WorldWideScience

Sample records for chalcogenide thin films

  1. Chalcogenide phase-change thin films used as grayscale photolithography materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Wei, Jingsong; Fan, Yongtao

    2014-03-10

    Chalcogenide phase-change thin films are used in many fields, such as optical information storage and solid-state memory. In this work, we present another application of chalcogenide phase-change thin films, i.e., as grayscale photolithgraphy materials. The grayscale patterns can be directly inscribed on the chalcogenide phase-change thin films by a single process through direct laser writing method. In grayscale photolithography, the laser pulse can induce the formation of bump structure, and the bump height and size can be precisely controlled by changing laser energy. Bumps with different height and size present different optical reflection and transmission spectra, leading to the different gray levels. For example, the continuous-tone grayscale images of lifelike bird and cat are successfully inscribed onto Sb(2)Te(3) chalcogenide phase-change thin films using a home-built laser direct writer, where the expression and appearance of the lifelike bird and cat are fully presented. This work provides a way to fabricate complicated grayscale patterns using laser-induced bump structures onto chalcogenide phase-change thin films, different from current techniques such as photolithography, electron beam lithography, and focused ion beam lithography. The ability to form grayscale patterns of chalcogenide phase-change thin films reveals many potential applications in high-resolution optical images for micro/nano image storage, microartworks, and grayscale photomasks.

  2. Synthesis of 2D Metal Chalcogenide Thin Films through the Process Involving Solution-Phase Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Anupam; Park, Gyeongbae; Yang, Heeseung; Pal, Monalisa; Kwak, Junghyeok; Jeong, Unyong

    2018-04-24

    2D metal chalcogenide thin films have recently attracted considerable attention owing to their unique physicochemical properties and great potential in a variety of applications. Synthesis of large-area 2D metal chalcogenide thin films in controllable ways remains a key challenge in this research field. Recently, the solution-based synthesis of 2D metal chalcogenide thin films has emerged as an alternative approach to vacuum-based synthesis because it is relatively simple and easy to scale up for high-throughput production. In addition, solution-based thin films open new opportunities that cannot be achieved from vacuum-based thin films. Here, a comprehensive summary regarding the basic structures and properties of different types of 2D metal chalcogenides, the mechanistic details of the chemical reactions in the synthesis of the metal chalcogenide thin films, recent successes in the synthesis by different reaction approaches, and the applications and potential uses is provided. In the last perspective section, the technical challenges to be overcome and the future research directions in the solution-based synthesis of 2D metal chalcogenides are discussed. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Superconducting properties of iron chalcogenide thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Mele

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron chalcogenides, binary FeSe, FeTe and ternary FeTexSe1−x, FeTexS1−x and FeTe:Ox, are the simplest compounds amongst the recently discovered iron-based superconductors. Thin films of iron chalcogenides present many attractive features that are covered in this review, such as: (i easy fabrication and epitaxial growth on common single-crystal substrates; (ii strong enhancement of superconducting transition temperature with respect to the bulk parent compounds (in FeTe0.5Se0.5, zero-resistance transition temperature Tc0bulk = 13.5 K, but Tc0film = 19 K on LaAlO3 substrate; (iii high critical current density (Jc ~ 0.5 ×106 A cm2 at 4.2 K and 0 T for FeTe0.5Se0.5 film deposited on CaF2, and similar values on flexible metallic substrates (Hastelloy tapes buffered by ion-beam assisted deposition with a weak dependence on magnetic field; (iv high upper critical field (~50 T for FeTe0.5Se0.5, Bc2(0, with a low anisotropy, γ ~ 2. These highlights explain why thin films of iron chalcogenides have been widely studied in recent years and are considered as promising materials for applications requiring high magnetic fields (20–50 T and low temperatures (2–10 K.

  4. Study of third order nonlinearity of chalcogenide thin films using third harmonic generation measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Sunita; Mohan, Devendra; Kumar, Manish; Sanjay

    2018-05-01

    Third order nonlinear susceptibility of (GeSe3.5)100-xBix (x = 0, 10, 14) and ZnxSySe100-x-y (x = 2, y = 28; x = 4, y = 20; x = 6, y = 12; x = 8, y = 4) amorphous chalcogenide thin films prepared using thermal evaporation technique is estimated. The dielectric constant at incident and third harmonic wavelength is calculated using "PARAV" computer program. 1064 nm wavelength of Nd: YAG laser is incident on thin film and third harmonic signal at 355 nm wavelength alongwith fundamental light is obtained in reflection that is separated from 1064 nm using suitable optical filter. Reflected third harmonic signal is measured to trace the influence of Bi and Zn on third order nonlinear susceptibility and is found to increase with increase in Bi and Zn content in (GeSe3.5)100-xBix, and ZnxSySe100-x-y chalcogenide thin films respectively. The excellent optical nonlinear property shows the use of chalcogenide thin films in photonics for wavelength conversion and optical data processing.

  5. General Top-Down Ion Exchange Process for the Growth of Epitaxial Chalcogenide Thin Films and Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Chuan; Li, Peng; Li, Jun; Jiang, Qiu; Zhang, Xixiang; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2016-01-01

    ) epitaxial chalcogenide metallic and semiconducting films and (2) free-standing chalcogenide films and (3) completed in situ formation of atomically sharp heterojunctions by selective ion exchange. Epitaxial NiCo2S4 thin films prepared by our process show 115

  6. General Top-Down Ion Exchange Process for the Growth of Epitaxial Chalcogenide Thin Films and Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Chuan

    2016-12-30

    We demonstrate a versatile top-down ion exchange process, done at ambient temperature, to form epitaxial chalcogenide films and devices, with nanometer scale thickness control. To demonstrate the versatility of our process we have synthesized (1) epitaxial chalcogenide metallic and semiconducting films and (2) free-standing chalcogenide films and (3) completed in situ formation of atomically sharp heterojunctions by selective ion exchange. Epitaxial NiCo2S4 thin films prepared by our process show 115 times higher mobility than NiCo2S4 pellets (23 vs 0.2 cm(2) V-1 s(-1)) prepared by previous reports. By controlling the ion exchange process time, we made free-standing epitaxial films of NiCo2S4 and transferred them onto different substrates. We also demonstrate in situ formation of atomically sharp, lateral Schottky diodes based on NiCo2O4/NiCo2S4 heterojunction, using a single ion exchange step. Additionally, we show that our approach can be easily extended to other chalcogenide semiconductors. Specifically, we used our process to prepare Cu1.8S thin films with mobility that matches single crystal Cu1.8S (25 cm(2) V-1 s(-1)), which is ca. 28 times higher than the previously reported Cu1.8S thin film mobility (0.58 cm(2) V-1 s(-1)), thus demonstrating the universal nature of our process. This is the first report in which chalcogenide thin films retain the epitaxial nature of the precursor oxide films, an approach that will be useful in many applications.

  7. Silicon-based thin films as bottom electrodes in chalcogenide nonvolatile memories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung-Yun [IT Convergence and Components Laboratory, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI), Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: seungyun@etri.re.kr; Yoon, Sung-Min; Choi, Kyu-Jeong; Lee, Nam-Yeal; Park, Young-Sam; Ryu, Sang-Ouk; Yu, Byoung-Gon; Kim, Sang-Hoon; Lee, Sang-Heung [IT Convergence and Components Laboratory, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI), Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-10-31

    The effect of the electrical resistivity of a silicon-germanium (SiGe) thin film on the phase transition in a GeSbTe (GST) chalcogenide alloy and the manufacturing aspect of the fabrication process of a chalcogenide memory device employing the SiGe film as bottom electrodes were investigated. While p-type SiGe bottom electrodes were formed using in situ doping techniques, n-type ones could be made in a different manner where phosphorus atoms diffused from highly doped silicon underlayers to undoped SiGe films. The p-n heterojunction did not form between the p-type GST and n-type SiGe layers, and the semiconduction type of the SiGe alloys did not influence the memory device switching. It was confirmed that an optimum resistivity value existed for memory operation in spite of proportionality of Joule heating to electrical resistivity. The very high resistivity of the SiGe film had no effect on the reduction of reset current, which might result from the resistance decrease of the SiGe alloy at high temperatures.

  8. Structural and optical investigation of Te-based chalcogenide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Rita, E-mail: reetasharma2012@gmail.com; Sharma, Shaveta; Thangaraj, R.; Mian, M. [Semiconductors Laboratory, Department of Physics, GND University, Amritsar (India); Chander, Ravi [Applied Science Deptt. Govt. Polytechnic College Amritsar (India); Kumar, Praveen [Department of Physics, DAV University, Sarmastipur, Jalandhar-144012 (India)

    2015-05-15

    We report the structural and optical properties of thermally evaporated Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}, In{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and InBiTe{sub 3} films by using X-ray diffraction, optical and Raman Spectroscopy techniques. The as-prepared thin films were found to be Semi-crystalline by X-ray diffraction. Particle Size and Strain has been calculated from XRD data. The optical constants, film thickness, refractive index and optical band gap (E{sub g}) has been reported for In{sub 2}Te{sub 3}, InBiTe{sub 3} films. Raman Spectroscopy was performed to investigate the effect of Bi, In, on lattice vibration and chemical bonding in Te based chalcogenide glassy alloys.

  9. Pulsed laser deposited amorphous chalcogenide and alumino-silicate thin films and their multilayered structures for photonic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Němec, P. [Department of Graphic Arts and Photophysics, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, Studentská 573, 53210 Pardubice (Czech Republic); Charrier, J. [FOTON, UMR CNRS 6082, Enssat, 6 rue de Kerampont, BP 80518, 22305 Lannion (France); Cathelinaud, M. [Missions des Ressources et Compétences Technologiques, UPS CNRS 2274, 92195 Meudon (France); Allix, M. [CEMHTI-CNRS, Site Haute Température, Orléans (France); Adam, J.-L.; Zhang, S. [Equipe Verres et Céramiques, UMR-CNRS 6226, Sciences Chimiques de Rennes (SCR), Université de Rennes 1, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Nazabal, V., E-mail: virginie.nazabal@univ-rennes1.fr [Department of Graphic Arts and Photophysics, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, Studentská 573, 53210 Pardubice (Czech Republic); Equipe Verres et Céramiques, UMR-CNRS 6226, Sciences Chimiques de Rennes (SCR), Université de Rennes 1, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France)

    2013-07-31

    Amorphous chalcogenide and alumino-silicate thin films were fabricated by the pulsed laser deposition technique. Prepared films were characterized in terms of their morphology, chemical composition, and optical properties. Multilayered thin film stacks for reflectors and vertical microcavities were designed for telecommunication wavelength and the window of atmosphere transparency (band II) at 1.54 μm and 4.65 μm, respectively. Bearing in mind the benefit coming from the opportunity of an efficient wavelength tuning or, conversely, to stabilize the photoinduced effects in chalcogenide films as well as to improve their mechanical properties and/or their chemical durability, several pairs of materials from pure chalcogenide layers to chalcogenide/oxide layers were investigated. Different layer stacks were fabricated in order to check the compatibility between dissimilar materials which can have a strong influence on the interface roughness, adhesion, density, and homogeneity, for instance. Three different reflector designs were formulated and tested including all-chalcogenide layers (As{sub 40}Se{sub 60}/Ge{sub 25}Sb{sub 5}S{sub 70}) and mixed chalcogenide-oxide layers (As{sub 40}Se{sub 60}/alumino-silicate and Ga{sub 10}Ge{sub 15}Te{sub 75}/alumino-silicate). Prepared multilayers showed good compatibility between different material pairs deposited by laser ablation despite the diversity of chemical compositions. As{sub 40}Se{sub 60}/alumino-silicate reflector showed the best parameters; its stop band (R > 97% at 8° off-normal incidence) has a bandwidth of ∼ 100 nm and it is centered at 1490 nm. The quality of the different mirrors developed was good enough to try to obtain a microcavity structure for the 1.5 μm telecommunication wavelength made of chalcogenide layers. The microcavity structure consists of Ga{sub 5}Ge{sub 20}Sb{sub 10}S{sub 65} (doped with 5000 ppm of Er{sup 3+}) spacer surrounded by two 10-layer As{sub 40}Se{sub 60}/Ge{sub 25}Sb{sub 5}S{sub 70

  10. Efficiency simulations of thin film chalcogenide photovoltaic cells for different indoor lighting conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minnaert, B.; Veelaert, P.

    2011-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) energy is an efficient natural energy source for outdoor applications. However, for indoor applications, the efficiency of PV cells is much lower. Typically, the light intensity under artificial lighting conditions is less than 10 W/m 2 as compared to 100-1000 W/m 2 under outdoor conditions. Moreover, the spectrum is different from the outdoor solar spectrum. In this context, the question arises whether thin film chalcogenide photovoltaic cells are suitable for indoor use. This paper contributes to answering that question by comparing the power output of different thin film chalcogenide solar cells with the classical crystalline silicon cell as reference. The comparisons are done by efficiency simulation based on the quantum efficiencies of the solar cells and the light spectra of typical artificial light sources i.e. an LED lamp, a 'warm' and a 'cool' fluorescent tube and a common incandescent and halogen lamp, which are compared to the outdoor AM 1.5 spectrum as reference.

  11. Structural, optical and electrical characterization of Ag doped lead chalcogenide (PbSe) thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Ghamdi, A.A., E-mail: aghamdi90@hotmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Al-Heniti, S. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Khan, Shamshad A. [Department of Physics, St. Andrew' s College, Gorakhpur, UP (India)

    2013-03-15

    Research and development efforts are currently underway to fabricate a variety of solid state devices. A good deal of information regarding the synthesis, structural, optical and electrical properties of Ag doped lead chalcogenides have been revealed. The bulk polycrystalline (PbSe){sub 100-x}Ag{sub x} ternary chalcogenides are prepared by diffusion technique. The XRD patterns recorded for the (PbSe){sub 100-x}Ag{sub x} thin films prepared by vacuum deposition technique, show that these films are polycrystalline in nature. The optical measurements reveal that the (PbSe){sub 100-x}Ag{sub x} thin films possess direct band gap and the band gap energy decreases with an increase of Ag concentration. The extinction coefficient (k) and refractive index (n) are found to be changing by increasing Ag concentration in PbSe. These results are interpreted in terms of the change in concentration of localized states due to the shift in Fermi level. The dc conductivities of (PbSe){sub 100-x}Ag{sub x} thin films are measured in temperature range 303-403 K. It is observed that the dc conductivity increases at all the temperatures with an increase of Ag content in PbSe system. The experimental data suggests that the conduction is due to thermally assisted tunneling of the charge carriers in the localized states near the band edges. The activation energy and optical band gap are found to decrease with increasing Ag concentration in lead chalcogenide and there are good agreements between these two values. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer (PbSe){sub 100-x}Ag{sub x} thin films has been investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polycrystalline nature has been verified by X-ray diffraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optical absorption data showed the rules of direct transitions predominate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dc conductivity increases with an increase of Ag content in PbSe system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increase of Ag concentration causes a decrease in E{sub g

  12. Structural features of spin-coated thin films of binary AsxS100−x chalcogenide glass system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.; Slang, S.; Golovchak, R.; Jain, H.; Vlcek, M.; Kovalskiy, A.

    2015-01-01

    Spin-coating technology offers a convenient method for fabricating photostable chalcogenide glass thin films that are especially attractive for applications in IR optics. In this paper we report the structure of spin-coated As x S 100−x (x = 30, 35, 40) thin films as determined using high resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy, especially in relation to composition (i.e. As/S ratio) and preparation process variables. It was observed that As atoms during preparation have a tendency to precipitate out in close to stoichiometric compositions. The mechanism of bonding between the inorganic matrix and organic residuals is discussed based on the experimental data. A weak interaction between S ions and amine-based clusters is proposed as the basis of structural organization of the organic–inorganic interface. - Highlights: • As–S spin-coated chalcogenide thin films with different As/S were fabricated. • XPS measurements support the cluster-like structure of spin-coated films. • As 2 O 3 was confirmed as the composition of precipitate formed during dissolution. • Lack of As–As bonds explains the observed photostability of the thin films

  13. Dry etching of thin chalcogenide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petkov, Kiril [Acad. J. Malinowski Central Laboratory of Photoprocesses, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Bl. 109, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Vassilev, Gergo; Vassilev, Venceslav, E-mail: kpetkov@clf.bas.b [Department of Semiconductors, University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, 8 Kl. Ohridsky Blvd., 1756 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2010-04-01

    Fluorocarbon plasmas (pure and mixtures with Ar) were used to investigate the changes in the etching rate depending on the chalcogenide glasses composition and light exposure. The experiments were performed on modified commercial HZM-4 vacuum equipment in a diode electrode configuration. The surface microstructure of thin chalcogenide layers and its change after etching in CCl{sub 2}F{sub 2} and CF{sub 4} plasmas were studied by SEM. The dependence of the composition of As-S-Ge, As-Se and multicomponent Ge-Se-Sb-Ag-I layers on the etching rate was discussed. The selective etching of some glasses observed after light exposure opens opportunities for deep structure processing applications.

  14. Characterization of phase change Ga{sub 15}Se{sub 77}Ag{sub 8} chalcogenide thin films by laser-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvi, M.A., E-mail: alveema@hotmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Zulfequar, M. [Department of Physics, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025 (India); Al-Ghamdi, A.A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia)

    2013-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effect of laser-irradiation on structure and optical band gap has been investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The amorphous nature has been verified by X-ray diffraction and DSC measurements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Laser-irradiation causes a decrease in optical band gap in Ga{sub 15}Se{sub 77}Ag{sub 8} thin films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The decrease in optical band gap can be interpreted on the basis of amorphous-crystalline phase transformation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optical absorption data showed that the rules of the non-direct transitions predominate. - Abstract: Phase change Ga{sub 15}Se{sub 77}Ag{sub 8} chalcogenide thin films were prepared by thermal evaporation technique. Thin films were then irradiated by Transverse Electrical Excitation at Atmospheric Pressure (TEA) nitrogen laser for different time intervals. The X-ray structural characterization revealed the amorphous nature of as-prepared films while the laser irradiated films show the polycrystalline nature. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) has been used to study the structural changes. The results are discussed in terms of the structural aspects and amorphous to crystalline phase change in Ga{sub 15}Se{sub 77}Ag{sub 8} chalcogenide thin films. The observed changes are associated with the interaction of the incident photon and the lone-pairs electrons which affects the band gap of the Ga{sub 15}Se{sub 77}Ag{sub 8} chalcogenide thin films. The optical constants of these thin films are measured by using the absorption spectra measurements as a function of photon energy in the wavelength region 400-1100 nm. It is found that the optical band gap decreases while the absorption coefficient and extinction coefficient increases with increasing the laser-irradiation time. The decrease in the optical band gap has been explained on the basis of change in nature of films, from amorphous to polycrystalline state. The dc

  15. Copper Antimony Chalcogenide Thin Film PV Device Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, Adam W.; Baranowski, Lauryn L.; de Souza Lucas, Francisco Willian; Toberer, Eric S.; Wolden, Colin A.; Zakutayev, Andriy

    2015-06-14

    Emerging ternary chalcogenide thin film solar cell technologies, such as CuSbS2 and CuSbSe2, have recently attracted attention as simpler alternatives to quaternary Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS). Despite suitable photovoltaic properties, the initial energy conversion efficiency of CuSbS2 is rather low (0.3%). Here, we report on our progress towards improving the efficiency of CuSbS2 solar cells using a high throughput approach. The combinatorial methodology quickly results in baseline solar cell prototypes with 0.6% efficiency, and then modification of the back contact architecture leads to 1% PV devices. We then translate the optimal CuSbS2 synthesis parameters to CuSbSe2 devices, which show 3% efficiencies.

  16. Structural features of spin-coated thin films of binary As{sub x}S{sub 100−x} chalcogenide glass system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, J. [Austin Peay State University, Clarksville, TN 37075 (United States); Slang, S. [Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, 53210 Pardubice (Czech Republic); Golovchak, R. [Austin Peay State University, Clarksville, TN 37075 (United States); Jain, H. [International Materials Institute for New Functionality in Glass, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA 18015 (United States); Vlcek, M. [Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, 53210 Pardubice (Czech Republic); Kovalskiy, A., E-mail: kovalskyya@apsu.edu [Austin Peay State University, Clarksville, TN 37075 (United States)

    2015-08-31

    Spin-coating technology offers a convenient method for fabricating photostable chalcogenide glass thin films that are especially attractive for applications in IR optics. In this paper we report the structure of spin-coated As{sub x}S{sub 100−x} (x = 30, 35, 40) thin films as determined using high resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy, especially in relation to composition (i.e. As/S ratio) and preparation process variables. It was observed that As atoms during preparation have a tendency to precipitate out in close to stoichiometric compositions. The mechanism of bonding between the inorganic matrix and organic residuals is discussed based on the experimental data. A weak interaction between S ions and amine-based clusters is proposed as the basis of structural organization of the organic–inorganic interface. - Highlights: • As–S spin-coated chalcogenide thin films with different As/S were fabricated. • XPS measurements support the cluster-like structure of spin-coated films. • As{sub 2}O{sub 3} was confirmed as the composition of precipitate formed during dissolution. • Lack of As–As bonds explains the observed photostability of the thin films.

  17. Alkali-templated surface nanopatterning of chalcogenide thin films: a novel approach toward solar cells with enhanced efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhard, Patrick; Bissig, Benjamin; Pianezzi, Fabian; Hagendorfer, Harald; Sozzi, Giovanna; Menozzi, Roberto; Gretener, Christina; Nishiwaki, Shiro; Buecheler, Stephan; Tiwari, Ayodhya N

    2015-05-13

    Concepts of localized contacts and junctions through surface passivation layers are already advantageously applied in Si wafer-based photovoltaic technologies. For Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin film solar cells, such concepts are generally not applied, especially at the heterojunction, because of the lack of a simple method yielding features with the required size and distribution. Here, we show a novel, innovative surface nanopatterning approach to form homogeneously distributed nanostructures (<30 nm) on the faceted, rough surface of polycrystalline chalcogenide thin films. The method, based on selective dissolution of self-assembled and well-defined alkali condensates in water, opens up new research opportunities toward development of thin film solar cells with enhanced efficiency.

  18. Structural, optical and electrical properties of cadmium-doped lead chalcogenide (PbSe) thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Shamshad A.; Khan, Zishan H.; El-Sebaii, A.A.; Al-Marzouki, F.M.; Al-Ghamdi, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    (PbSe) 100-x Cd x thin films of thickness 3000 A with variable concentrations of Cd (x=5, 10, 15 and 20) were prepared by thermal evaporation on glass substrates at room temperature at a base pressure of 10 -6 Torr. The structural, optical and electrical properties of these films were studied. X-ray diffraction patterns were used to determine the crystal structure of the films. Films were of polycrystalline texture over the whole range of study. Optical constants of all films were determined by absorbance and reflection measurements in a wavelength range 400-1200 nm. Analysis of the optical absorption data showed that the rule of direct transitions predominates. The values of the absorption coefficient (α), extinction coefficient (k) and imaginary part of the dielectric constant were found to increase with increasing Cd content in lead chalcogenides while the refractive index (n) and real part of dielectric constant were increased with increasing Cd concentration up to 15% and then they decreased with 20% of Cd content in PbSe. These results were interpreted in terms of the change in concentration of localized states due to the shift in Fermi level. The dc conductivities and activation energies of the films were measured in the temperature range 298-398 K. It was observed that the dc conductivity increases at all temperatures with the increase of Cd content in lead chalcogenide system. The experimental data suggests that the conduction is due to the thermally assisted tunneling of the carriers in the localized states near the band edges. The activation energy and optical band gap were found to decrease with increasing Cd concentration in lead chalcogenide.

  19. Solvent properties of hydrazine in the preparation of metal chalcogenide bulk materials and films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Min; Mitzi, David B

    2009-08-21

    A combination of unique solvent properties of hydrazine enables the direct dissolution of a range of metal chalcogenides at ambient temperature, rendering this an extraordinarily simple and soft synthetic approach to prepare new metal chalcogenide-based materials. The extended metal chalcogenide parent framework is broken up during this process, and the resulting metal chalcogenide building units are re-organized into network structures (from 0D to 3D) based upon their interactions with the hydrazine/hydrazinium moieties. This Perspective will review recent crystal and materials chemistry developments within this family of compounds and will briefly discuss the utility of this approach in metal chalcogenide thin-film deposition.

  20. Locally formation of Ag nanoparticles in chalcogenide phase change thin films induced by nanosecond laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Huan; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Yang; Han, Xiaodong; Wu, Yiqun; Zhang, Ze; Gan, Fuxi

    2012-01-01

    A simple method to optically synthesize Ag nanoparticles in Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 phase change matrix is described. The fine structures of the locally formed phase change chalcogenide nanocomposite are characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The formation mechanism of the nanocomposite is discussed with temperature evolution and distribution simulations. This easy-prepared metal nano-particle-embedded phase change microstructure will have great potential in nanophotonics applications, such as for plasmonic functional structures. This also provides a generalized approach to the preparation of well-dispersed nanoparticle-embedded composite thin films in principle. -- Highlights: ► We describe a method to prepare chalcogenide microstructures with Ag nanoparticles. ► We give the fine structural images of phase change nanocomposites. ► We discuss the laser-induced fusion mechanism by temperature simulation. ► This microstructure will have great potential in nanophotonics applications.

  1. 1D - photonic crystals prepared from the amorphous chalcogenide films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kohoutek, T.; Orava, J.; Wágner, T.; Hrdlička, M.; Vlček, Milan; Frumar, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 20, - (2009), S346-S350 ISSN 0957-4522. [International Conference of Optical and Optoelectronic Materials and Applications. London, 29.07.2007-03.08.2007] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : chalcogenide thin films Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.020, year: 2009

  2. Effect of Se addition on optical and electrical properties of chalcogenide CdSSe thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanien, A. S.; Akl, Alaa A.

    2016-01-01

    Compositional dependence of optical and electrical properties of chalcogenide CdSxSe1-x (0.4 ≥ x ≥ 0.0 at. %) thin films was studied. Cadmium sulphoselenide films were deposited by thermal evaporation technique at vacuum (8.2 × 10-4 Pa) onto preheated glass substrates (523 K). The evaporation rate and film thickness were kept constant at 2.50 nm/s and 375 ± 5 nm, respectively. X-ray diffractograms showed that, the deposited films have the low crystalline nature. Energy dispersive analysis by X-ray (EDAX) was used to check the compositional elements of deposited films. The absorption coefficient was determined from transmission and reflection measurements at room temperature in the wavelength range 300-2500 nm. Optical density, skin depth, optical energy gap and Urbach's parameters of CdSSe thin films have also been estimated. The direct optical energy gap decreased from 2.248 eV to 1.749 eV when the ratio of Se-content was increased from 0.60 to 1.00 . Conduction band and valance band positions were evaluated. The temperature dependence of dc-electrical resistivity in the temperature range (293-450 K) has been reported. Three conduction regions due to different conduction mechanisms were detected. Electrical sheet resistance, activation energy and pre-exponential parameters were discussed. The estimated values of optical and electrical parameters were strongly dependent upon the Se-content in CdSSe matrix.

  3. Electrical properties and transport mechanisms in phase change memory thin films of quasi-binary-line GeTe–Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} chalcogenide semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherchenkov, A. A. [National Research University of Electronic Technology (Russian Federation); Kozyukhin, S. A., E-mail: sergkoz@igic.ras.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kurnakov Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry (Russian Federation); Lazarenko, P. I.; Babich, A. V. [National Research University of Electronic Technology (Russian Federation); Bogoslovskiy, N. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Sagunova, I. V.; Redichev, E. N. [National Research University of Electronic Technology (Russian Federation)

    2017-02-15

    The temperature dependences of the resistivity and current–voltage (I–V) characteristics of phase change memory thin films based on quasi-binary-line GeTe–Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} chalcogenide semiconductors Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5}, GeSb{sub 2}Te{sub 5}, and GeSb{sub 4}Te{sub 7} are investigated. The effect of composition variation along the quasibinary line on the electrical properties and transport mechanisms of the thin films is studied. The existence of three ranges with different I–V characteristics is established. The position and concentration of energy levels controlling carrier transport are estimated. The results obtained show that the electrical properties of the thin films can significantly change during a shift along the quasi-binary line GeTe–Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3}, which is important for targeted optimization of the phase change memory technology.

  4. Impact of sulfur content on structural and optical properties of Ge20Se80-xSx chalcogenide glasses thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongol, M.; Elhady, A. F.; Ebied, M. S.; Abuelwafa, A. A.

    2018-04-01

    Chalcogenide system Ge20Se80-xSx (x = 0, 15 and 30%) thin films were prepared by thermal evaporation technique. The amorphous state of the samples was confirmed according to XRD. The structural changes occurring upon replacement Se by S was investigated using Raman spectroscopy. The optical properties of the as-deposited Ge20Se80-xSx thin films have been studied by analysis the transmittance T(λ) measured at room temperature in the wavelength range 200-2500 nm using Swanepoel's method. Urbach energy (Ee) and optical band gap (Eg) were strongly affected by sulfur concentration in the sample. The refractive index evaluated through envelope method was extrapolated by Cauchy dispersion relationship over the whole spectral range. Moreover, the dispersion of refractive index was analyzed in terms of the single-oscillator Wemple-Di Domenico model. The third-order nonlinear susceptibility (χ(3)) and nonlinear refractive index (n2) were calculated and discussed for different Ge20Se80-xSx (x = 0, 15 and 30%).

  5. Influence of annealing conditions on the optical and structural properties of spin-coated As(2)S(3) chalcogenide glass thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shanshan; Dua, Janesha; Arnold, Craig B

    2010-03-15

    Spin-coating of chalcogenide glass is a low-cost, scalable method to create optical grade thin films, which are ideal for visible and infrared applications. In this paper, we study the influence of annealing on optical parameters of As(2)S(3) films by examining UV-visible and infrared spectroscopy and correlating the results to changes in the physical properties associated with solvent removal. Evaporation of excess solvent results in a more highly coordinated, denser glass network with higher index and lower absorption. Depending on the annealing temperature and time, index values ranging from n = 2.1 to the bulk value (n = 2.4) can be obtained, enabling a pathway to materials optimization.

  6. Role of heat treatment on structural and optical properties of thermally evaporated Ga{sub 10}Se{sub 81}Pb{sub 9} chalcogenide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sebaii, A.A., E-mail: ahmedelsebaii@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, 80203 Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Khan, Shamshad A. [Department of Physics, St. Andrews College, Gorakhpur 273001 (India); Al-Marzouki, F.M.; Faidah, A.S.; Al-Ghamdi, A.A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, 80203 Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia)

    2012-08-15

    Amorphous chalcogenides, based on Se, have become materials of commercial importance and were widely used for optical storage media. The present work deals with the structural and optical properties of Ga{sub 10}Se{sub 81}Pb{sub 9} ternary chalcogenide glass prepared by melt quenching technique. The glass transition, crystallization and melting temperatures of the synthesized glass were measured by non-isothermal DSC measurements at a constant heating rate of 30 K/min. Thin films of thickness 4000 A were prepared by thermal evaporation techniques on glass/Si (1 0 0) wafer substrate. These thin films were thermally annealed for two hours at three different annealing temperatures of 345, 360 and 375 K, which were in between the glass transition and crystallization temperatures of the Ga{sub 10}Se{sub 81}Pb{sub 9} glass. The structural, morphological and optical properties of as-prepared and annealed thin films were studied. Analysis of the optical absorption data showed that the rules of the non-direct transitions predominate. It was also found that the optical band gap decreases while the absorption coefficient, refractive index and extinction coefficient increase with increasing the annealing temperature. Due to the higher values of absorption coefficient and annealing dependence of the optical band gap and optical constants, the investigated material could be used for optical storage. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Annealing effect on structure and optical band gap has been investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The amorphous nature has been verified by x-ray diffraction and DSC measurements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal annealing causes a decrease in optical band gap in Ga{sub 10}Se{sub 81}Pb{sub 9} thin films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The decrease in optical band gap can be interpreted on the basis of amorphous-crystalline phase transformation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optical absorption data showed that the rules of the non

  7. Simple flash evaporator for making thin films of compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemanadhan, M.; Bapanayya, Ch.; Agarwal, S. C. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208016 (India)

    2010-07-15

    A simple and compact arrangement for flash evaporation is described. It uses a cell phone vibrator for powder dispensing that can be incorporated into a vacuum deposition chamber without any major alterations. The performance of the flash evaporation system is checked by making thin films of the optical memory chalcogenide glass Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} (GST). Energy dispersive x-ray analysis shows that the flash evaporation preserves the stoichiometry in thin films.

  8. Spectroscopic investigation of the chemical and electronic properties of chalcogenide materials for thin-film optoelectronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsley, Kimberly Anne

    Chalcogen-based materials are at the forefront of technologies for sustainable energy production. This progress has come only from decades of research, and further investigation is needed to continue improvement of these materials. For this dissertation, a number of chalcogenide systems were studied, which have applications in optoelectronic devices, such as LEDs and Photovoltaics. The systems studied include Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGSe) and CuInSe 2 (CISe) thin-film absorbers, CdTe-based photovoltaic structures, and CdTe-ZnO nanocomposite materials. For each project, a sample set was prepared through collaboration with outside institutions, and a suite of spectroscopy techniques was employed to answer specific questions about the system. These techniques enabled the investigation of the chemical and electronic structure of the materials, both at the surface and towards the bulk. CdS/Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin-films produced from the roll-to-roll, ambient pressure, Nanosolar industrial line were studied. While record-breaking efficiency cells are usually prepared in high-vacuum (HV) or ultra-high vacuum (UHV) environments, these samples demonstrate competitive mass-production efficiency without the high-cost deposition environment. We found relatively low levels of C contaminants, limited Na and Se oxidation, and a S-Se intermixing at the CdS/CIGSe interface. The surface band gap compared closely to previously investigated CIGSe thin-films deposited under vacuum, illustrating that roll-to-roll processing is a promising and less-expensive alternative for solar cell production. An alternative deposition process for CuInSe2 was also studied, in collaboration with the University of Luxembourg. CuInSe2 absorbers were prepared with varying Cu content and surface treatments to investigate the potential to produce an absorber with a Cu-rich bulk and Cu-poor surface. This is desired to combine the bulk characteristics of reduced defects and larger grains in Cu-rich films, while maintaining

  9. Electron irradiation induced reduction of the permittivity in chalcogenide glass (As2S3) thin film

    KAUST Repository

    San Roman Alerigi, Damian; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Zhang, Yaping; Yang, Xiaoming; Ben Slimane, Ahmed; Ng, Tien Khee; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Alsunaidi, Mohammad; Ooi, Boon S.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the effect of electron beam irradiation on the dielectric properties of As 2 S 3 chalcogenide glass. By means of low-loss electron energy loss spectroscopy, we derive the permittivity function, its dispersive relation, and calculate the refractive index and absorption coefficients under the constant permeability approximation. The measured and calculated results show a heretofore unseen phenomenon: a reduction in the permittivity of ? 40 %. Consequently a reduction of the refractive index of 20%, hence, suggests a conspicuous change in the optical properties of the material under irradiation with a 300 keV electron beam. The plausible physical phenomena leading to these observations are discussed in terms of the homopolar and heteropolar bond dynamics under high energy absorption. The reported phenomena, exhibited by As 2 S 3-thin film, can be crucial for the development of photonics integrated circuits using electron beam irradiation method. © 2013 American Institute of Physics.

  10. Infrared waveguide fabrications with an E-beam evaporated chalcogenide glass film

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Xiaoming

    2014-12-12

    Chalcogenide glasses have a variety of unique optical properties due to the intrinsic structural flexibility and bonds metastability. They are desirable materials for many applications, such as infrared communication sensors, holographic grating, optical imaging, and ultrafast nonlinear optic devices. Here, we introduce a novel electron-beam evaporation process to deposit the good quality arsenic trisulfide (As2S3) films and then the As2S3 films were used to fabricate the As2S3 waveguides with three approaches. The first method is photoresist lift-off. Because of the restriction of thermal budget of photoresist, the As2S3 film must be deposited at the room temperature. The second one is the silicon dioxide lift-off process on sapphire substrates, in which the As2S3 film could be evaporated at a high temperature (>180 °C) for better film quality. The third one is the plasma etching process with a metal protective thin layer in the pattern development process.

  11. Solution synthesis of mixed-metal chalcogenide nanoparticles and spray deposition of precursor films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Douglas L.; Curtis, Calvin J.; Ginley, David S.

    2000-01-01

    A colloidal suspension comprising metal chalcogenide nanoparticles and a volatile capping agent. The colloidal suspension is made by reacting a metal salt with a chalcogenide salt in an organic solvent to precipitate a metal chalcogenide, recovering the metal chalcogenide, and admixing the metal chalcogenide with a volatile capping agent. The colloidal suspension is spray deposited onto a substrate to produce a semiconductor precursor film which is substantially free of impurities.

  12. Optical studies on Zn-doped lead chalcogenide (PbSe){sub 100−x}Zn{sub x} thin films composed of nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashraf, Md. Tanweer [Department of Applied Sciences and Humanities, Jamia Millia Islamia (JMI), New Delhi-25 (India); Salah, Numan A. [Center of Nanotechnology, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Rafat, M. [Department of Applied Sciences and Humanities, Jamia Millia Islamia (JMI), New Delhi-25 (India); Zulfequar, M. [Department of Physics, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi-25 (India); Khan, Zishan H., E-mail: zishan_hk@yahoo.co.in [Department of Applied Sciences and Humanities, Jamia Millia Islamia (JMI), New Delhi-25 (India)

    2016-08-01

    The effect of laser-Irradiation on the optical properties of Zn-doped PbSe thin films composed of nanoparticles has been studied. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) investigations suggest the formation of nanoparticles of average size of 50 nm for all the studied Zn compositions. XRD studies show that the as-prepared thin films are polycrystalline in nature. The formation of nanoparticles of Zn-doped PbSe has been confirmed by indexing the crystal planes as observed in the XRD spectra. The addition of Zn in (PbSe){sub 100−x}Zn{sub x} thin films result in the blue shift in photoluminescence spectra, this blue shift is associated with the narrowing of the band gap. Optical absorption measurements reveal a direct band gap for the present samples, which decreases on increasing the Zn content. The same trend has also been observed for the samples irradiated with laser. Further, the calculated values of Urbach energy are found to increase with the increase in Zn contents for the as-prepared as well as laser-irradiated samples. All the above observations agree well with the results of optical band gap and suggest that the decrease in band gap may be due to increase in band tails, defects and particle size. - Highlights: • Nanoparticles of Zn doped (PbSe){sub 100−x}Zn{sub x} lead chalcogenides have been synthesized. • Effect of laser irradiation on optical properties of (PbSe){sub 100−x}Zn{sub x} has been studied. • A blue shift in PL spectra is obtained on Zn incorporation.

  13. New functionality of chalcogenide glasses for radiation sensing of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ailavajhala, M.S.; Gonzalez-Velo, Y.; Poweleit, C.D.; Barnaby, H.J.; Kozicki, M.N.; Butt, D.P.; Mitkova, M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Study of thin film chalcogenide glasses under gamma radiation and a proposed radiation sensor design. • Structural changes were observed at various radiation doses. • Formation of Ag 2 Se in Se depleted glasses with sufficient radiation dose. • In conventional semiconductor chip environment, the proposed sensor has a linear current vs. dose behavior up to 600 J/cm 2 . - Abstract: Data about gamma radiation induced effects in Ge 40 Se 60 chalcogenide thin films and radiation induced silver diffusion within these are presented. Blanket films and devices were created to study the structural changes, diffusion products, and device performance. Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, current vs. voltage (I–V) and impedance measurements expound the behavior of Ge 40 Se 60 glass and silver diffusion within this glass under radiation. Raman study shows that there is a decrease in the area ratio between edge shared and corner shared structural units revealing structural reorganization occurring in the glasses as a result of gamma radiation. X-ray diffraction studies revealed that with sufficiently radiation dose it is also possible to create Ag 2 Se in selenium-depleted systems. Oxidation of the Ge enriched chalcogenide backbone is confirmed through the electrical performance of the sensing elements based on these films. Combination of these structural and diffusion products influences the device performance. The I–V behavior is characterized by increase in current and then stabilization as a function of radiation dose. Additionally, device modeling is also presented using Silvaco software and analytical methods to shed light on the device behavior. This type of sensor design and material characterizations facilitate in improving the radiation sensing capabilities of silver containing chalcogenide glass thin films

  14. New functionality of chalcogenide glasses for radiation sensing of nuclear wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ailavajhala, M.S., E-mail: m.ailavajhala@gmail.com [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Boise State University, Boise, ID 83725 (United States); Gonzalez-Velo, Y. [School of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-5706 (United States); Poweleit, C.D. [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-5706 (United States); Barnaby, H.J.; Kozicki, M.N. [School of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-5706 (United States); Butt, D.P. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Boise State University, Boise, ID 83725 (United States); Mitkova, M., E-mail: maheshailavajhala@u.boisestate.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Boise State University, Boise, ID 83725 (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • Study of thin film chalcogenide glasses under gamma radiation and a proposed radiation sensor design. • Structural changes were observed at various radiation doses. • Formation of Ag{sub 2}Se in Se depleted glasses with sufficient radiation dose. • In conventional semiconductor chip environment, the proposed sensor has a linear current vs. dose behavior up to 600 J/cm{sup 2}. - Abstract: Data about gamma radiation induced effects in Ge{sub 40}Se{sub 60} chalcogenide thin films and radiation induced silver diffusion within these are presented. Blanket films and devices were created to study the structural changes, diffusion products, and device performance. Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, current vs. voltage (I–V) and impedance measurements expound the behavior of Ge{sub 40}Se{sub 60} glass and silver diffusion within this glass under radiation. Raman study shows that there is a decrease in the area ratio between edge shared and corner shared structural units revealing structural reorganization occurring in the glasses as a result of gamma radiation. X-ray diffraction studies revealed that with sufficiently radiation dose it is also possible to create Ag{sub 2}Se in selenium-depleted systems. Oxidation of the Ge enriched chalcogenide backbone is confirmed through the electrical performance of the sensing elements based on these films. Combination of these structural and diffusion products influences the device performance. The I–V behavior is characterized by increase in current and then stabilization as a function of radiation dose. Additionally, device modeling is also presented using Silvaco software and analytical methods to shed light on the device behavior. This type of sensor design and material characterizations facilitate in improving the radiation sensing capabilities of silver containing chalcogenide glass thin films.

  15. Effect of thallium on the optical properties and structure of thin As-S-Tl films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petkov, K.; Todorov, R.; Kincl, Miloslav; Tichý, Ladislav

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 5 (2005), s. 2587-2594 ISSN 1454-4164 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : chalcogenide thin films Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.138, year: 2005

  16. The structural heterogeneity and optical properties in chalcogenide glass films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shurgalin, Max; Fuflyigin, Vladimir N; Anderson, Emilia G

    2005-01-01

    The microscopic structure and optical properties of glassy films prepared by vapour phase deposition process from the germanium-arsenic-selenium family of chalcogenide glasses have been studied. A number of different molecular clusters or domains that can exist in the glass structure are found to play a significant role in determining the absorption characteristics and refractive index of the glass films. Modifications of the glass structure can be described by a variation of relative concentrations of the clusters and can be effected by modifications of film chemical composition and deposition conditions. Changes in absorption spectra are directly correlated with variation in relative concentrations of the structural fragments with different electronic bandgap properties. Experimental results suggest structural heterogeneity and support validity of the cluster structural model for the chalcogenide glasses

  17. Super Nonlinear Electrodeposition-Diffusion-Controlled Thin-Film Selector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xinglong; Song, Li; He, Wei; Huang, Kejie; Yan, Zhiyuan; Zhong, Shuai; Zhang, Yishu; Zhao, Rong

    2018-03-28

    Selector elements with high nonlinearity are an indispensable part in constructing high density, large-scale, 3D stackable emerging nonvolatile memory and neuromorphic network. Although significant efforts have been devoted to developing novel thin-film selectors, it remains a great challenge in achieving good switching performance in the selectors to satisfy the stringent electrical criteria of diverse memory elements. In this work, we utilized high-defect-density chalcogenide glass (Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 ) in conjunction with high mobility Ag element (Ag-GST) to achieve a super nonlinear selective switching. A novel electrodeposition-diffusion dynamic selector based on Ag-GST exhibits superior selecting performance including excellent nonlinearity (<5 mV/dev), ultra-low leakage (<10 fA), and bidirectional operation. With the solid microstructure evidence and dynamic analyses, we attributed the selective switching to the competition between the electrodeposition and diffusion of Ag atoms in the glassy GST matrix under electric field. A switching model is proposed, and the in-depth understanding of the selective switching mechanism offers an insight of switching dynamics for the electrodeposition-diffusion-controlled thin-film selector. This work opens a new direction of selector designs by combining high mobility elements and high-defect-density chalcogenide glasses, which can be extended to other materials with similar properties.

  18. A study on molybdenum sulphoselenide (MoSxSe2−x, 0 ≤ x ≤ 2) thin films: Growth from solution and its properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anand, T. Joseph Sahaya; Shariza, S.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Effect of deposition time on the properties of molybdenum chalcogenide thin films. ► First time to compare the study of binary and ternary molybdenum chalcogenides. ► No previous report on ternary molybdenum sulphoselenide by electrodeposition. ► Semiconducting parameters by CV analysis promising to be good solar cell material. - Abstract: Thin films of molybdenum sulphoselenide, MoS x Se 2−x , (0 ≤ x ≤ 2) have been electrosynthesized on indium-tin-oxide (ITO)-coated glass and stainless steel substrates. The films were characterized for their structural, morphological and compositional characteristics. Their optical and semiconducting parameters were also analysed in order to determine the suitability of the thin films for photoelectrochemical (PEC)/solar cell applications. Structural analysis via X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis reveals that the films are polycrystalline in nature. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies reveals the films were adherent to the substrate with uniform in nature which also confirmed by Transmission electron microscope (TEM). Compositional analysis via energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) technique confirms the presence of Mo, S and Se elements in the films. The optical studies show that the films are of direct bandgap. Results on the semiconductor parameters analysis of the films showed that the nature of the Mott–Schottky plots indicates that the films obtained are of n-type material. For all films, the semiconductor parameter values come in the better range of other transition metal chalcogenides which has proven that MoSSe thin films are capable as solar/PEC cell materials.

  19. Direct Electrospray Printing of Gradient Refractive Index Chalcogenide Glass Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Spencer; Lin, Pao Tai; Li, Cheng; Lumdee, Chatdanai; Hu, Juejun; Agarwal, Anuradha; Kik, Pieter G; Deng, Weiwei; Richardson, Kathleen

    2017-08-16

    A spatially varying effective refractive index gradient using chalcogenide glass layers is printed on a silicon wafer using an optimized electrospray (ES) deposition process. Using solution-derived glass precursors, IR-transparent Ge 23 Sb 7 S 70 and As 40 S 60 glass films of programmed thickness are fabricated to yield a bilayer structure, resulting in an effective gradient refractive index (GRIN) film. Optical and compositional analysis tools confirm the optical and physical nature of the gradient in the resulting high-optical-quality films, demonstrating the power of direct printing of multimaterial structures compatible with planar photonic fabrication protocols. The potential application of such tailorable materials and structures as they relate to the enhancement of sensitivity in chalcogenide glass based planar chemical sensor device design is presented. This method, applicable to a broad cross section of glass compositions, shows promise in directly depositing GRIN films with tunable refractive index profiles for bulk and planar optical components and devices.

  20. Infrared and Raman spectroscopy study of AsS chalcogenide films prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochalov, Leonid; Dorosz, Dominik; Kudryashov, Mikhail; Nezhdanov, Aleksey; Usanov, Dmitry; Gogova, Daniela; Zelentsov, Sergey; Boryakov, Aleksey; Mashin, Alexandr

    2018-03-15

    AsS chalcogenide films, where As content is 60-40at.%, have been prepared via a RF non-equilibrium low-temperature argon plasma discharge, using volatile As and S as the precursors. Optical properties of the films were studied in UV-visible-NIR region in the range from 0.2 to 2.5μm. Infrared and Raman spectroscopy have been employed for the elucidation of the molecular structure of the newly developed material. It was established that PECVD films possess a higher degree of transparency (up to 80%) and a wider transparency window (>20μm) in comparison with the "usual" AsS thin films, prepared by different thermal methods, which is highly advantageous for certain applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Deposition of Ge{sub 23}Sb{sub 7}S{sub 70} chalcogenide glass films by electrospray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novak, Spencer, E-mail: spencen@g.clemson.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, COMSET, Clemson University, Clemson, SC (United States); College of Optics and Photonics, CREOL, University of Central FL (United States); Johnston, Danvers E.; Li, Cheng; Deng, Weiwei [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Central FL (United States); Richardson, Kathleen [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, COMSET, Clemson University, Clemson, SC (United States); College of Optics and Photonics, CREOL, University of Central FL (United States)

    2015-08-03

    Solution-based chalcogenide glass films, traditionally deposited by spin-coating, are attractive for their potential use in chip-based devices operating in the mid-infrared and for ease of nanostructure incorporation. To overcome limitations of spin-coating such as excessive material waste and difficulty for scale-up, this paper introduces electrospray as a film deposition technique for solution-based chalcogenide glasses. Electrospray is shown to produce Ge{sub 23}Sb{sub 7}S{sub 70} films with similar surface quality and optical properties as films deposited by spin-coating. The advantages of electrospray deposition for nanoparticle dispersion, scalable and continuous manufacturing with little material waste, and comparable film quality to spin-coating make electrospray a promising deposition method for practical applications of chalcogenide glass films. - Highlights: • Electrospray film deposition processing of Ge{sub 23}Sb{sub 7}S{sub 70} films was developed. • Traditional spin-coated films were also fabricated in parallel. • Optical properties and surface quality found to be similar between two approaches.

  2. Microstructure evolution in pulsed laser deposited epitaxial Ge-Sb-Te chalcogenide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Ulrich; Lotnyk, Andriy, E-mail: andriy.lotnyk@iom-leipzig.de; Thelander, Erik; Rauschenbach, Bernd

    2016-08-15

    The thin film deposition and structure of highly oriented telluride compounds is of particular interest for phase-change applications in next-generation non-volatile memory such as heterostructure designs, as well as for the investigation of novel optical, thermoelectric and ferroelectric properties in layered telluride compounds. In this work, epitaxial Ge-Sb-Te thin films were successfully produced by pulsed laser deposition on silicon with and without amorphous SiO{sub x} interlayer at elevated process temperatures from a Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} target. Aberration-corrected high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) imaging reveals a distinct interface configuration of the trigonal phase connected by a quasi van der Waals gap (vacancy) to the Sb/Te-passivated single crystalline Si substrate, yet also an intermediate textured growth regime in which the substrate symmetry is only weakly coupled to the thin film orientation, as well as strong deviation of composition at high deposition temperatures. Textured growth of Ge-Sb-Te thin film was also observed on SiO{sub x}/Si substrate with no evidence of an intermediate Sb/Te surface layer on top of an SiO{sub x} layer. In addition, particular defect structures formed by local reorganization of the stacking sequence across the vacancy gap are observed and appear to be intrinsic to these van der Waals-layered compounds. Theoretical image simulations of preferred stacking sequences can be matched to individual building blocks in the Ge-Sb-Te grain. - Highlights: • Atomic-resolution Cs-corrected STEM imaging of PLD deposited Ge-Sb-Te thin films. • Changing of overall composition with increasing deposition temperature. • Direct imaging of surface passivation Sb/Te layer at the Ge-Sb-Te/Si(111) interface. • The Sb/Te passivation layer is not a prerequisite for highly oriented growth of Ge-Sb-Te thin films.

  3. Structural characterization of a Cu(II) thin-film aging in a Cu-nitrate solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mear, F.O.; Essi, M.; Sistat, P.; Guimon, M.-F.; Gonbeau, D.; Pradel, A.

    2009-01-01

    The response of thin-film copper (II) ion-selective electrodes based on chalcogenide glassy Cu-Sb-Ge-Se is described according to the soaking time in a 10 -4 M copper (II) solution. The chalcogenide membrane/solution interface has been investigated by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) in order to understand the sensing properties. During the first month of the soaking, an alteration of the membrane by a chemical change without alteration of the sensor detection performance has been observed.

  4. Deposition of metal chalcogenide thin films by successive ionic layer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ) method, has emerged as one of the solution methods to deposit a variety of compound materials in thin film form. The SILAR method is inexpensive, simple and convenient for large area deposition. A variety of substrates such as insulators, ...

  5. New functionality of chalcogenide glasses for radiation sensing of nuclear wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ailavajhala, M S; Gonzalez-Velo, Y; Poweleit, C D; Barnaby, H J; Kozicki, M N; Butt, D P; Mitkova, M

    2014-03-30

    Data about gamma radiation induced effects in Ge40Se60 chalcogenide thin films and radiation induced silver diffusion within these are presented. Blanket films and devices were created to study the structural changes, diffusion products, and device performance. Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, current vs. voltage (I-V) and impedance measurements expound the behavior of Ge40Se60 glass and silver diffusion within this glass under radiation. Raman study shows that there is a decrease in the area ratio between edge shared and corner shared structural units revealing structural reorganization occurring in the glasses as a result of gamma radiation. X-ray diffraction studies revealed that with sufficiently radiation dose it is also possible to create Ag2Se in selenium-depleted systems. Oxidation of the Ge enriched chalcogenide backbone is confirmed through the electrical performance of the sensing elements based on these films. Combination of these structural and diffusion products influences the device performance. The I-V behavior is characterized by increase in current and then stabilization as a function of radiation dose. Additionally, device modeling is also presented using Silvaco software and analytical methods to shed light on the device behavior. This type of sensor design and material characterizations facilitate in improving the radiation sensing capabilities of silver containing chalcogenide glass thin films. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Tailoring the optical properties of amorphous heavily Er3+-doped Ge-Ga-S thin films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Reddy, N.K.; Devika, M.; Prashantha, M.; Rames, K.; Ivanova, Z.G.; Zavadil, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 15, 3-4 (2013), s. 182-186 ISSN 1454-4164 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP106/12/2384 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Chalcogenide thin films * Optical properties * Photoinduced changes Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics , Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 0.563, year: 2013

  7. Limiting of photo induced changes in amorphous chalcogenide/alumino-silicate nanomultilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charnovych, S.; Nemec, P.; Nazabal, V.; Csik, A.; Allix, M.; Matzen, G.; Kokenyesi, S.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Amorphous chalcogenides were investigated in this work. → Photo-induced effects were investigated in the created thin films. → Limiting of photo induced changes in amorphous chalcogenide/alumino-silicate nanomultilayers have been studied. - Abstract: Photo induced changes in amorphous As 20 Se 80 /alumino-silicate nanomultilayers (NML) produced by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method have been studied in this work. The aim was to investigate the photo induced optical and surface relief changes due to the band gap illumination under the size- and hard cover limited conditions. It was observed that the hard cover layer on the surface of the uniform film or alumino-silicate sub-layers in the NML structure influences the photo darkening and restricts surface relief formations in As 20 Se 80 film or in the related NML compared with this effect in a pure chalcogenide layer. The influence of hard layers is supposed to be connected with limiting the free volume formation at the initial stage of the transformation process, which in turn limits the atomic movement and so the surface relief formation.

  8. Charge transport through exciton shelves in cadmium chalcogenide quantum dot-DNA nano-bioelectronic thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Samuel M.; Noh, Hyunwoo; Singh, Vivek; Cha, Jennifer N.; Nagpal, Prashant

    2015-02-01

    Quantum dot (QD), or semiconductor nanocrystal, thin films are being explored for making solution-processable devices due to their size- and shape-tunable bandgap and discrete higher energy electronic states. While DNA has been extensively used for the self-assembly of nanocrystals, it has not been investigated for the simultaneous conduction of multiple energy charges or excitons via exciton shelves (ES) formed in QD-DNA nano-bioelectronic thin films. Here, we present studies on charge conduction through exciton shelves, which are formed via chemically coupled QDs and DNA, between electronic states of the QDs and the HOMO-LUMO levels in the complementary DNA nucleobases. While several challenges need to be addressed in optimizing the formation of devices using QD-DNA thin films, a higher charge collection efficiency for hot-carriers and our detailed investigations of charge transport mechanism in these thin films highlight their potential for applications in nano-bioelectronic devices and biological transducers.

  9. Charge transport through exciton shelves in cadmium chalcogenide quantum dot-DNA nano-bioelectronic thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodman, Samuel M.; Singh, Vivek [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Colorado Boulder, 3415 Colorado Avenue, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States); Noh, Hyunwoo [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Colorado Boulder, 3415 Colorado Avenue, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering Program and Department of Nanoengineering, University of California, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, San Diego, California 92093 (United States); Cha, Jennifer N. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Colorado Boulder, 3415 Colorado Avenue, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering Program and Department of Nanoengineering, University of California, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, San Diego, California 92093 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering, University of Colorado Boulder, 3415 Colorado Avenue, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States); Nagpal, Prashant, E-mail: pnagpal@colorado.edu [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Colorado Boulder, 3415 Colorado Avenue, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering, University of Colorado Boulder, 3415 Colorado Avenue, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States); BioFrontiers Institute, University of Colorado Boulder, 3415 Colorado Avenue, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States); Renewable and Sustainable Energy Institute, University of Colorado Boulder, 2445 Kittredge Loop, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States)

    2015-02-23

    Quantum dot (QD), or semiconductor nanocrystal, thin films are being explored for making solution-processable devices due to their size- and shape-tunable bandgap and discrete higher energy electronic states. While DNA has been extensively used for the self-assembly of nanocrystals, it has not been investigated for the simultaneous conduction of multiple energy charges or excitons via exciton shelves (ES) formed in QD-DNA nano-bioelectronic thin films. Here, we present studies on charge conduction through exciton shelves, which are formed via chemically coupled QDs and DNA, between electronic states of the QDs and the HOMO-LUMO levels in the complementary DNA nucleobases. While several challenges need to be addressed in optimizing the formation of devices using QD-DNA thin films, a higher charge collection efficiency for hot-carriers and our detailed investigations of charge transport mechanism in these thin films highlight their potential for applications in nano-bioelectronic devices and biological transducers.

  10. Charge transport through exciton shelves in cadmium chalcogenide quantum dot-DNA nano-bioelectronic thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, Samuel M.; Singh, Vivek; Noh, Hyunwoo; Cha, Jennifer N.; Nagpal, Prashant

    2015-01-01

    Quantum dot (QD), or semiconductor nanocrystal, thin films are being explored for making solution-processable devices due to their size- and shape-tunable bandgap and discrete higher energy electronic states. While DNA has been extensively used for the self-assembly of nanocrystals, it has not been investigated for the simultaneous conduction of multiple energy charges or excitons via exciton shelves (ES) formed in QD-DNA nano-bioelectronic thin films. Here, we present studies on charge conduction through exciton shelves, which are formed via chemically coupled QDs and DNA, between electronic states of the QDs and the HOMO-LUMO levels in the complementary DNA nucleobases. While several challenges need to be addressed in optimizing the formation of devices using QD-DNA thin films, a higher charge collection efficiency for hot-carriers and our detailed investigations of charge transport mechanism in these thin films highlight their potential for applications in nano-bioelectronic devices and biological transducers

  11. Synthesis, structure and optical properties of thin films form GeS2-In2S3 system deposited by thermal co-evaporation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Todorov, R.; Petkov, K.; Kincl, Miloslav; Černošková, E.; Vlček, Milan; Tichý, Ladislav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 558, 2 May (2014), s. 298-305 ISSN 0040-6090 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : chalcogenide glasses * thin films * optical properties Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.759, year: 2014

  12. Optically – Induced diffusion and dissolution of Ag into thin films of (GeS2)0,8(Ga2S3)0,2

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Válková, S.; Wágner, T.; Bartoš, M.; Pavlišta, M.; Přikryl, J.; Vlček, Milan; Frumarová, Božena; Beneš, L.; Frumar, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 13, 11-12 (2011), s. 1553-1558 ISSN 1454-4164. [5th International Conference on Amorphous and Nanostructured Chalcogenides. Bucharest - Magurele, 26.06.2011-01.07.2011] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : chalcogenides * thin films * optically induced Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.457, year: 2011 http://joam.inoe.ro/index.php?option=magazine&op=view&idu=2964&catid=68

  13. Laser deposition rates of thin films of selected metals and alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cazzaniga, Andrea Carlo; Canulescu, Stela; Schou, Jørgen

    Thin films of Cu, Zn and Sn as well as mixtures of these elements have been produced by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD). The deposition rate of single and multicomponent metallic targets was determined. The strength of PLD is that the stoichiometry of complex compounds, even of complicated alloys...... or metal oxides, can be preserved from target to film. We apply this technique to design films of a mixture of Cu, Zn and Sn, which are constituents of the chalcogenide CZTS, which has a composition close to Cu2ZnSnS4. This compound is expected to be an important candidate for absorbers in new solar cells...... for alloys of the different elements as well as compounds with S will be presented....

  14. Preparation of thin films, with base to precursor materials of type Cu-In-Se elaborated by electrodeposition for the solar cells elaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    Thin films of chalcogenide compounds are promising because they have excellent optoelectronic characteristics to be applied in solar cells. In particular, CuInSe 2 and Cd Te thin films have shown high solar to electrical conversion efficiency. However, this efficiency is limited by the method of preparation, in this case, physical vapor deposition techniques are used. In order to increase the area of deposition t is necessary to use chemical methods, for example, electrodeposition technique. In this paper, the preparation of Cu-In-Se precursors thin films by electrochemical method is reported. These precursors were used to build solar cells with 7.9 % of efficiency. (Author)

  15. Measurement of the refractive index dispersion of As2Se3 bulk glass and thin films prior to and after laser irradiation and annealing using prism coupling in the near- and mid-infrared spectral range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlie, N.; Petit, L.; Musgraves, J. D.; Richardson, K.; Anheier, N. C. Jr.; Qiao, H. A.; Bernacki, B.; Phillips, M. C.

    2011-01-01

    The prism coupling technique has been utilized to measure the refractive index in the near- and mid-IR spectral region of chalcogenide glasses in bulk and thin film form. A commercial system (Metricon model 2010) has been modified with additional laser sources, detectors, and a new GaP prism to allow the measurement of refractive index dispersion over the 1.5-10.6 μm range. The instrumental error was found to be ±0.001 refractive index units across the entire wavelength region examined. Measurements on thermally evaporated AMTIR2 thin films confirmed that (i) the film deposition process provides thin films with reduced index compared to that of the bulk glass used as a target, (ii) annealing of the films increases the refractive index of the film to the level of the bulk glass used as a target to create it, and (iii) it is possible to locally increase the refractive index of the chalcogenide glass using laser exposure at 632.8 nm.

  16. Optical properties change in laser-induced Te/As{sub 2}Se{sub 3} chalcogenide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behera, Mukta; Naik, Ramakanta [Utkal University, Department of Physics, Bhubaneswar (India)

    2016-10-15

    In the present work, we report the change in optical parameters due to the deposition and photo-induced diffusion of Te layer into the chalcogenide As{sub 2}Se{sub 3} film. The photo-diffusion creates a solid solution of As-Se-Te which has potential application in optical devices. The Te/As{sub 2}Se{sub 3} bilayer films prepared by thermal evaporation technique were studied by various experimental techniques. The photo-diffusion of Te into As{sub 2}Se{sub 3} matrix was done by 532-nm laser irradiation. The structure of the As{sub 2}Se{sub 3}, as-prepared and irradiated Te/As{sub 2}Se{sub 3} films was studied by X-ray diffraction which were amorphous in nature. The presence of all the elements was checked by energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, and the optical transmission spectra were recorded by Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The optical band gap is reduced by the deposition and diffusion of Te into As{sub 2}Se{sub 3} film which is due to the increase in density of defect states in the gap region. The transmission is decreased, whereas the absorption efficiency is increased with the increase in disorderness. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy carried out on these films gives information about the bonding change due to the photo-diffusion process. Therefore, this is an important result which will open up new directions for the application of this material in semiconducting devices. (orig.)

  17. Electrodeposition and characterization of CdSe x-Te 1- x semiconducting thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benamar, E.; Rami, M.; Fahoume, M.; Chraibi, F.; Ennaoui, A.

    1999-07-01

    Thin polycrystalline films of cadmium chalcogenides CdSe xTe 1-x ( 0 ≤ x ≤ 1) have been prepared by electrochemical plating on ITO (indium tin oxide) coated glass substrates from an acid sulfate solution at 90 °C. Structural, morphological and compositional studies of the deposited films are reported as a function of the x coefficient. XRD analysis shows that all deposits have a cubic structure with a preferred orientation along the (111) direction. The composition in the films is found to vary linearly with the composition in the solution. The increase in the selenium content x in the CdSe xTe 1-x films decreases the lattice constant and increases the band gap. Nevertheless this latter presents a minimum for x = 0.27.

  18. ac conductivity and dielectric properties of amorphous Se80Te20-xGex chalcogenide glass film compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegab, N.A.; Afifi, M.A.; Atyia, H.E.; Farid, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    Thin films of the prepared Se 80 Te 20-x Ge x (x = 5, 7 and 10 at.%) were prepared by thermal evaporation technique. X-ray diffraction patterns showed that the films were in amorphous state. The ac conductivity and dielectric properties of the investigated film compositions were studied in the frequency range 0.1-100 kHz and in temperature range (303-373 K). The experimental results indicated that the ac conductivity and the dielectric properties depended on the temperature and frequency. The ac conductivity is found to obey the ω s law, in accordance with the hopping model, s is found to be temperature dependent (s 1 and dielectric loss ε 2 were found to decrease with frequency and increase with temperature. The maximum barrier height W m , calculated from dielectric measurements according to Guintini equation, agrees with that proposed by the theory of hopping over potential barrier as suggested by Elliott in case of chalcogenide glasses. The density of localized states was estimated for the studied film compositions. The variation of the studied properties with Ge content was also investigated.

  19. Flexible logic circuits composed of chalcogenide-nanocrystal-based thin film transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Junggwon; Cho, Kyoungah; Kim, Sangsig

    2010-01-01

    Complementary NAND and NOR gates composed of p-channel HgTe-nanocrystal (NC) films and n-channel HgSe-NC films were constructed on back-gate patterned plastic substrates. The NAND gate was made of two HgTe-p-channel thin film transistors (TFTs) in parallel and two HgSe-n-channel TFTs in series. The NOR gate was built up with both two HgSe-n-channel TFTs in parallel and two HgTe-p-channel TFTs in series. The mobility and on/off ratio for the p-channel TFTs were estimated to be 0.9 cm 2 V -1 s -1 and 10, respectively, and those for the n-channel TFTs were measured to be 1.8 cm 2 V -1 s -1 and 10 2 , respectively. The NAND and NOR gates were operated with gains of 1.45 and 1.63 and transition widths of 7.8 and 6.2 V, respectively, at room temperature in air. In addition, the operations of the NAND and NOR logics are reproducible for up to 1000 strain cycles.

  20. Simultaneous thermal stability and phase change speed improvement of Sn15Sb85 thin film through erbium doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Hua; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Hu, Yifeng; Sui, Yongxing; Sun, Yuemei; Zhang, Jianhao; Zheng, Long; Song, Zhitang

    2016-12-01

    In general, there is a trade off between the phase change speed and thermal stability in chalcogenide phase change materials, which leads to sacrifice the one in order to ensure the other. For improving the performance, doping is a widely applied technological process. Here, we fabricated Er doped Sn15Sb85 thin films by magnetron sputtering. Compared with the pure Sn15Sb85, we show that Er doped Sn15Sb85 thin films exhibit simultaneous improvement over the thermal stability and the phase change speed. Thus, our results suggest that Er doping provides the opportunity to solve the contradiction. The main reason for improvement of both thermal stability and crystallization speed is due to the existence of Er-Sb and Er-Sn bonds in Er doped Sn15Sb85 films. Hence, Er doped Sn15Sb85 thin films are promising candidates for the phase change memory application, and this method could be extended to other lanthanide-doped phase change materials.

  1. Impact of Gate Dielectric in Carrier Mobility in Low Temperature Chalcogenide Thin Film Transistors for Flexible Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Salas-Villasenor, A. L.; Mejia, I.; Hovarth, J.; Alshareef, Husam N.; Cha, D. K.; Ramirez-Bon, R.; Gnade, B. E.; Quevedo-Lopez, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    Cadmium sulfide thin film transistors were demonstrated as the n-type device for use in flexible electronics. CdS thin films were deposited by chemical bath deposition (70° C) on either 100 nm HfO2 or SiO2 as the gate dielectrics. Common gate transistors with channel lengths of 40-100 μm were fabricated with source and drain aluminum top contacts defined using a shadow mask process. No thermal annealing was performed throughout the device process. X-ray diffraction results clearly show the hexagonal crystalline phase of CdS. The electrical performance of HfO 2 /CdS -based thin film transistors shows a field effect mobility and threshold voltage of 25 cm2 V-1 s-1 and 2 V, respectively. Improvement in carrier mobility is associated with better nucleation and growth of CdS films deposited on HfO2. © 2010 The Electrochemical Society.

  2. Impact of Gate Dielectric in Carrier Mobility in Low Temperature Chalcogenide Thin Film Transistors for Flexible Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Salas-Villasenor, A. L.

    2010-06-29

    Cadmium sulfide thin film transistors were demonstrated as the n-type device for use in flexible electronics. CdS thin films were deposited by chemical bath deposition (70° C) on either 100 nm HfO2 or SiO2 as the gate dielectrics. Common gate transistors with channel lengths of 40-100 μm were fabricated with source and drain aluminum top contacts defined using a shadow mask process. No thermal annealing was performed throughout the device process. X-ray diffraction results clearly show the hexagonal crystalline phase of CdS. The electrical performance of HfO 2 /CdS -based thin film transistors shows a field effect mobility and threshold voltage of 25 cm2 V-1 s-1 and 2 V, respectively. Improvement in carrier mobility is associated with better nucleation and growth of CdS films deposited on HfO2. © 2010 The Electrochemical Society.

  3. Optical waveguide based on amorphous Er{sup 3+}-doped Ga-Ge-Sb-S(Se) pulsed laser deposited thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazabal, V., E-mail: virginie.nazabal@univ-rennes1.f [Sciences Chimiques de Rennes (SCR), UMR CNRS 6226, Equipe Verres et Ceramiques, Universite de Rennes 1, Rennes (France); Nemec, P. [Department of General and Inorganic Chemistry and Research Center, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, Legions Sq. 565, 53210, Pardubice (Czech Republic); Jurdyc, A.M [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Materiaux Luminescents (LPCML), UMR CNRS 5620, Universite Claude Bernard-Lyon 1, Villeurbanne (France); Zhang, S.; Charpentier, F. [Sciences Chimiques de Rennes (SCR), UMR CNRS 6226, Equipe Verres et Ceramiques, Universite de Rennes 1, Rennes (France); Lhermite, H. [IETR-Microelectronique, UMR CNRS 6251, Universite de Rennes 1, 35042 Rennes (France); Charrier, J. [FOTON, UMR 6082-ENSSAT, UMR CNRS 6251, Universite de Rennes 1, 35042 Rennes (France); Guin, J.P. [LARMAUR, UMR CNRS 6251, Universite de Rennes 1, 35042 Rennes (France); Moreac, A. [Institut de Physique de Rennes, UMR CNRS 6251, Universite de Rennes 1, 35042 Rennes (France); Frumar, M. [Department of General and Inorganic Chemistry and Research Center, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, Legions Sq. 565, 53210, Pardubice (Czech Republic); Adam, J.-L. [Sciences Chimiques de Rennes (SCR), UMR CNRS 6226, Equipe Verres et Ceramiques, Universite de Rennes 1, Rennes (France)

    2010-06-30

    Amorphous chalcogenide films play a motivating role in the development of integrated planar optical circuits due to their potential functionality in near infrared (IR) and mid-IR spectral regions. More specifically, the photoluminescence of rare earth ions in amorphous chalcogenide films can be used in laser and amplifier devices in the IR spectral domain. The aim of the present investigation was to optimize the deposition conditions for the fabrication of undoped and Er{sup 3+} doped sulphide and selenide thin films with nominal composition Ga{sub 5}Ge{sub 20}Sb{sub 10}S(Se){sub 65} or Ga{sub 5}Ge{sub 23}Sb{sub 5}S{sub 67} by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The study of compositional, morphological and structural characteristics of the layers was realized by scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and Raman spectroscopy analyses, respectively. Some optical properties (transmittance, index of refraction, optical band gap, etc.) of prepared chalcogenide films and optical losses were investigated as well. The clear identification of near-IR photoluminescence of Er{sup 3+} ions was obtained for both selenide and sulphide films. The decay of the {sup 4}I{sub 13/2} {yields} {sup 4}I{sub 15/2} transition at 1.54 {mu}m in Er{sup 3+} doped Ga{sub 5}Ge{sub 20}Sb{sub 10}S{sub 65} PLD sulphide films was studied to assess the effects of film thickness, rare earth concentration and multilayer PLD deposition on their spectroscopic properties.

  4. Temperature, Crystalline Phase and Influence of Substrate Properties in Intense Pulsed Light Sintering of Copper Sulfide Nanoparticle Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, Michael; Gao, Zhongwei; Bansal, Shalu; Chang, Chih-Hung; Malhotra, Rajiv

    2018-02-02

    Intense Pulsed Light sintering (IPL) uses pulsed, visible light to sinter nanoparticles (NPs) into films used in functional devices. While IPL of chalcogenide NPs is demonstrated, there is limited work on prediction of crystalline phase of the film and the impact of optical properties of the substrate. Here we characterize and model the evolution of film temperature and crystalline phase during IPL of chalcogenide copper sulfide NP films on glass. Recrystallization of the film to crystalline covellite and digenite phases occurs at 126 °C and 155 °C respectively within 2-7 seconds. Post-IPL films exhibit p-type behavior, lower resistivity (~10 -3 -10 -4  Ω-cm), similar visible transmission and lower near-infrared transmission as compared to the as-deposited film. A thermal model is experimentally validated, and extended by combining it with a thermodynamic approach for crystal phase prediction and via incorporating the influence of film transmittivity and optical properties of the substrate on heating during IPL. The model is used to show the need to a-priori control IPL parameters to concurrently account for both the thermal and optical properties of the film and substrate in order to obtain a desired crystalline phase during IPL of such thin films on paper and polycarbonate substrates.

  5. Thickness dependent structural, optical and electrical properties of Se85In12Bi3 nanochalcogenide thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Ravi P.; Zulfequar, M.; Khan, Shamshad A.

    2018-04-01

    Our aim is to study the thickness dependent effects on structure, electrical and optical properties of Se85In12Bi3 nanochalcogenide thin films. Bulk alloy of Se85In12Bi3 was synthesized by melt-quenching technique. The amorphous as well as glassy nature of Se85In12Bi3 chalcogenide was confirmed by non-isothermal Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) measurements. The nanochalcogenide thin films of thickness 30, 60 and 90 nm were prepared on glass/Si wafer substrate using Physical Vapour Condensation Technique (PVCT). From XRD studies it was found that thin films have amorphous texture. The surface morphology and particle size of films were studied by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM). From optical studies, different optical parameters were estimated for Se85In12Bi3 thin films at different thickness. It was found that the absorption coefficient (α) and extinction coefficient (k) increases with photon energy and decreases with film thickness. The optical absorption process followed the rule of indirect transitions and optical band gap were found to be increase with film thickness. The value of Urbach energy (Et) and steepness parameter (σ) were also calculated for different film thickness. For electrical studies, dc-conductivity measurement was done at different temperature and activation energy (ΔEc) were determined and found to be increase with film thickness.

  6. Chalcogenide glass-ceramic with self-organized heterojunctions: application to photovoltaic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xianghua; Korolkov, Ilia; Fan, Bo; Cathelinaud, Michel; Ma, Hongli; Adam, Jean-Luc; Merdrignac, Odile; Calvez, Laurent; Lhermite, Hervé; Brizoual, Laurent Le; Pasquinelli, Marcel; Simon, Jean-Jacques

    2018-03-01

    In this work, we present for the first time the concept of chalcogenide glass-ceramic for photovoltaic applications with the GeSe2-Sb2Se3-CuI system. It has been demonstrated that thin films, deposited with the sputtering technique, are amorphous and can be crystallized with appropriate heat treatment. The thin film glass-ceramic behaves as a p-type semiconductor, even if it contains p-type Cu2GeSe3 and n-type Sb2Se3. The conductivity of Sb2Se3 has been greatly improved by appropriate iodine doping. The first photovoltaic solar cells based on the association of iodine-doped Sb2Se3 and the glass-ceramic thin films give a short-circuit current density JSC of 10 mA/cm2 and an open-circuit voltage VOC of 255 mV, with a power conversion efficiency of about 0.9%.

  7. Surface morphology of spin-coated As-S-Se chalcogenide thin films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kohoutek, T.; Wágner, T.; Orava, J.; Krbal, M.; Fejfar, Antonín; Mates, Tomáš; Kasap, S. O.; Frumar, M.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 353, - (2007), s. 1437-1440 ISSN 0022-3093 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1010316; GA AV ČR IAA1010413 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA203/05/0524; GAMŠk(CZ) LC523 Program:LC Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : chemical properties * spin coating * infrared glasses * chalcogenides * atomic force and scanning tunneling microscopy * scanning electron microscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.319, year: 2007

  8. High index glass thin film processing for photonics and photovoltaic (PV) applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbuu, Okechukwu Anthony

    subsequently transferred into glass and polymer thin films via conformal wet etching. High refractive index chalcogenide glass (n = 2.6) thin films with composition As20Se80 was selected for backside LSG material due to their attractive properties. We developed an optimized integration protocol for LSG integration and successfully integrated these LSG structures at the back side of both 30 microm c-Si solar cells and standalone 30 microm c-Si wafers. Optical and electrical characterization of LSG on thin c-Si cells shows that LSG structures create higher absorption enhancement and external quantum efficiency at long wavelengths.

  9. Photonic-crystal switch divider based on Ge2Sb2Te5 thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Beijiao; Zhang, Peiqing; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Tengyu; Zeng, Jianghui; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Guoxiang; Xu, Peipeng; Zhang, Wei; Dai, Shixun

    2016-11-10

    A three-port phase-change photonic-crystal switch divider based on Ge2Sb2Te5 chalcogenide thin film was proposed. The chalcogenide material used was determined to have a high refractive index and fast phase-change speed by using laser radiation. The structure with a T-junction cavity was used to achieve three switch functions: switching "ON" in only one output port, switching "OFF" in both output ports, and dividing signals into two output ports. The transmission properties of the designed device at 2.0 μm were studied by the finite difference time domain method, which showed that the switch divider can achieve very high switching efficiency by optimizing T-junction cavity parameters. The scaling laws of photonic crystals revealed that the operating wavelength of the designed structure can be easily extended to another wavelength in the midinfrared region.

  10. ZnO and copper indium chalcogenide heterojunctions prepared by inexpensive methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berruet, M.; Di Iorio, Y.; Troviano, M.; Vázquez, M.

    2014-01-01

    Solution-based techniques were used to prepare ZnO/CuIn(Se, S) 2 heterojunctions that serve as solar cell prototypes. A duplex layer of ZnO (compact + porous) was electrodeposited. Chalcogenide thin films were deposited using successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method (SILAR). By subsequent thermal treatments in two different atmospheres, CuInSe 2 (CISe) and CuInSe 2−x S x (CISeS) were obtained. The composition and morphology of the annealed films were characterized by GXRD, micro-Raman spectroscopy and SEM. Devices prepared with CISe and CISeS show a clear photo-response. The introduction of a buffer layer of TiO 2 into the ZnO/chalcogenide interface was necessary to detect photocurrent. The presence of CISeS improves the response of the cell, with higher values of short circuit current density, open circuit potential and fill factor. These promising results show that it is possible to prepare photovoltaic heterojunctions by depositing chalcogenides onto porous ZnO substrates using low-cost solution-based techniques. - Highlights: • Heterojunctions that serve as solar cell prototypes were prepared using solution-based techniques. • The devices comprised a double layer of ZnO and CuInSe 2 or CuInSe 0.4 S 1.6 . • A TiO 2 buffer layer in the ZnO/chalcogenide interface is necessary to detect photocurrent. • The incorporation of S improved the response of the photovoltaic heterojunction

  11. Synthesis, structure and optical properties of thin films from GeS{sub 2}–In{sub 2}S{sub 3} system deposited by thermal co-evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todorov, R., E-mail: rossen@iomt.bas.bg [Institute of Optical Materials and Technologies “Acad. J. Malinowski”, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., bl. 109, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Petkov, K. [Institute of Optical Materials and Technologies “Acad. J. Malinowski”, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., bl. 109, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Kincl, M. [Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry of Czech Academy of Science, Heyrovsky sq. 2, 162 06 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Černošková, E. [Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, Studentská 84, 532 10 Pardubice (Czech Republic); Vlček, Mil.; Tichý, L. [Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry of Czech Academy of Science, Heyrovsky sq. 2, 162 06 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

    2014-05-02

    This paper deals with the properties of the glasses and thin films from multi-component chalcogenide prepared by co-evaporation technique. The thin chalcogenide layers from GeS{sub 2}–In{sub 2}S{sub 3} system were deposited by thermal co-evaporation of GeS{sub 2} and In{sub 2}S{sub 3}. Using X-ray microanalysis it was found that the film compositions are closed to the expected ones. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that the thin films deposited by co-evaporation are amorphous. The refractive index, n and the optical band gap, E{sub g}{sup opt} were calculated from the transmittance and reflectance spectra. The thin film's structure was investigated by infrared spectroscopy. It was found that the photo-induced optical changes decrease with increase of indium content while significant thermo-induced changes in the optical properties and structure were observed at 14 at.% indium. The infrared spectra demonstrated high transmittance of the thin films in the range 4000–500 cm{sup −1}. The far-infrared spectra indicated that the indium participates in the glass network of the layers from Ge–S–In system in four coordinated InS{sub 4/2}{sup −} tetrahedral and six-coordinated InS{sub 6/2}{sup 3−} octahedral units. The changes in infrared spectra after annealing of the thin films evidence an increase of population of ethane-like S{sub 3}Ge–GeS{sub 3} units and/or structural or phase change of indium contain units. - Highlights: • The thin layers from GeS{sub 2}–In{sub 2}S{sub 3} system were deposited by thermal co-evaporation. • The photo-induced optical changes decrease with increase of indium content. • The thermo-induced changes in the optical properties and structure were investigated. • The structure of the thin films was investigated by infrared spectroscopy.

  12. Chalcogenide glass-ceramic with self-organized heterojunctions: application to photovoltaic solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xianghua

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present for the first time the concept of chalcogenide glass-ceramic for photovoltaic applications with the GeSe2–Sb2Se3–CuI system. It has been demonstrated that thin films, deposited with the sputtering technique, are amorphous and can be crystallized with appropriate heat treatment. The thin film glass-ceramic behaves as a p-type semiconductor, even if it contains p-type Cu2GeSe3 and n-type Sb2Se3. The conductivity of Sb2Se3 has been greatly improved by appropriate iodine doping. The first photovoltaic solar cells based on the association of iodine-doped Sb2Se3 and the glass-ceramic thin films give a short-circuit current density JSC of 10 mA/cm2 and an open-circuit voltage VOC of 255 mV, with a power conversion efficiency of about 0.9%.

  13. The microstructure investigation of GeTi thin film used for non-volatile memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Jie; Liu Bo; Song Zhitang; Xu Cheng; Liang Shuang; Feng Songlin; Chen Bomy

    2008-01-01

    GeTi thin film has been found to have the reversible resistance switching property in our previous work. In this paper, the microstructure of this material with a given composition was investigated. The film was synthesized by magnetron sputtering and treated by the rapid temperature process. The results indicate a coexist status of amorphous and polycrystalline states in the as-deposited GeTi film, and the grains in the film are extremely fine. Furthermore, not until the film annealed at 600 deg. C, can the polycrystalline state be detected by X-ray diffraction. Based on the morphological analysis, the sputtered GeTi has the column growth tendency, and the column structure vanishes with the temperature increasing. The microstructure and thermal property analysis indicate that GeTi does not undergo evident phase change process during the annealing process, which makes the switching mechanism of GeTi different from that of chalcogenide memory material, the most widely used phase change memory material

  14. High-Purity Glasses Based on Arsenic Chalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-06-01

    Chemical interaction of chalcogenides and some impurities (CS 2, TeO2 ) with the quartz glass at high temperature leads to the thin layers formation...UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADPO1 1523 TITLE: High-Purity Glasses Based on Arsenic Chalcogenides...Materials Vol. 3, No. 2, June 2001, p. 341 - 349 HIGH-PURITY GLASSES BASED ON ARSENIC CHALCOGENIDES M. F. Churbanov, I. V. Scripachev, G. E. Snopatin, V. S

  15. ZnO and copper indium chalcogenide heterojunctions prepared by inexpensive methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berruet, M., E-mail: berruetm@gmail.com [División Electroquímica y Corrosión, Facultad de Ingeniería, INTEMA, CONICET, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Juan B. Justo 4302, B7608FDQ Mar del Plata (Argentina); Di Iorio, Y. [División Electroquímica y Corrosión, Facultad de Ingeniería, INTEMA, CONICET, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Juan B. Justo 4302, B7608FDQ Mar del Plata (Argentina); Troviano, M. [Instituto de Investigación y Desarrollo en Ingeniería de Procesos, Biotecnología y Energías Alternativas (PROBIEN, CONICET-UNCo), Buenos Aires 1400, Q8300IBX Neuquén (Argentina); Vázquez, M. [División Electroquímica y Corrosión, Facultad de Ingeniería, INTEMA, CONICET, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Juan B. Justo 4302, B7608FDQ Mar del Plata (Argentina)

    2014-12-15

    Solution-based techniques were used to prepare ZnO/CuIn(Se, S){sub 2} heterojunctions that serve as solar cell prototypes. A duplex layer of ZnO (compact + porous) was electrodeposited. Chalcogenide thin films were deposited using successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method (SILAR). By subsequent thermal treatments in two different atmospheres, CuInSe{sub 2} (CISe) and CuInSe{sub 2−x}S{sub x} (CISeS) were obtained. The composition and morphology of the annealed films were characterized by GXRD, micro-Raman spectroscopy and SEM. Devices prepared with CISe and CISeS show a clear photo-response. The introduction of a buffer layer of TiO{sub 2} into the ZnO/chalcogenide interface was necessary to detect photocurrent. The presence of CISeS improves the response of the cell, with higher values of short circuit current density, open circuit potential and fill factor. These promising results show that it is possible to prepare photovoltaic heterojunctions by depositing chalcogenides onto porous ZnO substrates using low-cost solution-based techniques. - Highlights: • Heterojunctions that serve as solar cell prototypes were prepared using solution-based techniques. • The devices comprised a double layer of ZnO and CuInSe{sub 2} or CuInSe{sub 0.4}S{sub 1.6}. • A TiO{sub 2} buffer layer in the ZnO/chalcogenide interface is necessary to detect photocurrent. • The incorporation of S improved the response of the photovoltaic heterojunction.

  16. Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Sb-doped GeSe2 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen-Ying; Chen, Fen; Lu, Shun-Bin; Wang, Yong-Hui; Shen, Xiang; Dai, Shi-Xun; Nie, Qiu-Hua

    2015-06-01

    Sb-doped GeSe2 chalcogenide thin films are prepared by the magnetron co-sputtering method. The linear optical properties of as-deposited films are derived by analyzing transmission spectra. The refractive index rises and the optical band gap decreases from 2.08 eV to 1.41 eV with increasing the Sb content. X-ray photoelectron spectra further confirm the formation of a covalent Sb-Se bond. The third-order nonlinear optical properties of thin films are investigated under femtosecond laser excitation at 800 nm. The results show that the third-order nonlinear optical properties are enhanced with increasing the concentration of Sb. The nonlinear refraction indices of these thin films are measured to be on the order of 10-18 m2/W with a positive sign and the nonlinear absorption coefficients are obtained to be on the order of 10-10 m/W. These excellent properties indicate that Sb-doped Ge-Se films have a good prospect in the applications of nonlinear optical devices. Project supported by the National Key Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB722703), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61377061), the Young Leaders of Academic Climbing Project of the Education Department of Zhejiang Province, China (Grant No. pd2013092), the Program for Innovative Research Team of Ningbo City, China (Grant No. 2009B217), and the K. C. Wong Magna Fund in Ningbo University, China.

  17. Fabrication and characterization of high-mobility solution-based chalcogenide thin-film transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Mejia, Israel I.; Salas Villaseñ or, Ana L.; Cha, Dong Kyu; Alshareef, Husam N.; Gnade, Bruce E.; Quevedo-Ló pez, Manuel Angel Quevedo

    2013-01-01

    We report device and material considerations for the fabrication of high-mobility thin-film transistors (TFTs) compatible with large-area and inexpensive processes. In particular, this paper reports photolithographically defined n-type TFTs (n-TFTs) based on cadmium sulfide (CdS) films deposited using solution-based techniques. The integration process consists of four mask levels with a maximum processing temperature of 100 °C. The TFT performance was analyzed in terms of the CdS semiconductor thickness and as a function of postdeposition annealing in a reducing ambient. The IonI off ratios are ∼107 with field-effect mobilities of ∼5.3 and ∼4.7cm2V̇s for Al and Au source-drain contacts, respectively, using 70 nm of CdS. Transmission electron microscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy were used to analyze the CdS-metal interfaces. © 1963-2012 IEEE.

  18. Tuning Bandgap of p-Type Cu2Zn(Sn, Ge)(S, Se)4 Semiconductor Thin Films via Aqueous Polymer-Assisted Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Qinghua; Wu, Jiang; Zhao, Jie; Wang, Hao; Hu, Jiapeng; Dai, Xiao; Zou, Guifu

    2017-01-18

    Bandgap engineering of kesterite Cu 2 Zn(Sn, Ge)(S, Se) 4 with well-controlled stoichiometric composition plays a critical role in sustainable inorganic photovoltaics. Herein, a cost-effective and reproducible aqueous solution-based polymer-assisted deposition approach is developed to grow p-type Cu 2 Zn(Sn, Ge)(S, Se) 4 thin films with tunable bandgap. The bandgap of Cu 2 Zn(Sn, Ge)(S, Se) 4 thin films can be tuned within the range 1.05-1.95 eV using the aqueous polymer-assisted deposition by accurately controlling the elemental compositions. One of the as-grown Cu 2 Zn(Sn, Ge)(S, Se) 4 thin films exhibits a hall coefficient of +137 cm 3 /C. The resistivity, concentration and carrier mobility of the Cu 2 ZnSn(S, Se) 4 thin film are 3.17 ohm·cm, 4.5 × 10 16 cm -3 , and 43 cm 2 /(V·S) at room temperature, respectively. Moreover, the Cu 2 ZnSn(S, Se) 4 thin film when used as an active layer in a solar cell leads to a power conversion efficiency of 3.55%. The facile growth of Cu 2 Zn(Sn, Ge)(S, Se) 4 thin films in an aqueous system, instead of organic solvents, provides great promise as an environmental-friendly platform to fabricate a variety of single/multi metal chalcogenides for the thin film industry and solution-processed photovoltaic devices.

  19. Optical properties and photoinduced phenomena in glasses and thin films of system As2Se3-As2Te3-SnTe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Parchanski, V.; Frumarová, Božena; Frumar, M.; Hrdlička, M.; Vlček, Milan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 14, 1-2 (2012), 150-156 ISSN 1454-4164 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/0827 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : chalcogenides * thin films * optical properties Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.516, year: 2012 http://joam.inoe.ro/index.php?option=magazine&op=view&idu=2997&catid=69

  20. Optical properties change in Te diffused As{sub 50}Se{sub 50} chalcogenide thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naik, Ramakanta; Behera, M.; Panda, R.; Mishra, N. C. [Department of Physics, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar, 751004, Odisha (India)

    2016-05-23

    In the present report, we present the effect of Te diffusion into As{sub 50}Se{sub 50} thin film which changes the optical properties. The Te/As{sub 50}Se{sub 50} film was irradiated by a laser beam of 532 nm to study the diffusion mechanism due to photo induced effect. The As{sub 50}Se{sub 50}, Te/As{sub 50}Se{sub 50} films show a completely amorphous nature from X-ray diffraction study. A non direct transition was found for these films on the basis of optical transmission data carried out by Fourier Transform infrared Spectroscopy. The optical bandgap is found to be decreased with Te deposition and photo darkening phenomena is observed for the diffused film. The change in the optical constants are well supported by the corresponding change in different types of bonds which are being studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  1. II-I2-IV-VI4 (II = Sr,Ba; I = Cu,Ag; IV = Ge,Sn; VI = S,Se): Earth-Abundant Chalcogenides for Thin Film Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tong; Huhn, William P.; Shin, Donghyeop; Mitzi, David B.; Blum, Volker; Saparov, Bayrammurad

    Chalcogenides such as CdTe, CIGSSe, and CZTSSe are successful for thin film photovoltaics (PV) but contain elements that are rare, toxic, or prone to the formation of detrimental antisite disorder. Recently, the BaCu2SnS4-xSex system has been shown to offer a prospective path to circumvent these problems. While early prototypes show efficiencies of a few percent, many avenues remain to optimize the materials, including the underlying chemical composition. In this work, we explore 16 compounds II-I2-IV-VI4 to help identify new candidate materials for PV, with predictions based on both known experimental and computationally derived structures that belong to five different space groups. We employ hybrid density functional theory (HSE06) to explore the band gap tunability by substituting different elements, and other characteristics such as the effective mass and the absorption coefficient. Compounds containing Cu (rather than Ag) are found to have direct or nearly direct band gaps. Depending on the compound, replacing S with Se leads to a decrease of the predicted band gaps by 0.2-0.8 eV and to somewhat decreasing hole effective masses.

  2. High-mobility ultrathin semiconducting films prepared by spin coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitzi, David B.; Kosbar, Laura L.; Murray, Conal E.; Copel, Matthew; Afzali, Ali

    2004-03-01

    The ability to deposit and tailor reliable semiconducting films (with a particular recent emphasis on ultrathin systems) is indispensable for contemporary solid-state electronics. The search for thin-film semiconductors that provide simultaneously high carrier mobility and convenient solution-based deposition is also an important research direction, with the resulting expectations of new technologies (such as flexible or wearable computers, large-area high-resolution displays and electronic paper) and lower-cost device fabrication. Here we demonstrate a technique for spin coating ultrathin (~50Å), crystalline and continuous metal chalcogenide films, based on the low-temperature decomposition of highly soluble hydrazinium precursors. We fabricate thin-film field-effect transistors (TFTs) based on semiconducting SnS2-xSex films, which exhibit n-type transport, large current densities (>105Acm-2) and mobilities greater than 10cm2V-1s-1-an order of magnitude higher than previously reported values for spin-coated semiconductors. The spin-coating technique is expected to be applicable to a range of metal chalcogenides, particularly those based on main group metals, as well as for the fabrication of a variety of thin-film-based devices (for example, solar cells, thermoelectrics and memory devices).

  3. Solid thin film materials for use in thin film charge-coupled devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, S.J.

    1983-01-01

    Solid thin films deposited by vacuum deposition were evaluated to ascertain their effectiveness for use in the manufacturing of charge-coupled devices (CCDs). Optical and electrical characteristics of tellurium and Bi 2 Te 3 solid thin films were obtained in order to design and to simulate successfully the operation of thin film (TF) CCDs. In this article some of the material differences between single-crystal material and the island-structured thin film used in TFCCDs are discussed. The electrical parameters were obtained and tabulated, e.g. the mobility, conductivity, dielectric constants, permittivity, lifetime of holes and electrons in the thin films and drift diffusion constants. The optical parameters were also measured and analyzed. After the design was complete, experimental TFCCDs were manufactured and were successfully operated utilizing the aforementioned solid thin films. (Auth.)

  4. Thin-film photovoltaic technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, R.N. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

    2010-07-01

    The high material and processing costs associated with single-crystal and polycrystalline silicon wafers that are commonly used in photovoltaic cells render these modules expensive. This presentation described thin-film solar cell technology as a promising alternative to silicon solar cell technology. Cadmium telluride (CdTe) thin films along with copper, indium, gallium, and selenium (CIGS) thin films have become the leaders in this field. Their large optical absorption coefficient can be attributed to a direct energy gap that allows the use of thin layers (1-2 {mu}m) of active material. The efficiency of thin-film solar cell devices based on CIGS is 20 per cent, compared to 16.7 per cent for thin-film solar cell devices based on CdTe. IBM recently reported an efficiency of 9.7 per cent for a new type of inorganic thin-film solar cell based on a Cu{sub 2}ZnSn(S, Se){sub 4} compound. The efficiency of an organic thin-film solar cell is 7.9 per cent. This presentation included a graph of PV device efficiencies and discussed technological advances in non-vacuum deposited, CIGS-based thin-film solar cells. 1 fig.

  5. Influence of composition on optical and dispersion parameters of thermally evaporated non-crystalline Cd{sub 50}S{sub 50−x}Se{sub x} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassanien, A.S., E-mail: a.s.hassanien@gmail.com [Engineering Mathematics and Physics Dept., Faculty of Engineering (Shoubra), Benha University (Egypt); Physics Department, Faculty of Science and Humanities in Ad-Dawadmi, Shaqra University, 11911 (Saudi Arabia); Akl, Alaa A. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science and Humanities in Ad-Dawadmi, Shaqra University, 11911 (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-11-05

    Non-crystalline thin films of chalcogenide Cd{sub 50}S{sub 50−x}Se{sub x} system (30 ≤ x ≤ 50) were obtained by thermal evaporation technique onto a pre-cleaned glass substrate at a vacuum of 8.2 × 10{sup −4} Pa. The deposition rate and film thickness were kept constant at about 8 nm/s and 200 nm, respectively. Amorphous/crystalline nature and chemical composition of films have been checked using X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Optical properties of thin films were investigated and studied using the corrected transmittance, T(λ) and corrected reflectance, R(λ) measurements. Obtained data reveal that, the indirect optical energy gap (E{sub g}) was decreased from 2.21 to 1.57 eV. On the contrary, Urbach energy (band tail width), E{sub U} was found to be increased from 0.29 to 0.45 eV. This behavior is believed to be associated with the increase of Se-content instead of S-content in the thin films of Cd{sub 50}S{sub 50−x}Se{sub x} system. Chemical bond approach model, CBA was used to analyze the obtained values of E{sub g} and E{sub U}. Optical density, skin depth, extinction coefficient, refractive index and optical conductivity of chalcogenide CdSSe thin films were discussed as functions of Se-content. Using Wemple-DiDomenico single oscillator model, the refractive index dispersion and energy parameters and their dependence on Se content were studied. - Highlights: • Amorphous thin films of thickness 200 nm of Cd{sub 50}S{sub 50−x}Se{sub x} (30 ≤ x ≤ 50) have prepared. • Optical properties, indirect optical energy gap and band tail width were studied. • Chemical bond approach, CBA was used to analyze the obtained values of E{sub g} and E{sub U}. • New data of dispersion refractive index parameters were investigated and discussed.

  6. Magnetic chalcogenides in 3 and lower dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furdyna, J. K.; Dong, S.-N.; Lee, S.; Liu, X.; Dobrowolska, M.

    2018-06-01

    In this article we review magnetic phenomena that occur in the chalcogenide family involving transition metals. Magnetic properties displayed by bulk 3D chalcogenides compounds and alloys produced by equilibrium growth methods are discussed. 2D magnetic chalcogenide systems such as epitaxial films and more complex multilayers, whose formation is made possible by epitaxial methods and/or by van der Waals epitaxy, are presented in detail. We present a brief overview of magnetic effects emerging as the dimensionality of chalcogenide materialss is reduced to 1D (nanowires and related structures) and to zero-D (quantum dots formed by both top-down and bottom-up methods).

  7. Thin film processes II

    CERN Document Server

    Kern, Werner

    1991-01-01

    This sequel to the 1978 classic, Thin Film Processes, gives a clear, practical exposition of important thin film deposition and etching processes that have not yet been adequately reviewed. It discusses selected processes in tutorial overviews with implementation guide lines and an introduction to the literature. Though edited to stand alone, when taken together, Thin Film Processes II and its predecessor present a thorough grounding in modern thin film techniques.Key Features* Provides an all-new sequel to the 1978 classic, Thin Film Processes* Introduces new topics, and sever

  8. Electrodeposition and characterization of CdSe{sub x}Te{sub 1-x} semiconducting thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benamar, E.; Rami, M.; Fahoume, M.; Chraibi, F.; Ennaoui, A. [Faculty of Sciences, Laboratory of Materials Physics, Dept. of Physics, Rabat (Morocco)

    1999-07-01

    Thin polycrystalline films of cadmium chalcogenides CdSe{sub x}Te{sub 1-x} (0{<=}x{<=}1) can be used for various technical applications in particular for the conversion of solar energy in photoelectrochemical devices. They have been prepared by electrochemical plating on ITO (indium tin oxide) coated glass substrates from an acid sulfate solution at 90 deg. C. Structural, morphological and compositional studies of the deposited films are reported as a function of the x coefficient. XRD analysis shows that all deposits have a cubic structure with a preferred orientation along the (111) direction. The composition in the films is found to vary linearly with the composition in the solution. The increase in the selenium content x in the CdSe{sub x}Te{sub 1-x} films decreases the lattice constant and increases the band gap. Nevertheless this latter presents a minimum for x = 0.27.

  9. Pinning down high-performance Cu-chalcogenides as thin-film solar cell absorbers: A successive screening approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yubo; Zhang, Wenqing, E-mail: wqzhang@mail.sic.ac.cn, E-mail: pzhang3@buffalo.edu [Materials Genome Institute and Department of Physics, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructures, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Wang, Youwei; Zhang, Jiawei; Xi, Lili [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructures, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Zhang, Peihong, E-mail: wqzhang@mail.sic.ac.cn, E-mail: pzhang3@buffalo.edu [Materials Genome Institute and Department of Physics, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Department of Physics, University at Buffalo, SUNY, Buffalo, New York 14260 (United States)

    2016-05-21

    Photovoltaic performances of Cu-chalcogenides solar cells are strongly correlated with the absorber fundamental properties such as optimal bandgap, desired band alignment with window material, and high photon absorption ability. According to these criteria, we carry out a successive screening for 90 Cu-chalcogenides using efficient theoretical approaches. Besides the well-recognized CuInSe{sub 2} and Cu{sub 2}ZnSnSe{sub 4} materials, several novel candidates are identified to have optimal bandgaps of around 1.0–1.5 eV, spike-like band alignments with CdS window layer, sharp photon absorption edges, and high absorption coefficients. These new systems have great potential to be superior absorbers for photovolatic applications if their carrrier transport and defect properties are properly optimized.

  10. Pyrolyzed thin film carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Yu-Chong (Inventor); Liger, Matthieu (Inventor); Harder, Theodore (Inventor); Konishi, Satoshi (Inventor); Miserendino, Scott (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method of making carbon thin films comprises depositing a catalyst on a substrate, depositing a hydrocarbon in contact with the catalyst and pyrolyzing the hydrocarbon. A method of controlling a carbon thin film density comprises etching a cavity into a substrate, depositing a hydrocarbon into the cavity, and pyrolyzing the hydrocarbon while in the cavity to form a carbon thin film. Controlling a carbon thin film density is achieved by changing the volume of the cavity. Methods of making carbon containing patterned structures are also provided. Carbon thin films and carbon containing patterned structures can be used in NEMS, MEMS, liquid chromatography, and sensor devices.

  11. Heat treatment and thickness-dependent electrical study of Se{sub 50}Te{sub 20}S{sub 30} thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd-Elrahman, M.I.; Hafiz, M.M.; Qasem, Ammar; Abdel-Rahim, M.A. [Assiut University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Assiut (Egypt)

    2016-08-15

    Chalcogenide Se{sub 50}Te{sub 20}S{sub 30} thin film of different thickness was deposited using thermal evaporation technique. The thermogram of the chalcogenide bulk Se{sub 50}Te{sub 20}S{sub 30} was obtained using a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) with heating rate of 7.5 K/min. The glass transition temperature T{sub g}, crystallization temperature T{sub c} and peak crystallization temperature T{sub p} were identified. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) examination indicates the amorphous nature of the as-deposited film and polycrystalline structure of the thermal annealed ones. The dark electrical resistivity (ρ) measurements were taken in temperature range (300-500 K) and thickness range (200-450 nm). Analysis of the electrical resistivity results revealed two types of conduction mechanisms: conduction due to extended states in the temperature range (T > T{sub c}) and variable range hopping in the temperature range (T < T{sub c}). The effect of the heat treatment and thickness on the density of localized states at the Fermi level N(E{sub F}) and hopping parameters were studied. (orig.)

  12. thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    microscopy (SEM) studies, respectively. The Fourier transform ... Thin films; chemical synthesis; hydrous tin oxide; FTIR; electrical properties. 1. Introduction ... dehydrogenation of organic compounds (Hattori et al 1987). .... SEM images of (a) bare stainless steel and (b) SnO2:H2O thin film on stainless steel substrate at a ...

  13. A new method for synthesis of As-Te chalcogenide films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochalov, Leonid; Nezhdanov, Aleksey; Usanov, Dmitry; Markelov, Aleksey; Trushin, Vladimir; Chidichimo, Giuseppe; De Filpo, Giovanni; Gogova, Daniela; Mashin, Aleksandr

    2017-11-01

    A novel Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition method for synthesis of amorphous AsxTe100-x (31 ≤ x ≤ 49) films is demonstrated. The innovative process has been developed in a non-equilibrium low-temperature argon plasma under reduced pressure, employing for the first time volatile As and Te as precursors. Utilization of inorganic precursors, in contrast to the typically used in CVD metal-organic precursors, has given us the chance to achieve ≿halcogenide As-Te films of very high quality and purity. Phase and structural evolution of the As-Te system, based on equilibrium coexistence of two phases (AsTe and As2Te3) has been studied. The dependence of structure and optical bandgap of the chalcogenide materials on their composition was established. The newly developed process is cost-effective and enables deposition of As-Te films with a thickness ranging from 10 nm to 10 μm, the latter is highly desireable for one-mode planar waveguides applications and in other components of integral optics.

  14. Band gap tuning in As40Se53Sb07 thin films by 532 nm laser irradiation: An optical investigation by spectroscopic techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Prabhudutta; Naik, R.; Das, N.; Panda, A. K.

    2018-01-01

    The chalcogenide thin films belongs to a special category of important materials due to the unique IR transparency and light induced linear and non linear optical properties change. The optical band gap tuning in thermally evaporated As40Se53Sb07 chalcogenide thin film is being probed under the influence of 532 nm laser illumination. The gradual decrease in transmission and red shift of optical absorption edge with illumination at different time scale is recorded by Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy. The simultaneous increase in refractive index and absorption coefficient of the illuminated film makes the material as useful candidate for optical switching. The dispersion of refractive index is being analyzed by using Wemple-DiDomenico (WDD) single oscillator model and static refractive index (n0) has also been reported. The exponential decrease of optical band gap with time is attributed to the increase in density of localized states and vacancies. The entire mechanism is explained by the microscopic model in which heteropolar bonds are converted to homopolar ones by the absorption of high energy photons investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectra. The amorphous nature of the studied films was revealed from X-ray diffraction and composition of the film was determined from energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The surface morphology was determined from the scanning electron microscopy. The optical change in absorption coefficient, refractive index, band gap by influence in laser irradiation in such materials may be suitable for optical disc(memory) application for optical time division switch.

  15. High-mobility ultrathin semiconducting films prepared by spin coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitzi, David B; Kosbar, Laura L; Murray, Conal E; Copel, Matthew; Afzali, Ali

    2004-03-18

    The ability to deposit and tailor reliable semiconducting films (with a particular recent emphasis on ultrathin systems) is indispensable for contemporary solid-state electronics. The search for thin-film semiconductors that provide simultaneously high carrier mobility and convenient solution-based deposition is also an important research direction, with the resulting expectations of new technologies (such as flexible or wearable computers, large-area high-resolution displays and electronic paper) and lower-cost device fabrication. Here we demonstrate a technique for spin coating ultrathin (approximately 50 A), crystalline and continuous metal chalcogenide films, based on the low-temperature decomposition of highly soluble hydrazinium precursors. We fabricate thin-film field-effect transistors (TFTs) based on semiconducting SnS(2-x)Se(x) films, which exhibit n-type transport, large current densities (>10(5) A cm(-2)) and mobilities greater than 10 cm2 V(-1) s(-1)--an order of magnitude higher than previously reported values for spin-coated semiconductors. The spin-coating technique is expected to be applicable to a range of metal chalcogenides, particularly those based on main group metals, as well as for the fabrication of a variety of thin-film-based devices (for example, solar cells, thermoelectrics and memory devices).

  16. Thin Film Microbatteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudney, Nancy J.

    2008-01-01

    Thin film batteries are built layer by layer by vapor deposition. The resulting battery is formed of parallel plates, much as an ordinary battery construction, just much thinner. The figure (Fig. 1) shows an example of a thin film battery layout where films are deposited symmetrically onto both sides of a supporting substrate. The full stack of films is only 10 to 15 (micro)m thick, but including the support at least doubles the overall battery thickness. When the support is thin, the entire battery can be flexible. At least six companies have commercialized or are very close to commercializing such all-solid-state thin film batteries and market research predicts a growing market and a variety of applications including sensors, RFID tags, and smarter cards. In principle with a large deposition system, a thin film battery might cover a square meter, but in practice, most development is targeting individual cells with active areas less than 25 cm 2 . For very small battery areas, 2 , microfabrication processes have been developed. Typically the assembled batteries have capacities from 0.1 to 5 mAh. The operation of a thin film battery is depicted in the schematic diagram (Fig. 2). Very simply, when the battery is allowed to discharge, a Li + ion migrates from the anode to the cathode film by diffusing through the solid electrolyte. When the anode and cathode reactions are reversible, as for an intercalation compound or alloy, the battery can be recharged by reversing the current. The difference in the electrochemical potential of the lithium determines the cell voltage. Most of the thin films used in current commercial variations of this thin film battery are deposited in vacuum chambers by RF and DC magnetron sputtering and by thermal evaporation onto unheated substrates. In addition, many publications report exploring a variety of other physical and chemical vapor deposition processes, such as pulsed laser deposition, electron cyclotron resonance sputtering, and

  17. Polycrystalline Mg2Si thin films: A theoretical investigation of their electronic transport properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balout, H.; Boulet, P.; Record, M.-C.

    2015-01-01

    The electronic structures and thermoelectric properties of a polycrystalline Mg 2 Si thin film have been investigated by first-principle density-functional theory (DFT) and Boltzmann transport theory calculations within the constant-relaxation time approximation. The polycrystalline thin film has been simulated by assembling three types of slabs each having the orientation (001), (110) or (111) with a thickness of about 18 Å. The effect of applying the relaxation procedure to the thin film induces disorder in the structure that has been ascertained by calculating radial distribution functions. For the calculations of the thermoelectric properties, the energy gap has been fixed at the experimental value of 0.74 eV. The thermoelectric properties, namely the Seebeck coefficient, the electrical conductivity and the power factor, have been determined at three temperatures of 350 K, 600 K and 900 K with respect to both the energy levels and the p-type and n-type doping levels. The best Seebeck coefficient is obtained at 350 K: the S yy component of the tensor amounts to about ±1000 μV K −1 , depending on the type of charge carriers. However, the electrical conductivity is much too small which results in low values of the figure of merit ZT. Structure–property relationship correlations based on directional radial distribution functions allow us to tentatively draw some explanations regarding the anisotropy of the electrical conductivity. Finally, the low ZT values obtained for the polycrystalline Mg 2 Si thin film are paralleled with those recently reported in the literature for bulk chalcogenide glasses. - Graphical abstract: Structure of the polycrystalline thin film of Mg 2 Si. - Author-Highlights: • Polycrystalline Mg 2 Si film has been modelled by DFT approach. • Thermoelectric properties have been evaluated by semi-classical Boltzmann theory. • The structure was found to be slightly disordered after relaxation. • The highest value of Seebeck

  18. Ceramic Composite Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruoff, Rodney S. (Inventor); Stankovich, Sasha (Inventor); Dikin, Dmitriy A. (Inventor); Nguyen, SonBinh T. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A ceramic composite thin film or layer includes individual graphene oxide and/or electrically conductive graphene sheets dispersed in a ceramic (e.g. silica) matrix. The thin film or layer can be electrically conductive film or layer depending the amount of graphene sheets present. The composite films or layers are transparent, chemically inert and compatible with both glass and hydrophilic SiOx/silicon substrates. The composite film or layer can be produced by making a suspension of graphene oxide sheet fragments, introducing a silica-precursor or silica to the suspension to form a sol, depositing the sol on a substrate as thin film or layer, at least partially reducing the graphene oxide sheets to conductive graphene sheets, and thermally consolidating the thin film or layer to form a silica matrix in which the graphene oxide and/or graphene sheets are dispersed.

  19. Host thin films incorporating nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Uzma

    The focus of this research project was the investigation of the functional properties of thin films that incorporate a secondary nanoparticulate phase. In particular to assess if the secondary nanoparticulate material enhanced a functional property of the coating on glass. In order to achieve this, new thin film deposition methods were developed, namely use of nanopowder precursors, an aerosol assisted transport technique and an aerosol into atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition system. Aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD) was used to deposit 8 series of thin films on glass. Five different nanoparticles silver, gold, ceria, tungsten oxide and zinc oxide were tested and shown to successfully deposit thin films incorporating nanoparticles within a host matrix. Silver nanoparticles were synthesised and doped within a titania film by AACVD. This improved solar control properties. A unique aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD) into atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition (APCVD) system was used to deposit films of Au nanoparticles and thin films of gold nanoparticles incorporated within a host titania matrix. Incorporation of high refractive index contrast metal oxide particles within a host film altered the film colour. The key goal was to test the potential of nanopowder forms and transfer the suspended nanopowder via an aerosol to a substrate in order to deposit a thin film. Discrete tungsten oxide nanoparticles or ceria nanoparticles within a titanium dioxide thin film enhanced the self-cleaning and photo-induced super-hydrophilicity. The nanopowder precursor study was extended by deposition of zinc oxide thin films incorporating Au nanoparticles and also ZnO films deposited from a ZnO nanopowder precursor. Incorporation of Au nanoparticles within a VO: host matrix improved the thermochromic response, optical and colour properties. Composite VC/TiC and Au nanoparticle/V02/Ti02 thin films displayed three useful

  20. NMR characterization of thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald II, Rex E.; Klingler, Robert J.; Rathke, Jerome W.; Diaz, Rocio; Vukovic, Lela

    2010-06-15

    A method, apparatus, and system for characterizing thin film materials. The method, apparatus, and system includes a container for receiving a starting material, applying a gravitational force, a magnetic force, and an electric force or combinations thereof to at least the starting material, forming a thin film material, sensing an NMR signal from the thin film material and analyzing the NMR signal to characterize the thin film of material.

  1. NMR characterization of thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald, II, Rex E.; Klingler, Robert J.; Rathke, Jerome W.; Diaz, Rocio; Vukovic, Lela

    2008-11-25

    A method, apparatus, and system for characterizing thin film materials. The method, apparatus, and system includes a container for receiving a starting material, applying a gravitational force, a magnetic force, and an electric force or combinations thereof to at least the starting material, forming a thin film material, sensing an NMR signal from the thin film material and analyzing the NMR signal to characterize the thin film of material.

  2. Determination of optical constant and dispersion parameters of Se{sub 75}Sb{sub 10}In{sub 15} thin film characterized by wide band gap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd-Elrahman, M.I.; Abu-Sehly, A.A.; El-sonbaty, Sherouk Sh.; Hafiz, M.M. [Assiut University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Assiut (Egypt)

    2017-02-15

    Chalcogenide Se{sub 75}Sb{sub 10}In{sub 15} thin films of different thickness (50-300 nm) are deposited using thermal evaporation technique. The thermogram of the chalcogenide bulk Se{sub 75}Sb{sub 10}In{sub 15} is obtained using a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The crystallization temperature T{sub c}, peak crystallization temperature T{sub p} and melting temperature T{sub m}, are identified. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) examination indicates the crystallinity of the as-deposited film decreases with increasing of thickness. Optical transmission and reflection spectra are recorded in the wavelength range of the incident photons from 250 to 2500 nm. It is found that the film thickness affects the absorption coefficient, refractive index, extinction coefficient and the width of the tails of localized states in the gap region. The absorption mechanism of the as-deposited films is a direct allowed transition. The optical band gap energy (E{sub g}) decreases from 3.31 to 2.51 eV with increasing the film thickness from 50 to 300 nm. The behavior of E{sub g} is explained on the basis of the structure disorders in the thicker films. The effect of the film thickness on the single-oscillator and dispersion energies is studied by the dispersion analyses of the refractive index. (orig.)

  3. Solution processing of chalcogenide materials using thiol-amine "alkahest" solvent systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Carrie L; Brutchey, Richard L

    2017-05-02

    Macroelectronics is a major focus in electronics research and is driven by large area applications such as flat panel displays and thin film solar cells. Innovations for these technologies, such as flexible substrates and mass production, will require efficient and affordable semiconductor processing. Low-temperature solution processing offers mild deposition methods, inexpensive processing equipment, and the possibility of high-throughput processing. In recent years, the discovery that binary "alkahest" mixtures of ethylenediamine and short chain thiols possess the ability to dissolve bulk inorganic materials to yield molecular inks has lead to the wide study of such systems and the straightforward recovery of phase pure crystalline chalcogenide thin films upon solution processing and mild annealing of the inks. In this review, we recount the work that has been done toward elucidating the scope of this method for the solution processing of inorganic materials for use in applications such as photovoltaic devices, electrocatalysts, photodetectors, thermoelectrics, and nanocrystal ligand exchange. We also take stock of the wide range of bulk materials that can be used as soluble precursors, and discuss the work that has been done to reveal the nature of the dissolved species. This method has provided a vast toolbox of over 65 bulk precursors, which can be utilized to develop new routes to functional chalcogenide materials. Future studies in this area should work toward a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in the dissolution and recovery of bulk materials, as well as broadening the scope of soluble precursors and recoverable functional materials for innovative applications.

  4. Handbook of thin film technology

    CERN Document Server

    Frey, Hartmut

    2015-01-01

    “Handbook of Thin Film Technology” covers all aspects of coatings preparation, characterization and applications. Different deposition techniques based on vacuum and plasma processes are presented. Methods of surface and thin film analysis including coating thickness, structural, optical, electrical, mechanical and magnetic properties of films are detailed described. The several applications of thin coatings and a special chapter focusing on nanoparticle-based films can be found in this handbook. A complete reference for students and professionals interested in the science and technology of thin films.

  5. Inverse opal photonic crystal of chalcogenide glass by solution processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohoutek, Tomas; Orava, Jiri; Sawada, Tsutomu; Fudouzi, Hiroshi

    2011-01-15

    Chalcogenide opal and inverse opal photonic crystals were successfully fabricated by low-cost and low-temperature solution-based process, which is well developed in polymer films processing. Highly ordered silica colloidal crystal films were successfully infilled with nano-colloidal solution of the high refractive index As(30)S(70) chalcogenide glass by using spin-coating method. The silica/As-S opal film was etched in HF acid to dissolve the silica opal template and fabricate the inverse opal As-S photonic crystal. Both, the infilled silica/As-S opal film (Δn ~ 0.84 near λ=770 nm) and the inverse opal As-S photonic structure (Δn ~ 1.26 near λ=660 nm) had significantly enhanced reflectivity values and wider photonic bandgaps in comparison with the silica opal film template (Δn ~ 0.434 near λ=600 nm). The key aspects of opal film preparation by spin-coating of nano-colloidal chalcogenide glass solution are discussed. The solution fabricated "inorganic polymer" opal and the inverse opal structures exceed photonic properties of silica or any organic polymer opal film. The fabricated photonic structures are proposed for designing novel flexible colloidal crystal laser devices, photonic waveguides and chemical sensors. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Rare Earth Oxide Thin Films

    CERN Document Server

    Fanciulli, Marco

    2007-01-01

    Thin rare earth (RE) oxide films are emerging materials for microelectronic, nanoelectronic, and spintronic applications. The state-of-the-art of thin film deposition techniques as well as the structural, physical, chemical, and electrical properties of thin RE oxide films and of their interface with semiconducting substrates are discussed. The aim is to identify proper methodologies for the development of RE oxides thin films and to evaluate their effectiveness as innovative materials in different applications.

  7. Thin-film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aberle, Armin G.

    2009-01-01

    The rapid progress that is being made with inorganic thin-film photovoltaic (PV) technologies, both in the laboratory and in industry, is reviewed. While amorphous silicon based PV modules have been around for more than 20 years, recent industrial developments include the first polycrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells on glass and the first tandem solar cells based on stacks of amorphous and microcrystalline silicon films ('micromorph cells'). Significant thin-film PV production levels are also being set up for cadmium telluride and copper indium diselenide.

  8. Process for forming thin film, heat treatment process of thin film sheet, and heat treatment apparatus therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, S.

    1984-01-01

    The invention provides a process for forming a magnetic thin film on a base film, a heat treatment process of a thin film sheet consisting of the base film and the magnetic thin film, and an apparatus for performing heat treatment of the thin film sheet. Tension applied to the thin film sheet is substantially equal to that applied to the base film when the magnetic thin film is formed thereon. Then, the thin film sheet is treated with heat. The thin film sheet is heated with a given temperature gradient to a reactive temperature at which heat shrinkage occurs, while the tension is being applied thereto. Thereafter, the thin film sheet to which the tension is still applied is cooled with substantially the same temperature gradient as applied in heating. The heat treatment apparatus has a film driving unit including a supply reel, a take-up reel, a drive source and guide rollers; a heating unit including heating plates, heater blocks and a temperature controller for heating the sheet to the reactive temperature; and a heat insulating unit including a thermostat and another temperature controller for maintaining the sheet at the nonreactive temperature which is slightly lower than the reactive temperature

  9. Towards efficient solar-to-hydrogen conversion: Fundamentals and recent progress in copper-based chalcogenide photocathodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yubin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Photoelectrochemical (PEC water splitting for hydrogen generation has been considered as a promising route to convert and store solar energy into chemical fuels. In terms of its large-scale application, seeking semiconductor photoelectrodes with high efficiency and good stability should be essential. Although an enormous number of materials have been explored for solar water splitting in the last several decades, challenges still remain for the practical application. P-type copper-based chalcogenides, such as Cu(In, GaSe2 and Cu2ZnSnS4, have shown impressive performance in photovoltaics due to narrow bandgaps, high absorption coefficients, and good carrier transport properties. The obtained high efficiencies in photovoltaics have promoted the utilization of these materials into the field of PEC water splitting. A comprehensive review on copper-based chalcogenides for solar-to-hydrogen conversion would help advance the research in this expanding area. This review will cover the physicochemical properties of copper-based chalco-genides, developments of various photocathodes, strategies to enhance the PEC activity and stability, introductions of tandem PEC cells, and finally, prospects on their potential for the practical solar-to-hydrogen conversion. We believe this review article can provide some insights of fundamentals and applications of copper-based chalco-genide thin films for PEC water splitting.

  10. Ion beam-based characterization of multicomponent oxide thin films and thin film layered structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krauss, A.R.; Rangaswamy, M.; Lin, Yuping; Gruen, D.M.; Schultz, J.A.; Schmidt, H.K.; Chang, R.P.H.

    1992-01-01

    Fabrication of thin film layered structures of multi-component materials such as high temperature superconductors, ferroelectric and electro-optic materials, and alloy semiconductors, and the development of hybrid materials requires understanding of film growth and interface properties. For High Temperature Superconductors, the superconducting coherence length is extremely short (5--15 Angstrom), and fabrication of reliable devices will require control of film properties at extremely sharp interfaces; it will be necessary to verify the integrity of thin layers and layered structure devices over thicknesses comparable to the atomic layer spacing. Analytical techniques which probe the first 1--2 atomic layers are therefore necessary for in-situ characterization of relevant thin film growth processes. However, most surface-analytical techniques are sensitive to a region within 10--40 Angstrom of the surface and are physically incompatible with thin film deposition and are typically restricted to ultra high vacuum conditions. A review of ion beam-based analytical methods for the characterization of thin film and multi-layered thin film structures incorporating layers of multicomponent oxides is presented. Particular attention will be paid to the use of time-of-flight techniques based on the use of 1- 15 key ion beams which show potential for use as nondestructive, real-time, in-situ surface diagnostics for the growth of multicomponent metal and metal oxide thin films

  11. Growth behavior of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} thin films on graphene substrate grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Wan [Thin Film Materials Research Group, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Gun Hwan; Kang, Min A.; An, Ki-Seok; Lee, Young Kuk [Thin Film Materials Research Group, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Seong Gu [School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyungjun [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    A comparative study of the substrate effect on the growth mechanism of chalcogenide Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} thin films was carried out. Obvious microstructural discrepancy in both the as-deposited Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} thin films was observed when grown on graphene or SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate. Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} thin films deposited on the graphene substrate were observed to be grown epitaxially along c-axis and show very smooth surface compared to that on SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate. Based on the experimental results of this study, the initial adsorption sites on graphene substrate during deposition process, which had been discussed theoretically, could be demonstrated empirically. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Large third-order optical nonlinearity in vertically oriented mesoporous silica thin films embedded with Ag nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Min; Liu, Qiming, E-mail: qmliu@whu.edu.cn [Wuhan University, Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Technology (China)

    2016-12-15

    Taking advantage of the channel confinement of mesoporous films to prevent the agglomeration of Ag nanoparticles to achieve large third-order optical nonlinearity in amorphous materials, Ag-loaded composite mesoporous silica film was prepared by the electrochemical deposition method on ITO substrate. Ag ions were firstly transported into the channels of mesoporous film by the diffusion and binding force of channels, which were reduced to nanoparticles by applying suitable voltage. The existence and uniform distribution of Ag nanoparticles ranging in 1–10 nm in the mesoporous silica thin films were exhibited by UV spectrophotometer, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements. The third-order optical nonlinearity induced by Ag nanoparticles was studied by the Z-scan technique. Due to the local field surface plasmon resonance, the maximum third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility of Ag-loaded composite mesoporous silica film is 1.53×10{sup −10} esu, which is 1000 times larger than that of the Ag-contained chalcogenide glasses which showed large nonlinearity in amorphous materials.

  13. Electrical and thermoelectric properties of different compositions of Ge–Se–In thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aly, K.A., E-mail: kamalaly2001@gmail.com [Physics Department, Faculty of Science and Arts Khulais, University of Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Assiut Branch, Assiut (Egypt); Dahshan, A., E-mail: adahshan73@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Port Said University, Port Said (Egypt); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science for Girls, King Khalid University, Abha (Saudi Arabia); Abbady, Gh. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Assuit University, Assuit (Egypt); Saddeek, Y. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Assiut Branch, Assiut (Egypt)

    2016-09-15

    The effect of temperature in the range of 300–450 K and the indium content on the electrical and thermoelectric properties of Ge{sub 20}Se{sub 80−x}In{sub x} (0.0≤x≤24 at%) chalcogenide glassy thin films have been studied. From dc electrical and thermoelectric measurements, it was observed that the activation energies for electrical conductivity (ΔE) and for thermoelectric (ΔE{sub s}) decrease while the conductivity (σ) and Seebeck coefficient (S) increase upon introducing In into the Ge–Se glasses. In contrast to the behavior obtained with Bi or Pb doping, In incorporated in Ge–Se does not lead to a p-to n-type conduction inversion. The power factor (P) which is strongly depends on both of the Seebeck coefficient and the electrical conductivity. According to the obtained results, the Ge{sub 20}Se{sub 80−x}In{sub x} films can be considered potential candidates for incurring high action thermoelectric materials.

  14. DC magnetron sputtering prepared Ag-C thin film anode for thin film lithium ion microbatteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y.; Tu, J.P.; Shi, D.Q.; Huang, X.H.; Wu, H.M.; Yuan, Y.F.; Zhao, X.B.

    2007-01-01

    An Ag-C thin film was prepared by DC magnetron co-sputtering, using pure silver and graphite as the targets. The microstructure and morphology of the deposited thin film were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Electrochemical performances of the Ag-C thin film anode were investigated by means of discharge/charge and cyclic voltammogram (CV) tests in model cells. The electrochemical impedance spectrum (EIS) characteristics and the chemical diffusion coefficient, D Li of the Ag-C thin film electrode at different discharging states were discussed. It was believed that the excellent cycling performance of the Ag-C electrode was ascribed to the good conductivity of silver and the volume stability of the thin film

  15. Thin film metal-oxides

    CERN Document Server

    Ramanathan, Shriram

    2009-01-01

    Presents an account of the fundamental structure-property relations in oxide thin films. This title discusses the functional properties of thin film oxides in the context of applications in the electronics and renewable energy technologies.

  16. Thin films and nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayakumar, S.; Kannan, M.D.; Prasanna, S.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this book is to disseminate the most recent research in Thin Films, Nanomaterials, Corrosion and Metallurgy presented at the International Conference on Advanced Materials (ICAM 2011) held in PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore, India during 12-16 December 2011. The book is a compilation of 113 chapters written by active researchers providing information and critical insights into the recent advancements that have taken place. Important new applications are possible today in the fields of microelectronics, opto-electronics, metallurgy and energy by the application of thin films on solid surfaces. Recent progress in high vacuum technology and new materials has a remarkable effect in thin film quality and cost. This has led to the development of new single or multi-layered thin film devices with diverse applications in a multitude of production areas, such as optics, thermal barrier coatings and wear protections, enhancing service life of tools and to protect materials against thermal and atmospheric influence. On the other hand, thin film process techniques and research are strongly related to the basic research activities in nano technology, an increasingly important field with countless opportunities for applications due to the emergence of new properties at the nanoscale level. Materials and structures that are designed and fabricated at the nano scale level, offer the potential to produce new devices and processes that may enhance efficiencies and reduce costs in many areas, as photovoltaic systems, hydrogen storage, fuel cells and solar thermal systems. In the book, the contributed papers are classified under two sections i) thin films and ii) nanomaterials. The thin film section includes single or multi layer conducting, insulating or semiconducting films synthesized by a wide variety of physical or chemical techniques and characterized or analyzed for different applications. The nanomaterials section deals with novel or exciting materials

  17. Hybrid polymer photonic crystal fiber with integrated chalcogenide glass nanofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markos, Christos; Kubat, Irnis; Bang, Ole

    2014-01-01

    The combination of chalcogenide glasses with polymer photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) is a difficult and challenging task due to their different thermo-mechanical material properties. Here we report the first experimental realization of a hybrid polymer-chalcogenide PCF with integrated As2S3 glass...... nanofilms at the inner surface of the air-channels of a poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA) PCF. The integrated high refractive index glass films introduce distinct antiresonant transmission bands in the 480-900 nm wavelength region. We demonstrate that the ultra-high Kerr nonlinearity of the chalcogenide glass...

  18. Thin film device applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kaur, Inderjeet

    1983-01-01

    Two-dimensional materials created ab initio by the process of condensation of atoms, molecules, or ions, called thin films, have unique properties significantly different from the corresponding bulk materials as a result of their physical dimensions, geometry, nonequilibrium microstructure, and metallurgy. Further, these characteristic features of thin films can be drasti­ cally modified and tailored to obtain the desired and required physical characteristics. These features form the basis of development of a host of extraordinary active and passive thin film device applications in the last two decades. On the one extreme, these applications are in the submicron dimensions in such areas as very large scale integration (VLSI), Josephson junction quantum interference devices, magnetic bubbles, and integrated optics. On the other extreme, large-area thin films are being used as selective coatings for solar thermal conversion, solar cells for photovoltaic conver­ sion, and protection and passivating layers. Ind...

  19. Biomimetic thin film synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graff, G.L.; Campbell, A.A.; Gordon, N.R.

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of this program is to develop a new process for forming thin film coatings and to demonstrate that the biomimetic thin film technology developed at PNL is useful for industrial applications. In the biomimetic process, mineral deposition from aqueous solution is controlled by organic functional groups attached to the underlying substrate surface. The coatings process is simple, benign, inexpensive, energy efficient, and particularly suited for temperature sensitive substrate materials (such as polymers). In addition, biomimetic thin films can be deposited uniformly on complex shaped and porous substrates providing a unique capability over more traditional line-of-sight methods.

  20. Thin Film Photovoltaic Partnership Project | Photovoltaic Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thin Film Photovoltaic Partnership Project Thin Film Photovoltaic Partnership Project NREL's Thin Film Photovoltaic (PV) Partnership Project led R&D on emerging thin-film solar technologies in the United States from 1994 to 2009. The project made many advances in thin-film PV technologies that allowed

  1. Thin Film & Deposition Systems (Windows)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Coating Lab: Contains chambers for growing thin film window coatings. Plasma Applications Coating Lab: Contains chambers for growing thin film window coatings. Solar...

  2. Characterization of organic thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Ulman, Abraham; Evans, Charles A

    2009-01-01

    Thin films based upon organic materials are at the heart of much of the revolution in modern technology, from advanced electronics, to optics to sensors to biomedical engineering. This volume in the Materials Characterization series introduces the major common types of analysis used in characterizing of thin films and the various appropriate characterization technologies for each. Materials such as Langmuir-Blodgett films and self-assembled monolayers are first introduced, followed by analysis of surface properties and the various characterization technologies used for such. Readers will find detailed information on: -Various spectroscopic approaches to characterization of organic thin films, including infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy -X-Ray diffraction techniques, High Resolution EELS studies, and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy -Concise Summaries of major characterization technologies for organic thin films, including Auger Electron Spectroscopy, Dynamic Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, and Tra...

  3. Fabrication of high quality Cu2SnS3 thin film solar cell with 1.12% power conversion efficiency obtain by low cost environment friendly sol-gel technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, J. J.; Joshi, U. S.

    2018-03-01

    Cu2SnS3 (CTS) is an emerging ternery chalcogenide material with great potential application in thin film solar cells. We present here high quality Cu2SnS3 thin films using a facile spin coating method. The as deposited films of CTS were sulphurized in a graphite box using tubular furnace at 520 °C for 60 min at the rate of 2.83 °C min-1 in argon atmosphere. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy studies confirm tetragonal phase and absence of any secondary phase in sulphurized CTS thin films. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) demonstrates that Cu and Sn are in +1 and +4 oxidation state respectively. Surface morphology of CTS films were analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope (AFM), which revealed a smooth surface with roughness (RMS) of 6.32 nm for sulphurized CTS film. Hall measurements confirmed p-type conductivity with hole concentartion of sulphurized CTS thin film is of 6.5348 × 1020 cm-3. UV-vis spectra revealed a direct energy band gap varies from 1.45 eV to 1.01 eV for as-deposited and sulphurized CTS thin film respectively. Such band gap values are optimum for semiconductor material as an absorber layer of thin film solar cell. The CTS thin film solar cell had following structure: SLG/FTO/ZnO/CTS/Al with short circuit current density of (Jsc) of 11.6 mA cm-2, open circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.276 V, active area of 0.16 cm2, fill factor (FF) of 35% and power conversion efficiency of 1.12% under AM 1.5 (100 mW cm-2) illumination in simulated standard test conditions.

  4. Self-Limited Growth in Pentacene Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachmajer, Stefan; Jones, Andrew O F; Truger, Magdalena; Röthel, Christian; Salzmann, Ingo; Werzer, Oliver; Resel, Roland

    2017-04-05

    Pentacene is one of the most studied organic semiconducting materials. While many aspects of the film formation have already been identified in very thin films, this study provides new insight into the transition from the metastable thin-film phase to bulk phase polymorphs. This study focuses on the growth behavior of pentacene within thin films as a function of film thickness ranging from 20 to 300 nm. By employing various X-ray diffraction methods, combined with supporting atomic force microscopy investigations, one crystalline orientation for the thin-film phase is observed, while three differently tilted bulk phase orientations are found. First, bulk phase crystallites grow with their 00L planes parallel to the substrate surface; second, however, crystallites tilted by 0.75° with respect to the substrate are found, which clearly dominate the former in ratio; third, a different bulk phase polymorph with crystallites tilted by 21° is found. The transition from the thin-film phase to the bulk phase is rationalized by the nucleation of the latter at crystal facets of the thin-film-phase crystallites. This leads to a self-limiting growth of the thin-film phase and explains the thickness-dependent phase behavior observed in pentacene thin films, showing that a large amount of material is present in the bulk phase much earlier during the film growth than previously thought.

  5. Thin films for precision optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, J.F.; Maurici, N.; Castro, J.C. de

    1983-01-01

    The technology of producing dielectric and/or metallic thin films for high precision optical components is discussed. Computer programs were developed in order to calculate and register, graphically, reflectance and transmittance spectra of multi-layer films. The technology of vacuum evaporation of several materials was implemented in our thin-films laboratory; various films for optics were then developed. The possibility of first calculate film characteristics and then produce the film is of great advantage since it reduces the time required to produce a new type of film and also reduces the cost of the project. (C.L.B.) [pt

  6. Analysis of Hard Thin Film Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Dashen

    1998-01-01

    MSFC is interested in developing hard thin film coating for bearings. The wearing of the bearing is an important problem for space flight engine. Hard thin film coating can drastically improve the surface of the bearing and improve the wear-endurance of the bearing. However, many fundamental problems in surface physics, plasma deposition, etc, need further research. The approach is using electron cyclotron resonance chemical vapor deposition (ECRCVD) to deposit hard thin film an stainless steel bearing. The thin films in consideration include SiC, SiN and other materials. An ECRCVD deposition system is being assembled at MSFC.

  7. Thin-film solar cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metselaar, J.W.; Kuznetsov, V.I.

    1998-01-01

    The invention relates to a thin-film solar cell provided with at least one p-i-n junction comprising at least one p-i junction which is at an angle alpha with that surface of the thin-film solar cell which collects light during operation and at least one i-n junction which is at an angle beta with

  8. Physical properties of SnS thin films grown by hot wall deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gremenok, V.; Ivanov, V.; Bashkirov, S.; Unuchak, D.; Lazenka, V.; Bente, K.; Tashlykov, I.; Turovets, A.

    2010-01-01

    Full text : Recently, considerable effort has been invested to gain a better and deeper knowledge of structural and physical properties of metal chalcogenide semiconductors because of their potential application in electrical and photonic devices. Among them, tin sulphide (SnS) has attracted attention because of band gap of 1.3 eV and an absorption coefficient greater than 10 4 cm - 1. Additionally, by using tin sulfide compounds for photovoltaic devices, the production costs are decreased, because these materials are cheap and abundant in nature. For the sythesis of SnS thin films by hot wall deposition, SnS ingots were used as the source materials synthesized from high purity elements (99.999 percent). The thin films were grown onto glass at substrate temperatures between 220 and 380 degrees Celsium. The thickness of the films was in the range of 1.0 - 2.5 μm. The crystal structure and crystalline phases of the materials were studied by XRD using a Siemens D-5000 diffractometer with CuK α (λ = 1.5418 A) radiation. In order to consider instrumental error, the samples were coated by Si powder suspended in acetone. The composition and surface morphology of thin films were investigated by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) using a CAMECA SX-100, a scanning electron microscope JEOL 6400 and an atomic force microscope (AFM, Model: NT 206), respectively. Depth profiling was performed by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) using a Perkin Elmer Physical Electronics 590. The electrical resistivity was studied by van der Pauw four-probe technique using silver paste contact. The optical transmittance was carried out using a Varian Cary 50 UV - VIS spectrophotometer in the range 500 - 2000 nm. The as-grown films exhibited a composition with a Sn/S at. percent ratio of 1.06. The AES depth profiles revealed relatively uniform composition through the film thickness. The XRD analysis of the SnS films showed that they were monophase (JCPDS 39-0354), polycrystalline with

  9. Thin-Film Material Science and Processing | Materials Science | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thin-Film Material Science and Processing Thin-Film Material Science and Processing Photo of a , a prime example of this research is thin-film photovoltaics (PV). Thin films are important because cadmium telluride thin film, showing from top to bottom: glass, transparent conducting oxide (thin layer

  10. Nanocrystal thin film fabrication methods and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Cherie R.; Kim, David K.; Choi, Ji-Hyuk; Lai, Yuming

    2018-01-09

    Nanocrystal thin film devices and methods for fabricating nanocrystal thin film devices are disclosed. The nanocrystal thin films are diffused with a dopant such as Indium, Potassium, Tin, etc. to reduce surface states. The thin film devices may be exposed to air during a portion of the fabrication. This enables fabrication of nanocrystal-based devices using a wider range of techniques such as photolithography and photolithographic patterning in an air environment.

  11. Synthesis and characterisation of Cu{sub 2}ZnSnSe{sub 4} thin films prepared via a vacuum evaporation-based route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volobujeva, O., E-mail: v.olga@staff.ttu.ee; Bereznev, S.; Raudoja, J.; Otto, K.; Pilvet, M.; Mellikov, E.

    2013-05-01

    Different sequentially stacked binary chalcogenide layers (CuSe, ZnSe, and SnSe) deposited by vacuum evaporation onto molybdenum covered soda-lime glass substrates were used as precursors to form Cu{sub 2}ZnSnSe{sub 4} films. The influence of the stacked binary layer sequence, substrate temperature, both the duration and speed of deposition and the post deposition treatment atmosphere on the structural and the morphological parameters of the Cu{sub 2}ZnSnSe{sub 4} thin films was studied. Our results indicate the possibility of replacing the Se{sub 2} selenisation with a thermal treatment in an SnSe{sub 2} atmosphere to avoid the selenisation of the Mo substrate and MoSe{sub 2} formation. This SnSe{sub 2} treatment forms p-type Cu{sub 2}ZnSnSe{sub 4} films with an optical band-gap of 1.14 eV and a solar cell structure with an efficiency of up to 3%. - Highlights: ► Cu{sub 2}ZnSnSe{sub 4} thin films were grown using binary precursors and selenisation. ► Composition and morphology were studied in dependence of selenisation atmosphere. ► The use of SnSe{sub 2} selenisation allows to avoid Mo substrate selenisation. ► The high quality of films is indicated by the value of their E{sub g} = 1.14 eV. ► Cu{sub 2}ZnSnSe{sub 4} thin films were in p-type conductivity and were realized as solar cells.

  12. Zinc Antimonides and Copper Chalcogenides as Thermoelectric Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blichfeld, Anders Bank

    2017-01-01

    , and linked with the physical properties. The materials crystallography approach, relating physical properties with a structural understating, has been applied in this thesis for two highly interesting materials systems, zinc antimonides and copper chalcogenides. Both of these systems are high profiled....... The preparation parameters used, have a large influence on the homogeneity of the products, and new electric phases were identified and studied for ZnSb. For the samples prepared by physical vapor deposition, the growth takes place under non-thermodynamic conditions, making it possible to access kinetically...... intensity X-ray radiation at large international facilities, making it possible to measure pair distribution function data directly on thin-film samples in a normal incident setup, termed tfPDF. The tfPDF method was demonstrated on the iron antimony system. tfPDF was developed even further to include...

  13. On the thickness dependence of both the optical band gap and reversible photodarkening in amorphous Ge-Se films.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kutálek, P.; Tichý, Ladislav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 619, 30 November (2016), s. 336-341 ISSN 0040-6090 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : amorphous chalcogenides * thin films * optical band gap Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.879, year: 2016

  14. Characterizations of photoconductivity of graphene oxide thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiang-Kuo Chang-Jian

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Characterizations of photoresponse of a graphene oxide (GO thin film to a near infrared laser light were studied. Results showed the photocurrent in the GO thin film was cathodic, always flowing in an opposite direction to the initial current generated by the preset bias voltage that shows a fundamental discrepancy from the photocurrent in the reduced graphene oxide thin film. Light illumination on the GO thin film thus results in more free electrons that offset the initial current. By examining GO thin films reduced at different temperatures, the critical temperature for reversing the photocurrent from cathodic to anodic was found around 187°C. The dynamic photoresponse for the GO thin film was further characterized through the response time constants within the laser on and off durations, denoted as τon and τoff, respectively. τon for the GO thin film was comparable to the other carbon-based thin films such as carbon nanotubes and graphenes. τoff was, however, much larger than that of the other's. This discrepancy was attributable to the retardation of exciton recombination rate thanks to the existing oxygen functional groups and defects in the GO thin films.

  15. Development of neutron diffuse scattering analysis code by thin film and multilayer film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soyama, Kazuhiko

    2004-01-01

    To research surface structure of thin film and multilayer film by neutron, a neutron diffuse scattering analysis code using DWBA (Distorted-Wave Bron Approximation) principle was developed. Subjects using this code contain the surface and interface properties of solid/solid, solid/liquid, liquid/liquid and gas/liquid, and metal, magnetism and polymer thin film and biomembran. The roughness of surface and interface of substance shows fractal self-similarity and its analytical model is based on DWBA theory by Sinha. The surface and interface properties by diffuse scattering are investigated on the basis of the theoretical model. The calculation values are proved to be agreed with the experimental values. On neutron diffuse scattering by thin film, roughness of surface of thin film, correlation function, neutron propagation by thin film, diffuse scattering by DWBA theory, measurement model, SDIFFF (neutron diffuse scattering analysis program by thin film) and simulation results are explained. On neutron diffuse scattering by multilayer film, roughness of multilayer film, principle of diffuse scattering, measurement method and simulation examples by MDIFF (neutron diffuse scattering analysis program by multilayer film) are explained. (S.Y.)To research surface structure of thin film and multilayer film by neutron, a neutron diffuse scattering analysis code using DWBA (Distorted-Wave Bron Approximation) principle was developed. Subjects using this code contain the surface and interface properties of solid/solid, solid/liquid, liquid/liquid and gas/liquid, and metal, magnetism and polymer thin film and biomembran. The roughness of surface and interface of substance shows fractal self-similarity and its analytical model is based on DWBA theory by Sinha. The surface and interface properties by diffuse scattering are investigated on the basis of the theoretical model. The calculation values are proved to be agreed with the experimental values. On neutron diffuse scattering

  16. Thin film tritium dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Paul R.

    1976-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for tritium dosimetry. A dosimeter comprising a thin film of a material having relatively sensitive RITAC-RITAP dosimetry properties is exposed to radiation from tritium, and after the dosimeter has been removed from the source of the radiation, the low energy electron dose deposited in the thin film is determined by radiation-induced, thermally-activated polarization dosimetry techniques.

  17. Thin films for emerging applications v.16

    CERN Document Server

    Francombe, Maurice H

    1992-01-01

    Following in the long-standing tradition of excellence established by this serial, this volume provides a focused look at contemporary applications. High Tc superconducting thin films are discussed in terms of ion beam and sputtering deposition, vacuum evaporation, laser ablation, MOCVD, and other deposition processes in addition to their ultimate applications. Detailed treatment is also given to permanent magnet thin films, lateral diffusion and electromigration in metallic thin films, and fracture and cracking phenomena in thin films adhering to high-elongation substrates.

  18. Interfaces and thin films physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Equer, B.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the Interfaces and Thin Film Physics laboratory (Polytechnic School France) is presented. The research program is focused on the thin films and on the interfaces of the amorphous semiconductor materials: silicon and silicon germanium, silicon-carbon and silicon-nitrogen alloys. In particular, the following topics are discussed: the basic processes and the kinetics of the reactive gas deposition, the amorphous materials manufacturing, the physico-chemical characterization of thin films and interfaces and the electron transport in amorphous semiconductors. The construction and optimization of experimental devices, as well as the activities concerning instrumentation, are also described [fr

  19. Buckling of Thin Films in Nano-Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li L.A.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of thin film buckling is important for life prediction of MEMS device which are damaged mainly by the delamination and buckling of thin films. In this paper the mechanical and thermal properties of compressed thin film titanium films with 150 nm thickness deposited on an organic glass substrate under mechanical and thermal loads were measured and characterized. In order to simulate the thin films which subjected to compound loads and the buckle modes the external uniaxial compression and thermal loading were subjected to the specimen by the symmetric loading device and the electrical film in this experiment. The temperature of the thin film deposited on substrate was measured using thermoelectric couple. The range of temperature accords with the temperature range of the MEMS. It is found that the size and number of the delamination and buckling of the film are depended upon the pre-fixed mechanical loading and thermal temperature. The thermal transient conduction and thermal stability of the film and substrate was studied with finite element method.

  20. Operating method of amorphous thin film semiconductor element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Koshiro; Ono, Masaharu; Hanabusa, Akira; Osawa, Michio; Arita, Takashi

    1988-05-31

    The existing technologies concerning amorphous thin film semiconductor elements are the technologies concerning the formation of either a thin film transistor or an amorphous Si solar cell on a substrate. In order to drive a thin film transistor for electronic equipment control by the output power of an amorphous Si solar cell, it has been obliged to drive the transistor weth an amorphous solar cell which was formed on a substrate different from that for the transistor. Accordingly, the space for the amorphous solar cell, which was formed on the different substrate, was additionally needed on the substrate for the thin film transistor. In order to solve the above problem, this invention proposes an operating method of an amorphous thin film semiconductor element that after forming an amorphous Si solar cell through lamination on the insulation coating film which covers the thin film transistor formed on the substrate, the thin film transistor is driven by the output power of this solar cell. The invention eliminates the above superfluous space and reduces the size of the amorphous thin film semiconductor element including the electric source. (3 figs)

  1. Temperature dependence of LRE-HRE-TM thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zuoyi; Cheng, Xiaomin; Lin, Gengqi; Li, Zhen; Huang, Zhixin; Jin, Fang; Wang, Xianran; Yang, Xiaofei

    2003-04-01

    Temperature dependence of the properties of RE-TM thin films is very important for MO recording. In this paper, we studied the temperature dependence of the magnetic and magneto-optical properties of the amorphous LRE-HRE-TM single layer thin films and LRE-HRE-TM/HRE-TM couple-bilayered thin films. For LRE-HRE-TM single layer thin films, the temperature dependence of the magnetization was investigated by using the mean field theory. The experimental and theoretical results matched very well. With the LRE substitution in HRE-TM thin film, the compensation temperature Tcomp decreased and the curie temperature Tc remained unchanged. Kerr rotation angle became larger and the saturation magnetization Ms at room temperature increased. For LRE-HRE-TM/HRE-TM couple-bilayered thin films, comparisons of the temperature dependences of the coercivities and Kerr rotation angles were made between isolated sublayers and couple-bilayered thin film.

  2. Influence of the additive Ag for crystallization of amorphous Ge-Sb-Te thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ki-Ho; Kim, Sung-Won; Seo, Jae-Hee [Faculty of Applied Chemical Engineering, Chonnam National University, 300 Yongbong-dong, Kwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyun-Yong, E-mail: hyleee@chonnam.ac.k [Faculty of Applied Chemical Engineering, Chonnam National University, 300 Yongbong-dong, Kwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-29

    We have investigated the optical and amorphous-to-crystalline transition properties in four-types of chalcogenide thin films; Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5}, Ge{sub 8}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 11}, Ag-Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} and Ag-Ge{sub 8}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 11}. Crystallization was caused by nano-pulse illumination ({lambda} = 658 nm) with power (P) of 1-17 mW and pulse duration (t) of 10-460 ns, and the morphologies of crystallized spots were observed by SEM and microscope. It was found that the crystallized spot nearby linearly increases in size with increasing the illuminating energy (E = P {center_dot} t) and eventually ablated out by over illumination. Changes in the optical transmittance of as-deposited and annealed films were measured using a UV-vis-IR spectrophotometer. In addition, a speed of amorphous-to-crystalline transition was evaluated by detecting the reflection response signals for the nano-pulse scanning. Conclusively, the Ge{sub 8}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 11} film has a faster crystallization speed than the Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} film despite its higher crystallization temperature. The crystallization speed was largely improved by adding Ag in Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} film but not in Ge{sub 8}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 11} film. To explain these results, we considered a heat confinement by electron hopping.

  3. Application-related properties of giant magnetostrictive thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, S.H.; Kim, H.J.; Na, S.M.; Suh, S.J.

    2002-01-01

    In an effort to facilitate the utilization of giant magnetostrictive thin films in microdevices, application-related properties of these thin films, which include induced anisotropy, residual stress and corrosion properties, are investigated. A large induced anisotropy with an energy of 6x10 4 J/m 3 is formed in field-sputtered amorphous Sm-Fe-B thin films, resulting in a large magnetostriction anisotropy. Two components of residual stress, intrinsic compressive stress and tensile stress due to the difference of the thermal expansion coefficients between the substrate and thin film, are identified. The variation of residual stress with fabrication parameter and annealing temperature, and its influence on mechanical bending and magnetic properties are examined. Better corrosion properties are observed in Sm-Fe thin films than in Tb-Fe. Corrosion properties of Tb-Fe thin films, however, are much improved with the introduction of nitrogen to the thin films without deteriorating magnetostrictive properties

  4. Preparation of LiMn2O4 cathode thin films for thin film lithium secondary batteries by a mist CVD process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadanaga, Kiyoharu; Yamaguchi, Akihiro; Sakuda, Atsushi; Hayashi, Akitoshi; Tatsumisago, Masahiro; Duran, Alicia; Aparacio, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • LiMn 2 O 4 thin films were prepared by using the mist CVD process. • An aqueous solution of lithium and manganese acetates is used for the precursor solution. • The cell with the LiMn 2 O 4 thin films exhibited a capacity of about 80 mAh/g. • The cell showed good cycling performance during 10 cycles. - Abstract: LiMn 2 O 4 cathode thin films for thin film lithium secondary batteries were prepared by using so-called the “mist CVD process”, employing an aqueous solution of lithium acetate and manganese acetate, as the source of Li and Mn, respectively. The aqueous solution of starting materials was ultrasonically atomized to form mist particles, and mists were transferred by nitrogen gas to silica glass substrate to form thin films. FE-SEM observation revealed that thin films obtained by this process were dense and smooth, and thin films with a thickness of about 750 nm were obtained. The electrochemical cell with the thin films obtained by sintering at 700 °C exhibited a capacity of about 80 mAh/g, and the cell showed good cycling performance during 10 cycles

  5. P-type CuxS thin films: Integration in a thin film transistor structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes de Carvalho, C.; Parreira, P.; Lavareda, G.; Brogueira, P.; Amaral, A.

    2013-01-01

    Cu x S thin films, 80 nm thick, are deposited by vacuum thermal evaporation of sulfur-rich powder mixture, Cu 2 S:S (50:50 wt.%) with no intentional heating of the substrate. The process of deposition occurs at very low deposition rates (0.1–0.3 nm/s) to avoid the formation of Cu or S-rich films. The evolution of Cu x S films surface properties (morphology/roughness) under post deposition mild annealing in air at 270 °C and their integration in a thin film transistor (TFT) are the main objectives of this study. Accordingly, Scanning Electron Microscopy studies show Cu x S films with different surface morphologies, depending on the post deposition annealing conditions. For the shortest annealing time, the Cu x S films look to be constructed of grains with large dimension at the surface (approximately 100 nm) and consequently, irregular shape. For the longest annealing time, films with a fine-grained surface are found, with some randomly distributed large particles bound to this fine-grained surface. Atomic Force Microscopy results indicate an increase of the root-mean-square roughness of Cu x S surface with annealing time, from 13.6 up to 37.4 nm, for 255 and 345 s, respectively. The preliminary integration of Cu x S films in a TFT bottom-gate type structure allowed the study of the feasibility and compatibility of this material with the remaining stages of a TFT fabrication as well as the determination of the p-type characteristic of the Cu x S material. - Highlights: • Surface properties of annealed Cu x S films. • Variation of conductivity with annealing temperatures of Cu x S films. • Application of evaporated Cu x S films in a thin film transistor (TFT) structure. • Determination of Cu x S p-type characteristic from TFT behaviour

  6. Semiconductor-nanocrystal/conjugated polymer thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Dittmer, Janke J.; Huynh, Wendy U.; Milliron, Delia

    2014-06-17

    The invention described herein provides for thin films and methods of making comprising inorganic semiconductor-nanocrystals dispersed in semiconducting-polymers in high loading amounts. The invention also describes photovoltaic devices incorporating the thin films.

  7. Thin liquid films dewetting and polymer flow

    CERN Document Server

    Blossey, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    This book is a treatise on the thermodynamic and dynamic properties of thin liquid films at solid surfaces and, in particular, their rupture instabilities. For the quantitative study of these phenomena, polymer thin films haven proven to be an invaluable experimental model system.   What is it that makes thin film instabilities special and interesting, warranting a whole book? There are several answers to this. Firstly, thin polymeric films have an important range of applications, and with the increase in the number of technologies available to produce and to study them, this range is likely to expand. An understanding of their instabilities is therefore of practical relevance for the design of such films.   Secondly, thin liquid films are an interdisciplinary research topic. Interdisciplinary research is surely not an end to itself, but in this case it leads to a fairly heterogeneous community of theoretical and experimental physicists, engineers, physical chemists, mathematicians and others working on the...

  8. Self-assembly of dodecaphenyl POSS thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handke, Bartosz; Klita, Łukasz; Niemiec, Wiktor

    2017-12-01

    The self-assembly abilities of Dodecaphenyl Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane thin films on Si(1 0 0) surfaces were studied. Due to their thermal properties - relatively low sublimation temperature and preservation of molecular structure - cage type silsesquioxanes are ideal material for the preparation of a thin films by Physical Vapor Deposition. The Ultra-High Vacuum environment and the deposition precision of the PVD method enable the study of early stages of thin film growth and its molecular organization. X-ray Reflectivity and Atomic Force Microscopy measurements allow to pursuit size-effects in the structure of thin films with thickness ranges from less than a single molecular layer up to several tens of layers. Thermal treatment of the thin films triggered phase change: from a poorly ordered polycrystalline film into a well-ordered multilayer structure. Self-assembly of the layers is the effect of the π-stacking of phenyl rings, which force molecules to arrange in a superlattice, forming stacks of alternating organic-inorganic layers.

  9. Organic thin films and surfaces directions for the nineties

    CERN Document Server

    Ulman, Abraham

    1995-01-01

    Physics of Thin Films has been one of the longest running continuing series in thin film science consisting of 20 volumes since 1963. The series contains some of the highest quality studies of the properties ofvarious thin films materials and systems.In order to be able to reflect the development of todays science and to cover all modern aspects of thin films, the series, beginning with Volume 20, will move beyond the basic physics of thin films. It will address the most important aspects of both inorganic and organic thin films, in both their theoretical as well as technological aspects. Ther

  10. Novel chemical analysis for thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usui, Toshio; Kamei, Masayuki; Aoki, Yuji; Morishita, Tadataka; Tanaka, Shoji

    1991-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy and total-reflection-angle X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-TRAXS) was applied for fluorescence X-ray analysis of 50A- and 125A-thick Au thin films on Si(100). The intensity of the AuM line (2.15 keV) emitted from the Au thin films varied as a function of the take-off angle (θ t ) with respect to the film surface; the intensity of AuM line from the 125A-thick Au thin film was 1.5 times as large as that of SiK α line (1.74 keV) emitted from the Si substrate when θ t = 0deg-3deg, in the vicinity of a critical angle for total external reflection of the AuM line at Si (0.81deg). In addition, the intensity of the AuM line emitted from the 50A-thick Au thin film was also sufficiently strong for chemical analysis. (author)

  11. Nanostructured thin film coatings with different strengthening effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panfilov Yury

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of articles on strengthening thin film coatings were analyzed and a lot of unusual strengthening effects, such as super high hardness and plasticity simultaneously, ultra low friction coefficient, high wear-resistance, curve rigidity increasing of drills with small diameter, associated with process formation of nanostructured coatings by the different thin film deposition methods were detected. Vacuum coater with RF magnetron sputtering system and ion-beam source and arc evaporator for nanostructured thin film coating manufacture are represented. Diamond Like Carbon and MoS2 thin film coatings, Ti, Al, Nb, Cr, nitride, carbide, and carbo-nitride thin film materials are described as strengthening coatings.

  12. Thin Film Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zweibel, K.

    1998-11-19

    The motivation to develop thin film technologies dates back to the inception of photovoltaics. It is an idea based on achieving truly low-cost photovoltaics appropriate for mass production and energy significant markets. The key to the idea is the use of pennies worth of active materials. Since sunlight carries relatively little energy in comparison with combustion-based energy sources, photovoltaic (PV) modules must be cheap to produce energy that can be competitive. Thin films are presumed to be the answer to that low-cost requirement. But how cheap do they have to be? The following is an oversimplified analysis that allows some insight into this question.

  13. Thin films: Past, present, future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zweibel, K

    1995-04-01

    This report describes the characteristics of the thin film photovoltaic modules necessary for an acceptable rate of return for rural areas and underdeveloped countries. The topics of the paper include a development of goals of cost and performance for an acceptable PV system, a review of current technologies for meeting these goals, issues and opportunities in thin film technologies.

  14. Non-linear optics of nano-scale pentacene thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahia, I. S.; Alfaify, S.; Jilani, Asim; Abdel-wahab, M. Sh.; Al-Ghamdi, Attieh A.; Abutalib, M. M.; Al-Bassam, A.; El-Naggar, A. M.

    2016-07-01

    We have found the new ways to investigate the linear/non-linear optical properties of nanostructure pentacene thin film deposited by thermal evaporation technique. Pentacene is the key material in organic semiconductor technology. The existence of nano-structured thin film was confirmed by atomic force microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The wavelength-dependent transmittance and reflectance were calculated to observe the optical behavior of the pentacene thin film. It has been observed the anomalous dispersion at wavelength λ 800. The non-linear refractive index of the deposited films was investigated. The linear optical susceptibility of pentacene thin film was calculated, and we observed the non-linear optical susceptibility of pentacene thin film at about 6 × 10-13 esu. The advantage of this work is to use of spectroscopic method to calculate the liner and non-liner optical response of pentacene thin films rather than expensive Z-scan. The calculated optical behavior of the pentacene thin films could be used in the organic thin films base advanced optoelectronic devices such as telecommunications devices.

  15. Oxidation of ruthenium thin films using atomic oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCoy, A.P.; Bogan, J.; Brady, A.; Hughes, G.

    2015-12-31

    In this study, the use of atomic oxygen to oxidise ruthenium thin films is assessed. Atomic layer deposited (ALD) ruthenium thin films (~ 3 nm) were exposed to varying amounts of atomic oxygen and the results were compared to the impact of exposures to molecular oxygen. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies reveal substantial oxidation of metallic ruthenium films to RuO{sub 2} at exposures as low as ~ 10{sup 2} L at 575 K when atomic oxygen was used. Higher exposures of molecular oxygen resulted in no metal oxidation highlighting the benefits of using atomic oxygen to form RuO{sub 2}. Additionally, the partial oxidation of these ruthenium films occurred at temperatures as low as 293 K (room temperature) in an atomic oxygen environment. - Highlights: • X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of the oxidation of Ru thin films • Oxidation of Ru thin films using atomic oxygen • Comparison between atomic oxygen and molecular oxygen treatments on Ru thin films • Fully oxidised RuO{sub 2} thin films formed with low exposures to atomic oxygen.

  16. Thin Films in the Photovoltaic Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger-Waldau, A.

    2008-03-01

    In the past years, the yearly world market growth rate for Photovoltaics was an average of more than 40%, which makes it one of the fastest growing industries at present. Business analysts predict the market volume to increase to 40 billion euros in 2010 and expect rising profit margins and lower prices for consumers at the same time. Today PV is still dominated by wafer based Crystalline Silicon Technology as the 'working horse' in the global market, but thin films are gaining market shares. For 2007 around 12% are expected. The current silicon shortage and high demand has kept prices higher than anticipated from the learning curve experience and has widened the windows of opportunities for thin film solar modules. Current production capacity estimates for thin films vary between 3 and 6 GW in 2010, representing a 20% market share for these technologies. Despite the higher growth rates for thin film technologies compared with the industry average, Thin Film Photovoltaic Technologies are still facing a number of challenges to maintain this growth and increase market shares. The four main topics which were discussed during the workshop were: Potential for cost reduction; Standardization; Recycling; Performance over the lifetime.

  17. Nanostructured thin films and coatings functional properties

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Sam

    2010-01-01

    The second volume in ""The Handbook of Nanostructured Thin Films and Coatings"" set, this book focuses on functional properties, including optical, electronic, and electrical properties, as well as related devices and applications. It explores the large-scale fabrication of functional thin films with nanoarchitecture via chemical routes, the fabrication and characterization of SiC nanostructured/nanocomposite films, and low-dimensional nanocomposite fabrication and applications. The book also presents the properties of sol-gel-derived nanostructured thin films as well as silicon nanocrystals e

  18. Phase change and optical band gap behavior of Se0.8S0.2 chalcogenide glass films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Rafea, M.; Farid, Huda

    2009-01-01

    Se 0.8 S 0.2 chalcogenide glass films have been prepared by thermal vacuum evaporation technique with thickness 583 nm. Annealing process at T ≥ 333 K crystallizes the films and nanostructured films are formed. The crystallite size was increased to 24 nm as the annealing temperature increased to 373 K. Orthorhombic crystalline system was identified for the annealed films. SEM micrographs show that films consist of two parallel surfaces and the thickness was determined by cross section imaging. The optical transmittance is characterized by interference patterns as a result of these two parallel surfaces, besides their average value at longer wavelength decreases as a result of annealing process. The band gap, E g is red shifted due to crystallization by annealing. As the phase of the films changes from amorphous to crystalline in the annealing temperature range 333-363 K, a non sharp change of the band gap (E g ) is observed. This change was explained by Brus's model of the energy gap confinement behavior of the nanostructured films. The optical refractive index increases suddenly when the system starts to be crystallized by annealing

  19. Chalcogenide Glass Radiation Sensor; Materials Development, Design and Device Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitkova, Maria; Butt, Darryl; Kozicki, Michael; Barnaby, Hugo

    2013-04-30

    For many decades, various radiation detecting material have been extensively researched, to find a better material or mechanism for radiation sensing. Recently, there is a growing need for a smaller and effective material or device that can perform similar functions of bulkier Geiger counters and other measurement options, which fail the requirement for easy, cheap and accurate radiation dose measurement. Here arises the use of thin film chalcogenide glass, which has unique properties of high thermal stability along with high sensitivity towards short wavelength radiation. The unique properties of chalcogenide glasses are attributed to the lone pair p-shell electrons, which provide some distinctive optical properties when compared to crystalline material. These qualities are derived from the energy band diagram and the presence of localized states in the band gap. Chalcogenide glasses have band tail states and localized states, along with the two band states. These extra states are primarily due to the lone pair electrons as well as the amorphous structure of the glasses. The localized states between the conductance band (CB) and valence band (VB) are primarily due to the presence of the lone pair electrons, while the band tail states are attributed to the Van der Waal's forces between layers of atoms [1]. Localized states are trap locations within the band gap where electrons from the valence band can hop into, in their path towards the conduction band. Tail states on the other hand are locations near the band gap edges and are known as Urbach tail states (Eu). These states are occupied with many electrons that can participate in the various transformations due to interaction with photons. According to Y. Utsugi et. al.[2], the electron-phonon interactions are responsible for the generation of the Urbach tails. These states are responsible for setting the absorption edge for these glasses and photons with energy near the band gap affect these states. We have

  20. Intrinsically conductive polymer thin film piezoresistors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillemose, Michael; Spieser, Martin; Christiansen, N.O.

    2008-01-01

    We report on the piezoresistive effect in the intrinsically conductive polymer, polyaniline. A process recipe for indirect patterning of thin film polyaniline has been developed. Using a specially designed chip, the polyaniline thin films have been characterised with respect to resistivity...

  1. Thermal conductivity model for nanoporous thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Congliang; Zhao, Xinpeng; Regner, Keith; Yang, Ronggui

    2018-03-01

    Nanoporous thin films have attracted great interest because of their extremely low thermal conductivity and potential applications in thin thermal insulators and thermoelectrics. Although there are some numerical and experimental studies about the thermal conductivity of nanoporous thin films, a simplified model is still needed to provide a straightforward prediction. In this paper, by including the phonon scattering lifetimes due to film thickness boundary scattering, nanopore scattering and the frequency-dependent intrinsic phonon-phonon scattering, a fitting-parameter-free model based on the kinetic theory of phonon transport is developed to predict both the in-plane and the cross-plane thermal conductivities of nanoporous thin films. With input parameters such as the lattice constants, thermal conductivity, and the group velocity of acoustic phonons of bulk silicon, our model shows a good agreement with available experimental and numerical results of nanoporous silicon thin films. It illustrates that the size effect of film thickness boundary scattering not only depends on the film thickness but also on the size of nanopores, and a larger nanopore leads to a stronger size effect of the film thickness. Our model also reveals that there are different optimal structures for getting the lowest in-plane and cross-plane thermal conductivities.

  2. Reversible migration of silver on memorized pathways in Ag-Ge40S60 films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Orava

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Reversible and reproducible formation and dissolution of silver conductive filaments are studied in Ag-photodoped thin-film Ge40S60 subjected to electric fields. A tip-planar geometry is employed, where a conductive-atomic-force microscopy tip is the tip electrode and a silver patch is the planar electrode. We highlight an inherent “memory” effect in the amorphous chalcogenide solid-state electrolyte, in which particular silver-ion migration pathways are preserved “memorized” during writing and erasing cycles. The “memorized” pathways reflect structural changes in the photodoped chalcogenide film. Structural changes due to silver photodoping, and electrically-induced structural changes arising from silver migration, are elucidated using Raman spectroscopy. Conductive filament formation, dissolution, and electron (reduction efficiency in a lateral device geometry are related to operation of the nano-ionic Programmable Metallization Cell memory and to newly emerging chalcogenide-based lateral geometry MEMS technologies. The methods in this work can also be used for qualitative multi-parameter sampling of metal/amorphous-chalcogenide combinations, characterizing the growth/dissolution rates, retention and endurance of fractal conductive filaments, with the aim of optimizing devices.

  3. Photoinduced hydrophobic surface of graphene oxide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiaoyan; Song Peng; Cui Xiaoli

    2012-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) thin films were deposited on transparent conducting oxide substrates and glass slides by spin coating method at room temperature. The wettability of GO thin films before and after ultraviolet (UV) irradiation was characterized with water contact angles, which increased from 27.3° to 57.6° after 3 h of irradiation, indicating a photo-induced hydrophobic surface. The UV–vis absorption spectra, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and conductivity measurements of GO films before and after UV irradiation were taken to study the mechanism of photoinduced hydrophobic surface of GO thin films. It is demonstrated that the photoinduced hydrophobic surface is ascribed to the elimination of oxygen-containing functional groups on GO molecules. This work provides a simple strategy to control the wettability properties of GO thin films by UV irradiation. - Highlights: ► Photoinduced hydrophobic surface of graphene oxide thin films has been demonstrated. ► Elimination of oxygen-containing functional groups in graphene oxide achieved by UV irradiation. ► We provide novel strategy to control surface wettability of GO thin films by UV irradiation.

  4. Optical thin film deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macleod, H.A.

    1979-01-01

    The potential usefulness in the production of optical thin-film coatings of some of the processes for thin film deposition which can be classified under the heading of ion-assisted techniques is examined. Thermal evaporation is the process which is virtually universally used for this purpose and which has been developed to a stage where performance is in almost all respects high. Areas where further improvements would be of value, and the possibility that ion-assisted deposition might lead to such improvements, are discussed. (author)

  5. Optical thin films and coatings from materials to applications

    CERN Document Server

    Flory, Francois

    2013-01-01

    Optical coatings, including mirrors, anti-reflection coatings, beam splitters, and filters, are an integral part of most modern optical systems. This book provides an overview of thin film materials, the properties, design and manufacture of optical coatings and their use across a variety of application areas.$bOptical coatings, including mirrors, anti-reflection coatings, beam splitters, and filters, are an integral part of most modern optical systems. Optical thin films and coatings provides an overview of thin film materials, the properties, design and manufacture of optical coatings and their use across a variety of application areas. Part one explores the design and manufacture of optical coatings. Part two highlights unconventional features of optical thin films including scattering properties of random structures in thin films, optical properties of thin film materials at short wavelengths, thermal properties and colour effects. Part three focusses on novel materials for optical thin films and coatings...

  6. Sputtering materials for VLSI and thin film devices

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Jaydeep

    2010-01-01

    An important resource for students, engineers and researchers working in the area of thin film deposition using physical vapor deposition (e.g. sputtering) for semiconductor, liquid crystal displays, high density recording media and photovoltaic device (e.g. thin film solar cell) manufacturing. This book also reviews microelectronics industry topics such as history of inventions and technology trends, recent developments in sputtering technologies, manufacturing steps that require sputtering of thin films, the properties of thin films and the role of sputtering target performance on overall p

  7. Piezoelectric MEMS: Ferroelectric thin films for MEMS applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Isaku

    2018-04-01

    In recent years, piezoelectric microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) have attracted attention as next-generation functional microdevices. Typical applications of piezoelectric MEMS are micropumps for inkjet heads or micro-gyrosensors, which are composed of piezoelectric Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) thin films and have already been commercialized. In addition, piezoelectric vibration energy harvesters (PVEHs), which are regarded as one of the key devices for Internet of Things (IoT)-related technologies, are promising future applications of piezoelectric MEMS. Significant features of piezoelectric MEMS are their simple structure and high energy conversion efficiency between mechanical and electrical domains even on the microscale. The device performance strongly depends on the function of the piezoelectric thin films, especially on their transverse piezoelectric properties, indicating that the deposition of high-quality piezoelectric thin films is a crucial technology for piezoelectric MEMS. On the other hand, although the difficulty in measuring the precise piezoelectric coefficients of thin films is a serious obstacle in the research and development of piezoelectric thin films, a simple unimorph cantilever measurement method has been proposed to obtain precise values of the direct or converse transverse piezoelectric coefficient of thin films, and recently this method has become to be the standardized testing method. In this article, I will introduce fundamental technologies of piezoelectric thin films and related microdevices, especially focusing on the deposition of PZT thin films and evaluation methods for their transverse piezoelectric properties.

  8. Nanometric thin film membranes manufactured on square meter scale: ultra-thin films for CO 2 capture

    KAUST Repository

    Yave, Wilfredo

    2010-09-01

    Miniaturization and manipulation of materials at nanometer scale are key challenges in nanoscience and nanotechnology. In membrane science and technology, the fabrication of ultra-thin polymer films (defect-free) on square meter scale with uniform thickness (<100 nm) is crucial. By using a tailor-made polymer and by controlling the nanofabrication conditions, we developed and manufactured defect-free ultra-thin film membranes with unmatched carbon dioxide permeances, i.e. >5 m3 (STP) m-2 h -1 bar-1. The permeances are extremely high, because the membranes are made from a CO2 philic polymer material and they are only a few tens of nanometers thin. Thus, these thin film membranes have potential application in the treatment of large gas streams under low pressure like, e.g., carbon dioxide separation from flue gas. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  9. Thin film bismuth iron oxides useful for piezoelectric devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeches, Robert J.; Martin, Lane W.; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy

    2016-05-31

    The present invention provides for a composition comprising a thin film of BiFeO.sub.3 having a thickness ranging from 20 nm to 300 nm, a first electrode in contact with the BiFeO.sub.3 thin film, and a second electrode in contact with the BiFeO.sub.3 thin film; wherein the first and second electrodes are in electrical communication. The composition is free or essentially free of lead (Pb). The BFO thin film is has the piezoelectric property of changing its volume and/or shape when an electric field is applied to the BFO thin film.

  10. Tools to synthesize the learning of thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas, Roberto; Fuster, Gonzalo; Sluesarenko, Viktor

    2011-01-01

    After a review of textbooks written for undergraduate courses in physics, we have found that discussions on thin films are mostly incomplete. They consider the reflected and not the transmitted light for two instead of the four types of thin films. In this work, we complement the discussion in elementary textbooks, by analysing the phase differences required to match the conditions for constructive and destructive interference, in the reflected and transmitted light in four types of thin films. We consider thin films with varied sequences in the refractive index, which we identify as barriers, wells and stairs (up and down). Also, we use the conservation of energy in order to understand the complementary colour fringes observed in the reflected and transmitted light through thin films. We analyse systematically the phase changes by introducing a phase table and we synthesize the results in a circular diagram matching 16 physical situations of interference and their corresponding conditions on the film thickness. The phase table and the circular diagram are a pair of tools easily assimilated by students, and useful to organize, analyse and activate the knowledge about thin films.

  11. Conduction mechanism and the dielectric relaxation process of a-Se75Te25-xGax (x=0, 5, 10 and 15 at wt%) chalcogenide glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yahia, I.S.; Hegab, N.A.; Shakra, A.M.; Al-Ribaty, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Se 75 Te 25-x Ga x (x=0, 5, 10 and 15 at wt%) chalcogenide compositions were prepared by the well known melt quenching technique. Thin films with different thicknesses in the range (185-630 nm) of the obtained compositions were deposited by thermal evaporation technique. X-ray diffraction patterns indicate that the amorphous nature of the obtained films. The ac conductivity and the dielectric properties of the studied films have been investigated in the frequency range (10 2 -10 5 Hz) and in the temperature range (293-333 K). The ac conductivity was found to obey the power low ω s where s≤1 independent of film thickness. The temperature dependence of both ac conductivity and the exponent s can be well interpreted by the correlated barrier hopping (CBH) model. The experimental results of the dielectric constant ε 1 and dielectric loss ε 2 are frequency and temperature dependent. The maximum barrier height W m calculated from the results of the dielectric loss according to the Guintini equation, and agrees with that proposed by the theory of hopping of charge carriers over a potential barrier as suggested by Elliott for chalcogenide glasses. The density of localized state was estimated for the studied film compositions. The variation of the studied properties with Ga content was also investigated. The correlation between the ac conduction and the dielectric properties were verified.

  12. A library of atomically thin metal chalcogenides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiadong; Lin, Junhao; Huang, Xiangwei; Zhou, Yao; Chen, Yu; Xia, Juan; Wang, Hong; Xie, Yu; Yu, Huimei; Lei, Jincheng; Wu, Di; Liu, Fucai; Fu, Qundong; Zeng, Qingsheng; Hsu, Chuang-Han; Yang, Changli; Lu, Li; Yu, Ting; Shen, Zexiang; Lin, Hsin; Yakobson, Boris I; Liu, Qian; Suenaga, Kazu; Liu, Guangtong; Liu, Zheng

    2018-04-01

    Investigations of two-dimensional transition-metal chalcogenides (TMCs) have recently revealed interesting physical phenomena, including the quantum spin Hall effect 1,2 , valley polarization 3,4 and two-dimensional superconductivity 5 , suggesting potential applications for functional devices 6-10 . However, of the numerous compounds available, only a handful, such as Mo- and W-based TMCs, have been synthesized, typically via sulfurization 11-15 , selenization 16,17 and tellurization 18 of metals and metal compounds. Many TMCs are difficult to produce because of the high melting points of their metal and metal oxide precursors. Molten-salt-assisted methods have been used to produce ceramic powders at relatively low temperature 19 and this approach 20 was recently employed to facilitate the growth of monolayer WS 2 and WSe 2 . Here we demonstrate that molten-salt-assisted chemical vapour deposition can be broadly applied for the synthesis of a wide variety of two-dimensional (atomically thin) TMCs. We synthesized 47 compounds, including 32 binary compounds (based on the transition metals Ti, Zr, Hf, V, Nb, Ta, Mo, W, Re, Pt, Pd and Fe), 13 alloys (including 11 ternary, one quaternary and one quinary), and two heterostructured compounds. We elaborate how the salt decreases the melting point of the reactants and facilitates the formation of intermediate products, increasing the overall reaction rate. Most of the synthesized materials in our library are useful, as supported by evidence of superconductivity in our monolayer NbSe 2 and MoTe 2 samples 21,22 and of high mobilities in MoS 2 and ReS 2 . Although the quality of some of the materials still requires development, our work opens up opportunities for studying the properties and potential application of a wide variety of two-dimensional TMCs.

  13. Molecular simulation of freestanding amorphous nickel thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, T.Q. [Université Paris-Est, Laboratoire Modélisation et Simulation Multi Echelle, UMR 8208 CNRS, 5 Boulevard Descartes, 77454 Marne-la-Vallée, Cedex 2 (France); Hoang, V.V., E-mail: vvhoang2002@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Institute of Technology, National University of Ho Chi Minh City, 268 Ly Thuong Kiet Street, District 10, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Lauriat, G. [Université Paris-Est, Laboratoire Modélisation et Simulation Multi Echelle, UMR 8208 CNRS, 5 Boulevard Descartes, 77454 Marne-la-Vallée, Cedex 2 (France)

    2013-10-31

    Size effects on glass formation in freestanding Ni thin films have been studied via molecular dynamics simulation with the n-body Gupta interatomic potential. Atomic mechanism of glass formation in the films is determined via analysis of the spatio-temporal arrangements of solid-like atoms occurred upon cooling from the melt. Solid-like atoms are detected via the Lindemann ratio. We find that solid-like atoms initiate and grow mainly in the interior of the film and grow outward. Their number increases with decreasing temperature and at a glass transition temperature they dominate in the system to form a relatively rigid glassy state of a thin film shape. We find the existence of a mobile surface layer in both liquid and glassy states which can play an important role in various surface properties of amorphous Ni thin films. We find that glass formation is size independent for models containing 4000 to 108,000 atoms. Moreover, structure of amorphous Ni thin films has been studied in details via coordination number, Honeycutt–Andersen analysis, and density profile which reveal that amorphous thin films exhibit two different parts: interior and surface layer. The former exhibits almost the same structure like that found for the bulk while the latter behaves a more porous structure containing a large amount of undercoordinated sites which are the origin of various surface behaviors of the amorphous Ni or Ni-based thin films found in practice. - Highlights: • Glass formation is analyzed via spatio-temporal arrangements of solid-like atoms. • Amorphous Ni thin film exhibits two different parts: surface and interior. • Mobile surface layer enhances various surface properties of the amorphous Ni thin films. • Undercoordinated sites play an important role in various surface activities.

  14. Resistivity of thiol-modified gold thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa-Puerta, Jonathan; Del Campo, Valeria; Henríquez, Ricardo; Häberle, Patricio

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we study the effect of thiol self assembled monolayers on the electrical resistivity of metallic thin films. The analysis is based on the Fuchs–Sondheimer–Lucas theory and on electrical transport measurements. We determined resistivity change due to dodecanethiol adsorption on gold thin films. For this purpose, we controlled the deposition and annealing temperatures of the films to change the surface topography and to diminish the effect of electron grain boundary scattering. Results show that the electrical response to the absorption of thiols strongly depends on the initial topography of the surface. - Highlights: • We study the effect of self assembled monolayers on the resistivity of thin films. • Fuchs–Sondheimer theory reproduces the resistivity increase due to thiol deposition. • We determined resistivity change due to dodecanethiol deposition on gold thin films. • The electrical response strongly depends on the substrate surface topography

  15. Resistivity of thiol-modified gold thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa-Puerta, Jonathan [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Av. Universidad 330, Curauma, Valparaíso (Chile); Del Campo, Valeria [Departamento de Física, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Av. España 1680, Valparaiso 2390123 (Chile); Henríquez, Ricardo, E-mail: ricardo.henriquez@usm.cl [Departamento de Física, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Av. España 1680, Valparaiso 2390123 (Chile); Häberle, Patricio [Departamento de Física, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Av. España 1680, Valparaiso 2390123 (Chile)

    2014-11-03

    In this work, we study the effect of thiol self assembled monolayers on the electrical resistivity of metallic thin films. The analysis is based on the Fuchs–Sondheimer–Lucas theory and on electrical transport measurements. We determined resistivity change due to dodecanethiol adsorption on gold thin films. For this purpose, we controlled the deposition and annealing temperatures of the films to change the surface topography and to diminish the effect of electron grain boundary scattering. Results show that the electrical response to the absorption of thiols strongly depends on the initial topography of the surface. - Highlights: • We study the effect of self assembled monolayers on the resistivity of thin films. • Fuchs–Sondheimer theory reproduces the resistivity increase due to thiol deposition. • We determined resistivity change due to dodecanethiol deposition on gold thin films. • The electrical response strongly depends on the substrate surface topography.

  16. Reversible migration of silver on memorized pathways in Ag-Ge{sub 40}S{sub 60} films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orava, J., E-mail: jo316@cam.ac.uk, E-mail: alg13@cam.ac.uk; Greer, A. L., E-mail: jo316@cam.ac.uk, E-mail: alg13@cam.ac.uk [Department of Materials Science & Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, 27 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom); WPI-Advanced Institute for Materials Research (WPI-AIMR), Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Kozicki, M. N. [School of Electrical, Computer, and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-6206 (United States); Yannopoulos, S. N. [Foundation of Research and Technology Hellas - Institute of Chemical Engineering Sciences (FORTH/ICE-HT), Patras, P. O. Box 1414 (Greece)

    2015-07-15

    Reversible and reproducible formation and dissolution of silver conductive filaments are studied in Ag-photodoped thin-film Ge{sub 40}S{sub 60} subjected to electric fields. A tip-planar geometry is employed, where a conductive-atomic-force microscopy tip is the tip electrode and a silver patch is the planar electrode. We highlight an inherent “memory” effect in the amorphous chalcogenide solid-state electrolyte, in which particular silver-ion migration pathways are preserved “memorized” during writing and erasing cycles. The “memorized” pathways reflect structural changes in the photodoped chalcogenide film. Structural changes due to silver photodoping, and electrically-induced structural changes arising from silver migration, are elucidated using Raman spectroscopy. Conductive filament formation, dissolution, and electron (reduction) efficiency in a lateral device geometry are related to operation of the nano-ionic Programmable Metallization Cell memory and to newly emerging chalcogenide-based lateral geometry MEMS technologies. The methods in this work can also be used for qualitative multi-parameter sampling of metal/amorphous-chalcogenide combinations, characterizing the growth/dissolution rates, retention and endurance of fractal conductive filaments, with the aim of optimizing devices.

  17. Improvement in interfacial characteristics of low-voltage carbon nanotube thin-film transistors with solution-processed boron nitride thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Jun-Young; Ha, Tae-Jun, E-mail: taejunha0604@gmail.com

    2017-08-15

    Highlights: • We demonstrate the potential of solution-processed boron nitride (BN) thin films for nanoelectronics. • Improved interfacial characteristics reduced the leakage current by three orders of magnitude. • The BN encapsulation improves all the device key metrics of low-voltage SWCNT-TFTs. • Such improvements were achieved by reduced interaction of interfacial localized states. - Abstract: In this article, we demonstrate the potential of solution-processed boron nitride (BN) thin films for high performance single-walled carbon nanotube thin-film transistors (SWCNT-TFTs) with low-voltage operation. The use of BN thin films between solution-processed high-k dielectric layers improved the interfacial characteristics of metal-insulator-metal devices, thereby reducing the current density by three orders of magnitude. We also investigated the origin of improved device performance in SWCNT-TFTs by employing solution-processed BN thin films as an encapsulation layer. The BN encapsulation layer improves the electrical characteristics of SWCNT-TFTs, which includes the device key metrics of linear field-effect mobility, sub-threshold swing, and threshold voltage as well as the long-term stability against the aging effect in air. Such improvements can be achieved by reduced interaction of interfacial localized states with charge carriers. We believe that this work can open up a promising route to demonstrate the potential of solution-processed BN thin films on nanoelectronics.

  18. Characterization of nanocrystalline cadmium telluride thin films ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    tion method, successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR), are described. For deposition of CdTe thin films ... By conducting several trials optimization of the adsorption, reaction and rinsing time duration for CdTe thin film .... The electrical resistivity of CdTe films was studied in air. Figure 3 shows the variation of log ...

  19. Photoluminescence properties of perovskite multilayer thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macario, Leilane Roberta; Longo, Elson, E-mail: leilanemacario@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil); Mazzo, Tatiana Martelli [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), SP (Brazil); Bouquet, Valerie; Deputier, Stephanie; Ollivier, Sophie; Guilloux-Viry, Maryline [Universite de Rennes (France)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: The knowledge of the optical properties of thin films is important in many scientific, technological and industrial applications of thin films such as photoconductivity, solar energy, photography, and numerous other applications [1]. In this study, perovskite type oxides were grown by pulsed laser deposition [2] in order to obtain thin films with applicable optical properties. The LaNiO{sub 3} (LN), BaTiO{sub 3} (BT) and KNbO{sub 3} (KNb) targets were prepared by solid-state reaction. The X-ray Diffraction revealed the presence of the desired phases, containing the elements of interest in the targets and in the thin films that were produced. The LN, BT and KNb thin films were polycrystalline and the corresponding diffraction peaks were indexed in the with JCPDS cards n. 00-033-0711, n. 00-005-0626, and n. 00-009-0156, respectively. The multilayers films were polycrystalline. The majority of the micrographs obtained by scanning electron microscopy presented films with a thickness from 100 to 400 nm. The photoluminescent (PL) emission spectra of thin films show different broad bands that occupies large region of the visible spectrum, ranging from about 300-350 to 600-650 nm of the electromagnetic spectrum. The PL emission is associated with the order-disorder structural, even small structural changes can modify the interactions between electronic states. The structural disorder results in formation of new energy levels in the forbidden region. The proximity or distance of these new energy levels formed in relation to valence band and to the conduction band results in PL spectra located at higher or lower energies. These interactions change the electronic states which can be influenced by defects, particularly the interface defects between the layers of the thin films. The presence of defects results in changes in the broad band matrix intensity and in displacement of the PL emission maximum. (author)

  20. Optical characteristics of the thin-film scintillator detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muga, L.; Burnsed, D.

    1976-01-01

    A study of the thin-film detector (TFD) was made in which various light guide and scintillator film support configurations were tested for efficiency of light coupling. Masking of selected portions of the photomultiplier (PM) tube face revealed the extent to which emitted light was received at the exposed PM surfaces. By blocking off selected areas of the scintillator film surface from direct view of the PM tube faces, a measure of the light-guiding efficiency of the film and its support could be estimated. The picture that emerges is that, as the light which is initially trapped in the thin film spreads radially outward from the ion entrance/exit point, it is scattered out of the film by minute imperfections. Optimum signals were obtained by a configuration in which the thin scintillator film was supported on a thin rectangular Celluloid frame inserted within a highly polished metal cylindrical sleeve

  1. Preparation of LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cathode thin films for thin film lithium secondary batteries by a mist CVD process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadanaga, Kiyoharu, E-mail: tadanaga@chem.osakafu-u.ac.jp [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Osaka, 599-8531 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Akihiro; Sakuda, Atsushi; Hayashi, Akitoshi; Tatsumisago, Masahiro [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Osaka, 599-8531 (Japan); Duran, Alicia; Aparacio, Mario [Instituto de Cerámica y Vidrio, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Kelsen 5 (Campus de Cantoblanco), Madrid, 28049 (Spain)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin films were prepared by using the mist CVD process. • An aqueous solution of lithium and manganese acetates is used for the precursor solution. • The cell with the LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin films exhibited a capacity of about 80 mAh/g. • The cell showed good cycling performance during 10 cycles. - Abstract: LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cathode thin films for thin film lithium secondary batteries were prepared by using so-called the “mist CVD process”, employing an aqueous solution of lithium acetate and manganese acetate, as the source of Li and Mn, respectively. The aqueous solution of starting materials was ultrasonically atomized to form mist particles, and mists were transferred by nitrogen gas to silica glass substrate to form thin films. FE-SEM observation revealed that thin films obtained by this process were dense and smooth, and thin films with a thickness of about 750 nm were obtained. The electrochemical cell with the thin films obtained by sintering at 700 °C exhibited a capacity of about 80 mAh/g, and the cell showed good cycling performance during 10 cycles.

  2. Fractal and multifractal analysis of LiF thin film surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, R.P.; Dwivedi, S.; Mittal, A.K.; Kumar, M.; Pandey, A.C.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Fractal and multifractal analysis of surface morphologies of the LiF thin films. ► Complexity and roughness of the LiF thin films increases as thickness increases. ► LiF thin films are multifractal in nature. ► Strength of the multifractality increases with thickness of the film. - Abstract: Fractal and multifractal analysis is performed on the atomic force microscopy (AFM) images of the surface morphologies of the LiF thin films of thickness 10 nm, 20 nm, and 40 nm, respectively. Autocorrelation function, height–height correlation function, and two-dimensional multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA) are used for characterizing the surface. It is found that the interface width, average roughness, lateral correlation length, and fractal dimension of the LiF thin film increase with the thickness of the film, whereas the roughness exponent decreases with thickness. Thus, the complexity and roughness of the LiF thin films increases as thickness increases. It is also demonstrated that the LiF thin films are multifractal in nature. Strength of the multifractality increases with thickness of the film.

  3. Preparation and characterization of vanadium oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monfort, O.; Plesch, G. [Comenius University of Bratislava, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Department of Inorganic Chemistry, 84215 Bratislava (Slovakia); Roch, T. [Comenius University of Bratislava, Faculty of Mathematics Physics and Informatics, Department of Experimental Physics, 84248 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2013-04-16

    The thermotropic VO{sub 2} films have many applications, since they exhibit semiconductor-conductor switching properties at temperature around 70 grad C. Vanadium oxide thin films were prepared via sol-gel method. Spin coater was used to depose these films on Si/SiO{sub 2} and lime glass substrates. Thin films of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} can be reduced to metastable VO{sub 2} thin films at the temperature of 450 grad C under the pressure of 10{sup -2} Pa. These films are then converted to thermotropic VO{sub 2} at 700 grad C in argon under normal pressure. (authors)

  4. Laser nanostructuring of ZnO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nedyalkov, N., E-mail: nned@ie.bas.bg [Department of Electronics and Electrical Engineering, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi Kohoku-ku, Yokohama-shi, Kanagawa-ken 223-8522 (Japan); Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Tzarigradsko shousse 72, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Koleva, M.; Nikov, R.; Atanasov, P. [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Tzarigradsko shousse 72, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Nakajima, Y.; Takami, A.; Shibata, A.; Terakawa, M. [Department of Electronics and Electrical Engineering, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi Kohoku-ku, Yokohama-shi, Kanagawa-ken 223-8522 (Japan)

    2016-06-30

    Highlights: • Nanosecond laser pulse nanostructuring of ZnO thin films on metal substrate is demonstrated. • Two regimes of the thin film modification are observed depending on the applied laser fluence. • At high fluence regime the ZnO film is homogeneously decomposed into nanosized particles. • The characteristic size of the formed nanostructures corresponds to the domain size of the thin film. - Abstract: In this work, results on laser processing of thin zinc oxide films deposited on metal substrate are presented. ZnO films are obtained by classical nanosecond pulsed laser deposition method in oxygen atmosphere on tantalum substrate. The produced films are then processed by nanosecond laser pulses at wavelength of 355 nm. The laser processing parameters and the film thickness are varied and their influence on the fabricated structures is estimated. The film morphology after the laser treatment is found to depend strongly on the laser fluence as two regimes are defined. It is shown that at certain conditions (high fluence regime) the laser treatment of the film leads to formation of a discrete nanostructure, composed of spherical like nanoparticles with narrow size distribution. The dynamics of the melt film on the substrate and fast cooling are found to be the main mechanisms for fabrication of the observed structures. The demonstrated method is an alternative way for direct fabrication of ZnO nanostructures on metal which can be easy implemented in applications as resistive sensor devices, electroluminescent elements, solar cell technology.

  5. Restructuring in block copolymer thin films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posselt, Dorthe; Zhang, Jianqi; Smilgies, Detlef-M.

    2017-01-01

    Block copolymer (BCP) thin films have been proposed for a number of nanotechnology applications, such as nanolithography and as nanotemplates, nanoporous membranes and sensors. Solvent vapor annealing (SVA) has emerged as a powerful technique for manipulating and controlling the structure of BCP...... thin films, e.g., by healing defects, by altering the orientation of the microdomains and by changing the morphology. Due to high time resolution and compatibility with SVA environments, grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) is an indispensable technique for studying the SVA process......, providing information of the BCP thin film structure both laterally and along the film normal. Especially, state-of-the-art combined GISAXS/SVA setups at synchrotron sources have facilitated in situ and real-time studies of the SVA process with a time resolution of a few seconds, giving important insight...

  6. Investigation of growth and characterization of nanostructured CuIn5S8 thin films produced by glancing angle deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinaoui, A.; Chaffar-Akkari, F.; Gallas, B.; Demaille, D.; Kanzari, M.

    2015-01-01

    Ternary chalcogenide of copper and indium (CuIn 5 S 8 ) thin films were grown by thermal evaporation method using GLancing Angle Deposition (GLAD) technique. The samples were prepared under different incident angles (α = 0°, 40°, 60° and 85° measured from the normal to the substrate surface) with a substrate rotation of 2 rpm. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and ultraviolet–visible-infrared spectra are employed to characterize the microstructure and optical properties of the CuIn 5 S 8 thin films deposited by this technique. Under the GLAD conditions, we demonstrate that with substrate rotation, the columns were grown vertically due to the shadowing symmetry. The optical constants of the deposited films were determined from the analysis of transmission and reflection data. The results show that the refractive index and the thickness were decreased as α rises from 0° to 85° while the porosity and the Urbach energy were increased with increasing of the incident angle. The minimum refractive index is found to be 2.03 for the helical CuIn 5 S 8 film deposited at an angle of 85° and the Urbach energy was found to increase from 0.29 to 0.5 eV as α rises from 0° to 85°. Such changes of the optical behaviors are correlated with changes of the microstructure, especially a porous architecture which is favored for high incident angle. These properties exhibit potential for use in applications such as photonic crystals, graded index optical filters, and birefrigent omnidirectional reflectors. - Highlights: • GLancing angle deposition technique was employed to prepare CuIn 5 S 8 thin films. • CuIn 5 S 8 films exhibit a spinel structure with a preferred orientation along 311. • With substrate rotation, the columns were grown vertically due to shadowing symmetry. • The refractive index decreases with increasing glancing angle deposition. • Variations of the optical behaviors were correlated to the highly porous structure

  7. Nanocoatings and ultra-thin films technologies and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tiginyanu, Ion

    2011-01-01

    Gives a comprehensive account of the developments of nanocoatings and ultra-thin films. This book covers the fundamentals, processes of deposition and characterisation of nanocoatings, as well as the applications. It is suitable for the glass and glazing, automotive, electronics, aerospace, construction and biomedical industries in particular.$bCoatings are used for a wide range of applications, from anti-fogging coatings for glass through to corrosion control in the aerospace and automotive industries. Nanocoatings and ultra-thin films provides an up-to-date review of the fundamentals, processes of deposition, characterisation and applications of nanocoatings. Part one covers technologies used in the creation and analysis of thin films, including chapters on current and advanced coating technologies in industry, nanostructured thin films from amphiphilic molecules, chemical and physical vapour deposition methods and methods for analysing nanocoatings and ultra-thin films. Part two focuses on the applications...

  8. Effects of laser irradiation on optical properties of amorphous and annealed Ga15Se81In4 and Ga15Se79In6 chalcogenide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Ghamdi, A.A.; Khan, Shamshad A.; Al-Heniti, S.; Al-Agel, F.A.; Al-Harbi, T.; Zulfequar, M.

    2010-01-01

    Amorphous thin films of Ga 15 Se 81 In 4 and Ga 15 Se 79 In 6 glassy alloys with thickness 3000 A were prepared by thermal evaporation onto chemically cleaned glass substrates. The changes in optical properties due to the influence of laser radiation on amorphous and thermally annealed thin films of Ga 15 Se 81 In 4 and Ga 15 Se 79 In 6 were calculated from absorbance and reflectance spectra as a function of photon energy in the wave length region 400-1000 nm. Analysis of the optical absorption data shows that the rule of non-direct transitions predominates. The optical band gaps observed to decrease with the increase of annealing temperatures. Furthermore, exposing thin films to laser irradiation leads to a decrease in optical band gap, absorption coefficient, refractive index and extinction coefficient for both as-prepared and annealed films. The decrease in the optical band gap is explained on the basis of change in nature of films, from amorphous to polycrystalline state, with the increase of annealing temperature and by laser irradiation for 10 min exposure time. Outcomes of our study confirm that this system may be used for photovoltaic devices.

  9. Nanosphere lithography applied to magnetic thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Russell

    Magnetic nanostructures have widespread applications in many areas of physics and engineering, and nanosphere lithography has recently emerged as promising tool for the fabrication of such nanostructures. The goal of this research is to explore the magnetic properties of a thin film of ferromagnetic material deposited onto a hexagonally close-packed monolayer array of polystyrene nanospheres, and how they differ from the magnetic properties of a typical flat thin film. The first portion of this research focuses on determining the optimum conditions for depositing a monolayer of nanospheres onto chemically pretreated silicon substrates (via drop-coating) and the subsequent characterization of the deposited nanosphere layer with scanning electron microscopy. Single layers of permalloy (Ni80Fe20) are then deposited on top of the nanosphere array via DC magnetron sputtering, resulting in a thin film array of magnetic nanocaps. The coercivities of the thin films are measured using a home-built magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) system in longitudinal arrangement. MOKE measurements show that for a single layer of permalloy (Py), the coercivity of a thin film deposited onto an array of nanospheres increases compared to that of a flat thin film. In addition, the coercivity increases as the nanosphere size decreases for the same deposited layer. It is postulated that magnetic exchange decoupling between neighboring nanocaps suppresses the propagation of magnetic domain walls, and this pinning of the domain walls is thought to be the primary source of the increase in coercivity.

  10. Bandtail characteristics in InN thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, W.Z.; Jiang, L.F.; Yang, H.F.; Meng, F.Y.; Ogawa, H.; Guo, Q.X.

    2002-01-01

    The Urbach bandtail characteristics in InN thin films grown by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering on sapphire (0001) substrates have been investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The bandtail parameter in InN thin films has been obtained by temperature-dependent transmission spectra, with the aid of a detailed calculation of the transmission profile. A bandtail model based on the calculation of density of occupied states and the carrier-phonon interaction has been employed to analyze the temperature-dependent bandtail characteristics. The bandtail parameter is in the range of 90-120 meV in the InN thin film. It is found that the carrier-phonon interaction in InN is weak and the structural disorder contribution (∼90 meV) dominates over the interactive terms. The high structural disorder in InN thin films may relate to the high nonradiative recombination centers

  11. Thin films of mixed metal compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickelsen, Reid A.; Chen, Wen S.

    1985-01-01

    A compositionally uniform thin film of a mixed metal compound is formed by simultaneously evaporating a first metal compound and a second metal compound from independent sources. The mean free path between the vapor particles is reduced by a gas and the mixed vapors are deposited uniformly. The invention finds particular utility in forming thin film heterojunction solar cells.

  12. Thin-Film Power Transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katti, Romney R.

    1995-01-01

    Transformer core made of thin layers of insulating material interspersed with thin layers of ferromagnetic material. Flux-linking conductors made of thinner nonferromagnetic-conductor/insulator multilayers wrapped around core. Transformers have geometric features finer than those of transformers made in customary way by machining and mechanical pressing. In addition, some thin-film materials exhibit magnetic-flux-carrying capabilities superior to those of customary bulk transformer materials. Suitable for low-cost, high-yield mass production.

  13. The electronic structure of the antimony chalcogenide series: Prospects for optoelectronic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carey, John J.; Allen, Jeremy P. [School of Chemistry and CRANN, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Scanlon, David O. [University College London, Kathleen Lonsdale Materials Chemistry, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom); Diamond Light Source Ltd., Diamond House, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Watson, Graeme W., E-mail: watsong@tcd.ie [School of Chemistry and CRANN, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2014-05-01

    In this study, density functional theory is used to evaluate the electronic structure of the antimony chalcogenide series. Analysis of the electronic density of states and charge density shows that asymmetric density, or ‘lone pairs’, forms on the Sb{sup III} cations in the distorted oxide, sulphide and selenide materials. The asymmetric density progressively weakens down the series, due to the increase in energy of valence p states from O to Te, and is absent for Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3}. The fundamental and optical band gaps were calculated and Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} and Sb{sub 2}Se{sub 3} have indirect band gaps, while Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} was calculated to have a direct band gap at Γ. The band gaps are also seen to reduce from Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3} to Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3}. The optical band gap for Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3} makes it a candidate as a transparent conducting oxide, while Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} and Sb{sub 2}Se{sub 3} have suitable band gaps for thin film solar cell absorbers. - Graphical abstract: A schematic illustrating the interaction between the Sb{sup III} cations and the chalcogenide anions and the change in their respective energy levels down the series. - Highlights: • The electronic structure of the antimony chalcogenide series is modelled using DFT. • Asymmetric density is present on distorted systems and absent on the symmetric telluride system. • Asymmetric density is formed from the mixing of Sb 5s and anion p states, where the anti-bonding combination is stabilised by the Sb 5p states. • The asymmetric density weakens down the series due to the increase in energy of chalcogenide p states. • The increase in energy of the anion p states reduces the fundamental and optical band gaps.

  14. Preparation and properties of antimony thin film anode materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Shufa; CAO Gaoshao; ZHAO Xinbing

    2004-01-01

    Metallic antimony thin films were deposited by magnetron sputtering and electrodeposition. Electrochemical properties of the thin film as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries were investigated and compared with those of antimony powder. It was found that both magnetron sputtering and electrodeposition are easily controllable processes to deposit antimony films with fiat charge/discharge potential plateaus. The electrochemical performances of antimony thin films, especially those prepared with magnetron sputtering, are better than those of antimony powder. The reversible capacities of the magnetron sputtered antimony thin film are above 400 mA h g-1 in the first 15 cycles.

  15. Magnetic damping phenomena in ferromagnetic thin-films and multilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzawi, S.; Hindmarch, A. T.; Atkinson, D.

    2017-11-01

    Damped ferromagnetic precession is an important mechanism underpinning the magnetisation processes in ferromagnetic materials. In thin-film ferromagnets and ferromagnetic/non-magnetic multilayers, the role of precession and damping can be critical for spintronic device functionality and as a consequence there has been significant research activity. This paper presents a review of damping in ferromagnetic thin-films and multilayers and collates the results of many experimental studies to present a coherent synthesis of the field. The terms that are used to define damping are discussed with the aim of providing consistent definitions for damping phenomena. A description of the theoretical basis of damping is presented from early developments to the latest discussions of damping in ferromagnetic thin-films and multilayers. An overview of the time and frequency domain methods used to study precessional magnetisation behaviour and damping in thin-films and multilayers is also presented. Finally, a review of the experimental observations of magnetic damping in ferromagnetic thin-films and multilayers is presented with the most recent explanations. This brings together the results from many studies and includes the effects of ferromagnetic film thickness, the effects of composition on damping in thin-film ferromagnetic alloys, the influence of non-magnetic dopants in ferromagnetic films and the effects of combining thin-film ferromagnets with various non-magnetic layers in multilayered configurations.

  16. CO2 laser treatment of As-S chalcogenide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andriesch, A.M.; Bertolotti, M.; Ferrari, A.; Popesku, A.A.

    1990-01-01

    The changes of the refractive index of As 2 S 3 and As 2 S 5 films deposited on glass substrates upon CO 2 laser irradiation have been studied. The possibility of writing with the CO 2 laser a waveguiding channel in As 2 S 3 is demonstrated

  17. Recent progress in copper antimony chalcogenides thin films and photovoltaic devices%铜锑硫族薄膜材料及其光伏器件研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冲; 杨波; 唐江

    2017-01-01

    薄膜太阳能电池具有材料用量少、生产耗能低、高温弱光发电性能好、易于建筑集成等优势,是非常有竞争力的光伏发电技术之一.铜锑硫族材料价格低廉、稳定性高、绿色无毒、原料丰富,且具有合适的禁带宽度和较大的吸光系数,理论转换效率可达30%以上,是非常有潜力的薄膜太阳能电池吸光层材料.本文综述了近年来铜锑硫族材料光伏领域的研究成果,重点介绍了材料的晶体结构、光电特性、制备方法以及光伏器件的研究进展,并对其发展趋势和下一步工作方向进行了总结和展望.%In recent years,owing its advantages such as high material utilization and low energy consumption during manufacturing,strong low light performance and high energy output during operation,and easy integration with buildings,thin film solar cell has become a very competitive technology for photovoltaic application.Particularly,copper antimony chalcogenides (Cu-Sb-S/Se) have attracted tremendous research attention as the promising absorber candidates because of the advantages of low cost,high stability and nontoxic composition,large absorption coefficient and appropriate band gap.In the Cu-Sb-S/Se system,there are four kinds of stoichiometric ratio phases with Cu:Sb:S/Se of 1:1:2,3:1:3;3:1:4 and 12:4:13.Among them,CuSbS2 and CuSbSe2 have appropriate bandgaps of ~1.5 and ~1.1 eV,large absorption coefficient of ~ 105 cm-1,which is larger than CuInSe2,and low grain growth temperature (about 300-400℃C).Theoretical calculations indicate that CuSbS2 and CuSbSe2 solar cells have higher theoretical maximum efficiency than CuInSe2,and the majority defects are shallow defects.Various approaches have been explored to fabricate CuSbS2 and CuSbSe2 thin films,including direct thermal evaporation,post-annealing after chemical bath deposition,spray pyrolysis,electrodeposition,magnetron sputtering and so on.In the last few years,several groups have

  18. Chemical vapour deposition of thin-film dielectrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilev, Vladislav Yu; Repinsky, Sergei M

    2005-01-01

    Data on the chemical vapour deposition of thin-film dielectrics based on silicon nitride, silicon oxynitride and silicon dioxide and on phosphorus- and boron-containing silicate glasses are generalised. The equipment and layer deposition procedures are described. Attention is focussed on the analysis and discussion of the deposition kinetics and on the kinetic models for film growth. The film growth processes are characterised and data on the key physicochemical properties of thin-film covalent dielectric materials are given.

  19. Residual stress in spin-cast polyurethane thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Li, E-mail: lizhang@mae.cuhk.edu.hk [Department of Mechanical and Automation Engineering, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin N.T., Hong Kong (China); Chow Yuk Ho Technology Centre for Innovative Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin N.T., Hong Kong (China)

    2015-01-19

    Residual stress is inevitable during spin-casting. Herein, we report a straightforward method to evaluate the residual stress in as-cast polyurethane thin films using area shrinkage measurement of films in floating state, which shows that the residual stress is independent of radial location on the substrate and decreased with decreasing film thickness below a critical value. We demonstrate that the residual stress is developed due to the solvent evaporation after vitrification during spin-casting and the polymer chains in thin films may undergo vitrification at an increased concentration. The buildup of residual stress in spin-cast polymer films provides an insight into the size effects on the nature of polymer thin films.

  20. Understanding the Formation of Kinetically Stable Compounds and the Development of Thin Film Pair Distribution Function Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Suzannah Rebecca

    Navigating the synthesis landscape poses many challenges when developing novel solid state materials. Advancements in both synthesis and characterization are necessary to facilitate the targeting of specific materials. This dissertation discusses the formation of chalcogenide heterostructures and their properties in the first part and the development of thin film pair distribution function analysis (tfPDF) in the second part. The heterostructures were formed by the self-assembly of designed precursors deposited by physical vapor deposition in a modulated elemental reactants approach, which provides the control and predictability to synthesis. Specifically, a series of (BiSe)1+delta(TiSe2) n, where n = 2,3,&4, were synthesized to explore the extent of charge transfer from the BiSe to TiSe2 layers. To further explore the role Bi plays in charge donation, a family of structurally similar compounds, (Bix Sn1-xSe)1+deltaTiSe2, where 0≥x≥1, were synthesized and characterized. Electrical measurements show doping efficiency decreases as x increases, correlated with the structural distortion and the formation of periodic antiphase boundaries containing Bi-Bi pairs. The first heterostructures composed of three unique structural types were synthesized and Bi2Se3 layer thickness was used to tune electrical properties and further explore charge transfer. To better understand the potential energy landscape on which these kinetically stable compounds exist, two investigations were undertaken. The first was a study of the formation and subsequent decomposition of [(BiSe)1+delta]n(TiSe2)n compounds, where n= 2&3, the second an investigation of precursor structure for thermodynamically stable FeSb2 and kinetically stable FeSb3. The second section describes the development of thin film pair distribution function analysis, a technique in which total scattering data for pair distribution function (PDF) analysis is obtained from thin films, suitable for local structure analysis

  1. Simulated Thin-Film Growth and Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillaci, Michael

    2001-06-01

    Thin-films have become the cornerstone of the electronics, telecommunications, and broadband markets. A list of potential products includes: computer boards and chips, satellites, cell phones, fuel cells, superconductors, flat panel displays, optical waveguides, building and automotive windows, food and beverage plastic containers, metal foils, pipe plating, vision ware, manufacturing equipment and turbine engines. For all of these reasons a basic understanding of the physical processes involved in both growing and imaging thin-films can provide a wonderful research project for advanced undergraduate and first-year graduate students. After producing rudimentary two- and three-dimensional thin-film models incorporating ballsitic deposition and nearest neighbor Coulomb-type interactions, the QM tunneling equations are used to produce simulated scanning tunneling microscope (SSTM) images of the films. A discussion of computational platforms, languages, and software packages that may be used to accomplish similar results is also given.

  2. Nanostructured thin films as functional coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazar, Manoj A; Tadvani, Jalil K; Tung, Wing Sze; Lopez, Lorena; Daoud, Walid A, E-mail: Walid.Daoud@sci.monash.edu.au [School of Applied Sciences and Engineering, Monash University, Churchill, VIC 3842 (Australia)

    2010-06-15

    Nanostructured thin films is one of the highly exploiting research areas particularly in applications such as photovoltaics, photocatalysis and sensor technologies. Highly tuned thin films, in terms of thickness, crystallinity, porosity and optical properties, can be fabricated on different substrates using the sol-gel method, chemical solution deposition (CSD), electrochemical etching, along with other conventional methods such as chemical vapour deposition (CVD) and physical vapour deposition (PVD). The above mentioned properties of these films are usually characterised using surface analysis techniques such as XRD, SEM, TEM, AFM, ellipsometry, electrochemistry, SAXS, reflectance spectroscopy, STM, XPS, SIMS, ESCA, X-ray topography and DOSY-NMR. This article presents a short review of the preparation and characterisation of thin films of nanocrystalline titanium dioxide and modified silicon as well as their application in solar cells, water treatment, water splitting, self cleaning fabrics, sensors, optoelectronic devices and lab on chip systems.

  3. Thin film characterization by resonantly excited internal standing waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Fonzio, S [SINCROTRONE TRIESTE, Trieste (Italy)

    1996-09-01

    This contribution describes how a standing wave excited in a thin film can be used for the characterization of the properties of the film. By means of grazing incidence X-ray reflectometry one can deduce the total film thickness. On the other hand in making use of a strong resonance effect in the electric field intensity distribution inside a thin film on a bulk substrate one can learn more about the internal structure of the film. The profile of the internal standing wave is proven by diffraction experiments. The most appropriate non-destructive technique for the subsequent thin film characterization is angularly dependent X-ray fluorescence analysis. The existence of the resonance makes it a powerful tool for the detection of impurities and of ultra-thin maker layers, for which the position can be determined with very high precision (about 1% of the total film thickness). This latter aspect will be discussed here on samples which had a thin Ti marker layer at different positions in a carbon film. Due to the resonance enhancement it was still possible to perform these experiments with a standard laboratory x-ray tube and with standard laboratory tool for marker or impurity detection in thin films.

  4. Structural and Galvanomagnetic properties in Mn-Bi2Te3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidinakis, K.; Speliotis, Th.

    2017-12-01

    Bismuth-based binary chalcogenide compounds such as Bi2Te3 and Bi2Se3 are well known materials for their excellent thermoelectric properties due to their near-gap electronic structure. In the last few years these materials have received attention for exhibiting new physics of 3D topological insulators (TI). Possible applications of TI based devices range from quantum computing, spin based logic and memory to electrodynamics. The 3D TIs present spin-momentum-locked surface states by time reversal symmetry (TRS). Introducing magnetic doping in a TI, brakes the TRS and is predicted to open the gap at Dirac point, resulting in exotic quantum phenomena. This interaction between magnetism and topologically protected states is of potential attention for applications in modern spintronics. Quantum phenomena such as weak antilocalization observed in these nanostructures are described. In this work, granular Mn-Bi2Te3 thin films were grown by DC magnetron sputtering on Si(111) substrates and were submitted to ex situ annealing. We present results for the crystal structure of sputtered and annealed films characterized with X-ray diffraction and high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM). The surface analysis was studied with atomic force microscopy (AFM). Magnetotransport measurements were performed using standard four probe technique with Hall and MR configurations, with perpendicular magnetic fields up to 9T and temperatures from 300 to 3K.

  5. Thin film ceramic thermocouples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Otto (Inventor); Fralick, Gustave (Inventor); Wrbanek, John (Inventor); You, Tao (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A thin film ceramic thermocouple (10) having two ceramic thermocouple (12, 14) that are in contact with each other in at least on point to form a junction, and wherein each element was prepared in a different oxygen/nitrogen/argon plasma. Since each element is prepared under different plasma conditions, they have different electrical conductivity and different charge carrier concentration. The thin film thermocouple (10) can be transparent. A versatile ceramic sensor system having an RTD heat flux sensor can be combined with a thermocouple and a strain sensor to yield a multifunctional ceramic sensor array. The transparent ceramic temperature sensor that could ultimately be used for calibration of optical sensors.

  6. Photoluminescence of electron beam evaporated CaS:Bi thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Smet, P F; Poelman, D R; Meirhaeghe, R L V

    2003-01-01

    For the first time, the photoluminescence (PL) of electron beam evaporated CaS:Bi thin films is reported. Luminescent CaS:Bi powder prepared out of aqueous solutions was used as source material. The influence of substrate temperature on the PL and the morphology of thin films is discussed, and an optimum is determined. Substrate temperatures between 200 deg. C and 300 deg. C lead to good quality thin films with sufficient PL intensity. As-deposited thin films show two emission bands, peaking at 450 and 530 nm. Upon annealing the emission intensity increases, and annealing at 800 deg. C is sufficient to obtain a homogeneously blue emitting thin film (CIE colour coordinates (0.17; 0.12)), thanks to a single remaining emission band at 450 nm. The influence of ambient temperature on the PL of CaS:Bi powder and thin films was also investigated and it was found that CaS:Bi thin films show a favourable thermal quenching behaviour near room temperature.

  7. Excimer Laser Deposition of PLZT Thin Films

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Petersen, GAry

    1991-01-01

    .... In order to integrate these devices into optical systems, the production of high quality thin films with high transparency and perovskite crystal structure is desired. This requires development of deposition technologies to overcome the challenges of depositing and processing PLZT thin films.

  8. Physics of thin films advances in research and development

    CERN Document Server

    Hass, Georg; Vossen, John L

    2013-01-01

    Physics of Thin Films: Advances in Research and Development, Volume 12 reviews advances that have been made in research and development concerning the physics of thin films. This volume covers a wide range of preparative approaches, physics phenomena, and applications related to thin films. This book is comprised of four chapters and begins with a discussion on metal coatings and protective layers for front surface mirrors used at various angles of incidence from the ultraviolet to the far infrared. Thin-film materials and deposition conditions suitable for minimizing reflectance changes with

  9. Characterization of ultrasonic spray pyrolysed ruthenium oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, P.S.; Ennaoui, E.A.; Lokhande, C.D.; Mueller, M.; Giersig, M.; Diesner, K.; Tributsch, H. [Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin GmbH (Germany). Bereich Physikalische Chemie

    1997-11-21

    The ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP) technique was employed to deposit ruthenium oxide thin films. The films were prepared at 190 C substrate temperature and further annealed at 350 C for 30 min in air. The films were 0.22 {mu} thick and black grey in color. The structural, compositional and optical properties of ruthenium oxide thin films are reported. Contactless transient photoconductivity measurement was carried out to calculate the decay time of excess charge carriers in ruthenium oxide thin films. (orig.) 28 refs.

  10. Field ion microscope studies on thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavaleru, A.; Scortaru, A.

    1976-01-01

    A review of the progress made in the last years in FIM application to thin film structure studies and adatom properties important in the nucleation stage of thin film growth: substrate binding and mobility of individual adatoms, behaviour of adatoms clusters is presented. (author)

  11. The Structure and Stability of Molybdenum Ditelluride Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhouling Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Molybdenum-tellurium alloy thin films were fabricated by electron beam evaporation and the films were annealed in different conditions in N2 ambient. The hexagonal molybdenum ditelluride thin films with well crystallization annealed at 470°C or higher were obtained by solid state reactions. Thermal stability measurements indicate the formation of MoTe2 took place at about 350°C, and a subtle weight-loss was in the range between 30°C and 500°C. The evolution of the chemistry for Mo-Te thin films was performed to investigate the growth of the MoTe2 thin films free of any secondary phase. And the effect of other postdeposition treatments on the film characteristics was also investigated.

  12. Magnetic surfaces, thin films, and multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkin, S.S.P.; Renard, J.P.; Shinjo, T.; Zinn, W.

    1992-01-01

    This paper details recent developments in the magnetism of surfaces, thin films and multilayers. More than 20 invited contributions and more than 60 contributed papers attest to the great interest and vitality of this subject. In recent years the study of magnetic surfaces, thin films and multilayers has undergone a renaissance, partly motivated by the development of new growth and characterization techniques, but perhaps more so by the discovery of many exciting new properties, some quite unanticipated. These include, most recently, the discovery of enormous values of magnetoresistance in magnetic multilayers far exceeding those found in magnetic single layer films and the discovery of oscillatory interlayer coupling in transition metal multilayers. These experimental studies have motivated much theoretical work. However these developments are to a large extent powered by materials engineering and our ability to control and understand the growth of thin layers just a few atoms thick. The preparation of single crystal thin film layers and multilayers remains important for many studies, in particular, for properties dependent. These studies obviously require engineering not just a layer thicknesses but of lateral dimensions as well. The properties of such structures are already proving to be a great interest

  13. Thin films prepared from tungstate glass matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montanari, B.; Ribeiro, S.J.L.; Messaddeq, Y. [Departamento de Quimica Geral e Inorganica, Instituto de Quimica, Sao Paulo State University-UNESP, CP 355, CEP 14800-900, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Li, M.S. [Instituto de Fisica, USP, CP 369, CEP 13560-970, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Poirier, G. [Departamento de Ciencias Exatas, UNIFAL-MG, CEP 37130-000, Alfenas-MG (Brazil)], E-mail: gael@unifal-mg.edu.br

    2008-01-30

    Vitreous samples containing high concentrations of WO{sub 3} (above 40% M) have been used as a target to prepare thin films. Such films were deposited using the electron beam evaporation method onto soda-lime glass substrates. These films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), perfilometry, X-ray energy dispersion spectroscopy (EDS), M-Lines and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. In this work, experimental parameters were established to obtain stable thin films showing a chemical composition close to the glass precursor composition and with a high concentration of WO{sub 3}. These amorphous thin films of about 4 {mu}m in thickness exhibit a deep blue coloration but they can be bleached by thermal treatment near the glass transition temperature. Such bleached films show several guided modes in the visible region and have a high refractive index. Controlled crystallization was realized and thus it was possible to obtain WO{sub 3} microcrystals in the amorphous phase.

  14. Characterization of Sucrose Thin Films for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Iconaru

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sucrose is a natural osmolyte accumulated in the cells of organisms as they adapt to environmental stress. In vitro sucrose increases protein stability and forces partially unfolded structures to refold. Thin films of sucrose (C12H22O11 were deposited on thin cut glass substrates by the thermal evaporation technique (P∼10−5 torr. Characteristics of thin films were put into evidence by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and differential thermal analysis and thermal gravimetric analysis (TG/DTA. The experimental results confirm a uniform deposition of an adherent layer. In this paper we present a part of the characteristics of sucrose thin films deposited on glass in medium vacuum conditions, as a part of a culture medium for osteoblast cells. Osteoblast cells were used to determine proliferation, viability, and cytotoxicity interactions with sucrose powder and sucrose thin films. The osteoblast cells have been provided from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC Centre. The outcome of this study demonstrated the effectiveness of sucrose thin films as a possible nontoxic agent for biomedical applications.

  15. Significant questions in thin liquid film heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bankoff, S.G.

    1994-01-01

    Thin liquid films appear in many contexts, such as the cooling of gas turbine blade tips, rocket engines, microelectronics arrays, and hot fuel element surfaces in hypothetical nuclear reactor accidents. Apart from these direct cooling applications of thin liquid layers, thin films form a crucial element in determining the allowable heat flux limits in boiling. This is because the last stages of dryout almost invariably involve the rupture of a residual liquid film, either as a microlayer underneath the bubbles, or a thin annular layer in a high-quality burnout scenario. The destabilization of these thin films under the combined actions of shear stress, evaporation, and thermocapillary effects is quite complex. The later stages of actual rupture to form dry regions, which then expand, resulting in possible overheating, are even more complex and less well understood. However, significant progress has been made in understanding the behavior of these thin films, which are subject to competing instabilities prior to actual rupture. This will be reviewed briefly. Recent work on the advance, or recession, of contact lines will also be described briefly, and significant questions that still remain to be answered will be discussed. 68 refs., 7 figs

  16. Novel photon management for thin-film photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menon, Rajesh [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2016-11-11

    The objective of this project is to enable commercially viable thin-film photovoltaics whose efficiencies are increased by over 10% using a novel optical spectral-separation technique. A thin planar diffractive optic is proposed that efficiently separates the solar spectrum and assigns these bands to optimal thin-film sub-cells. An integrated device that is comprised of the optical element, an array of sub-cells and associated packaging is proposed.

  17. Thin films as an emerging platform for drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Karki

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceutical scientists throughout the world are trying to explore thin films as a novel drug delivery tool. Thin films have been identified as an alternative approach to conventional dosage forms. The thin films are considered to be convenient to swallow, self-administrable, and fast dissolving dosage form, all of which make it as a versatile platform for drug delivery. This delivery system has been used for both systemic and local action via several routes such as oral, buccal, sublingual, ocular, and transdermal routes. The design of efficient thin films requires a comprehensive knowledge of the pharmacological and pharmaceutical properties of drugs and polymers along with an appropriate selection of manufacturing processes. Therefore, the aim of this review is to provide an overview of the critical factors affecting the formulation of thin films, including the physico-chemical properties of polymers and drugs, anatomical and physiological constraints, as well as the characterization methods and quality specifications to circumvent the difficulties associated with formulation design. It also highlights the recent trends and perspectives to develop thin film products by various companies.

  18. Chalcogenide glasses as optical and ion-conducting materials. Kogaku oyobi ion dendo zairyo toshite no chalcogenide glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toge, N.; Minami, T. (Univ. of Osaka Prefecture, Osaka (Japan))

    1991-12-01

    Nonoxide glasses whose main constituent are chalcogen elements like S, Se, or Te etc. show a lot of various properties, for instance, high infrared transmittancy and semi-conductivity which are already well known. Additionally, the optical properties change a lot along with the phase transition's happening between crystal and noncrystal under comparative low temperature. Further, it is also observed that the glasses containing proper cation appear high ion-conductivity. This paper supplies a brief reviews of chalcogenide glasses used as materials for infrared fiber, phase transition optical memory and superionic conductor, wherein the former two have already on the stage of utilization, particularly the realization of a rewritable optical memory is possible by using chalcogenide glasses film, and ion-conductor is in the phase to have shown the possibility of high conductivity while the development thereof is being expected. 22 refs., 8 figs.

  19. Studies on dielectric properties, opto-electrical parameters and electronic polarizability of thermally evaporated amorphous Cd{sub 50}S{sub 50−x}Se{sub x} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassanien, Ahmed Saeed, E-mail: a.s.hassanien@gmail.com [Engineering Mathematics and Physics Department, Faculty of Engineering (Shoubra), Benha University (Egypt); Physics Department, Faculty of Science and Humanities in Ad-Dawadmi, Shaqra University, 11911 (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-06-25

    The objective of this work is to study the influence of the addition of more Se on dielectric properties, opto-electrical parameters and electronic polarizability of amorphous chalcogenide Cd{sub 50}S{sub 50−x}Se{sub x} thin films (30 ≤ x ≤ 50 at%). Thin films of thickness 200 nm were synthesized by vacuum deposition at ≈8.2 × 10{sup −4} Pa. Both refractive index and extinction coefficient were used to obtain all the studied parameters. The high frequency dielectric constant, real and imaginary parts of dielectric constant were discussed. Drude theory was applied to investigate opto-electrical parameters, like optical carrier concentration, optical mobility and optical resistivity. Moreover, other parameters were investigated and studied, e.g. Drude parameters, volume and surface energy loss functions, dielectric loss factor, dielectric relaxation time, complex optical conductivity and electronic polarizability as well as optical electronegativity and third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility. Values of electronic polarizability and nonlinear optical susceptibility were found to be decreased while optical electronegativity increased as Se-content was increased. Increment of Se-content in amorphous Cd{sub 50}S{sub 50−x}Se{sub x} thin films has also led to minimize the energy losses when electromagnetic waves propagate through films as well as optical conductivity and the speed of light increased. The other studied properties and parameters of Cd{sub 50}S{sub 50−x}Se{sub x} films were found to be strongly dependent upon Se-content. - Highlights: • Thermally evaporated amorphous Cd{sub 50}S{sub 50−x}Se{sub x} (30 ≤ x ≤ 50) thin films were deposited. • Refractive index and absorption index were used to determine almost all properties. • Dielectric properties, Drude parameters and electronic polarizability were studied. • Addition of more Se to CdSSe matrix led to improve the opto-electrical properties. • New data were obtained and

  20. In-situ sol-gel synthesis and thin film deposition of Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, L.; Lyubenova, T.; Marti, R.; Fraga, D.; Rey, A.; Carda, J.; Kozhukharov, V.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Nowadays chalcogenide-based solar cells, like Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 , are competitive in the photovoltaic market, due to its improved performances like higher efficiency (20,3%), long-time stability and excellent durability. In addition, CIGS stand out with an exceptionally high absorption coefficient (more than; 105/cm for 1.5eV) and higher energy photons. These properties make it an excellent candidate as an absorber material for large scale production of photovoltaic modules for building-integrated applications. Traditional methods of manufacture involve vacuum processes including co-evaporation and sputtering that increase production costs. With the aim to lower the expenses by using non-vacuum solution processes we propose an ‘in-situ’ sol-gel synthesis route and direct thin film deposition in the same production step. As a result, we achieved better stoichiometric control, simplicity in the procedure and cost reduction. In this work we describe a procedure to obtain CIGS absorber layer by soft chemistry technique and further deposition onto different substrates. Preparation parameters like precursors, chemical composition, solvents, thermal treatment factors (temperature, time, and atmosphere) were detailed studied. Finally, the resulting materials were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) coupled with Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), UV-VIS Spectroscopy among others.; key words: sol-gel synthesis, thin film deposition, photovoltaic modules, solar cells

  1. Investigations of Si Thin Films as Anode of Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Qingliu [Department of Chemical; Shi, Bing; Bareño, Javier; Liu, Yuzi; Maroni, Victor A.; Zhai, Dengyun; Dees, Dennis W.; Lu, Wenquan

    2018-01-22

    Amorphous silicon thin films having various thicknesses were investigated as a negative electrode material for lithium-ion batteries. Electrochemical characterization of the 20 nm thick thin silicon film revealed a very low first cycle Coulombic efficiency, which can be attributed to the silicon oxide layer formed on both the surface of the as-deposited Si thin film and the interface between the Si and the substrate. Among the investigated films, the 100 nm Si thin film demonstrated the best performance in terms of first cycle efficiency and cycle life. Observations from scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that the generation of cracks was inevitable in the cycled Si thin films, even as the thickness of the film was as little as 20 nm, which was not predicted by previous modeling work. However, the cycling performance of the 20 and 100 nm silicon thin films was not detrimentally affected by these cracks. The poor capacity retention of the 1 mu m silicon thin film was attributed to the delamination.

  2. Removable Thin Films used for the Abatement and Mitigation of Beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumia, M.; Gentile, C.; Creek, K.; Sandoval, R.

    2003-01-01

    The use of removable thin films for the abatement of hazardous particulates has many advantages. Removable thin films are designed to trap and fix particulates in the film's matrix by adhesion. Thin films can be applied to an existing contaminated area to fix and capture the particulates for removal. The nature of the removable thin films, after sufficient cure time, is such that it can typically be removed as one continuous entity. The removable thin films can be applied to almost any surface type with a high success rate of removal

  3. Thermochemical hydrogen generation of indium oxide thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taekyung Lim

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Development of alternative energy resources is an urgent requirement to alleviate current energy constraints. As such, hydrogen gas is gaining attention as a future alternative energy source to address existing issues related to limited energy resources and air pollution. In this study, hydrogen generation by a thermochemical water-splitting process using two types of In2O3 thin films was investigated. The two In2O3 thin films prepared by chemical vapor deposition (CVD and sputtering deposition systems contained different numbers of oxygen vacancies, which were directly related to hydrogen generation. The as-grown In2O3 thin film prepared by CVD generated a large amount of hydrogen because of its abundant oxygen vacancies, while that prepared by sputtering had few oxygen vacancies, resulting in low hydrogen generation. Increasing the temperature of the In2O3 thin film in the reaction chamber caused an increase in hydrogen generation. The oxygen-vacancy-rich In2O3 thin film is expected to provide a highly effective production of hydrogen as a sustainable and efficient energy source.

  4. Thin Film Photovoltaic/Thermal Solar Panels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David JOHNSTON

    2008-01-01

    A solar panel is described.in which thin films of semiconductor are deposited onto a metal substrate.The semiconductor-metal combination forms a thin film photovoltaic cell,and also acts as a reflector,absorber tandem, which acts as a solar selective surface,thus enhancing the solar thermal performance of the collector plate.The use of thin films reduces the distance heat is required to flow from the absorbing surface to the metal plate and heat exchange conduits.Computer modelling demonstrated that,by suitable choice of materials,photovohaic efficiency call be maintained,with thermal performance slishtly reduced,compared to that for thermal-only panels.By grading the absorber layer-to reduce the band gap in the lower region-the thermal performance can be improved,approaching that for a thermal-only solar panel.

  5. Phonon transport across nano-scale curved thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansoor, Saad B.; Yilbas, Bekir S., E-mail: bsyilbas@kfupm.edu.sa

    2016-12-15

    Phonon transport across the curve thin silicon film due to temperature disturbance at film edges is examined. The equation for radiative transport is considered via incorporating Boltzmann transport equation for the energy transfer. The effect of the thin film curvature on phonon transport characteristics is assessed. In the analysis, the film arc length along the film centerline is considered to be constant and the film arc angle is varied to obtain various film curvatures. Equivalent equilibrium temperature is introduced to assess the phonon intensity distribution inside the curved thin film. It is found that equivalent equilibrium temperature decay along the arc length is sharper than that of in the radial direction, which is more pronounced in the region close to the film inner radius. Reducing film arc angle increases the film curvature; in which case, phonon intensity decay becomes sharp in the close region of the high temperature edge. Equivalent equilibrium temperature demonstrates non-symmetric distribution along the radial direction, which is more pronounced in the near region of the high temperature edge.

  6. Phonon transport across nano-scale curved thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansoor, Saad B.; Yilbas, Bekir S.

    2016-01-01

    Phonon transport across the curve thin silicon film due to temperature disturbance at film edges is examined. The equation for radiative transport is considered via incorporating Boltzmann transport equation for the energy transfer. The effect of the thin film curvature on phonon transport characteristics is assessed. In the analysis, the film arc length along the film centerline is considered to be constant and the film arc angle is varied to obtain various film curvatures. Equivalent equilibrium temperature is introduced to assess the phonon intensity distribution inside the curved thin film. It is found that equivalent equilibrium temperature decay along the arc length is sharper than that of in the radial direction, which is more pronounced in the region close to the film inner radius. Reducing film arc angle increases the film curvature; in which case, phonon intensity decay becomes sharp in the close region of the high temperature edge. Equivalent equilibrium temperature demonstrates non-symmetric distribution along the radial direction, which is more pronounced in the near region of the high temperature edge.

  7. Emergent Topological Phenomena in Thin Films of Pyrochlore Iridates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bohm-Jung; Nagaosa, Naoto

    2014-06-01

    Because of the recent development of thin film and artificial superstructure growth techniques, it is possible to control the dimensionality of the system, smoothly between two and three dimensions. In this Letter we unveil the dimensional crossover of emergent topological phenomena in correlated topological materials. In particular, by focusing on the thin film of pyrochlore iridate antiferromagnets grown along the [111] direction, we demonstrate that the thin film can have a giant anomalous Hall conductance, proportional to the thickness of the film, even though there is no Hall effect in 3D bulk material. Moreover, in the case of ultrathin films, a quantized anomalous Hall conductance can be observed, despite the fact that the system is an antiferromagnet. In addition, we uncover the emergence of a new topological phase, the nontrivial topological properties of which are hidden in the bulk insulator and manifest only in thin films. This shows that the thin film of correlated topological materials is a new platform to search for unexplored novel topological phenomena.

  8. Thermoelectric effects of amorphous Ga-Sn-O thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Tokiyoshi; Uenuma, Mutsunori; Kimura, Mutsumi

    2017-07-01

    The thermoelectric effects of an amorphous Ga-Sn-O (a-GTO) thin film have been evaluated as a physical parameter of a novel oxide semiconductor. Currently, a-GTO thin films are greatly desired not only because they do not contain rare metals and are therefore free from problems on the exhaustion of resources and the increase in cost but also because their initial characteristics and performance stabilities are excellent when they are used in thin-film transistors. In this study, an a-GTO thin film was deposited on a quartz substrate by RF magnetron sputtering and postannealing was performed in air at 350 °C for 1 h using an annealing furnace. The Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity of the a-GTO thin film were -137 µV/K and 31.8 S/cm at room temperature, and -183 µV/K and 43.8 S/cm at 397 K, respectively, and as a result, the power factor was 1.47 µW/(cm·K2) at 397 K; these values were roughly as high as those of amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O (a-IGZO) thin films. Therefore, a-GTO thin films will be a candidate material for thermoelectric devices fabricated in a large area at a low cost by controlling the carrier mobility, carrier density, device structures, and so forth.

  9. Beryllium thin films for resistor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiet, O.

    1972-01-01

    Beryllium thin films have a protective oxidation resistant property at high temperature and high recrystallization temperature. However, the experimental film has very low temperature coefficient of resistance.

  10. XRay Study of Transfer Printed Pentacene Thin Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao, Y.; Solin, S. A.; Hines, D. R.; Williams, E. D.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the structural properties and transfer properties of pentacene thin films fabricated by thermal deposition and transfer printing onto SiO2 and plastic substrates, respectively. The dependence of the crystallite size on the printing time, temperature and pressure were measured. The increases of crystalline size were observed when pentacene thin films were printed under specific conditions, e.g. 120 deg. C and 600 psi and can be correlated with the improvement of the field effect mobility of pentacene thin-film transistors

  11. Macro stress mapping on thin film buckling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goudeau, P.; Villain, P.; Renault, P.-O.; Tamura, N.; Celestre, R.S.; Padmore, H.A.

    2002-11-06

    Thin films deposited by Physical Vapour Deposition techniques on substrates generally exhibit large residual stresses which may be responsible of thin film buckling in the case of compressive stresses. Since the 80's, a lot of theoretical work has been done to develop mechanical models but only a few experimental work has been done on this subject to support these theoretical approaches and nothing concerning local stress measurement mainly because of the small dimension of the buckling (few 10th mm). This paper deals with the application of micro beam X-ray diffraction available on synchrotron radiation sources for stress mapping analysis of gold thin film buckling.

  12. Theoretical investigation of the thermodynamic properties of metallic thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, Vu Van; Phuong, Duong Dai; Hoa, Nguyen Thi; Hieu, Ho Khac

    2015-01-01

    The thermodynamic properties of metallic thin films with face-centered cubic structure at ambient conditions were investigated using the statistical moment method including the anharmonicity effects of thermal lattice vibrations. The analytical expressions of Helmholtz free energy, lattice parameter, linear thermal expansion coefficient, specific heats at the constant volume and constant pressure were derived in terms of the power moments of the atomic displacements. Numerical calculations of thermodynamic properties have been performed for Au and Al thin films and compared with those of bulk metals. This research proposes that thermodynamic quantities of thin films approach the values of bulk when the thickness of thin film is about 70 nm. - Highlights: • Thermodynamic properties of thin films were investigated using the moment method. • Expressions of Helmholtz energy, expansion coefficient, specific heats were derived. • Calculations for Au, Al thin films were performed and compared with those of bulks

  13. Theoretical investigation of the thermodynamic properties of metallic thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung, Vu Van [Vietnam Education Publishing House, 81 Tran Hung Dao, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Phuong, Duong Dai [Hanoi National University of Education, 136 Xuan Thuy, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Hoa, Nguyen Thi [University of Transport and Communications, Lang Thuong, Dong Da, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Hieu, Ho Khac, E-mail: hieuhk@duytan.edu.vn [Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, K7/25 Quang Trung, Danang (Viet Nam)

    2015-05-29

    The thermodynamic properties of metallic thin films with face-centered cubic structure at ambient conditions were investigated using the statistical moment method including the anharmonicity effects of thermal lattice vibrations. The analytical expressions of Helmholtz free energy, lattice parameter, linear thermal expansion coefficient, specific heats at the constant volume and constant pressure were derived in terms of the power moments of the atomic displacements. Numerical calculations of thermodynamic properties have been performed for Au and Al thin films and compared with those of bulk metals. This research proposes that thermodynamic quantities of thin films approach the values of bulk when the thickness of thin film is about 70 nm. - Highlights: • Thermodynamic properties of thin films were investigated using the moment method. • Expressions of Helmholtz energy, expansion coefficient, specific heats were derived. • Calculations for Au, Al thin films were performed and compared with those of bulks.

  14. Effect of solution concentration on MEH-PPV thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affendi, I. H. H.; Sarah, M. S. P.; Alrokayan, Salman A. H.; Khan, Haseeb A.; Rusop, M.

    2018-05-01

    MEH-PPV thin films were prepared with a mixture of THF (tetrahydrofuran) solution deposited by spin coating method. The surface topology of MEH-PPV thin film were characterize by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and optical properties of absorption spectra were characterized by using Ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared (UV-Vis-NIR). The MEH-PPV concentration variation affects the surface and optical properties of the thin film where 0.5 mg/ml MEH-PPV concentration have a good surface topology provided the same film also gives the highest absorption coefficient were then deposited to a TiO2 thin film forming composite layer. The composite layer then shows low current flow of short circuit current of Isc = -5.313E-7 A.

  15. Thermionic vacuum arc (TVA) technique for magnesium thin film deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balbag, M.Z., E-mail: zbalbag@ogu.edu.t [Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Education Faculty, Primary Education, Meselik Campus, Eskisehir 26480 (Turkey); Pat, S.; Ozkan, M.; Ekem, N. [Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Art and Science Faculty, Physics Department, Eskisehir 26480 (Turkey); Musa, G. [Ovidius University, Physics Department, Constanta (Romania)

    2010-08-15

    In this study, magnesium thin films were deposited on glass substrate by the Thermionic Vacuum Arc (TVA) technique for the first time. We present a different technique for deposition of high-quality magnesium thin films. By means of this technique, the production of films is achieved by condensing the plasma of anode material generated using Thermionic Vacuum Arc (TVA) under high vacuum conditions onto the surface to be coated. The crystal orientation and morphology of the deposited films were investigated by using XRD, EDX, SEM and AFM. The aim of this study is to search the use of TVA technique to coat magnesium thin films and to determine some of the physical properties of the films generated. Furthermore, this study will contribute to the scientific studies which search the thin films of magnesium or the compounds containing magnesium. In future, this study will be preliminary work to entirely produce magnesium diboride (MgB{sub 2}) superconductor thin film with the TVA technique.

  16. Perovskite phase thin films and method of making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Timothy J.; Rodriguez, Mark A.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention comprises perovskite-phase thin films, of the general formula A.sub.x B.sub.y O.sub.3 on a substrate, wherein A is selected from beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, and barium or a combination thereof; B is selected from niobium and tantalum or a combination thereof; and x and y are mole fractions between approximately 0.8 and 1.2. More particularly, A is strontium or barium or a combination thereof and B is niobium or tantalum or a combination thereof. Also provided is a method of making a perovskite-phase thin film, comprising combining at least one element-A-containing compound, wherein A is selected from beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium or barium, with at least one element-B-containing compound, wherein B niobium or tantalum, to form a solution; adding a solvent to said solution to form another solution; spin-coating the solution onto a substrate to form a thin film; and heating the film to form the perovskite-phase thin film.

  17. Properties of RF-Sputtered PZT Thin Films with Ti/Pt Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Yan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of annealing temperature and thin film thickness on properties of Pb(Zr0.53Ti0.47O3 (PZT thin film deposited via radiofrequency magnetron sputtering technique onto Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrate was investigated. Average grain sizes of the PZT thin film were measured by atomic force microscope; their preferred orientation was studied through X-ray diffraction analysis. Average residual stress in the thin film was estimated according to the optimized Stoney formula, and impedance spectroscopy characterization was performed via an intelligent LCR measuring instrument. Average grain sizes of PZT thin films were 60 nm~90 nm and their average roughness was less than 2 nm. According to X-ray diffraction analysis, 600°C is the optimal annealing temperature to obtain the PZT thin film with better crystallization. Average residual stress showed that thermal mismatch was the decisive factor of residual stress in Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrate; the residual stress in PZT thin film decreased as their thickness increased and increased with annealing temperature. The dielectric constant and loss angle tangent were extremely increased with the thickness of PZT thin films. The capacitance of the device can be adjusted according to the thickness of PZT thin films.

  18. Substrate-HTcS thin film interaction studies by (S)TEM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramaekers, P.P.J.; Klepper, D.; Kitazawa, K.; Ishiguro, T.

    1989-01-01

    This paper concerns with compatibility aspects beween HTcS thin film either their substrates. The influence of substrate-thin film interaction and thin film microstructure on the superconducting properties is discussed. In this respect, data based on (S)TEM observations are presented. It is

  19. Low-field vortex dynamics in various high-Tc thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We present a novel ac susceptibility technique for the study of vortex creep in supercon- ducting thin films. With this technique we study the dynamics of dilute vortices in c-axis oriented. Y-123, Hg-1212, and Tl-1212 thin films, as well as a-axis oriented Hg-1212 thin films. Results on the Hg-1212 and Tl-1212 thin ...

  20. Atomic Structure Control of Silica Thin Films on Pt(111)

    KAUST Repository

    Crampton, Andrew S

    2015-05-27

    Metal oxide thin films grown on metal single crystals are commonly used to model heterogeneous catalyst supports. The structure and properties of thin silicon dioxide films grown on metal single crystals have only recently been thoroughly characterized and their spectral properties well established. We report the successful growth of a three- dimensional, vitreous silicon dioxide thin film on the Pt(111) surface and reproduce the closed bilayer structure previously reported. The confirmation of the three dimensional nature of the film is unequivocally shown by the infrared absorption band at 1252 cm−1. Temperature programmed desorption was used to show that this three-dimensional thin film covers the Pt(111) surface to such an extent that its application as a catalyst support for clusters/nanoparticles is possible. The growth of a three-dimensional film was seen to be directly correlated with the amount of oxygen present on the surface after the silicon evaporation process. This excess of oxygen is tentatively attributed to atomic oxygen being generated in the evaporator. The identification of atomic oxygen as a necessary building block for the formation of a three-dimensional thin film opens up new possibilities for thin film growth on metal supports, whereby simply changing the type of oxygen enables thin films with different atomic structures to be synthesized. This is a novel approach to tune the synthesis parameters of thin films to grow a specific structure and expands the options for modeling common amorphous silica supports under ultra high vacuum conditions.

  1. Surface relief and refractive index gratings patterned in chalcogenide glasses and studied by off-axis digital holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazac, V; Meshalkin, A; Achimova, E; Abashkin, V; Katkovnik, V; Shevkunov, I; Claus, D; Pedrini, G

    2018-01-20

    Surface relief gratings and refractive index gratings are formed by direct holographic recording in amorphous chalcogenide nanomultilayer structures As 2 S 3 -Se and thin films As 2 S 3 . The evolution of the grating parameters, such as the modulation of refractive index and relief depth in dependence of the holographic exposure, is investigated. Off-axis digital holographic microscopy is applied for the measurement of the photoinduced phase gratings. For the high-accuracy reconstruction of the wavefront (amplitude and phase) transmitted by the fabricated gratings, we used a computational technique based on the sparse modeling of phase and amplitude. Both topography and refractive index maps of recorded gratings are revealed. Their separated contribution in diffraction efficiency is estimated.

  2. A novel application of the CuI thin film for preparing thin copper nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Shuo; Sun Jialin; Zhang Jianhong; Cao Yang

    2005-01-01

    We present a novel application of the CuI thin film for preparing thin copper nanowires under a direct current electric field (DCEF). The CuI thin film was used as a medium for transmitting cuprous ions during the growing process of copper nanowires. As electrodes are the source of cuprous ions, high-purity copper films were deposited on both ends of the CuI thin film. At 353 K, under whole solid condition, without any templates, and having applied a DCEF of 1.5x10 4 V/m, cuprous ions were generated at the anode and migrated towards the cathode through the CuI film. At the edge of the cathode, cuprous ions obtained electrons and congregated to form a disordered thin copper nanowires bundle. The SEM images showed that these copper nanowires were from 10 to 20 nm in diameter and several hundred nanometers in length. The effect of the electric field intensity and the growth temperature on the diameter of the nanowires was also studied

  3. Silicon-integrated thin-film structure for electro-optic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Rodney A.; Walker, Frederick Joseph

    2000-01-01

    A crystalline thin-film structure suited for use in any of an number of electro-optic applications, such as a phase modulator or a component of an interferometer, includes a semiconductor substrate of silicon and a ferroelectric, optically-clear thin film of the perovskite BaTiO.sub.3 overlying the surface of the silicon substrate. The BaTiO.sub.3 thin film is characterized in that substantially all of the dipole moments associated with the ferroelectric film are arranged substantially parallel to the surface of the substrate to enhance the electro-optic qualities of the film.

  4. Nitrogen incorporation in sputter deposited molybdenum nitride thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stöber, Laura, E-mail: laura.stoeber@tuwien.ac.at; Patocka, Florian, E-mail: florian.patocka@tuwien.ac.at; Schneider, Michael, E-mail: michael.schneider@tuwien.ac.at; Schmid, Ulrich, E-mail: ulrich.e366.schmid@tuwien.ac.at [Institute of Sensor and Actuator Systems, TU Wien, Gußhausstraße 27-29, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Konrath, Jens Peter, E-mail: jenspeter.konrath@infineon.com; Haberl, Verena, E-mail: verena.haberl@infineon.com [Infineon Technologies Austria AG, Siemensstraße 2, 9500 Villach (Austria)

    2016-03-15

    In this paper, the authors report on the high temperature performance of sputter deposited molybdenum (Mo) and molybdenum nitride (Mo{sub 2}N) thin films. Various argon and nitrogen gas compositions are applied for thin film synthetization, and the amount of nitrogen incorporation is determined by Auger measurements. Furthermore, effusion measurements identifying the binding conditions of the nitrogen in the thin film are performed up to 1000 °C. These results are in excellent agreement with film stress and scanning electron microscope analyses, both indicating stable film properties up to annealing temperatures of 500 °C.

  5. Thin Cu film resistivity using four probe techniques: Effect of film thickness and geometrical shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Sumita; Narula, Rahul; Gangopadhyay, Subhashis

    2018-05-01

    Precise measurement of electrical sheet resistance and resistivity of metallic thin Cu films may play a significant role in temperature sensing by means of resistivity changes which can further act as a safety measure of various electronic devices during their operation. Four point probes resistivity measurement is a useful approach as it successfully excludes the contact resistance between the probes and film surface of the sample. Although, the resistivity of bulk samples at a particular temperature mostly depends on its materialistic property, however, it may significantly differ in the case of thin films, where the shape and thickness of the sample can significantly influence on it. Depending on the ratio of the film thickness to probe spacing, samples are usually classified in two segments such as (i) thick films or (ii) thin films. Accordingly, the geometric correction factors G can be related to the sample resistivity r, which has been calculated here for thin Cu films of thickness up to few 100 nm. In this study, various rectangular shapes of thin Cu films have been used to determine the shape induced geometric correction factors G. An expressions for G have been obtained as a function of film thickness t versus the probe spacing s. Using these expressions, the correction factors have been plotted separately for each cases as a function of (a) film thickness for fixed linear probe spacing and (b) probe distance from the edge of the film surface for particular thickness. Finally, we compare the experimental results of thin Cu films of various rectangular geometries with the theoretical reported results.

  6. Optical constant of thin gold films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yakubovsky, D. I.; Fedyanin, D. Yu; Arsenin, A. V.

    2017-01-01

    The performance of metal-based devices is limited by ohmic losses in the metal, which are determined by electron scattering. The structural properties of gold thin films also play an important role in the film quality, which may affect its' optical properties and the overall capability...... and spectroscopic ellipsometry, the structural morphology and optical properties of polycrystalline gold thin films (fabricated by e-beam deposition at a low sputtering rate smooth gold) in the thickness range of 20 - 200 nm. By extracting the real and imaginary dielectric function and the Drude parameter...... of the device. At the same time, metal films of different thicknesses are needed for different applications and, since these films are polycrystalline, their internal properties and surface roughness can greatly vary from one thickness to another. In this work, we study, using atomic force microscopy...

  7. Preparation and properties of thin films treatise on materials science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Tu, K N

    1982-01-01

    Treatise on Materials Science and Technology, Volume 24: Preparation and Properties of Thin Films covers the progress made in the preparation of thin films and the corresponding study of their properties. The book discusses the preparation and property correlations in thin film; the variation of microstructure of thin films; and the molecular beam epitaxy of superlattices in thin film. The text also describes the epitaxial growth of silicon structures (thermal-, laser-, and electron-beam-induced); the characterization of grain boundaries in bicrystalline thin films; and the mechanical properti

  8. Hall effect of K-doped superconducting thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Eunseon; Lee, Nam Hoon; Kang, Won Nam [Dept. of physics, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Tae Jong; Kim, Dong Ho [Dept. of physics, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan(Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    We have studied Hall effect for potassium (K)-doped BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2}superconducting thin films by analyzing the relation between the longitudinal resistivity (ρ{sub xy}) and the Hall resistivity (ρ{sub xy}). The thin films used in this study were fabricated on Al{sub O3} (000l) substrates by using an ex-situ pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique under a high-vacuum condition of ∼10{sup -6} Torr. The samples showed the high superconducting transition temperatures (T{sub C}) of ∼40 K. The ρ{sub xx} and ρ{sub xy}the for K-doped BaFeAs{sub 2} thin films were measured by using a physical property measurement system (PPMS) with a temperature sweep (T-sweep) mode at an applied current density of 100 A/cm{sup 2} and at magnetic fields from 0 up to 9 T. We report the T-sweep results of the ρ{sub xx} and the ρ{sub xy} to investigate Hall scaling behavior on the basis of the relation of ρ{sub xy} = A(ρ{sub xy}){sup β}. The ρ{sub xx} values are 3.0 ± 0.2 in the c-axis-oriented K-doped BaFeAs{sub 2} thin films, whereas the thin films with various oriented-directions like a polycrystal showed slightly lower β than that of c-axis-oriented thin films. Interestingly, the β value is decreased with increasing magnetic fields.

  9. Properties of Spray Pyrolysied Copper Oxide Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Roy

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Copper oxide (CuO thin films were deposited on well cleaned glass substrates by spray pyrolysis technique (SPT from cupric acetate (Cu(CH3COO2.H2O precursor solutions of 0.05 – 0.15 M molar concentrations (MC at a substrate temperature of 350 °C and at an air pressure of 1 bar. Effect of varying MC on the surface morphology, structural optical and electrical properties of CuO thin films were investigated. XRD patterns of the prepared films revealed the formation of CuO thin films having monoclinic structure with the main CuO (111 orientation and crystalline size ranging from 8.02 to 9.05 nm was observed. The optical transmission of the film was found to decrease with the increase of MC. The optical band gap of the thin films for 0.10 M was fond to be 1.60 eV. The room temperature electrical resistivity varies from 31 and 24 ohm.cm for the films grown with MC of 0.05 and 0.10 M respectively. The change in resistivity of the films was studied with respect to the change in temperature was shown that semiconductor nature is present. This information is expected to underlie the successful development of CuO films for solar windows and other semi-conductor applications including gas sensors.

  10. Laser-induced damage to thin film dielectric coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, T.W.

    1980-01-01

    The laser-induced damage thresholds of dielectric thin film coatings have been found to be more than an order of magnitude lower than the bulk material damage thresholds. Prior damage studies have been inconclusive in determining the damage mechanism which is operative in thin films. A program was conducted in which thin film damage thresholds were measured as a function of laser wavelength (1.06 μm, 0.53 μm, 0.35 μm and 0.26 μm), laser pulse length (5 and 15 nanoseconds), film materials and film thickness. The large matrix of data was compared to predictions given by avalanche ionization, multiphoton ionization and impurity theories of laser damage. When Mie absorption cross-sections and the exact thermal equations were included into the impurity theory excellent agreement with the data was found. The avalanche and multiphoton damage theories could not account for most parametric variations in the data. For example, the damage thresholds for most films increased as the film thickness decreased and only the impurity theory could account for this behavior. Other observed changes in damage threshold with changes in laser wavelength, pulse length and film material could only be adequately explained by the impurity theory. The conclusion which results from this study is that laser damage in thin film coatings results from absorbing impurities included during the deposition process

  11. Physical Vapor Deposition of Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahan, John E.

    2000-01-01

    A unified treatment of the theories, data, and technologies underlying physical vapor deposition methods With electronic, optical, and magnetic coating technologies increasingly dominating manufacturing in the high-tech industries, there is a growing need for expertise in physical vapor deposition of thin films. This important new work provides researchers and engineers in this field with the information they need to tackle thin film processes in the real world. Presenting a cohesive, thoroughly developed treatment of both fundamental and applied topics, Physical Vapor Deposition of Thin Films incorporates many critical results from across the literature as it imparts a working knowledge of a variety of present-day techniques. Numerous worked examples, extensive references, and more than 100 illustrations and photographs accompany coverage of: * Thermal evaporation, sputtering, and pulsed laser deposition techniques * Key theories and phenomena, including the kinetic theory of gases, adsorption and condensation, high-vacuum pumping dynamics, and sputtering discharges * Trends in sputter yield data and a new simplified collisional model of sputter yield for pure element targets * Quantitative models for film deposition rate, thickness profiles, and thermalization of the sputtered beam

  12. Indium Sulfide and Indium Oxide Thin Films Spin-Coated from Triethylammonium Indium Thioacetate Precursor for n-Channel Thin Film Transistor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tung, Duy Dao; Jeong, Hyun Dam [Chonnam Natioal University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    The In{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films of tetragonal structure and In{sub 2}O{sub 3} films of cubic structure were synthesized by a spin coating method from the organometallic compound precursor triethylammonium indium thioacetate ([(Et){sub 3}NH]+ [In(SCOCH{sub 3}){sub 4}]''-; TEA-InTAA). In order to determine the electron mobility of the spin-coated TEA-InTAA films, thin film transistors (TFTs) with an inverted structure using a gate dielectric of thermal oxide (SiO{sub 2}) was fabricated. These devices exhibited n-channel TFT characteristics with a field-effect electron mobility of 10.1 cm''2 V''-1s''-1 at a curing temperature of 500 o C, indicating that the semiconducting thin film material is applicable for use in low-cost, solution-processed printable electronics.

  13. Nanostructured thin films and coatings mechanical properties

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    The first volume in "The Handbook of Nanostructured Thin Films and Coatings" set, this book concentrates on the mechanical properties, such as hardness, toughness, and adhesion, of thin films and coatings. It discusses processing, properties, and performance and provides a detailed analysis of theories and size effects. The book presents the fundamentals of hard and superhard nanocomposites and heterostructures, assesses fracture toughness and interfacial adhesion strength of thin films and hard nanocomposite coatings, and covers the processing and mechanical properties of hybrid sol-gel-derived nanocomposite coatings. It also uses nanomechanics to optimize coatings for cutting tools and explores various other coatings, such as diamond, metal-containing amorphous carbon nanostructured, and transition metal nitride-based nanolayered multilayer coatings.

  14. Fabrication of ATO/Graphene Multi-layered Transparent Conducting Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Chen, Fei; Shen, Qiang; Wang, Chuanbin; Zhang, Lianmeng

    2013-03-01

    A novel transparent conducting oxide based on the ATO/graphene multi-layered thin films has been developed to satisfy the application of transparent conductive electrode in solar cells. The ATO thin films are prepared by pulsed laser deposition method with high quality, namely the sheet resistance of 49.5 Ω/sq and average transmittance of 81.9 %. The prepared graphene sheet is well reduced and shows atomically thin, spotty distributed appearance on the top of the ATO thin films. The XRD and optical micrographs are used to confirm the successfully preparation of the ATO/graphene multi-layered thin films. The Hall measurements and UV-Vis spectrophotometer are conducted to evaluate the sheet resistance and optical transmittance of the innovative structure. It is found that graphene can improve the electrical properties of the ATO thin films with little influence on the optical transmittance.

  15. Fabrication of ATO/Graphene Multi-layered Transparent Conducting Thin Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Na; Chen Fei; Shen Qiang; Wang Chuanbin; Zhang Lianmeng

    2013-01-01

    A novel transparent conducting oxide based on the ATO/graphene multi-layered thin films has been developed to satisfy the application of transparent conductive electrode in solar cells. The ATO thin films are prepared by pulsed laser deposition method with high quality, namely the sheet resistance of 49.5 Ω/sq and average transmittance of 81.9 %. The prepared graphene sheet is well reduced and shows atomically thin, spotty distributed appearance on the top of the ATO thin films. The XRD and optical micrographs are used to confirm the successfully preparation of the ATO/graphene multi-layered thin films. The Hall measurements and UV-Vis spectrophotometer are conducted to evaluate the sheet resistance and optical transmittance of the innovative structure. It is found that graphene can improve the electrical properties of the ATO thin films with little influence on the optical transmittance.

  16. Bi-axially crumpled silver thin-film electrodes for dielectric elastomer actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low, Sze-Hsien; Lau, Gih-Keong

    2014-01-01

    Metal thin films, which have high conductivity, are much stiffer and may fracture at a much lower strain than dielectric elastomers. In order to fabricate compliant electrodes for use in dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs), metal thin films have been formed into either zigzag patterns or corrugations, which favour bending and only allow uniaxial DEA deformations. However, biaxially compliant electrodes are desired in order to maximize generated forces of DEA. In this paper, we present crumpled metal thin-film electrodes that are biaxially compliant and have full area coverage over the dielectric elastomer. These crumpled metal thin-film electrodes are more stretchable than flat metal thin films; they remain conductive beyond 110% radial strain. Also, crumpling reduced the stiffening effect of metal thin films on the soft elastomer. As such, DEAs using crumpled metal thin-film electrodes managed to attain relatively high actuated area strains of up to 128% at 1.8 kV (102 Vμm −1 ). (paper)

  17. Subtle Raman signals from nano-diamond and β-SiC thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuntumalla, Mohan Kumar; Ojha, Harish; Srikanth, Vadali Venkata Satya Siva

    2013-01-01

    Micro Raman scattering experiments are carried out in pursuit of subtle but discernable signals from nano-diamond and β-SiC thin films. The thin films are synthesized using microwave plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition technique. Raman scattering experiments in conjunction with scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction were carried out to extract microstructure and phase information of the above mentioned thin films. Certain subtle Raman signals have been identified in this work. In the case of nanodiamond thin films, Raman bands at ∼ 485 and ∼ 1220 cm −1 are identified. These bands have been assigned to the nanodiamond present in nanodiamond thin films. In the case of nano β-SiC thin films, optical phonons are identified using surface enhanced Raman scattering. - Highlights: ► Subtle Raman signals from nano-diamond and β-silicon carbide related thin films. ► Raman bands at ∼ 485 and ∼ 1220 cm −1 from nanodiamond thin films are identified. ► Longitudinal optical phonon from nano β-silicon carbide thin films is identified

  18. In vitro behaviour of nanocrystalline silver-sputtered thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piedade, A P; Vieira, M T; Martins, A; Silva, F

    2007-01-01

    Silver thin films were deposited with different preferential orientations and special attention was paid to the bioreactivity of the surfaces. The study was essentially focused on the evaluation of the films by x-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and contact angle measurements. The deposited thin films were characterized before and after immersion in S-enriched simulated human plasma in order to estimate the influence of the preferential crystallographic orientation on the in vitro behaviour. Silver thin films with and without (111) preferential crystallographic orientation were deposited by r.f. magnetron sputtering to yield nanocrystalline coatings, high compact structures, very hydrophobic surfaces and low roughness. These properties reduce the chemisorption of reactive species onto the film surface. The in vitro tests indicate that silver thin films can be used as coatings for biomaterials applications

  19. Ion Beam Assisted Deposition of Thin Epitaxial GaN Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauschenbach, Bernd; Lotnyk, Andriy; Neumann, Lena; Poppitz, David; Gerlach, Jürgen W

    2017-06-23

    The assistance of thin film deposition with low-energy ion bombardment influences their final properties significantly. Especially, the application of so-called hyperthermal ions (energy GaN thin films on (0001)-oriented 6H-SiC substrates at 700 °C. The films are studied in situ by reflection high energy electron diffraction, ex situ by X-ray diffraction, scanning tunnelling microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. It is demonstrated that the film growth mode can be controlled by varying the ion to atom ratio, where 2D films are characterized by a smooth topography, a high crystalline quality, low biaxial stress, and low defect density. Typical structural defects in the GaN thin films were identified as basal plane stacking faults, low-angle grain boundaries forming between w-GaN and z-GaN and twin boundaries. The misfit strain between the GaN thin films and substrates is relieved by the generation of edge dislocations in the first and second monolayers of GaN thin films and of misfit interfacial dislocations. It can be demonstrated that the low-energy nitrogen ion assisted molecular beam epitaxy is a technique to produce thin GaN films of high crystalline quality.

  20. Catalytic EC′ reaction at a thin film modified electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerbino, Leandro; Baruzzi, Ana M.; Iglesias, Rodrigo A.

    2013-01-01

    Numerical simulations of cyclic voltammograms corresponding to a catalytic EC′ reaction taking place at a thin film modified electrode are performed by way of finite difference method. Besides considering the chemical kinetic occurring inside the thin film, the model takes into account the different diffusion coefficients for each species at each of the involved phases, i.e. the thin film layer and bulk solution. The theoretical formulation is given in terms of dimensionless model parameters but a brief discussion of each of these parameters and their relationship to experimental variables is presented. Special emphasis is given to the use of working curve characteristics to quantify diffusion coefficient, homogeneous kinetic constant and thickness of the thin layer in a real system. Validation of the model is made by comparison of experimental results corresponding to the electron charge transfer of Ru(NH 3 ) 6 3+ /Ru(NH 3 ) 6 2+ hemi-couple at a thin film of a cross-linked chitosan film containing an immobilized redox dye

  1. Room temperature ferroelectricity in continuous croconic acid thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Xuanyuan; Lu, Haidong; Yin, Yuewei; Ahmadi, Zahra; Costa, Paulo S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States); Zhang, Xiaozhe [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States); Department of Physics, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Wang, Xiao; Yu, Le; Cheng, Xuemei [Department of Physics, Bryn Mawr College, Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania 19010 (United States); DiChiara, Anthony D. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Gruverman, Alexei, E-mail: alexei-gruverman@unl.edu, E-mail: a.enders@me.com, E-mail: xiaoshan.xu@unl.edu; Enders, Axel, E-mail: alexei-gruverman@unl.edu, E-mail: a.enders@me.com, E-mail: xiaoshan.xu@unl.edu; Xu, Xiaoshan, E-mail: alexei-gruverman@unl.edu, E-mail: a.enders@me.com, E-mail: xiaoshan.xu@unl.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States); Nebraska Center for Materials and Nanoscience, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States)

    2016-09-05

    Ferroelectricity at room temperature has been demonstrated in nanometer-thin quasi 2D croconic acid thin films, by the polarization hysteresis loop measurements in macroscopic capacitor geometry, along with observation and manipulation of the nanoscale domain structure by piezoresponse force microscopy. The fabrication of continuous thin films of the hydrogen-bonded croconic acid was achieved by the suppression of the thermal decomposition using low evaporation temperatures in high vacuum, combined with growth conditions far from thermal equilibrium. For nominal coverages ≥20 nm, quasi 2D and polycrystalline films, with an average grain size of 50–100 nm and 3.5 nm roughness, can be obtained. Spontaneous ferroelectric domain structures of the thin films have been observed and appear to correlate with the grain patterns. The application of this solvent-free growth protocol may be a key to the development of flexible organic ferroelectric thin films for electronic applications.

  2. Chalcogenide Glass Optical Waveguides for Infrared Biosensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Bureau

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the remarkable properties of chalcogenide (Chg glasses, Chg optical waveguides should play a significant role in the development of optical biosensors. This paper describes the fabrication and properties of chalcogenide fibres and planar waveguides. Using optical fibre transparent in the mid-infrared spectral range we have developed a biosensor that can collect information on whole metabolism alterations, rapidly and in situ. Thanks to this sensor it is possible to collect infrared spectra by remote spectroscopy, by simple contact with the sample. In this way, we tried to determine spectral modifications due, on the one hand, to cerebral metabolism alterations caused by a transient focal ischemia in the rat brain and, in the other hand, starvation in the mouse liver. We also applied a microdialysis method, a well known technique for in vivo brain metabolism studies, as reference. In the field of integrated microsensors, reactive ion etching was used to pattern rib waveguides between 2 and 300 μm wide. This technique was used to fabricate Y optical junctions for optical interconnections on chalcogenide amorphous films, which can potentially increase the sensitivity and stability of an optical micro-sensor. The first tests were also carried out to functionalise the Chg planar waveguides with the aim of using them as (biosensors.

  3. Subtractive fabrication of ferroelectric thin films with precisely controlled thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ievlev, Anton V.; Chyasnavichyus, Marius; Leonard, Donovan N.; Agar, Joshua C.; Velarde, Gabriel A.; Martin, Lane W.; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Maksymovych, Petro; Ovchinnikova, Olga S.

    2018-04-01

    The ability to control thin-film growth has led to advances in our understanding of fundamental physics as well as to the emergence of novel technologies. However, common thin-film growth techniques introduce a number of limitations related to the concentration of defects on film interfaces and surfaces that limit the scope of systems that can be produced and studied experimentally. Here, we developed an ion-beam based subtractive fabrication process that enables creation and modification of thin films with pre-defined thicknesses. To accomplish this we transformed a multimodal imaging platform that combines time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry with atomic force microscopy to a unique fabrication tool that allows for precise sputtering of the nanometer-thin layers of material. To demonstrate fabrication of thin-films with in situ feedback and control on film thickness and functionality we systematically studied thickness dependence of ferroelectric switching of lead-zirconate-titanate, within a single epitaxial film. Our results demonstrate that through a subtractive film fabrication process we can control the piezoelectric response as a function of film thickness as well as improve on the overall piezoelectric response versus an untreated film.

  4. Solution processed pentacene thin films and their structural properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Chunlan; Zhang Xuhui; Zhang Fujia; Liu Yiyang; Zhang Haoli

    2007-01-01

    The paper reported the solution process of pentacene thin films from organic solvent O-dichlorobenzene. The pentacene thin films obtained from different conditions were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and UV-vis spectroscopy. The result shows that the pentacene solution was successfully obtained at a minimum temperature of 40 deg. C. The optimum temperature of forming pentacene thin films was 100 deg. C

  5. Stability of tetraphenyl butadiene thin films in liquid xenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanguino, P.; Balau, F.; Botelho do Rego, A.M.; Pereira, A.; Chepel, V.

    2016-01-01

    Tetraphenyl butadiene (TPB) is widely used in particle detectors as a wavelength shifter. In this work we studied the stability of TPB thin films when immersed in liquid xenon (LXe). The thin films were deposited on glass and quartz substrates by thermal evaporation. Morphological and chemical surface properties were monitored before and after immersion into LXe by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. No appreciable changes have been detected with these two methods. Grain size and surface chemical composition were found to be identical before and after submersion into LXe. However, the film thickness, measured via optical transmission in the ultraviolet–visible wavelength regions, decreased by 1.6 μg/cm 2 (24%) after immersion in LXe during 20 h. These results suggest the necessity of using a protective thin film over the Tetraphenyl butadiene when used as a wavelength shifter in LXe particle detectors. - Highlights: • Stability of tetraphenyl butadiene (TPB) thin films immersed in liquid xenon (LXe). • Thermally evaporated TPB thin films were immersed in LXe for 20 h. • Film morphology and chemical surface properties remained unchanged. • Surface density of the films decreased by 1.6 μg/cm 2 (24%) after immersion in LXe. • For using in LXe particle detectors, TPB films should be protected with a coating.

  6. Preparation of Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} thin films by sulfurizing stacked precursor thin films via successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su Zhenghua; Yan Chang; Sun Kaiwen; Han Zili [School of Metallurgical Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Liu Fangyang, E-mail: liufangyang@csu.edu.cn [School of Metallurgical Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Liu Jin [School of Metallurgical Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Lai Yanqing, E-mail: laiyanqingcsu@163.com [School of Metallurgical Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Li Jie; Liu Yexiang [School of Metallurgical Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2012-07-15

    Earth-abundant Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} is a promising alternative photovoltaic material which has been examined as absorber layer of thin film solar cells. In this study, Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} (CZTS) thin films have been successfully fabricated by sulfurizing stacked precursor thin films via successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The prepared CZTS thin films have been characterized by X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectrometer, Raman spectroscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy, Hall effect measurements and photoelectrochemical tests. Results reveal that the thin films have kesterite structured Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} and the p-type conductivity with a carrier concentration in the order of 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} and an optical band gap of 1.5 eV, which are suitable for applications in thin film solar cells.

  7. Molecular dynamics simulation of Cu/Au thin films under temperature gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Qibin; Peng, Xianghe; Peng, Tiefeng; Tang, Qizhong; Zhang, Xiaomin; Huang, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Heat transportation in the thin films. - Highlights: • The coherent lattice interface is found at thin films after annealing. • The vacancies are observed clearly in the deposit thin films. • The defect and component will influence the energy transportation in the coatings. • The vacancies and lattice mismatch can enlarge the mobility of atoms. • The phonon transportation in thin films has no apparent rule. - Abstract: Three modulation period thin films, 1.8 nm Cu/3.6 nm Au, 2.7 nm Cu/2.7 nm Au and 3.6 nm Cu/1.8 nm Au, are obtained from deposition method and ideal modeling based on lattice constant, to examine their structures and thermophysical characteristics under temperature gradient. The coherent lattice interface is found both at deposit and ideal thin films after annealing. Also, the vacancies are observed clearly in the deposit thin films. The defect and component of thin films will influence the energy transportation in the coatings. The vacancies and lattice mismatch can enlarge the mobility of atoms and result in the failure of coating under the thermal stress. The power spectrum of atoms’ movement has no apparent rule for phonon transportation in thin films. The results are helpful to reveal the micro-mechanism and provide reasonable basis for the failure of metallic coatings.

  8. Molecular dynamics simulation of Cu/Au thin films under temperature gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Qibin, E-mail: qibinli@cqu.edu.cn [College of Aerospace Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); State Key Laboratory of Coal Mine Disaster Dynamics and Control, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Chongqing Key Laboratory of Heterogeneous Material Mechanics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Peng, Xianghe [College of Aerospace Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); State Key Laboratory of Coal Mine Disaster Dynamics and Control, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Peng, Tiefeng, E-mail: pengtiefeng@cqu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Coal Mine Disaster Dynamics and Control, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Tang, Qizhong [College of Aerospace Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Zhang, Xiaomin [College of Aerospace Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Chongqing Key Laboratory of Heterogeneous Material Mechanics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Huang, Cheng [College of Aerospace Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China)

    2015-12-01

    Graphical abstract: Heat transportation in the thin films. - Highlights: • The coherent lattice interface is found at thin films after annealing. • The vacancies are observed clearly in the deposit thin films. • The defect and component will influence the energy transportation in the coatings. • The vacancies and lattice mismatch can enlarge the mobility of atoms. • The phonon transportation in thin films has no apparent rule. - Abstract: Three modulation period thin films, 1.8 nm Cu/3.6 nm Au, 2.7 nm Cu/2.7 nm Au and 3.6 nm Cu/1.8 nm Au, are obtained from deposition method and ideal modeling based on lattice constant, to examine their structures and thermophysical characteristics under temperature gradient. The coherent lattice interface is found both at deposit and ideal thin films after annealing. Also, the vacancies are observed clearly in the deposit thin films. The defect and component of thin films will influence the energy transportation in the coatings. The vacancies and lattice mismatch can enlarge the mobility of atoms and result in the failure of coating under the thermal stress. The power spectrum of atoms’ movement has no apparent rule for phonon transportation in thin films. The results are helpful to reveal the micro-mechanism and provide reasonable basis for the failure of metallic coatings.

  9. CdS thin films prepared by laser assisted chemical bath deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, L.V.; Mendivil, M.I.; Garcia Guillen, G.; Aguilar Martinez, J.A.; Krishnan, B.; Avellaneda, D.; Castillo, G.A.; Das Roy, T.K.; Shaji, S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • CdS thin films by conventional CBD and laser assisted CBD. • Characterized these films using XRD, XPS, AFM, optical and electrical measurements. • Accelerated growth was observed in the laser assisted CBD process. • Improved dark conductivity and good photocurrent response for the LACBD CdS. - Abstract: In this work, we report the preparation and characterization of CdS thin films by laser assisted chemical bath deposition (LACBD). CdS thin films were prepared from a chemical bath containing cadmium chloride, triethanolamine, ammonium hydroxide and thiourea under various deposition conditions. The thin films were deposited by in situ irradiation of the bath using a continuous laser of wavelength 532 nm, varying the power density. The thin films obtained during deposition of 10, 20 and 30 min were analyzed. The changes in morphology, structure, composition, optical and electrical properties of the CdS thin films due to in situ irradiation of the bath were analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and UV–vis spectroscopy. The thin films obtained by LACBD were nanocrystalline, photoconductive and presented interesting morphologies. The results showed that LACBD is an effective synthesis technique to obtain nanocrystalline CdS thin films having good optoelectronic properties

  10. CdS thin films prepared by laser assisted chemical bath deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, L.V.; Mendivil, M.I.; Garcia Guillen, G.; Aguilar Martinez, J.A. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon 66450 (Mexico); Krishnan, B. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon 66450 (Mexico); CIIDIT – Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Apodaca, Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Avellaneda, D.; Castillo, G.A.; Das Roy, T.K. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon 66450 (Mexico); Shaji, S., E-mail: sshajis@yahoo.com [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon 66450 (Mexico); CIIDIT – Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Apodaca, Nuevo Leon (Mexico)

    2015-05-01

    Highlights: • CdS thin films by conventional CBD and laser assisted CBD. • Characterized these films using XRD, XPS, AFM, optical and electrical measurements. • Accelerated growth was observed in the laser assisted CBD process. • Improved dark conductivity and good photocurrent response for the LACBD CdS. - Abstract: In this work, we report the preparation and characterization of CdS thin films by laser assisted chemical bath deposition (LACBD). CdS thin films were prepared from a chemical bath containing cadmium chloride, triethanolamine, ammonium hydroxide and thiourea under various deposition conditions. The thin films were deposited by in situ irradiation of the bath using a continuous laser of wavelength 532 nm, varying the power density. The thin films obtained during deposition of 10, 20 and 30 min were analyzed. The changes in morphology, structure, composition, optical and electrical properties of the CdS thin films due to in situ irradiation of the bath were analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and UV–vis spectroscopy. The thin films obtained by LACBD were nanocrystalline, photoconductive and presented interesting morphologies. The results showed that LACBD is an effective synthesis technique to obtain nanocrystalline CdS thin films having good optoelectronic properties.

  11. Sputtered molybdenum thin films and the application in CIGS solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, D.; Zhu, H., E-mail: hongbing1982@hotmail.com; Liang, X.; Zhang, C.; Li, Z.; Xu, Y.; Chen, J.; Zhang, L.; Mai, Y., E-mail: yaohuamai@hbu.edu.cn

    2016-01-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Mo thin films are prepared by magnetron sputtering. • The dynamic deposition rate increases with the increasing discharge power. • The surface structure of Mo films varies with discharge power and working pressure. • High efficiency CIGS thin film solar cell of 15.2% has been obtained. - Abstract: Molybdenum (Mo) thin films are prepared by magnetron sputtering with different discharge powers and working pressures for the application in Cu(In, Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) thin film solar cells as back electrodes. Properties of these Mo thin films are systematically investigated. It is found that the dynamic deposition rate increases with the increasing discharge power while decreases with the increasing working pressure. The highest dynamic deposition rate of 15.1 nm m/min is achieved for the Mo thin film deposited at the discharge power of 1200 W and at the working pressure of 0.15 Pa. The achieved lowest resistivity of 3.7 × 10{sup −5} Ω cm is attributed to the large grains in the compact thin film. The discharge power and working pressure have great influence on the sputtered Mo thin films. High efficiency of 12.5% was achieved for the Cu(In, Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) thin film solar cells with Mo electrodes prepared at 1200 W and low working pressures. By further optimizing material and device properties, the conversion efficiency has reached to 15.2%.

  12. Thin Film Approaches to the SRF Cavity Problem Fabrication and Characterization of Superconducting Thin Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beringer, Douglas [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) cavities are responsible for the acceleration of charged particles to relativistic velocities in most modern linear accelerators, such as those employed at high-energy research facilities like Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory’s CEBAF and the LHC at CERN. Recognizing SRF as primarily a surface phenomenon enables the possibility of applying thin films to the interior surface of SRF cavities, opening a formidable tool chest of opportunities by combining and designing materials that offer greater performance benefit. Thus, while improvements in radio frequency cavity design and refinements in cavity processing techniques have improved accelerator performance and efficiency – 1.5 GHz bulk niobium SRF cavities have achieved accelerating gradients in excess of 35 MV/m – there exist fundamental material bounds in bulk superconductors limiting the maximally sustained accelerating field gradient (≈ 45 MV/m for Nb) where inevitable thermodynamic breakdown occurs. With state of the art Nb based cavity design fast approaching these theoretical limits, novel material innovations must be sought in order to realize next generation SRF cavities. One proposed method to improve SRF performance is to utilize thin film superconducting-insulating-superconducting (SIS) multilayer structures to effectively magnetically screen a bulk superconducting layer such that it can operate at higher field gradients before suffering critically detrimental SRF losses. This dissertation focuses on the production and characterization of thin film superconductors for such SIS layers for radio frequency applications. Correlated studies on structure, surface morphology and superconducting properties of epitaxial Nb and MgB2 thin films are presented.

  13. The optical properties of plasma polymerized polyaniline thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goktas, Hilal, E-mail: hilal_goktas@yahoo.com [Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Physics Department, 17020 Canakkale (Turkey); Demircioglu, Zahide; Sel, Kivanc [Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Physics Department, 17020 Canakkale (Turkey); Gunes, Taylan [Yalova University, Energy Systems Engineering Department, 77100 Yalova (Turkey); Kaya, Ismet [Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Chemistry Department, 17020 Canakkale (Turkey)

    2013-12-02

    We report herein the characterizations of polyaniline thin films synthesized using double discharge plasma system. Quartz glass substrates were coated at a pressure of 80 Pa, 19.0 kV pulsed and 1.5 kV dc potential. The substrates were located at different regions in the reactor to evaluate the influence of the position on the morphological and molecular structure of the obtained thin films. The molecular structure of the thin films was investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and UV–visible photospectrometers (UV–vis), and the morphological studies were carried out by scanning electron microscope. The FTIR and UV–vis data revealed that the molecular structures of the synthesized thin films were in the form of leuocoemeraldine and exhibited similar structures with the films produced via chemical or electrochemical methods. The optical energy band gap values of the as-grown samples ranged from 2.5 to 3.1 eV, which indicated that these materials have potential applications in semiconductor devices. The refractive index in the transparent region (from 650 to 1000 nm) steadily decreased from 1.9 to 1.4 and the extinction coefficient was found to be on order of 10{sup −4}. The synthesized thin films showed various degrees of granular morphologies depending on the location of the substrate in the reactor. - Highlights: • Polyaniline thin films were synthesized for the first time via double discharge plasma system. • The films have similar structure to that of the chemically synthesized films. • The morphology of the films could be tuned by this technique. • These materials would have potential applications at semiconductor devices.

  14. Polymer surfaces, interfaces and thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stamm, M [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Polymerforschung, Mainz (Germany)

    1996-11-01

    Neutron reflectometry can be used in various ways to investigate surfaces, interfaces and thin films of polymers. Its potential comes mostly from the possibilities offered by selective deuteration, where a particular component can be made visible with respect to its activity at the interface. In addition the depth resolution is much better than with most other direct techniques, and details of the profiles may be resolved. Several examples will be discussed including the segment diffusion at the interface between two polymer films, the determination of the narrow interfaces between incompatible polymer blends and the development of order in thin diblock copolymer films. (author) 10 figs., 2 tabs., 38 refs.

  15. Polymer surfaces, interfaces and thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamm, M.

    1996-01-01

    Neutron reflectometry can be used in various ways to investigate surfaces, interfaces and thin films of polymers. Its potential comes mostly from the possibilities offered by selective deuteration, where a particular component can be made visible with respect to its activity at the interface. In addition the depth resolution is much better than with most other direct techniques, and details of the profiles may be resolved. Several examples will be discussed including the segment diffusion at the interface between two polymer films, the determination of the narrow interfaces between incompatible polymer blends and the development of order in thin diblock copolymer films. (author) 10 figs., 2 tabs., 38 refs

  16. Flush Mounting Of Thin-Film Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Thomas C., Sr.

    1992-01-01

    Technique developed for mounting thin-film sensors flush with surfaces like aerodynamic surfaces of aircraft, which often have compound curvatures. Sensor mounted in recess by use of vacuum pad and materials selected for specific application. Technique involves use of materials tailored to thermal properties of substrate in which sensor mounted. Together with customized materials, enables flush mounting of thin-film sensors in most situations in which recesses for sensors provided. Useful in both aircraft and automotive industries.

  17. Solid surfaces, interfaces and thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Lüth, Hans

    2015-01-01

    This book emphasises both experimental and theoretical aspects of surface, interface and thin-film physics. As in previous editions the preparation of surfaces and thin films, their atomic and morphological structure, their vibronic and electronic properties as well as fundamentals of adsorption are treated. Because of their importance in modern information technology and nanostructure research, particular emphasis is paid to electronic surface and interface states, semiconductor space charge layers and heterostructures. A special chapter of the book is devoted to collective phenomena at interfaces and in thin films such as superconductivity and magnetism. The latter topic includes the meanwhile important issues giant magnetoresistance and spin-transfer torque mechanism, both effects being of high interest in information technology. In this new edition, for the first time, the effect of spin-orbit coupling on surface states is treated. In this context the class of the recently detected topological insulators,...

  18. Solid Surfaces, Interfaces and Thin Films

    CERN Document Server

    Lüth, Hans

    2010-01-01

    This book emphasises both experimental and theoretical aspects of surface, interface and thin film physics. As in previous editions the preparation of surfaces and thin films, their atomic and morphological, their vibronic and electronic properties as well as fundamentals of adsorption are treated. Because of their importance in modern information technology and nanostructure physics particular emphasis is paid to electronic surface and interface states, semiconductor space charge layers and heterostructures as well as to superconductor/semiconductor interfaces and magnetic thin films. The latter topic was significantly extended in this new edition by more details about the giant magnetoresistance and a section about the spin-transfer torque mechanism including one new problem as exercise. Two new panels about Kerr-effect and spin-polarized scanning tunnelling microscopy were added, too. Furthermore, the meanwhile important group III-nitride surfaces and high-k oxide/semiconductor interfaces are shortly discu...

  19. 12. International conference on thin films (ICTF 12). Book of Abstract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majkova, E.

    2002-09-01

    The publication has been set up as a proceedings of the conference dealing with thin films production and study of their properties. The conference was focused on the following topics: (1) Advanced deposition techniques; (2) Thin Film Growth; (3) Diagnostics, Structure - Properties Relationship; (4) Mechanical Properties and Stress; (5) Protective and Functional Coatings; (6) Micropatterning and Nanostructures; (7) EUV and Soft X-Ray Multilayers; (8) Magnetic Thin Films and Multilayers; (9) Organic Thin Films; (10) Thin Films for Electronics and Optics. In this proceedings totally 157 abstracts are published of which 126 are interest for INIS

  20. Chemical bonding characteristics of Ge2Sb2Te5 for thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Min-Jung; Choi, Doo-Jin; Kang, Myung-Jin; Choi, Se-Young; Jang, In-Woo; Lee, Kye-Nam; Park, Young-Jin

    2004-01-01

    The chalcogenide-based phase change memory has been suggested as an alternative non-volatile memory device at the 180 nm technology node. These materials appear to have a reversible phase change between amorphous and crystalline phases. A sputtered Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 film is deposited on a (100) Si substrate. In order to investigate the crystallization tendency at a certain temperature, we use X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The film morphology is observed by using atomic forces microscopy. Grain growth and a phase transition from cubic to hexagonal occurs when the films are heated from 170 .deg. C and 380 .deg. C, and Ge-Te and Te-Sb bonds increased with annealing.

  1. P-type thin films transistors with solution-deposited lead sulfide films as semiconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrillo-Castillo, A.; Salas-Villasenor, A.; Mejia, I. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Texas at Dallas. 800 West Campbell Rd, Richardson, TX 75083 (United States); Aguirre-Tostado, S. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, S. C. Alianza Norte 202, Parque de Investigacion e Innovacion Tecnologica, Apodaca, Nuevo Leon, C.P. 666000 (Mexico); Gnade, B.E. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas. 800 West Campbell Rd, Richardson, TX 75083 (United States); Quevedo-Lopez, M.A., E-mail: mxq071000@utdallas.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas. 800 West Campbell Rd, Richardson, TX 75083 (United States)

    2012-01-31

    In this paper we demonstrate p-type thin film transistors fabricated with lead sulfide (PbS) as semiconductor deposited by chemical bath deposition methods. Crystallinity and morphology of the resulting PbS films were characterized using X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Devices were fabricated using photolithographic processes in a bottom gate configuration with Au as source and drain top contacts. Field effect mobility for as-fabricated devices was {approx} 0.09 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1} whereas the mobility for devices annealed at 150 Degree-Sign C/h in forming gas increased up to {approx} 0.14 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1}. Besides the thermal annealing, the entire fabrications process was maintained below 100 Degree-Sign C. The electrical performance of the PbS-thin film transistors was studied before and after the 150 Degree-Sign C anneal as well as a function of the PbS active layer thicknesses. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thin film transistors with PbS as semiconductor deposited by chemical bath deposition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photolithography-based thin film transistors with PbS films at low temperatures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electron mobility for anneal-PbS devices of {approx} 0.14 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Highest mobility reported in thin film transistors with PbS as the semiconductor.

  2. NbN thin films for superconducting radio frequency cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, W. M.; Skuza, J. R.; Beringer, D. B.; Li, Z.; Clavero, C.; Lukaszew, R. A.

    2012-12-01

    NbN thin films have the potential to be incorporated into radio frequency cavities in a multilayer coating to overcome the fundamental field gradient limit of 50 MV m-1 for the bulk niobium based technology that is currently implemented in particle accelerators. In addition to having a larger critical field value than bulk niobium, NbN films develop smoother surfaces which are optimal for cavity performance and lead to fewer losses. Here, we present a study on the correlation of film deposition parameters, surface morphology, microstructure, transport properties and superconducting properties of NbN thin films. We have achieved films with bulk-like lattice parameters and superconducting transition temperatures. These NbN films have a lower surface roughness than similarly grown niobium films of comparable thickness. The potential application of NbN thin films in accelerator cavities is discussed.

  3. NbN thin films for superconducting radio frequency cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roach, W M; Clavero, C; Lukaszew, R A; Skuza, J R; Beringer, D B; Li, Z

    2012-01-01

    NbN thin films have the potential to be incorporated into radio frequency cavities in a multilayer coating to overcome the fundamental field gradient limit of 50 MV m −1 for the bulk niobium based technology that is currently implemented in particle accelerators. In addition to having a larger critical field value than bulk niobium, NbN films develop smoother surfaces which are optimal for cavity performance and lead to fewer losses. Here, we present a study on the correlation of film deposition parameters, surface morphology, microstructure, transport properties and superconducting properties of NbN thin films. We have achieved films with bulk-like lattice parameters and superconducting transition temperatures. These NbN films have a lower surface roughness than similarly grown niobium films of comparable thickness. The potential application of NbN thin films in accelerator cavities is discussed. (paper)

  4. Research Progress on Measurement Methods and Influence Factors of Thin-film Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Yibo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available With the size of thin-film electronic devices decreasing, the film stress became an important reason for the failure of thin film devices. Film stress not only affected the membrane structure, but also associated with film optics, electricity, mechanics and other properties, therefore film stress turned into one hot spot in the research field of thin-film materials. This paper reviewed the latest research progress of film stress, substrate curvature method, X-ray diffraction technique and Raman spectroscopy, several frequently used stress measuring techniques were compared and analyzed, and composition ratios of thin film, substrate types, magnetron sputtering process parameters (sputtering power, work pressure, substrate temperature and annealing etc. factors influencing thin film stress were summarized. It was found that substrate curvature method was suitable for measuring almost all kinds of thin film materials. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy were just fit for measuring materials with characteristic peaks. Nanoindentation method required extra stress-free samples as comparison experiments. During film fabrication and annealing process, film stress usually transited from compressive to tensile status, and several factors combined together could affect stress, so film stress could be reached the minimum value or even stress-free status through setting appropriate parameters. Finally, combined with film stress research status, accurate stress measurement methods for different materials as a thin-film stress research direction were introduced, and challenges in thin film detection range were pointed out.

  5. Magnetite thin films: A simulational approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazo-Zuluaga, J.; Restrepo, J.

    2006-01-01

    In the present work the study of the magnetic properties of magnetite thin films is addressed by means of the Monte Carlo method and the Ising model. We simulate LxLxd magnetite thin films (d being the film thickness and L the transversal linear dimension) with periodic boundary conditions along transversal directions and free boundary conditions along d direction. In our model, both the three-dimensional inverse spinel structure and the interactions scheme involving tetrahedral and octahedral sites have been considered in a realistic way. Results reveal a power-law dependence of the critical temperature with the film thickness accordingly by an exponent ν=0.81 and ruled out by finite-size scaling theory. Estimates for the critical exponents of the magnetization and the specific heat are finally presented and discussed

  6. TI--CR--AL--O thin film resistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, Alan F.; Schmid, Anthony P.

    2000-01-01

    Thin films of Ti--Cr--Al--O are used as a resistor material. The films are rf sputter deposited from ceramic targets using a reactive working gas mixture of Ar and O.sub.2. Resistivity values from 10.sup.4 to 10.sup.10 Ohm-cm have been measured for Ti--Cr--Al--O film Ti--Cr--Al--O as a thin film resistor has been found to be thermodynamically stable, unlike other metal-oxide films. The Ti--Cr--Al--O film can be used as a vertical or lateral resistor, for example, as a layer beneath a field emission cathode in a flat panel display; or used to control surface emissivity, for example, as a coating on an insulating material such as vertical wall supports in flat panel displays.

  7. Voltage transients in thin-film InSb Hall sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Bardin

    Full Text Available The work is reached to study temperature transients in thin-film Hall sensors. We experimentally study InSb thin-film Hall sensor. We find transients of voltage with amplitude about 10 μV on the sensor ports after current switching. We demonstrate by direct measurements that the transients is caused by thermo-e.m.f., and both non-stationarity and heterogeneity of temperature in the film. We find significant asymmetry of temperature field for different direction of the current, which is probably related to Peltier effect. The result can be useful for wide range of scientist who works with switching of high density currents in any thin semiconductor films. 2000 MSC: 41A05, 41A10, 65D05, 65D17, Keywords: Thin-films, Semiconductors, Hall sensor, InSb, thermo-e.m.f.

  8. Nanomechanical investigation of thin-film electroceramic/metal-organic framework multilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, James P.; Michler, Johann; Liu, Jianxi; Wang, Zhengbang; Tsotsalas, Manuel; Maeder, Xavier; Röse, Silvana; Oberst, Vanessa; Liu, Jinxuan; Walheim, Stefan; Gliemann, Hartmut; Weidler, Peter G.; Redel, Engelbert; Wöll, Christof

    2015-09-01

    Thin-film multilayer stacks of mechanically hard magnetron sputtered indium tin oxide (ITO) and mechanically soft highly porous surface anchored metal-organic framework (SURMOF) HKUST-1 were studied using nanoindentation. Crystalline, continuous, and monolithic surface anchored MOF thin films were fabricated using a liquid-phase epitaxial growth method. Control over respective fabrication processes allowed for tuning of the thickness of the thin film systems with a high degree of precision. It was found that the mechanical indentation of such thin films is significantly affected by the substrate properties; however, elastic parameters were able to be decoupled for constituent thin-film materials (EITO ≈ 96.7 GPa, EHKUST-1 ≈ 22.0 GPa). For indentation of multilayer stacks, it was found that as the layer thicknesses were increased, while holding the relative thickness of ITO and HKUST-1 constant, the resistance to deformation was significantly altered. Such an observation is likely due to small, albeit significant, changes in film texture, interfacial roughness, size effects, and controlling deformation mechanism as a result of increasing material deposition during processing. Such effects may have consequences regarding the rational mechanical design and utilization of MOF-based hybrid thin-film devices.

  9. Dynamic studies of nano-confined polymer thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Kun

    Polymer thin films with the film thickness (h0 ) below 100 nm often exhibit physical properties different from the bulk counterparts. In order to make the best use of polymer thin films in applications, it is important to understand the physical origins of these deviations. In this dissertation, I will investigate how different factors influence dynamic properties of polymer thin films upon nano-confinement, including glass transition temperature (Tg), effective viscosity (etaeff) and self-diffusion coefficient (D ). The first part of this dissertation concerns the impacts of the molecular weight (MW) and tacticity on the Tg's of nano-confined polymer films. Previous experiments showed that the Tg of polymer films could be depressed or increased as h0 decreases. While these observations are usually attributed to the effects of the interfaces, some experiments suggested that MW's and tacticities might also play a role. To understand the effects of these factors, the Tg's of silica-based poly(alpha-methyl styrene) (PalphaMS/SiOx) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA/SiOx) thin films were studied, and the results suggested that MW's and tacticities influence Tg in nontrivial ways. The second part concerns an effort to resolve the long-standing controversy about the correlation between different dynamics of polymer thin films upon nano-confinement. Firstly, I discuss the experimental results of Tg, D and etaeff of poly(isobutyl methacrylate) films supported by silica (PiBMA/SiOx). Both T g and D were found to be independent of h 0, but etaeff decreased with decreasing h 0. Since both D and etaeff describe transport phenomena known to depend on the local friction coefficient or equivalently the local viscosity, it is questionable why D and etaeff displayed seemingly inconsistent h 0 dependencies. We envisage the different h0 dependencies to be caused by Tg, D and etaeff being different functions of the local T g's (Tg,i) or viscosities (eta i). By assuming a three

  10. Mesoscale simulations of confined Nafion thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanya, P.; Sharman, J.; Elliott, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    The morphology and transport properties of thin films of the ionomer Nafion, with thicknesses on the order of the bulk cluster size, have been investigated as a model system to explain the anomalous behaviour of catalyst/electrode-polymer interfaces in membrane electrode assemblies. We have employed dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) to investigate the interaction of water and fluorocarbon chains, with carbon and quartz as confining materials, for a wide range of operational water contents and film thicknesses. We found confinement-induced clustering of water perpendicular to the thin film. Hydrophobic carbon forms a water depletion zone near the film interface, whereas hydrophilic quartz results in a zone with excess water. There are, on average, oscillating water-rich and fluorocarbon-rich regions, in agreement with experimental results from neutron reflectometry. Water diffusivity shows increasing directional anisotropy of up to 30% with decreasing film thickness, depending on the hydrophilicity of the confining material. A percolation analysis revealed significant differences in water clustering and connectivity with the confining material. These findings indicate the fundamentally different nature of ionomer thin films, compared to membranes, and suggest explanations for increased ionic resistances observed in the catalyst layer.

  11. Compositional ratio effect on the surface characteristics of CuZn thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ahrom; Park, Juyun; Kang, Yujin; Lee, Seokhee; Kang, Yong-Cheol

    2018-05-01

    CuZn thin films were fabricated by RF co-sputtering method on p-type Si(100) wafer with various RF powers applied on metallic Cu and Zn targets. This paper aimed to determine the morphological, chemical, and electrical properties of the deposited CuZn thin films by utilizing a surface profiler, atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), UV photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), and a 4-point probe. The thickness of the thin films was fixed at 200 ± 8 nm and the roughness of the thin films containing Cu was smaller than pure Zn thin films. XRD studies confirmed that the preferred phase changed, and this tendency is dependent on the ratio of Cu to Zn. AES spectra indicate that the obtained thin films consisted of Cu and Zn. The high resolution XPS spectra indicate that as the content of Cu increased, the intensities of Zn2+ decreased. The work function of CuZn thin films increased from 4.87 to 5.36 eV. The conductivity of CuZn alloy thin films was higher than pure metallic thin films.

  12. Fabrication and Film Qualification of Sr Modified Pb(Ca) TiO3 Thin Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naw Hla Myat San; Khin Aye Thwe; Than Than Win; Yin Maung Maung; Ko Ko Kyaw Soe

    2011-12-01

    Strontium and calcium - modified lead titanate (Pb0.7 Ca0.15 Sr0.15 ) TiO3 (PCST)thin films were prepared by using spin coating technique. Phase transition of PCST was interpreted by means of Er-T characteristics. Process temperature dependence on micro-structure of PCST film was studied. Charge conduction mechanism of PCST thin film was also investigated for film qualification.

  13. On Some Physical Properties of GeSe3-Sb2Se3-ZnSe Thin Films and Their Radiation Response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosni, H.M.M.A.

    2010-01-01

    Thin films of the chalcogenides GeSe 3 , Sb 2 Se 3 , ZnSe, (GeSe 3 )80(Sb 2 Se 3 )20 and (GeSe 3 )70(Sb 2 Se 3 )10(ZnSe)20, are prepared by thermal evaporation onto glass substrates. The effect of ZnSe incorporation with both GeSe 3 , Sb 2 Se 3 results in amorphous (GeSe 3 )70(Sb 2 Se 3 )10(ZnSe)20 composition as obtained from the X-ray analysis. Electrical measurements reveal a decrease in dc activation energy, ΔEdc, and an increase in ac activation energy, ΔEac, for (GeSe 3 )70(Sb 2 Se 3 )10(ZnSe)20 as compared with (GeSe 3 )80(Sb 2 Se 3 )20. Optical energy gap, Eg, and band tail width, Ee, are estimated in UV/VIS spectral region for fresh and γ-irradiated films, revealing a decrease in Eg and an increase in Ee for ZnSe and (GeSe 3 )70(Sb 2 Se 3 )10(ZnSe)20 compositions, with irradiation dose.

  14. Thermal properties and stabilities of polymer thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanaya, Toshiji; Kawashima, Kazuko; Inoue, Rintaro; Miyazaki, Tsukasa

    2009-01-01

    Recent extensive studies have revealed that polymer thin films showed very interesting but unusual thermal properties and stabilities. In the article we show that X-ray reflectivity and neutron reflectivity are very powerful tools to study the anomalous properties of polymer thin films. (author)

  15. Liquid crystals for organic thin-film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iino, Hiroaki; Usui, Takayuki; Hanna, Jun-Ichi

    2015-04-01

    Crystalline thin films of organic semiconductors are a good candidate for field effect transistor (FET) materials in printed electronics. However, there are currently two main problems, which are associated with inhomogeneity and poor thermal durability of these films. Here we report that liquid crystalline materials exhibiting a highly ordered liquid crystal phase of smectic E (SmE) can solve both these problems. We design a SmE liquid crystalline material, 2-decyl-7-phenyl-[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (Ph-BTBT-10), for FETs and synthesize it. This material provides uniform and molecularly flat polycrystalline thin films reproducibly when SmE precursor thin films are crystallized, and also exhibits high durability of films up to 200 °C. In addition, the mobility of FETs is dramatically enhanced by about one order of magnitude (over 10 cm2 V-1 s-1) after thermal annealing at 120 °C in bottom-gate-bottom-contact FETs. We anticipate the use of SmE liquid crystals in solution-processed FETs may help overcome upcoming difficulties with novel technologies for printed electronics.

  16. Aluminosilicate glass thin films elaborated by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlier, Thibault [Univ. Lille, CNRS, Centrale Lille, ENSCL, Univ. Artois, UMR 8181 – UCCS – Unité de Catalyse et Chimie du Solide, F-59000 Lille (France); Saitzek, Sébastien [Univ. Artois, CNRS, Centrale Lille, ENSCL, Univ. Lille, UMR 8181, Unité de Catalyse et de Chimie du Solide (UCCS), F-62300 Lens (France); Méar, François O., E-mail: francois.mear@univ-lille1.fr [Univ. Lille, CNRS, Centrale Lille, ENSCL, Univ. Artois, UMR 8181 – UCCS – Unité de Catalyse et Chimie du Solide, F-59000 Lille (France); Blach, Jean-François; Ferri, Anthony [Univ. Artois, CNRS, Centrale Lille, ENSCL, Univ. Lille, UMR 8181, Unité de Catalyse et de Chimie du Solide (UCCS), F-62300 Lens (France); Huvé, Marielle; Montagne, Lionel [Univ. Lille, CNRS, Centrale Lille, ENSCL, Univ. Artois, UMR 8181 – UCCS – Unité de Catalyse et Chimie du Solide, F-59000 Lille (France)

    2017-03-01

    Highlights: • Successfully deposition of a glassy thin film by PLD. • A good homogeneity and stoichiometry of the coating. • Influence of the deposition temperature on the glassy thin-film structure. - Abstract: In the present work, we report the elaboration of aluminosilicate glass thin films by Pulsed Laser Deposition at various temperatures deposition. The amorphous nature of glass thin films was highlighted by Grazing Incidence X-Ray Diffraction and no nanocristallites were observed in the glassy matrix. Chemical analysis, obtained with X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Time of Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy, showed a good transfer and homogeneous elementary distribution with of chemical species from the target to the film a. Structural studies performed by Infrared Spectroscopy showed that the substrate temperature plays an important role on the bonding configuration of the layers. A slight shift of Si-O modes to larger wavenumber was observed with the synthesis temperature, assigned to a more strained sub-oxide network. Finally, optical properties of thins film measured by Spectroscopic Ellipsometry are similar to those of the bulk aluminosilicate glass, which indicate a good deposition of aluminosilicate bulk glass.

  17. Research progress of VO2 thin film as laser protecting material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiwei; Lu, Yuan; Hou, Dianxin

    2018-03-01

    With the development of laser technology, the battlefield threat of directional laser weapons is becoming more and more serious. The blinding and destruction caused by laser weapons on the photoelectric equipment is an important part of the current photo-electronic warfare. The research on the defense technology of directional laser weapons based on the phase transition characteristics of VO2 thin films is an important subject. The researches of VO2 thin films are summarized based on review these points: the preparation methods of VO2 thin films, phase transition mechanism, phase transition temperature regulating, interaction between VO2 thin films and laser, and the application prospect of vo2 thin film as laser protecting material. This paper has some guiding significance for further research on the VO2 thin films in the field of defense directional laser weapons.

  18. Cellulose triacetate, thin film dielectric capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Shiao-Ping S. (Inventor); Jow, T. Richard (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Very thin films of cellulose triacetate are cast from a solution containing a small amount of high boiling temperature, non-solvent which evaporates last and lifts the film from the casting surface. Stretched, oriented, crystallized films have high electrical breakdown properties. Metallized films less than about 2 microns in thickness form self-healing electrodes for high energy density, pulsed power capacitors. Thicker films can be utilized as a dielectric for a capacitor.

  19. Size effects in thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Tellier, CR; Siddall, G

    1982-01-01

    A complete and comprehensive study of transport phenomena in thin continuous metal films, this book reviews work carried out on external-surface and grain-boundary electron scattering and proposes new theoretical equations for transport properties of these films. It presents a complete theoretical view of the field, and considers imperfection and impurity effects.

  20. Magnetostrictive thin films prepared by RF sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carabias, I.; Martinez, A.; Garcia, M.A.; Pina, E.; Gonzalez, J.M.; Hernando, A.; Crespo, P.

    2005-01-01

    Fe 80 B 20 thin films have been prepared by ion beam sputtering magnetron on room temperature. The films were fabricated on different substrates to compare the different magnetic and structural properties. In particular the growth of films on flexible substrates (PDMS, Kapton) has been studied to allow a simple integration of the system in miniaturized magnetostrictive devices. X-ray diffraction patterns indicate that films are mainly amorphous although the presence of some Fe nanoparticles cannot be ruled out. The coercive field of thin films ranges between 15 and 35 Oe, depending on substrate. Magnetostriction measurements indicate the strong dependence of the saturation magnetostriction with the substrate. Samples on flexible substrates exhibit a better performance than samples deposited onto glass substrates

  1. Film-thickness dependence of structure formation in ultra-thin polymer blend films

    CERN Document Server

    Gutmann, J S; Stamm, M

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the film-thickness dependence of structure formation in ultra-thin polymer blend films prepared from solution. As a model system we used binary blends of statistical poly(styrene-co-p-bromostyrene) copolymers of different degrees of bromination. Ultra-thin-film samples differing in miscibility and film thickness were prepared via spin coating of common toluene solutions onto silicon (100) substrates. The resulting morphologies were investigated with scanning force microscopy, reflectometry and grazing-incidence scattering techniques using both X-rays and neutrons in order to obtain a picture of the sample structure at and below the sample surface. (orig.)

  2. Visualizing Nanoscopic Topography and Patterns in Freely Standing Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilixiati, Subinuer; Zhang, Yiran; Pearsall, Collin; Sharma, Vivek

    Thin liquid films containing micelles, nanoparticles, polyelectrolyte-surfactant complexes and smectic liquid crystals undergo thinning in a discontinuous, step-wise fashion. The discontinuous jumps in thickness are often characterized by quantifying changes in the intensity of reflected monochromatic light, modulated by thin film interference from a region of interest. Stratifying thin films exhibit a mosaic pattern in reflected white light microscopy, attributed to the coexistence of domains with various thicknesses, separated by steps. Using Interferometry Digital Imaging Optical Microscopy (IDIOM) protocols developed in the course of this study, we spatially resolve for the first time, the landscape of stratifying freestanding thin films. In particular, for thin films containing micelles of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), discontinuous, thickness transitions with concentration-dependent steps of 5-25 nm are visualized and analyzed using IDIOM protocols. We distinguish nanoscopic rims, mesas and craters and show that the non-flat features are sculpted by oscillatory, periodic, supramolecular structural forces that arise in confined fluids

  3. Polarized Neutron Reflectivity Simulation of Ferromagnet/ Antiferromagnet Thin Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Yeon; Lee, Jeong Soo

    2008-02-15

    This report investigates the current simulating and fitting programs capable of calculating the polarized neutron reflectivity of the exchange-biased ferromagnet/antiferromagnet magnetic thin films. The adequate programs are selected depending on whether nonspin flip and spin flip reflectivities of magnetic thin films and good user interface are available or not. The exchange-biased systems such as Fe/Cr, Co/CoO, CoFe/IrMn/Py thin films have been simulated successfully with selected programs.

  4. High-throughput characterization of film thickness in thin film materials libraries by digital holographic microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai Yiuwai; Hofmann, Martin R; Ludwig, Alfred; Krause, Michael; Savan, Alan; Thienhaus, Sigurd; Koukourakis, Nektarios

    2011-01-01

    A high-throughput characterization technique based on digital holography for mapping film thickness in thin-film materials libraries was developed. Digital holographic microscopy is used for fully automatic measurements of the thickness of patterned films with nanometer resolution. The method has several significant advantages over conventional stylus profilometry: it is contactless and fast, substrate bending is compensated, and the experimental setup is simple. Patterned films prepared by different combinatorial thin-film approaches were characterized to investigate and demonstrate this method. The results show that this technique is valuable for the quick, reliable and high-throughput determination of the film thickness distribution in combinatorial materials research. Importantly, it can also be applied to thin films that have been structured by shadow masking.

  5. High-throughput characterization of film thickness in thin film materials libraries by digital holographic microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yiu Wai; Krause, Michael; Savan, Alan; Thienhaus, Sigurd; Koukourakis, Nektarios; Hofmann, Martin R; Ludwig, Alfred

    2011-10-01

    A high-throughput characterization technique based on digital holography for mapping film thickness in thin-film materials libraries was developed. Digital holographic microscopy is used for fully automatic measurements of the thickness of patterned films with nanometer resolution. The method has several significant advantages over conventional stylus profilometry: it is contactless and fast, substrate bending is compensated, and the experimental setup is simple. Patterned films prepared by different combinatorial thin-film approaches were characterized to investigate and demonstrate this method. The results show that this technique is valuable for the quick, reliable and high-throughput determination of the film thickness distribution in combinatorial materials research. Importantly, it can also be applied to thin films that have been structured by shadow masking.

  6. Ultra-thin zirconia films on Zr-alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Joong Il Jake; Mayr-Schmoelzer, Wernfried; Mittendorfer, Florian; Redinger, Josef; Diebold, Ulrike; Schmid, Michael [Institute of Applied Physics, Vienna University of Technology (Austria); Li, Hao; Rupprechter, Guenther [Institute of Materials Chemistry, Vienna University of Technology (Austria)

    2014-07-01

    Zirconia ultra-thin films have been prepared by oxidation of Pt{sub 3}Zr(0001) and showed a structure equivalent to (111) of cubic zirconia. Following previous work, we have prepared ultra-thin zirconia by oxidation of a different alloy, Pd{sub 3}Zr(0001), which resulted in a similar structure with a slightly different lattice parameter, 351.2 ±0.4 pm. Unlike the oxide on Pt{sub 3}Zr, where Zr of the oxide binds to Pt in the substrate, here the oxide binds to substrate Zr via oxygen. This causes stronger distortion of the oxide structure, i.e. a stronger buckling of Zr in the oxide. After additional oxidation of ZrO{sub 2}/Pt{sub 3}Zr, a different ultra-thin zirconia phase is observed. A preliminary structure model for this film is based on (113)-oriented cubic zirconia. 3D oxide clusters are also present after growing ultra-thin zirconia films. They occur at the step edges, and the density is higher on Pd{sub 3}Zr. These clusters also appear on terraces after additional oxidation. XPS reveals different core level shifts of the oxide films, bulk, and oxide clusters.

  7. Highly coercive thin-film nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, J.; Skomski, R.; Kashyap, A.; Sorge, K.D.; Sui, Y.; Daniil, M.; Gao, L.; Yan, M.L.; Liou, S.-H.; Kirby, R.D.; Sellmyer, D.J.

    2005-01-01

    The processing, structure, and magnetism of highly coercive Sm-Co and FePt thin-film nanostructures are investigated. The structures include 1:5 based Sm-Co-Cu-Ti magnets, particulate FePt:C thin films, and FePt nanotubes. As in other systems, the coercivity depends on texture and imperfections, but there are some additional features. A specific coercivity mechanism in particulate media is a discrete pinning mode intermediate between Stoner-Wohlfarth rotation and ordinary domain-wall pinning. This mechanism yields a coercivity maximum for intermediate intergranular exchange and explains the occurrence of coercivities of 5 T in particulate Sm-Co-Cu-Ti magnets

  8. Structural characterization of vacuum evaporated ZnSe thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The lattice parameter, grain size, average internal stress, microstrain, dislocation density and degree of pre- ferred orientation in the film are calculated and correlated with Ts. Keywords. ZnSe thin films; X-ray diffraction; average internal stress; microstrain; dislocation density. 1. Introduction. Thin films of ZnSe has attracted ...

  9. Investigation of ferromagnetism in oxygen deficient hafnium oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildebrandt, Erwin; Kurian, Jose; Krockenberger, Yoshiharu; Alff, Lambert [Institut fuer Materialwissenschaft, TU Darmstadt (Germany); Suter, Andreas [PSI, Villingen (Switzerland); Wilhelm, Fabrice; Rogalev, Andrei [ESRF, Grenoble (France)

    2008-07-01

    Oxygen deficient thin films of hafnium oxide were grown on single crystal r-cut and c-cut sapphire by reactive molecular beam epitaxy. RF-activated oxygen was used for the in situ oxidation of hafnium oxide thin films. Oxidation conditions were varied substantially in order to create oxygen deficiency in hafnium oxide films intentionally. The films were characterized by X-ray and magnetic measurements. X-ray diffraction studies show an increase in lattice parameter with increasing oxygen deficiency. Oxygen deficient hafnium oxide thin films also showed a decreasing bandgap with increase in oxygen deficiency. The magnetisation studies carried out with SQUID did not show any sign of ferromagnetism in the whole oxygen deficiency range. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements also confirmed the absence of ferromagnetism in oxygen deficient hafnium oxide thin films.

  10. Porous Zinc Oxide Thin Films: Synthesis Approaches and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Laurenti

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide (ZnO thin films have been widely investigated due to their multifunctional properties, i.e., catalytic, semiconducting and optical. They have found practical use in a wide number of application fields. However, the presence of a compact micro/nanostructure has often limited the resulting material properties. Moreover, with the advent of low-dimensional ZnO nanostructures featuring unique physical and chemical properties, the interest in studying ZnO thin films diminished more and more. Therefore, the possibility to combine at the same time the advantages of thin-film based synthesis technologies together with a high surface area and a porous structure might represent a powerful solution to prepare ZnO thin films with unprecedented physical and chemical characteristics that may find use in novel application fields. Within this scope, this review offers an overview on the most successful synthesis methods that are able to produce ZnO thin films with both framework and textural porosities. Moreover, we discuss the related applications, mainly focused on photocatalytic degradation of dyes, gas sensor fabrication and photoanodes for dye-sensitized solar cells.

  11. The Characterization of Thin Film Nickel Titanium Shape Memory Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris Odum, Nicole Latrice

    Shape memory alloys (SMA) are able to recover their original shape through the appropriate heat or stress exposure after enduring mechanical deformation at a low temperature. Numerous alloy systems have been discovered which produce this unique feature like TiNb, AgCd, NiAl, NiTi, and CuZnAl. Since their discovery, bulk scale SMAs have undergone extensive material property investigations and are employed in real world applications. However, its thin film counterparts have been modestly investigated and applied. Researchers have introduced numerous theoretical microelectromechanical system (MEMS) devices; yet, the research community's overall unfamiliarity with the thin film properties has delayed growth in this area. In addition, it has been difficult to outline efficient thin film processing techniques. In this dissertation, NiTi thin film processing and characterization techniques will be outlined and discussed. NiTi thin films---1 mum thick---were produced using sputter deposition techniques. Substrate bound thin films were deposited to analysis the surface using Scanning Electron Microscopy; the film composition was obtained using Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy; the phases were identified using X-ray diffraction; and the transformation temperatures acquired using resistivity testing. Microfabrication processing and sputter deposition were employed to develop tensile membranes for membrane deflection experimentation to gain insight on the mechanical properties of the thin films. The incorporation of these findings will aid in the movement of SMA microactuation devices from theory to fruition and greatly benefit industries such as medicinal and aeronautical.

  12. Evaluation of residual stress in sputtered tantalum thin-film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-masha’al, Asa’ad, E-mail: asaad.al@ed.ac.uk; Bunting, Andrew; Cheung, Rebecca

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Tantalum thin-films have been deposited by DC magnetron sputtering system. • Thin-film stress is observed to be strongly influenced by sputtering pressure. • Transition towards the compressive stress is ascribed to the annealing at 300 °C. • Expose thin-film to air ambient or ion bombardment lead to a noticeable change in the residual stress. - Abstract: The influence of deposition conditions on the residual stress of sputtered tantalum thin-film has been evaluated in the present study. Films have been deposited by DC magnetron sputtering and curvature measurement method has been employed to calculate the residual stress of the films. Transitions of tantalum film stress from compressive to tensile state have been observed as the sputtering pressure increases. Also, the effect of annealing process at temperature range of 90–300 °C in oxygen ambient on the residual stress of the films has been studied. The results demonstrate that the residual stress of the films that have been deposited at lower sputtering pressure has become more compressive when annealed at 300 °C. Furthermore, the impact of exposure to atmospheric ambient on the tantalum film stress has been investigated by monitoring the variation of the residual stress of both annealed and unannealed films over time. The as-deposited films have been exposed to pure Argon energy bombardment and as result, a high compressive stress has been developed in the films.

  13. Optical and electrical properties of chemical bath deposited cobalt sulphide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Govindasamy, Geetha [R& D Centre, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore (India); Murugasen, Priya, E-mail: priyamurugasen15@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Saveetha Engineering, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (India); Sagadevan, Suresh [Department of Physics, AMET University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2017-01-15

    Cobalt sulphide (CoS) thin films were synthesized using the Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD) technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was used to study the structure and the crystallite size of CoS thin film. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) studies reveal the surface morphology of these films. The optical properties of the CoS thin films were determined using UV-Visible absorption spectrum. The optical band gap of the thin films was found to be 1.6 eV. Optical constants such as the refractive index, the extinction coefficient and the electric susceptibility were determined. The dielectric studies were carried out at different frequencies and at different temperatures for the prepared CoS thin films. In addition, the plasma energy of the valence electron, Penn gap or average energy gap, the Fermi energy and electronic polarizability of the thin films were determined. The AC electrical conductivity measurement was also carried out for the thin films. The activation energy was determined by using DC electrical conductivity measurement. (author)

  14. Electrochemical Deposition of Lanthanum Telluride Thin Films and Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Su (Ike); Farias, Stephen; Cammarata, Robert

    2013-03-01

    Tellurium alloys are characterized by their high performance thermoelectric properties and recent research has shown nanostructured tellurium alloys display even greater performance than bulk equivalents. Increased thermoelectric efficiency of nanostructured materials have led to significant interests in developing thin film and nanowire structures. Here, we report on the first successful electrodeposition of lanthanum telluride thin films and nanowires. The electrodeposition of lanthanum telluride thin films is performed in ionic liquids at room temperature. The synthesis of nanowires involves electrodepositing lanthanum telluride arrays into anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) nanoporous membranes. These novel procedures can serve as an alternative means of simple, inexpensive and laboratory-environment friendly methods to synthesize nanostructured thermoelectric materials. The thermoelectric properties of thin films and nanowires will be presented to compare to current state-of-the-art thermoelectric materials. The morphologies and chemical compositions of the deposited films and nanowires are characterized using SEM and EDAX analysis.

  15. Processing of thin SU-8 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, Stephan; Blagoi, Gabriela; Lillemose, Michael; Haefliger, Daniel; Boisen, Anja

    2008-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of the process optimization for SU-8 films with thicknesses ≤5 µm. The influence of soft-bake conditions, exposure dose and post-exposure-bake parameters on residual film stress, structural stability and lithographic resolution was investigated. Conventionally, the SU-8 is soft-baked after spin coating to remove the solvent. After the exposure, a post-exposure bake at a high temperature T PEB ≥ 90 °C is required to cross-link the resist. However, for thin SU-8 films this often results in cracking or delamination due to residual film stress. The approach of the process optimization is to keep a considerable amount of the solvent in the SU-8 before exposure to facilitate photo-acid diffusion and to increase the mobility of the monomers. The experiments demonstrate that a replacement of the soft-bake by a short solvent evaporation time at ambient temperature allows cross-linking of the thin SU-8 films even at a low T PEB = 50 °C. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy is used to confirm the increased cross-linking density. The low thermal stress due to the reduced T PEB and the improved structural stability result in crack-free structures and solve the issue of delamination. The knowledge of the influence of different processing parameters on the responses allows the design of optimized processes for thin SU-8 films depending on the specific application

  16. Altering properties of cerium oxide thin films by Rh doping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ševčíková, Klára; Nehasil, Václav; Vorokhta, Mykhailo; Haviar, Stanislav; Matolín, Vladimír

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Thin films of ceria doped by rhodium deposited by RF magnetron sputtering. • Concentration of rhodium has great impact on properties of Rh–CeO x thin films. • Intensive oxygen migration in films with low concentration of rhodium. • Oxygen migration suppressed in films with high amount of Rh dopants. - Abstract: Ceria containing highly dispersed ions of rhodium is a promising material for catalytic applications. The Rh–CeO x thin films with different concentrations of rhodium were deposited by RF magnetron sputtering and were studied by soft and hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies, Temperature programmed reaction and X-ray powder diffraction techniques. The sputtered films consist of rhodium–cerium mixed oxide where cerium exhibits a mixed valency of Ce 4+ and Ce 3+ and rhodium occurs in two oxidation states, Rh 3+ and Rh n+ . We show that the concentration of rhodium has a great influence on the chemical composition, structure and reducibility of the Rh–CeO x thin films. The films with low concentrations of rhodium are polycrystalline, while the films with higher amount of Rh dopants are amorphous. The morphology of the films strongly influences the mobility of oxygen in the material. Therefore, varying the concentration of rhodium in Rh–CeO x thin films leads to preparing materials with different properties

  17. Magnon dispersion in thin magnetic films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balashov, T; Wulfhekel, W; Buczek, P; Sandratskii, L; Ernst, A

    2014-01-01

    Although the dispersion of magnons has been measured in many bulk materials, few studies deal with the changes in the dispersion when the material is in the form of a thin film, a system that is of interest for applications. Here we review inelastic tunneling spectroscopy studies of magnon dispersion in Mn/Cu 3 Au(1 0 0) and present new studies on Co and Ni thin films on Cu(1 0 0). The dispersion in Mn and Co films closely follows the dispersion of bulk samples with negligible dependence on thickness. The lifetime of magnons depends slightly on film thickness, and decreases considerably as the magnon energy increases. In Ni/Cu(1 0 0) films the thickness dependence of dispersion is much more pronounced. The measurements indicate a considerable mode softening for thinner films. Magnon lifetimes decrease dramatically near the edge of the Brillouin zone due to a close proximity of the Stoner continuum. The experimental study is supported by first-principles calculations. (paper)

  18. Magnon dispersion in thin magnetic films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balashov, T; Buczek, P; Sandratskii, L; Ernst, A; Wulfhekel, W

    2014-10-01

    Although the dispersion of magnons has been measured in many bulk materials, few studies deal with the changes in the dispersion when the material is in the form of a thin film, a system that is of interest for applications. Here we review inelastic tunneling spectroscopy studies of magnon dispersion in Mn/Cu3Au(1 0 0) and present new studies on Co and Ni thin films on Cu(1 0 0). The dispersion in Mn and Co films closely follows the dispersion of bulk samples with negligible dependence on thickness. The lifetime of magnons depends slightly on film thickness, and decreases considerably as the magnon energy increases. In Ni/Cu(1 0 0) films the thickness dependence of dispersion is much more pronounced. The measurements indicate a considerable mode softening for thinner films. Magnon lifetimes decrease dramatically near the edge of the Brillouin zone due to a close proximity of the Stoner continuum. The experimental study is supported by first-principles calculations.

  19. Thin film description by wavelet coefficients statistics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Boldyš, Jiří; Hrach, R.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 1 (2005), s. 55-64 ISSN 0011-4626 Grant - others:GA UK(CZ) 173/2003 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : thin films * wavelet transform * descriptors * histogram model Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 0.360, year: 2005 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2009/ZOI/boldys-thin film description by wavelet coefficients statistics .pdf

  20. In and Ga Codoped ZnO Film as a Front Electrode for Thin Film Silicon Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duy Phong Pham

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Doped ZnO thin films have attracted much attention in the research community as front-contact transparent conducting electrodes in thin film silicon solar cells. The prerequisite in both low resistivity and high transmittance in visible and near-infrared region for hydrogenated microcrystalline or amorphous/microcrystalline tandem thin film silicon solar cells has promoted further improvements of this material. In this work, we propose the combination of major Ga and minor In impurities codoped in ZnO film (IGZO to improve the film optoelectronic properties. A wide range of Ga and In contents in sputtering targets was explored to find optimum optical and electrical properties of deposited films. The results show that an appropriate combination of In and Ga atoms in ZnO material, followed by in-air thermal annealing process, can enhance the crystallization, conductivity, and transmittance of IGZO thin films, which can be well used as front-contact electrodes in thin film silicon solar cells.

  1. Large Area Thin Film Silicon: Synergy between Displays and Solar Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schropp, R.E.I.

    2012-01-01

    Thin-film silicon technology has changed our society, owing to the rapid advance of its two major application fields in communication (thin-film displays) and sustainable energy (thin-film solar cells). Throughout its development, advances in these application fields have always benefitted each

  2. Cell adhesion to cathodic arc plasma deposited CrAlSiN thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sun Kyu, E-mail: skim@ulsan.ac.kr [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ulsan, Ulsan 680-749 (Korea, Republic of); Pham, Vuong-Hung [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chong-Hyun [Department of Food Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Osteoblast cell response (cell adhesion, actin cytoskeleton and focal contact adhesion as well as cell proliferation) to CrN, CrAlSiN and Ti thin films was evaluated in vitro. Cell adhesion and actin stress fibers organization depended on the film composition significantly. Immunofluorescent staining of vinculin in osteoblast cells showed good focal contact adhesion on the CrAlSiN and Ti thin films but not on the CrN thin films. Cell proliferation was significantly greater on the CrAlSiN thin films as well as on Ti thin films than on the CrN thin films.

  3. Photovoltaics: tests of thin-film technologies. 6 thin-film technologies in 3 different BIPV modes compared in a real outdoor performance test; PV-ThinFilmTest. 6 thin-film technologies in 3 different BIPV modes compared in a real outdoor performance test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frei, R.; Meier, Ch.

    2005-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a comparison made between six types of thin-film, building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) technologies used in three different modes of building-integration. More than 450 thin-film modules including amorphous silicon and CIS technologies were monitored. Each type of module was installed in three different modes: inclined (20{sup o}), flat with free back air flow, and flat with thermal back insulation. The performance of these commercially available thin-film BIPV systems was monitored using an extensive monitoring program. Additionally, three mono-crystalline PV arrays allowed direct comparison of the technologies. The results of the monitoring work are presented and further work to be done is discussed, including the monitoring of possible long-term degradation.

  4. Polymer thin film as coating layer to prevent corrosion of metal/metal oxide film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Suman; Kundu, Sarathi

    2018-04-01

    Thin film of polymer is used as coating layer and the corrosion of metal/metal oxide layer is studied with the variation of the thickness of the coating layer. The thin layer of polystyrene is fabricated using spin coating method on copper oxide (CuO) film which is deposited on glass substrate using DC magnetron sputtering technique. Thickness of the polystyrene and the CuO layers are determined using X-ray reflectivity (XRR) technique. CuO thin films coated with the polystyrene layer are exposed to acetic acid (2.5 v/v% aqueous CH3COOH solution) environments and are subsequently analyzed using UV-Vis spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Surface morphology of the film before and after interaction with the acidic environment is determined using AFM. Results obtained from the XRR and UV-Vis spectroscopy confirm that the thin film of polystyrene acts as an anticorrosion coating layer and the strength of the coating depends upon the polymer layer thickness at a constant acid concentration.

  5. Flexible thin film magnetoimpedance sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurlyandskaya, G.V.; Fernández, E.; Svalov, A.; Burgoa Beitia, A.; García-Arribas, A.; Larrañaga, A.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetically soft thin film deposited onto polymer substrates is an attractive option for flexible electronics including magnetoimpedance (MI) applications. MI FeNi/Ti based thin film sensitive elements were designed and prepared using the sputtering technique by deposition onto rigid and flexible substrates at different deposition rates. Their structure, magnetic properties and MI were comparatively analyzed. The main structural features were sufficiently accurately reproduced in the case of deposition onto cyclo olefine polymer substrates compared to glass substrates for the same conditions. Although for the best condition (28 nm/min rate) of the deposition onto polymer a significant reduction of the MI field sensitivity was found satisfactory for sensor applications sensitivity: 45%/Oe was obtained for a frequency of 60 MHz. - Highlights: • [FeNi/Ti] 3 /Cu/[FeNi/Ti] 3 films were prepared by sputtering at different deposition rates. • Polymer substrates insure sufficiently accurate reproducibility of the film structure. • High deposition rate of 28 nm/min insures the highest values of the magnetoimpedance sensitivity. • Deposition onto polymer results in the satisfactory magnetoimpedance sensitivity of 45%/Oe.

  6. Flexible thin film magnetoimpedance sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurlyandskaya, G.V., E-mail: galina@we.lc.ehu.es [Universidad del País Vasco, UPV/EHU, Departamento de Electricidad y Electrónica, P.O. Box 644, Bilbao 48080 (Spain); Ural Federal University, Laboratory of Magnetic sensoric, Lenin Ave. 51, 620083 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Fernández, E. [BCMaterials UPV-EHU, Vizcaya Science and Technology Park, 48160 Derio (Spain); Svalov, A. [Universidad del País Vasco, UPV/EHU, Departamento de Electricidad y Electrónica, P.O. Box 644, Bilbao 48080 (Spain); Ural Federal University, Laboratory of Magnetic sensoric, Lenin Ave. 51, 620083 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Burgoa Beitia, A. [Universidad del País Vasco, UPV/EHU, Departamento de Electricidad y Electrónica, P.O. Box 644, Bilbao 48080 (Spain); García-Arribas, A. [Universidad del País Vasco, UPV/EHU, Departamento de Electricidad y Electrónica, P.O. Box 644, Bilbao 48080 (Spain); BCMaterials UPV-EHU, Vizcaya Science and Technology Park, 48160 Derio (Spain); Larrañaga, A. [SGIker, Servicios Generales de Investigación, Universidad del País Vasco (UPV/EHU), 48080 Bilbao (Spain)

    2016-10-01

    Magnetically soft thin film deposited onto polymer substrates is an attractive option for flexible electronics including magnetoimpedance (MI) applications. MI FeNi/Ti based thin film sensitive elements were designed and prepared using the sputtering technique by deposition onto rigid and flexible substrates at different deposition rates. Their structure, magnetic properties and MI were comparatively analyzed. The main structural features were sufficiently accurately reproduced in the case of deposition onto cyclo olefine polymer substrates compared to glass substrates for the same conditions. Although for the best condition (28 nm/min rate) of the deposition onto polymer a significant reduction of the MI field sensitivity was found satisfactory for sensor applications sensitivity: 45%/Oe was obtained for a frequency of 60 MHz. - Highlights: • [FeNi/Ti]{sub 3}/Cu/[FeNi/Ti]{sub 3} films were prepared by sputtering at different deposition rates. • Polymer substrates insure sufficiently accurate reproducibility of the film structure. • High deposition rate of 28 nm/min insures the highest values of the magnetoimpedance sensitivity. • Deposition onto polymer results in the satisfactory magnetoimpedance sensitivity of 45%/Oe.

  7. Optimized grid design for thin film solar panels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deelen, J. van; Klerk, L.; Barink, M.

    2014-01-01

    There is a gap in efficiency between record thin film cells and mass produced thin film solar panels. In this paper we quantify the effect of monolithic integration on power output for various configurations by modeling and present metallization as a way to improve efficiency of solar panels. Grid

  8. Thermal stability of gold-PS nanocomposites thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Low-temperature transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies were performed on polystyrene (PS, w = 234 K) – Au nanoparticle composite thin films that were annealed up to 350°C under reduced pressure conditions. The composite thin films were prepared by wet chemical approach and the samples were then ...

  9. Quantitative analysis of tear film fluorescence and discomfort during tear film instability and thinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begley, Carolyn; Simpson, Trefford; Liu, Haixia; Salvo, Eliza; Wu, Ziwei; Bradley, Arthur; Situ, Ping

    2013-04-12

    The purpose of this study was to test the association between tear film fluorescence changes during tear break-up (TBU) or thinning and the concurrent ocular sensory response. Sixteen subjects kept one eye open as long as possible (MBI), indicated their discomfort level continuously, and rated ocular sensations of irritation, stinging, burning, pricking, and cooling using visual analog scales (VAS). Fluorescence of the tear film was quantified by a pixel-based analysis of the median pixel intensity (PI), TBU, and percentage of dark pixels (DarkPix) over time. A cutoff of 5% TBU was used to divide subjects into either break-up (BU) or minimal break-up (BUmin) groups. Tear film fluorescence decreased (median PI) and the percentage of TBU and DarkPix increased in all trials, with the rate significantly greater in the BU than the BUmin group (Mann-Whitney U test, P film thinning best explains decreasing tear film fluorescence during trials. This was highly correlated with increasing ocular discomfort, suggesting that both tear film thinning and TBU stimulate underlying corneal nerves, although TBU produced more rapid stimulation. Slow increases in tear film hyperosmolarity may cause the gradual increase in discomfort during slow tear film thinning, whereas the sharp increases in discomfort during TBU suggest a more complex stimulus.

  10. Thin films for the manipulation of light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piegari, Angela; Sytchkova, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The manipulation of light is typically accomplished by a series of optical surfaces on which the incident beam is reflected, or through which the beam is transmitted. Thin film coatings help to modify the behavior of such surfaces for obtaining the desired result: antireflection coatings to reduce reflection losses, high-reflectance mirrors, filters to divide or combine beams of different wavelengths, and many other types. The amount of light that is transmitted or reflected depends on the optical parameters of the materials and on interference phenomena in thin-film structures. Dedicated software is available to design the proper coating for each requirement. There are several applications of optical thin films, many of them are useful in the everyday life, many others are dedicated to scientific purposes, as will be described in this paper [it

  11. Unidirectional oxide hetero-interface thin-film diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Youngmin; Lee, Eungkyu; Lee, Jinwon; Lim, Keon-Hee; Kim, Youn Sang

    2015-01-01

    The unidirectional thin-film diode based on oxide hetero-interface, which is well compatible with conventional thin-film fabrication process, is presented. With the metal anode/electron-transporting oxide (ETO)/electron-injecting oxide (EIO)/metal cathode structure, it exhibits that electrical currents ohmically flow at the ETO/EIO hetero-interfaces for only positive voltages showing current density (J)-rectifying ratio of ∼10 5 at 5 V. The electrical properties (ex, current levels, and working device yields) of the thin-film diode (TFD) are systematically controlled by changing oxide layer thickness. Moreover, we show that the oxide hetero-interface TFD clearly rectifies an AC input within frequency (f) range of 10 2  Hz < f < 10 6  Hz, providing a high feasibility for practical applications

  12. Unidirectional oxide hetero-interface thin-film diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Youngmin; Lee, Eungkyu; Lee, Jinwon; Lim, Keon-Hee [Program in Nano Science and Technology, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Youn Sang, E-mail: younskim@snu.ac.kr [Program in Nano Science and Technology, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Advanced Institute of Convergence Technology, Gyeonggi-do 443-270 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-05

    The unidirectional thin-film diode based on oxide hetero-interface, which is well compatible with conventional thin-film fabrication process, is presented. With the metal anode/electron-transporting oxide (ETO)/electron-injecting oxide (EIO)/metal cathode structure, it exhibits that electrical currents ohmically flow at the ETO/EIO hetero-interfaces for only positive voltages showing current density (J)-rectifying ratio of ∼10{sup 5} at 5 V. The electrical properties (ex, current levels, and working device yields) of the thin-film diode (TFD) are systematically controlled by changing oxide layer thickness. Moreover, we show that the oxide hetero-interface TFD clearly rectifies an AC input within frequency (f) range of 10{sup 2} Hz < f < 10{sup 6} Hz, providing a high feasibility for practical applications.

  13. Nanomechanical investigation of thin-film electroceramic/metal-organic framework multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Best, James P., E-mail: james.best@empa.ch, E-mail: engelbert.redel@kit.edu, E-mail: christof.woell@kit.edu; Michler, Johann; Maeder, Xavier [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Mechanics of Materials and Nanostructures, Feuerwerkerstrasse 39, CH-3602 Thun (Switzerland); Liu, Jianxi; Wang, Zhengbang; Tsotsalas, Manuel; Liu, Jinxuan; Gliemann, Hartmut; Weidler, Peter G.; Redel, Engelbert, E-mail: james.best@empa.ch, E-mail: engelbert.redel@kit.edu, E-mail: christof.woell@kit.edu; Wöll, Christof, E-mail: james.best@empa.ch, E-mail: engelbert.redel@kit.edu, E-mail: christof.woell@kit.edu [Institute of Functional Interfaces (IFG), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Röse, Silvana [Preparative Macromolecular Chemistry, Institute for Chemical Technology and Polymer Chemistry (ICTP), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Engesserstrasse 18, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Institute for Biological Interfaces (IBG), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Herrmann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Oberst, Vanessa [Institute of Applied Materials (IAM), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Walheim, Stefan [Institute of Nanotechnology (INT), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2015-09-07

    Thin-film multilayer stacks of mechanically hard magnetron sputtered indium tin oxide (ITO) and mechanically soft highly porous surface anchored metal-organic framework (SURMOF) HKUST-1 were studied using nanoindentation. Crystalline, continuous, and monolithic surface anchored MOF thin films were fabricated using a liquid-phase epitaxial growth method. Control over respective fabrication processes allowed for tuning of the thickness of the thin film systems with a high degree of precision. It was found that the mechanical indentation of such thin films is significantly affected by the substrate properties; however, elastic parameters were able to be decoupled for constituent thin-film materials (E{sub ITO} ≈ 96.7 GPa, E{sub HKUST−1} ≈ 22.0 GPa). For indentation of multilayer stacks, it was found that as the layer thicknesses were increased, while holding the relative thickness of ITO and HKUST-1 constant, the resistance to deformation was significantly altered. Such an observation is likely due to small, albeit significant, changes in film texture, interfacial roughness, size effects, and controlling deformation mechanism as a result of increasing material deposition during processing. Such effects may have consequences regarding the rational mechanical design and utilization of MOF-based hybrid thin-film devices.

  14. Nanomechanical investigation of thin-film electroceramic/metal-organic framework multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Best, James P.; Michler, Johann; Maeder, Xavier; Liu, Jianxi; Wang, Zhengbang; Tsotsalas, Manuel; Liu, Jinxuan; Gliemann, Hartmut; Weidler, Peter G.; Redel, Engelbert; Wöll, Christof; Röse, Silvana; Oberst, Vanessa; Walheim, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Thin-film multilayer stacks of mechanically hard magnetron sputtered indium tin oxide (ITO) and mechanically soft highly porous surface anchored metal-organic framework (SURMOF) HKUST-1 were studied using nanoindentation. Crystalline, continuous, and monolithic surface anchored MOF thin films were fabricated using a liquid-phase epitaxial growth method. Control over respective fabrication processes allowed for tuning of the thickness of the thin film systems with a high degree of precision. It was found that the mechanical indentation of such thin films is significantly affected by the substrate properties; however, elastic parameters were able to be decoupled for constituent thin-film materials (E ITO  ≈ 96.7 GPa, E HKUST−1  ≈ 22.0 GPa). For indentation of multilayer stacks, it was found that as the layer thicknesses were increased, while holding the relative thickness of ITO and HKUST-1 constant, the resistance to deformation was significantly altered. Such an observation is likely due to small, albeit significant, changes in film texture, interfacial roughness, size effects, and controlling deformation mechanism as a result of increasing material deposition during processing. Such effects may have consequences regarding the rational mechanical design and utilization of MOF-based hybrid thin-film devices

  15. Combustion synthesized indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin film for source/drain electrodes in all solution-processed oxide thin-film transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tue, Phan Trong; Inoue, Satoshi; Takamura, Yuzuru; Shimoda, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    We report combustion solution synthesized (SCS) indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin film, which is a well-known transparent conductive oxide, for source/drain (S/D) electrodes in solution-processed amorphous zirconium-indium-zinc-oxide TFT. A redox-based combustion synthetic approach is applied to ITO thin film using acetylacetone as a fuel and metal nitrate as oxidizer. The structural and electrical properties of SCS-ITO precursor solution and thin films were systematically investigated with changes in tin concentration, indium metal precursors, and annealing conditions such as temperature, time, and ambient. It was found that at optimal conditions the SCS-ITO thin film exhibited high crystalline quality, atomically smooth surface (RMS ∝ 4.1 Aa), and low electrical resistivity (4.2 x 10 -4 Ω cm). The TFT using SCS-ITO film as the S/D electrodes showed excellent electrical properties with negligible hysteresis. The obtained ''on/off'' current ratio, subthreshold swing factor, subthreshold voltage, and field-effect mobility were 5 x 10 7 , 0.43 V/decade, 0.7 V, and 2.1 cm 2 /V s, respectively. The performance and stability of the SCS-ITO TFT are comparable to those of the sputtered-ITO TFT, emphasizing that the SCS-ITO film is a promising candidate for totally solution-processed oxide TFTs. (orig.)

  16. Molecular dynamics simulation about porous thin-film growth in secondary deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Huawei; Tieu, A. Kiet; Liu Qiang; Hagiwara, Ichiro; Lu Cheng

    2007-01-01

    The thin film growth has been confirmed to be assembled by an enormous number of clusters in experiments of CVD. Sequence of clusters' depositions proceeds to form the thin film at short time as gas fluids through surface of substrate. In order to grow condensed thin film using series of cluster deposition, the effect of initial velocity, substrate temperature and density of clusters on property of deposited thin film, especially appearance of nanoscale pores inside thin film must be investigated. In this simulation, three different cluster sizes of 203, 653, 1563 atoms with different velocities (0, 10, 100, 1000 and 3000 m/s) were deposited on a Cu(0 0 1) substrate whose temperatures were set between 300 and 1000 K. Four clusters and one cluster were used in primary deposition and secondary deposition, respectively. We have clarified that adhesion between clusters and substrate is greatly influenced by initial velocity. As a result, the exfoliation pattern of deposited thin film is dependent on initial velocity and different between them. One borderline dividing whole region into porous region and nonporous region are obtained to show the effect of growth conditions on appearance of nanoscale pores inside thin film. Moreover, we have also shown that the likelihood of porous thin film is dependent on the point of impact of a cluster relative to previously deposited clusters

  17. Molecular dynamics simulation about porous thin-film growth in secondary deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Huawei [School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Beihang University, No. 37 Xuyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing (China) and Mechanical Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, Northfields Avenue, NSW 2522 (Australia)]. E-mail: chen_hua_wei@yahoo.com; Tieu, A. Kiet [Mechanical Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, Northfields Avenue, NSW 2522 (Australia); Liu Qiang [School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Beihang University, No. 37 Xuyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing (China); Hagiwara, Ichiro [Department of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Lu Cheng [Mechanical Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, Northfields Avenue, NSW 2522 (Australia)

    2007-07-15

    The thin film growth has been confirmed to be assembled by an enormous number of clusters in experiments of CVD. Sequence of clusters' depositions proceeds to form the thin film at short time as gas fluids through surface of substrate. In order to grow condensed thin film using series of cluster deposition, the effect of initial velocity, substrate temperature and density of clusters on property of deposited thin film, especially appearance of nanoscale pores inside thin film must be investigated. In this simulation, three different cluster sizes of 203, 653, 1563 atoms with different velocities (0, 10, 100, 1000 and 3000 m/s) were deposited on a Cu(0 0 1) substrate whose temperatures were set between 300 and 1000 K. Four clusters and one cluster were used in primary deposition and secondary deposition, respectively. We have clarified that adhesion between clusters and substrate is greatly influenced by initial velocity. As a result, the exfoliation pattern of deposited thin film is dependent on initial velocity and different between them. One borderline dividing whole region into porous region and nonporous region are obtained to show the effect of growth conditions on appearance of nanoscale pores inside thin film. Moreover, we have also shown that the likelihood of porous thin film is dependent on the point of impact of a cluster relative to previously deposited clusters.

  18. PZT Thin-Film Micro Probe Device with Dual Top Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Chuan

    Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin-film actuators have been studied intensively for years because of their potential applications in many fields. In this dissertation, a PZT thin-film micro probe device is designed, fabricated, studied, and proven to be acceptable as an intracochlear acoustic actuator. The micro probe device takes the form of a cantilever with a PZT thin-film diaphragm at the tip of the probe. The tip portion of the probe will be implanted in cochlea later in animal tests to prove its feasibility in hearing rehabilitation. The contribution of the dissertation is three-fold. First, a dual top electrodes design, consisting of a center electrode and an outer electrode, is developed to improve actuation displacement of the PZT thin-film diaphragm. The improvement by the dual top electrodes design is studied via a finite element model. When the dimensions of the dual electrodes are optimized, the displacement of the PZT thin-film diaphragm increases about 30%. A PZT thin-film diaphragm with dual top electrodes is fabricated to prove the concept, and experimental results confirm the predictions from the finite element analyses. Moreover, the dual electrode design can accommodate presence of significant residual stresses in the PZT thin-film diaphragm by changing the phase difference between the two electrodes. Second, a PZT thin-film micro probe device is fabricated and tested. The fabrication process consists of PZT thin-film deposition and deep reactive ion etching (DRIE). The uniqueness of the fabrication process is an automatic dicing mechanism that allows a large number of probes to be released easily from the wafer. Moreover, the fabrication is very efficient, because the DRIE process will form the PZT thin-film diaphragm and the special dicing mechanism simultaneously. After the probes are fabricated, they are tested with various possible implantation depths (i.e., boundary conditions). Experimental results show that future implantation depths

  19. Soft Magnetic Multilayered Thin Films for HF Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizos, George; Giannopoulos, George; Serletis, Christos; Maity, Tuhin; Roy, Saibal; Lupu, Nicoleta; Kijima, Hanae; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Niarchos, Dimitris

    Multilayered thin films from various soft magnetic materials were successfully prepared by magnetron sputtering in Ar atmosphere. The magnetic properties and microstructure were investigated. It is found that the films show good soft magnetic properties: magnetic coercivity of 1-10 Oe and saturation magnetization higher than 1T. The initial permeability of the films is greater than 300 and flattens up to 600 MHz. The multilayer thin film properties in combination with their easy, fast and reproducible fabrication indicate that they are potential candidates for high frequency applications.

  20. Nanocrystalline magnetite thin films grown by dual ion-beam sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto, Pilar; Ruiz, Patricia; Ferrer, Isabel J.; Figuera, Juan de la; Marco, José F.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We have grown tensile and compressive strained nanocrystalline magnetite thin films by dual ion beam sputtering. • The magnetic and thermoelectric properties can be controlled by the deposition conditions. • The magnetic anisotropy depends on the crystalline grain size. • The thermoelectric properties depend on the type of strain induced in the films. • In plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy develops in magnetite thin films with grain sizes ⩽20 nm. - Abstract: We have explored the influence of an ion-assisted beam in the thermoelectric and magnetic properties of nanocrystalline magnetite thin films grown by ion-beam sputtering. The microstructure has been investigated by XRD. Tensile and compressive strained thin films have been obtained as a function of the parameters of the ion-assisted beam. The evolution of the in-plane magnetic anisotropy was attributed to crystalline grain size. In some films, magneto-optical Kerr effect measurements reveal the existence of uniaxial magnetic anisotropy induced by the deposition process related with a small grain size (⩽20 nm). Isotropic magnetic properties have observed in nanocrystalline magnetite thin film having larger grain sizes. The largest power factor of all the films prepared (0.47 μW/K 2 cm), obtained from a Seebeck coefficient of −80 μV/K and an electrical resistivity of 13 mΩ cm, is obtained in a nanocrystalline magnetite thin film with an expanded out-of-plane lattice and with a grain size ≈30 nm

  1. Methods for producing thin film charge selective transport layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Scott Ryan; Olson, Dana C.; van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria

    2018-01-02

    Methods for producing thin film charge selective transport layers are provided. In one embodiment, a method for forming a thin film charge selective transport layer comprises: providing a precursor solution comprising a metal containing reactive precursor material dissolved into a complexing solvent; depositing the precursor solution onto a surface of a substrate to form a film; and forming a charge selective transport layer on the substrate by annealing the film.

  2. Direct current magnetron sputter-deposited ZnO thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoon, Jian-Wei; Chan, Kah-Yoong; Krishnasamy, Jegenathan; Tou, Teck-Yong; Knipp, Dietmar

    2011-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a very promising electronic material for emerging transparent large-area electronic applications including thin-film sensors, transistors and solar cells. We fabricated ZnO thin films by employing direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering deposition technique. ZnO films with different thicknesses ranging from 150 nm to 750 nm were deposited on glass substrates. The deposition pressure and the substrate temperature were varied from 12 mTorr to 25 mTorr, and from room temperature to 450 deg. C, respectively. The influence of the film thickness, deposition pressure and the substrate temperature on structural and optical properties of the ZnO films was investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrometer. The experimental results reveal that the film thickness, deposition pressure and the substrate temperature play significant role in the structural formation and the optical properties of the deposited ZnO thin films.

  3. Nanomechanical Behavior of High Gas Barrier Multilayer Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humood, Mohammad; Chowdhury, Shahla; Song, Yixuan; Tzeng, Ping; Grunlan, Jaime C; Polycarpou, Andreas A

    2016-05-04

    Nanoindentation and nanoscratch experiments were performed on thin multilayer films manufactured using the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly technique. These films are known to exhibit high gas barrier, but little is known about their durability, which is an important feature for various packaging applications (e.g., food and electronics). Films were prepared from bilayer and quadlayer sequences, with varying thickness and composition. In an effort to evaluate multilayer thin film surface and mechanical properties, and their resistance to failure and wear, a comprehensive range of experiments were conducted: low and high load indentation, low and high load scratch. Some of the thin films were found to have exceptional mechanical behavior and exhibit excellent scratch resistance. Specifically, nanobrick wall structures, comprising montmorillonite (MMT) clay and polyethylenimine (PEI) bilayers, are the most durable coatings. PEI/MMT films exhibit high hardness, large elastic modulus, high elastic recovery, low friction, low scratch depth, and a smooth surface. When combined with the low oxygen permeability and high optical transmission of these thin films, these excellent mechanical properties make them good candidates for hard coating surface-sensitive substrates, where polymers are required to sustain long-term surface aesthetics and quality.

  4. Fluorine doped vanadium dioxide thin films for smart windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiri, Pragna; Warwick, Michael E.A.; Ridley, Ian; Binions, Russell

    2011-01-01

    Thermochromic fluorine doped thin films of vanadium dioxide were deposited from the aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition reaction of vanadyl acetylacetonate, ethanol and trifluoroacetic acid on glass substrates. The films were characterised with scanning electron microscopy, variable temperature Raman spectroscopy and variable temperature UV/Vis spectroscopy. The incorporation of fluorine in the films led to an increase in the visible transmittance of the films whilst retaining the thermochromic properties. This approach shows promise for improving the aesthetic properties of vanadium dioxide thin films.

  5. Thin Film Magnetless Faraday Rotators for Compact Heterogeneous Integrated Optical Isolators (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-15

    AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2017-0348 THIN-FILM MAGNETLESS FARADAY ROTATORS FOR COMPACT HETEROGENEOUS INTEGRATED OPTICAL ISOLATORS (POSTPRINT) Dolendra Karki...Interim 9 May 2016 – 1 December 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE THIN-FILM MAGNETLESS FARADAY ROTATORS FOR COMPACT HETEROGENEOUS INTEGRATED OPTICAL...transfer of ultra-compact thin-film magnetless Faraday rotators to silicon photonic substrates. Thin films of magnetization latching bismuth

  6. Microstructure and thermochromic properties of VOX-WOX-VOX ceramic thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khamseh, S.; Ghahari, M.; Araghi, H.; Faghihi Sani, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    W-doped VO 2 films have been synthesized via oxygen annealing of V-W-V (vanadium-tungsten-vanadium) multilayered films. The effects of middle layer's thickness of V-W-V multilayered film on structure and properties of VO X -WO X -VO X ceramic thin films were investigated. The as-deposited V-W-V multilayered film showed amorphous-like structure when mixed structure of VO 2 (M) and VO 2 (B) was formed in VO X -WO X -VO X ceramic thin films. Tungsten content of VO X -WO X -VO X ceramic thin films increased with increasing middle layer's thickness. With increasing middle layer's thickness, room temperature square resistance (R sq ) of VO X -WO X -VO X ceramic thin films increased from 65 to 86 kΩ/sq. The VO X -WO X -VO X ceramic thin film with the thinnest middle layer showed significant SMT (semiconductor-metal transition) when SMT became negligible on increasing middle layer's thickness. (orig.)

  7. Voltage transients in thin-film InSb Hall sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardin, Alexey; Ignatjev, Vyacheslav; Orlov, Andrey; Perchenko, Sergey

    The work is reached to study temperature transients in thin-film Hall sensors. We experimentally study InSb thin-film Hall sensor. We find transients of voltage with amplitude about 10 μ V on the sensor ports after current switching. We demonstrate by direct measurements that the transients is caused by thermo-e.m.f., and both non-stationarity and heterogeneity of temperature in the film. We find significant asymmetry of temperature field for different direction of the current, which is probably related to Peltier effect. The result can be useful for wide range of scientist who works with switching of high density currents in any thin semiconductor films.

  8. A „Hybrid“ Thin-Film pH Sensor with Integrated Thick-Film Reference

    OpenAIRE

    Simonis, Anette; Krings, Thomas; Lüth, Hans; Wang, Joseph; Schöning, Michael J.

    2001-01-01

    A reference electrode fabricated by means of thick-film technique is deposited onto a silicon substrate and combined with a thin-film pH sensor to a “hybrid†chip system. To evaluate the suitability of this combination, first investigations were carried out. The characteristics of the thin-film pH sensor were studied towards the thick-film Ag/AgCl reference electrode. Measurements were performed in the capacitance/voltage (C/V) and constant capacitance (Concap) mode for different pH ...

  9. Electrical and optical properties of spray - deposited CdSe thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedir, M.; Oeztas, M.; Bakkaloglu, O. F.

    2002-01-01

    The CdSe thin films were developed by using spray-deposition technique at different substrate temperatures of 380C, 400C and, 420C on the glass substrate. All spraying processes involved CdCI 2 (0.05 moles/liter) and SeO 2 (0.05 moles/liter ) and were carried out in atmospheric condition. The CdSe thin film samples were characterized using x-ray diffractometer and optical absorption measurements. The electrical properties of the thin film samples were investigated via Wander Pauw method. XRD patterns indicated that the CdSe thin film samples have a hexagonal structure. The direct band gap of the CdSe thin film samples were determined from optical absorption and spectral response measurements of 1.76 eV. The resistivity of the CdSe thin film samples were found to vary in the range from 5.8x10''5 to 7.32x10''5 Ωcm depending to the substrate temperature

  10. Post-annealing effects on pulsed laser deposition-grown GaN thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Yu-Wen; Wu, Hao-Yu; Lin, Yu-Zhong; Lee, Cheng-Che; Lin, Ching-Fuh

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the post-annealing effects on gallium nitride (GaN) thin films grown from pulsed laser deposition (PLD) are investigated. The as-deposited GaN thin films grown from PLD are annealed at different temperatures in nitrogen ambient. Significant changes of the GaN crystal properties are observed. Raman spectroscopy is used to observe the crystallinity, the change of residual stress, and the thermal decomposition of the annealed GaN thin films. X-ray diffraction is also applied to identify the crystal phase of GaN thin films, and the surface morphology of GaN thin films annealed at different temperatures is observed by scanning electron microscopy. Through the above analyses, the GaN thin films grown by PLD undergo three stages: phase transition, stress alteration, and thermal decomposition. At a low annealing temperature, the rock salt GaN in GaN films is transformed into wurtzite. The rock salt GaN diminishes with increasing annealing temperature. At a medium annealing temperature, the residual stress of the film changes significantly from compressive strain to tensile strain. As the annealing temperature further increases, the GaN undergoes thermal decomposition and the surface becomes granular. By investigating the annealing temperature effects and controlling the optimized annealing temperature of the GaN thin films, we are able to obtain highly crystalline and strain-free GaN thin films by PLD. - Highlights: • The GaN thin film is grown on sapphire by pulsed laser deposition. • The GaN film undergoes three stages with increasing annealing temperature. • In the first stage, the film transfers from rock salt to wurtzite phase. • In the second stage, the stress in film changes from compressive to tensile. • In the final stage, the film thermally decomposes and becomes granular

  11. Determination of magnetic properties of multilayer metallic thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birlikseven, C.

    2000-01-01

    In recent year, Giant Magnetoresistance Effect has been attracting an increasingly high interest. High sensitivity magnetic field detectors and high sensitivity read heads of magnetic media can be named as important applications of these films. In this work, magnetic and electrical properties of single layer and thin films were investigated. Multilayer thin films were supplied by Prof. Dr. A. Riza Koeymen from Texas University. Multilayer magnetic thin films are used especially for magnetic reading and magnetic writing. storing of large amount of information into small areas become possible with this technology. Single layer films were prepared using the electron beam evaporation technique. For the exact determination of film thicknesses, a careful calibration of the thicknesses was made. Magnetic properties of the multilayer films were studied using the magnetization, magnetoresistance measurements and ferromagnetic resonance technique. Besides, by fitting the experimental results to the theoretical models, effective magnetization and angles between the ferromagnetic layers were calculated. The correspondence between magnetization and magnetoresistance was evaluated. To see the effect of anisotropic magnetoresistance in the magnetoresistance measurements, a new experimental set-up was build and measurements were taken in this set-up. A series of soft permalloy thin films were made, and temperature dependent resistivity, magnetoresistance, anisotropic magnetoresistance and magnetization measurements were taken

  12. Electrochromic properties of nanocrystalline MoO3 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, C.-S.; Chan, C.-C.; Huang, H.-T.; Peng, C.-H.; Hsu, W.-C.

    2008-01-01

    Electrochromic MoO 3 thin films were prepared by a sol-gel spin-coating technique. The spin-coated films were initially amorphous; they were calcined, producing nanocrystalline MoO 3 thin films. The effects of annealing temperatures ranging from 100 o C to 500 o C were investigated. The electrochemical and electrochromic properties of the films were measured by cyclic voltammetry and by in-situ optical transmittance techniques in 1 M LiClO 4 /propylene carbonate electrolyte. Experimental results showed that the transmittance of MoO 3 thin films heat-treated at 350 o C varied from 80% to 35% at λ = 550 nm (ΔT = ∼ 45%) and from 86% to 21% at λ ≥ 700 nm (ΔT = ∼ 65%) after coloration. Films heat-treated at 350 deg. C exhibited the best electrochromic properties in the present study

  13. Electrical properties of epitaxially grown VOx thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rata, A.D.; Chezan, A.R; Presura, C.N.; Hibma, T

    2003-01-01

    High quality VOx thin films on MgO(100) substrates were prepared and studied from the structural and electronic point of view. Epitaxial growth was confirmed by RHEED and XRD techniques. The oxygen content of VOx thin films as a function of oxygen flux was determined using RBS. The upper and lower

  14. Thin film preparation of semiconducting iron pyrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smestad, Greg P.; Ennaoui, Ahmed; Fiechter, Sebastian; Hofmann, Wolfgang; Tributsch, Helmut; Kautek, Wolfgang

    1990-08-01

    Pyrite (Fe52) has been investigated as a promising new absorber material for thin film solar cell applications because of its high optical absorption coefficient of 1OL cm1, and its bandgap of 0.9 to 1.0 eV. Thin layers have been prepared by Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition, MOCVD, Chemical Spray Pyrolysis, CSP, Chemical Vapor Transport, CVT, and Sulfurization of Iron Oxide films, 510. It is postulated that for the material FeS2, if x is not zero, a high point defect concentration results from replacing 2 dipoles by single S atoms. This causes the observed photovoltages and solar conversion efficiencies to be lower than expected. Using the Fe-O-S ternary phase diagram and the related activity plots, a thermodynamic understanding is formulated for the resulting composition of each of these types of films. It is found that by operating in the oxide portion of the phase diagram, the resulting oxidation state favors pyrite formation over FeS. By proper orientation of the grains relative to the film surface, and by control of pinholes and stoichiometry, an efficient thin film photovolatic solar cell material could be achieved.

  15. Synthesis of nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films by liquid phase ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    goes degradation efficiently in presence of TiO2 thin films by exposing its aqueous solution to .... Figure 6. Photodegradation of IGOR organic dye by a. bare TiO2 thin film and b. ... Meng L-J and Dos Santos M P 1993 Thin Solid Films 226 22.

  16. Review of thin film superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kihlstrom, K.E.

    1989-01-01

    Advances in thin film superconductivity are critical to the success of many proposed applications. The authors review several of the prominent techniques currently used to produce thin films of the high temperature superconductors including electron beam co-deposition, sputtering (both multiple and composite source configurations) and laser ablation. The authors look at the relevant parameters for each and evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of each technique. In addition, promising work on in situ oxidation is discussed. Also addressed are efforts to find optimum substrate materials and substrate buffer layers for various applications. The current state of the art for T c , J c and H c2 is presented for the yttrium, bismuth, and thallium compounds

  17. Structural and Electrochemical Properties of Lithium Nickel Oxide Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyu-bong Cho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available LiNiO2 thin films were fabricated by RF magnetron sputtering. The microstructure of the films was determined by X-ray diffraction and field-emission scanning electron microscopy. The electrochemical properties were investigated with a battery cycler using coin-type half-cells. The LiNiO2 thin films annealed below 500°C had the surface carbonate. The results suggest that surface carbonate interrupted the Li intercalation and deintercalation during charge/discharge. Although the annealing process enhanced the crystallization of LiNiO2, the capacity did not increase. When the annealing temperature was increased to 600°C, the FeCrNiO4 oxide phase was generated and the discharge capacity decreased due to an oxygen deficiency in the LiNiO2 thin film. The ZrO2-coated LiNiO2 thin film provided an improved discharge capacity compared to bare LiNiO2 thin film suggesting that the improved electrochemical characteristic may be attributed to the inhibition of surface carbonate by ZrO2 coating layer.

  18. Proceedings of the international conference on thin films and applications: book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    In the era of miniaturization, the role of thin films is highly significant to achieve smaller devices with higher speed especially in new generation of integrated circuits, sensors, flat panel displays, Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS), biomedical devices, optical instruments and microwave communications. Thin films as a nano-scale dimensional system have great importance to many challenging applications. Biological coatings, clean energy, ferroelectric and piezoelectric thin films, ion beam thin films, magnetic thin films, nanostructured and nano composite coatings, NEMS, sensors, thin film preparation and characterization are the topics covered in this symposium. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  19. Synthesis of Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films by a precursor solution paste for thin film solar cell applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jin Woo; Ismail, Agus; Park, Se Jin; Kim, Woong; Yoon, Sungho; Min, Byoung Koun

    2013-05-22

    Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) is a very promising semiconductor material when used for the absorber layer of thin film solar cells because it consists of only abundant and inexpensive elements. In addition, a low-cost solution process is applicable to the preparation of CZTS absorber films, which reduces the cost when this film is used for the production of thin film solar cells. To fabricate solution-processed CZTS thin film using an easily scalable and relatively safe method, we suggest a precursor solution paste coating method with a two-step heating process (oxidation and sulfurization). The synthesized CZTS film was observed to be composed of grains of a size of ~300 nm, showing an overall densely packed morphology with some pores and voids. A solar cell device with this film as an absorber layer showed the highest efficiency of 3.02% with an open circuit voltage of 556 mV, a short current density of 13.5 mA/cm(2), and a fill factor of 40.3%. We also noted the existence of Cd moieties and an inhomogeneous Zn distribution in the CZTS film, which may have been triggered by the presence of pores and voids in the CZTS film.

  20. Properties of nanostructured undoped ZrO{sub 2} thin film electrolytes by plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition for thin film solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Gu Young; Noh, Seungtak; Lee, Yoon Ho; Cha, Suk Won, E-mail: ybkim@hanyang.ac.kr, E-mail: swcha@snu.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Ji, Sanghoon [Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Iui-dong, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon 443-270 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Soon Wook; Koo, Bongjun; Kim, Young-Beom, E-mail: ybkim@hanyang.ac.kr, E-mail: swcha@snu.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, 222 Wangsimni-ro, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); An, Jihwan [Manufacturing Systems and Design Engineering Programme, Seoul National University of Science and Technology, 232 Gongneung-ro, Nowon-gu, Seoul 139-743 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    Nanostructured ZrO{sub 2} thin films were prepared by thermal atomic layer deposition (ALD) and by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD). The effects of the deposition conditions of temperature, reactant, plasma power, and duration upon the physical and chemical properties of ZrO{sub 2} films were investigated. The ZrO{sub 2} films by PEALD were polycrystalline and had low contamination, rough surfaces, and relatively large grains. Increasing the plasma power and duration led to a clear polycrystalline structure with relatively large grains due to the additional energy imparted by the plasma. After characterization, the films were incorporated as electrolytes in thin film solid oxide fuel cells, and the performance was measured at 500 °C. Despite similar structure and cathode morphology of the cells studied, the thin film solid oxide fuel cell with the ZrO{sub 2} thin film electrolyte by the thermal ALD at 250 °C exhibited the highest power density (38 mW/cm{sup 2}) because of the lowest average grain size at cathode/electrolyte interface.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of spin-coated ZnS thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, M. Burhanuz; Chandel, Tarun; Dehury, Kshetramohan; Rajaram, P.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we report synthesis of ZnS thin films using a sol-gel method. A unique aprotic solvent, dimethlysulphoxide (DMSO) has been used to obtain a homogeneous ZnS gel. Zinc acetate and thiourea were used as the precursor sources for Zn and S, respectively, to deposit nanocrystalline ZnS thin films. Optical, structural and morphological properties of the films were studied. Optical studies reveal high transmittance of the samples over the entire visible region. The energy band gap (Eg) for the ZnS thin films is found to be about 3.6 eV which matches with that of bulk ZnS. The interference fringes in transmissions spectrum show the high quality of synthesized samples. Strong photoluminescence peak in the UV region makes the films suitable for optoelectronic applications. X-ray diffraction studies reveal that sol-gel derived ZnS thin films are polycrystalline in nature with hexagonal structure. SEM studies confirmed that the ZnS films show smooth and uniform grains morphology having size in 20-25 nm range. The EDAX studies confirmed that the films are nearly stoichiometric.

  2. Critical phenomena in Ising-type thin films by Monte Carlo study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masrour, R.; Jabar, A.; Benyoussef, A.; Hamedoun, M.

    2016-01-01

    The magnetic properties of ferrimagnetic spin-2 and 3/2 Ising-typed thin films are studied by Monte Carlo simulation. The critical temperature is obtained for different values of thickness of the thin film and for different exchange interactions. The total magnetization has been determined for different values of exchange interactions in surface and in bulk and different temperatures. The magnetic hysteresis cycle is obtained for different values of exchange interactions ferro and antiferromagnetic in the surface and in the bulk and for different values of temperatures for a fixed size of the film thickness. The coercive field increase with increasing the film thickness. - Highlights: • The magnetic properties of thin films are studied by Monte Carlo simulation. • The critical temperature is obtained for different values of thickness of thin film. • The magnetic hysteresis cycle is obtained in the surface and in the bulk. • The coercive field increase with increasing the thin film thickness.

  3. Critical phenomena in Ising-type thin films by Monte Carlo study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masrour, R., E-mail: rachidmasrour@hotmail.com [Laboratory of Materials, Processes, Environment and Quality, Cady Ayyed University, National School of Applied Sciences, 63, 46000 Safi (Morocco); Laboratoire de Magnétisme et Physique des Hautes Energies L.M.P.H.E.URAC 12, Université Mohammed V, Faculté des Sciences, B.P. 1014, Rabat (Morocco); Jabar, A. [Laboratoire de Magnétisme et Physique des Hautes Energies L.M.P.H.E.URAC 12, Université Mohammed V, Faculté des Sciences, B.P. 1014, Rabat (Morocco); Benyoussef, A. [Laboratoire de Magnétisme et Physique des Hautes Energies L.M.P.H.E.URAC 12, Université Mohammed V, Faculté des Sciences, B.P. 1014, Rabat (Morocco); Institute of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnologies, MAScIR, Rabat (Morocco); Hassan II Academy of Science and Technology, Rabat (Morocco); Hamedoun, M. [Institute of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnologies, MAScIR, Rabat (Morocco)

    2016-04-01

    The magnetic properties of ferrimagnetic spin-2 and 3/2 Ising-typed thin films are studied by Monte Carlo simulation. The critical temperature is obtained for different values of thickness of the thin film and for different exchange interactions. The total magnetization has been determined for different values of exchange interactions in surface and in bulk and different temperatures. The magnetic hysteresis cycle is obtained for different values of exchange interactions ferro and antiferromagnetic in the surface and in the bulk and for different values of temperatures for a fixed size of the film thickness. The coercive field increase with increasing the film thickness. - Highlights: • The magnetic properties of thin films are studied by Monte Carlo simulation. • The critical temperature is obtained for different values of thickness of thin film. • The magnetic hysteresis cycle is obtained in the surface and in the bulk. • The coercive field increase with increasing the thin film thickness.

  4. Improvement of physical properties of ZnO thin films by tellurium doping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sönmezoğlu, Savaş, E-mail: svssonmezoglu@kmu.edu.tr; Akman, Erdi

    2014-11-01

    Highlights: • We report the synthesis of tellurium-doped zinc oxide (Te–ZnO) thin films using sol–gel method. • Highly c-axis oriented Te-doped ZnO thin films were grown on FTO glasses as substrate. • 1.5% Te-doping ratio could improve the physical properties of ZnO thin films. - Abstract: This investigation addressed the structural, optical and morphological properties of tellurium incorporated zinc oxide (Te–ZnO) thin films. The obtained results indicated that Te-doped ZnO thin films exhibit an enhancement of band gap energy and crystallinity compared with non-doped films. The optical transmission spectra revealed a shift in the absorption edge toward lower wavelengths. X-ray diffraction measurement demonstrated that the film was crystallized in the hexagonal (wurtzite) phase and presented a preferential orientation along the c-axis. The XRD obtained patterns indicate that the crystallite size of the thin films, ranging from 23.9 to 49.1 nm, changed with the Te doping level. The scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy results demonstrated that the grain size and surface roughness of the thin films increased as the Te concentration increased. Most significantly, we demonstrate that it is possible to control the structural, optical and morphological properties of ZnO thin films with the isoelectronic Te-incorporation level.

  5. Study on the Preparation and Properties of Colored Iron Oxide Thin Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xianhui; Li Changhong; Liu Qiuping; He Junjing; Wang Hai; Liang Song; Duan Yandong; Liu Su

    2013-01-01

    Colored iron oxide thin films were prepared using Sol-gel technique. The raw materials were tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS), etoh ehanol (EtOH), iron nitrate, and de-ionized water. Various properties were measured and analysed, including the colour of thin films, surface topography, UV-Visible spectra, corrosion resistance and hydrophobicity. To understand how these properties influenced the structural and optical properties of Fe 2 O 3 thin films, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), UV Spectrophotometer and other facilities were employed. Many parameters influence the performance of thin films, such as film layers, added H 2 O content, and the amount of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). When the volume ratio of TEOS, EtOH and H 2 O was 15: 13: 1, the quality of Fe(NO 3 ) 3 ·9H 2 O was 6g, and pH value was 3, reddish and uniform Fe 2 O 3 thin films with excellent properties were produced. Obtained thin films possessed corrosion resistance in hydrochloric acid with pH=l and the absorption edge wavelength was ∼350.2nm. Different H 2 O contents could result in different morphologies of Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles. When 1.5 ml PDMS was added into the Sol, thin films possessed hydrophobiliry without dropping. Coating with different layers, thin films appeared different morphologies. Meanwhile, with the increment of film layers, the absorbance increased gradually.

  6. Co-sputtered ZnO:Si thin films as transparent conductive oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faure, C. [CNRS, Univ. Bordeaux, ICMCB, UPR 9048, F33600 Pessac (France); Clatot, J. [LRCS, 33 Rue St Leu, F-80039 Amiens (France); Teule-Gay, L.; Campet, G. [CNRS, Univ. Bordeaux, ICMCB, UPR 9048, F33600 Pessac (France); Labrugere, C. [CeCaMA, Universite de Bordeaux, ICMCB, 87 avenue du Dr. A. Schweitzer, Pessac, F-33608 (France); Nistor, M. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasmas and Radiation Physics, L22, PO Box MG-36, 77125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Rougier, A., E-mail: rougier@icmcb-bordeaux.cnrs.fr [CNRS, Univ. Bordeaux, ICMCB, UPR 9048, F33600 Pessac (France)

    2012-12-01

    Silicon doped Zinc Oxide thin films, so-called SZO, were deposited at room temperature on glass and plastic substrates by co-sputtering of ZnO and SiO{sub 2} targets. The influence of the SiO{sub 2} target power supply (from 30 to 75 W) on the SZO thin film composition and crystallinity is discussed. Si/Zn atomic ratio, determined by X-ray microprobe, increases from 1.2 to 8.2 at.%. For Si/Zn ratio equal and lower than 3.9%, SZO (S{sub 3.9}ZO) thin films exhibit the Wurzite structure with the (0 0 2) preferred orientation. Larger Si content leads to a decrease in crystallinity. With Si addition, the resistivity decreases down to 3.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} Ohm-Sign {center_dot}cm for SZO thin film containing 3.9 at.% of Si prior to an increase. The mean transmittance of S{sub 3.9}ZO thin film on glass substrate approaches 80% (it is about 90% for the film itself) in the visible range (from 400 to 750 nm). Co-sputtered SZO thin films are suitable candidates for large area transparent conductive oxides. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Si doped ZnO thin films by co-sputtering of ZnO and SiO{sub 2} targets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Minimum of resistivity for Si doped ZnO thin films containing 3.9% of Si. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Si and O environments by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy.

  7. Improvement of physical properties of IGZO thin films prepared by excimer laser annealing of sol–gel derived precursor films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsay, Chien-Yie; Huang, Tzu-Teng

    2013-01-01

    Indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) transparent semiconductor thin films were prepared by KrF excimer laser annealing of sol–gel derived precursor films. Each as-coated film was dried at 150 °C in air and then annealed using excimer laser irradiation. The influence of laser irradiation energy density on surface conditions, optical transmittances, and electrical properties of laser annealed IGZO thin films were investigated, and the physical properties of the excimer laser annealed (ELA) and the thermally annealed (TA) thin films were compared. Experimental results showed that two kinds of surface morphology resulted from excimer laser annealing. Irradiation with a lower energy density (≤250 mJ cm −2 ) produced wavy and irregular surfaces, while irradiation with a higher energy density (≥350 mJ cm −2 ) produced flat and dense surfaces consisting of uniform nano-sized amorphous particles. The explanation for the differences in surface features and film quality is that using laser irradiation energy to form IGZO thin films improves the film density and removes organic constituents. The dried IGZO sol–gel films irradiated with a laser energy density of 350 mJ/cm 2 had the best physical properties of all the ELA IGZO thin films. The mean resistivity of the ELA 350 thin films (4.48 × 10 3 Ω cm) was lower than that of TA thin films (1.39 × 10 4 Ω cm), and the average optical transmittance in the visible range (90.2%) of the ELA 350 thin films was slightly higher than that of TA thin films (89.7%). - Highlights: • IGZO semiconductor films were prepared by laser annealing of sol–gel derived films. • Surface roughness and resistivity of ELA samples were affected by energy density. • The ELA 350 IGZO film exhibited the best properties among all of ELA IGZO films. • Transmittance and resistivity of ELA 350 films are greater than those of TA films

  8. Improvement of physical properties of IGZO thin films prepared by excimer laser annealing of sol–gel derived precursor films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsay, Chien-Yie, E-mail: cytsay@fcu.edu.tw; Huang, Tzu-Teng

    2013-06-15

    Indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) transparent semiconductor thin films were prepared by KrF excimer laser annealing of sol–gel derived precursor films. Each as-coated film was dried at 150 °C in air and then annealed using excimer laser irradiation. The influence of laser irradiation energy density on surface conditions, optical transmittances, and electrical properties of laser annealed IGZO thin films were investigated, and the physical properties of the excimer laser annealed (ELA) and the thermally annealed (TA) thin films were compared. Experimental results showed that two kinds of surface morphology resulted from excimer laser annealing. Irradiation with a lower energy density (≤250 mJ cm{sup −2}) produced wavy and irregular surfaces, while irradiation with a higher energy density (≥350 mJ cm{sup −2}) produced flat and dense surfaces consisting of uniform nano-sized amorphous particles. The explanation for the differences in surface features and film quality is that using laser irradiation energy to form IGZO thin films improves the film density and removes organic constituents. The dried IGZO sol–gel films irradiated with a laser energy density of 350 mJ/cm{sup 2} had the best physical properties of all the ELA IGZO thin films. The mean resistivity of the ELA 350 thin films (4.48 × 10{sup 3} Ω cm) was lower than that of TA thin films (1.39 × 10{sup 4} Ω cm), and the average optical transmittance in the visible range (90.2%) of the ELA 350 thin films was slightly higher than that of TA thin films (89.7%). - Highlights: • IGZO semiconductor films were prepared by laser annealing of sol–gel derived films. • Surface roughness and resistivity of ELA samples were affected by energy density. • The ELA 350 IGZO film exhibited the best properties among all of ELA IGZO films. • Transmittance and resistivity of ELA 350 films are greater than those of TA films.

  9. Infrared analysis of thin films amorphous, hydrogenated carbon on silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Jacob, W; Schwarz-Selinger, T

    2000-01-01

    The infrared analysis of thin films on a thick substrate is discussed using the example of plasma-deposited, amorphous, hydrogenated carbon layers (a-C:H) on silicon substrates. The framework for the optical analysis of thin films is presented. The main characteristic of thin film optics is the occurrence of interference effects due to the coherent superposition of light multiply reflected at the various internal and external interfaces of the optical system. These interference effects lead to a sinusoidal variation of the transmitted and reflected intensity. As a consequence, the Lambert-Beer law is not applicable for the determination of the absorption coefficient of thin films. Furthermore, observable changes of the transmission and reflection spectra occur in the vicinity of strong absorption bands due to the Kramers-Kronig relation. For a sound data evaluation these effects have to be included in the analysis. To be able to extract the full information contained in a measured optical thin film spectrum, ...

  10. Vibration welding system with thin film sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wayne W; Abell, Jeffrey A; Li, Xiaochun; Choi, Hongseok; Zhao, Jingzhou

    2014-03-18

    A vibration welding system includes an anvil, a welding horn, a thin film sensor, and a process controller. The anvil and horn include working surfaces that contact a work piece during the welding process. The sensor measures a control value at the working surface. The measured control value is transmitted to the controller, which controls the system in part using the measured control value. The thin film sensor may include a plurality of thermopiles and thermocouples which collectively measure temperature and heat flux at the working surface. A method includes providing a welder device with a slot adjacent to a working surface of the welder device, inserting the thin film sensor into the slot, and using the sensor to measure a control value at the working surface. A process controller then controls the vibration welding system in part using the measured control value.

  11. Synthesis and Screening of Phase Change Chalcogenide Thin Film Materials for Data Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, Samuel; Hayden, Brian; Hewak, Daniel W; Vian, Chris

    2017-07-10

    A combinatorial synthetic methodology based on evaporation sources under an ultrahigh vacuum has been used to directly synthesize compositional gradient thin film libraries of the amorphous phases of GeSbTe alloys at room temperature over a wide compositional range. An optical screen is described that allows rapid parallel mapping of the amorphous-to-crystalline phase transition temperature and optical contrast associated with the phase change on such libraries. The results are shown to be consistent with the literature for compositions where published data are available along the Sb 2 Te 3 -GeTe tie line. The results reveal a minimum in the crystallization temperature along the Sb 2 Te 3 -Ge 2 Te 3 tie line, and the method is able to resolve subsequent cubic-to-hexagonal phase transitions in the GST crystalline phase. HT-XRD has been used to map the phases at sequentially higher temperatures, and the results are reconciled with the literature and trends in crystallization temperatures. The results clearly delineate compositions that crystallize to pure GST phases and those that cocrystallize Te. High-throughput measurement of the resistivity of the amorphous and crystalline phases has allowed the compositional and structural correlation of the resistivity contrast associated with the amorphous-to-crystalline transition, which range from 5-to-8 orders of magnitude for the compositions investigated. The results are discussed in terms of the compromises in the selection of these materials for phase change memory applications and the potential for further exploration through more detailed secondary screening of doped GST or similar classes of phase change materials designed for the demands of future memory devices.

  12. Glass transition and thermal expansivity of polystyrene thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, R.; Kanaya, T.; Miyazaki, T.; Nishida, K.; Tsukushi, I.; Shibata, K.

    2006-01-01

    We have studied glass transition temperature and thermal expansivity of polystyrene thin films supported on silicon substrate using X-ray reflectivity and inelastic neutron scattering techniques. In annealing experiments, we have found that the reported apparent negative expansivity of polymer thin films is caused by unrelaxed structure due to insufficient annealing. Using well-annealed films, we have evaluated glass transition temperature T g and thermal expansivity as a function of film thickness. The glass transition temperature decreases with film thickness and is constant below about 10 nm, suggesting the surface glass transition temperature of 355 K, which is lower than that in bulk. We have also found that the thermal expansivity in the glassy state decreases with film thickness even after annealing. The decrease has been attributed to hardening of harmonic force constant arising from chain confinement in a thin film. This idea has been confirmed in the inelastic neutron scattering measurements

  13. Glass transition and thermal expansivity of polystyrene thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, R. [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto-fu 611-0011 (Japan); Kanaya, T. [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto-fu 611-0011 (Japan)]. E-mail: kanaya@scl.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Miyazaki, T. [Nitto Denko Corporation, 1-1-2 Shimohozumi, Ibaraki, Osaka-fu 567-8680 (Japan); Nishida, K. [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto-fu 611-0011 (Japan); Tsukushi, I. [Chiba Institute of Technology, Narashino, Chiba-ken 275-0023 (Japan); Shibata, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Ibaraki-ken 319-1195 (Japan)

    2006-12-20

    We have studied glass transition temperature and thermal expansivity of polystyrene thin films supported on silicon substrate using X-ray reflectivity and inelastic neutron scattering techniques. In annealing experiments, we have found that the reported apparent negative expansivity of polymer thin films is caused by unrelaxed structure due to insufficient annealing. Using well-annealed films, we have evaluated glass transition temperature T {sub g} and thermal expansivity as a function of film thickness. The glass transition temperature decreases with film thickness and is constant below about 10 nm, suggesting the surface glass transition temperature of 355 K, which is lower than that in bulk. We have also found that the thermal expansivity in the glassy state decreases with film thickness even after annealing. The decrease has been attributed to hardening of harmonic force constant arising from chain confinement in a thin film. This idea has been confirmed in the inelastic neutron scattering measurements.

  14. Optical modeling and simulation of thin-film photovoltaic devices

    CERN Document Server

    Krc, Janez

    2013-01-01

    In wafer-based and thin-film photovoltaic (PV) devices, the management of light is a crucial aspect of optimization since trapping sunlight in active parts of PV devices is essential for efficient energy conversions. Optical modeling and simulation enable efficient analysis and optimization of the optical situation in optoelectronic and PV devices. Optical Modeling and Simulation of Thin-Film Photovoltaic Devices provides readers with a thorough guide to performing optical modeling and simulations of thin-film solar cells and PV modules. It offers insight on examples of existing optical models

  15. Investigation of phase transformation for ferrite–austenite structure in stainless steel thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merakeb, Noureddine [Laboratory of Physical Metallurgy and Property of Materials (LM2PM), Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department, Badji Mokhtar University, P.O. Box 12, Annaba 23000 (Algeria); Messai, Amel [Laboratoire d' Ingénierie et Sciences des Matériaux Avancés (ISMA), Institut des Sciences et Technologie, Abbès Laghrour University, Khenchela 40000 (Algeria); Ayesh, Ahmad I., E-mail: ayesh@qu.edu.qa [Department of Mathematics, Statistics and Physics, Qatar University, Doha (Qatar)

    2016-05-01

    In this work we report on phase transformation of 304 stainless steel thin films due to heat treatment. Ex-situ annealing was applied for evaporated 304 stainless steel thin films inside an ultra-high vacuum chamber with a pressure of 3 × 10{sup −7} Pa at temperatures of 500 °C and 600 °C. The structure of thin films was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy (CEMS) techniques. The results revealed a transformation from α-phase that exhibits a body-centered cubic structure (BCC) to γ-phase that exhibits a face-centered cubic (FCC) due to annealing. In addition, the percentage of γ-phase structure increased with the increase of annealing temperature. Annealing thin films increased the crystal size of both phases (α and γ), however, the increase was nonlinear. The results also showed that phase transformation was produced by recrystallization of α and γ crystals with a temporal evolution at each annealing temperature. The texture degree of thin films was investigated by XRD rocking curve method, while residual stress was evaluated using curvature method. - Highlights: • Stainless steel thin films were fabricated by thermal evaporation on quartz. • Alpha to gamma phase transformation of thin films was investigated. • Annealing of thin films reduces disruption in crystal lattice. • The stress of as-grown thin films was independent on the thin film thickness. • The stress of the thin films was reduced due to annealing.

  16. Impact of X-ray irradiation on PMMA thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, Saman; Rafique, Muhammad Shahid; Anjum, Safia; Hayat, Asma; Iqbal, Nida

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► PMMA thin films were deposited at 300 °C and 500 °C using PLD technique. ► These films were irradiated with different fluence of laser produced X-rays. ► Irradiation affects the ordered packing as well as surface morphology of film. ► Hardness of film decreases up to certain value of X-ray fluence. ► Absorption in UV–visible range exhibits a non linear behavior. - Abstract: The objective of this project is to explore the effect of X-ray irradiation of thin polymeric films deposited at various substrate temperatures. pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique is used for the deposition of PMMA thin films on glass substrate at 300 °C and 500 °C. These films have been irradiated with various X-rays fluences ranging from 2.56 to 5.76 mJ cm −2 . Characterization of the films (before and after the irradiation) is done with help of X-ray Diffractrometer, Optical Microscope, Vickers hardness tester and UV–vis spectroscopy techniques. From XRD data, it is revealed that ordered packing has been improved for the films deposited at 300 °C. However after irradiation the films exhibited the amorphous behavior regardless of the X-ray fluence. Film deposited at 500 °C shows amorphous structure before and after irradiation. Hardness and particle size of thin film have also increased with the increasing substrate temperature. However, the irradiation has reverse effect i.e. the particle size as well as the hardness has reduced. Irradiation has also enhanced the absorption in the UV–visible region.

  17. Flexible magnetic thin films and devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Ping; Wang, Baomin; Li, Runwei

    2018-01-01

    Flexible electronic devices are highly attractive for a variety of applications such as flexible circuit boards, solar cells, paper-like displays, and sensitive skin, due to their stretchable, biocompatible, light-weight, portable, and low cost properties. Due to magnetic devices being important parts of electronic devices, it is essential to study the magnetic properties of magnetic thin films and devices fabricated on flexible substrates. In this review, we mainly introduce the recent progress in flexible magnetic thin films and devices, including the study on the stress-dependent magnetic properties of magnetic thin films and devices, and controlling the properties of flexible magnetic films by stress-related multi-fields, and the design and fabrication of flexible magnetic devices. Project supported by the National Key R&D Program of China (No. 2016YFA0201102), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51571208, 51301191, 51525103, 11274321, 11474295, 51401230), the Youth Innovation Promotion Association of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (No. 2016270), the Key Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (No. KJZD-EW-M05), the Ningbo Major Project for Science and Technology (No. 2014B11011), the Ningbo Science and Technology Innovation Team (No. 2015B11001), and the Ningbo Natural Science Foundation (No. 2015A610110).

  18. Thin-film Rechargeable Lithium Batteries for Implantable Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, J. B.; Dudney, N. J.

    1997-05-01

    Thin films of LiCoO{sub 2} have been synthesized in which the strongest x ray reflection is either weak or missing, indicating a high degree of preferred orientation. Thin film solid state batteries with these textured cathode films can deliver practical capacities at high current densities. For example, for one of the cells 70% of the maximum capacity between 4.2 V and 3 V ({approximately}0.2 mAh/cm{sup 2}) was delivered at a current of 2 mA/cm{sup 2}. When cycled at rates of 0.1 mA/cm{sup 2}, the capacity loss was 0.001%/cycle or less. The reliability and performance of Li LiCoO{sub 2} thin film batteries make them attractive for application in implantable devices such as neural stimulators, pacemakers, and defibrillators.

  19. ZnO-Based Transparent Conductive Thin Films: Doping, Performance, and Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y.; Li, Y.; Zeng, H.

    2013-01-01

    ZnO-based transparent conductive thin films have attracted much attention as a promising substitute material to the currently used indium-tin-oxide thin films in transparent electrode applications. However, the detailed function of the dopants, acting on the electrical and optical properties of ZnO-based transparent conductive thin films, is not clear yet, which has limited the development and practical applications of ZnO transparent conductive thin films. Growth conditions such as substrate type, growth temperature, and ambient atmosphere all play important roles in structural, electrical, and optical properties of films. This paper takes a panoramic view on properties of ZnO thin films and reviews the very recent works on new, efficient, low-temperature, and high-speed deposition technologies. In addition, we highlighted the methods of producing ZnO-based transparent conductive film on flexible substrate, one of the most promising and rapidly emerging research areas. As optimum-processing-parameter conditions are being obtained and their influencing mechanism is becoming clear, we can see that there will be a promising future for ZnO-based transparent conductive films.

  20. Critical behavior of ferromagnetic Ising thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cossio, P.; Mazo-Zuluaga, J.; Restrepo, J.

    2006-01-01

    In the present work, we study the magnetic properties and critical behavior of simple cubic ferromagnetic thin films. We simulate LxLxd films with semifree boundary conditions on the basis of the Monte Carlo method and the Ising model with nearest neighbor interactions. A Metropolis dynamics was implemented to carry out the energy minimization process. For different film thickness, in the nanometer range, we compute the temperature dependence of the magnetization, the magnetic susceptibility and the fourth order Binder's cumulant. Bulk and surface contributions of these quantities are computed in a differentiated fashion. Additionally, according to finite size scaling theory, we estimate the critical exponents for the correlation length, magnetic susceptibility, and magnetization. Results reveal a strong dependence of critical temperature and critical exponents on the film thickness. The obtained critical exponents are finally compared to those reported in literature for thin films

  1. Superconducting oxypnictide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reisner, Andreas; Kidszun, Martin; Reich, Elke; Holzapfel, Bernhard; Schultz, Ludwig; Haindl, Silvia [IFW Dresden, Institute of Metallic Materials (Germany); Thersleff, Thomas [Uppsala University, Angstrom Laboratory (Sweden)

    2012-07-01

    We present an overview on the oxypnictide thin film preparation. So far, only LaAlO{sub 3} (001) single crystalline substrates provided a successful growth using pulsed laser deposition in combination with a post annealing process. Further experiments on the in-situ deposition will be reported. The structure of the films was investigated by X-ray diffractometry and transmission electron microscopy. Transport properties were measured with different applied fields to obtain a magnetic phase diagram for this new type of superconductor.

  2. Thin Film Solar Cells and their Optical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Jurecka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we report on the optical parameters of the semiconductor thin film for solar cell applications determination. The method is based on the dynamical modeling of the spectral reflectance function combined with the stochastic optimization of the initial reflectance model estimation. The spectral dependency of the thin film optical parameters computations is based on the optical transitions modeling. The combination of the dynamical modeling and the stochastic optimization of the initial theoretical model estimation enable comfortable analysis of the spectral dependencies of the optical parameters and incorporation of the microstructure effects on the solar cell properties. The results of the optical parameters ofthe i-a-Si thin film determination are presented.

  3. Microwave Josephson generation in thin film superconducting bridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubankov, V.N.; Koshelets, V.P.; Ovsyannikov, G.A.

    1975-01-01

    Thin-film bridges have some advantage over other types of superconducting weak links: good definition of electromagnetic parameters and of weak region geometry. Up to now Josephson properties of bridges have been investigated by using indirect methods (the effect of magnetic field on the critical current I 0 , the bridge behavior in a microwave field, etc.). Direct experimental observation of Josephson radiation from autonomous thin film bridges is reported. Microwave radiation in tin bridges of 'variable' thickness has been investigated where the thickness of the film forming the bridge is far less than the thickness of the bank films. (Auth.)

  4. Optical constants and structural properties of thin gold films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yakubovsky, Dmitry I.; Arsenin, Aleksey V.; Stebunov, Yury V.

    2017-01-01

    We report a comprehensive experimental study of optical and electrical properties of thin polycrystalline gold films in a wide range of film thicknesses (from 20 to 200 nm). Our experimental results are supported by theoretical calculations based on the measured morphology of the fabricated gold...... rules for thin-film plasmonic and nanophotonic devices....... films. We demonstrate that the dielectric function of the metal is determined by its structural morphology. Although the fabrication process can be absolutely the same for different films, the dielectric function can strongly depend on the film thickness. Our studies show that the imaginary part...

  5. Raman spectroscopy of optical properties in CdS thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trajić J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Properties of CdS thin films were investigated applying atomic force microscopy (AFM and Raman spectroscopy. CdS thin films were prepared by using thermal evaporation technique under base pressure 2 x 10-5 torr. The quality of these films was investigated by AFM spectroscopy. We apply Raman scattering to investigate optical properties of CdS thin films, and reveal existence of surface optical phonon (SOP mode at 297 cm-1. Effective permittivity of mixture were modeled by Maxwell - Garnet approximation. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 45003

  6. Room temperature deposition of magnetite thin films on organic substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arisi, E.; Bergenti, I.; Cavallini, M.; Murgia, M.; Riminucci, A.; Ruani, G.; Dediu, V.

    2007-01-01

    We report on the growth of magnetite films directly on thin layers of organic semiconductors by means of an electron beam ablation method. The deposition was performed at room temperature in a reactive plasma atmosphere. Thin films show ferromagnetic (FM) hysteresis loops and coercive fields of hundreds of Oersted. Micro Raman analysis indicates no presence of spurious phases. The morphology of the magnetite film is strongly influenced by the morphology of the underlayer of the organic semiconductor. These results open the way for the application of magnetite thin films in the field of organic spintronics

  7. Rapid thermal annealing of Ti-rich TiNi thin films: A new approach to fabricate patterned shape memory thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motemani, Y.; Tan, M.J.; White, T.J.; Huang, W.M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the rapid thermal annealing (RTA) of Ti-rich TiNi thin films, synthesized by the co-sputtering of TiNi and Ti targets. Long-range order of aperiodic alloy could be achieved in a few seconds with the optimum temperature of 773 K. Longer annealing (773 K/240 s), transformed the film to a poorly ordered vitreous phase, suggesting a novel method for solid state amorphization. Reitveld refinement analyses showed significant differences in structural parameters of the films crystallized by rapid and conventional thermal annealing. Dependence of the elastic modulus on the valence electron density (VED) of the crystallized films was studied. It is suggested that RTA provides a new approach to fabricate patterned shape memory thin films.

  8. Theoretical study of quaternary compounds as thin-film solar cell absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Huai Wei

    2010-01-01

    Full text : Design of chalcogenide photovoltaic absorbers is carried out systematically through sequential cation mutation, from binary to ternary to quaternary compounds, using first-principles electronic structure calculations. Several universal trends are found for the ternary and two classes of quaternary chalcogenides. For example, the lowest-energy structure always has larger lattice constant a, smaller tetragonal distortion parameter η=c/2a, and larger band gap than the metastable structures for common-row cation mutations. The band gap is reduced during the mutation. The band gap decreases from binary II-VI to ternary I-III-VI 2 are mostly due to the p-d repulsion in the valence band, the decreases from ternary I-III-VI 2 to quaternary I 2 -II-IV-VI 4 chalcogenides are due to the downshift in the conduction band caused by the wavefunction localization on the group IV cation site. It was found that I 2 -II-IV-VI 4 compounds are more stable in the kesterite structure, whereas the widely-assumed stannite structure reported in the literature is most likely due to partial disorder in the I-II layer of the kesterite phase. Among the derived quaternary compounds, Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 (CZTS) is one of the ideal candidate absorber materials for thin-film solar cells with an optimal band gap, high absorption coefficient, abundant elemental components, and is adaptable to various growth techniques. It was performed a series of first-principles electronic structure calculations for CZTS. Also it was found that in the ground state kesterite structure, (i) the chemical potential region that CZTS can form is very small. Therefore, it will be very difficult to obtain high quality stoichiometric CZTS samples; (ii) The dominant p-type acceptor in CZTS is CuZn, however, the associated acceptor level is relatively high, suggesting that p-type doping in CZTS is more difficult than ternary compounds such as CuInSe 2 ; (iii) The formation of the self-compensated defect pair [Cu

  9. Optical properties of CdS thin films by (SILAR) method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ates, A.; Gurbulak, B.; Yildirim, M.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: CdS thin film was grown by Successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique on quartz substrate. The film homogeneous of film is good and the film colour obtained as orange. Optical properties of CdS thin film has been investigated as a function of temperature in the temperature range 10-320 K with 10 K steps. The band gap energy decreased with increasing temperature

  10. Transition metal carbide nanocomposite and amorphous thin films

    OpenAIRE

    Tengstrand, Olof

    2014-01-01

    This thesis explores thin films of binary and ternary transition metal carbides, in the Nb-C, Ti-Si-C, Nb-Si-C, Zr-Si-C, and Nb-Ge-C systems. The electrical and mechanical properties of these systems are affected by their structure and here both nanocomposite and amorphous thin films are thus investigated. By appropriate choice of transition metal and composition the films can be designed to be multifunctional with a combination of properties, such as low electric resistivity, low contact res...

  11. Characterization of electron beam deposited thin films of HfO2 and binary thin films of (HfO2:SiO2) by XRD and EXAFS measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, N.C.; Sahoo, N.K.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Thakur, S.; Kamble, N.M.; Nanda, D.; Hazra, S.; Bal, J.K.; Lee, J.F.; Tai, Y.L.; Hsieh, C.A.

    2009-10-01

    In this report, we have discussed the microstructure and the local structure of composite thin films having varying hafnia and silica compositions and prepared by reactive electron beam evaporation. XRD and EXAFS studies have confirmed that the pure hafnium oxide thin film has crystalline microstructure whereas the films with finite hafnia and silica composition are amorphous. The result of EXAFS analysis has shown that the bond lengths as well as coordination numbers around hafnium atom change with the variation of hafnia and silica compositions in the thin film. Finally, change of bond lengths has been correlated with change of refractive index and band gap of the composite thin films. (author)

  12. Sensing of volatile organic compounds by copper phthalocyanine thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridhi, R.; Saini, G. S. S.; Tripathi, S. K.

    2017-02-01

    Thin films of copper phthalocyanine have been deposited by thermal evaporation technique. We have subsequently exposed these films to the vapours of methanol, ethanol and propanol. Optical absorption, infrared spectra and electrical conductivities of these films before and after exposure to chemical vapours have been recorded in order to study their sensing mechanisms towards organic vapours. These films exhibit maximum sensing response to methanol while low sensitivities of the films towards ethanol and propanol have been observed. The changes in sensitivities have been correlated with presence of carbon groups in the chemical vapours. The effect of different types of electrodes on response-recovery times of the thin film with organic vapours has been studied and compared. The electrodes gap distance affects the sensitivity as well as response-recovery time values of the thin films.

  13. Characteristics of Iron-Palladium alloy thin films deposited by magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Y.-J.; Shen, C.-Y.; Chang, H.-W.; Jian, S.-R.

    2018-06-01

    The microstructural features, magnetic, nanomechanical properties and wettability behaviors of Iron-Palladium (FePd) alloy thin films are investigated by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), nanoindentation and water contact angle (CA) techniques, respectively. The FePd alloy thin films were deposited on glass substrates using a magnetron sputtering system. The post-annealing processes of FePd alloy thin films were carried out at 400 °C and 750 °C and resulted in a significant increase of both the average grain size and surface roughness. The XRD analysis showed that FePd alloy thin films exhibited a predominant (1 1 1) orientation. The magnetic field dependence of magnetization of all FePd thin films are measured at room temperature showed the ferromagnetic characteristics. The nanoindentation with continuous stiffness measurement (CSM) is used to measure the hardness and Young's modulus of present films. The contact angle (θCA) increased with increasing surface roughness. The maximum θCA of 75° was achieved for the FePd alloy thin film after annealing at 750 °C and a surface roughness of 4.2 nm.

  14. Film-thickness and composition dependence of epitaxial thin-film PZT-based

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Duc Minh; Dekkers, Jan M.; Vu, Hung Ngoc; Rijnders, Augustinus J.H.M.

    2013-01-01

    The transverse piezoelectric coefficient e31,f and mass-sensitivity were measured on piezoelectric cantilevers based on epitaxial PZT thin-films with film-thicknesses ranging from 100 to 2000 nm. The highest values of e31,f and mass-sensitivity were observed at a film thickness of 500–750 nm, while

  15. Selective inorganic thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, M.L.F.; Weisenbach, L.A.; Anderson, M.T. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-05-01

    This project is developing inorganic thin films as membranes for gas separation applications, and as discriminating coatings for liquid-phase chemical sensors. Our goal is to synthesize these coatings with tailored porosity and surface chemistry on porous substrates and on acoustic and optical sensors. Molecular sieve films offer the possibility of performing separations involving hydrogen, air, and natural gas constituents at elevated temperatures with very high separation factors. We are focusing on improving permeability and molecular sieve properties of crystalline zeolitic membranes made by hydrothermally reacting layered multicomponent sol-gel films deposited on mesoporous substrates. We also used acoustic plate mode (APM) oscillator and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor elements as substrates for sol-gel films, and have both used these modified sensors to determine physical properties of the films and have determined the sensitivity and selectivity of these sensors to aqueous chemical species.

  16. Magnetic hysteresis measurements of thin films under isotropic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Patrick; Dubey, Archana; Geerts, Wilhelmus

    2000-10-01

    Nowadays, ferromagnetic thin films are widely applied in devices for information technology (credit cards, video recorder tapes, floppies, hard disks) and sensors (air bags, anti-breaking systems, navigation systems). Thus, with the increase in the use of magnetic media continued investigation of magnetic properties of materials is necessary to help in determining the useful properties of materials for new or improved applications. We are currently interested in studying the effect of applied external stress on Kerr hysteresis curves of thin magnetic films. The Ni and NiFe films were grown using DC magnetron sputtering with Ar as the sputter gas (pAr=4 mTorr; Tsub=55-190 C). Seed and cap layers of Ti were used on all films for adhesion and oxidation protection, respectively. A brass membrane pressure cell was designed to apply in-plane isotropic stress to thin films. In this pressure cell, gas pressure is used to deform a flexible substrate onto which a thin magnetic film has been sputtered. The curvature of the samples could be controlled by changing the gas pressure to the cell. Magneto-Optical in-plane hysteresis curves at different values of strain were measured. The results obtained show that the stress sensitivity is dependent on the film thickness. For the 500nm NiFe films, the coercivity strongly decreased as a function of the applied stress.

  17. Modification of thin film properties by ion bombardment during deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, J.M.E.; Cuomo, J.J.; Gambino, R.J.; Kaufman, H.R.

    1984-01-01

    Many thin film deposition techniques involve some form of energetic particle bombardment of the growing film. The degree of bombardment greatly influences the film composition, structure and other properties. While in some techniques the degree of bombardment is secondary to the original process design, in recent years more deposition systems are being designed with the capability for controlled ion bombardment of thin films during deposition. The highest degree of control is obtained with ion beam sources which operate independently of the vapor source providing the thin film material. Other plasma techniques offer varying degrees of control of energetic particle bombardment. Deposition methods involving ion bombardment are described, and the basic processes with which film properties are modified by ion bombardment are summarized. (Auth.)

  18. Investigation on synthesis of Bi-based thin films on flat sputter-deposited Ag film by melting process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Yanjing; Satoh, Yoshimasa; Arisawa, Shunichi; Awane, Toru; Fukuyo, Akihiro; Takano, Yoshihiko; Ishii, Akira; Hatano, Takeshi; Togano, Kazumasa

    2003-01-01

    We report on the fabrication of ribbon-like thin films on flat sputter-deposited Ag films whose surface smoothness remained within the order of tens of nm. It was found that the addition of Pb to the starting material improves the wettability of molten phase and facilitates the growth of Bi-2212 ribbon-like thin films on a flat Ag substrate, and that the increase of Ca and Cu in starting material suppresses the intergrowth of the Bi-2201 phase in ribbon-like thin films. By using (Bi,Pb)-2246 powders, with nominal composition of Bi 1.6 Pb 0.4 Sr 1.6 Ca 3.2 Cu 4.8 O y , as the starting material, the superconducting Bi-2212 ribbon-like thin films with an onset T c at 74 K on a very flat Ag substrate were successfully synthesized. Additionally, the growth mechanism of ribbon-like thin films on flat Ag substrate was investigated by in situ high temperature microscope observation

  19. Picosecond and subpicosecond pulsed laser deposition of Pb thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gontad

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Pb thin films were deposited on Nb substrates by means of pulsed laser deposition (PLD with UV radiation (248 nm, in two different ablation regimes: picosecond (5 ps and subpicosecond (0.5 ps. Granular films with grain size on the micron scale have been obtained, with no evidence of large droplet formation. All films presented a polycrystalline character with preferential orientation along the (111 crystalline planes. A maximum quantum efficiency (QE of 7.3×10^{-5} (at 266 nm and 7 ns pulse duration was measured, after laser cleaning, demonstrating good photoemission performance for Pb thin films deposited by ultrashort PLD. Moreover, Pb thin film photocathodes have maintained their QE for days, providing excellent chemical stability and durability. These results suggest that Pb thin films deposited on Nb by ultrashort PLD are a noteworthy alternative for the fabrication of photocathodes for superconductive radio-frequency electron guns. Finally, a comparison with the characteristics of Pb films prepared by ns PLD is illustrated and discussed.

  20. Thin films of molecular materials synthesized from fisher's carbene ferrocenyl: Film formation and electrical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Vergara, M.E.; Ortiz, A.; Alvarez-Toledano, C.; Moreno, A.; Alvarez, J.R.

    2008-01-01

    The synthesis of materials from Fisher's carbene ferrocenyl of the elements chromium, molybdenum and tungsten was carried out. The Fisher's compounds that were synthesized included the following combinations of two different metallic atoms: iron with chromium, iron with molybdenum and iron with tungsten. The molecular solids' preparation was done in electro-synthesis cells with platinum electrodes. Thin films were prepared by vacuum thermal evaporation on quartz substrates and crystalline silicon wafers. Pellets and thin films from these compounds were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and ellipsometry. The powder and thin films synthesized from these materials show the same intra-molecular bonds shown by infrared spectroscopy results, suggesting that thermal evaporation does not alter these bonds in spite of the thin films being amorphous, in contrast with other bimetallic complexes where material decomposition occurs. The differences in the conductivity values of the prepared films are very small, so they may be attributed to the different metallic ions employed in each case. The tungsten complex exhibits a higher conductivity than the molybdenum and chromium complexes at room temperature. Electrical conductivity values found for thin films are higher than for pellets made of the same molecular materials

  1. Gamma Radiation Dosimetry Using Tellurium Dioxide Thin Film Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Korostynska

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Thin films of Tellurium dioxide (TeO2 were investigated for γ-radiation dosimetry purposes. Samples were fabricated using thin film vapour deposition technique. Thin films of TeO2 were exposed to a 60Co γ-radiation source at a dose rate of 6 Gy/min at room temperature. Absorption spectra for TeO2 films were recorded and the values of the optical band gap and energies of the localized states for as-deposited and γ-irradiated samples were calculated. It was found that the optical band gap values were decreased as the radiation dose was increased. Samples with electrical contacts having a planar structure showed a linear increase in current values with the increase in radiation dose up to a certain dose level. The observed changes in both the optical and the electrical properties suggest that TeO2 thin film may be considered as an effective material for room temperature real time γ-radiation dosimetry.

  2. Electrochemical fabrication of nanoporous polypyrrole thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Mei [Key Laboratory of Organic Optoelectronics and Molecular Engineering (Ministry of Education), Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Yuan Jinying [Key Laboratory of Organic Optoelectronics and Molecular Engineering (Ministry of Education), Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China)], E-mail: yuanjy@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn; Shi Gaoquan [Key Laboratory of Organic Optoelectronics and Molecular Engineering (Ministry of Education), Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China)], E-mail: gshi@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn

    2008-04-30

    Polypyrrole thin films with pores in nanometer scale were synthesized by direct electrochemical oxidation of pyrrole in a mixed electrolyte of isopropyl alcohol, boron trifluoride diethyl etherate, sodium dodecylsulfonate and poly(ethylene glycol) using well-aligned ZnO nanowires arrays as templates. The thin films exhibit high conductivity of ca. {sigma}{sub rt} {approx} 20.5 s/cm and can be driven to bend during redox processes in 1.0 M lithium perchlorate aqueous solution. The movement rate of an actuator based on this nanoporous film was measured to be over 90{sup o}/s at a driving potential of 0.8 V (vs. Ag/AgCl)

  3. Electrochemical fabrication of nanoporous polypyrrole thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Mei; Yuan Jinying; Shi Gaoquan

    2008-01-01

    Polypyrrole thin films with pores in nanometer scale were synthesized by direct electrochemical oxidation of pyrrole in a mixed electrolyte of isopropyl alcohol, boron trifluoride diethyl etherate, sodium dodecylsulfonate and poly(ethylene glycol) using well-aligned ZnO nanowires arrays as templates. The thin films exhibit high conductivity of ca. σ rt ∼ 20.5 s/cm and can be driven to bend during redox processes in 1.0 M lithium perchlorate aqueous solution. The movement rate of an actuator based on this nanoporous film was measured to be over 90 o /s at a driving potential of 0.8 V (vs. Ag/AgCl)

  4. Domains in Ferroic Crystals and Thin Films

    CERN Document Server

    Tagantsev, Alexander K; Fousek, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Domains in Ferroic Crystals and Thin Films presents experimental findings and theoretical understanding of ferroic (non-magnetic) domains developed during the past 60 years. It addresses the situation by looking specifically at bulk crystals and thin films, with a particular focus on recently-developed microelectronic applications and methods for observation of domains with techniques such as scanning force microscopy, polarized light microscopy, scanning optical microscopy, electron microscopy, and surface decorating techniques. Domains in Ferroic Crystals and Thin Films covers a large area of material properties and effects connected with static and dynamic properties of domains, which are extremely relevant to materials referred to as ferroics. In most solid state physics books, one large group of ferroics is customarily covered: those in which magnetic properties play a dominant role. Numerous books are specifically devoted to magnetic ferroics and cover a wide spectrum of magnetic domain phenomena. In co...

  5. Pulsed laser deposited Al-doped ZnO thin films for optical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurpreet Kaur

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Highly transparent and conducting Al-doped ZnO (Al:ZnO thin films were grown on glass substrates using pulsed laser deposition technique. The profound effect of film thickness on the structural, optical and electrical properties of Al:ZnO thin films was observed. The X-ray diffraction depicts c-axis, plane (002 oriented thin films with hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure. Al-doping in ZnO introduces a compressive stress in the films which increase with the film thickness. AFM images reveal the columnar grain formation with low surface roughness. The versatile optical properties of Al:ZnO thin films are important for applications such as transparent electromagnetic interference (EMI shielding materials and solar cells. The obtained optical band gap (3.2–3.08 eV was found to be less than pure ZnO (3.37 eV films. The lowering in the band gap in Al:ZnO thin films could be attributed to band edge bending phenomena. The photoluminescence spectra gives sharp visible emission peaks, enables Al:ZnO thin films for light emitting devices (LEDs applications. The current–voltage (I–V measurements show the ohmic behavior of the films with resistivity (ρ~10−3 Ω cm.

  6. Nanostructured ZnO thin films prepared by sol–gel spin-coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heredia, E., E-mail: heredia.edu@gmail.com [UNIDEF (CONICET-MINDEF), J.B. de La Salle 4397, 1603 Villa Martelli, Pcia. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bojorge, C.; Casanova, J.; Cánepa, H. [UNIDEF (CONICET-MINDEF), J.B. de La Salle 4397, 1603 Villa Martelli, Pcia. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Craievich, A. [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, Cidade Universitária, 66318 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Kellermann, G. [Universidade Federal do Paraná, 19044 Paraná (Brazil)

    2014-10-30

    Highlights: • ZnO films synthesized by sol–gel were deposited by spin-coating on flat substrates. • Structural features of ZnO films with several thicknesses were characterized by means of different techniques. • The thicknesses of different ZnO thin films were determined by means of FESEM and AFM. • The nanoporous structures of ZnO thin films were characterized by GISAXS using IsGISAXS software. • The average densities of ZnO thin films were derived from (i) the critical angle in 1D XR patterns, (ii) the angle of Yoneda peak in 2D GISAXS images, (iii) minimization of chi2 using IsGISAXS best fitting procedure. - Abstract: ZnO thin films deposited on silica flat plates were prepared by spin-coating and studied by applying several techniques for structural characterization. The films were prepared by depositing different numbers of layers, each deposition being followed by a thermal treatment at 200 °C to dry and consolidate the successive layers. After depositing all layers, a final thermal treatment at 450 °C during 3 h was also applied in order to eliminate organic components and to promote the crystallization of the thin films. The total thickness of the multilayered films – ranging from 40 nm up to 150 nm – was determined by AFM and FESEM. The analysis by GIXD showed that the thin films are composed of ZnO crystallites with an average diameter of 25 nm circa. XR results demonstrated that the thin films also exhibit a large volume fraction of nanoporosity, typically 30–40 vol.% in thin films having thicknesses larger than ∼70 nm. GISAXS measurements showed that the experimental scattering intensity is well described by a structural model composed of nanopores with shape of oblate spheroids, height/diameter aspect ratio within the 0.8–0.9 range and average diameter along the sample surface plane in the 5–7 nm range.

  7. Structural and electrical properties of CZTS thin films by electrodeposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, M. C.; Basha, Sk. Shahenoor

    2018-06-01

    CZTS (Cu2ZnSnS4) thin films were coated on ITO glass substrates by single bath electrodeposition technique. The prepared films were subsequently characterized by XRD, SEM, FTIR, UV-visible spectroscopy and Raman studies. The thickness of the thin films was measured by wedge method. X-ray diffraction studies revealed the formation of polycrystalline phase. The morphological surface of the prepared thin films was examined by SEM and AFM and showed the presence of microcrystals on the surface of the samples. The elemental analysis and their compositional ratios present in the samples were confirmed by the energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Functional groups and the position of band structure involved in the materials were confirmed by FTIR. Optical absorption studies were performed on the prepared thin films in the wavelength ranging from 300 to 1000 nm and the energy bandgap values were found to be in the range from 1.39 to 1.60 eV. Raman spectral peak which was observed at 360 cm-1 correspond to kesterite phase, was formed due to the vibration of the molecules. Electrical measurements confirmed the nature of the thin film depending on the charge concentration present in the samples.

  8. Mechanics of Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-02-06

    and the second geometry was that of squat cylinders (diameter 6.4 mm, height 6.4 mm). These two geometries were tested in thermal shock tests, and a...milder [13]. More recently, Lau, Rahman and stressa nce ntrati, tha n films of lmalla rat ve spc Delale calculated the free edge singularity for stress...thickness of 3 mm); the second geometry was that As an example of the shielding effect of thin films, we of squat cylinders (diameter 6.4 mm, height 6.4

  9. Impact of X-ray irradiation on PMMA thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iqbal, Saman, E-mail: saman.khan343@gmail.com [Physics Department, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore (Pakistan); Rafique, Muhammad Shahid [Physics Department, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore (Pakistan); Anjum, Safia [Physics Department, Lahore College for Woman University, Lahore (Pakistan); Hayat, Asma [Physics Department, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore (Pakistan); Iqbal, Nida [Faculty of Biomedical Engineering and Health Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM) (Malaysia)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PMMA thin films were deposited at 300 Degree-Sign C and 500 Degree-Sign C using PLD technique. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These films were irradiated with different fluence of laser produced X-rays. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Irradiation affects the ordered packing as well as surface morphology of film. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hardness of film decreases up to certain value of X-ray fluence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Absorption in UV-visible range exhibits a non linear behavior. - Abstract: The objective of this project is to explore the effect of X-ray irradiation of thin polymeric films deposited at various substrate temperatures. pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique is used for the deposition of PMMA thin films on glass substrate at 300 Degree-Sign C and 500 Degree-Sign C. These films have been irradiated with various X-rays fluences ranging from 2.56 to 5.76 mJ cm{sup -2}. Characterization of the films (before and after the irradiation) is done with help of X-ray Diffractrometer, Optical Microscope, Vickers hardness tester and UV-vis spectroscopy techniques. From XRD data, it is revealed that ordered packing has been improved for the films deposited at 300 Degree-Sign C. However after irradiation the films exhibited the amorphous behavior regardless of the X-ray fluence. Film deposited at 500 Degree-Sign C shows amorphous structure before and after irradiation. Hardness and particle size of thin film have also increased with the increasing substrate temperature. However, the irradiation has reverse effect i.e. the particle size as well as the hardness has reduced. Irradiation has also enhanced the absorption in the UV-visible region.

  10. Magnetic and magneto-optical properties of FeRh thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Sho; Nam, Nguyen T.; Phuoc, Nguyen N.; Cao Jiangwei; Yu Ko, Hnin Yu; Suzuki, Takao

    2008-01-01

    The magnetic and magneto-optical properties of FeRh thin films epitaxially deposited onto MgO(1 0 0) substrates by RF sputter-deposition system have been investigated in conjunction with the structure. An intriguing virgin effect has been found in the M-T curves of the as-deposited FeRh thin films, which is presumably interpreted in term of a change in structural phase when heating. Also, a (negative) maximum peak of Kerr rotation at around 3.8 eV has been observed when FeRh thin films are in ferromagnetic state. The polar Kerr rotation angle is found to increase at temperatures above 100 deg. C, which corresponds to the antiferromagnet (AF)-ferromagnet (FM) transition of FeRh thin films

  11. Polycaprolactone thin films for retinal tissue engineering and drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steedman, Mark Rory

    This dissertation focuses on the development of polycaprolactone thin films for retinal tissue engineering and drug delivery. We combined these thin films with techniques such as micro and nanofabrication to develop treatments for age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a disease that leads to the death of rod and cone photoreceptors. Current treatments are only able to slow or limit the progression of the disease, and photoreceptors cannot be regenerated or replaced by the body once lost. The first experiments presented focus on a potential treatment for AMD after photoreceptor death has occurred. We developed a polymer thin film scaffold technology to deliver retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) to the affected area of the eye. Earlier research showed that RPCs destined to become photoreceptors are capable of incorporating into a degenerated retina. In our experiments, we showed that RPC attachment to a micro-welled polycaprolactone (PCL) thin film surface enhanced the differentiation of these cells toward a photoreceptor fate. We then used our PCL thin films to develop a drug delivery device capable of sustained therapeutic release over a multi-month period that would maintain an effective concentration of the drug in the eye and eliminate the need for repeated intraocular injections. We first investigated the biocompatibility of PCL in the rabbit eye. We injected PCL thin films into the anterior chamber or vitreous cavity of rabbit eyes and monitored the animals for up to 6 months. We found that PCL thin films were well tolerated in the rabbit eye, showing no signs of chronic inflammation due to the implant. We then developed a multilayered thin film device containing a microporous membrane. We loaded these devices with lyophilized proteins and quantified drug elution for 10 weeks, finding that both bovine serum albumin and immunoglobulin G elute from these devices with zero order release kinetics. These experiments demonstrate that PCL is an extremely useful

  12. Plastic response of thin films due to thermal cycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicola, L.; van der Giessen, E.; Needleman, A.; Ahzi, S; Cherkaoui, M; Khaleel, MA; Zbib, HM; Zikry, MA; Lamatina, B

    2004-01-01

    Discrete dislocation simulations of thin films on semi-infinite substrates under cyclic thermal loading are presented. The thin film is modelled as a two-dimensional single crystal under plane strain conditions. Dislocations of edge character can be generated from initially present sources and glide

  13. Nucleation of fcc Ta when heating thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janish, Matthew T.; Mook, William M.; Carter, C. Barry

    2015-01-01

    Thin tantalum films have been studied during in situ heating in a transmission electron microscope. Diffraction patterns from the as-deposited films were typical of amorphous materials. Crystalline grains were observed to form when the specimen was annealed in situ at 450 °C. Particular attention was addressed to the formation and growth of grains with the face-centered cubic (fcc) crystal structure. These observations are discussed in relation to prior work on the formation of fcc Ta by deformation and during thin film deposition

  14. Synthesis of thin films by the pyrosol process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tucić Aleksandar

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Among many aerosol routes, the Pyrosol process, due to its simplicity, low cost and quality of obtained films, represents a promising technique for the synthesis of thin films. The pyrosol process is based on the transport and pyrolysls of an aerosol of processor solution, generated in an ultrasonic atomizer, on a heated substrate. The theoretical principles of the pyrosol process are presented in this paper, as well as the influence of some synthesis parameters on the deposition of SnO2 thin films.

  15. Antimony sulfide thin films prepared by laser assisted chemical bath deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaji, S.; Garcia, L.V.; Loredo, S.L.; Krishnan, B.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Antimony sulfide thin films were prepared by normal CBD and laser assisted CBD. • Characterized these films using XRD, XPS, AFM, optical and electrical measurements. • Accelerated growth was observed in the laser assisted CBD process. • These films were photoconductive. - Abstract: Antimony sulfide (Sb_2S_3) thin films were prepared by laser assisted chemical bath deposition (LACBD) technique. These thin films were deposited on glass substrates from a chemical bath containing antimony chloride, acetone and sodium thiosulfate under various conditions of normal chemical bath deposition (CBD) as well as in-situ irradiation of the chemical bath using a continuous laser of 532 nm wavelength. Structure, composition, morphology, optical and electrical properties of the Sb_2S_3 thin films produced by normal CBD and LACBD were analyzed by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Raman Spectroscopy, Atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV–vis spectroscopy and Photoconductivity. The results showed that LACBD is an effective synthesis technique to obtain Sb_2S_3 thin films for optoelectronic applications.

  16. Antimony sulfide thin films prepared by laser assisted chemical bath deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaji, S., E-mail: sshajis@yahoo.com [Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León, 66455 (Mexico); CIIDIT—Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Apodaca, Nuevo León (Mexico); Garcia, L.V. [Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León, 66455 (Mexico); Loredo, S.L. [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), Unidad Monterrey, PIIT, Apodaca, Nuevo León (Mexico); Krishnan, B. [Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León, 66455 (Mexico); CIIDIT—Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Apodaca, Nuevo León (Mexico); and others

    2017-01-30

    Highlights: • Antimony sulfide thin films were prepared by normal CBD and laser assisted CBD. • Characterized these films using XRD, XPS, AFM, optical and electrical measurements. • Accelerated growth was observed in the laser assisted CBD process. • These films were photoconductive. - Abstract: Antimony sulfide (Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3}) thin films were prepared by laser assisted chemical bath deposition (LACBD) technique. These thin films were deposited on glass substrates from a chemical bath containing antimony chloride, acetone and sodium thiosulfate under various conditions of normal chemical bath deposition (CBD) as well as in-situ irradiation of the chemical bath using a continuous laser of 532 nm wavelength. Structure, composition, morphology, optical and electrical properties of the Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films produced by normal CBD and LACBD were analyzed by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Raman Spectroscopy, Atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV–vis spectroscopy and Photoconductivity. The results showed that LACBD is an effective synthesis technique to obtain Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films for optoelectronic applications.

  17. The state of the art of thin-film photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surek, T.

    1993-10-01

    Thin-film photovoltaic technologies, based on materials such as amorphous or polycrystalline silicon, copper indium diselenide, cadmium telluride, and gallium arsenide, offer the potential for significantly reducing the cost of electricity generated by photovoltaics. The significant progress in the technologies, from the laboratory to the marketplace, is reviewed. The common concerns and questions raised about thin films are addressed. Based on the progress to date and the potential of these technologies, along with continuing investments by the private sector to commercialize the technologies, one can conclude that thin-film PV will provide a competitive alternative for large-scale power generation in the future

  18. Copper zinc tin sulfide-based thin film solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, Kentaro

    2014-01-01

    Beginning with an overview and historical background of Copper Zinc Tin Sulphide (CZTS) technology, subsequent chapters cover properties of CZTS thin films, different preparation methods of CZTS thin films, a comparative study of CZTS and CIGS solar cell, computational approach, and future applications of CZTS thin film solar modules to both ground-mount and rooftop installation. The semiconducting compound (CZTS) is made up earth-abundant, low-cost and non-toxic elements, which make it an ideal candidate to replace Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) and CdTe solar cells which face material scarcity and tox

  19. Photocatalytic properties of porous TiO2/Ag thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C.-C.; Chen, J.-Y.; Hsu, T.-L.; Lin, C.-K.; Chan, C.-C.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, nanocrystalline TiO 2 /Ag composite thin films were prepared by a sol-gel spin-coating technique. By introducing polystyrene (PS) spheres into the precursor solution, porous TiO 2 /Ag thin films were prepared after calcination at a temperature of 500 deg. C for 4 h. Three different sizes (50, 200, and 400 nm) of PS spheres were used to prepare porous TiO 2 films. The as-prepared TiO 2 and TiO 2 /Ag thin films were characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and by scanning electron microscopy to reveal structural and morphological differences. In addition, the photocatalytic properties of these films were investigated by degrading methylene blue under UV irradiation. When PS spheres of different sizes were introduced after calcination, the as-prepared TiO 2 films exhibited different porous structures. XRD results showed that all TiO 2 /Ag films exhibited a major anatase phase. The photodegradation of porous TiO 2 thin films prepared with 200 nm PS spheres and doped with 1 mol% Ag exhibited the best photocatalytic efficiency where ∼ 100% methylene blue was decomposed within 8 h under UV exposure

  20. Thermal conductivity of nanoscale thin nickel films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Shiping; JIANG Peixue

    2005-01-01

    The inhomogeneous non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) scheme is applied to model phonon heat conduction in thin nickel films. The electronic contribution to the thermal conductivity of the film is deduced from the electrical conductivity through the use of the Wiedemann-Franz law. At the average temperature of T = 300 K, which is lower than the Debye temperature ()D = 450 K,the results show that in a film thickness range of about 1-11 nm, the calculated cross-plane thermal conductivity decreases almost linearly with the decreasing film thickness, exhibiting a remarkable reduction compared with the bulk value. The electrical and thermal conductivities are anisotropic in thin nickel films for the thickness under about 10 nm. The phonon mean free path is estimated and the size effect on the thermal conductivity is attributed to the reduction of the phonon mean free path according to the kinetic theory.

  1. Anomalous precipitation hardening in Al-(1 wt%)Cu thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergers, L. J. C.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.; Geers, M. G. D.; Hoefnagels, J. P. M.

    2018-01-01

    This paper concentrates on the precipitation hardening of Al-(1 wt%)Cu thin films. It is shown that in contrast to bulk, the well-known approach of precipitation hardening in confined systems like thin layers and thin films does not operate in the conventional way. This work analyses and discusses

  2. Thinning and rupture of a thin liquid film on a heated surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bankoff, S.G.; Davis, S.H.

    1992-08-05

    Results on the dynamics and stability of thin films are summarized on the following topics: forced dryout, film instabilities on a horizontal plane and on inclined planes, instrumentation, coating flows, and droplet spreading. (DLC)

  3. Surface proton transport of fully protonated poly(aspartic acid) thin films on quartz substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagao, Yuki, E-mail: ynagao@jaist.ac.jp; Kubo, Takahiro

    2014-12-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Proton transport of fully protonated poly(aspartic acid) thin film was investigated. • The thin film structure differed greatly from the partially protonated one. • Proton transport occurs on the surface, not inside of the thin film. • This result contributes to biological transport systems such as bacteriorhodopsin. - Abstract: Thin film structure and the proton transport property of fully protonated poly(aspartic acid) (P-Asp100) have been investigated. An earlier study assessed partially protonated poly(aspartic acid), highly oriented thin film structure and enhancement of the internal proton transport. In this study of P-Asp100, IR p-polarized multiple-angle incidence resolution (P-MAIR) spectra were measured to investigate the thin film structure. The obtained thin films, with thicknesses of 120–670 nm, had no oriented structure. Relative humidity dependence of the resistance, proton conductivity, and normalized resistance were examined to ascertain the proton transport property of P-Asp100 thin films. The obtained data showed that the proton transport of P-Asp100 thin films might occur on the surface, not inside of the thin film. This phenomenon might be related with the proton transport of the biological system.

  4. Surface proton transport of fully protonated poly(aspartic acid) thin films on quartz substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagao, Yuki; Kubo, Takahiro

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Proton transport of fully protonated poly(aspartic acid) thin film was investigated. • The thin film structure differed greatly from the partially protonated one. • Proton transport occurs on the surface, not inside of the thin film. • This result contributes to biological transport systems such as bacteriorhodopsin. - Abstract: Thin film structure and the proton transport property of fully protonated poly(aspartic acid) (P-Asp100) have been investigated. An earlier study assessed partially protonated poly(aspartic acid), highly oriented thin film structure and enhancement of the internal proton transport. In this study of P-Asp100, IR p-polarized multiple-angle incidence resolution (P-MAIR) spectra were measured to investigate the thin film structure. The obtained thin films, with thicknesses of 120–670 nm, had no oriented structure. Relative humidity dependence of the resistance, proton conductivity, and normalized resistance were examined to ascertain the proton transport property of P-Asp100 thin films. The obtained data showed that the proton transport of P-Asp100 thin films might occur on the surface, not inside of the thin film. This phenomenon might be related with the proton transport of the biological system

  5. Recent progress of obliquely deposited thin films for industrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Motofumi; Itoh, Tadayoshi; Taga, Yasunori

    1999-06-01

    More than 10 years ago, birefringent films of metal oxides were formed by oblique vapor deposition and investigated with a view of their application to optical retardation plates. The retardation function of the films was explained in terms of the birefringence caused by the characteristic anisotropic nanostructure inside the films. These films are now classified in the genre of the so-called sculptured thin films. However, the birefringent films thus prepared are not yet industrialized even now due to the crucial lack of the durability and the yield of products. In this review paper, we describe the present status of application process of the retardation films to the information systems such as compact disc and digital versatile disc devices with a special emphasis on the uniformity of retardation properties in a large area and the stability of the optical properties of the obliquely deposited thin films. Finally, further challenges for wide application of the obliquely deposited thin films are also discussed.

  6. Nanoporous cerium oxide thin film for glucose biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Shibu; Arya, Sunil K; Singh, S P; Sreenivas, K; Malhotra, B D; Gupta, Vinay

    2009-03-15

    Nanoporous cerium oxide (CeO(2)) thin film deposited onto platinum (Pt) coated glass plate using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) has been utilized for immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOx). Atomic force microscopy studies reveal the formation of nanoporous surface morphology of CeO(2) thin film. Response studies carried out using differential pulsed voltammetry (DPV) and optical measurements show that the GOx/CeO(2)/Pt bio-electrode shows linearity in the range of 25-300 mg/dl of glucose concentration. The low value of Michaelis-Menten constant (1.01 mM) indicates enhanced enzyme affinity of GOx to glucose. The observed results show promising application of the nanoporous CeO(2) thin film for glucose sensing application without any surface functionalization or mediator.

  7. Thin film microelectrodes for electrochemical detection of neurotransmitters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Simon Tylsgaard

    An important signaling process in the nervous system is the release of chemical messengers called neurotransmitters from neurons. In this thesis alternative thin film electrode materials for applications targeting electrochemical detection of neurotransmitters in chip devices were evaluated...... and conductive polymer microelectrodes made of Pedot:Pss were also fabricated and used successfully to measure transmitter release from cells. The use of different thin film electrodes for low-noise amperometric measurements of single events of transmitter release from neuronal cells was studied....... For this application a very low current noise is needed together with a large temporal resolution. It was shown, that resistive and capacitive properties of thin film electrode materials are determining their usefulness in low-noise amperometric measurements. An analytical expression for the noise was derived...

  8. THz spectroscopy on superconducting NbN thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daschke, Lena; Pracht, Uwe S.; Dressel, Martin; Scheffler, Marc [1. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Stuttgart (Germany); Ilin, Konstantin S.; Siegel, Michael [Institut fuer Mikro- und Nanoelektronische Systeme, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Epitaxial thin-film niobium nitride (NbN) is a conventional BCS superconductor. In presence of strong disorder, however, electronic inhomogeneities appear, which is not fully understood yet. To obtain a better insight into the physics of such disordered materials, studies on model systems such as structurally tailored films might be useful. Furthermore, disordered NbN films are used for single-photon detection devices, whose proper performance depends on a profound understanding of the superconducting properties. The studied NbN films have a T{sub c} ranging from 10 to 15 K and the superconducting energy gap is easily accessible with THz spectroscopy (0.4 - 5.6 meV). We investigate thin films of NbN sputtered on a sapphire substrate. With a Mach-Zehnder interferometer we measure the amplitude and phase shift of radiation transmitted through the thin-film sample. From there we can determine the real and imaginary parts of the optical conductivity. These results give information about the energy gap, Cooper pair density, and quasiparticle dynamics, including the temperature evolution of these quantities. We found that a film with 10 nm thickness roughly follows the BCS behavior, as expected. We will present results of our measurements on several different NbN samples.

  9. The influence of thin film grain size on the size of nanoparticles generated during UV femtosecond laser ablation of thin gold films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haustrup, N.; O’Connor, G.M.

    2013-01-01

    The upsurge in the number of thin film products has encouraged studies into every aspect of their fabrication and application. An additional source of industrial interest is the laser ablation of thin films to generate nanoparticles. This technique offers advantages over other fabrication methods, as no chemical pre-cursers are required, thereby giving rise to a pure product. The main disadvantage lies in the difficulty with controlling the size of the nanoparticles. This study aims to clarify the influence of the microstructure of a thin film on its optical properties and also to establish the size relationship between the film grain and the nanoparticles generated during laser ablation. A comprehensive sample set of Gold (Au) films with different grain sizes was achieved using different deposition rates, temperatures, film thicknesses (<100 nm) and substrates: Silica, Quartz and Sapphire. The microstructure of each film was analyzed using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Single femtosecond laser pulses, above the ablation threshold fluence of each film, were applied to generate nanoparticles. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was used to image the re-deposited nanoparticles, from which the nanoparticle size distribution was established. Results confirm that the film microstructure is directly linked to the nanoparticles generated during laser ablation.

  10. The influence of thin film grain size on the size of nanoparticles generated during UV femtosecond laser ablation of thin gold films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haustrup, N., E-mail: natalie.haustrup@nuigalway.ie [National Centre for Laser Applications, School of Physics, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland); O’Connor, G.M. [National Centre for Laser Applications, School of Physics, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland)

    2013-08-01

    The upsurge in the number of thin film products has encouraged studies into every aspect of their fabrication and application. An additional source of industrial interest is the laser ablation of thin films to generate nanoparticles. This technique offers advantages over other fabrication methods, as no chemical pre-cursers are required, thereby giving rise to a pure product. The main disadvantage lies in the difficulty with controlling the size of the nanoparticles. This study aims to clarify the influence of the microstructure of a thin film on its optical properties and also to establish the size relationship between the film grain and the nanoparticles generated during laser ablation. A comprehensive sample set of Gold (Au) films with different grain sizes was achieved using different deposition rates, temperatures, film thicknesses (<100 nm) and substrates: Silica, Quartz and Sapphire. The microstructure of each film was analyzed using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Single femtosecond laser pulses, above the ablation threshold fluence of each film, were applied to generate nanoparticles. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was used to image the re-deposited nanoparticles, from which the nanoparticle size distribution was established. Results confirm that the film microstructure is directly linked to the nanoparticles generated during laser ablation.

  11. Antibacterial Properties of Titanate Nano fiber Thin Films Formed on a Titanium Plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yada, M.; Inoue, Y.; Morita, T.; Torikai, T.; Watari, T.; Noda, I.; Hotokebuchi, T.

    2013-01-01

    A sodium titanate nano fiber thin film and a silver nanoparticle/silver titanate nano fiber thin film formed on the surface of a titanium plate exhibited strong antibacterial activities against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, which is one of the major bacteria causing in-hospital infections. Exposure of the sodium titanate nano fiber thin film to ultraviolet rays generated a high antibacterial activity due to photo catalysis and the sodium titanate nano fiber thin film immediately after its synthesis possessed a high antibacterial activity even without exposure to ultraviolet rays. Elution of silver from the silver nanoparticle/silver titanate nano fiber thin film caused by the silver ion exchange reaction was considered to contribute substantially to the strong antibacterial activity. The titanate nano fiber thin films adhered firmly to titanium. Therefore, these titanate nano fiber thin film/titanium composites will be extremely useful as implant materials that have excellent antibacterial activities.

  12. Preparation of thin vyns films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, R.; Chedin, P.; Gizon, A.

    1965-01-01

    The fabrication of thin films of VYNS resin (copolymer of chloride and vinyl acetate) of superficial density from 3 to 50 μg/cm 2 with solutions in cyclohexanone is presented. Study and discussion of some properties compared with formvar film (polyvinyl formals). It appears that both can be used as source supports but formvar films are prepared more easily and more quickly, in addition they withstand higher temperatures. The main quality of VYNS is that they can be easily separated even several days after their preparation [fr

  13. Repulsive effects of hydrophobic diamond thin films on biomolecule detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruslinda, A. Rahim, E-mail: ruslindarahim@gmail.com [Institute of Nano Electronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Jln Kgr-Alor Setar, Seriab, 01000 Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); Department of Nano Science and Nano Engineering, School of Advance Science and Engineering, Ohkubo 3-4-1, Shinjuku, 169-8555 Tokyo (Japan); Ishiyama, Y. [Department of Nano Science and Nano Engineering, School of Advance Science and Engineering, Ohkubo 3-4-1, Shinjuku, 169-8555 Tokyo (Japan); Penmatsa, V. [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Florida International University, 10555 West Flagler Street, Miami, FL 33174 (United States); Ibori, S.; Kawarada, H. [Department of Nano Science and Nano Engineering, School of Advance Science and Engineering, Ohkubo 3-4-1, Shinjuku, 169-8555 Tokyo (Japan)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • We report the effect of fluorine plasma treatment on diamond thin film to resist the nonspecific adsorption of biomolecules. • The diamond thin film were highly hydrophobic with a surface energy value of ∼25 mN/m. • The repulsive effect shows excellent binding efficiency for both DNA and HIV-1 Tat protein. - Abstract: The repulsive effect of hydrophobic diamond thin film on biomolecule detection, such as single-nucleotide polymorphisms and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 trans-activator of transcription peptide protein detection, was investigated using a mixture of a fluorine-, amine-, and hydrogen-terminated diamond surfaces. These chemical modifications lead to the formation of a surface that effectively resists the nonspecific adsorption of proteins and other biomolecules. The effect of fluorine plasma treatment on elemental composition was also investigated via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). XPS results revealed a fluorocarbon layer on the diamond thin films. The contact angle measurement results indicated that the fluorine-treated diamond thin films were highly hydrophobic with a surface energy value of ∼25 mN/m.

  14. Repulsive effects of hydrophobic diamond thin films on biomolecule detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruslinda, A. Rahim; Ishiyama, Y.; Penmatsa, V.; Ibori, S.; Kawarada, H.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We report the effect of fluorine plasma treatment on diamond thin film to resist the nonspecific adsorption of biomolecules. • The diamond thin film were highly hydrophobic with a surface energy value of ∼25 mN/m. • The repulsive effect shows excellent binding efficiency for both DNA and HIV-1 Tat protein. - Abstract: The repulsive effect of hydrophobic diamond thin film on biomolecule detection, such as single-nucleotide polymorphisms and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 trans-activator of transcription peptide protein detection, was investigated using a mixture of a fluorine-, amine-, and hydrogen-terminated diamond surfaces. These chemical modifications lead to the formation of a surface that effectively resists the nonspecific adsorption of proteins and other biomolecules. The effect of fluorine plasma treatment on elemental composition was also investigated via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). XPS results revealed a fluorocarbon layer on the diamond thin films. The contact angle measurement results indicated that the fluorine-treated diamond thin films were highly hydrophobic with a surface energy value of ∼25 mN/m

  15. Thin films of metal-organic compounds and metal nanoparticle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thin films of metal-organic compounds and metal nanoparticle-embedded polymers for nonlinear optical applications. S Philip Anthony Shatabdi Porel D ... Thin films based on two very different metal-organic systems are developed and some nonlinear optical applications are explored. A family of zinc complexes which ...

  16. A computational study of the piezoelectric response due to the material effect in periodic, single island thin films and the geometric effect in periodic, bi-island thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, B.; Bhattacharyya, A.

    2010-01-01

    The electromechanical response of a square-periodic array of circular piezoelectric (PE) thin films alternating with non-piezoelectric (NPE) films is studied in this paper. The material effects are studied for four film/substrate combinations in absence of NPE films for which it is found that if d zxx zzz (z-axis being normal to the interfacial plane between the film and the substrate), it results in reduced substrate bending leading to reduced degradation in the electromechanical response of the thin film. The bi-island structure is studied for zinc oxide on strontium titanate, and, in general, it is seen that the NPE films not only reduce degradation of the electromechanical response of the PE films but also increase their internal stresses; the effect on the former is less than the latter. These effects are most prominent when the circular NPE thin films fill the space between the PE thin films and are elastically very stiff compared to the substrate.

  17. Materials science in microelectronics I the relationships between thin film processing and structure

    CERN Document Server

    Machlin, Eugene

    2005-01-01

    Thin films play a key role in the material science of microelectronics, and the subject matter of thin-films divides naturally into two headings: processing / structure relationship, and structure / properties relationship.The first volume of Materials Science in Microelectronics focuses on the first relationship - that between processing and the structure of the thin-film. The state of the thin film's surface during the period that one monolayer exists - before being buried in the next layer - determines the ultimate structure of the thin film, and thus its properties. This

  18. Prospects of Colloidal Copper Chalcogenide Nanocrystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Stam, W.; Berends, A.C.; de Mello-Donega, Celso

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few years, colloidal copper chalcogenide nanocrystals (NCs) have emerged as promising alternatives to conventional Cd and Pb chalcogenide NCs. Owing to their wide size, shape, and composition tunability, Cu chalcogenide NCs hold great promise for several applications, such as

  19. Magnetic neutron diffraction of MnO thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neubeck, W.; Vettier, C.; Mannix, D.; Bernhoeft, N.; Hiess, A.; Ranno, L.; Givord, D.

    1999-01-01

    We report on magnetic neutron diffraction carried out on various epitaxial MnO(III) thin films grown on sapphire and MgO substrates. In all samples, of masses between 5 and 50 μg, magnetic Bragg peaks have been observed. The films exhibit what appears to be continuous phase-transitions in contrast to the strongly discontinuous transition exhibited by bulk samples. In addition, the Neel temperature of films prepared on sapphire substrates is strongly enhanced above that of the bulk whilst that of the film grown on MgO is depressed. The possibility to measure magnetic excitations in such thin film systems is discussed in the light of promising test results obtained from an inelastic magnetic neutron scattering experiment on the IN8 spectrometer. (authors)

  20. Pulsed laser deposition and characterisation of thin superconducting films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morone, A [CNR, zona industriale di Tito Scalo, Potenza (Italy). Istituto per i Materiali Speciali

    1996-09-01

    Same concepts on pulsed laser deposition of thin films will be discussed and same examples of high transition temperature (HTc) BiSrCaCuO (BISCO) and low transition temperature NbN/MgO/NbN multilayers will be presented. X-ray and others characterizations of these films will be reported and discussed. Electrical properties of superconducting thin films will be realized as a function of structural and morphological aspect.

  1. Thin-film voltammetry and its analytical applications: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Huihui; Li, Yunchao; Shao, Huibo; Yu, Hua-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Electrochemistry at immiscible liquid–liquid interfaces is fundamentally important. • Methods for studying redox processes at liquid–liquid interfaces are reviewed. • Thin-film voltammetry is simple in experimental operation and kinetic data analysis. • Thin-film voltammetry’s analytical applications are prevailing and comprehensive. - Abstract: Electrochemical reactions at the interfaces of immiscible electrolyte solutions (ITIES) are of fundamental importance in the fields of chemical, biological and pharmaceutical sciences. Four-electrode cell setup, scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) and thin-film voltammetry are the three most frequently used methods for studying the electrochemical processes at these interfaces. The principle, experimental design, advantages and challenges of the three methods are described and compared. The thin-film voltammetry is highlighted for its simplicity in experimental operation and kinetic data analysis. Its versatile analytical applications are discussed in detail, including the study of redox properties of hydrophobic compounds, evaluation of interfacial electron transfer kinetics, synthesis of nanoparticles/nanostructures, and illustration of cross-membrane ion transport phenomena

  2. Numerical simulations of electrohydrodynamic evolution of thin polymer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borglum, Joshua Christopher

    Recently developed needleless electrospinning and electrolithography are two successful techniques that have been utilized extensively for low-cost, scalable, and continuous nano-fabrication. Rational understanding of the electrohydrodynamic principles underneath these nano-manufacturing methods is crucial to fabrication of continuous nanofibers and patterned thin films. This research project is to formulate robust, high-efficiency finite-difference Fourier spectral methods to simulate the electrohydrodynamic evolution of thin polymer films. Two thin-film models were considered and refined. The first was based on reduced lubrication theory; the second further took into account the effect of solvent drying and dewetting of the substrate. Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) based spectral method was integrated into the finite-difference algorithms for fast, accurately solving the governing nonlinear partial differential equations. The present methods have been used to examine the dependencies of the evolving surface features of the thin films upon the model parameters. The present study can be used for fast, controllable nanofabrication.

  3. Analyzing the LiF thin films deposited at different substrate temperatures using multifractal technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, R.P. [Department of Physics, University of Allahabad, Allahabad, UP 211002 (India); Dwivedi, S., E-mail: suneetdwivedi@gmail.com [K Banerjee Centre of Atmospheric and Ocean Studies, University of Allahabad, Allahabad, UP 211002 (India); Mittal, A.K. [Department of Physics, University of Allahabad, Allahabad, UP 211002 (India); K Banerjee Centre of Atmospheric and Ocean Studies, University of Allahabad, Allahabad, UP 211002 (India); Kumar, Manvendra [Nanotechnology Application Centre, University of Allahabad, Allahabad, UP 211002 (India); Pandey, A.C. [K Banerjee Centre of Atmospheric and Ocean Studies, University of Allahabad, Allahabad, UP 211002 (India); Nanotechnology Application Centre, University of Allahabad, Allahabad, UP 211002 (India)

    2014-07-01

    The Atomic Force Microscopy technique is used to characterize the surface morphology of LiF thin films deposited at substrate temperatures 77 K, 300 K and 500 K, respectively. It is found that the surface roughness of thin film increases with substrate temperature. The multifractal nature of the LiF thin film at each substrate temperature is investigated using the backward two-dimensional multifractal detrended moving average analysis. The strength of multifractility and the non-uniformity of the height probabilities of the thin films increase as the substrate temperature increases. Both the width of the multifractal spectrum and the difference of fractal dimensions of the thin films increase sharply as the temperature reaches 500 K, indicating that the multifractility of the thin films becomes more pronounced at the higher substrate temperatures with greater cluster size. - Highlights: • Analyzing LiF thin films using multifractal detrended moving average technique • Surface roughness of LiF thin film increases with substrate temperature. • LiF thin films at each substrate temperature exhibit multifractality. • Multifractility becomes more pronounced at the higher substrate temperatures.

  4. Effects of neutral particle beam on nano-crystalline silicon thin films, with application to thin film transistor backplane for flexible active matrix organic light emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Jin Nyoung; Song, Byoung Chul; Lee, Dong Hyeok; Yoo, Suk Jae; Lee, Bonju; Hong, MunPyo

    2011-01-01

    A novel deposition process for nano-crystalline silicon (nc-Si) thin films was developed using neutral beam assisted chemical vapor deposition (NBaCVD) technology for the application of the thin film transistor (TFT) backplane of flexible active matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED). During the formation of a nc-Si thin film, the energetic particles enhance nano-sized crystalline rather microcrystalline Si in thin films. Neutral Particle Beam (NPB) affects the crystallinity in two ways: (1) NPB energy enhances nano-crystallinity through kinetic energy transfer and chemical annealing, and (2) heavier NPB (such as Ar) induces damage and amorphization through energetic particle impinging. Nc-Si thin film properties effectively can be changed by the reflector bias. As increase of NPB energy limits growing the crystalline, the performance of TFT supports this NPB behavior. The results of nc-Si TFT by NBaCVD demonstrate the technical potentials of neutral beam based processes for achieving high stability and reduced leakage in TFT backplanes for AMOLEDs.

  5. Biocompatibility of GaSb thin films grown by RF magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimoto, Naoki; Fujihara, Junko; Yoshino, Katsumi

    2017-07-01

    GaSb may be suitable for biological applications, such as cellular sensors and bio-medical instrumentation because of its low toxicity compared with As (III) compounds and its band gap energy. Therefore, the biocompatibility and the film properties under physiological conditions were investigated for GaSb thin films with or without a surface coating. GaSb thin films were grown on quartz substrates by RF magnetron sputtering, and then coated with (3-mercaptopropyl) trimethoxysilane (MPT). The electrical properties, surface morphology, and crystal structure of the GaSb thin film were unaffected by the MPT coating. The cell viability assay suggested that MPT-coated GaSb thin films are biocompatible. Bare GaSb was particularly unstable in pH9 buffer. Ga elution was prevented by the MPT coating, although the Ga concentration in the pH 9 buffer was higher than that in the other solutions. The surface morphology and crystal structure were not changed by exposure to the solutions, except for the pH 9 buffer, and the thin film properties of MPT-coated GaSb exposed to distilled water and H2O2 in saline were maintained. These results indicate that MPT-coated GaSb thin films are biocompatible and could be used for temporary biomedical devices.

  6. FABRICATION OF ZNS THIN FILM FOR INORGANIC EL BY THE VACCUUM EVAPORATION

    OpenAIRE

    龍見, 雅美; 島谷, 圭市; 小西, 信行; 元木, 健作

    2008-01-01

    "Zinc sulfide is a typical material for inorganic electroluminescent(EL) device. Recently very high luminance and life time e has been reported on an inorganic EL device based on thin film zinc sulfide material. The present study tries to realize high quality zinc sulfide thin film for EL device. The thin film was grown by the vacuum evaporation method. In order to obtain stoichiometric thin film, the vacuum evaporation was carried out in a quasi-closed vessel under a condition of sulfur atmo...

  7. Extending the 3ω method: thermal conductivity characterization of thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodenschatz, Nico; Liemert, André; Schnurr, Sebastian; Wiedwald, Ulf; Ziemann, Paul

    2013-08-01

    A lock-in technique for measurement of thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity of thin films is presented. The technique is based on the 3ω approach using electrical generation and detection of oscillatory heat along a thin metal strip. Thin films are deposited onto the backside of commercial silicon nitride membranes, forming a bilayer geometry with distinct thermal parameters. Stepwise comparison to an adapted heat diffusion model delivers these parameters for both layers. Highest sensitivity is found for metallic thin films.

  8. Effects of bacteria on CdS thin films used in technological devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpdoğan, S.; Adıgüzel, A. O.; Sahan, B.; Tunçer, M.; Metin Gubur, H.

    2017-04-01

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) thin films were fabricated on glass substrates by the chemical bath deposition method at 70 {}^\\circ \\text{C} considering deposition times ranging from 2 h to 5 h. The optical band gaps of CdS thin films were found to be in the 2.42-2.37 eV range. CdS thin films had uniform spherical nano-size grains which had polycrystalline, hexagonal and cubic phases. The films had a characteristic electrical resistivity of the order of {{10}5} Ω \\text{cm} and n-type conductivity at room condition. CdS thin films were incubated in cultures of B.domonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, which exist abundantly in the environment, and form biofilms. SEM images showed that S. aureus and K. pneumonia were detected significantly on the film surfaces with a few of P. aeruginosa and B. subtilis cells attached. CdS thin film surface exhibits relatively good resistance to the colonization of P. aeruginosa and B. subtilis. Optical results showed that the band gap of CdS thin films which interacted with the bacteria is 2.42 \\text{eV} . The crystal structure and electrical properties of CdS thin films were not affected by bacterial adhesion. The antimicrobial effect of CdS nanoparticles was different for different bacterial strains.

  9. Novel Transrotational Solid State Order Discovered by TEM in Crystallizing Amorphous Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolosov, Vladimir

    Exotic thin crystals with unexpected transrotational microstructures have been discovered by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for crystal growth in thin (10-100 nm) amorphous films of different chemical nature (oxides, chalcogenides, metals and alloys) prepared by various methods. Primarily we use our TEM bend contour technique. The unusual phenomenon can be traced in situ in TEM column: dislocation independent regular internal bending of crystal lattice planes in a growing crystal. Such transrotation (unit cell trans lation is complicated by small rotationrealized round an axis lying in the film plane) can result in strong regular lattice orientation gradients (up to 300 degrees per micrometer) of different geometries: cylindrical, ellipsoidal, toroidal, saddle, etc. Transrotation is increasing as the film gets thinner. Transrotational crystal resembles ideal single crystal enclosed in a curved space. Transrotational micro crystals have been eventually recognized by other authors in some vital thin film materials, i.e. PCMs for memory, silicides, SrTiO3. Atomic model and possible mechanisms of the phenomenon are discussed. New transrotational nanocrystalline model of amorphous state is also proposed Support of RF Ministry of Education and Science is acknowledged.

  10. Topography evolution of germanium thin films synthesized by pulsed laser deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Schumacher

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Germanium thin films were deposited by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD onto single crystal Ge (100 and Si (100 substrates with a native oxide film on the surface. The topography of the surface was investigated by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM to evaluate the scaling behavior of the surface roughness of amorphous and polycrystalline Ge films grown on substrates with different roughnesses. Roughness evolution was interpreted within the framework of stochastic rate equations for thin film growth. Here the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang equation was used to describe the smoothening process. Additionally, a roughening regime was observed in which 3-dimensional growth occurred. Diffusion of the deposited Ge adatoms controlled the growth of the amorphous Ge thin films. The growth of polycrystalline thin Ge films was dominated by diffusion processes only in the initial stage of the growth.

  11. Passivation Effects in Copper Thin Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiederhirn, G.; Nucci, J.; Richter, G.; Arzt, E.; Balk, T. J.; Dehm, G.

    2006-01-01

    We studied the influence of a 10 nm AlxOy passivation on the stress-temperature behavior of 100 nm and 1 μm thick Cu films. At low temperatures, the passivation induces a large tensile stress increase in the 100 nm film; however, its effect on the 1 μm film is negligible. At high temperatures, the opposite behavior is observed; while the passivation does not change the 100 nm film behavior, it strengthens the 1 μm film by driving it deeper into compression. These observations are explained in light of a combination of constrained diffusional creep and dislocation dynamics unique to ultra-thin films

  12. Cadmium sulphide thin film for application in gamma radiation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cadmium Sulphide (CdS) thin film was prepared using pyrolytic spraying technique and then irradiated at varied gamma dosage. The CdS thin film absorption before gamma irradiation was 0.6497. Absorbed doses were computed using standard equation established for an integrating dosimeter. The plot of absorbed dose ...

  13. Aluminum nitride and nanodiamond thin film microstructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoebber, Fabian; Bludau, Oliver; Roehlig, Claus-Christian; Williams, Oliver; Sah, Ram Ekwal; Kirste, Lutz; Cimalla, Volker; Lebedev, Vadim; Nebel, Christoph; Ambacher, Oliver [Fraunhofer-Institute for Applied Solid State Physics, Freiburg (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    In this work, aluminum nitride (AlN) and nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) thin film microstructures have been developed. Freestanding NCD membranes were coated with a piezoelectrical AlN layer in order to build tunable micro-lens arrays. For the evaluation of the single material quality, AlN and NCD thin films on silicon substrates were fabricated using RF magnetron sputtering and microwave chemical vapor deposition techniques, respectively. The crystal quality of AlN was investigated by X-ray diffraction. The piezoelectric constant d{sub 33} was determined by scanning laser vibrometry. The NCD thin films were optimized with respect to surface roughness, mechanical stability, intrinsic stress and transparency. To determine the mechanical properties of the materials, both, micromechanical resonator and membrane structures were fabricated and measured by magnetomotive resonant frequency spectroscopy and bulging experiments, respectively. Finally, the behavior of AlN/NCD heterostructures was modeled using the finite element method and the first structures were characterized by piezoelectrical measurements.

  14. Modified lead titanate thin films for pyroelectric infrared detectors on gold electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Moinuddin; Butler, Donald P.

    2015-07-01

    Pyroelectric infrared detectors provide the advantage of both a wide spectral response and dynamic range, which also has enabled systems to be developed with reduced size, weight and power consumption. This paper demonstrates the deposition of lead zirconium titanate (PZT) and lead calcium titanate (PCT) thin films for uncooled pyroelectric detectors with the utilization of gold electrodes. The modified lead titanate thin films were deposited by pulsed laser deposition on gold electrodes. The PZT and PCT thins films deposited and annealed at temperatures of 650 °C and 550 °C respectively demonstrated the best pyroelectric performance in this work. The thin films displayed a pyroelectric effect that increased with temperature. Poling of the thin films was carried out for a fixed time periods and fixed dc bias voltages at elevated temperature in order to increase the pyroelectric coefficient by establishing a spontaneous polarization of the thin films. Poling caused the pyroelectric current to increase one order of magnitude.

  15. Characterization of thin films with synchrotron radiation in SPring-8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komiya, Satoshi

    2005-01-01

    Many studies about thin films by using synchrotron radiation in SPring-8 were reviewed. Structural analyses and assessment of thin films used for electronics, and also assessment of insulating films for the gate used in LSI were carried out. Film thickness, unevenness, and density of SiO 2 films in order of nanomer thickness were determined by interference fringes of x-ray reflection curves. The interface structure of (SiO 2 /Si) films was studied by x-ray crystal truncation rod scattering, and the correlation between leakage character depending on nitrogen concentration and interface structure was clarified on SiON film. The oxygen concentration in HfO films in nanometer thickness was determined by x-ray fluorescence analysis, and the interface reaction for HfO 2 /SiO 2 was clearly observed by electron spectroscopy. The structure of amorphous thin films with large dielectric constant was analyzed by x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectrum. Devices fabricated from multi-layer films showing giant magnetic resistance were developed for hard disk with a large memory. The character of giant magnetic resistance was governed by multi-layer thin film structure piled up by magnetic and nonmagnetic polycrystalline thin metals. For the multi-layer structure, the concentration distribution of constituent elements was determined to the direction of film thickness by x-ray reflection analysis and grazing incident x-ray fluorescence analysis. In the semiconductor laser source, Ga 1-x In x N, used for DVD, the local structure around In ions was studied by XAFS since constituent instability, especially overpopulation of In element, caused the deterioration of lifetime and light emission of the laser. The lattice constant of the light emission layer in InGaAs was measured by x-ray micro-beams. (author)

  16. Metal-insulator transition induced in CaVO3 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Man; Laverock, Jude; Chen, Bo; Smith, Kevin E.; Wolf, Stuart A.; Lu Jiwei

    2013-01-01

    Stoichiometric CaVO 3 (CVO) thin films of various thicknesses were grown on single crystal SrTiO 3 (STO) (001) substrates using a pulsed electron-beam deposition technique. The CVO films were capped with a 2.5 nm STO layer. We observed a temperature driven metal-insulator transition (MIT) in CVO films with thicknesses below 4 nm that was not observed in either thick CVO films or STO films. The emergence of this MIT can be attributed to the reduction in effective bandwidth due to a crossover from a three-dimensional metal to a two-dimensional insulator. The insulating phase was only induced with a drive current below 0.1 μA. X-ray absorption measurements indicated different electronic structures for thick and very thin films of CVO. Compared with the thick film (∼60 nm), thin films of CVO (2–4 nm) were more two-dimensional with the V charge state closer to V 4+ .

  17. Characterisation and optical vapour sensing properties of PMMA thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capan, I. [Balikesir University, Science and Arts Faculty, Physics Department, 10100 Balikesir (Turkey)], E-mail: inci.capan@gmail.com; Tarimci, C. [Ankara University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Engineering Physics, 06100, Tandogan, Ankara (Turkey); Hassan, A.K. [Sheffield Hallam University, Materials and Engineering Research Institute, City Campus, Pond Street, Sheffield S1 1WB (United Kingdom); Tanrisever, T. [Balikesir University, Science and Arts Faculty, Chemistry Department, 10100 Balikesir (Turkey)

    2009-01-01

    The present article reports on the characterisation of spin coated thin films of poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) for their use in organic vapour sensing application. Thin film properties of PMMA are studied by UV-visible spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technique. Results obtained show that homogeneous thin films with thickness in the range between 6 and 15 nm have been successfully prepared when films were spun at speeds between 1000-5000 rpm. Using SPR technique, the sensing properties of the spun films were studied on exposures to several halohydrocarbons including chloroform, dichloromethane and trichloroethylene. Data from measured kinetic response have been used to evaluate the sensitivity of the studied films to the various analyte molecules in terms of normalised response (%) per unit concentration (ppm). The highest PMMA film sensitivity of 0.067 normalised response per ppm was observed for chloroform vapour, for films spun at 1000 rpm. The high film's sensitivity to chloroform vapour was ascribed mainly to its solubility parameter and molar volume values. Effect of film thickness on the vapour sensing properties is also discussed.

  18. Thin-film calorimetry. In-situ characterization of materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omelcenko, Alexander; Wulfmeier, Hendrik; Albrecht, Daniel; Fritze, Holger [Clausthal Univ. of Technology, Goslar (Germany). Inst. of Energy Research and Physical Technologies; El Mofid, Wassima; Ivanov, Svetlozar; Bund, Andreas [Ilmenau Univ. of Technology (Germany). Dept. of Electrochemistry

    2017-11-15

    Thin-film calorimetry allows for qualitative and quantitative in-situ analysis of thermodynamic properties of thin films and thin-film systems from room temperature up to 1000 C. It is based on highly sensitive piezoelectric langasite resonators which serve simultaneously as planar temperature sensors and substrates for the films of interest. Generation or consumption of heat during phase transformations of the films cause deviations from the regular course of the resonance frequency. Thermodynamic data such as phase transformation temperatures and enthalpies are extracted from these deviations. Thin-film calorimetry on Sn and Al thin films is performed to prove the concept. The results demonstrate high reproducibility of the measurement approach and are in agreement with literature data obtained by established calorimetric techniques. The calibration of the system is done in different atmospheres by application of defined heat pulses via heating structures. The latter replace the films of interest and simulate phase transformations to provide detailed analysis of the heat transfer mechanisms occurring in the measurement system. Based on this analysis, a data evaluation concept is developed. Application-relevant studies are performed on thin films of the lithium-ion battery materials NMC(A), NCA, LMO, and MoS{sub 2}. Their phase transformation temperatures and enthalpies are evaluated in oxidizing and reducing atmospheres. Furthermore, their thermodynamic stability ranges are presented. Finally, measurements on all-solid-state thin-film batteries during electrochemical cycling are performed. They demonstrate the suitability of the system for in-situ investigations.

  19. Nano structured TiO2 thin films by polymeric precursor method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroppa, Daniel Grando; Giraldi, Tania Regina; Leite, Edson Roberto; Varela, Jose Arana; Longo, Elson

    2008-01-01

    This work focuses in optimizing setup for obtaining TiO 2 thin films by polymeric precursor route due to its advantages on stoichiometric and morphological control. Precursor stoichiometry, synthesis pH, solids concentration and rotation speed at deposition were optimized evaluating thin films morphology and thickness. Thermogravimetry and NMR were applied for precursor's characterization and AFM, XRD and ellipsometry for thin films evaluation. Results showed successful attainment of homogeneous nanocrystalline anatase TiO 2 thin films with outstanding control over morphological characteristics, mean grain size of 17 nm, packing densities between 57 and 75%, estimated surface areas of 90 m 2 /g and monolayers thickness within 20 and 128 nm. (author)

  20. Radiation induced luminescence from a dipole immersed in a thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nkoma, J.S.

    1990-08-01

    Luminescence is modelled as electromagnetic radiation from a dipole immersed in a thin film. Maxwell's equations are solved for the cases when the dipole in the thin film is oriented normal and parallel to the interfaces. Expressions for emitted electric fields outside the thin film are derived and are found to have a resonant denominator that vanishes at the surface polariton excitation frequencies for a thin film. Luminescent spectra are plotted and peaks are found that are identified to be associated with both surface response and bulk response. Numerical results are presented to illustrate the model by considering a vacuum-GaP-sapphire system. (author). 9 refs, 5 figs

  1. Thermal conductivities of thin, sputtered optical films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henager, C.H. Jr.; Pawlewicz, W.T.

    1991-05-01

    The normal component of the thin film thermal conductivity has been measured for the first time for several advanced sputtered optical materials. Included are data for single layers of boron nitride (BN), aluminum nitride (AIN), silicon aluminum nitride (Si-Al-N), silicon aluminum oxynitride (Si-Al-O-N), silicon carbide (SiC), and for dielectric-enhanced metal reflectors of the form Al(SiO 2 /Si 3 N 4 ) n and Al(Al 2 O 3 /AIN) n . Sputtered films of more conventional materials like SiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , Ta 2 O 5 , Ti, and Si have also been measured. The data show that thin film thermal conductivities are typically 10 to 100 times lower than conductivities for the same materials in bulk form. Structural disorder in the amorphous or very fine-grained films appears to account for most of the conductivity difference. Conclusive evidence for a film/substrate interface contribution is presented

  2. Microscopic local fatigue in PZT thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, B S; Wu, A; Vilarinho, P M

    2007-01-01

    The reduction in switchable polarization during fatigue largely limits the application of PZT thin films in ferroelectric nonvolatile memories. So, it is very important to understand the fatigue mechanism in PZT films, especially at a nanoscale level. In this paper, nanoscale fatigue properties in PZT thin films have been studied by piezoresponse force microscopy and local piezoloops. It has been found that a piezoloop obtained on a fatigued point exhibits a much more pinched shape and a local imprint phenomenon is observed after severe fatigue. Furthermore, the domain structure evolves from a simple single-peak profile to a complex fluctuant one. However, there is only some shift of the piezoloop when a unipolar field with the same amplitude is applied on the film. The available experimental data show that there exist obvious domain wall pinning and injection of electrons into the film during fatigue. Finally, a schematic illustration is suggested to explain the possible fatigue mechanism

  3. Thin Film Approaches to the SRF Cavity Problem: Fabrication and Characterization of Superconducting Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beringer, Douglas B.

    Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) cavities are responsible for the acceleration of charged particles to relativistic velocities in most modern linear accelerators, such as those employed at high-energy research facilities like Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory's CEBAF and the LHC at CERN. Recognizing SRF as primarily a surface phenomenon enables the possibility of applying thin films to the interior surface of SRF cavities, opening a formidable tool chest of opportunities by combining and designing materials that offer greater benefit. Thus, while improvements in radio frequency cavity design and refinements in cavity processing techniques have improved accelerator performance and efficiency - 1.5 GHz bulk niobium SRF cavities have achieved accelerating gradients in excess of 35 MV/m - there exist fundamental material bounds in bulk superconductors limiting the maximally sustained accelerating field gradient (approximately 45 MV/m for Niobium) where inevitable thermodynamic breakdown occurs. With state of the art niobium based cavity design fast approaching these theoretical limits, novel material innovations must be sought in order to realize next generation SRF cavities. One proposed method to improve SRF performance is to utilize thin film superconducting-insulating-superconducting (SIS) multilayer structures to effectively magnetically screen a bulk superconducting layer such that it can operate at higher field gradients before suffering critically detrimental SRF losses. This dissertation focuses on the production and characterization of thin film superconductors for such SIS layers for radio-frequency applications.

  4. Wavelet-fractal approach to surface characterization of nanocrystalline ITO thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raoufi, Davood; Kalali, Zahra

    2012-01-01

    In this study, indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films were prepared by electron beam deposition method on glass substrates at room temperature (RT). Surface morphology characterization of ITO thin films, before and after annealing at 500 °C, were investigated by analyzing the surface profile of atomic force microscopy (AFM) images using wavelet transform formalism. The wavelet coefficients related to the thin film surface profiles have been calculated, and then roughness exponent (α) of the films has been estimated using the scalegram method. The results reveal that the surface profiles of the films before and after annealing process have self-affine nature.

  5. Releasing cation diffusion in self-limited nanocrystalline defective ceria thin films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esposito, Vincenzo; Ni, D. W.; Gualandris, Fabrizio

    2017-01-01

    Acceptor-doped nanocrystalline cerium oxide thin films are mechanically constrained nano-domains, with film/substrate interfacial strain and chemical doping deadlock mass diffusion. In contrast, in this paper we show that chemical elements result in highly unstable thin films under chemical...

  6. Preparation and optical characterization of DNA-riboflavin thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Bjorn; Shin, Inchul; Kong, Byungjoo; Sauer, Gregor; Dugasani, Sreekantha Reddy; Khazaeinezhad, Reza; Jung, Woohyun; Joo, Boram; Oh, Kyunghwan

    2016-09-01

    Thin films of DNA biopolymer thin film are fabricated by a drop casting process on glass and silicon substrates, as well as freestanding. The refractive index is measured by elliposmetry and in bulk DNA film the refractive index is shown to be increased in the 600 to 900 nm DNA transparency window by doping with riboflavin. Further analysis with FT-IR, Raman, and XRD are used to determine whether binding between riboflavin and DNA occurs.

  7. Thin film coatings for space electrical power system applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulino, Daniel A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper examines some of the ways in which thin film coatings can play a role in aerospace applications. Space systems discussed include photovoltaic and solar dynamic electric power generation systems, including applications in environmental protection, thermal energy storage, and radiator emittance enhancement. Potential applications of diamondlike films to both atmospheric and space based systems are examined. Also, potential uses of thin films of the recently discovered high-temperature superconductive materials are discussed.

  8. Thin film adhesion by nanoindentation-induced superlayers. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerberich, William W.; Volinsky, A.A.

    2001-06-01

    This work has analyzed the key variables of indentation tip radius, contact radius, delamination radius, residual stress and superlayer/film/interlayer properties on nanoindentation measurements of adhesion. The goal to connect practical works of adhesion for very thin films to true works of adhesion has been achieved. A review of this work titled ''Interfacial toughness measurements of thin metal films,'' which has been submitted to Acta Materialia, is included.

  9. Valence control of cobalt oxide thin films by annealing atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shijing; Zhang Boping; Zhao Cuihua; Li Songjie; Zhang Meixia; Yan Liping

    2011-01-01

    The cobalt oxide (CoO and Co 3 O 4 ) thin films were successfully prepared using a spin-coating technique by a chemical solution method with CH 3 OCH 2 CH 2 OH and Co(NO 3 ) 2 .6H 2 O as starting materials. The grayish cobalt oxide films had uniform crystalline grains with less than 50 nm in diameter. The phase structure is able to tailor by controlling the annealing atmosphere and temperature, in which Co 3 O 4 thin film was obtained by annealing in air at 300-600, and N 2 at 300, and transferred to CoO thin film by raising annealing temperature in N 2 . The fitted X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectra of the Co2p electrons are distinguishable from different valence states of cobalt oxide especially for their satellite structure. The valence control of cobalt oxide thin films by annealing atmosphere contributes to the tailored optical absorption property.

  10. Implanted ZnO thin films: Microstructure, electrical and electronic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.; Metson, J.; Evans, P.J.; Kinsey, R.; Bhattacharyya, D.

    2007-01-01

    Magnetron sputtered polycrystalline ZnO thin films were implanted using Al, Ag, Sn, Sb and codoped with TiN in order to improve the conductivity and to attempt to achieve p-type behaviour. Structural and electrical properties of the implanted ZnO thin films were examined with X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and conductivity measurements. Depth profiles of the implanted elements varied with the implant species. Implantation causes a partial amorphisation of the crystalline structure and decreases the effective grain size of the films. One of the findings is the improvement, as a consequence of implantation, in the conductivity of initially poorly conductive samples. Heavy doping may help for the conversion of conduction type of ZnO thin films. Annealing in vacuum mitigated structural damage and stress caused by implantation, and improved the conductivity of the implanted ZnO thin films

  11. Electroluminescence Spectrum Shift with Switching Behaviour of Diamond Thin Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小平; 王丽军; 张启仁; 姚宁; 张兵临

    2003-01-01

    We report a special phenomenon on switching behaviour and the electroluminescence (EL) spectrum shift of doped diamond thin films. Nitrogen and cerium doped diamond thin films were deposited on a silicon substrate by microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapour deposition system and other special techniques. An EL device with a three-layer structure of nitrogen doped diamond/cerium doped diamond/SiO2 thin films was made. The EL device was driven by a direct-current power supply. Its EL character has been investigated, and a switching behaviour was observed. The EL light emission colour of diamond films changes from yellow (590nm) to blue (454 nm) while the switching behaviour appears.

  12. Atomic Structure Control of Silica Thin Films on Pt(111)

    KAUST Repository

    Crampton, Andrew S; Ridge, Claron J.; Rö tzer, Marian David; Zwaschka, Gregor; Braun, Thomas; D'Elia, Valerio; Basset, Jean-Marie; Schweinberger, Florian Frank; Gü nther, Sebastian; Heiz, Ueli

    2015-01-01

    Metal oxide thin films grown on metal single crystals are commonly used to model heterogeneous catalyst supports. The structure and properties of thin silicon dioxide films grown on metal single crystals have only recently been thoroughly

  13. Synthesis and characterization of cobalt doped nickel oxide thin films by spray pyrolysis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathisha, D.; Naik, K. Gopalakrishna

    2018-05-01

    Cobalt (Co) doped nickel oxide (NiO) thin films were deposited on glass substrates at a temperature of about 400 °C by spray pyrolysis method. The effect of Co doping concentration on structural, optical and compositional properties of NiO thin films was investigated. X-ray diffraction result shows that the deposited thin films are polycrystalline in nature. Surface morphologies of the deposited thin films were observed by FESEM and AFM. EDS spectra showed the incorporation of Co dopants in NiO thin films. Optical properties of the grown thin films were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy. It was found that the optical band gap energy and transmittance of the films decrease with increasing Co doping concentration.

  14. Growth of HfO{sub x} thin films by reactive molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildebrandt, Erwin; Kurian, Jose; Alff, Lambert [Institut fuer Materialwissenschaft, TU Darmstadt (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Thin films of hafnium oxide were grown on single crystal r-cut and c-cut sapphire by reactive molecular beam epitaxy. The conditions for the growth of single oriented hafnium oxide thin films have been established. Hafnium oxide thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction and optical absorption measurements. It was found that hafnium oxide thin films grown on r-cut sapphire were (00l) oriented whereas, on c-cut sapphire, hafnium oxide films showed different orientations depending on the growth temperature and oxidation conditions. The hafnium oxide films grown at higher temperature and under strong oxidation conditions yielded (001) oriented films on c-cut sapphire whereas slightly weaker oxidation condition leads to (111) oriented hafnium oxide films. The bandgap deducted from optical absorption measurement carried out on hafnium oxide films grown under optimized conditions agreed well with the values reported in literature. A range of oxygen deficient thin films of hafnium oxide were also grown on single crystal sapphire substrates in order to investigate the effect of oxygen vacancies on dielectric properties of hafnium oxide. The oxygen deficient thin films of hafnium oxide show a decrease in bandgap with increase in oxygen deficiency.

  15. Achieving 3-D Nanoparticle Assembly in Nanocomposite Thin Films via Kinetic Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Jingyu; Xiao, Yihan; Xu, Ting [UCB

    2017-02-20

    Nanocomposite thin films containing well-ordered nanoparticle (NP) assemblies are ideal candidates for the fabrication of metamaterials. Achieving 3-D assembly of NPs in nanocomposite thin films is thermodynamically challenging as the particle size gets similar to that of a single polymer chain. The entropic penalties of polymeric matrix upon NP incorporation leads to NP aggregation on the film surface or within the defects in the film. Controlling the kinetic pathways of assembly process provides an alternative path forward by arresting the system in nonequilibrium states. Here, we report the thin film 3-D hierarchical assembly of 20 nm NPs in supramolecules with a 30 nm periodicity. By mediating the NP diffusion kinetics in the supramolecular matrix, surface aggregation of NPs was suppressed and NPs coassemble with supramolecules to form new 3-D morphologies in thin films. The present studies opened a viable route to achieve designer functional composite thin films via kinetic control.

  16. CuInS2 thin films obtained through the annealing of chemically deposited In2S3-CuS thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena, Y.; Lugo, S.; Calixto-Rodriguez, M.; Vazquez, A.; Gomez, I.; Elizondo, P.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we report the formation of CuInS 2 thin films on glass substrates by heating chemically deposited multilayers of copper sulfide (CuS) and indium sulfide (In 2 S 3 ) at 300 and 350 deg. C in nitrogen atmosphere at 10 Torr. CIS thin films were prepared by varying the CuS layer thickness in the multilayers with indium sulfide. The XRD analysis showed that the crystallographic structure of the CuInS 2 (JCPDS 27-0159) is present on the deposited films. From the optical analysis it was estimated the band gap value for the CIS film (1.49 eV). The electrical conductivity varies from 3 x 10 -8 to 3 Ω -1 cm -1 depending on the thickness of the CuS film. CIS films showed p-type conductivity.

  17. Electron-beam deposition of vanadium dioxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marvel, R.E.; Appavoo, K. [Vanderbilt University, Interdisciplinary Materials Science Program, Nashville, TN (United States); Choi, B.K. [Vanderbilt University, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Nashville, TN (United States); Nag, J. [Vanderbilt University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Nashville, TN (United States); Haglund, R.F. [Vanderbilt University, Interdisciplinary Materials Science Program, Nashville, TN (United States); Vanderbilt University, Institute for Nanoscale Science and Engineering, Nashville, TN (United States); Vanderbilt University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Nashville, TN (United States)

    2013-06-15

    Developing a reliable and efficient fabrication method for phase-transition thin-film technology is critical for electronic and photonic applications. We demonstrate a novel method for fabricating polycrystalline, switchable vanadium dioxide thin films on glass and silicon substrates and show that the optical switching contrast is not strongly affected by post-processing annealing times. The method relies on electron-beam evaporation of a nominally stoichiometric powder, followed by fast annealing. As a result of the short annealing procedure we demonstrate that films deposited on silicon substrates appear to be smoother, in comparison to pulsed laser deposition and sputtering. However, optical performance of e-beam evaporated film on silicon is affected by annealing time, in contrast to glass. (orig.)

  18. Thin-film growth and the shadow instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karunasiri, R.P.U.; Bruinsma, R.; Rudnick, J.

    1989-01-01

    We propose a growth model for deposition of thin amorphous films by the sputtering technique. For small values of the diffusion constant, the film develops a self-similar mountain landscape. As the diffusion constant is increased a regime is reached where growth of compact flat films is possible up to a critical height. Further deposition leads to surface roughening

  19. Studies of electronic and magnetic properties of LaVO3 thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Anupam; Karwal, Sharad; Choudhary, R. J.; Phase, D. M.

    2018-04-01

    We have investigated the electronic and magnetic properties of pulsed laser deposited Mott insulator LaVO3 (LVO) thin film. Structural characterization revels the single phase [00l] oriented LVO thin film. Enhancement of out of plane lattice parameter indicates the compressively strained LVO film. Electron spectroscopic studies demonstrate that vanadium is present in V3+ state. An energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopic study ensures the stoichiometric growth of the film. Very smooth surface is observed in scanning electron micrograph. Colour mapping for elemental distribution reflect the homogeneity of LVO film. The bifurcation between zero-field-cooled and Field-cooled curves clearly points towards the weak ferromagnetic phase presence in compressively strained LVO thin film. A finite value of coercivity at 300 K reflects the possibility of room temperature ferromagnetism of LVO thin film.

  20. Magnetic characterisation of longitudinal thin film media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dova, P.

    1998-09-01

    Magnetic characterisation techniques, as applied to longitudinal thin film media, have been investigated. These included the study of the differentials of the remanence curves, the delta-M plot and the examination of the critical volumes. Several thin film structures, which are currently used or are being considered for future media applications, have been examined using these techniques. Most of the films were Co-alloys with the exception of a set of Barium ferrite films. Both monolayer and multilayer structures were studied. It was found that the study of activation volumes provides a better insight into the reversal mechanisms of magnetic media, especially in the case of complex structures such as multilayer films and films with bicrystal microstructure. Furthermore, an evaluation study of different methods of determining critical volumes showed that the method using time dependence measurements and the micromagnetic approach is the most appropriate. The magnetic characteristics of the thin film media under investigation were correlated with their microstructure and, where possible, with their noise performance. Magnetic force microscopy was also used for acquiring quasi-domain images in the ac-demagnetised state. It was found that in all Co-alloy films the dominant intergranular coupling is magnetising in nature, the level of which is governed by the Cr content in the magnetic layer. In the case of laminated media it was found that when non-magnetic spacers are used, the nature of the interlayer coupling depends on the spacer thickness. In double layer structures with no spacer, the top layer replicates the crystallographic texture of the bottom layer, and the overall film properties are a combination of the two layers. In bicrystal films the coupling is determined by the Cr segregation in the grain boundaries. Furthermore, the presence of stacking faults in bicrystal films deteriorates their thermal stability, but can be prevented by improving the epitaxial

  1. Thin film processes

    CERN Document Server

    Vossen, John L

    1978-01-01

    Remarkable advances have been made in recent years in the science and technology of thin film processes for deposition and etching. It is the purpose of this book to bring together tutorial reviews of selected filmdeposition and etching processes from a process viewpoint. Emphasis is placed on the practical use of the processes to provide working guidelines for their implementation, a guide to the literature, and an overview of each process.

  2. Chemically deposited Sb2S3 thin films for optical recording

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaji, S; Arato, A; Castillo, G Alan; Palma, M I Mendivil; Roy, T K Das; Krishnan, B; O'Brien, J J; Liu, J

    2010-01-01

    Laser induced changes in the properties of Sb 2 S 3 thin films prepared by chemical bath deposition are described in this paper. Sb 2 S 3 thin films of thickness 550 nm were deposited from a solution containing SbCl 3 and Na 2 S 2 O 3 at 27 0 C for 5 h. These thin films were irradiated by a 532 nm continuous wave laser beam under different conditions at ambient atmosphere. X-ray diffraction analysis showed amorphous to polycrystalline transformation due to laser exposure of these thin films. Morphology and composition of these films were described. Optical properties of these films before and after laser irradiation were analysed. The optical band gap of the material was decreased due to laser induced crystallization. The results obtained confirm that there is further scope for developing this material as an optical recording media.

  3. Laser deposition and direct-writing of thermoelectric misfit cobaltite thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jikun; Palla-Papavlu, Alexandra; Li, Yulong; Chen, Lidong; Shi, Xun; Döbeli, Max; Stender, Dieter; Populoh, Sascha; Xie, Wenjie; Weidenkaff, Anke; Schneider, Christof W.; Wokaun, Alexander; Lippert, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    A two-step process combining pulsed laser deposition of calcium cobaltite thin films and a subsequent laser induced forward transfer as micro-pixel is demonstrated as a direct writing approach of micro-scale thin film structures for potential applications in thermoelectric micro-devices. To achieve the desired thermo-electric properties of the cobaltite thin film, the laser induced plasma properties have been characterized utilizing plasma mass spectrometry establishing a direct correlation to the corresponding film composition and structure. The introduction of a platinum sacrificial layer when growing the oxide thin film enables a damage-free laser transfer of calcium cobaltite thereby preserving the film composition and crystallinity as well as the shape integrity of the as-transferred pixels. The demonstrated direct writing approach simplifies the fabrication of micro-devices and provides a large degree of flexibility in designing and fabricating fully functional thermoelectric micro-devices.

  4. Energy Migration in Organic Thin Films--From Excitons to Polarons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullenbach, Tyler K.

    The rise of organic photovoltaic devices (OPVs) and organic light-emitting devices has generated interest in the physics governing exciton and polaron dynamics in thin films. Energy transfer has been well studied in dilute solutions, but there are emergent properties in thin films and greater complications due to complex morphologies which must be better understood. Despite the intense interest in energy transport in thin films, experimental limitations have slowed discoveries. Here, a new perspective of OPV operation is presented where photovoltage, instead of photocurrent, plays the fundamental role. By exploiting this new vantage point the first method of measuring the diffusion length (LD) of dark (non-luminescent) excitons is developed, a novel photodetector is invented, and the ability to watch exciton arrival, in real-time, at the donor-acceptor heterojunction is presented. Using an enhanced understanding of exciton migration in thin films, paradigms for enhancing LD by molecular modifications are discovered, and the first exciton gate is experimentally and theoretically demonstrated. Generation of polarons from exciton dissociation represents a second phase of energy migration in OPVs that remains understudied. Current approaches are capable of measuring the rate of charge carrier recombination only at open-circuit. To enable a better understanding of polaron dynamics in thin films, two new approaches are presented which are capable of measuring both the charge carrier recombination and transit rates at any OPV operating voltage. These techniques pave the way for a more complete understanding of charge carrier kinetics in molecular thin films.

  5. Chapter 23. Single and Heterostructure Multiferroic Thin Films

    OpenAIRE

    Barbier , Antoine

    2018-01-01

    International audience; Multiferroic oxide materials exhibiting several long range ferroic orders are of high interest because of their wide range of potential applications. The incorporation of their genuine properties in new devices, offering additional physical properties, requires often elaborating them in form of thin films. Retaining their multiferroic characteristics is very challenging. However, thin films can be structured on the nanometer scale and additional degrees of freedom, suc...

  6. Fabrication of Ultra-thin Color Films with Highly Absorbing Media Using Oblique Angle Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Young Jin; Lee, Gil Ju; Jang, Kyung-In; Song, Young Min

    2017-08-29

    Ultra-thin film structures have been studied extensively for use as optical coatings, but performance and fabrication challenges remain.  We present an advanced method for fabricating ultra-thin color films with improved characteristics. The proposed process addresses several fabrication issues, including large area processing. Specifically, the protocol describes a process for fabricating ultra-thin color films using an electron beam evaporator for oblique angle deposition of germanium (Ge) and gold (Au) on silicon (Si) substrates.  Film porosity produced by the oblique angle deposition induces color changes in the ultra-thin film. The degree of color change depends on factors such as deposition angle and film thickness. Fabricated samples of the ultra-thin color films showed improved color tunability and color purity. In addition, the measured reflectance of the fabricated samples was converted into chromatic values and analyzed in terms of color. Our ultra-thin film fabricating method is expected to be used for various ultra-thin film applications such as flexible color electrodes, thin film solar cells, and optical filters. Also, the process developed here for analyzing the color of the fabricated samples is broadly useful for studying various color structures.

  7. Nanoporous MnO{sub x} thin-film electrodes synthesized by electrochemical lithiation/delithiation for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Hui; Lai, Man On; Lu, Li [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 9 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)

    2011-02-15

    Nanoporous MnO{sub x} thin-film electrodes are synthesized using a combination of pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and electrochemical lithiation/delithiation methods. A dense Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} thin-film deposited by PLD can transform into a nanoporous MnO{sub x} thin-film after electrochemical lithiation/delithiation. A nanoporous MnO{sub x} thin-film electrode exhibits significantly improved supercapacitive performance compared with an as-deposited Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} thin-film electrode. A MnO{sub x} thin-film finally transforms into a MnO{sub 2} thin-film through an electrochemical oxidation process during continuous cyclic voltammetry scanning. (author)

  8. A Novel Semiconductor CIGS Photovoltaic Material and Thin-Film ED Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In order to achieve low-cost high-efficiency thin-film solar cells, a novel Semiconductor Photovoltaic (PV) active material CuIn1-xGaxSe2 (CIGS) and thin-film Electro-Deposition (ED) technology is explored. Firstly,the PV materials and technologies is investigated, then the detailed experimental processes of CIGS/Mo/glass structure by using the novel ED technology and the results are reported. These results shows that high quality CIGS polycrystalline thin-films can be obtained by the ED method, in which the polycrystalline CIGS is definitely identified by the (112), (204, 220) characteristic peaks of the tetragonal structure, the continuous CIGS thin-film layers with particle average size of about 2μm of length and around 1.6μm of thickness. The thickness and solargrade quality of CIGS thin-films can be produced with good repeatability. Discussion and analysis on the ED technique, CIGS energy band and sodium (Na) impurity properties, were also performed. The alloy CIGS exhibits not only increasing band-gap with increasing x, but also a change in material properties that is relevant to the device operation. The beneficial impurity Na originating from the low-cost soda-lime glass substrate becomes one prerequisite for high quality CIGS films. These novel material and technology are very useful for low-cost high-efficiency thin-film solar cells and other devices.

  9. Thin Film Packaging Solutions for High Efficiency OLED Lighting Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-06-30

    The objective of the 'Thin Film Packaging Solutions for High Efficiency OLED Lighting Products' project is to demonstrate thin film packaging solutions based on SiC hermetic coatings that, when applied to glass and plastic substrates, support OLED lighting devices by providing longer life with greater efficiency at lower cost than is currently available. Phase I Objective: Demonstrate thin film encapsulated working phosphorescent OLED devices on optical glass with lifetime of 1,000 hour life, CRI greater than 75, and 15 lm/W. Phase II Objective: Demonstrate thin film encapsulated working phosphorescent OLED devices on plastic or glass composite with 25 lm/W, 5,000 hours life, and CRI greater than 80. Phase III Objective: Demonstrate 2 x 2 ft{sup 2} thin film encapsulated working phosphorescent OLED with 40 lm/W, 10,000 hour life, and CRI greater than 85. This report details the efforts of Phase III (Budget Period Three), a fourteen month collaborative effort that focused on optimization of high-efficiency phosphorescent OLED devices and thin-film encapsulation of said devices. The report further details the conclusions and recommendations of the project team that have foundation in all three budget periods for the program. During the conduct of the Thin Film Packaging Solutions for High Efficiency OLED Lighting Products program, including budget period three, the project team completed and delivered the following achievements: (1) a three-year marketing effort that characterized the near-term and longer-term OLED market, identified customer and consumer lighting needs, and suggested prototype product concepts and niche OLED applications lighting that will give rise to broader market acceptance as a source for wide area illumination and energy conservation; (2) a thin film encapsulation technology with a lifetime of nearly 15,000 hours, tested by calcium coupons, while stored at 16 C and 40% relative humidity ('RH'). This encapsulation technology

  10. Physical properties and characterization of Ag doped CdS thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, N.A.; Nazir, A.; Mahmood, W.; Syed, W.A.A.; Butt, S.; Ali, Z.; Maqsood, A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► CdS thin films were grown. ► By ion exchange, Ag was doped. ► Physical properties were investigated. - Abstract: Thin films of cadmium sulfide with very well defined preferential orientation and relatively high absorption coefficient were fabricated by thermal evaporation technique. The research is focused to the fabrication and characterization of the compositional data of CdS thin films obtained by using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope along with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The optical properties were studied by using a UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometer. The effects of silver-doping by ion exchange process on the properties of as-deposited CdS thin films have been investigated.

  11. PVD processes of thin films deposition using Hall-current discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svadkovskij, I.V.

    2007-01-01

    Results of research and developments in the field of PVD processes of thin films deposition using Hall-current discharge have been summarized. Effects of interaction of ions with surface during deposition have been considered. Also features of application and prospects of devices based on ion beam and magnetron sputtering systems in thin films technologies have been analyzed. The aspects in the field plasma physics, technology and equipment plasma PVD processes of thin films deposition have been systematized, on the base of investigations made by author and other scientists. (authors)

  12. Thin film solar cells from earth abundant materials growth and characterization of Cu2(ZnSn)(SSe)4 thin films and their solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Kodigala, Subba Ramaiah

    2013-01-01

    The fundamental concept of the book is to explain how to make thin film solar cells from the abundant solar energy materials by low cost. The proper and optimized growth conditions are very essential while sandwiching thin films to make solar cell otherwise secondary phases play a role to undermine the working function of solar cells. The book illustrates growth and characterization of Cu2ZnSn(S1-xSex)4 thin film absorbers and their solar cells. The fabrication process of absorber layers by either vacuum or non-vacuum process is readily elaborated in the book, which helps for further developm

  13. Non-ohmic transport behavior in ultra-thin gold films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkhatib, A.; Souier, T.; Chiesa, M.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → C-AFM study on ultra-thin gold films. → Connection between ultra-thin film morphology and lateral electrical transport. → Transition between ohmic and non-ohmic behavior. → Electrical transition correlation to the film structure continuity. → Direct and indirect tunneling regimes related to discontinuous structures. - Abstract: Structure and local lateral electrical properties of Au films of thicknesses ranging from 10 to 140 nm are studied using conductive atomic force microscopy. Comparison of current maps taken at different thicknesses reveals surprising highly resistive regions (10 10 -10 11 Ω), the density of which increases strongly at lower thickness. The high resistivity is shown to be directly related to discontinuities in the metal sheet. Local I-V curves are acquired to show the nature of electrical behavior relative to thickness. Results show that in Au films of higher thickness the electrical behavior is ohmic, while it is non-ohmic in highly discontinuous films of lower thickness, with the transition happening between 34 and 39 nm. The non-ohmic behavior is explained with tunneling occurring between separated Au islands. The results explain the abrupt increase of electrical resistivity at lower thin film thicknesses.

  14. Dynamics in thin folded polymer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croll, Andrew; Rozairo, Damith

    Origami and Kirigami inspired structures depend on a complex interplay between geometry and material properties. While clearly important to the overall function, very little attention has focused on how extreme curvatures and singularities in real materials influence the overall dynamic behaviour of folded structures. In this work we use a set of three polymer thin films in order to closely examine the interaction of material and geometry. Specifically, we use polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), polystyrene (PS) and polycarbonate (PC) thin films which we subject to loading in several model geometries of varying complexity. Depending on the material, vastly different responses are noted in our experiments; D-cones can annihilate, cut or lead to a crumpling cascade when pushed through a film. Remarkably, order can be generated with additional perturbation. Finally, the role of adhesion in complex folded structures can be addressed. AFOSR under the Young Investigator Program (FA9550-15-1-0168).

  15. Surface proton transport of fully protonated poly(aspartic acid) thin films on quartz substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Yuki; Kubo, Takahiro

    2014-12-01

    Thin film structure and the proton transport property of fully protonated poly(aspartic acid) (P-Asp100) have been investigated. An earlier study assessed partially protonated poly(aspartic acid), highly oriented thin film structure and enhancement of the internal proton transport. In this study of P-Asp100, IR p-polarized multiple-angle incidence resolution (P-MAIR) spectra were measured to investigate the thin film structure. The obtained thin films, with thicknesses of 120-670 nm, had no oriented structure. Relative humidity dependence of the resistance, proton conductivity, and normalized resistance were examined to ascertain the proton transport property of P-Asp100 thin films. The obtained data showed that the proton transport of P-Asp100 thin films might occur on the surface, not inside of the thin film. This phenomenon might be related with the proton transport of the biological system.

  16. Nonlinear optical parameters of nanocrystalline AZO thin film measured at different substrate temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jilani, Asim, E-mail: asim.jilane@gmail.com [Centre of Nanotechnology, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Abdel-wahab, M.Sh [Centre of Nanotechnology, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Materials Science and Nanotechnology Department, Faculty of Postgraduate Studies for Advanced Sciences, Beni -Suef University, Beni-Suef (Egypt); Al-ghamdi, Attieh A. [Centre of Nanotechnology, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Dahlan, Ammar sadik [Department of architecture, faculty of environmental design, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Yahia, I.S. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, P.O. Box 9004, Abha (Saudi Arabia); Nano-Science & Semiconductor Labs, Department of Physics, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Roxy, 11757 Cairo (Egypt)

    2016-01-15

    The 2.2 wt% of aluminum (Al)-doped zinc oxide (AZO) transparent and preferential c-axis oriented thin films were prepared by using radio frequency (DC/RF) magnetron sputtering at different substrate temperature ranging from room temperature to 200 °C. For structural analysis, X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Atomic Force Electron Microscope (AFM) was used for morphological studies. The optical parameters such as, optical energy gap, refractive index, extinction coefficient, dielectric loss, tangent loss, first and third order nonlinear optical properties of transparent films were investigated. High transmittance above 90% and highly homogeneous surface were observed in all samples. The substrate temperature plays an important role to get the best transparent conductive oxide thin films. The substrate temperature at 150 °C showed the growth of highly transparent AZO thin film. Energy gap increased with the increased in substrate temperature of Al doped thin films. Dielectric constant and loss were found to be photon energy dependent with substrate temperature. The change in substrate temperature of Al doped thin films also affect the non-liner optical properties of thin films. The value of χ{sup (3)} was found to be changed with the grain size of the thin films that directly affected by the substrate temperature of the pure and Al doped ZnO thin films.

  17. Fluxons in thin-film superconductor-insulator superlattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakai, S.; Bodin, P.; Pedersen, Niels Falsig

    1993-01-01

    In a system of thin alternating layers of superconductors and insulators the equations describing static and dynamic fluxon solutions are derived. The approach, represented by a useful compact matrix form, is intended to describe systems fabricated for example of niobium or niobium-nitride thin...... films; in the limit of ultrathin superconductor films it may give a model for describing fluxon motion in layered high-Tc superconductors. Numerical examples of current versus voltage curves to be expected in such an experiment are presented. Journal of Applied Physics is copyrighted by The American...

  18. Appraisal on Textured Grain Growth and Photoconductivity of ZnO Thin Film SILAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepu Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ZnO thin films were prepared by successive ionic layer adsorption reaction (SILAR method. The textured grain growth along c-axis in pure ZnO thin films and doped with Sn was studied. The structural analysis of the thin films was done by X-ray diffraction and surface morphology by scanning electron microscopy. Textured grain growth of the samples was measured by comparing the peak intensities. Textured grain growth and photo current in ZnO thin films were found to be enhanced by doping with Sn. ZnO thin fil