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Sample records for chalk river laboratories

  1. Isotope hydrology of the Chalk River Laboratories site, Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman, Zell; Neymark, Leonid; King-Sharp, K.J.; Gascoyne, Mel

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents results of hydrochemical and isotopic analyses of groundwater (fracture water) and porewater, and physical property and water content measurements of bedrock core at the Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) site in Ontario. Density and water contents were determined and water-loss porosity values were calculated for core samples. Average and standard deviations of density and water-loss porosity of 50 core samples from four boreholes are 2.73 ± 12 g/cc and 1.32 ± 1.24 percent. Respective median values are 2.68 and 0.83 indicating a positive skewness in the distributions. Groundwater samples from four deep boreholes were analyzed for strontium (87Sr/86Sr) and uranium (234U/238U) isotope ratios. Oxygen and hydrogen isotope analyses and selected solute concentrations determined by CRL are included for comparison. Groundwater from borehole CRG-1 in a zone between approximately +60 and −240 m elevation is relatively depleted in δ18O and δ2H perhaps reflecting a slug of water recharged during colder climatic conditions. Porewater was extracted from core samples by centrifugation and analyzed for major dissolved ions and for strontium and uranium isotopes. On average, the extracted water contains 15 times larger concentration of solutes than the groundwater. 234U/238U and correlation of 87Sr/86Sr with Rb/Sr values indicate that the porewater may be substantially older than the groundwater. Results of this study show that the Precambrian gneisses at Chalk River are similar in physical properties and hydrochemical aspects to crystalline rocks being considered for the construction of nuclear waste repositories in other regions.

  2. Contaminated groundwater characterization at the Chalk River Laboratories, Ontario, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schilk, A.J.; Robertson, D.E.; Thomas, C.W.; Lepel, E.A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Champ, D.R.; Killey, R.W.D.; Young, J.L.; Cooper, E.L. [Chalk River Labs., Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    1993-03-01

    The licensing requirements for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste (10 CFR 61) specify the performance objectives and technical requisites for federal and commercial land disposal facilities, the ultimate goal of which is to contain the buried wastes so that the general population is adequately protected from harmful exposure to any released radioactive materials. A major concern in the operation of existing and projected waste disposal sites is subterranean radionuclide transport by saturated or unsaturated flow, which could lead to the contamination of groundwater systems as well as uptake by the surrounding biosphere, thereby directly exposing the general public to such materials. Radionuclide transport in groundwater has been observed at numerous commercial and federal waste disposal sites [including several locations within the waste management area of Chalk River Laboratories (CRL)], yet the physico-chemical processes that lead to such migration are still not completely understood. In an attempt to assist in the characterization of these processes, an intensive study was initiated at CRL to identify and quantify the mobile radionuclide species originating from three separate disposal sites: (a) the Chemical Pit, which has received aqueous wastes containing various radioisotopes, acids, alkalis, complexing agents and salts since 1956, (b) the Reactor Pit, which has received low-level aqueous wastes from a reactor rod storage bay since 1956, and (c) the Waste Management Area C, a thirty-year-old series of trenches that contains contaminated solid wastes from CRL and various regional medical facilities. Water samples were drawn downgradient from each of the above sites and passed through a series of filters and ion-exchange resins to retain any particulate and dissolved or colloidal radionuclide species, which were subsequently identified and quantified via radiochemical separations and gamma spectroscopy. These groundwaters were also analyzed for anions

  3. Edibility of sport fishes in the Ottawa River near Chalk River Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D.R.; Chaput, T.; Miller, A.; Wills, C.A., E-mail: leed@aecl.ca [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-12-15

    To address the question of edibility of fish in the Ottawa River near Chalk River Laboratories (CRL), 123 game fish were collected for analysis from four locations: Mackey and Rolphton (45 km and 35 km upstream of Chalk River Laboratories (CRL), respectively), the Sandspit (Pointe au Bapteme) and Cotnam Island (1.6 km and 45 km downstream of CRL, respectively). Twenty-six to thirty-six game fish were collected at each location in 2007 and samples of flesh or bone were analyzed. Trap nets were used to collect only the fish required, allowing release of management-sensitive species. The focus was on walleye (Sander vitreus) because they are abundant and popular among anglers. A few northern pike (Esox lucius) and a smaller number of smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui) were also collected at three of the four sites. Samples of the fish were analyzed for cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs), strontium-90 ({sup 90}Sr), mercury (Hg), and selected organo-chlorine compounds. Concentrations of {sup 137}Cs in the flesh and {sup 90}Sr in the bones of sport fish were low and similar at all four locations and appear to reflect the global residuals from nuclear weapons testing (primarily in the 1960's) as opposed to releases from CRL. Possible explanations are: 1) Reductions in radionuclide releases from CRL in recent decades and 2) Relatively large foraging ranges of sport fish. Mercury concentrations were elevated in fishes in the Ottawa River and were significantly higher at the Sandspit and Rolphton than at Mackey and Cotnam Island (p<0.001). Mercury concentrations from the four sites are comparable to concentrations in other Ontario and Quebec lakes. It is advisable therefore, that consumers follow the fish consumption guidelines issued by provincial authorities when eating fish from the Ottawa River. Organo-chlorine compounds were not detected in walleye; however, they were detected in all eight of the pike collected at Cotnam Island. The highest organo

  4. Results of detailed ground geophysical surveys for locating and differentiating waste structures in waste management area 'A' at Chalk River Laboratories, Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomsons, D.K.; Street, P.J.; Lodha, G.S

    1999-07-01

    Waste Management Area 'A' (WMA 'A'), located in the outer area of the Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) was in use as a waste burial site from 1946 to 1955. Waste management structures include debris-filled trenches, concrete bunkers and miscellaneous contaminated solid materials, and ditches and pits used for liquid dispersal. In order to update historical records, it was proposed to conduct detailed ground geophysical surveys to define the locations of waste management structures in WMA 'A', assist in planning of the drilling and sampling program to provide ground truth for the geophysics investigation and to predict the nature and locations of unknown/undefined shallow structures. A detailed ground geophysical survey grid was established with a total of 127 grid lines, oriented NNE and spaced one metre apart. The geophysical surveys were carried out during August and September, 1996. The combination of geophysical tools used included the Geonics EM61 metal detector, the GSM-19 magnetometer/gradiometer and a RAMAC high frequency ground penetrating radar system. The geophysical surveys were successful in identifying waste management structures and in characterizing to some extent, the composition of the waste. The geophysical surveys are able to determine the presence of most of the known waste management structures, especially in the western and central portions of the grid which contain the majority of the metallic waste. The eastern portion of the grid has a completely different geophysical character. While historical records show that trenches were dug, they are far less evident in the geophysical record. There is clear evidence for a trench running between lines 30E and 63E at 70 m. There are indications from the radar survey of other trench-like structures in the eastern portion. EM61 data clearly show that there is far less metallic debris in the eastern portion. The geophysical surveys were also successful in identifying

  5. Dose-effects relationships in wild populations of the aquatic snail Campeloma decisum at Chalk River Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruedig, E. [Colorado State University (United States); Higley, K. [Oregon State University (United States)

    2014-07-01

    In the last decade regulatory bodies worldwide have implemented standards to protect populations of non-human biota (NHB) from the consequences of radiation exposure. This is a departure from previous regulatory frameworks, which were concerned only with protecting man. The implementation of these new standards initiated an ongoing discussion concerning appropriate dose-rate limits for NHB. For the most part, the data utilized for estimating appropriately protective dose-rate limits has come from data collected via the irradiation of NHB in a laboratory setting. While some dose-effects studies have been performed under field conditions, such experiments represent a minority of the available data. This deficit in the literature has resulted in challenges to the established paradigm, with researchers reporting increased radiosensitivity in NHB under field conditions. However, many such studies overlook critical components of dose-effects analysis: lacking either robust ecological technique or dosimetric rigor. The study cited herein provides rigorous analysis of factors affecting populations of aquatic snails and is intended as a framework for identifying those factors statistically indicative of snail population. These benchmarks (e.g., number of snails, mass of individuals) were employed as proxies for snail population health, and how it was impacted by over two dozen environmental variables. Dose-rates were calculated via a novel voxel model, developed for this study to estimate internal dose rates for the species of interest. A linear regression model was employed to tease out the relationship between individual snails, their environment, and radiation dose rate. There was no evidence that snail population health was influenced by radiation exposure (p=0.70) at the observed dose rates. Of the environmental variables tested, water concentration of Ca was well correlated with snail mass size (p<0.001), while water concentration of P was well correlated with the

  6. Response of invertebrates from the hyporheic zone of chalk rivers to eutrophication and land use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacioglu, Octavian; Moldovan, Oana Teodora

    2016-03-01

    Whereas the response of lotic benthic macroinvertebrates to different environmental stressors is a widespread practice nowadays in assessing the water and habitat quality, the use of hyporheic zone invertebrates is still in its infancy. In this study, classification and regression trees analysis were employed in order to assess the ecological requirements and the potential as bioindicators for the hyporheic zone invertebrates inhabiting four lowland chalk rivers (south England) with contrasting eutrophication levels (based on surface nitrate concentrations) and magnitude of land use (based on percentage of fine sediments load and median interstitial space). Samples of fauna, water and sediment were sampled twice, during low (summer) and high (winter) groundwater level, at depths of 20 and 35 cm. Certain groups of invertebrates (Glossosomatidae and Psychomyiidae caddisflies, and riffle beetles) proved to be good indicators of rural catchments, moderately eutrophic and with high fine sediment load. A diverse community dominated by microcrustaceans (copepods and ostracods) were found as good indicators of highly eutrophic urban streams, with moderate-high fine sediment load. However, the use of other taxonomic groups (e.g. chironomids, oligochaetes, nematodes, water mites and the amphipod Gammarus pulex), very widespread in the hyporheic zone of all sampled rivers, is of limited use because of their high tolerance to the analysed stressors. We recommend the use of certain taxonomic groups (comprising both meiofauna and macroinvertebrates) dwelling in the chalk hyporheic zone as indicators of eutrophication and colmation and, along with routine benthic sampling protocols, for a more comprehensive water and habitat quality assessment of chalk rivers.

  7. Seasonal nutrient dynamics in a chalk stream: the River Frome, Dorset, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowes, M J; Leach, D V; House, W A

    2005-01-01

    Chalk streams provide unique, environmentally important habitats, but are particularly susceptible to human activities, such as water abstraction, fish farming and intensive agricultural activity on their fertile flood-meadows, resulting in increased nutrient concentrations. Weekly phosphorus, nitrate, dissolved silicon, chloride and flow measurements were made at nine sites along a 32 km stretch of the River Frome and its tributaries, over a 15 month period. The stretch was divided into two sections (termed the middle and lower reach) and mass balances were calculated for each determinand by totalling the inputs from upstream, tributaries, sewage treatment works and an estimate of groundwater input, and subtracting this from the load exported from each reach. Phosphorus and nitrate were retained within the river channel during the summer months, due to bioaccumulation into river biota and adsorption of phosphorus to bed sediments. During the autumn to spring periods, there was a net export, attributed to increased diffuse inputs from the catchment during storms, decomposition of channel biomass and remobilisation of phosphorus from the bed sediment. This seasonality of retention and remobilisation was higher in the lower reach than the middle reach, which was attributed to downstream changes in land use and fine sediment availability. Silicon showed much less seasonality, but did have periods of rapid retention in spring, due to diatom uptake within the river channel, and a subsequent release from the bed sediments during storm events. Chloride did not produce a seasonal pattern, indicating that the observed phosphorus and nitrate seasonality was a product of annual variation in diffuse inputs and internal riverine processes, rather than an artefact of sampling, flow gauging and analytical errors.

  8. Savannah River Laboratory monthly report, September 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, J.M. (comp.)

    1991-01-01

    This document details monthly activities at the Savannah River Laboratory. Topics addressed are reactor operation, tritium facilities and production; separation operations; environmental concerns; and waste management. (FI)

  9. Savannah River Laboratory monthly report, September 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, J.M. [comp.

    1991-12-31

    This document details monthly activities at the Savannah River Laboratory. Topics addressed are reactor operation, tritium facilities and production; separation operations; environmental concerns; and waste management. (FI)

  10. Savannah River Laboratory monthly report, November 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, J.M. [comp.

    1991-12-31

    This document details monthly activities at the Savannah River Laboratory. Topics addressed are reactor operation; tritium facilities and production; separation operations; environmental concerns; and waste management. (FI)

  11. Savannah River Laboratory monthly report, November 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, J.M. (comp.)

    1991-01-01

    This document details monthly activities at the Savannah River Laboratory. Topics addressed are reactor operation; tritium facilities and production; separation operations; environmental concerns; and waste management. (FI)

  12. New insight into the microtexture of chalks from NMR analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faÿ-Gomord, Ophélie; Soete, Jeroen; Katika, Konstantina

    2016-01-01

    quality chalks independently of their sedimentological and/or diagenetic history. The study aims to develop an NMR-based approach to characterize a broad range of chalk samples. The provided laboratory low-field NMR chalk classification can be used as a guide to interpret NMR logging data...... size and T2 logarithmic (T2lm) was calculated. It is apparent that tight chalks, whether their characteristics are sedimentological or diagenetic, yield smaller pore body sizes (T2lm well as narrower pore throats (average radius

  13. Porosity variation in chalk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Ida; Grøn, Peter

    1996-01-01

    Vertical porosity variations in chalk are generally assumed to result from either a vaguely defined combination of primary sedimentary and diagenetic processes or solely to diagenetic processes. In this study, image analysis of backscatter electron images of polished samples and geochemical...... microprobe mapping were applied to measure the porosity variation in a limited number of chalk samples. Microscope data indicate that in all cases the chalk has been subjected to diagenetic processes, but our data suggest that the variations in porosity originate in primary sedimentary differences....

  14. Hillerslev outcrop chalk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lykke, M.M.

    2003-08-01

    Fractures are a great benefit to production of oil, since the matrix permeability in the oil bearing chalk reservoirs in the North Sea is low. Many of the oil fields would be marginally economic to produce without natural or induced fractures to enhance the effective permeability of the reservoirs. However, when oil is produced by use of waterflooding, an important issue is whether water fingering (fracture flow) will occur. Water fingering is due to faster flow of water in the fractures than in the matrix during waterflooding. Capillary suction of water (spontaneous or forced) must exist for waterflooding to be economic. If the matrix sucks water from the fractures, waterflooding can be a very efficient mechanism. If not, the waterflooding may fail, since the water will travel directly from the injector to the producer through the fractures, i.e. the result would be recycled water. In my Ph.D., two-phase fracture flow is investigated. The investigation is based on waterflooding tests on fractured outcrop Hillerslev chalk specimens. It is chosen to use Hillerslev outcrop chalk due to that this chalk is highly fractured and that it can be regarded as a close analogue to the oil producing Tor formation of the Valhall field located in the North Sea. To investigate fracture flow, it is important to obtain knowledge of the fractures in the chalk, i.e. it is necessary to perform a fracture study of the chalk. A field trip was made to the Hillerslev outcrop chalk quarry located in the northern part of Jutland. Here, a (global) fracture description was carried out and twelve chalk block samples were recovered at a chosen location in the Hillerslev quarry. For comparison of earlier work performed in the Hillerslev chalk quarry, this report contains a summary of the fracture description and sampling carried out during EFP-98, EFP-96 and earlier work. Measured values of porosity, permeability and capillary pressure curves of Hillerslev outcrop chalk are included to obtain

  15. Savannah River Laboratory monthly report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-12-01

    Efforts in the area of nuclear reactors and scientific computations are reported, including: robotics; reactor irradiation of nonend-bonded target slugs; computer link with Los Alamos National Laboratory; L-reactor thermal mitigation; aging of carbon in SRP reactor airborne activity confinement systems; and reactor risk assessment for earthquakes. Activities in chemical processes and environmental technology are reported, including: solids formation in a plutonium product stream; revised safety analysis reporting for F and H-Canyon operations; organic carbon analysis of DWPF samples; applications of Fourier transform infrared spectrometry; water chemistry analyzer for SRP reactors; and study of a biological community in Par Pond. Defense waste and laboratory operations activities include: Pu-238 waste incinerator startup; experimental canister frit blaster; saltstone disposal area design; powder metallurgy core diameter measurement; and a new maintenance shop facility. Nuclear materials planning encompasses decontamination and decommissioning of SRP facilities and a comprehensive compilation of environmental and nuclear safety issues. (LEW)

  16. Savannah River Laboratory monthly report, February 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, J.M. [comp.; Ice, L.W. [ed.

    1992-02-01

    This report is a progress report for the Savannah River Laboratory for the month of February 1992. The progress and activities in six categories were described in the report. The categories are reactor, tritium, separations, environmental, waste management, and general. Each category described numerous and varied activities. Some examples of these activities described are such things as radiation monitoring, maintenance, modifications, and remedial action.

  17. Chalk as a reservoir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    reduces porosity at the same time as it increases specific surface and thus cause permeability to be low. In the Central North Sea the silica is quartzitic. Silica rich chalk intervals are typically found in the Ekofisk and Hod formations. In addition to silica, Upper Cretaceous and Palæogene chalks...... stabilizes chemically by recrystallization. This process requires energy and is promoted by temperature. This recrystallization in principle does not influence porosity, but only specific surface, which decreases during recrystallization, causing permeability to increase. The central North Sea is a warm...... have hardly any stylolites and can have porosity above 40% or even 50% and thus also have relatively high permeability. Such intervals have the problem though, that increasing effective stress caused by hydrocarbon production results in mechanical compaction and overall subsidence. Most other chalk...

  18. Biot Critical Frequency Applied to Description of Failure and Yield of Highly Porous Chalk with Different Pore Fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Katrine Alling; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2010-01-01

    Injection of water into chalk hydrocarbon reservoirs has led to mechanical yield and failure. Laboratory experiments on chalk samples correspondingly show that the mechanical properties of porous chalk depend on pore fluid and temperature. In case of water-saturated samples, the concentration and...... the possibility of predicting the effects of water flooding on chalk stability.......Injection of water into chalk hydrocarbon reservoirs has led to mechanical yield and failure. Laboratory experiments on chalk samples correspondingly show that the mechanical properties of porous chalk depend on pore fluid and temperature. In case of water-saturated samples, the concentration...... and nature of dissolved salts have an effect.Water has a significant softening effect on elastic properties of chalk as calculated from wave data, and the softening increases with increasing critical frequency as defined by Biot. The critical frequency is the highest frequency where elastic wave propagation...

  19. PAH occurrence in chalk river systems from the Jura region (France). Pertinence of suspended particulate matter and sediment as matrices for river quality monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiffre, Axelle; Degiorgi, François; Morin-Crini, Nadia; Bolard, Audrey; Chanez, Etienne; Badot, Pierre-Marie

    2015-11-01

    This study investigates the variations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) levels in surface water, suspended particulate matter (SPM) and sediment upstream and downstream of the discharges of two wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents. Relationships between the levels of PAHs in these different matrices were also investigated. The sum of 16 US EPA PAHs ranged from 73.5 to 728.0 ng L(-1) in surface water and from 85.4 to 313.1 ng L(-1) in effluent. In SPM and sediment, ∑16PAHs ranged from 749.6 to 2,463 μg kg(-1) and from 690.7 μg kg(-1) to 3,625.6 μg kg(-1), respectively. Investigations performed upstream and downstream of both studied WWTPs showed that WWTP discharges may contribute to the overall PAH contaminations in the Loue and the Doubs rivers. Comparison between gammarid populations upstream and downstream of WWTP discharge showed that biota was impacted by the WWTP effluents. When based only on surface water samples, the assessment of freshwater quality did not provide evidence for a marked PAH contamination in either of the rivers studied. However, using SPM and sediment samples, we found PAH contents exceeding sediment quality guidelines. We conclude that sediment and SPM are relevant matrices to assess overall PAH contamination in aquatic ecosystems. Furthermore, we found a positive linear correlation between PAH contents of SPM and sediment, showing that SPM represents an integrating matrix which is able to provide meaningful data about the overall contamination over a given time span.

  20. Guide to Savannah River Laboratory Analytical Services Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-04-01

    The mission of the Analytical Services Group (ASG) is to provide analytical support for Savannah River Laboratory Research and Development Programs using onsite and offsite analytical labs as resources. A second mission is to provide Savannah River Site (SRS) operations with analytical support for nonroutine material characterization or special chemical analyses. The ASG provides backup support for the SRS process control labs as necessary.

  1. Less chalk more action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitriceski Andelkovic, Bojana; Jovic, Sladjana

    2016-04-01

    Less chalk more action Education should not be a mechanical system that operates according to the principles of the orders and implementation. Education should respect the basic laws of the develop and progress. Curiosity is the engine of achievement and children spontaneously and happily learn only if they get interested, if teacher wake up and stimulate their creativity and individuality. We would like to present classes that are realized as thematic teaching with several subjects involved: chemistry, geography, math, art and biology. Classes were organized for students at age from 10 to 13 years, every month during autumn and winter 2015. Better students identified themselves as teachers and presented peer education .Teachers were monitoring the process of teaching and help to develop links between younger and older students, where older students were educators to younger students. Also one student with special needs was involved in this activities and was supported by other students during the workshops The benefit from this project will be represented with evaluation marks. Evaluation table shows that group of ten students(age 10 to13 years) which are selected in October as children with lack of motivation for learning, got better marks, at the end of January , then they had it in the beginning of the semester.

  2. Chalk and Cheese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FRANCISCO; LITTLE

    2006-01-01

    Inever thought I would ever be attending a banquet on the balcony of a restaurant that looked out across the Yalujiang River, straight into the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea). There we were, a delegation from

  3. The sedimentology of redeposited chalk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderskouv, Kresten; Surlyk, Finn; Gale, Andy

    Redeposited facies in the Upper Cretaceous Chalk Group constitute major hydrocarbon reservoirs in the North Sea Central Graben. Existing facies models are largely based on publications from the early 1980's dealing with core material from the Norwegian sector. However, the recognition, interpreta...

  4. Sewage effluent clean-up reduces phosphorus but not phytoplankton in lowland chalk stream (River Kennet, UK) impacted by water mixing from adjacent canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Colin; Martin, Ellie; Neal, Margaret; Hallett, John; Wickham, Heather D; Harman, Sarah A; Armstrong, Linda K; Bowes, Mike J; Wade, Andrew J; Keay, David

    2010-10-15

    Information is provided on phosphorus in the River Kennet and the adjacent Kennet and Avon Canal in southern England to assess their interactions and the changes following phosphorus reductions in sewage treatment work (STW) effluent inputs. A step reduction in soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) concentration within the effluent (5 to 13 fold) was observed from several STWs discharging to the river in the mid-2000s. This translated to over halving of SRP concentrations within the lower Kennet. Lower Kennet SRP concentrations change from being highest under base-flow to highest under storm-flow conditions. This represented a major shift from direct effluent inputs to a within-catchment source dominated system characteristic of the upper part to the catchment. Average SRP concentrations in the lower Kennet reduced over time towards the target for good water quality. Critically, there was no corresponding reduction in chlorophyll-a concentration, the waters remaining eutrophic when set against standards for lakes. Following the up gradient input of the main water and SRP source (Wilton Water), SRP concentrations in the canal reduced down gradient to below detection limits at times near its junction with the Kennet downstream. However, chlorophyll concentrations in the canal were in an order of magnitude higher than in the river. This probably resulted from long water residence times and higher temperatures promoting progressive algal and suspended sediment generations that consumed SRP. The canal acted as a point source for sediment, algae and total phosphorus to the river especially during the summer months when boat traffic disturbed the canal's bottom sediments and the locks were being regularly opened. The short-term dynamics of this transfer was complex. For the canal and the supply source at Wilton Water, conditions remained hypertrophic when set against standards for lakes even when SRP concentrations were extremely low.

  5. Chalk Line Mill, Anniston, AL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Chalk Line Mill property was the site of a textile mill which operated from 1887 until 1994. Demolition activities in 2004 removed most of the structures on-site, but also left large, unsightly piles of debris scattered across this 14-acre property. The City applied for and received a $200,000 Brownfields cleanup grant in 2007 to address contamination on the property and the Appalachian Regional Commission provided an additional $150,000 in funding.

  6. Biot Critical Frequency Applied as Common Friction Factor for Chalk with Different Pore Fluids and Temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Katrine Alling; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2010-01-01

    Injection of water into chalk hydrocarbon reservoirs has lead to mechanical yield and failure. Laboratory experiments on chalk samples correspondingly show that the mechanical properties of porous chalk depend on pore fluid and temperature. Water has a significant softening effect on elastic...... and we propose that the fluid effect on mechanical properties of highly porous chalk may be the result of liquid‐solid friction. Applying a different strain or stress rate is influencing the rock strength and needs to be included. The resulting function is shown to relate to the material dependent...... and rate independent b-factor used when describing the time dependent mechanical properties of soft rock or soils. As a consequence it is then possible to further characterize the material constant from the porosity and permeability of the rock as well as from pore fluid density and viscosity which...

  7. Ekofisk chalk: core measurements, stochastic reconstruction, network modeling and simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talukdar, Saifullah

    2002-07-01

    This dissertation deals with (1) experimental measurements on petrophysical, reservoir engineering and morphological properties of Ekofisk chalk, (2) numerical simulation of core flood experiments to analyze and improve relative permeability data, (3) stochastic reconstruction of chalk samples from limited morphological information, (4) extraction of pore space parameters from the reconstructed samples, development of network model using pore space information, and computation of petrophysical and reservoir engineering properties from network model, and (5) development of 2D and 3D idealized fractured reservoir models and verification of the applicability of several widely used conventional up scaling techniques in fractured reservoir simulation. Experiments have been conducted on eight Ekofisk chalk samples and porosity, absolute permeability, formation factor, and oil-water relative permeability, capillary pressure and resistivity index are measured at laboratory conditions. Mercury porosimetry data and backscatter scanning electron microscope images have also been acquired for the samples. A numerical simulation technique involving history matching of the production profiles is employed to improve the relative permeability curves and to analyze hysteresis of the Ekofisk chalk samples. The technique was found to be a powerful tool to supplement the uncertainties in experimental measurements. Porosity and correlation statistics obtained from backscatter scanning electron microscope images are used to reconstruct microstructures of chalk and particulate media. The reconstruction technique involves a simulated annealing algorithm, which can be constrained by an arbitrary number of morphological parameters. This flexibility of the algorithm is exploited to successfully reconstruct particulate media and chalk samples using more than one correlation functions. A technique based on conditional simulated annealing has been introduced for exact reproduction of vuggy

  8. Poroelasticity of high porosity chalk under depletion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Katrine Alling; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2013-01-01

    levels of pore pressure. The chalk is oil-saturated Lixhe chalk from a quarry near Liège, Belgium, with a general porosity of 45%. Additionally, we compare the theoretical lateral stress to the experimentally determined lateral stress at the onset of pore collapse. The static Biot coefficient based...

  9. Self Compacting Concrete with Chalk Filler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eigil V.

    2007-01-01

    at 28 days from about 35 MPa down to about 13 MPa. The cementing efficiency factor of the chalk filler was found to be in the range 0.21 - 0.42. The chalk filler performed equally well with a grey and a white cement; the latter opens the possibility to produce white SCC more cost effectively....

  10. Environmental information document: Savannah River Laboratory Seepage Basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, B.F.; Looney, B.B.; Simmons, R.V.; Bledsoe, H.W.

    1987-03-01

    This document provides environmental information on postulated closure options for the Savannah River Laboratory Seepage Basins at the Savannah River Plant and was developed as background technical documentation for the Department of Energy`s proposed Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on waste management activities for groundwater protection at the plant. The results of groundwater and atmospheric pathway analyses, accident analysis, and other environmental assessments discussed in this document are based upon a conservative analysis of all foreseeable scenarios as defined by the National Environmental Policy Act (CFR, 1986). The scenarios do not necessarily represent actual environmental conditions. This document is not meant to be used as a closure plan or other regulatory document to comply with required federal or state environmental regulations.

  11. Environmental audit of the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This report documents the results of the environmental audit conducted at the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), principally in Aiken and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina. The audit was conducted by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s), Office of Environmental Audit (EH-24), beginning September 13, 1993, and ending September 23, 1993. The scope of the audit at SREL was comprehensive, addressing environmental activities in the technical areas of air; surface water/drinking water; groundwater/soil, sediment, and biota; waste management; toxic and chemical materials; inactive Waste sites; radiation; quality assurance; and environmental management. Specifically assessed was the compliance of SREL operations and activities with Federal, state, and local regulations; DOE Orders; and best management practices.

  12. Impact of supercritical CO2 injection on petrophysical and rock mechanics properties of chalk: an experimental study on chalk from South Arne field, North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alam, Mohammad Monzurul; Hjuler, Morten Leth; Christensen, Helle Foged

    2011-01-01

    Changes in chalk due to EOR by injecting supercritical CO2 (CO2-EOR) can ideally be predicted by applying geophysical methods designed from laboratory-determined petrophysical and rock mechanics properties. A series of petrophysical and rock mechanics tests were performed on Ekofisk Formation...... and Tor Formation chalk of the South Arne field to reveal the changes in petrophysical and rock mechanics properties of chalk due to the injection of CO2 at supercritical state. An increase in porosity and decrease in specific surface was observed due to injection of supercritical CO2. This indicates...... that a reaction between CO2 enriched water and particles takes place which smoothens the particle surface. Accordingly, partial increase in permeability was also noticed. An effect is also observed from the decrease in pore-space stiffness, calculated from sonic velocity. No significant effect on wettability...

  13. Aerobic degradation potential of the herbicides mecoprop, dichlorprop and bentazone in groundwater from chalk aquifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi, Suzi; Hybel, Anne-Marie; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup;

    2011-01-01

    The aerobic degradation potential of mecoprop, dichlorprop and bentazone was studied at concentration of 1 μg/L in laboratory batch experiments with groundwater from chalk aquifers. Within the incubation period of 129 days, 14C-mecoprop concentration decreased to 60-80% in the microcosms with gro......The aerobic degradation potential of mecoprop, dichlorprop and bentazone was studied at concentration of 1 μg/L in laboratory batch experiments with groundwater from chalk aquifers. Within the incubation period of 129 days, 14C-mecoprop concentration decreased to 60-80% in the microcosms...

  14. TESTING OF THE RADBALL TECHNOLOGY AT SAVANNAH RIVER NATIONAL LABORATORY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Foley, T.

    2010-02-10

    The United Kingdom's National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL) has developed a remote, nonelectrical, radiation-mapping device known as RadBall (patent pending), which offers a means to locate and quantify radiation hazards and sources within contaminated areas of the nuclear industry. Positive results from initial deployment trials in nuclear waste reprocessing plants at Sellafield in the United Kingdom and the anticipated future potential use of RadBall throughout the U.S. Department of Energy Complex have led to the NNL partnering with the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to further test, underpin, and strengthen the technical performance of the technology. The study completed at SRNL addresses key aspects of the testing of the RadBall technology. The first set of tests was performed at Savannah River Nuclear Solutions Health Physics Instrument Calibration Laboratory (HPICL) using various gamma-ray sources and an x-ray machine with known radiological characteristics. The objective of these preliminary tests was to identify the optimal dose and collimator thickness. The second set of tests involved a highly contaminated hot cell. The objective of this testing was to characterize a hot cell with unknown radiation sources. The RadBall calibration experiments and hot cell deployment were successful in that for each trial radiation tracks were visible. The deployment of RadBall can be accomplished in different ways depending on the size and characteristics of the contaminated area (e.g., a hot cell that already has a crane/manipulator available or highly contaminated room that requires the use of a remote control device with sensor and video equipment to position RadBall). This report also presents SRNL-designed RadBall accessories for future RadBall deployment (a harness, PODS, and robot).

  15. Electroosmotic dewatering of chalk sludge, iron hydroxide sludge, wet fly ash and biomass sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H.K.; Christensen, Iben Vernegren; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.;

    2003-01-01

    Electroosmotic dewatering has been tested in laboratory cells on four different porous materials: chalk sludge, iron hydroxide sludge, wet fly ash and biomass sludge from enzyme production. In all cases it was possible to remove water when passing electric DC current through the material. Casagra......Electroosmotic dewatering has been tested in laboratory cells on four different porous materials: chalk sludge, iron hydroxide sludge, wet fly ash and biomass sludge from enzyme production. In all cases it was possible to remove water when passing electric DC current through the material....... Casagrande's coefficients were determined for the four materials at different water contents. The experiments in this work showed that chalk could be dewatered from 40% to 79% DM (dry matter), fly ash from 75 to 82% DM, iron hydroxide sludge from 2.7 to 19% DM and biomass from 3 to 33% DM by electroosmosis...

  16. HYDROGEN TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER NATIONAL LABORATORY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danko, E

    2009-03-02

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is a U.S. Department of Energy research and development laboratory located at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. SRNL has over 50 years of experience in developing and applying hydrogen technology, both through its national defense activities as well as through its recent activities with the DOE Hydrogen Programs. The hydrogen technical staff at SRNL comprises over 90 scientists, engineers and technologists, and it is believed to be the largest such staff in the U.S. SRNL has ongoing R&D initiatives in a variety of hydrogen storage areas, including metal hydrides, complex hydrides, chemical hydrides and carbon nanotubes. SRNL has over 25 years of experience in metal hydrides and solid-state hydrogen storage research, development and demonstration. As part of its defense mission at SRS, SRNL developed, designed, demonstrated and provides ongoing technical support for the largest hydrogen processing facility in the world based on the integrated use of metal hydrides for hydrogen storage, separation, and compression. The SRNL has been active in teaming with academic and industrial partners to advance hydrogen technology. A primary focus of SRNL's R&D has been hydrogen storage using metal and complex hydrides. SRNL and its Hydrogen Technology Research Laboratory have been very successful in leveraging their defense infrastructure, capabilities and investments to help solve this country's energy problems. SRNL has participated in projects to convert public transit and utility vehicles for operation using hydrogen fuel. Two major projects include the H2Fuel Bus and an Industrial Fuel Cell Vehicle (IFCV) also known as the GATOR{trademark}. Both of these projects were funded by DOE and cost shared by industry. These are discussed further in Section 3.0, Demonstration Projects. In addition to metal hydrides technology, the SRNL Hydrogen group has done extensive R&D in other hydrogen technologies

  17. Measuring and Modeling the Displacement of Connate Water in Chalk Core Plugs during Water Injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsbech, Uffe C C; Aage, Helle Karina; Andersen, Bertel Lohmann;

    2006-01-01

    The movement of connate water spiked with gamma emitting 22Na was studied during laboratory water flooding of oil saturated chalk from a North Sea oil reservoir. Using a one dimensional gamma monitoring technique is was observed that connate water is piled-up at the front of the injection water...... and forms a mixed water bank with almost 100% connate water in the front behind which a gradual transition to pure injection water occurs. This result underpins log interpretations from waterflooded chalk reservoirs. An ad hoc model was set up by use of the results, and the process was examined...

  18. Adsorption of hydrocarbons in chalk reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madsen, L.

    1996-12-31

    The present work is a study on the wettability of hydrocarbon bearing chalk reservoirs. Wettability is a major factor that influences flow, location and distribution of oil and water in the reservoir. The wettability of the hydrocarbon reservoirs depends on how and to what extent the organic compounds are adsorbed onto the surfaces of calcite, quartz and clay. Organic compounds such as carboxylic acids are found in formation waters from various hydrocarbon reservoirs and in crude oils. In the present investigation the wetting behaviour of chalk is studied by the adsorption of the carboxylic acids onto synthetic calcite, kaolinite, quartz, {alpha}-alumina, and chalk dispersed in an aqueous phase and an organic phase. In the aqueous phase the results clearly demonstrate the differences between the adsorption behaviour of benzoic acid and hexanoic acid onto the surfaces of oxide minerals and carbonates. With NaCl concentration of 0.1 M and with pH {approx_equal} 6 the maximum adsorption of benzoic acid decreases in the order: quartz, {alpha}-alumina, kaolinite. For synthetic calcite and chalk no detectable adsorption was obtaind. In the organic phase the order is reversed. The maximum adsorption of benzoic acid onto the different surfaces decreases in the order: synthetic calcite, chalk, kaolinite and quartz. Also a marked difference in adsorption behaviour between probes with different functional groups onto synthetic calcite from organic phase is observed. The maximum adsorption decreases in the order: benzoic acid, benzyl alcohol and benzylamine. (au) 54 refs.

  19. Numerical modelling of channel migration with application to laboratory rivers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian SUN; Bin-liang LIN; Hong-wei KUANG

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the development of a morphological model and its application to experimental model rivers. The model takes into account the key processes of channel migration, including bed deformation, bank failure and wetting and drying. Secondary flows in bends play an important role in lateral sediment transport, which further affects channel migration. A new formula has been derived to predict the near-bed secondary flow speed, in which the magnitude of the speed is linked to the lateral water level gradient. Since only non-cohesive sediment is considered in the current study, the bank failure is modelled based on the concept of submerged angle of repose. The wetting and drying process is modelled using an existing method. Comparisons between the numerical model predictions and experimental observations for various discharges have been made. It is found that the model predicted channel planform and cross-sectional shapes agree generally well with the laboratory observations. A scenario analysis is also carried out to investigate the impact of secondary flow on the channel migration process. It shows that if the effect of secondary flow is ignored, the channel size in the lateral direction will be seriously underestimated.

  20. Adsorption Properties of Chalk Reservoir Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okhrimenko, Denis

    Understanding adsorption energetics and wetting properties of calcium carbonate surfaces is essential for developing remediation strategies for aquifers, improving oil recovery, minimising risk in CO2 storage and optimising industrial processes. This PhD was focussed on comparing the vapour....../gas adsorption properties of synthetic calcium carbonate phases (calcite, vaterite and aragonite) with chalk, which is composed of biogenic calcite (>98%). In combination with data from nanotechniques, the results demonstrate the complexity of chalk behavior and the role of nanoscale clay particles. The results...

  1. Elastic behaviour of North Sea chalk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gommesen, Lars; Fabricius, Ida Lykke; Mukerji, T.

    2007-01-01

    We present two different elastic models for, respectively, cemented and uncemented North Sea chalk well-log data. We find that low Biot coefficients correlate with anomalously low cementation factors from resistivity measurements at low porosity and we interpret this as an indication of cementation...... to logging data than the Gassmann prediction for the far, virgin zone. We thus conclude that the Gassmann approach predicts hydrocarbons accurately in chalk in the sonic-frequency domain, but the fluid effects as recorded by the acoustic tool are significantly affected by invasion of mud filtrate...

  2. Potential for isoproturon, atrazine and mecoprop to be degraded within a chalk aquifer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Andrew C.; White, Craig; Lal Bhardwaj, C.

    2000-06-01

    The potential for herbicide degradation in an unconfined chalk aquifer was examined by collecting and spiking fresh samples and incubating them in the laboratory. The microcosms were incubated at 20°C under aerobic conditions and spiked with either isoproturon, atrazine or mecoprop at a concentration of 100 μg/l. The samples were obtained from a single fieldsite within the Upper Chalk aquifer in Hampshire, UK. Groundwater samples required the presence of sterile chalk in a ratio of at least 1:13 to promote isoproturon degradation. An isoproturon degradation potential existed in the soil, and the chalk unsaturated and saturated zones. However, no degradation of isoproturon in the unsaturated zone was observed when a more appropriate simulation of in-situ moisture conditions was carried out. Apart from the soil, no potential for atrazine or mecoprop degradation could be detected in the same samples over a 200-day incubation. In a series of groundwater samples taken from different boreholes, 10-300 m apart, large differences in isoproturon degradation potential were observed. Removal rates for 100 μg/l isoproturon varied from 83-425 ng/day, but in some samples no degradation potential could be detected. The primary metabolite which could be distinguished from isoproturon degradation in chalk and groundwater was monodesmethyl-isoproturon. When a chalk groundwater sample was spiked with isoproturon at 0.9 μg/l, this was not degraded over a 300-day incubation period. Further experiments with fresh groundwater from a Triassic Sandstone site illustrated that groundwater bacteria could degrade isoproturon at the more realistic temperature of 10°C as well as at 20°C.

  3. Population dynamics of three gammarid species (Crustacea, Amphipoda) in a French chalk stream. Part II. Standing crop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goedemakers, Annemarie

    1981-01-01

    The standing crop of Gammarus pulex pulex (Linnaeus, 1758), G. fossarum Koch in Panzer, 1836 and Echinogammarus berilloni (Catta, 1878) has been studied in a small French chalk stream, the Slack. A brief description of all amphipod species encountered in this river is given, with a key to different

  4. Compaction of microfossil and clay-rich chalk sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of microfossils and clay in the compaction of chalk facies sediments. To meet this aim, chalk sediments with varying micro texture were studied. The sediments have been tested uniaxially confined in a stainless-steel compaction cell. The sediments are......: 1) Pure carbonate chalk with mudstone texture from Stevns Klint (Denmark), 2) Relatively pure chalk sediments with varying content of microfossils from the Ontong Java Plateau (Western Pacific), 3) Clay-rich chalk and mixed sediments from the Caribbean. The tested samples were characterised...... of microfossils and fine-grained silica and clay. Samples with relatively pure chalk mud supported texture compact along a common stress - matrix porosity trend. Microfossils thus have a passive role, apparently because they are supported by the chalk mud. Samples with fine-grained silica and clay can be modelled...

  5. Nickel adsorption on chalk and calcite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belova, Dina Alexandrovna; Lakshtanov, Leonid; Carneiro, J.F.

    2014-01-01

    and chalk and pH ranging from 7.7 to 8.8, explored the influence of initial concentration and the amount and type of sorbent on Ni uptake. Adsorption increases with increased surface area and pH. A surface complexation model describes the data well. Stability constants for the Ni surface complex are log KNi...

  6. Late Maastrichtian chalk mounds, Stevns Klint, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderskouv, Kresten; Damholt, Tove; Surlyk, Finn

    Upper Maastrichtian chalk exposed in the Sigerslev quarry, Stevns Klint, Denmark shows wavy and mound-like bedding geometries outlined by bands of black flint nodules. Bedding geometries are highly variable, but four morphological elements are recognized: Southward migrating mounds, eastward...

  7. Late Maastrichtian chalk mounds, Stevns Klint, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderskouv, Kresten; Damholt, Tove; Surlyk, Finn

    2007-01-01

    Upper Maastrichtian chalk exposed at the Sigerslev quarry, Stevns Klint, Denmark is characterized by wavy and mound-like bedding geometries outlined by bands of black flint nodules. Four morphological elements are recognized, although bedding geometries are highly variable: southward migrating...

  8. Slope failure of chalk channel margins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gale, A.; Anderskouv, Kresten; Surlyk, Finn

    2015-01-01

    The importance of mass transport and bottom currents is now widely recognized in the Upper Cretaceous Chalk Group of Northern Europe. The detailed dynamics and interaction of the two phenomena are difficult to study as most evidence is based on seismic data and drill core. Here, field observation...

  9. Rock physical aspects of CO{sub 2} injection in chalk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, M.M.

    2011-04-15

    Impact of supercritical CO{sub 2} on the petrophysical and rock-mechanics properties of Ekofisk Formation and Tor Formation chalk from South Arne field, Danish North Sea, chalk was investigated. A series of laboratory experiments was performed on core material collected from the reservoir zone of the South Arne field in order to reveal the changes with respect to porosity, specific surface, pore stiffness, wettability, mineralogy and mechanical failure. In addition, a theoretical rock physical background was also established in order to be able to make sensible interpretation of laboratory data. Sound wave velocity was used as the central tool to study any change in petrophysical and rock mechanical properties. The main focus was to achieve a better understanding of effective stress coefficient (also known as Biot's coefficient); by means of which effective stress can be predicted more accurately. Independent theoretical studies were made on diagenesis, surface properties and stiffness of chalk and their relation with sonic velocity (or Biot's coefficient calculated from sonic velocity). The knowledge and experience from these studies was combined to achieve the main research objective of monitoring changes in hydrocarbon reservoirs in chalk due to CO{sub 2} injection. In order to understand the development of chalk from calcareous ooze and achieving pore stiffness, the diagenesis process of a sedimentary sequence from Kerguelen Plateau in the Indian Ocean was studied. The principal objective of the study was to explore how different porosity reduction mechanisms change the strength of these deep sea carbonate-rich sediments and how these mechanisms can be traced from the change in Biot's coefficient, alpha. In calcareous ooze, alpha was found close to one. Mechanical compaction reduces porosity, but only leads to a minor decrease in alpha. Recrystallization process renders particles smoother, but do not lead to reduction in alpha unless it gives

  10. Chalk: composition, diagenesis and physical properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2007-01-01

    Chalk is a sedimentary rock of unusually high homogeneity on the scale where physical properties are measured, but the properties fall in wide ranges. Chalk may thus be seen as the ideal starting point for a physical understanding of rocks in general. Properties as porosity, permeability, capillary...... entry pressure, and elastic moduli are consequences of primary sediment composition and of subsequent diagenetic history as caused by microbial action, burial stress, temperature, and pore pressure. Porosity is a main determining factor for other properties. For a given porosity, the specific surface...... of the sediment controls permeability and capillary entry pressure. As diagenesis progresses, the specific surface is less and less due to the calcite component and more and more due to the fine-grained silicates, as a reflection of the coarsening and cementation of the calcite crystals. The elastic moduli, which...

  11. Water weakening of chalk explaied from a fluid-solid friction factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Katrine Alling; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2010-01-01

    were tested at temperatures from 20°C to 130°C with the following pore fluids: fresh water, synthetic seawater of different chemical compositions, methanol, glycol, and oil of varying viscosity. The data was evaluated according to failure lines and yield envelopes for all fluids and temperatures while...... to the macroscale failure and pore collapse properties. The Biot critical frequency incorporates the porosity, permeability, fluid density and fluid viscosity, where the latter is highly temperature dependent – it does not include the applied sound velocity frequency. The listed parameters are usually determined...... during laboratory tests and the fluid viscosity and density may be found in tabulated references. There exist a number of previously published laboratory test results on chalk which was collected from Brazilian, unconfined compression and triaxial tests. The data spans four different chalk types which...

  12. Ecological research at the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-05-01

    Research is organized around two major programs: thermal and aquatic stress and mineral cycling. These programs are strengthened by a previously established foundation of basic ecological knowledge. Research in basic ecology continues to be a major component of all SREL environmental programs. Emphasis in all programs has been placed upon field-oriented research relating to regional and local problems having broad ecological significance. For example, extensive research has been conducted in the Par Pond reservoir system and the Savannah River swamp, both of which have received thermal effluent, heavy metals, and low levels of radioisotopes. Furthermore, the availability of low levels of plutonium and uranium in both terrestrial and aquatic environments on the Savannah River Plant (SRP) has provided an unusual opportunity for field research in this area. The studies seek to document the effects, to determine the extent of local environmental problems, and to establish predictable relationships which have general applicability. In order to accomplish this objective it has been imperative that studies be carried out in the natural, environmentally unaffected areas on the SRP as a vital part of the overall program. Progress is reported in forty-nine studies.

  13. Effect of Fluid Dynamic Viscosity on the Strength of Chalk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, K.; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    The mechanical strength of high porosity and weakly cemented chalk is affected by the fluid in the pores. In this study, the effect of the dynamic viscosity of non-polar fluids has been measured on outcrop chalk from Sigerslev Quarry, Stevns, Denmark. The outcome is that the measured strength...

  14. The Beauty of the Beasts in Chalk Pastels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skophammer, Karen

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how her seventh-grade art students captured an image of a stuffed animal in the "whole-to-part" drawing technique using chalk pastels. Shading with chalk pastels can give a gradual change in value from dark to light. The shading and color changes the mood of the original drawing, and adds texture, too. Chalk…

  15. Stylolites, porosity, depositional texture, and silicates in chalk facies sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke; Borre, Mai K.

    2007-01-01

    Comparison of chalk on the Ontong Java Plateau and chalk in the Central North Sea indicates that, whereas pressure dissolution is controlled by effective burial stress, pore-filling cementation is controlled by temperature. Effective burial stress is caused by the weight of all overlying water an...

  16. 33 CFR 334.150 - Severn River at Annapolis, Md.; experimental test area, U.S. Navy Marine Engineering Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Marine Engineering Laboratory. (a) The restricted area. The waters of Severn River shoreward of a line... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Severn River at Annapolis, Md.; experimental test area, U.S. Navy Marine Engineering Laboratory. 334.150 Section 334.150 Navigation...

  17. Controls on the spatial and temporal variability of Rn-222 in riparian groundwater in a lowland Chalk catchment.

    OpenAIRE

    Mullinger, Neil J.; Pates, Jackie M.; Binley, Andrew M.; Crook, N. P.

    2009-01-01

    Radon is a powerful tracer of stream-aquifer interactions. However, it is important to consider the source and behaviour of radon in groundwater when interpreting observations of river radon in relation to groundwater discharge. Here we characterise the variability in groundwater radon concentrations in the riparian zone of a Chalk catchment. Groundwater 222Rn (radon) concentrations were determined in riparian zone boreholes at two sites in the Lambourn catchment, Berkshire, UK, over a two ye...

  18. ROBOTICS IN HAZARDOUS ENVIRONMENTS - REAL DEPLOYMENTS BY THE SAVANNAH RIVER NATIONAL LABORATORY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kriikku, E.; Tibrea, S.; Nance, T.

    2010-09-27

    The Research & Development Engineering (R&DE) section in the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) engineers, integrates, tests, and supports deployment of custom robotics, systems, and tools for use in radioactive, hazardous, or inaccessible environments. Mechanical and electrical engineers, computer control professionals, specialists, machinists, welders, electricians, and mechanics adapt and integrate commercially available technology with in-house designs, to meet the needs of Savannah River Site (SRS), Department of Energy (DOE), and other governmental agency customers. This paper discusses five R&DE robotic and remote system projects.

  19. Chalk Formations as Natural Barriers towards Radionuclide Migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Walther Batsberg; Carlsen, Lars; Jensen, Bror Skytte

    1985-01-01

    A series of chalk samples from the cretaceous formation overlying the Erslev salt dome have been studied in order to establish permeabilities, porosities, dispersion-, diffusion-, and sorption characteristics of the chalk. The chalk was found to be porous (∊≈0.4), however, of rather low...... permeability (k≈10-7 cm/sec). It was found that the material exhibits a retarding effect on migration of cationic species as Cs+, Sr2+ , Co2+, and Eu3+, whereas ionic species as Cl- move with the water front. The geochemical implications are discussed...

  20. Kolmanda aastatuhande piraadid / kommenteerinud Peter Chalk ja Gordan Van Hook

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Piraatlusest Somaalia piirkonnas ja rahvusvahelistest dokumentidest piraatluse vastu võitlemiseks 21. sajandil. Kommenteerivad uurimiskeskuse RAND Corporation vanempoliitanalüütik Peter Chalk ja transpordikompanii Maersk Line innovatsiooni ja arenduse vanemdirektor Gordan Van Hook

  1. To What Degree Thermal Cycles Affect Chalk Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Livada, Tijana; Nermoen, Anders; Korsnes, Reidar Inger;

    Chalk reservoirs could potentially undergo destabilization as the result of repeated cold water injection into a hot reservoir during water flooding. Preliminary results of an ongoing study are presented in this paper, which compare the impact of temperature cycling on mechanical behavior on dry...... triaxial cell experiments. For dry rock, no significant effects of temperature cycling was found on average tensile strength, however the range of the tensile failure stress is doubled for the samples exposed to 50 temperature cycles, as opposed to those to none. For water saturated cores, the temperature...... and water saturated chalk. Sixty disks of dry Kansas chalk exposed to different number of temperature cycles were tested for tensile strength using a Brazilian test. Changes in elastic properties as function of number of temperature cycles of the same chalk, but now saturated in water, were studied using...

  2. Savannah River Laboratory environmental transport and effects research. Annual report, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, T.V. (comp.)

    1979-11-01

    Research in the environmental sciences by the Savannah River Laboratory during 1978 is described in 43 articles. These articles are in the fields of terrestrial ecology, geologic studies, aquatic transport, aquatic ecology, atmospheric transport, emergency response, computer methods development, ocean program, and fuel cycle program. Thirty-seven of the articles were abstracted individually for ERA/EDB; those in scope were also included in INIS.

  3. ELECTRONICS UPGRADE TO THE SAVANNAH RIVER NATIONAL LABORATORY COULOMETER FOR PLUTONIUM AND NEPTUNIUM ASSAY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordaro, J.; Holland, M.; Reeves, G.; Nichols, S.; Kruzner, A.

    2011-07-08

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has the analytical measurement capability to perform high-precision plutonium concentration measurements by controlled-potential coulometry. State-of-the-art controlled-potential coulometers were designed and fabricated by the Savannah River National Laboratory and installed in the Analytical Laboratories process control laboratory. The Analytical Laboratories uses coulometry for routine accountability measurements of and for verification of standard preparations used to calibrate other plutonium measurement systems routinely applied to process control, nuclear safety, and other accountability applications. The SRNL Coulometer has a demonstrated measurement reliability of {approx}0.05% for 10 mg samples. The system has also been applied to the characterization of neptunium standard solutions with a comparable reliability. The SRNL coulometer features: a patented current integration system; continuous electrical calibration versus Faraday's Constants and Ohm's Law; the control-potential adjustment technique for enhanced application of the Nernst Equation; a wide operating room temperature range; and a fully automated instrument control and data acquisition capability. Systems have been supplied to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Russia, Japanese Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) and the New Brunswick Laboratory (NBL). The most recent vintage of electronics was based on early 1990's integrated circuits. Many of the components are no longer available. At the request of the IAEA and the Department of State, SRNL has completed an electronics upgrade of their controlled-potential coulometer design. Three systems have built with the new design, one for the IAEA which was installed at SAL in May 2011, one system for Los Alamos National Laboratory, (LANL) and one for the SRS Analytical Laboratory. The LANL and SRS systems are undergoing startup testing with installation scheduled for this summer.

  4. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory. Annual technical progress report of ecological research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.H.

    1996-07-31

    The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) is a research unit of the University of Georgia (UGA). The overall mission of the Laboratory is to acquire and communicate knowledge of ecological processes and principles. SREL conducts basic and applied ecological research, as well as education and outreach programs, under a contract with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. Significant accomplishments were made during the past year in the areas of research, education and service. The Laboratory`s research mission was fulfilled with the publication of two books and 143 journal articles and book chapters by faculty, technical and students, and visiting scientists. An additional three books and about 80 journal articles currently are in press. Faculty, technician and students presented 193 lectures, scientific presentations, and posters to colleges and universities, including minority institutions. Dr. J Vaun McArthur organized and conducted the Third Annual SREL Symposium on the Environment: New Concepts in Strewn Ecology: An Integrative Approach. Dr. Michael Newman conducted a 5-day course titled Quantitative Methods in Ecotoxicology, and Dr. Brian Teppen of The Advanced Analytical Center for Environmental Sciences (AACES) taught a 3-day short course titled Introduction to Molecular Modeling of Environmental Systems. Dr. I. Lehr Brisbin co-hosted a meeting of the Crocodile Special Interest Group. Dr. Rebecca Sharitz attended four symposia in Japan during May and June 1996 and conducted meetings of the Executive Committee and Board of the International Association for Ecology (ENTECOL).

  5. Diagenetic Variations between Upper Cretaceous Outcrop and Deeply Buried Reservoir Chalks of the North Sea Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjuler, Morten Leth; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2007-01-01

    In the central North Sea Basin hydrocarbon-bearing chalks are deeply buried (2-3 km) whereas chalks in the rim areas are cropping out in the surrounding countries. The differing diagenetic histories between buried and outcrop chalk result in different rock properties, which is of great importance...... when simulating reservoir conditions using outcrop chalks as models. In general deeply buried reservoir chalks show significant overgrowth as witnessed by reshaping of particles together with strengthening of particle contacts. Most outcrop chalks are moderately affected with looser inter...

  6. Designing and interpreting laboratory experiments for hydrodynamical, biogeochemical, and ecological processes in rivers (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packman, A. I.

    2009-12-01

    In this talk, I will articulate a general philosophy for the design of laboratory experiments for fluvial processes; discuss important concepts of scaling, scale limitation, and process coupling that should be considered in designing experiments and interpreting experimental results; and provide concrete examples of how this approach can be used to probe river mechanics, sedimentary biogeochemistry, benthic/hyporheic ecology, and downstream migration of reactive solutes and particles. It is challenging to design laboratory experiments to probe fluvial processes because river systems show extremely strong interactions over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. Biological and ecological processes are especially difficult to study in the laboratory because they are influenced by a wide range of system conditions, and we do not currently have a strong theoretical basis to quantitatively generalize experimental observations. Further, many seemingly basic and invariant chemical and biological properties - such as sorption coefficients, reaction rate constants, respiration rates, and nutrient uptake rates - change over space and time in fluvial systems because these environments are highly dynamic over a wide range of temporal scales, show strong longitudinal connectivity, and have strong heterogeneity in the surrounding and underlying sediments. Laboratory studies can be used to systematically investigate these effects, thereby providing considerable insight into generally important controlling mechanisms, with the caveat that larger-scale drivers and process interactions must be considered when translating the results to the field. Laboratory experiments can best be targeted to discriminate alternate hypotheses regarding important governing processes, and to independently test the effects of each important variable. Once this information is obtained, it should be codified in the form of quantitative, theoretical relationships that can be subsequently evaluated in

  7. Microbial Fluid-Rock Interactions in Chalk Samples and Salinity Factor in Divalent Ca2+ ions Release for Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery Purposes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jimoh, Ismaila Adetunji; Rudyk, Svetlana Nikolayevna; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen

    2011-01-01

    In this study, laboratory experiments were performed on chalk samples from Danish sector of the North Sea to study microbial fluid-rock interactions with carbonate rock and to evaluate the dissolution of rock matrix (CaCO3). Result showed that the average concentration of Ca2+ ions after microbial...... fluid interactions with chalk samples in media of salinity 40-100g/l increased from initial average concentration of 203 mg/l at the start of the experiment to 1178 mg/l in 28 days. 3-D surface plot (salinity, Ca2+, pH) with time revealed delineation of the measured salinity into two groups...

  8. CONTROL TESTING OF THE UK NATIONAL NUCLEAR LABORATORY'S RADBALL TECHNOLOGY AT SAVANNAH RIVER NATIONAL LABORATORY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.

    2009-11-23

    The UK National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL) has developed a remote, non-electrical, radiation-mapping device known as RadBall (patent pending), which offers a means to locate and quantify radiation hazards and sources within contaminated areas of the nuclear industry. To date, the RadBall has been deployed in a number of technology trials in nuclear waste reprocessing plants at Sellafield in the UK. The trials have demonstrated the successful ability of the RadBall technology to be deployed and retrieved from active areas. The positive results from these initial deployment trials and the anticipated future potential of RadBall have led to the NNL partnering with the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to further underpin and strengthen the technical performance of the technology. RadBall consists of a colander-like outer shell that houses a radiation-sensitive polymer sphere. It has no power requirements and can be positioned in tight or hard-to reach places. The outer shell works to collimate radiation sources and those areas of the polymer sphere that are exposed react, becoming increasingly less transparent, in proportion to the absorbed dose. The polymer sphere is imaged in an optical-CT scanner which produces a high resolution 3D map of optical attenuation coefficients. Subsequent analysis of the optical attenuation maps provides information on the spatial distribution and strength of the sources in a given area forming a 3D characterization of the area of interest. This study completed at SRNL addresses key aspects of the testing of the RadBall technology. The first set of tests was performed at Savannah River Nuclear Solutions Health Physics Instrument Calibration Laboratory (HPICL) using various gamma-ray sources and an x-ray machine with known radiological characteristics. The objective of these preliminary tests was to identify the optimal dose and collimator thickness. The second set of tests involved a highly contaminated hot cell. The objective of

  9. The balanced scorecard advantage: Driving strategic change into Canada's nuclear laboratory site operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafreniere, P. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Weeks, D. [Haggarty' s Cove Ventures (2001 Ltd.) St. Stephen, New Brunswick (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    The challenges presented by the size, diversity, complexity and history of the Facilities and Nuclear Operations (FNO) Group at AECL's Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) required a change to the traditional management approach. As a result, a strategy was adopted that focused on integrating contemporary business practices such as process mapping, activity based management and use of the Balanced Scorecard methodology into the operational culture at CRL. In addition, revitalization of the performance management methods process was undertaken to provide a tool for assessment of business and individual performance. performance. (author)

  10. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory. Annual technical progress report of ecological research, period ending July 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-31

    The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) is a research unit of the University of Georgia (UGA) that is managed in conjunction with the University`s Institute of Ecology. The laboratory`s overall mission is to acquire and communicate knowledge of ecological processes and principles. SREL conducts basic and applied ecological research, as well as education and outreach programs, under an M&O contract with the US Department of Energy at the Savannah River Site. Significant accomplishments were made during the year ending July 31, 1994 in the areas of research, education and service. Reviewed in this document are research projects in the following areas: Environmental Operations Support (impacted wetlands, streams, trace organics, radioecology, database synthesis, wild life studies, zooplankton, safety and quality assurance); wood stork foraging and breeding ecology; defence waste processing facility; environmental risk assessment (endangered species, fish, ash basin studies); ecosystem alteration by chemical pollutants; wetlands systems; biodiversity on the SRS; Environmental toxicology; environmental outreach and education; Par Pond drawdown studies in wildlife and fish and metals; theoretical ecology; DOE-SR National Environmental Research Park; wildlife studies. Summaries of educational programs and publications are also give.

  11. Laboratory Assessment of Potential Impacts to Dungeness Crabs from Disposal of Dredged Material from the Columbia River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vavrinec, John; Pearson, Walter H.; Kohn, Nancy P.; Skalski, J. R.; Lee, Cheegwan; Hall, Kathleen D.; Romano, Brett A.; Miller, Martin C.; Khangaonkar, Tarang P.

    2007-05-07

    Dredging of the Columbia River navigation channel has raised concerns about dredging-related impacts on Dungeness crabs (Cancer magister) in the estuary, mouth of the estuary, and nearshore ocean areas adjacent to the Columbia River. The Portland District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers engaged the Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to review the state of knowledge and conduct studies concerning impacts on Dungeness crabs resulting from disposal during the Columbia River Channel Improvement Project and annual maintenance dredging in the mouth of the Columbia River. The present study concerns potential effects on Dungeness crabs from dredged material disposal specific to the mouth of the Columbia River.

  12. Mapping SOC in a river catchment by integrating laboratory spectra wavelength with remote sensing spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Yi; Xiong, Xiong; Knadel, Maria;

    There is potential to use soil ·-proximal and remote sensing derived spectra concomitantly to develop soil organic carbon (SOC) models. Yet mixing spectral data from different sources and technologies to improve soil models is still in its infancy. The objective of this study was to incorporate...... soil spectral features indicative of SOC from laboratory visible near-infrared reflectance (vis-NlR) spectra and incorporate them with remote sensing (RS) images to improve predictions of top SOC in the Skjem river catchment, Denmark. The secondary objective was to improve prediction results...... by separately calibrating samples from upland and wetland. We hypbthesize that final prediction accuracy is significantly improved by incorporatin1 laboratory vis-NlR images upscaled from point-based spectra to catchment scale and RS data for topsoil SOC spatial modeling....

  13. Prospects of Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery  in Danish chalk rocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudyk, Svetlana Nikolayevna; Jørgensen, Leif Wagner; Bah Awasi, Ismail

    % of gas was produced in the presence of chalk in microbial solution and just 20% in the process of microbial fermentation with molasses (without chalk). The microbial solution improved the permeability of three chalk samples by 8.1%, 16.4% and 2658% respectively during 14 days of exposure having formed...... a big hole in the core sample in the latter case....

  14. What are the governing processes during low-flows in a chalk catchment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubega Musuuza, Jude; Coxon, Gemma; Hutton, Chris; Howden, Nicholas; Woods, Ross; Freer, Jim; Wagener, Thorsten

    2016-04-01

    Low flows are important because they lead to the prioritisation of different consumptive water usages, imposition of restrictions and bans, raising of water tariffs and higher production costs to industry. The partitioning of precipitation into evaporation, storage and runoff depends on the local variability in meteorological variables and site-specific characteristics e.g., topography, soils and vegetation. The response of chalk catchments to meteorological forcing especially precipitation is of particular interest because of the preferential flow through the weathered formation. This makes the observed stream discharge groundwater-dominated and hence, out of phase with precipitation. One relevant question is how sensitive the low flow characteristics of such a chalk catchment is to changes in climate and land use. It is thus important to understand all the factors that control low stream discharge periods. In this study we present the results from numerical sensitivity analysis experiments performed with a detailed physically-based model on the Kennet, a sub-catchment of the River Thames, in the UK during the historical drought years of the 1970's.

  15. Influence of effective stress coefficient on mechanical failure of chalk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alam, Mohammad Monzurul; Fabricius, Ida Lykke; Hjuler, M.L.

    2012-01-01

    , as this process could affect the grain contact cement. If this happens, the effective stress at the grain contacts in a reservoir will change according to the effective stress principle of Biot. In a p′-q space for failure analysis, we observed that a higher effective stress coefficient reduces the elastic region...... and vice versa. However, as the effective stress working on the rock decreases with increased effective stress coefficient, the reduction of elastic region will have less effect on pore collapse strength if we consider the change in the effective stress coefficient. This finding will help estimate a more......The Effective stress coefficient is a measure of how chalk grains are connected with each other. The stiffness of chalk may decrease if the amount of contact cements between the grains decreases, which may lead to an increase of the effective stress coefficient. We performed CO2 injection in chalk...

  16. Chemical and Mechanical processes during burial diagenesis of chalk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borre, Mai Kirstine; Lind, Ida

    1998-01-01

    or larger influence on the textural development. In the chalk interval below, compaction is not the only porosity reducing agent but it has a larger influence on texture than concurrent recrystallization. Below 850 m grain-bridging cementation becomes important resulting in a lithified limestone below 1100......Burial diagenesis of chalk is a combination of mechanical compaction and chemical recrystallization as well as cementation. We have predicted the characteristic trends in specific surface resulting from these processes. The specific surface is normally measured by nitrogen adsorption but is here...... in the Pacific, where a > 1 km thick package of chalk facies sediments accumulated from the Cretaceous to the present. In the upper 200-300 m the sediment is unconsolidated carbonate ooze, throughout this depth interval compaction is the principal porosity reducing agent, but recrystallization has an equal...

  17. Transient groundwater chemistry near a river: Effects on U(VI) transport in laboratory column experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jun; Haggerty, Roy; Stoliker, Deborah L.; Kent, Douglas B.; Istok, Jonathan D.; Greskowiak, Janek; Zachara, John M.

    2011-01-01

    In the 300 Area of a U(VI)-contaminated aquifer at Hanford, Washington, USA, inorganic carbon and major cations, which have large impacts on U(VI) transport, change on an hourly and seasonal basis near the Columbia River. Batch and column experiments were conducted to investigate the factors controlling U(VI) adsorption/desorption by changing chemical conditions over time. Low alkalinity and low Ca concentrations (Columbia River water) enhanced adsorption and reduced aqueous concentrations. Conversely, high alkalinity and high Ca concentrations (Hanford groundwater) reduced adsorption and increased aqueous concentrations of U(VI). An equilibrium surface complexation model calibrated using laboratory batch experiments accounted for the decrease in U(VI) adsorption observed with increasing (bi)carbonate concentrations and other aqueous chemical conditions. In the column experiment, alternating pulses of river and groundwater caused swings in aqueous U(VI) concentration. A multispecies multirate surface complexation reactive transport model simulated most of the major U(VI) changes in two column experiments. The modeling results also indicated that U(VI) transport in the studied sediment could be simulated by using a single kinetic rate without loss of accuracy in the simulations. Moreover, the capability of the model to predict U(VI) transport in Hanford groundwater under transient chemical conditions depends significantly on the knowledge of real-time change of local groundwater chemistry.

  18. Analysis of the spatiotemporal planform dynamics of braided rivers: a novel laboratory investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redolfi, Marco; Bertoldi, Walter; Tubino, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Braided rivers are highly dynamic, labile environments which experience significant morphological changes even during moderate flow events. Recent remote sensing techniques enable to monitor the river morphology with great detail. However, capturing the rapid morphological changes of a large river with sufficient temporal and spatial resolution is still very challenging. As a consequence, quantitative analysis of the braided channel dynamics is often limited to local processes (e.g. a single bifurcation or confluence) and short time periods (e.g. a single flood). This work aims at providing quantitative, statistical description of the channel network dynamics in a braided network at larger spatial and temporal scales, namely the reach scale and the multiple flood scale. This can be achieved using a new technique based on time lapse imagery that we recently developed at the University of Trento. This technique provides high frequency, two dimensional maps of the bed load transport in a large laboratory model, thus allowing to capture the spatiotemporal variability of the transport processes with unprecedented detail. We performed a set of laboratory experiments in a 23 m long, 3 m wide flume, sand bed load flume, where self-formed braided networks can be reproduced. We run several experiments with different discharges and channel widths, lasting for a long time (from 20 to 65 hours) to enable a robust statistical description of the equilibrium morphodynamics. High-resolution pictures were taken at 1 min interval from two SLR cameras, then rectified and merged in order to cover a 7 m long reach. We processed a large number of images to obtain maps of bed load transport, and we developed an algorithm to automatically identifies active (i.e. transporting) channels, bifurcations and confluences. The statistical analysis we performed includes two dimensional correlations, spatial and temporal scales, channel migration rate, avulsion frequency, bank erosion rate. This

  19. Dual FIB-SEM 3D Imaging and Lattice Boltzmann Modeling of Porosimetry and Multiphase Flow in Chalk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinehart, A. J.; Yoon, H.; Dewers, T. A.; Heath, J. E.; Petrusak, R.

    2010-12-01

    Mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) is an often-applied technique for determining pore throat distributions and seal analysis of fine-grained rocks. Due to closure effects, potential pore collapse, and complex pore network topologies, MIP data interpretation can be ambiguous, and often biased toward smaller pores in the distribution. We apply 3D imaging techniques and lattice-Boltzmann modeling in interpreting MIP data for samples of the Cretaceous Selma Group Chalk. In the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, the Selma Chalk is the apparent seal for oil and gas fields in the underlying Eutaw Fm., and, where unfractured, the Selma Chalk is one of the regional-scale seals identified by the Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership for CO2 injection sites. Dual focused ion - scanning electron beam and laser scanning confocal microscopy methods are used for 3D imaging of nanometer-to-micron scale microcrack and pore distributions in the Selma Chalk. A combination of image analysis software is used to obtain geometric pore body and throat distributions and other topological properties, which are compared to MIP results. 3D data sets of pore-microfracture networks are used in Lattice Boltzmann simulations of drainage (wetting fluid displaced by non-wetting fluid via the Shan-Chen algorithm), which in turn are used to model MIP procedures. Results are used in interpreting MIP results, understanding microfracture-matrix interaction during multiphase flow, and seal analysis for underground CO2 storage. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences as part of an Energy Frontier Research Center. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Company, for the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  20. RADBALL TECHNOLOGY TESTING IN THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE HEALTH PHYSICS INSTRUMENT CALIBRATION LABORATORY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.

    2010-07-08

    The United Kingdom's National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL) has developed a radiation-mapping device that can locate and quantify radioactive hazards within contaminated areas of the nuclear industry. The device, known as RadBall{trademark}, consists of a colander-like outer collimator that houses a radiation-sensitive polymer sphere. The collimator has over two hundred small holes; thus, specific areas of the polymer sphere are exposed to radiation becoming increasingly more opaque in proportion to the absorbed dose. The polymer sphere is imaged in an optical-CT scanner that produces a high resolution 3D map of optical attenuation coefficients. Subsequent analysis of the optical attenuation data provides information on the spatial distribution of sources in a given area forming a 3D characterization of the area of interest. The RadBallTM technology has been deployed in a number of technology trials in nuclear waste reprocessing plants at Sellafield in the United Kingdom and facilities of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). This paper summarizes the tests completed at SRNL Health Physics Instrument Calibration Laboratory (HPICL).

  1. Small karstic Dobra River (Croatia) suggested as natural laboratory for impactite research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frančišković-Bilinski, Stanislav; Bilinski, Halka; Sikder, Arif M.

    2016-04-01

    An unexpected anomaly of magnetic susceptibility (MS) was observed in stream sediments of the upper course of the karstic Dobra River (Croatia). Preliminary results pointed to a possible impactite, formed by a shock event caused by a meteorite impact or by volcanic processes [1]. In addition to geophysical experiments, petrological and geochemical studies are reported [2, 3]. The multidisciplinary work for identification and confirmation of impact structure is still in progress. Results will be presented and the difficulties due to weathering and transport processes will be discussed and compared with recent literature [4, 5]. In reported results numerous evidences exist, which are in support of impact origin, such as vesicular glass with quench texture, ballen textures in the lechatelierite, presence of Troilite, etc. We suggest that the Dobra River from its source to the abyss in Ogulin (Upper Dobra) is a possible natural laboratory for studying processes of mixing between impactite material and fluvial sediments within a small area, including spherules exposed to water and in the overbank sediments. Especially the introduction of isotope studies in this research and enlargement of multinational team of experts are suggested. Literature: [1] Franči\\vsković-Bilinski, S., Bilinski, H., Scholger, R., Tomašić, N., Maldini, K. (2014): Magnetic spherules in sediments of the sinking karstic Dobra River (Croatia). Journal of soils and sediments 14(3), 600-614. [2] Franči\\vsković-Bilinski, S., Sikder, A.M., Bilinski, H., Castano, C.E., Garman, G.C. (2015): Traces of meteorite impact in the sediments of karstic Dobra River (Croatia). 15th International multidisciplinary scientific geoconference SGEM 2015 Conference proceedings, Vol. 1, 507-514. [3] Sikder, A.M., Franči\\vsković-Bilinski, S., Bilinski, H., Castano, C.E., Clifford, D.M., Turner, J.B., Garman, G.C. (2015): Petrographic analysis of the magnetic spherules from the sediments of karastic Dobra River

  2. Nano sized clay detected on chalk particle surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbjerg, Lone; Hassenkam, Tue; Makovicky, Emil

    2012-01-01

    that in calcite saturated water, both the polar and the nonpolar functional groups adhere to the nano sized clay particles but not to calcite. This is fundamentally important information for the development of conceptual and chemical models to explain wettability alterations in chalk reservoirs...

  3. Quantitative 1D saturation profiles on chalk by NMR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Dan; Topp, Simon; Stensgaard, Anders;

    1996-01-01

    Quantitative one-dimensional saturation profiles showing the distribution of water and oil in chalk core samples are calculated from NMR measurements utilizing a 1D CSI spectroscopy pulse sequence. Saturation profiles may be acquired under conditions of fluid flow through the sample. Results reveal...

  4. Chalk-microfluidic: flooding microsystems with reactive fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuville, Amélie; Dysthe, Dag Kristian; Li, Lei; Hiorth, Aksel

    2014-05-01

    Experiments on core scale and field tests that have been carried out the last decade have clearly shown that water chemistry affects the final oil recovery. However, there is generally no consensus in the scientific community of why additional oil is released. Part of the reason for this is that there are very few in-situ observations of how the water chemistry affects fluid distributions on the pore scale, and/or the pore surface characteristics. In this work, as a first step, our aim is to focus on in-situ observations of single phase flow and interactions at the pore scale. In order to work at this small scale, we first investigate how to control the flow location. We propose to use the same principle as "paper-microfluidic": some areas of the chalk are chemically treated so that no fluid flows inside while other areas let the fluids flow in the chalk pores. Since chalk and paper obviously has different mechanical behavior, we need to adapt this technique. Custom-made microsystems with chalk and calcite will be presented. We will then show experiments with reacting fluids in these microsystems. These experiments are observed using wide field fluorescence microscopy and white light vertical/phase shift interferometric microscopy.

  5. Laboratory Investigation of Rivers State Clay Samples for Drilling Mud Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nmegbu, Chukwuma Godwin Jacob

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Drilling fluids are an integral part of any oil and gas industry, providing the ease to which wells are drilled to access subsurface reservoir fluids. Certain rheology and mineralogical properties of the clay material used for drilling mud preparation must be critically investigated since clay deposits in different location exhibits different characteristics. Clay samples were collected from three different geographical locations namely; Egbamini (Emolga, Afam Street (Port Harcourt and Oboboru (onelga local government areas in Rivers state. Their rheological and wall building properties were measured in the laboratory to determine their suitability for drilling mud formulation. Results showed that in their respective native states, they proved unsuitable for drilling mud preparation when compared to standard Bentonite because they were observed to show responses far below the required API standards for mud formulation.

  6. Groundwater quality assessment/corrective action feasibility plan. Savannah River Laboratory Seepage Basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stejskal, G.F.

    1989-11-15

    The Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) Seepage Basins are located in the northeastern section of the 700 Area at the Savannah River Site. Currently the four basins are out of service and are awaiting closure in accordance with the Consent Decree settled under Civil Act No. 1:85-2583. Groundwater monitoring data from the detection monitoring network around the SRL Basins was recently analyzed using South Carolina Hazardous Waste Management Regulations R.61-79.264.92 methods to determine if groundwater in the immediate vicinity of the SRL Basins had been impacted. Results from the data analysis indicate that the groundwater has been impacted by both volatile organic constituents (VOCs) and inorganic constituents. The VOCs, specifically trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene, are currently being addressed under the auspices of the SRS Hazardous Waste Permit Application (Volume III, Section J.6.3). The impacts resulting from elevated levels of inorganic constituent, such as barium, calcium, and zinc in the water table, do not pose a threat to human health and the environment. In order to determine if vertical migration of the inorganic constituents has occurred three detection monitoring wells are proposed for installation in the upper portion of the Congaree Aquifer.

  7. Intensive archaeological survey of the proposed Savannah River Ecology Laboratory Conference Center and Educational Facility, Savannah River Site, Aiken County, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephenson, K.; Crass, D.C.; Sassaman, K.E.

    1993-02-01

    Documented in this report are the methods and results of an intensive archaeological survey for the proposed University of Georgia Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) Conference Center and Educational Facility on the DOE Savannah River Site (SRS). Archaeological investigations conducted by the Savannah River Archaeological Research Program (SRARP) on the 70-acre project area and associated rights-of-way consisted of subsurface testing at two previously recorded sites and the discovery of one previously unrecorded site. The results show that 2 sites contain archaeological remains that may yield significant information about human occupations in the Aiken Plateau and are therefore considered eligible for nomination to the National Register of Historic Places. Adverse impacts to these sites can be mitigated through avoidance.

  8. Change in Biot's effective stress coefficient of chalk during pore collapse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alam, M. Monzurul; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2013-01-01

    the grains could also change during elastic deformation of the grains in a rock mechanics test. Diagenetic change in grain contact cement of chalk can be compared with stress-induced change in the laboratory. The change in porosity is studied with reference to the change in effective stress on grain contacts......Biot's effective stress coefficient (α) is a measure of how well grains in the rocks are connected with each other. The amount of contact cements between the grains determines the stiffness of rocks. Change in grain contact occurs during natural diagenesis of sedimentary rock. Contact between...... and porosity reduces at a slower rate. We noticed that presence of non carbonates and hydrocarbon could increase σ'm. During rock mechanics test in the lab, with increased applied stress, σ'm increases, Biot's effective stress coefficient shows a decreasing trend, while a minor porosity reduction was observed...

  9. Chalk porosity and sonic velocity versus burial depth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke; Gommesen, Lars; Krogsbøll, Anette Susanne;

    2008-01-01

    Seventy chalk samples from four formations in the overpressured Danish central North Sea have been analyzed to investigate how correlations of porosity and sonic velocity with burial depth are affected by varying mineralogy, fluid pressure, and early introduction of petroleum. The results show...... for fluid pressure because the cementing ions originate from stylolites, which are mechanically similar to fractures. We find that cementation occurs over a relatively short depth interval....

  10. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, Annual Technical Progress Report of Ecological Research, June 30, 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul M. Bertsch, (Director)

    2002-06-30

    The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) is a research unit of The University of Georgia (UGA) and has been conducting ecological research on the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina for 50 years. The overall mission of the Laboratory is to acquire and communicate knowledge of ecological processes and principles. SREL conducts fundamental and applied ecological research, as well as education and outreach programs, under a Cooperative Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The Laboratory's research mission during the 2002 fiscal year was fulfilled with the publication of 76 journal articles and book chapters by faculty, technical staff, students, and visiting scientists. An additional 50 journal articles have been submitted or are in press. Other noteworthy events took place as faculty members, staff, and graduate students received awards. These are described in the section titled Special Accomplishments of Faculty, Staff, Students, and Administration on page 51. Notable scientific accomplishments include work conducted on contaminant transport, stable isotopes, sandhills ecology, and phytoremediation: (1) A collaborative study between Dr. Tom Hinton at SREL and scientists at SRTC demonstrated the feasibility of using illite clay to sequester 137Cs in sediments along the P and R reactor cooling canal system, where approximately 3,000 acres of land are contaminated. Overall, the study showed significant decreases in cesium concentrations and bioavailability following the addition of illite with no sign of harm to the ecosystem. While the cesium remains sequestered from the biosphere, its radioactivity decays and the process progresses from contaminant immobilization to remediation. (2) SREL's stable isotope laboratory is now fully functional. Stable isotope distributions in nature can provide important insights into many historical and current environmental processes. Dr. Christopher Romanek is leading SREL's research

  11. Horizontal spacing, depletion, and infill potential in the Austin chalk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyte, D.G.; Meehan, D.N.

    1996-12-31

    Estimated ultimate recoveries on a barrels per acre basis for Austin chalk wells were discussed. The study showed that the maximum six months consecutive production through the life of the well can be used to estimate ultimate recovery in horizontally drilled reservoirs. A statistical approach was used to help identify where the Austin chalk has been overdrilled and areas where infill potential exists. The barrels per acre data were analyzed by a method known as `moving domain`. This procedure involves stepping through the reservoir well by well and looking at it with respect to its nearest neighbors. To analyze for depletion, barrels per acre is compared to date of first production for groups of wells in an area, looking for declining values with time. Areas showing no evidence of depletion and having good recoveries are further studied for infill potential. By comparing effective densities in areas which are not yet being fully drained, an optimum spacing between wells can be determined for horizontal wells in a fractured chalk reservoir. An artificial neural network can also be used to provide qualitative predictions of well performance in developed reservoirs. 6 refs., 15 figs.

  12. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory Annual Technical Progress Report of Ecological Research, June 30, 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertsch, Paul M.; Janecek, Laura; Rosier, Brenda

    2001-06-30

    The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) is a research unit of the University of Georgia (UGA) and has been conducting ecological research on the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina for 50 years. The overall mission of the Laboratory is to acquire and communicate knowledge of ecological processes and principles. SREL conducts fundamental and applied ecological research, as well as education and outreach programs, under a Cooperative Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) SRS near Aiken, South Carolina. The Laboratory's research mission during the 2001 fiscal year was fulfilled with the publication of one book and 83 journal articles and book chapters by faculty, technical staff, students, and visiting scientists. An additional 77 journal articles have been submitted or are in press. Other noteworthy events took place as faculty members and graduate students received awards. These are described in the section Special Accomplishments of Faculty, Staff, Students, and Administration on page 54. Notable scientific accomplishments include work conducted on contaminant transport, global reptile decline, phytoremediation, and radioecology. Dr. Domy Adriano authored the second edition of his book ''Trace Elements in Terrestrial Environments: Biogeochemistry, Bioavailability, and Risks of Metals'', which was recently published by Springer-Verlag. The book provides a comprehensive treatment of many important aspects of trace elements in the environment. The first edition of the book, published in 1986, has become a widely acclaimed and cited reference. International attention was focused on the problem of reptile species decline with the publication of an article on this topic in the journal ''Bioscience'' in August, 2000. The article's authors included Dr. Whit Gibbons and a number of other SREL herpetologists who researched the growing worldwide problem of decline of reptile species. Factors related

  13. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory annual technical progress report of ecological research for the year ending July 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.H.

    1995-07-01

    The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) is a research unit of the University of Georgia (UGA). The overall mission of the Laboratory is to acquire and communicate knowledge of ecological processes and principles. SREL conducts basic and applied ecological research, as well as education and outreach programs, under a contract with the US Department of Energy (DOE) at the Savannah River Site near Aiken, South Carolina. Significant accomplishments were made during the past year in the areas of research, education and service. Major additions to SREL Facilities were completed that will enhance the Laboratory`s work in the future. Following several years of planning, opening ceremonies were held for the 5000 ft{sup 2} multi-purpose conference center that was funded by the University of Georgia Research Foundation (UGARF). The center is located on 68 acres of land that was provided by the US Department of Energy. This joint effort between DOE and UGARF supports DOE`s new initiative to develop partnerships with the private sector and universities. The facility is being used for scientific meetings and environmental education programs for students, teachers and the general public. A 6000 ft{sup 2} office and library addition to S@s main building officially opened this year, and construction plans are underway on a new animal care facility, laboratory addition, and receiving building.

  14. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, annual technical progress report of ecological research for the year ending June 30, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wein, G.; Rosier, B.

    1998-12-31

    This report provides an overview of the research programs and program components carried out by the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory. Research focused on the following: advanced analytical and spectroscopic techniques for developing novel waste isolation and stabilization technologies as well as cost-effective remediation strategies; ecologically sound management of damaged and remediation of ecological systems; ecotoxicology, remediation, and risk assessment; radioecology, including dose assessments for plants and animals exposed to environmental radiation; and other research support programs.

  15. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, annual technical progress report of ecological research for the year ending June 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wein, G.; Rosier, B.

    1997-12-31

    This report provides an overview of the research programs and program components carried out by the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory. Research focused on the following: advanced analytical and spectroscopic techniques for developing novel waste isolation and stabilization technologies as well as cost-effective remediation strategies; ecologically sound management of damaged and remediation of ecological systems; ecotoxicology, remediation, and risk assessment; radioecology, including dose assessments for plants and animals exposed to environmental radiation; and other research support programs.

  16. A laboratory based experimental study of mercury emission from contaminated soils in the River Idrijca catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kocman

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Results obtained by a laboratory flux measurement system (LFMS focused on investigating the kinetics of the mercury emission flux (MEF from contaminated soils of the Idrija Hg-mine region, Slovenia are presented. Representative soil samples with respect to total Hg concentrations (4–417 μg g−1 and land cover (forest, meadow and alluvial soil alongside the River Idrijca were analysed to determine the variation in MEF versus distance from the source, regulating three major environmental parameters comprising soil temperature, soil moisture and solar radiation. MEFs ranged from less than 2 to 530 ng m−2 h−1, with the highest emissions from contaminated alluvial soils and soils near the mining district in the town of Idrija. A significant decrease of MEF was then observed with increasing distance from these sites. The results revealed a strong positive effect of all three parameters investigated on momentum MEF. The light-induced flux was shown to be independent of the soil temperature, while the soil aqueous phase seems to be responsible for recharging the pool of mercury in the soil available for both the light- and thermally-induced flux. The overall flux response to simulated environmental conditions depends greatly on the form of Hg in the soil. Higher activation energies are required for the overall process to occur in soils where insoluble cinnabar prevails compared to soils where more mobile Hg forms and forms available for transformation processes are dominant.

  17. Waveform analysis of crosshole GPR data collected in heterogeneous chalk deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keskinen, Johanna; Nielsen, Lars; Zibar, Majken Caroline Looms;

    2014-01-01

    properties, e.g. subtle changes in porosity. We have conducted a range of high-resolution GPR crosshole experiments in Boesdal quarry in Eastern Denmark. The objective is to investigate the impact of fine-scale heterogeneity on reservoir properties in chalk. The studied chalk interval is c.15 m thick. It can...

  18. Full-waveform Inversion of Crosshole GPR Data Collected in Strongly Heterogeneous Chalk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keskinen, Johanna; Zibar, Majken Caroline Looms; Nielsen, Lars;

    2015-01-01

    in an old chalk quarry in Eastern Denmark. Based on core data (including plug samples and televiewer logging data) collected in our four ~15-m-deep boreholes and results from previous related studies, it is apparent that the studied chalk is strongly heterogeneous. The upper ~7 m consist of variable coarse...

  19. Origin of channel systems in the Upper Cretaceous chalk group of the Paris Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esmerode, E. V.; Surlyk, Finn

    2009-01-01

    of the Cenozoic succession over the channel-like features as a result of intra-chalk dissolution. Both reflections correlate with indurated chalk layers and hardgrounds, and represent real unconformities. The Mid-Campanian reflection is furthermore associated with a stratigraphic hiatus. A submarine origin...

  20. From ooze to sedimentary rock, the first diagenetic processes affecting the chalk of eastern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreau, Julien; Boussaha, Myriam; Nielsen, Lars

    The Stevns peninsula, situated in the eastern Danish Basin at the fringe of the Baltic Sea, is an ideal target for studying the early stages of diagenesis that affected the Upper Cretaceous chalk during its burial to 500-1400m depth. For the present study onshore and offshore high-resolution seis...... in chalk sedimentary rocks....

  1. Dynamic and static elastic moduli of North Sea and deep sea chalk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gommesen, Lars; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2001-01-01

    We have established an empirical relationship between the dynamic and the static mechanical properties of North Sea and deep sea chalk for a large porosity interval with respect to porosity, effective stress history and textural composition. The chalk investigated is from the Tor and Hod Formations...

  2. Probing the intrinsically oil-wet surfaces of pores in North Sea chalk at subpore resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassenkam, Tue; Skovbjerg, Lone Lindbæk; Stipp, Susan Louise Svane

    2009-01-01

    Ultimate Oil recovery from chalk reservoirs is limited by many factors - including the grain size and the surface properties of the small mainly biogenic calcite particles that chalk is made off . Wettability, the tendency for water or oil to spread over a surface, of the particle surfaces is one...

  3. Laboratory analysis of diet of Pacific harbor seals at Umpqua River, Oregon and Columbia River, Oregon/Washington conducted from 1994-06-23 to 2005-09-03 (NCEI Accession 0139413)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — From 1994 to 2005, The National Marine Mammal Laboratories' California Current Ecosystem Program (AFSC/NOAA) collected fecal samples at the Umpqua River, Oregon and...

  4. Height and wavelength of alternate bars in rivers: Modelling vs. laboratory experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knaapen, M.A.F.; Hulscher, S.J.M.H.; Vriend, de H.J.; Harten, van A.

    2001-01-01

    Alternate bars are large wave patterns in sandy beds of rivers and channels. The crests and troughs alternate between the banks of the channel. These bars, which move downstream several meters per day, reduce the navigability of the river. Recent modelling of alternate bars has focused on stability

  5. Groundwater recharge dynamics in unsaturated fractured chalk: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherubini, Claudia; Pastore, Nicola; Giasi, Concetta I.; Allegretti, Nicolaetta M.

    2016-04-01

    The heterogeneity of the unsaturated zone controls its hydraulic response to rainfall and the extent to which pollutants are delayed or attenuated before reaching groundwater. It plays therefore a very important role in the recharge of aquifers and the transfer of pollutants because of the presence of temporary storage zones and preferential flows. A better knowledge of the physical processes in the unsaturated zone would allow an improved assessment of the natural recharge in a heterogeneous aquifer and of its vulnerability to surface-applied pollution. The case study regards the role of the thick unsaturated zone of the Cretaceous chalk aquifer in Picardy (North of France) that controls the hydraulic response to rainfall. In the North Paris Basin, much of the recharge must pass through a regional chalk bed that is composed of a porous matrix with embedded fractures. Different types of conceptual models have been formulated to explain infiltration and recharge processes in the unsaturated fractured rock. The present study analyses the episodic recharge in fractured Chalk aquifer using the kinematic diffusion theory to predict water table fluctuation in response to rainfall. From an analysis of the data, there is the evidence of 1) a seasonal behavior characterized by a constant increase in the water level during the winter/spring period and a recession period, 2) a series of episodic behaviors during the summer/autumn. Kinematic diffusion models are useful for predict preferential fluxes and dynamic conditions. The presented approach conceptualizes the unsaturated flow as a combination of 1) diffusive flow refers to the idealized portion of the pore space of the medium within the flow rate is driven essentially by local gradient of potential; 2) preferential flow by which water moves across macroscopic distances through conduits of macropore length.

  6. Fault zone processes in mechanically layered mudrock and chalk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrill, David A.; Evans, Mark A.; McGinnis, Ronald N.; Morris, Alan P.; Smart, Kevin J.; Wigginton, Sarah S.; Gulliver, Kirk D. H.; Lehrmann, Daniel; de Zoeten, Erich; Sickmann, Zach

    2017-04-01

    A 1.5 km long natural cliff outcrop of nearly horizontal Eagle Ford Formation in south Texas exposes northwest and southeast dipping normal faults with displacements of 0.01-7 m cutting mudrock, chalk, limestone, and volcanic ash. These faults provide analogs for both natural and hydraulically-induced deformation in the productive Eagle Ford Formation - a major unconventional oil and gas reservoir in south Texas, U.S.A. - and other mechanically layered hydrocarbon reservoirs. Fault dips are steep to vertical through chalk and limestone beds, and moderate through mudrock and clay-rich ash, resulting in refracted fault profiles. Steeply dipping fault segments contain rhombohedral calcite veins that cross the fault zone obliquely, parallel to shear segments in mudrock. The vertical dimensions of the calcite veins correspond to the thickness of offset competent beds with which they are contiguous, and the slip parallel dimension is proportional to fault displacement. Failure surface characteristics, including mixed tensile and shear segments, indicate hybrid failure in chalk and limestone, whereas shear failure predominates in mudrock and ash beds - these changes in failure mode contribute to variation in fault dip. Slip on the shear segments caused dilation of the steeper hybrid segments. Tabular sheets of calcite grew by repeated fault slip, dilation, and cementation. Fluid inclusion and stable isotope geochemistry analyses of fault zone cements indicate episodic reactivation at 1.4-4.2 km depths. The results of these analyses document a dramatic bed-scale lithologic control on fault zone architecture that is directly relevant to the development of porosity and permeability anisotropy along faults.

  7. Grain size distributions of chalk from image analysis of electron micrographs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røgen, Birte; Gommesen, Lars; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2001-01-01

    In the chalk of the Ekofisk formation in the Chalk Group of the North Sea, substantial depth-related variations in porosityare observed. With the aim of obtaining a textural interpretation of these porositydata, we have developed a method to assess the grain size distribution of the chalk from...... image analysis. The chalk is composed of a fine-grained matrix of nannofossils and predominantlycalcitic fossil debris with larger microfossil grains, but the chalk may also contain significant amounts of silica and siliciclastic clay. For image analysis, we used backscatter electron images of epoxy......-impregnated, polished samples from the Ekofisk Formation, Tyra field, Danish North Sea. On backscatter images the calcite phase will appear light as opposed to the dark pore space. The procedure involves the combination of data acquired at two magnifications and bythis method analysis of only four images per sample...

  8. Improved Oil Recovery in Chalk. Spontaneous Imbibition affected by Wettability, Rock Framework and Interfacial Tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milter, J.

    1996-12-31

    The author of this doctoral thesis aims to improve the oil recovery from fractured chalk reservoirs, i.e., maximize the area of swept zones and their displacement efficiencies. In order to identify an improved oil recovery method in chalk, it is necessary to study wettability of calcium carbonate and spontaneous imbibition potential. The thesis contains an investigation of thin films and wettability of single calcite surfaces. The results of thin film experiments are used to evaluate spontaneous imbibition experiments in different chalk types. The chalk types were described detailed enough to permit considering the influence of texture, pore size and pore throat size distributions, pore geometry, and surface roughness on wettability and spontaneous imbibition. Finally, impacts of interfacial tension by adding anionic and cationic surfactants to the imbibing water phase are studied at different wettabilities of a well known chalk material. 232 refs., 97 figs., 13 tabs.

  9. The Effect of Bacteria Penetration on Chalk Permeability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halim, Amalia Yunita; Shapiro, Alexander; Nielsen, Sidsel Marie;

    , the spore forming Bacillus licheniformis 421 and the non-spore forming Pseudomonas putida K12, were used. The core plugs were Stevns Klint outcrop with initial permeability at 2-4 mD. The results revealed that bacteria were able to penetrate and to be transported through the chalk. Furthermore, a higher...... number of B. licheniformis was detected on the effluent compared with P. putida. However, in the experiment with B. licheniformis mainly spores were detected in the effluent. The core permeability decreased rapidly during injection of bacteria and a starvation period of 12 days did not allow...... the permeability to return to initial condition....

  10. Dynamic up-scaling of relative permeability in chalk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frykman, P.; Lindgaard, H.F.

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes how fine-scale geo-statistic reservoir models can be utilised for the up-scaling of two-phase flow properties, including both relative permeability and capillary pressure function. The procedure is applied to a North Sea chalk carbonate reservoir example, which is a high-porosity/low-permeability reservoir type. The study focuses on waterflooding as the main recovery scheme and for the given flow regime in the reservoir. The main purpose of the paper is to demonstrate the use of dynamic multi-step up-scaling methods in the preparation of detailed geological information for full field reservoir simulation studies. (au) EFP-96. 39 refs.

  11. Specific surface as a measure of burial diagenesis of chalk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borre, Mai Kirstine; Lind, Ida; Mortensen, Jeanette

    1997-01-01

    ODP Leg 130, Site 807, in the western equatorial Pacific, penetrates a sequence of pelagic carbonate ooze, chalk and limestone. Compaction, recrystallisation and cementation of the carbonate matrix are diagenetic processes expected to be taking place more or less simultaneously. In order to assess...... the relative importance of the three processes, simple models have been established to illustrate changes in pore space, particle size and -shape and the resulting trends in the specific surface. Specific surface and porosity of the samples were measured using image analysis on electron micrographs of polished...

  12. Laboratory-Measured and Property-Transfer Modeled Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity of Snake River Plain Aquifer Sediments at the Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Kim S.

    2008-01-01

    Sediments are believed to comprise as much as 50 percent of the Snake River Plain aquifer thickness in some locations within the Idaho National Laboratory. However, the hydraulic properties of these deep sediments have not been well characterized and they are not represented explicitly in the current conceptual model of subregional scale ground-water flow. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the nature of the sedimentary material within the aquifer and to test the applicability of a site-specific property-transfer model developed for the sedimentary interbeds of the unsaturated zone. Saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) was measured for 10 core samples from sedimentary interbeds within the Snake River Plain aquifer and also estimated using the property-transfer model. The property-transfer model for predicting Ksat was previously developed using a multiple linear-regression technique with bulk physical-property measurements (bulk density [pbulk], the median particle diameter, and the uniformity coefficient) as the explanatory variables. The model systematically underestimates Ksat,typically by about a factor of 10, which likely is due to higher bulk-density values for the aquifer samples compared to the samples from the unsaturated zone upon which the model was developed. Linear relations between the logarithm of Ksat and pbulk also were explored for comparison.

  13. Energy Materials Research Laboratory (EMRL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Energy Materials Research Laboratory at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) creates a cross-disciplinary laboratory facility that lends itself to the...

  14. Laboratory And Lysimeter Experimentation And Transport Modeling Of Neptunium And Strontium In Savannah River Site Sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, Daniel I.; Powell, B. A.; Miller, Todd J.

    2012-09-24

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) conducts performance assessment (PA) calculations to determine the appropriate amount of low-level radiological waste that can be safely disposed on site. Parameters are included in these calculations that account for the interaction between the immobile solid phase and the mobile aqueous phase. These parameters are either the distribution coefficient (K{sub d} value) or the apparent solubility value (K{sub sp}). These parameters are readily found in the literature and are used throughout the DOE complex. One shortcoming of K{sub d} values is that they are only applicable to a given set of solid and aqueous phase conditions. Therefore, a given radionuclide may have several K{sub d} values as it moves between formations and comes into contact with different solids and different aqueous phases. It is expected that the K{sub d} construct will be appropriate to use for a majority of the PA and for a majority of the radionuclides. However, semi-mechanistic models would be more representative in isolated cases where the chemistry is especially transitory or the radionuclide chemistry is especially complex, bringing to bear multiple species of varying sorption tendencies to the sediment. Semi-mechanistic models explicitly accommodate the dependency of K{sub d} values, or other sorption parameters, on contaminant concentration, competing ion concentrations, pH-dependent surface charge on the adsorbent, and solute species distribution. Incorporating semi-mechanistic concepts into geochemical models is desirable to make the models more robust and technically defensible. Furthermore, these alternative models could be used to augment or validate a Kd?based DOE Order 435.1 Performance Assessment. The objectives of this study were to: 1) develop a quantitative thermodynamically-based model for neptunium sorption to SRS sediments, and 2) determine a sorption constant from an SRS 11-year lysimeter study. The modeling studies were conducted with

  15. Transformation of organic micropollutants during river bank filtration: Laboratory versus field data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertelkamp, C.; Reungoat, J.; Botton, S.; Cornelissen, E.; Ghadiri, E.; De Jonge, M.; Singhal, N.; Van der Hoek, J.P.; Verliefde, A.R.D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the degradation behavior of 14 organic micropoliutants (OMPs), selected for their different physico-chemical properties (e.g., molecular weight, hydrophobicity and charge). In soil columns simulating the conditions prevailing in the first meter of river bank filtration (RBF)

  16. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory annual technical progress report of ecological research, period ending July 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaitkus, M.R.; Wein, G.R. [eds.; Johnson, G.

    1993-11-01

    This progress report gives an overview of research programs at the Savannah River Site. Topics include; environmental operations support, wood stork foraging and breeding, defense waste processing, environmental stresses, alterations in the environment due to pollutants, wetland ecology, biodiversity, pond drawdown studies, and environmental toxicology.

  17. A parameter identifiability study of two chalk tracer tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Mathias

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available As with most fractured rock formations, Chalk is highly heterogeneous. Therefore, meaningful estimates of model parameters must be obtained at a scale comparable with the process of concern. These are frequently obtained by calibrating an appropriate model to observed concentration-time data from radially convergent tracer tests (RCTT. Arguably, an appropriate model should consider radially convergent dispersion (RCD and Fickian matrix diffusion. Such a model requires the estimation of at least four parameters. A question arises as to whether or not this level of model complexity is supported by the information contained within the calibration data. Generally modellers have not answered this question due to the calibration techniques employed. A dual-porosity model with RCD was calibrated to two tracer test datasets from different UK Chalk aquifers. A multivariate sensitivity analysis, which assumed only a priori upper and lower bounds for each model parameter, was undertaken. Rather than looking at measures of uncertainty, the shape of the multivariate objective function surface was used to determine whether a parameter was identifiable. Non-identifiable parameters were then removed and the procedure was repeated until all remaining parameters were identifiable.

    It was found that the single fracture model (SFM (which ignores mechanical dispersion obtained the best mass recovery, excellent model performance and best parameter identifiability in both the tests studied. However, there was no objective evidence suggesting that mechanical dispersion was negligible. Moreover, the SFM (with just two parameters was found to be good at approximating the Single Fracture Dispersion Model SFDM (with three parameters when different, and potentially erroneous parameters, were used. Overall, this study emphasises the importance of adequate temporal sampling of breakthrough curve data prior to peak concentrations, to ensure adequate characterisation of

  18. Overview of the Chalk Point Cooling Tower Project, 1972-1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, M.L. (ed.)

    1979-03-01

    The objectives, methodologies, data, and analytical results of the Chalk Point Cooling Tower Program are reviewed. The overview intergrates the concepts and activities of the various program elements to provide a coherent view of the program in its entirety. Samples of the various data acquired are included together with very brief summaries of the conclusions. The report is extensively referenced to provide specific directions to the more extensive treatments of the program, data tabulations, and tape libraries available in the complete library of Chalk Point reports. The Chalk Point data is a resource for the study of cooling tower salt deposition processes and impacts in general. The methods used, while developed to facilitate the assessment of salt drift impact at Chalk Point, also have applicability to cooling tower impact analysis at other sites.

  19. Towards a simple representation of chalk hydrology in land surface modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mostaquimur; Rosolem, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    Modelling and monitoring of hydrological processes in the unsaturated zone of chalk, a porous medium with fractures, is important to optimize water resource assessment and management practices in the United Kingdom (UK). However, incorporating the processes governing water movement through a chalk unsaturated zone in a numerical model is complicated mainly due to the fractured nature of chalk that creates high-velocity preferential flow paths in the subsurface. In general, flow through a chalk unsaturated zone is simulated using the dual-porosity concept, which often involves calibration of a relatively large number of model parameters, potentially undermining applications to large regions. In this study, a simplified parameterization, namely the Bulk Conductivity (BC) model, is proposed for simulating hydrology in a chalk unsaturated zone. This new parameterization introduces only two additional parameters (namely the macroporosity factor and the soil wetness threshold parameter for fracture flow activation) and uses the saturated hydraulic conductivity from the chalk matrix. The BC model is implemented in the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES) and applied to a study area encompassing the Kennet catchment in the southern UK. This parameterization is further calibrated at the point scale using soil moisture profile observations. The performance of the calibrated BC model in JULES is assessed and compared against the performance of both the default JULES parameterization and the uncalibrated version of the BC model implemented in JULES. Finally, the model performance at the catchment scale is evaluated against independent data sets (e.g. runoff and latent heat flux). The results demonstrate that the inclusion of the BC model in JULES improves simulated land surface mass and energy fluxes over the chalk-dominated Kennet catchment. Therefore, the simple approach described in this study may be used to incorporate the flow processes through a chalk unsaturated

  20. Laboratory tests of a modified {sup 3}He detector for use with startup instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, T.; Tonner, P.; Keller, N. [Atomic Eerngy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, ON (Canada)] [and others

    1997-07-01

    Boron trifluoride (BF{sub 3}) detectors are currently used in all CANDU stations as startup instrumentation (SUI) detectors for monitoring neutron flux during extended outages and startups. Experience at some CANDU stations has shown that some models of BF{sub 3} detectors degrade quickly, even in moderate neutron and gamma fields. Degradation and life expectancy tests for five models of BF{sub 3} detectors from different manufacturers were performed at Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) to investigate the problem. The test results reveal that most BF{sub 3} detectors have low neutron and gamma durability, and some exhibit an undesirable time-dependent degradation followed by recovery. As a result of this finding, other detector options including a modified helium ({sup 3}He) detector described herein were investigated. Modified {sup 3}He detectors were procured from an established supplier and were found to perform without degradation in neutron and gamma fields. (author)

  1. RadBall{sup TM} Technology Testing in the Savannah River Site's Health Physics Instrument Calibration Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, Eduardo B; Foley, Trevor Q; Jannik, G Timothy; Harpring, Larry J; Gordon, John R; Blessing, Ronald; Coleman, J Rusty; Holmes, Christopher J; Oldham, Mark; Adamovics, John; Stanley, Steven J, E-mail: Eduardo.Farfan@srnl.doe.go

    2010-11-01

    The UK's National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL) has developed a radiation-mapping device that can locate and quantify radioactive hazards within contaminated areas of the nuclear industry. The device, known as RadBall{sup TM}, consists of a colander-like outer collimator that houses a radiation-sensitive polymer sphere. The collimator has over two hundred small holes; thus, specific areas of the polymer sphere are exposed to radiation becoming increasingly more opaque in proportion to the absorbed dose. The polymer sphere is imaged in an optical-CT scanner that produces a high resolution 3D map of optical attenuation coefficients. Subsequent analysis of the optical attenuation data provides information on the spatial distribution of sources in a given area forming a 3D characterization of the area of interest. The RadBall{sup TM} technology has been deployed in a number of technology trials in nuclear waste reprocessing plants at Sellafield in the UK and facilities of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). This paper summarizes the tests completed at SRNL Health Physics Instrument Calibration Laboratory (HPICL).

  2. Trace elemental analysis of school chalk using energy dispersive X-ray florescence spectroscopy (ED-XRF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruthi, Y. A.; Das, N. Lakshmana; Ramprasad, S.; Ram, S. S.; Sudarshan, M.

    2015-08-01

    The present studies focus the quantitative analysis of elements in school chalk to ensure the safety of its use. The elements like Calcium (Ca), Aluminum (Al), Iron (Fe), Silicon (Si) and Chromium (Cr) were analyzed from settled chalk dust samples collected from five classrooms (CD-1) and also from another set of unused chalk samples collected from local market (CD-2) using Energy Dispersive X-Ray florescence(ED-XRF) spectroscopy. Presence of these elements in significant concentrations in school chalk confirmed that, it is an irritant and occupational hazard. It is suggested to use protective equipments like filtered mask for mouth, nose and chalk holders. This study also suggested using the advanced mode of techniques like Digital boards, marker boards and power point presentations to mitigate the occupational hazard for classroom chalk

  3. Assessment of toxicity of radioactively contaminated sediments of the Yenisei River for aquatic plants in laboratory assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zotina, T.; Trofimova, E.; Medvedeva, M.; Bolsunovsky, A. [Institute of Biophysic SB RAS (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    abnormalities in apices of elodea roots (%) served as a genotoxicity indicator. Considerable growth of shoots and roots occurred for 12-14 days of experiments. Positive correlation of the rate of chromosome abnormalities (p<0.05) with radionuclide activity concentration (total, artificial, and Cs-137) in samples of bottom sediments was revealed, suggesting mutagenic effect of radiation dose. Shoot length endpoints negatively correlated (p<0.05) with radionuclide concentration in samples of bottom sediments although the mechanism of this effect is unclear. Endpoints of shoot length negatively correlated with the rate of chromosome abnormalities as well. No correlation of plant endpoints with concentration of heavy metals in bottom sediments was revealed. Root endpoints were the most variable among other endpoints, but they did not correlate with radionuclide activity concentration in sediments. Hence, we can conclude that correlation of the rate of chromosome abnormalities in the roots of elodea with concentration of radionuclides (total and artificial) in bottom sediments can be treated as low dose effects and can be recommended as a sensitive endpoint for laboratory bioassay. The response of shoot length endpoints to radiological factor in bottom sediments of the Yenisei River needs further elucidation. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  4. Current oil and gas production from North American Upper Cretaceous chalks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholle, Peter A.

    1977-01-01

    Production of oil and natural gas from North American chalks has increased significantly during the past five years, spurred by the prolific production from North Sea chalks, as well as by higher prices and improved production technology. Chalk reservoirs have been discovered in the Gulf Coast in the Austin Group, Saratoga and Annona Chalks, Ozan Formation, Selma Group, Monroe gas rock (an informal unit of Navarro age), and other Upper Cretaceous units. In the Western Interior, production has been obtained from the Cretaceous Niobrara and Greenhorn Formations. Significant, though subcommercial, discoveries of natural gas and gas condensate also have been made in the Upper Cretaceous Wyandot Formation on the Scotian Shelf of eastern Canada. All North American chalk units share a similar depositional and diagenetic history. The chalks consist primarily of whole and fragmented coccoliths with subordinate planktonic and benthonic Foraminifera, inoceramid prisms, oysters, and other skeletal grains. Most have between 10 and 35 percent HCl-insoluble residue, predominantly clay. Deposition was principally below wave base in tens to hundreds of meters of water. The diagenetic history of a chalk is critical in determining its reservoir potential. All chalk has a stable composition (low-Mg calcite) and very high primary porosity. With subsequent burial, mechanical and chemical (solution-transfer) compaction can reduce or completely eliminate pore space. The degree of loss of primary porosity in chalk sections is normally a direct function of the maximum depth to which it has been buried. Pore-water chemistry, pore-fluid pressures, and tectonic stresses also influence rates of cementation. Oil or gas reservoirs of North American chalk fall into three main groups: 1. Areas with thin overburden and significant primary porosity retention (for example, Niobrara Formation of Kansas and eastern Colorado). 2. Areas with thicker overburden but considerable fracturing. Here primary

  5. Reductive dissolution of Mn oxides in river-recharged aquifers: a laboratory column study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrunic, B. M.; MacQuarrie, K. T. B.; Al, T. A.

    2005-01-01

    River-recharged aquifers are developed for drinking water supplies in many parts of the world. Often, however, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) present in the infiltrating river water causes biogeochemical reactions to occur in the adjacent aquifer that create elevated Mn and Fe. Mn concentrations in groundwater from some of the production wells installed in the aquifer at Fredericton, New Brunswick exceed the Canadian Drinking Water Guideline of 9.1×10 -4 mmol/l by up to 5.5×10 -2 mmol/l. It has previously been hypothesized that the influx of DOC from the Saint John River is causing bacterially mediated reductive dissolution of Mn oxides in the aquifer system, leading to elevated aqueous Mn concentrations. Previous work was limited to the collection of water samples from production wells and several observation wells installed in the glacial outwash aquifer. The objective of this study was to investigate the biogeochemical controls on Mn concentrations using sand-filled columns. One column was inoculated with bacteria while a second column was treated with ethanol in order to decrease the microbial population initially present in the system. Both columns received the same influent solution that contained acetate as a source of DOC. The results of the experiments suggested that the two main controls on Mn concentrations in the columns were microbially mediated reductive dissolution of Mn oxides and cation exchange. The conceptual model that was developed based on the experimental data was supported by the results obtained using a one-dimensional reactive-transport model. The reductive dissolution of Mn oxides in the aquifer sands could be adequately simulated using dual-Monod kinetics. Similar trends are observed in the experimental data and field data collected from Production Well 5, located in the Fredericton Aquifer. From the experiments, it is evident that cation-exchange reactions may be an important geochemical control on Mn concentrations during the initial

  6. THE STUDY OF TECHNOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF PLASTISOLS BASED EMULSION PVC FILLED WITH CHALK GIDROFOBIZIROVANNYM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Sedykh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Baby toys are made using the centrifugal molding plastisol based emulsion of polyvinyl chloride plasticized with dioctylphthalate. To reduce cost and decrease biotelemetry the dioctylphthalate on the surface of the product domestic toys than toys produced in China, there was a necessity of introduction of the filler is chalk from different manufacturers. By using a Brookfield vis-cometer PV-D was studied rheology of filled hydrophobized chalk PVC plastisols in storage conditions for up to 72 hours at temperatures of 14-20°C. It was found that the flow plastisols consistent with pseudo-plastic fluids. Given the flow rates of emulsion PVC plastisols filled to 35 % of the mass. hydrophobized chalk. The influence of the content of the plasticizer dioctylphthalate in a narrow interval (37,0 - 41,4 % of the mass. on the viscosity of polymer pastes and the kinetics of its changes during storage. Revealed a linear dependence of the viscosity of the filled hydrophobized chalk plastisols on the speed of rotation of the spindle of the viscometer and during storage. Given the rate of expansion changes the viscosity of the plastisols of the speed of rotation of the spindle of the viscometer, the rate of change in viscosity and calculation of the initial viscosity. Determined the stability of the dispersion hydrophobized chalk in a colloidal solution of PVC in dioctylphthalate during storage. We determined the variation of the content of chalk (ash with top and bottom layers plastisols height 8 cm after 24 hours storage. It is proved that the temperature of the preparation and storage of polymer pastes were determining factors in the regulation of such technological properties of PVC plastisols in the presence hydrophobized chalkas viscosity, stability of the dispersion of chalk and, consequently, the efficiency of distribution plastisols in the form of a centrifugal molding.

  7. Effects of the restoration mortar on chalk stone buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ion, R. M.; Teodorescu, S.; Ştirbescu, R. M.; Dulamă, I. D.; Şuică-Bunghez, I. R.; Bucurică, I. A.; Fierăscu, R. C.; Fierscu, I.; Ion, M. L.

    2016-06-01

    The monument buildings as components of cultural heritage are exposed to degradation of surfaces and chemical and mechanical degradation, often associated to soiling and irreversible deterioration of the building. In many conservative and restorative works, a cement-based mortar was used without knowing all the adverse effects of this material on the building. This paper deals with the study of the effects of natural cement used in restorative works in the particular case of the Basarabi-Murfatlar Churches Ensemble. Cement-based materials exposed to sulfate present in the chalk stone - gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O), can induce signs of deterioration, due to ettringite ([Ca3Al (OH)612H2O]2(SO4)32H2O) or thaumasite (Ca3[Si(OH)612H2O](CO3)SO4) formation. These phases contribute to strain within the material, inducing expansion, strength loss, spalling and severe degradation. Several combined techniques (XRD, EDXRF, ICP-AES, SEM, EDS, sulphates content, FT-IR and Raman analysis were carried out to put into evidence the effects of them on the building walls.

  8. Experimental study and mechanical modelling of the effects of water-driving in an oil saturated chalk. Application to the petroleum industry; Etude experimentale et modelisation mecanique des effets du balayage a l'eau dans une craie saturee d'huile. Application a l'industrie petroliere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mata, C.

    2001-01-01

    The production of hydrocarbons may sometimes lead to compaction of the oil-reservoir layers with substantial collapse of the soil surface; this mechanism is usually mentioned as Subsidence. Classical remedy to this problem is to sustain the fluid pressure with the help of water injection. However, in presence of high porosity chalk (porosity > 30%), this technique does not give effective results: the subsidence rate at North Sea reservoirs (Ekofisk field), after injection, has remained unchanged. Some justify the subsistence in the chalk as caused by phenomena of dissolution of the carbonates; others think it is connected to the destruction of capillary menisci. In this research, we follow this second approach. This study is finalized to a better understanding of the compaction mechanisms in pure carbonates when water is injected. This is done by proposing -in micro-scale first and in macro-scale after- a physical model that agrees with empirical observations. In order to meet this target, IFP skills and experience in physical and chemical measurements (taken before, after and during mechanical tests) have proficiently joined ENPC laboratory (CERMMO) knowledge of micro and macro modelling. The soft rock studied is a Paris basin's white chalk (Craie de Guerville). Its physical and chemical characterisation (i.e.: silica content, porosity, permeability) is very similar to North Sea chalk, but Guerville chalk has never been in contact with oil and generally it crops out of the ground surface. Strength parameters of this rock have been first determined by standard triaxial tests. Three different saturation configurations have been examined: dry, fully oil-saturated and fully water-saturated. As literature clearly state, dry chalk is stronger than oil saturated chalk and the first two are largely stronger than water saturated chalk. Therefore uniaxial strain water injection tests have been performed on oil saturated samples. Results, coupled with previous physical

  9. Diagenesis and porosity reduction in the Late Cretaceous Wyandot Formation, offshore Nova Scotia : a comparison with Norwegian North Sea chalks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ings, S.J.; MacRae, R.A.; Pe-Piper, G. [Saint Mary' s Univ., Halifax, NS (Canada). Dept. of Geology; Shimeld, J.W. [Natural Resources Canada, Dartmouth, NS (Canada). Geological Survey of Canada, Bedford Inst. of Oceanography

    2005-09-01

    Chalk is an attractive reservoir target for hydrocarbon exploration because even deep sea-buried chalk has the ability to preserve porosities of up to 40 per cent. The preservation of primary porosity is related to diagenesis, resedimentation, over-pressuring and hydrocarbon saturation. In the past 3 decades, large oil and gas discoveries have been made in chalk units in the North Sea, Texas, Colorado and the offshore Scotian Shelf in eastern Canada. Chalks of the Upper Cretaceous Wyandot Formation on the Scotian Shelf have preserved porosities up to 30 per cent and are the reservoir for a small gas and oil discovery in the Primrose N-50 exploration well. The Wyandot Formation extends about 500 km along the length of the margin and consists mostly of limestone with major chalk intervals. It is largely understudied, despite its potential as a hydrocarbon reservoir or seal. In this study, conventional core samples of Wyandot Formation chalk recovered from both the Primrose A-41 and Eagle D-21 wells were analyzed. The depositional history, diagenesis and porosity-reducing mechanisms within the Formation were clarified through scanning electron microscopy, oxygen and carbon isotope analysis, wireline logs and porosity data. The porosity history of North Sea chalks was then compared with that of the Wyandot Formation. It was determined that the Wyandot chalks are in situ pelagic deposits, compared to the allochthonous North Sea chalks. The dominant mechanisms of porosity reduction in the Wyandot chalks are mechanical compaction and dissolution. It is possible that North Sea type allochthonous reservoirs exist in distal locations on the Scotian Slope because large volumes of Wyandot chalk have been eroded on part of the Scotian Shelf. Therefore, further exploration is warranted to provide a better understanding of the sedimentology and porosity distribution of the in situ Wyandot Formation. 20 refs., 2 tabs., 11 figs.

  10. Subaerial Chalk Cliff Failures on the English Channel Coast, Based on Field Data From Recent Collapses

    Science.gov (United States)

    DUPERRET, A.; MARTINEZ, A.; GENTER, A.; MORTIMORE, R. N.; WATREMEZ, P.

    2001-12-01

    The chalk cliffs along the English Channel coast are currently retreating at a mean rate of 0.5 m/year. However, the erosion is not constant over time, but occurs by catastrophic collapses. For the last three years, a minimum of 40 collapses have been observed along the French chalk coastline (120 km long) and about 10 collapses along the English chalk coastline (40 km long). The observed collapsed volumes are varying from 150 000 m3 (Beachy Head, UK) to a few m3, whereas the cliff heights are varying from 20 to 200m. Two kinds of scar extension have been observed on the cliff face: either the lower part only with few volumes involved, either the whole cliff height for the largest events. Two main cases of scar shape have been evidenced: (1) scar with a vertical upper part and a curved lower part with large striations and crushed chalk (Puys, France). The rupture process is an overall sliding process, with tearing of the upper part of the cliff and shearing in its lower part. The failure is mainly controlled by rain-fall and occurred by water pressure increase on impervious marl seams of the chalk (Duperret et al., in press, JCR). (2) scar with a regular and rectilinear profile, without any striation (Birling Gap, UK). The rupture propagates along pre-existing joint sets, parallel oriented to the cliff face. Locally, pre-existing large-scale transverse fractures may bound the lateral propagation of the scar. Where the scars extend all over the cliff height, the failure is mainly controlled by continental water infiltration. However the role of water through fractured chalk may differ according to the fracture pattern. Where the scars are restrained to the lower part of the cliff, the upward extension of the scars are bounded by lithological features of the chalk, as horizontal flint bands or stratification. In this case, the role of marine parameters, as wave impact at the toe of the cliff may be invoked as a significant triggering parameter contributing to failure

  11. Trace fossils of a cyclic chalk-marl succession; the upper Maastrichtian Rørdal Member, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Bodil Wesenberg; Surlyk, Finn; Bromley, Richard Granville

    2011-01-01

    . The cyclicity is interpreted as caused by orbital changes within the Milankovitch frequency band. The carbonate content varies between 71 and 82 weight% in the marl and 82–92 weight% in the chalk beds. The material is based on 19 samples collected from six chalk and marl beds. The investigated bedding...

  12. Managing Injected Water Composition To Improve Oil Recovery: A Case Study of North Sea Chalk Reservoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahid, Adeel; Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan;

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, many core displacement experiments of oil by seawater performed on chalk rock samples have reported SO42–, Ca2+, and Mg2+ as potential determining ions for improving oil recovery. Most of these studies were carried out with outcrop chalk core plugs. The objective of this study...... is to investigate the potential of the advanced waterflooding process by carrying out experiments with reservoir chalk samples. The study results in a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in increasing the oil recovery with potential determining ions. We carried out waterflooding instead of spontaneous...... with the following injecting fluids: distilled water, brine with and without sulfate, and brine containing only magnesium ions. The total oil recovery, recovery rate, and interaction mechanisms of ions with rock were studied for different injecting fluids at different temperatures and wettability conditions. Studies...

  13. Persistent and emerging micro-organic contaminants in Chalk groundwater of England and France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapworth, D J; Baran, N; Stuart, M E; Manamsa, K; Talbot, J

    2015-08-01

    The Chalk aquifer of Northern Europe is an internationally important source of drinking water and sustains baseflow for surface water ecosystems. The areal distribution of microorganic (MO) contaminants, particularly non-regulated emerging MOs, in this aquifer is poorly understood. This study presents results from a reconnaissance survey of MOs in Chalk groundwater, including pharmaceuticals, personal care products and pesticides and their transformation products, conducted across the major Chalk aquifers of England and France. Data from a total of 345 sites collected during 2011 were included in this study to provide a representative baseline assessment of MO occurrence in groundwater. A suite of 42 MOs were analysed for at each site including industrial compounds (n=16), pesticides (n=14) and pharmaceuticals, personal care and lifestyle products (n=12). Occurrence data is evaluated in relation to land use, aquifer exposure, well depth and depth to groundwater to provide an understanding of vulnerable groundwater settings.

  14. Acute toxicity of copper, lead, cadmium, and zinc to early life stages of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) in laboratory and Columbia River water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardy, David W; Santore, Robert; Ryan, Adam; Giesy, John P; Hecker, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Populations of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) are in decline in North America. This is attributed, primarily, to poor recruitment, and white sturgeon are listed as threatened or endangered in several parts of British Columbia, Canada, and the United States. In the Columbia River, effects of metals have been hypothesized as possible contributing factors. Previous work has demonstrated that early life stage white sturgeon are particularly sensitive to certain metals, and concerns over the level of protectiveness of water quality standards are justified. Here we report results from acute (96-h) toxicity tests for copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), and lead (Pb) from parallel studies that were conducted in laboratory water and in the field with Columbia River water. Water effect ratios (WERs) and sensitivity parameters (i.e., median lethal accumulations, or LA50s) were calculated to assess relative bioavailability of these metals in Columbia River water compared to laboratory water, and to elucidate possible differences in sensitivity of early life stage white sturgeon to the same concentrations of metals when tested in the different water sources. For Cu and Pb, white sturgeon toxicity tests were initiated at two life stages, 8 and 40 days post-hatch (dph), and median lethal concentrations (LC50s) ranged between 9-25 μg Cu/L and 177-1,556 μg Pb/L. LC50s for 8 dph white sturgeon exposed to Cd in laboratory water and river water were 14.5 and 72 μg/L, respectively. Exposure of 8 dph white sturgeon to Zn in laboratory and river water resulted in LC50s of 150 and 625 μg/L, respectively. Threshold concentrations were consistently less in laboratory water compared with river water, and as a result, WERs were greater than 1 in all cases. In addition, LA50s were consistently greater in river water exposures compared with laboratory exposures in all paired tests. These results, in combination with results from the biotic ligand model, suggest that the observed

  15. Advancing marine hydrokinetic turbine arrays towards large-scale deployments in sandy rivers: a laboratory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, Mirko; Hill, Craig; Guala, Michele

    2016-11-01

    A staggered array of twelve axial-flow marine hydrokinetic (MHK) turbine models was investigated at the St. Anthony Falls Laboratory under live-bed sediment transport conditions. In particular, the interaction between the MHK power plant and the complex migrating bedforms was monitored using a state-of-the-art high-resolution submersible laser scanning device able to provide spatio(x,y)-temporally(t) resolved channel bathymetry z(x,y,t). Results revealed both a local signature of each individual turbine and a cumulative array effect that extends farther from the site. Single turbine localized scour results from the blockage effect of the operating rotor and the consequent flow acceleration between the lower rotor tip and the erodible bed. The resultant shear stress enhancement around the device protects the turbine during extreme sediment transport conditions, ultimately preventing the blades from impacting the incoming bedforms. A turbine failure case was simulated to illustrate the consequence of such event, which can irreversibly bury and damage the turbine. Additionally, velocity and turbine performance estimates provided a preliminary description of the power plant energy output, revealing similar features already observed in experimental wind farm models. NSF Career Grant - Geophysical Flow Control, Dr. Michele Guala.

  16. Strength and Biot's coefficient for high-porosity oil- or water-saturated chalk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Katrine Alling

    . The Biot coefficient states the degree of cementation or how the pore pressure contributes to the strain resulting from an external load for a porous material. It is here calculated from dynamic measurements and correlated with the strength of outcrop chalk characterized by the onset of pore collapse...... during hydrostatic loading. The hypothesis is that the Biot coefficient and the theory of poroelasticity may cover the fluid effect by including the increased fluid bulk modulus from oil to water. A high number of test results for both oil- and water-saturated high-porosity outcrop chalk show correlation...

  17. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Allison, L.J.; Blaylock, B.G.; Boston, H.L.; Huston, M.A.; Kimmel, B.L.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.; Walton, B.T.; Kitchings, J.T.; Olsen, C.R.

    1991-09-01

    On April 1, 1986, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) (EPA 1986). As specified in Part 3: Special Conditions (Item H) of the permit, a plan for biological monitoring of the Clinch River, White Oak Creek (WOC), Northwest Tributary (NWT) of WOC, Melton Branch (MB), Fifth Creek, and First Creek shall be submitted for approval to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDHE) within 90 days of the effective date of the permit. The plan, which is referred to in Part 3 (H) of the permit as the Biological Monitoring Plan and Abatement Program (BMPAP), describes characterization monitoring studies to be conducted for the duration of the permit (5 years). In order to be consistent with the terminology used for the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Programs for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plan and the Oak Ridge K-25 Plant, BMPAP will subsequently be referred to as the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP). The proposed BMAP outlined in this document is based on preliminary discussions held on December 9, 1985, between staff of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (ORNL and Central Management), the US Department of Energy (DOE), EPA, and TDHE. 232 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

  18. Multilevel groundwater monitoring of hydraulic head and temperature in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho, 2011-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twining, Brian V.; Fisher, Jason C.

    2015-01-01

    From 2011 to 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey’s Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Project Office, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, collected depth-discrete measurements of fluid pressure and temperature in 11 boreholes located in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer. Each borehole was instrumented with a multilevel monitoring system (MLMS) consisting of a series of valved measurement ports, packer bladders, casing segments, and couplers.

  19. Effect of fluid-solid friction on the stiffness of chalk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alam, Mohammad Monzurul; Nguh Akam, Hosea; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2011-01-01

    Chalks behave weaker at water saturated condition. We studied this softening effect as a function of Biot’s frequency ratio, which is a ratio between measured ultrasonic wave frequency and Biot critical frequency, fc. Kinematic viscosity of fluid and permeability of rock determines fc. We observe...

  20. SNG-log in borehole P7 in Faxe Chalk Quarry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsbech, Uffe C C

    1996-01-01

    A spectral natural gamma-ray log in a 190 m borehole in Faxe chalk quarry confirms that Danish bryozoan and corallic limestones contain very low levels of natural radioactivity. Due to the low content of natural radioactivity it has been possible to observe the influence from cosmic radiation...

  1. Effective-stress-law behavior of Austin chalk rocks for deformation and fracture conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warpinski, N.R.; Teufel, L.W.

    1994-08-01

    Austin chalk core has been tested to determine the effective law for deformation of the matrix material and the stress-sensitive conductivity of the natural fractures. For deformation behavior, two samples provided data on the variations of the poroelastic parameter, {alpha}, for Austin chalk, giving values around 0.4. The effective-stress-law behavior of a Saratoga limestone sample was also measured for the purpose of obtaining a comparison with a somewhat more porous carbonate rock. {alpha} for this rock was found to be near 0.9. The low {alpha} for the Austin chalk suggests that stresses in the reservoir, or around the wellbore, will not change much with changes in pore pressure, as the contribution of the fluid pressure is small. Three natural fractures from the Austin chalk were tested, but two of the fractures were very tight and probably do not contribute much to production. The third sample was highly conductive and showed some stress sensitivity with a factor of three reduction in conductivity over a net stress increase of 3000 psi. Natural fractures also showed a propensity for permanent damage when net stressed exceeded about 3000 psi. This damage was irreversible and significantly affected conductivity. {alpha} was difficult to determine and most tests were inconclusive, although the results from one sample suggested that {alpha} was near unity.

  2. The Effect of Magnesium Carbonate (Chalk) on Geometric Entropy, Force, and Electromyography During Rock Climbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgas, Matthew A; Drum, Scott N; Jensen, Randall L; Phillips, Kevin C; Watts, Phillip B

    2016-12-01

    Rock climbers believe chalk dries the hands of sweat and improves the static coefficient of friction between the hands and the surface of the rock. The purpose of this study was to assess whether chalk affects geometric entropy or muscular activity during rock climbing. Nineteen experienced recreational rock climbers (13 males, 6 females; 173.5 ± 7.0 cm; 67.5 ± 3.4 kg) completed 2 climbing trails with and without chalk. The body position of the climber and muscular activity of the finger flexors was recorded throughout the trial. Following the movement sequence participants hung from a standard climbing hold until they slipped from the climbing structure, while the coefficient of friction and the ratio of the vertical forces on the hands and feet were determined. Although there were no differences in the coefficient of friction (P = .748), geometric entropy (P = .359), the ratio of the vertical forces between the hands and feet (P = .570), or muscular activity (P = .968), participants were able to hang longer after the use of chalk 62.9 ± 36.7 s and 49.3 ± 25.2 s (P = .046). This is advantageous because it may allow for prolonged rests, and more time to plan the next series of climbing moves.

  3. Full-waveform Inversion of Crosshole GPR Data Collected in Strongly Heterogeneous Chalk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keskinen, Johanna; Zibar, Majken Caroline Looms; Nielsen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Chalk is an important reservoir rock for hydrocarbons and for groundwater resources for many major cities. Therefore, this rock type has been extensively investigated using both geological and geophysical methods. Many applications of crosshole GPR tomography rely on the ray approximation and cor...

  4. Waveform analysis of crosshole GPR data collected in heterogeneous chalk deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keskinen, Johanna; Nielsen, Lars; Zibar, Majken Caroline Looms

    2014-01-01

    Chalks are important reservoirs for groundwater production onshore Denmark and for hydrocarbons in the North Sea Basin. Therefore this rock type is studied extensively with geological and geophysical methods. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) tomography is used to characterize fine-scale reservoir p...

  5. Seismic architecture of the Chalk Group from onshore reflection data in eastern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreau, Julien; Anderskouv, Kresten; Boldreel, Lars Ole

    The Upper Cretaceous-Danian chalk is well exposed in the 14 km long coastal cliff of Stevns Klint (eastern Denmark). The cliff is a world renowned for its spectacular exposure of the Cretaceous-Palaeogene boundary. Based on regional geological knowledge of the field and cores, the characteristics...

  6. Sedimentology of the late cretaceous and early tertiary (tuffaceous) chalk of Northwest Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, J.J.P.

    1994-01-01

    The Tuffaceous Chalk of South Limburg (The Netherlands), a friable, porous, bioclastic carbonate sandstone, became subject of scientific interest in 1770, when workers found a large skull of Mososourus comperi in the subterranean quarry of Mount St. Pieter near Maastricht. After Dumont (1849) had co

  7. Seismic stratigraphy and sedimentary architecture of the Chalk Group in south-west Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Connie; Ineson, Jon; Boldreel, Lars Ole

    2014-01-01

    The article focuses on a study undertaken by the Chalk Group on the western onshore region of the Danish Basin in Eastern Denmark related on the seismic stratigraphy and sedimentary architecture of the region. The study is undertaken through subdividing the northern North German Basin and the south...

  8. The effect of calabash chalk on some hematological parameters in female adult Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amabe Otoabasi Akpantah

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Calabash chalk is a naturally occurring mineral consumed among the Nigerian community for pleasure and commonly by pregnant women as a remedy for morning sickness. Reports have shown that it contains different toxic substances, with lead being the most abundant. This study was therefore undertaken to ascertain the effect of two commonly available preparations of this chalk on some hematological parameters.Materials and Methods: Twenty-four adult female Wistar rats with average weight of 100 g were assigned into three groups (1, 2, 3. Group 1 served as the control and the animals received distilled water, while Groups 2 and 3 were treated by oral gavage with 40 mg/kg of non-salted (NSCC and salted calabash chalk (SCC, respectively, for 14 days.Results: The hemoglobin (Hb concentration and red blood cell (RBC count were significantly (p<0.05, 0.001 respectively lower in the NSCC group, while erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR was significantly (p<0.05 higher in the NSCC group compared to the control. There were no significant differences in packed cell volume (PCV, white blood cell (WBC and platelet (Pl counts compared to the control. The SCC group presented no significant difference in all blood count parameters compared to the control.Conclusion: This infers that calabash chalk, particularly the non-salted form, alters the normal concentration of Hb, RBC and Pl counts, and ESR, as observed in the female Wistar rats studied.

  9. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Elastic Wave Velocity of Chalk Saturated with Brines Containing Divalent Ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katika, Konstantina; Alam, Mohammad Monzurul; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has proven a good technique for measuring pore size distribution in reservoir rocks. The use of low field NMR together with sonic and electrical resistivity measurements, can contribute to illustrate the effect of adsorbing ions on chalk elasticity. NMR is useful...

  10. Nuclear magnetic resonance and sound velocity measurements of chalk saturated with magnesium rich brine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katika, Konstantina; Alam, Mohammad Monzurul; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2013-01-01

    The use of low field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) to determine petrophysical properties of reservoirs has proved to be a good technique. Together with sonic and electrical resistivity measurements, NMR can contribute to illustrate the changes on chalk elasticity due to different pore water...

  11. Calabash Chalk's Geophagy Affects Gestating Rats' Behavior and the Histomorphology of the Cerebral Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses B. Ekong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Calabash chalk contains heavy metals, and this lead to this study on the effect of this chalk on the behavior and the histomorphology of the cerebral cortex of gestating rats. Material & Methods. 24 female rats were equally divided into 4 groups and were mated at preostrous with the males. The day after mating was designated as day 1 of gestation. On gestation days 7–20, groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 animals were treated with 1 mL of distilled water, and 1 mL (200 mg/kg, 2 mL (400 mg/kg, and 3 mL (600 mg/kg of calabash chalk suspension, respectively. On pregnancy day 21, behavioral tests using the open field and the light/dark mazes were carried out and the animals subsequently euthanized and their brains were routinely processed. Results. There was no difference in ambulatory activities, but group 4 animals had more (P<0.05 transition frequency and were more averse to the dark in the light and dark field, while sections of the cerebral cortex showed a higher (P<0.05 cellular population, hypertrophied pyramidal cells, and vacuolations in the treatment groups. Conclusion. Calabash chalk may have anxiolytic effect especially at high dose in the light and dark field but not in the open field and can stimulate maternal cerebral cortical cellular changes.

  12. The surface reactivity of chalk (biogenic calcite) with hydrophilic and hydrophobic functional groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okhrimenko, D. V.; Dalby, K. N.; Skovbjerg, L. L.; Bovet, N.; Christensen, J. H.; Stipp, S. L. S.

    2014-03-01

    The surface properties of calcium carbonate minerals play an important role in a number of industrial and biological processes. Properties such as wettability and adsorption control liquid-solid interface behaviour and thus have a strong influence on processes such as biomineralisation, remediation of aquifers and oil recovery. We investigated how two model molecules of different polarity, namely water and ethanol, interact with reservoir and outcrop chalk samples and we compared their behaviour with that of pure, inorganically precipitated calcite. Thermodynamic quantities, such as the work of wetting, surface energy and isosteric adsorption enthalpy, were determined from vapour adsorption isotherms. The chalks were studied fresh and after extraction of organic residues that were originally present in these samples. The work of wetting correlates with the amount of organic matter present in the chalk samples but we observed a fundamental difference between the adsorption properties of chalk and pure, inorganically precipitated calcite toward the less polar, ethanol molecule. Further analysis of the chemical composition of the organic matter extracted from the chalk samples was made by gas chromatography (GC-MS). Monitoring surface composition by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) before and after extraction of the organic material, and with atomic force microscopy (AFM), showed that nanometer sized clay crystals observed on the chalk particle surfaces could be an important part of the reason for the differences. Removal of the extractable portion of the hydrocarbons liberates adsorption sites that have different wetting properties than the rest of the chalk and these have an energy distribution that is similar to clays. Thus, the results exemplify the complexity of biogenic calcite adsorption behaviour and demonstrate that chalk wetting in drinking water aquifers as well as oil reservoirs is controlled partly by the nanoparticles of clay that have grown on the

  13. River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morel Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The OECD report “Boosting Resilience through Innovative Risk Governance” examines the efforts of OECD countries to prevent or reduce future disaster impacts, and highlights several key areas where improvements can be made. International collaboration is insufficiently utilised to address shocks that have increasingly global consequences. Institutional design plays a significant role in facilitating or hampering the engagement and investments of governmental and non-governmental stakeholders in disaster risk prevention and mitigation. To inform the design of “better” institutions, the OECD proposes the application of a diagnostic framework that helps governments identify institutional shortcomings and take actions to improve them. The goal of the case study on the Rhone River is to conduct an analysis of the progress, achievements and existing challenges in designing and implementing disaster risk reduction strategies through the Rhone Plan from a comparative perspective across a set of selected countries of this study, like Austria and Switzerland, will inform how to improve institutional frameworks governing risk prevention and mitigation. The case study will be used to identify examples of successful practice taking into account their specific country contexts, and analyse their potential for policy transfer.

  14. Benthic macrofauna variations and community structure in Cenomanian cyclic chalk-marl from Southerham Grey Pit, SE England

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Bodil Wesenberg; Gale, A. S.; Surlyk, Finn

    2009-01-01

    Cenomanian chalk-marl couplets from England represent the 20 ka Milankovitch precession cycle. Fossil communities from both chalk and marl are identified to test if the orbital fluctuations and the associated changes in substrate lithology and climate exerted any control on the benthic macrofauna...... adapted to both facies and thus to the fine grain size of the substrate rather than to lithology. The systematic difference in diversity between chalk and marl samples was possibly caused by long-term climatic and oceanographic changes and thus could represent a biological response to Milankovitch...

  15. Laboratory toxicity and benthic invertebrate field colonization of Upper Columbia River sediments: Finding adverse effects using multiple lines of evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, J.F.; Kemble, N.E.; Allert, A.L.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Dowling, B.; Gruenenfelder, C.; Roland, J.L.

    2012-01-01

    From 1930 to 1995, the Upper Columbia River (UCR) of northeast Washington State received approximately 12 million metric tons of smelter slag and associated effluents from a large smelter facility located in Trail, British Columbia, approximately 10 km north of the United States–Canadian border. Studies conducted during the past two decades have demonstrated the presence of toxic concentrations of heavy metals in slag-based sandy sediments, including cadmium, copper, zinc, and lead in the UCR area as well as the downstream reservoir portion of Lake Roosevelt. We conducted standardized whole-sediment toxicity tests with the amphipod Hyalella azteca (28-day) and the midge Chironomus dilutus (10-day) on 11 samples, including both UCR and study-specific reference sediments. Metal concentrations in sediments were modeled for potential toxicity using three approaches: (1) probable effects quotients (PEQs) based on total recoverable metals (TRMs) and simultaneously extracted metals (SEMs); (2) SEMs corrected for acid-volatile sulfides (AVS; i.e., ΣSEM - AVS); and (3) ΣSEM - AVS normalized to the fractional organic carbon (foc) (i.e., ΣSEM - AVS/foc). The most highly metal-contaminated sample (ΣPEQTRM = 132; ΣPEQSEM = 54; ΣSEM - AVS = 323; and ΣSEM - AVS/foc = 64,600 umol/g) from the UCR was dominated by weathered slag sediment particles and resulted in 80% mortality and 94% decrease in biomass of amphipods; in addition, this sample significantly decreased growth of midge by 10%. The traditional ΣAVS - SEM, uncorrected for organic carbon, was the most accurate approach for estimating the effects of metals in the UCR. Treatment of the toxic slag sediment with 20% Resinex SIR-300 metal-chelating resin significantly decreased the toxicity of the sample. Samples ΣSEM - AVS > 244 was not toxic to amphipods or midge in laboratory testing, indicating that this value may be an approximate threshold for effects in the UCR. In situ benthic invertebrate colonization

  16. Porosity and sonic velocity depth trends of Eocene chalk in Atlantic Ocean: Influence of effective stress and temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awedalkarim, Ahmed; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2014-01-01

    . This indicates pore-filling cementation via an activation energy mechanism. We proposed a predictive equation for porosity reduction with burial stress. This equation is relevant for basin analysis and hydrocarbon exploration to predict porosity if sonic velocity data for subsurface chalk is available.......We aimed to relate changes in porosity and sonic velocity data, measured on water-saturated Eocene chalks from 36 Ocean Drilling Program drill sites in the Atlantic Ocean, to vertical effective stress and thermal maturity. We considered only chalk of Eocene age to avoid possible influence...... of geological age on chalk compaction trends. For each depth, vertical effective stresses as defined by Terzaghi and by Biot were calculated. We used bottom-hole temperature data to calculate the time–temperature index of thermal maturity (TTI) as defined by Lopatin. Porosity and compressional wave velocity...

  17. Laboratory and field trials with two Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis products for Simulium(Diptera: Nematocera) control in a small polluted river in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Car, M

    1984-06-01

    The effects on Simulium adersi and S. hargreavesi larvae of 2 Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis products, the liquid formulation "Teknar" (Sandoz) and a powder formulation produced by the Ben Gurion University, Israel, were compared in the laboratory and in the Pienaars River. This river was heavily polluted with effluent from a nearby sewage works and contained 77 mg/l chloride. In the laboratory S. adersi and S. hargreavesi larvae showed 26; 48; 95 and 100% mortality 6 hours after a 10-minute application of 0,8; 1,6; 3,2 and 16 ppm "Teknar" in rain water. The powder formulation applied at 0,2; 1,0; 2,0 and 30 ppm resulted in a 7; 17; 35 and 100% mortality. In polluted river-water the mortality was 85% with 16 ppm "Teknar" and 80% with 30 ppm B. thuringiensis powder. In the field trials "Teknar" at 1,6 ppm and B. thuringiensis powder at 3 ppm did not cause any larval mortality at flow rates of 3 060 l/min and 2 040 l/min, respectively. However, 24 hours after application of the powder formulation, numbers of S. hargreavesi decreased significantly (P = 0,05) 20 m below the application point. A further 24 hours later, after "Teknar" had been applied, the numbers of S. adersi decreased and those of Chironomidae increased significantly. There was a significant increase in S. hargreavesi 200 m downstream after treatment with "Teknar".

  18. Hydrologic Conditions and Distribution of Selected Constituents in Water, Snake River Plain Aquifer, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho, 1996 through 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. C. Bartholomay; B. J. Tucker; L. C. Davis; M. R. Greene

    2000-09-01

    Radiochemical and chemical wastewater discharged since 1952 to infiltration ponds and disposal wells at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has affected water quality in the Snake River Plain aquifer. The US Geological Survey, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, maintains a monitoring network at the INEEL to determine hydrologic trends and to delineate the movement to radiochemical and chemical wastes in the aquifer. This report presents an analysis of water-level and water-quality data collected from the Snake River Plain aquifer during 1996-98. Detectable concentrations of radiochemical constituents in water samples from wells in the Snake River Plain aquifer at the INEEL decreased or remained constant during 1996-98. Decreased concentrations are attributed to reduced rates of radioactive-waste disposal, sorption process, radioactive decay, and changes in waste-disposal practices. Detectable concentrations of chemical constituents in water from the Snake River Plain aquifer at the INEEL were variable during 1996-98.

  19. Laboratory data on Snake River steelhead - Evaluation of methods to reduce straying rates of barged juvenile steelhead

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The goals of this study are to develop methods to reduce wandering and straying of steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) that are collected and barged from the Snake River...

  20. Second report on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loar, J.M. [ed.; Adams, S.M.; Bailey, R.D.; Blaylock, B.G.; Boston, H.L.; Cox, D.K.; Huston, M.A.; Kimmel, B.L.; Loar, J.M.; Olsen, C.R.; Ryon, M.G.; Shugart, L.R.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.; Walton, B.T.; Talmage, S.S.; Murphy, J.B.; Valentine, C.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Appellanis, S.M.; Jimenez, B.D. [Puerto Rico Univ., San Juan (Puerto Rico); Huq, M.V. [Connecticut Dept. of Environmental Protection, Hamden, CT (United States); Meyers-Schone, L.J. [Frankfurter, Gross-Gerau (Germany); Mohrbacher, D.A. [Automated Sciences Group, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Olsen, C.R. [USDOE Office of Energy Research, Washington, DC (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.; Stout, J.G. [Cincinnati Univ., OH (United States)

    1992-12-01

    As a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC); selected tributaries of WOC, including Fifth Creek, First Creek, Melton Branch, and Northwest Tributary; and the Clinch River. BMAP consists of seven major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs on-site and the aquatic environs off-site. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring; (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota; (3) biological indicator studies; (4) instream ecological monitoring; (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment; (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake (WOL); and (7) contaminant transport, distribution, and fate in the WOC embayment-Clinch River-Watts Bar Reservoir system. This document, the second of a series of annual reports, described the results of BMAP studies conducted in 1987.

  1. Change of Static and Dynamic Elastic Properties due to CO² Injection in North Sea Chalk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alam, Mohammad Monzurul; Hjuler, M.L.; Christensen, H.F.;

    2012-01-01

    Reservoir modeling and monitoring uses dynamic data for predicting and determining static changes. Dynamic data are achieved from the propagation velocity of elastic waves in rock while static data are obtained from the mechanical deformation. Reservoir simulation and monitoring are particularly......% non-carbonate. We studied difference in static and dynamic behavior. Furthermore, brine saturated data were compared with CO2 injected data to reveal the effect of supercritical CO2 injection in both static and dynamic elastic properties. We used strain gauges and LVDTs to measure static deformation....... We observed lower dynamic elastic modulus for chalk with higher non-carbonate content at porosities lower than 30%. In 30% porosity chalk, dynamic compressional and bulk modulus were found significantly higher than the static modulus. Static measurements with LVDT were found lowest. The effect of CO2...

  2. Burial diagenesis of deep sea chalk as reflected in Biot's coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke; Alam, Mohammad Monzurul

    2013-01-01

    to limestone as burial increases and porosity decreases. The porosity decrease is accompanied by an increasing velocity to elastic waves, and consequently a decreasing Biot's coefficient, as estimated from velocity and density of core samples. When the effective burial stress is normalized to total horizontal...... cross sectional area, the porosity is found to decline as a function of stress. The porosity trend proceeds smoothly from ooze over chalk to limestone. By contrast, when vertical effective stress is normalized to grain contact area, each lithology shows a distinct porosity-decline - stress pattern....... In the ooze, we find that the natural compaction causes an increasing stress on grain contact area, indicating that the ooze particles become strongly strained. In the chalk section, contact cement is probably the reason why particles become less strained as porosity declines. In the limestone, stress...

  3. Burial diagenesis of deep sea chalk as reflected in Biot’s coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke; Alam, Mohammad Monzurul

    to limestone as burial increases and porosity decreases. The porosity decrease is accompanied by an increasing velocity to elastic waves, and consequently a decreasing Biot’s coefficient, as estimated from velocity and density of core samples. When the effective burial stress is normalized to total horizontal...... cross sectional area, the porosity is found to decline as a function of stress. The porosity trend proceeds smoothly from ooze over chalk to limestone. By contrast, when vertical effective stress is normalized to grain contact area, each lithology shows a distinct porosity-decline - stress pattern....... In the ooze, we find that the natural compaction causes an increasing stress on grain contact area, indicating that the ooze particles become strongly strained. In the chalk section, contact cement is probably the reason why particles become less strained as porosity declines. In the limestone, stress...

  4. How burial diagenesis of chalk sediments controls sonic velocity and porosity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2003-01-01

    to the progress of burial diagenesis of chalk, which is revised as follows: Newly deposited carbonate ooze and mixed sediments range in porosity from 60 to 80%, depending on the prevalence of hollow microfossils. Despite the high porosity, these sediments are not in suspension, as reflected in IFs of 0.......1 or higher. Upon burial, the sediments lose porosity by mechanical compaction, and concurrently, the calcite particles recrystallize into progressively more equant shapes. High compaction rates may keep the particles in relative motion, whereas low compaction rates allow the formation of contact cement......, whereby IF increases and chalk forms. Rock mechanical tests show that when compaction requires more than in-situ stress, porosity reduction is arrested. During subsequent burial, crystals and pores grow in size as a consequence of the continuing recrystallization. ne lack of porosity loss during...

  5. Common Directions in Caucasian Chalk Circle and Keşanlı Ali Destanı

    OpenAIRE

    ODACI, Serdar

    2016-01-01

    Epic Theater founded by Bertolt Brecht influenced world literaturein the half of 20th century. Epic theater is against to Aristothalesian Theater.Naturally Brehct's plays were translated to Turkish and were presented. SuchTurkish writers as Haldun Taner and Vasıf Öngeren wrote play according toepic theater concept. In this paper common aspects in Keşanlı Ali Destanıand Caucasian Chalk Circle are examined.

  6. "Common Directions in Caucasian Chalk Circle and Keşanlı Ali Destanı"

    OpenAIRE

    ODACI, Serdar

    2010-01-01

    Epic Theater founded by Bertolt Brecht influenced world literature in the half of 20th century. Epic theater is against to Aristothalesian Theater. Naturally Brehct's plays were translated to Turkish and were presented. Such Turkish writers as Haldun Taner and Vasıf Öngeren wrote play according to epic theater concept. In this paper common aspects in Keşanlı Ali Destanı and Caucasian Chalk Circle are examined.

  7. Third report on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loar, J.M. [ed.; Adams, S.M.; Bailey, R.D. [and others

    1994-03-01

    As a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1985, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC); selected tributaries of WOC, including Fifth Creek, First Creek, Melton Branch, and Northwest Tributary; and the Clinch River. The BMAP currently consists of six major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs at ORNL. These are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota, (3) biological indicator studies, (4) instream ecological monitoring, (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment, and (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake (WOL). The investigation of contaminant transport, distribution, and fate in the WOC embayment-Clinch River-Watts Bar Reservoir system was originally a task of the BMAP but, in 1988, was incorporated into the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Facility Investigation for the Clinch River, a separate study to assess offsite contamination from all three Department of Energy facilities in Oak Ridge.

  8. Turning the tide: effects of river inflow and tidal amplitude on sandy estuaries in laboratory landscape experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinhans, Maarten; Braat, Lisanne; Leuven, Jasper; Baar, Anne; van der Vegt, Maarten; van Maarseveen, Marcel; Markies, Henk; Roosendaal, Chris; van Eijk, Arjan

    2016-04-01

    Many estuaries formed over the Holocene through a combination of fluvial and coastal influxes, but how estuary planform shape and size depend on tides, wave climate and river influxes remains unclear. Here we use a novel tidal flume setup of 20 m length by 3 m width, the Metronome (http://www.uu.nl/metronome), to create estuaries and explore a parameter space for the simple initial condition of a straight river in sandy substrate. Tidal currents capable of transporting sediment in both the ebb and flood phase because they are caused by periodic tilting of the flume rather than the classic method of water level fluctuation. Particle imaging velocimetry and a 1D shallow flow model demonstrate that this principle leads to similar sediment mobility as in nature. Ten landscape experiments recorded by timelapse overhead imaging and AGIsoft DEMs of the final bed elevation show that absence of river inflow leads to short tidal basins whereas even a minor discharge leads to long convergent estuaries. Estuary width and length as well as morphological time scale over thousands of tidal cycles strongly depend on tidal current amplitude. Paddle-generated waves subdue the ebb delta causing stronger tidal currents in the basin. Bar length-width ratios in estuaries are slightly larger to those in braided rivers in experiments and nature. Mutually evasive ebb- and flood-dominated channels are ubiquitous and appear to be formed by an instability mechanism with growing bar and bifurcation asymmetry. Future experiments will include mud flats and live vegetation.

  9. Aquatic Research Laboratory (ARL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Columbia River and groundwater well water sources are delivered to the Aquatic Research Laboratory (ARL), where these resources are used to conduct research on fish...

  10. Full-waveform inversion of cross-hole GPR data collected in a strongly heterogeneous chalk reservoir analogue with sharp permittivity and conductivity contrasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keskinen, Johanna; Zibar, Majken Caroline Looms; Moreau, Julien

    2014-01-01

    Chalk sediments form an important reservoir for groundwater onshore and for hydrocarbons in the Danish sector of the North Sea. Cross-hole Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) tomography is an efficient method to investigate subtle porosity variations in the chalk. Traditional ray-based inversion techn...

  11. Biot critical frequency applied as common friction factor for pore collapse and failure of chalk with different pore fluids and temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Katrine Alling; Fabricius, Ida Lykke; Foged, Niels Nielsen

    2011-01-01

    A fluid effect toward higher strengths for oil-saturated chalk compared with water-saturated chalk has previously been identified and labeled the "water-weakening phenomenon," but has not been further characterized physically. The hypothesis of this paper is that the Biot critical frequency...

  12. High resolution microgravity investigations for the detection and characterisation of subsidence associated with abandoned, coal, chalk and salt mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Styles, P.; Toon, S.; Branston, M.; England, R. [Keele Univ., Applied And Environmental Geophysics Group, School of Physical and Geographical Sciences (United Kingdom); Thomas, E.; Mcgrath, R. [Geotechnology, Neath (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-01

    The closure and decay of industrial activity involving mining has scarred the landscape of urban areas and geo-hazards posed by subsurface cavities are ubiquitous throughout Europe. Features of concern consist of natural solution cavities (e.g. swallow holes and sinkholes in limestone gypsum and chalk) and man-made cavities (mine workings, shafts) in a great variety of post mining environments, including coal, salt, gypsum, anhydrite, tin and chalk. These problems restrict land utilisation, hinder regeneration, pose a threat to life, seriously damage property and services and blight property values. This paper outlines the application of microgravity techniques to characterise abandoned mining hazard in case studies from Coal, Chalk and Salt Mining environments in the UK. (authors)

  13. Mechanical and chemical processes affecting the chalk during burial, insights from combined reflection seismics, well data and field work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreau, Julien; Boussaha, Myriam; Thibault, Nicolas Rudolph

    2014-01-01

    and cores analyses, respectively.However, few sites allow to combine all the different scale of observation for chalk diagenesis. Onshore and offshore high resolution seismics, two fully cored >350 m wells with wireline logging tools and very high quality exposures from a coastal cliff and a quarry form...... works have been performed with astronomical calibration based on stable isotope stratigraphy, wireline logs as well as several palaeontological proxies and detailed sedimentological analysis. Since a couple of decades, a specific kind of fractures has been described in the Chalk of Denmark, the so......-called hairline fractures. They have recently been interpreted as compaction bands associated with the pore collapse of the chalk. We have observed these fractures on the field and on the cores in specific intervals. At depth, these fractures are in genetic relation with the formation of some stylolithes...

  14. On the origin of laminated-bioturbated chalk cycles in the Upper Maastrichtian, Danish Central Graben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ineson, J.R.; Buchardt, B.; Lassen, S.; Rasmussen, J.A.; Schovsbo, N.H.; Schioeler, P.; Sheldon, E.; Surlyk, F.

    2004-07-01

    Metre-scale laminated-bioturbated chalk cycles form a characteristic motif in the lower levels of the Upper Maastrichtian chalks in the Dan Field area, southern Danish Central Graben. They have most recently been interpreted in the literature to reflect cycles of relative oxygenation on the sea floor, the laminated half-cycles recording poorly oxygenated conditions. Sedimentological, isotopic, palynofacies and palaeoecological (nannofossils, dinoflagellates, foraminifers) analysis was undertaken of a close suite of samples across a composite cyclic interval to investigate the validity of this interpretation and the possible factors controlling periodic variation in bottom-water ventilation. The data from benthic organisms clearly demonstrate a hostile sea-floor environment and outline a cyclicity in bottom water conditions that parallels, yet is lightly out of phase with, the laminated-bioturbated cycles. Interestingly, the planktonic foraminiferal data suggest that during periods with the most hostile bottom water conditions, the upper water masses were relatively stable whereas slight amelioration at the sea floor coincided with stressed, changeable conditions in the surface waters. Data from palynofacies and dinoflagellate analysis indicate a low productivity, oligotrophic setting and no evidence of relative sea-level variation in phase with the cycles is observed. Similarly, the calcareous plankton show no indications of major productivity peaks related to the onset of lamination in the sediment; conversely, minor peaks in productivity indicators in the nannofossil dataset correlate with the transition from laminated to bioturbated chalk i.e. are the result, rather than the cause of oxygen deprivation at the sea floor. On the basis of these data, it is proposed that these short-term cycles were probably controlled by cyclic variations in mean wind stress resulting in the alternation of a weakly stratified shelf sea, in which local dysoxia developed in

  15. Laboratory and Field Application of River Depth Estimation Techniques Using Remotely Sensed Data: Annual Report Year 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    The camera we used is a FLIR SC 8300 HD. The camera has an indium antimonide (InSb) sensor that detects mid- range IR light in the 3-5 micron (μm) band...this work to other research projects, including work on the Kootenai, Platte, and Russian Rivers. In addition, we are working closely with NASA and...MD_SWMS, American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Proceedings of the 2008 Annual Conference –PNAMP Special Session: Remote Sensing

  16. Electrical tortuosity, Kozeny’s factor and cementation factor modelled for chalk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katika, Konstantina; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2015-01-01

    Based on the electrical properties of chalk from the North Sea and Stevns Klint and on published data, we explore how klinkenberg corrected permeability from experimental data relate to porosity and electrical resistivity. In the current study we use electrical conductivity data of partially water......, to calculate permeability based on electrical resistivity data. We also calculate the permeability based on a simple porosity model. Finally, we redefine Kozeny’s factor, c, using Carman’s model based on tortuosity and the model based on porosity. This resulted in a third modelled permeability, which describes...

  17. Optimization of Spore Forming Bacteria Flooding for Enhanced Oil Recovery in North Sea Chalk Reservoir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halim, Amalia Yunita; Nielsen, Sidsel Marie; Eliasson Lantz, Anna;

    2015-01-01

    was used for this purpose. A spore forming bacterium, Bacillus licheniformis 421, was used as it was shown to be a good candidate in the previous study. Bacterial spore can penetrate deeper into the chalk rock, squeezing through the pore throats. Our results show that B. licheniformis 421 when injected...... as a secondary technique can recover 4% more of the original oil in place (OOIP) as compared with the seawater flooding. Furthermore, when applied as tertiary technique it can recover 1.4% OOIP of the residual oil. The effective permeability decreased in the first two sections of the core (0-1.2 cm and 1...

  18. Probable hydrologic effects of a hypothetical failure of Mackay Dam on the Big Lost River Valley from Mackay, Idaho to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druffel, Leroy; Stiltner, Gloria J.; Keefer, Thomas N.

    1979-01-01

    Mackay Dam is an irrigation reservoir on the Big Lost River, Idaho, approximately 7.2 kilometers northwest of Mackay, Idaho. Consequences of possible rupture of the dam have long concerned the residents of the river valley. The presence of reactors and of a management complex for nuclear wastes on the reservation of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), near the river , give additional cause for concern over the consequences of a rupture of Mackay Dam. The objective of this report is to calculate and route the flood wave resulting from the hypothetical failure of Mackay Dam downstream to the INEL. Both a full and a 50 percent partial breach of this dam are investigated. Two techniques are used to develop the dam-break model. The method of characteristics is used to propagate the shock wave after the dam fails. The linear implicit finite-difference solution is used to route the flood wave after the shock wave has dissipated. The time of travel of the flood wave, duration of flooding, and magnitude of the flood are determined for eight selected sites from Mackay Dam, Idaho, through the INEL diversion. At 4.2 kilometers above the INEL diversion, peak discharges of 1,550.2 and 1,275 cubic meters per second and peak flood elevations of 1,550.3 and 1,550.2 meters were calculated for the full and partial breach, respectively. Flood discharges and flood peaks were not compared for the area downstream of the diversion because of the lack of detailed flood plain geometry. (Kosco-USGS)

  19. Determination of Sediment Oxygen Demand in the Ziya River Watershed, China: Based on Laboratory Core Incubation and Microelectrode Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Nan; Shan, Baoqing; Wang, Chao

    2016-02-19

    A study coupling sedimentcore incubation and microelectrode measurement was performed to explore the sediment oxygen demand (SOD) at 16 stations in the Ziya River Watershed, a severely polluted and anoxic river system in the north of China. Total oxygen flux values in the range 0.19-1.41 g/(m²·d) with an average of 0.62 g/(m²·d) were obtained by core incubations, and diffusive oxygen flux values in the range 0.15-1.38 g/(m²·d) with an average of 0.51 g/(m²·d) were determined by microelectrodes. Total oxygen flux obviously correlated with diffusive oxygen flux (R² = 0.842). The microelectrode method produced smaller results than the incubation method in 15 of 16 sites, and the diffusive oxygen flux was smaller than the total oxygen flux. Although the two sets of SOD values had significant difference accepted by the two methods via the Wilcoxon signed-rank test (p Watershed when the dissolved oxygen (DO) recovered in the overlying water.

  20. The effect of redox conditions and adaptation time on organic micropollutant removal during river bank filtration: A laboratory-scale column study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelkamp, C; Verliefde, A R D; Schoutteten, K; Vanhaecke, L; Vanden Bussche, J; Singhal, N; van der Hoek, J P

    2016-02-15

    This study investigated the redox dependent removal and adaptive behaviour of a mixture of 15 organic micropollutants (OMPs) in laboratory-scale soil columns fed with river water. Three separate pilot systems were used consisting of: (1) two columns, (2) ten columns and (3) twenty two columns to create oxic, suboxic (partial nitrate removal) and anoxic (complete nitrate removal). The pilot set-up has some unique features--it can simulate fairly long residence times (e.g., 45 days using the 22 column system) and reduced conditions developed naturally within the system. Dimethoate, diuron, and metoprolol showed redox dependent removal behaviour with higher biodegradation rates in the oxic zone compared to the suboxic/anoxic zone. The redox dependent behaviour of these three OMPs could not be explained based on their physico-chemical properties (hydrophobicity, charge and molecular weight) or functional groups present in the molecular structure. OMPs that showed persistent behaviour in the oxic zone (atrazine, carbamazepine, hydrochlorothiazide and simazine) were also not removed under more reduced conditions. Adaptive behaviour was observed for five OMPs: dimethoate, chloridazon, lincomycin, sulfamethoxazole and phenazone. However, the adaptive behaviour could not be explained by the physico-chemical properties (hydrophobicity, charge and molecular weight) investigated in this study and only rough trends were observed with specific functional groups (e.g. ethers, sulphur, primary and secondary amines). Finally, the adaptive behaviour of OMPs was found to be an important factor that should be incorporated in predictive models for OMP removal during river bank filtration.

  1. Evaluation of background concentrations of selected chemical and radiochemical constituents in water from the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer at and near the Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomay, Roy C.; L. Flint Hall,

    2016-05-05

    The U.S. Geological Survey and Idaho Department of Environmental Quality Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Oversight Program in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy determined background concentrations of selected chemical and radiochemical constituents in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer to aid with ongoing cleanup efforts at the INL. Chemical and radiochemical constituents including calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, silica, chloride, sulfate, fluoride, bicarbonate, chromium, nitrate, tritium, strontium-90, chlorine-36, iodine-129, plutonium-238, plutonium-239, -240 (undivided), americium-241, technetium-99, uranium-234, uranium-235, and uranium-238 were selected for the background study because they were either not analyzed in earlier studies or new data became available to give a more recent determination of background concentrations. Samples of water collected from wells and springs at and near the INL that were not believed to be influenced by wastewater disposal were used to identify background concentrations. Groundwater in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer at and near the INL was divided into two major water types (western tributary and eastern regional) based on concentrations of lithium less than and greater than 5 micrograms per liter (μg/L). Median concentrations for each constituent were used to define the upper limit of background.

  2. Lead isotope exchange between dissolved and fluvial particulate matter: a laboratory study from the Johor River estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mengli; Boyle, Edward A.; Lee, Jong-Mi; Nurhati, Intan; Zurbrick, Cheryl; Switzer, Adam D.; Carrasco, Gonzalo

    2016-11-01

    Atmospheric aerosols are the dominant source of Pb to the modern marine environment, and as a result, in most regions of the ocean the Pb isotopic composition of dissolved Pb in the surface ocean (and in corals) matches that of the regional aerosols. In the Singapore Strait, however, there is a large offset between seawater dissolved and coral Pb isotopes and that of the regional aerosols. We propose that this difference results from isotope exchange between dissolved Pb supplied by anthropogenic aerosol deposition and adsorbed natural crustal Pb on weathered particles delivered to the ocean by coastal rivers. To investigate this issue, Pb isotope exchange was assessed through a closed-system exchange experiment using estuarine waters collected at the Johor River mouth (which discharges to the Singapore Strait). During the experiment, a known amount of dissolved Pb with the isotopic composition of NBS-981 (206Pb/207Pb = 1.093) was spiked into the unfiltered Johor water (dissolved and particulate 206Pb/207Pb = 1.199) and the changing isotopic composition of the dissolved Pb was monitored. The mixing ratio of the estuarine and spike Pb should have produced a dissolved 206Pb/207Pb isotopic composition of 1.161, but within a week, the 206Pb/207Pb in the water increased to 1.190 and continued to increase to 1.197 during the next two months without significant changes of the dissolved Pb concentration. The kinetics of isotope exchange was assessed using a simple Kd model, which assumes multiple sub-reservoirs within the particulate matter with different exchange rate constants. The Kd model reproduced 56% of the observed Pb isotope variance. Both the closed-system experiment and field measurements imply that isotope exchange can be an important mechanism for controlling Pb and Pb isotopes in coastal waters. A similar process may occur for other trace elements. This article is part of the themed issue 'Biological and climatic impacts of ocean trace element chemistry'.

  3. The stability of chalk during flooding of carbonated sea water at reservoir in-situ conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nermoen, Anders; Korsnes, Reidar I.; Madland, Merete V.

    2014-05-01

    Injection of CO2 into carbonate oil reservoirs has been proposed as a possible utilization of the captured CO2 due to its capability to enhance the oil recovery. For offshore reservoirs such as Ekofisk and Valhall it has been discussed to alternate the CO2 and sea water injection (WAG) to reduce costs and keep the beneficial effects of both sea water (SSW) and gas injection. Water and CO2 mix to form carbonic acids that enhance the solubility of carbonates, thus a serious concern has been raised upon the potential de-stabilization of the reservoirs during CO2 injection. In this study we focus on how carbonated sea water alters the mechanical integrity of carbonate rocks both to evaluate safety of carbon storage sites and in the planning of production strategies in producing oil fields since enhanced compaction may have both detrimental and beneficial effects. Here we will present results from long term experiments (approx. half year each) performed on Kansas outcrop chalk (38-41% porosity), which serves as model material to understand the physical and chemical interplaying processes taking place in chalk reservoirs. All tests are performed at uni-axial strain conditions, meaning that the confining radial stresses are automatically adjusted to ensure zero radial strain. The tests are performed at in-situ conditions and run through a series of stages that mimic the reservoir history at both Ekofisk and Valhall fields. We observe the strain response caused by the injected brine. The experimental stages are: (a) axial stress build-up by pore pressure depletion to stresses above yield with NaCl-brine which is inert to the chalk; (b) uni-axial creep at constant axial stresses with NaCl-brine; (c) sea water injection; and (d) injection of carbonated water (SSW+CO2) at various mixture concentrations. Two test series were performed in which the pore pressure was increased (re-pressurized) before stage (c) to explore the stress dependency of the fluid induced strain

  4. Mechanical and chemical processes affecting the chalk during burial, insights from combined reflection seismics, well data and field work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreau, Julien; Boussaha, Myriam; Thibault, Nicolas Rudolph;

    2014-01-01

    and cores analyses, respectively.However, few sites allow to combine all the different scale of observation for chalk diagenesis. Onshore and offshore high resolution seismics, two fully cored >350 m wells with wireline logging tools and very high quality exposures from a coastal cliff and a quarry form...

  5. Influence of clay and silica on permeability and capillary entry pressure of chalk reservoirs in the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røgen, Birte; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2002-01-01

    The permeability and capillary entry pressure of chalk reservoirs are controlled by their porosity and specific surface area. Measured permeabilities are in the range 0.025-5.3 mD and are successfully predicted by use of the Kozeny equation. In this paper we focus on the factors that control...

  6. Towards an improved lithostratigraphic subdivision of the chalk group in the Netherlands North Sea area - A seismic stratigraphic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molen, A.S. van der; Wong, Th.E.

    2007-01-01

    In the Netherlands North Sea area, the Chalk Group has thus far been subdivided into the Cenomanian Texel Formation, the Turonian to Maastrichtian Ommelanden Formation and the Danian Ekofisk Formation. This paper describes the attempt to arrive at a more detailed lithostratigraphic subdivision for t

  7. Changes in Specific Surface as observed by NMR, caused by saturation of Chalk with porewater bearing divalent Ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katika, Konstantina; Addassi, Mouadh; Alam, Mohammad Monzurul

    2014-01-01

    depositional textures. We compared two cases. The first experiments on outcrop chalk with high salinity brines showed that saturation with divalent ions (Mg2+,Ca2+and SO42-) cause major shifts in the T2 distribution curve, probably due to precipitation in the pore space. In a second set of experiments, fluid...

  8. The Deep River Science Academy: a unique and innovative program for engaging students in science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, C.W., E-mail: carlrhonda.turner@sympatico.ca [Deep River Science Academy, Deep River, Ontario (Canada); Didsbury, R. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Ingram, M. [Deep River Science Academy, Deep River, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-06-15

    For 28 years, the Deep River Science Academy (DRSA) has been offering high school students the opportunity to engage in the excitement and challenge of professional scientific research to help nurture their passion for science and to provide them with the experience and the knowledge to make informed decisions regarding possible future careers in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). The venue for the DRSA program has been a six-week summer science camp where students, working in pairs under the guidance of a university undergraduate tutor, contribute directly to an on-going research program under the supervision of a professional scientist or engineer. This concept has been expanded in recent years to reach students in classrooms year round by engaging students via the internet over a 12-week term in a series of interactive teaching sessions based on an on-going research project. Although the research projects for the summer program are offered primarily from the laboratories of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited at its Chalk River Laboratories site, projects for the year-round program can be based, in principle, in laboratories at universities and other research institutes located anywhere in Canada. This paper will describe the program in more detail using examples illustrating how the students become engaged in the research and the sorts of contributions they have been able to make over the years. The impact of the program on the students and the degree to which the DRSA has been able to meet its objective of encouraging students to choose careers in the fields of STEM and equipping them with the skills and experience to be successful will be assessed based on feedback from the students themselves. Finally, we will examine the program in the context of how well it helps to address the challenges faced by educators today in meeting the demands of students in a world where the internet provides instant access to information. (author)

  9. The impact of benthic fauna on fluvial bed load transport: Challenges of upscaling laboratory experiments to river and landscape scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, S. P.

    2012-04-01

    The impact on sediment transport processes and channel morphology of several relatively large, iconic animals including beaver and salmon is increasingly well understood. However, many other aquatic fauna are important zoogeomorphic agents and ecosystem engineers. These somewhat overlooked "Cinderella" species include benthic aquatic insect larvae, freshwater crustaceans and many species of fish. Despite relatively modest individual effects, the ubiquity, abundance and cumulative impact of these organisms makes them a potentially significant agency, with as yet undiscovered and unquantified impacts on channel morphology and sediment fluxes. Their actions (digging, foraging, moving, burrowing), constructions and secretions modify bed sediment characteristics (grain size distribution, interlock, imbrication, protrusion), alter bed topography (thence hydraulic roughness) and contribute to biogenic restraints on grain movement. In turn, they can affect the distribution of surface particle entrainment thresholds and bed shear stresses, with implications for bed load transport. Flume experiments have measured some of these impacts and provided direct observations of the mechanisms involved, but many of the most interesting research questions pertain to the impact of these animals at reach, catchment and even landscape scales: Not least, what is the impact of small aquatic animals on bed load flux and yield? This presentation will consider some of the challenges involved in answering this question; that is, of scaling up experimental understanding of how aquatic animals affect bed load transport processes to river scales. Pertinent themes include: (1) the potential impacts of experimental arrangements on the behaviours and activities that affect hydraulic or geomorphological processes; (2) field coincidence of the spatial and temporal distributions of (a) the animals and their behaviours with (b) the physical conditions (substrates, flows) under which those animals are

  10. The fissured East Yorkshire Chalk, UK - a 'sustainable' aquifer under stress ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, T.; Younger, P. L.; Chadha, D. S.

    2003-04-01

    The fissured Chalk is an important regional aquifer in East Yorkshire, UK, with a large potential for water supply to the Humberside region and especially the City of Hull. It has been exploited since the end of the 19th Century, but although there are more than a dozen long-established pumping wells in the Chalk these currently abstract only 7% of the total recharge the aquifer receives. The classical notion of ‘safe aquifer yield' equates the quantity of groundwater available for abstraction with the long-term natural recharge to the aquifer. An incautious hydrogeologist might be lead to conclude that this is a secure, under-developed resource. In this case study, the aquifer is shown to be already displaying early symptoms of hydrological stress (eg drought effects, overexploitation), and hydrogeochemical indicators point to further effects of anthropogenic pollution impacts in the unconfined aquifer and both recent and ancient saline intrusion in its semi-confined and confined zones. The hydrochemical evidence clearly reveals the importance both of recent aquifer management decisions and palaeohydrogeology in determining the distribution of water qualities within the aquifer. Waters encountered in the confined aquifer are identified as complex (and potentially dynamic) mixtures between recently recharged waters, modern seawater intrusion, and ancient seawater which entered the aquifer many millennia ago. Elliot, T. Younger, P.L. &Chadha, D.S. (1998) The future sustainability of groundwater resources in East Yorkshire - past and present perspectives. In H. Wheater and C. Kirby (Eds.) Hydrology in a Changing Environment, Vol. II, Proc. British Hydrological Society (BHS) International Conference, 6-10 July 1998, Exeter, UK. pp.21-31. Elliot, T., Chadha, D.S. &Younger, P.L. (2001) Water Quality Impacts and Palaeohydrogeology in the East Yorkshire Chalk Aquifer, UK. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology, 34(4): 385-398. Younger, P.L., Teutsch

  11. Bioremediation of Petroleum and Radiological Contaminated Soils at the Savannah River Site: Laboratory to Field Scale Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BRIGMON, ROBINL.

    2004-06-07

    In the process of Savannah River Site (SRS) operations limited amounts of waste are generated containing petroleum, and radiological contaminated soils. Currently, this combination of radiological and petroleum contaminated waste does not have an immediate disposal route and is being stored in low activity vaults. SRS developed and implemented a successful plan for clean up of the petroleum portion of the soils in situ using simple, inexpensive, bioreactor technology. Treatment in a bioreactor removes the petroleum contamination from the soil without spreading radiological contamination to the environment. This bioreactor uses the bioventing process and bioaugmentation or the addition of the select hydrocarbon degrading bacteria. Oxygen is usually the initial rate-limiting factor in the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons. Using the bioventing process allowed control of the supply of nutrients and moisture based on petroleum contamination concentrations and soil type. The results of this work have proven to be a safe and cost-effective means of cleaning up low level radiological and petroleum-contaminated soil. Many of the other elements of the bioreactor design were developed or enhanced during the demonstration of a ''biopile'' to treat the soils beneath a Polish oil refinery's waste disposal lagoons. Aerobic microorganisms were isolated from the aged refinery's acidic sludge contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Twelve hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria were isolated from the sludge. The predominant PAH degraders were tentatively identified as Achromobacter, Pseudomonas Burkholderia, and Sphingomonas spp. Several Ralstonia spp were also isolated that produce biosurfactants. Biosurfactants can enhance bioremediation by increasing the bioavailability of hydrophobic contaminants including hydrocarbons. The results indicated that the diversity of acid-tolerant PAH-degrading microorganisms in acidic oil wastes may

  12. Effect of soil disturbance on recharging fluxes: case study on the Snake River Plain, Idaho National Laboratory, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmo, John R.; Perkins, Kim S.

    2008-08-01

    Soil structural disturbance influences the downward flow of water that percolates deep enough to become aquifer recharge. Data from identical experiments in an undisturbed silt-loam soil and in an adjacent simulated waste trench composed of the same soil material, but disturbed, included (1) laboratory- and field-measured unsaturated hydraulic properties and (2) field-measured transient water content profiles through 24 h of ponded infiltration and 75 d of redistribution. In undisturbed soil, wetting fronts were highly diffuse above 2 m depth, and did not go much deeper than 2 m. Darcian analysis suggests an average recharge rate less than 2 mm/year. In disturbed soil, wetting fronts were sharp and initial infiltration slower; water moved slowly below 2 m without obvious impediment. Richards’ equation simulations with realistic conditions predicted sharp wetting fronts, as observed for disturbed soil. Such simulations were adequate for undisturbed soil only if started from a post-initial moisture distribution that included about 3 h of infiltration. These late-started simulations remained good, however, through the 76 d of data. Overall results suggest the net effect of soil disturbance, although it reduces preferential flow, may be to increase recharge by disrupting layer contrasts.

  13. Multi isotopic tools to understand selenium origins in groundwaters of the Chalk aquifer in Northern France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cary, Lise; Gourcy, Laurence; Benabderraziq, Hind; Elkhattabi, Jamal; Laurent, Alexandra; Négrel, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    Four field wells exploiting the Chalk aquifer supply Lille city in water. The little catchment area is submitted to quantitative and qualitative pressure from industrial, urban and agriculture origins. Selenium (Se) concentrations are often higher than EU standards (0.12 µmol.L-1) for potable drinking water and can reach 0.4 μmol.L-1 leading to exploitation restrictions. An integrated study was settled to determine the water sources and dynamics of elements, with a focus on Se, with the goal of managing both water quality and quantity. After a large chemical characterisation of the system, a monthly sampling campaign was held in 2012 in four wells and in the close Deûle channel. In situ physical and chemical parameters, chemical analysis of major and trace elements with a special focus on redox-sensitive elements including SeIV, SeVI, FeII, stable water isotopes (δ18O, δ2H) and δ34S and δ18O of sulphates measures were undertaken. The chemical composition of solids sampled at various depths at vicinity of the four wells was analysed. Se concentrations in groundwaters and in the solid phase vary significantly. In the northern part of the Ansereuilles north of the Deûle channel, where the highest Se concentrations in solids was found in a 13 m alluvial clay deposit above the chalk, a first main type of waters can be defined with the variable and locally highest Se concentrations (0.19 to 0.4 µmol.L-1), relatively high and stable sulphate concentrations (2.5 µmol/L), no nitrates, dissolved Fe and Mn, negative δ34S (around -20 ‰) and δ18O typical of evaporated waters. A second main type of waters can be described at Houplin, south of the Deûle channel, where the geological profile show less than 1 mg/kg of Se, with intermediate Se concentrations (0.1 to 0.2 µmol/L), variable nitrate concentrations (0.4 to 1.2 mmol/L), not quantified dissolved Fe and Mn, sulphate concentrations close to 1.5 mmol/L, variable negative δ34S (-8 to -24 ‰) and δ18O in the

  14. Tracking selenium behaviour in chalk aquifer (northern France): Sr and 34S-sulphates isotopes constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cary, Lise; Benabderraziq, Hind; Elkhattabi, Jamal; Parmentier, Marc; Gourcy, Laurence; Négrel, Philippe

    2014-05-01

    Groundwaters in parts of the Paris Basin (France) are facing increasing selenium (Se) contents that can exceed the drinking water limit of 10 μg/L according to the European Framework Directive in the field of water policy (2000/60/EC). To better understand the groundwater origins and the selenium dynamics, the water chemistry of the Chalk aquifer supplying drinkable water to Lille city was studied. This area is submitted to quantitative and qualitative pressure from industrial, urban and agriculture origins. An integrated study was settled to determine the water sources and dynamics of elements, with a focus on Se. After a large chemical characterisation of the groundwater chemistry in the four field wells, a monthly monitoring was held in four wells and in the Deûle channel. Chemical analysis of major and trace elements, stable isotopes (δ18O, δ2H), strontium isotopes, and δ34S and δ18O of sulphates were realised. The chemical composition of solids sampled at various depths at vicinity of the four wells was also analysed. The specific geochemical signature of groundwater as revealed by Sr isotopes, in addition to element concentrations ratios like Mg/Sr and Se/Sr, highlighted mixture of three main groundwaters bodies: (1) the upstream groundwaters in the recharge area with the most radiogenic 87Sr/86Sr isotopic signature; (2) the confined groundwaters with high Sr concentrations due to water-rock interactions and the lowest 87Sr/86Sr isotopic signature close to the one of the chalk in Paris and London basins; (3) the Se-rich formations of Tertiary and Quaternary. The contents of Se, mainly present as SeV I (and locally as SeIV ), displayed spatial and temporal disparities that can be explained by geological and hydrogeological conditions. Se-rich clayed sediments originating from the dismantling of Se-rich tertiary formations (i.e. Ypresian) overlay the chalk formation and can be found in saturated conditions depending of the water table level. Oxidation of

  15. Diagenesis of silica-rich mounded chalk, the Coniacian Arnager Limestone, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus Madsen, Heine; Stemmerik, Lars; Surlyk, Finn

    2010-01-01

    The Coniacian Arnager Limestone Formation is exposed on the Danish island of Bornholm in the Baltic Sea. It is composed of mound-bedded siliceous chalk, and X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy indicate a content of 30-70% insoluble minerals, including authigenic opal-CT, quartz......, clinoptilolite, feldspars, calcite, dolomite, and barite. Opal-CT and clinoptilolite are the most common and constitute 16-53% and 2-9%, respectively. The content of insoluble minerals varies laterally bothwithinthemounds and inplanar beds, and the opal-CT content varies by up to 10% vertically. Themounds...... precipitated in pore water with low silica activity during maximum burial, probably to depths of 200-250 m. The dissolution of sponge spicules and decomposition of the sponge tissue also resulted in the release of Ba2+, Sr2+,Mg2+, Ca2+ and CO3 2-, facilitating precipitation of barite and dolomite...

  16. Upper Cretaceous chalk facies and depositional history recorded in the Mona-1 core, Mona Ridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderskouv, Kresten; Surlyk, Finn

    2011-01-01

    , including mudflow, debris flow, and slumping. Pelagic deposits vary mainly in terms of the concentration of siliciclastic material, the trace-fossil assemblage, and the presence or ab­sence of primary sedimentary structures. Pelagic sedimentation was probably punctuated by the deposition of thin turbidites......-slope evolution of debris flows. Debris flows are rep­resented by matrix-supported conglomerates, which form one of the most common facies in the succession. High-concentration, gravity-driven suspension flows passed into dilute visco-plastic flows during the final stages of deposition and resulted......The 331 m long core from the Mona-1 well in the Danish North Sea spans almost the entire Upper Cretaceous Chalk Group but only about 10% of Late Cretaceous time is represented. The succession comprises 14 facies representing pelagic deposition, turbidity flow, and mass-transport processes...

  17. Biological markers in bitumens and pyrolyzates of Upper Cretaceous bituminous chalks from the Ghareb Formation (Israel)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rullkötter, Jürgen; Aizenshtat, Zeev; Spiro, Baruch

    1984-01-01

    The sterane and triterpane distributions of three bituminous chalks from the Upper Cretaceous Ghareb Formation (Israel) were investigated both in the original extractable bitumens and in extracts obtained after pyrolysis of whole rock and isolated kerogen samples at 450°C. Pyrolysis was performed in a closed system under hydrous (whole rock) and anhydrous conditions (isolated kerogens). The carbon number distributions of steranes and triterpanes differ significantly between original bitumen and pyrolyzates. Unlike the bitumens in which diasteranes were not detected, the anhydrous pyrolyzates contain small amounts of diasteranes. The presence of water during pyrolysis leads to an increase of sterane isomerization, the abundant formation of diasteranes and an increase of the 18α( H)- trisnorneohopane/17α( H)- trisnorhopane ratio. Sterane isomerization maturation parameters show a closer match between original bitumen and pyrolyzates after pyrolysis in a closed system when compared with an open system.

  18. Wettability of Chalk and Argillaceous Sandstones Assessed from T1/T2 Ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katika, Konstantina; Saidian, M.; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    to mineral properties. Thus, longitudinal, T1, and transverse, T2, relaxation times should in principle be similar. However, microscopic magnetic gradients related to minerals can shorten T2 as compared to T1 provided the saturating fluid has high affinity to the solid. We consequently find that the T1/T2...... with water, oil or oil/water at irreducible water saturation. The T1/T2 ratio obtained from T1-T2 maps reflects the T2-shortening. We compare the T1/T2 ratio for the same type of rock, saturated with different fluids. The chalk shows high affinity for water, Berea sandstone has no clear preference for oil...

  19. Chemical constituents in groundwater from multiple zones in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho, 2009-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomay, Roy C.; Hopkins, Candice B.; Maimer, Neil V.

    2015-01-01

    From 2009 to 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Project office, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, collected water-quality samples from multiple water-bearing zones in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer. Water samples were collected from 11 monitoring wells completed in about 250–750 feet of the upper part of the aquifer, and samples were analyzed for selected major ions, trace elements, nutrients, radiochemical constituents, and stable isotopes. Each well was equipped with a multilevel monitoring system containing four to seven sampling ports that were each isolated by permanent packer systems. The sampling ports were installed in aquifer zones that were highly transmissive and that represented the water chemistry of the top three to five model layers of a steady-state and transient groundwater‑flow model. The groundwater-flow model and water chemistry are being used to better define movement of wastewater constituents in the aquifer.

  20. Upper Cretaceous chalk facies and depositional history recorded in the Mona-1 core, Mona Ridge, Danish North Sea: Plate 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surlyk, Finn

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The 331 m long core from the Mona-1 well in the Danish North Sea spans almost the entire Upper Cretaceous Chalk Group but only about 10% of Late Cretaceous time is represented. The succession comprises 14 facies representing pelagic deposition, turbidity flow, and mass-transport processes, including mudflow, debris flow, and slumping. Pelagic deposits vary mainly in terms of the concentration of siliciclastic material, the trace-fossil assemblage, and the presence or ab¬sence of primary sedimentary structures. Pelagic sedimentation was probably punctuated by the deposition of thin turbidites, and the resultant deposits were thoroughly bioturbated if deposited during normal oxygenation at the sea floor. Periodic benthic dysoxia resulted in the preservation of primary structures, as represented by laminated chalk which consists of thin pelagic laminae alternating with thin turbidites. In addition to the thin turbidites in the laminated chalk, four dif¬ferent turbidite facies are interpreted as representing high- to low-energy flows. Clast-supported chalk conglomerates have previously not been differentiated from other turbidites, but are here interpreted to be directly related to the down-slope evolution of debris flows. Debris flows are rep¬resented by matrix-supported conglomerates, which form one of the most common facies in the succession. High-concentration, gravity-driven suspension flows passed into dilute visco-plastic flows during the final stages of deposition and resulted in the deposition of structureless chalks. Limited shear deformation produced distinct quasi-facies from which the precursor facies can be deduced, whereas intense or continued shear deformation produced a shear-banded quasi-facies from which the precursor facies cannot be deduced in all cases. A series of major slump packages (14–18 in total are interpreted, forming over 40% of the succession; debrites appear to be the most common precursor facies involved in

  1. Upper Cretaceous chalk facies and depositional history recorded in the Mona-1 core, Mona Ridge, Danish North Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finn Surlyk

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The 331 m long core from the Mona-1 well in the Danish North Sea spans almost the entire Upper Cretaceous Chalk Group but only about 10% of Late Cretaceous time is represented. The succession comprises 14 facies representing pelagic deposition, turbidity flow, and mass-transport processes, including mudflow, debris flow, and slumping. Pelagic deposits vary mainly in terms of the concentration of siliciclastic material, the trace-fossil assemblage, and the presence or ab¬sence of primary sedimentary structures. Pelagic sedimentation was probably punctuated by the deposition of thin turbidites, and the resultant deposits were thoroughly bioturbated if deposited during normal oxygenation at the sea floor. Periodic benthic dysoxia resulted in the preservation of primary structures, as represented by laminated chalk which consists of thin pelagic laminae alternating with thin turbidites. In addition to the thin turbidites in the laminated chalk, four dif¬ferent turbidite facies are interpreted as representing high- to low-energy flows. Clast-supported chalk conglomerates have previously not been differentiated from other turbidites, but are here interpreted to be directly related to the down-slope evolution of debris flows. Debris flows are rep¬resented by matrix-supported conglomerates, which form one of the most common facies in the succession. High-concentration, gravity-driven suspension flows passed into dilute visco-plastic flows during the final stages of deposition and resulted in the deposition of structureless chalks. Limited shear deformation produced distinct quasi-facies from which the precursor facies can be deduced, whereas intense or continued shear deformation produced a shear-banded quasi-facies from which the precursor facies cannot be deduced in all cases. A series of major slump packages (14–18 in total are interpreted, forming over 40% of the succession; debrites appear to be the most common precursor facies involved in

  2. The relation among porosity, permeability, and specific surface of chalk from the Gorm field, Danish North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeanette, Mortensen; Engstrøm, Finn; Lind, Ida

    1998-01-01

    The origin to the difference in the relationship between permeability and porosity for Danian and Maastrichtian chalk from the Gorm field offshore Denmark has been investigated. The investigation was based on 300 sets of core data (He-expansion porosity and air permeability) from the well Gorm N-22......X. On 24 of the core plugs the specific surface was determined by BET and on 14 of these samples image analysis was made. The data was rationalized by the use of the Kozeny equation and it was found that each geologic unit had a characteristic relationship between porosity, permeability and specific...... surface. Furthermore it was found that the nature of porosity (intrafossil, intergranular, etc.) had no significant influence on the air permeability, so that the permeability of the chalk can be calculated from total porosity and specific surface. Kozeny's empirical constant, c, was here determined...

  3. Compaction of North-Sea Chalk by Pore-Failure and Pressure Solution in a Producing Reservoir

    OpenAIRE

    Keszthelyi, Daniel; Dysthe, Dag K.; JAMTVEIT, Bjørn

    2016-01-01

    The Ekofisk field, Norwegian North sea, is an example of a compacting chalk reservoir with considerable subsequent seafloor subsidence due to petroleum production. Previously, a number of models were created to predict the compaction using different phenomenological approaches. Here we present a different approach which includes a new creep model based on microscopic mechanisms with no fitting parameters to predict the strain rate at reservoir scale. The model is able to reproduce the magnitu...

  4. Infrared spectroscopy and density functional theory investigation of calcite, chalk, and coccoliths-do we observe the mineral surface?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Martin Peter; Hem, Caroline Piper; Schultz, Logan Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    broadening from macroscopic dielectric effects. We detect water adsorbed on the high surface area synthetic calcite, which permits observation of the chemistry of thin liquid films on calcite using transmission infrared spectroscopy. The combination of infrared spectroscopy and density functional theory also...... allowed us to quantify the amount of polysaccharides associated with the coccoliths. The amount of polysaccharides left in chalk, demonstrated to be present in other work, is below the IR detection limit, which is 0.5% by mass....

  5. Steady-State and Transient Groundwater Flow and Advective Transport, Eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer, Idaho National Laboratory and Vicinity, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, J. C.; Ackerman, D. J.; Rousseau, J. P.; Rattray, G. W.

    2009-12-01

    Three-dimensional steady-state and transient models of groundwater flow and advective transport through the fractured basalts and interbedded sediments of the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) aquifer were developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy. The model domain covers an area of 1,940 square miles that includes most of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). A 50-year history of waste disposal at the INL has resulted in measurable concentrations of waste contaminants in the aquifer. Numerical models simulated 1980 steady-state conditions and transient flow for 1980-95. In the transient model, streamflow infiltration was the major stress. The models were calibrated using the parameter-estimation program incorporated in MODFLOW-2000. The steady-state model reasonably simulated the observed water-table altitude and gradients. Simulation of transient conditions reproduced changes in the flow system resulting from episodic infiltration from the Big Lost River. Analysis of simulations shows that flow is (1) dominantly horizontal through interflow zones in basalt, vertical anisotropy resulting from contrasts in hydraulic conductivity of different types of basalt and the interbedded sediments, (2) temporally variable due to streamflow infiltration from the Big Lost River, and (3) moving downward downgradient of the INL. Particle-tracking simulations were used to evaluate how simulated groundwater flow paths and travel times differ between the steady-state and transient flow models, and how well model-derived groundwater flow directions and velocities compare to independently-derived estimates. Particle tracking also was used to simulate the growth of tritium plumes originating at two INL facilities over a 16 year period under steady-state and transient flow conditions (1953-68). The shape, dimensions, and areal extent of these plumes were compared to a map of the plumes for 1968 from tritium releases beginning in 1952

  6. Mass-transport deposits and reservoir quality of Upper Cretaceous Chalk within the German Central Graben, North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfai, Jashar; Lutz, Rüdiger; Franke, Dieter; Gaedicke, Christoph; Kley, Jonas

    2016-04-01

    The architecture of intra-chalk deposits in the `Entenschnabel' area of the German North Sea is studied based on 3D seismic data. Adapted from seismic reflection characteristics, four types of mass-transport deposits (MTDs) are distinguished, i.e. slumps, slides, channels and frontal splay deposits. The development of these systems can be linked to inversion tectonics and halotectonic movements of Zechstein salt. Tectonic uplift is interpreted to have caused repeated tilting of the sea floor. This triggered large-scale slump deposition during Turonian-Santonian times. Slump deposits are characterised by chaotic reflection patterns interpreted to result from significant stratal distortion. The south-eastern study area is characterised by a large-scale frontal splay complex. This comprises a network of shallow channel systems arranged in a distributive pattern. Several slide complexes are observed near the Top Chalk in Maastrichtian and Danian sediments. These slides are commonly associated with large incisions into the sediments below. Best reservoir properties with high producible porosities are found in the reworked chalk strata, e.g. Danish North Sea, therefore MTDs detected in the study area are regarded as potential hydrocarbon reservoirs and considered as exploration targets.

  7. Geologic Controls of Hydraulic Conductivity in the Snake River Plain Aquifer At and Near the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. R. Anderson; M. A. Kuntz; L. C. Davis

    1999-02-01

    The effective hydraulic conductivity of basalt and interbedded sediment that compose the Snake River Plain aquifer at and near the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) ranges from about 1.0x10 -2 to 3.2x10 4 feet per day (ft/d). This six-order-of-magnitude range of hydraulic conductivity was estimated from single-well aquifer tests in 114 wells, and is attributed mainly to the physical characteristics and distribution of basalt flows and dikes. Hydraulic conductivity is greatest in thin pahoehoe flows and near-vent volcanic deposits. Hydraulic conductivity is least in flows and deposits cut by dikes. Estimates of hydraulic conductivity at and near the INEEL are similar to those measured in similar volcanic settings in Hawaii. The largest variety of rock types and the greatest range of hydraulic conductivity are in volcanic rift zones, which are characterized by numerous aligned volcanic vents and fissures related to underlying dikes. Three broad categories of hydraulic conductivity corresponding to six general types of geologic controls can be inferred from the distribution of wells and vent corridors. Hydraulic conductivity of basalt flows probably is increased by localized fissures and coarse mixtures of interbedded sediment, scoria, and basalt rubble. Hydraulic conductivity of basalt flows is decreased locally by abundant alteration minerals of probable hydrothermal origin. Hydraulic conductivity varies as much as six orders of magnitude in a single vent corridor and varies from three to five orders of magnitude within distances of 500 to 1,000 feet. Abrupt changes in hydraulic conductivity over short distances suggest the presence of preferential pathways and local barriers that may greatly affect the movement of ground water and the dispersion of radioactive and chemical wastes downgradient from points of waste disposal.

  8. Integrating geophysical and hydrochemical borehole-log measurements to characterize the Chalk aquifer, Berkshire, United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schürch, Marc; Buckley, David

    2002-09-01

    Geophysical and hydrochemical borehole-logging techniques were integrated to characterize hydraulic and hydrogeochemical properties of the Chalk aquifer at boreholes in Berkshire, UK. The down-hole measurements were made to locate fissures in the chalk, their spatial extent between boreholes, and to determine the groundwater chemical quality of the water-bearing layers. The geophysical borehole logging methods used were caliper, focused resistivity, induction resistivity, gamma ray, fluid temperature, fluid electrical conductivity, impeller and heat-pulse flowmeter, together with borehole wall optical-imaging. A multiparameter data transmitter was used to measure groundwater temperature, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, pH, and redox potential of the borehole fluid down-hole. High permeability developed at the Chalk Rock by groundwater circulation provides the major flow horizon at the Banterwick Barn study site and represents a conduit system that serves as an effective local hydraulic connection between the boreholes. The Chalk Rock includes several lithified solution-ridden layers, hardgrounds, which imply a gap in sedimentation possibly representing an unconformity. Lower groundwater temperature, high dissolved-oxygen content, and flowmeter evidence of preferential groundwater flow in the Chalk Rock indicated rapid groundwater circulation along this horizon. By repeating the logging at different times of the year under changing hydraulic conditions, other water-inflow horizons within the Chalk aquifer were recognized. Résumé. Des techniques géophysiques et hydrochimiques de diagraphies en forage ont été mises en oeuvre pour caractériser les propriétés hydrauliques et hydrogéochimiques de l'aquifère de la craie dans des forages du Berkshire (Grande-Bretagne). Les mesures en descente ont été faites pour localiser les fissures dans la craie et leur développement spatial entre forages, et pour déterminer la qualité de l'eau souterraine des

  9. Fault and fracture patterns in low porosity chalk and their potential influence on sub-surface fluid flow-A case study from Flamborough Head, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagi, D. A.; De Paola, N.; McCaffrey, K. J. W.; Holdsworth, R. E.

    2016-10-01

    To better understand fault zone architecture and fluid flow in mesoscale fault zones, we studied normal faults in chalks with displacements up to 20 m, at two representative localities in Flamborough Head (UK). At the first locality, chalk contains cm-thick, interlayered marl horizons, whereas at the second locality marl horizons were largely absent. Cm-scale displacement faults at both localities display ramp-flat geometries. Mesoscale fault patterns in the marl-free chalk, including a larger displacement fault (20 m) containing multiple fault strands, show widespread evidence of hydraulically-brecciated rocks, whereas clays smears along fault planes, and injected into open fractures, and a simpler fault zone architecture is observed where marl horizons are present. Hydraulic brecciation and veins observed in the marl-free chalk units suggest that mesoscale fault patterns acted as localized fault conduit allowing for widespread fluid flow. On the other hand, mesoscale fault patterns developed in highly fractured chalk, which contains interlayered marl horizons can act as localized barriers to fluid flow, due to the sealing effect of clays smears along fault planes and introduced into open fractures in the damage zone. To support our field observations, quantitative analyses carried out on the large faults suggest a simple fault zone in the chalk with marl units with fracture density/connectivity decreasing towards the protolith. Where marls are absent, density is high throughout the fault zone, while connectivity is high only in domains nearest the fault core. We suggest that fluid flow in fractured chalk is especially influenced by the presence of marls. When present, it can smear onto fault planes, forming localised barriers. Fluid flow along relatively large displacement faults is additionally controlled by the complexity of the fault zone, especially the size/geometry of weakly and intensely connected damage zone domains.

  10. Multilevel groundwater monitoring of hydraulic head and temperature in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho, 2009–10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twining, Brian V.; Fisher, Jason C.

    2012-01-01

    During 2009 and 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey’s Idaho National Laboratory Project Office, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, collected quarterly, depth-discrete measurements of fluid pressure and temperature in nine boreholes located in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer. Each borehole was instrumented with a multilevel monitoring system consisting of a series of valved measurement ports, packer bladders, casing segments, and couplers. Multilevel monitoring at the Idaho National Laboratory has been ongoing since 2006. This report summarizes data collected from three multilevel monitoring wells installed during 2009 and 2010 and presents updates to six multilevel monitoring wells. Hydraulic heads (heads) and groundwater temperatures were monitored from 9 multilevel monitoring wells, including 120 hydraulically isolated depth intervals from 448.0 to 1,377.6 feet below land surface. Quarterly head and temperature profiles reveal unique patterns for vertical examination of the aquifer’s complex basalt and sediment stratigraphy, proximity to aquifer recharge and discharge, and groundwater flow. These features contribute to some of the localized variability even though the general profile shape remained consistent over the period of record. Major inflections in the head profiles almost always coincided with low-permeability sediment layers and occasionally thick sequences of dense basalt. However, the presence of a sediment layer or dense basalt layer was insufficient for identifying the location of a major head change within a borehole without knowing the true areal extent and relative transmissivity of the lithologic unit. Temperature profiles for boreholes completed within the Big Lost Trough indicate linear conductive trends; whereas, temperature profiles for boreholes completed within the axial volcanic high indicate mostly convective heat transfer resulting from the vertical movement of groundwater. Additionally, temperature profiles

  11. Evolutionary stability of egg trading and parceling in simultaneous hermaphrodites: the chalk bass revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Philip H; Hart, Mary K

    2007-06-07

    Several species of simultaneously hermaphroditic seabasses living on coral reefs mate by alternating male and female roles with a partner. This is known as egg trading, one of the classic and most widely cited examples of social reciprocity among animals. Some of the egg-trading seabass species, including the chalk bass, Serranus tortugarum, switch mating roles repeatedly, having subdivided their clutch of eggs into parcels offered to the partner for fertilization. Here we attempt to understand these dynamics as a pair of evolutionary games, modifying some previous approaches to better reflect the biological system. We find that the trading of egg clutches is evolutionarily stable via byproduct mutualism and resistant to invasion by rare individuals that take the male role exclusively. We note why and how parceling may reflect sexual conflict between individuals in the mating pair. We estimate evolutionarily stable parcel numbers and show how they depend on parameter values. Typically, two or more sequential parcel numbers are evolutionarily stable, though the lowest of these yields the highest fitness. Assuming that parcel numbers are adjusted to local conditions, we predict that parcel numbers in nature are inversely related both to mating group density (except at low density) and predation risk.

  12. Stratigraphy and palaeoceanography of upper Masstrichtian chalks, southern Danish Central Graben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ineson, J.R.; Buchardt, B.; Lassen, Susanne; Rasmussen, Jan A.; Schioeler, P.; Schovsbo, N.H.; Sheldon, E.; Surlyk, F. [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2006-07-01

    Upper Maastrichtian chalks form important hydrocarbon reservoirs in the Danish sector of the North Sea and have been intensively studied, yet their lithological uniformity can frustrate attempts to develop a high-resolution stratigraphic subdivision and a genetic understanding of the factors controlling production and sedimentation of the pelagic carbonate ooze. Recent research into these topics, by means of a multidisciplinary study involving quantitative/semiquantitative palynology, micropalaeontology (nannofossils, foraminifers) and isotope geochemistry, integrated with detailed sedimentology. Two key wells were selected, the M-1OX well from the Dan Field and the E-5X well from the Tyra SE Field, based on the extensive core coverage in these wells and on their position in the southern part of the Danish Central Graben where evidence of large-scale resedimentation (and consequent stratigraphic complexity) is uncommon within the Maastrichtian section. This study concentrated on a number of palaeoceanographic signals that can be derived from the sedimentary record. Planktonic organisms, both phytoplankton (e.g. coccolithophores, some dinoflagellates) and zooplankton (e.g. foraminifers) provide a record of conditions in the upper watermasses, largely within the photic zone, while bottom conditions are indicated by epifaunal/infaunal organisms (e.g. benthic foraminifers) and bioturbation, and by the sedimentological evidence of depositional processes at the sea floor. (LN)

  13. Borehole deviation and correction factor data for selected wells in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer at and near the Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twining, Brian V.

    2016-11-29

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, has maintained a water-level monitoring program at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) since 1949. The purpose of the program is to systematically measure and report water-level data to assess the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer and long term changes in groundwater recharge, discharge, movement, and storage. Water-level data are commonly used to generate potentiometric maps and used to infer increases and (or) decreases in the regional groundwater system. Well deviation is one component of water-level data that is often overlooked and is the result of the well construction and the well not being plumb. Depending on measured slant angle, where well deviation generally increases linearly with increasing slant angle, well deviation can suggest artificial anomalies in the water table. To remove the effects of well deviation, the USGS INL Project Office applies a correction factor to water-level data when a well deviation survey indicates a change in the reference elevation of greater than or equal to 0.2 ft.Borehole well deviation survey data were considered for 177 wells completed within the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer, but not all wells had deviation survey data available. As of 2016, USGS INL Project Office database includes: 57 wells with gyroscopic survey data; 100 wells with magnetic deviation survey data; 11 wells with erroneous gyroscopic data that were excluded; and, 68 wells with no deviation survey data available. Of the 57 wells with gyroscopic deviation surveys, correction factors for 16 wells ranged from 0.20 to 6.07 ft and inclination angles (SANG) ranged from 1.6 to 16.0 degrees. Of the 100 wells with magnetic deviation surveys, a correction factor for 21 wells ranged from 0.20 to 5.78 ft and SANG ranged from 1.0 to 13.8 degrees, not including the wells that did not meet the correction factor criteria of greater than or equal to 0.20 ft.Forty-seven wells had

  14. Dichloroethene and Vinyl Chloride Degradation Potential in Wetland Sediments at Twin Lakes and Pen Branch, Savannah River National Laboratory, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Paul M.

    2007-01-01

    A series of 14C-radiotracer-based microcosm experiments was conducted to assess the mechanisms and products of degradation of dichloroethene (DCE) and vinyl chloride (VC) in wetland sediments at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River National Laboratory. This project investigated the potential for biotic and abiotic DCE and VC degradation in wetland sediments from the Twin Lakes area of the C-BRP investigative unit and from the portion of Pen Branch located directly down gradient from the CMP investigative unit. Substantial degradation of [1,2-14C] DCE and [1,2-14C] VC to 14CO2 was observed in all viable sediment microcosms prepared under oxic conditions. These results indicate that microbial mineralization processes, involving direct oxidation or cometabolic oxidation, are the primary mechanisms of DCE and VC biodegradation in Twin Lake and Pen Branch sediments under oxic conditions. Substantial degradation of [1,2-14C] DCE and [1,2-14C] VC was observed in all viable sediment microcosms incubated under anoxic conditions. Production of 14CO2 was observed in all sediment microcosms under anoxic conditions. In general, the accumulation of mineralization products (14CO2 and 14CH4) was comparable to the accumulation of those reduced daughter products (14C-VC, 14C-ethene or 14C-ethane) traditionally identified with chloroethene reductive dechlorination. These results indicate that microbial mineralization processes can be an important component of DCE and VC degradation in Twin Lake and Pen Branch sediments under anoxic conditions. These results demonstrate that an evaluation of the efficiency of in situ DCE and VC biodegradation in Twin Lakes and Pen Branch that is based solely on the observed accumulation of reduced daughter products may underestimate substantially the total extent of contaminant biodegradation and, thus, the contribution of biodegradation to overall contaminant attenuation. No evidence of abiotic degradation of [1,2-14C] DCE or [1,2-14C] VC

  15. Installation of a cw radiofrequency quadrupole accelerator at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, J.D.; Bolme, J.; Brown, V. [and others

    1994-09-01

    Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) has had a long history of cw proton beam development for production of intense neutron sources and fissile fuel breeders. In 1986 CRL and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) entered into a collaborative effort to establish a base technologies program for the development of a cw radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ). The initial cw RFQ design had 50-keV proton injection energy with 600-keV output energy. The 75-mA design current at 600-keV beam energy was obtained in 1990. Subsequently, the RFQ output energy was increased to 1250 keV by replacing the RFQ vanes, still maintaining the 75-m A design current. A new 250-kW cw klystrode rf power source at 267-MHz was installed at CRL. By April of 1993, 55-mA proton beams had been accelerated to 1250 keV. Concurrent developments were taking place on proton source development and on 50-keV low-energy beam transport (LEBT) systems. Development of a dc, high-proton fraction ({ge} 70%) microwave ion source led to utilization of a single-solenoid RFQ direct injection scheme. It was decided to continue this cw RFQ demonstration project at Los Alamos when the CRL project was terminated in April 1993. The LANL goals are to find the current limit of the 1250-keV RFQ, better understand the beam transport properties through the single-solenoid focusing LEBT, continue the application of the cw klystrode tube technology to accelerators, and develop a two-solenoid LEBT which could be the front end of an Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Technologies (ADTT) linear accelerator.

  16. Scale-up of two-phase flow in heterogeneous chalk. Matrix properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    This investigation presents scale-up of a detailed heterogeneous geostatistical model to a full field reservoir simulation model, considering both single and two-phase flow properties. The model represents a typical low permeability Danish North Sea chalk reservoir and includes capillary pressure and saturation end-point variations. Two new up-scaling methods has been investigated, all based on fine scale simulation on a cross section of the geomodel. The first methods assumes piston style behaviour and a coupled viscosity is introduced into the basic Darcy`s equations. The second method is a modification of the JBN method traditionally applied in analysing results from core flooding experiments, which emerged as the most successful and therefore also the recommended method. 1. In addition to the up scaling work we review the Equivalent Radius Method for capillary pressure normalisation with explicit derivation of type functions for Maastrichtian and Danian chalk types. Implementation of the Equivalent Radiuo Method in the COSI reservoir simulator by an optikal set of key-words. There are six specific results from this work: 1. The equivalent radius method is robust to changes of scale and yields model initialisations by initial and irreducible water saturations on a full field simulation scale that agree well with values derived from averaging on a fine-scale. 2. The residual oil saturations are strongly scale dependent and the description of the residual oil as a function of the irreducible water is not applicable on a full field scale and will lead to an overestimation of the residual oil present in the reservoir. The effective residual oil saturations on a full field-scale must be considered functions of the effective initial water saturations, in order to take into account fine-scale variations in the oil/water contacts. 3. The effective permeability as calculated by statistical averages does not differ seriously from results obtained by fine-grid numerical

  17. Compaction of North-sea chalk by pore-failure and pressure solution in a producing reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eKeszthelyi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Ekofisk field, Norwegian North sea,is an example of compacting chalk reservoir with considerable subsequent seafloor subsidence due to petroleum production. Previously, a number of models were created to predict the compaction using different phenomenological approaches. Here we present a different approach, we use a new creep model based on microscopic mechanisms with no fitting parameters to predict strain rate at core scale and at reservoir scale. The model is able to reproduce creep experiments and the magnitude of the observed subsidence making it the first microstructural model which can explain the Ekofisk compaction.

  18. Large and meso scale eddy structures forced by a river flow in the west Mediterranean under rotating conditions: Numerical and laboratory experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, J.; Redondo, J.; Fraunie, P.; Durand, N.

    2003-04-01

    This work presents the results of two laboratory and numerical experiments. The characteristic induced structures by stationer typical conditions from spring, summer, fall and winter. Laboratory experiences were developed on a five meters turntable (SINTEF facilities) obeys the Froude-Rossby similarities. While, the meso-escale numerical model was developed in the LSEET laboratory. This work evidences complementary results from the vortex sort characteristic by radius from both experimental and model methods. Additionally numerical model has a better representation from the conditions in the first 15km and the laboratory model represent the resolution between the large and the meso scale boundary.

  19. Distribution and degradation of diesel oil in the unsaturated zone following an oil spill on a chalk aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, R. P.; Lerner, D. N.; Lloyd, J. W.

    1994-07-01

    In 1976, there occurred a substantial loss of diesel oil from a storage facility at Royston in eastern England. The site is on the outcrop of the important Chalk aquifer, which is protected by an unsaturated zone 24-30 m thick. In 1986, a cored borehole was drilled through the site of the spillage to investigate the fate of the contaminants. The core samples were analysed by physical and chemical methods to determine the physical structure of the rock, and the characteristics and distribution of the oil. The chemically analysed samples included pore water extracts, scrapings from fracture surfaces, and non-fracture (matrix) samples. The results indicate that oil accumulated within a few millimetres of major fissure surfaces, and entry into the rock matrix was limited by the small size of pores and the presence of water. Oil may also have migrated along microscopic channels away from the major fissures. There was no evidence of downward migration of oil since the initial phase of movement. The adoption of certain assumptions regarding degradation, evaporation and dissolution processes allows the estimation of oil depletion caused by these processes. Physical weathering and degradation were found to have been extensive, but highly variable. Both processes occurred on the major fissure surfaces but, in the matrix, degradation appears to have been restricted. The conclusions have implications for the investigation and remediation of fissured Chalk aquifers contaminated by oil.

  20. Analysis and applications of microorganisms from a chalk oil reservoir in the North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaster, Krista Michelle

    2009-03-15

    Ekofisk a chalk oil reservoir in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea was found to harbour an active and diverse microbial community. Microbial actives may be deleterious in nature as in reservoir souring or maybe advantageous as in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The aim of this study was to characterise the microbial communities in the Ekofisk oil reservoir and to gain insight into the microbial mechanisms important for the a) control of reservoir souring, and b) which can be utilized in enhanced oil recovery. Produced water samples from the Ekofisk oil reservoir were analysed using both culture-dependent and -independent techniques. The Ekofisk microbial community was found to be dominated by thermophilic microorganisms many of which were capable of either sulphidogenic or methanogenic physiologies. They were similar to organisms that have been previously identified from oil reservoir fluids. The dominant organisms identified directly from the produced water samples had sequences similar to members of the genera Thermotoga, Caminicella, Thermoanaerobacter, Archaeoglobus, Thermococcus, and Methanobulbus. Enrichment cultures obtained from the produced water samples were dominated by sheathed rods. Sequence analyses of the cultures indicated predominance of the genera Petrotoga, Arcobacter, Archaeoglobus and Thermococcus. Reservoir souring caused by sulphide production due the activity of sulphate reducing prokaryotes (SRP) may be reduced by the injection of nitrate or nitrite. Nitrate or nitrite mitigates sulphide production either by the stimulation of nitrate reducing bacteria (NRB) through nitrate addition or via metabolic inhibition of the reduction of sulphite to sulphide by nitrite. Here we found that nitrate addition was ineffective at controlling souring whereas nitrite proved very effective at inhibiting sulphate reduction even at very low concentrations (0.25 mM - 1 mM) in both batch culture and bioreactor studies. To investigate microbial utilization

  1. Investigation of CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery Using Dimensionless Groups in Wettability Modified Chalk and Sandstone Rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Alipour Tabrizy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses enhanced oil recovery in chalk and sandstone rocks by CO2 injection, with different wettability, porosity, and permeability as well as injection rate and flooding conditions. Results indicate that an increase in Bond number has a positive effect on oil recovery whereas for capillary number, there is a limit in which recovery is improving. This limit is estimated when the pressure drop by viscous force is approximately equal to the threshold balance between capillary and gravity forces. A dimensionless group is proposed that combines the effect of capillarity, injection rate, permeability, and CO2 diffusion on the oil recovery. Recovery from all experiments in this study and reported data in the literature shows a satisfactory relationship with the proposed group.

  2. Influence of coal mine tips on the chalk aquifer. Sampling methods for three dimensional sulphate infiltration study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrez, F.; Mania, J. [Polytech' Lille, Dept. Genie Civil, UMR CNRS 8107 (LML), 59 - Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Mansy, J.L. [Lille-1 Univ., Lab. de Sedimentologie et de Geodynamique, UMR CNRS 8110 (PBDS), 59 - Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Piwakowski, B. [Ecole Centrale de Lille, Groupe Electronique Acoustique IEMN-DOAE, UMR CNRS 8520, 59 - Villeneuve d' Ascq (France)

    2005-07-01

    The coal basin of the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region (France) shows a very strong deterioration of the Chalk aquifer quality. In order to better model the hydro-dynamism and to improve knowledge on the chemical interactions, sampling according to depth of the groundwater is undertaken. The low-flow sampling and the profiles of the in-situ physicochemical parameters allow the observation of various vertical heterogeneities of the aquifer. The areas where the coal mine tips are localised appear very interesting to study. The sulphates released by the pyrite oxidation allow a 'artificial tracing' and give a visualization of the flow as well as information on the implied chemical processes between the oxidizing and reducing zones. (authors)

  3. Tilting oil-water contact in the chalk of Tyra Field as interpreted from capillary pressure data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke; Rana, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    -trends from logs were compared with normalized water saturation depth-trends predicted from capillary pressure core data. The ten wells lie close to a SW–NE cross section of the field. For the gas–oil contact, a free contact measured in one well corresponds to a practically horizontal contact interpreted from......The Tyra Field in the central North Sea is located in Palaeogene and Upper Cretaceous chalk. It contains a natural gas zone underlain by an oil leg. Based on analysis of logs and core data from ten wells drilled prior to the field being put into production, normalized water saturation depth...... logging data in the remaining wells. A westerly dipping oil–water contact was found from logging data. Comparison of the depth-wise trends in normalized water saturation among the different wells indicates a regional pattern: in the western side of the field, the trends correspond to a situation...

  4. HYDROMECHANICS LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Naval Academy Hydromechanics Laboratory The Naval Academy Hydromechanics Laboratory (NAHL) began operations in Rickover Hall in September 1976. The primary purpose...

  5. Bioassay Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Bioassay Laboratory is an accredited laboratory capable of conducting standardized and innovative environmental testing in the area of aquatic ecotoxicology. The...

  6. HYDROMECHANICS LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Naval Academy Hydromechanics LaboratoryThe Naval Academy Hydromechanics Laboratory (NAHL) began operations in Rickover Hall in September 1976. The primary purpose of...

  7. Advanced Hydride Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motyka, T.

    1989-01-01

    Metal hydrides have been used at the Savannah River Tritium Facilities since 1984. However, the most extensive application of metal hydride technology at the Savannah River Site is being planned for the Replacement Tritium Facility, a $140 million facility schedules for completion in 1990 and startup in 1991. In the new facility, metal hydride technology will be used to store, separate, isotopically purify, pump, and compress hydrogen isotopes. In support of the Replacement Tritium Facility, a $3.2 million, cold,'' process demonstration facility, the Advanced Hydride Laboratory began operation in November of 1987. The purpose of the Advanced Hydride Laboratory is to demonstrate the Replacement Tritium Facility's metal hydride technology by integrating the various unit operations into an overall process. This paper will describe the Advanced Hydride Laboratory, its role and its impact on the application of metal hydride technology to tritium handling.

  8. Advanced Hydride Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motyka, T.

    1989-12-31

    Metal hydrides have been used at the Savannah River Tritium Facilities since 1984. However, the most extensive application of metal hydride technology at the Savannah River Site is being planned for the Replacement Tritium Facility, a $140 million facility schedules for completion in 1990 and startup in 1991. In the new facility, metal hydride technology will be used to store, separate, isotopically purify, pump, and compress hydrogen isotopes. In support of the Replacement Tritium Facility, a $3.2 million, ``cold,`` process demonstration facility, the Advanced Hydride Laboratory began operation in November of 1987. The purpose of the Advanced Hydride Laboratory is to demonstrate the Replacement Tritium Facility`s metal hydride technology by integrating the various unit operations into an overall process. This paper will describe the Advanced Hydride Laboratory, its role and its impact on the application of metal hydride technology to tritium handling.

  9. Sustainable irrigation Agriculture in the Tarim River Basin of Western Xinjiang Province--A proposal for the extablishment of a Salinity Laboratory of P. R. China%中国新疆塔里木河流域的可持续灌溉农业--关于建立中国国家盐渍化研究实验室的建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    约瑟夫·沙赫维特; 周政一; 徐曼

    2000-01-01

    Based on the background information and the personal impression obtained during a short visit to Tarim River basin, a few problems may be defined and a proposal is presented for establishing a salinity laboratiory in the Tarim river basin of Xinjiang. The problems encountered in the Tarim river basin can be grouped into four categories: (1) Salt reclamation through leaching and resalinization following irrigation; (2) Sodicity (alkalinity) problems; (3) Impermeable subsoil layers; (4) Irrigation water salinity. In order to ensure a sustainable irrigation agriculture in Xinjiang, the water utilization efficiency for both irngation and leaching will have to be improved. The solution for the existing problems and the prevention of future problems for sustainable production requires good quantitative information. It is considered that to establish a salinity laboratory in the Tarim River basin will be not only immediately applicable to Xinjiang' s salinity problems, but its results will be valuable also for other arid regions suffering from the similar problems in China.

  10. Multilevel groundwater monitoring of hydraulic head and temperature in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho, 2007-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jason C.; Twining, Brian V.

    2011-01-01

    During 2007 and 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, collected quarterly depth-discrete measurements of fluid pressure and temperature in six boreholes located in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer of Idaho. Each borehole was instrumented with a multilevel monitoring system consisting of a series of valved measurement ports, packer bladders, casing segments, and couplers. Hydraulic heads (head) and water temperatures in boreholes were monitored at 86 hydraulically-isolated depth intervals located 448.0 to 1,377.6 feet below land surface. The calculation of head is most sensitive to fluid pressure and the altitude of the pressure transducer at each port coupling; it is least sensitive to barometric pressure and water temperature. An analysis of errors associated with the head calculation determined the accuracy of an individual head measurement at +/- 2.3 feet. Many of the sources of measurement error are diminished when considering the differences between two closely-spaced readings of head; therefore, a +/- 0.1 foot measurement accuracy was assumed for vertical head differences (and gradients) calculated between adjacent monitoring zones. Vertical head and temperature profiles were unique to each borehole, and were characteristic of the heterogeneity and anisotropy of the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer. The vertical hydraulic gradients in each borehole remained relatively constant over time with minimum Pearson correlation coefficients between head profiles ranging from 0.72 at borehole USGS 103 to 1.00 at boreholes USGS 133 and MIDDLE 2051. Major inflections in the head profiles almost always coincided with low permeability sediment layers. The presence of a sediment layer, however, was insufficient for identifying the location of a major head change in a borehole. The vertical hydraulic gradients were defined for the major inflections in the head profiles and were as much as 2.2 feet per foot. Head gradients

  11. The effect of divalent ions on the elasticity and pore collapse of chalk evaluated from compressional wave velocity and low-field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katika, Konstantina; Addassi, Mouadh; Alam, Mohammad Monzurul

    2015-01-01

    electron microscopy of the materials were conducted prior to the experiments. The iso-frame model was used to predict the bulk moduli in dry and saturated conditions from the compressional modulus of water-saturated rocks. The effective stress coefficient, as introduced by Biot, was also determined from......The effects of divalent ions on the elasticity and the pore collapse of chalk were studied through rock-mechanical testing and low-field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) measurements. Chalk samples saturated with deionized water and brines containing sodium, magnesium, calcium and sulfate ions were...... and effects on the elasticity after the saturation since none of the other plugs saturated with divalent ions (Ca2+ and SO42+) experienced it....

  12. Carbon and oxygen isotopic variation in Upper Maastrichtian chalk, Danish Central Graben. M-10X (Dan Field), E-5X (Tyra SE Field)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schovsbo, N.H.; Buchardt, B.

    2004-07-01

    The chemostratigraphic potential of the carbon isotopic variation in Upper Maastrichtian chalk has been evaluated based on 143 bulk chalk samples from the M-10X and E-5X wells. The wells are situated 30 km apart and are located in the Dan and Tyra SE oil and gas fields, respectively. Samples were taken each metre to record the stratigraphic variation. In addition, an interval in the M-10X well was sampled on a decimetre scale to resolve the link between {delta}{sup 13}C- and {delta}{sup 18}0-isotopic variation and lithology. Across three laminated to bioturbated chalk cycles, the m-scale variation in {delta}{sup 13}C is 0.1 %o. In the middle cycle, more negative {delta}{sup 13}C values were measured in the laminated chalk compared to bioturbated chalk. These more negative {delta}{sup 13}C values are interpreted to reflect early diagenetic cement characterised by light {delta}{sup 13}C values that formed as a response to a semiclosed pore-water environment. No consistent trend was observed in the other cycles. The laminated interval is here weakly developed and possibly reflects a depositional environment characterised by a more open pore-water system that did not allow a diagenetic component to form. The m-scale variation in {delta}{sup 18}0 values amounts to 0.5 %o and shows no apparent relationship to lithology. A chemostratigraphic correlation between the wells is presented. The correlation is consistent with the established biostratigraphy based on nannofossils, pelagic foraminifers and dinoflagellates. The chemostratigraphy was established based on the m-scale variation in {delta}{sup 13}C values and consists of seven units; the chemostratigraphy thus allows a high degree of stratigraphical resolution in the uppermost Maastrichtian interval. Moreover, the combined chemo- and biostratigraphic framework confirms the stratigraphic significance of the logbased porosity markers that form the basis of the cyclostratigraphic correlation system proposed. The recorded

  13. Comparison of laboratory, in situ, and rock mass measurements of the hydraulic conductivity of metamorphic rock at the Savannah River Plant near Aiken, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marine, I W

    1980-01-01

    In situ testing of exploratory wells in metamorphic rock indicates that two types of fracturing occur in the rock mass. Rock containing small openings that permit only extremely slow movement of water is termed virtually impermeable rock. Rock containing openings of sufficient size to permit transmission of water at a significantly faster rate is termed hydraulically transmissive rock. Laboratory methods are unsuitable for measuring hydraulic conductivity in hydraulically transmissive rock; however, for the virtually impermeable rock, values comparable to the in situ tests are obtained. The hydraulic conductivity of the rock mass over a large region is calculated by using the hydraulic gradient, porosity, and regional velocity. This velocity is determined by dividing the inferred travel distance by the age of water which is determined by the helium content of the water. This rock mass hydraulic conductivity value is between the values measured for the two types of fractures, but is closer to the measured value for the virtually impermeable rock. This relationship is attributed to the control of the regional flow rate by the virtually impermeable rock where the discrete fractures do not form a continuous open connection through the entire rock mass. Thus, laboratory methods of measuring permeability in metamorphic rock are of value if they are properly applied.

  14. COMPARISON OF THE TRADITIONAL CHALK AND BOARD LECTURE SYSTEM VERSUS POWER POINT PRESENTATION AS A TEACHING TECHNIQUE FOR TEACHING GROSS ANATOMY TO THE FIRST PROFESSIONAL MEDICAL STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nusrat

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally and conventionally, gross anatomy is taught by lectures and cadaveric dissection and the lectures are taken with chalk and board (C&B or chalk and talk method in, India. But there is always a debate over the most effective method of lecture delivery. AIM : The aim of this study was to compare the role and effectiveness chalk and board method versus power point presentation ( S tudent’s perception as a lecture delivering method for teaching gross anatomy. METHODS: This was a questionnaire based study where 140 out of 150 first professional MBBS students of Medical College Jammu, were asked to fill anonymously a questionnaire about their perceptions of these two lecture delivery methods. The results were analyzed to see if there was any preference of students for any particular method. RESULTS: The majority of the medical students (90.7% preferred PPT presentations, while only 9.3% of students preferred the lectures using chalkboard method. CONCLUSION: Most of the students clearly preferred and accepted the use of PPT presentations, as compared to conventional board teaching for delivery method. So teaching gross anatomy should be carefully amalgamated with use of power point in lecture hall.

  15. Area balance and strain in an extensional fault system: Strategies for improved oil recovery in fractured chalk, Gilbertown Field, southwestern Alabama. Final report, March 1996--September 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pashin, J.C.; Raymond, D.E.; Rindsberg, A.K.; Alabi, G.G.; Carroll, R.E.; Groshong, R.H.; Jin, G.

    1998-12-01

    This project was designed to analyze the structure of Mesozoic and Tertiary strata in Gilbertown Field and adjacent areas to suggest ways in which oil recovery can be improved. The Eutaw Formation comprises 7 major flow units and is dominated by low-resistivity, low-contrast play that is difficult to characterize quantitatively. Selma chalk produces strictly from fault-related fractures that were mineralized as warm fluid migrated from deep sources. Resistivity, dipmeter, and fracture identification logs corroborate that deformation is concentrated in the hanging-wall drag zones. New area balancing techniques were developed to characterize growth strata and confirm that strain is concentrated in hanging-wall drag zones. Curvature analysis indicates that the faults contain numerous fault bends that influence fracture distribution. Eutaw oil is produced strictly from footwall uplifts, whereas Selma oil is produced from fault-related fractures. Clay smear and mineralization may be significant trapping mechanisms in the Eutaw Formation. The critical seal for Selma reservoirs, by contrast, is where Tertiary clay in the hanging wall is juxtaposed with poorly fractured Selma chalk in the footwall. Gilbertown Field can be revitalized by infill drilling and recompletion of existing wells. Directional drilling may be a viable technique for recovering untapped oil from Selma chalk. Revitalization is now underway, and the first new production wells since 1985 are being drilled in the western part of the field.

  16. Fourth report on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loar, J.M. [ed.

    1994-04-01

    In response to a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC) and selected tributaries. BMAP currently consists of six major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs on-site and the aquatic environs off-site. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota, (3) biological indicator studies, (4) instream ecological monitoring, (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment, and (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake. The ecological characterization of the WOC watershed will provide baseline data that can be used to document the ecological effects of the water pollution control program and the remedial action program. The long-term nature of BMAP ensures that the effectiveness of remedial measures will be properly evaluated.

  17. River engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, M.

    1993-01-01

    One dimension models - basic eauations, analytical models, numberical models. One dimensional models -suspended load, roughness and resistance of river beds. Solving river problems - tools, flood mitigation, bank protection.

  18. Photometrics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose:The Photometrics Laboratory provides the capability to measure, analyze and characterize radiometric and photometric properties of light sources and filters,...

  19. Target Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — [Part of the ATLAS user facility.] The Physics Division operates a target development laboratory that produces targets and foils of various thickness and substrates,...

  20. Blackroom Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Enables evaluation and characterization of materials ranging from the ultraviolet to the longwave infrared (LWIR).DESCRIPTION: The Blackroom Laboratory is...

  1. Blackroom Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Enables evaluation and characterization of materials ranging from the ultraviolet to the longwave infrared (LWIR). DESCRIPTION: The Blackroom Laboratory is...

  2. Observations of debris flows at Chalk Cliffs, Colorado, USA: Part 1, in-situ measurements of flow dynamics, tracer particle movement and video imagery from the summer of 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Scott W.; Coe, Jeffrey A.; Kean, Jason W.; Tucker, Greg E.; Staley, Dennis M.; Wasklewicz, Thad A.

    2011-01-01

    Debris flows initiated by surface-water runoff during short duration, moderate- to high-intensity rainfall are common in steep, rocky, and sparsely vegetated terrain. Yet large uncertainties remain about the potential for a flow to grow through entrainment of loose debris, which make formulation of accurate mechanical models of debris-flow routing difficult. Using a combination of in situ measurements of debris flow dynamics, video imagery, tracer rocks implanted with passive integrated transponders (PIT) and pre- and post-flow 2-cm resolution digital terrain models (terrain data presented in a companion paper by STALEY et alii, 2011), we investigated the entrainment and transport response of debris flows at Chalk Cliffs, CO, USA. Four monitored events during the summer of 2009 all initiated from surface-water runoff, generally less than an hour after the first measurable rain. Despite reach-scale morphology that remained relatively constant, the four flow events displayed a range of responses, from long-runout flows that entrained significant amounts of channel sediment and dammed the main-stem river, to smaller, short-runout flows that were primarily depositional in the upper basin. Tracer-rock travel-distance distributions for these events were bimodal; particles either remained immobile or they travelled the entire length of the catchment. The long-runout, large-entrainment flow differed from the other smaller flows by the following controlling factors: peak 10-minute rain intensity; duration of significant flow in the channel; and to a lesser extent, peak surge depth and velocity. Our growing database of natural debris-flow events can be used to develop linkages between observed debris-flow transport and entrainment responses and the controlling rainstorm characteristics and flow properties.

  3. Mackenzie River Delta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The Mackenzie River in the Northwest Territories, Canada, with its headstreams the Peace and Finley, is the longest river in North America at 4241 km, and drains an area of 1,805,000 square km. The large marshy delta provides habitat for migrating Snow Geese, Tundra Swans, Brant, and other waterfowl. The estuary is a calving area for Beluga whales. The Mackenzie (previously the Disappointment River) was named after Alexander Mackenzie who travelled the river while trying to reach the Pacific in 1789. The image was acquired on August 4, 2005, covers an area of 55.8 x 55.8 km, and is located at 68.6 degrees north latitude, 134.7 degrees west longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  4. Identification of a New Hesperornithiform from the Cretaceous Niobrara Chalk and Implications for Ecologic Diversity among Early Diving Birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa Bell

    Full Text Available The Smoky Hill Member of the Niobrara Chalk in Kansas (USA has yielded the remains of numerous members of the Hesperornithiformes, toothed diving birds from the late Early to Late Cretaceous. This study presents a new taxon of hesperornithiform from the Smoky Hill Member, Fumicollis hoffmani, the holotype of which is among the more complete hesperornithiform skeletons. Fumicollis has a unique combination of primitive (e.g. proximal and distal ends of femur not expanded, elongate pre-acetabular ilium, small and pyramidal patella and derived (e.g. dorsal ridge on metatarsal IV, plantarly-projected curve in the distal shaft of phalanx III:1 hesperornithiform characters, suggesting it was more specialized than small hesperornithiforms like Baptornis advenus but not as highly derived as the larger Hesperornis regalis. The identification of Fumicollis highlights once again the significant diversity of hesperornithiforms that existed in the Late Cretaceous Western Interior Seaway. This diversity points to the existence of a complex ecosystem, perhaps with a high degree of niche partitioning, as indicated by the varying degrees of diving specializations among these birds.

  5. Projecting impacts of climate change on hydrological conditions and biotic responses in a chalk valley riparian wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, A. R.; Thompson, J. R.; Acreman, M. C.

    2016-03-01

    Projected changes in climate are likely to substantially impact wetland hydrological conditions that will in turn have implications for wetland ecology. Assessing ecohydrological impacts of climate change requires models that can accurately simulate water levels at the fine-scale resolution to which species and communities respond. Hydrological conditions within the Lambourn Observatory at Boxford, Berkshire, UK were simulated using the physically based, distributed model MIKE SHE, calibrated to contemporary surface and groundwater levels. The site is a 10 ha lowland riparian wetland where complex geological conditions and channel management exert strong influences on the hydrological regime. Projected changes in precipitation, potential evapotranspiration, channel discharge and groundwater level were derived from the UK Climate Projections 2009 ensemble of climate models for the 2080s under different scenarios. Hydrological impacts of climate change differ through the wetland over short distances depending on the degree of groundwater/surface-water interaction. Discrete areas of groundwater upwelling are associated with an exaggerated response of water levels to climate change compared to non-upwelling areas. These are coincident with regions where a weathered chalk layer, which otherwise separates two main aquifers, is absent. Simulated water levels were linked to requirements of the MG8 plant community and Desmoulin's whorl snail (Vertigo moulinsiana) for which the site is designated. Impacts on each are shown to differ spatially and in line with hydrological impacts. Differences in water level requirements for this vegetation community and single species highlight the need for separate management strategies in distinct areas of the wetland.

  6. Laboratory and field scale modelling of two-phase flow in fractured structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindgaard, Hanne Foss [The Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, Copenhagen (Denmark); Reffstrup, Jan [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark); Kaae Olsen, Niels [Danish Hydraulic Institute, Hoersholm (Denmark)

    1996-12-31

    The imbibition of water in matrix blocks plays a significant role in oil recovery from certain types of fractured reservoirs with a low permeable, porous matrix. These types of fractured reservoirs have a water-wet matrix, strong capillary forces and an inflow of water: either from an aquifer or as a result of forced water injection. Several chalk reservoirs in the North Sea correspond to this description. This paper presents a comparison between laboratory scale experiments, and numerical studies of water imbibition in a fractured porous media. Both the single and the double porosity/permeability approach have been used to simulate the experiments. (au) EFP-96. 11 refs.

  7. Department of Energy Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 1, Appendix C, Savannah River Site Spent Nuclear Fuel Mangement Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is engaged in two related decision making processes concerning: (1) the transportation, receipt, processing, and storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the DOE Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) which will focus on the next 10 years; and (2) programmatic decisions on future spent nuclear fuel management which will emphasize the next 40 years. DOE is analyzing the environmental consequences of these spent nuclear fuel management actions in this two-volume Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Volume 1 supports broad programmatic decisions that will have applicability across the DOE complex and describes in detail the purpose and need for this DOE action. Volume 2 is specific to actions at the INEL. This document, which limits its discussion to the Savannah River Site (SRS) spent nuclear fuel management program, supports Volume 1 of the EIS. Following the introduction, Chapter 2 contains background information related to the SRS and the framework of environmental regulations pertinent to spent nuclear fuel management. Chapter 3 identifies spent nuclear fuel management alternatives that DOE could implement at the SRS, and summarizes their potential environmental consequences. Chapter 4 describes the existing environmental resources of the SRS that spent nuclear fuel activities could affect. Chapter 5 analyzes in detail the environmental consequences of each spent nuclear fuel management alternative and describes cumulative impacts. The chapter also contains information on unavoidable adverse impacts, commitment of resources, short-term use of the environment and mitigation measures.

  8. A numerical modelling and neural network approach to estimate the impact of groundwater abstractions on river flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkin, G.; Birkinshaw, S. J.; Younger, P. L.; Rao, Z.; Kirk, S.

    2007-06-01

    SummaryEvaluation of the impacts of groundwater abstractions on surface water systems is a necessary task in integrated water resources management. A range of hydrological, hydrogeological, and geomorphological factors influence the complex processes of interaction between groundwater and rivers. This paper presents an approach which uses numerical modeling of generic river-aquifer systems to represent the interaction processes, and neural networks to capture the impacts of the different controlling factors. The generic models describe hydrogeological settings representing most river-aquifer systems in England and Wales: high diffusivity (e.g. Chalk) and low diffusivity (e.g. Triassic Sandstone) aquifers with flow to rivers mediated by alluvial gravels; the same aquifers where they are in direct connection with the river; and shallow alluvial aquifers which are disconnected from regional aquifers. Numerical model simulations using the SHETRAN integrated catchment modeling system provided outputs including time-series and spatial variations in river flow depletion, and spatially distributed groundwater levels. Artificial neural network models were trained using input parameters describing the controlling factors and the outputs from the numerical model simulations, providing an efficient tool for representing the impacts of groundwater abstractions across a wide range of conditions. There are very few field data sets of accurately quantified river flow depletion as a result of groundwater abstraction under controlled conditions. One such data set from an experimental study carried out in 1967 on the Winterbourne stream in the Lambourne catchment over a Chalk aquifer was used successfully to test the modeling tool. This modeling approach provides a general methodology for rapid simulations of complex hydrogeological systems which preserves the physical consistency between multiple and diverse model outputs.

  9. Gran Sasso, laboratori fermi per inquinamento

    CERN Multimedia

    Arachi, Alessandra

    2003-01-01

    An experimental hall at the Gran Sasso laboratory has been closed by the Courts after a river was found contaminated. The institute decided to close all the installations in order to protect the health of citizens (1 page)

  10. PowerPoint or chalk and talk: Perceptions of medical students versus dental students in a medical college in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Seth

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Vikas Seth, Prerna Upadhyaya, Mushtaq Ahmad, Vijay MogheDepartment of Pharmacology, Mahatma Gandhi Medical College, Jaipur, Rajasthan, IndiaPurpose: To assess students’ perceptions of the impact of PowerPoint (PPT presentations in lectures in comparison to the traditional chalk and talk method and lectures using ­transparencies and overhead projector (TOHP. The study analyzes the preferences for teaching aids of medical students versus dental students.Methods: Second year medical and dental undergraduates were asked to fill in a nine-item questionnaire about their perceptions of the three lecture delivery methods. Following analysis of the questionnaire the students were interviewed further. The results were analyzed separately for medical and dental students to see if there was any difference in their perceptions.Results: The majority of the medical students (65.33% preferred PPT presentations, while 15.16% of students preferred the lectures using chalkboard, and 19.51% preferred TOHP for teaching (P < 0.001. Of the dental students: 41.84% preferred chalkboard, 31.21% preferred TOHP, and 25.85% students preferred PPT presentations in the lectures (P < 0.05. Some important comments of the students were also recorded on interview which could be valuable for the medical teachers.Conclusion: The medical students clearly preferred the use of PPT presentations while the dental students did not. The study does not bring out evidence based superiority of any lecture delivery method. It appears that in the hands of a trained teacher any teaching aid would be appropriate and effective. This highlights the need for formal training in teaching technologies to develop good presentation skills and thus motivate the students.Keywords: audiovisual aids, medical education, lecture delivery methods, PowerPoint presentations, OHP, chalkboard

  11. The impact of broadleaved woodland on water resources in lowland UK: I. Soil water changes below beech woodland and grass on chalk sites in Hampshire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Roberts

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The possible effects of broadleaved woodland on recharge to the UK Chalk aquifer have led to a study of evaporation and transpiration from beech woodland (Black Wood and pasture (Bridgets Farm, growing in shallow soils above chalk in Hampshire. Eddy correlation measurements of energy balance components above both the forest and the grassland enabled calculation of latent heat flux (evaporation and transpiration as a residual. Comparative measurements of soil water content and soil water potential in 9 m profiles under both forest and grassland found changes in soil water content down to 6 m at both sites; however, the soil water potential measurements showed upward movement of water only above a depth of about 2 m. Below this depth, water continued to drain and the soil water potential measurements showed downward movement of water at both sites, notwithstanding significant negative soil water potentials in the chalk and soil above. Seasonal differences occur in the soil water content profiles under broadleaved woodland and grass. Before the woodland foliage emerges, greater drying beneath the grassland is offset in late spring and early summer by increased drying under the forest. Yet, when the change in soil water profiles is at a maximum, in late summer, the profiles below woodland and grass are very similar. A comparison of soil water balances for Black Wood and Bridgets Farm using changes in soil water contents, local rainfall and evaporation measured by the energy balance approach allowed drainage to be calculated at each site. Although seasonal differences occurred, the difference in cumulative drainage below broadleaved woodland and grass was small.

  12. Computational Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory contains a number of commercial off-the-shelf and in-house software packages allowing for both statistical analysis as well as mathematical modeling...

  13. Analytical Laboratories

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NETL’s analytical laboratories in Pittsburgh, PA, and Albany, OR, give researchers access to the equipment they need to thoroughly study the properties of materials...

  14. Laboratory Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory tests check a sample of your blood, urine, or body tissues. A technician or your doctor ... compare your results to results from previous tests. Laboratory tests are often part of a routine checkup ...

  15. Large scale hot water migration systems around salt diapirs in the Danish Central Trough and their impact on diagenesis of chalk reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensenius, Jørgen; Munksgaard, Niels C.

    1989-01-01

    Fracture filling calcite from the piercement fields of East Rosa, Skjold, Rolf, North Arne, Nils and Vagn (directly underlain by salt diapirs) and the dome field Dan (overlying a deep seated salt structure) have been studied by fluorescence and cathodoluminiscence microscopy, fluid inclusion microthermometry and carbon and oxygen isotopes. The carbon and oxygen isotope compositions of the reservoir matrix chalk have also been measured. The temperature estimates obtained from fluid inclusion data suggest that the fracture filling calcite of the piercement fields precipitated during hot water flushing of the reservoirs. The flushing system only existed around the salt diapirs and was probably related to expulsion of overpressured fluid from the surrounding sediments. The thermal anomaly and the faults associated with the diapirs probably were important factors in focusing the ascending water. By combining fluid inclusion thermometry with O isotope data for the fracture filling calcites ranges of O isotopic values of the flushing water are deduced: in Skjold, Rolf, North Arne, Nils and Vagn: δ18O = - 1 to + 7%. SMOW, values typical of sedimentary porewater of sea water origin; in East Rosa: δ18O = - 4 and + 4%. SMOW, which combined with data on fluid inclusion salinities suggest that the flushing waters were responsible for substantial salt dissolution. Lower δ18O values with shallower depth of burial suggest that the porosity of chalk in the shallower fields was more severely reduced by calcite cementation during the flushing event than in the deeper fields. In the case of North Arne, Nils, Vagn and Dan, δ 13C values of the fracture filling calcites are similar to those of normal chalk (0.5 to 3.5%.). However, calcites from Rolf, Skjold and East Rosa are depleted by - 1.8, - 6.2 and - 16.7%., respectively. Only in East Rosa is the matrix chalk itself depleted in 13C (range: - 2.0 to + 0.7%.). The low δ 13C values are interpreted as the result of biodegration

  16. Capillary fringe and tritium and nitrogen tracing history in the Senonian chalk of Champagne; Frange capillaire et traces historiques du tritium et de l`azote dans la craie senonienne en Champagne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballif, J.L. [INRA station d`agronomie, 51 - Chalons-en-Champagne (France)

    1998-12-31

    In the middle of Champagne-Ardenne area, a chalky zone is located, directly on top of which lies the soil and in which the water table is relatively close the soil; which allows for capillary direction to the surface horizons and the renewal of water reserve. After the presentation of the hydrological characteristics, the total porosity of chalk, the pores distribution, the capillary attraction is shown by the hydrological comportment of the soil and the upper part of the unsaturated zone of chalk. In the homogeneous rock, the tritium and nitrogen transfers reveal the historical tracks. (authors) 18 refs.

  17. Contested Rivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorm Hansen, Louise Lyngfeldt

    explores translocal connections through ethnographic fieldwork at a global water conference and preliminary fieldwork at chosen locations on China's Nu River. The Nu River is one of the last undammed rivers in Asia and runs through China close to the Chinese-Burmese border, then flows into the Andaman Sea...

  18. Area balance and strain in an extensional fault system: Strategies for improved oil recovery in fractured chalk, Gilbertown Field, southwestern Alabama. Annual report, March 1996--March 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pashin, J.C.; Raymond, D.E.; Rindsberg, A.K.; Alabi, G.G.; Groshong, R.H.

    1997-08-01

    Gilbertown Field is the oldest oil field in Alabama and produces oil from chalk of the Upper Cretaceous Selma Group and from sandstone of the Eutaw Formation along the southern margin of the Gilbertown fault system. Most of the field has been in primary recovery since establishment, but production has declined to marginally economic levels. This investigation applies advanced geologic concepts designed to aid implementation of improved recovery programs. The Gilbertown fault system is detached at the base of Jurassic salt. The fault system began forming as a half graben and evolved in to a full graben by the Late Cretaceous. Conventional trapping mechanisms are effective in Eutaw sandstone, whereas oil in Selma chalk is trapped in faults and fault-related fractures. Burial modeling establishes that the subsidence history of the Gilbertown area is typical of extensional basins and includes a major component of sediment loading and compaction. Surface mapping and fracture analysis indicate that faults offset strata as young as Miocene and that joints may be related to regional uplift postdating fault movement. Preliminary balanced structural models of the Gilbertown fault system indicate that synsedimentary growth factors need to be incorporated into the basic equations of area balance to model strain and predict fractures in Selma and Eutaw reservoirs.

  19. Laboratory Building.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, Joshua M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report is an analysis of the means of egress and life safety requirements for the laboratory building. The building is located at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, NM. The report includes a prescriptive-based analysis as well as a performance-based analysis. Following the analysis are appendices which contain maps of the laboratory building used throughout the analysis. The top of all the maps is assumed to be north.

  20. Laboratory Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, Joshua M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report is an analysis of the means of egress and life safety requirements for the laboratory building. The building is located at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, NM. The report includes a prescriptive-based analysis as well as a performance-based analysis. Following the analysis are appendices which contain maps of the laboratory building used throughout the analysis. The top of all the maps is assumed to be north.

  1. Mapping of groundwater potential zones in Salem Chalk Hills, Tamil Nadu, India, using remote sensing and GIS techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thilagavathi, N; Subramani, T; Suresh, M; Karunanidhi, D

    2015-04-01

    This study proposes to introduce the remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) techniques in mapping the groundwater potential zones. Remote sensing and GIS techniques have been used to map the groundwater potential zones in Salem Chalk Hills, Tamil Nadu, India. Charnockites and fissile hornblende biotite gneiss are the major rock types in this region. Dunites and peridodites are the ultramafic rocks which cut across the foliation planes of the gneisses and are highly weathered. It comprises magnesite and chromite deposits which are excavated by five mining companies by adopting bench mining. The thickness of weathered and fracture zone varies from 2.2 to 50 m in gneissic formation and 5.8 to 55 m in charnockite. At the contacts of gneiss and charnockite, the thickness ranges from 9.0 to 90.8 m favoring good groundwater potential. The mine lease area is underlined by fractured and sheared hornblende biotite gneiss where groundwater potential is good. Water catchment tanks in this area of 5 km radius are small to moderate in size and are only seasonal. They remain dry during summer seasons. As perennial water resources are remote, the domestic and agricultural activities in this region depend mainly upon the groundwater resources. The mines are located in gently slope area, and accumulation of water is not observed except in mine pits even during the monsoon period. Therefore, it is essential to map the groundwater potential zones for proper management of the aquifer system. Satellite imageries were also used to extract lineaments, hydrogeomorphic landforms, drainage patterns, and land use, which are the major controlling factors for the occurrence of groundwater. Various thematic layers pertaining to groundwater existence such as geology, geomorphology, land use/land cover, lineament, lineament density, drainage, drainage density, slope, and soil were generated using GIS tools. By integrating all the above thematic layers based on the ranks and

  2. Dynamics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Dynamics Lab replicates vibration environments for every Navy platform. Testing performed includes: Flight Clearance, Component Improvement, Qualification, Life...

  3. Visualization Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Evaluates and improves the operational effectiveness of existing and emerging electronic warfare systems. By analyzing and visualizing simulation results...

  4. Propulsion Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Propulsion Lab simulates field test conditions in a controlled environment, using standardized or customized test procedures. The Propulsion Lab's 11 cells can...

  5. Chemistry Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: To conduct fundamental studies of highway materials aimed at understanding both failure mechanisms and superior performance. New standard test methods are...

  6. Psychology Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility provides testing stations for computer-based assessment of cognitive and behavioral Warfighter performance. This 500 square foot configurable space can...

  7. Analytical Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Analytical Labspecializes in Oil and Hydraulic Fluid Analysis, Identification of Unknown Materials, Engineering Investigations, Qualification Testing (to support...

  8. Learning Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Lyn; Callison, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    Considers the school library media center as an information learning laboratory. Topics include information literacy; Kuhlthau's Information Search Process model; inquiry theory and approach; discovery learning; process skills of laboratory science; the information scientist; attitudes of media specialists, teachers, and students; displays and Web…

  9. Uranium series geochemistry in aquifers: quantification of transport mechanisms of uranium and daughter products: the chalk aquifer (Champagne, France); Desequilibres des series de l'uranium dans les aquiferes: quantification des mecanismes de transport de l'uranium et de ses descendants: cas de l'aquifere de la craie (Champagne, France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubert, A

    2005-09-15

    With the increase of contaminant flux of radionuclides in surface environment (soil, river, aquifer...), there is a need to understand and model the processes that control the distribution of uranium and its daughter products during transport within aquifers. We have used U-series disequilibria as an analogue for the transport of uranium and its daughter products in aquifer to understand such mechanisms. The measurements of uranium ({sup 234}U et {sup 238}U), thorium ({sup 230}Th et {sup 232}Th), {sup 226}Ra and {sup 222}Rn isotopes in the solid and liquid phases of the chalk aquifer in Champagne (East of France) allows us to understand the processes responsible for fractionation within the uranium decay chain. Fractionations are induced by physical and chemical properties of the elements (leaching, adsorption) but also by radioactive properties (recoil effect during {alpha}-decay). For the first time a comprehensive sampling of the solid phase has been performed, allowing quantifying mechanisms responsible for the long term evolution of the aquifer. A non steady state 1D model has been developed which takes into account leaching, adsorption processes as well as radioactive filiation and {alpha}-recoil effect. Retardation coefficients have been calculated for uranium, thorium and radium. The aquifer is characterised by a double porosity, and the contribution of fracture and matrix porosity on the water/rock interaction processes has been estimated. (author)

  10. Experimental meandering river with chute cutoffs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, W.M. van; Lageweg, W.I. van de; Kleinhans, M.G.

    2012-01-01

    Braided rivers are relatively simple to produce in the laboratory, whereas dynamic meandering rivers have not been sustained beyond initial bend formation. Meandering is theoretically explained by bend instability growing from planimetric perturbation, which convects downstream. In this study, we ex

  11. River nomads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    River nomads is a movie about people on the move. The documentary film explores the lifestyle of a group of nomadic fishermen whose mobility has been the recipe of success and troubles. Engaged in trade and travel, twice a year the river nomads form impressive convoys of majestic pirogues and set...... and liberated lifestyle and the breath-taking landscapes and vistas offered by the Niger River. River Nomads is also a personal account of the Kebbawa’s way of life and their current struggles as nomadic folk living in a world divided by borders and ruled by bureaucrats....

  12. Implementation of agronomical and geochemical modules into a 3D groundwater code for assessing nitrate storage and transport through unconfined Chalk aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picot-Colbeaux, Géraldine; Devau, Nicolas; Thiéry, Dominique; Pettenati, Marie; Surdyk, Nicolas; Parmentier, Marc; Amraoui, Nadia; Crastes de Paulet, François; André, Laurent

    2016-04-01

    Chalk aquifer is the main water resource for domestic water supply in many parts in northern France. In same basin, groundwater is frequently affected by quality problems concerning nitrates. Often close to or above the drinking water standards, nitrate concentration in groundwater is mainly due to historical agriculture practices, combined with leakage and aquifer recharge through the vadose zone. The complexity of processes occurring into such an environment leads to take into account a lot of knowledge on agronomy, geochemistry and hydrogeology in order to understand, model and predict the spatiotemporal evolution of nitrate content and provide a decision support tool for the water producers and stakeholders. To succeed in this challenge, conceptual and numerical models representing accurately the Chalk aquifer specificity need to be developed. A multidisciplinary approach is developed to simulate storage and transport from the ground surface until groundwater. This involves a new agronomic module "NITRATE" (NItrogen TRansfer for Arable soil to groundwaTEr), a soil-crop model allowing to calculate nitrogen mass balance in arable soil, and the "PHREEQC" numerical code for geochemical calculations, both coupled with the 3D transient groundwater numerical code "MARTHE". Otherwise, new development achieved on MARTHE code allows the use of dual porosity and permeability calculations needed in the fissured Chalk aquifer context. This method concerning the integration of existing multi-disciplinary tools is a real challenge to reduce the number of parameters by selecting the relevant equations and simplifying the equations without altering the signal. The robustness and the validity of these numerical developments are tested step by step with several simulations constrained by climate forcing, land use and nitrogen inputs over several decades. In the first time, simulations are performed in a 1D vertical unsaturated soil column for representing experimental nitrates

  13. Semiconductor Electrical Measurements Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Semiconductor Electrical Measurements Laboratory is a research laboratory which complements the Optical Measurements Laboratory. The laboratory provides for Hall...

  14. Permeability prediction in chalks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alam, Mohammad Monzurul; Fabricius, Ida Lykke; Prasad, Manika

    2011-01-01

    The velocity of elastic waves is the primary datum available for acquiring information about subsurface characteristics such as lithology and porosity. Cheap and quick (spatial coverage, ease of measurement) information of permeability can be achieved, if sonic velocity is used for permeability....... The relationships between permeability and porosity from core data were first examined using Kozeny’s equation. The data were analyzed for any correlations to the specific surface of the grain, Sg, and to the hydraulic property defined as the flow zone indicator (FZI). These two methods use two different approaches...... to enhance permeability prediction fromKozeny’s equation. The FZI is based on a concept of a tortuous flow path in a granular bed. The Sg concept considers the pore space that is exposed to fluid flow and models permeability resulting from effective flow parallel to pressure drop. The porosity-permeability...

  15. Chalk and computers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lisa Rosén

    Since 1970 school books have first been supplemented by photocopies and later PDF files and the use of Internet sites. Chalkboards have been replaced by Smart Boards and notebooks by laptops and IPADS. Digital media has made its way into the classroom and into everyday school life. This has been ...

  16. Audio Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides an environment and facilities for auditory display research. A primary focus is the performance use of binaurally rendered 3D sound in conjunction...

  17. Elastomers Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Primary capabilities include: elastomer compounding in various sizes (micro, 3x5, 8x12, 8x15 rubber mills); elastomer curing and post curing (two 50-ton presses, one...

  18. MACROSCOPIC RIVERS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDENBERG, IP

    1991-01-01

    We present a mathematical model for the ''river-phenomenon'': striking concentrations of trajectories of ordinary differential equations. This model of ''macroscopic rivers'' is formulated within nonstandard analysis, and stated in terms of macroscopes and singular perturbations. For a subclass, the

  19. Mercury speciation comparison. Brooks applied laboratories and eurofins frontier global sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Wilmarth, W. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-12-16

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was tasked with preparing and shipping samples for Hg speciation by Eurofins Frontier Global Sciences (FGS), Inc. in Bothell, WA on behalf of the Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Mercury Program Team.

  20. Nutrient dynamics as indicators of karst processes: Comparison of the Chalk aquifer (Normandy, France) and the Edwards aquifer (Texas, U.S.A.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, B.J.; Valdes, D.; Musgrove, M.; Massei, N.

    2008-01-01

    Karst aquifers display a range of geologic and geomorphic characteristics in a wide range of climatic and land-use settings; identification of transport dynamics representative of karst aquifers in general could help advance our understanding of these complex systems. To this end, nutrient, turbidity, and major ion dynamics in response to storms were compared at multiple sites in two karst aquifers with contrasting characteristics and settings: the Chalk aquifer (Eure Department, Normandy, France) and the Barton Springs segment of the Edwards Aquifer (Texas, U.S.A.). The Chalk aquifer is typified by high matrix porosity, thick surficial deposits (up to 30??m thick), and agricultural land use; the Barton Springs segment is typified by low matrix porosity, outcropping limestone, and urban land use. Following one to three storms, from 5 to 16 samples from springs and wells were analyzed for major ions, and specific conductance and turbidity were monitored continuously. Comparison of the chemographs indicated some generalized responses, including an increase in turbidity and potassium concentrations and a decrease in major ion and nitrate concentrations with infiltrating storm runoff. Factor analysis of major ions and turbidity revealed strikingly similar behavior of the chemical variables for the two aquifers: The first two factors, explaining more than 75% of the variability, illustrate that dynamics of most major ions (including nitrate) are opposed to those of turbidity and of potassium. The results demonstrate that potassium and nitrate are effective tracers of infiltrating storm runoff and resident ground water, respectively, and the similar results for these two highly contrasting aquifers suggest that the dynamics identified might be applicable to karst systems in general. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. An update of hydrologic conditions and distribution of selected constituents in water, eastern Snake River Plain aquifer and perched groundwater zones, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho, emphasis 2009–11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Linda C.; Bartholomay, Roy C.; Rattray, Gordon W.

    2013-01-01

    Since 1952, wastewater discharged to infiltration ponds (also called percolation ponds) and disposal wells at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has affected water quality in the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) aquifer and perched groundwater zones underlying the INL. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, maintains groundwater monitoring networks at the INL to determine hydrologic trends, and to delineate the movement of radiochemical and chemical wastes in the aquifer and in perched groundwater zones. This report presents an analysis of water-level and water-quality data collected from aquifer, multilevel monitoring system (MLMS), and perched groundwater wells in the USGS groundwater monitoring networks during 2009–11. Water in the ESRP aquifer primarily moves through fractures and interflow zones in basalt, generally flows southwestward, and eventually discharges at springs along the Snake River. The aquifer primarily is recharged from infiltration of irrigation water, infiltration of streamflow, groundwater inflow from adjoining mountain drainage basins, and infiltration of precipitation. From March–May 2009 to March–May 2011, water levels in wells generally declined in the northern part of the INL. Water levels generally rose in the central and eastern parts of the INL. Detectable concentrations of radiochemical constituents in water samples from aquifer wells or MLMS equipped wells in the ESRP aquifer at the INL generally decreased or remained constant during 2009–11. Decreases in concentrations were attributed to radioactive decay, changes in waste-disposal methods, and dilution from recharge and underflow. In 2011, concentrations of tritium in groundwater from 50 of 127 aquifer wells were greater than or equal to the reporting level and ranged from 200±60 to 7,000±260 picocuries per liter. Tritium concentrations from one or more discrete zones from four wells equipped with MLMS were greater than or

  2. Saxton Transportation Operations Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Saxton Transportation Operations Laboratory (Saxton Laboratory) is a state-of-the-art facility for conducting transportation operations research. The laboratory...

  3. Reply to comment on: Lawrence, J.A., Mortimore, R.N., Stone, K.J., and Busby, J.P., 2013. Sea saltwater weakening of chalk and the impact on cliff instability. Geomorphology 191, 14-22

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, James A.; Mortimore, Rory N.

    2015-02-01

    We are grateful to Dornbusch (2014) for the opportunity to clarify the role we propose for salt water weakening of the chalk and its potential importance as a mechanism contributing to cliff instability. Dornbusch's argument is based largely on a single comment "This work challenges the established view by identifying the role of salt from seawater in the degradation of porous rocks in coastal environments as a third and potentially the most important mechanism leading to chalk cliff collapse" (Lawrence et al., 2013: 15). This was not intended as a "conclusion" as suggested by Dornbusch (2014) but is rather a qualitative introductory statement highlighting the potential importance of the salt water weakening process in coastal cliff instability. The actual conclusions of the work are not challenged by Dornbusch (2014).

  4. Impoverishment of the bryophyte and lichen flora of the Dutch chalk grasslands in the thirty years 1953-1983. [Tortella spp. ; Trichostomum spp. ; Aloina spp. ; Pleurochaete squarrosa; Abietinella abietina; Camptothecium lutescens; Brachythecium rutabulum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    During, H.J.; Willems, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    The Dutch chalk grasslands were formerly very rich in bryophyte and lichen species. A comparison of data from Barkman (1953) and more recent inventories yielded the following results: (a) Lichens have disappeared nearly completely from the Dutch chalk grasslands; (b) many characteristic acrocarps (e.g., Tortella spp., Trichostomum spp., Aloina spp., Pleurochaete squarrosa) and some pleurocarps (Abietinella abietina, Camptothecium lutescens) have decreased drastically; (c) some common litter-indicator species (Brachythecium rutabulum and others) are now increasing. It is hypothesized that this change is mainly a result of combined effects of the abandonment of the old grazing regime, which is in only a few places replaced by mowing, and of air pollution. The authors are strongly in favor of current attempts to reintroduce grazing by the old race of Mergelland sheep.

  5. Lunar laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keaton, P.W.; Duke, M.B.

    1986-01-01

    An international research laboratory can be established on the Moon in the early years of the 21st Century. It can be built using the transportation system now envisioned by NASA, which includes a space station for Earth orbital logistics and orbital transfer vehicles for Earth-Moon transportation. A scientific laboratory on the Moon would permit extended surface and subsurface geological exploration; long-duration experiments defining the lunar environment and its modification by surface activity; new classes of observations in astronomy; space plasma and fundamental physics experiments; and lunar resource development. The discovery of a lunar source for propellants may reduce the cost of constructing large permanent facilities in space and enhance other space programs such as Mars exploration. 29 refs.

  6. Virtual Laboratories

    CERN Document Server

    Hut, P

    2006-01-01

    At the frontier of most areas in science, computer simulations play a central role. The traditional division of natural science into experimental and theoretical investigations is now completely outdated. Instead, theory, simulation, and experimentation form three equally essential aspects, each with its own unique flavor and challenges. Yet, education in computational science is still lagging far behind, and the number of text books in this area is minuscule compared to the many text books on theoretical and experimental science. As a result, many researchers still carry out simulations in a haphazard way, without properly setting up the computational equivalent of a well equipped laboratory. The art of creating such a virtual laboratory, while providing proper extensibility and documentation, is still in its infancy. A new approach is described here, Open Knowledge, as an extension of the notion of Open Source software. Besides open source code, manuals, and primers, an open knowledge project provides simul...

  7. Impact of Nord Pas-de-Calais coal basin mine dumps on the quality of chalk aquifer waters; Impact des terrils houillers du bassin minier Nord-Pas-de-Calais sur la qualite des eaux de la nappe de la craie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denimal, S.

    2001-12-01

    In the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region (Northern France), mining activity related to coal extraction resulted in the presence of numerous mine tips. The weathering of those wastes leads to the oxidation of the pyrite contained in the Carboniferous shales and could thus release sulphate and acid waters, potentially enriched in heavy metals within the run-off waters down to the underlying aquifer, hosted by thick Cretaceous chalk formation. The aim of this study is to determine the possible role of the mine tips on the quality of the chalk aquifer, the first-order drinking water supply at the regional scale. Two sites have been selected, according to their contrasted (hydro)geological setting: site 1 lies directly on the Senonian-Turonian chalk while site 2 lies on the sandy-clayey Tertiary formations (Argiles de Louvil and Sables d'Ostricourt) overlying the chalk formations. The chalk aquifer is a free water table excepted where the Tertiary formations make this table confined, as is the case for site 2. A release of carbon and sulphur from waste dumps surface has been evidenced. Analysis of groundwater sulphate content downstream and upstream of the two sites confirms the impact of the mine tips on the chalk waters. The use of sulphur isotopes as tracers for sulphate origin has permitted to identify two sources: a 'mine dump' source on the two sites and a second source related to the gypsum of the 'Sables d'Ostricourt' on site 2. This study has also evidenced, in the confined zone (site 2), a bacterial sulphate reduction allowed by the release of carbon from the mine spoils. No leaching of heavy metals on mine tips surface and no enrichment of the Chalk aquifer waters have been observed on the two sites. The mine spoils studied here cause an acid mine drainage (AMD) neutralized during the infiltration into the chalk aquifer. The only witnesses of this AMD are the enrichments in sulphate ions observed downstream of mine dumps and the increase

  8. Virtual Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hut, P.

    At the frontier of most areas in science, computer simulations playa central role. The traditional division of natural science into experimental and theoretical investigations is now completely outdated. Instead, theory, simulation, and experimentation form three equally essential aspects, each with its own unique flavor and challenges. Yet, education in computational science is still lagging far behind, and the number of text books in this area is minuscule compared to the many text books on theoretical and experimental science. As a result, many researchers still carry out simulations in a haphazard way, without properly setting up the computational equivalent of a well equipped laboratory. The art of creating such a virtual laboratory, while providing proper extensibility and documentation, is still in its infancy. A new approach is described here, Open Knowledge, as an extension of the notion of Open Source software. Besides open source code, manuals, and primers, an open knowledge project provides simulated dialogues between code developers, thus sharing not only the code, but also the motivations behind the code.

  9. Grays River Watershed Geomorphic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geist, David R

    2005-04-30

    This investigation, completed for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), is part of the Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment commissioned by Bonneville Power Administration under project number 2003-013-00 to assess impacts on salmon habitat in the upper Grays River watershed and present recommendations for habitat improvement. This report presents the findings of the geomorphic assessment and is intended to support the overall PNNL project by evaluating the following: The effects of historical and current land use practices on erosion and sedimentation within the channel network The ways in which these effects have influenced the sediment budget of the upper watershed The resulting responses in the main stem Grays River upstream of State Highway 4 The past and future implications for salmon habitat.

  10. 实验室信息管理系统在四川省跨界断面水质资金扣缴监测工作中的应用%Application of Laboratory Information Management System in Ecological Compensation Water Monitoring of Funds Withholding for Cross -section Surface Water Quality of Min and Tuo Rivers in Sichuan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁朝旭

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces the construction goal ,construction process and operation condition of laboratory information management system (LIMS) in ecological compensation water monitoring of funds withholding for cross -section surface water quality of Min and Tuo Rivers in Sichuan Province .On the basis of practice in the last two years ,it puts forward some suggestions for the construction of LIMS in environmental monitoring field .%介绍了四川省跨界断面水质资金扣缴工作环境监测实验室信息管理系统( LIMS)的构建目标、建设过程以及运行情况,在近两年的实际应用基础上,提出了实验室信息管理系统在环境监测领域建立的几点建议。

  11. Laboratory Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Christopher F.; Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2008-01-17

    This chapter summarizes the laboratory activities performed by PNNL’s Vadose Zone Characterization Project in support of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Program, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. The results of these studies are contained in numerous reports (Lindenmeier et al. 2002; Serne et al. 2002a, 2002b, 2002c, 2002d, 2002e; Lindenmeier et al. 2003; Serne et al. 2004a, 2004b; Brown et al. 2005, 2006a, 2007; Serne et al. 2007) and have generated much of the data reported in Chapter 22 (Geochemistry-Contaminant Movement), Appendix G (Geochemistry-Contaminant Movement), and Cantrell et al. (2007, SST WMA Geochemistry Data Package – in preparation). Sediment samples and characterization results from PNNL’s Vadose Zone Characterization Project are also shared with other science and technology (S&T) research projects, such as those summarized in Chapter 12 (Associated Science Activities).

  12. Extra-Mediterranean glacial refugia in a Mediterranean faunal element: the phylogeography of the chalk-hill blue Polyommatus coridon (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühne, Gero; Kosuch, Joachim; Hochkirch, Axel; Schmitt, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Most warm-adapted Central European species are thought to have survived ice ages exclusively in Mediterranean refugia. During recent years, this point of view has been questioned. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that extra-Mediterranean refugia also played a role in warm-adapted insect species and selected the chalk-hill blue, Polyommatus coridon. We sequenced two mitochondrial loci (COI, CR) in 150 individuals from 30 populations covering nearly the complete range. Minimum spanning networks and other statistical analyses concordantly revealed four genetic lineages with strong phylogeographic signal: a western group in Italy, France and western/central Germany, an eastern lineage in the Balkan Peninsula, the Carpathian Basin and eastern Central Europe, an Alpine group with populations in the Alps and southern Germany and a Pyrenean group. Our results are generally consistent with previous analyses for P. coridon based on allozymes and DNA sequences, but provide additional insights. We propose that these four lineages have evolved during allopatry in different glacial refugia, two in typical Mediterranean refugia (Apennines and Balkan Peninsulas), but two in extra-Mediterranean areas south of the Alps and Pyrenees. This supports survival of warm-adapted organisms in these regions in close geographic proximity to the refugia of high mountain species.

  13. Observations of debris flows at Chalk Cliffs, Colorado, USA: Part 2, changes in surface morphometry from terrestrial laser scanning in the summer of 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, Dennis M.; Wasklewicz, Thad A.; Coe, Jeffrey A.; Kean, Jason W.; McCoy, Scott W.; Tucker, Greg E.

    2011-01-01

    High resolution topographic data that quantify changes in channel form caused by sequential debris flows in natural channels are rare at the reach scale. Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) techniques are utilized to capture morphological changes brought about by a high-frequency of debris-flow events at Chalk Cliffs, Colorado. The purpose of this paper is to compare and contrast the topographic response of a natural channel to the documented debris-flow events. TLS survey data allowed for the generation of high-resolution (2-cm) digital terrain models (DTM) of the channel. A robust network of twelve permanent control points permitted repeat scanning sessions that provided multiple DTM to evaluate fine-scale topographic change associated with three debris-flow events. Difference surfaces from the DTM permit the interpretations of spatial variations in channel morphometry and net volume of material deposited and eroded within and between a series of channel reaches. Each channel reach experienced erosion, deposition, and both net volumetric gains and losses were measured. Analysis of potential relationships between erosion and deposition magnitudes yielded no strong correlations with measures of channel-reach morphometry, suggesting that channel reach-specific predictions of potential erosion or deposition locations or rates cannot be adequately derived from statistical analyses of pre-event channel-reach morphometry.

  14. Bio Engineering Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description/History: Chemistry and biology laboratoriesThe Bio Engineering Laboratory (BeL) is theonly full spectrum biotechnology capability within the Department...

  15. Bio Engineering Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description/History: Chemistry and biology laboratories The Bio Engineering Laboratory (BeL) is theonly full spectrum biotechnology capability within the Department...

  16. FOOTWEAR PERFORMANCE LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory provides biomechanical and physical analyses for both military and commercial footwear. The laboratory contains equipment that is integral to the us...

  17. Advanced Chemistry Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description/History: Chemistry laboratory The Advanced Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) is a unique facility designed for working with the most super toxic compounds known...

  18. Physical Sciences Laboratory (PSL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — PNNL's Physical Sciences Laboratory (PSL) houses 22 research laboratories for conducting a wide-range of research including catalyst formulation, chemical analysis,...

  19. Distributed Energy Technology Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Distributed Energy Technologies Laboratory (DETL) is an extension of the power electronics testing capabilities of the Photovoltaic System Evaluation Laboratory...

  20. Theme: Laboratory Facilities Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Glen M.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Includes "Laboratory Facilities Improvement" (Miller); "Remodeling Laboratories for Agriscience Instruction" (Newman, Johnson); "Planning for Change" (Mulcahy); "Laboratory Facilities Improvement for Technology Transfer" (Harper); "Facilities for Agriscience Instruction" (Agnew et al.); "Laboratory Facility Improvement" (Boren, Dwyer); and…

  1. Meandering rivers - feedbacks between channel dynamics, floodplain and vegetation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, W.M.

    2013-01-01

    Rivers have distinctive channel patterns such as multi-channel braiding and single-channel meandering. Why these different river patterns emerge is only qualitatively understood. Yet, we have not been able to retain dynamic meandering in laboratory experiments. The main objective of this thesis was

  2. Impedance imaging in core analysis. Imaging of phase distributions in samples of natural cores of North Sea chalk containing conducting as well as non-conducting fluids. Part: 1-3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laursen, S. [DTU, Inst. for Kemi (Denmark)] Moeller Nielsen, C. [DTU, Inst. for Energiteknik (Denmark)

    1997-12-31

    The present report documents the efforts to develop an impedance method for determining the distribution of the water saturation in a chalk core sample. Measurement of this distribution during a displacement process will make it possible to make numerical simulations of the process which may in turn reveal important rock parameters. The impedance method is one among other methods to determine saturation profiles in a research programme on rock parameters with participants from Danmarks Tekniske Universitet, DTU, and Danmarks og Groenlands Geologiske Undersoegelse, GEUS. The other methods investigated are nmr-scanning and {gamma}-logging. (au)

  3. Effect of dolomite, magnesium oxide (MgO) and chalk (CaCO3) on in vitro fermentation of amorphous and crystalline cellulose and meadow hay using inoculum from sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Váradyová, Zora; Baran, Miroslav; Zawadzki, Wojciech; Siroka, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Some minerals can influence some biochemical parameters of rumen fermentation. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of different amounts (0.1, 0.25 and 0.5 g) of dolomite and to compare the effect of dolomite, magnesium oxide (MgO) and chalk (CaCO3) upon the end products of rumen fermentation in vitro. Amorphous and crystalline cellulose as well as meadow hay were used as substrates and incubated with buffered rumen fluid in sealed fermentation bottles. In dependence on the amount of dolomite and the kind of substrate an inhibitory effect of dolomite on methane production was evident. Significant differences of methane production were found between the controls, crystalline cellulose and meadow hay with 0.5 g of dolomite. An increase of total gas production was observed for cellulose with both 0.25 and 0.5 g of dolomite and also for meadow hay with 0.5 g of dolomite. It can be concluded that there was a remarkable effect of dolomite on methane production and also a slight effect of magnesium oxide and chalk as compared to the effect of dolomite on the fermentation parameters of incubated substrates.

  4. Advanced Chemistry Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description/History: Chemistry laboratoryThe Advanced Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) is a unique facility designed for working with the most super toxic compounds known...

  5. Gun Dynamics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Gun Dynamics Laboratory is a research multi-task facility, which includes two firing bays, a high bay area and a second floor laboratory space. The high bay area...

  6. NASA Space Radiation Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory is a NASA funded facility, delivering heavy ion beams to a target area where scientists...

  7. Lincoln Laboratory Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Lincoln Laboratory Grid (LLGrid) is an interactive, on-demand parallel computing system that uses a large computing cluster to enable Laboratory researchers to...

  8. Denver District Laboratory (DEN)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Program CapabilitiesDEN-DO Laboratory is a multi-functional laboratory capable of analyzing most chemical analytes and pathogenic/non-pathogenic microorganisms found...

  9. Laboratory-acquired brucellosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabiansen, C.; Knudsen, J.D.; Lebech, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Brucellosis is a rare disease in Denmark. We describe one case of laboratory-acquired brucellosis from an index patient to a laboratory technician following exposure to an infected blood culture in a clinical microbiology laboratory Udgivelsesdato: 2008/6/9......Brucellosis is a rare disease in Denmark. We describe one case of laboratory-acquired brucellosis from an index patient to a laboratory technician following exposure to an infected blood culture in a clinical microbiology laboratory Udgivelsesdato: 2008/6/9...

  10. Fuels Processing Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NETL’s Fuels Processing Laboratory in Morgantown, WV, provides researchers with the equipment they need to thoroughly explore the catalytic issues associated with...

  11. Photovoltaic Characterization Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NIST's PV characterization laboratory is used to measure the electrical performance and opto-electronic properties of solar cells and modules. This facility consists...

  12. Embedded Processor Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Embedded Processor Laboratory provides the means to design, develop, fabricate, and test embedded computers for missile guidance electronics systems in support...

  13. Rapid Prototyping Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ARDEC Rapid Prototyping (RP) Laboratory was established in December 1992 to provide low cost RP capabilities to the ARDEC engineering community. The Stratasys,...

  14. Coatings and Corrosion Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The mission of the Coatings and Corrosion Laboratory is to develop and analyze the effectiveness of innovative coatings test procedures while evaluating the...

  15. Geospatial Services Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: To process, store, and disseminate geospatial data to the Department of Defense and other Federal agencies. DESCRIPTION: The Geospatial Services Laboratory...

  16. Neural Systems Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — As part of the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department and The Institute for System Research, the Neural Systems Laboratory studies the functionality of the...

  17. Thermogravimetric Analysis Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — At NETL’s Thermogravimetric Analysis Laboratory in Morgantown, WV, researchers study how chemical looping combustion (CLC) can be applied to fossil energy systems....

  18. ANALYTICAL MICROBIOLOGY LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory contains equipment that performs a broad array of microbiological analyses for pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. It performs challenge studies...

  19. Environmental Microbiology Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Environmental Microbiology Laboratory, located in Bldg. 644 provides a dual-gas respirometer for measurement of oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide evolution...

  20. Laboratory of Chemical Physics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Current research in the Laboratory of Chemical Physics is primarily concerned with experimental, theoretical, and computational problems in the structure, dynamics,...

  1. Research Combustion Laboratory (RCL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Research Combustion Laboratory (RCL) develops aerospace propulsion technology by performing tests on propulsion components and materials. Altitudes up to 137,000...

  2. COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory conducts basic and applied human research studies to characterize cognitive performance as influenced by militarily-relevant contextual and physical...

  3. Acoustic Technology Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory contains an electro-magnetic worldwide data collection and field measurement capability in the area of acoustic technology. Outfitted by NASA Langley...

  4. Tactical Systems Integration Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Tactical Systems Integration Laboratory is used to design and integrate computer hardware and software and related electronic subsystems for tactical vehicles....

  5. Combustion Research Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Combustion Research Laboratory facilitates the development of new combustion systems or improves the operation of existing systems to meet the Army's mission for...

  6. Sandia National Laboratories

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — For more than 60 years, Sandia has delivered essential science and technology to resolve the nation's most challenging security issues.Sandia National Laboratories...

  7. Wind Structural Testing Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility provides office space for industry researchers, experimental laboratories, computer facilities for analytical work, and space for assembling components...

  8. Vehicle Development Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Supports the development of prototype deployment platform vehicles for offboard countermeasure systems. DESCRIPTION: The Vehicle Development Laboratory is...

  9. Central Laboratories Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The TVA Central Laboratories Services is a comprehensive technical support center, offering you a complete range of scientific, engineering, and technical services....

  10. Wireless Emulation Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Wireless Emulation Laboratory (WEL) is a researchtest bed used to investigate fundamental issues in networkscience. It is a research infrastructure that emulates...

  11. Space Weather Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Space Weather Computational Laboratory is a Unix and PC based modeling and simulation facility devoted to research analysis of naturally occurring electrically...

  12. Composites Characterization Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The purpose of the Composites Characterization Laboratory is to investigate new and/or modified matrix materials and fibers for advanced composite applications both...

  13. Vehicle Development Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Supports the development of prototype deployment platform vehicles for offboard countermeasure systems.DESCRIPTION: The Vehicle Development Laboratory is...

  14. Engineered Natural Systems Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — With its pressure vessels that simulate the pressures and temperatures found deep underground, NETL’s Engineered Natural Systems Laboratory in Pittsburgh, PA, gives...

  15. Virtual Training Devices Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Virtual Training Devices (VTD) Laboratory at the Life Cycle Software Engineering Center, Picatinny Arsenal, provides a software testing and support environment...

  16. Advanced Manufacturing Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Advanced Manufacturing Laboratory at the University of Maryland provides the state of the art facilities for realizing next generation products and educating the...

  17. Intelligent Optics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Intelligent Optics Laboratory supports sophisticated investigations on adaptive and nonlinear optics; advancedimaging and image processing; ground-to-ground and...

  18. Semiconductor Laser Measurements Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Semiconductor Laser Measurements Laboratory is equipped to investigate and characterize the lasing properties of semiconductor diode lasers. Lasing features such...

  19. Optical Remote Sensing Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Optical Remote Sensing Laboratory deploys rugged, cutting-edge electro-optical instrumentation for the collection of various event signatures, with expertise in...

  20. FOOD SAFETY TESTING LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory develops screening assays, tests and modifies biosensor equipment, and optimizes food safety testing protocols for the military and civilian sector...

  1. Atmospheric Measurements Laboratory (AML)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Atmospheric Measurements Laboratory (AML) is one of the nation's leading research facilities for understanding aerosols, clouds, and their interactions. The AML...

  2. The CHPRC Columbia River Protection Project Quality Assurance Project Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fix, N. J.

    2008-11-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory researchers are working on the CHPRC Columbia River Protection Project (hereafter referred to as the Columbia River Project). This is a follow-on project, funded by CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company, LLC (CHPRC), to the Fluor Hanford, Inc. Columbia River Protection Project. The work scope consists of a number of CHPRC funded, related projects that are managed under a master project (project number 55109). All contract releases associated with the Fluor Hanford Columbia River Project (Fluor Hanford, Inc. Contract 27647) and the CHPRC Columbia River Project (Contract 36402) will be collected under this master project. Each project within the master project is authorized by a CHPRC contract release that contains the project-specific statement of work. This Quality Assurance Project Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by the Columbia River Project staff.

  3. River Morphology and River Channel Changes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG Howard H

    2008-01-01

    River morphology has been a subject of great challenge to scientists and engineers who recognize that any effort with regard to river engineering must be based on a proper understanding of the morphological features involved and the responses to the imposed changes. In this paper,an overview of river morphology is presented from the geomorphic viewpoint. Included in the scope are the regime concept, river channel classification, thresholds in river morphology, and geomor-phic analysis of river responses. Analytical approach to river morphology based on the physical principles for the hydraulics of flow and sediment transport processes is also presented. The appli-cation of analytical river morphology is demonstrated by an example. Modeling is the modern tech-nique to determine both short-term and long-term river channel responses to any change in the en-vironment. The physical foundation of fluvial process-response must be applied in formatting a mathematical model. A brief introduction of the mathematical model FLUVIAL-12 is described.

  4. Laboratory Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henricks, Walter H

    2015-06-01

    Laboratory information systems (LISs) supply mission-critical capabilities for the vast array of information-processing needs of modern laboratories. LIS architectures include mainframe, client-server, and thin client configurations. The LIS database software manages a laboratory's data. LIS dictionaries are database tables that a laboratory uses to tailor an LIS to the unique needs of that laboratory. Anatomic pathology LIS (APLIS) functions play key roles throughout the pathology workflow, and laboratories rely on LIS management reports to monitor operations. This article describes the structure and functions of APLISs, with emphasis on their roles in laboratory operations and their relevance to pathologists.

  5. Sharp bends associated with deep scours in a tropical river: The river Mahakam (East Kalimantan, Indonesia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, B.; Hoitink, A.J.F.; Berkum, van S.W.; Hidayat, H.

    2014-01-01

    Autogenic scouring in sharp river bends has received ample attention in laboratory and modeling studies. These studies have significantly advanced our understanding of how flow processes are influenced by strong curvature and how they affect the bathymetry. Here we present a 300 km reach of the Maha

  6. Iowa's Sovereign Meandered Rivers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This data set depicts Iowa's Meandered Rivers. These rivers are deemed sovereign land & therefore require any person wishing to conduct construction activities...

  7. Allegheny County Major Rivers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains locations of major rivers that flow through Allegheny County. These shapes have been taken from the Hydrology dataset. The Ohio River,...

  8. Illinois River NWFR HMP

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Illinois River National Wildlife and Fish Refuges Complex stretches along 124 miles of the Illinois River in west central Illinois. The Complex includes three...

  9. Qingjiang River Developer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    THE 400-kilometer Qingjiang River, second tributary of the Yangtze River in Hubei Province, has a drainage area of 17,000 square kilometers. Its advantageous natural conditions have made it a key water power development project.

  10. Measuring River Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyavoo, Gabriel

    2004-01-01

    The Don River watershed is located within Canada's most highly urbanized area--metropolitan Toronto. Many residential and commercial uses, including alterations to the river's course with bridges, have had a significant impact on the Don's fauna and flora. Pollutants have degraded the river's water quality, a situation exacerbated by the…

  11. Area balance and strain in an extensional fault system: Strategies for improved oil recovery in fractured chalk, Gilbertown Field, southwestern Alabama -- Year 2. Annual report, March 1997--March 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pashin, J.C.; Raymond, D.E.; Rindsberg, A.K.; Alabi, G.G.; Carroll, R.E.

    1998-09-01

    Gilbertown Field is the oldest oil field in Alabama and has produced oil from fractured chalk of the Cretaceous Selma Group and glauconitic sandstone of the Eutaw Formation. Nearly all of Gilbertown Field is still in primary recovery, although waterflooding has been attempted locally. The objective of this project is to analyze the geologic structure and burial history of Mesozoic and Tertiary strata in Gilbertown Field and adjacent areas in order to suggest ways in which oil recovery can be improved. Indeed, the decline of oil production to marginally economic levels in recent years has made this type of analysis timely and practical. Key technical advancements being sought include understanding the relationship of requisite strain to production in Gilbertown reservoirs, incorporation of synsedimentary growth factors into models of area balance, quantification of the relationship between requisite strain and bed curvature, determination of the timing of hydrocarbon generation, and identification of the avenues and mechanisms of fluid transport.

  12. AFSC/NMML/CCEP: Diet of Pacific harbor seals at Umpqua River, Oregon and Columbia River, Oregon/Washington during 1994 through 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — From 1994 to 2005, The National Marine Mammal Laboratories' California Current Ecosystem Program (AFSC/NOAA) collected fecal samples at the Umpqua River, Oregon and...

  13. Snake and Columbia Rivers Sediment Sampling Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinza, M.R.; Word, J.Q; Barrows, E.S.; Mayhew, H.L.; Clark, D.R. (Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States))

    1992-12-01

    The disposal of dredged material in water is defined as a discharge under Section 404 of the Clean Water Act and must be evaluated in accordance with US Environmental Protection Agency regulation 40 CFR 230. Because contaminant loads in the dredged sediment or resuspended sediment may affect water quality or contaminant loading, the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Walla Walla District, has requested Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory to collect and chemically analyze sediment samples from areas that may be dredged near the Port Authority piers on the Snake and Columbia rivers. Sediment samples were also collected at River Mile (RM) stations along the Snake River that may undergo resuspension of sediment as a result of the drawdown. Chemical analysis included grain size, total organic carbon, total volatile solids, ammonia, phosphorus, sulfides, oil and grease, total petroleum hydrocarbons, metals, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and 21 congeners of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans.

  14. Product Evaluation Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory offers the services of highly trained and experienced specialists that have a full complement of measuring equipment. It is equipped with two optical...

  15. Laboratory of Biological Modeling

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Laboratory of Biological Modeling is defined by both its methodologies and its areas of application. We use mathematical modeling in many forms and apply it to...

  16. Laboratory of Biological Modeling

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Laboratory of Biological Modeling is defined by both its methodologies and its areas of application. We use mathematical modeling in many forms and apply it to a...

  17. Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Lab has a proud history and heritage of almost 70 years of science and innovation. The people at the Laboratory work on advanced technologies to provide the best...

  18. FLEXIBLE FOOD PACKAGING LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory contains equipment to fabricate and test prototype packages of many types and sizes (e.g., bags, pouches, trays, cartons, etc.). This equipment can...

  19. Mechanical Testing Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NETL’s Mechanical Testing Laboratory in Albany, OR, helps researchers investigate materials that can withstand the heat and pressure commonly found in fossil energy...

  20. Philadelphia District Laboratory (PHI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Program Capabilities PHI-DO Pharmaceutical Laboratory specializes in the analyses of all forms and types of drug products.Its work involves nearly all phases of drug...

  1. Geometric Design Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The mission of the Geometric Design Laboratory (GDL) is to support the Office of Safety Research and Development in research related to the geometric design...

  2. Space Systems Laboratory (SSL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Space Systems Laboratory (SSL) is part of the Aerospace Engineering Department and A. James Clark School of Engineering at the University of Maryland in College...

  3. Detroit District Laboratory (DET)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Program CapabilitiesDET-DO Laboratory is equipped with the usual instrumentation necessary to perform a wide range of analyses of food, drugs and cosmetics. Program...

  4. Clinical Laboratory Fee Schedule

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Outpatient clinical laboratory services are paid based on a fee schedule in accordance with Section 1833(h) of the Social Security Act. The clinical laboratory fee...

  5. Aircraft Fire Protection Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Navy Aircraft Protection Laboratory provides complete test support for all Navy air vehicle fire protection systems.The facility allows for the simulation of a...

  6. Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL)�is a scientific facility funded by DOE to create and implement innovative processes for environmental clean-up and...

  7. Detroit District Laboratory (DET)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Program Capabilities DET-DO Laboratory is equipped with the usual instrumentation necessary to perform a wide range of analyses of food, drugs and cosmetics. Program...

  8. High Bay Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory is a specially constructed facility with elevated (37 feet) ceilings and an overhead catwalk, and which is dedicated to research efforts in reducing...

  9. Laboratory Demographics Lookup Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This website provides demographic information about laboratories, including CLIA number, facility name and address, where the laboratory testing is performed, the...

  10. Human Factors Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The purpose of the Human Factors Laboratory is to further the understanding of highway user needs so that those needs can be incorporated in roadway design,...

  11. Geological Services Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Researchers use computed tomography (CT) scanners at NETL’s Geological Services Laboratory in Morgantown, WV, to peer into geologic core samples to determine how...

  12. Philadelphia District Laboratory (PHI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Program CapabilitiesPHI-DO Pharmaceutical Laboratory specializes in the analyses of all forms and types of drug products.Its work involves nearly all phases of drug...

  13. Protective Systems Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory is a 40 by 28 by 9 foot facility that is equipped with tools for the development of various items of control technology related to the transmission...

  14. Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) is an astronaut training facility and neutral buoyancy pool operated by NASA and located at the Sonny Carter Training Facility,...

  15. Aircraft Fire Protection Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Navy Aircraft Protection Laboratory provides complete test support for all Navy air vehicle fire protection systems. The facility allows for the simulation of a...

  16. Energetics Laboratory Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — These energetic materials laboratories are equipped with explosion proof hoods with blow out walls for added safety, that are certified for safe handling of primary...

  17. Moriah Wind System Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The Moriah Wind System Laboratory provides in-service support for the more than 50 U.S. Navy, U.S. Coast Guard and Military Sealift Command ships on which...

  18. Laboratory investigations of the survivability of bacteria in hypervelocity impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchell, M J; Shrine, N R; Mann, J; Bunch, A W; Brandao, P; Zarnecki, J C; Galloway, J A

    2001-01-01

    It is now well established that material naturally moves around the Solar System, even from planetary surface to planetary surface. Accordingly, the idea that life is distributed throughout space and did not necessarily originate on the Earth but migrated here from elsewhere (Panspermia) is increasingly deemed worthy of consideration. If life arrived at the Earth from space, its relative speed will typically be of order many km s-1, and the resulting collision with the Earth and its atmosphere will be in the hypervelocity regime. A mechanism for the bacteria to survive such an impact is required. Therefore a programme of hypervelocity impacts in the laboratory at (4.5 +/- 0.6) km s-1 was carried out using bacteria (Rhodococcus) laden projectiles. After impacts on a variety of target materials (rock, glass and metal) attempts were made to culture Rhodococcus from the surface of the resulting craters and also from the target material ejected during crater formation. Control shots with clean projectiles yielded no evidence for Rhodococcus growth from any crater surface or ejecta. When projectiles doped with Rhodococcus were used no impact crater surface yielded colonies of Rhodococcus. However, for four shots of bacteria into rock (two on chalk and two on granite) the ejecta was afterwards found to give colonies of Rhodococcus. This was not true for shots onto glass. In addition, shots into aerogel (density 96 kg m-3) were also carried out (two with clean projectiles and two with projectiles with Rhodococcus). This crudely simulated aero-capture in a planetary atmosphere. No evidence for Rhodococcus growth was found from the projectiles captured in the aerogel from any of the four shots.

  19. PROGRESS IN STUDIES ON ICE ACCUMULATION IN RIVER BENDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jun; CHEN Pang-pang; SUI Jue-yi

    2011-01-01

    River ice is an important hydraulic element in temperate and polar environments and would affect hydrodynamic conditions of rivers through changes both in the boundary conditions and the thermal regime.The river bend has been reported as the common location for the initiation of ice jams because the water flow along a river bend is markedly affected by the channel curvature.In this article,the experimental studies about the ice accumulation in a river bend are reviewed.Based on experiments conducted so far,the criteria for the formation of ice jams in the river bend,the mechanisms of the ice accumulation in the river bend and the thickness profile of the ice accumulation in the river bend are discussed.The k- ε two-equation turbulence model is used to simulate the ice accumulation under an ice cover along a river bend.A formula is proposed for describing the deformation of the ice jam bottom.Our results indicate that all simulated thickness of the ice accumulation agrees reasonably well with the measured thickness of the ice accumulation in the laboratory.

  20. Savannah River Laboratory Seepage Basins: Waste site assessment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haselow, J.S.; Looney, B.B.; Nichols, R.L.

    1989-09-05

    This Waste Site Assessment for the SRL Seepage Basins is the second in a series of documents being prepared to support development of an appropriate closure plan for these basins. The closure of these basins will be designed to provide protection to human health and the environment and to meet the provisions of the Consent Decree. A Technical Data Summary for these basins has already been submitted as part of the Consent Decree. This Site Assessment Report includes a waste site characterization, and a discussion of closure options for the basins. A closure option is recommended in this report, but details of the recommended closure are not provided in this report since they will be provided in a subsequent closure plan. The closure plan is the third document required under the Consent Decree. 18 refs., 16 figs., 10 tabs.

  1. Biological surveys on the Savannah River in the vicinity of the Savannah River Plant (1951-1976)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, R. A.

    1982-04-01

    In 1951, the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia was contracted by the Savannah River Plant to initiate a long-term monitoring program in the Savannah River. The purpose of this program was to determine the effect of the Savannah River Plant on the Savannah River aquatic ecosystem. The data from this monitoring program have been computerized by the Savannah River Laboratory, and are summarized in this report. During the period from 1951-1976, 16 major surveys were conducted by the Academy in the Savannah River. Water chemistry analyses were made, and all major biological communities were sampled qualitatively during the spring and fall of each survey year. In addition, quantitative diatom data have been collected quarterly since 1953. Major changes in the Savannah River basin, in the Savannah River Plant's activities, and in the Academy sampling patterns are discussed to provide a historical overview of the biomonitoring program. Appendices include a complete taxonomic listing of species collected from the Savannah River, and summaries of the entire biological and physicochemical data base.

  2. Characterizing the Laboratory Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shehabi, Arman; Ganeshalingam, Mohan; DeMates, Lauren; Mathew, Paul; Sartor, Dale

    2017-04-11

    Laboratories are estimated to be 3-5 times more energy intensive than typical office buildings and offer significant opportunities for energy use reductions. Although energy intensity varies widely, laboratories are generally energy intensive due to ventilation requirements, the research instruments used, and other health and safety concerns. Because the requirements of laboratory facilities differ so dramatically from those of other buildings, a clear need exists for an initiative exclusively targeting these facilities. The building stock of laboratories in the United States span different economic sectors, include governmental and academic institution, and are often defined differently by different groups. Information on laboratory buildings is often limited to a small subsection of the total building stock making aggregate estimates of the total U.S. laboratories and their energy use challenging. Previous estimates of U.S. laboratory space vary widely owing to differences in how laboratories are defined and categorized. A 2006 report on fume hoods provided an estimate of 150,000 laboratories populating the U.S. based in part on interviews of industry experts, however, a 2009 analysis of the 2003 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) generated an estimate of only 9,000 laboratory buildings. This report draws on multiple data sources that have been evaluated to construct an understanding of U.S. laboratories across different sizes and markets segments. This 2016 analysis is an update to draft reports released in October and December 2016.

  3. Evidence for methane-subsidised secondary production in a groundwater-fed lowland river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimmer, M.; Grey, J.; Hildrew, A.; Jackson, M.

    2009-04-01

    We are probably familiar with the chemosynthetic ecosystems of the deep Pacific, where life in the dark is coupled to the oxidation of sulphur from ‘black smokers' rather than the sun, but few, if any, would suspect such a mode of life in the classic chalk rivers of southern England. We measured the delta13C values of dominant primary consumers and their potential food sources in a groundwater-fed lowland river. The delta13C of most consumers, such as Gammarus and Simulium, reflected that of the dominant forms of photosynthetic production, whereas the cased larvae of two caddis flies (Agapetus and Silo) were consistently 13C-depleted throughout the year. The river water was supersaturated (50-60 times atmospheric) with methane, reflecting both supersaturation in the groundwater and local production in fine sediments. We measured significant rates of methane oxidation, which generates 13C-depleted organic carbon, in the biofilms on gravel, on the caddis fly cases, and on the bottom of larger rocks. In addition, there was a marked difference in the ratio of methane oxidising potential to chlorophyll a across those substrata. This ratio was below detection in the biofilm (i.e. no methane oxidation) on the tops of rocks, greater on the bottom of rocks, and maximal for the gravels and the caddis cases. If the caddis larvae acquire most of their carbon by grazing the tops of such rocks (where they are normally found), then they must acquire their depleted delta13C values by occasionally grazing biofilm where the ratio of methane oxidation to chlorophyll was much greater, and the most likely candidate is from their own cases. Grazing methane oxidising bacteria could provide the caddis larvae with up to 30 % of their carbon, which could represent a true subsidy from an ancient groundwater source.

  4. Personalized laboratory medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pazzagli, M.; Malentacchi, F.; Mancini, I.

    2015-01-01

    Developments in "omics" are creating a paradigm shift in Laboratory Medicine leading to Personalised Medicine. This allows the increasing in diagnostics and therapeutics focused on individuals rather than populations. In order to investigate whether Laboratory Medicine is able to implement new...... diagnostic tools and expertise and commands proper state-of-the-art knowledge about Personalized Medicine and Laboratory Medicine in Europe, the joint Working Group "Personalized Laboratory Medicine" of the EFLM and ESPT societies compiled and conducted the Questionnaire "Is Laboratory Medicine ready...... for the era of Personalized Medicine?". 48 laboratories from 18 European countries participated at this survey. The answers of the participating Laboratory Medicine professionals indicate that they are aware that Personalized Medicine can represent a new and promising health model. Whereas they are aware...

  5. Yellow River, Cradle of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    THE Yellow River is the Mother River of China. In the hearts of the Chinese people, it is not just an ancient river measuring 4,845 kilometers long that passes through nine provinces and regions, but also a symbol. The poets say that the waterway is the image of ancient China. Thephilosophers say the river is the shadow of a dragon. The river

  6. Raptor-Powerline Mortality Data, Snake River Birds of Prey Conservation Area - 1999-2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory — This data set is a spreadsheet resulting from monthly searches for dead birds along randomly selected power line segments in and near the Snake River Birds of Prey...

  7. Optics/Optical Diagnostics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Optics/Optical Diagnostics Laboratory supports graduate instruction in optics, optical and laser diagnostics and electro-optics. The optics laboratory provides...

  8. Heat Flux Instrumentation Laboratory (HFIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description: The Heat Flux Instrumentation Laboratory is used to develop advanced, flexible, thin film gauge instrumentation for the Air Force Research Laboratory....

  9. The Origin of River Meanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahagian, D. L.; Chatanantavet, P.; Bradley, C.; Friedgen-Veitch, D.; Diplas, P.

    2015-12-01

    Various propositions for the origin of meanders have been suggested in the past, involving local disturbances such as variable bank material, obstructions to flow, and sediment transport. Each of these approaches has required a very special and complex set of circumstances for the onset of meandering. However, meanders have also been observed in other systems such as the gulf stream , window glass , glacial meltwater, channels in submarine fans, the jet stream, water faucets, and many others. What has not been satisfactorily demonstrated is why some rivers (or parts of rivers) should tend to meander in the first place rather than ply a straight course to base level. We suggest that the fundamental cause of the river meander instability is simply a minimization of power (rate of work done), with an onset that occurs when inertial terms exceed body forces (e.g. gravity) acting on the flow, and thus create an adverse pressure gradient directed in the opposite direction of the flow. A simple way to visualize the cause of the instability is that the water "backs up" upon itself, running into a parcel of water downstream that is flowing more slowly than the water upstream. This causes the direction of maximum local water surface slope to be diverted to one side or the other of the regional slope. This can occur when a river encounters the ocean (or a lake, or a break in slope), and can occur in many other situations as well. We analyzed various meandering systems globally, and conducted laboratory experiments under controlled conditions to determine the conditions necessary for the onset of the meander instability. The results indicate that the meander instability does not depend on sediment or erodible banks. The critical threshold for the onset of the meander instability occurs when inertial forces exceed body forces acting on the fluid such that an adverse pressure gradient arises. Better understanding of the meander instability should thus elucidate some of the

  10. Ice Atlas 1985 - 1986. Monongahela River, Allegheny River, Ohio River, Illinois River and Kankakee River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-11-01

    V 0 1m =1 uvydae aury1,18 Belevlle oo Sufc MAPUNTS( MArea concentration MAP NITS(in 2 x 106) (%/) Oppen water 24.97 NA Solid ice cover 0.00 NA Solid...January 28, 1986 ideo Ta-pe 14 Lock and Dam #3 Pool.- Allegheny River: 1/1 / New Kensington Bridge 19- Lock and Dam #2 Pool Surface MArea

  11. "Ghost river": The Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Gayton, D.

    2001-01-01

    Metadata only record This perspective piece examines the history and geography of the Columbia River and some current ecosystem management issues related to hydroelectric development on the river. Once the greatest salmon producer in the word, the Columbia has, according to the author, become a "ghost river," with its salmon runs reduced to remnants, and its ecological integrity hanging in the balance. The author suggests that British Columbians have much to lose, both biologically and cul...

  12. Down to the River

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessels, Josepha Ivanka

    2015-01-01

    Currently there is no coherent or sustainable water cooperation among the five states—Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Palestinian territories and Syria—that share the Jordan River. Why do people not cooperate on sustainable river basin management, even if it seems the most rational course from...... to illustrate hydropolitics in praxis, because the political future of this particular area in many respects affects the sustainable future of the Jordan River Basin and the entire Levant....

  13. Waterfowl of the Savannah River Plant: Comprehensive cooling water study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, J.J.; Kennamer, R.A.; Hoppe, R.T.

    1986-06-01

    Thirty-one species of waterfowl have been documented on the Savannah River Plant (SPR). The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) has been conducting waterfowl research on the site for the past 15 years. This research has included work on waterfowl utilization of the SRP, wood duck reproductive biology, and waterfowl wintering ecology. Results are described.

  14. Washington Phase II Fish Diversion Screen Evaluations in the Yakima River Basin, 1998.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanton, S.L.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Neitzel, D.A.

    1999-12-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) evaluated 19 Phase II screen sites in the Yakima River Basin as part of a multi-year study for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) on the effectiveness of fish screening devices. The sites were examined to determine if they were being effectively operated and maintained to provide fish a safe, efficient return to the Yakima River.

  15. Investing in river health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J

    2002-01-01

    Rivers provide society with numerous returns. These relate to both the passive and extractive uses of the resources embodied in river environments. Some returns are manifest in the form of financial gains whilst others are non-monetary. For instance, rivers are a source of monetary income for those who harvest their fish. The water flowing in rivers is extracted for drinking and to water crops and livestock that in turn yield monetary profits. However, rivers are also the source of non-monetary values arising from biological diversity. People who use them for recreation (picnicking, swimming, boating) also receive non-monetary returns. The use of rivers to yield these returns has had negative consequences. With extraction for financial return has come diminished water quantity and quality. The result has been a diminished capacity of rivers to yield (non-extractive) environmental returns and to continue to provide extractive values. A river is like any other asset. With use, the value of an asset depreciates because its productivity declines. In order to maintain the productive capacity of their assets, managers put aside from their profits depreciation reserves that can be invested in the repair or replacement of those assets. Society now faces a situation in which its river assets have depreciated in terms of their capacity to provide monetary and non-monetary returns. An investment in river "repair" is required. But, investment means that society gives up something now in order to achieve some benefit in the future. Society thus has to grapple wih the choice between investing in river health and other investments--such as in hospitals, schools, defence etc. - as well as between investing in river health and current consumption--such as on clothes, food, cars etc. A commonly used aid for investment decision making in the public sector is benefit cost analysis. However, its usefulness in tackling the river investment problem is restricted because it requires all

  16. Behavioral Neuroscience Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This lab supports cognitive research using rodent models. Capabilities for behavioral assessments include: Morris water maze and Barnes maze (spatial memory) elevate...

  17. Free Surface Hydrodynamics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Investigates processes and interactions at the air-sea interface, and compares measurements to numerical simulations and field data. Typical phenomena of...

  18. Laboratory for Structural Acoustics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Supports experimental research where acoustic radiation, scattering, and surface vibration measurements of fluid-loaded and non-fluid-loaded structures are...

  19. Biochemical Neuroscience Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This biochemistry lab is set up for protein analysis using Western blot, enzyme linked immunosorbent assays, immunohistochemistry, and bead-based immunoassays. The...

  20. Metallurgical Research Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The purpose is to increase basic knowledge of metallurgical processing for controlling the microstructure and mechanical properties of metallic aerospace alloys and...

  1. Head Impact Laboratory (HIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The HIL uses testing devices to evaluate vehicle interior energy attenuating (EA) technologies for mitigating head injuries resulting from head impacts during mine/...

  2. Flying Electronic Warfare Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides NP-3D aircraft host platforms for Effectiveness of Navy Electronic Warfare Systems (ENEWS) Program antiship missile (ASM) seeker simulators used...

  3. Shallow Water Acoustic Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Supports experimental research where high-frequency acoustic scattering and surface vibration measurements of fluid-loaded and non-fluid-loaded structures...

  4. Materials Behavior Research Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The purpose is to evaluate mechanical properties of materials including metals, intermetallics, metal-matrix composites, and ceramic-matrix composites under typical...

  5. Structural Dynamics Laboratory (SDL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Structural dynamic testing is performed to verify the survivability of a component or assembly when exposed to vibration stress screening, or a controlled simulation...

  6. Applied Neuroscience Laboratory Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Located at WPAFB, Ohio, the Applied Neuroscience lab researches and develops technologies to optimize Airmen individual and team performance across all AF domains....

  7. Sediment Core Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides instrumentation and expertise for physical and geoacoustic characterization of marine sediments.DESCRIPTION: The multisensor core logger measures...

  8. GSPEL - Air Filtration Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Evaluation capabilities for air filtration devices The Air Filtration Lab provides testing of air filtration devices to demonstrate and validate new or legacy system...

  9. Sediment Core Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides instrumentation and expertise for physical and geoacoustic characterization of marine sediments. DESCRIPTION: The multisensor core logger measures...

  10. High Temperature Materials Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The High Temperature Materials Lab provides the Navy and industry with affordable high temperature materials for advanced propulsion systems. Asset List: Arc Melter...

  11. Behavioral Neuroscience Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This lab supports cognitive research using rodent models. Capabilities for behavioral assessments include:Morris water maze and Barnes maze (spatial memory)elevate...

  12. Virtual Reality Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Performs basic and applied research in interactive 3D computer graphics, including visual analytics, virtual environments, and augmented reality (AR). The...

  13. Geomorphological Prerequisites of Recreation and Tourism Development in the Basin of Bolshaya Golubaya River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishnyakov Nikolay Vladimirovich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The basin of the Bolshaya Golubaya river is a promising region for the development of recreation, due to the unique natural conditions and rich historical and cultural heritage of this territory. The article demonstrates geomorphological features of the basin of Bolshaya Golubaya and their influence on the prospects of recreational use of this area. The author analyses the literature data on the geomorphology of the region and supplements it with his own field studies. The nature of this region is picturesque and multifarious. There are a lot of ravines, gullies, terraces, chalk cliffs and other landforms here. The author discovers the opportunities of organization of different recreational types in the study area in light of its geomorphological features. Recreational characteristics of this territory make it suitable for hiking, skiing and cycling tourism, horse riding. The results of this research can be used at the stage of creating of tourist-recreational projects, when designing and conducting excursion trips, sports and health touristic events. These studies contribute to the expansion of practical knowledge about the geography of the territory which has a positive effect on the possibility of carrying out mentioned above recreational projects.

  14. River Corridors (Jan 2, 2015)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — River corridors are delineated to provide for the least erosive meandering and floodplain geometry toward which a river will evolve over time. River corridor maps...

  15. Fostering a regional vision on river systems by remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizzi, S.; Piegay, H.; Demarchi, L.

    2015-12-01

    River classification and the derived knowledge about river systems have been relying until recently on discontinuous field campaigns and visual interpretation of aerial images. For this reason, building a regional vision on river systems based on a systematic and coherent set of hydromorphological indicators was, and still is, a research challenge. Remote sensing data, since some years, offer notable opportunities to shift this paradigm offering an unprecedented amount of spatially distributed data over large scales, such as regional. Here, we have implemented a river characterization framework based on color infrared orthophotos at 40 cm and a LIDAR derived DTM at 5 m acquired simultaneously in 2009-2010 for all Piedmont Region Italy (25400 kmq). 1500 km of river systems have been characterized in terms typology, geometry and topography of hydromorphological features. The framework delineates the valley bottom of each river course, and maps by a semi-automated procedure water channels, unvegetated and vegetated sediment bars, islands, and riparian corridors. Using a range of statistical techniques the river systems have been segmented and classified with an objective, quantitative, and then repeatable approach. Such regional database enhances our ability to address a number of research and management challenges, such as: i) quantify shape and topography of channel forms for different river functional types, and investigate their relationships with potential drivers like hydrology, geology, land use and historical contingency; ii) localize most degraded and better functioning river stretches so to prioritize finer scale monitoring and set quantifiable restoration targets; iii) provide indication for future RS acquisition campaigns so to start monitoring river processes at the regional scale. The Piedmont Region in Italy is here used as a laboratory of concrete examples and analyses to discuss our current ability to answer to these challenges in river science.

  16. LABORATORY INVESTIGATIONS OF SILICATE MUD CONTAMINATION WITH CALCIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nediljka Gaurina-Međimurec

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The silicate-based drilling fluid is a low solids KCl/polymer system with the addition of soluble sodium or potassium silicate to enhance inhibition and wellbore stability. Silicate-based drilling fluids exhibit remarkable shale and chalk stabilizing properties, resulting in gauge hole and the formation of firm cuttings when drilling reactive shales and soft chalks. Silicates protect shales by in-situ gellation when exposed to the neutral pore fluid and precipitation, which occurs on contact with divalent ions present at the surface of the shale. Also, silicates prevent the dispersion and washouts when drilling soft chalk by reacting with the Ca2+ ions present on chalk surfaces of cutting and wellbore to form a protective film. The silicate-based drilling fluid can be used during drilling hole section through shale interbeded anhydrite formations because of its superior shale stabilizing characteristics. However, drilling through the anhydrite can decrease the silicate concentration and change rheological and filtration fluid properties. So, the critical concentration of calcium ions should be investigated by lab tests. This paper details the mechanism of shale inhibition using silicate-based drilling fluid, and presents results of lab tests conducted to ascertain the effect of Ca2+ ions on silicate level in the fluid and the fluid properties.

  17. The Virtual Robotics Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kress, R.L.; Love, L.J.

    1999-09-01

    The growth of the Internet has provided a unique opportunity to expand research collaborations between industry, universities, and the national laboratories. The Virtual Robotics Laboratory (VRL) is an innovative program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) that is focusing on the issues related to collaborative research through controlled access of laboratory equipment using the World Wide Web. The VRL will provide different levels of access to selected ORNL laboratory secondary education programs. In the past, the ORNL Robotics and Process Systems Division has developed state-of-the-art robotic systems for the Army, NASA, Department of Energy, Department of Defense, as well as many other clients. After proof of concept, many of these systems sit dormant in the laboratories. This is not out of completion of all possible research topics. but from completion of contracts and generation of new programs. In the past, a number of visiting professors have used this equipment for their own research. However, this requires that the professor, and possibly his/her students, spend extended periods at the laboratory facility. In addition, only a very exclusive group of faculty can gain access to the laboratory and hardware. The VRL is a tool that enables extended collaborative efforts without regard to geographic limitations.

  18. The Virtual Robotics Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kress, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Love, L.J. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States)

    1997-03-01

    The growth of the Internet has provided a unique opportunity to expand research collaborations between industry, universities, and the national laboratories. The Virtual Robotics Laboratory (VRL) is an innovative program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) that is focusing on the issues related to collaborative research through controlled access of laboratory equipment using the World Wide Web. The VRL will provide different levels of access to selected ORNL laboratory equipment to outside universities, industrial researchers, and elementary and secondary education programs. In the past, the ORNL Robotics and Process Systems Division (RPSD) has developed state-of-the-art robotic systems for the Army, NASA, Department of Energy, Department of Defense, as well as many other clients. After proof of concept, many of these systems sit dormant in the laboratories. This is not out of completion of all possible research topics, but from completion of contracts and generation of new programs. In the past, a number of visiting professors have used this equipment for their own research. However, this requires that the professor, and possibly his students, spend extended periods at the laboratory facility. In addition, only a very exclusive group of faculty can gain access to the laboratory and hardware. The VRL is a tool that enables extended collaborative efforts without regard to geographic limitations.

  19. NVLAP calibration laboratory program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cigler, J.L.

    1993-12-31

    This paper presents an overview of the progress up to April 1993 in the development of the Calibration Laboratories Accreditation Program within the framework of the National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).

  20. Quality in Teaching Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubington, John F.

    1995-01-01

    Describes a Japanese process-oriented approach called KAIZEN for improving the quality of existing teaching laboratories. It provides relevant quality measurements and indicates how quality can be improved. Use of process criteria sidesteps the difficulty of defining quality for laboratory experiments and allows separation of student assessment…

  1. Tidal river dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoitink, A.J.F.; Jay, D.A.

    2016-01-01

    Tidal rivers are a vital and little studied nexus between physical oceanography and hydrology. It is only in the last few decades that substantial research efforts have been focused on the interactions of river discharge with tidal waves and storm surges into regions beyond the limit of salinity

  2. Reining the River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Concerned about the effects of increasing water scarcity on economic development, China hopes a new law will save the Yellow River The first day of August marked what could be a new page in the history of China's long-suffering "mother river." That day, a regulation took effect that for the first time in histo-

  3. Inventory of data bases, models, and graphics packages at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dionne, P.J.; Mathisen, D.I.

    1978-10-01

    The Information Coordination Focal Point (ICFP) was initiated in FY77 because DOE had a need for improved access to information at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, the Savannah River Laboratory, and the six DOE national laboratories. The task for FY77 was to establish guidelines and procedures for this activity with plans of implementing the procedures in FY78 and FY79. The purpose of this report is to document the progress that has been made during FY78 for this project.

  4. The Gran Sasso Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votano, L.

    2012-09-01

    The Gran Sasso underground laboratory is one of the four national laboratories run by the INFN (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare). It is located under the Gran Sasso massif, in central Italy, between the cities of L'Aquila and Teramo, 120 km far from Rome. It is the largest underground laboratory for astroparticle physics in the world and the most advanced in terms of complexity and completeness of its infrastructures. The scientific program at the Gran Sasso National Laboratories (Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, LNGS)is mainly focused on astroparticle, particle and nuclear physics. The laboratory presently hosts many experiments as well as R&D activities, including world-leading research in the fields of solar neutrinos, accelerator neutrinos (CNGS neutrino beam from CERN to Gran Sasso), dark matter, neutrinoless double-beta decay and nuclear cross-section of astrophysical interest. Associate sciences like earth physics, biology and fundamental physics complement the activities. The laboratory is operated as an international science facility and hosts experiments whose scientific merit is assessed by an international advisory Scientific Committee. A review of the main experiments carried out at LNGS will be given, together with the most recent and relevant scientific results achieved.

  5. Savannah River Technology Center monthly report, September 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, J.M. [comp.

    1992-09-01

    This is a monthly progress report from the Savannah River Laboratory for the month of September, 1992. It has sections dealing with work in the broad areas of reactor safety, tritium processes and absorption, separations programs and wastes, environmental concerns and responses, waste management practices, and general concerns.

  6. Validation of the physical modeling approach for braided rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosatti, Giorgio

    2002-12-01

    Laboratory channels are often used to study the complexity of braiding mechanisms for the advantages with respect to field studies. Nevertheless, the extensive use of experimental data raises the question of how representative laboratory braided channels are as compared to real braided rivers. This study verifies to what extent laboratory braided patterns reproduce the main features of braided rivers. Experimental data display isotropic and anisotropic scaling of braided patterns, state-space plot of total widths, anisotropic scaling of islands, and statistical distribution of island areas that are similar to those observed in real rivers. Moreover, the data reveals scaling in the perimeter-area relation. These results support both the reliability of experimental braided channels as physical models of braided rivers and also the possibility of investigating some aspects of braiding in the laboratory that are difficult to address in the field. The lack of preferential scales in island characteristics suggests that other phenomena must play a key role in generating island shapes besides classical sediment transport-based mechanisms which tend to select well-defined length scales.

  7. Columbia River Channel Improvement Project Rock Removal Blasting: Monitoring Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Thomas J.; Johnson, Gary E.

    2010-01-29

    This document provides a monitoring plan to evaluate take as outlined in the National Marine Fisheries Service 2002 Biological Opinion for underwater blasting to remove rock from the navigation channel for the Columbia River Channel Improvement Project. The plan was prepared by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Portland District.

  8. Laboratory Automation and Middleware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riben, Michael

    2015-06-01

    The practice of surgical pathology is under constant pressure to deliver the highest quality of service, reduce errors, increase throughput, and decrease turnaround time while at the same time dealing with an aging workforce, increasing financial constraints, and economic uncertainty. Although not able to implement total laboratory automation, great progress continues to be made in workstation automation in all areas of the pathology laboratory. This report highlights the benefits and challenges of pathology automation, reviews middleware and its use to facilitate automation, and reviews the progress so far in the anatomic pathology laboratory.

  9. Simula Research Laboratory

    CERN Document Server

    Tveito, Aslak

    2010-01-01

    The Simula Research Laboratory, located just outside Oslo in Norway, is rightly famed as a highly successful research facility, despite being, at only eight years old, a very young institution. This fascinating book tells the history of Simula, detailing the culture and values that have been the guiding principles of the laboratory throughout its existence. Dedicated to tackling scientific challenges of genuine social importance, the laboratory undertakes important research with long-term implications in networks, computing and software engineering, including specialist work in biomedical comp

  10. Digital signal processing laboratory

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, B Preetham

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION TO DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING Brief Theory of DSP ConceptsProblem SolvingComputer Laboratory: Introduction to MATLAB®/SIMULINK®Hardware Laboratory: Working with Oscilloscopes, Spectrum Analyzers, Signal SourcesDigital Signal Processors (DSPs)ReferencesDISCRETE-TIME LTI SIGNALS AND SYSTEMS Brief Theory of Discrete-Time Signals and SystemsProblem SolvingComputer Laboratory: Simulation of Continuous Time and Discrete-Time Signals and Systems ReferencesTIME AND FREQUENCY ANALYSIS OF COMMUNICATION SIGNALS Brief Theory of Discrete-Time Fourier Transform (DTFT), Discrete Fourier Transform

  11. Enteric bacterial growth rates in river water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, C W

    1972-08-01

    Enteric bacteria, including stocked strains of pathogenic species and organisms naturally present in the stream, were capable of growth in a chemostat with autoclaved river water taken 750 m below a sewage outfall. Maximal specific growth rates for all organisms occurred at 30 C, whereas culture generation times ranged between 33.3 and 116 hr. Of the six laboratory strains of enteric species used, Escherichia coli and Enterobacter aerogenes grew at generation times of 34.5 and 33.3 hr, respectively, while the remaining Proteus, Arizona, Salmonella, and Shigella spp. reproduced at a rate two to three times slower than the coliforms. Little or no growth occurred in the water at incubation temperatures of 20 and 5 C, and death was observed for Salmonella senftenberg at 20 and 5 C and for E. aerogenes and Proteus rettgeri at 5 C. When enteric bacteria naturally present in the river water were employed in similar experiments, coliform bacteria demonstrated a generation time of approximately 116 hr, whereas fecal coliforms failed to grow. Growth of the bacteria from the river demonstrated a periodicity of approximately 100 hr, which suggests that much of the growth of these organisms in the chemostat may be on the glass surfaces. This phenomenon, however, was not observed with any of the stocked enteric species. Neither the stock cultures nor the aquatic strains were capable of growth in autoclaved river water taken above the sewage outfall at the three temperatures tested.

  12. Structural Static Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Structural testing is performed to verify the structural integrity of space flight and ground test hardware. Testing is also performed to verify the finite element...

  13. GSPEL - Calorimeter Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Testing performance claims on heat transfer components The Calorimeter Lab, located in the Ground Systems Power and Energy Lab (GSPEL), is one of the largest in the...

  14. Understanding Laboratory Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates the development and marketing of all laboratory tests that use test kits ... are of great interest in cancer medicine because research suggests that levels of ... sequencing methods are being developed to provide gene mutation profiles ...

  15. European Molecular Biology Laboratory

    CERN Multimedia

    1973-01-01

    On 10 May an Agreement was signed at CERN setting up a new European Laboratory. It will be concerned with research in molecularbiology and will be located at Heidelberg in the Federal Republic of Germany.

  16. Immersive Simulation Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Develops and tests novel user interfaces for 3D virtual simulators and first-person shooter games that make user interaction more like natural interaction...

  17. Alloy Fabrication Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — At NETL’s Alloy Fabrication Facility in Albany, OR, researchers conduct DOE research projects to produce new alloys suited to a variety of applications, from gas...

  18. GSPEL - Fuel Cell Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Fuel Cell Lab (FCL) Provides testing for technology readiness of fuel cell systems The FCL investigates, tests and verifies the performance of fuel-cell systems...

  19. GSPEL - Calorimeter Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Testing performance claims on heat transfer componentsThe Calorimeter Lab, located in the Ground Systems Power and Energy Lab (GSPEL), is one of the largest in the...

  20. Physics Laboratory in UEC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Tohru; Nakamura, Jin; Suzuki, Masaru

    All the first-year students in the University of Electro-Communications (UEC) take "Basic Physics I", "Basic Physics II" and "Physics Laboratory" as required subjects; Basic Physics I and Basic Physics II are calculus-based physics of mechanics, wave and oscillation, thermal physics and electromagnetics. Physics Laboratory is designed mainly aiming at learning the skill of basic experimental technique and technical writing. Although 95% students have taken physics in the senior high school, they poorly understand it by connecting with experience, and it is difficult to learn Physics Laboratory in the university. For this reason, we introduced two ICT (Information and Communication Technology) systems of Physics Laboratory to support students'learning and staff's teaching. By using quantitative data obtained from the ICT systems, we can easily check understanding of physics contents in students, and can improve physics education.

  1. Fritz Engineering Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Features 800,000 lb and 5,000,000 lb universal testing machines, and a dynamic test bed with broad fatigue-testing capabilities, and a wide range of instrumentation....

  2. GSPEL - Air Filtration Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Evaluation capabilities for air filtration devicesThe Air Filtration Lab provides testing of air filtration devices to demonstrate and validate new or legacy system...

  3. Geocentrifuge Research Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The geocentrifuge subjects a sample to a high-gravity field by spinning it rapidly around a central shaft. In this high-gravity field, processes, such as fluid flow,...

  4. Key Management Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides a secure environment to research and develop advanced electronic key management and networked key distribution technologies for the Navy and DoD....

  5. GSPEL - Fuel Cell Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Fuel Cell Lab (FCL)Provides testing for technology readiness of fuel cell systems The FCL investigates, tests and verifies the performance of fuel-cell systems...

  6. Inorganic Coatings Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The inorganic Coatings Lab provides expertise to Navy and Joint Service platforms acquisition IPTs to aid in materials and processing choices which balance up-front...

  7. Lighting – laboratory practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Борис Васильевич Дзюндзюк

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article discussed one of the possible variants of the building study bench for laboratory work and practical lessons on the basic parameters of the study of artificial and natural lighting in the labour protection in accordance with the DBN V.2.5-28-2006. The model is on the latest LED components, which has high reliability, maintainability and eliminates the disadvantages of the existing laboratory stands.

  8. Identification of contaminants of concern Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, B.A.; Batishko, N.C.; Heise-Craff, D.A.; Jarvis, M.F.; Snyder, S.F.

    1995-01-01

    The Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment (CRCIA) Project at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is evaluating the current human and ecological risks from contaminants in the Columbia River. The risks to be studied are those attributable to past and present activities on the Hanford Site. The Hanford Site is located in southcentral Washington State near the town of Richland. Human risk from exposure to radioactive and hazardous materials will be addressed for a range of river use options. Ecological risk will be evaluated relative to the health of the current river ecosystem. The overall purpose of the project is to determine if enough contamination exists in the Columbia River to warrant cleanup actions under applicable environmental regulations. This report documents an initial review, from a risk perspective, of the wealth of historical data concerning current or potential contamination in the Columbia River. Sampling data were examined for over 600 contaminants. A screening analysis was performed to identify those substances present in such quantities that they may pose a significant human or ecological risk. These substances will require a more detailed analysis to assess their impact on humans or the river ecosystem.

  9. Dulbi River goose survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A survey of white-fronted goose (Anser albifrons) and Canada goose (Branta canadensis) broods was conducted on 58 3/8 miles of the Dulbi River in Alaska. Four...

  10. Wild and Scenic Rivers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This map layer portrays the linear federally-owned land features (i.e., national parkways, wild and scenic rivers, etc.) of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the...

  11. Russian River Analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is an analysis and summary of progress toward achieving the interim management objectives for the Russian River during the 1979 season. Additionally,...

  12. The Carmans River Story

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In this study, undertaken as an independent project at Bellport High School, the authors have attempted to provide a historical description of the Carmans River area...

  13. Report of the River Master of the Delaware River for the period December 1, 2008–November 30, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krejmas, Bruce E.; Paulachok, Gary N.; Mason, Jr., Robert R.; Owens, Marie

    2016-04-06

    , dissolved oxygen, and pH were collected continuously by electronic instruments at four sites. In addition, selected water-quality data were collected at 22 sites on a monthly basis.The Delaware River Basin Commission (DRBC) collects monthly samples from March through October at 22 sites between Biles Channel and South Brown Shoal. Samples were collected and analyzed by the State of Delaware for the DRBC. At each site, water samples were collected at a single point near the center of the channel near the surface and analyzed for selected physical properties, and chemical and biological constituents including routine chemical substances, nutrients and bacteria. These consist of analyses of field measurements and laboratory determinations.

  14. Microstructure analysis of laboratory and in-situ compacted silts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russo Giacomo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents and discusses some results of an experimental research aimed at analysing the influence of compaction variables (w and energy and method on the resulting microstructure of a compacted silty soil. In particular, the experimental data here discussed allow to compare the microstructure induced by different dynamic compaction techniques, comparing that characterising specimens obtained by two laboratory methods (Proctor standard and Harvard and that of samples compacted in-situ during the construction of an embankment built for river regimentation purposes. Both undisturbed and disturbed samples have been retrieved from the embankment, the latter one with the purpose of collecting the soil subsequently used for laboratory compaction. Microstructural analyses (SEM, MIP performed on laboratory and in-situ compacted samples evidenced a substantial similarity of the texture induced by the various compaction techniques, highlighting that laboratory compaction is suitable to provide soil samples representative of earth in-situ compacted soil.

  15. San Juan District Laboratory (SJN)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Program Capabilities SJN-DO Pharmaceutical Laboratory is an A2LA/ISO/IEC 17025 accredited National Servicing Laboratory specialized in Drug Analysis, is a member of...

  16. San Juan District Laboratory (SJN)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Program CapabilitiesSJN-DO Pharmaceutical Laboratory is an A2LA/ISO/IEC 17025 accredited National Servicing Laboratory specialized in Drug Analysis, is a member of...

  17. [Laboratory medicine in Taiwan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J S

    1998-07-01

    Laboratory medicine and hospital central laboratory system were adopted in Taiwan after World War II. In medical schools, laboratory medicine or clinical pathology teaching is allocated to junior students. Three years of clinical pathology or four years of anatomical pathology training is required for pathology resident. Recent trend indicates that both the hospitals and the young doctors favor the five years combined C.P. (two-years) and A.P. (three years) training program. At present, 75 clinical pathologists and 213 anatomical pathologists are qualified. Approximately 70% of them work in medical centers and medical schools. Consequently, the medium and small size hospitals suffer from serious shortage of pathologist. Studies during the part 50 years indicate substantial difference in the improvement of laboratory medicine and central laboratory before and after 1975. Significant improvement in the working space, facility, equipment, staff, quality control and productivity was evident after 1975. The three health care policies contributing to the overall improvement are: 1. hospital accreditation project, 2. medical care network plan, and 3. medical specialist system.

  18. Sandia Laboratories energy programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundergan, C.D.; Mead, P.L.; Gillespie, R.S. (eds.)

    1977-03-01

    As one of the multiprogram laboratories of the Energy Research and Development Administration, Sandia Laboratories applies its resources to a number of nationally important programs. About 75 percent of these resources are applied to research and development for national security programs having to do primarily with nuclear weapons--the principal responsibility of the Laboratories. The remaining 25 percent are applied to energy programs and energy-related activities, particularly those requiring resources that are also used in nuclear weapon and other national security programs. Examples of such energy programs and activities are research into nuclear fusion, protection of nuclear materials from theft or diversion, and the disposal of radioactive waste. A number of technologies and disciplines developed for the weapon program are immediately applicable for the development of various energy sources. Instruments developed to detect, measure, and record the detonation of nuclear devices underground, now being used to support the development of in-situ processing of coal and oil shale, are examples. The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of these and other energy programs being conducted by these laboratories in the development of economical and environmentally acceptable alternative energy sources. Energy programs are undertaken when they require capabilities used at the Laboratories for the weapon program, and when they have no adverse effect upon that primary mission. The parallel operation of weapon and energy activities allows optimum use of facilities and other resources.

  19. Update of Columbia River flow and temperature data measured at Priest Rapids Dam and Vernita Bridge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whelan, G.; Newbill, C.A.

    1983-09-01

    Columbia River temperatures and flow rates are collected daily at Priest Rapids Dam and Vernita Bridge. These data are necessary for assessing trends or changes in river conditions downstream of Priest Rapids Dam. In order to analyze this data, Pacific Northwest Laboratory developed a computerized data base using existing US Geological Survey flow and temperature records at Priest Rapids Dam and Vernita Bridge. Daily-averaged temperature and daily flow information on the Columbia River just downstream of Priest Rapids Dam and upstream of river mile 380 were collected and stored in a data base. A newly developed computer model, COLSTAT (Columbia River Statistical Update), used the data base to statistically analyze temperature and flow conditions by computing the frequency of occurrence and duration of selected temperatures and flow rates for the Columbia River. Information regarding the data base is presented, as well as, a description of the COLSTAT model.

  20. Satellite Control Laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Bak, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    The Satellite Laboratory at the Department of Control Engineering of Aalborg University (SatLab) is a dynamic motion facility designed for analysis and test of micro spacecraft. A unique feature of the laboratory is that it provides a completely gravity-free environment. A test spacecraft...... is suspended on an air bearing, and rotates freely in 3 degrees of freedom. In order to avoid any influence of the gravitational force the centre of mass of the satellite is placed in the geometric centre of the air bearing by an automatic balancing system. The test spacecraft is equipped with a three...... of the laboratory is to conduct dynamic tests of the control and attitude determination algorithms during nominal operation and in abnormal conditions. Further it is intended to use SatLab for validation of various algorithms for fault detection, accommodation and supervisory control. Different mission objectives...

  1. Laboratory Accreditation in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collino, Cesar; Chiabrando, Gustavo A.

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory accreditation is an essential element in the healthcare system since it contributes substantially to decision-making, in the prevention, diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of the health status of the patients, as well as in the organization and management of public healthcare. Therefore, the clinical biochemistry professional works continuously to provide reliable results and contributes to the optimization of operational logistics and integration of a laboratory into the health system. ISO 15189 accreditation, ensures compliance of the laboratory to minimize instances of error through the planning, prevention, implementation, evaluation and improvement of its procedures, which provides skill areas that involve both training undergraduate and graduate professionals in clinical biochemistry. PMID:27683497

  2. Exploration Laboratory Analysis - ARC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krihak, Michael K.; Fung, Paul P.

    2012-01-01

    The Exploration Laboratory Analysis (ELA) project supports the Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) risk, Risk of Inability to Adequately Treat an Ill or Injured Crew Member, and ExMC Gap 4.05: Lack of minimally invasive in-flight laboratory capabilities with limited consumables required for diagnosing identified Exploration Medical Conditions. To mitigate this risk, the availability of inflight laboratory analysis instrumentation has been identified as an essential capability in future exploration missions. Mission architecture poses constraints on equipment and procedures that will be available to treat evidence-based medical conditions according to the Space Medicine Exploration Medical Conditions List (SMEMCL). The SMEMCL provided diagnosis and treatment for the evidence-based medical conditions and hence, a basis for developing ELA functional requirements.

  3. Robotics and Autonomous Systems Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides an environment for developing and evaluating intelligent software for both actual and simulated autonomous vehicles. Laboratory computers provide...

  4. Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory conducts research to understand the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics and processes of the...

  5. SENSORY AND CONSUMER TESTING LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — These laboratories conduct a wide range of studies to characterize the sensory properties of and consumer responses to foods, beverages, and other consumer products....

  6. Integrated Support Environment (ISE) Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The Integrated Support Environment (ISE) Laboratory serves the fleet, in-service engineers, logisticians and program management offices by automatically and...

  7. Integrated Support Environment (ISE) Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose:The Integrated Support Environment (ISE) Laboratory serves the fleet, in-service engineers, logisticians and program management offices by automatically and...

  8. INFORMATION SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY LABORATORY (ISTL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Background: The Naval Automated Information Laboratory (NAIL), consisting of Navy legacy and transitional systems, was established to emulate a typical command for...

  9. Mechanical Components and Tribology Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory evaluates fundamental friction, wear, and lubrication technologies for improved, robust, and power-dense vehicle transmissions. The facility explores...

  10. San Francisco District Laboratory (SAN)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Program Capabilities Food Analysis SAN-DO Laboratory has an expert in elemental analysis who frequently performs field inspections of materials. A recently acquired...

  11. The Results of a Laboratory Feasibility Study for the Biological Treatment of Umatilla Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Amendments. Amendment Supplier Contact Phone Address Lactose Columbia River Processing Roy Dugan 541·481-3770 79588 Rippee Road Whey Columbia River...degradation. RDX, on the other hand, was more difficult to treat. The best amendments were molasses, corn syrup, emulsified oil (EOS), lactose, and whey ...Environmental Processes and Engineering Division (EPED), Environmental Laboratory (EL). Dr. Fiona Crocker and Dr. Mansour Zakakhani provided in-house review

  12. Bioavailability of trace metals to green sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus) exposed to suspended sediments from sites on the Upper Mississippi River

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A unique laboratory exposure system was used in applying environmentally relevant conditions (river traffic simulations) and environmentally relevant sediment...

  13. Analytical laboratory quality audits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelley, William D.

    2001-06-11

    Analytical Laboratory Quality Audits are designed to improve laboratory performance. The success of the audit, as for many activities, is based on adequate preparation, precise performance, well documented and insightful reporting, and productive follow-up. Adequate preparation starts with definition of the purpose, scope, and authority for the audit and the primary standards against which the laboratory quality program will be tested. The scope and technical processes involved lead to determining the needed audit team resources. Contact is made with the auditee and a formal audit plan is developed, approved and sent to the auditee laboratory management. Review of the auditee's quality manual, key procedures and historical information during preparation leads to better checklist development and more efficient and effective use of the limited time for data gathering during the audit itself. The audit begins with the opening meeting that sets the stage for the interactions between the audit team and the laboratory staff. Arrangements are worked out for the necessary interviews and examination of processes and records. The information developed during the audit is recorded on the checklists. Laboratory management is kept informed of issues during the audit so there are no surprises at the closing meeting. The audit report documents whether the management control systems are effective. In addition to findings of nonconformance, positive reinforcement of exemplary practices provides balance and fairness. Audit closure begins with receipt and evaluation of proposed corrective actions from the nonconformances identified in the audit report. After corrective actions are accepted, their implementation is verified. Upon closure of the corrective actions, the audit is officially closed.

  14. Underground laboratories in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Shin Ted, E-mail: linst@mails.phys.sinica.edu.tw [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 China (China); Yue, Qian, E-mail: yueq@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Particle and Radiation Imaging (Ministry of Education) and Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 China (China)

    2015-08-17

    Deep underground laboratories in Asia have been making huge progress recently because underground sites provide unique opportunities to explore the rare-event phenomena for the study of dark matter searches, neutrino physics and nuclear astrophysics as well as the multi-disciplinary researches based on the low radioactive environments. The status and perspectives of Kamioda underground observatories in Japan, the existing Y2L and the planned CUP in Korea, India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) in India and China JinPing Underground Laboratory (CJPL) in China will be surveyed.

  15. Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory system. Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finger, S.M.; Keith, V.F.; Spertzel, R.O.; De Avila, J.C.; O`Donnell, M.; Vann, R.L.

    1993-09-01

    This developmental effort clearly shows that a Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory System is a worthwhile and achievable goal. The RTAL is designed to fully analyze (radioanalytes, and organic and inorganic chemical analytes) 20 samples per day at the highest levels of quality assurance and quality control. It dramatically reduces the turnaround time for environmental sample analysis from 45 days (at a central commercial laboratory) to 1 day. At the same time each RTAL system will save the DOE over $12 million per year in sample analysis costs compared to the costs at a central commercial laboratory. If RTAL systems were used at the eight largest DOE facilities (at Hanford, Savannah River, Fernald, Oak Ridge, Idaho, Rocky Flats, Los Alamos, and the Nevada Test Site), the annual savings would be $96,589,000. The DOE`s internal study of sample analysis needs projects 130,000 environmental samples requiring analysis in FY 1994, clearly supporting the need for the RTAL system. The cost and time savings achievable with the RTAL system will accelerate and improve the efficiency of cleanup and remediation operations throughout the DOE complex.

  16. Long-term channel adjustment and geomorphic feature creation by vegetation in a lowland, low energy river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Robert; Gurnell, Angela

    2016-04-01

    Physical habitat restoration is increasingly being used to improve the ecological status of rivers. This is particularly true for lowland streams which are perceived to lack sufficient energy to create new features or to flush out fine sediment derived from agricultural and urban sources. However, this study has found that even in low-energy, base-flow dominated chalk streams, physical habitat improvement can happen naturally without direct human intervention. Furthermore this positive change is achieved by components of the river that are often regarded as management problems: in-stream macrophytes (i.e. weed), riparian trees, woody debris, and most importantly fine sediment. This project investigated the long-term changes in channel planform for the River Frome (Dorset, UK) over the last 120 years and the role of aquatic and riparian vegetation in driving this change. Agricultural census data, historical maps, recent aerial images and field observations were analysed within a process-based, hierarchical framework for hydromorphological assessment, developed in the EU FP7 REFORM project, to investigate the source and timing of fine sediment production in the catchment, to quantify the reach-scale geomorphic response, and to identify vegetation-related bedforms that could be responsible for the adjustment. The analysis reveals that the channel has narrowed and become more sinuous in the last 50-60 years. The timing of this planform adjustment correlates with substantial changes in land use and agricultural practices (post-World War II) that are known to increase soil erosion and sediment connectivity. The field observations and recent aerial images suggest that the increased delivery of fine sediment to the channel has been translated into geomorphic adjustment and diversification though the interactions between vegetation, water flow and sediment. Emergent aquatic macrophytes are retaining fine sediment, leading to the development of submerged shelves that aggrade

  17. Green Building Research Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sailor, David Jean [Portland State Univ., Portland, OR (United States)

    2013-12-29

    This project provided support to the Green Building Research Laboratory at Portland State University (PSU) so it could work with researchers and industry to solve technical problems for the benefit of the green building industry. It also helped to facilitate the development of PSU’s undergraduate and graduate-level training in building science across the curriculum.

  18. Water Chemistry Laboratory Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, David; And Others

    This manual of laboratory experiments in water chemistry serves a dual function of illustrating fundamental chemical principles of dilute aqueous systems and of providing the student with some familiarity with the chemical measurements commonly used in water and wastewater analysis. Experiments are grouped in categories on the basis of similar…

  19. Laboratories: Integrating Services

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-04

    This podcast highlights the importance of integrating laboratory services to maximize service delivery to patients.  Created: 4/4/2011 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 4/7/2011.

  20. Personnel Scheduling in Laboratories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franses, Philip; Post, Gerhard; Burke, Edmund; De Causmaecker, Patrick

    2003-01-01

    We describe an assignment problem particular to the personnel scheduling of organisations such as laboratories. Here we have to assign tasks to employees. We focus on the situation where this assignment problem reduces to constructing maximal matchings in a set of interrelated bipartite graphs. We d

  1. Laboratory study of TLEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochkin, P.; Van Deursen, A.; Ebert, U.

    2014-12-01

    Sprites are high-altitude kilometre-scale electrical discharges that happen above thundercloud. Pilot systems are pre-breakdown phenomena that usually attributed to stepped leader development. In Eindhoven University of Technology we investigate meter-scale laboratory discharges looking for similarities with natural lightning and its related phenomena. Negative lightning possesses step-like propagation behaviour which is associated with space leader formation in front of its main leader. Meter-scale laboratory sparks also develop via formation of a space stem that transforms into a pilot system and finally develops into a space leader in longer gaps. With ns-fast photography we investigated the pilot system formation and found striking similarities with high-altitude sprites. But sprites are different in size, environment and polarity. Laboratory pilot barely reaches 70 cm and develops in STP air, while high-altitude sprites reaches ionosphere stretching for dozens of kilometres. Also sprites are assumed to be of opposite to the pilot polarity. Besides that, the pilots are directly involved in x-ray generation in long laboratory sparks. The detailed pilot system development process will be shown, in particular focusing on similarities with natural sprites. Basic properties of the x-ray emission will be presented and discussed.

  2. Rethinking Laboratory Notebooks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted; Zander, Pär-Ola

    2010-01-01

    with our study is to produce design relevant knowledge that can envisage an ICT solution that keeps as many advantages of paper as possible, but with the strength of electronic laboratory notebooks as well. Rather than assuming that users are technophobic and unable to appropriate state of the art software...

  3. Laboratory analysis of stardust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinner, Ernst

    2013-02-01

    Tiny dust grains extracted from primitive meteorites are identified to have originated in the atmospheres of stars on the basis of their anomalous isotopic compositions. Although isotopic analysis with the ion microprobe plays a major role in the laboratory analysis of these stardust grains, many other microanalytical techniques are applied to extract the maximum amount of information.

  4. Laboratory Density Functionals

    OpenAIRE

    Giraud, B G

    2007-01-01

    We compare several definitions of the density of a self-bound system, such as a nucleus, in relation with its center-of-mass zero-point motion. A trivial deconvolution relates the internal density to the density defined in the laboratory frame. This result is useful for the practical definition of density functionals.

  5. Laboratory animal allergy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollander, A.

    1997-01-01

    The main objective of the study presented in this thesis was to estimate the prevalence rate of laboratory animal allergy and to determine its association with risk factors, like allergen exposure level, atopy, gender and other host factors. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken among 540 workers

  6. Wind River: A Wild and Scenic River Analysis: Preliminary draft

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Wind River meets the criteria for inclusion in the National Wild and Scenic Rivers System. Subject to valid existing rights, the minerals in Federal lands which...

  7. Study on the Reutilization of River Sediment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Gui-yun; JIANG Pei-hua; XI Dan-li

    2002-01-01

    Main components and properties of river sediment are introduced. Secondary pollution of river sediments to the water quality of the river is clarified. The methods of the reutilization of river sediment are elucidated.

  8. 50 CFR 226.205 - Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon. 226.205 Section... Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer...

  9. 33 CFR 207.380 - Red Lake River, Minn.; logging regulations for portion of river above Thief River Falls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Red Lake River, Minn.; logging regulations for portion of river above Thief River Falls. 207.380 Section 207.380 Navigation and Navigable... Red Lake River, Minn.; logging regulations for portion of river above Thief River Falls. (a)...

  10. Analysis of Effects of Teaching with Chalk and Teaching with Multimedia%传统粉笔字教学与多媒体教学的影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷庆祝; 刘诗茂

    2011-01-01

    多媒体技术进入大学课堂推动了教学的改革,也引发了人们的进一步思考:传统粉笔字教学和多媒体教学从哪些方面影响着教学过程和教学质量?本文通过抽样调查,获取有关数据资料,运用因子分析方法对调查数据进行分析,寻找影响教学的因子,然后利用方差分析检验各因素的显著性,最后利用Logistic回归分析方法建立教学方式选择模型,进一步分析影响教学自々各因素,为教学方式的选择提供了理论依据。%Since multimedia is used for a teaching technique in university, progresses have been made, and it makes people to think about the following issue: From which aspects do teaching with chalk and teaching with multimedia have effects to teaching procedure and teaching quality? By conducting a survey to obtain real data, common factors of affecting teaching are firstly obtained by using the method of factor analysis factors in this article. Secondly, analysis of variance is used to test for the effects of the common factors, and at last, a binary Logit choice model is used for further analysis to determine the factors of affecting teaching in more detail. Our results provide a theoretical basis for the choice of teaching patterns.

  11. The Nile River

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This image of the northern portion of the Nile River was captured by MISR's nadir camera on January 30, 2001 (Terra orbit 5956). The Nile is the longest river in the world, extending for about 6700 kilometers from its headwaters in the highlands of eastern Africa. At the apex of the fertile Nile River Delta is the Egyptian capital city of Cairo. To the west are the Great Pyramids of Giza. North of here the Nile branches into two distributaries, the Rosetta to the west and the Damietta to the east. Also visible in this image is the Suez Canal, a shipping waterway connecting Port Said on the Mediterranean Sea with the Gulf of Suez. The Gulf is an arm of the Red Sea, and is located on the righthand side of the picture. Image credit: NASA/GSFC/LaRC/JPL, MISR Team.

  12. Sprague River Oregon Bars 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  13. Sprague River Oregon Bars 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the...

  14. Sprague River Oregon Centerline 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  15. Sprague River Oregon Centerline 1940

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  16. Sprague River Oregon Water 1940

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  17. Sprague River Oregon Water 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  18. Sprague River Oregon Bars 1940

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  19. Missouri River 1943 Compact Line

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Flood Control, Bank Stabilization and development of a navigational channel on the Missouri River had a great impact on the river and adjacent lands. The new...

  20. Sprague River Oregon Floodplain 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....