Temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Katrine Alling; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2010-01-01

    Injection of water into chalk hydrocarbon reservoirs has lead to mechanical yield and failure. Laboratory experiments on chalk samples correspondingly show that the mechanical properties of porous chalk depend on pore fluid and temperature. Water has a significant softening effect on elastic...... and we propose that the fluid effect on mechanical properties of highly porous chalk may be the result of liquid‐solid friction. Applying a different strain or stress rate is influencing the rock strength and needs to be included. The resulting function is shown to relate to the material dependent...... and rate independent b-factor used when describing the time dependent mechanical properties of soft rock or soils. As a consequence it is then possible to further characterize the material constant from the porosity and permeability of the rock as well as from pore fluid density and viscosity which...

  6. Lab architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crease, Robert P.

    2008-04-01

    There are few more dramatic illustrations of the vicissitudes of laboratory architecturethan the contrast between Building 20 at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and its replacement, the Ray and Maria Stata Center. Building 20 was built hurriedly in 1943 as temporary housing for MIT's famous Rad Lab, the site of wartime radar research, and it remained a productive laboratory space for over half a century. A decade ago it was demolished to make way for the Stata Center, an architecturally striking building designed by Frank Gehry to house MIT's computer science and artificial intelligence labs (above). But in 2004 - just two years after the Stata Center officially opened - the building was criticized for being unsuitable for research and became the subject of still ongoing lawsuits alleging design and construction failures.

  7. University of Colorado, Nuclear Physics Laboratory technical progress report, November 1, 1978-October 31, 1979. Report NPL-845. [Nuclear Physics Lab. , Univ. of Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-01

    This report summarizes work carried out at the Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the University of Colorado from November 1, 1978 to October 31, 1979, under contract EY-76-C-02-0535.A003 between the University of Colorado and the United States Department of Energy. Experimental studies of light ion-induced reactions were performed with the AVF cyclotron, which continues each year to produce beams of yet higher quality. Charged-particle studies continued to emphasize use of the high-resolution spectrometer system, but some return to broad-range spectroscopic studies using solid state detectors also occurred. Neutron time-of-flight experiments used 9-meter and 30-meter flight paths. Neutron-gamma ray coincidence studies developed into a new and promising field. The new PDP 11/34 data acquisition system was of great value in allowing such multiparameter experiments. Smaller programs in nuclear astrophysics, plasma diagnostic development, and medical physics were also undertaken. Research activities based at other accelerators grew. Studies of future directions for light-ion accelerators, including work on intense pulsed ion sources, orbit dynamics, and storage rings, were greatly enlarged. 19 of the articles in this report were abstracted and indexed individually. Lists of publications and personnel conclude this report. (RWR)

  8. Workspace: LAB

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binder, Thomas; Lundsgaard, Christina; Nørskov, Eva-Carina

    2007-01-01

    På mange arbejdspladser viger man tilbage fra at inddrage medarbejderne når der igangsættes større forandringer. Workspace:lab er et bud på en inddragende udviklingsproces hvor dialog og eksperimenter står i centrum. Ved at samle såvel medarbejdere som ledelse og rådgivere på et mindre antal...

  9. Investigated Miscible CO2 Flooding for Enhancing Oil Recovery in Wettability Altered Chalk and Sandstone Rocks

    OpenAIRE

    Tabrizy, Vahid Alipour

    2012-01-01

    The thesis addresses oil recovery by miscible CO2 flooding from modified sandstone and chalk rocks. Calcite mineral surface is modified with stearic acid (SA) and asphaltene, and the silicate mineral surfaces are modified with N,N-dimethyldodecylamine (NN-DMDA) and asphaltene. The stability of adsorbed polar components in presence of SO4 2- and Mg2 + ions is also investigated. Recovery from sandstone cores is consistently lower than that from chalk cores saturated with...

  10. Genetic structure of Populus hybrid zone along the Irtysh River provides insight into plastid-nuclear incompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yan-Fei; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Duan, Ai-Guo; Abuduhamiti, Bawerjan

    2016-06-16

    In plants, the maintenance of species integrity despite hybridization has often been explained by the co-adaption of nuclear gene complexes. However, the interaction between plastid and nuclear sub-genomes has been underestimated. Here, we analyzed the genetic structure of a Populus alba and P. tremula hybrid zone along the Irtysh River system in the Altai region, northwest China, using both nuclear microsatellites and plastid DNA sequences. We found high interspecific differentiation, although the hybrid P. × canescens was prevalent. Bayesian inference classified most hybrids into F1, followed by a few back-crosses to P. alba, and fewer F2 hybrids and back-crosses to P. tremula, indicating a few introgressions but preference toward P. alba. When plastid haplotypes in parental species were distinct, P. × canescens carried the haplotypes of both parents, but showed significant linkage between intraspecific haplotype and nuclear genotypes at several microsatellite loci. Selection, rather than migration and assortative mating, might have contributed to such plastid-nuclear disequilibria. By removing later-generated hybrids carrying interspecific combinations of haplotype and nuclear genotypes, plastid-nuclear incompatibility has greatly limited the gene exchange between P. alba and P. tremula via backcrossing with hybrids, demonstrating a significant association between plastid haplotype and the proportion of nuclear admixture.

  11. Savannah River Site human error data base development for nonreactor nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of an overall effort to upgrade and streamline methodologies for safety analyses of nonreactor nuclear facilities at the Savannah River Site (SRS), a human error data base has been developed and is presented in this report. The data base fulfills several needs of risk analysts supporting safety analysis report (SAR) development. First, it provides a single source for probabilities or rates for a wide variety of human errors associated with the SRS nonreactor nuclear facilities. Second, it provides a documented basis for human error probabilities or rates. And finally, it provides actual SRS-specific human error data to support many of the error probabilities or rates. Use of a single, documented reference source for human errors, supported by SRS-specific human error data, will improve the consistency and accuracy of human error modeling by SRS risk analysts. It is envisioned that SRS risk analysts will use this report as both a guide to identifying the types of human errors that may need to be included in risk models such as fault and event trees, and as a source for human error probabilities or rates. For each human error in this report, ffime different mean probabilities or rates are presented to cover a wide range of conditions and influencing factors. The ask analysts must decide which mean value is most appropriate for each particular application. If other types of human errors are needed for the risk models, the analyst must use other sources. Finally, if human enors are dominant in the quantified risk models (based on the values obtained fmm this report), then it may be appropriate to perform detailed human reliability analyses (HRAS) for the dominant events. This document does not provide guidance for such refined HRAS; in such cases experienced human reliability analysts should be involved

  12. Persistent and emerging micro-organic contaminants in Chalk groundwater of England and France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chalk aquifer of Northern Europe is an internationally important source of drinking water and sustains baseflow for surface water ecosystems. The areal distribution of microorganic (MO) contaminants, particularly non-regulated emerging MOs, in this aquifer is poorly understood. This study presents results from a reconnaissance survey of MOs in Chalk groundwater, including pharmaceuticals, personal care products and pesticides and their transformation products, conducted across the major Chalk aquifers of England and France. Data from a total of 345 sites collected during 2011 were included in this study to provide a representative baseline assessment of MO occurrence in groundwater. A suite of 42 MOs were analysed for at each site including industrial compounds (n = 16), pesticides (n = 14) and pharmaceuticals, personal care and lifestyle products (n = 12). Occurrence data is evaluated in relation to land use, aquifer exposure, well depth and depth to groundwater to provide an understanding of vulnerable groundwater settings. - Highlights: • Broad range of microorganics detected in Chalk groundwater in England and France. • Plasticisers, pesticides, BPA and THM detected at the highest concentrations. • Pesticides higher in outcrop Chalk, caffeine and BPA at concealed sites. • Occurrences show some relationship to land use, borehole depth and water level. - Broad screening reveals for the first time the extent of emerging microorganic pollution in Chalk groundwater sources across England and France

  13. Survey of potential process-heat and reject-heat utilization at a Green River nuclear-energy center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potential uses of process heat and reject heat from a nuclear-energy center at Green River, Utah have been investigated. The remoteness of the Green River site would preclude many potential industrial uses for economical reasons such as transportation costs and lack of local markets. Water-consumption requirements would also have serious impact on some applications due to limitations imposed by other contractual agreements upon the water in the region. Several processes were identified which could be considered for the Green River site; including the use of heat to separate bitumens from tar sands, district heating, warming of greenhouses and soil, and the production of fish for game and commercial sales. The size of these industries would be limited and no single process or industry can be identified at this time which could use the full amount of low-temperature reject heat that would be generated at a NEC

  14. Improvements MOIRA system for application to nuclear sites Spanish river; Mejoras en el sistema MOIRA para suaplicacion a los emplazamientos nucleares fluviales espanoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallego Diaz, E.; Iglesias Ferrer, R.; Dvorzhak, A.; Hofman, D.

    2011-07-01

    Possible consequences of a nuclear accident must have radioactive contamination in the medium and long-term freshwater aquatic systems. Faced with this problem, it is essential to have a realistic assessment of the radiological impact, ecological, social and economic potential management strategies, to take the best decisions rationally. MOIRA is a system of decision support developed in the course of the European Framework Programmes with participation of the UPM, which has been improved and adapted to Spanish nuclear sites in recent years in the context ISIDRO Project, sponsored by the Council Nuclear, with the participation of CIEMAT and UPM. The paper focuses on these advances, primarily related to complex hydraulic systems such as rivers Tajo, Ebro and Jucar, which are located several Spanish plants.

  15. Knowledges and abilities catalog for nuclear power plant operators: Savannah River Site (SRS) production reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Knowledges and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operations: Savannah River Site (SRS) Production Reactors, provides the basis for the development of content-valid certification examinations for Senior Reactor Operators (SROs) and Central Control Room Supervisors (SUP). The position of Shift Technical Engineer (STE) has been included in the catalog for completeness. This new SRS reactor operating shift crew position is held by an individual holding a CCR Supervisor Certification who has received special engineering and technical training. Also, the STE has a Bachelor of Science degree in engineering or a related technical field. The SRS catalog contains approximately 2500 knowledge and ability (K/A) statements for SROs and SUPs at heavy water moderated production reactors. Each K/A statement has been rated for its importance to the safe operation of the plant in a manner ensuring the health and safety of the public. The SRS K/A catalog is presently organized into five major sections: Plant Systems grouped by Safety Function, Plant Wide Generic K/As, Emergency Plant Evolutions, Theory and Components (to be developed)

  16. Trace elemental analysis of school chalk using energy dispersive X-ray florescence spectroscopy (ED-XRF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruthi, Y. A., E-mail: ymjournal2014@gmail.com [Associate professor, Dept of Environmental Studies, GITAM Institute of Science, GITAM University, Visakhapatnam, A.P (India); Das, N. Lakshmana, E-mail: nldas9@gmail.com [Professor, Dept of Physics, GITAM Institute of Science, GITAM University, Visakhapatnam, A.P (India); Ramprasad, S., E-mail: ramprasadsurakala@gmail.com [Research Scholar, Dept of Environmental science, GITAM Institute of Science, GITAM University, Visakhapatnam, A.P (India); Ram, S. S., E-mail: tracebio@gmail.com [Research Scholar, Dept of Trace element research, UGC-DAE Consortium Centre, Kolkata centre India (India); Sudarshan, M., E-mail: sude@alpha.iuc.res.in [Scientist-F, Dept of Trace element research, UGC-DAE Consortium Centre, Kolkata centre India (India)

    2015-08-28

    The present studies focus the quantitative analysis of elements in school chalk to ensure the safety of its use. The elements like Calcium (Ca), Aluminum (Al), Iron (Fe), Silicon (Si) and Chromium (Cr) were analyzed from settled chalk dust samples collected from five classrooms (CD-1) and also from another set of unused chalk samples collected from local market (CD-2) using Energy Dispersive X-Ray florescence(ED-XRF) spectroscopy. Presence of these elements in significant concentrations in school chalk confirmed that, it is an irritant and occupational hazard. It is suggested to use protective equipments like filtered mask for mouth, nose and chalk holders. This study also suggested using the advanced mode of techniques like Digital boards, marker boards and power point presentations to mitigate the occupational hazard for classroom chalk.

  17. Trace elemental analysis of school chalk using energy dispersive X-ray florescence spectroscopy (ED-XRF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present studies focus the quantitative analysis of elements in school chalk to ensure the safety of its use. The elements like Calcium (Ca), Aluminum (Al), Iron (Fe), Silicon (Si) and Chromium (Cr) were analyzed from settled chalk dust samples collected from five classrooms (CD-1) and also from another set of unused chalk samples collected from local market (CD-2) using Energy Dispersive X-Ray florescence(ED-XRF) spectroscopy. Presence of these elements in significant concentrations in school chalk confirmed that, it is an irritant and occupational hazard. It is suggested to use protective equipments like filtered mask for mouth, nose and chalk holders. This study also suggested using the advanced mode of techniques like Digital boards, marker boards and power point presentations to mitigate the occupational hazard for classroom chalk

  18. Trace elemental analysis of school chalk using energy dispersive X-ray florescence spectroscopy (ED-XRF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruthi, Y. A.; Das, N. Lakshmana; Ramprasad, S.; Ram, S. S.; Sudarshan, M.

    2015-08-01

    The present studies focus the quantitative analysis of elements in school chalk to ensure the safety of its use. The elements like Calcium (Ca), Aluminum (Al), Iron (Fe), Silicon (Si) and Chromium (Cr) were analyzed from settled chalk dust samples collected from five classrooms (CD-1) and also from another set of unused chalk samples collected from local market (CD-2) using Energy Dispersive X-Ray florescence(ED-XRF) spectroscopy. Presence of these elements in significant concentrations in school chalk confirmed that, it is an irritant and occupational hazard. It is suggested to use protective equipments like filtered mask for mouth, nose and chalk holders. This study also suggested using the advanced mode of techniques like Digital boards, marker boards and power point presentations to mitigate the occupational hazard for classroom chalk

  19. Effects of the restoration mortar on chalk stone buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ion, R. M.; Teodorescu, S.; Ştirbescu, R. M.; Dulamă, I. D.; Şuică-Bunghez, I. R.; Bucurică, I. A.; Fierăscu, R. C.; Fierscu, I.; Ion, M. L.

    2016-06-01

    The monument buildings as components of cultural heritage are exposed to degradation of surfaces and chemical and mechanical degradation, often associated to soiling and irreversible deterioration of the building. In many conservative and restorative works, a cement-based mortar was used without knowing all the adverse effects of this material on the building. This paper deals with the study of the effects of natural cement used in restorative works in the particular case of the Basarabi-Murfatlar Churches Ensemble. Cement-based materials exposed to sulfate present in the chalk stone - gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O), can induce signs of deterioration, due to ettringite ([Ca3Al (OH)612H2O]2(SO4)32H2O) or thaumasite (Ca3[Si(OH)612H2O](CO3)SO4) formation. These phases contribute to strain within the material, inducing expansion, strength loss, spalling and severe degradation. Several combined techniques (XRD, EDXRF, ICP-AES, SEM, EDS, sulphates content, FT-IR and Raman analysis were carried out to put into evidence the effects of them on the building walls.

  20. Determination of re-aeration coefficients on high mountain rivers using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rivers Machangara and Guayllabamba in Quito, Ecuador, currently are highly polluted, mainly due to human and industrial residues from the city. The objective of this survey is to establish the dynamics of dissolved oxygen in these rivers using the Krypton 85 method to determine the re aeration coefficient in representative sectors of the rivers. In addition, conventional test tracers establish mean flow speed and flow longitudinal dispersion coefficients. The results of this study will be useful for future water quality modelling of these rivers, in order to define their behaviour and auto depurative capacity to treat sludge waters from Quito

  1. Diagenesis and porosity reduction in the Late Cretaceous Wyandot Formation, offshore Nova Scotia : a comparison with Norwegian North Sea chalks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ings, S.J.; MacRae, R.A.; Pe-Piper, G. [Saint Mary' s Univ., Halifax, NS (Canada). Dept. of Geology; Shimeld, J.W. [Natural Resources Canada, Dartmouth, NS (Canada). Geological Survey of Canada, Bedford Inst. of Oceanography

    2005-09-01

    Chalk is an attractive reservoir target for hydrocarbon exploration because even deep sea-buried chalk has the ability to preserve porosities of up to 40 per cent. The preservation of primary porosity is related to diagenesis, resedimentation, over-pressuring and hydrocarbon saturation. In the past 3 decades, large oil and gas discoveries have been made in chalk units in the North Sea, Texas, Colorado and the offshore Scotian Shelf in eastern Canada. Chalks of the Upper Cretaceous Wyandot Formation on the Scotian Shelf have preserved porosities up to 30 per cent and are the reservoir for a small gas and oil discovery in the Primrose N-50 exploration well. The Wyandot Formation extends about 500 km along the length of the margin and consists mostly of limestone with major chalk intervals. It is largely understudied, despite its potential as a hydrocarbon reservoir or seal. In this study, conventional core samples of Wyandot Formation chalk recovered from both the Primrose A-41 and Eagle D-21 wells were analyzed. The depositional history, diagenesis and porosity-reducing mechanisms within the Formation were clarified through scanning electron microscopy, oxygen and carbon isotope analysis, wireline logs and porosity data. The porosity history of North Sea chalks was then compared with that of the Wyandot Formation. It was determined that the Wyandot chalks are in situ pelagic deposits, compared to the allochthonous North Sea chalks. The dominant mechanisms of porosity reduction in the Wyandot chalks are mechanical compaction and dissolution. It is possible that North Sea type allochthonous reservoirs exist in distal locations on the Scotian Slope because large volumes of Wyandot chalk have been eroded on part of the Scotian Shelf. Therefore, further exploration is warranted to provide a better understanding of the sedimentology and porosity distribution of the in situ Wyandot Formation. 20 refs., 2 tabs., 11 figs.

  2. Subaerial Chalk Cliff Failures on the English Channel Coast, Based on Field Data From Recent Collapses

    Science.gov (United States)

    DUPERRET, A.; MARTINEZ, A.; GENTER, A.; MORTIMORE, R. N.; WATREMEZ, P.

    2001-12-01

    The chalk cliffs along the English Channel coast are currently retreating at a mean rate of 0.5 m/year. However, the erosion is not constant over time, but occurs by catastrophic collapses. For the last three years, a minimum of 40 collapses have been observed along the French chalk coastline (120 km long) and about 10 collapses along the English chalk coastline (40 km long). The observed collapsed volumes are varying from 150 000 m3 (Beachy Head, UK) to a few m3, whereas the cliff heights are varying from 20 to 200m. Two kinds of scar extension have been observed on the cliff face: either the lower part only with few volumes involved, either the whole cliff height for the largest events. Two main cases of scar shape have been evidenced: (1) scar with a vertical upper part and a curved lower part with large striations and crushed chalk (Puys, France). The rupture process is an overall sliding process, with tearing of the upper part of the cliff and shearing in its lower part. The failure is mainly controlled by rain-fall and occurred by water pressure increase on impervious marl seams of the chalk (Duperret et al., in press, JCR). (2) scar with a regular and rectilinear profile, without any striation (Birling Gap, UK). The rupture propagates along pre-existing joint sets, parallel oriented to the cliff face. Locally, pre-existing large-scale transverse fractures may bound the lateral propagation of the scar. Where the scars extend all over the cliff height, the failure is mainly controlled by continental water infiltration. However the role of water through fractured chalk may differ according to the fracture pattern. Where the scars are restrained to the lower part of the cliff, the upward extension of the scars are bounded by lithological features of the chalk, as horizontal flint bands or stratification. In this case, the role of marine parameters, as wave impact at the toe of the cliff may be invoked as a significant triggering parameter contributing to failure

  3. Probing the intrinsically oil-wet surfaces of pores in North Sea chalk at subpore resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassenkam, Tue; Skovbjerg, Lone Lindbæk; Stipp, Susan Louise Svane

    2009-01-01

    atomic force microscopy-mediated adhesion and elasticity mapping derived from maps of force curves, to examine 5 x 5 µm2 areas of internal pore surfaces, using a tip functionalised to make it hydrophobic.  We investigated chalk samples from inside a drill core sample from the Danish North Sea that had...... been drilled in a water-bearing formation. At this site, the chalk has never seen oil, though at other locations, the same stratigraphic horizon with the same rock properties is known to be a productive oil reservoir. Thus the properties of the investigated particle surfaces are inherent to the chalk...... particles and the data thus indicate variability in the wettability across an individual particle surface. Hydrophobicity varied by factors of more than 15, and elasticity, by more than 30. Some areas were both soft and hydrophobic but for many others, there was no correlation between hardness and adhesion...

  4. Managing Injected Water Composition To Improve Oil Recovery: A Case Study of North Sea Chalk Reservoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahid, Adeel; Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan;

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, many core displacement experiments of oil by seawater performed on chalk rock samples have reported SO42–, Ca2+, and Mg2+ as potential determining ions for improving oil recovery. Most of these studies were carried out with outcrop chalk core plugs. The objective of this study...... imbibition, which has been applied in most of the previous studies. Two different flooding schemes (with and without aging) were used for flooding North Sea reservoir chalk samples. For comparison, two tests were also carried out with Stevns Klint core plugs. The flooding tests were carried out...... with the following injecting fluids: distilled water, brine with and without sulfate, and brine containing only magnesium ions. The total oil recovery, recovery rate, and interaction mechanisms of ions with rock were studied for different injecting fluids at different temperatures and wettability conditions. Studies...

  5. Investigation of spore forming bacterial flooding for enhanced oil recovery in a North Sea chalk Reservoir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halim, Amalia Yunita; Nielsen, Sidsel Marie; Eliasson Lantz, Anna;

    2015-01-01

    in higher oil production from the heterogeneous chalk rock. In all cases, an incubation period ('shut-in') after the bacterial and/or nutrient injection was needed to give sufficient time for the bacteria to grow inside the core and to produce more oil. Our findings show potential application of bacteria......Little has been done to study microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) in chalk reservoirs. The present study focuses on core flooding experiments designed to see microbial plugging and its effect on oil recovery. A pressure tapped core holder was used for this purpose. A spore forming bacteria...... Bacillus licheniformis 421 was used as it was shown to be a good candidate in a previous study. Bacterial spore can penetrate deeper into the chalk rock, squeezing through the pore throats. Our results showed that injection of B. licheniformis 421 as a tertiary oil recovery method, in the residual oil...

  6. Full-waveform Inversion of Crosshole GPR Data Collected in Strongly Heterogeneous Chalk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keskinen, Johanna; Zibar, Majken Caroline Looms; Nielsen, Lars;

    2015-01-01

    Chalk is an important reservoir rock for hydrocarbons and for groundwater resources for many major cities. Therefore, this rock type has been extensively investigated using both geological and geophysical methods. Many applications of crosshole GPR tomography rely on the ray approximation...... in an old chalk quarry in Eastern Denmark. Based on core data (including plug samples and televiewer logging data) collected in our four ~15-m-deep boreholes and results from previous related studies, it is apparent that the studied chalk is strongly heterogeneous. The upper ~7 m consist of variable coarse...... address the importance of (i) adequate starting models, both in terms of the dielectric permittivity and the electrical conductivity, (ii) the estimation of the source wavelet, (iii) and the effects of data sampling density when imaging this rock type. Moreover, we discuss the resolution of the bedding...

  7. Final environmental impact statement, interim management of nuclear materials, Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina (DOE/EIS-0220)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document evaluates the potential environmental impacts of alternatives for the stabilization of nuclear materials currently stored at various locations on the Savannah River Site (SRS). These materials remain from past defense-related production, testing, and other activities at the SRS and from chemical separations and related activities that DOE suspended in 1992. The EIS analyzes the following alternatives: Continuing Storage (No Action), Processing to Metal, Processing to Oxide, Blending Down to Low Enriched Uranium, Processing and Storage for Vitrification in the Defense Waste Processing Facility, Vitrification (F-Canyon), and Improving Storage. The preferred alternatives cover a combination of these in relation to the different types of material

  8. Use of aquatic mosses for monitoring artificial radionuclides downstream of the nuclear power plant of Bugey (River Rhone, France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaugelin-Seiller, K. (CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire); Baudin, J.P. (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 13 - Saint-Paul-les-Durance (France)); Brottet, D. (Electricite de France (EDF), 91 -Camp de la Valbonne (France). Centre de Production Nucleaire du Bugey)

    1994-01-01

    The detection of radionuclides in water, downstream of nuclear installations located on river banks, is often very difficult notably because of their low concentrations. Thus the use of biological indicators is an interesting process to detect radioactive contamination of an aquatic ecosystem. From 1986 to 1990, artificial radionuclides were measured in freshwater mosses sampled downstream of the nuclear power station of Bugey. These field data on the whole, have shown a comparatively good qualitative and quantitative relationship between radioactive composition of liquid waste and radionuclides detected in mosses. In other respects, the results showed up a relatively clear hierarchical structure in the affinity of the different radionuclides for the mosses. To specify these relations, mesh bags containing allochtonous mosses were immersed at four stations downstream of the power plant and regularly sampled during a 10-h waste discharge period. (author).

  9. Measuring and Modeling the Displacement of Connate Water in Chalk Core Plugs during Water Injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsbech, Uffe C C; Aage, Helle Karina; Andersen, Bertel Lohmann;

    2006-01-01

    The movement of connate water spiked with gamma emitting 22Na was studied during laboratory water flooding of oil saturated chalk from a North Sea oil reservoir. Using a one dimensional gamma monitoring technique is was observed that connate water is piled-up at the front of the injection water...... and forms a mixed water bank with almost 100% connate water in the front behind which a gradual transition to pure injection water occurs. This result underpins log interpretations from waterflooded chalk reservoirs. An ad hoc model was set up by use of the results, and the process was examined...

  10. Electroosmotic dewatering of chalk sludge, iron hydroxide sludge, wet fly ash and biomass sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H.K.; Christensen, Iben Vernegren; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.;

    2003-01-01

    Electroosmotic dewatering has been tested in laboratory cells on four different porous materials: chalk sludge, iron hydroxide sludge, wet fly ash and biomass sludge from enzyme production. In all cases it was possible to remove water when passing electric DC current through the material....... Casagrande's coefficients were determined for the four materials at different water contents. The experiments in this work showed that chalk could be dewatered from 40% to 79% DM (dry matter), fly ash from 75 to 82% DM, iron hydroxide sludge from 2.7 to 19% DM and biomass from 3 to 33% DM by electroosmosis...

  11. Strength and Biot's coefficient for high-porosity oil- or water-saturated chalk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Katrine Alling

    . The Biot coefficient states the degree of cementation or how the pore pressure contributes to the strain resulting from an external load for a porous material. It is here calculated from dynamic measurements and correlated with the strength of outcrop chalk characterized by the onset of pore collapse...... during hydrostatic loading. The hypothesis is that the Biot coefficient and the theory of poroelasticity may cover the fluid effect by including the increased fluid bulk modulus from oil to water. A high number of test results for both oil- and water-saturated high-porosity outcrop chalk show correlation...

  12. The impact of nuclear power stations and of a fuel reprocessing plant on the Rhone river and its prodelta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Rhone, with its 6 nuclear sites (17 reactors of various types and a fuel reprocessing unit), presents a relevant example for comparing the impact of these various installations on the aquatic ecosystem. Artificial radioactivity (γ emitters, Pu, 3H, 90Sr...) and natural radioactivity are monitored in sediments and various living organisms in the river and its prodelta. A summary of the radioecological procedure is given and illustrated with examples selected from results obtained over the last fifteen years (data resulting from about 7500 samples taken up- and downstream of the installations and in the prodelta). The evolution of results obtained during this period by γ spectrometry on fish up- and downstream of the nuclear power station at Bugey and the Marcoule fuel reprocessing unit is presented. The role of aquatic vegetation as indicator of radiocontamination is also illustrated. The evolution in the concentration levels of γ emitting artificial radionuclides in sediments and mussels in the prodelta is commented on in order to show the global radioecological impact of the Rhone in the Mediterranean sea. The analyses presented show that it is possible to quantify the influence of each source term on the total artificial radioactivity of the compartments of the ecosystem. The source terms are atmospheric fallout from early nuclear weapon tests and of the Chernobyl accident, and liquid wastes of various composition from nuclear installations

  13. Rock physical aspects of CO{sub 2} injection in chalk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, M.M.

    2011-04-15

    Impact of supercritical CO{sub 2} on the petrophysical and rock-mechanics properties of Ekofisk Formation and Tor Formation chalk from South Arne field, Danish North Sea, chalk was investigated. A series of laboratory experiments was performed on core material collected from the reservoir zone of the South Arne field in order to reveal the changes with respect to porosity, specific surface, pore stiffness, wettability, mineralogy and mechanical failure. In addition, a theoretical rock physical background was also established in order to be able to make sensible interpretation of laboratory data. Sound wave velocity was used as the central tool to study any change in petrophysical and rock mechanical properties. The main focus was to achieve a better understanding of effective stress coefficient (also known as Biot's coefficient); by means of which effective stress can be predicted more accurately. Independent theoretical studies were made on diagenesis, surface properties and stiffness of chalk and their relation with sonic velocity (or Biot's coefficient calculated from sonic velocity). The knowledge and experience from these studies was combined to achieve the main research objective of monitoring changes in hydrocarbon reservoirs in chalk due to CO{sub 2} injection. In order to understand the development of chalk from calcareous ooze and achieving pore stiffness, the diagenesis process of a sedimentary sequence from Kerguelen Plateau in the Indian Ocean was studied. The principal objective of the study was to explore how different porosity reduction mechanisms change the strength of these deep sea carbonate-rich sediments and how these mechanisms can be traced from the change in Biot's coefficient, alpha. In calcareous ooze, alpha was found close to one. Mechanical compaction reduces porosity, but only leads to a minor decrease in alpha. Recrystallization process renders particles smoother, but do not lead to reduction in alpha unless it gives

  14. Preliminary estimate of possible flood elevations in the Columbia River at Trojan Nuclear Power Plant due to failure of debris dam blocking Spirit Lake, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresch, D.L.; Laenen, Antonius

    1984-01-01

    Failure of the debris dam, blocking the outflow of Spirit Lake near Mount St. Helens, could result in a mudflow down the Toutle and Cowlitz Rivers into the Columbia River. Flood elevations at the Trojan Nuclear Power Plant on the Columbia River, 5 mi upstream from the Cowlitz River, were simulated with a hydraulic routing model. The simulations are made for four Columbia River discharges in each of two scenarios, one in which Columbia River floods coincide with a mudflow and the other in which Columbia River floods follow a mudflow sediment deposit upstream from the Cowlitz River. In the first scenario, Manning 's roughness coefficients for clear water and for mudflow in the Columbia River are used; in the second scenario only clear water coefficients are used. The grade elevation at the power plant is 45 ft above sea level. The simulated elevations exceed 44 ft if the mudflow coincides with a Columbia River discharge that has a recurrence interval greater than 10 years (610,000 cu ft/sec); the mudflow is assumed to extend downstream from the Cowlitz River to the mouth of the Columbia River, and Manning 's roughness coefficients for a mudflow are used. The simulated elevation is 32 ft if the mudflow coincides with a 100-yr flood (820,000 cu ft/sec) and clear-water Manning 's coefficients are used throughout the entire reach of the Columbia River. The elevations exceed 45 ft if a flow exceeding the 2-yr peak discharge in the Columbia River (410,000 cu ft/sec) follows the deposit of 0.5 billion cu yd of mudflow sediment upstream of the Cowlitz River before there has been any appreciable scour or dredging of the deposit. In this simulation it is assumed that: (1) the top of the sediment deposited in the Columbia River is at an elevation of 30 ft at the mouth of the Cowlitz River, (2) the surface elevation of the sediment deposit decreases in an upstream direction at a rate of 2.5 ft/mi, and (3) clear water Manning 's coefficients apply to the entire modeled reach of

  15. How burial diagenesis of chalk sediments controls sonic velocity and porosity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2003-01-01

    Based on P-wave velocity and density data, a new elastic model for chalk sediments is established. The model allows the construction of a series of isoframe (IF) curves, each representing a constant part of the mineral phase contributing to the solid frame. The IF curves can be related to the pro......Based on P-wave velocity and density data, a new elastic model for chalk sediments is established. The model allows the construction of a series of isoframe (IF) curves, each representing a constant part of the mineral phase contributing to the solid frame. The IF curves can be related......, whereby IF increases and chalk forms. Rock mechanical tests show that when compaction requires more than in-situ stress, porosity reduction is arrested. During subsequent burial, crystals and pores grow in size as a consequence of the continuing recrystallization. ne lack of porosity loss during......, and depending on pore-water chemistry and temperature, pore-filling cementation may occur over a relatively short depth interval. Limestone and mixed sedimentary rock form, and porosity may be reduced to less than 20%. Isoframe increases to more than 0.6. In hydrocarbon reservoirs in North Sea chalk, relatively...

  16. SNG-log in borehole P7 in Faxe Chalk Quarry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsbech, Uffe C C

    1996-01-01

    A spectral natural gamma-ray log in a 190 m borehole in Faxe chalk quarry confirms that Danish bryozoan and corallic limestones contain very low levels of natural radioactivity. Due to the low content of natural radioactivity it has been possible to observe the influence from cosmic radiation...

  17. Seismic stratigraphy and sedimentary architecture of the Chalk Group in south-west Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Connie; Ineson, Jon; Boldreel, Lars Ole

    2014-01-01

    The article focuses on a study undertaken by the Chalk Group on the western onshore region of the Danish Basin in Eastern Denmark related on the seismic stratigraphy and sedimentary architecture of the region. The study is undertaken through subdividing the northern North German Basin and the south...

  18. Effect of fluid-solid friction on the stiffness of chalk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alam, Mohammad Monzurul; Nguh Akam, Hosea; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2011-01-01

    Chalks behave weaker at water saturated condition. We studied this softening effect as a function of Biot’s frequency ratio, which is a ratio between measured ultrasonic wave frequency and Biot critical frequency, fc. Kinematic viscosity of fluid and permeability of rock determines fc. We observed...... that rocks saturated with higher kinematic viscosity fluid are stiffer....

  19. Ultrasonic velocities of North Sea chalk samples: influence of porosity, fluid content and texture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogen, B.; Fabricius, Ida Lykke; Japsen, P.;

    2005-01-01

    the South Arne Field than from the Dan Field for identical porosities. This difference may be due to textural differences between the chalk at the two locations because we observe that large grains (i.e. filled microfossils and fossil fragments) that occur more frequently in samples from the Dan Field have...... amplitude-versus-offset analyses....

  20. Using Raman spectroscopic imaging for non-destructive analysis of filler distribution in chalk filled polypropylene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boros, Evelin; Porse, Peter Bak; Nielsen, Inga;

    2016-01-01

    A feasibility study on using Raman spectral imaging for visualization and analysis of filler distribution in chalk filled poly-propylene samples has been carried out. The spectral images were acquired using a Raman spectrometer with 785 nm light source.Eight injection-molded samples with...

  1. Effective-stress-law behavior of Austin chalk rocks for deformation and fracture conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warpinski, N.R.; Teufel, L.W.

    1994-08-01

    Austin chalk core has been tested to determine the effective law for deformation of the matrix material and the stress-sensitive conductivity of the natural fractures. For deformation behavior, two samples provided data on the variations of the poroelastic parameter, {alpha}, for Austin chalk, giving values around 0.4. The effective-stress-law behavior of a Saratoga limestone sample was also measured for the purpose of obtaining a comparison with a somewhat more porous carbonate rock. {alpha} for this rock was found to be near 0.9. The low {alpha} for the Austin chalk suggests that stresses in the reservoir, or around the wellbore, will not change much with changes in pore pressure, as the contribution of the fluid pressure is small. Three natural fractures from the Austin chalk were tested, but two of the fractures were very tight and probably do not contribute much to production. The third sample was highly conductive and showed some stress sensitivity with a factor of three reduction in conductivity over a net stress increase of 3000 psi. Natural fractures also showed a propensity for permanent damage when net stressed exceeded about 3000 psi. This damage was irreversible and significantly affected conductivity. {alpha} was difficult to determine and most tests were inconclusive, although the results from one sample suggested that {alpha} was near unity.

  2. The surface reactivity of chalk (biogenic calcite) with hydrophilic and hydrophobic functional groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okhrimenko, D. V.; Dalby, K. N.; Skovbjerg, L. L.; Bovet, N.; Christensen, J. H.; Stipp, S. L. S.

    2014-03-01

    The surface properties of calcium carbonate minerals play an important role in a number of industrial and biological processes. Properties such as wettability and adsorption control liquid-solid interface behaviour and thus have a strong influence on processes such as biomineralisation, remediation of aquifers and oil recovery. We investigated how two model molecules of different polarity, namely water and ethanol, interact with reservoir and outcrop chalk samples and we compared their behaviour with that of pure, inorganically precipitated calcite. Thermodynamic quantities, such as the work of wetting, surface energy and isosteric adsorption enthalpy, were determined from vapour adsorption isotherms. The chalks were studied fresh and after extraction of organic residues that were originally present in these samples. The work of wetting correlates with the amount of organic matter present in the chalk samples but we observed a fundamental difference between the adsorption properties of chalk and pure, inorganically precipitated calcite toward the less polar, ethanol molecule. Further analysis of the chemical composition of the organic matter extracted from the chalk samples was made by gas chromatography (GC-MS). Monitoring surface composition by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) before and after extraction of the organic material, and with atomic force microscopy (AFM), showed that nanometer sized clay crystals observed on the chalk particle surfaces could be an important part of the reason for the differences. Removal of the extractable portion of the hydrocarbons liberates adsorption sites that have different wetting properties than the rest of the chalk and these have an energy distribution that is similar to clays. Thus, the results exemplify the complexity of biogenic calcite adsorption behaviour and demonstrate that chalk wetting in drinking water aquifers as well as oil reservoirs is controlled partly by the nanoparticles of clay that have grown on the

  3. Late Maastrichtian chalk mounds, Stevns Klint, Denmark — Combined physical and biogenic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderskouv, Kresten; Damholt, Tove; Surlyk, Finn

    2007-08-01

    Upper Maastrichtian chalk exposed at the Sigerslev quarry, Stevns Klint, Denmark is characterized by wavy and mound-like bedding geometries outlined by bands of black flint nodules. Four morphological elements are recognized, although bedding geometries are highly variable: southward migrating mounds, eastward migrating mounds, chalk waves and evenly bedded chalk. The mounds are interpreted as having been formed by currents carrying fine-grained suspended sediment which was primarily deposited on the up-current mound flanks. Bryozoans were prolific on the up-current flanks and mound summits, which stabilized the mounds, increased bed roughness and the overall accumulation rate. However, accumulation thicknesses do not correlate consistently with bryozoan density. The bryozoans were therefore important for the formation of the mounds, but the distribution of bryozoans did not solely determine depositional thickness across a mound and thus mound growth pattern. Relatively long wavelength wavy-bedded chalk show gentle convex-up geometries and would probably be described as sediment waves if recognized in seismic sections. The chalk waves were deposited under weaker current velocities than those active during mound formation. The exposed succession is topped by more evenly bedded chalk which was deposited by quiet pelagic fall-out of fine-grained material. The whole succession was deposited on the upper part of the northern flank of a large WNW-ESE trending 3 km wide depositional ridge with an amplitude of 35-40 m formed by contour-parallel WNW-ward flowing bottom currents. The mounds may have been deposited by regional bottom currents, or by spill-over currents from the valley south of the large ridge. The succession was deposited during varying bottom current intensities and the depositional architecture indicates a complex and dynamic environment. The depositional style seems to be controlled by the interplay and relative importance of two end-member processes

  4. Uranium series geochemistry in aquifers: quantification of transport mechanisms of uranium and daughter products: the chalk aquifer (Champagne, France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the increase of contaminant flux of radionuclides in surface environment (soil, river, aquifer...), there is a need to understand and model the processes that control the distribution of uranium and its daughter products during transport within aquifers. We have used U-series disequilibria as an analogue for the transport of uranium and its daughter products in aquifer to understand such mechanisms. The measurements of uranium (234U et 238U), thorium (230Th et 232Th), 226Ra and 222Rn isotopes in the solid and liquid phases of the chalk aquifer in Champagne (East of France) allows us to understand the processes responsible for fractionation within the uranium decay chain. Fractionations are induced by physical and chemical properties of the elements (leaching, adsorption) but also by radioactive properties (recoil effect during α-decay). For the first time a comprehensive sampling of the solid phase has been performed, allowing quantifying mechanisms responsible for the long term evolution of the aquifer. A non steady state 1D model has been developed which takes into account leaching, adsorption processes as well as radioactive filiation and α-recoil effect. Retardation coefficients have been calculated for uranium, thorium and radium. The aquifer is characterised by a double porosity, and the contribution of fracture and matrix porosity on the water/rock interaction processes has been estimated. (author)

  5. Laboratory measurements of the electrokinetic and electrochemical potential in chalk, with application to monitoring of saline intrusion in the UK chalk aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacAllister, D.; Jackson, M.; Butler, A. P.; Vinogradov, J.

    2012-12-01

    Saline intrusion is a global phenomenon affecting the availability of freshwater in coastal aquifers. The aim of this work is to investigate whether measurements of spontaneous potential (SP) can be used to monitor the intrusion of seawater into coastal aquifers, with specific application to the chalk aquifer near Brighton on the south coast of the UK. SP arises to maintain electrical neutrality when a separation of charge occurs due to gradients in pressure (electrokinetic or streaming potential), concentration (electrochemical potential) and temperature (thermoelectric potential). Concentration gradients are a characteristic feature of saline intrusion and may give rise to a measureable electrochemical potential (EC). In addition the electrokinetic potential (EK) will arise during abstraction and up-coning of the saline front. The intruding saline front could therefore be detected and monitored continuously, with SP measurements in boreholes and at the surface providing dense monitoring in space and time. To determine the likely magnitude of EK and EC signals during saline intrusion into the chalk aquifer, we measured EK and EC potentials in samples of Seaford chalk saturated with (i) natural, potable groundwater from the aquifer and (ii) seawater sampled from the English Channel. The EK coupling coefficient, which relates the gradient in voltage to the gradient in water pressure when the total current is zero, was found to be -60 mV/MPa in samples saturated with groundwater. In seawater saturated samples it was found to be only -1 mV/MPa. This result agrees with earlier work suggesting the EK potential is suppressed in high salinity environments due to a compressed electrical double layer. The EK coupling coefficient was negative in both cases, suggesting that the surface charge of Seaford chalk is negative when in contact with groundwater and seawater. The electrochemical experiments involved establishing a concentration gradient across the chalk samples

  6. Characters of geology and geophysics field in the middle region of Shule river fault zone and stability evaluations on the nuclear waste disposal repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of characters of remote sensing geology in the middle region of Shule, river fault zone and on its north Beishan area. The authors make stability evaluations on the construction of nuclear waste disposal repository by investigations and researches of geophysics field such as gravity field magnetic field, electromagnetic field and geothermic field. It concludes that this area is selected as a nuclear waste disposal region with satisfactory results

  7. Benthic macrofauna variations and community structure in Cenomanian cyclic chalk-marl from Southerham Grey Pit, SE England

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Bodil Wesenberg; Gale, A. S.; Surlyk, Finn

    2009-01-01

    . The material comprises washing residues of 24 bulk samples collected from chalk and marl half-cycles. A total of 5055 invertebrate specimens were retrieved and referred to 68 species, forming the basis for the recognition of six guilds. In general, the fauna is more diverse in marl than in chalk, but...... clearly well adapted to both facies and thus to the fine grain size of the substrate rather than to lithology. The systematic difference in diversity between chalk and marl samples was possibly caused by long-term climatic and oceanographic changes and thus could represent a biological response to...

  8. Deep saltwater in Chalk of North-West Europe: origin, interface characteristics and development over geological time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnesen, Ellen Prip; Larsen, F.; Sonnenborg, T.O.;

    2009-01-01

    in deeper parts of the Chalk formation and diffusive transport is thus the predominant transport mechanism. Laboratory-measured porosity and effective diffusion coefficients were used as input to a numerical 1D diffusion model of the interface between freshwater in an upper, fractured aquifer and modified...... connate formation water below. The model satisfactorily simulated the observed chloride and delta O-18 profiles. The diffusive refreshening of the Chalk formation has been going on for about 0.9 million years. The connate water in the Chalk of parts of the sedimentary basin seems to have been modified...

  9. Overview of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Facilities at the Savannah River Site. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides an overview of activities related to fuel receipt and storage in both the Receiving Basin for Off-site Fuels and L-Basin facilities. This paper provides a useful reference to foreign facilities, cask owners and shipping contractors on the cask and fuel handling capabilities of the Savannah River Site

  10. 75 FR 13320 - Florida Power Corporation, et al., Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant; Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... generator replacement outage that is currently underway at CR-3. In addition to steam generators, other.... DPR 72 issued to Florida Power Corporation (the licensee), for operation of the Crystal River Unit 3... March 27, 2009 (74 FR 13967). There will be no change to radioactive effluents that affect...

  11. 77 FR 1743 - Facility Operating License Amendment From Florida Power Corporation, Crystal River Nuclear...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-11

    ... NRC E-Filing rule (72 FR 49139, August 28, 2007). The E-Filing process requires participants to submit...\\ Requestors should note that the filing requirements of the NRC's E-Filing Rule (72 FR 49139; August 28, 2007... COMMISSION Facility Operating License Amendment From Florida Power Corporation, Crystal River...

  12. Determination of Nuclear Abnormalities in Peripheral Erythrocytes of the Frog Pelophylax ridibundus (Anura: Ranidae sampled from Karasu River Basin (Turkey for Pollution Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turgay ŞİŞMAN

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Karasu River, which is the only river in the Erzurum plain, is the source of the river Euphrates (Eastern Anatolia of Turkey. The river is in a serious environmental situation as a result of pollution by agricultural and industrial sewage and domestic discharges. The present study aims to evaluate genotoxic effects of toxic metals in marsh frog, Pelophylax ridibundus collected from two contaminated wetlands environments of the Karasu River Basin, in comparison with frogs from one non-polluted reference site. Heavy metal concentrations in surface water of the river were determined. Genotoxicity assays such as micronucleus (MN and other nuclear abnormalities (NA were carried out on the frogs studied. MN and NA (kidney-shaped nucleus, notched nucleus and lobed nucleus were assessed in peripheral blood erythrocytes of the frog. A significant elevation in MN and NA frequencies was observed in frog collected from the polluted sites compared with those from the reference site. Results of the current study suggest that there is a close realtion between increasing of erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities and environmental contamination. High concentrations of heavy metals have a potential genotoxic effects, and the toxicity is possibly related to industrial, agricultural and domestic activities.

  13. CONTROL TESTING OF THE UK NATIONAL NUCLEAR LABORATORY'S RADBALL TECHNOLOGY AT SAVANNAH RIVER NATIONAL LABORATORY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.

    2009-11-23

    The UK National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL) has developed a remote, non-electrical, radiation-mapping device known as RadBall (patent pending), which offers a means to locate and quantify radiation hazards and sources within contaminated areas of the nuclear industry. To date, the RadBall has been deployed in a number of technology trials in nuclear waste reprocessing plants at Sellafield in the UK. The trials have demonstrated the successful ability of the RadBall technology to be deployed and retrieved from active areas. The positive results from these initial deployment trials and the anticipated future potential of RadBall have led to the NNL partnering with the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to further underpin and strengthen the technical performance of the technology. RadBall consists of a colander-like outer shell that houses a radiation-sensitive polymer sphere. It has no power requirements and can be positioned in tight or hard-to reach places. The outer shell works to collimate radiation sources and those areas of the polymer sphere that are exposed react, becoming increasingly less transparent, in proportion to the absorbed dose. The polymer sphere is imaged in an optical-CT scanner which produces a high resolution 3D map of optical attenuation coefficients. Subsequent analysis of the optical attenuation maps provides information on the spatial distribution and strength of the sources in a given area forming a 3D characterization of the area of interest. This study completed at SRNL addresses key aspects of the testing of the RadBall technology. The first set of tests was performed at Savannah River Nuclear Solutions Health Physics Instrument Calibration Laboratory (HPICL) using various gamma-ray sources and an x-ray machine with known radiological characteristics. The objective of these preliminary tests was to identify the optimal dose and collimator thickness. The second set of tests involved a highly contaminated hot cell. The objective of

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF AN IMPROVED SODIUM TITANATE FOR THE PRETREATMENT OF HIGH LEVEL NUCLEAR WASTE AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, D

    2007-11-15

    High-level nuclear waste produced from fuel reprocessing operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) requires pretreatment to remove Cs-137, Sr-90 and alpha-emitting radionuclides (i.e., actinides) prior to disposal onsite as low level waste. Separation processes planned at SRS include sorption of Sr-90 and alpha-emitting radionuclides onto monosodium titanate (MST) and caustic side solvent extraction, for {sup 137}Cs removal. The predominant alpha-emitting radionuclides in the highly alkaline waste solutions include plutonium isotopes Pu-238, Pu-239 and Pu-240. This paper describes recent results to produce an improved sodium titanate material that exhibits increased removal kinetics and capacity for Sr-90 and alpha-emitting radionuclides compared to the baseline MST material.

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF AN IMPROVED SODIUM TITANATE FOR THE PRETREATMENT OF HIGH LEVEL NUCLEAR WASTE AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs D. T.; Poirier, M. R.; Barnes, M. J.; Stallings, M. E.; Nyman, M. D.

    2005-11-22

    High-level nuclear waste produced from fuel reprocessing operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) requires pretreatment to remove {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and alpha-emitting radionuclides (i.e., actinides) prior to disposal onsite as low level waste. Separation processes planned at SRS include caustic side solvent extraction, for {sup 137}Cs removal, and sorption of {sup 90}Sr and alpha-emitting radionuclides onto monosodium titanate (MST). The predominant alpha-emitting radionuclides in the highly alkaline waste solutions include plutonium isotopes {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu. This paper describes recent results to produce an improved sodium titanate material that exhibits increased removal kinetics and capacity for {sup 90}Sr and alpha-emitting radionuclides compared to the baseline MST material.

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF AN IMPROVED SODIUM TITANATE FOR THE PRETREATMENT OF NUCLEAR WASTE AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, D

    2008-01-22

    High-level nuclear waste produced from fuel reprocessing operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) requires pretreatment to remove Cs-137, Sr-90 and alpha-emitting radionuclides (i.e., actinides) prior to disposal onsite as low level waste. Separation processes planned at SRS include sorption of Sr-90 and alpha-emitting radionuclides onto monosodium titanate (MST) and caustic side solvent extraction, for Cs-137 removal. The MST and separated Cs-137 will be encapsulated into a borosilicate glass waste form for eventual entombment at the federal repository. The predominant alpha-emitting radionuclides in the highly alkaline waste solutions include plutonium isotopes Pu-238, Pu-239 and Pu-240. This paper describes recent results to produce an improved sodium titanate material that exhibits increased removal kinetics and capacity for Sr-90 and alpha-emitting radionuclides compared to the baseline MST material.

  17. Thermal insulation system design and fabrication specification (nuclear) for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-07-21

    This specification defines the design, analysis, fabrication, testing, shipping, and quality requirements of the Insulation System for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP), near Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The Insulation System includes all supports, convection barriers, jacketing, insulation, penetrations, fasteners, or other insulation support material or devices required to insulate the piping and equipment cryogenic and other special applications excluded. Site storage, handling and installation of the Insulation System are under the cognizance of the Purchaser.

  18. Isotopic signature of selected lanthanides for nuclear activities profiling using cloud point extraction and ICP-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrecque, Charles; Lebed, Pablo J; Larivière, Dominic

    2016-05-01

    The presence of fission products, which include numerous isotopes of lanthanides, can impact the isotopic ratios of these elements in the environment. A cloud point extraction (CPE) method was used as a preconcentration/separation strategy prior to measurement of isotopic ratios of three lanthanides (Nd, Sm, and Eu) by inductively coupled plasma tandem mass spectrometry (ICP-MS/MS). To minimise polyatomic interference, the combination of interferents removal by CPE, reaction/collision cell conditions in He and NH3 mode and tandem quadrupole configuration was investigated and provided optimal results for the determination of isotopic ratio in environmental samples. Isotopic ratios were initially measured in San Joaquin soil (NIST-2709a), an area with little contamination of nuclear origin. Finally, samples collected from three sites with known nuclear activities (Fangataufa Lagoon in French Polynesia, Chernobyl and the Ottawa River near Chalk River Laboratory) were analysed and all exhibited altered isotopic ratios for (143/145)Nd, (147/149)Sm, and (151/153)Eu. These results demonstrate the potential of CPE and ICP-MS/MS for the detection of altered isotopic ratio in environmental samples collected in area subjected to nuclear anthropogenic contamination. The detection of variations in these isotopic ratios of fission products represents the first application of CPE in nuclear forensic investigations of environmental samples.

  19. Cs-134 and Cs-137 radioactivity in river waters in Fukushima, Miyagi, Ibaraki and Gunma Prefectures in August 2012 after the Fukuhsima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagao, S.; Ochiai, S.; Yamamoto, M. [Low Level Radioactivity Laboratory, Institute of Nature and Environmental Technology, Kanazawa University, Wake, Nomi, Ishikawa 923-1224(Japan); Kanamori, M. [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kakuma, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 921-1192 (Japan); Tomihara, S. [Environmental Aquarium Aquamarine Fukushima, 50 Tatsumi, Onahama, Iwaki, Fukushima 971-8101(Japan); Suzuki, K. [Gunma Prefectural Fisheries Experimental Station, 13 Shikishima, Maebashi, Gunma 371-1036 (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    About 15 PBq from both {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs were released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) because of venting operations and hydrogen explosions. The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan reported total surface deposition of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs in Japan. To estimate short-term and long-term impacts of the radiation dose in Japan, it is important to understand the dynamics of radionuclides, especially those of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs, on river watershed environments. This study investigated {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs radioactivity in river systems in Fukushima, Miyagi, Ibaraki and Gunma prefectures, Japan. The secondary radioactive dispersion of radiocesium from the contaminated watershed to the river waters is reported for research areas with widely various radiocesium deposition on ground surfaces at 18 months after the accident. Field experiments were conducted at a fixed station in four rivers (the Uta, Niida, Natsui, and Same Rivers) in Fukushima Prefecture, and the Kuji River, and Naka River in Ibaraki Prefecture in August 2012. The Abukuma River was set up one site at the upper, two sites in the middle reach in Fukushima Prefecture and at one site in the lower area in Miyagi Prefecture. The Tone River system has three stations at the upper river area in Gunma Prefecture and one site at the lower reach in Ibaraki Prefecture. Surface deposition results reveals significant external radioactivity in a zone extending northwest from the NPP. However, a mountainous area in Gunma Prefecture, located about 220 km from Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP south of Fukushima Prefecture, shows similar accumulation of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs. The 20 L of surface river waters were collected at the station using buckets. The radioactivity of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs in the river waters was measured with gamma-ray spectrometry using ammonium molybdophosphate (AMP)/Cs compound method with a low background Ge

  20. Porosity and sonic velocity depth trends of Eocene chalk in Atlantic Ocean: Influence of effective stress and temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awedalkarim, Ahmed; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2014-01-01

    . This indicates pore-filling cementation via an activation energy mechanism. We proposed a predictive equation for porosity reduction with burial stress. This equation is relevant for basin analysis and hydrocarbon exploration to predict porosity if sonic velocity data for subsurface chalk is available.......We aimed to relate changes in porosity and sonic velocity data, measured on water-saturated Eocene chalks from 36 Ocean Drilling Program drill sites in the Atlantic Ocean, to vertical effective stress and thermal maturity. We considered only chalk of Eocene age to avoid possible influence...... of geological age on chalk compaction trends. For each depth, vertical effective stresses as defined by Terzaghi and by Biot were calculated. We used bottom-hole temperature data to calculate the time–temperature index of thermal maturity (TTI) as defined by Lopatin. Porosity and compressional wave velocity...

  1. Study of a conceptual nuclear-energy center at Green River, Utah: site-specific transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-01

    The objective of the following report is to assess the adequacy of the local and regional transportation network for handling traffic, logistics, and the transport of major power plant components to the Utah Nuclear Energy Center (UNEC) Horse Bench site. The discussion is divided into four parts: (1) system requirements; (2) description of the existing transportation network; (3) evaluation; (4) summary and conclusions.

  2. 76 FR 53972 - Florida Power Corporation, Crystal River Unit No. 3 Nuclear Generating Plant; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... rule (72 FR 49139, August 28, 2007). The E-Filing process requires participants to submit and serve all... indirect transfer of control of CR-3, along with Brunswick Steam Electric Plant (BSEP), Units 1 and 2, including BSEP Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation, Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1,...

  3. Exclusive processes at Jefferson Lab

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Haiyan Gao

    2003-11-01

    Mapping the transition from strongly interacting, non-perturbative quantum chromodynamics, where nucleon–meson degrees of freedom are effective to perturbative QCD of quark and gluon degrees of freedom, is one of the most fundamental, challenging tasks in nuclear and particle physics. Exclusive processes such as proton–proton elastic scattering, meson photoproduction, and deuteron photodisintegration have been pursued extensively at many laboratories over the years in the search for such a transition, particularly at Jefferson Lab in recent years, taking the advantage of the high luminosity capability of the CEBAF facility. In this talk, I review recent results from Jefferson Lab on deuteron photodisintegration and photopion production processes and the future 12 GeV program.

  4. Modeling Various Teaching Methods in a Faculty of Education in Science Education: Chalk and Talk, Virtual Labs or Hovercrafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laronde, Gerald; MacLeod, Katarin

    2012-01-01

    This research was conducted with 291 Junior/Intermediate (J/I) pre-service teachers in a ubiquitous laptop Bachelor of Education program at Nipissing University. The authors modeled a lesson using three different teaching styles using flight as the content medium, a specific expectation found in the Ontario Ministry of Education grade six Science…

  5. Aerobic degradation potential of the herbicides mecoprop, dichlorprop and bentazone in groundwater from chalk aquifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi, Suzi; Hybel, Anne-Marie; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup;

    2011-01-01

    The aerobic degradation potential of mecoprop, dichlorprop and bentazone was studied at concentration of 1 μg/L in laboratory batch experiments with groundwater from chalk aquifers. Within the incubation period of 129 days, 14C-mecoprop concentration decreased to 60-80% in the microcosms with gro......The aerobic degradation potential of mecoprop, dichlorprop and bentazone was studied at concentration of 1 μg/L in laboratory batch experiments with groundwater from chalk aquifers. Within the incubation period of 129 days, 14C-mecoprop concentration decreased to 60-80% in the microcosms...... with groundwater collected from two monitoring wells (Well 1 and 2). Dichlorprop degradation was neither observed under aerobic nor anaerobic conditions, while 17-27% of the initial concentration of 14C-bentazone was removed. The results indicated a degradation potential of mecoprop and bentazone under aerobic...

  6. NMR response of non-reservoir fluids in sandstone and chalk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zwaag, C H; Stallmach, F; Skjetne, T; Veliyulin, E

    2001-01-01

    Transverse (T2) NMR relaxation time at 2 MHz proton resonance frequency was measured on core plug samples from two different lithologies, sandstone and chalk, before and after exposure to selected drilling fluids. The results show that NMR signal response was significantly altered after displacing 50% of the original pore fluids, crude oil and water, by drilling fluid filtrate. Relaxation spectra of the rock samples invaded by water-based filtrate shift to significantly shorter T2-values. This shift yields an underestimation of the free-fluid volumes when selecting cut-off values of 33 ms and 100 ms for sandstone and chalk, respectively. In opposite, rock samples affected by oil-based filtrate respond with a signal indicating significantly larger free-fluid volumes than present before exposure. NMR-permeability calculated based on the Timur-Coates Free Fluid model altered in some cases by one order of magnitude. PMID:11445352

  7. Change of Static and Dynamic Elastic Properties due to CO² Injection in North Sea Chalk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alam, Mohammad Monzurul; Hjuler, M.L.; Christensen, H.F.;

    2012-01-01

    Reservoir modeling and monitoring uses dynamic data for predicting and determining static changes. Dynamic data are achieved from the propagation velocity of elastic waves in rock while static data are obtained from the mechanical deformation. Reservoir simulation and monitoring are particularly......% non-carbonate. We studied difference in static and dynamic behavior. Furthermore, brine saturated data were compared with CO2 injected data to reveal the effect of supercritical CO2 injection in both static and dynamic elastic properties. We used strain gauges and LVDTs to measure static deformation....... We observed lower dynamic elastic modulus for chalk with higher non-carbonate content at porosities lower than 30%. In 30% porosity chalk, dynamic compressional and bulk modulus were found significantly higher than the static modulus. Static measurements with LVDT were found lowest. The effect of CO2...

  8. Investigation of Lecturer's Chalk by X-Ray Florescence and Fast Neutron Activation Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different samples of lecturer's chalk were studied, using X-ray florescence (XRF) and Fast Neutron Activation Analysis (FNAA) techniques to ensure the safety of its use. The K (X-rays) and the gamma-rays were measured, using Si(Li) and high-purity germanium (HPGe) spectrometers to detect and determine qualitatively and quantitatively the constituents of the studied samples. For the investigated bulk chalk samples, the XRF was used for determination the average neutron flux of 2×107 n/cm2 sec. The concentrations of the elements (Ca and small traces of Al, Fe, Mg and Si) were measured and their presence was confirmed by γ-ray, lifetime and/or XRF measurements.

  9. Experimental Study of Bacterial Penetration into Chalk Rock: Mechanisms and Effect on Permeability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halim, Amalia Yunita; Shapiro, Alexander; Eliasson Lantz, Anna;

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial selective plugging is one of the mechanisms through which microorganisms can be applied for enhanced oil recovery, as bacteria can plug the water-swept zones of a reservoir, thus altering the flow paths and improving sweep efficiency. However, complete understanding of the penetration...... behavior of bacteria is lacking, especially in chalk formations where characteristic pore throat sizes are comparable with the sizes of bacterial cells. In this study, two bacterial strains, Bacillus licheniformis 421 (spore-forming) and Pseudomonas putida K12 (non-spore forming) were used to investigate...... the penetration of bacteria into chalk and its effect on permeability reduction. The core plugs were produced from Stevns Klint outcrop with low permeability (2–4 mD) and with pore sizes comparable to bacterial sizes. Both types of bacteria were able to penetrate and to be transported through the cores to some...

  10. Burial diagenesis of deep sea chalk as reflected in Biot's coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke; Alam, Mohammad Monzurul

    2013-01-01

    to limestone as burial increases and porosity decreases. The porosity decrease is accompanied by an increasing velocity to elastic waves, and consequently a decreasing Biot's coefficient, as estimated from velocity and density of core samples. When the effective burial stress is normalized to total horizontal...... cross sectional area, the porosity is found to decline as a function of stress. The porosity trend proceeds smoothly from ooze over chalk to limestone. By contrast, when vertical effective stress is normalized to grain contact area, each lithology shows a distinct porosity-decline - stress pattern....... In the ooze, we find that the natural compaction causes an increasing stress on grain contact area, indicating that the ooze particles become strongly strained. In the chalk section, contact cement is probably the reason why particles become less strained as porosity declines. In the limestone, stress...

  11. Burial diagenesis of deep sea chalk as reflected in Biot’s coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke; Alam, Mohammad Monzurul

    to limestone as burial increases and porosity decreases. The porosity decrease is accompanied by an increasing velocity to elastic waves, and consequently a decreasing Biot’s coefficient, as estimated from velocity and density of core samples. When the effective burial stress is normalized to total horizontal...... cross sectional area, the porosity is found to decline as a function of stress. The porosity trend proceeds smoothly from ooze over chalk to limestone. By contrast, when vertical effective stress is normalized to grain contact area, each lithology shows a distinct porosity-decline - stress pattern....... In the ooze, we find that the natural compaction causes an increasing stress on grain contact area, indicating that the ooze particles become strongly strained. In the chalk section, contact cement is probably the reason why particles become less strained as porosity declines. In the limestone, stress...

  12. Seismic architecture of the Chalk Group from onshore reflection data in eastern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreau, Julien; Anderskouv, Kresten; Boldreel, Lars Ole;

    The Upper Cretaceous-Danian chalk is well exposed in the 14 km long coastal cliff of Stevns Klint (eastern Denmark). The cliff is a world renowned for its spectacular exposure of the Cretaceous-Palaeogene boundary. Based on regional geological knowledge of the field and cores, the characteristics...... but the succession has been uplifted of c. 1 km. The main fracture patterns are associated with the recent unloading of the ice, opening shallow horizontal fractures. Subvertical fracturation affects also the Chalk and contribute to most of the permeability. Observation of the seismic reflection profiles shows...... intensive fracturing association with local folds and offsets of reflections reaching 20 metres. The seismic signal is particularly damaged by swarms of fractures which resemble flower structures or polygonal fracture networks. Even if some of the fracture swarms seem to reach the Earth's surface, most...

  13. Gas compositions and processes in the unsaturated zone of the chalk and triassic sandstone aquifers, England

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparatively little is known about the nature of gas sources, sinks and transport in the unsaturated zone, yet this topic is of importance to a wide range of activities extending from agriculture to the construction industry. The composition of the unsaturated zone atmosphere in two different English aquifer types (Chalk and Triassic sandstone) was investigated by the construction of gas sampling boreholes with depths of up to 25 m. Monitoring took place at approximately 1-2 month intervals over 12-24 months. No significant seasonal variations in gas composition were noted. The following mean concentrations of gases was observed (Chalk, sandstone): N2 (77.7%, 77.7%), O2 (19.5%, 19.8%), CO2 (1.5%, 1.5%), N2O (4.2 ppmv, 2.4 ppmv), CH4 (0.1 ppmv, 0.3 ppmv), and δ13C-CO2 (-25.3 per mille, -19.9 per mille). The factor of 50 increase in CO2 reflects production from soil organic matter, supplemented in the sandstone by some CO2 from acidification or carbonate material. The decrease in O2 of little more than 1% absolute from atmospheric concentration indicates the persistence of oxidizing conditions in both unsaturated zones, and the relatively high concentrations of N2O therefore appear likely to have been derived from nitrification rather than denitrification. The limited magnitude of denitrification processes is further illustrated by N2/Ar and δ15N data. To understand better the rate of movement of gases in the unsaturated zone of a fissured aquifer, a tracer test using SF6 was carried out at the Chalk site. The results indicate a diffusion rate up to 103 times higher than that expected for the Chalk matrix alone. (author)

  14. Probing the intrinsically oil-wet surfaces of pores in North Sea chalk at subpore resolution

    OpenAIRE

    Hassenkam, T.; Skovbjerg, L. L.; Stipp, S. L. S.

    2009-01-01

    Pore surface properties control oil recovery. This is especially true for chalk reservoirs, where pores are particularly small. Wettability, the tendency for a surface to cover itself with fluid, is traditionally defined by the angle a droplet makes with a surface, but this macroscopic definition is meaningless when the particles are smaller than even the smallest droplet. Understanding surface wetting, at the pore scale, will provide clues for more effective oil recovery. We used a special m...

  15. Investigated Miscible CO2 Flooding for Enhancing Oil Recovery in Wettability Altered Chalk and Sandstone Rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabrizy, Vahid Alipour

    2012-07-01

    The thesis addresses oil recovery by miscible CO2 flooding from modified sandstone and chalk rocks. Calcite mineral surface is modified with stearic acid (SA) and asphaltene, and the silicate mineral surfaces are modified with N,N-dimethyldodecylamine (NN-DMDA) and asphaltene. The stability of adsorbed polar components in presence of SO4 2- and Mg2 + ions is also investigated. Recovery from sandstone cores is consistently lower than that from chalk cores saturated with the same oil and flooded with CO2 at all miscible flooding conditions. This may be due to the larger permeability contrasts in sandstone cores, which promote the fingering phenomenon. Miscible CO2 flooding for chalk and sandstone cores with distilled water, as initial water saturation, shows also lower oil recovery than cores saturated with different ions. At higher miscible flooding conditions, higher oil recovery is obtained. However, presence of light components (such as C1 or C3) in oil reduced the recovery. Oil recovery in presence of methane (C1) is lower than that in presence of methane and propane (C1/C3). A ternary diagram was constructed in order to understand the CO2 flooding mechanism(s) at the different flooding conditions and in presence of light components. The side effect of the flooding with CO2 is the probability for asphaltene deposition. An approach based on solubility parameter in the liquid, is used to assess the risk for asphaltene deposition during CO2 miscible flooding. The light components (C1/C3) and higher flooding conditions enhanced the risk for asphaltene instability. It is also shown higher amount of asphaltene deposition in chalk cores than that in sandstone cores at similar miscibility conditions.(au)

  16. The movement of tritium from the Chalk River Liquid Disposal Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A groundwater survey has shown that tritium, as tritiated water, has migrated from the Liquid Disposal Area and spread beneath 70 acres of adjoining land. An estimated 8,250 curies beneath South Swamp and Perch Lake Swamp are advancing towards Perch Lake. A weak 'front' has already reached the lake but the concentrations are expected to rise to ten times the present value in two years. A further increase is anticipated in four years time. (author)

  17. Development and irradiation testing of Al-U3Si2 at Chalk River Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mini-elements containing Al-64 wt% U3Si2 (3.15 gU/cm3), with three discrete U3Si2 particle-size distributions, have been irradiated up to 93 at% burnup in the NRU reactor. The uranium silicide (U-7.0Si) was used in the as-cast condition, and contained up to 4 wt% free uranium in the U3Si2 matrix. Post-irradiation examinations (PIE) of the high-burnup elements have been recently completed. PIE included underwater and hot-cell examinations, immersion density measurements, neutron radiography, optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with wavelength dispersion X-ray (WDX) analysis, and computerized image analysis of the fission-gas bubble-size distributions. The results show that the Al-U3Si2 swelled less than Al-U3Si fuel previously irradiated under similar conditions in NRU, and no significant swelling dependence on particle-size distribution was observed. Al-U3Si2 core volume increases ranged from 4.2 to 4.7 vol%, compared to 5.8 to 6.8 vol% for Al-U3Si fuel with identical uranium loadings. SEM examinations revealed that the U3Si2 (U-7.0Si) particles contained regions with relatively ordered, very dense populations of sub-micron fission-gas bubbles. In contrast, the gas bubbles are randomly distributed within U3Si (U-3.96Si) particles, vary widely in size, and small bubbles coalesce to form larger bubbles. The capability of U3Si2 to retain fission gas in small bubbles accounts for the lower swelling. (author)

  18. Oxidation and dispersion of HT in the environment: The August 1986 field experiment at Chalk River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The short-range environmental dispersion and oxidation of a release of tritiated hydrogen (HT) to the atmosphere has been studied in a field experiment. Emphasis was placed on the processes leading to the appearance of tritiated water (HTO) vapor in the atmosphere because HTO is much more radiotoxic than HT. The following conclusions were reached: No evidence was found for the rapid conversion of HT to HTO in the atmosphere; HTO observed in air, during and after the release, arose mainly from HT oxidation in the soil followed by emission of HTO; HT deposition velocities to soil ranged from 0.041 cm s-1 to 0.13 cm s-1, consistent with previous chamber measurements; the rate of HTO loss from soil, averaged over 21 d, was less than 1% h-1; and HTO concentrations in vegetation water initially increased with time after the release, then by 48 h decreased exponentially at a rate similar to soils

  19. A particle assembly/constrained expansion (PACE) model for the formation and structure of porous metal oxide deposits on nuclear fuel rods in pressurized light water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenner, Donald W., E-mail: brenner@ncsu.edu; Lu, Shijing; O’Brien, Christopher J.; Bucholz, Eric W.; Rak, Zsolt

    2015-02-15

    A new model is proposed for the structure and properties of porous metal oxide scales (aka Chalk River Unidentified Deposits (CRUD)) observed on the nuclear fuel rod cladding in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR). The model is based on the thermodynamically-driven expansion of agglomerated octahedral nickel ferrite particles in response to pH and temperature changes in the CRUD. The model predicts that porous nickel ferrite with internal {1 1 1} surfaces is a thermodynamically stable structure under PWR conditions even when the free energy of formation of bulk nickel ferrite is positive. This explains the pervasive presence of nickel ferrite in CRUD, observed CRUD microstructures, why CRUD maintains its porosity, and variations in porosity within the CRUD observed experimentally. This model is a stark departure from decades of conventional wisdom and detailed theoretical analysis of CRUD chemistry, and defines new research directions for model validation, and for understanding and ultimately controlling CRUD formation.

  20. A particle assembly/constrained expansion (PACE) model for the formation and structure of porous metal oxide deposits on nuclear fuel rods in pressurized light water reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Donald W.; Lu, Shijing; O'Brien, Christopher J.; Bucholz, Eric W.; Rak, Zsolt

    2015-02-01

    A new model is proposed for the structure and properties of porous metal oxide scales (aka Chalk River Unidentified Deposits (CRUD)) observed on the nuclear fuel rod cladding in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR). The model is based on the thermodynamically-driven expansion of agglomerated octahedral nickel ferrite particles in response to pH and temperature changes in the CRUD. The model predicts that porous nickel ferrite with internal {1 1 1} surfaces is a thermodynamically stable structure under PWR conditions even when the free energy of formation of bulk nickel ferrite is positive. This explains the pervasive presence of nickel ferrite in CRUD, observed CRUD microstructures, why CRUD maintains its porosity, and variations in porosity within the CRUD observed experimentally. This model is a stark departure from decades of conventional wisdom and detailed theoretical analysis of CRUD chemistry, and defines new research directions for model validation, and for understanding and ultimately controlling CRUD formation.

  1. Study of a conceptual nuclear energy center at Green River, Utah: institutional and licensing issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document constitutes a segment of a feasibility study investigating the ramification of construcing a nuclear energy center in an arid western region. In this phase of the study, the institutional and licensing issues impacting a NEC were analyzed. The most prominent issue facing such a concept is the ownership form of NEC. In addition, legislation and regulation also have a substantial impact regardless of the ownership format

  2. The role of diagenisis in the hydrogeological stratification of carbonate aquifers: an example from the chalk at Fair Cross, Berkshire, UK

    OpenAIRE

    Bloomfield, J.

    1997-01-01

    International audience; Carbonate rocks form important aquifers in many parts of the world and in north-west Europe the Chalk is a primary source of potable water. When flushed with relatively fresh groundwaters, the Chalk may undergo significant diagenetic alteration at relatively shallow depths resulting in a physically and hydrogeochemically stratified aquifer. Diagenetic affects may have important implications for the effective exploitable thickness of the Chalk aquifer and for water qual...

  3. Marine macrofossil communities in the uppermost Maastrichtian chalk of Stevns Klint, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas; Surlyk, Finn

    2014-01-01

    Three successive marine habitats and their benthic macrofossil communities have been recognised and assessed in the uppermost Maastrichtian chalk of Stevns Klint, Denmark. The mound-bedded lower Sigerslev Member was deposited below the photic zone under the influence of persistent, non-erosive bo......Three successive marine habitats and their benthic macrofossil communities have been recognised and assessed in the uppermost Maastrichtian chalk of Stevns Klint, Denmark. The mound-bedded lower Sigerslev Member was deposited below the photic zone under the influence of persistent, non......-erosive bottom currents. It is draped by the upper Sigerslev Member, which was laid down in deeper water than any other chalk known from onshore Denmark. Deposition took place under quiet conditions, apparently not influenced by bottom currents. The sparse level-bottom community lived on a seafloor with low...... growth of small-sized bryozoans governed by nutrient-rich currents from the south. The macrofauna of this member is of very high density and richness, yet species composition is similar to that of the mound-bedded lower Sigerslev Member. The bryozoan thickets of the two members are accompanied by a rich...

  4. Hydrocarbons exploration, development from low-permeability chalks - upper cretaceous Niobrara formation, Rocky Mountains region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollastro, R.M.; Scholle, P.A.

    1984-04-23

    The Niobrara formation in the Rocky Mountains/Great Plains region serves as a classic model in research, exploration, production, and development programs involving unconventional reservoirs and source-rock systems. Numerous geologic and geochemical studies of the organic and inorganic constituents within the chalk of the Upper Cretaceous Niobrara formation, as well as other chalks and associated units, have identified several depositional and diagenetic relationships, giving explorationists more insight into reservoir properties and hydrocarbon maturity in a particular area of interest. The identification and understanding of the geologic, geophysical, and engineering aspects of these chalks have helped develop the Niobrara into a major play area in the Rocky Mountains/Great Plains region. Geologists, reviewing the area's (1) structural relationships and hydrocarbon distribution, (2) reservoir parameters, (3) production technology and log evaluation, (4) fracture stimulation and production characteristics, and (5) exploration models and resource potential, predict that the Niobrara is a highly promising hydrocarbon reservoir/source-rock system that will make a significant contribution to the energy resources of the Denver basin and adjacent areas.

  5. Late Cretaceous (Late Campanian-Maastrichtian) sea surface temperature record of the Boreal Chalk Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, N.; Harlou, R.; Schovsbo, N. H.; Stemmerik, L.; Surlyk, F.

    2015-11-01

    The last 8 Myr of the Cretaceous greenhouse interval were characterized by a progressive global cooling with superimposed cool/warm fluctuations. The mechanisms responsible for these climatic fluctuations remain a source of debate that can only be resolved through multi-disciplinary studies and better time constraints. For the first time, we present a record of very high-resolution (ca. 4.5 kyr) sea-surface temperature (SST) changes from the Boreal epicontinental Chalk Sea (Stevns-1 core, Denmark), tied to an astronomical time scale of the late Campanian-Maastrichtian (74 to 66 Myr). Well-preserved bulk stable isotope trends and calcareous nannofossil palaeoecological patterns from the fully cored Stevns-1 borehole show marked changes in SSTs. These variations correlate with deep-water records of climate change from the tropical South Atlantic and Pacific oceans but differ greatly from the climate variations of the North Atlantic. We demonstrate that the onset and end of the early Maastrichtian cooling and of the large negative Campanian-Maastrichtian boundary carbon isotope excursion are coincident in the Chalk Sea. The direct link between SSTs and δ13C variations in the Chalk Sea reassesses long-term glacio-eustasy as the potential driver of carbon isotope and climatic variations in the Maastrichtian.

  6. Late Cretaceous (late Campanian-Maastrichtian) sea-surface temperature record of the Boreal Chalk Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, Nicolas; Harlou, Rikke; Schovsbo, Niels H.; Stemmerik, Lars; Surlyk, Finn

    2016-02-01

    The last 8 Myr of the Cretaceous greenhouse interval were characterized by a progressive global cooling with superimposed cool/warm fluctuations. The mechanisms responsible for these climatic fluctuations remain a source of debate that can only be resolved through multi-disciplinary studies and better time constraints. For the first time, we present a record of very high-resolution (ca. 4.5 kyr) sea-surface temperature (SST) changes from the Boreal epicontinental Chalk Sea (Stevns-1 core, Denmark), tied to an astronomical timescale of the late Campanian-Maastrichtian (74 to 66 Ma). Well-preserved bulk stable isotope trends and calcareous nannofossil palaeoecological patterns from the fully cored Stevns-1 borehole show marked changes in SSTs. These variations correlate with deep-water records of climate change from the tropical South Atlantic and Pacific oceans but differ greatly from the climate variations of the North Atlantic. We demonstrate that the onset and end of the early Maastrichtian cooling and of the large negative Campanian-Maastrichtian boundary carbon isotope excursion are coincident in the Chalk Sea. The direct link between SSTs and δ13C variations in the Chalk Sea reassesses long-term glacio-eustasy as the potential driver of carbon isotope and climatic variations in the Maastrichtian.

  7. Late Cretaceous (Late Campanian–Maastrichtian sea surface temperature record of the Boreal Chalk Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Thibault

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The last 8 Myr of the Cretaceous greenhouse interval were characterized by a progressive global cooling with superimposed cool/warm fluctuations. The mechanisms responsible for these climatic fluctuations remain a source of debate that can only be resolved through multi-disciplinary studies and better time constraints. For the first time, we present a record of very high-resolution (ca. 4.5 kyr sea-surface temperature (SST changes from the Boreal epicontinental Chalk Sea (Stevns-1 core, Denmark, tied to an astronomical time scale of the late Campanian–Maastrichtian (74 to 66 Myr. Well-preserved bulk stable isotope trends and calcareous nannofossil palaeoecological patterns from the fully cored Stevns-1 borehole show marked changes in SSTs. These variations correlate with deep-water records of climate change from the tropical South Atlantic and Pacific oceans but differ greatly from the climate variations of the North Atlantic. We demonstrate that the onset and end of the early Maastrichtian cooling and of the large negative Campanian–Maastrichtian boundary carbon isotope excursion are coincident in the Chalk Sea. The direct link between SSTs and δ13C variations in the Chalk Sea reassesses long-term glacio-eustasy as the potential driver of carbon isotope and climatic variations in the Maastrichtian.

  8. Development and maintenance of a telescoping debris flow fan in response to human-induced fan surface channelization, Chalk Creek Valley Natural Debris Flow Laboratory, Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasklewicz, T.; Scheinert, C.

    2016-01-01

    Channel change has been a constant theme throughout William L. Graf's research career. Graf's work has examined channel changes in the context of natural environmental fluctuations, but more often has focused on quantifying channel change in the context of anthropogenic modifications. Here, we consider how channelization of a debris flows along a bajada has perpetuated and sustained the development of 'telescoping' alluvial fan. Two-dimensional debris-flow modeling shows the importance of the deeply entrenched channelized flow in the development of a telescoping alluvial fan. GIS analyses of repeat (five different debris flows), high-resolution (5 cm) digital elevation models (DEMs) generated from repeat terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) data elucidate sediment and topographic dynamics of the new telescoping portion of the alluvial fan (the embryonic fan). Flow constriction from channelization helps to perpetuate debris-flow runout and to maintain the embryonic fan and telescoping nature of the alluvial fan complex. Embryonic fan development, in response to five debris flows, proceeds with a major portion of the flows depositing on the southern portion of the embryonic fan. The third through the fifth debris flows also begin to shift some deposition to the northern portion of the embryonic. The transfer of sediment from a higher portion of the embryonic fan to a lower portion continues currently on the embryonic fan. While channelized flow has been shown to be critical to the maintenance of the telescoping fan, the flow constriction has led to higher than background levels of sediment deposition in Chalk Creek, a tributary of the Arkansas River. A majority of the sediment from each debris flow is incorporated into Chalk Creek as opposed to being stored on the embryonic fan.

  9. Chernobyl nuclear accident hydrologic analysis and emergency evaluation of radionuclide distributions in the Dnieper River, Ukraine, during the 1993 summer flood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voitsekhovitch, O.V. [Ukrainian Hydrometeorological Inst., Kiev (Ukraine); Zheleznyak, M.J. [Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine). Cybernetics Center; Onishi, Y. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-06-01

    This report describes joint activities of Program 7.1.F, ``Radionuclide Transport in Water and Soil Systems,`` of the USA/Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) Joint Coordinating Committee of Civilian Nuclear Reactor Safety to study the hydrogeochemical behavior of radionuclides released to the Pripyat and Dnieper rivers from the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in Ukraine. These joint activities included rapid evaluation of radionuclide distributions in the Pripyat and Dnieper river system and field data evaluation and modeling for the 1993 summer flood to assist the Ukrainian government in their emergency response during the flood. In July-August 1993, heavy rainfall over the Pripyat River Catchment in Belarus and Ukraine caused severe flooding, significantly raising {sup 90}Sr concentrations in the river. Near the Chernobyl area, the maximum {sup 90}Sr concentration in the Pripyat River reached 20--25 PCi/L in early August; near the Pripyat River mouth, the concentration rose to 35 pCi/L. The peak {sup 90}Sr concentration in the Kiev Reservoir (a major source of drinking water for Kiev) was 12 pCi/L. Based on these measured radionuclide levels, additional modeling results and the assumption of water purification in a water treatment station, {sup 90}Sr concentrations in Kiev`s drinking water were estimated to be less than 8 pCi/L. Unlike {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs concentrations in the Pripyat River during the flood did not rise significantly to the pre-flood levels. Estimated {sup 137}Cs concentrations for the Kiev drinking water were two orders of magnitude lower than the drinking water standard of 500 pCi/L for {sup 137}Cs.

  10. Chernobyl nuclear accident hydrologic analysis and emergency evaluation of radionuclide distributions in the Dnieper River, Ukraine, during the 1993 summer flood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes joint activities of Program 7.1.F, ''Radionuclide Transport in Water and Soil Systems,'' of the USA/Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) Joint Coordinating Committee of Civilian Nuclear Reactor Safety to study the hydrogeochemical behavior of radionuclides released to the Pripyat and Dnieper rivers from the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in Ukraine. These joint activities included rapid evaluation of radionuclide distributions in the Pripyat and Dnieper river system and field data evaluation and modeling for the 1993 summer flood to assist the Ukrainian government in their emergency response during the flood. In July-August 1993, heavy rainfall over the Pripyat River Catchment in Belarus and Ukraine caused severe flooding, significantly raising 90Sr concentrations in the river. Near the Chernobyl area, the maximum 90Sr concentration in the Pripyat River reached 20--25 PCi/L in early August; near the Pripyat River mouth, the concentration rose to 35 pCi/L. The peak 90Sr concentration in the Kiev Reservoir (a major source of drinking water for Kiev) was 12 pCi/L. Based on these measured radionuclide levels, additional modeling results and the assumption of water purification in a water treatment station, 90Sr concentrations in Kiev's drinking water were estimated to be less than 8 pCi/L. Unlike 90Sr, 137Cs concentrations in the Pripyat River during the flood did not rise significantly to the pre-flood levels. Estimated 137Cs concentrations for the Kiev drinking water were two orders of magnitude lower than the drinking water standard of 500 pCi/L for 137Cs

  11. Simulação da evolução da potência de reatores nucleares de pesquisa utilizando o software LabVIEW®

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, Antônio Juscelino; Mesquita, Amir Zacarias; Oliveira de Tello, Clédola Cásicca

    2010-01-01

    O reator nuclear de pesquisa TRIGA IPR-R1 Mark I do Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), localizado em Belo Horizonte – Brasil, é um reator do tipo piscina refrigerado à água leve. Os reatores TRIGA (Training, Research, Isotope, General Atomics) foram projetados para pesquisa, treinamento e produção de radioisótopos. A Agência Internacional de Energia Atômica (AIEA) recomenda o uso de interfaces amigáveis e seguras para o monitoramento e controle dos parâmetros ...

  12. Report on the Savannah River Site aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel alternatives cost study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Initial estimates of costs for the interim management and disposal of aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel (SNF) were developed during preparation of the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on the Nuclear Weapons Nonproliferation Policy Concerning Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel. The Task Team evaluated multiple alternatives, assessing programmatic, technical, and schedule risks, and generated life-cycle cost projections for each alternative. The eight technology alternatives evaluated were: direct co-disposal; melt and dilute; reprocessing; press and dilute; glass material oxidation dissolution system (GMODS); electrometallurgical treatment; dissolve and vitrify; and plasma arc. In followup to the Business Plan that was developed to look at SNF dry storage, WSRC prepared an addendum to the cost study. This addendum estimated the costs for the modification and use of an existing (105L) reactor facility versus a greenfield approach for new facilities (for the Direct Co-Disposal and Melt and Dilute alternatives). WSRC assessed the impacts of a delay in reprocessing due to the potential reservation of H-Canyon for other missions (i.e., down blending HEU for commercial use or the conversion of plutonium to either MOX fuel or an immobilized repository disposal form). This report presents the relevant results from these WSRC cost studies, consistent with the most recent project policy, technology implementation, canyon utilization, and inventory assumptions. As this is a summary report, detailed information on the technical alternatives or the cost assumptions raised in each of the above-mentioned cost studies is not provided. A comparison table that briefly describes the bases used for the WSRC analyses is included as Appendix A

  13. Qualification of Programmable Electronic System (PES) equipment based on international nuclear I and C standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power plants (NPPs) are increasingly faced with the challenge of qualifying procured equipment, sub-components, and systems that contain digital programmed electronics for use in safety-related applications. Referred to as a 'programmable electronic system' (PES), such equipment typically contains both complex logic that is vulnerable to systematic design faults, and low voltage electronics hardware that is subject to random faults. Procured PES products or components are often only commercial grade, yet can offer reliable cost effective alternatives to custom-designed or nuclear qualified equipment, provided they can be shown to meet the quality assurance, functional safety, environmental, and reliability requirements of a particular application. The process of confirming this is referred to as application-specific product qualification (ASPQ) and can be challenging and costly. This paper provides an overview of an approach that has been developed at Atomic Energy Canada Limited (AECL) and successfully applied to PES equipment intended for use in domestic Candu R 6 nuclear power plants and special purpose reactors at Chalk River Laboratories. The approach has evolved over the past decade and has recently been adapted to be consistent with, and take advantage of new standards that are applicable to nuclear safety-related I and C systems. Also discussed are how recognized third-party safety-certifications of PES equipment to International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards, and the assessment methods employed, may be used to reduce ASPQ effort. (authors)

  14. The Virtual Lab System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A virtual lab system is the simulation of real devices and experiments using computer and network tech-nology. It can make users do experiments easily, observe experiment phenomena and results through the remote termi-nal. Consequently, users can get final results to verify relative theory. The article analyses the features of virtual labsystems. A real virtual lab system named "Multimedia Virtual Lab for Digital Circuit Logic Design (MVLDCLD) "which has been developed by the authors and their group is also presented.

  15. Jefferson Lab Science: Past and Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKeown, Robert [Jefferson Lab, Newport News, VA

    2015-09-01

    The Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) and associated experimental equipment at Jefferson Lab comprise a unique facility for experimental nuclear physics. This facility is presently being upgraded, which will enable a new experimental program with substantial discovery potential to address important topics in nuclear, hadronic, and electroweak physics. Further in the future, it is envisioned that the Laboratory will evolve into an electron-ion colliding beam facility.

  16. Crystallization Formulation Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Crystallization Formulation Lab fills a critical need in the process development and optimization of current and new explosives and energetic formulations. The...

  17. USNA DIGITAL FORENSICS LAB

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — To enable Digital Forensics and Computer Security research and educational opportunities across majors and departments. Lab Mission Establish and maintain a Digital...

  18. Fabrication and Prototyping Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The Fabrication and Prototyping Lab for composite structures provides a wide variety of fabrication capabilities critical to enabling hands-on research and...

  19. Discussing spent nuclear fuel in high school classrooms: addressing public fears through early education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkel, S. [Deep River Science Academy, 20 Forest Ave. P.O. Box 600, Deep River, Ontario K0J 1P0 (Canada); Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario, K0J 1J0 (Canada); Sullivan, J.; Jones, S.; Sullivan, K. [Deep River Science Academy, 20 Forest Ave. P.O. Box 600, Deep River, Ontario K0J 1P0 (Canada); Hyland, B.; Pencer, J.; Colton, A. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario, K0J 1J0 (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    The Inreach program combines the Deep River Science Academy (DRSA) 'learning through research' approach with state of the art communication technology to bring scientific research to high school classrooms. The Inreach program follows the DRSA teaching model where a university student tutor works on a research project with scientific staff at AECL's Chalk River Laboratories. Participating high school classes are located across Canada. The high school students learn about the ongoing research activities via weekly web conferences. In order to engage the students and encourage participation in the conferences, themed exercises linked to the research project are provided to the students. The DRSA's Inreach program uses a cost-effective internet technology to reach a wide audience, in an interactive setting, without anyone leaving their desks or offices. An example Inreach research project is presented here: an investigation of the potential of the Canadian supercritical water cooled reactor (SCWR) concept to burn transuranic elements (Np, Pu, Am, Cm) to reduce the impact of used nuclear fuel. During this project a university student worked with AECL (Atomic Energy of Canada Limited) researchers on technical aspects of the project, and high school students followed their progress and learned about the composition, hazards, and disposition options for used nuclear fuel. Previous projects included the effects of tritium on cellular viability and neutron diffraction measurement of residual stresses in automobile engines.

  20. Non-radiological consequences to the aquatic biota and fisheries of the Susquehanna River from the 1979 accident at Three Mile Island Nuclear Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The non-radiological consequences to the aquatic biota and fishes of the Susquehanna River from the March 28, 1979 accident at Three Mile Island Nuclear Station were assessed through the post-accident period of July 1979. Thermal and chemical discharges during the period did not exceed required effluent limitations. Several million gallons of treated industrial waste effluents were released into the river which were not of unusual volumes compared with normal operation and were a very small proportion of the seasonally high river flows. The extent and relative location of the effluent plume were defined and the fisheries known to have been under its immediate influence were identified, including rough, forage, and predator/sport fishery species

  1. Department of Energy Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 1, Appendix C, Savannah River Site Spent Nuclear Fuel Mangement Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is engaged in two related decision making processes concerning: (1) the transportation, receipt, processing, and storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the DOE Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) which will focus on the next 10 years; and (2) programmatic decisions on future spent nuclear fuel management which will emphasize the next 40 years. DOE is analyzing the environmental consequences of these spent nuclear fuel management actions in this two-volume Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Volume 1 supports broad programmatic decisions that will have applicability across the DOE complex and describes in detail the purpose and need for this DOE action. Volume 2 is specific to actions at the INEL. This document, which limits its discussion to the Savannah River Site (SRS) spent nuclear fuel management program, supports Volume 1 of the EIS. Following the introduction, Chapter 2 contains background information related to the SRS and the framework of environmental regulations pertinent to spent nuclear fuel management. Chapter 3 identifies spent nuclear fuel management alternatives that DOE could implement at the SRS, and summarizes their potential environmental consequences. Chapter 4 describes the existing environmental resources of the SRS that spent nuclear fuel activities could affect. Chapter 5 analyzes in detail the environmental consequences of each spent nuclear fuel management alternative and describes cumulative impacts. The chapter also contains information on unavoidable adverse impacts, commitment of resources, short-term use of the environment and mitigation measures.

  2. Caoxite-hydroxyapatite composition as consolidating material for the chalk stone from Basarabi-Murfatlar churches ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ion, Rodica-Mariana; Turcanu-Caruţiu, Daniela; Fierăscu, Radu-Claudiu; Fierăscu, Irina; Bunghez, Ioana-Raluca; Ion, Mihaela-Lucia; Teodorescu, Sofia; Vasilievici, Gabriel; Rădiţoiu, Valentin

    2015-12-01

    The development of new composition for surface conservation of some architectural monuments represents now an important research topic. The Basarabi-Murfatlar Ensemble, recognized as the first religious monument from mediaeval Dobrogea (Romania) (from 9th to 11th century), is one of the most impressive archaeological sites of Europe. This ensemble is built from amorphous calcium carbonate, very sensitive to humidity, frost, salts, etc. The aim of this paper is to test on chalk stone samples a new consolidant - hydroxyapatite (HAp) mixed with calcium oxalate trihydrate (caoxite) (COT). Some specific techniques for evaluation its impact on chalk stone surface are used, as follows: petrographical and physical-chemical techniques: SEM, OM, ICP-AES, TGA, FTIR and Raman spectroscopy, chromatic parameters changes, the accelerated weathering tests: heating, freeze-thaw, and their effects on porosity and capillary water uptake by the chalk surface. All these have been evaluated before and after treatment with COT-HAp, putting into evidence the effect of the new composition on the chalk stone surface. HAp induces COT stabilization, and their joint composition can bind weathered stone blocks providing a substantial reinforcement of chalk surface.

  3. Hematology, micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities in fishes from São Francisco river, Minas Gerais state, Brazil = Hematologia, micronúcleos e anomalias nucleares em peixes do rio São Francisco, Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Robson Seriani; Maria José Tavares Ranzani-Paiva; Ângela Teresa Silva-Souza; Silvia Roseli Napoleão

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the variables leukocytary, erythrocytary, frequency of micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities in peripheral erythrocytes of Prochilodus argenteus, Pimelodus maculatus and Myleus micans from São Francisco river basin, Minas Gerais State, during the summer and winter. Thrombocytes, hematocrit and leukocyte of P.argenteus series, was influenced by climatic conditions. In P. maculatus, not were significant differences for all leukocytes and thrombocytes. In M. micans,...

  4. Making Real Virtual Labs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Harry E.; Keller, Edward E.

    2005-01-01

    Francis Bacon began defining scientific methodology in the early 17th century, and secondary school science classes began to implement science labs in the mid-19th century. By the early 20th century, leading educators were suggesting that science labs be used to develop scientific thinking habits in young students, and at the beginning of the 21st…

  5. Jefferson Lab: Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Patrizia

    2016-08-01

    The continuous electron beam accelerator facility and associated experimental equipment at Jefferson Lab comprise a unique facility for nuclear physics research whose upgrade is presently underway, with completion expected in 2017. The upgraded facility will accelerate electron beams to 11 GeV for experiments in the existing Halls A, B and C. In addition, a 12 GeV beam can be provided to a new experimental hall, Hall D, to generate a 9 GeV tagged photon beam. This upgrade will enable a new experimental program with substantial discovery potential to address important topics in hadronic, nuclear, and electroweak physics. Further in the future, it is envisioned that the Laboratory will evolve into an electron-ion colliding beam facility.

  6. Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document proposes a presentation and discussion of the main notions, issues, principles, or characteristics related to nuclear energy: radioactivity (presence in the environment, explanation, measurement, periods and activities, low doses, applications), fuel cycle (front end, mining and ore concentration, refining and conversion, fuel fabrication, in the reactor, back end with reprocessing and recycling, transport), the future of the thorium-based fuel cycle (motivations, benefits and drawbacks), nuclear reactors (principles of fission reactors, reactor types, PWR reactors, BWR, heavy-water reactor, high temperature reactor of HTR, future reactors), nuclear wastes (classification, packaging and storage, legal aspects, vitrification, choice of a deep storage option, quantities and costs, foreign practices), radioactive releases of nuclear installations (main released radio-elements, radioactive releases by nuclear reactors and by La Hague plant, gaseous and liquid effluents, impact of releases, regulation), the OSPAR Convention, management and safety of nuclear activities (from control to quality insurance, to quality management and to sustainable development), national safety bodies (mission, means, organisation and activities of ASN, IRSN, HCTISN), international bodies, nuclear and medicine (applications of radioactivity, medical imagery, radiotherapy, doses in nuclear medicine, implementation, the accident in Epinal), nuclear and R and D (past R and D programmes and expenses, main actors in France and present funding, main R and D axis, international cooperation)

  7. Full-waveform inversion of cross-hole GPR data collected in a strongly heterogeneous chalk reservoir analogue with sharp permittivity and conductivity contrasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keskinen, Johanna; Zibar, Majken Caroline Looms; Moreau, Julien;

    2014-01-01

    Chalk sediments form an important reservoir for groundwater onshore and for hydrocarbons in the Danish sector of the North Sea. Cross-hole Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) tomography is an efficient method to investigate subtle porosity variations in the chalk. Traditional ray-based inversion techn...

  8. Biot critical frequency applied as common friction factor for pore collapse and failure of chalk with different pore fluids and temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Katrine Alling; Fabricius, Ida Lykke; Foged, Niels Nielsen

    2011-01-01

    A fluid effect toward higher strengths for oil-saturated chalk compared with water-saturated chalk has previously been identified and labeled the "water-weakening phenomenon," but has not been further characterized physically. The hypothesis of this paper is that the Biot critical frequency...

  9. High resolution microgravity investigations for the detection and characterisation of subsidence associated with abandoned, coal, chalk and salt mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The closure and decay of industrial activity involving mining has scarred the landscape of urban areas and geo-hazards posed by subsurface cavities are ubiquitous throughout Europe. Features of concern consist of natural solution cavities (e.g. swallow holes and sinkholes in limestone gypsum and chalk) and man-made cavities (mine workings, shafts) in a great variety of post mining environments, including coal, salt, gypsum, anhydrite, tin and chalk. These problems restrict land utilisation, hinder regeneration, pose a threat to life, seriously damage property and services and blight property values. This paper outlines the application of microgravity techniques to characterise abandoned mining hazard in case studies from Coal, Chalk and Salt Mining environments in the UK. (authors)

  10. Mechanical and chemical processes affecting the chalk during burial, insights from combined reflection seismics, well data and field work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreau, Julien; Boussaha, Myriam; Thibault, Nicolas Rudolph;

    2014-01-01

    The chalk must undergo several phases of grain reorganisation and chemical reactions during its diagenetic evolution from a carbonaceous ooze to a sedimentary rock. Some of these transformations could be observed on structures from the kilometre- to the micrometre-scale with seismic reflection...... and cores analyses, respectively.However, few sites allow to combine all the different scale of observation for chalk diagenesis. Onshore and offshore high resolution seismics, two fully cored >350 m wells with wireline logging tools and very high quality exposures from a coastal cliff and a quarry form......-called hairline fractures. They have recently been interpreted as compaction bands associated with the pore collapse of the chalk. We have observed these fractures on the field and on the cores in specific intervals. At depth, these fractures are in genetic relation with the formation of some stylolithes...

  11. Influence of clay and silica on permeability and capillary entry pressure of chalk reservoirs in the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røgen, Birte; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2002-01-01

    specific surface area. Fifty-nine Tor and Ekofisk Formation chalk samples from five North Sea chalk reservoirs were investigated. All contain quartz and clay minerals, most commonly kaolinite and smectite, with trace amounts of illite. The contents of calcite and quartz are inversely correlated and both...... are independent of the content of clays. We thus infer that the main part of the silica is of biogenic origin. The specific surface area of the chalk is mainly controlled by clay content. The specific surface area of calcite is determined by the individual calcite crystal size and is not dependent...... on stratigraphic variations in fossil size. The specific surface area of calcite increases with increasing content of quartz and clays. These constituents may inhibit recrystallization of calcite and thus preserve high 2 specific surface area. Our data accord with the following specific surface areas (m(2) g(-1...

  12. High resolution microgravity investigations for the detection and characterisation of subsidence associated with abandoned, coal, chalk and salt mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Styles, P.; Toon, S.; Branston, M.; England, R. [Keele Univ., Applied And Environmental Geophysics Group, School of Physical and Geographical Sciences (United Kingdom); Thomas, E.; Mcgrath, R. [Geotechnology, Neath (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-01

    The closure and decay of industrial activity involving mining has scarred the landscape of urban areas and geo-hazards posed by subsurface cavities are ubiquitous throughout Europe. Features of concern consist of natural solution cavities (e.g. swallow holes and sinkholes in limestone gypsum and chalk) and man-made cavities (mine workings, shafts) in a great variety of post mining environments, including coal, salt, gypsum, anhydrite, tin and chalk. These problems restrict land utilisation, hinder regeneration, pose a threat to life, seriously damage property and services and blight property values. This paper outlines the application of microgravity techniques to characterise abandoned mining hazard in case studies from Coal, Chalk and Salt Mining environments in the UK. (authors)

  13. Prospects of Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery  in Danish chalk rocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudyk, Svetlana Nikolayevna; Jørgensen, Leif Wagner; Bah Awasi, Ismail

    chalk reservoir rocks. Parameters such as high salinity, low permeability, high temperature and toxic elements, being typical characteristics of Danish fields can cause limiting effects on MEOR applications. The work fulfilled showed that microbes can be adapted to higher salinities through a serial...... adaptation processes and our experimental microbes are able to survive, regenerate and produce gas and by-products in  salinities of up to 20 g/l higher than salinities in which pure cultures can survive. Titrimetric method proposed to determine the percentage of CO2 in the total gas produced showed that 67...

  14. Optimization of Spore Forming Bacteria Flooding for Enhanced Oil Recovery in North Sea Chalk Reservoir

    OpenAIRE

    Halim, Amalia Yunita; Nielsen, Sidsel Marie; Eliasson Lantz, Anna; Shapiro, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Little has been done to study microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) in chalk reservoirs. The present study focused on core flooding experiments to see microbial plugging and its effect on oil recovery. A pressure tapped core holder with pressure ports at 1.2 cm, 3.8 cm, and 6.3 cm from the inlet was used for this purpose. A spore forming bacterium, Bacillus licheniformis 421, was used as it was shown to be a good candidate in the previous study. Bacterial spore can penetrate deeper into the ...

  15. Waveform analysis of crosshole GPR data collected in heterogeneous chalk deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keskinen, Johanna; Nielsen, Lars; Zibar, Majken Caroline Looms;

    2014-01-01

    Chalks are important reservoirs for groundwater production onshore Denmark and for hydrocarbons in the North Sea Basin. Therefore this rock type is studied extensively with geological and geophysical methods. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) tomography is used to characterize fine-scale reservoir...... be divided into two main units based on the traveltime analysis and interpretation of the cored material from the boreholes. The lower unit consists mainly of porous calcareous mudstone with occasional occurrences of flint nodules. The upper succession is c. 8 m thick and is fairly heterogeneous...

  16. From ooze to sedimentary rock, the first diagenetic processes affecting the chalk of eastern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreau, Julien; Boussaha, Myriam; Nielsen, Lars;

    -resolution seismic reflection profiles, high-resolution wireline logs and sedimentological data from a fully cored borehole, and field information from quarry and coastal cliff exposures were taken to inform about early diagenetic features. This integrated approach for the first time enabled placing different...... fractures), stylolites and fluid escape structures can be studied using outcrop and core data. The spatial relationship between stylolites and fractures suggests pressure solution as trigger for shear failure that in turn led to the initiation of the polygonal fault system. Early diagenetic structures...... in chalk sedimentary rocks....

  17. CO2-foaming agent retention in fractured chalk models: Experiments and simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Kvæstad, Ann Helen

    2011-01-01

    Injection of CO2-gas can improve the oil recovery. In naturally fractured reservoirs such as chalk, injection of CO2-gas can result in early gas breakthrough because the gas can use the fractures as pathways from the injector to the producer. The pressure, temperature and oil properties in the reservoir can also lead to an unfavorable mobility for the gas. This can lead to low total sweep efficiency for the process. One method to increase the total sweep efficiency in the fractured reservoir ...

  18. Canadian development program for off-gas management in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian program for the development and evaluation of processes and technology for the separation and containment of radioactive species in off-gases is directed towards the following specific aspects: 1) assessment of available treatment technology and evaluation of future clean-up requirements; 2) development and engineering evaluation, under realistic conditions, of promising new processes that would be inherently simpler and safer; and 3) specification of off-gas emission control systems for future nuclear facilities based on the most favourable technology. The program is being carried out by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited in collaboration with the electrical utility, Ontario Hydro, and selected Canadian universities. A brief description is presented of methods for removing tritium and carbon-14 from the moderator systems of CANDU power reactors, methods for removing iodine from the off-gases of a molybdenum-99 production facility at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories, and procedures for monitoring the off-gas effluent composition in the Thorium Fuel Reprocessing Experiment (TFRE) facility at the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment

  19. Trace fossils of a cyclic chalk-marl succession; the upper Maastrichtian Rørdal Member, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Bodil Wesenberg; Surlyk, Finn; Bromley, Richard Granville

    2011-01-01

    -normal sample surfaces vary in area between 29 and 155 cm2. Eight ichnogenera and two undetermined ichnogenera are recognised. The member is characterised by three ichnofabrics (A, B and C). The ichnofabric analysis is based on texture and internal structure of the sediments resulting from bioturbation...... situation between ichnofabrics A and C and occurs in chalk samples immediately adjacent to marl beds. The observed changes in ichnofabrics between chalk and marl are related to the amount of clay in the samples and the differences in the occurrence of trace fossils are interpreted as due to differences...

  20. The relation among porosity, permeability, and specific surface of chalk from the Gorm field, Danish North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeanette, Mortensen; Engstrøm, Finn; Lind, Ida

    1998-01-01

    The origin to the difference in the relationship between permeability and porosity for Danian and Maastrichtian chalk from the Gorm field offshore Denmark has been investigated. The investigation was based on 300 sets of core data (He-expansion porosity and air permeability) from the well Gorm N-22...... surface. Furthermore it was found that the nature of porosity (intrafossil, intergranular, etc.) had no significant influence on the air permeability, so that the permeability of the chalk can be calculated from total porosity and specific surface. Kozeny's empirical constant, c, was here determined...... analytically from a simple porosity model and Poiseuilles law....

  1. OpenLabNotes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    List, Markus; Franz, Michael; Tan, Qihua;

    2015-01-01

    Framework, a powerful and flexible laboratory information management system. In contrast to comparable solutions, it allows to protect the intellectual property of its users by offering data protection with digital signatures. OpenLabNotes effectively Closes the gap between research documentation and sample management...... be advantageous if an ELN was Integrated with a laboratory information management system to allow for a comprehensive documentation of experimental work including the location of samples that were used in a particular experiment. Here, we present OpenLabNotes, which adds state-of-the-art ELN capabilities to OpenLab......, thus making Open-Lab Framework more attractive for laboratories that seek to increase productivity through electronic data management....

  2. Deciphering Your Lab Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advertisement Proceeds from website advertising help sustain Lab Tests Online. AACC is a not-for-profit organization and does not endorse non-AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities PLEASE NOTE: Your web browser ...

  3. Advanced Lab Consortium ``Conspiracy''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Jonathan F.

    2006-03-01

    Advanced Laboratory instruction is a time-honored and essential element of an undergraduate physics education. But, from my vantage point, it has been neglected by the two major professional societies, APS and AAPT. At some schools, it has been replaced by ``research experiences,'' but I contend that very few of these experiences in the research lab, particularly in the junior year, deliver what they promise. It is time to focus the attention of APS, AAPT, and the NSF on the advanced lab. We need to create an Advanced Lab Consortium (ALC) of faculty and staff to share experiments, suppliers, materials, pedagogy, ideas, in short to build a professional network for those committed to advanced lab instruction. The AAPT is currently in serious discussions on this topic and my company stands ready with both financial and personnel resources to support the effort. This talk is a plea for co-conspirators.

  4. The Udall Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Udall lab is interested in genome evolution and cotton genomics.The cotton genus ( Gossypium) is an extraordinarily diverse group with approximately 50 species...

  5. Virtual labs: a substitute for traditional labs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheckler, Rebecca K

    2003-01-01

    Current technologies give us the ability to enhance and replace developmental biology classes with computer-based resources, often called virtual labs. In the process of using these resources, teachers may be tempted to neglect the simpler technologies and lab bench activities, which can be labor intensive. In this paper, I take a critical look at the role of computer-based materials for the teaching of developmental biology in order to aid teachers in assessing their value. I conclude that while digital tools have value, they should not replace all of the traditional laboratory activities. Clearly, both computer-enhanced activities and traditional labs must be included in laboratory exercises. Reliance on only one or the other is inappropriate. In order to determine when it is appropriate to use a particular educational tool, the goals of the course and the needs of biology students for an education that gives them a realistic and engaged view of biology must be understood. In this paper, I dispel some of the myths of computer tools and give specific guidelines for assessing their usage, taking into account the special needs of a developmental biology class and the difficulties of observing all the developmental stages of subject organisms in the timescale of class meetings. PMID:12705675

  6. A model for the effect of pH on the growth of chalk yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantigny, Philippe; Burgain, Anaïs; Deniel, Franck; Bensoussan, Maurice

    2014-09-01

    Hyphopichia burtonii, Pichia anomala, and Saccharomycopsis fibuligera were isolated from spoiled packaged sliced bread. These chalk yeasts were characterized by a wide range of pH for which growth was almost optimum. Thus, the curve growth vs pH exhibited plateau and sharp profiles close to the minimum and the maximum pH. This study described a chalk yeast model (CYM) for the effect of pH derived from a new germination model for fungi (Dantigny, P., Nanguy, S., P.-M., Judet-Correia, D., and Bensoussan, M. 2011, International Journal of Food Microbiology, 146, 176-181). The CYM is asymmetric, versatile, based on parameters with biological significance, and compatible with the gamma concept. The CYM was compared to the cardinal pH model (CPM) which is widely used to describe the effect of pH on microbial growth. The CYM exhibited RMSE values two fold less than those obtained with the CPM for H. burtonii, and S. fibuligera for which plateaus were clearly observed. For P. anomala, the plateau was less obvious, but the RMSE value obtained with the CYM was similar to that found with the CPM. The CYM could extend its use to represent the effect of pH on mold growth. PMID:24995847

  7. Optimization of Spore Forming Bacteria Flooding for Enhanced Oil Recovery in North Sea Chalk Reservoir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halim, Amalia Yunita; Nielsen, Sidsel Marie; Eliasson Lantz, Anna;

    2015-01-01

    Little has been done to study microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) in chalk reservoirs. The present study focused on core flooding experiments to see microbial plugging and its effect on oil recovery. A pressure tapped core holder with pressure ports at 1.2 cm, 3.8 cm, and 6.3 cm from the inlet...... was used for this purpose. A spore forming bacterium, Bacillus licheniformis 421, was used as it was shown to be a good candidate in the previous study. Bacterial spore can penetrate deeper into the chalk rock, squeezing through the pore throats. Our results show that B. licheniformis 421 when injected...... as a secondary technique can recover 4% more of the original oil in place (OOIP) as compared with the seawater flooding. Furthermore, when applied as tertiary technique it can recover 1.4% OOIP of the residual oil. The effective permeability decreased in the first two sections of the core (0-1.2 cm and 1...

  8. Assessing the contribution of the main aquifer of Loire basin to the river discharge during low flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolution of the Loire river low flows is a key issue for various uses such as water supply, irrigation or industrial needs. Power production is a major activity in the Loire basin with four nuclear power plants using the river water for the cooling system. To estimate the evolution of long term in-stream low flow distribution, it is necessary to have a good estimate of the contribution of a complex aquifer system to the river discharge. Three main overlaying aquifer units covering an area of 38000 km2 are considered: Beauce Limestones (Oligocene), Chalks (Seno-Turonian) and Sands (Cenomanian). A distributed hydrogeological model (Eau-Dyssee) is implemented with the coupling of five modules: surface water budget, watershed routing, river routing, unsaturated zone transfer, and groundwater flow. The model is calibrated over a 10-yr period, validated over another 10-yr period, and then a test simulation is run over 35 years. A hybrid fitting methodology, based on an automated inverse method and a trial-error one, has been developed for the fitting of the Beauce aquifer unit. The other units are calibrated by trial and error. The fitted model simulates properly both discharges and piezometric heads over the whole domain, with a global RMSE between simulated and observed piezometric heads of 2.86 m, and all Nash efficiency at the Loire discharge gauging stations over 0.9. The fitted model has then been used to quantify the hydro-system mass balance at different time scales. Mean aquifer contribution to Loire river discharge during low flow between 1975 and 2008 is estimated at 15 m3/s. First results of simulations under four different climate change projections indicate an averaged decrease of these contributions reaching 8 to 50% in 2100. (author)

  9. Lab Attendance and Academic Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Kirk Adair; Swinton, Omari H

    2012-01-01

    The benefits from attendance of lectures have been established in the literature. This paper focuses on attendance not of the lecture, but of smaller labs. These labs are 50 minutes one-day-a-week sessions to emphasis material covered during lecture. Using a 200-student Principles of Economics class that covers microeconomics with six different labs, we investigate the effect of lab attendance on exam performance by taking into account individual characteristics. We find that lab attendance b...

  10. Jefferson Lab, a status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab; formerly known as CEBAF), operates a 4 GeV, 200 microA continuous wave (CW) electron accelerator that re-circulates the beam five times through two superconducting 400 MeV linacs. Electrons can be extracted from any of the five recirculation passes and beam can be simultaneously delivered to the three experimental halls. As the commissioning stage nears completion, the accelerator is becoming a fully operational machine. Experiments in Hall C have been underway since November 1995 with beam powers of over 300 kW at various energies. Hall A has received beam for spectrometer commissioning, while Hall B is expected to receive its first beam in the fall of 1996. Accelerator availability of greater than 70% during physics runs and excellent beam quality have contributed to making Jefferson Lab a world class laboratory for accelerator-based electromagnetic nuclear physics. With the high performance of the superconducting RF cavities, machine upgrades to 6 GeV, and eventually 8 to 10 GeV are now in the planning stages. Operational and commissioning details concerning all aspects of the machine will be discussed

  11. New mission for the national labs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a testing moratorium takes hold, the future of the weapons laboratories may lie in a $3 billion package of science projects meant to keep the arsenal reliable-and weapons-designing talents sharp. When President Clinton declared an end to all nuclear testing a month ago, he offered the nation's three weapons laboratories an enormous, expensive pacifier-a $3 billion package of scientific projects to replace testing. The labs swallowed hard, choked back their conviction that explosive testing is the best and cheapest means of ensuring the reliability of the nation's nuclear stockpile, and took the bait. The lab directors duly issued statements embracing the test ban-providing the new program materializes

  12. CDC Lab Values

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-02-02

    More than fifteen hundred scientists fill the lab benches at CDC, logging more than four million hours each year. CDC’s laboratories play a critical role in the agency’s ability to find, stop, and prevent disease outbreaks. This podcast provides a brief overview of what goes on inside CDC’s labs, and why this work makes a difference in American’s health.  Created: 2/2/2015 by Office of the Associate Director for Communication (OADC).   Date Released: 2/2/2015.

  13. The NOAO Data Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, M.; Olsen, K.; Stobie, E. B.; Mighell, K. J.; Norris, P.

    2015-09-01

    We describe the NOAO Data Lab to help community users take advantage of current large surveys and prepare them even larger surveys in the era of LSST. The Data Lab will allow users to efficiently utilize catalogs of billions of objects, combine traditional telescope image and spectral data with external archives, share custom results with collaborators, publish data products to other users, and experiment with analysis toolkits. Specific science cases will be used to develop a prototype framework and tools, allowing us to work directly with scientists from survey teams to ensure development remains focused on scientifically productive tasks.

  14. Biological markers in bitumens and pyrolyzates of Upper Cretaceous bituminous chalks from the Ghareb Formation (Israel)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rullkötter, Jürgen; Aizenshtat, Zeev; Spiro, Baruch

    1984-01-01

    The sterane and triterpane distributions of three bituminous chalks from the Upper Cretaceous Ghareb Formation (Israel) were investigated both in the original extractable bitumens and in extracts obtained after pyrolysis of whole rock and isolated kerogen samples at 450°C. Pyrolysis was performed in a closed system under hydrous (whole rock) and anhydrous conditions (isolated kerogens). The carbon number distributions of steranes and triterpanes differ significantly between original bitumen and pyrolyzates. Unlike the bitumens in which diasteranes were not detected, the anhydrous pyrolyzates contain small amounts of diasteranes. The presence of water during pyrolysis leads to an increase of sterane isomerization, the abundant formation of diasteranes and an increase of the 18α( H)- trisnorneohopane/17α( H)- trisnorhopane ratio. Sterane isomerization maturation parameters show a closer match between original bitumen and pyrolyzates after pyrolysis in a closed system when compared with an open system.

  15. Diagenesis of silica-rich mounded chalk, the Coniacian Arnager Limestone, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus Madsen, Heine; Stemmerik, Lars; Surlyk, Finn

    2010-01-01

    The Coniacian Arnager Limestone Formation is exposed on the Danish island of Bornholm in the Baltic Sea. It is composed of mound-bedded siliceous chalk, and X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy indicate a content of 30-70% insoluble minerals, including authigenic opal-CT, quartz......, clinoptilolite, feldspars, calcite, dolomite, and barite. Opal-CT and clinoptilolite are the most common and constitute 16-53% and 2-9%, respectively. The content of insoluble minerals varies laterally bothwithinthemounds and inplanar beds, and the opal-CT content varies by up to 10% vertically. Themounds...... precipitation of opal-CT. The opal-CT formed at temperatures around 17°C, the precipitation lowered the silica activity and the Si/Al ratio of the pore water, resulting in precipitation of clinoptilolite, feldspar and smectite. Calcite formed synchronouslywith the latest clinoptilolite.Minoramounts of quartz...

  16. Water weakening of chalk explaied from a fluid-solid friction factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Katrine Alling; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2010-01-01

    The hypothesis behind this paper proposal is that the Biot critical frequency can be used to characterize the water weakening phenomenon physically. The Biot critical frequency determines the transition from where an applied sound velocity on a saturated porous chalk is dominated by viscous forces...... to the macroscale failure and pore collapse properties. The Biot critical frequency incorporates the porosity, permeability, fluid density and fluid viscosity, where the latter is highly temperature dependent – it does not include the applied sound velocity frequency. The listed parameters are usually determined...... using the Biot critical frequency as a single reference. Other viscoplastic parameters were investigated in the same manner to verify the range of the functioning of the friction factor. The findings show that the Biot critical frequency can be used as a common friction factor and is useful in combining...

  17. In Situ Production of Chlorine-36 in the Eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer, Idaho: Implications for Describing Ground-Water Contamination Near a Nuclear Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. D. Cecil; L. L. Knobel; J. R. Green (USGS); S. K. Frape (University of Waterloo)

    2000-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the calculated contribution to ground water of natural, in situ produced 36Cl in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer and to compare these concentrations in ground water with measured concentrations near a nuclear facility in southeastern Idaho. The scope focused on isotopic and chemical analyses and associated 36Cl in situ production calculations on 25 whole-rock samples from 6 major water-bearing rock types present in the eastern Snake River Plain. The rock types investigated were basalt, rhyolite, limestone, dolomite, shale, and quartzite. Determining the contribution of in situ production to 36Cl inventories in ground water facilitated the identification of the source for this radionuclide in environmental samples. On the basis of calculations reported here, in situ production of 36Cl was determined to be insignificant compared to concentrations measured in ground water near buried and injected nuclear waste at the INEEL. Maximum estimated 36Cl concentrations in ground water from in situ production are on the same order of magnitude as natural concentrations in meteoric water.

  18. Guide to Savannah River Laboratory Analytical Services Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mission of the Analytical Services Group (ASG) is to provide analytical support for Savannah River Laboratory Research and Development Programs using onsite and offsite analytical labs as resources. A second mission is to provide Savannah River Site (SRS) operations with analytical support for nonroutine material characterization or special chemical analyses. The ASG provides backup support for the SRS process control labs as necessary

  19. Guide to Savannah River Laboratory Analytical Services Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-04-01

    The mission of the Analytical Services Group (ASG) is to provide analytical support for Savannah River Laboratory Research and Development Programs using onsite and offsite analytical labs as resources. A second mission is to provide Savannah River Site (SRS) operations with analytical support for nonroutine material characterization or special chemical analyses. The ASG provides backup support for the SRS process control labs as necessary.

  20. PRIME lab AMS performance, upgrades and research applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, P. E-mail: sharma@purdue.edu; Bourgeois, M.; Elmore, D.; Granger, D.; Lipschutz, M.E.; Ma, X.; Miller, T.; Mueller, K.; Rickey, F.; Simms, P.; Vogt, S

    2000-10-01

    The Purdue Rare Isotope Measurement Laboratory (PRIME Lab) is a dedicated research and service facility for AMS that provides the scientific community with timely, reliable and high quality chemical processing ({approx}600 samples/year) and AMS measurements ({approx}3000 samples/year) of {sup 10}Be, {sup 14}C, {sup 26}Al, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 41}Ca and {sup 129}I. The AMS system is based on an upgraded FN (7 MV) tandem accelerator that has recently been modified to improve performance. The precision is 1% for {sup 14}C and it is 3-5% for the other nuclides for radioisotope/stable isotope ratios at the 10{sup -12} levels. System background for {sup 10}Be, {sup 14}C, {sup 26}Al, {sup 36}Cl and {sup 41}Ca is 1-10x10{sup -15} while for {sup 129}I the natural abundance limits it to 20x10{sup -15}. Research is being carried out in Earth, planetary, and biomedical sciences. Geoscience applications include determination of exposure ages of glacial moraines, volcanic eruptions, river terraces, and fault scarps. Burial histories of sand are being determined to decipher the timing of human expansion and climatic history. Environmental applications are tracing the release of radioactivity from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, water tracing, and neutron dosimetry. The applications using meteoric nuclides are oil field brines, sediment subduction, radiocarbon dating, and groundwater {sup 36}Cl mapping. Radionuclide concentrations are also determined in meteorites and tektites for deciphering space and terrestrial exposure histories.

  1. A Big Bang Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheider, Walter

    2005-01-01

    The February 2005 issue of The Science Teacher (TST) reminded everyone that by learning how scientists study stars, students gain an understanding of how science measures things that can not be set up in lab, either because they are too big, too far away, or happened in a very distant past. The authors of "How Far are the Stars?" show how the…

  2. Elemental Chem Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco Mariscal, Antonio Joaquin

    2008-01-01

    This educative material uses the symbols of 45 elements to spell the names of 32 types of laboratory equipment usually found in chemical labs. This teaching material has been divided into three puzzles according to the type of the laboratory equipment: (i) glassware as reaction vessels or containers; (ii) glassware for measuring, addition or…

  3. Hematology, micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities in fishes from São Francisco river, Minas Gerais state, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i1.7117 Hematology, micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities in fishes from São Francisco river, Minas Gerais state, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i1.7117

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Roseli Napoleão

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the variables leukocytary, erythrocytary, frequency of micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities in peripheral erythrocytes of Prochilodus argenteus, Pimelodus maculates and Myleus micans from São Francisco river basin, Minas Gerais State, during the summer and winter. Thrombocytes, hematocrit and leukocyte of P.argenteus series, was influenced by climatic conditions. In P. maculatus, not were significant differences for all leukocytes and thrombocytes. In M. micans, values are unprecedented in the literature, with MCV and absolute number of leukocytes found superior to other species of the family Characidae. The frequency of micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities in erythrocytes, the three species not showed seasonal differences between the sites. However, the highest values were found in summer. Furthermore, we observed a positive correlation between the increase in the percentage of micronuclei with nuclear abnormalities.This study aimed to determine the variables leukocytary, erythrocytary, frequency of micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities in peripheral erythrocytes of Prochilodus argenteus, Pimelodus maculates and Myleus micans from São Francisco river basin, Minas Gerais State, during the summer and winter. Thrombocytes, hematocrit and leukocyte of P.argenteus series, was influenced by climatic conditions. In P. maculatus, not were significant differences for all leukocytes and thrombocytes. In M. micans, values are unprecedented in the literature, with MCV and absolute number of leukocytes found superior to other species of the family Characidae. The frequency of micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities in erythrocytes, the three species not showed seasonal differences between the sites. However, the highest values were found in summer. Furthermore, we observed a positive correlation between the increase in the percentage of micronuclei with nuclear abnormalities.

  4. Skills Labs: workshop EMERGO toolkit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurvers, Hub; Slootmaker, Aad

    2009-01-01

    Kurvers, H. J., & Slootmaker, A. (2009). Skills Labs: workshop EMERGO toolkit. Presentation given at project members of Skills Labs. March, 31, 2009 and April, 24, 2009, Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open University of the Netherlands.

  5. Upper Cretaceous chalk facies and depositional history recorded in the Mona-1 core, Mona Ridge, Danish North Sea: Plate 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surlyk, Finn

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The 331 m long core from the Mona-1 well in the Danish North Sea spans almost the entire Upper Cretaceous Chalk Group but only about 10% of Late Cretaceous time is represented. The succession comprises 14 facies representing pelagic deposition, turbidity flow, and mass-transport processes, including mudflow, debris flow, and slumping. Pelagic deposits vary mainly in terms of the concentration of siliciclastic material, the trace-fossil assemblage, and the presence or ab¬sence of primary sedimentary structures. Pelagic sedimentation was probably punctuated by the deposition of thin turbidites, and the resultant deposits were thoroughly bioturbated if deposited during normal oxygenation at the sea floor. Periodic benthic dysoxia resulted in the preservation of primary structures, as represented by laminated chalk which consists of thin pelagic laminae alternating with thin turbidites. In addition to the thin turbidites in the laminated chalk, four dif¬ferent turbidite facies are interpreted as representing high- to low-energy flows. Clast-supported chalk conglomerates have previously not been differentiated from other turbidites, but are here interpreted to be directly related to the down-slope evolution of debris flows. Debris flows are rep¬resented by matrix-supported conglomerates, which form one of the most common facies in the succession. High-concentration, gravity-driven suspension flows passed into dilute visco-plastic flows during the final stages of deposition and resulted in the deposition of structureless chalks. Limited shear deformation produced distinct quasi-facies from which the precursor facies can be deduced, whereas intense or continued shear deformation produced a shear-banded quasi-facies from which the precursor facies cannot be deduced in all cases. A series of major slump packages (14–18 in total are interpreted, forming over 40% of the succession; debrites appear to be the most common precursor facies involved in

  6. Archimedes Remote Lab for Secondary Schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia Zubia, J.; Angulo Martinez, I.; Martinez Pieper, G.; Lopez de Ipina Gonzalez de Artaza, D.; Hernandez Jayo, U.; Orduna Fernandez, P.; Dziabenko, O.; Rodriguez Gil, L.; Riesen, van S.A.N.; Anjewierden, A.A.; Kamp, E.; Jong, de A.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a remote lab designed for teaching the Archimedes’ principle to secondary school students, as well as an online virtual lab on the general domain of buoyancy. The Archimedes remote lab is integrated into WebLab-Deusto. Both labs are promoted for usage in frame of the Go-Lab Europ

  7. Compaction of North-Sea Chalk by Pore-Failure and Pressure Solution in a Producing Reservoir

    OpenAIRE

    Keszthelyi, Daniel; Dysthe, Dag K.; JAMTVEIT, Bjørn

    2016-01-01

    The Ekofisk field, Norwegian North sea, is an example of a compacting chalk reservoir with considerable subsequent seafloor subsidence due to petroleum production. Previously, a number of models were created to predict the compaction using different phenomenological approaches. Here we present a different approach which includes a new creep model based on microscopic mechanisms with no fitting parameters to predict the strain rate at reservoir scale. The model is able to reproduce the magnitu...

  8. Mass-transport deposits and reservoir quality of Upper Cretaceous Chalk within the German Central Graben, North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfai, Jashar; Lutz, Rüdiger; Franke, Dieter; Gaedicke, Christoph; Kley, Jonas

    2016-04-01

    The architecture of intra-chalk deposits in the `Entenschnabel' area of the German North Sea is studied based on 3D seismic data. Adapted from seismic reflection characteristics, four types of mass-transport deposits (MTDs) are distinguished, i.e. slumps, slides, channels and frontal splay deposits. The development of these systems can be linked to inversion tectonics and halotectonic movements of Zechstein salt. Tectonic uplift is interpreted to have caused repeated tilting of the sea floor. This triggered large-scale slump deposition during Turonian-Santonian times. Slump deposits are characterised by chaotic reflection patterns interpreted to result from significant stratal distortion. The south-eastern study area is characterised by a large-scale frontal splay complex. This comprises a network of shallow channel systems arranged in a distributive pattern. Several slide complexes are observed near the Top Chalk in Maastrichtian and Danian sediments. These slides are commonly associated with large incisions into the sediments below. Best reservoir properties with high producible porosities are found in the reworked chalk strata, e.g. Danish North Sea, therefore MTDs detected in the study area are regarded as potential hydrocarbon reservoirs and considered as exploration targets.

  9. Integrating geophysical and hydrochemical borehole-log measurements to characterize the Chalk aquifer, Berkshire, United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schürch, Marc; Buckley, David

    2002-09-01

    Geophysical and hydrochemical borehole-logging techniques were integrated to characterize hydraulic and hydrogeochemical properties of the Chalk aquifer at boreholes in Berkshire, UK. The down-hole measurements were made to locate fissures in the chalk, their spatial extent between boreholes, and to determine the groundwater chemical quality of the water-bearing layers. The geophysical borehole logging methods used were caliper, focused resistivity, induction resistivity, gamma ray, fluid temperature, fluid electrical conductivity, impeller and heat-pulse flowmeter, together with borehole wall optical-imaging. A multiparameter data transmitter was used to measure groundwater temperature, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, pH, and redox potential of the borehole fluid down-hole. High permeability developed at the Chalk Rock by groundwater circulation provides the major flow horizon at the Banterwick Barn study site and represents a conduit system that serves as an effective local hydraulic connection between the boreholes. The Chalk Rock includes several lithified solution-ridden layers, hardgrounds, which imply a gap in sedimentation possibly representing an unconformity. Lower groundwater temperature, high dissolved-oxygen content, and flowmeter evidence of preferential groundwater flow in the Chalk Rock indicated rapid groundwater circulation along this horizon. By repeating the logging at different times of the year under changing hydraulic conditions, other water-inflow horizons within the Chalk aquifer were recognized. Résumé. Des techniques géophysiques et hydrochimiques de diagraphies en forage ont été mises en oeuvre pour caractériser les propriétés hydrauliques et hydrogéochimiques de l'aquifère de la craie dans des forages du Berkshire (Grande-Bretagne). Les mesures en descente ont été faites pour localiser les fissures dans la craie et leur développement spatial entre forages, et pour déterminer la qualité de l'eau souterraine des

  10. Reactivity impact of {sup 16}O thermal elastic-scattering nuclear data for some numerical and critical benchmark systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozier, K. S.; Roubtsov, D. [AECL, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, ON (Canada); Plompen, A. J. M.; Kopecky, S. [EC-JRC, Inst. for Reference Materials and Measurements, Retieseweg 111, 2440 Geel (Belgium)

    2012-07-01

    The thermal neutron-elastic-scattering cross-section data for {sup 16}O used in various modern evaluated-nuclear-data libraries were reviewed and found to be generally too high compared with the best available experimental measurements. Some of the proposed revisions to the ENDF/B-VII.0 {sup 16}O data library and recent results from the TENDL system increase this discrepancy further. The reactivity impact of revising the {sup 16}O data downward to be consistent with the best measurements was tested using the JENDL-3.3 {sup 16}O cross-section values and was found to be very small in MCNP5 simulations of the UO{sub 2} and reactor-recycle MOX-fuel cases of the ANS Doppler-defect numerical benchmark. However, large reactivity differences of up to about 14 mk (1400 pcm) were observed using {sup 16}O data files from several evaluated-nuclear-data libraries in MCNP5 simulations of the Los Alamos National Laboratory HEU heavy-water solution thermal critical experiments, which were performed in the 1950's. The latter result suggests that new measurements using HEU in a heavy-water-moderated critical facility, such as the ZED-2 zero-power reactor at the Chalk River Laboratories, might help to resolve the discrepancy between the {sup 16}O thermal elastic-scattering cross-section values and thereby reduce or better define its uncertainty, although additional assessment work would be needed to confirm this. (authors)

  11. FURTHER DEVELOPMENT OF MODIFIED MONOSODIUM TITANATE, AN IMPROVED SORBENT FOR PRETREATMENT OF HIGH LEVEL NUCLEAR WASTE AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, K.; Hobbs, D.; Fondeur, F.; Fink, S.

    2011-01-12

    High-level nuclear waste produced from fuel reprocessing operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) requires pretreatment to remove Cs-137, Sr-90, and alpha-emitting radionuclides (i.e., actinides) prior to disposal onsite as low level waste. Separation processes planned at SRS include caustic side solvent extraction, for Cs-137 removal, and sorption of Sr-90 and alpha-emitting radionuclides onto monosodium titanate (MST). The predominant alpha-emitting radionuclides in the highly alkaline waste solutions include plutonium isotopes Pu-238, Pu-239, and Pu-240. This paper describes recent results from the development of an improved titanate material that exhibits increased removal kinetics and effective capacity for Sr-90 and alpha-emitting radionuclides compared to the baseline MST material.

  12. origin of elements of the Uranium-235 family observed in the Ellez river near the EL-4 experimental nuclear reactor in dismantling (Monts d'Arree- Finistere department)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a previous study which concerned the catchment basin of the harbour of Brest, the A.C.R.O. put in evidence a marking by artificial radioelements around the power plant of Brennilis which can be imputed without ambiguities to the nuclear installation. It also put in evidence abnormalities concerning the natural radioactivity which justifies this new study. In the area of the Monts d'Arree, actinium 227 (227Ac), non born by its ascendents which are 235U and 231Pa is observed. This phenomenon is characterized by mass activities superior to these ones of 235U and able to reach these ones of 238U. Its presence corresponds with the drainage of the Ellez river since the former channel of radioactive effluents releases from the nuclear power plant EL-4 up to the reservoir Saint-Herblot situated 6 km downstream. The strongest values of radioactivity are registered near the disused power plant, at this place a relationship exists between the level of actinium 227 and this one of the artificial radioactivity as it exists a relationship with the decay products of radon exhaled from the subsoil (210Pb). But its presence is not limited to a part of the Ellez river, it is equally observed in terrestrial medium, in places in priori not influenced by the direct liquid effluents of the power plant. This place is situated at more than 4 km and without any connection with the Ellez waters. At this stage of the study, it is not possible to answer with certainty the question of the origin of this phenomenon. A new reorientation is considered indispensable to clarify definitively the origin of this unknown phenomenon in the scientific publications and the environmental monitoring. (N.C.)

  13. e-Learning - Physics Labs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohottala, Hashini

    2014-03-01

    The general student population enrolled in any college level class is highly diverse. An increasing number of ``nontraditional'' students return to college and most of these students follow distance learning degree programs while engaging in their other commitments, work and family. However, those students tend to avoid taking science courses with labs, mostly because of the incapability of remotely completing the lab components in such courses. In order to address this issue, we have come across a method where introductory level physics labs can be taught remotely. In this process a lab kit with the critical lab components that can be easily accessible are conveniently packed into a box and distributed among students at the beginning of the semester. Once the students are given the apparatus they perform the experiments at home and gather data All communications with reference to the lab was done through an interactive user-friendly webpage - Wikispaces (WikiS). Students who create pages on WikiS can submit their lab write-ups, embed videos of the experiments they perform, post pictures and direct questions to the lab instructor. The students who are enrolled in the same lab can interact with each other through WikiS to discuss labs and even get assistance.

  14. Determination of transmissivity and dispersion in a confined chalk aquifer by simulation of field experiments with three tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storage and repumping of thermal energy in chalk aquifers during periods of surplus and deficit production respectively might be an economically feasible method to meet man's need for heating. To be able to evaluate the temporal and spatial variations of thermal energy transfer between water, which mainly flows in the chalk fissures, and the chalk matrix itself it is necessary to know the transmissivity and dispersion parameters of the aquifer. Based on this background, field tests with pumping of water and tracers have been carried out as shown. The fissured chalk aquifer of magnitude H = 16 m is confined by almost impervious top and bottom layers. Two wells with distance L = 101 m were established. A steady flow with Q1 Q2 = 10.9 m3/h was established within a period of 24 h. The radioactive tracers 3H and 82Br and the fluorescent tracer R-WT (rhodamine-water tracer) were injected at known concentrations within a period of 5 min. At time = 24 h valve V0 was opened and V2 closed and within the following 320 h a single well repumping (Q1 = -10.9 m3/h, Q2 = 0) and temporal detection of tracer concentrations were carried out until practically all concentrations were zero. The three concentration curves show a time to peak of about 12 h and a temporal distribution of the relative concentrations (peak concentration = 100% for all tracers) which is almost identical. The total repumped amount of tracer (with correction for radioactive decay) was 63%, 93% and 53% for 3H, 82Br and R-WT, respectively. The corresponding peak concentrations relative to injected concentrations were 1088, 1745 and 737 ppm. These data indicate a strong adsorption to the chalk matrix for R-WT and 3H but weak for 82Br. The simulation of measured concentration curves will be done by means of at least two models, M1-M2, which both include linear adsorption. With respect to permeability and dispersion M1 and M2 differ as follows: M1. Constant coefficients k and D for permeability and dispersion

  15. Fabric Measurements of Ice Crystallized Within the Pore Networks of Chalk and Diatomite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swainson, I. P.; Schulson, E. M.

    2003-12-01

    The phenomenon of the crystallization of ice through porous bodies is a concern in many branches of science; e.g., porous materials; biological cells and related cell damage; and permafrost on earth and other planetary bodies. Whereas in unconsolidated sediments particle-pushing and ice lens formation occur, these are not significant processes within rock, and the ice must crystallize through a pre-existing pore network. At issue is whether the pore walls act as efficient nucleation sites or whether a coherent crystallization front of ice moves through the connected porosity. In the former case each pore can be considered independent and in the latter case the state (frozen/unfrozen) is dependent on the states of its neighbors, and the ice crystallization front advances through the porosity in a manner analogous to models of invasion percolation of fluids through pores. In the latter case, one would also predict the development of strong fabric (crystallographic texture) of ice as the ice front grows through the network. We present neutron diffraction measurements of deuterated ice Ih forming within the pores of bulk specimens of chalk and diatomite. Preliminary neutron ``powder diffraction'' measurements suggested a very highly textured nature to the ice. Subsequently, we built a Peltier cooler device to form ice within the pore networks of highly porous rocks. This device was placed in a Eulerian cradle and mounted on a neutron diffractometer. The pole figures we measured strongly suggest the advance of a coherent crystallization front throughout the connected porosity.

  16. Liberal And General Studies In Further Education: Voices From The ‘Chalk Face’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simmons, Robin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents initial findings from research investigating an important but largely neglected facet of the history of Further Education (FE – the Liberal Studies and General Studies (LS/GS movement. Drawing on historical documents and interview data from a group of former LS/GS lecturers, the paper provides important insights into some of the key events and initiatives between the 1950s-1980s, which led to the rise and eventual fall of the LS/GS movement, and seeks to capture the voices of those who were involved at the ‘chalk face’. Whilst it is acknowledged that the quality and nature of LS/GS was often variable and that the experiences of both teachers and learners were often uneven, the central argument of the paper is that many of the principles of the LS/GS movement were not only ahead of their time, but are perhaps more relevant to FE today than ever before.

  17. Inexpensive DAQ based physics labs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Benjamin; Clark, Shane

    2015-11-01

    Quality Data Acquisition (DAQ) based physics labs can be designed using microcontrollers and very low cost sensors with minimal lab equipment. A prototype device with several sensors and documentation for a number of DAQ-based labs is showcased. The device connects to a computer through Bluetooth and uses a simple interface to control the DAQ and display real time graphs, storing the data in .txt and .xls formats. A full device including a larger number of sensors combined with software interface and detailed documentation would provide a high quality physics lab education for minimal cost, for instance in high schools lacking lab equipment or students taking online classes. An entire semester’s lab course could be conducted using a single device with a manufacturing cost of under $20.

  18. An aerial radiological survey of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area, Forked River, New Jersey. Date of survey: September 18--25, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the Oyster Creek Nuclear Power Plant in Forked River, New Jersey, during the period September 18 through September 24, 1992. The survey was conducted at an altitude of 150 feet (46 meters) over a 26-square-mile (67-square-kilometer) area centered on the power station. The purpose of the survey was to document the terrestrial gamma radiation environment of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Power plant and surrounding area. The results of the aerial survey are reported as inferred gamma radiation exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level in the form of a contour map. Outside the plant boundary, exposure rates were found to vary between 4 and 10 microroentgens per hour and were attributed to naturally-occurring uranium, thorium, and radioactive potassium gamma emitters. The aerial data were compared to ground-based benchmark exposure rate measurements and radionuclide assays of soil samples obtained within the survey boundary. The ground-based measurements were found to be in good agreement with those inferred from the aerial measuring system. A previous survey of the power plant was conducted in August 1969 during its initial startup phase. Exposure rates and radioactive isotopes revealed in both surveys were consistent and within normal terrestrial background levels

  19. 78 FR 79709 - Duke Energy Florida, Inc., Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant Post-Shutdown...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ... Nuclear Generating Plant (CR-3). The PSDAR provides an overview of Duke Energy Florida, Inc.'s (DEF's, the... Power Corporation (FPC), which was renamed DEF in October 2013, provided to the NRC its certification of... December 2, 2013, DEF submitted the PSDAR for CR-3 in accordance with 10 CFR 50.82(a)(4)(i). The...

  20. Charpy V, an application in Mat lab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The obtained results with the system Charpy VV1 designed in Mat lab for the estimate of parameters of three mathematical models are shown. The adjustment of data is used to determine the fracture energy, the lateral expansion and the percentage of ductility of steels coming from the reactor vessels of Laguna Verde, Veracruz. The data come from test tubes type Charpy V of irradiated material and not irradiated. To verify our results they were compared with those obtained by General Electric of data coming from the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant. (Author)

  1. Early diagenesis and chalk-chert hardgrounds in the Coniacian-Campanian of central Jordan; implications for sedimentation on Late Cretaceous shallow pelagic ramps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, J. H.; Moh'd, B. K.

    2009-04-01

    Hardgrounds and omission surfaces are rare in the predominantly hemi-pelagic chalk, chert and phosphorite association that comprises the Senonian Belqa Group in central Jordan. However, hardgrounds of regional extent are described from the base of the Dhiban Chalk Member (Santonian-Campanian) in Wadi Mujib, central Jordan, and at Jibal Khureij, southern Wadi Araba that reveal a complex pattern of sedimentation and early diagenesis. The chalk-chert-phosphorite succession was deposited in a shallow pelagic ramp setting in fluctuating water depths. Chalks represent high-stands, separated by a regressive chert-rich unit (Tafilah Member). Synchronous hardground successions traced over 100 km, reveal a complex diagenetic and depositional history of early lithification, phosphatisation, penecontemporaneous deformation, submarine bioerosion, colonisation by colonial corals and/or bivalves followed by deposition of turbid detrital chalk passing up to pelagic coccolith ooze. Variations in the hardground successions are attributed to their relative position on the pelagic ramp in overall response to a third order sea-level rise.

  2. Study of a conceptual nuclear energy center at Green River, Utah. Power demand, load center assessment and transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document constitutes a segment of a feasibility study investigating the ramification of constructing a nuclear energy center in an arid western region. In this phase of the study. The projected power demands and load center locations were reviewed and assessed. Alternative transmission systems were analysed and a conceptual transmission for bulk power transportation is proposed with potential line routes. Environmental impacts of the proposed transmission were also identified

  3. Hematology, micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities in fishes from São Francisco river, Minas Gerais state, Brazil = Hematologia, micronúcleos e anomalias nucleares em peixes do rio São Francisco, Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Seriani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the variables leukocytary, erythrocytary, frequency of micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities in peripheral erythrocytes of Prochilodus argenteus, Pimelodus maculatus and Myleus micans from São Francisco river basin, Minas Gerais State, during the summer and winter. Thrombocytes, hematocrit and leukocyte of P.argenteus series, was influenced by climatic conditions. In P. maculatus, not were significant differences for all leukocytes and thrombocytes. In M. micans, values are unprecedented in the literature, with MCV and absolute number of leukocytes found superior to other species of the family Characidae. The frequency of micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities in erythrocytes, the three species not showed seasonal differences between the sites. However, the highest values were found in summer. Furthermore, we observed a positive correlation between the increase in the percentage of micronuclei with nuclear abnormalities.O presente estudo teve como objetivo, determinar as variáveis leucocitárias, eritrocíticas, freqüência de micronúcleos e anomaliasnucleares nos eritrócitos do sangue periférico de Prochilodus argenteus, Pimelodus maculatus e Myleus micans de um trecho da bacia do rio São Francisco, Minas Gerais, no verão e inverno. Trombóctios, hematócrito e a serie leucocítária de P.argenteus, foi influenciado pela sazonalidade. Em P. maculatus, não ocorreram diferenças significativas para todos os leucócitos e trombócitos. Em M. micans, os valores são inéditos na literatura, apresentando VCM e número absoluto de leucócitos superior ao encontrados para outras espécies dafamília Characidae. A freqüência de micronúcleos e de anomalias nucleares nos eritrócitos, nas três espécies não apresentou diferenças sazonais e entre os pontos amostrais. No entanto, os valores mais altos foram encontrados no verão. Além disso, foi possível observar correlação positiva entre o aumento da

  4. On-line ion exchange preconcentration in a sequential injection lab-on-valve microsystem incorporating a renewable column with ETAAS for the trace-level determination of bismuth in urine and river sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jianhua; Hansen, Elo Harald

    2001-01-01

    A sequential injection system for on-line ion-exchange separation and preconcentration of trace-level amounts of metal ions with ensuing detection by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) is described. Based on the use of a renewable microcolumn incorporated within an integrated l.......3% for the determination of 2.0 mug/l Bi (n = 7). The procedure was validated by determination of bismuth in a certified reference material CRM 320 (river sediment), and by bismuth spike recoveries in two human urine samples....

  5. Nuclear waste-form risk assessment for US Defense waste at Savannah River Plant. Annual report FY 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savannah River Plant has been supporting the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in its present effort to perform risk assessments of alternative waste forms for defense waste. This effort relates to choosing a suitable combination of solid form and geologic medium on the basis of risk of exposure to future generations; therefore, the focus is on post-closure considerations of deep geologic repositories. The waste forms being investigated include borosilicate glass, SYNROC, and others. Geologic media under consideration are bedded salt, basalt, and tuff. The results of our work during FY 1981 are presented in this, our second annual report. The two complementary tasks that comprise our program, analysis of waste-form dissolution and risk assessment, are described

  6. Physics Labs with Flavor II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrest, Mikhail M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper was inspired by the numerous requests from "TPT" readers to expand the number of examples of "recurrent study" lab exercises described in my previous paper "Physics Labs with Flavor." I recommend that readers examine it first in order to better understand this one as my attempt here is to be brief. In that paper, one can find details…

  7. GitLab repository management

    CERN Document Server

    Hethey, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    A simple, easy to understand tutorial guide on how to build teams and efficiently use version control, using GitLab.If you are a system administrator in a company that writes software or are in charge of an infrastructure, this book will show you the most important features of GitLab, including how to speed up the overall process

  8. Jefferson Lab CEBAF energy upgrade plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents interim conceptual plans for upgrading the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility to extend Jefferson Lab's world leadership in nuclear physics research. The CEBAF accelerator was designed in the mid-1980's to provide beams of electrons at an energy of 4 GeV (billion electron volts) for use as probes of the atom's nucleus in CEBAF's three experiment halls. As of early 1999, the accelerator exceeds its design energy by routinely operating above 5.5 GeV. When upgraded, it will provide 11 GeV electron beams for studies in existing experimental halls and 12 GeV electrons to generate photon beams for related but qualitatively different nuclear studies in a new Hall D

  9. The lab of fame

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2014-01-01

    For a third time, CERN is organising the Swiss heat of Famelab, the world’s leading science communication competition that has already gathered over 5,000 young and talented scientists and engineers from all across the planet.   Besides their degrees, the scientists who participate in Famelab have another thing in common: their passion for communicating science. Coming from a variety of scientific fields, from medicine to particle physics and microbiology, the contestants have three minutes to present a science, technology, mathematics or engineering-based talk using only the props he or she can carry onto the stage; PowerPoint presentations are not permitted. The contestants are then judged by a panel of three judges who evaluate the content, clarity and charisma of their talks. What's unique about FameLab is the fact that content is an important aspect of the performance. At the end of their presentation, contestants are often questioned about the scientific relevance of...

  10. Scale-up of two-phase flow in heterogeneous chalk. Matrix properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    This investigation presents scale-up of a detailed heterogeneous geostatistical model to a full field reservoir simulation model, considering both single and two-phase flow properties. The model represents a typical low permeability Danish North Sea chalk reservoir and includes capillary pressure and saturation end-point variations. Two new up-scaling methods has been investigated, all based on fine scale simulation on a cross section of the geomodel. The first methods assumes piston style behaviour and a coupled viscosity is introduced into the basic Darcy`s equations. The second method is a modification of the JBN method traditionally applied in analysing results from core flooding experiments, which emerged as the most successful and therefore also the recommended method. 1. In addition to the up scaling work we review the Equivalent Radius Method for capillary pressure normalisation with explicit derivation of type functions for Maastrichtian and Danian chalk types. Implementation of the Equivalent Radiuo Method in the COSI reservoir simulator by an optikal set of key-words. There are six specific results from this work: 1. The equivalent radius method is robust to changes of scale and yields model initialisations by initial and irreducible water saturations on a full field simulation scale that agree well with values derived from averaging on a fine-scale. 2. The residual oil saturations are strongly scale dependent and the description of the residual oil as a function of the irreducible water is not applicable on a full field scale and will lead to an overestimation of the residual oil present in the reservoir. The effective residual oil saturations on a full field-scale must be considered functions of the effective initial water saturations, in order to take into account fine-scale variations in the oil/water contacts. 3. The effective permeability as calculated by statistical averages does not differ seriously from results obtained by fine-grid numerical

  11. Proceedings of the Fetal Dosimetry Workshop held in Chalk River, ON (Canada), 25-26 June 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is important to ensure adequate protection of the developing embryo or fetus in situations where the parent, usually the mother, is potentially exposed to radionuclides. An embryo or fetus can be exposed to ionizing radiation by external or internal sources. The dose from external sources can be assessed relatively easily. There is considerable uncertainty as to what the fetal doses are following maternal intakes, and whether low doses of radiation to the fetus cause childhood cancer. This workshop was held to help address these issues. Discussions centered in particular on the biokinetics of the distribution and retention of radionuclides in the fetus and newborn, effects of incorporated radionuclides in the embryo or fetus, metabolic and dosimetric models, and radioprotection considerations. Eleven papers were presented

  12. Designing a monitoring network for contaminated ground water in fractured chalk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nativ, R. [Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem, Rehovot (Israel). Seagram Center for Soil and Water Sciences; Adar, E.M. [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Sede Boker (Israel); Becker, A. [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Mitzpe Ramon (Israel)

    1999-01-01

    One of the challenges of monitoring network design in a fractured rock setting is the heterogeneity of the rocks. This paper summarizes the activities and problems associated with the monitoring of contaminated groundwater in porous, low-permeability fractured chalk in the Negev Desert, Israel. Preferential flow documented in the study area required siting the monitoring boreholes in the predominant fracture systems. Lineaments traced from aerial photographs were examined in the field to sort out the large-extension, through-going, multilayer fracture systems crossing the study area. At each proposed drilling site, these fractures were exposed below the sediment cover using trenches. Slanted boreholes were drilled at a distance from the fracture systems so that each borehole would intersect the targeted fracture plane below the water table. Based on their short recovery period and contaminated ground water, these newly drilled, fracture-oriented boreholes appeared to be better connected to preferential flowpaths crossing the industrial site than the old boreholes existing on site. Other considerations concerning the drilling and logging of monitoring boreholes in a fractured media were: (1) coring provides better documentation of the vertical fracture distribution, but dry augering is less costly and enables immediate ground water sampling and the sampling of vadose rock for contaminant analysis; (2) caliper and TV camera logs appear to provide only partial information regarding the vertical fracture distribution; and (3) the information gained by deepening the monitoring boreholes and testing fractures crossing their uncased walls has to be carefully weighed against the risk of potential cross-contamination through the monitoring boreholes, which is enhanced in fractured media.

  13. Geo-models for fine-scale flow simulation of chalk reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frykman, P.

    1997-12-31

    This report presents procedures for producing and analysing fine-scale geo-models. The geo-models are constructed in order to carry original measured data at the correct scale in the input stage. This is achieved by selecting cell size at the same scale as the core analysis data used for input. This report presents an example of fine-scale porosity-permeability models of a reservoir sequence, and selected methods to generate these models. The purpose of investigating these models is to analyse effective properties as a consequence of the layering and contrasts in the model. These effects are largely ignored in most large-scale geo-statistic reservoir models so far. Outcrop data has been used as analogue for the layered structure in the chalk geomodels, and the correlation structure is used to induce layering in the model, reflecting beds of approximately one meter thickness. The variability and range of porosity and permeability values are derived by comparison to actual well data. The contrasts in the sedimentary sequence are developed by a combination of sedimentary processes, compaction processes and effects from later diagenesis. The detailed geo-model has been subjected to single-phase flow simulation, and the average anisotropy factor Kv/kH can be derived for each type of model. The porosity/permeability relation for the effective properties reflects the upscaling that is carried out with this procedure. Preliminary results from analysing the effective properties of the detailed geostatistical model of size 80x80x1 m is illustrated. The detailed models have been subjected to single-phase flow simulation in order to get the effective permeabilities for the models. The procedure is applied in order to investigate the consequences of layering in the formation on the effective and directional permeabilities. (au) EFP-86. 11 refs.

  14. Low-level radioactive waste disposal. Study of a conceptual nuclear energy center at Green River, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document constitutes a segment of a feasibility study investigating the ramifications of constructing a nuclear energy center in an arid western region. In this phase of the study, the alternatives for disposing of the low-level waste on the site are compared with the alternative of transporting the waste to the nearest commercial waste disposal site for permanent disposal. Both radiological and nonradiological impacts on the local socioeconomic infrastructure and the environment are considered. Disposal on the site was found to cost considerably less than off-site disposal with only negligible impacts associated with the disposal option on either mankind or the environment

  15. World-wide redistribution of 129Iodine from nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities: Results from meteoric, river, and seawater tracer studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Releases of the long-lived radioisotope of iodine, 129I, from commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities in England and France have surpassed natural, and even bomb test inventories. 129I/127I ratios measured in a variety of environmental matrices from Europe, North America and the southern hemisphere show the influence of fuel reprocessing-derived 129I, which is transported globally via the atmosphere. Transport and cycling of I and 129I in the hydrosphere and in soils are described based on a spatial survey of 129I in freshwater. (author)

  16. Compaction of North-sea chalk by pore-failure and pressure solution in a producing reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eKeszthelyi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Ekofisk field, Norwegian North sea,is an example of compacting chalk reservoir with considerable subsequent seafloor subsidence due to petroleum production. Previously, a number of models were created to predict the compaction using different phenomenological approaches. Here we present a different approach, we use a new creep model based on microscopic mechanisms with no fitting parameters to predict strain rate at core scale and at reservoir scale. The model is able to reproduce creep experiments and the magnitude of the observed subsidence making it the first microstructural model which can explain the Ekofisk compaction.

  17. Nuclear fuel cycle and marine environment. Behavior of the Rhone river effluents in the mediterranean sea and of wastes dumped in the northeast atlantic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Man-made radionuclides released into the marine environment by the installations from the nuclear fuel cycle are used as tracers of various bio-geochemical processes. Several installations belonging to the whole nuclear fuel cycle, except the uranium mining, are set up on the Rhone River Banks. The sea disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive waste has never been authorized in the Mediterranean sea but several sites have been used in the North-East especially in abyssal waters. Radionuclides released by the Rhone river installations are used in order to study the dynamics of the Rhone inputs into the Mediterranean Sea. In the river, freshwater samples reflect quite accurately the discharge composition with a predominance of 106Ru, a radionuclide mostly released by the spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Marcoule. Conversely, at the Rhone mouth, in the sediment compartment 106Ru yields to caesium isotopes (134Cs and 137Cs) in importance. As these two isotopes demonstrate very different half-lives (30,2 and 2,1 years respectively), the temporal evolution of their ratio acts as a chronometer enabled to date sediment accumulation near the river mouth. Mean accumulation rates greater than 35 cm y-1 have been determined in the pro-deltaic zone near the Roustan buoys over the period 1983-1991. Accumulation rates decrease rapidly with distance from the mouth and therefore most of the 137Cs inventory in this part of the Gulf of Lions is limited to the pro-deltaic area. A first study about the part the different 137Cs sources in the Mediterranean Sea play in this inventory has been carried out. Direct (atmospheric) and indirect (fluviatile) inputs due to fallout from both past nuclear tests and the Chernobyl accident could contribute to this inventory at the highest to 40 % while the industrial releases could contribute at the lowest to 60 %. The last site used for the dumping of low and intermediate level radioactive waste in the North-East Atlantic has been

  18. Nuclear waste form risk assessment for US defense waste at Savannah River Plant. Annual report fiscal year 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, H.; Jackson, D.D.; Revelli, M.A.

    1981-07-01

    Waste form dissolution studies and preliminary performance analyses were carried out to contribute a part of the data needed for the selection of a waste form for the disposal of Savannah River Plant defense waste in a deep geologic repository. The first portion of this work provides descriptions of the chemical interactions between the waste form and the geologic environment. We reviewed critically the dissolution/leaching data for borosilicate glass and SYNROC. Both chemical kinetic and thermodynamic models were developed to describe the dissolution process of these candidate waste forms so as to establish a fundamental basis for interpretation of experimental data and to provide directions for future experiments. The complementary second portion of this work is an assessment of the impacts of alternate waste forms upon the consequences of disposal in various proposed geological media. Employing systems analysis methodology, we began to evaluate the performance of a generic waste form for the case of a high risk scenario for a bedded salt repository. Results of sensitivity analysis, uncertainty analyses, and sensitivity to uncertainty analysis are presented.

  19. Temporal and spatial changes in the concentrations of radiocaesium and radiostrontium in the Vltava river basin affected by the operation of the nuclear power plant at Temelín

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Hanslík

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of radiocaesium and radiostrontium were assessed in surface water, sediment, fish and aquatic flora affected and not affected by waste water discharges from the Temelin Nuclear Power Plant. The assessment included residual contamination originating from nuclear weapon tests in the atmosphere over the last century and the accident at Chernobyl in 1986. Results of long-term monitoring (since 1990 were used to derive effective ecological half-lives of these radionuclides in the hydrosphere. Possible effect of waste water discharged from Temelin power plant on the concentrations of radiocaesium and radiostrontium in the Vltava River was assessed by using data recorded in the period 2001–2010.

  20. Size-dependent distribution of radiocesium in riverbed sediments and its relevance to the migration of radiocesium in river systems after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the particle size distribution of radiocesium in riverbed sediments after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Riverbed sediments were collected in the Abukuma River system in Fukushima and Miyagi Prefectures. The collected sediments were separated into 11 fractions, ranging from granular size (>2000 μm) to clay size (<2 μm) fractions. Cesium-137 concentrations were higher in the smaller particle size fractions, possibly reflecting specific surface areas and the mineralogy, in particular the clay mineral content. A gap in 137Cs concentration was observed between the silt size and sand size fractions of riverbed sediments at downstream sites, whereas riverbed sediments at an upstream site did not show such a concentration gap. It is likely that selective transport of small particles in suspended state from upstream areas resulted in an accumulation of radiocesium in downstream areas. - Highlights: • We investigated the distribution of radiocesium in riverbed sediments. • 137Cs concentrations were higher in smaller particle size fractions. • 137Cs concentration showed a gap between the silt size and sand size fractions

  1. Environmental parameters of the Tennessee River in Alabama. 2: Physical, chemical, and biological parameters. [biological and chemical effects of thermal pollution from nuclear power plants on water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosing, L. M.

    1976-01-01

    Physical, chemical and biological water quality data from five sites in the Tennessee River, two in Guntersville Reservoir and three in Wheeler Reservoir were correlated with climatological data for three annual cycles. Two of the annual cycles are for the years prior to the Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Plant operations and one is for the first 14 months of Plant operations. A comparison of the results of the annual cycles indicates that two distinct physical conditions in the reservoirs occur, one during the warm months when the reservoirs are at capacity and one during the colder winter months when the reservoirs have been drawn-down for water storage during the rainy months and for weed control. The wide variations of physical and chemical parameters to which the biological organisms are subjected on an annual basis control the biological organisms and their population levels. A comparison of the parameters of the site below the Power plant indicates that the heated effluent from the plant operating with two of the three reactors has not had any effect on the organisms at this site. Recommendations given include the development of prediction mathematical models (statistical analysis) for the physical and chemical parameters under specific climatological conditions which affect biological organisms. Tabulated data of chemical analysis of water and organism populations studied is given.

  2. What's your lab's strategy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Important strategic choices cascade throughout a laboratory. Senior management should create a document that answers each of the five key questions explained on page 60. Once this has been detailed in writing, it remains important to disseminate the basics to all employees so they are singing the same tune. A useful way to accomplish this is through a coherent strategy statement that specifies three components: 1) objectives; 2) scope; and 3) advantages. Commercial and hospital outreach labs should be in business to win. It all starts with a definition of what winning looks like. To "participate" in your market contributes to mediocrity-and it's self-defeating. With no clear strategic direction of where-to-play and how-to-win choices that associate with the aspiration, a mission or vision statement can be frustrating rather than inspiring for employees. Articulate it plainly and concisely for everybody. With a care-fully prepared and designed strategy, you will be on your way to winning in the zero-sum game! PMID:27548928

  3. Distribution and degradation of diesel oil in the unsaturated zone following an oil spill on a chalk aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, R. P.; Lerner, D. N.; Lloyd, J. W.

    1994-07-01

    In 1976, there occurred a substantial loss of diesel oil from a storage facility at Royston in eastern England. The site is on the outcrop of the important Chalk aquifer, which is protected by an unsaturated zone 24-30 m thick. In 1986, a cored borehole was drilled through the site of the spillage to investigate the fate of the contaminants. The core samples were analysed by physical and chemical methods to determine the physical structure of the rock, and the characteristics and distribution of the oil. The chemically analysed samples included pore water extracts, scrapings from fracture surfaces, and non-fracture (matrix) samples. The results indicate that oil accumulated within a few millimetres of major fissure surfaces, and entry into the rock matrix was limited by the small size of pores and the presence of water. Oil may also have migrated along microscopic channels away from the major fissures. There was no evidence of downward migration of oil since the initial phase of movement. The adoption of certain assumptions regarding degradation, evaporation and dissolution processes allows the estimation of oil depletion caused by these processes. Physical weathering and degradation were found to have been extensive, but highly variable. Both processes occurred on the major fissure surfaces but, in the matrix, degradation appears to have been restricted. The conclusions have implications for the investigation and remediation of fissured Chalk aquifers contaminated by oil.

  4. Laboratory and field measurements of the self-potential (SP) in chalk, with application to monitoring of saline intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacAllister, D.; Jackson, M.; Butler, A. P.; Vinogradov, J.

    2013-12-01

    Saline intrusion is a global phenomenon, affecting the availability of freshwater in coastal aquifers. The aim of this work is to investigate whether measurements of self-potential (SP) can be used to monitor the intrusion of seawater into coastal aquifers, with specific application to the UK chalk aquifer in the vicinity of Brighton on the south coast of the UK. The SP arises to maintain electrical neutrality when a separation of charge occurs due to gradients in pressure (electrokinetic (EK) or streaming potential) and concentration (electrochemical (EC) potential). Concentration gradients are a characteristic feature of saline intrusion and may give rise to a measureable EC potential. In addition, an EK potential will arise during abstraction. Laboratory and field SP measurements are used to investigate the magnitude of the EK and EC potentials in the UK chalk aquifer during saline intrusion. Laboratory measurements yield an EK coupling coefficient, relating the gradient in voltage to the gradient in pressure when the total current is zero, of -60 mV/MPa in samples saturated with groundwater, and -1 mV/MPa in samples saturated with seawater. This result agrees with earlier work suggesting the EK potential is suppressed at high salinity due to a compressed electrical double layer. The EC coupling is dominated by diffusion potentials arising from the concentration gradient across the saline front. Field experiments suggest that the EK component of the SP in the chalk is very small under ambient conditions, even in freshwater zones, because gradients in hydraulic head are small owing to the high conductivity of the pervasive fracture networks. However, a pumping test conducted in the chalk aquifer at a field site in Berkshire induced a measureable EK response with a coupling coefficient of magnitude consistent with the freshwater EK coupling coefficient obtained in the laboratory. SP monitoring at an observation borehole near Brighton reveals semi-diurnal SP

  5. Metallurgical Laboratory (MET-LAB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The MET-LAB can perform materials characterization for all types of metallic components and systems to any industry-specific or military standard. Capabilities: The...

  6. Advanced Active Acoustics Lab (AAAL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Advanced Active Acoustics Lab (AAAL) is a state-of-the-art Undersea Warfare (USW) acoustic data analysis facility capable of both active and passive underwater...

  7. Pollution hazard closes neutrino lab

    CERN Multimedia

    Jones, Nicola

    2003-01-01

    "A leading astrophysics laboratory in Italy has closed down all but one of its experiments over concerns that toxic polluants could leak form the underground lab into the local water supply" (0.5 page)

  8. Virtual Labs and Virtual Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehler, Ted

    2006-12-01

    Virtual Labs and Virtual Worlds Coastline Community College has under development several virtual lab simulations and activities that range from biology, to language labs, to virtual discussion environments. Imagine a virtual world that students enter online, by logging onto their computer from home or anywhere they have web access. Upon entering this world they select a personalized identity represented by a digitized character (avatar) that can freely move about, interact with the environment, and communicate with other characters. In these virtual worlds, buildings, gathering places, conference rooms, labs, science rooms, and a variety of other “real world” elements are evident. When characters move about and encounter other people (players) they may freely communicate. They can examine things, manipulate objects, read signs, watch video clips, hear sounds, and jump to other locations. Goals of critical thinking, social interaction, peer collaboration, group support, and enhanced learning can be achieved in surprising new ways with this innovative approach to peer-to-peer communication in a virtual discussion world. In this presentation, short demos will be given of several online learning environments including a virtual biology lab, a marine science module, a Spanish lab, and a virtual discussion world. Coastline College has been a leader in the development of distance learning and media-based education for nearly 30 years and currently offers courses through PDA, Internet, DVD, CD-ROM, TV, and Videoconferencing technologies. Its distance learning program serves over 20,000 students every year. sponsor Jerry Meisner

  9. NucLab Marcoule: A dedicated waste management and dismantling support laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formerly dedicated to plutonium production support, NucLab was renovated to perform a wide range of analyses for dismantling, plant operation and process development activities mainly at Marcoule but also for external clients. The laboratory is a CEA entity in the Nuclear Energy Division. It provides services to several industrial operators (nuclear processes and power plants) in the fields of analytical chemistry, radioactivity measurements, in situ nuclear measurements, decontamination processes, industrial chemistry processes, and waste treatment. NucLab supports research, production, and dismantling activities in all areas of dismantling operations.

  10. Law enforcement tools available at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofstetter, K.J.

    2000-03-29

    A number of nuclear technologies developed and applied at the Savannah River Site in support of nuclear weapons material production and environmental remediation can be applied to problems in law enforcement. Techniques and equipment for high-sensitivity analyses of samples are available to identify and quantify trace elements and establish origins and histories of forensic evidence removed from crime scenes. While some of theses capabilities are available at local crime laboratories, state-of-the-art equipment and breakthroughs in analytical techniques are continually being developed at DOE laboratories. Extensive experience with the handling of radioactive samples at the DOE labs minimizes the chances of cross-contamination of evidence received from law enforcement. In addition to high-sensitivity analyses, many of the field techniques developed for use in a nuclear facility can assist law enforcement personnel in detecting illicit materials and operations, in retrieving of pertinent evidence and in surveying crime scenes. Some of these tools include chemical sniffers, hand-held detectors, thermal imaging, etc. In addition, mobile laboratories can be deployed to a crime scene to provide field screening of potential evidence. A variety of portable sensors can be deployed on vehicle, aerial, surface or submersible platforms to assist in the location of pertinent evidence or illicit operations. Several specific nuclear technologies available to law enforcement and their potential uses are discussed.

  11. Computation and Analysis of the Global Distribution of the Radioxenon Isotope 133Xe based on Emissions from Nuclear Power Plants and Radioisotope Production Facilities and its Relevance for the Verification of the Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotawa, Gerhard; Becker, Andreas; Kalinowski, Martin; Saey, Paul; Tuma, Matthias; Zähringer, Matthias

    2010-05-01

    Monitoring of radioactive noble gases, in particular xenon isotopes, is a crucial element of the verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The capability of the noble gas network, which is currently under construction, to detect signals from a nuclear explosion critically depends on the background created by other sources. Therefore, the global distribution of these isotopes based on emissions and transport patterns needs to be understood. A significant xenon background exists in the reactor regions of North America, Europe and Asia. An emission inventory of the four relevant xenon isotopes has recently been created, which specifies source terms for each power plant. As the major emitters of xenon isotopes worldwide, a few medical radioisotope production facilities have been recently identified, in particular the facilities in Chalk River (Canada), Fleurus (Belgium), Pelindaba (South Africa) and Petten (Netherlands). Emissions from these sites are expected to exceed those of the other sources by orders of magnitude. In this study, emphasis is put on 133Xe, which is the most prevalent xenon isotope. First, based on the emissions known, the resulting 133Xe concentration levels at all noble gas stations of the final CTBT verification network were calculated and found to be consistent with observations. Second, it turned out that emissions from the radioisotope facilities can explain a number of observed peaks, meaning that atmospheric transport modelling is an important tool for the categorization of measurements. Third, it became evident that Nuclear Power Plant emissions are more difficult to treat in the models, since their temporal variation is high and not generally reported. Fourth, there are indications that the assumed annual emissions may be underestimated by factors of two to ten, while the general emission patterns seem to be well understood. Finally, it became evident that 133Xe sources mainly influence the sensitivity of the

  12. The role of diagenisis in the hydrogeological stratification of carbonate aquifers: an example from the chalk at Fair Cross, Berkshire, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, J.

    Carbonate rocks form important aquifers in many parts of the world and in north-west Europe the Chalk is a primary source of potable water. When flushed with relatively fresh groundwaters, the Chalk may undergo significant diagenetic alteration at relatively shallow depths resulting in a physically and hydrogeochemically stratified aquifer. Diagenetic affects may have important implications for the effective exploitable thickness of the Chalk aquifer and for water quality. In order to assess the affects of diagenesis on the properties of carbonate aquifers, matrix porosity, permeability, pore water and rock chemistry profiles have been analysed for a 300 m deep borehole through the Chalk at the western end of the London Basin. An abrupt change in the matrix porosity profile at 155 mbgl indicates a change in dominant mode of historic diagenesis from mechanical compaction above 155 mbgl to predominantly pressure solution compaction below 155 mbgl. Pore water and rock chemistry profiles also change abruptly across this depth interval, suggesting that the present day hydrogeology is controlled by historic diagenetic trends. Below 155 mbgl, pore waters are relatively saline and there is no evidence for groundwater flow; above 155 mbgl pore waters are relatively fresh and geochemical evidence for incon-gruent carbonate dissolution indicates contemporary groundwater circulation. Possible physical and chemical evolution paths for the Chalk at Fair Cross are discussed. The results provide a hydrogeological context for other studies of the long-term response of carbonate aquifers to base-line changes in sea-level and pore water chemistry and also enable studies with relatively short time-frames or of localized phenomena to be placed in the broader context of the evolution of carbonate aquifers.

  13. The role of diagenisis in the hydrogeological stratification of carbonate aquifers: an example from the chalk at Fair Cross, Berkshire, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bloomfield

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbonate rocks form important aquifers in many parts of the world and in north-west Europe the Chalk is a primary source of potable water. When flushed with relatively fresh groundwaters, the Chalk may undergo significant diagenetic alteration at relatively shallow depths resulting in a physically and hydrogeochemically stratified aquifer. Diagenetic affects may have important implications for the effective exploitable thickness of the Chalk aquifer and for water quality. In order to assess the affects of diagenesis on the properties of carbonate aquifers, matrix porosity, permeability, pore water and rock chemistry profiles have been analysed for a 300 m deep borehole through the Chalk at the western end of the London Basin. An abrupt change in the matrix porosity profile at 155 mbgl indicates a change in dominant mode of historic diagenesis from mechanical compaction above 155 mbgl to predominantly pressure solution compaction below 155 mbgl. Pore water and rock chemistry profiles also change abruptly across this depth interval, suggesting that the present day hydrogeology is controlled by historic diagenetic trends. Below 155 mbgl, pore waters are relatively saline and there is no evidence for groundwater flow; above 155 mbgl pore waters are relatively fresh and geochemical evidence for incon-gruent carbonate dissolution indicates contemporary groundwater circulation. Possible physical and chemical evolution paths for the Chalk at Fair Cross are discussed. The results provide a hydrogeological context for other studies of the long-term response of carbonate aquifers to base-line changes in sea-level and pore water chemistry and also enable studies with relatively short time-frames or of localized phenomena to be placed in the broader context of the evolution of carbonate aquifers.

  14. Retention of 137Cs and 90Sr by mineral sorbents surrounding vitrified nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In June 1960, twenty-five 14-cm diameter hemispheres of vitrified nuclear waste (glass blocks) were buried in a shallow sand aquifer in the lower Perch Lake Basin, Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories, Ontario, Canada. Almost all leaching of the glass blocks occurred during the first 18 months of emplacement, and consequently the burial experiment approximated a single-injection source of 137Cs and 90Sr. After about 11 years, most of the 90Sr that was released had been advected and dispersed from the site, whereas the bulk of the 137Cs had travelled no more than 0.3 m from the blocks. Three piezometers were installed and five cores of sediment were collected at the glass block site in 1978. Mineralogically pure segregates of sand grains were prepared by hand and characterized using binocular, petrographic and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. A technique also was developed to measure very low levels of 137Cs and 90Sr by counting small (10-100 mg) sediment samples directly with a thin window, flow proportional counter. Results show that sand-sized grains of altered biotite (biotite-vermiculite), biotite, muscovite, hornblende and serictized feldspar are able to retain 137Cs over a period of 18 years, and that grains of biotite-vermiculite, biotite and hematite-bearing feldspar (largely microline) can retain low levels of 90Sr over the same period of time. The amounts of 137Cs and 90Sr sorbed by the mineral grains ranged from undetectable levels to approximately 380 and 35 becquerels/gram sediment, respectively. This report contains the complete series of mineral segregates ranked on a weight basis according to the amounts of retained 137Cs and 90Sr. Ground-water quality data indicate that none of the retention is the result of the precipitation of strontium or cesium minerals

  15. The application of neutron diffraction to materials science problems in the Canadian nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main advantage of neutron diffraction over X-ray diffraction is that thermal neutrons easily pass through, for example, 25 mm of steel, so that measurements can be made at depth in engineering components. A program at Chalk River to investigate the industrial applications of neutron diffraction began with measurement on over-rolled Zr-2.5Nb pressure tubes, a topic of major concern in the eighties. It was quickly realized that neutrons could provide measurements of residual stress accurate enough to be of real interest. Over the ensuing period, major contributions have been made in measuring stresses and crystallographic texture in components for the nuclear industry including end-fittings, steam generator tubing, pressure tubes and calandria tubes, and weldments. In addition to work for the nuclear industry, there have been many applications in the aerospace, automotive, defence and pipeline industries in Canada and throughout the world. Residual stresses arise because of inhomogeneous plastic deformation of the material. Inhomogeneous plastic deformation not only occurs on a macroscopic scale but also on the scale of the grain size. The stresses that occur on this scale are called intergranular of type=II stresses. These intergranular effects, taken with the strong crystallographic alignment in zirconium alloy tubing, determine the growth of components in the reactor environment. Systematic studies of the origin of intergranular residual stresses arising from thermal effects and plasticity effects were carried out on Zircaloy-2 and Zr-2.5Nb alloys which have led to a theoretical understanding of component growth. Finally, a very recent texture scanning technique was able to shed light on the microstructure of zirconium alloy components. (author) 17 refs., 14 figs

  16. Projectile and Lab Frame Differential Cross Sections for Electromagnetic Dissociation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, John W.; Adamczyk, Anne; Dick, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Differential cross sections for electromagnetic dissociation in nuclear collisions are calculated for the first time. In order to be useful for three - dimensional transport codes, these cross sections have been calculated in both the projectile and lab frames. The formulas for these cross sections are such that they can be immediately used in space radiation transport codes. Only a limited amount of data exists, but the comparison between theory and experiment is good.

  17. High frequency seismic monitoring of debris flows at Chalk Cliffs (CO), USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coviello, Velio; Kean, Jason; Smith, Joel; Coe, Jeffrey; Arattano, Massimo; McCoy, Scott

    2015-04-01

    A growing number of studies adopt passive seismic monitoring techniques to investigate slope instabilities and landslide processes. These techniques are attractive and convenient because large areas can be monitored from a safe distance. This is particularly true when the phenomena under investigation are rapid and infrequent mass movements like debris flows. Different types of devices are used to monitor debris flow processes, but among them ground vibration detectors (GVDs) present several, specific advantages that encourage their use. These advantages include: (i) the possibility to be installed outside the channel bed, (ii) the high adaptability to different and harsh field conditions, and (iii) the capability to detect the debris flow front arrival tens of seconds earlier than contact and stage sensors. Ground vibration data can provide relevant information on the dynamics of debris flows such as timing and velocity of the main surges. However, the processing of the raw seismic signal is usually needed, both to obtain a more effective representation of waveforms and to decrease the amount of data that need to be recorded and analyzed. With this objective, the methods of Amplitude and Impulses are commonly adopted to transform the raw signal to a 1-Hz signal that allows for a more useful representation of the phenomenon. In that way, peaks and other features become more visible and comparable with data obtained from other monitoring devices. In this work, we present the first debris flows seismic recordings gathered in the Chalk Cliffs instrumented basin, central Colorado, USA. In May 2014, two 4.5-Hz, three-axial geophones were installed in the upper part of the catchment. Seismic data are sampled at 333 Hz and then recorded by a standalone recording unit. One geophone is directly installed on bedrock, the other one mounted on a 1-m boulder partially buried in colluvium. This latter sensor integrates a heavily instrumented cross-section consisting of a 225 cm2

  18. Analysis and applications of microorganisms from a chalk oil reservoir in the North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaster, Krista Michelle

    2009-03-15

    Ekofisk a chalk oil reservoir in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea was found to harbour an active and diverse microbial community. Microbial actives may be deleterious in nature as in reservoir souring or maybe advantageous as in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The aim of this study was to characterise the microbial communities in the Ekofisk oil reservoir and to gain insight into the microbial mechanisms important for the a) control of reservoir souring, and b) which can be utilized in enhanced oil recovery. Produced water samples from the Ekofisk oil reservoir were analysed using both culture-dependent and -independent techniques. The Ekofisk microbial community was found to be dominated by thermophilic microorganisms many of which were capable of either sulphidogenic or methanogenic physiologies. They were similar to organisms that have been previously identified from oil reservoir fluids. The dominant organisms identified directly from the produced water samples had sequences similar to members of the genera Thermotoga, Caminicella, Thermoanaerobacter, Archaeoglobus, Thermococcus, and Methanobulbus. Enrichment cultures obtained from the produced water samples were dominated by sheathed rods. Sequence analyses of the cultures indicated predominance of the genera Petrotoga, Arcobacter, Archaeoglobus and Thermococcus. Reservoir souring caused by sulphide production due the activity of sulphate reducing prokaryotes (SRP) may be reduced by the injection of nitrate or nitrite. Nitrate or nitrite mitigates sulphide production either by the stimulation of nitrate reducing bacteria (NRB) through nitrate addition or via metabolic inhibition of the reduction of sulphite to sulphide by nitrite. Here we found that nitrate addition was ineffective at controlling souring whereas nitrite proved very effective at inhibiting sulphate reduction even at very low concentrations (0.25 mM - 1 mM) in both batch culture and bioreactor studies. To investigate microbial utilization

  19. Progress report: Physical Sciences - TASCC Division, 1992 July 01 -December 31

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes operations and research activities in the Nuclear Physics Branch and the TASCC Accelerators and Development Branch at Chalk River Laboratories during the last half of 1992. 27 figs., 10 tabs

  20. Investigation of CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery Using Dimensionless Groups in Wettability Modified Chalk and Sandstone Rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Alipour Tabrizy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses enhanced oil recovery in chalk and sandstone rocks by CO2 injection, with different wettability, porosity, and permeability as well as injection rate and flooding conditions. Results indicate that an increase in Bond number has a positive effect on oil recovery whereas for capillary number, there is a limit in which recovery is improving. This limit is estimated when the pressure drop by viscous force is approximately equal to the threshold balance between capillary and gravity forces. A dimensionless group is proposed that combines the effect of capillarity, injection rate, permeability, and CO2 diffusion on the oil recovery. Recovery from all experiments in this study and reported data in the literature shows a satisfactory relationship with the proposed group.

  1. Tilting oil-water contact in the chalk of Tyra Field as interpreted from capillary pressure data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke; Rana, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    The Tyra Field in the central North Sea is located in Palaeogene and Upper Cretaceous chalk. It contains a natural gas zone underlain by an oil leg. Based on analysis of logs and core data from ten wells drilled prior to the field being put into production, normalized water saturation depth......-trends from logs were compared with normalized water saturation depth-trends predicted from capillary pressure core data. The ten wells lie close to a SW–NE cross section of the field. For the gas–oil contact, a free contact measured in one well corresponds to a practically horizontal contact interpreted from...... logging data in the remaining wells. A westerly dipping oil–water contact was found from logging data. Comparison of the depth-wise trends in normalized water saturation among the different wells indicates a regional pattern: in the western side of the field, the trends correspond to a situation...

  2. Radon hazard and risk in Sussex, England and the factors affecting radon levels in dwellings in chalk terrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey was undertaken of radon levels in 1013 dwellings in Sussex, UK. A number of dwellings were identified with high radon levels in an area previously considered to offer low radon risk from geological sources. Multiple regression was used to determine the relative influence of the various geographical and building-related factors on indoor radon levels. The radon hazard, independent of building-related effects, was determined for each surveyed location by standardising radon measurements to a 'model' dwelling. These were entered into a geographic information system and related to surface geology. The highest radon levels were found to be associated with the youngest Chalk formations, Tertiary deposits and Clay-with-flints Quaternary deposits in the area. Radon potentials were also determined for the area which can be used to estimate radon risk and assist in environmental planning and development control. (authors)

  3. Influence of coal mine tips on the chalk aquifer. Sampling methods for three dimensional sulphate infiltration study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coal basin of the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region (France) shows a very strong deterioration of the Chalk aquifer quality. In order to better model the hydro-dynamism and to improve knowledge on the chemical interactions, sampling according to depth of the groundwater is undertaken. The low-flow sampling and the profiles of the in-situ physicochemical parameters allow the observation of various vertical heterogeneities of the aquifer. The areas where the coal mine tips are localised appear very interesting to study. The sulphates released by the pyrite oxidation allow a 'artificial tracing' and give a visualization of the flow as well as information on the implied chemical processes between the oxidizing and reducing zones. (authors)

  4. Influence of coal mine tips on the chalk aquifer. Sampling methods for three dimensional sulphate infiltration study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrez, F.; Mania, J. [Polytech' Lille, Dept. Genie Civil, UMR CNRS 8107 (LML), 59 - Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Mansy, J.L. [Lille-1 Univ., Lab. de Sedimentologie et de Geodynamique, UMR CNRS 8110 (PBDS), 59 - Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Piwakowski, B. [Ecole Centrale de Lille, Groupe Electronique Acoustique IEMN-DOAE, UMR CNRS 8520, 59 - Villeneuve d' Ascq (France)

    2005-07-01

    The coal basin of the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region (France) shows a very strong deterioration of the Chalk aquifer quality. In order to better model the hydro-dynamism and to improve knowledge on the chemical interactions, sampling according to depth of the groundwater is undertaken. The low-flow sampling and the profiles of the in-situ physicochemical parameters allow the observation of various vertical heterogeneities of the aquifer. The areas where the coal mine tips are localised appear very interesting to study. The sulphates released by the pyrite oxidation allow a 'artificial tracing' and give a visualization of the flow as well as information on the implied chemical processes between the oxidizing and reducing zones. (authors)

  5. Carrier Analysis Lab (CAL) – Aircraft/Weapons/Ship Compatibility Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The Carrier Analysis Lab (CAL) - Aircraft/Weapons/Ship Compatibility Lab located at the Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division, Lakehurst, NJ provides...

  6. Lab-on-fiber technology

    CERN Document Server

    Cusano, Andrea; Crescitelli, Alessio; Ricciardi, Armando

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses on a research field that is rapidly emerging as one of the most promising ones for the global optics and photonics community: the "lab-on-fiber" technology. Inspired by the well-established 'lab on-a-chip' concept, this new technology essentially envisages novel and highly functionalized devices completely integrated into a single optical fiber for both communication and sensing applications.Based on the R&D experience of some of the world's leading authorities in the fields of optics, photonics, nanotechnology, and material science, this book provides a broad and accurate de

  7. Physics Opportunities with the 12 GeV Upgrade at Jefferson Lab

    CERN Document Server

    Dudek, Jozef; Essig, Rouven; Kumar, Krishna; Meyer, Curtis; McKeown, Robert; Meziani, Zein Eddine; Miller, Gerald A; Pennington, Michael; Richards, David; Weinstein, Larry; Young, Glenn

    2012-01-01

    This white paper summarizes the scientific opportunities for utilization of the upgraded 12 GeV Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) and associated experimental equipment at Jefferson Lab. It is based on the 52 proposals recommended for approval by the Jefferson Lab Physics Advisory Committee.The upgraded facility will enable a new experimental program with substantial discovery potential to address important topics in nuclear, hadronic, and electroweak physics.

  8. Ntal/Lab/Lat2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwaki, Shoko; Jensen, Bettina M; Gilfillan, Alasdair M

    2007-01-01

    Non-T cell activation linker (NTAL)/linker for activation of B cells (LAB), now officially termed LAT2 (linker for activation of T cells 2) is a 25-30kDa transmembrane adaptor protein (TRAP) associated with glycolipid-enriched membrane fractions (GEMs; lipid rafts) in specific cell types...

  9. The Telecom Lab is moving

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2009-01-01

    As of 2nd March 2009, the Telecom Lab will move to Building 58 R-017. The Telecom Lab is the central point for all support questions regarding CERN mobile phone services (provision of SIM cards, requests for modifications of subscriptions, diagnostics for mobile phone problems, etc.). The opening hours as well as the contact details for the Telecom Lab remain unchanged: New location: Building 58 R-017 Opening hours: Every week day, from 11 a.m. to 12 a.m. Phone number: 72480 Email address: labo.telecom@cern.ch This change has no impact on support requests for mobile services. Users can still submit their requests concerning mobile phone subscriptions using the usual EDH form (https://edh.cern.ch/Document/GSM). The automatic message sent to inform users of their SIM card availability will be updated to indicate the new Telecom Lab location. You can find all information related to CERN mobile phone services at the following link: http://cern.ch/gsm CS Section - IT/CS group

  10. Sakshat Labs: India's Virtual Proteomics Initiative

    OpenAIRE

    Sandipan Ray; Nicole R Koshy; Shyam Diwakar; Bipin Nair; Sanjeeva Srivastava

    2012-01-01

    The first Virtual Proteomics Lab of India has been developed at the IIT Bombay as a part of the “Sakshat” Lab Project, established to develop openly accessible, high-quality educational materials on science and technology.

  11. GeoLab Sample Handling System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop  a robotic sample handling/ manipulator system for the GeoLab glovebox. This work leverages from earlier GeoLab work and a 2012 collaboration with a...

  12. Flexible HVAC System for Lab or Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedan, Jonathan

    2001-01-01

    Discusses an effort to design a heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system flexible enough to accommodate an easy conversion of classrooms to laboratories and dry labs to wet labs. The design's energy efficiency and operations and maintenance are examined. (GR)

  13. River engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, M.

    1993-01-01

    One dimension models - basic eauations, analytical models, numberical models. One dimensional models -suspended load, roughness and resistance of river beds. Solving river problems - tools, flood mitigation, bank protection.

  14. An Approach for WebLabs Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier García Zubia

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The Faculty of Engineering of University of Deusto has a WebLab oriented to Microelectronics available since 2001. The first part of this paper shows several requirements that a WebLab should meet and the following sections present the WebLab-Deusto.

  15. Designing inquiry learning spaces for online labs in the Go-Lab platform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de Ton; Gillet, Dennis; Sotiriou, Sofoklis; Agogi, Ellinogermaniki; Zacharia, Zacharias

    2015-01-01

    The Go-Lab project (http://www.go-lab-project.eu/) aims to enable the integration of online labs through inquiry-based learning approaches into science classrooms. Through the use of an advanced plug and play technological solution the Go-Lab project opens up remote science laboratories, data archiv

  16. Single-layer burial joints vs single-layer uplift joints in Eocene chalk from the Beer Sheva syncline in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahat, Dov

    1999-03-01

    The single-layer (s.l.) joints that occur in the Lower Eocene chalks near Beer Sheva, Israel, developed during the burial history of the rock, whereas the s.l. joints in adjacent Middle Eocene chalks developed during the uplift stage. Characteristically, s.l. burial joints occur in orthogonal cross-fold and strike sets, and as conjugate sets. They precede normal faults and multi-layer joints, and they do not exhibit strike rotation, en échelon segmentation or fracture interaction with each other. These joints are generally closed, and during subsidence older beds fracture first. On the other hand, s.l. uplift joints do not occur in orthogonal or conjugate sets. They are post strike-slip faulting, contemporaneous with multi-layer joints, and exhibit strike rotation, en échelon segmentation and often interact with each other. They are occasionally opened up to several millimetres, and during uplift younger beds fracture first.

  17. Contribution of piezometric measurement to knowledge and management of low water levels: examples on the chalk aquifer in the Champagne Ardennes region

    OpenAIRE

    Stollsteiner, P.; Bessiere, H.; Nicolas, J.; Allier, D.; Berthet, O.

    2015-01-01

    This article is based on a BRGM study on piezometric indicators, threshold values of discharge and groundwater levels for the assessment of potentially-exploitable water resources of chalky watersheds. A method for estimating low water levels based on groundwater levels is presented from three examples representing chalk aquifers with different cycles: annual, combined and interannual. The first is located in Picardy and the two others in the Champagne-Ardennes region. Piezometers with...

  18. Congress moves to reorganize Department of Energy labs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two bills that would transform the missions and practices of the Department of Energy's research laboratories are moving forward in both branches of Congress. Each of the two is crafted to improve cooperative research between DOE and private industry, but the House bill goes further by making fundamental changes in lab administration. H.R. 1432 provides a clear statement of purpose for the labs. The eight missions outlined in the bill are as follows: Enhance the nation's understanding of energy production and use, with a goal of reducing reliance on imported sources of fuels; Advance nuclear science and technology for national security purposes; Assist with dismantlement of nuclear weapons and work to curb nuclear arms proliferation; Conduct fundamental research in energy-related science and technology; Assist in development of technologies for disposal of hazardous wastes, particularly nuclear waste; Work with private industry to develop generic green technologies; Conduct technology-transfer activities; and Work to improve the quality of science, math, and engineering education in the U.S

  19. Area balance and strain in an extensional fault system: Strategies for improved oil recovery in fractured chalk, Gilbertown Field, southwestern Alabama. Final report, March 1996--September 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pashin, J.C.; Raymond, D.E.; Rindsberg, A.K.; Alabi, G.G.; Carroll, R.E.; Groshong, R.H.; Jin, G.

    1998-12-01

    This project was designed to analyze the structure of Mesozoic and Tertiary strata in Gilbertown Field and adjacent areas to suggest ways in which oil recovery can be improved. The Eutaw Formation comprises 7 major flow units and is dominated by low-resistivity, low-contrast play that is difficult to characterize quantitatively. Selma chalk produces strictly from fault-related fractures that were mineralized as warm fluid migrated from deep sources. Resistivity, dipmeter, and fracture identification logs corroborate that deformation is concentrated in the hanging-wall drag zones. New area balancing techniques were developed to characterize growth strata and confirm that strain is concentrated in hanging-wall drag zones. Curvature analysis indicates that the faults contain numerous fault bends that influence fracture distribution. Eutaw oil is produced strictly from footwall uplifts, whereas Selma oil is produced from fault-related fractures. Clay smear and mineralization may be significant trapping mechanisms in the Eutaw Formation. The critical seal for Selma reservoirs, by contrast, is where Tertiary clay in the hanging wall is juxtaposed with poorly fractured Selma chalk in the footwall. Gilbertown Field can be revitalized by infill drilling and recompletion of existing wells. Directional drilling may be a viable technique for recovering untapped oil from Selma chalk. Revitalization is now underway, and the first new production wells since 1985 are being drilled in the western part of the field.

  20. Networking Online Labs within the ISA Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Garbi Zutin

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The proposed paper focuses in outlining the implementation of online laboratories within the framework of the iLab Shared Architecture (ISA in order to facilitate sharing those labs among several institutions and managing laboratory users. The laboratories are compliant with the ISA batched architecture, which is based on Web services to mediate the communication between Lab Servers and Lab Clients. The first laboratory presented is a Hybrid Lab that allows for the realization of real experiments as well as simulations with an analog programmable device.

  1. StreamLab Collaboratory: Experiments, data sets, and research synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Arvind; Czuba, Jonathan A.; Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi; Marr, Jeffrey D. G.; Hill, Craig; Johnson, Sara; Ellis, Chris; Mullin, James; Orr, Cailin H.; Wilcock, Peter R.; Hondzo, Miki; Paola, Chris

    2013-03-01

    A series of community-led, large-scale laboratory experiments, termed "StreamLab", were performed by the National Center for Earth-surface Dynamics (NCED) with the purpose of advancing multidisciplinary research, education, and knowledge transfer at the interface of physical/chemical/biological processes in streams, science-based stream restoration practice, and environmental sensing technologies. Two series of experiments, StreamLab06 and StreamLab08, were conducted in the Main Channel of the St. Anthony Falls Laboratory at the University of Minnesota, a flume 84 m long and 2.75 m wide with water fed by the Mississippi River at a rate of up to 8.5 m3/s. The purpose of this paper is to share with the broader community the data collected with the hope of stimulating further analysis and future experimental campaigns toward advancing our predictive understanding of the physical, chemical, and biological processes in streams. Toward this end, a brief summary of the results to date is included and some ideas for further research are provided.

  2. LabVIEW 8 student edition

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Robert H

    2007-01-01

    For courses in Measurement and Instrumentation, Electrical Engineering lab, and Physics and Chemistry lab. This revised printing has been updated to include new LabVIEW 8.2 Student Edition. National Instruments' LabVIEW is the defacto industry standard for test, measurement, and automation software solutions. With the Student Edition of LabVIEW, students can design graphical programming solutions to their classroom problems and laboratory experiments with software that delivers the graphical programming capabilites of the LabVIEW professional version. . The Student Edition is also compatible with all National Instruments data acquisition and instrument control hardware. Note: The LabVIEW Student Edition is available to students, faculty, and staff for personal educational use only. It is not intended for research, institutional, or commercial use. For more information about these licensing options, please visit the National Instruments website at (http:www.ni.com/academic/)

  3. On the strength evaluation of the lab scale PHE prototypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Researches demonstrating the massive production of hydrogen using a very high temperature reactor (VHTR) have been actively carried out worldwide. In the intermediate loop of a nuclear hydrogen program, a process heat exchanger (PHE) is a key component to transfer high heat generated in a very high temperature reactor to a chemical reaction that yields a large quantity of hydrogen. Recently, the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) established a small scale nitrogen gas loop for the performance test of the VHTR components, and manufactured welded lab scale PHE prototypes made of Hastelloy X. In this study, to understand the mechanical behavior of theses lab scale PHE prototypes in detail, strength analyses considering the weld mechanical properties recently obtained by an instrumented indentation technique were performed, and the analysis results were compared with the previous research using the parent material properties

  4. Human Resources Development for Rooppur Nuclear Power Programme in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conclusions: • Bangladesh faces a huge challenge in implementing the Rooppur NPP and its total nuclear power; • A preliminary assessment has been chalked out a plan to find out methods that can be applied to find out our gaps and then fill them up; • Bangladesh seeks cooperation from the Russian Federation in the form assistance package like National training courses, Seminar/Workshop, Expert Mission/Review and other form of bilateral arrangements in establishing infrastructure for “Rooppur NPP” building;

  5. Nuclear and Related Analytical Techniques Used to Study the Anthropogenic Impact on the Sister River in the Vicinity of the Town of Klin (Moscow Region, Russia)

    CERN Document Server

    Morzhukhina, S V; Chermnykh, L P; Khodakovsky, L P; Frontasyeva, M V; Gundorina, S F

    2001-01-01

    The ecological fate of small rivers, tributaries of the Volga River, is of great concern in the national program of the Russian Federation "Restoration of the Volga River". The results on the elaborated hydrochemical and saprobiological water examination of the Sister River are reported along with the results on the multielement chemical analysis of surface sediments in the catchment of the town of Klin (Moscow Region) known for its numerous industrial and chemical enterprises with heavy contaminant inputs. Epithermal neutron activation analysis was used to study heavy metals and other toxic elements in bottom sediments. A total of 42 elements including Pb, Cu, Cd and Hg were determined by polarography (method of inverse voltamperometry). Metal/Al rations which express the relative mobility of the elements follow the sequence: Fe > Mg > K > Na > Ca >> Zr > Mn > Zn = Sr > Cr > V > Ni = As > Co. Elevated concentrations of Cd, Pb, Zn and Cu in the bottom sediments of the Sister River reinforced us to determine t...

  6. FOREWORD: Jefferson Lab: A Long Decade of Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Hugh

    2011-04-01

    Jefferson Lab Jefferson Lab was created in 1984 and started operating in about 1996. 2011 is an appropriate time to try to take a look at the results that have appeared, what has been learned, and what has been exciting for our scientific community. Rather than attempt to construct a coherent view with a single author or at least a small number, we have, instead, invited small groups of people who have been intimately involved in the work itself to make contributions. These people are accelerator experts, experimentalists and theorists, staff and users. We have, in the main, sought reviews of the actual sub-fields. The primary exception is the first paper, which sets the scene as it was, in one person's view, at the beginning of Jefferson Lab. In reviewing the material as it appeared, I was impressed by the breadth of the material. Major advances are documented from form factors to structure functions, from spectroscopy to physics beyond the standard model of nuclear and particle physics. Recognition of the part played by spin, the helicities of the beams, the polarizations of the targets, and the polarizations of final state particles, is inescapable. Access to the weak interaction amplitudes through measurements of the parity violating asymmetries has led to quantification of the strange content of the nucleon and the neutron radius of lead, and to measurements of the electroweak mixing angle. Lattice QCD calculations flourished and are setting the platform for understanding of the spectroscopy of baryons and mesons. But the star of the game was the accelerator. Its performance enabled the physics and also the use of the technology to generate a powerful free electron laser. These important pieces of Jefferson Lab physics are given their place. As the third Director of Jefferson Lab, and on behalf of the other physicists and others presently associated with the lab, I would like to express my admiration and gratitude for the efforts of the directors, chief

  7. Factors controlling radiocesium distribution in river sediments: Field and laboratory studies after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Kd of 137Cs were not only related to particle size but also to clay mineral content. • 137Cs can be extracted from sediments in water when salinity becomes high. • RCs in sediments will be equilibrated with stable Cs during its transportation. - Abstract: This study used laboratorial estimations and determined the distribution coefficient (Kd) of 137Cs in river sediments sampled from the Abukuma River and the Kuchibuto River to investigate the particle size dependence of RCs distribution. Results show that the Kd patterns of 137Cs (particle size-dependence of Kd) were not only related to the particle size of large particles (low clay mineral content) but also to the clay mineral content of small particles (high clay mineral content) and particularly cation concentration in aqueous phase. By contrast, the Kd patterns of stable Cs (133Cs) exhibited no obvious particle size dependence. Adsorption species of Cs that was added to the river sediments at various particle sizes was almost the same at the molecular scale as determined by the extended X-ray absorption fine structure. Our findings indicate that river sediments have high fixation ability to 137Cs. Nevertheless, adsorbed 137Cs can be extracted from sediments in the water phase when salinity becomes high, such as that in seawater. The distribution patterns of 137Cs at various particle sizes can slowly down the equilibrium of the adsorption of 137Cs during the transportation of river sediments, and then the behavior of 137Cs should eventually be similar to that of stable Cs in the river system. Therefore, the particle size of sediments is an important factor in the distribution of RCs at the early stage of its deposition. In the end, RCs adsorbed on the sediments will be equilibrated with the stable Cs during its transportation in the river system. Controlling factors such as the mineralogy of sediments could possibly make the distribution patterns of RCs similar to that of stable Cs in the

  8. Diagnosing hydrological limitations of a land surface model: application of JULES to a deep-groundwater chalk basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Vine, N.; Butler, A.; McIntyre, N.; Jackson, C.

    2016-01-01

    Land surface models (LSMs) are prospective starting points to develop a global hyper-resolution model of the terrestrial water, energy, and biogeochemical cycles. However, there are some fundamental limitations of LSMs related to how meaningfully hydrological fluxes and stores are represented. A diagnostic approach to model evaluation and improvement is taken here that exploits hydrological expert knowledge to detect LSM inadequacies through consideration of the major behavioural functions of a hydrological system: overall water balance, vertical water redistribution in the unsaturated zone, temporal water redistribution, and spatial water redistribution over the catchment's groundwater and surface-water systems. Three types of information are utilized to improve the model's hydrology: (a) observations, (b) information about expected response from regionalized data, and (c) information from an independent physics-based model. The study considers the JULES (Joint UK Land Environmental Simulator) LSM applied to a deep-groundwater chalk catchment in the UK. The diagnosed hydrological limitations and the proposed ways to address them are indicative of the challenges faced while transitioning to a global high resolution model of the water cycle.

  9. Identification of a New Hesperornithiform from the Cretaceous Niobrara Chalk and Implications for Ecologic Diversity among Early Diving Birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa Bell

    Full Text Available The Smoky Hill Member of the Niobrara Chalk in Kansas (USA has yielded the remains of numerous members of the Hesperornithiformes, toothed diving birds from the late Early to Late Cretaceous. This study presents a new taxon of hesperornithiform from the Smoky Hill Member, Fumicollis hoffmani, the holotype of which is among the more complete hesperornithiform skeletons. Fumicollis has a unique combination of primitive (e.g. proximal and distal ends of femur not expanded, elongate pre-acetabular ilium, small and pyramidal patella and derived (e.g. dorsal ridge on metatarsal IV, plantarly-projected curve in the distal shaft of phalanx III:1 hesperornithiform characters, suggesting it was more specialized than small hesperornithiforms like Baptornis advenus but not as highly derived as the larger Hesperornis regalis. The identification of Fumicollis highlights once again the significant diversity of hesperornithiforms that existed in the Late Cretaceous Western Interior Seaway. This diversity points to the existence of a complex ecosystem, perhaps with a high degree of niche partitioning, as indicated by the varying degrees of diving specializations among these birds.

  10. Projecting impacts of climate change on hydrological conditions and biotic responses in a chalk valley riparian wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, A. R.; Thompson, J. R.; Acreman, M. C.

    2016-03-01

    Projected changes in climate are likely to substantially impact wetland hydrological conditions that will in turn have implications for wetland ecology. Assessing ecohydrological impacts of climate change requires models that can accurately simulate water levels at the fine-scale resolution to which species and communities respond. Hydrological conditions within the Lambourn Observatory at Boxford, Berkshire, UK were simulated using the physically based, distributed model MIKE SHE, calibrated to contemporary surface and groundwater levels. The site is a 10 ha lowland riparian wetland where complex geological conditions and channel management exert strong influences on the hydrological regime. Projected changes in precipitation, potential evapotranspiration, channel discharge and groundwater level were derived from the UK Climate Projections 2009 ensemble of climate models for the 2080s under different scenarios. Hydrological impacts of climate change differ through the wetland over short distances depending on the degree of groundwater/surface-water interaction. Discrete areas of groundwater upwelling are associated with an exaggerated response of water levels to climate change compared to non-upwelling areas. These are coincident with regions where a weathered chalk layer, which otherwise separates two main aquifers, is absent. Simulated water levels were linked to requirements of the MG8 plant community and Desmoulin's whorl snail (Vertigo moulinsiana) for which the site is designated. Impacts on each are shown to differ spatially and in line with hydrological impacts. Differences in water level requirements for this vegetation community and single species highlight the need for separate management strategies in distinct areas of the wetland.

  11. Quantification of aquifer properties with surface nuclear magnetic resonance in the Platte River valley, central Nebraska, using a novel inversion method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irons, Trevor P.; Hobza, Christopher M.; Steele, Gregory V.; Abraham, Jared D.; Cannia, James C.; Woodward, Duane D.

    2012-01-01

    Surface nuclear magnetic resonance, a noninvasive geophysical method, measures a signal directly related to the amount of water in the subsurface. This allows for low-cost quantitative estimates of hydraulic parameters. In practice, however, additional factors influence the signal, complicating interpretation. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Central Platte Natural Resources District, evaluated whether hydraulic parameters derived from surface nuclear magnetic resonance data could provide valuable input into groundwater models used for evaluating water-management practices. Two calibration sites in Dawson County, Nebraska, were chosen based on previous detailed hydrogeologic and geophysical investigations. At both sites, surface nuclear magnetic resonance data were collected, and derived parameters were compared with results from four constant-discharge aquifer tests previously conducted at those same sites. Additionally, borehole electromagnetic-induction flowmeter data were analyzed as a less-expensive surrogate for traditional aquifer tests. Building on recent work, a novel surface nuclear magnetic resonance modeling and inversion method was developed that incorporates electrical conductivity and effects due to magnetic-field inhomogeneities, both of which can have a substantial impact on the data. After comparing surface nuclear magnetic resonance inversions at the two calibration sites, the nuclear magnetic-resonance-derived parameters were compared with previously performed aquifer tests in the Central Platte Natural Resources District. This comparison served as a blind test for the developed method. The nuclear magnetic-resonance-derived aquifer parameters were in agreement with results of aquifer tests where the environmental noise allowed data collection and the aquifer test zones overlapped with the surface nuclear magnetic resonance testing. In some cases, the previously performed aquifer tests were not designed fully to characterize

  12. Identification of unknown microcontaminants in Dutch river water by liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic Resonance spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. van Leerdam; J. Vervoort; G. Stroomberg; P. de Voogt

    2014-01-01

    In the past decade during automated surface water monitoring in the river Meuse at border station Eijsden in The Netherlands, a set of unknown compounds were repeatedly detected by online liquid chromatography-diode-array detection in a relatively high signal intensity. Because of the unknown nature

  13. Identification of Unknown Microcontaminants in Dutch River Water by Liquid Chromatography-High Resolution Mass Spectrometry and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leerdam, van J.A.; Vervoort, J.J.M.; Stroomberg, G.; Voogt, de P.

    2014-01-01

    In the past decade during automated surface water monitoring in the river Meuse at border station Eijsden in The Netherlands, a set of unknown compounds were repeatedly detected by online liquid chromatography-diode-array detection in a relatively high signal intensity. Because of the unknown nature

  14. Double success for neutrino lab

    CERN Multimedia

    2010-01-01

    "The Gran Sasso National Laboratory in Italy is celebrating two key developments in the field of neutrino physics. Number one is the first ever detection, by the OPERA experiement, of possible tau neutrino that has switched its identity from a muon neutrino as it travelled form its origins at CERN in Switzerland to the Italian lab. Number two is the successful start-up of the ICARUS detector, which, like OPERA, is designed to study neutrinos that "oscillate" between types" (0.5 pages)

  15. Laser safety in the lab

    CERN Document Server

    Barat, Ken L

    2012-01-01

    There is no more challenging setting for laser use than a research environment. In almost every other setting the laser controls count on engineering controls, and human exposure is kept to a minimum. In research, however, the user often manipulates the optical layout and thereby places him or herself in peril, but this does not mean that accidents and injury are unavoidable. On the contrary, laser accidents can be avoided by following a number of simple approaches. [i]Laser Safety in the Lab[/i] provides the laser user and laser safety officer with practical guidelines from housekeeping to ey

  16. Digital media labs in libraries

    CERN Document Server

    Goodman, Amanda L

    2014-01-01

    Families share stories with each other and veterans reconnect with their comrades, while teens edit music videos and then upload them to the web: all this and more can happen in the digital media lab (DML), a gathering of equipment with which people create digital content or convert content that is in analog formats. Enabling community members to create digital content was identified by The Edge Initiative, a national coalition of leading library and local government organizations, as a library technology benchmark. Surveying academic and public libraries in a variety of settings and sharing a

  17. Application of robotics in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Industrial robots and other robotic systems have been successfully applied at the Savannah River nuclear site. These applications, new robotic systems presently under development, general techniques for the employment of robots in nuclear facilities, and future systems are discussed

  18. Living Labs as Open-Innovation Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mika Westerlund

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Living labs bring experimentation out of companies’ R&D departments to real-life environments with the participation and co-creation of users, partners, and other parties. This study discusses living labs as four different types of networks characterized by open innovation: utilizer-driven, enabler-driven, provider-driven, and user-driven. The typology is based on interviews with the participants of 26 living labs in Finland, Sweden, Spain, and South Africa. Companies can benefit from knowing the characteristics of each type of living lab; this knowledge will help them to identify which actor drives the innovation, to anticipate likely outcomes, and to decide what kind of role they should play while "living labbing". Living labs are networks that can help them create innovations that have a superior match with user needs and can be upscaled promptly to the global market.

  19. Fields of Applications for Hybrid Online Labs

    OpenAIRE

    Karsten Henke

    2013-01-01

    Based on a grid concept of an interactive hybrid online laboratory we will describe different fields of applications in different learning scenarios. The infrastructure is based on a universal grid concept which guaranties a reliable, flexible as well as robust usage of this online lab. By using the online lab, students are able to design control algorithms with different specification techniques to control electro-mechanical models in the online lab. Additionally, the reconfigurable rapid pr...

  20. Updated version of an interim connection space LabPQR for spectral color reproduction: LabLab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qian; Wan, Xiaoxia; Li, Junfeng; Liang, Jingxing

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we propose a new interim connection space (ICS) called LabLab, which is an updated version of LabPQR, to overcome the drawback that the last three dimensions of LabPQR have no definite colorimetric meanings. We extended and improved the method by which the first three dimensions of LabPQR are deduced to obtain an ICS consisting of two sets of CIELAB values under different illuminants, and the reconstructed spectra from LabLab were obtained by minimizing colorimetric errors by means of the computational formula of the CIE-XYZ tristimulus values combined with least-squares best fit. The improvement obtained from the proposed method was tested to compress and reconstruct the reflectance spectra of the 1950 Natural Color System color chips and more than 50,000 ISO SOCS color patches as well as six multispectral images acquired by multispectral image acquisition systems using 1600 glossy Munsell color chips as training samples. The performance was evaluated by the mean values of color differences between the original and reconstructed spectra under the CIE 1931 standard colorimetric observer and the CIE standard illuminants D50, D55, D65, D75, F2, F7, F11, and A as well as five multichip white LED light sources. The mean and maximum values of the root mean square errors between the original and reconstructed spectra were also calculated. The experimental results show that the proposed three LabLab interim connection spaces significantly outperform principal component analysis, LabPQR, XYZLMS, Fairman-Brill, and LabRGB in colorimetric reconstruction accuracy at the cost of slight reduction of spectral reconstruction accuracy and illuminant independence of color differences of the suggested LabLab interim connection spaces outperform other interim connection spaces. In addition, the presented LabLab interim connection spaces could be quite compatible with the extensively used colorimetric management system since each dimension has definite colorimetric

  1. Demise of Texas collider has made Europe's lab a magnet for scientists

    CERN Multimedia

    Siegfried, Tom

    2004-01-01

    Had U.S. politics and science meshed more favorably, physicists from around the world would now be flocking to Waxahachie. The defunct Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) should by now have been smashing atoms, but now Europe's top nuclear research lab offers a more picturesque world capital of physics that the prairie south of Dallas

  2. Benchmarking News Recommendations in a Living Lab

    OpenAIRE

    Hopfgartner, Frank; Kille, Benjamin; Lommatzsch, Andreas; Plumbaum, Till; Brodt, Torben; Heintz, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Most user-centric studies of information access systems in literature suffer from unrealistic settings or limited numbers of users who participate in the study. In order to address this issue, the idea of a living lab has been promoted. Living labs allow us to evaluate research hypotheses using a large number of users who satisfy their information need in a real context. In this paper, we introduce a living lab on news recommendation in real time. The living lab has first been organized as Ne...

  3. Learning from an Ambient Assisted Living Lab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygholm, Ann; Kanstrup, Anne Marie

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents methodological lessons learned from an Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) lab exploring the use of intelligent beds in a nursing home. The living lab study was conducted over a period of three month. 20 intelligent beds were installed. Data was collected via self...... strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats identified in the living lab of the intelligent bed. The paper concludes by emphasizing the need for mature technology, long-term studies, clarification of role and tasks of different stakeholders, and attention on methods used for living lab evaluations....

  4. MatLab Script and Functional Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaykhian, Gholam Ali

    2007-01-01

    MatLab Script and Functional Programming: MatLab is one of the most widely used very high level programming languages for scientific and engineering computations. It is very user-friendly and needs practically no formal programming knowledge. Presented here are MatLab programming aspects and not just the MatLab commands for scientists and engineers who do not have formal programming training and also have no significant time to spare for learning programming to solve their real world problems. Specifically provided are programs for visualization. The MatLab seminar covers the functional and script programming aspect of MatLab language. Specific expectations are: a) Recognize MatLab commands, script and function. b) Create, and run a MatLab function. c) Read, recognize, and describe MatLab syntax. d) Recognize decisions, loops and matrix operators. e) Evaluate scope among multiple files, and multiple functions within a file. f) Declare, define and use scalar variables, vectors and matrices.

  5. NCL Objective #5 - Nanotechnology Characterization Lab (NCL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanotechnology Characterization Lab (NCL) Objective #5: Engage and Facilitate Academic and Industrial-based Knowledge Sharing of Nanomaterial Performance Data and Behavior Resulting from Pre-Clinical Testing.

  6. INEQUALITIES IN THE NUCLEAR AGE: IMPACT OF RACE AND GENDER ON RADIATION EXPOSURE AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE (1951–1999)*

    OpenAIRE

    ANGELON-GAETZ, KIM A.; Richardson, David B.; Wing, Steve

    2010-01-01

    Changes in the workforce during the civil rights movement may have impacted occupational exposures in the United States. We examined Savannah River Site (SRS) employee records (1951–1999) for changes in radiation doses and monitoring practices, by race and sex. Segregation of jobs by race and sex diminished but remained pronounced in recent years. Female workers were less likely than males to be monitored for occupational radiation exposure [odds of being unmonitored = 3.11; 95% CI: (2.79, 3....

  7. Innovations in STEM education: the Go-Lab federation of online labs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de Ton; Sotiriou, Sofoklis; Gillet, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    The Go-Lab federation of online labs opens up virtual laboratories (simulation), remote laboratories (real equipment accessible at distance) and data sets from physical laboratory experiments (together called “online labs”) for large-scale use in education. In this way, Go-Lab enables inquiry-based

  8. PowerPoint or chalk and talk: Perceptions of medical students versus dental students in a medical college in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Seth

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Vikas Seth, Prerna Upadhyaya, Mushtaq Ahmad, Vijay MogheDepartment of Pharmacology, Mahatma Gandhi Medical College, Jaipur, Rajasthan, IndiaPurpose: To assess students’ perceptions of the impact of PowerPoint (PPT presentations in lectures in comparison to the traditional chalk and talk method and lectures using ­transparencies and overhead projector (TOHP. The study analyzes the preferences for teaching aids of medical students versus dental students.Methods: Second year medical and dental undergraduates were asked to fill in a nine-item questionnaire about their perceptions of the three lecture delivery methods. Following analysis of the questionnaire the students were interviewed further. The results were analyzed separately for medical and dental students to see if there was any difference in their perceptions.Results: The majority of the medical students (65.33% preferred PPT presentations, while 15.16% of students preferred the lectures using chalkboard, and 19.51% preferred TOHP for teaching (P < 0.001. Of the dental students: 41.84% preferred chalkboard, 31.21% preferred TOHP, and 25.85% students preferred PPT presentations in the lectures (P < 0.05. Some important comments of the students were also recorded on interview which could be valuable for the medical teachers.Conclusion: The medical students clearly preferred the use of PPT presentations while the dental students did not. The study does not bring out evidence based superiority of any lecture delivery method. It appears that in the hands of a trained teacher any teaching aid would be appropriate and effective. This highlights the need for formal training in teaching technologies to develop good presentation skills and thus motivate the students.Keywords: audiovisual aids, medical education, lecture delivery methods, PowerPoint presentations, OHP, chalkboard

  9. Quality assurance and quality control procedures in river water radioecological monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For recent decades the issue of radioactive pollution of environmental components has acquired a global character as a result of nuclear weapon testing, accidents in NPPs, development of nuclear technologies and so on. A study object of this research is river water as it is known to be radionuclide transport and accumulation mediums and radioactive elements in river water are available as radioactive salts and mechanic and biological pollutants. Moreover, river water is widely used for various economic and commercial purposes and serves a drinking water supply source as well. The ongoing research is performed in the frame of a NATO/OSCE project 'South Caucasus River Monitoring'. The topicality of the problem dictates a necessity of getting credible and compatible results. For adequate radioactive pollution assessment, decisive are the application and keeping standard QA/QC procedures at all the stages of radioecological monitoring. In our research we apply the following ISO standard-based QA/QC procedures: sampling (emphasizing sample identification: sample collection site, date and method), sample transportation (keeping sample conservation and storing requirements), sample treatment and preparation in the lab, radiometric measurements of samples with regard for the time that past from sampling moment to analysis, control and calibration of analytic instruments, control analysis of samples. The obtained data are processed through standard statistic methods of QC to check measurement errors. Gamma-spectrometric measurements are maid using a Genie-2000 (Canberra) software that includes a separate program for measurement QC. The ultimate outcomes are arranged in special protocols (analysis and sampling tasks protocols, sampling task form, field measurement protocol, sample chain of custody form, sample analysis protocol) and compiled in appropriate databases

  10. The impact of broadleaved woodland on water resources in lowland UK: I. Soil water changes below beech woodland and grass on chalk sites in Hampshire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Roberts

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The possible effects of broadleaved woodland on recharge to the UK Chalk aquifer have led to a study of evaporation and transpiration from beech woodland (Black Wood and pasture (Bridgets Farm, growing in shallow soils above chalk in Hampshire. Eddy correlation measurements of energy balance components above both the forest and the grassland enabled calculation of latent heat flux (evaporation and transpiration as a residual. Comparative measurements of soil water content and soil water potential in 9 m profiles under both forest and grassland found changes in soil water content down to 6 m at both sites; however, the soil water potential measurements showed upward movement of water only above a depth of about 2 m. Below this depth, water continued to drain and the soil water potential measurements showed downward movement of water at both sites, notwithstanding significant negative soil water potentials in the chalk and soil above. Seasonal differences occur in the soil water content profiles under broadleaved woodland and grass. Before the woodland foliage emerges, greater drying beneath the grassland is offset in late spring and early summer by increased drying under the forest. Yet, when the change in soil water profiles is at a maximum, in late summer, the profiles below woodland and grass are very similar. A comparison of soil water balances for Black Wood and Bridgets Farm using changes in soil water contents, local rainfall and evaporation measured by the energy balance approach allowed drainage to be calculated at each site. Although seasonal differences occurred, the difference in cumulative drainage below broadleaved woodland and grass was small.

  11. Supercharging Lessons with a Virtual Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jefferson; Vincent, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The authors describes their experiences incorporating the virtual lab into a simple circuit lesson during an energy unit in a sixth-grade class. The lesson included a hands-on group experiment using wire, batteries, and light bulbs to make a circuit and an online simulation, using a virtual lab. Class discussions, student inquiries, and the study…

  12. A Virtual Lab in Research Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Barbara A.; Sommer, Robert

    2003-01-01

    A hands-on lab for a lower division research methods course used an online format with Web page, Web forms, an e-mail listproc, and chat room. The virtual section received a higher rating for overall value than did the in-person labs. Students liked its convenience and flexibility. There were no significant differences in examination performance…

  13. Innovation - A view from the Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA Ag Lab in Peoria helps bridge the gap between agricultural producers and commercial manufacturers. In 2015, the Ag Lab, officially known as the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research (NCAUR), is celebrating 75 years of research in Peoria. T...

  14. Plan van aanpak project : Social Media Lab

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beer, Erwin; Kox, Corné; Willems, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Dit document beschrijft de projectopdracht voor het project Social Media Lab en geeft de criteria waaraan het project moet voldoen om te slagen. Het bevat tevens het plan van aanpak voor het uitvoeren van het project. Doel van het project is het realiseren van een fysiek Social Media Lab, waar door

  15. Programming Arduino with LabVIEW

    CERN Document Server

    Schwartz, Marco

    2015-01-01

    If you already have some experience with LabVIEW and want to apply your skills to control physical objects and make measurements using the Arduino sensor, this book is for you. Prior knowledge of Arduino and LabVIEW is essential to fully understand the projects detailed in this book.

  16. Hydrogel Beads: The New Slime Lab?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockway, Debra; Libera, Matthew; Welner, Heidi

    2011-01-01

    Creating slime fascinates students. Unfortunately, though intrigue is at its peak, the educational aspect of this activity is often minimal. This article describes a chemistry lab that closely relates to the slime lab and allows high school students to explore the concepts of chemical bonding, properties, and replacement reactions. It involves the…

  17. The DVCS program at Jefferson Lab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niccolai, Silvia [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Orsay, France

    2014-06-01

    Recent promising results, obtained at Jefferson Lab, on cross sections and asymmetries for DVCS and their link to the Generalized Parton Distributions are the focus of this paper. The extensive experimental program to measure DVCS with the 12-GeV-upgraded CEBAF in three experimental Halls (A, B, C) of Jefferson Lab, will also be presented.

  18. A Solid Polarized Target for CLAS12 at Jefferson Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhart, Mathieu; CLAS Collaboration

    2014-03-01

    To be able to study the spin-dependence of the nucleon structure with electron scattering experiments, targets providing spin-polarized nuclei are needed. We report on the development of a new solid polarized target for the CLAS12 detector, presently being installed in Jefferson Lab's Hall B. The technique of dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) requires very low temperatures around 1 Kelvin and a high magnetic field of around 5 Tesla. The very large natural polarization of free electrons inside the target material under these conditions is transferred to the nuclei via microwave radiation (electron Larmor frequency). The polarization of the protons and deuterons is measured with the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique.

  19. Famed lab seeks big grid

    CERN Document Server

    Lillington, K

    2001-01-01

    DUBLIN, Ireland -- CERN, the famed Swiss high-energy particle physics lab, has a problem. It's about to start generating more data than any computer or network anywhere in the world is able to analyze. That prospect has led CERN to drive a major European project to create a vast "grid" research network of computers across Europe. When completed, the 10 million euro, Linux-based endeavor called DataGRID, will become a principal European computing resource for researchers of many disciplines. "I believe grid computing will revolutionize the way we compute, in much the same way as the World Wide Web and Internet changed the way we communicate," said John Ellis, a theoretical physicist and adviser to the director general of CERN.

  20. Savannah River Site Environmental Report for 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mission at the Savannah River Site has changed from the production of nuclear weapons materials for national defense to the management of waste, restoration of the environment, and the development of industry in and around the site

  1. Savannah River Site Environmental Report for 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnett, M.W.; Mamatey, A.R. [eds.

    1998-08-01

    The mission at the Savannah River Site has changed from the production of nuclear weapons materials for national defense to the management of waste, restoration of the environment, and the development of industry in and around the site.

  2. Long-Term Studies of Radionuclide Contamination of Migratory Waterfowl at the Savannah River Site: Implications for Habitat Management and Nuclear Waste Site Remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brisbin, I.L.; Kennamer, R.A.

    2000-10-01

    Past nuclear activities at SRS have resulted in low level contamination in various wetlands. The wetlands and reservoirs serve a major wintering ground for migratory waterfowl. American coots have the highest level of cesium accumulation among the birds. The concentration has decreased exponentially with a four year half-life. The current levels pose no threat to human consumption.

  3. Shutdown of nuclear waste site threatens neutrino lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2014-07-01

    An explosion and a series of radioactive leaks have forced the closure of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), near Carlsbad, New Mexico, US, putting a temporary halt to the Enriched Xenon Observatory-200 (EXO-200).

  4. Transforming Traditional Labs into Virtual Computing Labs for Distance Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokhan Gercek

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The demand for on-line courses continues to risein academia because (1 on-line courses remove timebarriers that would otherwise restrict a student frompursuing academic endeavors, (2 they remove the distancebarriers for academia in reaching potential students and (3they can to some extent alleviate budgetary and physicalconstraints on the academia in imparting education tostudents. The on-line instruction mode rather easilyaccommodates courses in some disciplines such as history,sociology, and political science. However, it positssignificant adoption challenges for courses that requirehands-on computing experimentation such as computernetworking, system administration, web applicationdevelopment and database administration. Nevertheless,given the demand for on-line courses, there is a need todevise strategies that would allow students to conductcomputing experiments through remote access. This paperpresents an approach to transform traditional computerlabs into a virtual lab environment. Such transformationallows students to remotely conduct experiments thatinvolve software and hardware interaction. Themethodology presented here can be applied to a largenumber of computing courses encountered in ManagementInformation Systems and Computer Sciences disciplines.

  5. Area balance and strain in an extensional fault system: Strategies for improved oil recovery in fractured chalk, Gilbertown Field, southwestern Alabama. Annual report, March 1996--March 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pashin, J.C.; Raymond, D.E.; Rindsberg, A.K.; Alabi, G.G.; Groshong, R.H.

    1997-08-01

    Gilbertown Field is the oldest oil field in Alabama and produces oil from chalk of the Upper Cretaceous Selma Group and from sandstone of the Eutaw Formation along the southern margin of the Gilbertown fault system. Most of the field has been in primary recovery since establishment, but production has declined to marginally economic levels. This investigation applies advanced geologic concepts designed to aid implementation of improved recovery programs. The Gilbertown fault system is detached at the base of Jurassic salt. The fault system began forming as a half graben and evolved in to a full graben by the Late Cretaceous. Conventional trapping mechanisms are effective in Eutaw sandstone, whereas oil in Selma chalk is trapped in faults and fault-related fractures. Burial modeling establishes that the subsidence history of the Gilbertown area is typical of extensional basins and includes a major component of sediment loading and compaction. Surface mapping and fracture analysis indicate that faults offset strata as young as Miocene and that joints may be related to regional uplift postdating fault movement. Preliminary balanced structural models of the Gilbertown fault system indicate that synsedimentary growth factors need to be incorporated into the basic equations of area balance to model strain and predict fractures in Selma and Eutaw reservoirs.

  6. Fields of Applications for Hybrid Online Labs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Henke

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on a grid concept of an interactive hybrid online laboratory we will describe different fields of applications in different learning scenarios. The infrastructure is based on a universal grid concept which guaranties a reliable, flexible as well as robust usage of this online lab. By using the online lab, students are able to design control algorithms with different specification techniques to control electro-mechanical models in the online lab. Additionally, the reconfigurable rapid prototyping platform of the REAL system can be used to test all the taught topics of a given lectures in the field of digital system design. Finally, a special demonstration platform (a ball in a labyrinth on a balance plate can be used to give the students a better feeling about the possibilities and limitations of remote control and observation via Internet and to evaluate these technologies critically. The implemented online lab infrastructure is based on the iLab architecture of the MIT, which allows to interconnect online labs and to exchange remote lab experiments among different universities worldwide.

  7. Designing Viable Business Models for Living Labs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard R. Katzy

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Over 300 regions have integrated the concept of living labs into their economic development strategy since 2006, when the former Finnish Prime Minister Esko Aho launched the living lab innovation policy initiative during his term of European presidency. Despite motivating initial results, however, success cases of turning research into usable new products and services remain few and uncertainty remains on what living labs actually do and contribute. This practitioner-oriented article presents a business excellence model that shows processes of idea creation and team mobilization, new product development, user involvement, and entrepreneurship through which living labs deliver high-potential investment opportunities. Customers of living labs are identified as investors such as venture capitalists or industrial firms because living labs can generate revenue from them to create their own sustainable business model. The article concludes that living labs provide extensive support “lab” infrastructure and that it remains a formidable challenge to finance it, which calls for a more intensive debate.

  8. Teachers' Perspectives on Online Virtual Labs vs. Hands-On Labs in High School Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohr, Teresa M.

    This study of online science teachers' opinions addressed the use of virtual labs in online courses. A growing number of schools use virtual labs that must meet mandated laboratory standards to ensure they provide learning experiences comparable to hands-on labs, which are an integral part of science curricula. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to examine teachers' perceptions of the quality and effectiveness of high school virtual labs. The theoretical foundation was constructivism, as labs provide student-centered activities for problem solving, inquiry, and exploration of phenomena. The research questions focused on experienced teachers' perceptions of the quality of virtual vs. hands-on labs. Data were collected through survey questions derived from the lab objectives of The Next Generation Science Standards . Eighteen teachers rated the degree of importance of each objective and also rated how they felt virtual labs met these objectives; these ratings were reported using descriptive statistics. Responses to open-ended questions were few and served to illustrate the numerical results. Many teachers stated that virtual labs are valuable supplements but could not completely replace hands-on experiences. Studies on the quality and effectiveness of high school virtual labs are limited despite widespread use. Comprehensive studies will ensure that online students have equal access to quality labs. School districts need to define lab requirements, and colleges need to specify the lab experience they require. This study has potential to inspire positive social change by assisting science educators, including those in the local school district, in evaluating and selecting courseware designed to promote higher order thinking skills, real-world problem solving, and development of strong inquiry skills, thereby improving science instruction for all high school students.

  9. Mapping of groundwater potential zones in Salem Chalk Hills, Tamil Nadu, India, using remote sensing and GIS techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thilagavathi, N; Subramani, T; Suresh, M; Karunanidhi, D

    2015-04-01

    This study proposes to introduce the remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) techniques in mapping the groundwater potential zones. Remote sensing and GIS techniques have been used to map the groundwater potential zones in Salem Chalk Hills, Tamil Nadu, India. Charnockites and fissile hornblende biotite gneiss are the major rock types in this region. Dunites and peridodites are the ultramafic rocks which cut across the foliation planes of the gneisses and are highly weathered. It comprises magnesite and chromite deposits which are excavated by five mining companies by adopting bench mining. The thickness of weathered and fracture zone varies from 2.2 to 50 m in gneissic formation and 5.8 to 55 m in charnockite. At the contacts of gneiss and charnockite, the thickness ranges from 9.0 to 90.8 m favoring good groundwater potential. The mine lease area is underlined by fractured and sheared hornblende biotite gneiss where groundwater potential is good. Water catchment tanks in this area of 5 km radius are small to moderate in size and are only seasonal. They remain dry during summer seasons. As perennial water resources are remote, the domestic and agricultural activities in this region depend mainly upon the groundwater resources. The mines are located in gently slope area, and accumulation of water is not observed except in mine pits even during the monsoon period. Therefore, it is essential to map the groundwater potential zones for proper management of the aquifer system. Satellite imageries were also used to extract lineaments, hydrogeomorphic landforms, drainage patterns, and land use, which are the major controlling factors for the occurrence of groundwater. Various thematic layers pertaining to groundwater existence such as geology, geomorphology, land use/land cover, lineament, lineament density, drainage, drainage density, slope, and soil were generated using GIS tools. By integrating all the above thematic layers based on the ranks and

  10. e-REAL: Enhanced Reality Lab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Salvetti

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available e-REAL - enhanced reality lab - is a fully-immersive and multitasking environment, designed to experience challenging situations in a group setting, engaging all participants simultaneously on different levels: with peers, thematic experts and learning facilitators, both on site and remotely. e-REAL is a lab based on visual thinking and knowledge visualization, facilitated by enhanced (or augmented reality tools. It is a highly interactive and face-to-face lab that promotes proactive data and information research (everything is available, but learners have to actively look for it - allowing knowledge sharing with remote teams and integrating training on soft skills with those that are technical and specialized.

  11. Labs not in a lab: A case study of instructor and student perceptions of an online biology lab class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doiron, Jessica Boyce

    Distance learning is not a new phenomenon but with the advancement in technology, the different ways of delivering an education have increased. Today, many universities and colleges offer their students the option of taking courses online instead of sitting in a classroom on campus. In general students like online classes because they allow for flexibility, the comfort of sitting at home, and the potential to save money. Even though there are advantages to taking online classes, many students and instructors still debate the effectiveness and quality of education in a distant learning environment. Many universities and colleges are receiving pressure from students to offer more and more classes online. Research argues for both the advantages and disadvantages of online classes and stresses the importance of colleges and universities weighing both sides before deciding to adopt an online class. Certain classes may not be suitable for online instruction and not all instructors are suitable to teach online classes. The literature also reveals that there is a need for more research on online biology lab classes. With the lack of information on online biology labs needed by science educators who face the increasing demand for online biology labs, this case study hopes to provide insight into the use of online biology lab classes and the how students and an instructor at a community college in Virginia perceive their online biology lab experience as well as the effectiveness of the online labs.

  12. Nonbinary effects in high energy nuclear collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodama, T.; Duarte, S.B.; Chung, K.C. (Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rio de Janeiro); Nazareth, R.A.M.S. (Rio de Janeiro Univ. (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica)

    1982-05-01

    The effect of the correlations due to density fluctuations on the relativistic nuclear collisions is discussed from the point of view of a new approach to the intranuclear cascade model. Computations are worked out for /sup 12/C + /sup 12/C reaction (E sub(lab) = 800 MeV/A) and for /sup 20/Ne + /sup 238/U head-on collisions (E sub(lab) = 393 MeV/A). It is found that the nonbinary processes have non negligible contributions.

  13. European labs fight back against cuts

    CERN Multimedia

    König, R

    1997-01-01

    Germany's 1997 budget contains cuts amounting to 3.7% in funding of domestic research programs and in contributions to international labs. Contributions will be cut to the European Space Agency, the European Synchrotron facility and CERN.

  14. Berkeley Lab Laser Accelerator (BELLA) facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Berkeley Lab Laser Accelerator (BELLA) facility (formerly LOASIS) develops advanced accelerators and radiation sources. High gradient (1-100 GV/m) laser-plasma...

  15. Infrared Spectroscopy in the General Chemistry Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Margaret A.

    2001-01-01

    Acquisition of infrared spectrometers for use in general chemistry lab was made possible through the NSF-sponsored Instrumentation and Laboratory Improvement (ILI) program. Three laboratory exercises suitable for first-year students are described in which students learn to interpret infrared spectra for simple structural identification. A polymer identification lab is the first of these with minimal sample preparation. It uses familiar household polymer samples and teaches students how to use infrared spectral data to determine what bond types are present in the polymers. In a second lab, students learn to prepare potassium bromide pellets of fluorene derivatives and identify them by their functional group differences. The final exercise combines IR with several other lab techniques to identify an organic acid from a field of fourteen possibilities.

  16. Photonics and Fiber Optics Processor Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Photonics and Fiber Optics Processor Lab develops, tests and evaluates high speed fiber optic network components as well as network protocols. In addition, this...

  17. NCL Objective #3 - Nanotechnology Characterization Lab (NCL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Nanotechnology Characterization Lab (NCL) Objective #3: Identify and Characterize Critical Parameters Related to Nanomaterials' Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Excretion, and Acute Toxicity (ADME/Tox) Profile in Animal Models.

  18. NCL Objective #4 - Nanotechnology Characterization Lab (NCL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Nanotechnology Characterization Lab (NCL) Objective #4: Examine the Biological and Functional Characteristics of MultiComponent/Combinatorial Aspects of Nanoscaled Therapeutic, Molecular and Clinical Diagnostics, and Detection Platforms.

  19. Airborne Low-Frequency Sonar (ALFS) Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ALFS lab is dedicated to support acoustic data analysis and processing software support to the AN/AQS-22 dipping sonar system. It includes stand-alone Software...

  20. World-wide redistribution of 129Iodine from nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities:results from meteoric, river, and seawater tracer studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Releases of the long-lived radioisotope of iodine, 129I from commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities in England and France have surpassed natural, and even bomb test inventories. 129I/127I ratios measured in a variety of environmental matrices from Europe, North America and the southern hemisphere show the influence of fuel reprocessing-derived 129I, which is transported globally via the atmosphere. Transport and cycling of I and 129I in the hydrosphere and in soils are described based on a spatial survey of 129I in freshwater

  1. Fifteen years experience: Egyptian metabolic lab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekram M. Fateen

    2014-10-01

    Conclusion: This study illustrates the experience of the reference metabolic lab in Egypt over 15 years. The lab began metabolic disorder screening by using simple diagnostic techniques like thin layer chromatography and colored tests in urine which by time updated and upgraded the methods to diagnose a wide range of disorders. This study shows the most common diagnosed inherited inborn errors of metabolism among the Egyptian population.

  2. e-lab Remote Laboratory Demonstration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Neto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available e-lab is a remote laboratory infrastructure, powered by a software framework designed for distributed data collection, that allows to perform experiments and retrieve data from a remote apparatus. In this demonstration we will present the e-lab interface properties and its modus operandi, giving as well some topics of complimentary software use for data interpretation and analysis. An overview of e-lab’s technical specifications will also be presented.

  3. German lab wins linear collider contest

    CERN Multimedia

    Cartlidge, Edwin

    2004-01-01

    Particle physicists have chosen to base the proposed International Linear Collider on superconducting technology developed by an international collaboration centred on the DESY lab in Germany. The superconducting approach was chosen by an internatinal panel ahead of a rival technology developed at Stanford in the US and the KEK lab in Japan. The eagerly-awaited decision was announced at the International Conference on High Energy Physics in Beijing today (½ page)

  4. Using Virtual Security Lab in Teaching Cryptography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma M. Gaffer

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Teaching Information Security for undergraduate students requires a safe hand-on environment for practicing. This paper focuses on using a virtual lab for two modules in cryptography concepts. At the end, a survey was conducted on a group of students atthe Information Systems Department at the King Abdulaziz University to measure the performance of the students' outcomes in the lab comparing with other students from aprevious semester. The result of the survey shows a significant feedback on the system.

  5. A comparative study on real lab and simulation lab in communication engineering from students' perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, B.; Woods, P. C.

    2013-05-01

    Over the years, rapid development in computer technology has engendered simulation-based laboratory (lab) in addition to the traditional hands-on (physical) lab. Many higher education institutions adopt simulation lab, replacing some existing physical lab experiments. The creation of new systems for conducting engineering lab activities has raised concerns among educators on the merits and shortcomings of both physical and simulation labs; at the same time, many arguments have been raised on the differences of both labs. Investigating the effectiveness of both labs is complicated, as there are multiple factors that should be considered. In view of this challenge, a study on students' perspectives on their experience related to key aspects on engineering laboratory exercise was conducted. In this study, the Visual Auditory Read and Kinetic model was utilised to measure the students' cognitive styles. The investigation was done through a survey among participants from Multimedia University, Malaysia. The findings revealed that there are significant differences for most of the aspects in physical and simulation labs.

  6. ScalaLab and GroovyLab: Comparing Scala and Groovy for Scientific Computing

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    ScalaLab and GroovyLab are both MATLAB-like environments for the Java Virtual Machine. ScalaLab is based on the Scala programming language and GroovyLab is based on the Groovy programming language. They present similar user interfaces and functionality to the user. They also share the same set of Java scientific libraries and of native code libraries. From the programmer's point of view though, they have significant differences. This paper compares some aspects of the two environments and hig...

  7. LabVIEW Support at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2010-01-01

    Since the beginning of 2009, due to the CERN restructuring, LabVIEW support moved from the IT to the EN department, joining the Industrial Controls and Electronics Group (ICE). LabVIEW support has been merged with the Measurement, Test and Analysis (MTA) section which, using LabVIEW, has developed most of the measurement systems to qualify the LHC magnets and components over the past 10 years. The post mortem analysis for the LHC hardware commissioning has also been fully implemented using LabVIEW, customised into a framework, called RADE, for CERN needs. The MTA section has started with a proactive approach sharing its tools and experience with the CERN LabVIEW community. Its framework (RADE) for CERN integrated application development has been made available to the users. Courses on RADE have been integrated into the standard National Instruments training program at CERN. RADE and LabVIEW support were merged together in 2010 on a single email address:labview.support@cern.ch For more information please...

  8. Uranium series geochemistry in aquifers: quantification of transport mechanisms of uranium and daughter products: the chalk aquifer (Champagne, France); Desequilibres des series de l'uranium dans les aquiferes: quantification des mecanismes de transport de l'uranium et de ses descendants: cas de l'aquifere de la craie (Champagne, France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubert, A

    2005-09-15

    With the increase of contaminant flux of radionuclides in surface environment (soil, river, aquifer...), there is a need to understand and model the processes that control the distribution of uranium and its daughter products during transport within aquifers. We have used U-series disequilibria as an analogue for the transport of uranium and its daughter products in aquifer to understand such mechanisms. The measurements of uranium ({sup 234}U et {sup 238}U), thorium ({sup 230}Th et {sup 232}Th), {sup 226}Ra and {sup 222}Rn isotopes in the solid and liquid phases of the chalk aquifer in Champagne (East of France) allows us to understand the processes responsible for fractionation within the uranium decay chain. Fractionations are induced by physical and chemical properties of the elements (leaching, adsorption) but also by radioactive properties (recoil effect during {alpha}-decay). For the first time a comprehensive sampling of the solid phase has been performed, allowing quantifying mechanisms responsible for the long term evolution of the aquifer. A non steady state 1D model has been developed which takes into account leaching, adsorption processes as well as radioactive filiation and {alpha}-recoil effect. Retardation coefficients have been calculated for uranium, thorium and radium. The aquifer is characterised by a double porosity, and the contribution of fracture and matrix porosity on the water/rock interaction processes has been estimated. (author)

  9. Assessing Usage and Maximizing Finance Lab Impact: A Case Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguera, Magdy; Budden, Michael Craig; Silva, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a survey conducted to assess students' usage and perceptions of a finance lab. Finance labs differ from simple computer labs as they typically contain data boards, streaming market quotes, terminals and software that allow for real-time financial analyses. Despite the fact that such labs represent significant and…

  10. Methodology for assessing dose commitment to individuals and to the population from ingestion of terrestrial foods contaminated by emissions from a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general approach for estimating the concentrations of radionuclides in terrestrial foods and dose commitments to individuals and to the population follows procedures recommended by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulatory Guide 1.109 for estimating annual doses to man from routine releases of reactor effluents (USNRC 77). These procedures evolved from the HERMES computer code (12336), which was used to assess the radiological impacts of the future development of nuclear facilities in the Upper Mississippi River Basin (11876) and in the Tennessee Valley Region. Our approach is also basically similar to the FOOD computer program for calculating radiological doses from the ingestion of terrestrial food products contaminated with radionuclides transported to fields from air and surface waters (13320). The computations for assessing terrestrial foodchain contamination and population dose are organized as a series of modules. From monthly deposition rates (or average concentrations in surface air) of radionuclides in each county we compute the following: concentrations in crops due to deposition on aerial parts; concentrations in crops due to uptake from soil via roots; total concentrations from deposition on aerial parts and root uptake; concentrations in food and feed at the time of harvest or collection; concentrations in food and feed at the time of consumption; concentrations in meat, milk, and eggs due to the ingestion of contaminated feed by livestock; intakes of radionuclides by individuals from ingestion of terrestrial foods and the resultant dosage; and intakes of radionuclides by the population and the resultant dosage. The next section describes the regional agricultural data base for the SRP site. We will then describe, in some detail, the computations for the evaluation of each module

  11. Implementation of agronomical and geochemical modules into a 3D groundwater code for assessing nitrate storage and transport through unconfined Chalk aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picot-Colbeaux, Géraldine; Devau, Nicolas; Thiéry, Dominique; Pettenati, Marie; Surdyk, Nicolas; Parmentier, Marc; Amraoui, Nadia; Crastes de Paulet, François; André, Laurent

    2016-04-01

    Chalk aquifer is the main water resource for domestic water supply in many parts in northern France. In same basin, groundwater is frequently affected by quality problems concerning nitrates. Often close to or above the drinking water standards, nitrate concentration in groundwater is mainly due to historical agriculture practices, combined with leakage and aquifer recharge through the vadose zone. The complexity of processes occurring into such an environment leads to take into account a lot of knowledge on agronomy, geochemistry and hydrogeology in order to understand, model and predict the spatiotemporal evolution of nitrate content and provide a decision support tool for the water producers and stakeholders. To succeed in this challenge, conceptual and numerical models representing accurately the Chalk aquifer specificity need to be developed. A multidisciplinary approach is developed to simulate storage and transport from the ground surface until groundwater. This involves a new agronomic module "NITRATE" (NItrogen TRansfer for Arable soil to groundwaTEr), a soil-crop model allowing to calculate nitrogen mass balance in arable soil, and the "PHREEQC" numerical code for geochemical calculations, both coupled with the 3D transient groundwater numerical code "MARTHE". Otherwise, new development achieved on MARTHE code allows the use of dual porosity and permeability calculations needed in the fissured Chalk aquifer context. This method concerning the integration of existing multi-disciplinary tools is a real challenge to reduce the number of parameters by selecting the relevant equations and simplifying the equations without altering the signal. The robustness and the validity of these numerical developments are tested step by step with several simulations constrained by climate forcing, land use and nitrogen inputs over several decades. In the first time, simulations are performed in a 1D vertical unsaturated soil column for representing experimental nitrates

  12. Chalk and computers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lisa Rosén

    in the period 1970-2011. I wish to discuss how the analysis can benefit from a focus on the parallel introduction of thoughts concerning children’s culture, the competent child and the linkage of ‘Play & learn’. Looking at everyday life I also aim at discussing how the introduction of the new teaching aids has...... highly connected to technological innovation that across the period has inspired hope as well as fear in teachers, pupils and parents. I take my starting point in the changing teaching aids of everyday school life to analyse how the technological development has been dealt with in the Danish school...... pedagogical journals, journals from the teacher’s trade union and parents’ organisation, national and local news papers as well as reports from conferences and school developments to academic (especially anthropological) studies, and own observations from school visits, teachers’ and school’s digital...

  13. The Design:Lab as platform in participatory design research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binder, Thomas; Brandt, Eva

    2008-01-01

    . Influenced by these currents we use the expression 'Design:Lab' as a shorthand description of open collaborations between many stakeholders sharing a mutual interest in design research in a particular field. Many have reacted to the term 'laboratory' or 'lab' as foreign and awkward to design, and we as well...... as others have frequently used other metaphors like workshop, studio or atelier in design research. In this article we will argue that the laboratory metaphor is particularly suitable and useful for the design:lab, and we will give examples of how we have worked with the design:lab as a platform......The notion of laboratory or simply 'lab' has become popular in recent years in areas outside science and technology development. Learning Labs, Innovation Labs, Usability Labs, Media and Communication Labs and even Art Labs designate institutions or fora dedicated to change and experimentation...

  14. Construction and engineering report for advanced nuclear fuel development facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design and construction of the fuel technology development facility was aimed to accommodate general nuclear fuel research and development for the HANARO fuel fabrication and advanced fuel researches. 1. Building size and room function 1) Building total area : approx. 3,618m2, basement 1st floor, ground 3th floor 2) Room function : basement floor(machine room, electrical room, radioactive waste tank room), 1st floor(research reactor fuel fabrication facility, pyroprocess lab., metal fuel lab., nondestructive lab., pellet processing lab., access control room, sintering lab., etc), 2nd floor(thermal properties measurement lab., pellet characterization lab., powder analysis lab., microstructure analysis lab., etc), 3rd floor(AHU and ACU Room) 2. Special facility equipment 1) Environmental pollution protection equipment : ACU(2sets), 2) Emergency operating system : diesel generator(1set), 3) Nuclear material handle, storage and transport system : overhead crane(3sets), monorail hoist(1set), jib crane(2sets), tank(1set) 4) Air conditioning unit facility : AHU(3sets), packaged air conditioning unit(5sets), 5) Automatic control system and fire protection system : central control equipment(1set), lon device(1set), fire hose cabinet(3sets), fire pump(3sets) etc

  15. Construction and engineering report for advanced nuclear fuel development facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, S. W.; Park, J. S.; Kwon, S.J.; Lee, K. W.; Kim, I. J.; Yu, C. H

    2003-09-01

    The design and construction of the fuel technology development facility was aimed to accommodate general nuclear fuel research and development for the HANARO fuel fabrication and advanced fuel researches. 1. Building size and room function 1) Building total area : approx. 3,618m{sup 2}, basement 1st floor, ground 3th floor 2) Room function : basement floor(machine room, electrical room, radioactive waste tank room), 1st floor(research reactor fuel fabrication facility, pyroprocess lab., metal fuel lab., nondestructive lab., pellet processing lab., access control room, sintering lab., etc), 2nd floor(thermal properties measurement lab., pellet characterization lab., powder analysis lab., microstructure analysis lab., etc), 3rd floor(AHU and ACU Room) 2. Special facility equipment 1) Environmental pollution protection equipment : ACU(2sets), 2) Emergency operating system : diesel generator(1set), 3) Nuclear material handle, storage and transport system : overhead crane(3sets), monorail hoist(1set), jib crane(2sets), tank(1set) 4) Air conditioning unit facility : AHU(3sets), packaged air conditioning unit(5sets), 5) Automatic control system and fire protection system : central control equipment(1set), lon device(1set), fire hose cabinet(3sets), fire pump(3sets) etc.

  16. Anthropogenic waste indicators (AWIs), particularly PAHs and LABs, in Malaysian sediments: Application of aquatic environment for identifying anthropogenic pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood, Najat; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Halimoon, Normala; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin; Magam, Sami M; Kannan, Narayanan; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Ali, Masni Mohd; Keshavarzifard, Mehrzad; Vaezzadeh, Vahab; Alkhadher, Sadeq Abdullah Abdo; Al-Odaini, Najat Ahmed

    2016-01-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and linear alkylbenzenes (LABs) were used as anthropogenic markers of organic chemical pollution of sediments in the Selangor River, Peninsular Malaysia. This study was conducted on sediment samples from the beginning of the estuary to the upstream river during dry and rainy seasons. The concentrations of ƩPAHs and ƩLABs ranged from 203 to 964 and from 23 to 113 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw), respectively. In particular, the Selangor River was found to have higher sedimentary levels of PAHs and LABs during the wet season than in the dry season, which was primarily associated with the intensity of domestic wastewater discharge and high amounts of urban runoff washing the pollutants from the surrounding area. The concentrations of the toxic contaminants were determined according to the Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQGs). The PAH levels in the Selangor River did not exceed the SQGs, for example, the effects range low (ERL) value, indicating that they cannot exert adverse biological effects.

  17. 红沿河核电取水隧洞进水口高边坡抗震稳定分析%Seismic Stability Analysis of High Slope at the Intake Tunnel of Hongyan River Nuclear Power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵杰; 刘道勇; 王桂萱

    2014-01-01

    Several Chinese nuclear power plants are in earthquake-prone areas.Thus,slope failures due to earthquakes can disrupt the normal operation of nuclear power plants.Seismic design safety calculations for nuclear power plants take the advantage of computation methods such as the slip surface,the static finite element,and the dynamic finite element method.The current nuclear spec-ifications recommend using the three different methods of analysis that satisfy the regulatory re-quirements without giving additional guidance.Seismic slope stability analysis was used to exam-ine the intake tunnel of the Hongyan River nuclear power plant.The model boundary conditions for horizontal and vertical seismic motion were established.When the lower boundary is fixed, there is the effect of the vertical displacement on the lateral boundary.When the lower boundary for the horizontal seismic motion is fixed,there is the effect of the horizontal displacement on the lateral boundary.The input seismic data were taken from earthquake evaluation reports.The peak horizontal acceleration of the sl-2 ground motions is 0.18 g,and the vertical acceleration peak is 0. 12 g.The safety factor for the high slope and sliding surface position subjected to seismic loading is calculated first by the sliding surface method,and then by the static and dynamic finite element methods.Furthermore,the minimum safety factor and the minimum average safety factor of the slope are obtained according to the history curves of the safety factor.For vertical seismic motion, the sliding surface method and the static finite element method result in safety factor values of 1. 296 and 1.326,respectively.The minimum safety factor is 1.163.The results of the calculations and the analysis suggest reasonable improvement for the side slope.The cutting slope unloading scheme is necessary because the safety factor of the natural slope cannot satisfy the specifications of the seismic design code for nuclear power plants

  18. Are Virtual Labs as Effective as Hands-on Labs for Undergraduate Physics? A Comparative Study at Two Major Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrah, Marjorie; Humbert, Roxann; Finstein, Jeanne; Simon, Marllin; Hopkins, John

    2014-01-01

    Most physics professors would agree that the lab experiences students have in introductory physics are central to the learning of the concepts in the course. It is also true that these physics labs require time and money for upkeep, not to mention the hours spent setting up and taking down labs. Virtual physics lab experiences can provide an…

  19. Neutron generators at Purnima Lab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron sources are in a great demand in many area like research, nuclear waste management, industrial process control, medical and also security. Major sources of neutrons are nuclear reactors, radioisotopes and accelerator based neutron generators. For many field applications, reactors cannot be used due to its large size, complicated system, high cost and also safety issues. Radioisotopes like Pu-Be, Am-Be, Cf, are extensively used for many industrial applications. But they are limited in their use due to their low source strength and also handling difficulties due to radioactivity. They are also not suitable for pulsed neutron applications. In contrast, compact size, pulsed operation, on/off operation etc.of accelerator based neutron generators make them very popular for many applications. Particle accelerators based on different types of neutron generators have been developed around the world. Among these deuteron accelerator based D-D and D-T neutron generators are widely used as they produce mono-energetic fast neutrons and in particular high yield of D-T neutron can be obtained with less than 300 KV of accelerating voltage

  20. Innovative Educational Practice: Using Virtual Labs in the Secondary Classroom.

    OpenAIRE

    Marcel Satsky Kerr; Kimberly Rynearson; Marcus C. Kerr

    2004-01-01

    Two studies investigated the effectiveness of teaching science labs online to secondary students. Study 1 compared achievement among students instructed using hands-on Chemistry labs versus those instructed using virtual Chemistry labs (eLabs). Study 2 compared the same groups of students again while both teachers instructed using hands-on Chemistry labs to determine whether teacher or student characteristics may have affected Study 1’s findings. Participants were high school Chemistry studen...

  1. Detector development for Jefferson Lab's 12 GeV Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Yi

    2015-05-01

    Jefferson Lab will soon finish its highly anticipated 12 GeV Upgrade. With doubled maximum energy, Jefferson Lab's Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) will enable a new experimental program with substantial discovery potential, addressing important topics in nuclear, hadronic and electroweak physics. In order to take full advantage of the high energy, high luminosity beam, new detectors are being developed, designed and constructed to fit the needs of different physics topics. The paper will give an overview of various new detector technologies to be used for 12 GeV experiments. It will then focus on the development of two solenoid-based spectrometers, the GlueX and SoLID spectrometers. The GlueX experiment in Hall D will study the complex properties of gluons through exotic hybrid meson spectroscopy. The GlueX spectrometer, a hermetic detector package designed for spectroscopy and the associated partial wave analysis, is currently in the final stage of construction. Hall A, on the other hand, is developing the SoLID spectrometer to capture the 3D image of the nucleon from semi-inclusive processes and to study the intrinsic properties of quarks through mirror symmetry breaking. Such a spectrometer will have the capability to handle very high event rates while still maintaining a large acceptance in the forward region.

  2. Learning from history: A case study in nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The award of the 1993 W.J. Kroll Zirconium Medal recognized the value of cooperative, multidisciplinary, applied research in tackling practical problems. This paper suggests that several other lessons relevant to the current debate on science-and-technology (S and T) policy can be drawn from experience a quarter of a century ago. It outlines how close cooperation among those involved with the fuel for the Canadian CANDU heavy-water reactors identified a problem, then proceeded to solve it expeditiously. This capability for a rapid response to an unforeseen problem was no accident, but arose out of the conditions that existed at the Chalk River Laboratory of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) and a deliberate policy to maintain this capability even when the utility's power reactors were demonstrating excellent performance

  3. RoboLab and virtual environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarratano, Joseph C.

    1994-01-01

    A useful adjunct to the manned space station would be a self-contained free-flying laboratory (RoboLab). This laboratory would have a robot operated under telepresence from the space station or ground. Long duration experiments aboard RoboLab could be performed by astronauts or scientists using telepresence to operate equipment and perform experiments. Operating the lab by telepresence would eliminate the need for life support such as food, water and air. The robot would be capable of motion in three dimensions, have binocular vision TV cameras, and two arms with manipulators to simulate hands. The robot would move along a two-dimensional grid and have a rotating, telescoping periscope section for extension in the third dimension. The remote operator would wear a virtual reality type headset to allow the superposition of computer displays over the real-time video of the lab. The operators would wear exoskeleton type arms to facilitate the movement of objects and equipment operation. The combination of video displays, motion, and the exoskeleton arms would provide a high degree of telepresence, especially for novice users such as scientists doing short-term experiments. The RoboLab could be resupplied and samples removed on other space shuttle flights. A self-contained RoboLab module would be designed to fit within the cargo bay of the space shuttle. Different modules could be designed for specific applications, i.e., crystal-growing, medicine, life sciences, chemistry, etc. This paper describes a RoboLab simulation using virtual reality (VR). VR provides an ideal simulation of telepresence before the actual robot and laboratory modules are constructed. The easy simulation of different telepresence designs will produce a highly optimum design before construction rather than the more expensive and time consuming hardware changes afterwards.

  4. First commissioning results with the Grenoble test electron cyclotron resonance ion source at iThemba LABS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomae, R.; Conradie, J.; Delsink, H.; Du Plessis, H.; Fourie, D.; Klopp, M.; Kohler, I.; Lussi, C.; McAlister, R.; Ntshangase, S.; Sakildien, M. [iThemba LABS, P.O Box 722, Somerset West 7130 (South Africa); Hitz, D. [CEA/DRFMC, 17 Av. Des Martyrs, 38054, Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Kuechler, D. [CERN, BE/ABP/HSL, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2012-02-15

    iThemba Laboratory for Accelerator Based Science (iThemba LABS) is a multi-disciplinary accelerator facility. One of its main activities is the operation of a separated-sector cyclotron with a K-value of 200, which provides beams of various ion species. These beams are used for fundamental nuclear physics research in the intermediate energy region, radioisotope production, and medical physics applications. Due to the requirements of nuclear physics for new ion species and higher energies, the decision was made to install a copy of the so-called Grenoble test source (GTS) at iThemba LABS. In this paper, we will report on the experimental setup and the first results obtained with the GTS2 at iThemba LABS.

  5. A VISIR Lab Server for the iLab Shared Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Garbi Zutin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the work done at the Carinthia University of Applied Sciences towards integrating VISIR-based labs on the iLab architecture. The Virtual Systems in Reality (VISIR project is carried out by the Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden and features a platform for performing experiments in different domains.

  6. eLabEL: technology-supported living labs in primary care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, J.; Huygens, M.W.J.; Swinkels, I.; Oude Nijeweme-d'Hollosy, W.; Velsen, L. van; Jansen, Y.; Witte, L.P. de

    2015-01-01

    Abstract— Telecare technologies and eHealth applications can support patients and care professionals. However, these technologies are currently not being implemented in primary care. The eLabEL project aims to contribute to a solution for this problem by establishing Living Labs in which patients, h

  7. Do Online Labs Work? An Assessment of an Online Lab on Cell Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, Sharon L.

    2006-01-01

    Some studies show students successfully learning science through online courses. This study compared students doing an online and in-class lab exercise on cell division. Online students performed slightly but significantly better on a follow-up content quiz, however, about half those expressed a strong preference for in-class lab work.

  8. On Rivers

    OpenAIRE

    Gleason, Colin Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Despite the importance of rivers to industry, agriculture, the climate system, and global ecosystems, our current knowledge of river discharge (volume of available water per unit time) is surprisingly poor for many regions of the world as political cloistering, aging infrastructure, and rapid human changes limit our ability to understand global surface waters holistically. Closing this knowledge gap is critical for better management of surface water in light of drought and increasing human de...

  9. Are Remote Labs Worth the Cost? Insights From a Study of Student Perceptions of Remote Labs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Uttal

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Remote online laboratories enable students to conduct scientific investigations using real experimental equipment. However, scaling up remote labs may require significant costs in purchasing and maintaining expensive equipment compared to scaling simulated labs. While these costs are a consequence of using physical equipment, we argue that there are unique educational advantages to remote labs. This paper presents the results of a preliminary study of student perceptions of a remote lab in comparison to an identical lab experience with simulated data. The findings reveal several intriguing themes that highlight the pedagogical value of remote laboratories. In addition, we provide recommendations for the design and pedagogy of online laboratory experiences based on our findings.

  10. Application of the NNWSI [Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations] unsaturated test method to actinide doped SRL [Savannah River Laboratory] 165 type glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, J.K.; Gerding, T.J.

    1990-08-01

    The results of tests done using the Unsaturated Test Method are presented. These tests, done to determine the suitability of glass in a potential high-level waste repository as developed by the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project, simulate conditions anticipated for the post-containment phase of the repository when only limited contact between the waste form and water is expected. The reaction of glass occurs via processes that are initiated due to glass/water vapor and glass/liquid water contact. Vapor interaction results in the initiation of an exchange process between water and the more mobile species (alkalis and boron) in the glass. The liquid reaction produces interactions similar to those seen in standard leaching tests, except due to the limited amount of water present and the presence of partially sensitized 304L stainless steel, the formation of reaction products greatly exceeds that found in MCC-1 type leach tests. The effect of sensitized stainless steel on the reaction is to enhance breakdown of the glass matrix thereby increasing the release of the transuranic elements from the glass. However, most of the Pu and Am released is entrained by either the metal components of the test or by the reaction phases, and is not released to solution. 16 refs., 20 figs., 17 tabs.

  11. ESA SnowLab project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesmann, Andreas; Caduff, Rafael; Frey, Othmar; Werner, Charles

    2016-04-01

    Retrieval of the snow water equivalaent (SWE) from passive microwave observations dates back over three decades to initial studies made using the first operational radiometers in space. However, coarse spatial resolution (25 km) is an acknowledged limitation for the application of passive microwave measurements. The natural variability of snow cover itself is also notable; properties such as stratigraphy and snow microstructure change both spatially and over time, affecting the microwave signature. To overcome this deficit, the satellite mission COld REgions Hydrology High-resolution Observatory (CoReH2O) was proposed to the European Space Agency (ESA) in 2005 in response to the call for Earth Explorer 7 candidate missions. CoReH2O was a dual frequency (X- and Ku-band) SAR mission aimed to provide maps of SWE over land and snow accumulation on glaciers at a spatial resolution of 200 to 500 meters with an unprecedented accuracy. Within the frame of preparatory studies for CoReH2O Phase A, ESA undertook several research initiatives from 2009 to 2013 to study the mission concept and capabilities of the proposed sensor. These studies provided a wealth of information on emission and backscattering signatures of natural snow cover, which can be exploited to study new potential mission concepts for retrieval of snow cover properties and other elements of the cryosphere. Currently data related to multi-frequency, multi-polarisation, multitemporal of active and passive microwave measurements are still not available. In addition, new methods related to e.g. tomography are currently under development and need to be tested with real data. Also, the potential of interferometric and polarimetric measurements of the snow cover and its possible impact for novel mission/retrieval concepts must be assessed. . The objective of the SnowLab activity is to fill this gap and complement these datasets from earlier campaigns by acquiring a comprehensive multi-frequency, multi

  12. Alligator Rivers analogue project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization has extensively evaluated uranium ore bodies in the Alligator Rivers Uranium Province in Australia as analogues of radioactive waste repositories. The work was extended for a three-year program as an international project based on the Koongarra uranium deposit and sponsored by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. The technical program comprises six major sub-projects involving modelling and experimental work: modelling of radionuclide migration; hydrogeology of the Koongarra uranium deposit; uranium/thorium series disequilibria studies; groundwater and colloid studies; fission product studies; transuranic nuclide studies; an outline of the technical programs and a summary of progress in the technical sub-projects is given. This is followed by a series of technical reports which briefly describe current research tasks, and which have been separately indexed

  13. Three Online Neutron Beam Experiments Based on the iLab Shared Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakov Ostrocsky

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Students at MIT have traditionally executed certain experiments in the containment building of the MIT nuclear reactor as part of courses in Nuclear Engineering and the third year laboratory course for Physics majors. A joint team of faculty and research staff from the MIT Nuclear Reactor Laboratory (MIT-NRL and MIT’s Center for Educational Computing Initiatives have implemented online versions of three classic experiments; (a a determination of MIT reactor coolant temperature through measurement of thermal neutron velocity, (b a demonstration of the DeBroglie relationship of the kinetic energy and momentum of thermal neutrons and study of Bragg diffraction through a single copper crystal at various orientations, and (c a measurement of beam depletion using a variety of shielding filters. These online experiments were implemented using the LabVIEW® virtual instrumentation package and the interactive version of the iLab Shared Architecture (ISA. Initial assessment of the online experiments indicates that they achieve comparable educational outcomes to traditional versions of the labs executed in the reactor containment building.

  14. Collaborative Creation of a Lab Rubric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie Miller-DeBoer

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available While there are a number of tested rubrics in circulation, our task was to intervene in a particular situation: the lead professor was concerned because her graduate teaching assistants held negative views about student performance on the lab reports. GTAs found poor products frustrating, and admitted that their grading was thus superficial and provided no feedback to students. Specifically, GTAs did not feel equipped to evaluate writing and, as a result, simply graded on steps completed in the lab process.We have a rubric now for an Introduction to Zoology lab that could be submitted here as a pretty darn good rubric for other instructors to use. But the intent of our “Tips and Tools” is to describe the actual creation of the rubric. We believe the active “real time” development of the rubric carried as much or more value than the finished product.

  15. A Moodle extension to book online labs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio C. Cardoso

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The social constructivist philosophy of Moodle makes it an excellent choice to deliver e-learning contents that require collaborative activities, such as those that are associated with online labs. In the case of online labs that enable web access to real devices (remote workbenches, access time should be reserved beforehand. A booking tool will avoid access conflicts and at the same time will help the students to organise their time and activities. This paper presents a Moodle extension that was developed within the Leonardo da Vinci MARVEL project, with the objective of meeting this requirement. The booking tool presented enables resource sharing in general and may be used to organise access to any type of scarce resources, such as to online labs and to the videoconferencing rooms that are needed to support collaborative activities.

  16. A perspective of hazardous waste and mixed waste treatment technology at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treatment technologies for the preparation and treatment of heavy metal mixed wastes, contaminated soils, and mixed mercury wastes are being considered at the Savannah River Site (SRS), a DOE nuclear material processing facility operated by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC). The proposed treatment technologies to be included at the Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Treatment Building at SRS are based on the regulatory requirements, projected waste volumes, existing technology, cost effectiveness, and project schedule. Waste sorting and size reduction are the initial step in the treatment process. After sorting/size reduction the wastes would go to the next applicable treatment module. For solid heavy metal mixed wastes the proposed treatment is macroencapsulation using a thermoplastic polymer. This process reduces the leachability of hazardous constituents from the waste and allows easy verification of the coating integrity. Stabilization and solidification in a cement matrix will treat a wide variety of wastes (i.e. soils, decontamination water). Some pretreatments may be required (i.e. Ph adjustment) before stabilization. Other pretreatments such as soil washing can reduce the amount of waste to be stabilized. Radioactive contaminated mercury waste at the SRS comes in numerous forms (i.e. process equipment, soils, and lab waste) with the required treatment of high mercury wastes being roasting/retorting and recovery. Any unrecyclable radioactive contaminated elemental mercury would be amalgamated, utilizing a batch system, before disposal

  17. Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parents/Teachers Resource Links for Students Glossary Nuclear Medicine What is nuclear medicine? What are radioactive tracers? ... funded researchers advancing nuclear medicine? What is nuclear medicine? Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty that uses ...

  18. Nuclear health and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1886 an earthquake measuring about seven on the Richter scale devastated Charleston, South Carolina. GAO examined whether today DOE, in the event of a major earthquake at its Savannah River site, can ensure the safety of its employees and the public. The Savannah River site is about 80 miles east of Charleston. GAO found that only in 1988 and 1989 did DOE begin to systematically correct seismic problems that have existed at Savannah River for years. Many structures now at the reactor site might not withstand a major earthquake, thereby threatening employees and the public with releases of radiation. While DOE has begun a comprehensive seismic program for the reactors and other facilities at Savannah River, it will take years to adequately protect the site form earthquakes. This report recommends that DOE establish a comprehensive, systematic seismic program for the reactors and high-risk nuclear facilities at Savannah River. Because of the potential for earthquakes elsewhere, it also recommends that DOE look at upgrading seismic programs at DOE locations with high-risk nuclear facilities

  19. Digital Design with KP-Lab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ponta

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available KP-Lab is an EU Integrated Project envisioning a learning system that facilitates innovative practices of sharing, creating and working with knowledge in education and workplaces. The project exploits a novel pedagogical view, the knowledge-creation metaphor of learning. According to such “trialogical” approach, cognition arises through collaborative work in systematically developing shared “knowledge artefacts”, such as concepts, plans, material products, or social practices. The paper presents the plan of a pilot course to test the KP-Lab methodologies and tools in the field of Digital Design.

  20. [Semiotic Studies Lab for Patient Care Interactions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Dulce Maria; Portella, Jean Cristtus; Bianchi e Silva, Laura

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this experience report is to present the Semiotic Studies Lab for Patient Care Interactions (Laboratório de Estudos Semióticos nas Interações de Cuidado - LESIC). The lab was set up at the Nursing School of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Brazil in 2010. It has the purpose of providing didactic and pedagogical updates, based on the Theory developed by the Paris School of Semiotics, that enable the increase of knowledge and interactive/observational skills regarding the nature and mastery of human care.

  1. Hungarian-Vietnamese Nuclear Energy Train the Trainers Course

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HUVINETT 2012-2013: Hungarian-Vietnamese Nuclear Energy „Train the Trainers” Course: HUVINETT Courses at Paks NPP - • 3 weeks of practice oriented training; • Practical application of nuclear theory and knowledge; • Plant technology; • Importance of nuclear safety; • Behavioral standards and required attitude in a nuclear power plant; • Practice in real working environment: – Maintenance Performance Improvement Center; – Simulator; – Labs and workshops of the plant

  2. LabVIEW A Developer's Guide to Real World Integration

    CERN Document Server

    Fairweather, Ian

    2011-01-01

    LabVIEW(t) has become one of the preeminent platforms for the development of data acquisition and data analysis programs. LabVIEW(t): A Developer's Guide to Real World Integration explains how to integrate LabVIEW into real-life applications. Written by experienced LabVIEW developers and engineers, the book describes how LabVIEW has been pivotal in solving real-world challenges. Each chapter is self-contained and demonstrates the power and simplicity of LabVIEW in various applications, from image processing to solar tracking systems. Many of the chapters explore how exciting new technologies c

  3. View graph presentations of the sixth DOE industry/university/lab forum on robotics for environmental restoration and waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mission of the Robotics Technology Development Program involves the following: develop robotic systems where justified by safety, cost, and/or efficiency arguments; integrate the best talent from National Labs, industry, and universities in focused teams addressing complex-wide problems; and involve customers in the identification and development of needs driven technologies. This presentation focuses on five areas. They are: radioactive tank waste remediation (Richland); mixed waste characterization, treatment, and disposal (Idaho Falls); decontamination and decommissioning (Morgantown); landfill stabilization (Savannah River); and contaminant plumes containment and remediation (Savannah River)

  4. The Portuguese Contribution for lab2go - pt.lab2go

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Restivo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Online experimentation provides innovative and valuable tools for use in academy, in high schools, in industry and in medical areas. It has also become a precious tool for educational and training purposes in any of those areas. Looking at online experimentation as a pure distance learning tool it represents a very efficient way of sharing hands-on capabilities, for example with developing countries. In Portugal a new consortium of online experimentation was created for fostering the national potential, using the Portuguese version of lab2go web platform, pt.lab2go. The authors pretend to demonstrate some of capabilities of the consortium in sharing online labs.

  5. Improving the Quality of Lab Reports by Using Them as Lab Instructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haagen-Schuetzenhoefer, Claudia

    2012-10-01

    Lab exercises are quite popular in teaching science. Teachers have numerous goals in mind when teaching science laboratories. Nevertheless, empirical research draws a heterogeneous picture of the benefits of lab work. Research has shown that it does not necessarily contribute to the enhancement of practical abilities or content knowledge. Lab activities are frequently based on recipe-like, step-by-step instructions ("cookbook style"), which do not motivate students to engage cognitively. Consequently, students put the emphasis on "task completion" or "manipulating equipment."2

  6. Go-Lab Report on Development of the Virtual Go-Lab User Community -V1

    OpenAIRE

    Doran, Rosa; Sotiriou, Sofoklis

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this document is to perform an analysis into the type and intensity of Go-Lab engagement, exhibited by its users, mainly teachers in the current period. The emphasis is still on measuring and interpreting the way the community of users has grown, as well as on the type and degree of involvement and experience sharing in the Go-Lab infrastructure. In the framework of Go-Lab, Community Building is considered as a professional development activity. In this framework apart from the d...

  7. Awakening interest in the natural sciences - BASF's Kids' Labs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Cinthia

    2012-01-01

    At BASF's Ludwigshafen headquarters, kids and young adults in grades 1-13 can learn about chemistry in the Kids' Labs. Different programs exist for different levels of knowledge. In the two 'Hands-on Lab H(2)O & Co.' Kids' Labs, students from grades 1-6 explore the secrets of chemistry. BASF Kids' Labs have now been set up in over 30 countries. In Switzerland alone, almost 2,000 students have taken part in the 'Water Loves Chemistry' Kids' Lab since it was started in 2011. In Alsace, 600 students have participated to date. In the Teens' Lab 'Xplore Middle School', middle school students explore five different programs with the themes 'substance labyrinth', 'nutrition', 'coffee, caffeine & co.', 'cosmetics' and 'energy'. Biotechnological methods are the focus of the Teens' Lab 'Xplore Biotech' for students taking basic and advanced biology courses. In the 'Xplore High School' Teens' Lab, chemistry teachers present their own experimental lab instruction for students in basic and advanced chemistry courses. The Virtual Lab has been expanding the offerings of the BASF Kids' Labs since 2011. The online lab was developed by the company for the International Year Of Chemistry and gives kids and young adults the opportunity to do interactive experiments outside of the lab. PMID:23394237

  8. A Hardware Lab Anywhere At Any Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Schubert

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Scientific technical courses are an important component in any student's education. These courses are usually characterised by the fact that the students execute experiments in special laboratories. This leads to extremely high costs and a reduction in the maximum number of possible participants. From this traditional point of view, it doesn't seem possible to realise the concepts of a Virtual University in the context of sophisticated technical courses since the students must be "on the spot". In this paper we introduce the so-called Mobile Hardware Lab which makes student participation possible at any time and from any place. This lab nevertheless transfers a feeling of being present in a laboratory. This is accomplished with a special Learning Management System in combination with hardware components which correspond to a fully equipped laboratory workstation that are lent out to the students for the duration of the lab. The experiments are performed and solved at home, then handed in electronically. Judging and marking are also both performed electronically. Since 2003 the Mobile Hardware Lab is now offered in a completely web based form.

  9. Displacing Media: LCD LAB Artistic Residency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Pais

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This review refers to an artistic residency which took place at LCD LAB -  CAAA at Guimarães, in March, exploring a strategy for media art called Media Displacement. The text introduces the strategy very briefly and describes the residency's organization, structure, processses and the results produced.

  10. Information at a Cost: A Lab Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Robalo (Pedro); R.S. Sayag (Rei)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe supposed irrelevance of historical costs for rational decision making has been the subject of much interest in the economic literature. In this paper we explore whether individual decision making under risk is affected by the cost of the supplied information. Outside of the lab, it i

  11. FameLab - Swiss Semi Finals

    CERN Multimedia

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2012-01-01

    Twenty-two young scientists participated in the FameLab semi-final at CERN's Globe of Science and Innovation on 4 February, supported by a large audience and by more than 100 fans following via webcast. A panel of judges chose Lemmer and four other candidates to join five other semi-finalists at the national finals in Zurich on 30 March.

  12. Computer Labs Report to the Holodeck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raths, David

    2011-01-01

    In many ways, specialized computer labs are the black holes of IT organizations. Budgets, equipment, employees--even space itself--are sucked in. Given a choice, many IT shops would engage warp drive and escape their gravitational pull forever. While Captain Kirk might have looked to Scotty for a fix to the problem, colleges and universities are…

  13. Surfactant Adsorption: A Revised Physical Chemistry Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresler, Marc R.; Hagen, John P.

    2008-01-01

    Many physical chemistry lab courses include an experiment in which students measure surface tension as a function of surfactant concentration. In the traditional experiment, the data are fit to the Gibbs isotherm to determine the molar area for the surfactant, and the critical micelle concentration is used to calculate the Gibbs energy of micelle…

  14. Carleton to oversee $40 million lab grant

    CERN Multimedia

    Singer, Zev

    2003-01-01

    "Carleton University got a major gift yesterday, as the federal government announced the university will oversee a $40-million grant to run the world's deepest underground lab at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory. Five other universities are partners in the project" (1/2 page).

  15. Lab. X - projektrapport udarbejdet maj 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangshaab, Jette

    2015-01-01

    Nærværende projektrapport for Lab. X projektet (ERDFN-13-0129) fremstiller og vurderer udviklingen af projektforløbet, og hvorledes projektets hovedaktiviteter er gennemført, og i hvilket omfang milepælene er nået. Desuden præsenteres det, hvilke konkrete resultater projektet har nået og, hvordan...

  16. Volkswagen Sets up Central Lab in BRICI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ On June 2, Volkswagen Corp of Germany settled its Chinese central laboratory in Sinopec Beijing Research Institute of Chemical Industry (BRICI). This is the top-level lab of Volkswagen in Asia - Pacific region and it marks another close cooperation between Volkswagen Corp of Germany and Sinopec Corp.

  17. Design Lab 2005 : pilk steriilsesse elektrotulevikku

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Design Lab kutsub disainereid ja üliõpilasi üle terve maailma tegelema kaugemale tulevikku suunatud visioonidega. 2005. a. konkurss otsis nutikaid ja säästlikke lahendusi, mis võiksid 2020. a. kodudes olla juba juurdunud, keskenduti kodutehnikale

  18. Short Distance of Nuclei - Mining the Wealth of Existing Jefferson Lab Data - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinstein, Lawrence [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States); Kuhn, Sebastian [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2016-01-08

    Over the last fifteen years of operation, the Jefferson Lab CLAS Collaboration has performed many experiments using nuclear targets. Because the CLAS detector has a very large acceptance and because it used a very open (i.e., nonspecific) trigger, there is a vast amount of data on many different reaction channels yet to be analyzed. The goal of the Jefferson Lab Nuclear Data Mining grant was to (1) collect the data from nuclear target experiments using the CLAS detector, (2) collect the associated cuts and corrections used to analyze that data, (3) provide non-expert users with a software environment for easy analysis of the data, and (4) to search for interesting reaction signatures in the data. We formed the Jefferson Lab Nuclear Data Mining collaboration under the auspices of this grant. The collaboration successfully carried out all of our goals. Dr. Gavalian, the data mining scientist, created a remarkably user-friendly web-based interface to enable easy analysis of the nuclear-target data by non-experts. Data from many of the CLAS nuclear target experiments has been made available on servers at Old Dominion University. Many of the associated cuts and corrections have been incorporated into the data mining software. The data mining collaboration was extraordinarily successful in finding interesting reaction signatures in the data. Our paper Momentum sharing in imbalanced Fermi systems was published in Science. Several analyses of CLAS data are continuing and will result in papers after the end of the grant period. We have held several analysis workshops and have given many invited talks at international conferences and workshops related to the data mining initiative. Our initiative to maximize the impact of data collected with CLAS in the 6-GeV era was very successful. During the hiatus between the end of 6-GeV experiments and the beginning of 12-GeV experiments, our collaboration and the physics community at large benefited tremendously from the Jefferson Lab

  19. Impoverishment of the bryophyte and lichen flora of the Dutch chalk grasslands in the thirty years 1953-1983. [Tortella spp. ; Trichostomum spp. ; Aloina spp. ; Pleurochaete squarrosa; Abietinella abietina; Camptothecium lutescens; Brachythecium rutabulum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    During, H.J.; Willems, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    The Dutch chalk grasslands were formerly very rich in bryophyte and lichen species. A comparison of data from Barkman (1953) and more recent inventories yielded the following results: (a) Lichens have disappeared nearly completely from the Dutch chalk grasslands; (b) many characteristic acrocarps (e.g., Tortella spp., Trichostomum spp., Aloina spp., Pleurochaete squarrosa) and some pleurocarps (Abietinella abietina, Camptothecium lutescens) have decreased drastically; (c) some common litter-indicator species (Brachythecium rutabulum and others) are now increasing. It is hypothesized that this change is mainly a result of combined effects of the abandonment of the old grazing regime, which is in only a few places replaced by mowing, and of air pollution. The authors are strongly in favor of current attempts to reintroduce grazing by the old race of Mergelland sheep.

  20. Large Scale Weather Control Using Nuclear Reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Singh-Modgil, M

    2002-01-01

    It is pointed out that controlled release of thermal energy from fission type nuclear reactors can be used to alter weather patterns over significantly large geographical regions. (1) Nuclear heat creates a low pressure region, which can be used to draw moist air from oceans, onto deserts. (2) Creation of low pressure zones over oceans using Nuclear heat can lead to Controlled Cyclone Creation (CCC).(3) Nuclear heat can also be used to melt glaciers and control water flow in rivers.