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Sample records for chalcocite particle oxidation

  1. Developments in kinetic modelling of chalcocite particle oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaervi, J.; Ahokainen, T.; Jokilaakso, A. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Lab. of Materials Processing and Powder Metallurgy

    1997-12-31

    A mathematical model for simulating chalcocite particle oxidation is presented. Combustion of pure chalcocite with oxygen is coded as a kinetic module which can be connected as a separate part of commercial CFD-package, PHOENICS. Heat transfer, fluid flow and combustion phenomena can be simulated using CFD-calculation together with the kinetic model. Interaction between gas phase and particles are taken into account by source terms. The aim of the kinetic model is to calculate the particle temperature, contents of species inside the particle, oxygen consumption and formation of sulphur dioxide. Four oxidation reactions are considered and the shrinking core model is used to describe the rate of the oxidation reactions. The model is verified by simulating the particle oxidation reactions in a laboratory scale laminar-flow furnace under different conditions and the model predicts the effects of charges correctly. In the future, the model validation will be done after experimental studies in the laminar flow-furnace. (author) 18 refs.

  2. Diffusion in copper sulphides. An experimental study of chalcocite, chalcopyrite and bornite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, R.; Bucur, R.V. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Inst. of Chemistry

    1996-01-01

    Diffusion measurements on three copper-containing sulphides have been performed by an electrochemical potentiometric method. Chalcocite (Cu{sub 2}S), Chalcopyrite (CuFeS{sub 2}) and Bornite (Cu{sub 5}FeS{sub 4}) were synthesized and fully characterized by X-ray diffraction. The diffusivities were measured on compacted powders yielding both the chemical and the component diffusion coefficients in the temperature range 5-50 C. The chemical diffusion coefficients found were: for Chalcocite 38.7*exp (-5600/T), for Chalcopyrite 15.4*exp(-6000/T) and for Bornite 14.4*exp(-4900/T). The diffusion coefficient for Chalcocite is in good agreement with values found previously, and a reasonable agreement is also found for Chalcopyrite and Bornite when our data are compared with values acquired at much higher temperatures with a different technique. The activation energies (here on a Kelvin scale) are remarkably similar for the three sulfides, considering that their relative errors are of a 10% magnitude, which indicates that the bonding strengths and the diffusion mechanisms are similar. The chemical diffusion coefficients which enter the empirical Fick`s diffusion laws that describe concentration changes, are of the order of exp(-8) to exp (-7) cm{sup 2}/s at room temperature. Such values bring the ion mobilities near values found for solid state `fast ion conductors`, used as electrolytes at elevated temperatures. 17 refs, 8 figs, 5 tabs.

  3. Pressure-induced phase transformations in mineral chalcocite, Cu{sub 2}S, under hydrostatic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santamaria-Perez, D., E-mail: dsantamaria@quim.ucm.es [Departamento de Física Aplicada-ICMUV, Universidad de Valencia, C/Dr. Moliner 50, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain); Earth Sciences Department, University College London, Gower Street, WC1E 6BT London (United Kingdom); Garbarino, G. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, BP 220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Chulia-Jordan, R. [Departamento de QuimicaFisica I, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Dobrowolski, M.A. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, BP 220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Faculty of Chemistry, University of Warsaw, Pasteura 1, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Mühle, C.; Jansen, M. [Max-Planck Institut für Festkörperforschung, Heisenbergstrasse 1, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Three previously unknown phase transitions have been found in Cu{sub 2}S. • The initial monoclinic phase transforms into two different monoclinic structures. • The compressibility of the low- and high-pressure phases has been determined. • Our results differ from those recently reported for Cu{sub 2}S nanowires. - Abstract: High-pressure room-temperature angle-dispersive powder X-ray diffraction measurements on Cu{sub 2}S chalcocite were performed up to 30 GPa using a diamond-anvil cell, He as pressure transmitting medium and synchrotron radiation. Two first-order phase transitions were found at 3.2 and 7.4 GPa. The indexation of the powder diffraction patterns suggests three different monoclinic cells for the low-pressure chalcocite and the two high-pressure phases. Subtle changes in the X-ray diffraction patterns suggest a third pressure-induced transition above 26 GPa. Structural parameters and compressibility are discussed and compared to those reported in a previous study on Cu{sub 2}S nanowires.

  4. Carbon-Supported Iron Oxide Particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meaz, T.; Mørup, Steen; Koch, C. Bender

    1996-01-01

    A carbon black ws impregnated with 6 wt% iron using an aqueous solution of iron nitrate. The impregnated carbon was initially dried at 125 C. The effect of heating of the iron oxide phase was investigated at temperatures between 200 and 600 C using Mossbauer spectroscopy. All heat treatments were...... done in an oxygen-containing atmosphere. Ferrihydrite is formed and is stable at and below a temperature of 300 C. At 600 C small particles of maghemite is the dominant iron oxide. A transformation reaction is suggested....

  5. Carbon-Supported Iron Oxide Particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meaz, T.; Mørup, Steen; Koch, C. Bender

    1996-01-01

    A carbon black ws impregnated with 6 wt% iron using an aqueous solution of iron nitrate. The impregnated carbon was initially dried at 125 C. The effect of heating of the iron oxide phase was investigated at temperatures between 200 and 600 C using Mossbauer spectroscopy. All heat treatments were...... done in an oxygen-containing atmosphere. Ferrihydrite is formed and is stable at and below a temperature of 300 C. At 600 C small particles of maghemite is the dominant iron oxide. A transformation reaction is suggested....

  6. Preliminary study on collectorless flotation of chalcocite, bornite and copper-bearing shale in the presence of selected frothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drzymala Jan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Flotation of carbonaceous copper-bearing shale and copper sulfide minerals such as chalcocite and bornite in the presence of only frother was investigated. It was determined that all investigated solids did not float in pure water in the absence of flotation reagents. However, an addition of a frother rendered both shale and bornite floatable, while the recovery of chalcocite was negligible. These findings suggest that removal of carbonaceous matter from the ore by the so-called pre-flotation process can be a suitable procedure to reduce the amount of organic carbon in the concentrates provided that the feed does not contain bornite. Otherwise, simple pre-flotation must be replaced with a more sophisticated process in which flotation of bornite is suppressed.

  7. Effect of CO2 and N2 on microbial community changes during column bioleaching of low-grade high pyrite-bearing chalcocite ore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈勃伟; 武彪; 刘兴宇; 温建康

    2015-01-01

    Simulated heap bioleaching of low-grade high pyrite-bearing chalcocite ore was conducted at 40 °C with aeration of CO2 and N2. Ore samples were collected at day 43, 64, 85, 106 and subjected to microbial community analysis by 16S rRNA gene clone library. Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rDNA fragments revealed that the retrieved sequences are mainly related to genus Acidithiobacillus,Leptospirillum andSulfobacillus. Aeration of CO2 and N2 significantly impacted the microbial community composition. When CO2 was aerated, the proportion of genusAcidithiobacillus considerably increased, whereas the proportion of genusLeptospirillum and genusSulfobacillus declined. However, with the aeration of N2, the proportion of genusAcidithiobacillus andLeptospirillum increased, but genusSulfobacillus decreased. When there was no aeration, the microbial community was similar to the inocula with the proportion of genusLeptospirillum mounted. These results indicated that the limitation of oxygen could change the bioleaching microbial community and the aeration of CO2 and N2 was favourable for the growth of sulfur-oxidizer (At. caldus) and iron-oxidizer (L. ferriphilum) respectively, which could be used for the regulation of microorganisms’ role in mineral bioleaching.

  8. Oxidatively damaged DNA in animals exposed to particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Peter; Danielsen, Pernille Høgh; Jantzen, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to combustion-derived particles, quartz and asbestos is associated with increased levels of oxidized and mutagenic DNA lesions. The aim of this survey was to critically assess the measurements of oxidatively damaged DNA as marker of particle-induced genotoxicity in animal tissues...

  9. Growth evolution and phase transition from chalcocite to digenite in nanocrystalline copper sulfide: Morphological, optical and electrical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Vasthi Quintana-Ramirez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Copper sulfide is a promising p-type inorganic semiconductor for optoelectronic devices such as solar cells, due its small band gap energy and its electrical properties. In this work nanocrystalline copper sulfide (CuxS, with two stoichiometric ratios (x = 2, 1.8 was obtained by one-pot synthesis at 220, 230, 240 and 260 °C in an organic solvent and amorphous CuxS was obtained in aqueous solution. Nanoparticle-like nucleation centers are formed at lower temperatures (220 °C, mixtures of morphologies (nanorods, nanodisks and nanoprisms are seen at 230 and 240 °C, in which the nanodisks are predominant, while big hexagonal/prismatic crystals are obtained at 260 °C according to TEM results. A mixture of chalcocite and digenite phases was found at 230 and 240 °C, while a clear transition to a pure digenite phase was seen at 260 °C. The evolution of morphology and transition of phases is consistent to the electrical, optical, and morphological properties of the copper sulfide. In fact, digenite Cu1.8S is less resistive (346 Ω/sq and has a lower energy band gap (1.6 eV than chalcocite Cu2S (5.72 × 105 Ω/sq, 1.87 eV. Low resistivity was also obtained in CuxS synthesized in aqueous solution, despite its amorphous structure. All CuxS products could be promising for optoelectronic applications.

  10. Evidence of weak ferromagnetism in chromium(III) oxide particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez-Vazquez, Carlos E-mail: qfmatcvv@usc.es; Banobre-Lopez, Manuel; Lopez-Quintela, M.A.; Hueso, L.E.; Rivas, J

    2004-05-01

    The low temperature (4oxide particles have been studied. A clear evidence of the presence of weak ferromagnetism is observed below 250 K. The magnetisation curves as a function of the applied field show coercive fields due to the canted antiferromagnetism of the particles. Around 55 K a maximum is observed in the zero-field-cooled curves; this maximum can be assumed as a blocking temperature, similarly to ultrafine ferromagnetic particles.

  11. Electrorheological fluids of polypyrrole-tin oxide nanocomposite particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Dae; Yoon, Dae Jeon

    2016-11-01

    The electrorheological (ER) response of polypyrrole(PPy)-tin oxide nanocomposite ER fluids increased with the increase in the tin oxide/pyrrole weight ratio, particle volume fraction, and electric field strength. The dielectric properties and direct current (dc) conductivity of PPy-tin oxide nanocomposite particles and the dielectric properties of PPy-tin oxide nanocomposite ER fluids agreed with the ER behaviors. The ER behavior of PPy-tin oxide nanocomposite ER fluids was well fitted to τ = 0.0248 ϕE 1.5 and showed a transition from that of the polarization model ( τ ˜ E 2) to that of the conduction model ( τ ˜ E 1.5) depending on the tin oxide/pyrrole weight ratio.

  12. Ambient Gas-Particle Partitioning of Tracers for Biogenic Oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaacman-VanWertz, Gabriel; Yee, Lindsay D.; Kreisberg, Nathan M.; Wernis, Rebecca; Moss, Joshua A.; Hering, Susanne V.; de Sa, Suzanne; Martin, Scot T.; Alexander, Mikaela L.; Palm, Brett B.; Hu, Weiwei; Campuzano-Jost, Pedro; Day, Douglas; Jimenez, Jose L.; Riva, Matthieu; Surratt, Jason D.; Viegas, Juarez; Manzi, Antonio; Edgerton, Eric S.; Baumann, K.; Souza, Rodrigo A.; Artaxo, Paulo; Goldstein, Allen H.

    2016-08-23

    Exchange of atmospheric organic compounds between gas and particle phases is important in the production and chemistry of particle-phase mass but is poorly understood due to a lack of simultaneous measurements in both phases of individual compounds. Measurements of particle- and gas phase organic compounds are reported here for the southeastern United States and central Amazonia. Polyols formed from isoprene oxidation contribute 8% and 15% on average to particle-phase organic mass at these sites but are also observed to have substantial gas-phase concentrations contrary to many models that treat these compounds as nonvolatile. The results of the present study show that the gas-particle partitioning of approximately 100 known and newly observed oxidation products is not well explained by environmental factors (e.g., temperature). Compounds having high vapor pressures have higher particle fractions than expected from absorptive equilibrium partitioning models. These observations support the conclusion that many commonly measured biogenic oxidation products may be bound in low-volatility mass (e.g., accretion products, inorganic organic adducts) that decomposes to individual compounds on analysis. However, the nature and extent of any such bonding remains uncertain. Similar conclusions are reach for both study locations, and average particle fractions for a given compound are consistent within similar to 25% across measurement sites.

  13. Growth of oxide particles in FeCrAl- oxide dispersion strengthened steels at high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oono, N. H.; Ukai, S.; Hayashi, S.; Ohtsuka, S.; Kaito, T.; Kimura, A.; Torimaru, T.; Sakamoto, K.

    2017-09-01

    The growth of oxide particles in FeCrAl- oxide dispersion strengthened steel (ODSS) considering an accident condition of the light-water reactor at above 1500 K was studied by using a high-temperature annealing. Oxide particles grew from 9 nm to more than 50 nm as maximum at 1623 K for 27 h, with decreasing their number density in two orders of magnitude. Most of the oxide particles in 15Cr-7Al were identified as YAM or YAP, while the oxide particles in 15Cr-7Al-0.4Zr were identified trigonal Y4Zr3O12. Zr addition to 15Cr-7Al ODSS accelerated the growth of the oxide particles, which is quite contrary to the effect of Zr addition during sintering as suggested in the literature. The kinetics of coarsening was characterized by an equation of Ostwald ripening. The diffusion activation energies obtained in the present materials were quite larger than the conventional diffusion activation energy of Y in alpha-iron. Gibbs free energy of oxides should be considered to discuss the coarsening.

  14. Bio-oxidation of galena particles by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Jiang; Huaiyang Zhou; Xiaotong Peng; Zhonghao Ding

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with the bio-oxidation of galena particles (-80 meshes) usingAcidithiobacillusferrooxidans and compares it with Fe3+ oxidation. Experimental results show that, at least, 0.00197 mol galena was leached from 100mL pulp (density of 3.8%) with 39 days' bio-oxidation, as compared to 0.00329 mol galena by Fe3+ with 9 days' oxidation. Because Fe3+ was constantly consumed, leaching by F3+e almost stopped after 9 days. Large amounts of lead sulfate were detected in both bio-oxidation and Fe3+ oxidation of galena. A. ferrooxidans followed a unique growth pattern during the bio-oxidation of galena. In the initial 15 days, the bacteria attached themselves to the galena surface with the formation of erosion pits similar in shape and length to those of the bacteria, and there were hardly any bacteria suspended in the solution. After 15 days, suspended bacteria increased. It is thus suggested that A. ferrooxidans may directly oxidize galena.

  15. Probing the oxidation kinetics of small permalloy particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiaolei; Song, Xiao; Yin, Shiliu; Shirolkar, Mandar M.; Li, Ming; Wang, Haiqian

    2017-02-01

    The oxidation of permalloys is important to apply in a wide range. The oxidation and diffusion mechanisms of small permalloy particles with different Fe content are studied by using thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and microstructure characterizations. Fe2O3/(Ni, Fe)3O4 plays a key role in the morphology evolution and diffusion mechanisms of small NiFe particles upon oxidation. The activation energies of grain boundary diffusion for the NiFe alloys increase from 141 kJ/mol to 208 kJ/mol as the Fe content increases from 0 to 50 wt%. We have developed a diffusion process resolved temperature programed oxidation (PR-TPO) analysis method. Three diffusion mechanisms have been recognized by using this method: In addition to the grain boundary diffusion and lattice diffusion, our TGA analysis suggests that the phase conversion from Fe2O3 to (Ni, Fe)3O4 induces diffusion change and affects the diffusion process at the intermediate temperature. Relevant oxidation kinetics and diffusion mechanisms are discussed.

  16. Lead isotopic composition and lead source of the Tongchanghe basalt-type native copper-chalcocite deposit in Ninglang, western Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qian; ZHU Xiaoqing; ZHANG Zhengwei

    2006-01-01

    The Tongchanghe native copper-chalcocite deposit at Ninglang occurs in low-Ti basalts of western Yunnan, and the mode of fault-filling & metasomatism metallogenesis indicates that this deposit is of late-stage hydrothermal origin. This makes it more complicated to define the source of ore-forming materials. This paper introduces the Pb isotope data of Himalayan alkali-rich porphyries, regional Early-Middle Proterozoic metamorphic rock basement and various types of rocks of the mining district in western Yunnan with an attempt to constrain the origin of the Tongchanghe native copper-chalcocite deposit at Ninglang.The results showed that the ores are relatively homogeneous in Pb isotopic composition, implying a simple ore-forming material source. The three sets of Pb isotopic ratios in the Himalayan alkali-rich porphyries are all higher than those of the ores; the regional basement metamorphic rocks show a wide range of variations in Pb isotopic ratio, quite different from the isotopic composition of ore lead; the Pb isotopic composition of the Triassic sedimentary rocks and mudstone and siltstone interbeds in the Late Permian Heinishao Formation (corresponding to the forth cycle of basaltic eruption) in the mining district has the characteristics of radiogenic lead and is significantly different from the isotopic composition of ore lead; like the ores, the Emeishan basalts in the mining district and those regionally distributed possess the same Pb isotopic composition, showing a complete overlap with respect to their distribution range. From the above, the possibilities can be ruled out that the ore-forming materials of the Tongchanghe deposit were derived from the basement, a variety of Himalayan magmatic activities, etc. It is thereby defined that the ore-forming materials were derived largely from the Emeishan basalts. From the data available it is deduced that the native cupper-chalcocite-type metallogenesis that occurred in the Emeishan basalt-distributed area

  17. The separation of particles from supercritical water oxidation effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dell' Orco, P.C.

    1991-08-01

    The development of a solids separation system is essential to the implementation of supercritical water oxidation as a commercial process. Like all waste disposal processes, supercritical water oxidation produces a residue. This final ash must eventually be removed from the effluent stream. Limited studies have investigated solids separations near supercritical water conditions (374.2 {degrees}C, 3205 psi). Therefore, a ten millimeter diameter hydrocyclone with an underflow receiver was evaluated for its ability to achieve the separation of fine particles from water. Temperature was varied from 20{degrees}C to 389{degrees}C while pressure was maintained at 3600 psi (24.8 MPa). Mass flow rates varied from 0.015 to 0.049 kg/s. Particle concentrations in feed streams ranged from 400 to 1200 mg/L. Three different particulates, Min-U-Sil 5 (quartz SiO{sub 2}), zirconium dioxide (ZrO{sub 2}), and titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) were studied. These particles ranged in diameter from below one micron to ten microns. Low pressure (0-200 psi), room temperature (20{degrees}C) studies were also conducted where flow rate and feed concentration were variables. Solids removal efficiencies were determined for all experiments. Solid removals were as high as 99% at elevated temperatures. Particle size distributions provided information on particle sizes separated. Particles removed with efficiencies of 50, 90, and 95 per cent (cut sizes) were determined. Ninety per cent cut sizes below one micron were reported for several elevated temperature experiments. Empirical models for use in engineering design were developed for the prediction of solid removal efficiencies and pressure drops.

  18. Personal exposure to ultrafine particles and oxidative DNA damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinzents, Peter S; Møller, Peter; Sørensen, Mette

    2005-01-01

    10), nitrous oxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, and/or number concentration of UFPs at urban background or busy street monitoring stations was not a significant predictor of DNA damage, although personal UFP exposure was correlated with urban background concentrations of CO and NO2......Exposure to ultrafine particles (UFPs) from vehicle exhaust has been related to risk of cardiovascular and pulmonary disease and cancer, even though exposure assessment is difficult. We studied personal exposure in terms of number concentrations of UFPs in the breathing zone, using portable...... instruments in six 18-hr periods in 15 healthy nonsmoking subjects. Exposure contrasts of outdoor pollution were achieved by bicycling in traffic for 5 days and in the laboratory for 1 day. Oxidative DNA damage was assessed as strand breaks and oxidized purines in mononuclear cells isolated from venous blood...

  19. Composition of air pollution particles modifies oxidative stress in cells, tissues, and living systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiological studies demonstrate an association between increased levels of ambient air pollution particles and human morbidity and mortality. Production of oxidants, either directly by the air pollution particles or by the host response to the particles, appears to be fundame...

  20. Hybrid Adsorptive and Oxidative Removal of Natural Organic Matter Using Iron Oxide-Coated Pumice Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sehnaz Sule Kaplan Bekaroglu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to combine adsorptive and catalytic properties of iron oxide surfaces in a hybrid process using hydrogen peroxide and iron oxide-coated pumice particles to remove natural organic matter (NOM in water. Experiments were conducted in batch, completely mixed reactors using various original and coated pumice particles. The results showed that both adsorption and catalytic oxidation mechanisms played role in the removal of NOM. The hybrid process was found to be effective in removing NOM from water having a wide range of specific UV absorbance values. Iron oxide surfaces preferentially adsorbed UV280-absorbing NOM fractions. Furthermore, the strong oxidants produced from reactions among iron oxide surfaces and hydrogen peroxide also preferentially oxidized UV280-absorbing NOM fractions. Preloading of iron oxide surfaces with NOM slightly reduced the further NOM removal performance of the hybrid process. Overall, the results suggested that the tested hybrid process may be effective for removal of NOM and control disinfection by-product formation.

  1. Methanol oxidation at platinized copper particles prepared by galvanic replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioanna Mintsouli

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Bimetallic Pt-Cu particles have been prepared by galvanic replacement of Cu precursor nanoparticles, upon the treatment of the latter with a chloro-platinate acidic solution. The resulting particles, typically a few tens of nm large, were supported on high surface area carbon (Vulcan® XC–72R, Cabot and tested as electrodes. Surface electrochemistry in deaerated acid solutions was similar to that of pure Pt, indicating the existence of a Pt shell (hence the particles are denoted as Pt(Cu. Pt(Cu/C supported catalysts exhibit superior carbon monoxide and methanol oxidation activity with respect to their Pt/C analogues when compared on a per electroactive surface area basis, due to the modification of Pt activity by Cu residing in the particle core. However, as a result of large particle size and agglomeration phenomena, Pt(Cu/C are still inferior to Pt/C when compared on a mass specific activity basis.

  2. Thorium sorption in seawater suspensions of aluminium oxide particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niven, Sherry E. H.; Moore, Robert M.

    1993-05-01

    The partitioning of thorium between solid and solution phases in seawater suspensions of aluminium oxide particles was studied in controlled laboratory experiments to determine whether partitioning is consistent with current models of trace-metal adsorption (surface complexation models). Experimental conditions (i.e., thorium and particle concentrations, pH, temperature, salinity) were chosen to be as realistic as possible for coastal seawater while minimizing nonadsorptive processes; 234Th was used as a tracer of thorium, and filtration/ultrafiltration techniques were used to prepare suspensions with minimal colloidal material, as well as to define and to separate solid and solution phases. A comparison of the experimental results with relationships predicted by surface complexation models shows that thorium sorption in the alumina suspensions was consistent with surface complexation theory: Sorption kinetics were consistent with a (pseudo-) first-order reversible reaction at constant particle concentration, the pseudo-first-order forward rate constants had a first-order dependence on particle concentration, and Kd values were independent of particle concentration. Thorium sorption consisted of two distinct reversible reactions, both of which were consistent with surface complexation theory. Second order rate constants were within the range of rate constants reported for the adsorption of divalent metal ions ontoγ-Al 2O 3 surfaces.

  3. Neutral polyethylene oxide with a cofactor recommended for particle flocculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R Abdallah/Qasaimeh

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Conventional and neutral high molecular weight polyethylene oxide (PEO adsorbs on some colloids and fines, flocculating them into flocs. Addition of a cofactor (CF makes PEO adsorb on all types of colloids and fines, flocculating them into larger flocs. Homoflocculation of fines with PEO alone and with CF added prior to PEO were investigated in this work at low and high effective shear rates. CF role was investigated: it enhanced flocculation amplitude and rate by several magnitudes relative to PEO used alone, and was ascribed to the CF action to stiffen and extend PEO coils. Considering CF-PEO abilities in homoflocculation and in heteroflocculation as recorded in the literature, combination of homo - and heteroflocculation can now be applied to processes. Formed flocs and individual particles will simultaneously deposit onto fibers and, when filtered, particles will be retained in the fiber cake. This technique can be applied in industry processes and water treatment.

  4. Oxidation of nickel particles in an environmental TEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeangros, Q.; Hansen, Thomas Willum; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal;

    during oxidation, whilst increasing the temperature up to 600 °C. Nucleation of NiO on Ni is observed to occur rapidly at room temperature before the introduction of O2 in the environmental cell (in the vacuum of the microscope). It involves the formation of randomly orientated oxide domains of a few...... nanometres in size. These domains impinge and cover the particles surface. As the temperature increases under O2, the NiO film grows and creates irregular structures composed of many crystallites. The reaction kinetics are inferred by EELS using different techniques analyzing changes in shapes of the Ni L2......). These observations illustrate that the outward diffusion of Ni2+ ions through NiO is the dominant mass transport mechanism under these conditions (in opposition to O2/O2- transport). Images also indicate that the NiO film might rupture in some regions, a process that should enable some inward diffusion of O2...

  5. Can Highly Oxidized Organics Contribute to Atmospheric New Particle Formation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Ismael K; Donahue, Neil M; Kurtén, Theo; Kulmala, Markku; Focsa, Cristian; Vehkamäki, Hanna

    2016-03-10

    Highly oxidized organic molecules may play a critical role in new-particle formation within Earth's atmosphere along with sulfuric acid, which has long been considered as a key compound in this process. Here we explore the interactions of these two partners, using quantum chemistry to find the formation free energies of heterodimers and trimers as well as the fastest evaporation rates of (2,2) tetramers. We find that the heterodimers are more strongly bound than pure sulfuric acid dimers. Their stability correlates well with the oxygen to carbon ratio of the organics, their volatility, and the number of hydrogen bonds formed. Most of the stable trimers contain one sulfuric acid and two organics (1,2), whereas many (2,2) tetramers evaporate quickly, probably due to the stability of (1,2) clusters. This finding agrees with recent experimental studies that show how new-particle formation involving oxidized organics and sulfuric acid may be rate-limited by activation of (1,2) trimers, confirming the importance of this process in the atmosphere.

  6. Oxidative stress generated damage to DNA by gastrointestinal exposure to insoluble particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Peter; Folkmann, J K; Danielsen, P H

    2012-01-01

    There is growing concern that gastrointestinal exposure to particles is associated with increased risk of toxicity to internal organs and carcinogenicity. The mechanism of action is related to particle-induced oxidative stress and oxidation of DNA. Observations from animal models indicate...... level of lipid peroxidation derived exocyclic DNA adducts in the liver, suggesting multiple pathways of oxidative stress for particle-generated damage to DNA. At equal dose, diesel exhaust particles (SRM2975) generated larger levels of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine in rat liver than carbon black...... to particulate matter is associated with oxidative damage to DNA and this might be associated with increased risk of cancer....

  7. Graphene oxide-modified ZnO particles: synthesis, characterization, and antibacterial properties

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Linlin Zhong, Kyusik Yun Department of Bionanotechnology, Gachon University, Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea Abstract: Nanosized ZnO particles with diameters of 15 nm were prepared with a solution precipitation method at low cost and high yield. The synthesis of the particles was functionalized by the organic solvent dimethylformamide, and the particles were covalently bonded to the surface of graphene oxide. The morphology of the graphene oxide sheets and ZnO particles was confirme...

  8. Quantification of oxide particle composition in model oxide dispersion strengthened steel alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    London, A.J., E-mail: andrew.london@materials.ox.ac.uk [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Lozano-Perez, S.; Moody, M.P. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Amirthapandian, S.; Panigrahi, B.K.; Sundar, C.S. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102, TN (India); Grovenor, C.R.M. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom)

    2015-12-15

    Oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steels (ODS) are being considered for structural components of future designs of fission and fusion reactors because of their impressive high-temperature mechanical properties and resistance to radiation damage, both of which arise from the nanoscale oxide particles they contain. Because of the critical importance of these nanoscale phases, significant research activity has been dedicated to analysing their precise size, shape and composition (Odette et al., Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 38 (2008) 471–503 [1]; Miller et al., Mater. Sci. Technol. 29(10) (2013) 1174–1178 [2]). As part of a project to develop new fuel cladding alloys in India, model ODS alloys have been produced with the compositions, Fe–0.3Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe–0.2Ti–0.3Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe–14Cr–0.2Ti–0.3Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The oxide particles in these three model alloys have been studied by APT in their as-received state and following ion irradiation (as a proxy for neutron irradiation) at various temperatures. In order to adequately quantify the composition of the oxide clusters, several difficulties must be managed, including issues relating to the chemical identification (ranging and variable peak-overlaps); trajectory aberrations and chemical structure; and particle sizing. This paper presents how these issues can be addressed by the application of bespoke data analysis tools and correlative microscopy. A discussion follows concerning the achievable precision in these measurements, with reference to the fundamental limiting factors.

  9. Oxide-based inorganic/organic and nanoporous spherical particles: synthesis and functional properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiba, Kota; Tagaya, Motohiro; Tilley, Richard D.; Hanagata, Nobutaka

    2013-04-01

    This paper reviews the recent progress in the preparation of oxide-based and heteroatom-doped particles. Surfactant-templated oxide particles, e.g. silica and titania, are possible candidates for various potential applications such as adsorbents, photocatalysts, and optoelectronic and biological materials. We highlight nanoporous oxides of one element, such as silicon or titanium, and those containing multiple elements, which exhibit properties that are not achieved with individual components. Although the multicomponent nanoporous oxides possess a number of attractive functions, the origin of their properties is hard to determine due to compositional/structural complexity. Particles with a well-defined size and shape are keys for a quantitative and detailed discussion on the unique complex properties of the particles. From this viewpoint, we review the synthesis techniques of the oxide particles, which are functionalized with organic molecules or doped with heteroatoms, the physicochemical properties of the particles and the possibilities for their photofunctional applications as complex systems.

  10. Cloud droplet activation through oxidation of organic aerosol influenced by temperature and particle phase state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Jonathan H.; Shiraiwa, Manabu; Arangio, Andrea; Su, Hang; Pöschl, Ulrich; Wang, Jian; Knopf, Daniel A.

    2017-02-01

    Chemical aging of organic aerosol (OA) through multiphase oxidation reactions can alter their cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity and hygroscopicity. However, the oxidation kinetics and OA reactivity depend strongly on the particle phase state, potentially influencing the hydrophobic-to-hydrophilic conversion rate of carbonaceous aerosol. Here, amorphous Suwannee River fulvic acid (SRFA) aerosol particles, a surrogate humic-like substance (HULIS) that contributes substantially to global OA mass, are oxidized by OH radicals at different temperatures and phase states. When oxidized at low temperature in a glassy solid state, the hygroscopicity of SRFA particles increased by almost a factor of two, whereas oxidation of liquid-like SRFA particles at higher temperatures did not affect CCN activity. Low-temperature oxidation appears to promote the formation of highly-oxygenated particle-bound fragmentation products with lower molar mass and greater CCN activity, underscoring the importance of chemical aging in the free troposphere and its influence on the CCN activity of OA.

  11. Oxide Particle Growth During Friction Stir Welding of Fine Grain MA956 Oxide Dispersion-Strengthened Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Brad W.; Knipling, Keith E.; Brewer, Luke N.

    2017-03-01

    Friction stir welding of an aluminum-containing oxide dispersion-strengthened steel causes significant oxide particle growth visible at both the nano- and microscales. Quantitative stereology of scanning electron images, small-angle X-ray scattering, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and atom-probe tomography is used to quantify the degree of particle coarsening as a function of welding parameters. Results show the dispersed oxides are significantly coarsened in the stir zone due to a proposed combination of agglomeration, Ostwald ripening, and phase transformation within the Al2O3-Y2O3 system. This oxide particle coarsening effectively removes all strengthening contribution of the original oxide particles, as confirmed by uniaxial tensile tests and microhardness measurements.

  12. Oxide Particle Growth During Friction Stir Welding of Fine Grain MA956 Oxide Dispersion-Strengthened Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Brad W.; Knipling, Keith E.; Brewer, Luke N.

    2017-01-01

    Friction stir welding of an aluminum-containing oxide dispersion-strengthened steel causes significant oxide particle growth visible at both the nano- and microscales. Quantitative stereology of scanning electron images, small-angle X-ray scattering, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and atom-probe tomography is used to quantify the degree of particle coarsening as a function of welding parameters. Results show the dispersed oxides are significantly coarsened in the stir zone due to a proposed combination of agglomeration, Ostwald ripening, and phase transformation within the Al2O3-Y2O3 system. This oxide particle coarsening effectively removes all strengthening contribution of the original oxide particles, as confirmed by uniaxial tensile tests and microhardness measurements.

  13. Encapsulation of sacrificial silicon containing particles for SH oxide ceramics via a boehmite precursor route

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carabat, A.L.; Van der Zwaag, S.; Sloof, W.G.

    2013-01-01

    Easy crack propagation in oxide ceramic coatings limits their application in high temperature environment (e.g. such as engines and gas turbine components) [1]. In order to overcome this problem, incorporation of sacrificial particles into an oxide ceramic coating may be a viable option. Particles o

  14. Metals and metal oxides particles produced by pulsed laser ablation under high vacuum

    OpenAIRE

    SIRAJ, Khurram; TABASSUM, Yasir SOHAIL and Aasma

    2011-01-01

    A pulsed KrF Excimer laser (248 nm, 15 mJ) was utilized to synthesize different particles on (111) Si substrate under vacuum \\sim 10-6 torr using Aluminum (Al), Platinum (Pt), Tungsten (W), Molybdenum (Mo), Cadmium Oxide (CdO), and Yttrium Oxide (Y2O3) targets. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to study particle size distribution on silicon substrate. The size of individual metal particles was found to be ranging from 71 nm to 2 m m whereas metal oxides particles were found...

  15. Effects of nano-copper(II) oxide and nanomagnesium oxide particles on activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guoqiang; Wang, Jianmin

    2012-07-01

    Effects of nano-copper(II) oxide (nano-CuO) and nanomagnesium oxide (nano-MgO) particles on activated sludge endogenous respiration (aerobic digestion), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) biodegradation, and nitrification were investigated through respiration rate measurement. For comparison, the effects of Cu(II) and Mg(II) ions on activated sludge were also studied. Results indicated that soluble Cu(II) has half maximum inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 19, 5.5, 53, and 117 mg Cu/L for endogenous respiration, BOD biodegradation, ammonium oxidation, and nitrite oxidation, respectively. However, nano-CuO only inhibited BOD biodegradation at 240 mg Cu/L or more, and its associated toxicity was primarily caused by soluble Cu(II). In contrast, soluble Mg(II) was not toxic to activated sludge in the experimental concentration range, but nano-MgO inhibited BOD biodegradation and nitrification with IC50 values of 70 and 143 mg Mg/L, respectively. Further study indicated that the toxicity of nano-MgO resulted primarily from increased pH following MgO hydrolysis.

  16. RF electrodynamics in small particles of oxides - a review

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Srinivasu, VV

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available RF electrodynamics, particularly, the low field rf absorption in small superconducting and manganite particles is reviewed and compared with their respective bulk counterparts. Experimental and theoretical aspects of the small particle...

  17. Oxidative stress and inflammation generated DNA damage by exposure to air pollution particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Peter; Danielsen, Pernille Høgh; Karottki, Dorina Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    investigating air pollution particles. There is substantial evidence indicating that exposure to air pollution particles was associated with elevated levels of oxidatively damaged nucleobases in circulating blood cells and urine from humans, which is supported by observations of elevated levels of genotoxicity...... of PM sampled at different locations or times. Small air pollution particles did not appear more hazardous than larger particles, which is consistent with the notion that constituents such as metals and organic compounds also are important determinants for PM-generated oxidative stress and inflammation....... In addition, the results indicate that PM-mediated ROS production is involved in the generation of inflammation and activated inflammatory cells can increase their ROS production. The observations indicate that air pollution particles generate oxidatively damaged DNA by promoting a milieu of oxidative stress...

  18. Fractal dimension analysis of aluminum oxide particle for sandblasting dental use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshida, Y; Munoz, C A; Winkler, M M; Hashem, A; Itoh, M

    1993-01-01

    Aluminum oxide particles are commonly used as a sandblasting media, particularly in dentistry, for multiple purposes including divesting the casting investment materials and increasing effective surface area for enhancing the mechanical retention strengths of succeedingly applied fired porcelain or luting cements. Usually fine aluminum oxide particles are recycled within the sandblasting machine. Ceramics such as aluminum oxides are brittle, therefore, some portions of recycling aluminum oxide particles might be brittle fractured. If fractured sandblasting particles are involved in the recycling media, it might result in irregularity metallic materials surface as well as the recycling sandblasting media itself be contaminated. Hence, it is necessary from both clinical and practical reasons to monitor the particle conditions in terms of size/shape and effectiveness of sandblasting, so that sandblasting dental prostheses can be fabricated in optimum and acceptable conditions. In the present study, the effect of recycling aluminum oxide particles on the surface texture of metallic materials was evaluated by Fractal Dimension Analysis (FDA). Every week the alumina powder was sampled and analyzed for weight fraction and contaminants. Surface texture of sandblasted standard samples was also characterized by FDA. Results indicate very little change in particle size, while the fractal dimension increased. Fractal dimension analysis showed that the aluminum oxide particle as a sandblasting media should be replaced after 30 or 40 min of total accumulated operation time.

  19. Plasma etching of polystyrene latex particles for the preparation of graphene oxide nanowalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bon Bittolo Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Graphene oxide nanowalls were prepared by casting a water dispersion of polystyrene latex particles onto a graphene oxide film followed by tetrafluoromethane plasma etching. Mild plasma etching conditions allow one to retain the oxygen functional groups on the graphene oxide nanowalls. It was found that the exposure to a xenon light source of such graphene oxide nanowalls coated with a gold thin film results in an increase of the electrical conductivity.

  20. Formation of Ultrafine Metal Particles and Metal Oxide Precursor on Anodized Al by Electrolysis Deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Nickel was deposited by ac electrolysis deposition in the pores of the porous oxide film of Al produced by anodizing in phosphoric acid. Ultrafine rod-shaped Ni particles were formed in the pores. At the same time a film of Ni oxide precursor was developed on the surface of the porous oxide film. The Ni particles and the Ni oxide precursor were examined by SEM, TEM and X-ray diffraction. The thickness of the barrier layer of the porous oxide film was thin and it attributed to the formation of the metal particles, while the formation of the oxide precursor was associated with the surface pits which were developed in the pretreatment of Al.

  1. Preparation of zinc oxide particles by using layered basic zinc acetate as a precursor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Lanqin, E-mail: lanqin_tang@ycit.edu.cn [College of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Yancheng Institute of Technology, 9 Yingbin Avenue, Yancheng 224051 (China); College of Chemistry, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012 (China); Ding, Xuefeng; Zhao, Xu; Wang, Zichen; Zhou, Bing [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A simple aqueous solution process has been applied to prepare zinc oxide particles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This novel method exempts traditional calcinations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Various zinc oxide particles are obtained. - Abstract: TEA and NaOH are applied to transform layered basic zinc acetate into zinc oxide particles by a simple aqueous solution process (<100 Degree-Sign C). Zinc oxide with different morphologies, including dumbbells, earthnuts, ellipsoids and hexagonal pillars, are obtained by carefully controlling the amounts of sodium hydroxide, triethanolamine, and reaction temperature. Field emission scanning electron microscope images, X-ray powder diffraction patterns, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectra and room-temperature photoluminescence spectra are used to characterize final products. Furthermore, a possible growth mechanism is discussed in this paper. This easy procedure for zinc oxide fabrication offers the possibility of a generalized approach to the production of metal oxide with tunable morphology.

  2. Core-shell composite particles composed of biodegradable polymer particles and magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Chiemi; Ushimaru, Kazunori; Horiishi, Nanao; Tsuge, Takeharu; Kitamoto, Yoshitaka

    2015-05-01

    Core-shell composite particles with biodegradability and superparamagnetic behavior were prepared using a Pickering emulsion for targeted drug delivery based on magnetic guidance. The composite particles were composed of a core of biodegradable polymer and a shell of assembled magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. It was found that the dispersibility of the nanoparticles is crucial for controlling the core-shell structure. The addition of a small amount of dispersant into the nanoparticle's suspension could improve the dispersibility and led to the formation of composite particles with a thin magnetic shell covering a polymeric core. The composite particles were also fabricated with a model drug loaded into the core, which was released via hydrolysis of the core under strong alkaline conditions. Because the core can also be biodegraded by lipase, this result suggests that the slow release of the drug from the composite particles should occur inside the body.

  3. Synthesis and structural characterization of tungsten oxide particles by the glycothermal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, Tzu Hsuan, E-mail: thchiang@nuu.edu.tw [Department of Energy Engineering, National United University, 2, Lienda, Nan-Shi Li, Miaoli, 36063, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Chia-Chun; Chen, Tso-Ming [Department of Energy Engineering, National United University, 2, Lienda, Nan-Shi Li, Miaoli, 36063, Taiwan (China); Yu, Bing-Sheng [Department of Material and Mineral Resources Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, No 1, Sec. 3, Chung-Shiao E. Road, Taipei, 10608, Taiwan (China)

    2015-11-05

    This study investigated the glycothermal reaction, a simple method used to synthetize tungsten oxide particle through the redox potentials of ethylene glycol, which were lower than those of ammonium tungstate parapentahydrate ((NH{sub 4}){sub 10}W{sub 12}O{sub 41}·5H{sub 2}O)). The ethylene glycol has the ability to oxidize and can be oxidized into acetaldehyde that should be identified by a gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The acetaldehyde subsequently formed H{sup +}; H{sup +} can react with (NH{sub 4}){sub 10}W{sub 12}O{sub 41}·5H{sub 2}O to produce tungsten oxide hydrate at 100 °C for 40 min. The particles were subjected to sintering at 400–500 °C, producing a coexisting structure of both hexagonal tungsten oxide (h-WO{sub 3}) and monoclinic tungsten oxide (m-WO{sub 3}); however, when subjected to sintering up 600 °C for 1 h, it only produced monoclinic tungsten oxide (m-WO{sub 3}), as demonstrated by X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The particles have different colors, which were subjected to various sintering temperatures. The m-WO{sub 3} particle formed the smallest particle sizes, 10 ± 5 μm at 800 °C, during the sintering process. - Highlights: • The WO{sub 3} particles were synthetized by glycothermal method at 100 °C for 1 h. • The study demonstrated the use of the oxidation of ethylene glycol to prepare m-WO{sub 3}. • The WO{sub 3} particles were sintered for 1 h at 200–1000 °C, resulting in different colors. • The particles were subjected to 600 °C for 1 h produce m-WO{sub 3} structure.

  4. Size-Controlled Synthesis of Copper Oxide Particles on Reduced Graphene Oxide for Lithium-Ion Battery Anode Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Haneul; Kim, Kyungbae; Chang, Hyejung; Kim, Jae-Hun; Choi, Hyunjoo

    2015-11-01

    Copper oxide/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) hybrids have been successfully synthesized by attaching copper ions onto the functional groups of GO by means of a solution process, which causes precipitation and agglomeration of copper oxides during subsequent thermal reduction of the GO. The resulting copper oxide/rGO hybrid exhibited improved electrochemical performance compared to monolithic CuO, which is presumed to be due to rGO acting as a mechanical support that buffers the volume change in copper oxides that occurs as a result of the conversion reaction during charge/discharge cycling. Furthermore, it was found that the size of the copper oxide particles can be optimized by adjusting the annealing time, with a hybrid annealed for 30 min achieving a reversible capacity of 544 mA h g(-1) and an initial coulombic efficiency of 62.7%.

  5. Synergism between rutile and anatase TiO{sub 2} particles in photocatalytic oxidation of naphthalene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohno, Teruhisa; Tokieda, Kojiro; Matsumura, Michio [Research Center for Solar Energy Chemistry, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Higashida, Suguru [Department of Industrial Chemistry, Osaka Prefectural College of Technology, 26-12 Saiwai, Neyagawa, Osaka 572-8572 (Japan)

    2003-05-15

    Photocatalytic oxidation of naphthalene was investigated in a mixed solution of acetonitrile and water using various kinds of titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) powders as the photocatalysts and molecular oxygen as the electron acceptor. The main product from naphthalene is 2-formylcinnamaldehyde. For this reaction, anatase small TiO{sub 2} particles, which are commonly used as photocatalyst, are inactive, probably because band bending is necessary for the oxidation of naphthalene. If the particles are not extremely small, pure rutile and pure anatase powders show fairly high activity, and those containing both anatase and rutile phases show the highest activity. When a pure anatase powder is partly (about 90%) converted to the rutile form by heat treatment, the activity is largely enhanced. The activity of pure rutile particles is also enhanced by physically mixing them with a small amount of small-sized anatase particles, which are inactive for this reaction. These results can be explained by the synergism between rutile and anatase particles. We consider that electrons are transferred from rutile particles to anatase particles, i.e. naphthalene is mainly oxidized on rutile particles and oxygen is mainly reduced on anatase particles. This electron transfer process is supported by electrochemical properties of TiO{sub 2} electrodes for reduction of oxygen.

  6. The role of VOC oxidation products in continental new particle formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Laaksonen

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol physical and chemical properties and trace gas concentrations were measured during the QUEST field campaign in March–April, 2003, in Hyytiälä, Finland. Our aim was to understand the role of oxidation products of VOC's such as mono- and sesquiterpenes in atmospheric nucleation events. Particle chemical compositions were measured using the Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer, and chemical compositions of aerosol samples collected with low-pressure impactors and a high volume sampler were analysed using a number of techniques. The results indicate that during and after new particle formation, all particles larger than 50 nm in diameter contained similar organic substances that are likely to be mono- and sesquiterpene oxidation products. The oxidation products identified in the high volume samples were shown to be mostly aldehydes. In order to study the composition of particles in the 10–50 nm range, we made use of Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer results. We found that during nucleation events, both 10 and 50 nm particle growth factors due to uptake of ethanol vapour correlate strongly with gas-phase monoterpene oxidation product (MTOP concentrations, indicating that the organic constituents of particles smaller than 50 nm in diameter are at least partly similar to those of larger particles. We furthermore showed that particle growth rates during the nucleation events are correlated with the gas-phase MTOP concentrations. This indicates that VOC oxidation products may have a key role in determining the spatial and temporal features of the nucleation events. This conclusion was supported by our aircraft measurements of new 3–10 nm particle concentrations, which showed that the nucleation event on 28 March 2003, started at the ground layer, i.e. near the VOC source, and evolved together with the mixed layer. Furthermore, no new particle formation was detected upwind away from the forest, above the frozen Gulf of Bothnia.

  7. The role of VOC oxidation products in continental new particle formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Laaksonen

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol physical and chemical properties and trace gas concentrations were measured during the QUEST field campaign in March–April 2003, in Hyytiälä, Finland. Our aim was to understand the role of oxidation products of VOC's such as mono- and sesquiterpenes in atmospheric nucleation events. Particle chemical compositions were measured using the Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer, and chemical compositions of aerosol samples collected with low-pressure impactors and a high volume sampler were analysed using a number of techniques. The results indicate that during and after new particle formation, all particles larger than 50 nm in diameter contained similar organic substances that are likely to be mono- and sesquiterpene oxidation products. The oxidation products identified in the high volume samples were shown to be mostly aldehydes. In order to study the composition of particles in the 10–50 nm range, we made use of Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer results. We found that during nucleation events, both 10 and 50 nm particle growth factors due to uptake of ethanol vapour correlate strongly with gas-phase monoterpene oxidation product (MTOP concentrations, indicating that the organic constituents of particles smaller than 50 nm in diameter are at least partly similar to those of larger particles. We furthermore showed that particle growth rates during the nucleation events are correlated with the gas-phase MTOP concentrations. This indicates that VOC oxidation products may have a key role in determining the spatial and temporal features of the nucleation events. This conclusion was supported by our aircraft measurements of new 3–10 nm particle concentrations, which showed that the nucleation event on 28 March 2003, started at the ground layer, i.e. near the VOC source, and evolved together with the mixed layer. Furthermore, no new particle formation was detected upwind away from the forest, above the frozen Gulf of Bothnia.

  8. Core–shell composite particles composed of biodegradable polymer particles and magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oka, Chiemi; Ushimaru, Kazunori [Department of Innovative and Engineered Materials, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Horiishi, Nanao [Bengala Techno Laboratory, 9-5-1006, 1-1 Kodai, Miyamae-ku, Kawasaki 216-0007 (Japan); Tsuge, Takeharu [Department of Innovative and Engineered Materials, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Kitamoto, Yoshitaka, E-mail: kitamoto.y.aa@m.titech.ac.jp [Department of Innovative and Engineered Materials, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan)

    2015-05-01

    Core–shell composite particles with biodegradability and superparamagnetic behavior were prepared using a Pickering emulsion for targeted drug delivery based on magnetic guidance. The composite particles were composed of a core of biodegradable polymer and a shell of assembled magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. It was found that the dispersibility of the nanoparticles is crucial for controlling the core–shell structure. The addition of a small amount of dispersant into the nanoparticle's suspension could improve the dispersibility and led to the formation of composite particles with a thin magnetic shell covering a polymeric core. The composite particles were also fabricated with a model drug loaded into the core, which was released via hydrolysis of the core under strong alkaline conditions. Because the core can also be biodegraded by lipase, this result suggests that the slow release of the drug from the composite particles should occur inside the body. - Highlights: • Core−shell composites with biodegradability and magnetism are prepared. • O/W emulsion stabilized by iron oxide nanoparticles is utilized for the preparation. • The nanoparticle's dispersibility is crucial for controlling the composite structure. • Composites loading a model drug are also prepared. • The model drug is released with decomposition of the composites.

  9. Visualized effect of oxidation on magnetic recording fidelity in pseudo-single-domain magnetite particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeida, Trevor P.; Kasama, Takeshi; Muxworthy, Adrian R.

    2014-01-01

    fidelity of Fe3O4 particles is greatly diminished over time by progressive oxidation to less magnetic iron oxides, such as maghemite (γ-Fe2O3), with consequent alteration of remanent magnetization potentially having important geological significance. Here we use the complementary techniques...... of environmental transmission electron microscopy and off-axis electron holography to induce and visualize the effects of oxidation on the magnetization of individual nanoscale Fe3O4 particles as they transform towards γ-Fe2O3. Magnetic induction maps demonstrate a change in both strength and direction of remanent...

  10. Particles control in selective laser melting in-situ oxide dispersion strengthened method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xin; An, Zhibin; Shen, Zhijian; Liu, Wei; Yao, Chenguang

    2017-01-01

    Stainless steel selective laser melting (SLM) can be considered as a new possible approach for in-situ formation of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels because of the dispersion of amorphous oxide nano-particles due to the trace amounts of laser chamber oxygen and in-situ internal oxidation of reactive elements. In this paper it is demonstrated that the particle sizes and distributions can be adjusted by choosing different chamber oxygen level through controlling the quantity of initial reactive cores and the available reactive solutes of each core.

  11. Oxide-based inorganic/organic and nanoporous spherical particles: synthesis and functional properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kota Shiba, Motohiro Tagaya, Richard D Tilley and Nobutaka Hanagata

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the recent progress in the preparation of oxide-based and heteroatom-doped particles. Surfactant-templated oxide particles, e.g. silica and titania, are possible candidates for various potential applications such as adsorbents, photocatalysts, and optoelectronic and biological materials. We highlight nanoporous oxides of one element, such as silicon or titanium, and those containing multiple elements, which exhibit properties that are not achieved with individual components. Although the multicomponent nanoporous oxides possess a number of attractive functions, the origin of their properties is hard to determine due to compositional/structural complexity. Particles with a well-defined size and shape are keys for a quantitative and detailed discussion on the unique complex properties of the particles. From this viewpoint, we review the synthesis techniques of the oxide particles, which are functionalized with organic molecules or doped with heteroatoms, the physicochemical properties of the particles and the possibilities for their photofunctional applications as complex systems.

  12. Accumulation of lipids and oxidatively damaged DNA in hepatocytes exposed to particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterdal, Lise K; Danielsen, Pernille H; Folkmann, Janne K

    2014-01-01

    and subsequently incubated for another 18h to manifest lipid accumulation. In an animal model of metabolic syndrome we investigated the association between intake of carbon black (CB, 14nm) particles and hepatic lipid accumulation, inflammation and gene expression of Srebp-1, Fasn and Scd-1 involved in lipid...... single-walled carbon nanotubes. All four types of particles also generated oxidatively damaged DNA, assessed as formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG) sensitive sites, in HepG2 cells after 3h exposure. The animal model of metabolic syndrome showed increased lipid load in the liver after one oral......Exposure to particles has been suggested to generate hepatosteatosis by oxidative stress mechanisms. We investigated lipid accumulation in cultured human hepatocytes (HepG2) and rat liver after exposure to four different carbon-based particles. HepG2 cells were exposed to particles for 3h...

  13. Heterogeneous OH oxidation of motor oil particles causes selective depletion of branched and less cyclic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacman, Gabriel; Chan, Arthur W H; Nah, Theodora; Worton, David R; Ruehl, Chris R; Wilson, Kevin R; Goldstein, Allen H

    2012-10-02

    Motor oil serves as a useful model system for atmospheric oxidation of hydrocarbon mixtures typical of anthropogenic atmospheric particulate matter, but its complexity often prevents comprehensive chemical speciation. In this work we fully characterize this formerly "unresolved complex mixture" at the molecular level using recently developed soft ionization gas chromatography techniques. Nucleated motor oil particles are oxidized in a flow tube reactor to investigate the relative reaction rates of observed hydrocarbon classes: alkanes, cycloalkanes, bicycloalkanes, tricycloalkanes, and steranes. Oxidation of hydrocarbons in a complex aerosol is found to be efficient, with approximately three-quarters (0.72 ± 0.06) of OH collisions yielding a reaction. Reaction rates of individual hydrocarbons are structurally dependent: compared to normal alkanes, reaction rates increased by 20-50% with branching, while rates decreased ∼20% per nonaromatic ring present. These differences in rates are expected to alter particle composition as a function of oxidation, with depletion of branched and enrichment of cyclic hydrocarbons. Due to this expected shift toward ring-opening reactions heterogeneous oxidation of the unreacted hydrocarbon mixture is less likely to proceed through fragmentation pathways in more oxidized particles. Based on the observed oxidation-induced changes in composition, isomer-resolved analysis has potential utility for determining the photochemical age of atmospheric particulate matter with respect to heterogeneous oxidation.

  14. Analysis of particles produced by oxidation of dilute xylene in air under electron beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakoda, Teruyuki; Goto, Hitoshi; Shimada, Akihiko; Ochi, Masafumi; Kojima, Takuji

    2006-03-01

    The generator of electron beams with energies of 55 keV (max.) and currents of 0.50 mA (max.) was developed as an irradiation source for the analysis of particles produced from aromatic hydrocarbons under EB irradiation. The oxidation process of o-xylene in air and the characteristic of particles produced from xylene were examined by EB irradiation. The particles of products were analyzed under less their coagulation. The use of this EB generator enables to examine the characteristics of particles under irradiation with their analysis immediately after irradiation.

  15. Characteristics of SME biodiesel-fueled diesel particle emissions and the kinetics of oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Heejung; Kittelson, David B; Zachariah, Michael R

    2006-08-15

    Biodiesel is one of the most promising alternative diesel fuels. As diesel emission regulations have become more stringent, the diesel particulate filter (DPF) has become an essential part of the aftertreatment system. Knowledge of kinetics of exhaust particle oxidation for alternative diesel fuels is useful in estimating the change in regeneration behavior of a DPF with such fuels. This study examines the characteristics of diesel particulate emissions as well as kinetics of particle oxidation using a 1996 John Deere T04045TF250 off-highway engine and 100% soy methyl ester (SME) biodiesel (B100) as fuel. Compared to standard D2 fuel, this B100 reduced particle size, number, and volume in the accumulation mode where most of the particle mass is found. At 75% load, number decreased by 38%, DGN decreased from 80 to 62 nm, and volume decreased by 82%. Part of this decrease is likely associated with the fact that the particles were more easily oxidized. Arrhenius parameters for the biodiesel fuel showed a 2-3times greater frequency factor and approximately 6 times higher oxidation rate compared to regular diesel fuel in the range of 700-825 degrees C. The faster oxidation kinetics should facilitate regeneration when used with a DPF.

  16. Compositional Fragmentation Model for the Oxidation of Sulfide Particles in a Flash Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra-Sánchez, Víctor Roberto; Pérez-Tello, Manuel; Duarte-Ruiz, Cirilo Andrés; Sohn, Hong Yong

    2014-04-01

    A mathematical model to predict the size distribution and chemical composition of a cloud of sulfide particles during high-temperature oxidation in a flash reactor is presented. The model incorporates the expansion and further fragmentation of the reacting particles along their trajectories throughout the reaction chamber. A relevant feature of the present formulation is its flexibility to treat a variety of flash reacting systems, such as the flash smelting and flash converting processes. This is accomplished by computing the chemical composition of individual particles and the size distribution and overall composition of the particle cloud in separate modules, which are coupled through a database of particle properties previously stored on disk. The flash converting of solid copper mattes is considered as an example. The model predictions showed good agreement with the experimental data collected in a large laboratory reactor in terms of particle size distribution and sulfur remaining in the population of particles. The cumulative contribution and distribution coefficients are introduced to quantify the relationship between specific particle sizes in the feed and those in the reacted products upon oxidation, the latter of which has practical implications on the amount and chemical composition of dust particles produced during the industrial operation.

  17. Selective fabrication of iron oxide particles in halloysite lumen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Pengwu; Du, Yuanyuan [School of Pharmacy, Jiangxi Science and Technology Normal University, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330013 (China); Ma, Xiaofei, E-mail: maxiaofei@tju.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2015-02-01

    As the adsorbents or the supports of photocatalysts, halloysite nanotubes (HNT) were expected to have intact external surface for adsorption or catalyst immobilization, when Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles was introduced to prepare magnetic HNTs for easy separation. The negatively charged urease was loaded inside positively charged HNT lumen, and urease catalyzed the hydrolysis of urea and resulted in the alkaline environment in HNT lumen. When Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 2+} diffused in, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles were selectively synthesized in the lumen of HNT. The obtained Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@HNT is characterized by transmission electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and hysteresis loops. The obtained magnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@HNT can be magnetically collected with intact external surface, which can support photocatalysts or remove the pollutants. - Highlights: • Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@HNT was prepared. • Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@HNT was characterized. • Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles were selectively synthesized in the lumen of HNT.

  18. Dynamic viscosity mapping of the oxidation of squalene aerosol particles.

    OpenAIRE

    Athanasiadis, Athanasios; Fitzgerald, Clare; Davidson, Nicholas M; Giorio, Chiara; Botchway, Stanley W; Ward, Andrew D.; Kalberer, Markus; Pope, Francis D.; Kuimova, Marina K.

    2016-01-01

    Organic aerosols (OAs) play important roles in multiple atmospheric processes, including climate change, and can impact human health. The physico-chemical properties of OAs are important for all these processes and can evolve through reactions with various atmospheric components, including oxidants. The dynamic nature of these reactions makes it challenging to obtain a true representation of their composition and surface chemistry. Here we investigate the microscopic viscosity of the model OA...

  19. Exposure to Ultrafine Particles from Ambient Air and Oxidative Stress-Induced DNA Damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, Elvira Vaclavik; Forchhammer, Lykke; Møller, Peter

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Particulate matter, especially ultrafine particles (UFPs), may cause health effects through generation of oxidative stress, with resulting damage to DNA and other macromolecules. OBJECTIVE: We investigated oxidative damage to DNA and related repair capacity in peripheral blood...... mononuclear cells (PBMCs) during controlled exposure to urban air particles with assignment of number concentration (NC) to four size modes with average diameters of 12, 23, 57, and 212 nm. DESIGN. Twenty-nine healthy adults participated in a randomized, two-factor cross-over study with or without biking...... exercise for 180 min and with exposure to particles (NC 6169-15362/cm3) or filtered air (NC 91-542/cm3) for 24 hr. METHODS: The levels of DNA strand breaks (SBs), oxidized purines as formamidopyrimidine DNA glycolase (FPG) sites, and activity of 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine-DNA glycosylase (OGG1) in PBMCs were...

  20. High gradient magnetic filtration of cupric oxide and fly ash particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lua, A.C. [Nanyang Technological University (Singapore). School of Mechanical and Production Engineering

    1996-12-31

    High gradient magnetic filtration (HGMF) tests have been carried out on cupric oxide particles and power plant fly ash which were dispersed in air streams. An experimental test rig was set up to conduct these tests. Results showed that for cupric oxide particles, filtration efficiencies of up to 95% were obtained for submicron sizes with dust loadings of up to 0.36 time the matrix volume. For fly ash, filtration efficiencies of up to 65% were obtained for submicron particles. However, all particle sizes showed progressive deterioration in efficiencies with loading. At the end of the test, the matrix had collected 0.52 times its own mass of fly ash. 2 refs., 7 figs.

  1. Oxidation Products of Biogenic Emissions Contribute to Nucleation of Atmospheric Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Riccobono, Francesco; Baltensperger, Urs; Worsnop, Douglas R; Curtius, Joachim; Carslaw, Kenneth S; Wimmer, Daniela; Wex, Heike; Weingartner, Ernest; Wagner, Paul E; Vrtala, Aron; Viisanen, Yrjö; Vaattovaara, Petri; Tsagkogeorgas, Georgios; Tomé, Antonio; Stratmann, Frank; Stozhkov, Yuri; Spracklen, Dominick V; Sipilä, Mikko; Praplan, Arnaud P; Petäjä, Tuukka; Onnela, Antti; Nieminen, Tuomo; Mathot, Serge; Makhmutov, Vladimir; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Laaksonen, Ari; Kvashin, Alexander N.; Kürten, Andreas; Kupc, Agnieszka; Keskinen, Helmi; Kajos, Maija; Junninen, Heikki; Hansel, Armin; Franchin, Alessandro; Flagan, Richard C; Ehrhart, Sebastian; Duplissy, Jonathan; Dunne, Eimear M; Downard, Andrew; David, André; Breitenlechner, Martin; Bianchi, Federico; Amorim, Antonio; Almeida, João; Rondo, Linda; Ortega, Ismael K; Dommen, Josef; Scott, Catherine E; Vrtala, Aron; Santos, Filipe D; Schallhart, Simon; Seinfeld, John H; Sipila, Mikko; Donahue, Neil M; Kirkby, Jasper; Kulmala, Markku

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric new-particle formation affects climate and is one of the least understood atmospheric aerosol processes. The complexity and variability of the atmosphere has hindered elucidation of the fundamental mechanism of new-particle formation from gaseous precursors. We show, in experiments performed with the CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving Outdoor Droplets) chamber at CERN, that sulfuric acid and oxidized organic vapors at atmospheric concentrations reproduce particle nucleation rates observed in the lower atmosphere. The experiments reveal a nucleation mechanism involving the formation of clusters containing sulfuric acid and oxidized organic molecules from the very first step. Inclusion of this mechanism in a global aerosol model yields a photochemically and biologically driven seasonal cycle of particle concentrations in the continental boundary layer, in good agreement with observations.

  2. Electrophoretic deposition of PTFE particles on porous anodic aluminum oxide film and its tribological properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Dongya; Dong, Guangneng, E-mail: donggn@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Chen, Yinjuan; Zeng, Qunfeng

    2014-01-30

    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) composite film was successfully fabricated by depositing PTFE particles into porous anodic aluminum oxide film using electrophoretic deposition (EPD) process. Firstly, porous anodic aluminum oxide film was synthesized by anodic oxidation process in sulphuric acid electrolyte. Then, PTFE particles in suspension were directionally deposited into the porous substrate. Finally, a heat treatment at 300 °C for 1 h was utilized to enhance PTFE particles adhesion to the substrate. The influence of anodic oxidation parameters on the morphology and micro-hardness of the porous anodic aluminum oxide film was studied and the PTFE particles deposited into the pores were authenticated using energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Tribological properties of the PTFE composite film were investigated under dry sliding. The experimental results showed that the composite film exhibit remarkable low friction. The composite film had friction coefficient of 0.20 which deposited in 15% PTFE emulsion at temperature of 15 °C and current density of 3 A/dm{sup 2} for 35 min. In addition, a control specimen of porous anodic aluminum oxide film and the PTFE composite film were carried out under the same test condition, friction coefficient of the PTFE composite film was reduced by 60% comparing with the control specimen at 380 MPa and 100 mm/s. The lubricating mechanism was that PTFE particles embedded in porous anodic aluminum oxide film smeared a transfer film on the sliding path and the micro-pores could support the supplement of solid lubricant during the sliding, which prolonged the lubrication life of the aluminum alloys.

  3. Electrophoretic deposition of PTFE particles on porous anodic aluminum oxide film and its tribological properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongya; Dong, Guangneng; Chen, Yinjuan; Zeng, Qunfeng

    2014-01-01

    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) composite film was successfully fabricated by depositing PTFE particles into porous anodic aluminum oxide film using electrophoretic deposition (EPD) process. Firstly, porous anodic aluminum oxide film was synthesized by anodic oxidation process in sulphuric acid electrolyte. Then, PTFE particles in suspension were directionally deposited into the porous substrate. Finally, a heat treatment at 300 °C for 1 h was utilized to enhance PTFE particles adhesion to the substrate. The influence of anodic oxidation parameters on the morphology and micro-hardness of the porous anodic aluminum oxide film was studied and the PTFE particles deposited into the pores were authenticated using energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Tribological properties of the PTFE composite film were investigated under dry sliding. The experimental results showed that the composite film exhibit remarkable low friction. The composite film had friction coefficient of 0.20 which deposited in 15% PTFE emulsion at temperature of 15 °C and current density of 3 A/dm2 for 35 min. In addition, a control specimen of porous anodic aluminum oxide film and the PTFE composite film were carried out under the same test condition, friction coefficient of the PTFE composite film was reduced by 60% comparing with the control specimen at 380 MPa and 100 mm/s. The lubricating mechanism was that PTFE particles embedded in porous anodic aluminum oxide film smeared a transfer film on the sliding path and the micro-pores could support the supplement of solid lubricant during the sliding, which prolonged the lubrication life of the aluminum alloys.

  4. Molecular understanding of atmospheric particle formation from sulfuric acid and large oxidized organic molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Schobesberger, Siegfried; Bianchi, Federico; Lönn, Gustaf; Ehn, Mikael; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Dommen, Josef; Ehrhart, Sebastian; Ortega, Ismael K; Franchin, Alessandro; Nieminen, Tuomo; Riccobono, Francesco; Hutterli, Manuel; Duplissy, Jonathan; Almeida, João; Amorim, Antonio; Breitenlechner, Martin; Downard, Andrew J; Dunne, Eimear M; Flagan, Richard C; Kajos, Maija; Keskinen, Helmi; Kirkby, Jasper; Kupc, Agnieszka; Kürten, Andreas; Kurtén, Theo; Laaksonen, Ari; Mathot, Serge; Onnela, Antti; Praplan, Arnaud P; Rondo, Linda; Santos, Filipe D; Schallhart, Simon; Schnitzhofer, Ralf; Sipilä, Mikko; Tomé, António; Tsagkogeorgas, Georgios; Vehkamäki, Hanna; Wimmer, Daniela; Baltensperger, Urs; Carslaw, Kenneth S; Curtius, Joachim; Hansel, Armin; Petäjä, Tuukka; Kulmala, Markku; Donahue, Neil M; Worsnop, Douglas R

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosols formed by nucleation of vapors affect radiative forcing and therefore climate. However, the underlying mechanisms of nucleation remain unclear, particularly the involvement of organic compounds. Here, we present high-resolution mass spectra of ion clusters observed during new particle formation experiments performed at the Cosmics Leaving Outdoor Droplets chamber at the European Organization for Nuclear Research. The experiments involved sulfuric acid vapor and different stabilizing species, including ammonia and dimethylamine, as well as oxidation products of pinanediol, a surrogate for organic vapors formed from monoterpenes. A striking resemblance is revealed between the mass spectra from the chamber experiments with oxidized organics and ambient data obtained during new particle formation events at the Hyytiälä boreal forest research station. We observe that large oxidized organic compounds, arising from the oxidation of monoterpenes, cluster directly with single sulfuric acid molec...

  5. Magnetic properties of magnetic liquids with iron-oxide particles - the influence of anisotropy and interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, C.; Hanson, M.; Pedersen, Michael Stanley

    1997-01-01

    Magnetic liquids containing iron-oxide particles were investigated by magnetization and Mossbauer measurements. The particles were shown to be maghemite with a spontanious saturation magentization Ms = 320 kA m-1 at 200 K and a normalized high-field susceptibility x/M0 = 5.1x10-6 mkA-1, practical......-field-cooled magnetization and isothermal remanence decay, is influenced by interactions and strongly dependent on the applied magnetic field....

  6. Gas/particle separation and sampling of oxidation products of aromatic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sax, M.; Kalberer, M.; Zenobi, R.

    2003-03-01

    Quantitative chemical analysis of organic aerosols can only be achieved if the particle phase can be separated without artifacts from the gas phase. In this study we compare two different ambient air samplers for eight known volatile aromatic and non-aromatic oxidation products of aromatics. A polyurethane foam adsorbent and an annular diffusion denuder were operated along with particle filters. The analysis was done with GC-MS after liquid extraction of the samplers. (author)

  7. INFRARED and PHOTOELECTRON SPECTROSCOPIC STUDY OF S02 OXIDATION ON SOOT PARTICLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, S.G.; Novakov, T.

    1975-12-01

    Results obtained by means of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and internal reflection infrared spectroscopy demonstrate the feasibility of heterogeneous oxidation of sulfur dioxide on soot particles in air. Sulfuric acid formed in this process can be neutralized on basic surface sites of soot particles, resulting in the formation of carbonium and/or oxonium sulfate. Hydrolysis of these salts into cyclic hemiacetals and sulfuric acid is expected.

  8. INFRARED and PHOTOELECTRON SPECTROSCOPIC STUDY OF S02 OXIDATION ON SOOT PARTICLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, S.G.; Novakov, T.

    1975-12-01

    Results obtained by means of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and internal reflection infrared spectroscopy demonstrate the feasibility of heterogeneous oxidation of sulfur dioxide on soot particles in air. Sulfuric acid formed in this process can be neutralized on basic surface sites of soot particles, resulting in the formation of carbonium and/or oxonium sulfate. Hydrolysis of these salts into cyclic hemiacetals and sulfuric acid is expected.

  9. Highly Oxidized Multifunctional Organic Compounds Observed in Tropospheric Particles: A Field and Laboratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutzel, Anke; Poulain, Laurent; Berndt, Torsten; Iinuma, Yoshiteru; Rodigast, Maria; Böge, Olaf; Richters, Stefanie; Spindler, Gerald; Sipilä, Mikko; Jokinen, Tuija; Kulmala, Markku; Herrmann, Hartmut

    2015-07-07

    Very recent studies have reported the existence of highly oxidized multifunctional organic compounds (HOMs) with O/C ratios greater than 0.7. Because of their low vapor pressure, these compounds are often referred as extremely low-volatile organic compounds (ELVOCs), and thus, they are able to contribute significantly to organic mass in tropospheric particles. While HOMs have been successfully detected in the gas phase, their fate after uptake into particles remains unclear to date. Hence, the present study was designed to detect HOMs and related oxidation products in the particle phase and, thus, to shed light on their fate after phase transfer. To this end, aerosol chamber investigations of α-pinene ozonolysis were conducted under near environmental precursor concentrations (2.4 ppb) in a continuous flow reactor. The chemical characterization shows three classes of particle constituents: (1) intact HOMs that contain a carbonyl group, (2) particle-phase decomposition products, and (3) highly oxidized organosulfates (suggested to be addressed as HOOS). Besides chamber studies, HOM formation was also investigated during a measurement campaign conducted in summer 2013 at the TROPOS research station Melpitz. During this field campaign, gas-phase HOM formation was found to be correlated with an increase in the oxidation state of the organic aerosol.

  10. Catalytic coating of virus particles with zinc oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balci, S. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Heisenbergstr. 1, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Bittner, A.M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Heisenbergstr. 1, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany)], E-mail: a.bittner@fkf.mpg.de; Schirra, M.; Thonke, K.; Sauer, R. [Institut fuer Halbleiterphysik, Universitaet Ulm, D-89069 Ulm (Germany); Hahn, K. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Metallforschung, Heisenbergstr. 3, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Kadri, A.; Wege, C.; Jeske, H. [Biologisches Institut, Pfaffenwaldring 57, D-70550 Stuttgart (Germany); Kern, K. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Heisenbergstr. 1, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Institut du Physique des Nanostructures, Ecole Polytechnique Federale, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2009-09-01

    We show that the rod-shaped Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) can be coated with the wide band gap semiconductor zinc oxide by electroless deposition under mild reaction conditions. The process involves pretreatment with aqueous Pd(II), followed by nucleation of ZnO, directed to palladium centers formed on the surface of TMV. The mechanism is based on the local pH change due to the reduction of nitrate by dimethylamine borane at the palladium. Morphology and chemical composition have been analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and by energy filtering TEM, respectively. The optical properties were elucidated by cathodoluminescence, which showed the desired near-band edge emission.

  11. Graphene oxide-modified ZnO particles: synthesis, characterization, and antibacterial properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong LL

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Linlin Zhong, Kyusik Yun Department of Bionanotechnology, Gachon University, Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea Abstract: Nanosized ZnO particles with diameters of 15 nm were prepared with a solution precipitation method at low cost and high yield. The synthesis of the particles was functionalized by the organic solvent dimethylformamide, and the particles were covalently bonded to the surface of graphene oxide. The morphology of the graphene oxide sheets and ZnO particles was confirmed with field emission scanning electron microscopy and biological atomic force microscopy. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction were used to analyze the physical and chemical properties of the ZnO/graphene oxide composites that differed from those of the individual components. Enhanced electrochemical properties were detected with cyclic voltammetry, with a redox peak of the composites at 0.025 mV. Excellent antibacterial activity of ZnO/graphene oxide composites was observed with a microdilution method in which minimum inhibitory concentrations of 6.25 µg/mL for Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium, 12.5 µg/mL for Bacillus subtilis, and 25 µg/mL for Enterococcus faecalis. After further study of the antibacterial mechanism, we concluded that a vast number of reactive oxygen species formed on the surface of composites, improving antibacterial properties. Keywords: graphene oxide, ZnO, characterization, antibacterial property

  12. Nanostructure and Oxidation Reactivity of Nascent Soot Particles in Ethylene/Pentanol Flames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaoyao Ying

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As byproducts of the combustion process of hydrocarbon fuels, soot particles are difficult to remove, and they can greatly harm human health and pollute the environment. Therefore, the formation and growth processes of the soot particles has become a study focus of researchers. In this paper, the nanostructure and oxidation reactivity of carbonaceous particles collected from ethylene inverse diffusion flames with or without the additions of three pentanol isomers (1-pentanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, and 2-methyl-1-butanol were investigated in detail. The nanostructure and oxidation characteristics of nascent soot particles were characterized using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM, X-ray diffractometry (XRD and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. It was found that the nascent soot cluster of pure ethylene flame had a loose structure, while the additions of pentanol isomers made the soot agglomerates more compact and delayed the growth of graphitic structures. The pentanol isomer additions also contributed to a higher disorder of the crystallite arrangement in the soot nanostructure. According to the TGA experiments, the results showed that the addition of pentanol isomers enhanced the oxidation reactivity of soot particles, which could help to reduce soot particle emissions.

  13. Morphological changes during oxidation of a single char particle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    d' Amore, M. (Salerno Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Chemical and Food Engineering); Tognotti, L. (Pisa Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Sarofim, A.F. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1992-01-01

    In this study, the changes with conversion in morphology of a carbon char in the temperature range 500--1200 K are followed by using an electrodynamic balance (EDB) (Spjut et al., 1985; Dudek, 1988; Bar-ziv et al., 1989). This device allows one to measure in situ, over temperature range wider than in other apparatuses, mass, diameter, density, surface area, rate of reaction and temperature for a single, suspended submillimeter particle. By following with the EDB the changes in the char as it reacts, it is possible to study the influence of the porous texture on the reaction behavior and shed some light on the contribution by micropores to the reaction in the chemical kinetic controlled regime.

  14. Surface structures of cerium oxide nanocrystalline particles from the size dependence of the lattice parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunekawa, S.; Ito, S.; Kawazoe, Y.

    2004-10-01

    Cerium oxide nanocrystalline particles are synthesized and monodispersed in the size range from 2 to 8nm in diameter. The dependence of the lattice parameters on particle size is obtained by x-ray and electron diffraction analyses. The size dependence well coincides with the estimation based on the assumption that the surface is composed of one layer of Ce2O3 and the inside consists of CeO2. The effect of particle size on lattice parameters is discussed from the differences in the fabrication method and the surface structure.

  15. Effect of Oxidizer Particle Size on Burning Rate and Thermal Decomposition of Composite Solid Propellants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kishore

    1982-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies on Thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorarte(AP- polystyrene(PS propellant and burning rate of PS/AP propellant have been carried out as a function of oxidizer particle size. Thermal decomposition of AP and AP/PS propellant as function of AP particle size shows a maximum rate around 100 micro particle size which has been explained on the basis of Mample's theory. No such maximum is observed in the case of PS/AP propellant burning rate.

  16. Influence of Substrate Particle Size and Wet Oxidation on Physical Surface Structures and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Wheat Straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads; Meyer, Anne S.

    2009-01-01

    In the worldwide quest for producing biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass, the importance of the substrate pretreatment is becoming increasingly apparent. This work examined the effects of reducing the substrate particle sizes of wheat straw by grinding prior to wet oxidation and enzymatic...... release only increased (by up to 39%) with particle size decrease for the straw particles that had not been wet oxidized. Wet oxidation pretreatment increased the enzymatic xylose release by 5.4 times and the glucose release by 1.8 times across all particle sizes. Comparison of scanning electron...... microscopy images of the straw particles revealed edged, nonspherical, porous particles with variable surface structures as a result of the grinding. Wet oxidation pretreatment tore up the surface structures of the particles to retain vascular bundles of xylem and phloem. The enzymatic hydrolysis left behind...

  17. Influence of substrate particle size and wet oxidation on physical surface structures and enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Mads; Meyer, Anne S

    2009-01-01

    In the worldwide quest for producing biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass, the importance of the substrate pretreatment is becoming increasingly apparent. This work examined the effects of reducing the substrate particle sizes of wheat straw by grinding prior to wet oxidation and enzymatic hydrolysis. The yields of glucose and xylose were assessed after treatments with a benchmark cellulase system consisting of Celluclast 1.5 L (Trichoderma reesei) and Novozym 188 beta-glucosidase (Aspergillus niger). Both wet oxidized and not wet oxidized wheat straw particles gave increased glucose release with reduced particle size. After wet oxidation, the glucose release from the smallest particles (53-149 mum) reached 90% of the theoretical maximum after 24 h of enzyme treatment. The corresponding glucose release from the wet oxidized reference samples (2-4 cm) was approximately 65% of the theoretical maximum. The xylose release only increased (by up to 39%) with particle size decrease for the straw particles that had not been wet oxidized. Wet oxidation pretreatment increased the enzymatic xylose release by 5.4 times and the glucose release by 1.8 times across all particle sizes. Comparison of scanning electron microscopy images of the straw particles revealed edged, nonspherical, porous particles with variable surface structures as a result of the grinding. Wet oxidation pretreatment tore up the surface structures of the particles to retain vascular bundles of xylem and phloem. The enzymatic hydrolysis left behind a significant amount of solid, apparently porous structures within all particles size groups of both the not wet oxidized and wet oxidized particles.

  18. The Effect of Particle Content, Particle Distribution, and Cold Deformation on the Recrystallization of Low Oxide Al-Al2O3 Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels; Bay, B.

    1972-01-01

    the oxide content (proportional to the reciprocal particle spacing) and the distribution of oxide particles either as a uniform distribution or as a regular three-dimensional network. From the microstructures after cold work and after recovery it is suggested that particle-retarded recrystallization may...... be caused by pinning, during the recovery stage, of sub-boundaries and of individual dislocations. The hypothesis of retardation of recrystallization as due to particle-enhanced homogenization of dislocation structures during deformation is not supported by the microstructural observations. In the product...

  19. XPS study of nitrogen dioxide adsorption on metal oxide particle surfaces under different environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltrusaitis, Jonas; Jayaweera, Pradeep M; Grassian, Vicki H

    2009-10-01

    The adsorption of nitrogen dioxide on gamma aluminium oxide (gamma-Al(2)O(3)) and alpha iron oxide (alpha-Fe(2)O(3)) particle surfaces under various conditions of relative humidity, presence of molecular oxygen and UV light has been investigated. X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is used to monitor the different surface species that form under these environmental conditions. Adsorption of NO(2) on aluminum oxide particle surfaces results primarily in the formation of surface nitrate, NO(3)(-) with an oxidation state of +5, as indicated by a peak with binding energy of 407.3 eV in the N1s region. An additional minority species, sensitive to the presence of relative humidity and molecular oxygen, is also observed in the N1s region with lower binding energy of 405.9 eV. This peak is assigned to a surface species in the +4 oxidation state. When irradiated with UV light, other species form on the surface. These surface-bound photochemical products all have lower binding energy, between 400 and 402 eV, indicating reduced nitrogen species in the range of N oxidations states spanning +1 to -1. Co-adsorbed water decreases the amount of these reduced surface-bound products while the presence of molecular oxygen completely suppresses the formation of all reduced nitrogen species on aluminum oxide particle surfaces. For NO(2) on iron oxide particle surfaces, photoreduction is enhanced relative to gamma-Al(2)O(3) and surface bound photoreduced species are observed under all environmental conditions. Complementing the experimental data, N1s core electron binding energies (CEBEs) were calculated using DFT for a number of nitrogen-containing species in the gas phase and adsorbed on an Al(8)O(12) cluster. A range of CEBEs is calculated for various nitrogen species in different adsorption modes and oxidation states. These calculated values are discussed in light of the peaks observed in the XPS N1s region and the possible species that form following NO(2) adsorption and

  20. Graphene oxide-modified ZnO particles: synthesis, characterization, and antibacterial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Linlin; Yun, Kyusik

    2015-01-01

    Nanosized ZnO particles with diameters of 15 nm were prepared with a solution precipitation method at low cost and high yield. The synthesis of the particles was functionalized by the organic solvent dimethylformamide, and the particles were covalently bonded to the surface of graphene oxide. The morphology of the graphene oxide sheets and ZnO particles was confirmed with field emission scanning electron microscopy and biological atomic force microscopy. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction were used to analyze the physical and chemical properties of the ZnO/graphene oxide composites that differed from those of the individual components. Enhanced electrochemical properties were detected with cyclic voltammetry, with a redox peak of the composites at 0.025 mV. Excellent antibacterial activity of ZnO/graphene oxide composites was observed with a microdilution method in which minimum inhibitory concentrations of 6.25 µg/mL for Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium, 12.5 µg/mL for Bacillus subtilis, and 25 µg/mL for Enterococcus faecalis. After further study of the antibacterial mechanism, we concluded that a vast number of reactive oxygen species formed on the surface of composites, improving antibacterial properties.

  1. Efficacy of copper oxide wire particles against gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep and goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economic sheep and goat production in the USA is severely limited by gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) parasitism, particularly by Haemonchus contortus, a highly pathogenic blood-feeder. Copper oxide wire particles (COWP) have anti-parasitic properties in the diet of small ruminants, but efficacy of ...

  2. Graphene oxide-modified ZnO particles: synthesis, characterization, and antibacterial properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Linlin; Yun, Kyusik

    2015-01-01

    Nanosized ZnO particles with diameters of 15 nm were prepared with a solution precipitation method at low cost and high yield. The synthesis of the particles was functionalized by the organic solvent dimethylformamide, and the particles were covalently bonded to the surface of graphene oxide. The morphology of the graphene oxide sheets and ZnO particles was confirmed with field emission scanning electron microscopy and biological atomic force microscopy. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction were used to analyze the physical and chemical properties of the ZnO/graphene oxide composites that differed from those of the individual components. Enhanced electrochemical properties were detected with cyclic voltammetry, with a redox peak of the composites at 0.025 mV. Excellent antibacterial activity of ZnO/graphene oxide composites was observed with a microdilution method in which minimum inhibitory concentrations of 6.25 µg/mL for Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium, 12.5 µg/mL for Bacillus subtilis, and 25 µg/mL for Enterococcus faecalis. After further study of the antibacterial mechanism, we concluded that a vast number of reactive oxygen species formed on the surface of composites, improving antibacterial properties. PMID:26347126

  3. Heterogeneous OH oxidation of palmitic acid in single component and internally mixed aerosol particles: vaporization and the role of particle phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. B. Stipe

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available We studied the OH oxidation of submicron aerosol particles consisting of pure palmitic acid (PA or thin (near monolayer coatings of PA on aqueous and effloresced inorganic salt particles. Experiments were performed as a function of particle size and OH exposure using a continuous-flow photochemical reaction chamber coupled to a chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS system, for detection of gas and particle-bound organics, and a DMA/CPC for monitoring particle size distributions. The loss rate of PA observed for pure PA aerosols and PA on crystalline NaCl aerosols indicates that the OH oxidation of PA at the gas-aerosol interface is efficient. The pure PA oxidation data are well represented by a model consisting of four main processes: 1 surface-only reactions between OH and palmitic acid, 2 secondary reactions between palmitic acid and OH oxidation products, 3 volatilization of condensed-phase mass, and 4 a surface renewal process. Using this model we infer a value of γOH between 0.8 and 1. The oxidation of palmitic acid in thin film coatings of salt particles is also efficient, though the inferred γOH is lower, ranging from ~0.3+0.1/−0.05 for coatings on solid NaCl and ~0.05 (±0.01 on aqueous NaCl particles. These results, together with simultaneous data on particle size change and volatilized oxidation products, provide support for the ideas that oxidative aging of aliphatic organic aerosol is a source of small oxidized volatile organic compounds (OVOCs, and that OH oxidation may initiate secondary condensed-phase reactions.

  4. The heterogeneous OH oxidation of palmitic acid in single component and internally mixed aerosol particles: vaporization, secondary chemistry, and the role of particle phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. McNeill

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available We studied the OH oxidation of submicron aerosol particles consisting of pure palmitic acid (PA or thin (near monolayer coatings of PA on aqueous and effloresced inorganic salt particles. Experiments were performed as a function of particle size and OH exposure using a continuous-flow photochemical reaction chamber coupled to a chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS system, for detection of gas and particle-bound organics, and a DMA/CPC for monitoring particle size distributions. The loss rate of PA observed for pure PA aerosols and PA on crystalline NaCl aerosols indicates that the OH oxidation of PA at the gas-aerosol interface is efficient. The pure PA oxidation data are well represented by a model consisting of four main processes: 1 surface-only reactions between OH and palmitic acid, 2 secondary reactions between palmitic acid and OH oxidation products, 3 volatilization of condensed-phase mass, and 4 a surface renewal process. Using this model we infer a value of γOH between 0.8 and 1. The oxidation of palmitic acid in thin film coatings of salt particles is also efficient, though the inferred γOH is lower, ranging from ~0.3 (+0.1/−0.05 for coatings on solid NaCl and ~0.05 (±0.01 on aqueous NaCl particles. These results, together with simultaneous data on particle size change and volatilized oxidation products, provide support for the ideas that oxidative aging of aliphatic organic aerosol is a source of small oxidized volatile organic compounds (OVOCs, and that OH oxidation may initiate secondary condensed-phase reactions.

  5. Enhancement of oxidation resistance via a self-healing boron carbide coating on diamond particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Youhong; Meng, Qingnan; Qian, Ming; Liu, Baochang; Gao, Ke; Ma, Yinlong; Wen, Mao; Zheng, Weitao

    2016-02-01

    A boron carbide coating was applied to diamond particles by heating the particles in a powder mixture consisting of H3BO3, B and Mg. The composition, bond state and coverage fraction of the boron carbide coating on the diamond particles were investigated. The boron carbide coating prefers to grow on the diamond (100) surface than on the diamond (111) surface. A stoichiometric B4C coating completely covered the diamond particle after maintaining the raw mixture at 1200 °C for 2 h. The contribution of the boron carbide coating to the oxidation resistance enhancement of the diamond particles was investigated. During annealing of the coated diamond in air, the priory formed B2O3, which exhibits a self-healing property, as an oxygen barrier layer, which protected the diamond from oxidation. The formation temperature of B2O3 is dependent on the amorphous boron carbide content. The coating on the diamond provided effective protection of the diamond against oxidation by heating in air at 1000 °C for 1 h. Furthermore, the presence of the boron carbide coating also contributed to the maintenance of the static compressive strength during the annealing of diamond in air.

  6. Size dependent microbial oxidation and reduction of magnetite nano- and micro-particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, James M.; van der Laan, Gerrit; Figueroa, Adriana I.; Qafoku, Odeta; Wang, Chongmin; Pearce, Carolyn I.; Jackson, Michael; Feinberg, Joshua; Rosso, Kevin M.; Kappler, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    The ability for magnetite to act as a recyclable electron donor and acceptor for Fe-metabolizing bacteria has recently been shown. However, it remains poorly understood whether microbe-mineral interfacial electron transfer processes are limited by the redox capacity of the magnetite surface or that of whole particles. Here we examine this issue for the phototrophic Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria Rhodopseudomonas palustris TIE-1 and the Fe(III)-reducing bacteria Geobacter sulfurreducens, comparing magnetite nanoparticles (d ≈ 12 nm) against microparticles (d ≈ 100-200 nm). By integrating surface-sensitive and bulk-sensitive measurement techniques we observed a particle surface that was enriched in Fe(II) with respect to a more oxidized core. This enables microbial Fe(II) oxidation to occur relatively easily at the surface of the mineral suggesting that the electron transfer is dependent upon particle size. However, microbial Fe(III) reduction proceeds via conduction of electrons into the particle interior, i.e. it can be considered as more of a bulk electron transfer process that is independent of particle size. The finding has potential implications on the ability of magnetite to be used for long range electron transport in soils and sediments.

  7. Enhancement of oxidation resistance via a self-healing boron carbide coating on diamond particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Youhong; Meng, Qingnan; Qian, Ming; Liu, Baochang; Gao, Ke; Ma, Yinlong; Wen, Mao; Zheng, Weitao

    2016-02-02

    A boron carbide coating was applied to diamond particles by heating the particles in a powder mixture consisting of H3BO3, B and Mg. The composition, bond state and coverage fraction of the boron carbide coating on the diamond particles were investigated. The boron carbide coating prefers to grow on the diamond (100) surface than on the diamond (111) surface. A stoichiometric B4C coating completely covered the diamond particle after maintaining the raw mixture at 1200 °C for 2 h. The contribution of the boron carbide coating to the oxidation resistance enhancement of the diamond particles was investigated. During annealing of the coated diamond in air, the priory formed B2O3, which exhibits a self-healing property, as an oxygen barrier layer, which protected the diamond from oxidation. The formation temperature of B2O3 is dependent on the amorphous boron carbide content. The coating on the diamond provided effective protection of the diamond against oxidation by heating in air at 1000 °C for 1 h. Furthermore, the presence of the boron carbide coating also contributed to the maintenance of the static compressive strength during the annealing of diamond in air.

  8. Graphene supported nano particles of Pt-Ni for CO oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng; Lv, Wei; Yang, Quanhong; Liu, Yuan

    2012-08-01

    In this study, a series of graphene supported Pt, Ni and Pt-Ni nano particles were successfully synthesized by a simple impregnation method. The resultant composites were characterized using SEM, XRD, HRTEM, XPS and TPR techniques and their catalytic performance for the oxidation of carbon monoxide was tested. It was shown that in the prepared metal/graphene composite, metal particles were highly dispersed on the graphene sheets (GS) with an average particle size of 1-3 nm. The results of catalytic performance tests indicate that the activity decreases in the order of Pt-Ni/GS, Pt/GS and Ni/GS. In the sample of Pt-Ni/GS, Pt-Ni alloy was formed, which contributed to the high activity of Pt-Ni/GS for CO oxidation.

  9. Interfacial electronic structure of electrodeposited Ag nanoparticles on iron oxide nanorice particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Young Ku [Dept. of Chemistry, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    A bimetallic hybrid nanostructure of uni- formly electrodeposited Ag NPs on an Fe oxide nanorice particle template was developed. Figure 6 schematically illustrates uniform electrodeposition of Ag NPs on Fe oxide nanorice supported on a Si substrate. According to Ar + ion depth-probling XPS spectra, the electrodeposited Ag NPs are metallic, and the Fe oxide nanorice particles consist of a metallic shell covered by ultrathin FeOOH or Fe 2 O 3 shells. When the template was functionalized with 1,4-diisocyanobenzene, one terminal NC group was bridge- bonded as in the N C form on the Fe surface. The newly developed selective facial electrodeposition method will be very useful for facial fabrication of bimetallic hybrid systems for diverse application areas.

  10. Persistent oxidative stress in human neural stem cells exposed to low fluences of charged particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baulch, Janet E; Craver, Brianna M; Tran, Katherine K; Yu, Liping; Chmielewski, Nicole; Allen, Barrett D; Limoli, Charles L

    2015-08-01

    Exposure to the space radiation environment poses risks for a range of deleterious health effects due to the unique types of radiation encountered. Galactic cosmic rays are comprised of a spectrum of highly energetic nuclei that deposit densely ionizing tracks of damage along the particle trajectory. These tracks are distinct from those generated by the more sparsely ionizing terrestrial radiations, and define the geometric distribution of the complex cellular damage that results when charged particles traverse the tissues of the body. The exquisite radiosensitivity of multipotent neural stem and progenitor cells found within the neurogenic regions of the brain predispose the central nervous system to elevated risks for radiation induced sequelae. Here we show that human neural stem cells (hNSC) exposed to different charged particles at space relevant fluences exhibit significant and persistent oxidative stress. Radiation induced oxidative stress was found to be most dependent on total dose rather than on the linear energy transfer of the incident particle. The use of redox sensitive fluorogenic dyes possessing relative specificity for hydroxyl radicals, peroxynitrite, nitric oxide (NO) and mitochondrial superoxide confirmed that most irradiation paradigms elevated reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS, respectively) in hNSC over a 1 week interval following exposure. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) was not the major source of elevated nitric oxides, as the use of NOS inhibitors had little effect on NO dependent fluorescence. Our data provide extensive evidence for the capability of low doses of charged particles to elicit marked changes in the metabolic profile of irradiated hNSC. Radiation induced changes in redox state may render the brain more susceptible to the development of neurocognitive deficits that could affect an astronaut's ability to perform complex tasks during extended missions in deep space. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by

  11. Persistent oxidative stress in human neural stem cells exposed to low fluences of charged particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet E. Baulch

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to the space radiation environment poses risks for a range of deleterious health effects due to the unique types of radiation encountered. Galactic cosmic rays are comprised of a spectrum of highly energetic nuclei that deposit densely ionizing tracks of damage along the particle trajectory. These tracks are distinct from those generated by the more sparsely ionizing terrestrial radiations, and define the geometric distribution of the complex cellular damage that results when charged particles traverse the tissues of the body. The exquisite radiosensitivity of multipotent neural stem and progenitor cells found within the neurogenic regions of the brain predispose the central nervous system to elevated risks for radiation induced sequelae. Here we show that human neural stem cells (hNSC exposed to different charged particles at space relevant fluences exhibit significant and persistent oxidative stress. Radiation induced oxidative stress was found to be most dependent on total dose rather than on the linear energy transfer of the incident particle. The use of redox sensitive fluorogenic dyes possessing relative specificity for hydroxyl radicals, peroxynitrite, nitric oxide (NO and mitochondrial superoxide confirmed that most irradiation paradigms elevated reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS, respectively in hNSC over a 1 week interval following exposure. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS was not the major source of elevated nitric oxides, as the use of NOS inhibitors had little effect on NO dependent fluorescence. Our data provide extensive evidence for the capability of low doses of charged particles to elicit marked changes in the metabolic profile of irradiated hNSC. Radiation induced changes in redox state may render the brain more susceptible to the development of neurocognitive deficits that could affect an astronaut’s ability to perform complex tasks during extended missions in deep space.

  12. Effect of SiC particles on microarc oxidation process of magnesium matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, X. J.; Gong, W. X.; Wu, K.; Wang, F. H.

    2013-10-01

    SiC particles are an important reinforced phase in metal matrix composites. Their effect on the microarc oxidation (MAO, also named plasma electrolytic oxidation-PEO) process of SiCp/AZ91 Mg matrix composites (MMCs) was studied and the mechanism was revealed. The corrosion resistance of MAO coating was also investigated. Voltage-time curves during MAO were recorded to study the barrier film status on the composites. Scanning electron microscopy was used to characterize the existing state of SiC particles in MAO. Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to analyze the chemical composition of the coating. Corrosion resistance of the bare and coated composites was evaluated by potentiodynamic polarization curves in 3.5% NaCl solution. Results showed that the integrality and electrical insulation properties of the barrier film on the composites were destroyed by the SiC particles. Consequently, the sparking discharge at the early stage of MAO was inhibited, and the growth efficiency of the MAO coating decreased with the increase in the volume fraction of SiC particles. SiC particles did not exist stably during MAO; they were oxidized or partially oxidized into SiO2 before the overall sparking discharge. The transformation from semi-conductive SiC to insulating SiO2 by oxidation restrained the current leakage at the original SiC positions and then promoted sparking discharge and coating growth. The corrosion current density of SiCp/AZ91 MMCs was reduced by two orders of magnitude after MAO treatment. However, the corrosion resistances of the coated composites were lower than that of the coated alloy.

  13. Effect of SiC particles on microarc oxidation process of magnesium matrix composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y.Q., E-mail: qiuorwang@hrbeu.edu.cn [Corrosion and Protection Laboratory, Education Ministry Key Laboratory of Superlight Materials and Surface Technology, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Wang, X.J. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Gong, W.X. [Corrosion and Protection Laboratory, Education Ministry Key Laboratory of Superlight Materials and Surface Technology, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Wu, K. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Wang, F.H. [Corrosion and Protection Laboratory, Education Ministry Key Laboratory of Superlight Materials and Surface Technology, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); State Key Laboratory for Corrosion and Protection, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2013-10-15

    SiC particles are an important reinforced phase in metal matrix composites. Their effect on the microarc oxidation (MAO, also named plasma electrolytic oxidation-PEO) process of SiC{sub p}/AZ91 Mg matrix composites (MMCs) was studied and the mechanism was revealed. The corrosion resistance of MAO coating was also investigated. Voltage–time curves during MAO were recorded to study the barrier film status on the composites. Scanning electron microscopy was used to characterize the existing state of SiC particles in MAO. Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to analyze the chemical composition of the coating. Corrosion resistance of the bare and coated composites was evaluated by potentiodynamic polarization curves in 3.5% NaCl solution. Results showed that the integrality and electrical insulation properties of the barrier film on the composites were destroyed by the SiC particles. Consequently, the sparking discharge at the early stage of MAO was inhibited, and the growth efficiency of the MAO coating decreased with the increase in the volume fraction of SiC particles. SiC particles did not exist stably during MAO; they were oxidized or partially oxidized into SiO{sub 2} before the overall sparking discharge. The transformation from semi-conductive SiC to insulating SiO{sub 2} by oxidation restrained the current leakage at the original SiC positions and then promoted sparking discharge and coating growth. The corrosion current density of SiC{sub p}/AZ91 MMCs was reduced by two orders of magnitude after MAO treatment. However, the corrosion resistances of the coated composites were lower than that of the coated alloy.

  14. DLVO and XDLVO calculations for bacteriophage MS2 adhesion to iron oxide particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong-Ann; Kim, Song-Bae

    2015-10-01

    In this study, batch experiments were performed to examine the adhesion of bacteriophage MS2 to three iron oxide particles (IOP1, IOP2 and IOP3) with different particle properties. The characteristics of MS2 and iron oxides were analyzed using various techniques to construct the classical DLVO and XDLVO potential energy profiles between MS2 and iron oxides. X-ray diffractometry peaks indicated that IOP1 was mainly composed of maghemite (γ-Fe2O3), but also contained some goethite (α-FeOOH). IOP2 was composed of hematite (α-Fe2O3) and IOP3 was composed of iron (Fe), magnetite (Fe3O4) and iron oxide (FeO). Transmission electron microscope images showed that the primary particle size of IOP1 (γ-Fe2O3) was 12.3±4.1nm. IOP2 and IOP3 had primary particle sizes of 167±35nm and 484±192nm, respectively. A surface angle analyzer demonstrated that water contact angles of IOP1, IOP2, IOP3 and MS2 were 44.83, 64.00, 34.33 and 33.00°, respectively. A vibrating sample magnetometer showed that the magnetic saturations of IOP1, IOP2 and IOP3 were 176.87, 17.02 and 946.85kA/m, respectively. Surface potentials measured in artificial ground water (AGW; 0.075mM CaCl2, 0.082mM MgCl2, 0.051mM KCl, and 1.5mM NaHCO3; pH7.6) indicated that iron oxides and MS2 were negatively charged in AGW (IOP1=-0.0185V; IOP2=-0.0194V; IOP3=-0.0301V; MS2=-0.0245V). Batch experiments demonstrated that MS2 adhesion to iron oxides was favorable in the order of IOP1>IOP2>IOP3. This tendency was well predicted by the classical DLVO model. In the DLVO calculations, both the sphere-plate and sphere-sphere geometries predicted the same trend of MS2 adhesion to iron oxides. Additionally, noticeable differences were not found between the DLVO and XDLVO interaction energy profiles, indicating that hydrophobic interactions did not play a major role; electrostatic interactions, however, did influence MS2 adhesion to iron oxides. Furthermore, the aggregation of iron oxides was investigated with a modified XDLVO

  15. Accumulation of lipids and oxidatively damaged DNA in hepatocytes exposed to particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vesterdal, Lise K.; Danielsen, Pernille H.; Folkmann, Janne K.; Jespersen, Line F.; Aguilar-Pelaez, Karin; Roursgaard, Martin; Loft, Steffen; Møller, Peter, E-mail: pemo@sund.ku.dk

    2014-01-15

    Exposure to particles has been suggested to generate hepatosteatosis by oxidative stress mechanisms. We investigated lipid accumulation in cultured human hepatocytes (HepG2) and rat liver after exposure to four different carbon-based particles. HepG2 cells were exposed to particles for 3 h and subsequently incubated for another 18 h to manifest lipid accumulation. In an animal model of metabolic syndrome we investigated the association between intake of carbon black (CB, 14 nm) particles and hepatic lipid accumulation, inflammation and gene expression of Srebp-1, Fasn and Scd-1 involved in lipid synthesis. There was a concentration-dependent increase in intracellular lipid content after exposure to CB in HepG2 cells, which was only observed after co-exposure to oleic/palmitic acid. Similar results were observed in HepG2 cells after exposure to diesel exhaust particles, fullerenes C{sub 60} or pristine single-walled carbon nanotubes. All four types of particles also generated oxidatively damaged DNA, assessed as formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG) sensitive sites, in HepG2 cells after 3 h exposure. The animal model of metabolic syndrome showed increased lipid load in the liver after one oral exposure to 6.4 mg/kg of CB in lean Zucker rats. This was not associated with increased iNOS staining in the liver, indicating that the oral CB exposure was associated with hepatic steatosis rather than steatohepatitis. The lipid accumulation did not seem to be related to increased lipogenesis because there were unaltered gene expression levels in both the HepG2 cells and rat livers. Collectively, exposure to particles is associated with oxidative stress and steatosis in hepatocytes. - Highlights: • Oral exposure to nanosized carbon black was associated with hepatosteatosis in rats. • In vitro studies included carbon black, C{sub 60}, diesel exhaust particles and SWCNTs. • Exposure to particles and free fatty acids increased lipid load in HepG2 cells. • Unaltered

  16. Direct measurement of particle formation and growth from the oxidation of biogenic emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. VanReken

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A new facility has been developed to investigate the formation of new particles from the oxidation of volatile organic compounds emitted from vegetation. The facility consists of a biogenic emissions enclosure, an aerosol growth chamber, and the associated instrumentation. Using the facility, new particle formation events have been induced through the reaction of ozone with three different precursor gas mixtures: an α-pinene test mixture and the emissions of a Holm oak (Quercus ilex specimen and a loblolly pine (Pinus taeda specimen. The results demonstrate the variability between species in their potential to form new aerosol products. The emissions of Q. ilex specimen resulted in fewer particles than did α-pinene, although the concentration of monoterpenes was roughly equal in both experiments before the addition of ozone. Conversely, the oxidation of P. taeda specimen emissions led to the formation of more particles than either of the other two gas mixtures, despite a lower initial terpenoid concentration. These variations can be attributed to differences in the speciation of the vegetative emissions with respect to the α-pinene mixture and to each other. Specifically, the presence of β-pinene and other slower-reacting monoterpenes probably inhibited particle formation in the Q. ilex experiment, while the presence of sesquiterpenes, including β-caryophyllene, in the emissions of the P. taeda specimen were the likely cause of the more intense particle formation events observed during that experiment.

  17. Dynamic light scattering-based method to determine primary particle size of iron oxide nanoparticles in simulated gastrointestinal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Seung-Chul; Paik, Sae-Yeol-Rim; Ryu, Jina; Choi, Kyeong-Ok; Kang, Tae Seok; Lee, Jong Kwon; Song, Chi Won; Ko, Sanghoon

    2014-10-15

    Simple dynamic light scattering (DLS)-based methodologies were developed to determine primary particle size distribution of iron oxide particles in simulated gastrointestinal fluid. Iron oxide particles, which easily agglomerate in aqueous media, were converted into dispersed particles by modification of surface charge using citric acid and sodium citrate. After the modification, zeta-potential value decreased to -40mV at pH 7. Mean particle diameters in suspensions of iron oxide nano- and microparticles stabilized by the mixture of citric acid and sodium citrate were dramatically decreased to 166 and 358nm, respectively, which were close to the particle size distributions observed in the micrographs. In simulated gastrointestinal fluid, both iron oxide nano- and microparticles were heavily agglomerated with particle diameters of almost 2600 and 5200nm, respectively, due to charge shielding on the citrate-modified surface by ions in the media. For determining primary particle size distribution by using DLS-based approach, the iron oxide particles incubated in the simulated gastrointestinal fluid were converted to monodisperse particles by altering the pH to 7 and electrolyte elimination. The simple DLS-based methodologies are well suited to determine primary particle size distribution of mineral nanoparticles at various physical, chemical, and biological conditions.

  18. Iron oxide and iron carbide particles produced by the polyol method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Y., E-mail: yyasu@rs.kagu.tus.ac.jp; Shimizu, R. [Tokyo University of Science, Department of Chemistry (Japan); Kobayashi, Y. [The University of Electro-Communications, Graduate School of Informatics and Engineering (Japan)

    2016-12-15

    Iron oxide (γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and iron carbide (Fe{sub 3}C) particles were produced by the polyol method. Ferrocene, which was employed as an iron source, was decomposed in a mixture of 1,2-hexadecandiol, oleylamine, and 1-octadecene. Particles were characterized using Mössbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. It was found that oleylamine acted as a capping reagent, leading to uniform-sized (12-16 nm) particles consisting of γ-Fe {sub 2}O{sub 3}. On the other hand, 1-octadecene acted as a non-coordinating solvent and a carbon source, which led to particles consisting of Fe{sub 3}C and α-Fe with various sizes.

  19. Aerosol synthesis of nano and micro-scale zero valent metal particles from oxide precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, Jonathan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Luhrs, Claudia [UNM; Lesman, Zayd [UNM; Soliman, Haytham [UNM; Zea, Hugo [UNM

    2010-01-01

    In this work a novel aerosol method, derived form the batch Reduction/Expansion Synthesis (RES) method, for production of nano / micro-scale metal particles from oxides and hydroxides is presented. In the Aerosol-RES (A-RES) method, an aerosol, consisting of a physical mixture of urea and metal oxide or hydroxides, is passed through a heated oven (1000 C) with a residence time of the order of 1 second, producing pure (zero valent) metal particles. It appears that the process is flexible regarding metal or alloy identity, allows control of particle size and can be readily scaled to very large throughput. Current work is focused on creating nanoparticles of metal and metal alloy using this method. Although this is primarily a report on observations, some key elements of the chemistry are clear. In particular, the reducing species produced by urea decomposition are the primary agents responsible for reduction of oxides and hydroxides to metal. It is also likely that the rapid expansion that takes place when solid/liquid urea decomposes to form gas species influences the final morphology of the particles.

  20. Heterogeneous Oxidation of Atmospheric Organic Aerosol: Kinetics of Changes to the Amount and Oxidation State of Particle-Phase Organic Carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Jesse H; Lim, Christopher Y; Kessler, Sean H; Wilson, Kevin R

    2015-11-01

    Atmospheric oxidation reactions are known to affect the chemical composition of organic aerosol (OA) particles over timescales of several days, but the details of such oxidative aging reactions are poorly understood. In this study we examine the rates and products of a key class of aging reaction, the heterogeneous oxidation of particle-phase organic species by the gas-phase hydroxyl radical (OH). We compile and reanalyze a number of previous studies from our laboratories involving the oxidation of single-component organic particles. All kinetic and product data are described on a common basis, enabling a straightforward comparison among different chemical systems and experimental conditions. Oxidation chemistry is described in terms of changes to key ensemble properties of the OA, rather than to its detailed molecular composition, focusing on two quantities in particular, the amount and the oxidation state of the particle-phase carbon. Heterogeneous oxidation increases the oxidation state of particulate carbon, with the rate of increase determined by the detailed chemical mechanism. At the same time, the amount of particle-phase carbon decreases with oxidation, due to fragmentation (C-C scission) reactions that form small, volatile products that escape to the gas phase. In contrast to the oxidation state increase, the rate of carbon loss is nearly uniform among most systems studied. Extrapolation of these results to atmospheric conditions indicates that heterogeneous oxidation can have a substantial effect on the amount and composition of atmospheric OA over timescales of several days, a prediction that is broadly in line with available measurements of OA evolution over such long timescales. In particular, 3-13% of particle-phase carbon is lost to the gas phase after one week of heterogeneous oxidation. Our results indicate that oxidative aging represents an important sink for particulate organic carbon, and more generally that fragmentation reactions play a major

  1. Sulphation reactions of oxidic dust particles in waste heat boiler environment. Literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranki, T.

    1999-09-01

    Sulphation of metal oxides has an important role in many industrial processes. In different applications sulphation reactions have different aims and characteristics. In the flash smelting process sulphation of oxidic flue dust is a spontaneous and inevitable phenomena, which takes place in the waste heat boiler (WHB) when cooling down hot dust laden off-gases from sulphide smelters. Oxidic dust particles (size 0 - 50 {mu}m) react with O{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} or SO{sub 3} in a certain temperature range (500 - 800 deg C). Sulphation reactions are highly exothermic releasing large amount of heat, which affects the gas cooling and thermal performance of the boiler. Thermodynamics and kinetics of the system have to be known to improve the process and WHB operation. The rate of sulphation is affected by the prevailing conditions (temperature, gas composition) and particle size and microstructure (porosity, surface area). Some metal oxides (CuO) can react readily with SO{sub 2} and O{sub 2} and act as self-catalysts, but others (NiO) require the presence of an external catalyst to enhance the SO{sub 3} formation and sulphation to proceed. Some oxides (NiO) sulphate directly, some (CuO) may form first intermediate phases (basic sulphates) depending on the reaction conditions. Thus, the reaction mechanisms are very complex. The aim of this report was to search information about the factors affecting the dust sulphation reactions and suggested reaction mechanisms and kinetics. Many investigators have studied sulphation thermodynamics and reaction kinetics and mechanisms of macroscopical metal oxide pieces, but only few articles have been published about sulphation of microscopical particles, like dust. All the found microscale studies dealt with sulphation reactions of calcium oxide, which is not present in the flash smelting process, but used as an SO{sub 2} absorbent in the combustion processes. However, also these investigations may give some hints about the sulphation

  2. Contribution of sulfuric acid and oxidized organic compounds to particle formation and growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Riccobono

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Lack of knowledge about the mechanisms underlying new particle formation and their subsequent growth is one of the main causes for the large uncertainty in estimating the radiative forcing of atmospheric aerosols in global models. We performed chamber experiments designed to study the contributions of sulfuric acid and organic vapors to formation and to the early growth of nucleated particles, respectively. Distinct experiments in the presence of two different organic precursors (1,3,5-trimethylbenzene and α-pinene showed the ability of these compounds to reproduce the formation rates observed in the low troposphere. These results were obtained measuring the sulfuric acid concentrations with two Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometers confirming the results of a previous study which modeled the sulfuric acid concentrations in presence of 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene.

    New analysis methods were applied to the data collected with a Condensation Particle Counter battery and a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer, allowing the assessment of the size resolved growth rates of freshly nucleated particles. The effect of organic vapors on particle growth was investigated by means of the growth rate enhancement factor (Γ, defined as the ratio between the measured growth rate in the presence of α-pinene and the kinetically limited growth rate of the sulfuric acid and water system. The observed Γ values indicate that the growth is dominated by organic compounds already at particle diameters of 2 nm. Both the absolute growth rates and Γ showed a strong dependence on particle size supporting the nano-Köhler theory. Moreover, the separation of the contributions from sulfuric acid and organic compounds to particles growth reveals that the organic contribution seems to be enhanced by the sulfuric acid concentration. The size resolved growth analysis finally indicates that both condensation of oxidized organic compounds and reactive uptake contribute to

  3. Contribution of sulfuric acid and oxidized organic compounds to particle formation and growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Riccobono

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Lack of knowledge about the mechanisms underlying new particle formation and their subsequent growth is one of the main causes for the large uncertainty in estimating the radiative forcing of atmospheric aerosols in global models. We performed chamber experiments designed to study the contributions of sulfuric acid and organic vapors to the formation and early growth of nucleated particles. Distinct experiments in the presence of two different organic precursors (1,3,5-trimethylbenzene and α-pinene showed the ability of these compounds to reproduce the formation rates observed in the low troposphere. These results were obtained measuring the sulfuric acid concentrations with two chemical ionization mass spectrometers confirming the results of a previous study which modeled the sulfuric acid concentrations in presence of 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene.

    New analysis methods were applied to the data collected with a condensation particle counter battery and a scanning mobility particle sizer, allowing the assessment of the size resolved growth rates of freshly nucleated particles. The effect of organic vapors on particle growth was investigated by means of the growth rate enhancement factor (Γ, defined as the ratio between the measured growth rate in the presence of α-pinene and the kinetically limited growth rate of the sulfuric acid and water system. The observed Γ values indicate that the growth is already dominated by organic compounds at particle diameters of 2 nm. Both the absolute growth rates and Γ showed a strong dependence on particle size, supporting the nano-Köhler theory. Moreover, the separation of the contributions from sulfuric acid and organic compounds to particle growth reveals that the organic contribution seems to be enhanced by the sulfuric acid concentration. Finally, the size resolved growth analysis indicates that both condensation of oxidized organic compounds and reactive uptake contribute to particle growth.

  4. Synthesis of MoVTeNb Oxide Catalysts with Tunable Particle Dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolenko, Yury V.; Zhang, Wei; d'Alnoncourt, Raoul Naumann

    2011-01-01

    was successfully prepared on a gram scale by using a hydrothermal-based route, purification of biphasic M1-M2 (M2 phase - ICSD 55098) oxide systems, and an innovative approach utilizing a superheated water vapor treatment of calcined precursors. The influence of the preparation technique on the particle morphology...... catalysts were studied in the selective oxidation of propane to acrylic acid, revealing that active sites appear on the entire M1 surface and illustrating the high sensitivity of catalyst performance on the catalyst synthesis method....

  5. Killer smog of London, 50 years on. Particle properties and oxidative capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittaker, Andy; BeruBe, Kelly; Richards, Roy [School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF10 3US, Wales (United Kingdom); Jones, Tim [Department of Earth Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF10 3US, Wales (United Kingdom); Maynard, Robert [Department of Health, Skipton House, 80, London Road, London SE (United Kingdom)

    2004-12-01

    Total suspended particulate (TSP) samples collected on glass fibre filters in London before (1955) and after (1958-1974) the Clean Air Act was examined for physicochemical characteristics and oxidative capacity. High-resolution microscopy identified most of the material as soot with smelter spheres, fly ash (FA), sodium chloride and calcium sulphate particles. Image analysis (IA) was used to show that most of the soot aggregates were less than 1 {mu}m in size and contained chains of individual particles of 10-50 nm. Speed mapping of large agglomerates of the historic particles confirmed that the samples were enriched with soot probably derived from a sulphur-rich coal called nutty slack which was used extensively at this time. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to examine elemental composition. Meaningful quantitation of certain elements (Mg, Al and Zn) proved impossible because they were in high quantities in the glass fibre filters. However, high quantities of Fe>Pb>Cu>Mn>V>As were detected which may explain in part the bioreactivity of the samples. Using a simple in vitro test of oxidative capacity (plasmid assay), one historic particulate sample (1958) showed three times the activity of a modern-day diesel exhaust particle (DEP) sample but ten times less activity than a modern-day urban ambient particle collection. Such studies are continuing to link particle physicochemical properties and bioreactivity with a wider range of the samples collected between 1955 and 74 and how such historic samples compare with present-day London ambient particles.

  6. Internal noise stochastic resonance in CO oxidation on nm-sized palladium particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Yubing; HOU Zhonghuai; XIN Houwen

    2005-01-01

    Based on a stochastic mesoscopic model, the influence of internal noise on the oscillatory kinetics of the catalytic oxidation of CO on nm-sized palladium particles is studied, using the chemical Langevin equations, Poisson approximation algorithm, and exact stochastic simulation algorithm. The reaction rate oscillations are of stochastic nature due to considerable internal noise in such mesoscopic systems. It is found that the performance of the stochastic oscillations undergoes a maximum with the variation of internal noise level for a given CO partial pressure, which demonstrates the occurrence of internal noise stochastic resonance. This phenomenon implies that optimal internal noise would favor the reaction rate oscillation of CO oxidation on nm particles. Such a phenomenon is robust to the change of external parameters, such as CO pressures.

  7. [XRD, FTIR and XPS analysis of oxidized particles from Dongshengmiao pyrite-polymetallic sulfide deposit, inner Mongolia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xue-Ling; Cao, Jian-Jin; Xie, Fang-Yan; Yang, Xiao-Jie; Yan, Hong-Bin; Lai, Pei-Xin; Wang, Zheng-Hai; Zeng, Jian-Nian

    2013-01-01

    In the present paper, characteristics of material compositions, phase structures, surface element states, and transformation mechanism of oxidized particles from Dongshengmiao pyrite-polymetallic sulfide deposit were studied using modern analytical testing technology including XRD, FTIR and XPS. The results show that the samples consist of gypsum, calcite, quartz, muscovite, goethite, organic matter, etc. Primary ore in deep oxidation zone mainly under went such processes as oxidization, hydrolysis, dehydration and carbonation. Compared to the surface oxidation zone of arid and extremely arid regions in the northwestern China, the oxidation process and oxidizing condition of the deep oxidation zone were less complex. New mineral type was also not found, and extensively developed sulfate minerals were rare to be seen. The research results can not only be applied to mineral identification of oxidized particles from this type of ore deposit but also play an important role in ore exploration, mining, mineral processing, etc.

  8. Evaluating the Microshear Bond Strength and Microleakage of Flowable Composites Containing Zinc Oxide Nano-particles

    OpenAIRE

    Teymoornezhad, Koorosh; Alaghehmand, Homayoun; Daryakenari, Ghazaleh; Khafri, Soraya; Tabari, Mitra

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Preventive resin restorations (PRR) are the conservative choice for the most common carious lesions in children. Thus, new age flowable resin composites with higher filler content are readily used. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microshear bond strength and microleakage of two flowable resin composites containing different percentages of nano zinc oxide (NZnO) particles, which have proven to have antimicrobial properties. Methods This experimental in-vitro study was ca...

  9. FIB-SEM investigation of trapped intermetallic particles in anodic oxide films on AA1050 aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jariyaboon, Manthana; Møller, Per; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    2011-01-01

    -containing intermetallic particles incorporated into the anodic oxide films on industrially pure aluminium (AA1050, 99.5 per cent) has been investigated. AA1050 aluminium was anodized in a 100?ml/l sulphuric acid bath with an applied voltage of 14?V at 20°C ±2°C for 10 or 120?min. The anodic film subsequently was analyzed...

  10. Investigation on Tc tuned nano particles of magnetic oxides for hyperthermia applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Jyotsnendu; Ray, Amlan; Dasgupta, S; Datta, D; Bahadur, D

    2003-01-01

    Superparamagnetic as well as fine ferrimagnetic particles such as Fe3O4, have been extensively used in magnetic field induced localized hyperthermia for the treatment of cancer. The magnetic materials with Curie temperature (Tc) between 42 and 50 degrees C, with sufficient biocompatibility are the best candidates for effective treatment such that during therapy it acts as in vivo temperature control switch and thus over heating could be avoided. Ultrafine particles of substituted ferrite Co(1-a)Zn(a)Fe2O4 and substituted yttrium-iron garnet Y3Fe(5-x)Al(x)O12 have been prepared through microwave refluxing and citrate-gel route respectively. Single-phase compounds were obtained with particle size below 100 nm. In order to make these magnetic nano particles biocompatible, we have attempted to coat these above said composition by alumina. The coating of alumina was done by hydrolysis method. The coating of hydrous aluminium oxide has been done over the magnetic particles by aging the preformed solid particles in the solution of aluminium sulfate and formamide at elevated temperatures. In vitro study is carried out to verify the innocuousness of coated materials towards cells. In vitro biocompatibility study has been carried out by cell culture method for a period of three days using human WBC cell lines. Study of cell counts and SEM images indicates the cells viability/growth. The in vitro experiments show that the coated materials are biocompatible.

  11. Facile fabrication of graphene oxide-wrapped alumina particles and their electrorheological characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, W.L. [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Inha University, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, H.J., E-mail: hjchoi@inha.ac.kr [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Inha University, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Leong, Y.K. [School of Mechanical and Chemical Engineering, The University of Western Australia, Crawley 6009 (Australia)

    2014-05-01

    Graphene oxide wrapped alumina (GO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) composites were synthesized by a facile titration method using Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} colloid as a titrant. The positively-charged Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles were prepared by adjusting the pH, followed by wrapping with negative GO particles via electrostatic attractions. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy confirmed that the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles were wrapped completely with homogeneous GO sheets, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy provided evidence of the coexistence of GO and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the composites. The resulting GO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites exhibited electrorheological (ER) properties when dispersed in silicone oil, highlighting the potential engineering applications for GO/metal oxide systems. - Highlights: • GO wrapped alumina composites are synthesized via a facile titration method. • Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} colloid acts as a titrant, being prepared by adjusting the pH value. • Negative GO wrapped on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles assembly via an electrostatic attraction. • GO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites reveal electrorheological characteristics under electric field.

  12. A direct comparison of nanosilver particles and nanosilver plates for the oxidation of ascorbic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Babak; Meskinfam, Masoumeh

    2012-11-01

    We study of spherical silver nanoparticles of different size and Ag nanoplates were grown at zinc tin oxide (ZTO) surface and characterized using SEM. The application of different electrodes in voltammetry for determination ascorbic acid indicated that oxidation of this biomolecule occurs at these electrodes in diffusion controlled process. Ag nanoplates modified zinc tin oxide electrodes exhibit at least two to three times higher current than spherical nanosilver particles. The observed behavior suggests that Ag nanoplates exhibit higher electrocatalytic activity than spherical silver nanoparticles. The reason for such behavior may be due to lattice plane as well as due to more available surface edges. As dimensions of nanoplates are increased surface area in the case of nanoplates also appears to play a significant role.

  13. New particle formation from the oxidation of direct emissions of pine seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Q. Hao

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of particle formation following the gas phase oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs emitted by Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. seedlings are reported. Particle nucleation and condensational growth both from ozone (O3 and hydroxyl radical (OH initiated oxidation of pine emissions (about 20–120 ppb were investigated in a~smog chamber. During experiments, tetramethylethylene (TME and 2-butanol were added to control the concentrations of O3 and OH. Particle nucleation and condensational growth rates were interpreted with a chemical kinetics model. Scots pine emissions mainly included α-pinene, β-pinene, Δ3-carene, limonene, myrcene, β-phellandrene and isoprene, composing more than 95% of total emissions. Modeled OH concentration in the O3+OH induced experiments was at a level of ~106 molecular cm−3. Our results demonstrate that OH-initiated oxidation of VOCs plays an important role in the nucleation process during the initial new particle formation stage. The highest average nucleation rate of 360 cm−3 s−1 was observed for the OH-dominated nucleation events and the lowest aerosol mean formation rate less than 0.5 cm−3 s−1 for the case with only O3 present as an oxidant. On the other hand, ozonolysis of monoterpenes appears to be much more efficient to the aerosol growth process following nucleation. Higher contributions of more oxygenated products to the SOA mass loadings from OH-dominating oxidation systems were found as compared to the ozonolysis systems. Comparison of mass and volume distributions from the aerosol mass spectrometer and differential mobility analyzer yields estimated effective density of these SOA to be 1.34±0.06 g cm−3 with the OH plus O3 initiated oxidation systems and 1.38±0.03 g cm−3 with the ozonolysis dominated chemistry.

  14. Microstructure and Oxidation Behaviors of Nano-particles Strengthened NiCoCrAlY Cladded Coatings on Superalloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hongyu; ZUO Dunwen; CHEN Xinfeng; YU Shouxin; GU Yuanzhi

    2010-01-01

    Nano-particles which can largely improve the microstructure and oxidation resistance of materials are often used as a strengthening component in metal matrix composites. However, few studies were reported on its application in the bond coat of duplex structure thermal barrier coating(TBC). Three kinds of NiCoCrAlY coatings strengthened by different nano-particles with the same addition (1%, mass fraction) were prepared by the laser cladding technique on Ni-based superalloy substrates, aiming to study the effects of the nano-particles on microstructure and oxidation resistance of NiCoCrAlY coatings (the bond coat of the duplex structure thermal barrier coatings). Scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffractometer(XRD) and thermogravimetry were employed to investigate their morphologies, phases and cyclic oxidation behaviors in atmosphere at 1 050℃, compared with the coating without nano-particles. With the addition of nano-particles, the growth pattern of the grains at the interface changed from epitaxial growth to non-epitaxial growth or part-epitaxial growth; slender dendrites were broken and cellularized; cracks and pores were restrained; and the oxidation weight-gain and the stripping resistance of the oxide scale were improved as well. Among the three kinds of nano-particles, the SiC nano-particles showed the most improvement on microstructure, while the CeO2 nano-particles were insufficient, but its effects on the oxidation resistance are the same as those of the SiC nano-particles. Based on the discussions of the influence mechanism, it is believed that CeO2 nano-particles would show better improvement than SiC nano-particles if the proper amount is added and the proper preparation technique of micro-nanometer composite powders is adopted, with the synergistic action of nanometer effect and reactive element effect.

  15. Formation and stability of small well-defined Cu- and Ni oxide particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thalinger, Ramona [Institute of Physical Chemistry, University of Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Heggen, Marc; Stroppa, Daniel G. [Ernst Ruska Zentrum und Peter Grünberg Institut, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Stöger-Pollach, Michael [University Service Facility for Transmission Electron Microscopy (USTEM), Vienna University of Technology, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Klötzer, Bernhard [Institute of Physical Chemistry, University of Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Penner, Simon, E-mail: simon.penner@uibk.ac.at [Institute of Physical Chemistry, University of Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    2013-12-16

    Well-defined and -structured Cu/Cu{sub 2}O and Ni/NiO composite nanoparticles have been prepared by physical-vapor deposition on vacuum-cleaved NaCl(001) single crystal facets. Epitaxial growth has been observed due to the close crystallographic matching of the respective cubic crystal lattices. Distinct particle morphologies have only been obtained for the Ni/NiO particles, comprising truncated half-octahedral, rhombohedral- and pentagonal-shaped outlines. Oxidation of the particles in the temperature range 473–673 K in both cases led to the formation of well-defined CuO and NiO particles with distinct morphologies. Whereas CuO possibly adopts its thermodynamical equilibrium shape, NiO formation is accompanied by entering a Kirkendall-like state, that is, a hollow core–shell structure is obtained. The difference in the formation of the oxides is also reflected by their stability under reducing conditions. CuO transforms back to a polycrystalline mixture of Cu metal, Cu{sub 2}O and CuO after reduction in hydrogen at 673 K. In contrast, as expected from theoretical stability considerations, the formation of the hollow NiO structure is reversed upon annealing in hydrogen at 673 K and moreover results in the formation of a Ni-rich silicide structure Ni{sub 3}Si{sub 2}. The discussed systems present a convenient way to tackle and investigate various problems in nanotechnology or catalysis, including phase transformations, establishing structure/activity relationships or monitoring intermetallic particles, starting from well-defined and simple models. - Highlights: • Preparation of epitaxial Cu/Cu{sub 2}O and Ni/NiO composite nanoparticles on NaCl(001). • Distinct Ni/NiO particle morphologies. • Formation of well-shaped CuO and NiO particles upon oxidation. • Reversal of Kirkendall-NiO-state upon reduction/annealing in hydrogen.

  16. The influence of particle size on the kinetics of UO 2 oxidation in aqueous powder suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Olivia; Bönnemark, Tobias; Jonsson, Mats

    2006-07-01

    Previous studies have indicated that the rate of a heterogeneous liquid-solid reaction depends on the size of the solid particles. It has been suggested that both the pre-exponential factor and the activation energy depend on the particle size. The processes involved in dissolution of UO 2 have been extensively studied because of their importance for the safety analysis of a future deep repository for spent nuclear fuel and in many of these studies powder suspensions of UO 2 are used as a model system. Therefore, it is of importance to investigate and quantify the particle size effect on the kinetics of UO 2 oxidation in order to enable comparison of data from studies on different solid substrates. In this work the influence of particle size on the second order rate constant and on the activation energy of the reaction between MnO4- and UO 2 was studied using aqueous UO 2-particle suspensions of four different size distributions. A comparative study of the activation energy for the reaction using a UO 2 pellet was also performed.

  17. Preparation and characterization of silica coated iron oxide magnetic nano-particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying-Sing; Church, Jeffrey S.; Woodhead, Andrea L.; Moussa, Filsun

    2010-09-01

    Iron oxide magnetic nano-particles have been prepared by precipitation in an aqueous solution of iron(II) and iron(III) chlorides under basic condition. Surface modifications have been carried out by using tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS). The uncoated and coated particles have been characterized with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), and infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopy. The particle sizes as measured from TEM images were found to have mean diameters of 13 nm for the uncoated and about 19 nm for the coated particles. The measured IR spectra of the uncoated and MPTMS coated particles showed the conversion of magnetite to hematite at high temperature. The results obtained from both IR spectroscopy and TGA revealed that the mercaptopropylsilyl group in the MPTMS coated magnetite decomposed at 600 °C and the silica layer of the TEOS coated magnetite was rather stable. Raman spectroscopy has shown the laser heating effect through the conversion of magnetite to maghemite and hematite.

  18. [Catalytic degradation of PCB77 by microwave-induced nano-particle metal oxides in diatomite].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guan-yi; Zhao, Ling; Dong, Yuan-hua

    2009-08-15

    The degradation of PCB77 in diatomite by microwave-induced catalytic oxidation was studied in a sealed vial, including four effects such as microwave (MV) radiating time, addition of different nano-particle metal oxides, concentration and type of acids and dosage of MnO2. The results indicated that PCB77 could be removed significantly by microwave-induced catalytic oxidation. Compared to control reactor (without MV radiation), the removal rate of PCB77 increased by twice after 1 min. In addition, the removal rate of PCB77 under MV radiation was gradually increased with time of radiation and then reached equilibrium after 10 min. The removal rates are about 50% and 20% by addition of H2SO4 and ultrapure water respectively. No significant removal was observed by addition of NaOH and without aqueous media. Moreover, catalytic degradation of PCB77 by microwave-induced nano-particle MnO2 had best removal rate was up to 90% after 1 min, in contrast with addition of nano-particle Fe2O3, CuO and Al2O3. The removal rate raised from 37.0% to 98.5% rapidly with the concentration of H2SO4 ranged from 1 mol/L to 8 mol/L, and H2SO4 mainly played a role of acidification but not oxidation. The addition of 0.01, 0.03 and 0.05 g MnO2 showed the similar result.

  19. Particle emissions from microalgae biodiesel combustion and their relative oxidative potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M M; Stevanovic, S; Islam, M A; Heimann, K; Nabi, M N; Thomas, G; Feng, B; Brown, R J; Ristovski, Z D

    2015-09-01

    Microalgae are considered to be one of the most viable biodiesel feedstocks for the future due to their potential for providing economical, sustainable and cleaner alternatives to petroleum diesel. This study investigated the particle emissions from a commercially cultured microalgae and higher plant biodiesels at different blending ratios. With a high amount of long carbon chain lengths fatty acid methyl esters (C20 to C22), the microalgal biodiesel used had a vastly different average carbon chain length and level of unsaturation to conventional biodiesel, which significantly influenced particle emissions. Smaller blend percentages showed a larger reduction in particle emission than blend percentages of over 20%. This was due to the formation of a significant nucleation mode for the higher blends. In addition measurements of reactive oxygen species (ROS), showed that the oxidative potential of particles emitted from the microalgal biodiesel combustion were lower than that of regular diesel. Biodiesel oxygen content was less effective in suppressing particle emissions for biodiesels containing a high amount of polyunsaturated C20-C22 fatty acid methyl esters and generated significantly increased nucleation mode particle emissions. The observed increase in nucleation mode particle emission is postulated to be caused by very low volatility, high boiling point and high density, viscosity and surface tension of the microalgal biodiesel tested here. Therefore, in order to achieve similar PM (particulate matter) emission benefits for microalgal biodiesel likewise to conventional biodiesel, fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) with high amounts of polyunsaturated long-chain fatty acids (≥C20) may not be desirable in microalgal biodiesel composition.

  20. Pulmonary toxicity of indium-tin oxide production facility particles in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badding, Melissa A.; Fix, Natalie R.; Orandle, Marlene S.; Barger, Mark W.; Dunnick, Katherine M.; Cummings, Kristin J.; Leonard, Stephen S.

    2016-01-01

    Indium-tin oxide (ITO) is used to make transparent conductive coatings for touch-screen and liquid crystal display electronics. Occupational exposures to potentially toxic particles generated during ITO production have increased in recent years as the demand for consumer electronics continues to rise. Previous studies have demonstrated cytotoxicity in vitro and animal models have shown pulmonary inflammation and injury in response to various indium-containing particles. In humans, pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) and fibrotic interstitial lung disease have been observed in ITO facility workers. However, which indium materials or specific processes in the workplace may be the most toxic to workers is unknown. Here we examined the pulmonary toxicity of three different particle samples that represent real-life worker exposures, as they were collected at various production stages throughout an ITO facility. Indium oxide (In2O3), sintered ITO (SITO) and ventilation dust (VD) particles each caused pulmonary inflammation and damage in rats over a time course (1, 7 and 90 days post-intratracheal instillation), but SITO and VD appeared to induce greater toxicity in rat lungs than In2O3 at a dose of 1 mg per rat. Downstream pathological changes such as PAP and fibrosis were observed in response to all three particles 90 days after treatment, with a trend towards greatest severity in animals exposed to VD when comparing animals that received the same dose. These findings may inform workplace exposure reduction efforts and provide a better understanding of the pathogenesis of an emerging occupational health issue. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. PMID:26472246

  1. Oxidation of a coal particle in flow of a supercritical aqueous fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vostrikov, A.A.; Dubov, D.Y.; Psarov, S.A.; Sokol, M.Y. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation). Kutateladze Instititue for Thermophysics

    2008-03-15

    A study was made of the conversion of single spherical coal particles of diameter 1-5 mm in a supercritical H{sub 2}O/O{sub 2} fluid with an oxygen mass fraction of 0-6.6% in a semibatch reactor at a pressure of 30 MPa and a temperature of 673-1023 K. A decrease in the particle mass was observed in two parallel processes: gasification of coal with water and oxidation of coal with oxygen. An activation energy 19 {+-} 7 kJ/mole and a pre-exponential factor 10{sup -2}{+-} 0.4 sec{sup -1} were obtained under the assumption of zero order for the concentration H{sub 2}O and an Arrhenius dependence for the rate of gasification with water. The oxidation with oxygen at a temperature above 780 K was found to be limited by the rate of O{sub 2} diffusion to the coal organic matter. Below 780 K, the rate of heterogeneous oxidation with oxygen is described by a first-order reaction for the concentration of O{sub 2} and a zero-order reaction for the concentration of H{sub 2}O with an activation energy of 150 {+-} 27 kJ/mole and a pre-exponential factor of 10{sup 7.6}{+-} 1.9 cm{sup 3}/(g . sec).

  2. Size Resolved High Temperature Oxidation Kinetics of Nano-Sized Titanium and Zirconium Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Yichen; Jacob, Rohit J; Li, Shuiqing; Zachariah, Michael R

    2015-06-18

    While ultrafine metal particles offer the possibility of very high energy density fuels, there is considerable uncertainty in the mechanism by which metal nanoparticles burn, and few studies that have examined the size dependence to their kinetics at the nanoscale. In this work we quantify the size dependence to the burning rate of titanium and zirconium nanoparticles. Nanoparticles in the range of 20-150 nm were produced via pulsed laser ablation, and then in-flight size-selected using differential electrical mobility. The size-selected oxide free metal particles were directly injected into the post flame region of a laminar flame to create a high temperature (1700-2500 K) oxidizing environment. The reaction was monitored using high-speed videography by tracking the emission from individual nanoparticles. We find that sintering occurs prior to significant reaction, and that once sintering is accounted for, the rate of combustion follows a near nearly (diameter)(1) power-law dependence. Additionally, Arrhenius parameters for the combustion of these nanoparticles were evaluated by measuring the burn times at different ambient temperatures. The optical emission from combustion was also used to model the oxidation process, which we find can be reasonably described with a kinetically controlled shrinking core model.

  3. Preparation and characterization of hydroxyapatite-coated iron oxide particles by spray-drying technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    karina Donadel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic particles of iron oxide have been increasingly used in medical diagnosis by magnetic resonance imaging and in cancer therapies involving targeted drug delivery and magnetic hyperthermia. In this study we report the preparation and characterization of iron oxide particles coated with bioceramic hydroxyapatite by spray-drying. The iron oxide magnetic particles (IOMP were coated with hydroxyapatite (HAp by spray-drying using two IOMP/HAp ratios (0.7 and 3.2. The magnetic particles were characterized by way of scanning electronic microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, flame atomic absorption spectrometry,vibrating sample magnetometry and particle size distribution (laser diffraction. The surface morphology of the coated samples is different from that of the iron oxide due to formation of hydroxyapatite coating. From an EDX analysis, it was verified that the surface of the coated magnetic particles is composed only of HAp, while the interior containsiron oxide and a few layers of HAp as expected. The results showed that spray-drying technique is an efficient and relatively inexpensive method for forming spherical particles with a core/shell structure.As partículas de óxido de ferro têm sido extensivamente usadas em diagnósticos médicos como agente de contraste para imagem por ressonância magnética e na terapia do câncer, dentre estas, liberação de fármacos em sitos alvos e hipertermia magnética. Neste estudo nós reportamos a preparação e caracterização de partículas magnéticas de óxido de ferro revestidas com a biocerâmica hidroxiapatita. As partículas magnéticasde óxido de ferro (PMOF foram revestidas com hidroxiapatita por spray-drying usando duas razões PMOF/HAp (0,7 e 3,2. As partículas magnéticas foram caracterizadas por microscopia eletrônica de varredura, energia dispersiva de raios X, difração de raios X, espectroscopia de absorção no infra

  4. Particle size control of Pd/C for improved electrocatalytic activity in a formic acid oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Seunghee; Kim, In; Bong, Sungyool; Lee, Jaeyoung; Kim, Hasuck

    2011-08-01

    Carbon-supported Pd electrocatalyst is prepared by an improved aqueous impregnation method applying a reducing agent of HCHO and an acidic sedimentation promoter of HCl. We investigate the effect of a solution pH on the zeta potential of both Pd particles and carbon support. The opposite sign of zeta potential results in uniform dispersion of Pd on carbon surface without aggregation problem. TEM analysis shows that optimal solution pH of 4.27 adjusted by NaOH provides a mean particle diameter of 3.2 nm with narrow size distribution. Cyclic voltammograms indicate that home-made Pd/C catalyst exhibits significantly higher electrochemical active surface area and better stability compared with commercial 40 wt.% Pd/C in a formic acid oxidation.

  5. Influence of carbon black and indium tin oxide absorber particles on laser transmission welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aden, Mirko; Mamuschkin, Viktor; Olowinsky, Alexander

    2015-06-01

    For laser transmission welding of polypropylene carbon black and indium tin oxide (ITO) are used as absorber particles. Additionally, the colorant titanium dioxide is mixed to the absorbing part, while the transparent part is kept in natural state. The absorption coefficients of ITO and carbon black particles are obtained, as well as the scattering properties of polypropylene loaded with titanium dioxide (TiO2). At similar concentrations the absorption coefficient of ITO is an order of magnitude smaller than that of carbon black. Simulations of radiation propagation show that the penetration depth of laser light is smaller for carbon black. Therefore, the density of the released heat is higher. Adding TiO2 changes the distribution of heat in case of ITO, whereas for carbon black the effect is negligible. Thermal simulations reveal the influence of the two absorbers and TiO2 on the heat affected zone. The results of the thermal simulations are compared to tensile test results.

  6. Particle Surface Softening as Universal Behaviour during Flash Sintering of Oxide Nano-Powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachman Chaim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The dissipated electric power in oxide powder compacts, subjected to flash sintering, is several hundreds of W·cm−3. This power is analyzed considering local softening/melting and transient plasma/liquid formation at the particle contacts due to thermal runaway. The sudden increase in compact electric conductivity and dissipated power referred to current percolation through the softening/liquid formed at the particle contacts, at the percolation threshold. The energy-balance and heat transfer considerations during the transient flash event are consistent with the local heating of the nanoparticle contacts to the ceramic melting temperature, or above it. The formation of the plasma by field emission of electrons is also considered.

  7. Structural effects on the oxidation of soot particles by O2: Experimental and theoretical study

    KAUST Repository

    Raj, Abhijeet

    2013-09-01

    Soot particles are composed of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which have either planar or curved structures. The oxidation behaviors of soot particles differ depending on their structures, arrangement of PAHs, and the type of surface functional groups. The oxidation rate of curved PAHs in soot is thought to be higher than that of planar ones. To understand the role that PAH structure plays in soot reactivity towards O2, experimental studies are conducted on two types of commercially produced soot, Printex-U and Fullerene soot, using high resolution transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, thermo-gravimetric analysis and elemental analysis. The relative concentrations of active sites, oxygenated functional groups, aliphatics and aromatics present in soots are evaluated. The activation energies for soot oxidation at different conversion levels are determined. The average activation energies of the two soots are found to differ by 26kJ/mol. To understand the reason for this difference, quantum calculations using density functional (B3LYP) and Hartree-Fock theories are conducted to study the reaction pathways of the oxidation by O2 of planar and curved PAHs using 4-pyrenyl and 1-corannulenyl as their model molecules, respectively. The energetically preferred channels for curved PAH oxidation differ from the planar one. The addition of O2 on a radical site of a six-membered ring to form a peroxyl radical is found to be barrierless for both the model PAHs. For peroxyl decomposition, three pathways are suggested, each of which involve the activation energies of 108, 170 and 121kJ/mol to form stable molecules in the case of planar PAH, and 94, 155 and 125kJ/mol in the case of curved PAH. During the oxidation of a five-membered ring, to form stable molecules, the activation energies of 90kJ/mol for the curved PAH and 169kJ/mol for the planar PAH relative to the energy of the peroxyl radical are required. The low activation barriers of

  8. Process R&D for Particle Size Control of Molybdenum Oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, Sujat [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dzwiniel, Trevor [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Pupek, Krzysztof [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Krumdick, Gregory [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Tkac, Peter [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vandegrift, George F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The primary goal of this study was to produce MoO3 powder with a particle size range of 50 to 200 μm for use in targets for production of the medical isotope 99Mo. Molybdenum metal powder is commercially produced by thermal reduction of oxides in a hydrogen atmosphere. The most common source material is MoO3, which is derived by the thermal decomposition of ammonium heptamolybdate (AHM). However, the particle size of the currently produced MoO3 is too small, resulting in Mo powder that is too fine to properly sinter and press into the desired target. In this study, effects of heating rate, heating temperature, gas type, gas flow rate, and isothermal heating were investigated for the decomposition of AHM. The main conclusions were as follows: lower heating rate (2-10°C/min) minimizes breakdown of aggregates, recrystallized samples with millimeter-sized aggregates are resistant to various heat treatments, extended isothermal heating at >600°C leads to significant sintering, and inert gas and high gas flow rate (up to 2000 ml/min) did not significantly affect particle size distribution or composition. In addition, attempts to recover AHM from an aqueous solution by several methods (spray drying, precipitation, and low temperature crystallization) failed to achieve the desired particle size range of 50 to 200 μm. Further studies are planned.

  9. From oleic acid-capped iron oxide nanoparticles to polyethyleneimine-coated single-particle magnetofectins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Acuña, Melissa; Maldonado-Camargo, Lorena; Dobson, Jon; Rinaldi, Carlos

    2016-09-01

    Various inorganic nanoparticle designs have been developed and used as non-viral gene carriers. Magnetic gene carriers containing polyethyleneimine (PEI), a well-known transfection agent, have been shown to improve DNA transfection speed and efficiency in the presence of applied magnetic field gradients that promote particle-cell interactions. Here we report a method to prepare iron oxide nanoparticles conjugated with PEI that: preserves the narrow size distribution of the nanoparticles, conserves magnetic properties throughout the process, and results in efficient transfection. We demonstrate the ability of the particles to electrostatically bind with DNA and transfect human cervical cancer (HeLa) cells by the use of an oscillating magnet array. Their transfection efficiency is similar to that of Lipofectamine 2000™, a commercial transfection reagent. PEI-coated particles were subjected to acidification, and acidification in the presence of salts, before DNA binding. Results show that although these pre-treatments did not affect the ability of particles to bind DNA they did significantly enhanced transfection efficiency. Finally, we show that these magnetofectins (PEI-MNP/DNA) complexes have no effect on the viability of cells at the concentrations used in the study. The systematic preparation of magnetic vectors with uniform physical and magnetic properties is critical to progressing this non-viral transfection technology.

  10. Silica-graphene oxide hybrid composite particles and their electroresponsive characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen Ling; Choi, Hyoung Jin

    2012-05-01

    Silica-graphene oxide (Si-GO) hybrid composite particles were prepared by the hydrolysis of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) in the presence of hydrophilic GO obtained from a modified Hummers method. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images provided visible evidence of the silica nanoparticles grafted on the surface of GO, resulting in Si-GO hybrid composite particles. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra indicated the coexistence of silica and GO in the composite particles. The Si-GO hybrid composite particles showed better thermal stability than that of GO according to thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The electrorheological (ER) characteristics of the Si-GO hybrid composite based ER fluid were examined further by optical microscopy and a rotational rheometer in controlled shear rate mode under various electric field strengths. Shear stress curves were fitted using both conventional Bingham model and a constitutive Cho-Choi-Jhon model. The polarizability and relaxation time of the ER fluid from dielectric spectra measured using an LCR meter showed a good correlation with its ER characteristics.

  11. Interfacial reaction between the oxidized SiC particles and Al-Mg alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The interfacial reactions of oxidized SiC particles reinforced Al-Mg matrix composites were investigated by the field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE- SEM), TEM and X-ray diffraction. It was found that the nanoscale MgO forms initially due to the interfacial reaction, then whether it reacts with molten Al continuously or not depends on the content of Mg in the matrix and its covering densification at the surface of particles. When there is not enough Mg in the matrix for the formation of dense MgO layer, MgO will transform into MgAl2O4 crystal owing to the continuous reaction with SiO2 and molten Al. When dense MgO layer forms at the surface of the particles due to the affluence of Mg for the initial reaction, it will protect the inner SiC from the attack of molten Al. However, the reaction products of both MgO and MgAl2O4 are thermo-stable phases at the surface of the particles under high temperature. The results clarify the interfacial reaction route and they are of great value to the control of the interfacial reactions and their interfacial design of the composites.

  12. Electro-oxidation of methanol at the different carbon materials supported Pt nano-particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yu.; Zhang, Guojie; Zhou, Yiming; Tang, Yawen; Lu, Tianhong [The Laboratory of Electrochemistry, College of Chemistry and Material Science, Nanjing Normal University, 1 Wenyuan Road, Nanjing 210046 (China); Ma, Juan [Institute of Electrochemical Power Sources, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China)

    2010-10-15

    Single-wall carbon nano-tubes (SWNTs), multi-wall carbon nano-tubes (MWNTs) and Vulcan XC-72 carbon (XC-72) are used as supporting carbon materials to prepare Pt/XC-72, Pt/SWNTs and Pt/MWNTs catalysts in tetrahydrofuran/water/ethanol mixture solution. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements demonstrate that the type of supporting carbon material affects significantly the morphology and the electronic structure of supported Pt nano-particles (NPs). Electrochemical measurements indicate that the Pt/SWNTs catalyst exhibited the highest current density, the lowest onset oxidation potential and the best stability for methanol electro-oxidation among the three samples, indicating SWNTs are an ideal anode catalyst supporting material for the practical application of direct methanol fuel cells. (author)

  13. Nanoplasmonic Photoluminescence Spectroscopy at Single-Particle Level: Sensing for Ethanol Oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhaoke; Majima, Tetsuro

    2016-02-18

    Surface plasmon resonances of metal nanoparticles have shown significant promise for the use of solar energy to drive catalytic chemical reactions. More importantly, understanding and monitoring such catalytic reactions at single-nanoparticle level is crucial for the study of local reaction processes. Herein, using plasmonic photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, we describe a novel sensing method for catalytic ethanol oxidation reactions at the single-nanoparticle level. The Au nanorod monitors the interfacial interaction with ethanol during the catalytic reaction through the PL intensity changes in the single-particle PL spectra. The analysis of energy relaxation of excited electron-hole pairs indicates the relationship between the PL quenching and ethanol oxidation reaction on the single Au nanorod.

  14. Electrostatic self-assembly of graphene oxide wrapped sulfur particles for lithium–sulfur batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Haiwei; Huang, Ying, E-mail: yingh@nwpu.edu.cn; Zong, Meng; Ding, Xiao; Ding, Juan; Sun, Xu

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Researched graphene oxide wrapped sulfur particles for lithium–sulfur batteries. • New approach for core–shell GO/S composites by electrostatic self-assembly method. • Both core–shell structure and the GO support help to retard the diffusion of polysulfides during the electrochemical cycling process of GO/S cathode. - Abstract: A novel graphene oxide (GO)/sulfur (S) composite is developed by electrostatic self-assembly method. Remarkably, the core–shell structure of the composite and the GO support helps to retard the diffusion of polysulfides during the electrochemical cycling process. The GO/sulfur cathode presents enhanced cycling ability. Specific discharge capacities up to 494.7 mAh g{sup −1} over 200 cycles at 0.1 C is achieved with enhanced columbic efficiency around 95%, representing a good cathode material for lithium–sulfur batteries.

  15. Facile cathodic electrosynthesis and characterization of iron oxide nano-particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Taher Yousefi; Reza Davarkhah; Ahmad Nozad Golikand; Mohammad Hossein Mashhadizadeh; Ahmad Abhari

    2013-01-01

    Fe2O3 nano-particles have been synthesized by simple cathodic electrodeposition from the low-temperature nitrate bath. The morphology and crystal structure of the obtained oxide powder were analyzed by means of scanning and transmission microscopy (SEM and TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Thermal behavior and phase transformation during the heat treatment of as-deposited sample were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogramimetric analysis (TGA). The results showed that the deposited Fe2O3 was composed of the nanoparticles with grain size of approximately 10-60 nm. A serious problem during cathodic electrodeposition of iron oxide was splashing of deposit into electrolyte due to its low adhesion. This problem was tackled by reducing the bath temperature and dielectric constant of solvent.

  16. From particles to patients: oxidative stress and the cardiovascular effects of air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mark R; Shaw, Catherine A; Langrish, Jeremy P

    2012-07-01

    Air pollution, especially airborne particulate matter (PM), is associated with an increase in both morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease, although the underlying mechanisms remain incompletely established. The one consistent observation that links the pulmonary and cardiovascular effects of inhaled PM is oxidative stress. This article examines the evidence for the role of oxidative stress in the cardiovascular effects of air pollution, beginning with observations from epidemiological and controlled exposure studies and then exploring potential mechanistic pathways involving free radical generation from PM itself, to effects of PM on cell cultures, isolated organs, healthy animals and animal models of disease. Particular emphasis is placed on the vascular and atherosclerotic effects of urban air pollution and diesel exhaust emissions as rich sources of environmental ultrafine particles.

  17. Comparison the Effect of Zinc Oxide and Magnesium Oxide Nano Particles on Long Term Memory in Adult Male Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Kesmati

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Magnesium (Mg and zinc (Zn are two essential elemnts for normal performance of central nervous system. So that the learning and memory are influenced by these ions that antagonized NMDA (N methyl-D-aspartate receptor. Objectives This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of nanoparticles of zinc oxide (ZnO and magnesium oxide (MgO on passive avoidance memory in mice. Methods In this experimental study adult male NMRI mice weighing 25 ± 3g were used. ZnO and MgO nano particles (1, 2.5 and 5 mg/kg, intrapretoneally (i.p. were injected pre-training in model of passive avoidance learning. Memory was evaluated at 1, 3 and 7 days after training. Delay time in coming down from the safe platform in step down apparatus was evaluated as an index of memory. Open field test was used for evaluation the locomotor activity. Results Nano MgO 2.5 and 5 mg/kg increased delay time in coming down from plateform at one day after training (P < 0.05 in dose dependent manner. Nano ZnO 2.5 and 5 mg/kg reduced delay time in coming down from the platform 1, 3 and 7 day after training (P < 0.05 and just 3 days after training (P < 0.05 respectivley. Locomotor activity did not change in presence of MgO and/or ZnO nano particles. Conclusions It seems that various effects of nano ZnO and MgO on long term memeory is related to the different effects of Zn and Mg ions on receptors (such as NMDA involved in memory process. Toxicity and/ or preservation of nanoparticle in body are another possible reasons.

  18. Chemical Synthesis of Nano-Sized particles of Lead Oxide and their Characterization Studies

    CERN Document Server

    Alagar, M; Raja, A Kubera; 10.3923/jas.2012.398.401

    2012-01-01

    The quantum dots of semiconductor display novel and interesting phenomena that have not been in the bulk material. The color tunability is one of the most attractive characteristics in II-VI semiconductor nanoparticles such as CdS, ZnS, CdSe, ZnSe and PbO. In this work, the semiconductor lead oxide nanoparticles are prepared by chemical method. The average particle size, specific surface area, crystallinity index are estimated from XRD analysis. The structural, functional groups and optical characters are analyzed with using of SEM, FTIR and UV- Visible techniques. The optical band gap value has also been determined.

  19. Oxidation mechanism of nickel particles studied in an environmental transmission electron microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeangros, Q.; Hansen, Thomas Willum; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal

    2014-01-01

    The oxidation of nickel particles was studied in situ in an environmental transmission electron microscope in 3.2 mbar of O2 between ambient temperature and 600°C. Several different transmission electron microscopy imaging techniques, electron diffraction and electron energy-loss spectroscopy were...... diffusion of Ni2+ along NiO grain boundaries, self-diffusion of Ni2+ ions and vacancies, growth of NiO grains and nucleation of voids at Ni/NiO interfaces. We also observed the formation of transverse cracks in a growing NiO film in situ in the electron microscope....

  20. Colored noise-enhanced intrinsic stochastic oscillations in CO oxidation on nanometer-sized Pd particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    How colored Gaussian noise (CN) affects the intrinsic stochastic oscillations (ISO) of CO oxidation on a nm-sized Pd particle is studied. It is found that the optimal ISO can be enhanced not only by a CN with appropriate noise intensity, but by a CN with appropriate correlation times. Moreover, the optimal ISO can be most greatly enhanced by the CN when the noise intensity or the correlation time is optimal. This result shows that external noise may, via its interplay with the internal noise of the system, play a constructive role in the ISO of the system, and the ISO can employ the external noise to reach a best oscillation performance.

  1. Zinc oxide particles induce inflammatory responses in vascular endothelial cells via NF-{kappa}B signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsou, Tsui-Chun, E-mail: tctsou@nhri.org.tw [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan, Miaoli County, Taiwan (China); Yeh, Szu-Ching; Tsai, Feng-Yuan; Lin, Ho-Jane [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan, Miaoli County, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Tsun-Jen [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chao, How-Ran [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Neipu, Pingtung, Taiwan (China); Tai, Lin-Ai [Center for Nanomedicine Research, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan, Miaoli County, Taiwan (China)

    2010-11-15

    This study investigated inflammatory effects of zinc oxide (ZnO) particles on vascular endothelial cells. The effects of 50 and 100-nm ZnO particles on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were characterized by assaying cytotoxicity, cell proliferation, and glutathione levels. A marked drop in survival rate was observed when ZnO concentration was increased to 45 {mu}g/ml. ZnO concentrations of {<=}3 {mu}g/ml resulted in increased cell proliferation, while those of {<=}45 {mu}g/ml caused dose-dependent increases in oxidized glutathione levels. Treatments with ZnO concentrations {<=}45 {mu}g/ml were performed to determine the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) protein, an indicator of vascular endothelium inflammation, revealing that ZnO particles induced a dose-dependent increase in ICAM-1 expression and marked increases in NF-{kappa}B reporter activity. Overexpression of I{kappa}B{alpha} completely inhibited ZnO-induced ICAM-1 expression, suggesting NF-{kappa}B plays a pivotal role in regulation of ZnO-induced inflammation in HUVECs. Additionally, TNF-{alpha}, a typical inflammatory cytokine, induced ICAM-1 expression in an NF-{kappa}B-dependent manner, and ZnO synergistically enhanced TNF-{alpha}-induced ICAM-1 expression. Both 50 and 100-nm ZnO particles agglomerated to similar size distributions. This study reveals an important role for ZnO in modulating inflammatory responses of vascular endothelial cells via NF-{kappa}B signaling, which could have important implications for treatments of vascular disease.

  2. Pyrene Removal from Contaminated Soils by Modified Fenton Oxidation Using Iron Nano Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahand Jorfi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background:The problems related to conventional Fenton oxidation, including low pH required and production of considerable amounts of sludge have led researchers to investigate chelating agents which might improve the operating range of pH and the use of nano iron particle to reduce the excess sludge. The pyrene removal from contaminated soils by modified Fenton oxidation at neutral pH was defined as the main objective of the current study.Methods:Varying concentrations of H2O2 (0-500 mM and iron nano oxide (0-60 mM, reaction times of 0.5-24 hours and variety of chelating agents including sodium pyrophosphate, sodium citrate, ethylene diamine tetraacetic, fulvic and humic acid were all investigated at pyrene concentration levels of 100 – 500 mg/kg.Results:By applying the following conditions (H2O2 concentration of 300 mM, iron nano oxide of 30 mM, sodium pyrophosphate as chelating agent, pH 3 and reaction time of 6 hours the pyrene removal efficiency at an initial concentration of 100 mg/kg was found to be 99%. As a result, the pyrene concentration was reduced from 100 to 93 mg/kg once the above optimum conditions are met.Conclusions:In this research, the modified Fenton oxidation using iron nano oxide at optimum conditions is introduced as an efficient alternative method in lab scale for chemical remediation or pre-treatment of soils contaminated by pyrene at neutral pH.

  3. Seasonal Dynamics of Particle-Associated Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea in Monterey Bay, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, D. R.; Tolar, B. B.; Francis, C.

    2016-12-01

    Within the past decade, significant research has shed light on key players within the nitrogen cycle. Ammonia-oxidizing Archaea (AOA) were discovered and found to be more abundant than ammonia-oxidizing Bacteria in marine systems, and therefore play a vital role in ammonia oxidation, the rate-limiting step in nitrification that converts NH3 to NO2-. Here we investigated seasonal dynamics of particle-associated (> 10 µm) AOA within Monterey Bay at Station M1 over a year-long sampling period from May 2015 to February 2016. We used quantitative PCR to amplify the archaeal amoA gene and collect data on the abundance of this gene at various depths (5-500 m). Our results indicate that particle-associated AOA are found throughout the upper water column in Monterey Bay, with archaeal amoA gene abundances ranging from 3.9 x 101 to 1.0 x 104 copies/L, with an average of 1.7 x 103 copies/L. Seasonal trends indicate that gene abundance is higher during the winter than in summer. We also quantified `shallow' versus `deep' ecotypes of water column AOA (WCA and WCB, respectively. These data will be compared to environmental data (temperature, salinity, chlorophyll a, etc.) collected during sampling. In comparison to the 0.2µm samples analyzed (mean = 2.2 x 107 copies/L; range = 2.4 x 104 to 1.1 x 108 copies/L), particle-associated archaeal amoA genes were on average 0.01% of the 0.2-10 µm size fraction. Although relatively small, the combined total abundance between the two size fractions may lead to additional correlations. Overall, particle-associated AOA may be important indicators of changing environmental conditions and provide seasonal context into abundance and distribution of these AOA. We also suggest that it may be a useful practice to analyze prefilters for AOA, as particle-associated AOA may contribute significantly to gene abundance estimates and possibly correlations with nitrification rates.

  4. Bacterial toxicity comparison between nano- and micro-scaled oxide particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Wei; Mashayekhi, Hamid [Department of Plant, Soil and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Stockbridge Hall, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Xing Baoshan, E-mail: bx@pssci.umass.ed [Department of Plant, Soil and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Stockbridge Hall, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

    2009-05-15

    Toxicity of nano-scaled aluminum, silicon, titanium and zinc oxides to bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas fluorescens) was examined and compared to that of their respective bulk (micro-scaled) counterparts. All nanoparticles but titanium oxide showed higher toxicity (at 20 mg/L) than their bulk counterparts. Toxicity of released metal ions was differentiated from that of the oxide particles. ZnO was the most toxic among the three nanoparticles, causing 100% mortality to the three tested bacteria. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles had a mortality rate of 57% to B. subtilis, 36% to E. coli, and 70% to P. fuorescens. SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles killed 40% of B. subtilis, 58% of E. coli, and 70% of P. fluorescens. TEM images showed attachment of nanoparticles to the bacteria, suggesting that the toxicity was affected by bacterial attachment. Bacterial responses to nanoparticles were different from their bulk counterparts; hence nanoparticle toxicity mechanisms need to be studied thoroughly. - Oxide nanoparticles show higher toxicity than their bulk counterparts

  5. Tracing Gas and Particle Phase Oxidation From Engine Sources as a Function of Fuel Type, Load, and Photochemical Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, B.; Farmer, D.; Jathar, S.; Galang, A.; Fulgham, R.; Link, M.; Brophy, P.

    2015-12-01

    Motor vehicle emissions are an important source of anthropogenic gases and particles in the atmosphere. To study the gas and particle phase emissions, an HR-TOF-AMS and HR-TOF-CIMS were deployed at the CSU Engines Lab, along with an oxidative flow reactor, to measure emissions from a 4.5 L John Deere engine, which ran either diesel or biodiesel fuel. Concurrent gas-phase and particle-phase measurements allowed determination of the gas-phase and particle-phase oxidation properties as a function of fuel type, fuel load, and photochemical age. The impacts of particulate filers on composition and oxidation state were also assessed. While aerosol composition and associated oxidation properties for the biodiesel and diesel fuel types were similar, differences in photochemical production existed for the amount of load, or efficiency of the engine. The mean particulate oxygen to carbon ratios (O:C) and mean hydrogen to carbon ratios (H:C) moved from an initial 0.1 and 2 to a final 0.55 and 1.6, respectively, upon idle biodiesel and diesel engine exhaust exposure to approximately 7 days of OH exposure. The more efficient higher load biodiesel and diesel engine exhaust experienced less changes in the mean O:C and H:C values (an initial 0.1 and 2 to a final 0.3 and 1.7, respectively) with approximately the same amount of OH exposure. Despite largely scrubbing the majority of particles from the engine exhaust, experiments with engine particulate filters still showed photochemical production of oxidized particle-phase species at high photochemical ages, similar to that of idle engine exhaust without any particulate filters. Bulk gas-phase data was compared to bulk aerosol data in Van Krevelen space in order to understand how particle-phase oxidation traces gas-phase oxidation as a function of fuel type, engine load, and photochemical age.

  6. X-ray diffraction and high-resolution TEM observations of biopolymer nanoskin-covered metallic copper fine particles: preparative conditions and surface oxidation states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonezawa, Tetsu; Uchida, Yoshiki; Tsukamoto, Hiroki

    2015-12-28

    Metallic copper fine particles used for electro conductive pastes were prepared by the chemical reduction of cupric oxide microparticles in the presence of gelatin. After reduction, the fine particles were collected by decantation with pH control and washing, followed by drying at a moderate temperature. The surface oxidation state of the obtained copper fine particles could be considerably varied by altering the pH of the particle dispersion, as shown by X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Our results strongly indicate that decantation under a nitrogen atmosphere can prevent the oxidation of copper fine particles but a slight oxidation was found.

  7. New particle formation during α- and β-pinene oxidation by O3, OH and NO3, and the influence of water vapour: particle size distribution studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. K. Moortgat

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available New particle formation during the oxidation of a- and b-pinene (C10H16 by ozone, OH and NO3 was studied by measuring the particle size distributions with a scanning mobility particle sizer (TSI 3936. The results indicate a drastically higher nucleation potential of the ozonolysis than in the reaction with either OH or NO3. On the contrary, the contribution of the individual oxidation reactions to form new aerosol volume was found to depend on the location of the carbon double bond to be oxidized: for the endocyclic a-pinene reactions the ozonolysis contributed mostly to the aerosol volume yield, whereas for the exocyclic b-pinene reactions the oxidation by O3, OH and NO3 yielded a similar aerosol volume. In a second part of this study the influence of water vapour on the nucleation in all three possible oxidation routes was examined. The observations revealed only an effect of water vapour during the ozonolysis reactions.

  8. High-performance iron oxide nanoparticles for magnetic particle imaging - guided hyperthermia (hMPI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Lisa M.; Situ, Shu F.; Griswold, Mark A.; Samia, Anna Cristina S.

    2016-06-01

    Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is an emerging imaging modality that allows the direct and quantitative mapping of iron oxide nanoparticles. In MPI, the development of tailored iron oxide nanoparticle tracers is paramount to achieving high sensitivity and good spatial resolution. To date, most MPI tracers being developed for potential clinical applications are based on spherical undoped magnetite nanoparticles. For the first time, we report on the systematic investigation of the effects of changes in chemical composition and shape anisotropy on the MPI performance of iron oxide nanoparticle tracers. We observed a 2-fold enhancement in MPI signal through selective doping of magnetite nanoparticles with zinc. Moreover, we demonstrated focused magnetic hyperthermia heating by adapting the field gradient used in MPI. By saturating the iron oxide nanoparticles outside of a field free region (FFR) with an external static field, we can selectively heat a target region in our test sample. By comparing zinc-doped magnetite cubic nanoparticles with undoped spherical nanoparticles, we could show a 5-fold improvement in the specific absorption rate (SAR) in magnetic hyperthermia while providing good MPI signal, thereby demonstrating the potential for high-performance focused hyperthermia therapy through an MPI-guided approach (hMPI).Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is an emerging imaging modality that allows the direct and quantitative mapping of iron oxide nanoparticles. In MPI, the development of tailored iron oxide nanoparticle tracers is paramount to achieving high sensitivity and good spatial resolution. To date, most MPI tracers being developed for potential clinical applications are based on spherical undoped magnetite nanoparticles. For the first time, we report on the systematic investigation of the effects of changes in chemical composition and shape anisotropy on the MPI performance of iron oxide nanoparticle tracers. We observed a 2-fold enhancement in MPI signal

  9. Unravelling the properties of supported copper oxide: can the particle size induce acidic behaviour?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccheria, Federica; Scotti, Nicola; Marelli, Marcello; Psaro, Rinaldo; Ravasio, Nicoletta

    2013-02-07

    There is a renewed interest in designing solid acid catalysts particularly due to the significance of Lewis acid catalyzed processes such as Friedel-Crafts acylation and alkylation and cellulose hydrolysis for the development of sustainable chemistry. This paper reports a new focus point on the properties of supported CuO on silica, a material that up to now has been considered only as the precursor of an effective hydrogenation catalyst. Thus, it deals with a re-interpretation of some of our results with supported copper oxide aimed to unveil the root of acidic activity exhibited by this material, e.g. in alcoholysis reactions. Several techniques were used to highlight the very high dispersion of the oxide phase on the support allowing us to ascribe the acidic behavior to coordinative unsaturation of the very small CuO particles. In turn this unsaturation makes the CuO particles prone to coordinate surrounding molecules present in the reaction mixture and to exchange them according to their nucleophilicity.

  10. Physicochemical characterization of ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (USPIO) for biomedical application as MRI contrast agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Marco, Mariagrazia; Sadun, Claudia; Port, Marc; Guilbert, Irene; Couvreur, Patrick; Dubernet, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    Ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) particles are maghemite or magnetite nanoparticles currently used as contrast agent in magnetic resonance imaging. The coatings surrounding the USPIO inorganic core play a major role in both the in vitro stability and, over all, USPIO's in vivo fate. Different physicochemical properties such as final size, surface charge and coating density are key factors in this respect. Up to now no precise structure--activity relationship has been described to predict entirely the USPIOs stability, as well as their pharmacokinetics and their safety. This review is focused on both the classical and the latest available techniques allowing a better insight in the magnetic core structure and the organic surface of these particles. Concurrently, this work clearly shows the difficulty to obtain a complete physicochemical characterization of USPIOs particles owing to their small dimensions, reaching the analytical resolution limits of many commercial instruments. An extended characterization is therefore necessary to improve the understanding of the properties of USPIOs when dispersed in an aqueous environment and to set the specifications and limits for their conception.

  11. Material Flow and Oxide Particle Distributions in Friction-Stir Welded F/M-ODS Sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Suk Hoon; Noh, Sanghoon; Jin, Hyun Ju; Kim, Tae Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    It is well known that uniform nano-oxide dispersoids act as pinning points to obstruct dislocation and grain boundary motion in ODS(Oxide dispersion strengthened) steel. However, these advantages will disappear while the material is subjected to the high temperature of conventional fusion welding. There is only limited literature available on the joining of ODS steels. Friction stir welding (FSW) is considered to be the best welding technique for welding ODS steels as the technique helps in retaining the homogeneous nano-oxide particles distributions in matrix. FSW is a solid.state, hot.shear joining process in which a rotating tool with a shoulder and terminating in a threaded pin, moves along the butting surfaces of two rigidly clamped plates placed on a backing plate. Heat generated by friction at the shoulder and to a lesser extent at the pin surface, softens the material being welded. Severe plastic deformation and flow of this plasticised metal occurs as the tool is translated along the welding direction. Material is transported from the front of the tool to the trailing edge where it is forged into a joint. Friction stir welding appears to be a very promising technique for the welding of FMS and ODS steels. This study found that, during FSW, the forward movement of the tool pin results in loose contact between the tool pin and the receding material on the advancing side.

  12. Particles that slide over the water surface: Synthesis and characterization of iron oxides particles coated with PDMS, with hydrophobic and magnetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza Neto, Francisco N.de [Sciences and Technology Unit of the University – UnUCET, State University of Goiás, 75132-903 Anápolis, GO (Brazil); Araújo, Olacir Alves, E-mail: olacir.araujo@ueg.br [Sciences and Technology Unit of the University – UnUCET, State University of Goiás, 75132-903 Anápolis, GO (Brazil); Guilherme, Luciana R.; Garg, Vijayendra K. [Sciences and Technology Unit of the University – UnUCET, State University of Goiás, 75132-903 Anápolis, GO (Brazil); Oliveira, Aderbal C.; Souza, Paulo E.N. de [Institute of Physics, University of Brasília, 70910-900 Brasília, DF (Brazil); Franco Júnior, Adolfo [Institute of Physics, Federal University of Goiás, 74001-970 Goiânia, GO (Brazil)

    2015-07-15

    Magnetic nanoparticles have been of great scientific interest because of their possible industrial and biomedical applications. The magnetic iron oxide was synthesized by the co precipitation of alkaline hydrolysis of ions Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} in aqueous system. The coated particles were obtained by heating (50 and 250 °C) mixed magnetic iron oxide and polydimethylsiloxane oil for 30 min obtaining magnetic dust particles with hydrophobic behavior. These were used to learn the dragging effects and removal of nonpolar organic compound in aqueous systems. The samples were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), chemical analysis by potenciometric titration, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), contact angle measurement and Mössbauer spectroscopy. The diffractogram of X-ray presented peaks that were assigned to presence of spinel structure maghemite and magnetite with medium sized crystallites of 10.95 nm for the polymeric coated magnetic iron oxide, confirmed by TEM, with superparamagnetic character, also confirmed by VSM. The infrared spectrum showed absorption band at 570 cm{sup −1} characteristic of the Fe-O bonding in inverted spinel structure and the absorption bands in 1263, 1105, 1025 and 800 cm{sup −1} indicating the presence of PDMS on the magnetic iron oxide particles. Thermogravimetric analysis has been used to estimate the sample thermal stability of polymeric material (9.7 ± 4) % on the inorganic matrices. Contact angle measurement of the coated samples at 250 °C presented a better nonpolar character in comparison to the coated samples at 50 °C. The samples at room temperature (25 °C) presented the phases of magnetite and maghemite which were also confirmed by Mössbauer spectroscopy. It was possible to obtain iron oxides particles coated with PDMS, with hydrophobic and magnetic properties, which slide over the

  13. Modeling the role of highly oxidized multifunctional organic molecules for the growth of new particles over the boreal forest region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öström, Emilie; Putian, Zhou; Schurgers, Guy; Mishurov, Mikhail; Kivekäs, Niku; Lihavainen, Heikki; Ehn, Mikael; Rissanen, Matti P.; Kurtén, Theo; Boy, Michael; Swietlicki, Erik; Roldin, Pontus

    2017-07-01

    In this study, the processes behind observed new particle formation (NPF) events and subsequent organic-dominated particle growth at the Pallas Atmosphere-Ecosystem Supersite in Northern Finland are explored with the one-dimensional column trajectory model ADCHEM. The modeled sub-micron particle mass is up to ˜ 75 % composed of SOA formed from highly oxidized multifunctional organic molecules (HOMs) with low or extremely low volatility. In the model the newly formed particles with an initial diameter of 1.5 nm reach a diameter of 7 nm about 2 h earlier than what is typically observed at the station. This is an indication that the model tends to overestimate the initial particle growth. In contrast, the modeled particle growth to CCN size ranges ( > 50 nm in diameter) seems to be underestimated because the increase in the concentration of particles above 50 nm in diameter typically occurs several hours later compared to the observations. Due to the high fraction of HOMs in the modeled particles, the oxygen-to-carbon (O : C) atomic ratio of the SOA is nearly 1. This unusually high O : C and the discrepancy between the modeled and observed particle growth might be explained by the fact that the model does not consider any particle-phase reactions involving semi-volatile organic compounds with relatively low O : C. In the model simulations where condensation of low-volatility and extremely low-volatility HOMs explain most of the SOA formation, the phase state of the SOA (assumed either liquid or amorphous solid) has an insignificant impact on the evolution of the particle number size distributions. However, the modeled particle growth rates are sensitive to the method used to estimate the vapor pressures of the HOMs. Future studies should evaluate how heterogeneous reactions involving semi-volatility HOMs and other less-oxidized organic compounds can influence the SOA composition- and size-dependent particle growth.

  14. The formation of ultra-fine particles during ozone-initiated oxidations with terpenes emitted from natural paint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamorena, Rheo B. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Guseong-Dong, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Sang-Guen [Environment and Process Technology Division, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 131, Cheongryang, Seoul 130-650 (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Gwi-Nam [Environment and Process Technology Division, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 131, Cheongryang, Seoul 130-650 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Woojin [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Guseong-Dong, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: woojin_lee@kaist.ac.kr

    2007-03-06

    The formation of secondary products during the ozone-initiated oxidations with biogenic VOCs emitted from natural paint was investigated in this study. Mass spectrometry and infrared spectroscopy measurements have shown that the major components of gas-phase chemicals emitted from natural paint are monoterpenes including {alpha}- and {beta}-pinenes, camphene, p-cymene, and limonene. A significant formation of gaseous carbonyl products and nano-sized particles (4.4-168 nm) was observed in the presence of ozone. Carboxylic acids were also observed to form during the reactions (i.e. formic acid at 0.170 ppm and acetic acid at 0.260 ppm). The formation of particles increased as the volume of paint introduced into a reaction chamber increased. A secondary increase in the particle number concentration was observed after 440 min, which suggests further partitioning of oxidation products (i.e. carboxylic acids) into the particles previously existing in the reaction chamber. The growth of particles increased as the mean particle diameter and particle mass concentrations increased during the reaction. The experimental results obtained in this study may provide insight into the potential exposure of occupants to irritating chemical compounds formed during the oxidations of biogenic VOCs emitted from natural paint in indoor environments.

  15. High temperature oxidation event of gelatin nanoskin-coated copper fine particles observed by in situ TEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Narushima

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Metallic copper fine particles were prepared using CuO slurry by hydrazine reduction in the presence of gelatin. To observe a behavior of these particles at high temperature, in situ heating TEM observations were carried out. Oxygen gas was introduced and the pressure of the TEM column was kept at 10−3 Pa, corresponding the pressure around the sample at 10−1 Pa. The gelatin, which acts as a protective nanoskin on the particle surface was gradually decomposed. Around approximately 140 °C, it was observed that Cu2O dots formed on the surface of the copper particle. This result is well consistent with the behavior of the TG-DTA curve of the copper fine particles under ambient conditions, and provides key information of oxidative behavior of copper fine particles.

  16. Potency of (doped) rare earth oxide particles and their constituent metals to inhibit algal growth and induce direct toxic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joonas, Elise; Aruoja, Villem; Olli, Kalle; Syvertsen-Wiig, Guttorm; Vija, Heiki; Kahru, Anne

    2017-03-27

    Use of rare earth elements (REEs) has increased rapidly in recent decades due to technological advances. It has been accompanied by recurring rare earth element anomalies in water bodies. In this work we (i) studied the effects of eight novel doped and one non-doped rare earth oxide (REO) particles (aimed to be used in solid oxide fuel cells and gas separation membranes) on algae, (ii) quantified the individual adverse effects of the elements that constitute the (doped) REO particles and (iii) attempted to find a discernible pattern to relate REO particle physicochemical characteristics to algal growth inhibitory properties. Green algae Raphidocelis subcapitata (formerly Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata) were used as a test species in two different formats: a standard OECD201 algal growth inhibition assay and the algal viability assay (a 'spot test') that avoids nutrient removal effects. In the 24h 'spot' test that demonstrated direct toxicity, algae were not viable at REE concentrations above 1mgmetal/L. 72-hour algal growth inhibition EC50 values for four REE salts (Ce, Gd, La, Pr) were between 1.2 and 1.4mg/L, whereas the EC50 for REO particles ranged from 1 to 98mg/L. The growth inhibition of REEs was presumably the result of nutrient sequestration from the algal growth medium. The adverse effects of REO particles were at least in part due to the entrapment of algae within particle agglomerates. Adverse effects due to the dissolution of constituent elements from (doped) REO particles and the size or specific surface area of particles were excluded, except for La2NiO4. However, the structure of the particles and/or the varying effects of oxide composition might have played a role in the observed effects. As the production rates of these REO particles are negligible compared to other forms of REEs, there is presumably no acute risk for aquatic unicellular algae.

  17. Comparative toxicity of copper oxide bulk and nano particles in Nile Tilapia; Oreochromis niloticus: Biochemical and oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr A. Abdel-Khalek

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Nile Tilapia; Oreochromis niloticus are commonly used in the assessment of aquatic environment quality and also considered as useful bio-indicators during environmental pollution monitoring. The LC50/96 h of copper oxide (bulk & nano particles [CuO (BPs & NPs] were 2205 & 150 mg/l, respectively. Two tested concentrations of CuO (BPs & NPs were selected: the first concentration was equivalent to (1/10 (220.5 & 15 mg/l, and the second was equivalent to (1/20 (110.25 & 7.5 mg/l LC50/96 h·CuO (BPs & NPs, respectively. While serum glucose, liver function tests (AST, ALT and ALP and kidney function tests (creatinine and uric acid showed a significant increase, serum total proteins, albumin, globulin and total lipids showed a significant decrease. Both liver and gill tissues of the studied fish showed a reduction in GSH content and an elevation in MDA and GPx activities. The present study also showed an elevation in liver CAT & SOD activities when exposed to both concentrations of CuO BPs and in the case of gills when exposed to both concentrations of CuO (BPs & NPs, although activity of these enzymes showed an inhibition in the liver when exposed to both concentrations of CuO NPs. The present study investigated whether CuO NPs are more toxic than CuO BPs.

  18. Magnetic manipulation of actin orientation, polymerization, and gliding on myosin using superparamagnetic iron oxide particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun; Guzik, Stephanie; Sumner, James P; Moreland, John; Koretsky, Alan P

    2011-02-11

    The actin cytoskeleton controls cell shape, motility, as well as intracellular molecular trafficking. The ability to remotely manipulate actin is therefore highly desirable as a tool to probe and manipulate biological processes at the molecular level. We demonstrate actin manipulation by labeling actin filaments with superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (IOPs) and applying a uniform magnetic field to affect actin orientation, polymerization and gliding on myosin. We show for the first time magnetic manipulation of magnetizable actin filaments at the molecular level while gliding on a bed of myosin molecules and during polymerization. A model for the magnetic alignment and guiding mechanism is proposed based on the torque from the induced molecular anisotropy due to interactions between neighboring IOPs distributed along magnetically labeled actin molecules.

  19. Reduction of nickel oxide particles by hydrogen studied in an environmental TEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeangros, Q.; Hansen, Thomas Willum; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal;

    2013-01-01

    In situ reduction of nickel oxide (NiO) particles is performed under 1.3 mbar of hydrogen gas (H2) in an environmental transmission electron microscope (ETEM). Images, diffraction patterns and electron energy-loss spectra (EELS) are acquired to monitor the structural and chemical evolution...... of the system during reduction, whilst increasing the temperature. Ni nucleation on NiO is either observed to be epitaxial or to involve the formation of randomly oriented grains. The growth of Ni crystallites and the movement of interfaces result in the formation of pores within the NiO grains to accommodate...... the volume shrinkage associated with the reduction. Densification is then observed when the sample is nearly fully reduced. The reaction kinetics is obtained using EELS by monitoring changes in the shapes of the Ni L2,3 white lines. The activation energy for NiO reduction is calculated from the EELS data...

  20. Colored noise-enhanced intrinsic stochastic oscillations in CO oxidation on nanometer-sized Pd particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE YanHang; GONG YuBing; XU Bo; SUN FuWen

    2009-01-01

    How colored Gaussian noise (CN) affects the intrinsic stochastic oscillations (ISO) of CO oxidation on a nm-sized Pd particle is studied.It is found that the optimal ISO can be enhanced not only by a CN with appropriate noise intensity,but by a CN with appropriate correlation times.Moreover,the optimal ISO can be most greatly enhanced by the CN when the noise intensity or the correlation time is optimal.This result shows that external noise may,via its interplay with the internal noise of the system,play a constructive role in the ISO of the system,and the ISO can employ the external noise to reach a best oscillation performance.

  1. Impact of temperature on zinc oxide particle size by using sol-gel process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Keanchuan, E-mail: lee.kc@petronas.com.my; Ching, Dennis Ling Chuan, E-mail: dennis.ling@petronas.com.my [Fundamental and Applied Sciences Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Saipolbahri, Zulhilmi Akmal bin, E-mail: zulhilmiakmal@gmail.com [Geoscience and Petroleum Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Guan, Beh Hoe, E-mail: beh.hoeguan@petronas.com.my, E-mail: hassan.soleimani@petronas.com.my; Soleimani, Hassan, E-mail: beh.hoeguan@petronas.com.my, E-mail: hassan.soleimani@petronas.com.my

    2014-10-24

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles were prepared and synthesized via sol-gel method, by using citric acid as a precursor. The impact of annealing on the particle size was investigated. Based on the results from the Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), three different annealing temperature which is 500, 600 and 700 °C were chosen followed by the characterization of the ZnO nanoparticle by using Powder X-Ray Diffraction (PXRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM). Results showed that the crystallite size estimated from PXRD increased with the annealing temperature which was hexagonal structure for ZnO. TEM further revealed the same tendency which the Zn NPs size also increased with the annealing temperature.

  2. Taguchi Optimization for Combustion Synthesis of Aluminum Oxide Nano-particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    EDRISSI Mohammad; NOROUZBEIGI Reza

    2008-01-01

    Nano-structured aluminum oxide powders were prepared by a combustion synthesis method utilizing serine as a new fuel. The product was sonicated to obtain nano powders. A Taguchi L-4 statistical design of combustion syn- thesis was utilized to optimize the production of γ-alumina powder. The product was characterized by XRD, BET, SEM, EDX and LLS. Nano crystalline γ-alumina with crystal sizes between 4.26 and 5.47 nm and α-Al2O3 powders with crystal sizes 24.51 and 28.62 nm were obtained by the combustion synthesis. The specific surface area was measured by a BET method to be 75.21 m2/g. The average particle size after sonication of product, observed by LLS, was 79.32 nm.

  3. Preparation and characterization of superparamagnetic nickel oxide particles by chemical route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaie, Mohammad Reza; Youzbashi, Amir Ali; Meshkot, Mohammad Ali; Hosseini-Nasab, Farzad

    2016-08-01

    Homogeneous nickel oxide (NiO) nanoparticles with different sizes between 6 and 30 nm with narrow size distribution and low agglomeration were synthesized successfully by using different precipitated precursors and heat treatment under certain conditions. Powders were analyzed by different characterization methods. X-ray diffraction patterns revealed that the sizes of nanoparticles synthesized by nickel hydroxide and nickel oxalate precursors are under 10 nm, which are in good agreement with transition electron microscopy and field emission electron microscopy results. According to the vibrating sample magnetometer data, the NiO nanoparticles with sizes about 6 nm show superparamagnetic behavior. For superparamagnetic particles, the magnetization at maximum applied field of 20 kOe is 2.46 emu g-1.

  4. Chemically Synthesised Pt Particles on Surface Oxidized Carbon Nanotubes as an Effective Catalyst for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad; yari; Sajjad; Sadaghat; Sharehjini

    2007-01-01

    1 Results The synthesis, physical characterization and electrochemical analysis of Pt particles prepared using the surface oxidized carbon nanotubes prepared by chemically anchoring Pt onto the surface of the CNTs with 2.0 mol/L HNO3 by refluxing for 10 h to introduce surface functional groups.The particles of Pt are synthesized by reduction with sodium borohydride of H2PtCl6. The electro-oxidation of liquid methanol of this catalyst as a thin layer on glassy carbon electrode is investigated at room te...

  5. Application of Sonication and Microwave Irradiation to Boost Continuous Fabrication of the Copper(II Oxide Sub-Micron Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Dzido

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Viability of the continuous-flow synthesis of rhomboidal copper(II oxide (CuO micro- and nanonoparticles was demonstrated. It has been shown that ultrasonic mixing of reactants, in the stage of Cu(OH2 synthesis, followed by microwave irradiation of the resulting suspension, gives very fine particles of CuO at high yield and within minutes. Near optimal parameters for the synthesis of fine particles in the continuous reactor were determined.

  6. Effect of nano-size nickel particles on wear resistance and high temperature oxidation resistance of ultrafine ceramic coating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    古一; 夏长清; 李佳; 吴安如

    2004-01-01

    In order to improve the wear resistance and high temperature oxidation resistance of titanium and titanium alloy, the high temperature ultra fine ceramic coating containing nano-size nickel particles was prepared by flow coat method on the surface of industrially pure titanium TB1-0. The effects of nano-size nickel particles on the wear resistance and high temperature oxidation resistance of coating substrate system were investigated through oxidation kinetics experiment and wear resistance test. The morphologies of the specimens were examined by means of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The results show that the high temperature ultra fine ceramic coating has notable protection effect on industrially pure titanium TB1-0 from oxidation. The oxidation and wear resistance properties of the coating can be effectively improved by adding nano-size nickel particles. The decreases from 1. 1 to 0. 6 by adding nano-size nickel particles, and the coating containing 10% (mass fraction) nano-size nickel shows the optimum properties.

  7. Rapid Mapping of Lithiation Dynamics in Transition Metal Oxide Particles with Operando X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowack, Lea; Grolimund, Daniel; Samson, Vallerie; Marone, Federica; Wood, Vanessa

    2016-02-24

    Since the commercialization of lithium ion batteries (LIBs), layered transition metal oxides (LiMO2, where M = Co, Mn, Ni, or mixtures thereof) have been materials of choice for LIB cathodes. During cycling, the transition metals change their oxidation states, an effect that can be tracked by detecting energy shifts in the X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectrum. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) can therefore be used to visualize and quantify lithiation kinetics in transition metal oxide cathodes; however, in-situ measurements are often constrained by temporal resolution and X-ray dose, necessitating compromises in the electrochemistry cycling conditions used or the materials examined. We report a combined approach to reduce measurement time and X-ray exposure for operando XAS studies of lithium ion batteries. A highly discretized energy resolution coupled with advanced post-processing enables rapid yet reliable identification of the oxidation state. A full-field microscopy setup provides sub-particle resolution over a large area of battery electrode, enabling the oxidation state within many transition metal oxide particles to be tracked simultaneously. Here, we apply this approach to gain insights into the lithiation kinetics of a commercial, mixed-metal oxide cathode material, nickel cobalt aluminium oxide (NCA), during (dis)charge and its degradation during overcharge.

  8. Rapid Mapping of Lithiation Dynamics in Transition Metal Oxide Particles with Operando X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowack, Lea; Grolimund, Daniel; Samson, Vallerie; Marone, Federica; Wood, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    Since the commercialization of lithium ion batteries (LIBs), layered transition metal oxides (LiMO2, where M = Co, Mn, Ni, or mixtures thereof) have been materials of choice for LIB cathodes. During cycling, the transition metals change their oxidation states, an effect that can be tracked by detecting energy shifts in the X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectrum. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) can therefore be used to visualize and quantify lithiation kinetics in transition metal oxide cathodes; however, in-situ measurements are often constrained by temporal resolution and X-ray dose, necessitating compromises in the electrochemistry cycling conditions used or the materials examined. We report a combined approach to reduce measurement time and X-ray exposure for operando XAS studies of lithium ion batteries. A highly discretized energy resolution coupled with advanced post-processing enables rapid yet reliable identification of the oxidation state. A full-field microscopy setup provides sub-particle resolution over a large area of battery electrode, enabling the oxidation state within many transition metal oxide particles to be tracked simultaneously. Here, we apply this approach to gain insights into the lithiation kinetics of a commercial, mixed-metal oxide cathode material, nickel cobalt aluminium oxide (NCA), during (dis)charge and its degradation during overcharge. PMID:26908198

  9. Modeling the possible role of iodine oxides in atmospheric new particle formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pechtl

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the possible role of iodine oxides in atmospheric new particle formation with the one-dimensional marine boundary layer model MISTRA, which includes chemistry in the gas and aerosol phase as well as aerosol microphysics. The chemical reaction set focuses on halogen (Cl-Br-I chemistry. We included a two-step nucleation parameterization, where in the first step, the 'real' nucleation process is parameterized, i.e., the formation of cluster-sized nuclei via homogeneous condensation of gases. We considered both ternary sulfuric acid-ammonia-water nucleation and homomolecular homogeneous OIO nucleation. For the latter, we derived a parameterization based on combined laboratory-model studies. The second step of the nucleation parameterization treats the 'apparent' nucleation rate, i.e., the growth of clusters into the model's lowest size bin by condensable vapors such as OIO. We compared different scenarios for a clean marine versus a polluted continental background atmosphere. In every scenario, we assumed the air to move, independent of its origin, first over a coastal region (where it is exposed to surface fluxes of different reactive iodine precursors and later over the open ocean. According to these sensitivity studies, in the clean marine background atmosphere OIO can be responsible for both homogeneous nuclei formation and the subsequent growth of the clusters to detectable sizes. In contrast to this, in the continental case with its higher levels of pollutants, gas phase OIO mixing ratios, and hence related nucleation rates, are significantly lower. Compared to ternary H2SO4-NH3-H2O nucleation, homogeneous OIO nucleation can be neglected for new particle formation in this case, but OIO can contribute to early particle growth, i.e., to apparent nucleation rates. In general, we found OIO to be more important for the growth of newly formed particles than for the formation of new nuclei. According to our studies, observations of

  10. Particle Size-Dependent Antibacterial Activity and Murine Cell Cytotoxicity Induced by Graphene Oxide Nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have indicated that graphene and its derivative graphene oxide (GO engage in a wide range of antibacterial activities with limited toxicity to human cells. Here, we systematically evaluate the dependence of GO toxicity on the size of the nanoparticles used in treatments: we compare the cytotoxic effects of graphene quantum dots (GQDs, <15 nm, small GOs (SGOs, 50–200 nm, and large GOs (LGOs, 0.5–3 μm. We synthesize the results of bacterial colony count assays and SEM-based observations of morphological changes to assess the antibacterial properties that these GOs bring into effect against E. coli. We also use Live/Dead assays and morphological analysis to investigate changes to mammalian (Murine macrophage-like Raw 264.7 cells induced by the presence of the various GO particle types. Our results demonstrate that LGOs, SGOs, and GQDs possess antibacterial activities and cause mammalian cell cytotoxicity at descending levels of potency. Placing our observations in the context of previous simulation results, we suggest that both the lateral size and surface area of GO particles contribute to cytotoxic effects. We hope that the size dependence elucidated here provides a useful schematic for tuning GO-cell interactions in biomedical applications.

  11. Evaluating the Microshear Bond Strength and Microleakage of Flowable Composites Containing Zinc Oxide Nano-particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teymoornezhad, Koorosh; Alaghehmand, Homayoun; Daryakenari, Ghazaleh; Khafri, Soraya; Tabari, Mitra

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Preventive resin restorations (PRR) are the conservative choice for the most common carious lesions in children. Thus, new age flowable resin composites with higher filler content are readily used. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microshear bond strength and microleakage of two flowable resin composites containing different percentages of nano zinc oxide (NZnO) particles, which have proven to have antimicrobial properties. Methods This experimental in-vitro study was carried out in the Dental Material Research Center of Babol University of Medical Sciences in 2015. One nanohybrid and one nanofill flowable resin composite were chosen and modified with the incorporation of 1% and 3% Wt NZnO particles. Six groups (n=10, 0%, 1%, and 3%) of resin composite sticks on dental enamel (2×2mm) were prepared to be placed in the microtensile tester. The microshear bond strength magnitude (MPa) was recorded at the point of failure. A class I box (3×0.8×1 mm) was prepared on 60 premolars and filled using the resin composites (6 groups, n=10). The specimens were immersed in a 5% basic fuschin solution and sectioned bucco-lingually to view the microleakage using a stereomicroscope. One-way ANOVA and Tukey tests for microshear and Wilcoxon and Kruskal–Wallis tests for microleakage were used to analyze the data in the IBM SPSS Statistics version 22 software. Results The bond strength of the 3% clearfill group significantly decreased while no significant change occurred in the bond strength in other groups. The Z-350 group had significantly lower microleakage as nanoparticles increased. No significant difference was observed in the clearfill group. Conclusion Up to 3% Wt incorporation of NZnO particles will not diversely alter the bond strength, but it will be beneficial in providing antimicrobial effects with lower microleakage rates. PMID:28070263

  12. Heterogeneous uptake and oxidation of sulfur dioxide on volcanic ash particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmelle, P.; Rossi, M.

    2013-12-01

    The heterogeneous reaction of sulfur dioxide on volcanic ash is investigated at room temperatures using a Knudsen cell operated in a steady state. The ash specimens correspond to Eyjafjallajokull (2010), Tungrahua (2012), Pinatubo (1991) and Chaiten (2008) eruptions. The initial uptake coefficient of sulfur dioxide on the ash studied is found to be in the order of 0.001-0.01. Eyjafjallajokull ash exhibits the highest reactivity. The adsorption of sulfur dioxide on the ash surface is irreversible and is accompanied by an oxidation reaction into sulfate, presumably driven by oxidizing agents already present on the ash surface. The presence of adsorbed water does not seem to influence sulfur dioxide adsorption. There is no evidence for a significant dependence of sulfur dioxide uptake on ash composition. The high reactivity of Eyjafjallajokull ash is tentatively attributed to abundant free hydroxyl groups formed on the surface of the ash particles during their transit through the vertical eruption plume. The atmospheric implications of our study will be presented.

  13. Tin Oxide Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Characterization and Study their Particle Size at Different Current Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karzan A. Omar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Tin oxide nanoparticles are prepared by electrochemical reduction method using tetrapropylammonium bromide (TPAB and tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB as structure directing agent in an organic medium viz. tetrahydrofuran (THF and acetonitrile (ACN in 4:1 ratio by optimizing current density and molar concentration of the ligand. The reduction process takes place under an inert atmosphere of nitrogen over a period of 2 h. Such nanoparticles are prepared by using a simple electrolysis cell in which the sacrificial anode as a commercially available in tin metal sheet and platinum (inert sheet act as a cathode. The parameters such as current density, solvent polarity, distance between electrodes and concentration of stabilizers are used to control the size of nanoparticles. The synthesized tin oxide nanoparticles are characterized by using UV–Visible, FT-IR and SEM–EDS analysis techniques. UV-Visible spectroscopy has revealed the optical band gap to be 4.13, 4.16 and 4.24 ev for (8, 10 and 12 mA/cm2 and the effect of current density on theirs particle size, respectively.

  14. Effects of ultrafine particles-induced oxidative stress on Clara cells in allergic lung inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Clara cell protein (CC16), the main secretory product of bronchiolar Clara cells, plays an important protective role in the respiratory tract against oxidative stress and inflammation. The purpose of the study was to investigate the role of elemental carbon ultrafine particles (EC-UFP)-induced oxidative stress on Clara cells and CC16 in a mouse model of allergic lung inflammation. Methods Ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized mice were exposed to EC-UFP (507 μg/m3 for 24 h) or filtered air immediately prior to allergen challenge and systemically treated with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) or vehicle prior and during EC-UFP inhalation. CC16 was measured up to one week after allergen challenge in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and in serum. The relative expression of CC16 and TNF-α mRNA were measured in lung homogenates. A morphometrical analysis of mucus hypersecretion and electron microscopy served to investigate goblet cell metaplasia and Clara cell morphological alterations. Results In non sensitized mice EC-UFP inhalation caused alterations in CC16 concentration, both at protein and mRNA level, and induced Clara cell hyperplasia. In sensitized mice, inhalation of EC-UFP prior to OVA challenge caused most significant alterations of BALF and serum CC16 concentration, BALF total protein and TNF-α relative expression compared to relevant controls; their Clara cells displayed the strongest morphological alterations and strongest goblet cell metaplasia occurred in the small airways. NAC strongly reduced both functional and morphological alterations of Clara cells. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate that oxidative stress plays an important role in EC-UFP-induced augmentation of functional and morphological alterations of Clara cells in allergic lung inflammation. PMID:20420656

  15. In vitro toxicity of nanosized copper particles in PC12 cells induced by oxidative stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Pengjuan; Xu Jing; Liu Shichang [Nankai University, College of Medicine (China); Ren, Guogang [University of Hertfordshire, School of Aerospace Engineering (United Kingdom); Yang Zhuo, E-mail: zhuoyang@nankai.edu.cn [Nankai University, College of Medicine (China)

    2012-06-15

    Recent evidence suggests that some nanomaterials, which are widely used in many fields, have health effects. In order to investigate the cytotoxicity induced by nanosized copper particles (nano-Cu), PC12 cells, which were widely used as an in vitro model for the neuron research, were treated with different concentrations (0, 1, 10, 30, and 100 {mu}g/mL) of nano-Cu. The cell viability was determined by measurement of the reduction product of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT). The oxidative stress induced by nano-Cu and its possible mechanism were studied in relation to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the cellular activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD). Results showed that incubation of PC12 cells with increasing concentrations of nano-Cu induced a decrease of cell viability in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. In addition, flow cytometry assay using Annexin V-FITC/PI staining was used to investigate the mode of nano-Cu-induced cell death and quantified the percentage of apoptotic cells. Results showed that nano-Cu induced the significant apoptosis in PC12 cells. Meanwhile, intracellular accumulation of ROS was increased with the increased concentrations of nano-Cu and it was associated with decreased SOD activity, which was probably due to protect effects against the oxidative stress in PC12 cells. Results suggested that both excessive intracellular ROS and decreased SOD contributed to nano-Cu-induced cytotoxicity. In other words, the increasing of oxidative stress was a key mechanism in PC12 apoptosis induced by nano-Cu.

  16. Effects of ultrafine particles-induced oxidative stress on Clara cells in allergic lung inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandrini, Francesca; Weichenmeier, Ingrid; van Miert, Erik; Takenaka, Shinji; Karg, Erwin; Blume, Cornelia; Mempel, Martin; Schulz, Holger; Bernard, Alfred; Behrendt, Heidrun

    2010-04-26

    Clara cell protein (CC16), the main secretory product of bronchiolar Clara cells, plays an important protective role in the respiratory tract against oxidative stress and inflammation. The purpose of the study was to investigate the role of elemental carbon ultrafine particles (EC-UFP)-induced oxidative stress on Clara cells and CC16 in a mouse model of allergic lung inflammation. Ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized mice were exposed to EC-UFP (507 microg/m(3) for 24 h) or filtered air immediately prior to allergen challenge and systemically treated with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) or vehicle prior and during EC-UFP inhalation. CC16 was measured up to one week after allergen challenge in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and in serum. The relative expression of CC16 and TNF-alpha mRNA were measured in lung homogenates. A morphometrical analysis of mucus hypersecretion and electron microscopy served to investigate goblet cell metaplasia and Clara cell morphological alterations. In non sensitized mice EC-UFP inhalation caused alterations in CC16 concentration, both at protein and mRNA level, and induced Clara cell hyperplasia. In sensitized mice, inhalation of EC-UFP prior to OVA challenge caused most significant alterations of BALF and serum CC16 concentration, BALF total protein and TNF-alpha relative expression compared to relevant controls; their Clara cells displayed the strongest morphological alterations and strongest goblet cell metaplasia occurred in the small airways. NAC strongly reduced both functional and morphological alterations of Clara cells. Our findings demonstrate that oxidative stress plays an important role in EC-UFP-induced augmentation of functional and morphological alterations of Clara cells in allergic lung inflammation.

  17. Development of efficient, small particle size luminescent oxides using combustion synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Lauren Elizabeth

    Luminescent materials (phosphors) find application in cathode-ray tubes (CRTs), medical and industrial equipment monitors, fluorescent lamps, xerography, and many types of flat panel displays. Many commercially available phosphors were optimized in the 1960s for high voltage (>10 kV) CRT applications. Recently, a great deal of emphasis has been placed on the development and improvement of phosphors for flat panel displays that operate at low voltages (displays demand high resolution phosphor screens which can only be realized using phosphors with smaller particle size (displays. This technique exploits the exothermic redox reaction of metal nitrates (oxidizers) with an organic fuel (reducing agent). Typical fuels include urea (CHsb4Nsb2O), carbohydrazide (CHsb6Nsb4O), or glycine (Csb2Hsb5NOsb2). Resulting powders were well-crystallized, with a large surface area and small particle size. Phosphor powders were exposed to photoluminescence excitation by high energy (254 nm, E = 4.88 eV) and low energy photons (365 nm, E = 3.4 eV and 435 nm, E = 2.85 eV) and cathodoluminescence excitation by a low-voltage (100-1000 V) electron beam. Photoluminescence (PL) techniques resulted in the measurement of spectral energy distribution and relative intensities. Phosphor efficiencies in lumens per watt (lm/W) were obtained by low-voltage cathodoluminescence measurements. The effects of processing parameters such as type of fuel, fuel to oxidizer ratio, and heating rate were studied. The combustion process was optimized based on these processing parameters in order to maximize the luminescence of the phosphor powders in the as-synthesized condition. An increase in PL intensity with increasing flame temperature of reaction was observed. Post-reaction annealing (1000-1600sp°C) increased the PL intensity and CL efficiency of the as-synthesized powders. Diffusion of the activator ions, particle growth, reduction of residual carbon impurities, disorder surrounding the activator ions

  18. Size-Dependent Neurotoxicity of Aluminum Oxide Particles: a Comparison Between Nano- and Micrometer Size on the Basis of Mitochondrial Oxidative Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirshafa, Atefeh; Nazari, Mehdi; Jahani, Daniel; Shaki, Fatemeh

    2017-08-30

    Aluminum nanoparticles (AlNPs) are among the most abundantly produced nanosized particles in the market. There is limited information about the potential harmful effects of aluminum oxide due to its particle size on human health. Considering the toxic effects of Al on brain as its target tissue, in this study, the toxicity of nanoparticles, microparticles, and ionic forms of Al on rat brain and isolated mitochondria was evaluated. Sixty male Wistar rats were divided into ten groups (six rats each), in which group I was the control, and the other groups were administered different doses of Al nanoparticles, Al microparticles (AlMP), and Al ionic forms (2, 4, and 8 mg/kg, i.p.) for 28 days. After 24 h, the animals were killed, brain tissue was separated, the mitochondrial fraction was isolated, and oxidative stress markers were measured. Also, mitochondrial function was assayed by MTT test. The results showed that all forms of Al particles induced ROS formation, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, glutathione depletion, mitochondrial dysfunction, and gait abnormalities in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, Al particles decreased mitochondrial membrane potential. These data indicated that oxidative stress might contribute to the toxicity effects of Al. Comparison of oxidative stress markers between all forms of Al revealed that the toxic effect of AlNP on brain tissue was substantially more than that caused by AlMP and bulk form. This study showed more neurotoxicity of AlNPs compared to other forms on brain oxidative damage that probably is due to more penetration into the brain.

  19. Alterations of CNS structure & function by charged particle radiation & resultant oxidative stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Gregory; Chang, Polly; Favre, Cecile; Fike, John; Komarova, Natalia; Limoli, Charles; Mao, Xiao-Wen; Obenaus, Andre; Raber, Jacob; Spigelman, Igor; Soltesz, Ivan; Song, Sheng-Kwei; Stampanoni, Marco; Vlkolinsky, Roman; Wodarz, Dominik

    were complex and suggested continuous remodeling of the brain for up to 6 months. Thus we demonstrated a suite of CNS structural and functional changes after proton and iron ion exposure in the low dose regime. Based on these findings we will now test whether oxidative stress mediates the reactions of CNS to radiation exposure and what role radiation quality and dose rate play in the responses. We will use cultured neural precursor cells (mouse human) to detect changes in oxidative status and differentiation as functions of charged particle charge and velocity. These results will inform the selection of particles for many in vivo measurements that will compare wild type mice to a transgenic strain that over-expresses a human catalase gene (which inactivates hydrogen peroxide) in the mitochondrial compartment. This will explicitly test the role of reactive oxygen species in mediating the mechanisms underlying the CNS endpoints that we will measure. We will extend the electrophysiological measurements on individual nerves in hippocampal slices to characterize both inhibitory and excitatory synapses. Further, multi-electrode arrays will be used to follow correlated electrical activity in different hippocampal regions in order to understand network-level function as well as synaptic efficacy and plasticity. Controlled oxidative stress on irradiated samples will explore whether response mechanisms are shared. To link alterations in neurogenesis to performance we will explore behavioral changes mediated by the hippocampus simultaneously with measures of expression of the Arc gene in newly-born neurons. This will test whether decrements in performance correlate with loss of new cells and whether behavior properly stimulates functional integration of the new cells; the behavioral paradigm will be contextual fear conditioning. We will develop mathematical frameworks for CNS responses to radiation in order to inform risk estimates. Finally, we will couple a high

  20. Nanosized ruthenium particles decorated carbon nanofibers as active catalysts for the oxidation of p-cymene by molecular oxygen

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Makgwane, PR

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Highly dispersed, nanosized ruthenium (Ru) particles anchored on carbon nanofibers (CNFs) with varying Ru loadings (1–7 wt.%) showed effective catalytic activity in the aerobic oxidation of p-cymene using molecular oxygen. The activity of the Ru...

  1. Comparative hazard identification of nano- and micro-sized cerium oxide particles based on 28-day inhalation studies in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosens, Ilse; Mathijssen, Liesbeth E A M; Bokkers, Bas G H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304847062; Muijser, Hans; Cassee, Flemming R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/143038990

    2014-01-01

    There are many uncertainties regarding the hazard of nanosized particles compared to the bulk material of the parent chemical. Here, the authors assess the comparative hazard of two nanoscale (NM-211 and NM-212) and one microscale (NM-213) cerium oxide materials in 28-day inhalation toxicity studies

  2. Green tea catechins prevent low-density lipoprotein oxidation via their accumulation in low-density lipoprotein particles in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki-Sugihara, Norie; Kishimoto, Yoshimi; Saita, Emi; Taguchi, Chie; Kobayashi, Makoto; Ichitani, Masaki; Ukawa, Yuuichi; Sagesaka, Yuko M; Suzuki, Emiko; Kondo, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Green tea is rich in polyphenols, including catechins which have antioxidant activities and are considered to have beneficial effects on cardiovascular health. In the present study, we investigated the effects of green tea catechins on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation in vitro and in human studies to test the hypothesis that catechins are incorporated into LDL particles and exert antioxidant properties. In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover trial, 19 healthy men ingested green tea extract (GTE) in the form of capsules at a dose of 1 g total catechin, of which most (>99%) was the gallated type. At 1 hour after ingestion, marked increases of the plasma concentrations of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate and (-)-epicatechin gallate were observed. Accordingly, the plasma total antioxidant capacity was increased, and the LDL oxidizability was significantly reduced by the ingestion of GTE. We found that gallated catechins were incorporated into LDL particles in nonconjugated forms after the incubation of GTE with plasma in vitro. Moreover, the catechin-incorporated LDL was highly resistant to radical-induced oxidation in vitro. An additional human study with 5 healthy women confirmed that GTE intake sufficiently increased the concentration of gallated catechins, mainly in nonconjugated forms in LDL particles, and reduced the oxidizability of LDL. In conclusion, green tea catechins are rapidly incorporated into LDL particles and play a role in reducing LDL oxidation in humans, which suggests that taking green tea catechins is effective in reducing atherosclerosis risk associated with oxidative stress.

  3. Agglomerates, smoke oxide particles, and carbon inclusions in condensed combustion products of an aluminized GAP-based propellant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, Wen; Liu, Peijin; Yang, Wenjing

    2016-12-01

    In solid propellants, aluminum is widely used to improve the performance, however the condensed combustion products especially the large agglomerates generated from aluminum combustion significantly affect the combustion and internal flow inside the solid rocket motor. To clarify the properties of the condensed combustion products of aluminized propellants, a constant-pressure quench vessel was adopted to collect the combustion products. The morphology and chemical compositions of the collected products, were then studied by using scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive (SEM-EDS) method. Various structures have been observed in the condensed combustion products. Apart from the typical agglomerates or smoke oxide particles observed before, new structures including the smoke oxide clusters, irregular agglomerates and carbon-inclusions are discovered and investigated. Smoke oxide particles have the highest amount in the products. The highly dispersed oxide particle is spherical with very smooth surface and is on the order of 1-2 μm, but due to the high temperature and long residence time, these small particles will aggregate into smoke oxide clusters which are much larger than the initial particles. Three types of spherical agglomerates have been found. As the ambient gas temperature is much higher than the boiling point of Al2O3, the condensation layer inside which the aluminum drop is burning would evaporate quickly, which result in the fact that few "hollow agglomerates" has been found compared to "cap agglomerates" and "solid agglomerates". Irregular agglomerates usually larger than spherical agglomerates. The formation of irregular agglomerates likely happens by three stages: deformation of spherical aluminum drops; combination of particles with various shape; finally production of irregular agglomerates. EDS results show the ratio of O to Al on the surface of agglomerates is lower in comparison to smoke oxide particles. C and O account for

  4. Experimental Study of the Ignition of Single Drops of Coal Suspensions and Coal Particles in the Oxidizer Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vershinina, K. Yu.; Glushkov, D. O.; Kuznetsov, G. V.; Strizhak, P. A.

    2017-01-01

    An experimental study has been made of the process of ignition of single drops of water-coal and organic water-coal suspensions and coal particles heated by the oxidizer flow. The low-temperature (400-600°C) regime of the initiation of combustion of commensurate (from 1 to 3 mm) drops of water-coal and organic water-coal suspensions and coal particles has been considered. With the use of a high-speed (up to 105 frames/s) video camera and Tema Automative software, the influence of the oxidizer temperature, the gas flow velocity, the size of suspension fuel drops, and the coal particle size on the conditions and integral characteristics of the induction period has been determined. The ignition delay times and the duration of the combustion process of the investigated fuel samples have been established. The features of the stages of stable low-temperature initiation of combustion have been determined.

  5. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of nanosized and microsized titanium dioxide and iron oxide particles in Syrian hamster embryo cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guichard, Yves; Schmit, Julien; Darne, Christian; Gaté, Laurent; Goutet, Michèle; Rousset, Davy; Rastoix, Olivier; Wrobel, Richard; Witschger, Olivier; Martin, Aurélie; Fierro, Vanessa; Binet, Stéphane

    2012-07-01

    Potential differences in the toxicological properties of nanosized and non-nanosized particles have been notably pointed out for titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) particles, which are currently widely produced and used in many industrial areas. Nanoparticles of the iron oxides magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)) and hematite (Fe(2)O(3)) also have many industrial applications but their toxicological properties are less documented than those of TiO(2). In the present study, the in vitro cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of commercially available nanosized and microsized anatase TiO(2), rutile TiO(2), Fe(3)O(4), and Fe(2)O(3) particles were compared in Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells. Samples were characterized for chemical composition, primary particle size, crystal phase, shape, and specific surface area. In acellular assays, TiO(2) and iron oxide particles were able to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS). At the same mass dose, all nanoparticles produced higher levels of ROS than their microsized counterparts. Measurement of particle size in the SHE culture medium showed that primary nanoparticles and microparticles are present in the form of micrometric agglomerates of highly poly-dispersed size. Uptake of primary particles and agglomerates by SHE exposed for 24 h was observed for all samples. TiO(2) samples were found to be more cytotoxic than iron oxide samples. Concerning primary size effects, anatase TiO(2), rutile TiO(2), and Fe(2)O(3) nanoparticles induced higher cytotoxicity than their microsized counterparts after 72 h of exposure. Over this treatment time, anatase TiO(2) and Fe(2)O(3) nanoparticles also produced more intracellular ROS compared to the microsized particles. However, similar levels of DNA damage were observed in the comet assay after 24 h of exposure to anatase nanoparticles and microparticles. Rutile microparticles were found to induce more DNA damage than the nanosized particles. However, no significant increase in DNA damage was detected from nanosized and

  6. Influence of heat treatment temperature on bonding and oxidation resistance of diamond particles coated with TiO2 film

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Xiao-Pan Liu; Dong-Dong Song; Long Wan; Xian-Bing Pang; Zheng Li

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, TiO2 films were coated on the surface of diamond particles using a sol–gel method. The effects of heat treatment temperature on the morphology, composition, chemical bonds, oxidation resistance and compressive strength of diamond particles coated with TiO2 films were characterized through scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, thermogravimetric–differential scanning calorimetry and compressive strength test. The results showed that when the temperature reached 600°C, the amorphous TiO2 on the diamond particles surface exhibited as a dense anatase film and the Ti–O–C bond formed between TiO2 and the diamond substrates. When temperature reached 800°C, TiO2 films were still in anatase phase and part of the diamond carbon began to graphitize. The graphitizated carbon can also form the Ti–O–C bond with TiO2 film, although TiO2 film would tend to crack in this condition. Meanwhile, the temperature had a serious influence on the oxidation resistance of diamond particles coated with TiO2 films in air. When the heat treatment temperature reached 600°C, the initial oxidation temperature of the coated diamond particles reached the maximum value of 754°C. When the diamond particles were oxidized at 800°C for 0.5 h in air, the weight loss rate reached the minimum value of 6.7 wt% and the compressive strength reached the maximum value of 15.7 N.

  7. Health Risks of Space Exploration: Targeted and Nontargeted Oxidative Injury by High-Charge and High-Energy Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Gonon, Géraldine; Buonanno, Manuela; Autsavapromporn, Narongchai; de Toledo, Sonia M.; Pain, Debkumar

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: During deep space travel, astronauts are often exposed to high atomic number (Z) and high-energy (E) (high charge and high energy [HZE]) particles. On interaction with cells, these particles cause severe oxidative injury and result in unique biological responses. When cell populations are exposed to low fluences of HZE particles, a significant fraction of the cells are not traversed by a primary radiation track, and yet, oxidative stress induced in the targeted cells may spread to nearby bystander cells. The long-term effects are more complex because the oxidative effects persist in progeny of the targeted and affected bystander cells, which promote genomic instability and may increase the risk of age-related cancer and degenerative diseases. Recent Advances: Greater understanding of the spatial and temporal features of reactive oxygen species bursts along the tracks of HZE particles, and the availability of facilities that can simulate exposure to space radiations have supported the characterization of oxidative stress from targeted and nontargeted effects. Critical Issues: The significance of secondary radiations generated from the interaction of the primary HZE particles with biological material and the mitigating effects of antioxidants on various cellular injuries are central to understanding nontargeted effects and alleviating tissue injury. Future Directions: Elucidation of the mechanisms underlying the cellular responses to HZE particles, particularly under reduced gravity and situations of exposure to additional radiations, such as protons, should be useful in reducing the uncertainty associated with current models for predicting long-term health risks of space radiation. These studies are also relevant to hadron therapy of cancer. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 1501–1523. PMID:24111926

  8. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of nitric oxide-releasing polymeric particles against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli from bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardozo, Viviane F; Lancheros, Cesar A C; Narciso, Adélia M; Valereto, Elaine C S; Kobayashi, Renata K T; Seabra, Amedea B; Nakazato, Gerson

    2014-10-01

    Bovine mastitis is a serious veterinary disease that causes great loss to the dairy industry worldwide. It is a major infectious disease and is difficult to manage and control. Furthermore, emerging multidrug resistant bacteria that cause mastitis have complicated such management. The free radical nitric oxide (NO) is a potent antimicrobial agent. Thus, the aims of this study were to prepare and evaluate the antibacterial activity of nitric oxide-releasing polymeric particles against Staphylococcus aureus (MBSA) and Escherichia coli (MBEC), which were isolated from bovine mastitis. Fifteen MBSA isolates and fifteen MBEC were collected from subclinical and clinical bovine mastitis. Biocompatible polymeric particles composed of alginate/chitosan or chitosan/sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) were prepared and used to encapsulate mercaptosuccinic acid (MSA), which is a thiol-containing molecule. Nitrosation of thiol groups of MSA-containing particles formed S-nitroso-MSA particles, which are NO donors. The NO release kinetics from the S-nitroso-MSA particles showed sustained and controlled NO release over several hours. The antibacterial activity of NO-releasing particles was evaluated by incubating the particles with an MBSA multi-resistant strain, which is responsible for bovine mastitis. The minimum inhibitory concentration for S-nitroso-MSA-alginate/chitosan particles against MBSA ranged from 125 μg/mL to 250 μg/mL. The results indicate that NO-releasing polymeric particles are an interesting approach to combating bacteria resistance in bovine mastitis treatment and prevention. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Spherical silica particles decorated with graphene oxide nanosheets as a new sorbent in inorganic trace analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sitko, Rafal, E-mail: rafal.sitko@us.edu.pl [University of Silesia, Institute of Chemistry, ul. Szkolna 9, 40-006 Katowice (Poland); Zawisza, Beata [University of Silesia, Institute of Chemistry, ul. Szkolna 9, 40-006 Katowice (Poland); Talik, Ewa [University of Silesia, Institute of Physics, ul. Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Janik, Paulina; Osoba, Grzegorz; Feist, Barbara; Malicka, Ewa [University of Silesia, Institute of Chemistry, ul. Szkolna 9, 40-006 Katowice (Poland)

    2014-06-27

    Highlights: • Graphene oxide (GO) covalently bonded to the spherical silica. • Very stable sorbent for SPE of metal ions. • Excellent contact with solution due to the softness and flexibility of GO nanosheets. • Several adsorption–elution cycles without any loss of adsorptive properties. • High adsorption capacity due to the wrinkled structure of GO nanosheets. - Abstract: Graphene oxide (GO) is a novel material with excellent adsorptive properties. However, the very small particles of GO can cause serious problems is solid-phase extraction (SPE) such as the high pressure in SPE system and the adsorbent loss through pores of frit. These problems can be overcome by covalently binding GO nanosheets to a support. In this paper, GO was covalently bonded to spherical silica by coupling the amino groups of spherical aminosilica and the carboxyl groups of GO (GO@SiO{sub 2}). The successful immobilization of GO nanosheets on the aminosilica was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The spherical particle covered by GO with crumpled silk wave-like carbon sheets are an ideal sorbent for SPE of metal ions. The wrinkled structure of the coating results in large surface area and a high extractive capacity. The adsorption bath experiment shows that Cu(II) and Pb(II) can be quantitatively adsorbed at pH 5.5 with maximum adsorption capacity of 6.0 and 13.6 mg g{sup −1}, respectively. Such features of GO nanosheets as softness and flexibility allow achieving excellent contact with analyzed solution in flow-rate conditions. In consequence, the metal ions can be quantitatively preconcentrated from high volume of aqueous samples with excellent flow-rate. SPE column is very stable and several adsorption–elution cycles can be performed without any loss of adsorptive properties. The GO@SiO{sub 2} was used for analysis of various water samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry with excellent enrichment factors (200–250) and

  10. Atherosclerotic imaging using 4 types of superparamagnetic iron oxides: New possibilities for mannan-coated particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchiya, Keiko, E-mail: keikot@belle.shiga-medac.jp [Department of Radiology, Shiga University of Medical Science, Setatsukinowa-cho, Otsu, Shiga 520-2192 (Japan); Nitta, Norihisa, E-mail: r34nitta@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Radiology, Shiga University of Medical Science, Setatsukinowa-cho, Otsu, Shiga 520-2192 (Japan); Sonoda, Akinaga, E-mail: akinagasonoda@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Radiology, Shiga University of Medical Science, Setatsukinowa-cho, Otsu, Shiga 520-2192 (Japan); Otani, Hideji, E-mail: otani@belle.shiga-med.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Shiga University of Medical Science, Setatsukinowa-cho, Otsu, Shiga 520-2192 (Japan); Takahashi, Masashi, E-mail: masashi@belle.shiga-med.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Shiga University of Medical Science, Setatsukinowa-cho, Otsu, Shiga 520-2192 (Japan); Murata, Kiyoshi, E-mail: murata@belle.shiga-med.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Shiga University of Medical Science, Setatsukinowa-cho, Otsu, Shiga 520-2192 (Japan); Shiomi, Masashi, E-mail: ieakusm@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Institute for Experimental Animals, Kobe University School of Medicine, 7-5-1 Kusunoki-cho, Tyuoku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Tabata, Yasuhiko, E-mail: yasuhiko@frontier.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Biomaterials, Institute for Frontier Medical Sciences, Kyoto University, 53 Syogoin-Kawahara-cho, Sakyoku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Nohara, Satoshi, E-mail: s-nohara@meito-sangyo.co.jp [The Nagoya Research Laboratory, Meito Sangyo Co., Ltd., 25-5 Nishibiwajima-cho, Kiyosu, Aichi 452-0067 (Japan)

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: We used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histologic techniques to compare the uptake by the rabbit atherosclerotic wall of 4 types of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) particles, i.e. SPIO, mannan-coated SPIO (M-SPIO), ultrasmall SPIO (USPIO), and mannan-coated USPIO (M-USPIO). Materials and methods: All experimental protocols were approved by our institutional animal experimentation committee. We intravenously injected 12 Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits with one of the 4 types of SPIO (0.8 mmol Fe/kg). Two other rabbits served as the control. The rabbits underwent in vivo contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) before- and 5 days after these injections; excised aortae were subjected to in vitro MRI. In the in vivo and in vitro studies we assessed the signal intensity of the vessels at identical regions of interest (ROI) and calculated the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). For histologic assessment we evaluated the iron-positive regions in Prussian blue-stained specimens. Results: There were significant differences in iron-positive regions where M-USPIO > USPIO, M-SPIO > SPIO, USPIO > SPIO (p < 0.05) but not between M-USPIO and M-SPIO. The difference between the pre- and post-injection SNR was significantly greater in rabbits treated with M-USPIO than USPIO and in rabbits injected with M-SPIO than SPIO (p < 0.05). On in vitro MRI scans SNR tended to be lower in M-USPIO- and M-SPIO- than USPIO- and SPIO-treated rabbits (p < 0.1). Conclusion: Histologic and imaging analysis showed that mannan-coated SPIO and USPIO particles were taken up more readily by the atherosclerotic rabbit wall than uncoated SPIO and USPIO.

  11. Genotoxicity assessment of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with different particle sizes and surface coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanping; Xia, Qiyue; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Shuyang; Cheng, Feng; Zhong, Zhihui; Wang, Li; Li, Hongxia; Xiao, Kai

    2014-10-01

    Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) have been widely used for various biomedical applications such as magnetic resonance imaging and drug delivery. However, their potential toxic effects, including genotoxicity, need to be thoroughly understood. In the present study, the genotoxicity of IONPs with different particle sizes (10, 30 nm) and surface coatings (PEG, PEI) were assessed using three standard genotoxicity assays, the Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation assay (Ames test), the in vitro mammalian chromosome aberration test, and the in vivo micronucleus assay. In the Ames test, SMG-10 (PEG coating, 10 nm) showed a positive mutagenic response in all the five test bacterial strains with and without metabolic activation, whereas SEI-10 (PEI coating, 10 nm) showed no mutagenesis in all tester strains regardless of metabolic activation. SMG-30 (PEG coating, 30 nm) was not mutagenic in the absence of metabolic activation, and became mutagenic in the presence of metabolic activation. In the chromosomal aberration test, no increase in the incidence of chromosomal aberrations was observed for all three IONPs. In the in vivo micronucleus test, there was no evidence of increased micronuclei frequencies for all three IONPs, indicating that they were not clastogenic in vivo. Taken together, our results demonstrated that IONPs with PEG coating exhibited mutagenic activity without chromosomal and clastogenic abnormalities, and smaller IONPs (SMG-10) had stronger mutagenic potential than larger ones (SMG-30); whereas, IONPs with SEI coating (SEI-10) were not genotoxic in all three standard genotoxicity assays. This suggests that the mutagenicity of IONPs depends on their particle size and surface coating.

  12. Genotoxicity assessment of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with different particle sizes and surface coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanping; Xia, Qiyue; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Shuyang; Cheng, Feng; Zhong, Zhihui; Wang, Li; Li, Hongxia; Xiao, Kai

    2014-10-24

    Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) have been widely used for various biomedical applications such as magnetic resonance imaging and drug delivery. However, their potential toxic effects, including genotoxicity, need to be thoroughly understood. In the present study, the genotoxicity of IONPs with different particle sizes (10, 30 nm) and surface coatings (PEG, PEI) were assessed using three standard genotoxicity assays, the Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation assay (Ames test), the in vitro mammalian chromosome aberration test, and the in vivo micronucleus assay. In the Ames test, SMG-10 (PEG coating, 10 nm) showed a positive mutagenic response in all the five test bacterial strains with and without metabolic activation, whereas SEI-10 (PEI coating, 10 nm) showed no mutagenesis in all tester strains regardless of metabolic activation. SMG-30 (PEG coating, 30 nm) was not mutagenic in the absence of metabolic activation, and became mutagenic in the presence of metabolic activation. In the chromosomal aberration test, no increase in the incidence of chromosomal aberrations was observed for all three IONPs. In the in vivo micronucleus test, there was no evidence of increased micronuclei frequencies for all three IONPs, indicating that they were not clastogenic in vivo. Taken together, our results demonstrated that IONPs with PEG coating exhibited mutagenic activity without chromosomal and clastogenic abnormalities, and smaller IONPs (SMG-10) had stronger mutagenic potential than larger ones (SMG-30); whereas, IONPs with SEI coating (SEI-10) were not genotoxic in all three standard genotoxicity assays. This suggests that the mutagenicity of IONPs depends on their particle size and surface coating.

  13. Sex Differences in the Impact of the Mediterranean Diet on LDL Particle Size Distribution and Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Bédard

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Sex differences have been previously highlighted in the cardioprotective effects of the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet. The objective of this study was to investigate whether sex differences also exist with regard to LDL particle size distribution and oxidation. Participants were 37 men and 32 premenopausal women (24–53 years with slightly elevated LDL-C concentrations (3.4–4.9 mmol/L or total cholesterol/HDL-C ≥5.0. Variables were measured before and after a four-week isoenergetic MedDiet. Sex differences were found in response to the MedDiet for the proportion of medium LDL (255–260 Å (p for sex-by-time interaction = 0.01 and small, dense LDL (sdLDL; <255 Å (trend; p for sex-by-time interaction = 0.06, men experiencing an increase in the proportion of medium LDL with a concomitant reduction in the proportion of sdLDL, while an opposite trend was observed in women. A sex difference was also noted for estimated cholesterol concentrations among sdLDL (p for sex-by-time interaction = 0.03, with only men experiencing a reduction in response to the MedDiet. The MedDiet marginally reduced oxidized LDL (oxLDL concentrations (p = 0.07, with no sex difference. Results suggest that short-term consumption of the MedDiet leads to a favorable redistribution of LDL subclasses from smaller to larger LDL only in men. These results highlight the importance of considering sex issues in cardiovascular benefits of the MedDiet.

  14. Nanoionics phenomenon in proton-conducting oxide: Effect of dispersion of nanosize platinum particles on electrical conduction properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshige Matsumoto et al

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available High-temperature proton conductors are oxides in which low-valence cations are doped as electron acceptors; the incorporation of water molecules into the oxides results in the formation of protonic defects that act as charge carriers. Since the protons thus formed are in equilibrium with other electronic defects, electrons and holes, the oxides possibly have different proton-conduction properties at and near boundaries when they are in contact with another phase. In this paper, we present our recent experimental observation of a marked change in the electrical properties of a proton conductor upon the dispersal of fine platinum particles in the oxide. First, the material shows extremely low electrical conductivity in comparison with the original proton-conducting perovskite. Second, there was a threshold amount of platinum at which such a drop in conductivity occurred. A percolation model is employed to explain these experimental results; the fine platinum particles dispersed in the proton-conducting oxide wears highly resistive skin that is formed due to shifts in defect equilibriums, which prevents ionic/electronic conduction. The experiments suggest that the ion-conducting properties of oxides can be varied by introducing interfaces at a certain density; nanoionics is a key to yielding enhanced and/or controlled ionic conduction in solids.

  15. Iron oxide-mediated semiconductor photocatalysis vs. heterogeneous photo-Fenton treatment of viruses in wastewater. Impact of the oxide particle size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakis, Stefanos; Liu, Siting; Carratalà, Anna; Rtimi, Sami; Talebi Amiri, Masoud; Bensimon, Michaël; Pulgarin, César

    2017-10-05

    The photo-Fenton process is recognized as a promising technique towards microorganism disinfection in wastewater, but its efficiency is hampered at near-neutral pH operating values. In this work, we overcome these obstacles by using the heterogeneous photo-Fenton process as the default disinfecting technique, targeting MS2 coliphage in wastewater. The use of low concentrations of iron oxides in wastewater without H2O2 (wüstite, maghemite, magnetite) has demonstrated limited semiconductor-mediated MS2 inactivation. Changing the operational pH and the size of the oxide particles indicated that the isoelectric point of the iron oxides and the active surface area are crucial in the success of the process, and the possible underlying mechanisms are investigated. Furthermore, the addition of low amounts of Fe-oxides (1mgL(-1)) and H2O2 in the system (1, 5 and 10mgL(-1)) greatly enhanced the inactivation process, leading to heterogeneous photo-Fenton processes on the surface of the magnetically separable oxides used. Additionally, photo-dissolution of iron in the bulk, lead to homogeneous photo-Fenton, further aided by the complexation by the dissolved organic matter in the solution. Finally, we assess the impact of the presence of the bacterial host and the difference caused by the different iron sources (salts, oxides) and the Fe-oxide size (normal, nano-sized). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of Particle Filters and Accelerated Engine Replacement on Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicle Emissions of Black Carbon, Nitrogen Oxides, and Ultrafine Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchstetter, T.; Preble, C.; Dallmann, T. R.; DeMartini, S. J.; Tang, N. W.; Kreisberg, N. M.; Hering, S. V.; Harley, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    Diesel particle filters have become widely used in the United States since the introduction in 2007 of a more stringent exhaust particulate matter emission standard for new heavy-duty diesel vehicle engines. California has instituted additional regulations requiring retrofit or replacement of older in-use engines to accelerate emission reductions and air quality improvements. This presentation summarizes pollutant emission changes measured over several field campaigns at the Port of Oakland in the San Francisco Bay Area associated with diesel particulate filter use and accelerated modernization of the heavy-duty truck fleet. Pollutants in the exhaust plumes of hundreds of heavy-duty trucks en route to the Port were measured in 2009, 2010, 2011, and 2013. Ultrafine particle number, black carbon (BC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations were measured at a frequency ≤ 1 Hz and normalized to measured carbon dioxide concentrations to quantify fuel-based emission factors (grams of pollutant emitted per kilogram of diesel consumed). The size distribution of particles in truck exhaust plumes was also measured at 1 Hz. In the two most recent campaigns, emissions were linked on a truck-by-truck basis to installed emission control equipment via the matching of transcribed license plates to a Port truck database. Accelerated replacement of older engines with newer engines and retrofit of trucks with diesel particle filters reduced fleet-average emissions of BC and NOx. Preliminary results from the two most recent field campaigns indicate that trucks without diesel particle filters emit 4 times more BC than filter-equipped trucks. Diesel particle filters increase emissions of NO2, however, and filter-equipped trucks have NO2/NOx ratios that are 4 to 7 times greater than trucks without filters. Preliminary findings related to particle size distribution indicate that (a) most trucks emitted particles characterized by a single mode of approximately

  17. Oxidation of shallow conduit magma: Insight from μ-XANES analysis on volcanic ash particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwa, T.; Ishibashi, H.; Iguchi, M.

    2014-12-01

    Redox state of magma is important to understand dynamics of volcanic eruptions because magma properties such as composition of degassed volatiles, stability field of minerals, and rheology of magma depend on redox state. To evaluate redox state of magma, Fe3+/ΣFe ratio [= Fe3+/( Fe3++ Fe2+)] of volcanic glass has been measured non-destructively by Fe-K edge μ-XANES (micro X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure) spectroscopy (e.g., Cottrell and Kelly, 2011). We performed textural, compositional, and Fe-K edge μ-XANES analyses on volcanic ash to infer oxidation process of magma at shallow conduit during eruption at Bromo Volcano, Indonesia. The volcanic ash particles were collected in 24th March 2011 by real-time sampling from ongoing activity. The activity was characterized by strombolian eruption showing magma head ascended to near the ground surface. The ash sample contains two type of volcanic glasses named as Brown and Black glasses (BrG and BlG), based on their color. Textual analysis shows microlite crystallinities are same in the two type of glasses, ranging from 0 to 3 vol.%. EPMA analyses show that all of the glasses have almost identical andesitic composition with SiO2 = 60 wt.%. In contrast, Fe-K edge μ-XANES spectra with the analytical method by Ishibashi et al. (in prep) demonstrate that BrG (Fe3+/ΣFe = 0.20-0.26) is more oxidized than BlG (Fe3+/ΣFe = 0.32-0.60). From combination of the glass composition, the measured Fe3+/ΣFe ratio and 1060 degree C of temperature (Kress and Carmichael, 1991), the oxygen fugacities are estimated to be NNO and NNO+4 for BrG and BlG, respectively. The volcanic glasses preserve syn-eruptive physicochemical conditions by rapid quenching due to their small size ranging from 125 to 250 μm. Our results demonstrate that BrG and BlG magmas are textually and chemically identical but their redox conditions are different at the eruption. The oxidation of magma can be caused by following two processes; 1) diffusive transport

  18. Size and Shape Prediction of Colloidal Metal Oxide MgBaFeO Particles from Light Scattering Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aslan, Mustafa M., E-mail: maslan@engr.uky.edu; Menguec, Mustafa Pinar [University of Kentucky, Dept of Mechanical Engineering (United States); Manickavasagam, Siva; Saltiel, Craig [Synergetic Technologies Inc. (United States)

    2006-12-15

    The size and structure of colloidal metal oxide (MgBaFeO) particles are determined using an Elliptically Polarized Light Scattering (EPLS) technique. The approach is based on a hybrid experimental/theoretical study where the experimental data are compared against predictions obtained using a T-Matrix model that accounts for particle shape irregularities. A power-law distribution function with two parameters is employed to account for the particle size distribution. The refractive index of the particles in ethyl alcohol is calculated based on the Maxwell-Garnet formula. The experiments are conducted using a second-generation nephelometer. It is shown that the current EPLS measurements can effectively be used for identification of both the shape and the size of the colloids.

  19. The limits of testing particle-mediated oxidative stress in vitro in predicting diverse pathologies; relevance for testing of nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulumian Mary

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In vitro studies with particles are a major staple of particle toxicology, generally used to investigate mechanisms and better understand the molecular events underlying cellular effects. However, there is ethical and financial pressure in nanotoxicology, the new sub-specialty of particle toxicology, to avoid using animals. Therefore an increasing amount of studies are being published using in vitro approaches and such studies require careful interpretation. We point out here that 3 different conventional pathogenic particle types, PM10, asbestos and quartz, which cause diverse pathological effects, have been reported to cause very similar oxidative stress effects in cells in culture. We discuss the likely explanation and implications of this apparent paradox, and its relevance for testing in nanotoxicology.

  20. Magnetic separation of encapsulated islet cells labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide nano particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mettler, Esther; Trenkler, Anja; Feilen, Peter J; Wiegand, Frederik; Fottner, Christian; Ehrhart, Friederike; Zimmermann, Heiko; Hwang, Yong Hwa; Lee, Dong Yun; Fischer, Stefan; Schreiber, Laura M; Weber, Matthias M

    2013-01-01

    Islet cell transplantation is a promising option for the restoration of normal glucose homeostasis in patients with type 1 diabetes. Because graft volume is a crucial issue in islet transplantations for patients with diabetes, we evaluated a new method for increasing functional tissue yield in xenogeneic grafts of encapsulated islets. Islets were labeled with three different superparamagnetic iron oxide nano particles (SPIONs; dextran-coated SPION, siloxane-coated SPION, and heparin-coated SPION). Magnetic separation was performed to separate encapsulated islets from the empty capsules, and cell viability and function were tested. Islets labeled with 1000 μg Fe/ml dextran-coated SPIONs experienced a 69.9% reduction in graft volume, with a 33.2% loss of islet-containing capsules. Islets labeled with 100 μg Fe/ml heparin-coated SPIONs showed a 46.4% reduction in graft volume, with a 4.5% loss of capsules containing islets. No purification could be achieved using siloxane-coated SPIONs due to its toxicity to the primary islets. SPION labeling of islets is useful for transplant purification during islet separation as well as in vivo imaging after transplantation. Furthermore, purification of encapsulated islets can also reduce the volume of the encapsulated islets without impairing their function by removing empty capsules.

  1. NOM removal by adsorption and membrane filtration using heated aluminum oxide particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhenxiao; Kim, Jaeshin; Benjamin, Mark M

    2008-01-15

    Heated aluminum oxide particles (HAOPs) are a newly synthesized adsorbent with attractive properties for use in hybrid adsorption/membrane filtration systems. This study compared removal of natural organic matter (NOM) from water by adsorption onto HAOPs with that by adsorption onto powdered activated carbon (PAC) or coagulation with alum or ferric chloride (FeCl3); explored the overlap between the NOM molecules that preferentially adsorb to HAOPs and those that are removed by the more conventional approaches; and evaluated NOM removal and fouling in hybrid adsorbent/membrane systems. For equivalent molar doses of the trivalent metals, HAOPs remove more NOM, and NOM with higher SUVA254, than alum or FeCl3. Most of the HAOPs-nonadsorbable fraction of the NOM can be adsorbed by PAC; in fact, that fraction appears to be preferentially adsorbed compared to the average NOM in untreated water. Predeposition of the adsorbents on a microfiltration membrane improves system performance. For the water tested, at a flux of 100 L/m2-hr, predeposition of 11 mg/L PAC and 5 mg/L HAOPs (as Al3+) allowed the system to operate 5 times as long before the transmembrane pressure increased by 1 psi and to remove 10-20 times as much NOM as when no adsorbents were added.

  2. Exposure to O-16 particle irradiation causes age-like decrements in rats through increased oxidative stress, inflammation and loss of autophagy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposing young rats to particles of high energy and charge (HZE particles) enhances indices of oxidative stress and inflammation, disrupts the functioning of neuronal communication, and alters cognitive behaviors. Even though exposure to these highly charged particles occurs at low fluence rates, p...

  3. Synthesis of sub-nanosized Pt particles on mesoporous SBA-15 material and its application to the CO oxidation reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hung-Chi; Chen, Tse-Ching; Lai, Nien-Chu; Yang, Chia-Min; Wu, Jia-Huang; Chen, Yan-Chu; Lee, Jyh-Fu; Chen, Ching-Shiun

    2015-10-01

    In this work, we show that the size and shape of Pt nanoparticles in SBA-15 can be controlled through vacuum and air calcination. The vacuum-calcination/H2-reduction process is used to thermally treat a 0.2 wt% Pt4+/SBA-15 sample to obtain small 2D clusters and single atoms that can significantly increase Pt dispersion in SBA-15. Compared with thermal treatments involving air-calcination/H2-reduction, which result in ~4.6 nm rod-like Pt particles, vacuum-calcination/H2-reduction can dramatically reduce the size of the Pt species to approximately 0.5-0.8 nm. The Pt particles undergoing air-calcination/H2-reduction have poor conversion efficiency because the fraction of terrace sites, the major sites for CO oxidation, on the rod-like Pt particles is small. In contrast, a large amount of low-coordinated Pt sites associated with 2D Pt species and single Pt atoms in SBA-15 is effectively generated through the vacuum-calcination/H2-reduction process, which may facilitate CO adsorption and induce strong reactivity toward CO oxidation. We investigated the effect of vacuum-calcination/H2-reduction on the formation of tiny 2D clusters and single atoms by characterizing the particles, elucidating the mechanism of formation, determining the active sites for CO oxidation and measuring the heat of CO adsorption.

  4. Dysfunctional lipoproteins from young smokers exacerbate cellular senescence and atherogenesis with smaller particle size and severe oxidation and glycation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ki-Hoon; Shin, Dong-Gu; Cho, Kyung-Hyun

    2014-07-01

    Until now, there has been limited information on the effects of smoking on atherogenesis and senescence in the context of lipoprotein parameters, particularly in young smokers who have smoked fewer than 10 cigarettes per day for 3 years. In this study, lipoprotein profiles and functions were compared between smoker (n = 21) and control groups (n = 20). In the smoking group, ferric ion reduction abilities of serum and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) fractions were significantly reduced, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) was severely oxidized. All lipoprotein particles from the smoker group showed higher advanced glycated end products with more triglyceride (TG) content compared with the control group. Lipoproteins from smokers showed faster agarose gel electromobility as well as greater smear band intensity in SDS-PAGE due to oxidation and glycation. LDL from smokers was more sensitive to oxidation and promoted foam cell forma-tion in macrophages. Gel filtration column chromatography revealed that the protein and cholesterol peaks of VLDL and LDL were elevated in the smoker group, whereas those of HDL were reduced. Human dermal fibroblast cells from the smoker group showed severe senescence following treatment with HDL2 and HDL3. Although HDL from young smokers showed impaired antioxidant ability, smaller particle size, and increased TG content, cholesteryl ester transfer protein activities were greatly enhanced in the serum and HDL fractions of the smoker group. In conclusion, smoking can cause production of dysfunctional lipoproteins having a smaller particle size that exacerbate senescence and atherogenic progress due to oxidation and glycation.

  5. Iron oxide nanoparticle-micelles (ION-micelles for sensitive (molecular magnetic particle imaging and magnetic resonance imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas W E Starmans

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONs are a promising nanoplatform for contrast-enhanced MRI. Recently, magnetic particle imaging (MPI was introduced as a new imaging modality, which is able to directly visualize magnetic particles and could serve as a more sensitive and quantitative alternative to MRI. However, MPI requires magnetic particles with specific magnetic properties for optimal use. Current commercially available iron oxide formulations perform suboptimal in MPI, which is triggering research into optimized synthesis strategies. Most synthesis procedures aim at size control of iron oxide nanoparticles rather than control over the magnetic properties. In this study, we report on the synthesis, characterization and application of a novel ION platform for sensitive MPI and MRI. METHODS AND RESULTS: IONs were synthesized using a thermal-decomposition method and subsequently phase-transferred by encapsulation into lipidic micelles (ION-Micelles. Next, the material and magnetic properties of the ION-Micelles were analyzed. Most notably, vibrating sample magnetometry measurements showed that the effective magnetic core size of the IONs is 16 nm. In addition, magnetic particle spectrometry (MPS measurements were performed. MPS is essentially zero-dimensional MPI and therefore allows to probe the potential of iron oxide formulations for MPI. ION-Micelles induced up to 200 times higher signal in MPS measurements than commercially available iron oxide formulations (Endorem, Resovist and Sinerem and thus likely allow for significantly more sensitive MPI. In addition, the potential of the ION-Micelle platform for molecular MPI and MRI was showcased by MPS and MRI measurements of fibrin-binding peptide functionalized ION-Micelles (FibPep-ION-Micelles bound to blood clots. CONCLUSIONS: The presented data underlines the potential of the ION-Micelle nanoplatform for sensitive (molecular MPI and warrants further investigation of the Fib

  6. Exploring the Different Roles of Particle Size in Photoelectrochemical and Photocatalytic Water Oxidation on BiVO4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hui Ling; Amal, Rose; Ng, Yun Hau

    2016-10-11

    Water oxidation on visible-light-active bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) has commonly been demonstrated to be viable in powder suspension (PS) and particulate photoelectrochemical (PEC) systems. Here, we demonstrate that particle size reduction, which is known to be efficacious in promoting charge carrier extraction and boosting surface active sites, has an opposite effect on BiVO4's photoactivity in the two systems. With three BiVO4 samples of distinctive particle sizes, smaller BiVO4 particle size is shown to be beneficial for enhancing PEC photocurrent generation, but deleterious for photocatalytic O2 evolution on suspended BiVO4. Such contrary effect of particle size in the PEC and PS systems is revealed to be due to the different governing factors of the systems: charge transport in the former and charge separation in the latter. Smaller particle size was found to enrich the interparticle and the particle/FTO substrate contacts which improve charge transport and charge collection efficiency in BiVO4 particulate electrode. On the contrary, larger particle size is necessary for improved photocatalytic O2 evolution because of increased crystallinity and greater band bending, which are essential for charge separation.

  7. Sintered indium-tin oxide particles induce pro-inflammatory responses in vitro, in part through inflammasome activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa A Badding

    Full Text Available Indium-tin oxide (ITO is used to make transparent conductive coatings for touch-screen and liquid crystal display electronics. As the demand for consumer electronics continues to increase, so does the concern for occupational exposures to particles containing these potentially toxic metal oxides. Indium-containing particles have been shown to be cytotoxic in cultured cells and pro-inflammatory in pulmonary animal models. In humans, pulmonary alveolar proteinosis and fibrotic interstitial lung disease have been observed in ITO facility workers. However, which ITO production materials may be the most toxic to workers and how they initiate pulmonary inflammation remain poorly understood. Here we examined four different particle samples collected from an ITO production facility for their ability to induce pro-inflammatory responses in vitro. Tin oxide, sintered ITO (SITO, and ventilation dust particles activated nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB within 3 h of treatment. However, only SITO induced robust cytokine production (IL-1β, IL-6, TNFα, and IL-8 within 24 h in both RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages and BEAS-2B human bronchial epithelial cells. Our lab and others have previously demonstrated SITO-induced cytotoxicity as well. These findings suggest that SITO particles activate the NLRP3 inflammasome, which has been implicated in several immune-mediated diseases via its ability to induce IL-1β release and cause subsequent cell death. Inflammasome activation by SITO was confirmed, but it required the presence of endotoxin. Further, a phagocytosis assay revealed that pre-uptake of SITO or ventilation dust impaired proper macrophage phagocytosis of E. coli. Our results suggest that adverse inflammatory responses to SITO particles by both macrophage and epithelial cells may initiate and propagate indium lung disease. These findings will provide a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind an emerging occupational health issue.

  8. Composition and fate of mine- and smelter-derived particles in soils of humid subtropical and hot semi-arid areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettler, Vojtěch; Johan, Zdenek; Kříbek, Bohdan; Veselovský, František; Mihaljevič, Martin; Vaněk, Aleš; Penížek, Vít; Majer, Vladimír; Sracek, Ondra; Mapani, Ben; Kamona, Fred; Nyambe, Imasiku

    2016-09-01

    We studied the heavy mineral fraction, separated from mining- and smelter-affected topsoils, from both a humid subtropical area (Mufulira, Zambian Copperbelt) and a hot semi-arid area (Tsumeb, Namibia). High concentrations of metal(loid)s were detected in the studied soils: up to 1450mgAskg(-1), 8980mgCukg(-1), 4640mgPbkg(-1), 2620mgZnkg(-1). A combination of X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM/EDS), and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) helped to identify the phases forming individual metal(loid)-bearing particles. Whereas spherical particles originate from the smelting and flue gas cleaning processes, angular particles have either geogenic origins or they are windblown from the mining operations and mine waste disposal sites. Sulphides from ores and mine tailings often exhibit weathering rims in contrast to smelter-derived high-temperature sulphides (chalcocite [Cu2S], digenite [Cu9S5], covellite [CuS], non-stoichiometric quenched Cu-Fe-S phases). Soils from humid subtropical areas exhibit higher available concentrations of metal(loids), and higher frequencies of weathering features (especially for copper-bearing oxides such as delafossite [Cu(1+)Fe(3+)O2]) are observed. In contrast, metal(loid)s are efficiently retained in semi-arid soils, where a high proportion of non-weathered smelter slag particles and low-solubility Ca-Cu-Pb arsenates occur. Our results indicate that compared to semi-arid areas (where inorganic contaminants were rather immobile in soils despite their high concentrations) a higher potential risk exists for agriculture in mine- and smelter-affected humid subtropical areas (where metal(loid) contaminants can be highly available for the uptake by crops). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Photodeposition of platinum nanoparticles on well-defined Tungsten oxide: controlling oxidation state, particle size and geometrical distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenderich, Kasper

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis, structure-directed photodeposition of the cocatalyst platinum (Pt) on monoclinic tungsten oxide (WO3) nanoplates is described, both considering fundamental aspects, as well as usefulness for applications in photocatalytic propane oxidation. Before such studies are described, the conc

  10. Laser cladding in-situ carbide particle reinforced Fe-based composite coatings with rare earth oxide addition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴朝锋; 马明星; 刘文今; 钟敏霖; 张红军; 张伟明

    2009-01-01

    Particulate reinforced metal matrix composite(PR-MMC) has excellent properties such as good wear resistance,corrosion resistance and high temperature properties.Laser cladding is usually used to form PR-MMC on metal surface with various volume fractions of ceramic particles.Recent literatures showed that laser melting of powder mixture containing carbon and carbide-forming elements,was favorable for the formation of in-situ synthesized carbide particles.In this paper,rare earth oxide(RE2O3) was added into t...

  11. β-cyclodextrin functionalized on glass micro-particles: A green catalyst for selective oxidation of toluene to benzaldehyde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, M. Nazir; Nielsen, Thorbjørn T.; Larsen, Kim L.

    2016-12-01

    Oxidation of toluene is considered an important process which often requires high temperatures and specific conditions along with heavy-metals based catalysts. In this study, we have developed a green catalyst by functionalizing beta-cyclodextrin onto glass micro-particle surfaces. All surfaces were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and applied to catalyze the selective oxidation of toluene into benzaldehyde (82% yield) at room temperature. The catalyst was stable and could be used repeatedly for several cycles without losing efficiency.

  12. Ozone oxidation of sulfur in sea-salt aerosol particles during the Azores Marine Aerosol and Gas Exchange experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievering, H.; Gorman, E.; Ley, T.; Pszenny, A.; Springer-Young, M.; Boatman, J.; Kim, Y.; Nagamoto, C.; Wellman, D.

    1995-11-01

    Sea-salt aerosol particles in the lowest tens of meters above the ocean are, typically, more than three-fourths water on a volume basis. Calculations herein indicate that aqueous-phase conversion of sulfur dioxide dissolved in the water associated with sea-salt particles (sea-salt aerosol water) supported the production of 2-8 nmol m-3 of nonsea-salt sulfate (nssSO4=) during the Marine Aerosol and Gas Exchange (MAGE) experiment intensives. This production is based on ozone oxidation of dissolved SO2 in sea-salt aerosol water and accounts for sulfur gas and ozone mass transfer limitations as a function of sea-salt particle size. Measurements showed that 1-15 nmol m-3 of nssSO4= was actually present in the sea-salt particle mode except for four enhanced concentration cases due to continental sulfur input. The range in predicted, as well as observed, nssSO4= was primarily due to variability in sea-salt aerosol water volume. The nssSO4= produced by ozone oxidation of sulfur dioxide, being in the sea-salt particle mode with observed volume geometric median diameter of 3.5-5 μm, is dry deposited at a fairly rapid rate. The remainder, being large-particle cloud condensation nuclei, may contribute little to cloud albedo over the global oceans. The two papers following this one, Kim et al. (this issue) on aerosol size distribution and water content and Parfai et al. (this issue) on compositional variations of sea-salt-mode aerosol particles observed by electron microscopy, complement and support results presented here. All three present results of the MAGE experiment and precede a forthcoming special issue of the Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres on MAGE (B. Huebert, guest editor).

  13. ESR investigation of the oxidative damage in lungs caused by asbestos and air pollution particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadiiska, M. B.; Ghio, A. J.; Mason, R. P.

    2004-05-01

    Exposure to asbestos and air pollution particles can be associated with increased human morbidity and mortality. However, the molecular mechanism of lung injuries remains unknown. It has been postulated that the in vivo toxicity results from the catalysis of free radical generation. Using electron spin resonance (ESR) in conjunction with the spin trap α-(4-pyridyl-1-oxide)- N- tert-butylnitrone (4-POBN) we previously investigated in vivo free radical production by rats treated with intratracheal instillation of asbestos (crocidolite fibers) and an emission source air pollution particle (oil fly ash). In this report we compare the effect of two different exposures on the type of free radicals they induce in in vivo animal model. Twenty-four hours after the exposure, ESR spectroscopy of the chloroform extract from lungs of animals exposed to either asbestos or oil fly ash gave a spectrum consistent with a carbon-centered radical adduct ( aN=15.01 G and aH=2.46 G). To test whether free radical formation occurred in vivo and not in vitro, a number of control experiments were performed. Combinations (both individually and together) of asbestos or oil fly ash and 4-POBN were added to lung homogenate of unexposed rats prior to chloroform extraction. No detectable ESR signal resulted. To exclude the possibility of ex vivo free radical generation, asbestos or oil fly ash was added to lung homogenate of an animal treated with 4-POBN. Also, 4-POBN was added to lung homogenate from rats instilled with asbestos or oil fly ash. Neither system produced radical adducts, indicating that the ESR signal detected in the lung extracts of the treated animals must be produced in vivo and not ex vivo or in vitro. In conclusion, ESR analysis of lung tissue demonstrated that both exposures produce lipid-derived radical metabolites despite their different composition and structure. Analogously, both exposures provide evidence of in vivo enhanced lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, it is

  14. One-Step Synthesis of Copper and Cupric Oxide Particles from the Liquid Phase by X-Ray Radiolysis Using Synchrotron Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinobu Yamaguchi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The deposition of copper (Cu and cupric oxide (Cu4O3, Cu2O, and CuO particles in an aqueous copper sulfate (CuSO4 solution with additive alcohol such as methanol, ethanol, 2-propanol, and ethylene glycol has been studied by X-ray exposure from synchrotron radiation. An attenuated X-ray radiation time of 5 min allows for the synthesis of Cu, Cu4O3, Cu2O, and CuO nano/microscale particles and their aggregation into clusters. The morphology and composition of the synthesized Cu/cupric oxide particle clusters were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Micro-Raman spectroscopy revealed that the clusters comprised cupric oxide core particles covered with Cu particles. Neither Cu/cupric oxide particles nor their clusters were formed without any alcohol additives. The effect of alcohol additives is attributed to the following sequential steps: photochemical reaction due to X-ray irradiation induces nucleation of the particles accompanying redox reaction and forms a cluster or aggregates by LaMer process and DLVO interactions. The procedure offers a novel route to synthesize the Cu/cupric oxide particles and aggregates. It also provides a novel additive manufacturing process or lithography of composite materials such as metal, oxide, and resin.

  15. Kinetics and Photodegradation Study of Aqueous Methyl tert-Butyl Ether Using Zinc Oxide: The Effect of Particle Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaki S. Seddigi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide of different average particle sizes 25 nm, 59 nm, and 421 nm as applied in the photodegradation of MTBE. This study was carried out in a batch photoreactor having a high pressure mercury lamp. Zinc oxide of particle size of 421 nm was found to be the most effective in degrading MTBE in an aqueous solution. On using this type of ZnO in a solution of 100 ppm MTBE, the concentration of MTBE has decreased to 5.1 ppm after a period of five hours. The kinetics of the photocatalytic degradation of MTBE was found to be a first order reaction.

  16. Modeling aerosol surface chemistry and gas-particle interaction kinetics with K2-SURF: PAH oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraiwa, M.; Garland, R.; Pöschl, U.

    2009-04-01

    Atmospheric aerosols are ubiquitous in the atmosphere. They have the ability to impact cloud properties, radiative balance and provide surfaces for heterogeneous reactions. The uptake of gaseous species on aerosol surfaces impacts both the aerosol particles and the atmospheric budget of trace gases. These subsequent changes to the aerosol can in turn impact the aerosol chemical and physical properties. However, this uptake, as well as the impact on the aerosol, is not fully understood. This uncertainty is due not only to limited measurement data, but also a dearth of comprehensive and applicable modeling formalizations used for the analysis, interpretation and description of these heterogeneous processes. Without a common model framework, comparing and extrapolating experimental data is difficult. In this study, a novel kinetic surface model (K2-SURF) [Ammann & Pöschl, 2007; Pöschl et al., 2007] was used to describe the oxidation of a variety of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Integrated into this consistent and universally applicable kinetic and thermodynamic process model are the concepts, terminologies and mathematical formalizations essential to the description of atmospherically relevant physicochemical processes involving organic and mixed organic-inorganic aerosols. Within this process model framework, a detailed master mechanism, simplified mechanism and parameterizations of atmospheric aerosol chemistry are being developed and integrated in analogy to existing mechanisms and parameterizations of atmospheric gas-phase chemistry. One of the key aspects to this model is the defining of a clear distinction between various layers of the particle and surrounding gas phase. The processes occurring at each layer can be fully described using known fluxes and kinetic parameters. Using this system there is a clear separation of gas phase, gas-surface and surface bulk transport and reactions. The partitioning of compounds can be calculated using the flux

  17. Layered double oxide (LDO) particle containing photoreactive hybrid layers with tunable superhydrophobic and photocatalytic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deák, Ágota; Janovák, László; Csapó, Edit; Ungor, Ditta; Pálinkó, István; Puskás, Sándor; Ördög, Tibor; Ricza, Tamás; Dékány, Imre

    2016-12-01

    Inorganic/organic hybrid layers have been prepared having superhydrophobic as well as photoreactive properties. The hybrid thin films with micro- and nanosized dual-scale surface roughness consist of ∼25 μm layered double oxide (LDO) photocatalyst particles and low surface energy poly(perfluorodecyl acrylate) [p(PFDAc)] fluoropolymer binder material. The application of [p(PFDAc)] resulted in the decrease in the surface free energy of the hydrophilic LDO. The structured surface LDO with ∼12% ZnO phase content were synthesized from layer double hydroxide (LDH) spheres. The determined excitation wavelength and the calculated band gap energy values were 386 nm and 3.23 eV, respectively. The hybrid thin films were prepared by a simple spray-coating method, which is a low-cost, fast and scalable film-forming technique. The surface roughness and also the wetting properties of the two-component hybrid layers proved to be finely adjustable by the LDO:fluoropolymer ratio. It was found that at 80-90 wt% LDO content, the thin films with a surface free energy value of ∼12 mJ/m2 displayed superhydrophobic behaviour (Θ > 150°) with satisfactory photocatalytic properties. This means special photoreactive surfaces with superhydrophobic properties instead of the conventional superhydropilic photocatalyst layers. According to the benzoic acid photodegradation test experiments of benzoic acid, the hybrid layers with 80-90 wt% LDO content photooxidized 22-24% of the initial test molecule concentration (0.17 g/L) under UV-A (λmax = 365 nm) illumination.

  18. Prenatal exposure to zinc oxide particles alters monoaminergic neurotransmitter levels in the brain of mouse offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Yuka; Tachibana, Ken; Yanagita, Shinya; Takeda, Ken

    2013-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nano-sized particles (NPs) are beneficial materials used for sunscreens and cosmetics. Although ZnO NPs are widely used for cosmetics, the health effects of exposure during pregnancy on offspring are largely unknown. Here we investigated the effects of prenatal exposure to ZnO NPs on the monoaminergic system of the mouse brain. Subcutaneous administration of ZnO NPs to the pregnant ICR mice (total 500 μg/mouse) were carried out and then measured the levels of dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT), and noradrenalin, and their metabolites in 9 regions of the brain of offspring (6-week-old) using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). HPLC analysis demonstrated that DA levels were increased in hippocampus in the ZnO NP exposure group. In the levels of DA metabolites, homovanillic acid was increased in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, and 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid was increased in the prefrontal cortex by prenatal ZnO NP exposure. Furthermore, DA turnover levels were increased in the prefrontal cortex, neostriatum, nucleus accumbens, and amygdala in the ZnO NP exposure group. We also found changes of the levels of serotonin in the hypothalamus, and of the levels of 5-HIAA (5-HT metabolite) in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus in the ZnO NP-exposed group. The levels of 5-HT turnover were increased in each of the regions except for the cerebellum by prenatal ZnO NP exposure. The present study indicated that prenatal exposure to ZnO NPs might disrupt the monoaminergic system, and suggested the possibility of detrimental effects on the mental health of offspring.

  19. Efficacy of copper oxide wire particles against gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soli, F; Terrill, T H; Shaik, S A; Getz, W R; Miller, J E; Vanguru, M; Burke, J M

    2010-02-26

    Profitable sheep and goat production in the USA is severely limited by gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) parasitism, particularly by Haemonchus contortus. Copper oxide wire particles (COWP) have anti-parasitic properties in the diet of small ruminants, but efficacy of COWP may differ between sheep and goats. In a study with weaned kids (Kiko x Spanish cross, 6 months old) and lambs (Katahdin or Dorper x Blackface crosses, 5 months old), grazing the same pasture area in Central Georgia, 2g of COWP in a gel capsule was given to half the animals of each species, while the other half were given no COWP. Fecal and blood samples were taken weekly to determine GIN fecal egg counts (FEC) and blood packed cell volume (PCV). After COWP treatment, animals were grazed for 4 weeks and then slaughtered, with adult GIN recovered from the abomasum and small intestines for counting and identification to species. For both sheep and goats, COWP treatment reduced EPG (P<0.05), increased PCV (P<0.05), and lowered abomasal GIN numbers (P<0.05). For EPG, these differences were 82.5 and 90.5% for sheep and goats, respectively, 26 days after treatment, while adult H. contortus were 67.2 and 85.8% lower for COWP-treated sheep and goats, respectively. In this study, COWP treatment was equally effective against H. contortus infection in lambs and kids and appears to be an effective method of controlling H. contortus infection for up to 6 weeks in small ruminants following weaning.

  20. Thermoluminescence of europium-doped zinc oxide exposed to beta particle irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iriqui R, J. L.; Cruz V, C. [Universidad de Sonora, Departamento de Investigacion en Polimeros y Materiales, Apdo. Postal 130, 83000 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Bernal, R. [Universidad de Sonora, Departamento de Investigacion en Fisica, Apdo. Postal 5-088, 83000 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Castano, V. M., E-mail: jorgeiriqui@gimmunison.com [UNAM, Instituto de Fisica, Centro de Fisica Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Apdo. Postal 1-1010, 76000 Queretaro, Qro. (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: Zn O is a promising material for a range of optoelectronics applications, due to its direct wide band gap (E{sub g} ∼3.3 eV at 300 K) and large exciton binding energy (60 MeV). Its applications include UV light emitters, varistors, surface acoustic wave devices, piezoelectric transducers, and chemical and gas sensing. Rare-earth activation of phosphors has long been seen as an effective process since coupling energy into the rare-earth-ion site, either by ionization, charge exchange or a resonance energy process, results in light production. It is reported that Europium modifies the response thermoluminescence (Tl) for pure zinc oxide, when is irradiated with X-ray, created a peak at 365 degrees C. In this work, Zn O:Eu phosphors were synthesized by a chemical method. Some samples were exposed to beta particle irradiation for doses ranging from 1 up to 100 Gy. Tl response as a function of dose is linear throughout the studied dose range. The glow curve exhibits three maxima, centered at 176, 279 and 340 degrees C. The reusability studies obtained after ten repeated cycles of annealing irradiation readout for the Zn O:Eu shows that the variation in the Tl response is ten percent and tends to stabilization. The results indicate that these new Zn O:Eu phosphors are promising detectors and dosimeters for beta radiation. The structural and morphological characterization was carried out by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. (Author)

  1. Gold nanoparticles located at the interface of anatase/rutile TiO2 particles as active plasmonic photocatalysts for aerobic oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Daijiro; Shiraishi, Yasuhiro; Sugano, Yoshitsune; Ichikawa, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shunsuke; Hirai, Takayuki

    2012-04-11

    Visible-light irradiation (λ > 450 nm) of gold nanoparticles loaded on a mixture of anatase/rutile TiO(2) particles (Degussa, P25) promotes efficient aerobic oxidation at room temperature. The photocatalytic activity critically depends on the catalyst architecture: Au particles with anatase/rutile TiO(2) particles behave as the active sites for reaction. This photocatalysis is promoted via plasmon activation of the Au particles by visible light followed by consecutive electron transfer in the Au/rutile/anatase contact site. The activated Au particles transfer their conduction electrons to rutile and then to adjacent anatase TiO(2). This catalyzes the oxidation of substrates by the positively charged Au particles along with reduction of O(2) by the conduction band electrons on the surface of anatase TiO(2). This plasmonic photocatalysis is successfully promoted by sunlight exposure and enables efficient and selective aerobic oxidation of alcohols at ambient temperature.

  2. Neurotoxicity of low-dose repeatedly intranasal instillation of nano- and submicron-sized ferric oxide particles in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bing; Feng, Weiyue; Zhu, Motao; Wang, Yun; Wang, Meng; Gu, Yiqun; Ouyang, Hong; Wang, Huajian; Li, Ming; Zhao, Yuliang; Chai, Zhifang; Wang, Haifang

    2009-01-01

    Olfactory tract has been demonstrated to be an important portal for inhaled solid nanoparticle transportation into the central nervous system (CNS). We have previously demonstrated that intranasally instilled Fe2O3 nanoparticles could transport into the CNS via olfactory pathway. In this study, we investigated the neurotoxicity and size effect of repeatedly low-dose (130 μg) intranasal exposure of nano- and submicron-sized Fe2O3 particles (21 nm and 280 nm) to mice. The biomarkers of oxidative stress, activity of nitric oxide synthases and release of monoamine neurotransmitter in the brain were studied. Our results showed that significant oxidative stress was induced by the two sizes of Fe2O3 particles. The activities of GSH-Px, Cu,Zn-SOD, and cNOS significantly elevated and the total GSH and GSH/GSSG ratio significantly decreased in the olfactory bulb and hippocampus after the nano- and submicron-sized Fe2O3 particle treatment ( p < 0.05). The nano-sized Fe2O3 generally induced greater alteration and more significant dose-effect response than the submicron-sized particle did. Some slight perturbation of monoamine neurotransmitters were found in the hippocampus after exposure to the two sizes of Fe2O3 particle. The TEM image showed that some ultrastructural alterations in nerve cells, including neurodendron degeneration, membranous structure disruption and lysosome increase in the olfactory bulb, slight dilation in the rough endoplasmic reticulum and lysosome increase in the hippocampus were induced by the nano-sized Fe2O3 treatment. In contrast, in the submicron-sized Fe2O3 treated mice, slightly swollen mitochondria and some vacuoles were observed in the olfactory bulb and hippocampus, respectively. These results indicate that intranasal exposure of Fe2O3 nanoparticles could induce more severe oxidative stress and nerve cell damage in the brain than the larger particle did. This is the first study to compare the neurotoxicity of nano- and submicron-sized Fe2O3

  3. Neurotoxicity of low-dose repeatedly intranasal instillation of nano- and submicron-sized ferric oxide particles in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Bing; Feng Weiyue, E-mail: fengwy@mail.ihep.ac.cn; Zhu Motao; Wang Yun; Wang Meng [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Laboratory for Bio-Environmental Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety and Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Institute of High Energy Physics (China); Gu Yiqun [Maternity Hospital of Haidian District (China); Ouyang Hong; Wang Huajian; Li Ming; Zhao Yuliang, E-mail: zhaoyuliang@mail.ihep.ac.cn; Chai Zhifang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Laboratory for Bio-Environmental Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety and Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Institute of High Energy Physics (China); Wang Haifang [Peking University, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering (China)

    2009-01-15

    Olfactory tract has been demonstrated to be an important portal for inhaled solid nanoparticle transportation into the central nervous system (CNS). We have previously demonstrated that intranasally instilled Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles could transport into the CNS via olfactory pathway. In this study, we investigated the neurotoxicity and size effect of repeatedly low-dose (130 {mu}g) intranasal exposure of nano- and submicron-sized Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles (21 nm and 280 nm) to mice. The biomarkers of oxidative stress, activity of nitric oxide synthases and release of monoamine neurotransmitter in the brain were studied. Our results showed that significant oxidative stress was induced by the two sizes of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles. The activities of GSH-Px, Cu,Zn-SOD, and cNOS significantly elevated and the total GSH and GSH/GSSG ratio significantly decreased in the olfactory bulb and hippocampus after the nano- and submicron-sized Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} particle treatment (p < 0.05). The nano-sized Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} generally induced greater alteration and more significant dose-effect response than the submicron-sized particle did. Some slight perturbation of monoamine neurotransmitters were found in the hippocampus after exposure to the two sizes of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} particle. The TEM image showed that some ultrastructural alterations in nerve cells, including neurodendron degeneration, membranous structure disruption and lysosome increase in the olfactory bulb, slight dilation in the rough endoplasmic reticulum and lysosome increase in the hippocampus were induced by the nano-sized Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} treatment. In contrast, in the submicron-sized Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} treated mice, slightly swollen mitochondria and some vacuoles were observed in the olfactory bulb and hippocampus, respectively. These results indicate that intranasal exposure of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles could induce more severe oxidative stress and nerve cell damage in the brain than the

  4. Production of zinc and manganese oxide particles by pyrolysis of alkaline and Zn-C battery waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebin, Burçak; Petranikova, Martina; Steenari, Britt-Marie; Ekberg, Christian

    2016-05-01

    Production of zinc and manganese oxide particles from alkaline and zinc-carbon battery black mass was studied by a pyrolysis process at 850-950°C with various residence times under 1L/minN2(g) flow rate conditions without using any additive. The particular and chemical properties of the battery waste were characterized to investigate the possible reactions and effects on the properties of the reaction products. The thermodynamics of the pyrolysis process were studied using the HSC Chemistry 5.11 software. The carbothermic reduction reaction of battery black mass takes place and makes it possible to produce fine zinc particles by a rapid condensation, after the evaporation of zinc from a pyrolysis batch. The amount of zinc that can be separated from the black mass is increased by both pyrolysis temperature and residence time. Zinc recovery of 97% was achieved at 950°C and 1h residence time using the proposed alkaline battery recycling process. The pyrolysis residue is mainly MnO powder with a low amount of zinc, iron and potassium impurities and has an average particle size of 2.9μm. The obtained zinc particles have an average particle size of about 860nm and consist of hexagonal crystals around 110nm in size. The morphology of the zinc particles changes from a hexagonal shape to s spherical morphology by elevating the pyrolysis temperature.

  5. Effects of distance between tungsten wire and glass substrate on particle size and photochromic characteristic of tungsten oxide prepared by electric current heating method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagizawa, T; Honma, T; Kuroki, Y; Okamoto, T; Takata, M, E-mail: takata@vos.nagaokaut.ac.jp [Department of Electrical Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan)

    2011-10-29

    Tungsten oxide films consisting of particles were prepared on the substrates placed at various distances from the tungsten wires heated by electric current. The shapes of the particles were sphere in an area on the substrate just above the wire while octahedral shape was found in other area. For the spherical particles, with increasing the distance, the mean particle diameter increased, reached its maximum value and gradually decreased. The particles in each area showed the photochromism especially in near-infrared region. The spherical particles with the smallest size exhibited a significant photochromic effect which could be controlled by changing the distance between the wire and the substrate.

  6. Studying the cytotoxicity and oxidative stress induced by two kinds of bentonite particles on human B lymphoblast cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meibian; Lu, Yezhen; Li, Xiaoxue; Chen, Qing; Lu, Longxi; Xing, Mingluan; Zou, Hua; He, Jiliang

    2010-02-12

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity and oxidative stress induced by native and active bentonite particles (BPs) on human B lymphoblast cells using seven assays. Our results showed that the order of cytotoxicity was: active BPs>native BPs>quartz particles (DQ-12)>gypsum, according to the IC50 values in CCK-8 assay and neutral red uptake (NRU) assay. The lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage, the proportions of early apoptotic cells, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, the superoxide dismutase (SOD) inhibition and the malondialdehyde (MDA) release in the native and active BPs groups were significantly higher than those in the gypsum and DQ-12 groups (Pstress induced by active BPs was significantly higher than that induced by native BPs (Pstress on human B lymphoblast cells in vitro. The cytotoxic difference between active BPs and native BPs may be associated with the adsorption capacity of BPs and oxidative stress induced by BPs to a certain extent. The insoluble particle fractions may play a main role in the cytotoxic effects and oxidative stress induced by BPs.

  7. Catalysis of Reduction and Oxidation Reactions for Application in Gas Particle Filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Udron, L.; Turek, T.

    2002-09-19

    The present study is a first part of an investigation addressing the simultaneous occurrence of oxidation and reduction reactions in catalytic filters. It has the objectives (a) to assess the state of knowledge regarding suitable (types of) catalysts for reduction and oxidation, (b) to collect and analyze published information about reaction rates of both NOx reduction and VOC oxidation, and (c) to adjust a lab-scale screening method to the requirements of an activity test with various oxidation/reduction catalysts.

  8. Shape-Controlled Synthesis of Magnetic Iron Oxide@SiO₂-Au@C Particles with Core-Shell Nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mo; Li, Xiangcun; Qi, Xinhong; Luo, Fan; He, Gaohong

    2015-05-12

    The preparation of nonspherical magnetic core-shell nanostructures with uniform sizes still remains a challenge. In this study, magnetic iron oxide@SiO2-Au@C particles with different shapes, such as pseduocube, ellipsoid, and peanut, were synthesized using hematite as templates and precursors of magnetic iron oxide. The as-obtained magnetic particles demonstrated uniform sizes, shapes, and well-designed core-shell nanostructures. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis showed that the Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) of ∼6 nm were uniformly distributed between the silica and carbon layers. The embedding of the metal nanocrystals into the two different layers prevented the aggregation and reduced the loss of the metal nanocrystals during recycling. Catalytic performance of the peanut-like particles kept almost unchanged without a noticeable decrease in the reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) in 8 min even after 7 cycles, indicating excellent reusability of the particles. Moreover, the catalyst could be readily recycled magnetically after each reduction by an external magnetic field.

  9. Ionic strength dependence of the oxidation of SO2 by H2O2 in sodium chloride particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Hashim M.; Iedema, Martin J.; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Cowin, James P.

    2014-06-20

    The reaction of sulfur dioxide and hydrogen peroxide in the presence of deliquesced (>75% RH) sodium particles was studied by utilizing a crossflow-mini reactor. The reaction kinetics was followed by observing chloride depletion in particles by computer-controlled scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray analysis, namely SEM/EDX. The reactions take place in concentrated mixed salt brine aerosols, for which no complete kinetic equilibrium data previously existed. We measured the Henry’s law solubility of H2O2 to close that gap. We also calculated the reaction rate as the particle transforms continuously from concentrated NaCl brine to eventually a mixed NaHSO4 plus H2SO4 brine solution. The reaction rate of the SO2 oxidation by H2O2 was found to be influenced by the change in ionic strength as the particle undergoes compositional transformation, following closely the dependence of the third order rate constant on ionic strength as predicted rates using previously established rate equations. This is the first study that has measured the ionic strength dependence of sulfate formation (in non-aqueous media) from oxidation of mixed salt brine aerosols in the presence of H2O2. It also gives the first report of the Henry’s law constant of H2O2 dependence on ionic strength.

  10. Enhanced Electrocatalytic Activity of Pt Particles Supported on Reduced Graphene Oxide/Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene RGO/PEDOT Composite towards Ethanol Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanito Raphael F. Foronda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Catalysts in fuel cells are normally platinum based because platinum exhibits high electrocatalytic activity towards ethanol oxidation in acidic medium. However, bulk Pt is expensive and rare in nature. To reduce the consumption of Pt, a support material or matrix is needed to disperse Pt on its surface as micro- or nanoparticles with potential application as anode material in direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs. In this study, a composite material consisting of platinum particles dispersed on reduced graphene oxide/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (RGO/PEDOT support was electrochemically prepared for ethanol oxidation in sulfuric acid electrolyte. PEDOT, a conductive polymer, was potentiodynamically polymerized from the corresponding monomer, 0.10 M EDOT in 0.10 M HClO4 electrolyte. The PEDOT-modified electrode was used as a substrate for exfoliated graphene oxide (EGO which was prepared by electrochemical exfoliation of graphite from carbon rod of spent batteries and subsequently reduced to form RGO. The Pt/RGO/PEDOT composite gave the highest electrocatalytic activity with an anodic current density of 2688.7 mA·cm−2 at E = 0.70 V (versus Ag/AgCl towards ethanol oxidation compared to bare Pt electrode and other composites. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM revealed the surface morphology of the hybrid composites while energy dispersive X-ray (EDX confirmed the presence of all the elements for the Pt/RGO/PEDOT composite.

  11. The effect of oxide particles on the strength and ductility of bulk iron with a bimodal grain size distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casas, C.; Tejedor, R. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, ETSEIB, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Rodríguez-baracaldo, R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. Colombia (Colombia); Benito, J.A., E-mail: Josep.a.benito@upc.edu [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, EUETIB, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Comte d' Urgell 187, 08036 Barcelona (Spain); Fundació CTM Centre Tecnològic de Manresa, Plaça de la Ciencia, 2, 08243 Manresa (Spain); Cabrera, J.M. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, ETSEIB, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Fundació CTM Centre Tecnològic de Manresa, Plaça de la Ciencia, 2, 08243 Manresa (Spain)

    2015-03-11

    The strength and ductility of bulk nanostructured and ultrafine-grained iron containing 0.39% oxygen by weight was determined by tensile tests. Samples were obtained by consolidation of milled iron powder at 500 °C. Heat treatments were designed to cover a wide range of grain sizes spanning from 100 to 2000 nm with different percentages of coarse and nanostructured grain areas, which was defined as a bimodal grain size distribution. Transmission electron microscopy was used to determine the diameter, volume fraction and location of oxides in the microstructure. The strength was analysed following two approaches. The first one was based on the strong effect of oxides and involved the use of a mixed particle-grain boundary strengthening model, and the second one was based on simple grain boundary strengthening. The mixed model underestimated the strength of nanostructured samples, whereas the simple grain boundary model worked better. However, for specimens with a bimodal grain size, the fitting of the mixed model was better. In this case, the more effective particle strengthening was related to the dispersion of oxides inside the large ferrite grains. In addition, the bimodal samples showed an acceptable combination of strength and ductility. Again, the ferrite grains containing oxides promoted strain hardening due to the increase in dislocation activity.

  12. Oxidative DNA damage in vitamin C-supplemented guinea pigs after intratracheal instillation of diesel exhaust particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moller, P.; Daneshvar, B.; Loft, S.

    2003-01-01

    of oxidized amino acids (gamma-glutamyl semialdehyde), DNA strand breaks, and 7-hydro-8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) in the lung. Bulky DNA ad- ducts were not significantly elevated in the lung. The antioxidant enzyme activity of glutathione reductase was increased in the lung of DEP-exposed guinea pigs......The health effects of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) are thought to involve oxidative damage. We have investigated the effect of intratracheal DEP instillation to guinea pigs in three groups of 12 animals each given 0, 0.7, or 2.1 mg. Five days later guinea pigs exposed to DEP had increased levels......, whereas glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase enzyme activities were unaltered. There was no difference in DNA strand breaks in lymphocytes or urinary excretion of 8-oxodG at the two doses tested. Protein oxidations in plasma and in erythrocytes were not altered by DEP exposure...

  13. DNA adduct formation and oxidative stress in colon and liver of Big Blue rats after dietary exposure to diesel particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dybdahl, Marianne; Risom, Lotte; Møller, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) via the gastrointestinal route may impose risk of cancer in the colon and liver. We investigated the effects of DEP given in the diet to Big Blue rats by quantifying a panel of markers of DNA damage and repair, mutation, oxidative damage to proteins...... and lipids, and antioxidative defence mechanisms in colon mucosa cells, liver tissue and the blood compartment. Seven groups of rats were fed a diet with 0, 0.2, 0.8, 2, 8, 20 or 80 mg DEP/kg feed for 21 days. DEP induced a significant increase in DNA strand breaks in colon and liver. There was no effect...... of ERCC1 gene was affected in liver, but not in colon. In addition to these effects, DEP exposure induced apoptosis in liver. There was no significant change in mutation frequency in colon or liver. The levels of oxidative protein modifications (oxidized arginine and proline residues) were increased...

  14. Oxidative DNA damage in vitamin C-supplemented guinea pigs after intratracheal instillation of diesel exhaust particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moller, P.; Daneshvar, B.; Loft, S.

    2003-01-01

    The health effects of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) are thought to involve oxidative damage. We have investigated the effect of intratracheal DEP instillation to guinea pigs in three groups of 12 animals each given 0, 0.7, or 2.1 mg. Five days later guinea pigs exposed to DEP had increased level...... for the study of oxidative damage induced by particulate matter. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved........ The concentrations of ascorbate in liver, lung, and plasma were unaltered by the DEP exposure. The results indicate that in guinea pigs DEP causes oxidative DNA damage rather than bulky DNA adducts in the lung. Guinea pigs, which are similar to humans with respect to vitamin C metabolism, may serve as a new model...

  15. Use of manganese oxide and activated carbon fibers for removing a particle, volatile organic compound or ozone from a gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidheswaran, Meera A.; Destaillats, Hugo; Fisk, William J.

    2016-08-30

    The present invention provides for a device for reducing a volatile organic compound (VOC) content of a gas comprising a manganese oxide (MnO.sub.x) catalyst. The manganese oxide (MnO.sub.x) catalyst is capable of catalyzing formaldehyde at room temperature, with complete conversion, to CO.sub.2 and water vapor. The manganese oxide (MnO.sub.x) catalyst itself is not consumed by the reaction of formaldehyde into CO.sub.2 and water vapor. The present invention also provides for a device for reducing or removing a particle, a VOC and/or ozone from a gas comprising an activated carbon filter (ACF) on a media that is capable of being periodically regenerated.

  16. Sulfur isotope analysis of individual aerosol particles – a new tool for studying heterogeneous oxidation processes in the marine environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. W. Sinha

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the importance of the different oxidation pathways of sulfur dioxide (SO2 to sulfate is crucial for an interpretation of the climate effects of sulfate aerosols. Sulfur isotope analysis of atmospheric aerosol is a well established tool for identifying sources of sulfur in the atmosphere and assessment of anthropogenic influence. The power of this tool is enhanced by a new ion microprobe technique that permits isotope analysis of individual aerosol particles as small as 0.5 μm diameter. With this new single particle technique, different types of primary and secondary sulfates are first identified based on their chemical composition, and then their individual isotopic signature is measured. Our samples were collected at Mace Head, Ireland, a remote coastal station on the North Atlantic Ocean. Sea-salt-sulfate (10–60%, ammonium sulfate/sulfuric acid particles (15–65%, and non-sea-salt-sulfate (nss-sulfate on aged salt particles all contributed significantly to sulfate loadings in our samples.

    The isotopic composition of secondary sulfates depends on the isotopic composition of precursor SO2 and the oxidation process. The fractionation with respect to the source SO2 is poorly characterized. In the absence of conclusive laboratory experiments, we consider the kinetic fractionation of −9‰ during the gas phase oxidation of SO2 by OH as suggested by Saltzman et al. (1983 and Tanaka et al. (1994 to be the most reasonable estimate for the isotope fractionation during gas phase oxidation of SO2hom=0.991 and the equilibrium fractionation for the uptake of SO2(g into the aqueous phase and the dissociation to HSO3 of +16.5‰ measured by Eriksen (1972a to be the best approximation for the fractionation during oxidation in the aqueous phase (αhet=1.0165. The sulfur isotope ratio of secondary sulfate particles can

  17. Investigation of zinc oxide particles in cosmetic products by means of centrifugal and asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogne, Vanessa; Meier, Florian; Klein, Thorsten; Contado, Catia

    2017-09-15

    The dimensional characterization of insoluble, inorganic particles, such as zinc oxide ZnO, dispersed in cosmetic or pharmaceutical formulations, is of great interest considering the current need of declaring the possible presence of nanomaterials on the label of commercial products. This work compares the separation abilities of Centrifugal- and Asymmetrical Flow Field-Flow Fractionation techniques (CF3 and AF4, respectively), equipped with UV-vis, MALS and DLS detectors, in size sorting ZnO particles, both as pristine powders and after their extraction from cosmetic matrices. ZnO particles, bare and superficially modified with triethoxycaprylyl silane, were used as test materials. To identify the most suitable procedure necessary to isolate the ZnO particles from the cosmetic matrix, two O/W and two W/O emulsions were formulated on purpose. The suspensions, containing the extracted particles ZnO, were separated by both Field-Flow Fractionation (FFF) techniques to establish a common analysis protocol, applicable for the analysis of ZnO particles extracted from three commercial products, sold in Europe for the baby skin care. Key aspects of this study were the selection of an appropriate dispersing agent enabling the particles to stay in stable suspensions (>24h)and the use of multiple detectors (UV-vis, MALS and DLS) coupled on-line with the FFF channels, to determine the particle dimensions without using the retention parameters. Between the two FFF techniques, CF3 revealed to be the most robust one, able to sort all suspensions created in this work. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Investigation on different oxides as candidates for nano-sized ODS particles in reduced-activation ferritic (RAF) steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Jan, E-mail: j.hoffmann@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Applied Materials (IAM-AWP), Karlsruhe (Germany); Rieth, Michael; Lindau, Rainer; Klimenkov, Michael; Möslang, Anton [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Applied Materials (IAM-AWP), Karlsruhe (Germany); Sandim, Hugo Ricardo Zschommler [Department of Materials Engineering, EEL, University of São Paulo, 12600-970 Lorena (Brazil)

    2013-11-15

    Future generation reactor concepts are based on materials that can stand higher temperatures and higher neutron doses in corrosive environments. Oxide dispersion strengthened steels with chromium contents ranging from 9 to 14 wt.% – produced by mechanical alloying – are typical candidate materials for future structural materials in fission and fusion power plants. Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} has proven to be a good candidate for addition to ferritic steels during mechanical alloying to form nano-sized dispersion oxide particles during compacting of the material. These oxide particles have many positive effects on the material such as improved high-temperature properties and higher corrosion resistance. However, there is potential for improvements by choosing different oxides. In this present work, four different oxides (MgO, La{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Ce{sub 2}O{sub 3} and ZrO{sub 2}) are selected by looking at their thermal stabilities and Gibbs free enthalpies of various chemical compositions. These oxides are mixed and mechanically alloyed with ferritic steel powder (Fe13Cr1W0.3Ti) and compared to a reference material produced with Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} (Fe13Cr1W0.3Ti + Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}). The materials were characterized in terms of their mechanical properties and detailed microstructural investigations by transmission electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction. All further results of the mechanical testing and microstructural characterizations are analyzed, compared, and discussed in this paper.

  19. Hydrogen peroxide enhances the oxidation of oxygenated volatile organic compounds on mineral dust particles: a case study of methacrolein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yue; Huang, Dao; Huang, Liubin; Chen, Zhongming

    2014-09-16

    Heterogeneous oxidation of oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) serves as an important sink of OVOCs as well as a source of secondary organic material. However, the roles of gas phase oxidants in these reactions are poorly understood. In this work, we present the first laboratory study of the heterogeneous reactions of methacrolein (MACR) on various mineral dust particles in the presence of gaseous H2O2. It is found that the presence of gaseous H2O2 significantly promotes both the uptake and oxidation of MACR on kaolinite, α-Al2O3, α-Fe2O3, and TiO2, but not on CaCO3. The oxidation of MACR produces organic acids as its major low-molecular-weight product, whose yields are enhanced by a factor of 2-6 in the presence of H2O2. In addition, organic peroxides such as methyl hydroperoxide, peroxyformic acid, and peroxyacetic acid are only formed in the presence of H2O2, and the formation of methyl hydroperoxide indicates that MACR oxidation on the surface involves reaction with OH radicals. A probe reaction using salicylic acid verifies the production of OH radicals from H2O2 decomposition on kaolinite, α-Al2O3, α-Fe2O3, and TiO2, which rationalizes the enhanced MACR oxidation observed on these particles. The uptake coefficients of MACR on kaolinite, α-Fe2O3, and TiO2 in the presence of H2O2 are on the order of 10(-5)-10(-4). Our results provide new insights into the formation and chemical evolution of organic species in the atmosphere.

  20. Acclimation of a marine microbial consortium for efficient Mn(II) oxidation and manganese containing particle production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Hao, E-mail: zhouhao@dlut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering (Ministry of Education), School of Food and Environment, Dalian University of Technology, Panjin 124221 (China); Pan, Haixia [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering (Ministry of Education), School of Food and Environment, Dalian University of Technology, Panjin 124221 (China); Xu, Jianqiang [School of Life Science and Medicine, Dalian University of Technology, Panjin 124221 (China); Xu, Weiping; Liu, Lifen [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering (Ministry of Education), School of Food and Environment, Dalian University of Technology, Panjin 124221 (China)

    2016-03-05

    Highlights: • An efficient Mn(II) oxidation marine sediments microbial community was obtained. • High-throughput sequencing indicated new Mn(II) oxidation associated genus. • Na{sub 3}MnPO{sub 4}CO{sub 3} and MnCO{sub 3} were synthesized by the consortium. • Consortium exhibited Mn(II) oxidation performance over a range of harsh conditions. - Abstract: Sediment contamination with metals is a widespread concern in the marine environment. Manganese oxidizing bacteria (MOB) are extensively distributed in various environments, but a marine microbial community containing MOB is rarely reported. In this study, a consortium of marine metal-contaminated sediments was acclimated using Mn(II). The shift in community structure was determined through high-throughput sequencing. In addition, the consortium resisted several harsh conditions, such as toxic metals (1 mM Cu(II) and Fe(III)), and exhibited high Mn(II) oxidation capacities even the Mn(II) concentration was up to 5 mM. Meanwhile, biogenic Mn containing particles were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption. Dye removal performance of the Mn containing particles was assayed using methylene blue, and 20.8 mg g{sup −1} adsorption capacity was obtained. Overall, this study revealed several new genera associated with Mn(II) oxidation and rare biogenic Na{sub 3}MnPO{sub 4}CO{sub 3.} Results suggested the complexity of natural microbe-mediated Mn transformation.

  1. Bioaccessibility of micron-sized powder particles of molybdenum metal, iron metal, molybdenum oxides and ferromolybdenum--Importance of surface oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mörsdorf, Alexander; Odnevall Wallinder, Inger; Hedberg, Yolanda

    2015-08-01

    The European chemical framework REACH requires that hazards and risks posed by chemicals, including alloys and metals, that are manufactured, imported or used in different products (substances or articles) are identified and proven safe for humans and the environment. Metals and alloys need hence to be investigated on their extent of released metals (bioaccessibility) in biologically relevant environments. Read-across from available studies may be used for similar materials. This study investigates the release of molybdenum and iron from powder particles of molybdenum metal (Mo), a ferromolybdenum alloy (FeMo), an iron metal powder (Fe), MoO2, and MoO3 in different synthetic body fluids of pH ranging from 1.5 to 7.4 and of different composition. Spectroscopic tools and cyclic voltammetry have been employed to characterize surface oxides, microscopy, light scattering and nitrogen absorption for particle characterization, and atomic absorption spectroscopy to quantify released amounts of metals. The release of molybdenum from the Mo powder generally increased with pH and was influenced by the fluid composition. The mixed iron and molybdenum surface oxide of the FeMo powder acted as a barrier both at acidic and weakly alkaline conditions. These findings underline the importance of the surface oxide characteristics for the bioaccessibility of metal alloys.

  2. Effect of oxidative stress from nanoscale TiO2 particles on a Physarum polycephalum macroplasmodium under dark conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi; Zhang, Jianhua; Shi, Caixia; Guo, Heng; Ni, RuiYang; Qu, Junle; Tang, Jiaoning; Liu, Shide

    2017-07-01

    Information regarding the effect of nanoscale titanium dioxide particles (nTiO2) on the environment under dark conditions is scarce, and the effect of nTiO2 on fungi is largely unknown. Due to its huge size and high sensitivity to external stimuli, the slime mold fungi cell, Physarum polycephalum macroplasmodium, was utilized as a novel subject for the toxicity investigations in the present study, and oxidative stress from nTiO2 on the macroplasmodium was assessed under dark conditions. Short exposure (2-3 h) caused an intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) imbalance, and an anti-oxidative mechanism was activated from intermediate doses of nTiO2 (5-18 mg/mL). At long exposure times (~3 days), relatively low doses of nTiO2 (≤9 mg/mL) stimulated the growth of macroplasmodium and oxidative stress without DNA damage, whereas higher doses of nTiO2 (≥15 mg/mL) led to growth inhibition, significant DNA oxidative damage, and activation of the DNA single-strand repairing system. Although DNA oxidative damage was decreased to the same level as the control group by the supplementation of the anti-oxidant vitamin C, growth of the macroplasmodium failed to be completely restored. We inferred that nTiO2 induced a complicated toxicity effect on P. polycephalum in addition to DNA oxidative damage. Taken as a whole, the present study implied the probability of using P. polycephalum macroplasmodium for toxicity studies at the single-cell level, indicating that nTiO2 could induce oxidative stress or damage in P. polycephalum even under dark conditions and suggesting that the release of nTiO2 could lead to a growth imbalance of slime molds in the environment.

  3. Toxicity of iron-based nanoparticles to green algae: Effects of particle size, crystal phase, oxidation state and environmental aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Cheng; Zhang, Luqing; Yang, Kun; Zhu, Lizhong; Lin, Daohui

    2016-11-01

    With the increasing environmental application and discharge of iron-based nanoparticles (NPs), a comprehensive understanding of their fate and ecotoxicological effect in the aquatic environment is very urgent. In this study, toxicities of 4 zero-valent iron NPs (nZVI) of different sizes, 2 Fe2O3 NPs of different crystal phases, and 1 type of Fe3O4 NPs to a green alga (Chlorella pyrenoidosa) were investigated, with a focus on the effects of particle size, crystal phase, oxidation state, and environmental aging. Results show that the algal growth inhibition of nZVI increased significantly with decreasing particle size; with similar particle sizes (20-30 nm), the algal growth inhibition decreased with oxidation of the NPs with an order of nZVI > Fe3O4 NPs > Fe2O3 NPs, and α-Fe2O3 NPs presented significantly higher toxicity than γ-Fe2O3 NPs. The NP-induced oxidative stress was the main toxic mechanism, which could explain the difference in algal toxicity of the NPs. The NP-cell heteroagglomeration and physical interactions also contributed to the nanotoxicity, whereas the effect of NP dissolution was negligible. The aging in distilled water and 3 surface water samples for 3 months increased surface oxidation of the iron-based NPs especially nZVI, which decreased the toxicity to algae. These findings will be helpful for the understanding of the fate and toxicity of iron-based NPs in the aquatic environment.

  4. Oxidation of siloxanes during biogas combustion and nanotoxicity of Si-based particles released to the atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansel, Berrin; Surita, Sharon C

    2014-01-01

    Siloxanes have been detected in the biogas produced at municipal solid waste landfills and wastewater treatment plants. When oxidized, siloxanes are converted to silicon oxides. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the transformation of siloxanes and potential nanotoxicity of Si-based particles released to the atmosphere from the gas engines which utilize biogas. Data available from nanotoxicity studies were used to assess the potential health risks associated with the inhalation exposure to Si-based nanoparticles. Silicon dioxide formed from siloxanes can range from 5 nm to about 100 nm in diameter depending on the combustion temperature and particle clustering characteristics. In general, silicon dioxide particles formed during from combustion process are typically 40-70 nm in diameter and can be described as fibrous dusts and as carcinogenic, mutagenic, astmagenic or reproductive toxic (CMAR) nanoparticles. Nanoparticles deposit in the upper respiratory system, conducting airways, and the alveoli. Size ranges between 5 and 50 nm show effective deposition in the alveoli where toxic effects are higher. In this study the quantities for the SiO₂ formed and release during combustion of biogas were estimated based on biogas utilization characteristics (gas compositions, temperature). The exposure to Si-based particles and potential effects in humans were analyzed in relation to their particle size, release rates and availability in the atmosphere. The analyses showed that about 54.5 and 73 kg/yr of SiO₂ can be released during combustion of biogas containing D4 and D5 at 14.1 mg/m(3) (1 ppm) and 15.1 mg/m(3) (1ppm), respectively, per MW energy yield.

  5. Strengthening of aluminium by a three-dimensional network of aluminium-oxide particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels

    1969-01-01

    Study of transmission electron microscopy and tensile testing at room temperature and 400 C show that a network of hard particles strengthens aluminum effectively almost as much as a uniform dispersion of particles. An equation is derived for a relationship between the tensile stress and the mesh...

  6. TEM and HRTEM study of oxide particles in an Al-alloyed high-Cr oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steel with Hf addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Peng; Kimura, Akihiko; Kasada, Ryuta; Okuda, Takanari; Inoue, Masaki; Ukai, Shigeharu; Ohnuki, Somei; Fujisawa, Toshiharu; Abe, Fujio; Jiang, Shan; Yang, Zhigang

    2017-03-01

    The nanoparticles in an Al-alloyed high-Cr oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel with Hf addition, i.e., SOC-16 (Fe-15Cr-2W-0.1Ti-4Al-0.62Hf-0.35Y2O3), have been examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Relative to an Al-alloyed high-Cr ODS ferritic steel without Hf addition, i.e., SOC-9 (Fe-15.5Cr-2W-0.1Ti-4Al-0.35Y2O3), the dispersion morphology and coherency of the oxide nanoparticles in SOC-16 were significantly improved. Almost all the small nanoparticles (diameter anion-deficient fluorite structure and coherent with the bcc steel matrix. The larger particles (diameter >10 nm) were also mainly identified as cubic Y2Hf2O7 oxides with the anion-deficient fluorite structure. The results presented here are compared with those of SOC-9 with a brief discussion of the underlying mechanisms of the unusual thermal and irradiation stabilities of the oxides as well as the superior strength, excellent irradiation tolerance and extraordinary corrosion resistance of SOC-16.

  7. Dispersion of iron oxide particles in industrial waters. The influence of polymer structure, ionic charge, and molecular weight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amjad, Z. [Goodrich (B.F.) Co., Brecksville, OH (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This paper deals with studies on the influence of polymeric and non-polymeric materials on the dispersion of iron oxide particles in aqueous system. The aim of the work was to evaluate the performance of a variety of additives as iron oxide dispersants. The polymers investigated include homopolymers of acrylamide, vinylpyrrolidone, actylic acid, maleic acid, 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid, and acrylic acid based copolymers containing a variety of functional groups. It has been found that the addition of low levels of copolymers to the iron oxide suspension has a marked effect in dispersing iron oxide particles. The dispersancy data of several polymers indicate that the performance of the polymer depends upon the functional group, molecular weight, composition, and the ionic charge of the polymer. The results on non-polymeric materials such as polyphosphates, phosphonates, and surfactants show that these additives, compared to copolymers are ineffective as iron oxide dispersants. (orig.) [Deutsch] In dieser Arbeit wird der Einfluss von polymeren und nichtpolymeren Stoffen auf die Dispergierung von Eisenoxidpartikeln in waessrigen Systemen untersucht. Ziel dieser Arbeit war es, die Wirkung verschiedener Additive als Eisenoxiddispergatoren zu bewerten. Die untersuchten Polymere waren homopolymeres Acrylamid, Vinylpyrrolidon, Acrylsaeure, Maleinsaeure, 2-Acrylamido-2-Methylpropansulfonsaeure und Copolymere auf Acrylsaeurebasis mit verschiedenen fuktionellen Gruppen. Die Zugabe von geringen Mengen Copolymeren zur Eisenoxidsuspension hat einen deutlichen Einfluss auf die Dispergierung dieser Partikel. Die Daten zum Dispergierverhalten einiger Polymere zeigen, dass die Wirkung eines Polymers von der fuktionellen Gruppe, dem Molgewicht, der Zusammensetzung und der Ionenladung des Polymers abhaengt. Ergebnisse, die mit nichtpolymeren Substanzen wie Polyphosphaten, Phosphonaten und Tensiden erhalten wurden, zeigen, dass sich diese Additive nicht so gut als

  8. Non-Gaussian noise-enhanced stochastic rate oscillations in CO oxidation on nanometer-sized Pd particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The effect of non-Gaussian colored noise(NGN),mainly its departure q from the Gaussian noise,on the optimal ISRO of CO oxidation on nanometer-sized Pd particles was studied.It was found that the ISRO in the absence of external noise can still be enhanced when the NGN is applied.Specifically,the ISRO varies with changing q and becomes more regular at an appropriate q value,and when q is optimal,the ISRO becomes the most regular.Because the departure q from the Gaussian noise determines the probability distribution function and hence may denote the types of noise,this result shows that different types of external noise can enhance the ISRO of CO oxidation,and non-Gaussian noise may enhance the ISRO more greatly than the Gaussian noise.Therefore,non-Gaussian noise could play more effective roles in the catalytic process of CO oxidation on nanometer-sized Pd particles.

  9. Role of surfactant-mediated electrodeposited titanium oxide substrate in improving electrocatalytic features of supported platinum particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spătaru, Tanţa; Preda, Loredana; Osiceanu, Petre; Munteanu, Cornel; Anastasescu, Mihai; Marcu, Maria; Spătaru, Nicolae, E-mail: nspataru@icf.ro

    2014-01-01

    A new hybrid system with improved photocatalytic and electrocatalytic performances was obtained by two-step potentiostatic deposition on highly boron-doped diamond (BDD) substrate. First, hydrated TiO{sub 2} was anodically deposited from a TiCl{sub 3} aqueous solution, both in the presence and in the absence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The study of the UV irradiation effect evidenced that titanium oxide coatings obtained by surfactant-assisted electrodeposition (TiO{sub 2}:SDS) exhibit enhanced photocurrent, due to its very rough texonsture and presumably to better efficiency of charge carrier separation. Electrochemical deposition of platinum on the oxide-coated BDD was carried out in a second step and AFM, SEM and XPS measurements have shown that, on the TiO{sub 2}:SDS substrate, Pt particles are smaller, more uniformly distributed, and tend to form clusters, leading to a specific surface area of the electrocatalyst of ca. 6.55 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}. Carbon monoxide stripping experiments demonstrated that, when deposited on TiO{sub 2}:SDS, Pt particles are also less sensitive to CO-poisoning during methanol anodic oxidation.

  10. S-shaped current-voltage characteristics of polymer composite films containing graphene and graphene oxide particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krylov, P. S.; Berestennikov, A. S.; Fefelov, S. A.; Komolov, A. S.; Aleshin, A. N.

    2016-12-01

    The resistive switching effects in composite films containing polyfunctional polymers, such as derivatives of carbazole (PVK), fluorene (PFD), and polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and also graphene particles (Gr) and graphene oxide (GO), the concentration of which in the polymer matrices varied in the range from 1 to 3 wt % corresponding to the percolation threshold in such systems, have been studied. The analysis of the elemental composition of the investigated composites by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy have shown that the oxidation degree of Gr in GO is about 9 to 10%. It has been established that a sharp conductivity jump characterized by S-shaped current-voltage curves and the presence of their hysteresis occurs upon applying a voltage pulse to the Au/PVK (PFD; PVC): Gr (GO)/ITO/PET structures, where ITO is indium tin oxide, and PET is poly(ethylene terephthalate), with the switching time, t, in the range from 1 to 30 μs. The observed effects are attributed to the influence of redox reactions taking place on the Gr and GO particles enclosed in the polymer matrix, and the additional influence of thermomechanical properties of the polymer constituent of the matrix.

  11. Influencing factors in the CO-precipitation process of superparamagnetic iron oxide nano particles: A model based study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, Hans-Christian; Schwaminger, Sebastian P.; Schindler, Michael [Bioseparation Engineering Group, Technische Universität München, Boltzmannstraße 15, Garching d-85748 (Germany); Wagner, Friedrich E. [Technische Universität München, Physics Department El5, Garching d-85748 (Germany); Berensmeier, Sonja, E-mail: s.berensmeier@tum.de [Bioseparation Engineering Group, Technische Universität München, Boltzmannstraße 15, Garching d-85748 (Germany)

    2015-03-01

    The study, presented here, focuses on the impact of synthesis parameters on the co-precipitation process of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. Particle diameters between 3 and 17 nm and saturation magnetizations from 26 to 89 Am{sup 2} kg{sup −1} were achieved by variation of iron salt concentration, reaction temperature, ratio of hydroxide ions to iron ions and ratio of Fe{sup 3+}/Fe{sup 2+}. All synthesis assays were conceived according to the “design of experiments” method. The results were fitted to significant models. Subsequent validation experiments could confirm the models with an accuracy>95%. The characterization of the chemical composition, as well as structural and magnetic properties was carried out using powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Raman and Mössbauer spectroscopy and superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry. The results reveal that the particles' saturation magnetization can be enhanced by the employment of high iron salt concentrations and a molar ratio of Fe{sup 3+}/Fe{sup 2+} below 2:1. Furthermore, the particle size can be increased by higher iron salt concentrations and a hyperstoichiometric normal ratio of hydroxide ions to iron ions of 1.4:1. Overall results indicate that the saturation magnetization is directly related to the particle size. - Highlights: • We model the impact of synthesis parameters in the Massart process. • Optimization of synthesis parameters according to particle size and magnetization. • Particles are fully characterized with XRD, TEM and SQUID magnetometry.

  12. Translocation and biokinetic behavior of nanoscaled europium oxide particles within 5 days following an acute inhalation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creutzenberg, Otto; Kock, Heiko; Schaudien, Dirk

    2016-03-01

    Nanoscaled europium oxide (Eu2O3) particles were inhaled by rats after acute exposure and the potential translocation of particles followed by chemical analysis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was investigated. An aqueous dispersion (phosphate buffer/bovine serum albumin) of a commercially available Eu2O3 particle fraction consisting partially of nanoscaled particles was aerosolized with pressurized air. After rapid evaporation, rats inhaled the dry aerosol for 6 h in a single exposure resulting in an alveolar calculated dose of approximately 39.5 μg Eu2O3. Using chemical analysis, 36.8 μg Eu2O3 was detected 1 h after lung inhalation. The amount declined slightly to 34.5 μg after 1 day and 35.0 μg after 5 days. The liver showed an increase of Eu2O3 from 32.3 ng 1 h up to 294 ng 5 days after inhalation. Additionally, lung-associated lymph nodes, thymus, kidneys, heart and testis exhibited an increase of europium over the period investigated. In the blood, the highest amount of europium was found 1 h after treatment whereas feces, urine and mesenteric lymph nodes revealed the highest amount 1 day after treatment. Using TEM analysis, particles could be detected only in lungs, and in the liver, no particles were detectable. In conclusion, the translocation of Eu2O3 within 5 days following inhalation could be determined very precisely by chemical analysis. A translocation of Eu2O3 particulate matter to liver was not detectable by TEM analysis; thus, the overproportional level of 0.8% of the lung load observed in the liver after 5 days suggests a filtering effect of dissolved europium with accumulation. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Formation of grafted surface layers on silicon dioxide particles and their investigation by means of thermoprogrammed oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrova, E. O.; Novichkov, R. V.; Olenin, A. Yu.; Zuev, B. K.

    2017-03-01

    Silica nanoparticles are obtained according to the Stober-Fink-Bohn method, and their surfaces are chemically modified with 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyltriethoxysilane. It is estimated that sols of porous silica nanoparticles (average sizes, 50-200 nm) form during primary chemical process; the average size of the particles can be increased to 400-500 nm by consecutive growth. Oxythermography (thermoprogrammed oxidation) measurements reveal a stepped dependence between the content of organic substance of nanoparticles and the duration of chemical modification reaction exists. It is concluded that this could be due to the formation of dense shell (or shells) as a result of sols aging between the cycles of growth; such shells impose diffusive restrictions when molecules penetrate into the pores of the internal volume of the particles.

  14. Effect of labeling with iron oxide particles or nanodiamonds on the functionality of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinead P Blaber

    Full Text Available Stem cells are increasingly the focus of translational research as well as having emerging roles in human cellular therapy. To support these uses there is a need for improved methods for in vivo cell localization and tracking. In this study, we examined the effects of cell labeling on the in vitro functionality of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Our results provide a basis for future in vivo studies investigating implanted cell fate and longevity. In particular, we investigated the effects of two different particles: micron-sized (~0.9 µm fluorescently labeled (Dragon Green superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (M-SPIO particles; and, carboxylated nanodiamonds of ~0.25 µm in size. The effects of labeling on the functionality of adipose-derived MSCs were assessed by in vitro morphology, osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation potential, CD marker expression, cytokine secretion profiling and quantitative proteomics of the intra-cellular proteome. The differentiation and CD marker assays for stem-like functionality were not altered upon label incorporation and no secreted or intra-cellular protein changes indicative of stress or toxicity were detected. These in vitro results indicate that the M-SPIO particles and nanodiamonds investigated in this study are biocompatible with MSCs and therefore would be suitable labels for cell localization and tracking in vivo.

  15. Oxidation of carbon by CeO{sub 2}: Effect of the contact between carbon and catalyst particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May Issa; Corinne Petit; Alain Brillard; Jean-Francois Brilhac [Universite de Haute-Alsace, Mulhouse (France). Laboratoire Gestion des Risques et Environnement

    2008-05-15

    The oxidation of carbon black, CB, in presence of CeO{sub 2} is investigated to gain a better understanding of the effect of the contact between the two solids during this reaction. Different CB/CeO{sub 2} mixtures are tested in a fixed bed reactor. The experimental data are used to propose a model for CB oxidation in presence of CeO{sub 2}. It accounts for the size distribution of CeO{sub 2} particles, the contact area between CB and CeO{sub 2}, the mass of CB in the sample and the initial ratio CB/CeO{sub 2}. Corresponding kinetic parameters are determined. 35 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. The role of particle size of particulate nano-zinc oxide wood preservatives on termite mortality and leach resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartal S Nami

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Historically most residential wood preservatives were aqueous soluble metal formulations, but recently metals ground to submicron size and dispersed in water to give particulate formulations have gained importance. In this study, the specific role nano-zinc oxide (ZnO particle size and leach resistance plays in termite mortality resulting from exposure to particulate ZnO-treated wood was investigated. Southern yellow pine (SYP sapwood impregnated with three concentrations of two particle sizes (30 and 70 nm of ZnO were compared to wood treated with soluble zinc sulphate (ZnSO4 preservative for leach resistance and termite resistance. Less than four percent leached from the particulate nano-ZnO-treated specimens, while 13 to 25% of the zinc sulphate leached from the soluble treated wood. Nano-ZnO was essentially non-leachable from wood treated with 5% formulation for the 30-nm particle size. In a no-choice laboratory test, eastern subterranean termites (Reticulitermes flavipes consumed less than 10% of the leached nano-ZnO-treated wood with 93 to 100% mortality in all treatment concentrations. In contrast, termites consumed 10 to 12% of the leached ZnSO4-treated wood, but with lower mortality: 29% in the 1% treatment group and less than 10% (5 and 8%, respectively in the group of wood blocks treated with 2.5 and 5.0% ZnSO4. We conclude that termites were repelled from consuming wood treated with nano-ZnO, but when consumed it was more toxic to eastern subterranean termites than wood treated with the soluble metal oxide formulation. There were no differences in leaching or termite mortality between the two particle sizes of nano-ZnO.

  17. Small amounts of zinc from zinc oxide particles in sunscreens applied outdoors are absorbed through human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulson, Brian; McCall, Maxine; Korsch, Michael; Gomez, Laura; Casey, Philip; Oytam, Yalchin; Taylor, Alan; McCulloch, Malcolm; Trotter, Julie; Kinsley, Leslie; Greenoak, Gavin

    2010-11-01

    Metal oxide nanoparticles are commonly used in personal-care formulations as protective agents against exposure to ultraviolet radiation. Although previous research has concluded that nanoparticles do not penetrate healthy skin, it remains contentious whether this conclusion holds under normal conditions of sunscreen use. Humans (n = 20) were exposed to sunscreens containing zinc oxide (ZnO) particles to determine if Zn from the particles was absorbed through skin over five consecutive days under outdoor conditions. Two sunscreens were tested-"nano sunscreen" containing 19-nm nanoparticles and "bulk sunscreen" containing > 100-nm particles. Venous blood and urine samples were collected 8 days before exposure, twice daily during the trial, and 6 days post-exposure. As the first application in nanotechnology studies, stable isotope tracing was used where the ZnO, enriched to > 99% with the stable isotope (68)Zn, allowed dermally absorbed zinc to be distinguished from naturally occurring zinc. The overwhelming majority of applied (68)Zn was not absorbed, although blood and urine samples from all subjects exhibited small increases in levels of tracer (68)Zn. The amount of tracer detected in blood after the 5-day application period was ∼1/1000 th that of total Zn in the blood compartment. Tracer levels in blood continued to increase beyond the 5-day application phase in contrast to those in urine. Levels of (68)Zn in blood and urine from females receiving the nano sunscreen appeared to be higher than males receiving the same treatment and higher than all subjects receiving the bulk sunscreen. It is not known whether (68)Zn has been absorbed as ZnO particles or soluble Zn or both.

  18. Biological impact of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for magnetic particle imaging of head and neck cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindemann A

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Antje Lindemann,1 Kerstin Lüdtke-Buzug,2 Bianca M Fräderich,1 Ksenija Gräfe,2 Ralph Pries,1 Barbara Wollenberg11Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University Hospital of Schleswig-Holstein, Luebeck, Germany; 2Institute of Medical Engineering, University of Luebeck, Luebeck, GermanyBackground: As a tomographic imaging technology, magnetic particle imaging (MPI allows high spatial resolution and sensitivity, and the possibility to create real-time images by determining the spatial distribution of magnetic particles. To ensure a prospective biosafe application of UL-D (University of Luebeck-Dextran coated superparamagnetic nanoparticles, we evaluated the biocompatibility of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs, their impact on biological properties, and their cellular uptake using head and neck squamous cancer cells (HNSCCs.Methods: SPIONs that met specific MPI requirements were synthesized as tracers. Labeling and uptake efficiency were analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin staining and magnetic particle spectrometry. Flow cytometry, 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT assays, and real-time cell analyzer assays were used to investigate apoptosis, proliferation, and the cytokine response of SPION-labeled cells. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS was determined using a fluorescent dye. Experimental results were compared to the contrast agent Resovist®, a standard agent used in MPI.Results: UL-D nanoparticles and Resovist particles were taken up in vitro by HNSCCs via unspecific phagocytosis followed by cytosolic accumulation. To evaluate toxicity, flow cytometry analysis was performed; results showed that dose- and time-dependent administration of Resovist induced apoptosis whereas cell viability of UL-D-labeled cells was not altered. We observed decreased cell proliferation in response to increased SPION concentrations. An intracellular production of ROS could not be detected, suggesting that

  19. Synthesis and Analysis of Putative Terpene Oxidation Products and the Secondary Organic Aerosol Particles that Form from Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebben, C. J.; Strick, B. F.; Upshur, M.; Shrestha, M.; Velarde, L.; Lu, Z.; Wang, H.; Xiao, D.; Batista, V. S.; Martin, S. T.; Thomson, R. J.; Geiger, F. M.

    2013-12-01

    The terpenes isoprene and α-pinene are abundant volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are emitted by trees and oxidized in the atmosphere. However, the chemical processes involved in the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles from VOCs are not well understood. In this work, we use a combined synthetic, analytical, and theoretical approach to gain a molecular level understanding of the chemistry involved in the formation of SOA particles from VOC precursors. To this end, we have synthesized putative products of isoprene and α-pinene oxidation and the oligomers that form from them. Specifically, we have focused on the epoxide and 2-methyltetraols that form from isoprene oxidation by hydroxyl radicals, as well as products of α-pinene ozonolysis. In our analysis, we utilize a spectroscopic technique called sum frequency generation (SFG). SFG is a coherent, surface-specific, vibrational spectroscopy that uses infrared and visible laser light fields, overlapped spatially and temporally at a surface, to probe vibrational transitions within molecules. Our use of this technique allows us to assess the chemical identity of aerosol-forming components at their surfaces, where interactions with the gas phase occur. The spectral responses from these compounds are compared to those of synthetic isoprene- and α-pinene-derived aerosol particles, as well as natural aerosol particles collected in tropical and boreal forests to begin to predict the constituents that may be present at the surfaces of these particles. In addition, isotope editing is utilized to gain a better understanding of α-pinene. The rigidity of this molecule makes it difficult to understand spectroscopically. The combination of synthesis with deuterium labeling, theory, and broadband and high-resolution SFG spectroscopy in the C-H and C-D stretching regions allow us to determine the orientation of this important molecule on a surface, which could have implications for its reactivity in the

  20. An experimental study on accelerated fouling of aluminum oxide and ferric oxide particles in internally enhanced tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abedin, Mohammad Zoynal; Kim, Nae Hyun [School of Mechanical System Engineering, Incheon National University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    This paper describes the results of accelerated particulate fouling tests performed on three enhanced tubes and a plain tube. The tests were performed using ferric oxide and aluminum oxide as foulant materials. Three enhanced tubes included 25 start, 10 start helically ribbed tubes and a ripple tube. Effects of the water velocity (0.9 to 1.8 m/s) and foulant concentration (750 to 2500 ppm) were investigated. At 750 ppm, the enhanced tubes fouled almost the same as the plain tube for the entire velocity range tested (0.9 to 1.8 m/s). The enhanced tube fouled faster than the plain tube for cases of high concentration combined with low velocities. Of the three enhanced tubes, the 25 start helically ribbed tube fouled faster than the ripple and the 10 start helically ribbed tubes. One thing to be noted is that the fouling concentrations used in the tests are significantly higher than would be expected in commercial heat exchangers. Also, the velocity range investigated is lower than would be expected in heat exchanger operation.

  1. Calcium incorporation in graphene oxide particles: A morphological, chemical, electrical, and thermal study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Kelly L.S. [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Qualidade e Tecnologia, Av. Nossa Sra. das Graças, 50, 25250-020 Duque de Caxias (Brazil); Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Av. Athos da Silveira Ramos, 149, 21941-909 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Curti, Raphael V.; Araujo, Joyce R.; Landi, Sandra M.; Ferreira, Erlon H.M.; Neves, Rodrigo S.; Kuznetsov, Alexei; Sena, Lidia A. [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Qualidade e Tecnologia, Av. Nossa Sra. das Graças, 50, 25250-020 Duque de Caxias (Brazil); Archanjo, Braulio S., E-mail: bsarchanjo@inmetro.gov.br [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Qualidade e Tecnologia, Av. Nossa Sra. das Graças, 50, 25250-020 Duque de Caxias (Brazil); Achete, Carlos A. [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Qualidade e Tecnologia, Av. Nossa Sra. das Graças, 50, 25250-020 Duque de Caxias (Brazil); Departamento de Engenharia Metalúrgica e de Materiais, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Surface chemical modification and functionalization are common strategies used to provide new properties or functionalities to a material or to enhance existing ones. In this work, graphene oxide prepared using Hummers' method has been chemically modified with calcium ions by immersion in a calcium carbonate solution. Transmission electron microscopy analyses showed that graphene oxide (GO) and calcium incorporated graphene oxide have a morphology similar to an ultra-thin membrane composed of overlapping sheets. X-ray diffraction and Fourier-infrared spectroscopy show that calcium carbonate residue was completely removed by hydrochloric acid washes. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy mapping showed spatially homogeneous calcium in Ca-incorporated graphene oxide sample after HCl washing. This Ca is mainly ionic according to X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and its incorporation promoted a small reduction in the graphene oxide structure, corroborated also by four-point probe measurements. A thermal study shows a remarkable increase in the GO stability with the presence of Ca{sup 2+} ions. - Highlights: • Graphene oxide has been chemically modified with Ca ions by immersion in a CaCO{sub 3} solution. • GO–Ca has morphology similar to an ultra-thin membrane composed of overlapping sheets. • CaCO{sub 3} residue was completely removed by acid washes, leaving only ionic calcium. • EDS maps show that Ca incorporation is spatially homogeneous in GO structure. • Thermal analyses show a remarkable increase in GO stability after Ca incorporation.

  2. Neutrophil-derived ROS contribute to oxidative DNA damage induction by quartz particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Berlo, Damien; Wessels, Anton; Boots, Agnes W; Wilhelmi, Verena; Scherbart, Agnes M; Gerloff, Kirsten; van Schooten, Frederik J; Albrecht, Catrin; Schins, Roel P F

    2010-12-01

    The carcinogenicity of respirable quartz is considered to be driven by reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in association with chronic inflammation. The contribution of phagocyte-derived ROS to inflammation, oxidative stress, and DNA damage responses was investigated in the lungs of C57BL/6J wild-type and p47(phox-/-) mice, 24h after pharyngeal aspiration of DQ12 quartz (100 mg/kg bw). Bone-marrow-derived neutrophils from wild-type and p47(phox-/-) mice were used for parallel in vitro investigations in coculture with A549 human alveolar epithelial cells. Quartz induced a marked neutrophil influx in both wild-type and p47(phox-/-) mouse lungs. Significant increases in mRNA expression of the oxidative stress markers HO-1 and γ-GCS were observed only in quartz-treated wild-type animals. Oxidative DNA damage in lung tissue was not affected by quartz exposure and did not differ between p47(phox-/-) and WT mice. Differences in mRNA expression of the DNA repair genes OGG1, APE-1, DNA Polβ, and XRCC1 were also absent. Quartz treatment of cocultures containing wild-type neutrophils, but not p47(phox-/-) neutrophils, caused increased oxidative DNA damage in epithelial cells. Our study demonstrates that neutrophil-derived ROS significantly contribute to pulmonary oxidative stress responses after acute quartz exposure, yet their role in the associated induction of oxidative DNA damage could be shown only in vitro.

  3. The synthesis of clusters of iron oxides in mesopores of monodisperse spherical silica particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stovpiaga, E. Yu.; Eurov, D. A.; Kurdyukov, D. A.; Smirnov, A. N.; Yagovkina, M. A.; Grigorev, V. Yu.; Romanov, V. V.; Yakovlev, D. R.; Golubev, V. G.

    2017-08-01

    The method of obtaining nanoclusters α-Fe2O3 in the pores of monodisperse spherical particles of mesoporous silica ( mSiO2) by a single impregnation of the pores with a melt of crystalline hydrate of ferric nitrate and its subsequent thermal destruction has been proposed. Fe3O4 nanoclusters are synthesized from α-Fe2O3 in the pores by reducing in thermodynamically equilibrium conditions. Then particles containing Fe3O4 were annealed in oxygen for the conversion of Fe3O4 back to α-Fe2O3. In the result, the particles with the structure of the core-shell mSiO2/Fe3O4@ mSiO2/α-Fe2O3 are obtained. The composition and structure of synthesized materials as well as the field dependence of the magnetic moment on the magnetic field strength have been investigated.

  4. Fluidization characteristics of and protein adsorption on fluoride-modified porous zirconium oxide particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, C M; Morris, J; Robichaud, M; Annen, M J; McCormick, A V; Flickinger, M C

    1997-08-01

    Porous zirconia particles of specific gravity approximately 3.2 g/ml, mean particle sizes of approximately 50 microns, and terminal settling velocity of approximately 2.8 mm/s in water, were synthesized using an oil emulsion method from 1000 A colloids and were evaluated for their potential use in expanded bed protein adsorption. Expanded beds of particles were stable even for small volume, shallow beds (settled bed: 10 ml, height to diameter ratio fluidization velocities common to much larger particles (210 cm/h for a three-fold bed expansion). When the surface of these particles was modified by fluoride adsorption, the total bed capacity for bovine serum albumin (BSA) adsorption was 42 +/- 2 mg BSA/ml of settled bed volume at linear velocities of 109-210 cm/h. Residence time distribution studies of several solutes under non-binding conditions were performed to assess the degree of liquid mixing and channeling in the expanded bed as a function of fluidization velocity. Liquid mixing and channeling were also studied as a function of distributor design. With these very dense particles, the degree of channeling and mixing did not worsen with the degree of expansion. Elution of adsorbed BSA while the bed was expanded (by a step increase in ionic strength) was rapid resulting in a narrow peak at high fluidization velocities without resorting to settling of the bed. The dynamic binding capacity of BSA at 5% breakthrough (protein effluent concentration equal to 5% of the inlet concentration) was the same for a two-fold expanded bed as for a settled bed (22 +/- 2 mg BSA/ml of settled bed volume), though it decreased for higher bed expansions. BSA binding was reproducible following repeated cleaning of the adsorbent with 0.25 M sodium hydroxide.

  5. Phosphorus adsorption onto clay minerals and iron oxide with consideration of heterogeneous particle morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hongwei; Cui, Zhenghui; He, Guojian; Huang, Lei; Chen, Minghong

    2017-12-15

    Particle morphology plays an important role in solid-water interface adsorption, which affects the fate and behavior of phosphorus (P) in rivers and lakes and the resulting eutrophication. In this paper, three minerals including kaolinite, montmorillonite and hematite were considered to investigate the contributions of particle morphology to P adsorption using adsorption experiments and microscopic examinations. The Taylor expansion method is applied to quantitatively characterize the heterogeneity of surface morphology. The results reveal that local concave or convex micro-morphology characterized by the second order term of Taylor expansion F2, can affect the local adsorption capacity due to its effect on the distribution of surface charge and reactive sites. Moreover, the adsorbed P at different F2 here fits to a Weibull distribution, which can further define the representative average adsorption onto individual particles. A weighted average morphology factor F2a is derived to characterize the surface heterogeneity, and correlated with average P adsorption of particular mineral particles. In addition, the Sips model can successfully fit the experimental data of different minerals, and the heterogeneity parameters γ and adsorption capacity Qm in the model are proved to be functions with the basic mineral properties, including particle size, surface site density and morphology characterization as well. It is concluded that the complex surface morphology plays a significant role in particle adsorption and the morphological role need to be considered in the adsorption model in order to better describe the adsorption in system with heterogeneous solid surface. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of Catalyst Particle Size on the Critical Conditions of Catalytic Oxidation of Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinchak, V. V.; Chernenko, A. S.; Kalugin, V. V.

    2014-03-01

    A method of determination of the critical conditions of catalytic surface ignition and firing of small contents of gases in a mixture of constant composition on a catalyst particle in the form of the dependence of the gas-mixture temperature on the particle size has been proposed. It has been shown that heat exchange by radiation with surrounding bodies that are cold relative to the gas mixture gives rise to a minimum on the dependences under study and to the upper limit for regions of self-ignition and firing on the catalyst diameter. Limiting conditions for catalytic self-ignition and firing of gases have been obtained.

  7. Antimicrobial activity of zinc oxide particles on five micro-organisms of the Challenge Tests related to their physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquet, Julia; Chevalier, Yves; Couval, Emmanuelle; Bouvier, Dominique; Noizet, Gaëlle; Morlière, Cécile; Bolzinger, Marie-Alexandrine

    2014-01-02

    Zinc oxide is commonly used in pharmaceutical products to prevent or treat topical or systemic diseases owing to its antimicrobial properties, but it is scarcely used as preservative in topical formulations. The aim of this work was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of zinc oxide (ZnO) powders on the five microbial strains used for Challenge Tests in order to evaluate this inorganic compound as a preservative in topical formulation and assess relationships between the structural parameters of ZnO particles and their antimicrobial activity. For this purpose, the physicochemical characteristics of three ZnO grades were measured and their antimicrobial efficacy against the following micro-organisms - Escherichia coli; Staphylococcus aureus; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Candida albicans; Aspergillus brasiliensis - was assessed using disc diffusion susceptibility tests and a broth dilution method. The comprehensive dataset of physicochemical characteristics and antimicrobial activities (MIC and MBC) is discussed regarding methodological issues related to the particulate nature of ZnO and structure-activity relationships. Every ZnO grade showed bactericidal and antifungal activity against the five tested micro-organisms in a concentration dependent manner. ZnO particles with smaller size, larger specific area and higher porosity exhibit higher antimicrobial activity. Such trends are related to their mechanisms of antimicrobial activity.

  8. Markers of lipid oxidative damage among office workers exposed intermittently to air pollutants including nanoTiO2 particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelclova, Daniela; Zdimal, Vladimir; Kacer, Petr; Komarc, Martin; Fenclova, Zdenka; Vlckova, Stepanka; Zikova, Nadezda; Schwarz, Jaroslav; Makes, Otakar; Navratil, Tomas; Zakharov, Sergey; Bello, Dhimiter

    2017-03-01

    Nanoscale titanium dioxide (nanoTiO2) is a commercially important nanomaterial used in numerous applications. Experimental studies with nanotitania have documented lung injury and inflammation, oxidative stress, and genotoxicity. Production workers in TiO2 manufacturing with a high proportion of nanoparticles and a mixture of other air pollutants, such as gases and organic aerosols, had increased markers of oxidative stress, including DNA and protein damage, as well as lipid peroxidation in their exhaled breath condensate (EBC) compared to unexposed controls. Office workers were observed to get intermittent exposures to nanoTiO2 during their process monitoring. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of such short-term exposures on the markers of health effects in office workers relative to production workers from the same factory. Twenty-two office employees were examined. They were occupationally exposed to (nano)TiO2 aerosol during their daily visits of the production area for an average of 14±9 min/day. Median particle number concentration in office workers while in the production area was 2.32×104/cm3. About 80% of the particles were meaning of their physiological values in the context of chronic disease development and damage-repair kinetics.

  9. Heterogeneous oxidation of the insecticide cypermethrin as thin film and airborne particles by hydroxyl radicals and ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal-Rosenheimer, M; Linker, R; Dubowski, Y

    2011-01-14

    Evaluation of pesticides' fate in the atmosphere is important in terms of environmental effects on non-target areas and risk assessments analysis. This evaluation is usually done in the laboratory using analytical grade materials and is then extrapolated to more realistic conditions. To assess the effect of the pesticide purity level (i.e. analytical vs. technical) and state (i.e. sorbed film vs. airborne particles), we have investigated the oxidation rates and products of technical grade cypermethrin as thin film and in its airborne form, and compared it with our former results for analytical grade material. Technical grade thin film kinetics for both ozone and OH radicals revealed reaction rates similar to the analytical material, implying that for these processes, the analytical grade can be used as a good proxy. Oxidation products, however, were slightly different with two additional condensed phase products: formanilide, N-phenyl and 2-biphenyl carboxylic acid, which were seen with the technical grade material only. OH experiments revealed spectral changes that suggest the immediate formation of surface products containing OH functionalities. For the ozonolysis studies of airborne material, a novel set-up was used, which included a long-path FTIR cell in conjugation with a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) system. This set-up allowed monitoring of real-time reaction kinetics and product formation (gas and condensed phases) together with aerosol size distribution measurements. Similar condensed phase products were observed for airborne and thin film technical grade cypermethrin after ozonolysis. Additionally, CO, CO(2) and possibly acetaldehyde were identified as gaseous oxidation products in the aerosols experiments only. A kinetic model fitted to our experimental system enabled the identification of both primary and secondary products as well as extraction of a formation rate constant. Kinetic calculations (based on gaseous products formation rate) have

  10. Structural characterization and photoluminescence properties of zinc oxide nano particles synthesized by chemical route method

    OpenAIRE

    P.B. Taunk; Das, R.; D.P. Bisen; Raunak kumar Tamrakar

    2015-01-01

    Nanostructures, crystalline Zinc oxide powder were synthesized by mixing Zinc chloride (0.04M) and sodium hydroxide (0.08M) using chemical route method. 0.001M molar concentrations of TEA (Tri ethanolamine) in aqueous solution used to the growing reaction solution. The powder samples are annealed at 190 °C. The experimental results indicate a successful growth of Zinc oxide in solid form which is not observed ever before. XRD, SEM, TEM and PL were performed to characterize the morphology, gro...

  11. Composition and fate of mine- and smelter-derived particles in soils of humid subtropical and hot semi-arid areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ettler, Vojtěch, E-mail: ettler@natur.cuni.cz [Institute of Geochemistry, Mineralogy and Mineral Resources, Faculty of Science, Charles University in Prague, Albertov 6, 128 43 Praha 2 (Czech Republic); Johan, Zdenek [BRGM, Avenue Claude Guillemin, 45082 Orléans Cedex 2 (France); Kříbek, Bohdan; Veselovský, František [Czech Geological Survey, Geologická 6, 152 00 Praha 5 (Czech Republic); Mihaljevič, Martin [Institute of Geochemistry, Mineralogy and Mineral Resources, Faculty of Science, Charles University in Prague, Albertov 6, 128 43 Praha 2 (Czech Republic); Vaněk, Aleš; Penížek, Vít [Department of Soil Science and Soil Protection, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamýcká 129, 165 21 Praha 6 (Czech Republic); Majer, Vladimír [Czech Geological Survey, Geologická 6, 152 00 Praha 5 (Czech Republic); Sracek, Ondra [Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, Palacký University in Olomouc, 17. listopadu 12, 771 46 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Mapani, Ben; Kamona, Fred [Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, University of Namibia, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek (Namibia); Nyambe, Imasiku [University of Zambia, School of Mines, P. O. Box 32 379, Lusaka (Zambia)

    2016-09-01

    We studied the heavy mineral fraction, separated from mining- and smelter-affected topsoils, from both a humid subtropical area (Mufulira, Zambian Copperbelt) and a hot semi-arid area (Tsumeb, Namibia). High concentrations of metal(loid)s were detected in the studied soils: up to 1450 mg As kg{sup −1}, 8980 mg Cu kg{sup −1}, 4640 mg Pb kg{sup −1}, 2620 mg Zn kg{sup −1}. A combination of X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM/EDS), and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) helped to identify the phases forming individual metal(loid)-bearing particles. Whereas spherical particles originate from the smelting and flue gas cleaning processes, angular particles have either geogenic origins or they are windblown from the mining operations and mine waste disposal sites. Sulphides from ores and mine tailings often exhibit weathering rims in contrast to smelter-derived high-temperature sulphides (chalcocite [Cu{sub 2}S], digenite [Cu{sub 9}S{sub 5}], covellite [CuS], non-stoichiometric quenched Cu–Fe–S phases). Soils from humid subtropical areas exhibit higher available concentrations of metal(loids), and higher frequencies of weathering features (especially for copper-bearing oxides such as delafossite [Cu{sup 1+} Fe{sup 3+} O{sub 2}]) are observed. In contrast, metal(loid)s are efficiently retained in semi-arid soils, where a high proportion of non-weathered smelter slag particles and low-solubility Ca–Cu–Pb arsenates occur. Our results indicate that compared to semi-arid areas (where inorganic contaminants were rather immobile in soils despite their high concentrations) a higher potential risk exists for agriculture in mine- and smelter-affected humid subtropical areas (where metal(loid) contaminants can be highly available for the uptake by crops). - Highlights: • Mining- and smelter-derived particles identified in subtropical and semi-arid soils • Sulphides, oxides, and metal-bearing arsenates most frequently encountered

  12. The Involvement of Superoxide and Nitric Oxide in Inflammation-Enhanced Diesel Exhaust Particle Cytotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirty-four million Americans have asthma, a chronic inflammatory lung disease. Although the mechanisms are unclear, epidemiologic studies show that exposure of asthmatics to air pollutants, like diesel exhaust particles (DEP), is more likely to result in adverse health effects....

  13. Fine ambient particles induce oxidative stress and metal binding genes in human alveolar machrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to ambient pollutant particles (APP) increased respiratory morbidity and mortality. The alveolar macrophages (AMs) are one cell type in the lung directly exposed to APP. Upon contact with APP, AMs are activated and produce reactive oxygen species, but the scope ofthis ox...

  14. Are engineered nano iron oxide particles safe? an environmental risk assessment by probabilistic exposure, effects and risk modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Deng, Lei; Caballero-Guzman, Alejandro; Nowack, Bernd

    2016-12-01

    Nano iron oxide particles are beneficial to our daily lives through their use in paints, construction materials, biomedical imaging and other industrial fields. However, little is known about the possible risks associated with the current exposure level of engineered nano iron oxides (nano-FeOX) to organisms in the environment. The goal of this study was to predict the release of nano-FeOX to the environment and assess their risks for surface waters in the EU and Switzerland. The material flows of nano-FeOX to technical compartments (waste incineration and waste water treatment plants) and to the environment were calculated with a probabilistic modeling approach. The mean value of the predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) of nano-FeOX in surface waters in the EU for a worst-case scenario (no particle sedimentation) was estimated to be 28 ng/l. Using a probabilistic species sensitivity distribution, the predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) was determined from ecotoxicological data. The risk characterization ratio, calculated by dividing the PEC by PNEC values, was used to characterize the risks. The mean risk characterization ratio was predicted to be several orders of magnitude smaller than 1 (1.4 × 10(-)(4)). Therefore, this modeling effort indicates that only a very limited risk is posed by the current release level of nano-FeOX to organisms in surface waters. However, a better understanding of the hazards of nano-FeOX to the organisms in other ecosystems (such as sediment) needs to be assessed to determine the overall risk of these particles to the environment.

  15. Switching and memory effects in composite films of semiconducting polymers with particles of graphene and graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krylov, P. S.; Berestennikov, A. S.; Aleshin, A. N.; Komolov, A. S.; Shcherbakov, I. P.; Petrov, V. N.; Trapeznikova, I. N.

    2015-08-01

    The effects of switching were investigated in composite films based on multifunctional polymers. i.e., derivatives of carbazole (PVK) and fluorene (PFD), as well as based on particles of graphene (Gr) and graphene oxide (GO). The concentration of Gr and GO particles in the PVK(PFD) matrix was varied in the range of 2-3 wt %, which corresponded to the percolation threshold in these systems. The atomic composition of the composite films PVK: GO was examined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It was found that the effect of switching in structures of the form Al/PVK(PFD): GO(Gr)/ITO/PET manifests itself in a sharp change of the electrical resistance of the composite film from a low-conducting state to a relatively high-conducting state when applying a bias to Al-ITO electrodes of ˜0.1-0.3 V ( E ˜ 3-5 × 104 V/cm), which is below the threshold switching voltages for similar composites. The mechanism of resistance switching, which is associated with the processes of capture and accumulation of charge carriers by Gr (GO) particles introduced into the matrices of the high-molecular-weight (PVK) and relatively low-molecular-weight (PFD) polymers, was discussed.

  16. Investigation on the thermal radiation properties of antimony doped tin oxide particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Cheng-Wu; Zhang Shuan-Qin; Chen Ming-Qing

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the preparation of antimony doped tin oxide crystalline powders by chemical coprecipitation method. The influence of sintering temperature and the sintering retention time on the thermal infrared emissivity is analysed. The thermal infrared reflectivity is measured and the optimum doping concentration is proposed.

  17. Synthesis of zinc oxide nano-particles by mechano-thermal route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, S.; Ataie, A.; Nozari, A.

    2012-09-01

    ZnO nano-particles were synthesized via mechano-thermal route using ZnSO4.H2O and Na2CO3 as starting materials. The mixture of powders was milled for 5, 10 and 15 in a high energy planetary ball mill, then heat treated at 300 °C for 1 hour. XRD results of the heat treated sample at 300 °C revealed a single phase nano-crystalline ZnO phase with a mean crystallite size of 18 nm. FESEM micrographs of the heat treated sample showed that mean particle size of the ZnO decreased from 150 nm for 5-hour milled sample to 25 nm for 15-hour milled sample. It was also found that the optical properties of the samples varied as a function of milling time.

  18. Particulate matter and atherosclerosis: role of particle size, composition and oxidative stress

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Air Pollution has been associated with significant adverse health effects leading to increased morbidity and mortality. Cumulative epidemiological and experimental data have shown that exposure to air pollutants lead to increased cardiovascular ischemic events and enhanced atherosclerosis. It appears that these associations are much stronger with the air particulate matter (PM) component and that in urban areas, the smaller particles could be more pathogenic, as a result of their gre...

  19. Zirconia matrix composite dispersed with stainless steel particles: Processing and oxidation behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Tarabay, Jinane; Peres, Véronique; Serris, Eric; Valdivieso, François; Pijolat, Michèle

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Materials with non uniform properties are being developed to optimize several functions of industrial components in severe atmospheres at high temperature. These composites called M(p)-CMC(s): "ceramic matrix composites dispersed with metal particles" are candidates for high-temperature structure materials as functionally graded materials (FGMs) such as intermediate components between electrolyte and interconnecting components in SOFC. Preparation of a model composite ...

  20. Study on Analyzing Monodisperse Uranium Oxide Particle by FT-TIMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; Yan; WANG; Fan; ZHAO; Yong-gang; LI; Li-li; ZHANG; Yan; SHEN; Yan; CUI; Jian-yong; LIU; Yuang

    2012-01-01

    <正>Environmental sampling is the important one of IAEA safeguards technology, the aim of which is detecting the undeclared nuclear activities. Analyzing isotopic ratio of single uranium-bearing particle in swipe samples was a effective analytic technique in virtue of its ability of achieving the present or past information of nuclear facilities. For this purpose, a new method of Fission track (FT) technique combined with thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) was developed.

  1. Morphological impact of zinc oxide particles on the antibacterial activity and human epithelia toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čepin, Marjeta; Hribar, Gorazd; Caserman, Simon; Orel, Zorica Crnjak

    2015-01-01

    ZnO nanoparticles are utilized in an ever growing number of products and can, therefore, be readily encountered in our everyday life. Human beings' outermost tissues consist of different epithelia and are, therefore, the most exposed to materials from the environment. In this paper, Caco-2 and Calu-3 cell lines were used, having been previously broadly applied for in vitro modelling of intestinal and respiratory epithelia, respectively. The toxicity of synthesized micro-, submicro- and nanoparticulate ZnO on these epithelia was measured and compared to the efficacy of the same ZnO particles as antibacterial agents. An approximately four-fold excess in antibacterial activity of ZnO nanoparticles over ZnO granulate was observed. The results of this paper reveal a sharp distinction between toxic nanoparticulate ZnO and safe ZnO particles of larger sizes in intestinal and airway in vitro epithelial models. In contrast, ZnO of larger particle sizes had only modestly lower antibacterial activity, which can be compensated for with higher dosing. These results show that nanoparticulate ZnO requires critical in vivo assessment before application. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Studying the effect of particle size and coating type on the blood kinetics of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roohi F

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Farnoosh Roohi, Jessica Lohrke, Andreas Ide, Gunnar Schütz, Katrin DasslerMR and CT Contrast Media Research, Bayer Pharma AG, Berlin, GermanyPurpose: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, one of the most powerful imaging techniques available, usually requires the use of an on-demand designed contrast agent to fully exploit its potential. The blood kinetics of the contrast agent represent an important factor that needs to be considered depending on the objective of the medical examination. For particulate contrast agents, such as superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIOs, the key parameters are particle size and characteristics of the coating material. In this study we analyzed the effect of these two properties independently and systematically on the magnetic behavior and blood half-life of SPIOs.Methods: Eleven different SPIOs were synthesized for this study. In the first set (a, seven carboxydextran (CDX-coated SPIOs of different sizes (19–86 nm were obtained by fractionating a broadly size-distributed CDX–SPIO. The second set (b contained three SPIOs of identical size (50 nm that were stabilized with different coating materials, polyacrylic acid (PAA, polyethylene glycol, and starch. Furthermore, small PAA–SPIOs (20 nm were synthesized to gain a global insight into the effects of particle size vs coating characteristics. Saturation magnetization and proton relaxivity were determined to represent the magnetic and imaging properties. The blood half-life was analyzed in rats using MRI, time-domain nuclear magnetic resonance, and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry.Results: By changing the particle size without modifying any other parameters, the relaxivity r2 increased with increasing mean particle diameter. However, the blood half-life was shorter for larger particles. The effect of the coating material on magnetic properties was less pronounced, but it had a strong influence on blood kinetics depending on the

  3. Evolution of insoluble eutectic Si particles in anodic oxidation films during adipic-sulfuric acid anodizing processes of ZL114A aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Lei; Liu, Jian-hua; Li, Song-mei; Yu, Mei; Wang, Lei; Cui, Yong-xin

    2015-03-01

    The effects of insoluble eutectic Si particles on the growth of anodic oxide films on ZL114A aluminum alloy substrates were investigated by optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The anodic oxidation was performed at 25°C and a constant voltage of 15 V in a solution containing 50 g/L sulfuric acid and 10 g/L adipic acid. The thickness of the formed anodic oxidation film was approximately 7.13 μm. The interpore distance and the diameters of the major pores in the porous layer of the film were within the approximate ranges of 10-20 nm and 5-10 nm, respectively. Insoluble eutectic Si particles strongly influenced the morphology of the anodic oxidation films. The anodic oxidation films exhibited minimal defects and a uniform thickness on the ZL114A substrates; in contrast, when the front of the oxide oxidation films encountered eutectic Si particles, defects such as pits and non-uniform thickness were observed, and pits were observed in the films.

  4. The use of visible light and metal oxide nano particles for pathogen inactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubart, R.; Lipovski, A.; Gedanken, A.

    2012-09-01

    Since the effectiveness of antibiotic treatment is decreasing due to the development of resistant strains, alternative approaches for destroying microorganisms are needed. In this review we summarize new technologies that might be effective for pathogen inactivation. In the past we found that intense blue light could be used for bacterial eradication. The phototoxic effect correlated with the amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by the bacteria due to illumination. Recently it has been shown that the effect of light can be enhanced by introducing metal oxide nanoparticles (nps) to the bacteria prior to irradiation. This led us to suggest combining nanoparticles with visible light irradiation for pathogen eradication. We have shown that combination of illumination with the nanoparticles (ZnO or TiO2) resulted in a marked increase in the reduction of bacterial viability to a mean reduction of 80-90% for both nanoaprticles. As a matter of fact metal oxide nps alone can be used for bacteria destruction. The advantage of our approach is the use of lower concentrations of nps, combined with reduced light intensity that is less toxic to the host tissue. To further avoid the toxicity of metal oxides nps on healthy tissue it is possible to coat their surfaces with various substrates including ceramics and polymers. Recently Zinc oxide nanoparticles have been synthesized and deposited on the surface of cotton fabrics using ultrasound irradiation. Thus in the future we will try to treat infected wounds with transparent bandages coated with ZnO that will be applied to the wounds prior to irradiation.

  5. Surface enrichment of Pt in stable Pt-Ir nano-alloy particles on MgAl 2 O 4 spinel in oxidizing atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wei-Zhen; Nie, Lei; Cheng, Yingwen; Kovarik, Libor; Liu, Jun; Wang, Yong

    2017-04-01

    With the capability of MgAl2O4 spinel {111} nano-facets in stabilizing small Rh, Ir and Pt particles, bimetallic Ir-Pt catalysts on the same support were investigated, aiming at further lowering the catalyst cost by substituting expensive Pt with cheaper Ir in the bulk. Small Pt-Ir nano-alloy particles (< 2nm) were successfully stabilized on the spinel {111} nano-facets as expected. Interestingly, methanol oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) rate on the surface Pt atoms increases with oxidizing aging but decreases upon reducing treatment, where Ir is almost inactive under the same reaction conditions. Up to three times enhancement in Pt exposure was achieved when the sample was oxidized at 800 °C in air for 1 week and subsequently reduced by H2 for 2 h, demonstrating successful surface enrichment of Pt on Pt-Ir nano-alloy particles. A dynamic stabilization mechanism involving wetting\

  6. Particles, sweat, and tears: a comparative study on bioaccessibility of ferrochromium alloy and stainless steel particles, the pure metals and their metal oxides, in simulated skin and eye contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedberg, Yolanda; Midander, Klara; Wallinder, Inger Odnevall

    2010-07-01

    Ferrochromium alloys are manufactured in large quantities and placed on the global market for use as master alloys (secondary raw materials), primarily for stainless steel production. Any potential human exposure to ferrochromium alloy particles is related to occupational activities during production and use, with 2 main exposure routes, dermal contact and inhalation and subsequent digestion. Alloy and reference particles exposed in vitro in synthetic biological fluids relevant for these main exposure routes have been investigated in a large research effort combining bioaccessibility; chemical speciation; and material, surface, and particle characteristics. In this paper, data for the dermal exposure route, including skin and eye contact, will be presented and discussed. Bioaccessibility data have been generated for particles of a ferrochromium alloy, stainless steel grade AISI 316L, pure Fe, pure Cr, iron(II,III)oxide, and chromium(III)oxide, upon immersion in artificial sweat (pH 6.5) and artificial tear (pH 8.0) fluids for various time periods. Measured released amounts of Fe, Cr, and Ni are presented in terms of average Fe and Cr release rates and amounts released per amount of particles loaded. The results are discussed in relation to bulk and surface composition of the particles. Additional information, essential to assess the bioavailability of Cr released, was generated by determining its chemical speciation and by providing information on its complexation and oxidation states in both media investigated. The effect of differences in experimental temperature, 30 degrees C and 37 degrees C, on the extent of metal release in artificial sweat is demonstrated. Iron was the preferentially released element in all test media and for all time periods and iron-containing particles investigated. The extent of metal release was highly pH dependent and was also dependent on the medium composition. Released amounts of Cr and Fe were very low (close to the limit of

  7. Graphene oxide-encoded Ag nanoshells with single-particle detection sensitivity towards cancer cell imaging based on SERRS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, DaBin; Kang, Homan; Jeon, Su-Ji; Kim, Hye-In; Yang, Jin-Kyoung; Kang, Tae Wook; Lee, Sangyeop; Choo, Jaebum; Lee, Yoon-Sik; Kim, Jin Woong; Kim, Jong-Ho

    2015-05-21

    Developing ultrasensitive Raman nanoprobes is one of the emerging interests in the field of biosensing and bioimaging. Herein, we constructed a new type of surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering nanoprobe composed of an Ag nanoshell as a surface-enhanced Raman scattering-active nanostructure, which was encapsulated with 4,7,10-trioxa-1,13-tridecanediamine-functionalized graphene oxide as an ultrasensitive Raman reporter exhibiting strong resonance Raman scattering including distinct D and G modes. The designed nanoprobe was able to produce much more intense and simpler Raman signals even at a single particle level than the Ag nanoshell bearing a well-known Raman reporter, which is beneficial for the sensitive detection of a target in a complex biological system. Finally, this ultrasensitive nanoprobe successfully demonstrated its potential for bioimaging of cancer cells using Raman spectroscopy.

  8. Fluidity evaluation of cell membrane model formed on graphene oxide with single particle tracking using quantum dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Yoshiaki; Motegi, Toshinori; Iwasa, Seiji; Sandhu, Adarsh; Tero, Ryugo

    2015-04-01

    The lipid bilayer is the fundamental structure of plasma membranes, and artificial lipid bilayer membranes are used as model systems of cell membranes. Recently we reported the formation of a supported lipid bilayer (SLB) on graphene oxide (GO) by the vesicle fusion method. In this study, we conjugated a quantum dot (Qdot) on the SLB surface as a fluorescence probe brighter than dye-labeled lipid molecules, to qualitatively evaluate the fluidity of the SLB on GO by the single particle tracking method. We obtained the diffusion coefficient of the Qdot-conjugated lipids in the SLB on GO. We also performed the Qdot conjugation on the SLB containing a lipid conjugated with polyethylene glycol, to prevent the nonspecific adsorption of Qdots. The difference in the diffusion coefficients between the SLBs on the GO and the bare SiO2 regions was evaluated from the trajectory of single Qdot-conjugated lipid diffusing between the two regions.

  9. Low-solubility particles and a Trojan-horse type mechanism of toxicity: the case of cobalt oxide on human lung cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The mechanisms of toxicity of metal oxide particles towards lung cells are far from being understood. In particular, the relative contribution of intracellular particulate versus solubilized fractions is rarely considered as it is very challenging to assess, especially for low-solubility particles such as cobalt oxide (Co3O4). Methods This study was possible owing to two highly sensitive, independent, analytical techniques, based on single-cell analysis, using ion beam microanalysis, and on bulk analysis of cell lysates, using mass spectrometry. Results Our study shows that cobalt oxide particles, of very low solubility in the culture medium, are readily incorporated by BEAS-2B human lung cells through endocytosis via the clathrin-dependent pathway. They are partially solubilized at low pH within lysosomes, leading to cobalt ions release. Solubilized cobalt was detected within the cytoplasm and the nucleus. As expected from these low-solubility particles, the intracellular solubilized cobalt content is small compared with the intracellular particulate cobalt content, in the parts-per-thousand range or below. However, we were able to demonstrate that this minute fraction of intracellular solubilized cobalt is responsible for the overall toxicity. Conclusions Cobalt oxide particles are readily internalized by pulmonary cells via the endo-lysosomal pathway and can lead, through a Trojan-horse mechanism, to intracellular release of toxic metal ions over long periods of time, involving specific toxicity. PMID:24669904

  10. Effect of Nano-Particle of Magnesium Oxide on Ketamine-Induced Anesthesia in Rabbit

    OpenAIRE

    N. Kavosi; Najafzadeh, H.; M. Bavari; A. Esmailirad

    2012-01-01

    Some studies show magnesium has analgesic effect in some pain models but this evaluation was not carried on nano-Magnesium Oxide (MgO). Thus, present study was designed to evaluation effect of Mgo nanoparticles and conventional MgO on ketamine-induced anesthesia in rabbits. At this study, 20 adult rabbits were used in 4 groups. Ketamine was intrapritonealy injected in all groups and xylazine, MgO nanoparticle and MgO suspension was administrated 15 min before ketamine injection in 3 last grou...

  11. Pulmonary toxicity of inhaled nanoscale and fine zinc oxide particles: mass and surface area as an exposure metric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Meng; Wu, Kuen-Yuh; Chein, Hung-Min; Chen, Lung-Chi; Cheng, Tsun-Jen

    2011-12-01

    The total surface area is known to be an effective exposure metric for predicting the lung toxicity of low solubility nanoparticles (NPs). However, if NPs are dissolved quickly enough in the lungs, the mass may be correlated with the toxicity. Recent studies have found that the toxicity of zinc oxide (ZnO) NPs was caused by the release of zinc ions. Thus, we hypothesized that mass could be used as an exposure metric for the toxicity of ZnO NPs. Healthy Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to a low, moderate, or high dose of 35 and 250 nm ZnO particles or filtered air. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was collected to determine lung inflammation, injury and oxidative stress. The lung inflammation induced by ZnO particles according to different concentration metrics, including number, mass and surface area, was compared. The mass concentration was significantly correlated with the percentage of neutrophils (R(2) = 0.84), number of neutrophils (R(2) = 0.84) and total cells (R(2) = 0.73). Similarly, surface area concentration was significantly correlated with the percentage of neutrophils (R(2) = 0.94), number of neutrophils (R(2) = 0.81) and total cells (R(2) = 0.76). There was no correlation between the number and lung inflammation. We found that both mass and surface area were effective as metrics for the toxicity of ZnO NPs, although only surface area was previously indicated to be an effective metric. Our results are also consistent with recent study results that ZnO NPs and released zinc ions may play a role mediating the toxicity of NPs.

  12. Global change impact on oxidative potential and toxicity of atmospheric particles from the East Mediterranean basin: the ARCHIMEDES initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleman, Laurent; Anthérieu, Sébastien; Baeza-Squiban, Armelle; Garçon, Guillaume; Lo Guidice, Jean-Marc; Hamonou, Eric; Öztürk, Fatma; Perdrix, Esperanza; Rudich, Yinon; Sciare, Jean; Sauvage, Stéphane

    2017-04-01

    Climate change (CC) has important social, economical and health implications, notably in accordance with variation in air pollution or microbiome modification and its related toxicity mechanisms. CC will have a strong influence on meteorology, inducing dryer and warmer conditions in some regions. The Mediterranean basin is foreseen as a hotspot for regional climate warming, favoring larger dust episodes, wild fire events, vegetation emissions and changes in air pollution physic-chemical characteristics due to enhanced photochemical reactivity. Increasing concentrations of biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ozone, and radicals will be associated with rising concentrations of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) and other oxidized aerosols. These expected changes in aerosol composition are currently studied within the international ChArMEx (Chemistry-aerosol Mediterranean Experiment) program, part of the interdisciplinary MISTRALS metaprogramme (Mediterranean Integrated STudies at Regional And Local Scales). According to the LIFE/MED-PARTICLES (LIFE) project, this might result in more adverse effects on health. However, toxicologists are far from having a detailed mechanistic knowledge of the quantitative causal relations between particles (PM) and health effects suggested by epidemiological evidences. Detailed toxicological studies looking at contrasted PM origins and chemical compositions are highly needed, particularly on strongly aged SOA suspected to increase the oxidative potential (OP) and to enhance the toxicity of airborne particles. Intensive researches onto the underlying mechanisms of inflammation started to describe the outlines of the intricate relationship between oxidative stress and inflammation. It is therefore, of great importance to better determine the OP of PM from contrasted surroundings, its relationship with CC through PM's physical, chemical and microbial characteristics, and its toxicological consequences within the lungs. Recently

  13. Particulate matter and atherosclerosis: role of particle size, composition and oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nel Andre E

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Air Pollution has been associated with significant adverse health effects leading to increased morbidity and mortality. Cumulative epidemiological and experimental data have shown that exposure to air pollutants lead to increased cardiovascular ischemic events and enhanced atherosclerosis. It appears that these associations are much stronger with the air particulate matter (PM component and that in urban areas, the smaller particles could be more pathogenic, as a result of their greater propensity to induce systemic prooxidant and proinflammatory effects. Much is still unknown about the toxicology of ambient particulates as well as the pathogenic mechanisms responsible for the induction of adverse cardiovascular health effects. It is expected that better understanding of these effects will have large implications and may lead to the formulation and implementation of new regulatory policies. Indeed, we have found that ultrafine particles ( Extensive epidemiological evidence supports the association of air pollution with adverse health effects 123. It is increasingly being recognized that such effects lead to enhanced morbidity and mortality, mostly due to exacerbation of cardiovascular diseases and predominantly those of ischemic character 4. Indeed, in addition to the classical risk factors such as serum lipids, smoking, hypertension, aging, gender, family history, physical inactivity and diet, recent data have implicated air pollution as an important additional risk factor for atherosclerosis. This has been the subject of extensive reviews 56 and a consensus statement from the American Heart Association 7. This article reviews the supporting epidemiological and animal data, possible pathogenic mechanisms and future perspectives.

  14. Fabrication of Orderly Copper Particle Arrays on a Multi-Electrolyte-Step Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Ko Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A multi-electrolyte-step (MES anodic aluminum oxide (AAO method was used to achieve nanochannel arrays with good circularity and periodic structure. The nano-channel array fabrication process included immersion in a phosphoric acid solution with a 120–150 bias voltage. Bowl-shaped structures were then formed by removing the walls of the nano-channel arrays. The nano-channel arrays were grown from the bottom of the bowl structure in an oxalic solution using a 50 V bias voltage. A comparison of this new MES process with the one-step and five-step AAO process showed a 50% improvement in the circularity over the one-step process. The standard deviation of the average period in the MES array was 25 nm which is less than that of one-step process. This MES method also took 1/4 of the growing time of the five-step process. The orderliness of the nano-channel arrays for the five-step and MES process was similar. Finally, Cu nanoparticle arrays with a 200 nm period were grown using an electroplating process inside the MES nano-channel arrays on fluorine doped tin oxide glass. Stronger surface plasmon resonance absorption from 550 nm to 750 nm was achieved with the MES process than was possible with the one-step process.

  15. Assessment of inflammation with a very small iron-oxide particle in a murine model of reperfused myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protti, Andrea; Dong, Xuebin; Andia, Marcelo E; Yu, Bin; Dokukina, Kate; Chaubey, Sanjay; Phinikaridou, Alkystis; Vizcay-Barrena, Gema; Taupitz, Matthias; Botnar, Rene M; Shah, Ajay M

    2014-03-01

    To investigate a very small iron-oxide particle (VSOP) in a mouse model of acute ischemia-reperfusion to access the mechanism of such particles in areas of myocardial inflammation. Animals were injected with VSOP at several time points, in a mouse model of acute myocardial infarction (MI), before and after MI. MRI was used to localize areas of VSOP enhancement, evaluate VSOP areas extension, and determine the related T2* values. Histology, electron microscopy, macrophage counting, and Evan's Blue staining were also performed. We found that areas of VSOP uptake decreased from 1 to 8 days post-MI while the related T2* values increased. T2* and VSOP areas, defined from MRI data, correlated well between 1 and 3 days post-MI but not at 7 days after injection. Histological analysis and electron microscopy showed colocalization of macrophages with areas of VSOP staining. However, there was no correlation between number of macrophages and the extension of the VSOP areas achieved by MR. We found that only areas of increased permeability (assessed by Evan's Blue staining) showed colocalization of macrophages and VSOP uptake. This study demonstrates that VSOP allows the assessment of myocardial inflammation associated with increased permeability during infarct healing in a mouse model of ischemia-reperfusion. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. CRYSTALLIZATION AND MELTING OF POLY(ETHYLENE OXIDE) CONFINED IN NANOSTRUCTURED PARTICLES WITH CROSS-LINKED SHELLS OF POLYBUTADIENE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-ping Gao; Yu Bai; Er-qiang Chen; Qi-feng Zhou

    2005-01-01

    Small fixed aggregates of a poly(ethylene oxide)-block-polybutadiene diblock copolymer (PEO-b-PB) in THF solution were obtained by adding a selective solvent for PB blocks, followed by cross-linking the PB shells. The morphologies of the nanostructured particles with a cross-linked shell were investigated by atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The average behaviors of the PEO crystallization and melting confined within the nanostructured particles were studied by using differential scanning calorimetry experiments. For the deeply cross-linked sample (SCL-l), the crystallization of the PEO blocks was fully confined. The individual nanoparticles only crystallized at very low crystallization temperatures (TcS), wherein the homogenous primary nucleation determined the overall crystallization rate. For the lightly cross-linked sample (SCL-2), the confinement effect was Tc dependent. At Tc ≤ 42℃, the crystallization and melting behaviors of SCL-2 were similar to those of the pure PEO-b-PB diblock copolymer. At Tc > 42℃,SCL-2 could form PEO lamellae thicker than those of the pure PEO-b-PB crystallized at the same Tc.

  17. Improvement of particle size of indium tin oxide nanoparticles by in-situ dispersion method for solution based transparent heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sung-Jei; Cha, Seung-Jae; Lee, Jae-Yong; Kim, Young-Sung

    2016-12-01

    In this study, particles size of indium tin oxide nanoparticles (ITO-NPs) was improved by in-situ dispersion method. Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) was used as dispersing agent, and reduced precipitates heat-treated at 400 °C. Brunauer, Emmett & Teller (BET) specific surface area (SSA) analysis and X-ray diffractometer (XRD) observations found that their particle size was improved by using the in-situ dispersion. In addition, we found that the particle size of the crystalline ITO-NPs was changed with the concentration of the PVP as well as the heat-treatment temperature. When 2 wt% PVP was applied, the highest BET SSA of the ITO-NPs, 114.7 m2/g, was obtained after heat-treatment at 400 °C. In fact, the lowest sized, less than 7 nm, ITO-NPs was observed with high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM). The ITO-NPs were well dispersed in the solvent to formulate a 20 wt% ITO-NPs solution. ITO-NPs coated layer on 3 × 3 cm2 quartz substrate showed sheet resistance of 319 Ω/□ and optical transmittance of 89.5% after heat-treatment at 900 °C. Heat was well generated at the ITO-NPs coated layer with supplied voltage. Also, temperature of above 150 °C was obtained from the transparent heater, and 89 °C was obtained with low power, 0.21 W/cm2, that is superior to commercial heaters.

  18. Peptide-Functionalized Fluorescent Particles for In Situ Detection of Nitric Oxide via Peroxynitrite-Mediated Nitration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jason Y H; Chow, Lesley W; Dismuke, W Michael; Ethier, C Ross; Stevens, Molly M; Stamer, W Daniel; Overby, Darryl R

    2017-08-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a free radical signaling molecule that plays a crucial role in modulating physiological homeostasis across multiple biological systems. NO dysregulation is linked to the pathogenesis of multiple diseases; therefore, its quantification is important for understanding pathophysiological processes. The detection of NO is challenging, typically limited by its reactive nature and short half-life. Additionally, the presence of interfering analytes and accessibility to biological fluids in the native tissues make the measurement technically challenging and often unreliable. Here, a bio-inspired peptide-based NO sensor is developed, which detects NO-derived oxidants, predominately peroxynitrite-mediated nitration of tyrosine residues. It is demonstrated that these peptide-based NO sensors can detect peroxynitrite-mediated nitration in response to physiological shear stress by endothelial cells in vitro. Using the peptide-conjugated fluorescent particle immunoassay, peroxynitrite-mediated nitration activity with a detection limit of ≈100 × 10(-9) m is detected. This study envisions that the NO detection platform can be applied to a multitude of applications including monitoring of NO activity in healthy and diseased tissues, localized detection of NO production of specific cells, and cell-based/therapeutic screening of peroxynitrite levels to monitor pronitroxidative stress in biological samples. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Morphological changes during oxidation of a single char particle. Quarterly progress report, April 30, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    d`Amore, M. [Salerno Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Chemical and Food Engineering; Tognotti, L. [Pisa Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Sarofim, A.F. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1992-12-31

    In this study, the changes with conversion in morphology of a carbon char in the temperature range 500--1200 K are followed by using an electrodynamic balance (EDB) (Spjut et al., 1985; Dudek, 1988; Bar-ziv et al., 1989). This device allows one to measure in situ, over temperature range wider than in other apparatuses, mass, diameter, density, surface area, rate of reaction and temperature for a single, suspended submillimeter particle. By following with the EDB the changes in the char as it reacts, it is possible to study the influence of the porous texture on the reaction behavior and shed some light on the contribution by micropores to the reaction in the chemical kinetic controlled regime.

  20. Anormalous Optical Absorption in Porous Al_2O3 Host Matrix---Nano-Oxide Particle Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lide; Zhang, Biao; Mo, Chimei

    1996-03-01

    Porous Al_2O3 host matrix---nano-γ-Fe_2O3 particle composites (porous nanocomposite) were prepared by pyrolysis of Fe(NO_3)_39H_2O in porous nano- Al_2O3 matrix at 250^0C. Comparing with simple nanocomposites formed by mixing nano-γ-Fe_2O3 and compacting at room temperature, followed by annealing at 250^0C, the following anomalous optical behaviors were observed: for porous nanocomposite containing 5% Fe_2O_3, the aborption edge shifts obviously from 827nm to 543nm, and with increasing dopping amount of Fe_2O3 from 5% to 70%, blue shift phenomina decreases. Namely, the absorption edge moves from 543nm to 710nm. The mechanism of shift of the absorption edge is discussed.

  1. Nitric oxide and greenhouse gases emissions following the application of different cattle slurry particle size fractions to soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fangueiro, David; Coutinho, João; Cabral, Fernanda; Fidalgo, Paula; Bol, Roland; Trindade, Henrique

    2012-02-01

    The application to soil of different slurry particle size fractions may lead to variable gaseous soil emissions and associated differential environmental impacts. An incubation experiment was carried out during 70 d to assess the influence on nitric oxide (NO) and greenhouse gas (GHG; i.e. nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide and methane) emissions following incorporation of 4 particle size fractions, obtained through laboratorial separation from cattle slurry, to agricultural sandy loam soil (Dystric Cambisol). The response to these applied slurry fractions (>2000 μm, 2000-500 μm, 500-100 μm, emissions (6.3 mg NO-N kg -1 dry soil) were observed from the AS treatment. The cumulated amount of NO emitted (˜1 mg NO-N kg -1 dry soil) was not significantly different between slurry fractions, thereby indicating that slurry particle size had no effect on NO emissions. The largest slurry fraction (>2000 μm) induced significantly higher N 2O emissions (1.8 mg N 2O-N kg -1 dry soil) compared to the other smaller sized fractions (1.0 mg N 2O-N kg -1 dry soil). The >2000 μm, fraction, being more than 55% of the slurry by weight, was the major contributor to daily and cumulative N 2O emissions. Hence, for N 2O, the application of WS to agricultural soil is a better option that amendment with the >2000 μm, fraction. Low CH 4 emissions (emissions were short-lived and rates returned to control levels within 3 d after the slurry application. Higher CO 2 emissions were observed in soils amended with slurry fractions when compared to application with whole slurry. Clearly, slurry separation can increase soil CO 2 emissions relative to whole slurry application. Overall, N 2O contributed 10-30% to total GHG emissions, while that of methane was negligible. The present study suggested that mechanical separation of slurry into fractions and targeted application of the finest fractions to soil is a potential suitable management tool to reduce GHG emissions. However, the largest fractions

  2. Application of a stochastic modelling framework to characterize the influence of different oxide scales on the solid particle erosion behaviour of boiler grade steel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S K Das

    2011-08-01

    An earlier developed stochastic model has been applied to describe the relative rate of material loss from the steel surface subjected to simultaneous action of high temperature oxidation involving multiple oxides and mechanical erosion. Different oxide scale growths, namely, nickel, iron and chromium have been treated deterministically and erosion is described using a literature based probabilistic framework. Oxidation is described with a power law (parabolic) approach to quantify the rate of growth of all the three oxide scales. In consonance with the published model, erosion is treated using a probabilistic methodology as spatially random phenomena on the oxide surface. The concept of ‘erosion footprint’ has been incorporated in the present model to characterize the erosion-induced damage on the steel surface. The model has been applied to predict the relative material loss as a function of time resulted from erosion–oxidation interaction pertaining to nickel, iron and chromium oxides in dimensionless form. This investigation is expected to provide a quantitative understanding of relative material loss due to solid particle erosion for oxide scales, (composed of multiple oxides) formed on the steel components of coal-fired boilers.

  3. Absorbed dose assessment in particle-beam irradiated metal-oxide and metal-nonmetal memristors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Ivan D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Absorbed dose was estimated after Monte Carlo simulation of proton and ion beam irradiation on metal-oxide and metal-nonmetal memristors. A memristive device comprises two electrodes, each of a nanoscale width, and a double-layer active region disposed between and in electrical contact with electrodes. Following materials were considered for the active region: titanium dioxide, zirconium dioxide, hafnium dioxide, strontium titanium trioxide and galium nitride. Obtained results show that significant amount of oxygen ion - oxygen and nonmetal ion - nonmetal vacancy pairs is to be generated. The loss of such vacancies from the device is believed to deteriorate the device performance over time. Estimated absorbed dose values in the memristor for different constituting materials are of the same order of magnitude because of the close values of treshold displacement energies for the investigated materials.

  4. Chemical characterization and oxidative potential of particles emitted from open burning of cereal straws and rice husk under flaming and smoldering conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fushimi, Akihiro; Saitoh, Katsumi; Hayashi, Kentaro; Ono, Keisuke; Fujitani, Yuji; Villalobos, Ana M.; Shelton, Brandon R.; Takami, Akinori; Tanabe, Kiyoshi; Schauer, James J.

    2017-08-01

    Open burning of crop residue is a major source of atmospheric fine particle emissions. We burned crop residues (rice straws, barley straws, wheat straws, and rice husks produced in Japan) in an outdoor chamber and measured particle mass, composition (elemental carbon: EC, organic carbon: OC, ions, elements, and organic species), and oxidative potential in the exhausts. The fine particulate emission factors from the literature were within the range of our values for rice straws but were 1.4-1.9 and 0.34-0.44 times higher than our measured values for barley straw and wheat straw, respectively. For rice husks and wheat straws, which typically lead to combustion conditions that are relatively mild, the EC content of the particles was less than 5%. Levoglucosan seems more suitable as a biomass burning marker than K+, since levoglucosan/OC ratios were more stable than K+/particulate mass ratios among crop species. Stigmasterol and β-sitosterol could also be used as markers of biomass burning with levoglucosan or instead of levoglucosan. Correlation analysis between chemical composition and combustion condition suggests that hot or flaming combustions enhance EC, K+, Cl- and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons emissions, while low-temperature or smoldering combustions enhance levoglucosan and water-soluble organic carbon emissions. Oxidative potential, measured with macrophage-based reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay and dithiothreitol (DTT) assay, of open burning fine particles per particulate mass as well as fine particulate emission factors were the highest for wheat straws and second highest for rice husks and rice straws. Oxidative potential per particulate mass was in the lower range of vehicle exhaust and atmosphere. These results suggest that the contribution of open burning is relatively small to the oxidative potential of atmospheric particles. In addition, oxidative potential (both ROS and DTT activities) correlated well with water-insoluble organic species

  5. Comparison of acute oxidative stress on rat lung induced by nano and fine-scale, soluble and insoluble metal oxide particles: NiO and TiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horie, Masanori; Fukui, Hiroko; Endoh, Shigehisa; Maru, Junko; Miyauchi, Arisa; Shichiri, Mototada; Fujita, Katsuhide; Niki, Etsuo; Hagihara, Yoshihisa; Yoshida, Yasukazu; Morimoto, Yasuo; Iwahashi, Hitoshi

    2012-06-01

    The aim of the present study is to understand the association between metal ion release from nickel oxide (NiO) nanoparticles and induction of oxidative stress in the lung. NiO nanoparticles have cytotoxic activity through nickel ion release and subsequent oxidative stress. However, the interaction of oxidative stress and nickel ion release in vivo is still unclear. In the present study, we examined the effect of metal ion release on oxidative stress induced by NiO nanoparticles. Additionally, nano and fine TiO(2) particles as insoluble particles were also examined. Rat lung was exposed to NiO and TiO(2) nanoparticles by intratracheal instillation. The NiO nanoparticles released Ni(2+) in dispersion. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected at 1, 24, 72 h and 1 week after instillation. The lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and HO-1 levels were elevated at 24 and 72 h after instillation in the animals exposed to the NiO nanoparticles. On the other hand, total hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (tHODE), which is an oxidative product of linoleic acid, as well as SP-D and α-tochopherol levels were increased at 72 h and 1 week after instillation. Fine NiO particles, and nano and fine TiO(2) particles did not show lung injury or oxidative stress from 1 h to 1 week after instillation. These results suggest that Ni(2+) release is involved in the induction of oxidative stress by NiO nanoparticles in the lung. Ni(2+) release from NiO nanoparticles is an important factor inoxidative stress-related toxicity, not only in vitro but also in vivo.

  6. Effect of oxidative stress on the growth of magnetic particles in Magnetospirillum magneticum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Radu; Fang, Wen; Nealson, Kenneth H; Souza-Egipsy, Virginia; Berquó, Thelma S; Benerjee, Subir K; Penn, Lee R

    2009-03-01

    Individual magnetosome-containing magnetic mineral particles (MMP) from magnetotactic bacteria grow rapidly such that only a small fraction (5%) of all magnetosomes contain dwarf (Studies of the developmental stages in the growth of MMP are difficult due to the absence of techniques to separate dwarf from mature particles and because the former are sensitive to extraction procedures. Here, O2 stress was used to inhibit MMP expression in Magnetospirillum magneticum strain AMB-1. In addition, defined growth conditions not requiring chemical monitoring or manipulation of the gas composition during growth resulted in the production of cells containing high numbers of dwarf MMP. Cells exposed to different incubation treatments and cells with dwarf MMP were compared to cells with normal MMP with respect to growth, respiration, iron content, and relative magnetite load (RML). The cells were examined by electron microscopy, low temperature magnetometry, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Mössbauer spectroscopy. In the 0-110 microM O2(aq) range, growth was positively correlated with [O2] and negatively correlated with RML. Most MMP formed during exponential growth of the cells. At 50-100 microM O2(aq) with stirring (150 rpm) and 30% O2 loss during incubation, MMP expression was strongly inhibited whereas MMP nucleation was not. Cells highly enriched (~95%) in dwarf MMP were obtained at the end of the exponential phase in stirred (150 rpm) cultures containing 45 microM O2(aq). Only one dwarf MMP formed in each MMP vesicle and the chain arrangement was largely preserved. O2-stress-induced dwarf MMP consisted of non-euhedral spheroids (~25 nm) that were similar in shape and size to immature MMP from normal cells. They consisted solely of magnetite, with a single domain signature, no superparamagnetic behavior, and magnetic signatures, Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratios, and XRD patterns very similar to those of mature MMP. These results show that O2 stress in liquid cultures amended with an

  7. Fine particles and oxidant pollution: developing an agenda for cooperative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidy, G M; Hales, J M; Roth, P M; Scheffe, R

    2000-04-01

    This paper describes a background for the North American Research Strategy for Tropospheric Ozone (NARSTO) cooperative program integrating studies of O3 and PM2.5. It discusses several important aspects for rationalizing NARSTO's trinational investigative approach, including (1) an outlook on the state of knowledge about fine particles in the troposphere and their origins in Canada, Mexico, and the United States; (2) the need for enhancement and strengthening of key field measurements in relation to tropospheric chemistry and a health effects component; and (3) the use of a central theme for advancing air quality modeling using evolving techniques to integrate and guide key process-oriented field campaigns. The importance of organizing a scientific program to acquire "policy-relevant" information is stressed, noting cooperative research directions that address combined PM2.5 and O3 issues, illustrated through exploration of hypothetical pathways of PM2.5 response to choices of O3 and PM precursor emission reductions. The information needed for PM2.5 research is noted to intersect in many cases with those of O3, but diverge in other cases. Accounting for these distinctions is important for developing NARSTO's strategy over the next decade.

  8. Films, Needles, and Particles: A Comparative Study on the Ferroic Properties of Complex Oxides Nano-Structured in One, Two, and Three Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    complex oxides have been observed to possess the properties of insulators , semiconductors, semimetals, metals, and superconductors (3). Ferroic and...are varied independently. To study the film-to- nano-needle and film-to-nano-particle transitions , we have designed Metal- Insulator -Metal (MIM...9 4. Conclusions 11 5. References 12 6. Transitions 14 6.1 Patent Disclosure

  9. Pulmonary exposure to particles from diesel exhaust, urban dust or single-walled carbon nanotubes and oxidatively damaged DNA and vascular function in apoE(-/-)mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterdal, Lise K; Jantzen, Kim; Sheykhzade, Majid

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This study compared the oxidative stress level and vasomotor dysfunction after exposure to urban dust, diesel exhaust particles (DEP) or single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT). DEP and SWCNT increased the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cultured endothelial cells and acell...

  10. SiO2-coated sulfur particles with mildly reduced graphene oxide as a cathode material for lithium-sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Brennan; Bell, Jeffrey; Hosseini Bay, Hamed; Favors, Zachary; Ionescu, Robert; Ozkan, Cengiz S.; Ozkan, Mihrimah

    2015-04-01

    For the first time, SiO2-coated sulfur particles (SCSPs) were fabricated via a facile two-step wet chemical process for application as a novel lithium-sulfur cathode material. With the addition of mildly reduced graphene oxide (mrGO), SCSPs demonstrate even greater cycling stability, maintaining over 700 mA h g-1 after the 50th cycle.

  11. Nanoscale science and engineering forum (706c) design of solid lipid particles with iron oxide quantum dots for the delivery of therapeutic agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solid lipid particles provide a method to encapsulate and control the release of drugs in vivo but lack the imaging capability provided by CdS quantum dots. This shortcoming was addressed by combining these two technologies into a model system that uses iron oxide as a non-toxic imaging component in...

  12. Myoglobin immobilization on electrodeposited nanometer-scale nickel oxide particles and direct voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Abdolmajid Bayandori; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Dinarvand, Rassoul; Ahadi, Sara; Saboury, Ali Akbar

    2008-04-01

    Prosperity of information on the reactions of redox-active sites in proteins can be attained by voltammetric studies in which the protein sample is located on a suitable surface. This work reports the presentation of myoglobin/nickel oxide nanoparticles/glassy carbon (Mb/NiO NPs/GC) electrode, ready by electrochemical deposition of the NiO NPs on glassy carbon electrode and myoglobin immobilization on their surfaces by the potential cycling method. Images of electrodeposited NiO NPs on the surface of glassy carbon electrode were obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). A pair of well-defined redox peaks for Mb(Fe(III)-Fe(II)) was obtained at the prepared electrode by direct electron transfer between the protein and nanoparticles. Electrochemical parameters of immobilized myoglobin such as formal potential (E(0')), charge transfer coefficient (alpha) and apparent heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant (k(s)) were estimated by cyclic voltammetry and nonlinear regression analysis. Biocatalytic activity was exemplified at the prepared electrode for reduction of hydrogen peroxide.

  13. The catalytic activity of the iron-coated pumice particles used as heterogeneous catalysts in the oxidation of natural organic matter by H2O2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alver, Alper; Karaarslan, Mihrican; Kılıç, Ahmet

    2016-08-01

    The oxidative removal of natural organic matter (NOM) from waters was investigated by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and iron-coated pumice particles in heterogeneous catalytic oxidation process (HCOP). Removal of trihalomethane (THM) precursors, which is formed THM by the reacts with chloride, was performed with the hydroxyl radicals. Coating the original pumice particles with iron oxides significantly enhanced the removal of NOM with peroxide. The studies were carried out in two sections: (1) decomposition of hydrogen peroxide in pure water with iron-coated pumice and (2) oxidation of THM Precursor (NOM) by hydrogen peroxide with iron-coated pumice. The monitored parameters in this study include dissolved organic carbon and trihalomethanes formation potential. The results show that iron-coated pumice catalyst significantly increased the removal efficiency of NOM in the HCOP. The results show that iron-coated pumice catalyst significantly increased the removal efficiency of NOM in the HCOP. Results show that the oxidation of NOM and remaining NOM with H2O2 is improved by the addition of iron-coated pumice particles which activate the H2O2 molecule, leading to the formation of hydroxyl radicals in a Fenton-like process.

  14. Comparison of the in vitro and in vivo toxic effects of three sizes of zinc oxide (ZnO) particles using flounder gill (FG) cells and zebrafish embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Li; Zhai, Yanan; Liu, Yang; Hao, Linhua; Guo, Huarong

    2017-02-01

    Nano-sized zinc oxide (nZnO) particles are one kind of the most commonly used metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs). This study compared the cytotoxic and embryotoxic effects of three increasing sized ZnO particles (ϕ 30 nm, 80-150 nm and 2 μm) in the flounder gill (FG) cells and zebrafish embryos, and analyzed the contribution of size, agglomeration and released Zn2+ to the toxic effects. All the tested ZnO particles were found to be highly toxic to both FG cells and zebrafish embryos. They induced growth inhibition, LDH release, morphological changes and apoptosis in FG cells in a concentration-, size- and time-dependent manner. Moreover, the release of LDH from the exposed FG cells into the medium occurred before the observable morphological changes happened. The ultrasonication treatment and addition of serum favored the dispersion of ZnO particles and alleviated the agglomeration, thus significantly increased the corresponding cytotoxicity. The released Zn2+ ions from ZnO particles into the extracellular medium only partially contributed to the cytotoxicity. All the three sizes of ZnO particles tested induced developmental malformations, decrease of hatching rates and lethality in zebrafish embryos, but size- and concentration- dependent toxic effects were not so obvious as in FG cells possibly due to the easy aggregation of ZnO particles in freshwater. In conclusion, both FG cells and zebrafish embryos are sensitive bioassay systems for safety assessment of ZnO particles and the environmental release of ZnO particles should be closely monitored as far as the safety of aquatic organisms is concerned.

  15. Effect of Nanosize SiO2 Particles Added into Electrolyte on the Composition and Morphology of Oxide Layers Formed in Alloy AK6M2 Under Microarc Oxidizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishtal, M. M.; Ivashin, P. V.; Yasnikov, I. S.; Polunin, A. V.

    2015-11-01

    Oxide layers formed on AK6M2 aluminum-silicon alloy by microarc oxidizing (MO) are studied. The chemical and phase compositions and the morphology of the layers deposited from a base-composition electrolyte with different contents of added SiO2 powder are determined. It is shown that high-temperature phases form in the oxide layer at a specific concentration of SiO2 nanoparticles. This indicates elevation of the effective temperature in the zone of synthesis of the oxide layers in the process of MO. The addition of nanosize particles of SiO2 into the electrolyte influences positively the operating characteristics of the formed oxide layer.

  16. Photocatalytic removal of gaseous nitrogen oxides using WO3/TiO2 particles under visible light irradiation: Effect of surface modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Joseph Albert; Lee, Dong Hoon; Kang, Joo-Hyon

    2017-09-01

    Photocatalytic nanoparticles have been receiving considerable attention for their potential use in many environmental management applications, including urban air quality control. This paper investigates the performance of surface modified WO3/TiO2 composite particles in removing gaseous nitrogen oxides (NOx) under visible light irradiation. The WO3/TiO2 composite particles were synthesized using a modified wet chemical method with different concentrations of NaOH solution used as a surface modification agent for the host TiO2 particles. The NOx removal efficiency of the WO3/TiO2 particles was evaluated using a lab-scale continuous gas flow photo-reactor with a gas contact time of 1 min. Results showed that surface modification using NaOH can enhance the photocatalytic activity of the WO3/TiO2 particles. The NOx removal efficiency of the surface modified WO3/TiO2 was greater than 90%, while that of WO3/TiO2 particles prepared by the conventional wet chemical method was ∼75%. The enhanced removal efficiency might be attributed to the formation of oxygen vacancies on the TiO2 surface, providing sites for WO3 particles to effectively bind with TiO2. However, excess amount of NaOH >3 M deteriorated the photocatalytic performance due to the increased agglomeration of the host TiO2 particles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Biogenic oxidized organic functional groups in aerosol particles from a mountain forest site and their similarities to laboratory chamber products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. E. Schwartz

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Submicron particles collected at Whistler, British Columbia, at 1020 masl during May and June 2008 on Teflon filters were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR and X-ray fluorescence (XRF techniques for organic functional groups (OFG and elemental composition. Organic mass (OM ranged from less than 0.5 to 3.1μg m−3, with a project mean and standard deviation of 1.3±1.0 μg m−3 and 0.21±0.16 μg m−3 for OM and sulfate, respectively. On average, organic hydroxyl, alkane, and carboxylic acid groups represented 34%, 33%, and 23% of OM, respectively. Ketone, amine and organosulfate groups constituted 6%, 5%, and <1% of the average organic aerosol composition, respectively. Measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOC, including isoprene and monoterpenes from biogenic VOC (BVOC emissions and their oxidation products (methyl-vinylketone/methacrolein, MVK/MACR, were made using co-located proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS. We present chemically-specific evidence of OFG associated with BVOC emissions. Positive matrix factorization (PMF analysis attributed 65% of the campaign OM to biogenic sources, based on the correlations of one factor to monoterpenes and MVK/MACR. The remaining fraction was attributed to anthropogenic sources based on a correlation to sulfate. The functional group composition of the biogenic factor (consisting of 32% alkane, 25% carboxylic acid, 2% organic hydroxyl, 16% ketone, and 6% amine groups was similar to that of secondary organic aerosol (SOA reported from the oxidation of BVOCs in laboratory chamber studies, providing evidence that the magnitude and chemical composition of biogenic SOA simulated in the laboratory is similar to that found in actual atmospheric conditions. The biogenic factor OM is also correlated to dust elements, indicating that dust may act as a non-acidic SOA sink. This role is supported by the organic functional group composition and

  18. Biogenic oxidized organic functional groups in aerosol particles from a mountain forest site and their similarities to laboratory chamber products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. E. Schwartz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Submicron particles collected at Whistler, British Columbia, at 1020 m a.s.l. during May and June 2008 on Teflon filters were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR and X-ray fluorescence (XRF techniques for organic functional groups (OFG and elemental composition. Organic mass (OM concentrations ranged from less than 0.5 to 3.1 μg m−3, with a project mean and standard deviation of 1.3±1.0 μg m−3 and 0.21±0.16 μg m−3 for OM and sulfate, respectively. On average, organic hydroxyl, alkane, and carboxylic acid groups represented 34%, 33%, and 23% of OM, respectively. Ketone, amine and organosulfate groups constituted 6%, 5%, and <1% of the average organic aerosol composition, respectively. Measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOC, including isoprene and monoterpenes from biogenic VOC (BVOC emissions and their oxidation products (methyl-vinylketone / methacrolein, MVK/MACR, were made using co-located proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS. We present chemically-specific evidence of OFG associated with BVOC emissions. Positive matrix factorization (PMF analysis attributed 65% of the campaign OM to biogenic sources, based on the correlations of one factor to monoterpenes and MVK/MACR. The remaining fraction was attributed to anthropogenic sources based on a correlation to sulfate. The functional group composition of the biogenic factor (consisting of 32% alkane, 25% carboxylic acid, 21% organic hydroxyl, 16% ketone, and 6% amine groups was similar to that of secondary organic aerosol (SOA reported from the oxidation of BVOCs in laboratory chamber studies, providing evidence that the magnitude and chemical composition of biogenic SOA simulated in the laboratory is similar to that found in actual atmospheric conditions. The biogenic factor OM is also correlated to dust elements, indicating that dust may act as a non-acidic SOA sink. This role is supported by the organic functional

  19. Land use regression modeling of ultrafine particles, ozone, nitrogen oxides and markers of particulate matter pollution in Augsburg, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Kathrin; Cyrys, Josef; Harciníková, Tatiana; Gu, Jianwei; Kusch, Thomas; Hampel, Regina; Schneider, Alexandra; Peters, Annette

    2017-02-01

    Important health relevance has been suggested for ultrafine particles (UFP) and ozone, but studies on long-term effects are scarce, mainly due to the lack of appropriate spatial exposure models. We designed a measurement campaign to develop land use regression (LUR) models to predict the spatial variability focusing on particle number concentration (PNC) as indicator for UFP, ozone and several other air pollutants in the Augsburg region, Southern Germany. Three bi-weekly measurements of PNC, ozone, particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5), soot (PM2.5abs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx, NO2) were performed at 20 sites in 2014/15. Annual average concentration were calculated and temporally adjusted by measurements from a continuous background station. As geographic predictors we offered several traffic and land use variables, altitude, population and building density. Models were validated using leave-one-out cross-validation. Adjusted model explained variance (R(2)) was high for PNC and ozone (0.89 and 0.88). Cross-validation adjusted R(2) was slightly lower (0.82 and 0.81) but still indicated a very good fit. LUR models for other pollutants performed well with adjusted R(2) between 0.68 (PMcoarse) and 0.94 (NO2). Contrary to previous studies, ozone showed a moderate correlation with NO2 (Pearson's r=-0.26). PNC was moderately correlated with ozone and PM2.5, but highly correlated with NOx (r=0.91). For PNC and NOx, LUR models comprised similar predictors and future epidemiological analyses evaluating health effects need to consider these similarities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. New iron-oxide particles for magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia: an in-vitro and in-vivo pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayati, Mohammad; Attaluri, Anilchandra; Bordelon, David; Goh, R.; Armour, Michael; Zhou, Haoming; Cornejo, Christine; Wabler, Michele; Zhang, Yonggang; DeWeese, Theodore; Ivkov, Robert

    2013-02-01

    Magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia (mNHP) is regarded as a promising minimally invasive procedure. These nanoparticles generate heat when exposed to alternating magnetic fields (AMFs) and thus have shown a potential for selective delivery of heat to a target such as a cancer cell. Despite the great promise however, successful clinical translation has been limited in part by technical challenges of selectively delivering heat only to the target tissue. Interaction of AMF with tissues also deposits heat through Joule heating via eddy currents. Considerations of patient safety thus constrain the choice of AMF power and frequency to values that are insufficient to produce desirable heating from available nanoparticle formulations. Therefore, considerable effort must be directed to the design of particles and the AMF device to maximize the specific delivery of heat to the intended target while minimizing the unintended and non-specific heating. We have recently developed new iron-oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) having much higher heating capability at the clinically relevant amplitudes and frequencies than other formulations. Here, we utilize a new rectangular coil designed for treating multi well tissue culture plate and show that these particles are superior to two commercially available IONPs for hyperthermia of DU145 prostate cancer cells in culture. We report results of pilot in-vivo experiments using the DU145 human prostate xenograft model in nude male mouse. AMF treatment yielded an intratumor temperature rise > 10 °C in <10 min heating (AMF amplitude 29 kA/m @160 kHz) with ~4 mg nanoparticle /g tumor while maintaining rectal (core) temperature well within physiological range.

  1. One new route to optimize the oxidation resistance of TiC/hastelloy (Ni-based alloy) composites applied for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell interconnect by increasing graphite particle size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Qian; Liu, Yan; Wang, Lujie; Zhang, Hui; Huang, Jian; Huang, Zhengren

    2017-09-01

    TiC/hastelloy composites with suitable thermal expansion and excellent electrical conductivity are promising candidates for IT-SOFC interconnect. In this paper, the TiC/hastelloy composites are fabricated by in-situ reactive infiltration, and the oxidation resistance of composites is optimized by increasing graphite particle size. Results show that the increase of graphite particles size from 1 μm to 40 μm reduces TiC particle size from 2.68 μm to 2.22 μm by affecting the formation process of TiC. Moreover, the decrease of TiC particles size accelerates the fast formation of dense and continuous TiO2/Cr2O3 oxide layer, which bring down the mass gain (800 °C/100 h) from 2.03 mg cm-2 to 1.18 mg cm-2. Meanwhile, the coefficient of thermal expansion decreases from 11.15 × 10-6 °C-1 to 10.80 × 10-6 °C-1, and electrical conductivity maintains about 5800 S cm-1 at 800 °C. Therefore, the decrease of graphite particle size is one simple and effective route to optimize the oxidation resistance of composites, and meantime keeps suitable thermal expansion and good electrical conductivity.

  2. Investigations of the influence of vapour phase inhibitors on the surface charge of iron oxide particles by zeta-potential measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuenzelmann, U.; Reinhard, G. (Technische Univ., Dresden (German Democratic Republic). Sektion Chemie); Jacobasch, H.J. (Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Dresden. Inst. fuer Technologie der Fasern (German Democratic Republic))

    1989-12-01

    Adsorbability of the vapour phase inhibitor dicyclohexylammonium nitrite (Dichan) and its ionic constituents present in aqueous media were investigated by means of zeta-potential measurements in 10{sup -3} M KCl solution in dependence on the pH-value using particles of various iron oxides and oxide hydroxides. It was pointed out, that the interactions between Dichan and iron oxides result in a negativation of the zeta-potential and in a displacement of the isoelectric point of the particles surface (IEPS) due to specific adsorption of anions. By dicyclohexylamine in the primary solution, the zeta-potential of iron oxides is hardly influenced, even when the saturation concentration is established. As nitrite changes the chemical surface properties when concentrations considerably higher than those indicated for Dichan are achieved, a synergism is assumed to be present because of the Dichan's high adsorbability at oxidic iron compounds. This effect probable consist in the promotion of the specific adsorption of nitrite ions at the oxide surface by the amine component. (orig.).

  3. NMR-based metabonomic analyses of the effects of ultrasmall superparamagnetic particles of iron oxide (USPIO) on macrophage metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jianghua; Zhao, Jing; Hao, Fuhua; Chen, Chang; Bhakoo, Kishore; Tang, Huiru

    2011-05-01

    The metabonomic changes in murine RAW264.7 macrophage-like cell line induced by ultrasmall superparamagnetic particles of iron oxides (USPIO) have been investigated, by analyzing both the cells and culture media, using high-resolution NMR in conjunction with multivariate statistical methods. Upon treatment with USPIO, macrophage cells showed a significant decrease in the levels of triglycerides, essential amino acids such as valine, isoleucine, and choline metabolites together with an increase of glycerophospholipids, tyrosine, phenylalanine, lysine, glycine, and glutamate. Such cellular responses to USPIO were also detectable in compositional changes of cell media, showing an obvious depletion of the primary nutrition molecules, such as glucose and amino acids and the production of end-products of glycolysis, such as pyruvate, acetate, and lactate and intermediates of TCA cycle such as succinate and citrate. At 48 h treatment, there was a differential response to incubation with USPIO in both cell metabonome and medium components, indicating that USPIO are phagocytosed and released by macrophages. Furthermore, information on cell membrane modification can be derived from the changes in choline-like metabolites. These results not only suggest that NMR-based metabonomic methods have sufficient sensitivity to identify the metabolic consequences of murine RAW264.7 macrophage-like cell line response to USPIO in vitro, but also provide useful information on the effects of USPIO on cellular metabolism.

  4. Conductive polymer/reduced graphene oxide/Au nano particles as efficient composite materials in electrochemical supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabani Shayeh, J.; Ehsani, A.; Ganjali, M. R.; Norouzi, P.; Jaleh, B.

    2015-10-01

    Polyaniline/reduced graphene oxide/Au nano particles (PANI/rGO/AuNPs) as a hybrid supercapacitor were deposited on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) by cyclic voltammetry (CV) method as ternary composites and their electrochemical performance was evaluated in acidic medium. Scanning electron micrographs clearly revealed the formation of nanocomposites on the surface of the working electrode. Scanning electron micrographs (SEM) clearly revealed the formation of nanocomposites on the surface of working electrode. Different electrochemical methods including galvanostatic charge-discharge (CD) experiments, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were carried out in order to investigate the applicability of the system as a supercapacitor. Based on the cyclic voltammogram results obtained, PANI/rGO/AuNPs gave higher specific capacitance, power and energy values than PANI at a current density of 1 mA cm-2. Specific capacitance (SC) of PANI and PANI/rGO/AuNPs electrodes calculated using CV method are 190 and 303 F g-1, respectively. The present study introduces new nanocomposite materials for electrochemical redox capacitors with advantages including long life cycle and stability due to synergistic effects of each component.

  5. Conductive polymer/reduced graphene oxide/Au nano particles as efficient composite materials in electrochemical supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabani Shayeh, J. [Center of Excellence in Electrochemistry, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ehsani, A., E-mail: a.ehsani@qom.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Qom, P.O. Box 37185-359, Qom (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ganjali, M.R.; Norouzi, P. [Center of Excellence in Electrochemistry, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Endocrinology & Metabolism Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jaleh, B. [Physics Department, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan 65174 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-10-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • PANI/rGO/AuNPs as a ternary composite synthesized by electrodeposition. • Presence of rGO/AuNPs caused increasing the stability of electrodes. • Composite represented high specific capacitance, specific power and specific energy values than PANI. - Abstract: Polyaniline/reduced graphene oxide/Au nano particles (PANI/rGO/AuNPs) as a hybrid supercapacitor were deposited on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) by cyclic voltammetry (CV) method as ternary composites and their electrochemical performance was evaluated in acidic medium. Scanning electron micrographs clearly revealed the formation of nanocomposites on the surface of the working electrode. Scanning electron micrographs (SEM) clearly revealed the formation of nanocomposites on the surface of working electrode. Different electrochemical methods including galvanostatic charge–discharge (CD) experiments, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were carried out in order to investigate the applicability of the system as a supercapacitor. Based on the cyclic voltammogram results obtained, PANI/rGO/AuNPs gave higher specific capacitance, power and energy values than PANI at a current density of 1 mA cm{sup −2}. Specific capacitance (SC) of PANI and PANI/rGO/AuNPs electrodes calculated using CV method are 190 and 303 F g{sup −1}, respectively. The present study introduces new nanocomposite materials for electrochemical redox capacitors with advantages including long life cycle and stability due to synergistic effects of each component.

  6. Redox behavior of supported Pd particles and its effect on oxygen reduction reaction in intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Fengli; Chen, Jing; Chi, Bo; Pu, Jian; Jian, Li [School of Materials Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Material Processing and Die and Mould Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Luoyu Rd 1037, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Jiang, San Ping [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2011-01-01

    Nano-structured Pd-infiltrated YSZ cathodes (Pd + YSZ) are prepared by impregnation method and their electrocatalytic activity and reduction-oxidation behavior are investigated. It is observed that nano-sized PdO particles are uniformly distributed on the surface of the YSZ scaffold and decomposed at a temperature below 800 C in air. Coexistence of Pd and PdO in the Pd + YSZ cathode is detected at temperatures between 650 and 750 C. The polarization resistance R{sub E} of the Pd + YSZ cathode decreases continuously as oxygen partial pressure increases from 0.001 to 1 atm at 600 and 850 C, whereas it reaches a minimum in the vicinity of 0.03 atm of oxygen partial pressure at 750 C. In air with an oxygen partial pressure of 0.21 atm, the Pd + YSZ shows the lowest activation energy for the oxygen reduction reaction in the temperature range of 650 and 750 C. (author)

  7. Particle-specific toxicity and bioavailability of cerium oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles to Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinping; Pan, Haopeng; Wang, Peng; Zhao, Fang-Jie

    2017-01-15

    The use of manufactured cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2-NPs) in consumer products has increased markedly over the past decade, and their release into natural ecosystems is unavoidable. This study investigated the phytotoxicity and uptake of CeO2-NPs in Arabidopsis thaliana grown in an agar medium. Although low concentrations of CeO2-NPs had stimulatory effects on plant growth, at higher concentrations, CeO2-NPs reduced growth and had adverse effects on the antioxidant systems and photosystem. Importantly, the toxicity resulted from the nanoparticles per se, rather than from the dissolved Ce ions. CeO2-NPs were taken up and subsequently translocated to shoot tissues, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed the presence of a large number of needle-like particle aggregations in the intercellular regions and the cytoplasm of leaf cells. The up-translocation factor to shoots was independent of the concentrations of Ce in the roots and the supplied forms of Ce (i.e. CeO2-NPs, CeO2-bulk, and ionic Ce), suggesting that endocytosis is likely to be a general mechanism responsible for the translocation of these Ce compounds. These findings provide important information regarding the toxicity and uptake of CeO2-NPs in plants, which needs to be considered in environmental risk assessment for the safe use and disposal of CeO2-NPs.

  8. Effect of Cr(VI) concentration on gas and particle production during iron oxidation in aqueous solutions containing Cl(-) ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Hyangsig; Jo, Ho Young; Ryu, Ji-Hun; Koh, Yong-Kwon

    2017-02-01

    Zero-valent iron (ZVI) is commonly used as a medium in permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) because of its high reducing ability. The generation of H2 gas in PRBs, however, can decrease the permeability of PRBs and reduce the contact area between the PRB and contaminated groundwater. This study investigated the effect of the initial Cr(VI) concentration ([Cr(VI)init]) in aqueous solutions containing Cl(-) ions on the generation of H2 gas. ZVI chips were reacted in reactors with 0.5-M NaCl solutions with [Cr(VI)init] ranging between 51 and 303 mg/L. The initial pH was set at 3. The oxidation of ZVI chips by Cr(VI) in aqueous solutions containing Cl(-) ions produced H2 gas and particles (Fe(III)-Cr(III)(oxy)hydroxides). The Cr(VI) removal from aqueous solutions increased as the [Cr(VI)init] increased, as did H2 gas generation. The positive effect of [Cr(VI)init] on H2 gas generation might be due to an increase in the redox potential gradient as [Cr(VI)init] increases. This increased gradient would enhance H(+) ion penetration through the passive film (Fe(III)-Cr(III)(oxy)hydroxides), which formed on the ZVI surface, by diffusion from the solution to pits beneath the passive film.

  9. NMR-based metabonomic analyses of the effects of ultrasmall superparamagnetic particles of iron oxide (USPIO) on macrophage metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Jianghua [Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics (China); Zhao Jing [China Institute of Atomic Energy (China); Hao Fuhua [Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics (China); Chen Chang [Institute of Biophysics, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules (China); Bhakoo, Kishore [Singapore Bioimaging Consortium Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A-STAR) (Singapore); Tang, Huiru, E-mail: huiru.tang@wipm.ac.cn [Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics (China)

    2011-05-15

    The metabonomic changes in murine RAW264.7 macrophage-like cell line induced by ultrasmall superparamagnetic particles of iron oxides (USPIO) have been investigated, by analyzing both the cells and culture media, using high-resolution NMR in conjunction with multivariate statistical methods. Upon treatment with USPIO, macrophage cells showed a significant decrease in the levels of triglycerides, essential amino acids such as valine, isoleucine, and choline metabolites together with an increase of glycerophospholipids, tyrosine, phenylalanine, lysine, glycine, and glutamate. Such cellular responses to USPIO were also detectable in compositional changes of cell media, showing an obvious depletion of the primary nutrition molecules, such as glucose and amino acids and the production of end-products of glycolysis, such as pyruvate, acetate, and lactate and intermediates of TCA cycle such as succinate and citrate. At 48 h treatment, there was a differential response to incubation with USPIO in both cell metabonome and medium components, indicating that USPIO are phagocytosed and released by macrophages. Furthermore, information on cell membrane modification can be derived from the changes in choline-like metabolites. These results not only suggest that NMR-based metabonomic methods have sufficient sensitivity to identify the metabolic consequences of murine RAW264.7 macrophage-like cell line response to USPIO in vitro, but also provide useful information on the effects of USPIO on cellular metabolism.

  10. Application of indigenous sulfur-oxidizing bacteria from municipal wastewater to selectively bioleach phosphorus from high-phosphorus iron ore: effect of particle size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Shaobo; Rao, Ruirui; Wang, Jincao

    2013-01-01

    The effects of ore particle size on selectively bioleaching phosphorus (P) from high-phosphorus iron ore were studied. The average contents of P and Fe in the iron ore were 1.06 and 47.90% (w/w), respectively. The particle sizes of the ores used ranged from 58 to 3350 microm. It was found that the indigenous sulfur-oxidizing bacteria from municipal wastewater could grow well in the slurries of solid high-phosphorus iron ore and municipal wastewater. The minimum bioleaching pH reached for the current work was 0.33. The P content in bioleached iron ore reduced slightly with decreasing particle size, while the removal percentage of Fe decreased appreciably with decreasing particle size. The optimal particle size fraction was 58-75 microm, because the P content in bioleached iron ore reached a minimum of 0.16% (w/w), the removal percentage of P attained a maximum of 86.7%, while the removal percentage of Fe dropped to a minimum of 1.3% and the Fe content in bioleached iron ore was a maximum of 56.4% (w/w) in this case. The iron ores thus obtained were suitable to be used in the iron-making process. The removal percentage of ore solid decreased with decreasing particle size at particle size range of 106-3350 microm. The possible reasons resulting in above phenomena were explored in the current work. It was inferred that the particle sizes of the iron ore used in this work have no significant effect on the viability of the sulfur-oxidizing bacteria.

  11. Effects of Al2O3 Nano-Particles on Corrosion Performance of Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation Coatings Formed on 6061 Aluminum Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakili-Azghandi, Mojtaba; Fattah-alhosseini, Arash; Keshavarz, Mohsen K.

    2016-12-01

    Corrosion resistance improvement of plasma electrolyte oxidation coatings on 6061 aluminum alloy in silicate electrolyte containing Al2O3 nano-particles was studied, with particular emphasis on the microstructure, coating growth, and corrosion behavior in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. The microstructure of coatings, their thickness, and phase composition were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction. All characterization data showed that the maximum coating thickness and lowest amount of porosity were obtained in a low concentration of KOH, a high concentration of Na2SiO3, and moderate concentration of Al2O3 nano-particles in the electrolyte. This combination describes the optimum plasma electrolytic oxidation electrolyte, which has the best conductivity and oxidizing state, as well as the highest incorporation of electrolyte components in the coating growth process. On the other hand, incorporation and co-deposition of Al2O3 nano-particles were more pronounced than SiO3 2- ions in some level of molar concentration, which is due to the higher impact of electron discharge force on the adsorption of Al2O3 nano-particles. The electrochemical results showed that the best protective behavior was obtained in the sample having a coat with the lowest porosity and highest thickness.

  12. Seasonal variation of atmospheric particle number concentrations, new particle formation and atmospheric oxidation capacity at the high Arctic site Villum Research Station, Station Nord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quynh T.; Glasius, Marianne; Sørensen, Lise L.; Jensen, Bjarne; Skov, Henrik; Birmili, Wolfram; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Kristensson, Adam; Nøjgaard, Jacob K.; Massling, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    This work presents an analysis of the physical properties of sub-micrometer aerosol particles measured at the high Arctic site Villum Research Station, Station Nord (VRS), northeast Greenland, between July 2010 and February 2013. The study focuses on particle number concentrations, particle number size distributions and the occurrence of new particle formation (NPF) events and their seasonality in the high Arctic, where observations and characterization of such aerosol particle properties and corresponding events are rare and understanding of related processes is lacking.A clear accumulation mode was observed during the darker months from October until mid-May, which became considerably more pronounced during the prominent Arctic haze months from March to mid-May. In contrast, nucleation- and Aitken-mode particles were predominantly observed during the summer months. Analysis of wind direction and wind speed indicated possible contributions of marine sources from the easterly side of the station to the observed summertime particle number concentrations, while southwesterly to westerly winds dominated during the darker months. NPF events lasting from hours to days were mostly observed from June until August, with fewer events observed during the months with less sunlight, i.e., March, April, September and October. The results tend to indicate that ozone (O3) might be weakly anti-correlated with particle number concentrations of the nucleation-mode range (10-30 nm) in almost half of the NPF events, while no positive correlation was observed. Calculations of air mass back trajectories using the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model for the NPF event days suggested that the onset or interruption of events could possibly be explained by changes in air mass origin. A map of event occurrence probability was computed, indicating that southerly air masses from over the Greenland Sea were more likely linked to those events.

  13. In vitro cellular responses to silicon carbide particles manufactured through the Acheson process: impact of physico-chemical features on pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidative effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudard, Delphine; Forest, Valérie; Pourchez, Jérémie; Boumahdi, Najih; Tomatis, Maura; Fubini, Bice; Guilhot, Bernard; Cottier, Michèle; Grosseau, Philippe

    2014-08-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) an industrial-scale product manufactured through the Acheson process, is largely employed in various applications. Its toxicity has been poorly investigated. Our study aims at characterizing the physico-chemical features and the in vitro impact on biological activity of five manufactured SiC powders: two coarse powders (SiC C1/C2), two fine powders (SiC F1/F2) and a powder rich in iron impurities (SiC I). RAW 264.7 macrophages were exposed to the different SiC particles and the cellular responses were evaluated. Contrary to what happens with silica, no SiC cytotoxicity was observed but pro-oxidative and pro-inflammatory responses of variable intensity were evidenced. Oxidative stress (H₂O₂ production) appeared related to SiC particle size, while iron level regulated pro-inflammatory response (TNFα production). To investigate the impact of surface reactivity on the biological responses, coarse SiC C1 and fine SiC F1 powders were submitted to different thermal treatments (650-1400 °C) in order to alter the oxidation state of the particle surface. At 1400 °C a decrease in TNFα production and an increase in HO·, COO(·-) radicals production were observed in correlation with the formation of a surface layer of crystalline silica. Finally, a strong correlation was observed between surface oxidation state and in vitro toxicity.

  14. Surface modification of tin oxide by VUV rays and charge particle treatment: An effective method to improve the efficiency of surface catalytic behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Rajesh

    2011-10-01

    Plasma processing is a promising method to modify the chemical and physical properties of the semiconductor oxide surfaces. However, the tuning of surface characteristics is also influenced by plasma-emitted VUV and UV radiations. Different combinations of argon and oxygen partial pressures were applied in the capacitively coupled plasma. The highest surface conductivity was achieved with increasing plasma power, which was attributed to the interstitial defects with increased Tamm states created by the following two processes. First, the charge particle bombardment on the oxide surface, which etches the surface atoms and second, the absorption of VUV and UV radiation in the exposed layers of tin oxide nanoflakes scission the covalent bonds connecting the Sn-O atoms. The catalytic behavior of the tin oxide nanoflakes towards reducing gases have been studied as the function of Ar-O partial pressures, plasma power and voltage, and the ambient sensing temperature. Modified surface characteristics were also supported by SEM, TEM and XPS analysis.

  15. Effects of silica and titanium oxide particles on a human neural stem cell line: morphology, mitochondrial activity, and gene expression of differentiation markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujioka, Kouki; Hanada, Sanshiro; Inoue, Yuriko; Sato, Keisuke; Hirakuri, Kenji; Shiraishi, Kouichi; Kanaya, Fumihide; Ikeda, Keiichi; Usui, Ritsuko; Yamamoto, Kenji; Kim, Seung U; Manome, Yoshinobu

    2014-07-02

    Several in vivo studies suggest that nanoparticles (smaller than 100 nm) have the ability to reach the brain tissue. Moreover, some nanoparticles can penetrate into the brains of murine fetuses through the placenta by intravenous administration to pregnant mice. However, it is not clear whether the penetrated nanoparticles affect neurogenesis or brain function. To evaluate its effects on neural stem cells, we assayed a human neural stem cell (hNSCs) line exposed in vitro to three types of silica particles (30 nm, 70 nm, and <44 µm) and two types of titanium oxide particles (80 nm and < 44 µm). Our results show that hNSCs aggregated and exhibited abnormal morphology when exposed to the particles at concentrations = 0.1 mg/mL for 7 days. Moreover, all the particles affected the gene expression of Nestin (stem cell marker) and neurofilament heavy polypeptide (NF-H, neuron marker) at 0.1 mg/mL. In contrast, only 30-nm silica particles at 1.0 mg/mL significantly reduced mitochondrial activity. Notably, 30-nm silica particles exhibited acute membrane permeability at concentrations =62.5 µg/mL in 24 h. Although these concentrations are higher than the expected concentrations of nanoparticles in the brain from in vivo experiments in a short period, these thresholds may indicate the potential toxicity of accumulated particles for long-term usage or continuous exposure.

  16. Decomposition of Y2Ti2O7 Particles in 8 Pct Cr Oxide-Dispersion-Strengthened Martensitic Steel during Tempering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, M.; Sakasegawa, H.; Shiba, K.; Tanigawa, H.; Shinozuka, K.; Esaka, H.

    2011-08-01

    Chemical composition analysis using inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy and phase identification using X-ray were performed on the extracted residues of 8 pct Cr martensitic steel strengthened by nanoscaled complex oxides, which consist of yttrium, titanium, and oxygen. Some Y2Ti2O7 particles, which were stable during normalizing, decomposed into Y2O3 and Ti2O3 during tempering. This reaction reversibly occurred between normalizing and tempering. Y2Ti2O7 particles formed in the steel had other constituents in solid solution as compared to the completely stoichiometric Y2Ti2O7 particles synthesized artificially in air. As for the mechanism of the decomposition of Y2Ti2O7 particles in the steel, segregation of oxygen to dislocations induced by normalizing caused the decomposition of Y2Ti2O7 during tempering. In addition to that, the interfacial strain between Y2O3 particles or Ti2O3 particles within Cr23C6 carbides, which are formed by tempering, was lower than the strain between Y2Ti2O7, which precipitated in Cr23C6 carbides or the matrix. This difference in interfacial strain could also promote the decomposition of the Y2Ti2O7 particles in the steel.

  17. Effects of Silica and Titanium Oxide Particles on a Human Neural Stem Cell Line: Morphology, Mitochondrial Activity, and Gene Expression of Differentiation Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouki Fujioka

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Several in vivo studies suggest that nanoparticles (smaller than 100 nm have the ability to reach the brain tissue. Moreover, some nanoparticles can penetrate into the brains of murine fetuses through the placenta by intravenous administration to pregnant mice. However, it is not clear whether the penetrated nanoparticles affect neurogenesis or brain function. To evaluate its effects on neural stem cells, we assayed a human neural stem cell (hNSCs line exposed in vitro to three types of silica particles (30 nm, 70 nm, and <44 µm and two types of titanium oxide particles (80 nm and < 44 µm. Our results show that hNSCs aggregated and exhibited abnormal morphology when exposed to the particles at concentrations = 0.1 mg/mL for 7 days. Moreover, all the particles affected the gene expression of Nestin (stem cell marker and neurofilament heavy polypeptide (NF-H, neuron marker at 0.1 mg/mL. In contrast, only 30-nm silica particles at 1.0 mg/mL significantly reduced mitochondrial activity. Notably, 30-nm silica particles exhibited acute membrane permeability at concentrations =62.5 µg/mL in 24 h. Although these concentrations are higher than the expected concentrations of nanoparticles in the brain from in vivo experiments in a short period, these thresholds may indicate the potential toxicity of accumulated particles for long-term usage or continuous exposure.

  18. The Effects of Zinc and Iron Oxide Nano-Particles on The Growth and Ion Content of Two Corn Cultivars in Different Soil Salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to evaluate the effects of foliar application of nano-particles and ordinary bulk materials of zinc and iron oxide was studied in two corn genotypes (S.C 704 and seed mass in different soil salinity (0,75,150 mM NaCl. The experiment was arranged as factorial in a randomized complete block design with four replications. The results showed that in saline condition Leaf area, shoot and root dry matter, photochemical efficiency, the concentration of K, Fe and Zn in shoot decreased and that of Na and the Na/K ratio increased under saline condition. The interactions of salinity and genotype were significant on leaf area, shoot and root dry matter, Na/K ratio and photochemical efficiency. The application of nano-particles of iron and zinc oxide increased shoot dry matter to a greater degree as compared with ordinary bulk materials. Under saline condition, the application of iron oxide in the form of nano-particles had higher effect on iron uptake by corn plants. However, with an increase in salinity level the superiority of nano form decreased. The application of Nano-particles of iron and zinc as compared to ordinary bulk materials was more effective in alleviating the negative effects of salt stress on the accumulation of zinc in tested plants. This was not evidence in terms of iron accumulation. The results from this experiment showed that the application of nano-particles of iron and zinc promoted plant growth to a greater degree in comparison to ordinary materials of these nutrients. However, the application of nano particles had no advantage in alleviating the effects of salinity on plant growth.

  19. Oxidation of the AlSi6Cu4 alloy and AlSi6Cu4-graphite particles composite at the elevated temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Pozar

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Oxidation process of AlSi6Cu4 alloy as a composite matrix and of AlSi6Cu4 / 8 vol.% graphite particles composite was investigated.Composites were prepared by stirring method for suspension obtaining and by squeeze casting of the suspension. This process wasexamined by testing specimens annealed during up to 1000 hours at 573 K and 673 K in air atmosphere. The average oxidation state, oxidelayer thickness and hardness of examined materials were measured during the annealing time. Obtained results imply the followingconclusions: composite oxidizes faster than matrix alloy at both temperatures what is confirmed by higher weight gains and thicker oxide layer. The rate of oxidation of both materials gradually slows down at both temperatures. At initial stages of annealing at 673 K the rate of oxidation of both materials is much higher than that at 573 K. With increasing time of annealing the ratio of oxidation rate at 673 K to the one at 573 K comes down. Hardness of the composite is lower than that of matrix alloy before and during annealing at both temperatures. Drop in hardness at both 573 K and 673 K is the same for matrix and composite, and after about 100 hours the hardness no longer descents.

  20. Short Communication on "Coarsening of Y-rich oxide particles in 9%Cr-ODS Eurofer steel annealed at 1350 °C"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandim, M. J. R.; Souza Filho, I. R.; Bredda, E. H.; Kostka, A.; Raabe, D.; Sandim, H. R. Z.

    2017-02-01

    Oxide-dispersion strengthened (ODS) Eurofer steel is targeted for structural applications in future fusion nuclear reactors. Samples were cold rolled down to 80% reduction in thickness and annealed at 1350 °C up to 8 h. The microstructural characterization was performed using Vickers microhardness testing, electron backscatter diffraction, scanning and scanning transmission electron microscopies. Experimental results provide evidence of coarsening of the Y-rich oxide particles in ODS-Eurofer steel annealed at 1350 °C within delta ferrite phase field.

  1. Pulmonary exposure to particles from diesel exhaust, urban dust or single-walled carbon nanotubes and oxidatively damaged DNA and vascular function in apoE(-/-)mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterdal, Lise K; Jantzen, Kim; Sheykhzade, Majid;

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This study compared the oxidative stress level and vasomotor dysfunction after exposure to urban dust, diesel exhaust particles (DEP) or single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT). DEP and SWCNT increased the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cultured endothelial cells......, Hmox-1 and Ogg1. The levels of oxidatively damaged DNA were unchanged in lung tissue. The exposure to SWCNT significantly increased the expression of Ccl-2 in the lung tissue of the mice. The exposure to DEP and SWCNT was associated with elevated ROS production in cultured cells, whereas intratracheal...

  2. Examination of commercially available copper oxide wire particles in combination with albendazole for control of gastrointestinal nematodes in lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, J M; Miller, J E; Terrill, T H; Smyth, E; Acharya, M

    2016-01-15

    Control of gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) remains a critical issue due to the prevalence of anthelmintic resistance. The objective of the experiment was to determine the efficacy of copper oxide wire particles (COWP) from three commercial sources and a combination of COWP and albendazole to control GIN and/or Haemonchus contortus in lambs. Naturally infected Katahdin lambs in early June 2014 and 2015 were randomly assigned to receive no COWP (CON; n=9 and 12) or 2g COWP in a gel capsule as Copasure(®) (COP; n=4 and 17; Animax Ltd.), copper oxide-wire form (AUS; n=7 in 2014 only; Pharmplex), Ultracruz™ (ULT; n=8 and 15; Santa Cruz Animal Health™), no COWP and albendazole (CON+alb; n=10 in 2015 only; 15mg/kg BW; Valbazen(®); Zoetis Animal Health), or COWP+alb (n=7 and 11; in 2014, lambs were administered alb on day 3). Lambs grazed grass pastures as a group and were supplemented with 227g/lamb daily of a commercial grain mix (15% crude protein) and the same amount of alfalfa pellets. Feces were collected on days 0 (day of COWP treatment), 7, and 14 for determination of fecal egg counts (FEC). Pooled (2014) or pooled treatment group feces were cultured on days 0, 7, and 14 (2015 only) to determine GIN genera. Data were analyzed using repeated measures in a mixed model, and FEC were log transformed. The predominant GIN on day 0 was H. contortus (87%) in 2014, and there was a mixed population in 2015. The mean FEC was reduced by day 7 in AUS and ULT lambs (treatment×day, P=0.001), and all of the COWP products were similar. By day 14, the AUS FEC were lower than the CON and COP groups. When examining the combination of COWP and synthetic anthelmintic, the FEC of COWP+alb were reduced to nearly 0eggs/g (back-transformed) and lower than the other groups (treatment×day, P=0.001). The percentage of H. contortus in cultured feces was reduced to a greater extent in the COWP than CON or CON+alb groups of lambs. In a mixed GIN population, the COWP products appeared to

  3. Catalytic combustion of methane over alumina-supported palladium: Relationships between the oxidation state, particle size, morphology and activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyubovsky, Maxim R.

    Supported palladium was studied as a catalyst for combustion of natural gas. The influence of variations in temperature and oxygen concentration, of addition of CO and water and of in situ hydrogen reduction on catalyst activity was studied experimentally. The activation energy for methane oxidation over crystalline PdO is about 17.5 kcal/mole and over metallic Pd - 40--45 kcal/mole. The difference in the activation energy is compensated by the preexponential coefficient that is 5--6 orders of magnitude higher for Pd than for PdO. In this work the activity variations under the different reaction conditions were correlated with the corresponding changes in the catalyst oxidation state, particle size and morphology. Formation of metallic hexagonal crystallites 100--200 nm in size was observed by TEM after PdO reduction, which resulted in an increase in the catalyst activity. Redispersion of these metallic crystallites into PdO clusters of 3--5 nm in size occurred during the Pd reoxidation, which resulted in a reversible increase of the catalyst activity on the cooling cycle, known as "negative activation." Activation of the methane molecule is the limiting step of the reaction over both the Pd and the PdO states. We propose that on the Pd surface the reaction occurs through the Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism. Under conditions of catalytic combustion the surface is completely covered with oxygen and competitive dissociative adsorption of methane is the limiting step of the process. The high heat of oxygen adsorption explains the high activation energy for the overall process. On the PdO surface the reaction occurs through a redox mechanism. A methane molecule interacts with a surface Pd-O dimer resulting in adsorbed CH3 and OH species. The activation energy of this interaction is about 15 kcal/mole and the probability is low due to the different multiplicity of the initial and final states of the transition complex. Oscillations in the reaction rate under fuel

  4. Kinetic multi-layer model of gas-particle interactions in aerosols and clouds (KM-GAP: linking condensation, evaporation and chemical reactions of organics, oxidants and water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shiraiwa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel kinetic multi-layer model for gas-particle interactions in aerosols and clouds (KM-GAP that treats explicitly all steps of mass transport and chemical reaction of semi-volatile species partitioning between gas phase, particle surface and particle bulk. KM-GAP is based on the PRA model framework (Pöschl-Rudich-Ammann, 2007, and it includes gas phase diffusion, reversible adsorption, surface reactions, bulk diffusion and reaction, as well as condensation, evaporation and heat transfer. The size change of atmospheric particles and the temporal evolution and spatial profile of the concentration of individual chemical species can be modeled along with gas uptake and accommodation coefficients. Depending on the complexity of the investigated system, unlimited numbers of semi-volatile species, chemical reactions, and physical processes can be treated, and the model shall help to bridge gaps in the understanding and quantification of multiphase chemistry and microphysics in atmospheric aerosols and clouds.

    In this study we demonstrate how KM-GAP can be used to analyze, interpret and design experimental investigations of changes in particle size and chemical composition in response to condensation, evaporation, and chemical reaction. For the condensational growth of water droplets, our kinetic model results provide a direct link between laboratory observations and molecular dynamic simulations, confirming that the accommodation coefficient of water at ~270 K is close to unity. Literature data on the evaporation of dioctyl phthalate as a function of particle size and time can be reproduced, and the model results suggest that changes in the experimental conditions like aerosol particle concentration and chamber geometry may influence the evaporation kinetics and can be optimized for efficient probing of specific physical effects and parameters. With regard to oxidative aging of organic aerosol particles, we illustrate how the

  5. Enhanced dielectric properties of poly(vinylidene fluoride) composites filled with nano iron oxide-deposited barium titanate hybrid particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Changhai; Chi, Qingguo; Dong, Jiufeng; Cui, Yang; Wang, Xuan; Liu, Lizhu; Lei, Qingquan

    2016-09-01

    We report enhancement of the dielectric permittivity of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) generated by depositing magnetic iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles on the surface of barium titanate (BT) to fabricate BT–Fe3O4/PVDF composites. This process introduced an external magnetic field and the influences of external magnetic field on dielectric properties of composites were investigated systematically. The composites subjected to magnetic field treatment for 30 min at 60 °C exhibited the largest dielectric permittivity (385 at 100 Hz) when the BT–Fe3O4 concentration is approximately 33 vol.%. The BT–Fe3O4 suppressed the formation of a conducting path in the composite and induced low dielectric loss (0.3) and low conductivity (4.12 × 10‑9 S/cm) in the composite. Series-parallel model suggested that the enhanced dielectric permittivity of BT–Fe3O4/PVDF composites should arise from the ultrahigh permittivity of BT–Fe3O4 hybrid particles. However, the experimental results of the BT–Fe3O4/PVDF composites treated by magnetic field agree with percolation theory, which indicates that the enhanced dielectric properties of the BT–Fe3O4/PVDF composites originate from the interfacial polarization induced by the external magnetic field. This work provides a simple and effective way for preparing nanocomposites with enhanced dielectric properties for use in the electronics industry.

  6. Angular-resolution and material-characterization measurements for a dual-particle imaging system with mixed-oxide fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poitrasson-Rivière, Alexis, E-mail: alexispr@umich.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering & Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Polack, J. Kyle; Hamel, Michael C.; Klemm, Dietrich D.; Ito, Kai; McSpaden, Alexander T.; Flaska, Marek; Clarke, Shaun D.; Pozzi, Sara A. [Department of Nuclear Engineering & Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Tomanin, Alice [Lainsa-Italia S.R.L., Via E. Fermi 2749, 21027 Ispra, VA (Italy); Peerani, Paolo [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, 21027 Ispra, VA (Italy)

    2015-10-11

    A dual-particle imaging (DPI) system, capable of simultaneously imaging fast neutrons and gamma rays, has been operated in the presence of mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel to assess the system's angular resolution and material-characterization capabilities. The detection principle is based on the scattering physics of neutrons (elastic scattering) and gamma rays (Compton scattering) in organic and inorganic scintillators. The detection system is designed as a combination of a two-plane Compton camera and a neutron-scatter camera. The front plane consists of EJ-309 liquid scintillators and the back plane consists of interleaved EJ-309 and NaI(Tl) scintillators. MCNPX-PoliMi was used to optimize the geometry of the system and the resulting prototype was built and tested using a Cf-252 source as an SNM surrogate. A software package was developed to acquire and process data in real time. The software was used for a measurement campaign to assess the angular resolution of the imaging system with MOX samples. Measurements of two MOX canisters of similar isotopics and intensity were performed for 6 different canister separations (from 5° to 30°, corresponding to distances of 21 cm and 131 cm, respectively). The measurements yielded a minimum separation of 20° at 2.5 m (86-cm separation) required to see 2 separate hot spots. Additionally, the results displayed good agreement with MCNPX-PoliMi simulations. These results indicate an angular resolution between 15° and 20°, given the 5° step. Coupled with its large field of view, and its capability to differentiate between spontaneous fission and (α,n) sources, the DPI system shows its potential for nuclear-nonproliferation applications.

  7. In vitro targeted magnetic delivery and tracking of superparamagnetic iron oxide particles labeled stem cells for articular cartilage defect repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yong; Jin, Xuhong; Dai, Gang; Liu, Jun; Chen, Jiarong; Yang, Liu

    2011-04-01

    To assess a novel cell manipulation technique of tissue engineering with respect to its ability to augment superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (SPIO) labeled mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) density at a localized cartilage defect site in an in vitro phantom by applying magnetic force. Meanwhile, non-invasive imaging techniques were use to track SPIO-labeled MSCs by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Human bone marrow MSCs were cultured and labeled with SPIO. Fresh degenerated human osteochondral fragments were obtained during total knee arthroplasty and a cartilage defect was created at the center. Then, the osteochondral fragments were attached to the sidewalls of culture flasks filled with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) to mimic the human joint cavity. The SPIO-labeled MSCs were injected into the culture flasks in the presence of a 0.57 Tesla (T) magnetic force. Before and 90 min after cell targeting, the specimens underwent T2-weighted turbo spin-echo (SET2WI) sequence of 3.0 T MRI. MRI results were compared with histological findings. Macroscopic observation showed that SPIO-labeled MSCs were steered to the target region of cartilage defect. MRI revealed significant changes in signal intensity (P<0.01). HE staining exibited that a great number of MSCs formed a three-dimensional (3D) cell "sheet" structure at the chondral defect site. It was concluded that 0.57 T magnetic force permits spatial delivery of magnetically labeled MSCs to the target region in vitro. High-field MRI can serve as an very sensitive non-invasive technique for the visualization of SPIO-labeled MSCs.

  8. Angular-resolution and material-characterization measurements for a dual-particle imaging system with mixed-oxide fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poitrasson-Rivière, Alexis; Polack, J. Kyle; Hamel, Michael C.; Klemm, Dietrich D.; Ito, Kai; McSpaden, Alexander T.; Flaska, Marek; Clarke, Shaun D.; Pozzi, Sara A.; Tomanin, Alice; Peerani, Paolo

    2015-10-01

    A dual-particle imaging (DPI) system, capable of simultaneously imaging fast neutrons and gamma rays, has been operated in the presence of mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel to assess the system's angular resolution and material-characterization capabilities. The detection principle is based on the scattering physics of neutrons (elastic scattering) and gamma rays (Compton scattering) in organic and inorganic scintillators. The detection system is designed as a combination of a two-plane Compton camera and a neutron-scatter camera. The front plane consists of EJ-309 liquid scintillators and the back plane consists of interleaved EJ-309 and NaI(Tl) scintillators. MCNPX-PoliMi was used to optimize the geometry of the system and the resulting prototype was built and tested using a Cf-252 source as an SNM surrogate. A software package was developed to acquire and process data in real time. The software was used for a measurement campaign to assess the angular resolution of the imaging system with MOX samples. Measurements of two MOX canisters of similar isotopics and intensity were performed for 6 different canister separations (from 5° to 30°, corresponding to distances of 21 cm and 131 cm, respectively). The measurements yielded a minimum separation of 20° at 2.5 m (86-cm separation) required to see 2 separate hot spots. Additionally, the results displayed good agreement with MCNPX-PoliMi simulations. These results indicate an angular resolution between 15° and 20°, given the 5° step. Coupled with its large field of view, and its capability to differentiate between spontaneous fission and (α,n) sources, the DPI system shows its potential for nuclear-nonproliferation applications.

  9. An insight into the metabolic responses of ultra-small superparamagnetic particles of iron oxide using metabonomic analysis of biofluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Jianghua [Department of Physics, Fujian Key Laboratory of Plasma and Magnetic Resonance, State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, Xiamen University, Xiamen, 361005 (China); Liu Huili; Zhang Limin [State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Bhakoo, Kishore [Singapore Bioimaging Consortium, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A-STAR) 138667 (Singapore); Lu Lehui, E-mail: jianghua.feng@hotmail.com, E-mail: jianghua.feng@wipm.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, Jilin 130022 (China)

    2010-10-01

    Ultra-small superparamagnetic particles of iron oxides (USPIO) have been developed as intravenous organ/tissue-targeted contrast agents to improve magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in vivo. However, their potential toxicity and effects on metabolism have attracted particular attention. In the present study, uncoated and dextran-coated USPIO were investigated by analyzing both rat urine and plasma metabonomes using high-resolution NMR-based metabonomic analysis in combination with multivariate statistical analysis. The wealth of information gathered on the metabolic profiles from rat urine and plasma has revealed subtle metabolic changes in response to USPIO administration. The metabolic changes include the elevation of urinary {alpha}-hydroxy-n-valerate, o- and p-HPA, PAG, nicotinate and hippurate accompanied by decreases in the levels of urinary {alpha}-ketoglutarate, succinate, citrate, N-methylnicotinamide, NAG, DMA, allantoin and acetate following USPIO administration. The changes associated with USPIO administration included a gradual increase in plasma glucose, N-acetyl glycoprotein, saturated fatty acid, citrate, succinate, acetate, GPC, ketone bodies ({beta}-hydroxybutyrate, acetone and acetoacetate) and individual amino acids, such as phenylalanine, lysine, isoleucine, glycine, glutamine and glutamate and a gradual decrease of myo-inositol, unsaturated fatty acid and triacylglycerol. Hence USPIO administration effects are reflected in changes in a number of metabolic pathways including energy, lipid, glucose and amino acid metabolism. The size- and surface chemistry-dependent metabolic responses and possible toxicity were observed using NMR analysis of biofluids. These changes may be attributed to the disturbances of hepatic, renal and cardiac functions following USPIO administrations. The potential biotoxicity can be derived from metabonomic analysis and serum biochemistry analysis. Metabonomic strategy offers a promising approach for the detection of

  10. Surface assembly of graphene oxide nanosheets on SiO2 particles for the selective isolation of hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia-Wei; Zhang, Qian; Chen, Xu-Wei; Wang, Jian-Hua

    2011-04-18

    Graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets have been immobilized onto SiO(2) particles through electrostatic interactions by surface assembly. The surface-assembled composite material was characterized by means of SEM and FTIR and UV/Vis spectroscopy to reveal an assembling ratio of 2.3% (w/w, GO/SiO(2)). The GO/SiO(2) composites were subsequently used, for the first time, as adsorbents for the adsorption/isolation of proteins. Selective isolation of proteins of interest, namely, hemoglobin (Hb) in this case, from complex sample matrices, for example, human whole blood, could be obtained by carefully manipulating the adsorption/desorption process. At pH 7, an adsorption of 85% was achieved for Hb (70 mg L(-1)) in sample solution (1.0 mL) by the GO/SiO(2) composites (3.0 mg). The adsorption behavior was consistent with the Langmuir adsorption model, corresponding to a theoretical adsorption capacity of 50.5 mg g(-1) for Hb. The retained Hb could be readily recovered by using a Tris-HCl buffer at pH 8.9 to give a recovery of 80%. Circular dichroism and specific activity investigations indicated that the GO/SiO(2) composites exhibited favorable biocompatibility, characterized by virtually no effect on the conformation and activity of Hb after adsorption/desorption. The composites were used for the selective isolation of Hb from human whole blood and achieved satisfactory results by assaying with sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

  11. High Temperature Oxidation of Nickel-based Cermet Coatings Composed of Al2O3 and TiO2 Nanosized Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrokhzad, M. A.; Khan, T. I.

    2014-09-01

    New technological challenges in oil production require materials that can resist high temperature oxidation. In-Situ Combustion (ISC) oil production technique is a new method that uses injection of air and ignition techniques to reduce the viscosity of bitumen in a reservoir and as a result crude bitumen can be produced and extracted from the reservoir. During the in-situ combustion process, production pipes and other mechanical components can be exposed to air-like gaseous environments at extreme temperatures as high as 700 °C. To protect or reduce the surface degradation of pipes and mechanical components used in in-situ combustion, the use of nickel-based ceramic-metallic (cermet) coating produced by co-electrodeposition of nanosized Al2O3 and TiO2 have been suggested and earlier research on these coatings have shown promising oxidation resistance against atmospheric oxygen and combustion gases at elevated temperatures. Co-electrodeposition of nickel-based cermet coatings is a low-cost method that has the benefit of allowing both internal and external surfaces of pipes and components to be coated during a single electroplating process. Research has shown that the volume fraction of dispersed nanosized Al2O3 and TiO2 particles in the nickel matrix which affects the oxidation resistance of the coating can be controlled by the concentration of these particles in the electrolyte solution, as well as the applied current density during electrodeposition. This paper investigates the high temperature oxidation behaviour of novel nanostructured cermet coatings composed of two types of dispersed nanosized ceramic particles (Al2O3 and TiO2) in a nickel matrix and produced by coelectrodeposition technique as a function of the concentration of these particles in the electrolyte solution and applied current density. For this purpose, high temperature oxidation tests were conducted in dry air for 96 hours at 700 °C to obtain mass changes (per unit of area) at specific time

  12. The heterogeneous reaction of hydroxyl radicals with sub-micron squalane particles: a model system for understanding the oxidative aging of ambient aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. D.; Kroll, J. H.; Cappa, C. D.; Che, D. L.; Liu, C. L.; Ahmed, M.; Leone, S. R.; Worsnop, D. R.; Wilson, K. R.

    2009-05-01

    The heterogeneous reaction of OH radicals with sub-micron squalane particles, in the presence of O2, is used as a model system to explore the fundamental chemical mechanisms that control the oxidative aging of organic aerosols in the atmosphere. Detailed kinetic measurements combined with elemental mass spectrometric analysis reveal that the reaction proceeds sequentially by adding an average of one oxygenated functional group per reactive loss of squalane. The reactive uptake coefficient of OH with squalane particles is determined to be 0.3±0.07 at an average OH concentration of ~1×1010 molecules cm-3. Based on a comparison between the measured particle mass and model predictions it appears that significant volatilization of a reduced organic particle would be extremely slow in the real atmosphere. However, as the aerosols become more oxygenated, volatilization becomes a significant loss channel for organic material in the particle-phase. Together these results provide a chemical framework in which to understand how heterogeneous chemistry transforms the physiochemical properties of particle-phase organic matter in the troposphere.

  13. The heterogeneous reaction of hydroxyl radicals with sub-micron squalane particles: a model system for understanding the oxidative aging of ambient aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Smith

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The heterogeneous reaction of OH radicals with sub-micron squalane particles, in the presence of O2, is used as a model system to explore the fundamental chemical mechanisms that control the oxidative aging of organic aerosols in the atmosphere. Detailed kinetic measurements combined with elemental mass spectrometric analysis reveal that the reaction proceeds sequentially by adding an average of one oxygenated functional group per reactive loss of squalane. The reactive uptake coefficient of OH with squalane particles is determined to be 0.3±0.07 at an average OH concentration of ~1×1010 molecules·cm−3. Based on a comparison between the measured particle mass and model predictions it appears that significant volatilization of a reduced organic particle would be extremely slow in the real atmosphere. However, as the aerosols become more oxygenated, volatilization becomes a significant loss channel for organic material in the particle phase. Together these results provide a chemical framework in which to understand how heterogeneous chemistry transforms the physiochemical properties of particle phase organic matter in the troposphere.

  14. The heterogeneous reaction of hydroxyl radicals with sub-micron squalane particles: a model system for understanding the oxidative aging of ambient aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Smith

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The heterogeneous reaction of OH radicals with sub-micron squalane particles, in the presence of O2, is used as a model system to explore the fundamental chemical mechanisms that control the oxidative aging of organic aerosols in the atmosphere. Detailed kinetic measurements combined with elemental mass spectrometric analysis reveal that the reaction proceeds sequentially by adding an average of one oxygenated functional group per reactive loss of squalane. The reactive uptake coefficient of OH with squalane particles is determined to be 0.3±0.07 at an average OH concentration of ~1×1010 molecules cm−3. Based on a comparison between the measured particle mass and model predictions it appears that significant volatilization of a reduced organic particle would be extremely slow in the real atmosphere. However, as the aerosols become more oxygenated, volatilization becomes a significant loss channel for organic material in the particle-phase. Together these results provide a chemical framework in which to understand how heterogeneous chemistry transforms the physiochemical properties of particle-phase organic matter in the troposphere.

  15. Influence of the Surfactant Nature on the Occurrence of Self-Assembly between Rubber Particles and Thermally Reduced Graphite Oxide during the Preparation of Natural Rubber Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Aguilar-Bolados

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural rubber (NR latex consists of polymer particles charged negatively due to the adsorbed phospholipids and proteins molecules. The addition of stable aqueous suspension of thermally reduced graphite oxide (TRGO stabilized by ionic surfactants to NR latex can favor the occurrence of interaction between the stabilized TRGO and NR particles. Herein, the use of two surfactants of different nature, namely, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS and dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB, for the preparation of (TRGO/NR nanocomposites, is reported. Zeta potential and particle size measurements indicated that the use of DTAB as cationic surfactant results in the flocculation of NR particles and promoted the formation of ion-pair interactions between TRGO and the proteins and/or phospholipids present on the NR surface. This indicates that the use of DTAB can promote a self-assembly phenomenon between TRGO with adsorbed DTAB molecules and NR particles. The occurrence of self-assembly phenomenon allows obtaining homogenous dispersion of TRGO particles in the polymer matrix. The TRGO/NR nanocomposites prepared by the use of DTAB exhibited superior mechanical properties and excellent electrical conductivities reaching values of stress at 500% strain of 3.02 MPa and 10−4 S/cm, respectively.

  16. Mutagenicity of diesel engine exhaust is eliminated in the gas phase by an oxidation catalyst but only slightly reduced in the particle phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, Götz A; Krahl, Jürgen; Munack, Axel; Ruschel, Yvonne; Schröder, Olaf; Hallier, Ernst; Brüning, Thomas; Bünger, Jürgen

    2012-06-05

    Concerns about adverse health effects of diesel engine emissions prompted strong efforts to minimize this hazard, including exhaust treatment by diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC). The effectiveness of such measures is usually assessed by the analysis of the legally regulated exhaust components. In recent years additional analytical and toxicological tests were included in the test panel with the aim to fill possible analytical gaps, for example, mutagenic potency of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and their nitrated derivatives (nPAH). This investigation focuses on the effect of a DOC on health hazards from combustion of four different fuels: rapeseed methyl ester (RME), common mineral diesel fuel (DF), SHELL V-Power Diesel (V-Power), and ARAL Ultimate Diesel containing 5% RME (B5ULT). We applied the European Stationary Cycle (ESC) to a 6.4 L turbo-charged heavy load engine fulfilling the EURO III standard. The engine was operated with and without DOC. Besides regulated emissions we measured particle size and number distributions, determined the soluble and solid fractions of the particles and characterized the bacterial mutagenicity in the gas phase and the particles of the exhaust. The effectiveness of the DOC differed strongly in regard to the different exhaust constituents: Total hydrocarbons were reduced up to 90% and carbon monoxide up to 98%, whereas nitrogen oxides (NO(X)) remained almost unaffected. Total particle mass (TPM) was reduced by 50% with DOC in common petrol diesel fuel and by 30% in the other fuels. This effect was mainly due to a reduction of the soluble organic particle fraction. The DOC caused an increase of the water-soluble fraction in the exhaust of RME, V-Power, and B5ULT, as well as a pronounced increase of nitrate in all exhausts. A high proportion of ultrafine particles (10-30 nm) in RME exhaust could be ascribed to vaporizable particles. Mutagenicity of the exhaust was low compared to previous investigations. The DOC reduced

  17. Thermal oxidation of medical Ti6Al4V blasted with ceramic particles: Effects on the microstructure, residual stresses and mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieblich, M; Barriuso, S; Multigner, M; González-Doncel, G; González-Carrasco, J L

    2016-02-01

    Roughening of Ti6Al4V by blasting with alumina or zirconia particles improves the mechanical fixation of implants by increasing the surface area available for bone/implant apposition. Additional thermal oxidation treatments of the blasted alloy have already shown to be a complementary low-cost solution to enhancing the in vitro biocompatibility and corrosion resistance of the alloy. In this work, the effects of oxidation treatment on a grit blasted Ti6Al4V biomedical alloy have been analysed in order to understand the net effect of the combined treatments on the alloy fatigue properties. Synchrotron radiation diffraction experiments have been performed to measure residual stresses before and after the treatments and microstructural and hardness changes have been determined. Although blasting of Ti6Al4V with small spherical zirconia particles increases the alloy fatigue resistance with respect to unblasted specimens, fatigue strength after oxidation decreases below the unblasted value, irrespective of the type of particle used for blasting. Moreover, at 700°C the as-blasted compressive residual stresses (700MPa) are not only fully relaxed but even moderate tensile residual stresses, of about 120MPa, are found beneath the blasted surfaces. Contrary to expectations, a moderate increase in hardness occurs towards the blasted surface after oxidation treatments. This can be attributed to the fact that grit blasting modifies the crystallographic texture of the Ti6Al4V shifting it to a random texture, which affects the hardness values as shown by additional experiments on cold rolled samples. The results indicate that the oxidation treatment performed to improve biocompatibility and corrosion resistance of grit blasted Ti6Al4V should be carried out with caution since the alloy fatigue strength can be critically diminished below the value required for high load-bearing components.

  18. Practical limitations of single particle ICP-MS in the determination of nanoparticle size distributions and dissolution: case of rare earth oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fréchette-Viens, Laurie; Hadioui, Madjid; Wilkinson, Kevin J

    2017-01-15

    The applicability of single particle ICP-MS (SP-ICP-MS) for the analysis of nanoparticle size distributions and the determination of particle numbers was evaluated using the rare earth oxide, La2O3, as a model particle. The composition of the storage containers, as well as the ICP-MS sample introduction system were found to significantly impact SP-ICP-MS analysis. While La2O3 nanoparticles (La2O3 NP) did not appear to interact strongly with sample containers, adsorptive losses of La(3+)(over 24h) were substantial (>72%) for fluorinated ethylene propylene bottles as opposed to polypropylene (SP-ICP-MS may nonetheless be appropriate for NP analysis in environmental matrices. Coupling of an ion-exchange resin to the SP-ICP-MS led to more accurate determinations of the La2O3 NP size distributions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The catalytic behavior of La-Mn-O nanoparticle perovskite-type oxide catalysts for the combustion of the soot particle from the diesel engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hong; ZHAO Zhen; XU Chunming; LIU Jian; LU Zhixiao

    2005-01-01

    The La1-xMx MnO3(M=Li, Na, K, Rb, x=0, 0.10, 0.25) perovskite-type oxides whose sizes are nanoparticle have been prepared by the citric acid-ligated method. The characters of the catalysts were characterized by means of XRD, IR, SEM and BET surface area measurement. The catalytic activity for the combustion of soot particulate was evaluated by a technique of the temperature-programmed reaction. In the LaMnO3 catalyst, the partial substitution of alkali metal (Li, Na, K, Rb) into A-site enhanced the catalytic activity for the combustion of soot particle. The La0.75K0.25MnO3 oxides are good candidate catalysts for the soot particle removal reaction, and the combustion temperatures of soot particle are between 285℃ and 430℃ when the contact of catalysts and soot is loose, and their catalytic activities for the combustion of soot particle are as good as supported Pt catalysts, which is the best catalyst system so far reported for soot combustion under loose contact conditions.

  20. Comparison of the oxidation state of Fe in comet 81P/Wild 2 and chondritic-porous interplanetary dust particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogliore, Ryan C.; Butterworth, Anna L.; Fakra, Sirine C.; Gainsforth, Zack; Marcus, Matthew A.; Westphal, Andrew J.

    2010-07-16

    The fragile structure of chondritic-porous interplanetary dust particles (CP-IDPs) and their minimal parent-body alteration have led researchers to believe these particles originate in comets rather than asteroids where aqueous and thermal alterations have occurred. The solar elemental abundances and atmospheric entry speed of CP-IDPs also suggest a cometary origin. With the return of the Stardust samples from Jupiter-family comet 81P/Wild 2, this hypothesis can be tested. We have measured the Fe oxidation state of 15 CP-IDPs and 194 Stardust fragments using a synchrotron-based x-ray microprobe. We analyzed {approx}300 ng of Wild 2 material - three orders of magnitude more material than other analyses comparing Wild 2 and CP-IDPs. The Fe oxidation state of these two samples of material are > 2{sigma} different: the CP-IDPs are more oxidized than the Wild 2 grains. We conclude that comet Wild 2 contains material that formed at a lower oxygen fugacity than the parent-body, or parent bodies, of CP-IDPs. If all Jupiter-family comets are similar, they do not appear to be consistent with the origin of CP-IDPs. However, comets that formed from a different mix of nebular material and are more oxidized than Wild 2 could be the source of CP-IDPs.

  1. Surface quality improvement of B{sub 4}C particles for electroless copper coating by Cu activation and oxidation roughening methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Jiyun [Joint Laboratory of Nuclear Materials and Service Safety, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Shu, Guogang [China Nuclear Power Engineering Co., Ltd., Shenzhen (China); Wang, Wei [Joint Laboratory of Nuclear Materials and Service Safety, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Li, Qiulin, E-mail: liql@sz.tsinghua.edu.cn [Joint Laboratory of Nuclear Materials and Service Safety, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Liu, Wei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Cu activation increases surface activity by depositing Cu nano-crystals on B{sub 4}C. • The best result of Cu activation comes out at pH 12. • Oxidation roughening improves wettability of B{sub 4}C by aqueous solution. • Oxidation roughening promotes Cu nucleation on B{sub 4}C surface. - Abstract: Surface quality improvement by Cu activation and oxidation roughening process was studied during electroless coating Cu on boron carbide (B{sub 4}C) particles. The surface morphology was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the phase identification was determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Two aspects concluding surface activation and surface roughening were investigated to understand the effect of each on Cu coating. Cu activation process increased surface activity of B{sub 4}C by pre-deposition Cu nano-crystals, which was effective and cost-saving when compared with conventional Pd activation method. The influence of activation pH on electroless Cu coating was discussed and a moderate pH 12 is suitable for Cu deposition. Surface roughening process availably promoted wettability of B{sub 4}C particles with aqueous solution. Etched pits were formed on B{sub 4}C surface and resulted in fresh surface exposed after oxidization roughening process, which was beneficial for Cu bonding and coating on B{sub 4}C surface.

  2. Effect of the chemical termination of conductive diamond substrate on the resistance to carbon monoxide-poisoning during methanol oxidation of platinum particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spătaru, Tanţa; Osiceanu, Petre; Anastasescu, Mihai; Pătrinoiu, Greta; Munteanu, Cornel; Spătaru, Nicolae; Fujishima, Akira

    2014-09-01

    Boron-doped diamond (BDD) films were annealed in hydrogen or oxygen streams and were further used as substrates for Pt electrochemical deposition. SEM and AFM measurements have shown that, from the point of view of the efficiency of noble metal utilization, a hydrogen-terminated diamond (HT-BDD) support is more convenient because it enables better dispersion and smaller size of the deposited particles. An enhancement of ca. 23% of the electrocatalyst specific surface area was observed for Pt/HT-BDD, compared to the case of Pt deposited at oxygen-terminated diamond (OT-BDD). Nevertheless, it was found that when deposited on oxidized BDD, Pt particles are more resistant to fouling during methanol oxidation. Electrochemical oxidation of adsorbed carbon monoxide was investigated by anodic stripping voltammetry and it was demonstrated that the use of OT-BDD substrate facilitates oxidative desorption of CO from the platinum active sites. This behavior was tentatively ascribed to the high surface concentration of oxygenated carbon species, evidenced by XPS, which may act as oxygen donors and/or could partially weaken Pt-CO bonds, thus enabling easier CO eviction from the electrocatalyst surface.

  3. Heterogeneous Photo-oxidation of SO2 in the Presence of Two Different Mineral Dust Particles: Gobi and Arizona Dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jiyeon; Jang, Myoseon; Yu, Zechen

    2017-09-05

    The impact of authentic mineral dust particles sourced from the Gobi Desert (GDD) on the kinetic uptake coefficient of SO2 was studied under varying environments (humidity, O3, and NOx) using both an indoor chamber and an outdoor chamber. There was a significant increase in the kinetic uptake coefficient of SO2 (γSO4(2-),light) for GDD particles under UV light compared to the value (γSO4(2-),dark) under dark conditions at various relative humidities (RH) ranging from 20% to 80%. In both the presence and the absence of O3 and NOx, γSO4(2-),light and γSO4(2-),dark greatly increased with increasing RH. The resulting γSO4(2-),light of GDD particles was also compared to that of Arizona Test Dust (ATD) particles. The γSO4(2-),light values of GDD were 2 to 2.5 times greater than those of ATD for all RH levels. To understand the photocatalytic act of dust particles, both GDD and ATD were characterized for the metal element composition of fresh particles, the aerosol acidity of aged particles, and the hygroscopic properties of both fresh and aged particles. We conclude that the difference in the formation of sulfate between GDD and ATD particles is regulated mainly by the quantity of the semiconductive metals in dust particles and partially by hygroscopic properties.

  4. Nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 production in response to ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene particles depends on osteoblast maturation state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, Christoph H; Dean, David D; Bonewald, Lynda F; Schwartz, Zvi; Boyan, Barbara D

    2002-03-01

    Recent studies have shown that osteoblast-like cells respond directly to ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene particles in culture, suggesting that they may be involved in aseptic loosening of endoprostheses. We tested the hypothesis that the state of cell maturation plays a role in the response of osteogenic cells to ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene particles. MG63 cells (immature osteoblast-like cells), OCT-1 cells (mature secretory osteoblast-like cells), and MLO-Y4 cells (osteocyte-like cells) were treated for twenty-four hours with commercial ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene particles with an average diameter of 1 mm. The effect of particle treatment on cell proliferation was assessed by measuring the number of cells, whereas the effects on differentiation and local factor production were assessed by measuring the production of osteocalcin, prostaglandin E2, and nitric oxide. The effect of particles on apoptosis was also evaluated. The addition of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene particles increased the number of MG63 cells, did not affect the number of OCT-1 cells, and led to a decrease in the number of MLO-Y4 cells. The observed changes in cell number were not due to programmed cell death, as no more than 3% of the cells in cultures treated with the highest concentration of particles were undergoing apoptosis. Osteocalcin production was not affected by the addition of particles. Prostaglandin E2 production was increased in all three types of cultures, but the effect was greatest in OCT-1 cell cultures, as was the absolute amount of prostaglandin E2 produced. Nitric oxide production was unaffected in MG63 cell cultures, but it was stimulated in OCT-1 and MLO-Y4 cell cultures. The results of the present study support the hypothesis that osteoblast cell maturation state plays an important role in the response to ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene particles and that the terminally differentiated osteocyte may be involved in the

  5. 氨法制取纳米氧化锌的粒径控制研究%Particle size control of nano - sized zinc oxide by ammonia process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡建国; 蔡睿敏

    2009-01-01

    为有效控制氨法制取纳米氧化锌的粒径,在蒸氨前将浸出原液用一定量的纯净水稀释,可增加初期沉淀生成的晶核数,使沉淀粒径更加均匀和细化,同时发现蒸氨残液不可以作为浸出原液的稀释剂回用.蒸氨的加热方式对纳米氧化锌的粒径也有影响,选择蒸汽直接加热,当溶液含锌质量浓度小于0.3 g/L时,所制取的纳米氧化锌粒径满足GB/T 19589-2004纳米氧化锌的要求 .%In order to effectively control the particle size of nano - sized zinc oxide prepared by ammonia process,leaching stock solution was diluted with a certain amount of purified water before ammonia distillation process,which could increase the quantity of crystal nucleus generated by initial precipitation and make particle size of precipitate more uniform and refined.Meanwhile,it was found that distilled ammonia residual liquid could not be served as diluent of leaching stock solution for recycling.Also,heating method of ammonia distillation will affect the particle size of nano - sized zinc oxide.Particle size of prepared nano - sized zinc oxide can satisfy the requirements of GB/T 19589-2004,when direct steam heating was selected and mass concentration of zinc in the solution was less than 0.3 g/L.

  6. Effect of Adding Zinc Oxide Particles to the Anode Catalyst Layer on the Performance of a Proton-Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Sheng-Yu; Teoh, Lay Gaik; Huang, Rong-Hsin; Chao, Wen-Kai; Lin, Tien-Jen; Yang, Kai-Chun; Hsueh, Kan-Lin; Shieu, Fuh-Sheng

    2014-09-01

    Commercial and home-made hygroscopic zinc oxide (ZnO) particles were added to the anode catalyst layer of a membrane electrode assembly (MEA) to improve its wettability, and thus the performance of a proton-exchange membrane fuel cell under low-humidity conditions. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the size of the home-made ZnO particles calcined at 300°C ranged from 20 nm to 30 nm. Single-cell performance with different types of ZnO particle in the anode catalyst layer was investigated at anode humidifier temperatures of 25, 45, and 65°C; the cell and cathode humidifier temperatures were fixed at 65°C. MEA with the ZnO particles calcined at 300°C had maximum power densities of 0.26, 0.33, and 0.34 W/cm2 at anode humidifier temperatures of 25, 45, and 65°C, respectively; these were 30, 37.5, and 36% higher, respectively, than for MEA without ZnO particles.

  7. Thermo-oxidation of carbon codeposits and particles release during laser ablation in an oxygen atmosphere and its extrapolation to ITER codeposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alegre, D., E-mail: daniel.alegre.castro@gmail.com [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusion, CIEMAT, Av. Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Gasior, P., E-mail: pawel.gasior@ipplm.pl [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, 01-497 Warsaw (Poland); Kubkowska, M., E-mail: monika.kubkowska@ipplm.pl [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, 01-497 Warsaw (Poland); Tabares, F.L., E-mail: tabares@ciemat.es [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusion, CIEMAT, Av. Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-11-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Suppression of codeposit redeposition around laser crater in oxygen atmosphere. • Deuterium emission during ablation is almost suppressed in oxygen after 5th pulse. • Indication of thermal oxidation of remaining film during each laser pulse. • First laser pulse emit large dust particles with almost initial D concentration. • Probable D content decreases of dust from carbon and W/Be codeposits in oxygen. - Abstract: In this paper the laser ablation of tokamak carbon codeposits in vacuum and different gases will be presented. A strong deuterium emission decrease has been observed from the third laser pulse at the same location, which suggests the annealing of a part of the remaining codeposit (up to 0.5–0.7 μm) to temperatures of 400–600 °C. In addition, at the third pulse in oxygen deuterium emission is close to the noise level, indicating its earlier elimination by thermo-oxidation from the remaining film on the laser spot. Moreover, the suppression of the redeposited film surrounding the laser impact has also been observed together with CO{sup +} emission. Both observations indicate a fast reaction of the laser-activated oxygen molecules with the released hydrocarbon molecules and probably also with the hot, emitted dust particles. On the other hand, dust particles ejection has been analyzed by fast camera. Large particles with almost the initial deuterium concentration have been observed to be produced in the first laser pulse. Finally a brief future-work study with ITER metallic—W and Be—codeposits with a few % of trapped deuterium has been made. In that case the produced dust particles are expected to have part of the initial deuterium due to the large annealing temperatures required for its elimination. This deuterium concentration will probably be reduced during laser ablation in an oxygen atmosphere.

  8. PM chemical composition and oxidative potential of the soluble fraction of particles at two sites in the urban area of Milan, Northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, Maria Grazia; Zhou, Jun; Malandrino, Mery; Sangiorgi, Giorgia; Rizzi, Cristiana; Ferrero, Luca; Dommen, Josef; Bolzacchini, Ezio

    2016-03-01

    Recent epidemiological evidence support the hypothesis that health effects from inhalation of air particles are governed by more than just particle mass, since specific chemical components have been identified as important contributors to mortality and hospitality admissions. We studied the chemical composition and the oxidative potential (OP) of total suspended particle (TSP) samples from Milan at two sites with different traffic loads: a site in the low emission zone (LEZ) and a traffic site (TR) outside. Two a-cellular assays; dithiothreitol (OPDTT) and 2‧,7' dichlorofluorescin (OPDCFH) were used to characterize the OP of the soluble fraction of particles. TSP samples from LEZ showed significantly lower concentrations of traffic-related chemical components compared to TR. The decrease in the concentrations from TR to LEZ was maximum for EC, with a LEZ/TR ratio of 0.64 (±0.18), and a significant reduction (p cellular assays gave complementary information on the OP of particles in Milan. The two OP assays resulted to be sensitive to different chemical properties of PM samples. OPDTT correlated positively only with Global Radiation (Spearman's rs = 0.38, p < 0.05), which could be considered as a proxy for high concentrations of secondary oxidizing organics, while OPDCFH was related to various PM chemical species, mainly correlated with total mass (rs = 0.65; p < 0.01), elements (e.g. Zn, rs = 0.67; As, rs = 0.65; p < 0.01) and the sum of sulfate and nitrate (rs = 0.63; p < 0.01), a proxy for secondary aerosol.

  9. Association between moderately oxidized low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein particle subclass distribution in hemodialyzed and post-renal transplant patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    El(z)bieta KIMAK; Magdalena HA(L)ABI(S); Iwona BARANOWICZ-GA SZCZYK; Janusz SOLSKI; Andrzej KSIA(Z)EK

    2011-01-01

    Disturbances in the metabolism of lipoprotein profiles and oxidative stress in hemodialyzed (HD) and post-renal transplant (Tx) patients are proatherogenic, but elevated concentrations of plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. We investigated the concentrations of lipid, lipoprotein, HDL particle,oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) and anti-ox-LDL, and paraoxonase-1 (PON-1) activity in HD (n=33) and Tx (n=71) patients who were non-smokers without active inflammatory disease, liver disease, diabetes, or malignancy.HD patients had moderate hypertriglyceridemia, normocholesterolemia, low HDL-C, apolipoprotein A-Ⅰ (apoA-Ⅰ) and HDL particle concentrations as well as PON-1 activity, and increased ox-LDL and anti-ox-LDL levels. Tx patients had hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, moderately decreased HDL-C and HDL particle concentrations and PON-1 activity, and moderately increased ox-LDL and anti-ox-LDL levels as compared to the reference, but ox-LDL and anti-ox-LDL levels and PON-1 activity were more disturbed in HD patients. However, in both patient groups, lipid and lipoprotein ratios (total cholesterol (TC)/HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C, triglyceride (TG)/HDL-C, HDL-C/non-HDL-C,apoA-Ⅰ/apoB, HDL-C/apoA-Ⅰ, TG/HDL) were atherogenic. The Spearman's rank coefficient test showed that the concentration of ox-LDL correlated positively with HDL particle level (R=0.363, P=0.004), and negatively with TC (R=-0.306, P=0.012), LDL-C (R=-0.283, P=0.020), and non-HDL-C (R=-0.263, P=0.030) levels in Tx patients. Multiple stepwise forward regression analysis in Tx patients demonstrated that ox-LDL concentration, as an independent variable, was associated significantly positively with HDL particle level. The results indicated that ox-LDL and decreased PON-1 activity in Tx patients may give rise to more mildly-oxidized HDLs, which are less stable, easily undergo metabolic remodeling, generate a greater number of smaller pre

  10. Association between moderately oxidized low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein particle subclass distribution in hemodialyzed and post-renal transplant patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimak, Elżbieta; Hałabiś, Magdalena; Baranowicz-Gąszczyk, Iwona; Solski, Janusz; Książek, Andrzej

    2011-05-01

    Disturbances in the metabolism of lipoprotein profiles and oxidative stress in hemodialyzed (HD) and post-renal transplant (Tx) patients are proatherogenic, but elevated concentrations of plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. We investigated the concentrations of lipid, lipoprotein, HDL particle, oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) and anti-ox-LDL, and paraoxonase-1 (PON-1) activity in HD (n=33) and Tx (n=71) patients who were non-smokers without active inflammatory disease, liver disease, diabetes, or malignancy. HD patients had moderate hypertriglyceridemia, normocholesterolemia, low HDL-C, apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and HDL particle concentrations as well as PON-1 activity, and increased ox-LDL and anti-ox-LDL levels. Tx patients had hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, moderately decreased HDL-C and HDL particle concentrations and PON-1 activity, and moderately increased ox-LDL and anti-ox-LDL levels as compared to the reference, but ox-LDL and anti-ox-LDL levels and PON-1 activity were more disturbed in HD patients. However, in both patient groups, lipid and lipoprotein ratios (total cholesterol (TC)/HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C, triglyceride (TG)/HDL-C, HDL-C/non-HDL-C, apoA-I/apoB, HDL-C/apoA-I, TG/HDL) were atherogenic. The Spearman's rank coefficient test showed that the concentration of ox-LDL correlated positively with HDL particle level (R=0.363, P=0.004), and negatively with TC (R=-0.306, P=0.012), LDL-C (R=-0.283, P=0.020), and non-HDL-C (R=-0.263, P=0.030) levels in Tx patients. Multiple stepwise forward regression analysis in Tx patients demonstrated that ox-LDL concentration, as an independent variable, was associated significantly positively with HDL particle level. The results indicated that ox-LDL and decreased PON-1 activity in Tx patients may give rise to more mildly-oxidized HDLs, which are less stable, easily undergo metabolic remodeling, generate a greater number of smaller pre-β-HDL particles

  11. Acute effects of diesel exhaust particles and cisplatin on oxidative stress in cultured human kidney (HEK 293) cells, and the influence of curcumin thereon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waly, Mostafa I; Ali, Badreldin H; Nemmar, Abderrahim

    2013-12-01

    Particulate air pollution with particle diameters less than 2.5μm contribute to respiratory and extra-respiratory morbidity and mortality. We have recently reported the first in vivo experimental evidence that Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) in the lung aggravated the renal, pulmonary, and systemic effects of cisplatin (CP)-induced acute renal failure in rats. This in vitro study sought to determine whether and to what extent does DEP exposure exacerbate the effects of CP-induced oxidative stress in human embryonic kidney (HEK-293) cells, and to examine if these effects could be mitigated/prevented with curcumin (the yellow pigment isolated from turmeric). Cells viability, cysteine uptake and oxidative stress indices [glutathione (GSH), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and the activities of antioxidant enzymes (catalase; glutathione peroxidase; superoxide dismutase)] were evaluated in all study groups. DEP aggravated the CP- induced HEK-293 cells toxicity, as evidenced by decreasing cell viability and by inducing oxidative stress (GSH depletion, TAC impairment, and antioxidant enzymes inhibition). DEP, but not CP, significantly reduced cysteine uptake. Curcumin prevented the observed DEP and CP-induced cellular insults. These findings suggest that DEP augmented the CP-induced toxicity in HEK-293 cells. Curcumin exhibited a strong potential for protection against DEP and CP-induced cytotoxicity.

  12. Comparison of the Oxidation State of Fe in Comet 81P/Wild 2 and Chondritic-Porous Interplanetary Dust Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Ogliore, R C; Fakra, S C; Gainsforth, Z; Marcus, M A; Westphal, A J

    2010-01-01

    The fragile structure of chondritic-porous interplanetary dust particles (CP- IDPs) and their minimal parent-body alteration have led researchers to believe these particles originate in comets rather than asteroids where aqueous and thermal alteration have occurred. The solar elemental abundances and atmospheric entry speed of CP-IDPs also suggest a cometary origin. With the return of the Stardust samples from Jupiter-family comet 81P/Wild 2, this hypothesis can be tested. We have measured the Fe oxidation state of 15 CP-IDPs and 194 Stardust fragments using a synchrotron-based x-ray microprobe. We analyzed ~300 nanograms of Wild 2 material - three orders of magnitude more material than other analyses comparing Wild 2 and CP-IDPs. The Fe oxidation state of these two samples of material are >2{\\sigma} different: the CP-IDPs are more oxidized than the Wild 2 grains. We conclude that comet Wild 2 contains material that formed at a lower oxygen fugacity than the parent body, or parent bodies, of CP-IDPs. If all J...

  13. Role of soot particles and NO/sub x/ in the oxidation of SO/sub 2/ in aqueous solution: kinetics, mechanism, and impact on sulfate-aerosol formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, S.G.; Brodzinsky, R.; Oblath, S.; Markowitz, S.; Toossi, R.; Novakov, T.

    1980-11-01

    Two previously unrecognized processes were identified which could play an important role in terms of acid rain and sulfate aerosol formation: (1) the oxidation of SO/sub 2/ in water droplets containing soot particles, and (2) the oxidation of SO/sub 2/ by NO/sub x/ in water droplets. 6 figures, 3 tables.

  14. THE ROLE OF SOOT PARTICLES AND NO{sub x} IN THE OXIDATION OF SO{sub 2} IN AQUEOUS SOLUTION: KINETICS, MECHANISM, AND IMPACT ON SULFATE AEROSOL FORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, S.G.; Brodzinsky, R.; Oblath, S.; Markowitz, S.; Toossi, R.; Novakov, T.

    1980-11-01

    We have identified two previously unrecognized processes which could play an important role in terms of acid rain and sulfate aerosol formation: 1) the oxidation of SO{sub 2} in water droplets containing soot particles, and 2) the oxidation of SO{sub 2} by NO{sub x} in water droplets. The results of our investigation on these two systems are outlined.

  15. Quantification of mass-specific laser energy input converted into particle properties during picosecond pulsed laser fragmentation of zinc oxide and boron carbide in liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, Marcus; Barcikowski, Stephan, E-mail: stephan.barcikowski@uni-due.de

    2015-09-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Highly defect-rich zinc oxide is obtained by pulsed laser fragmentation in liquids (PLFL). • Bandgap of semiconductor particles can be linearly controlled, simply by the laser energy dose. • Upscaling parameters are derived, that are mass-specific energy input and fragmentation fluence threshold. • Transferability is shown for one of the hardest material known, fabricating crystalline boron carbide nanoparticles. • Conclusions about laser fragmentation mechanisms occurring in liquids are drawn. - Abstract: Pulsed laser fragmentation in liquids is an effective method to fabricate organic, metal or semiconductor nanoparticles by ablation of suspended particles. However, modelling and up-scaling of this process lacks quantification of the laser energy required for a specific product property like particle diameter of the colloid or bandgap energy of the fabricated nanoparticles. A novel set-up for defined laser energy dose in a free liquid jet enables mass-specific energy balancing and exact threshold determination for pulsed laser fragmentation. By this technique laser energy and material responses can be precisely correlated. Linear decrease of the particle diameter and linear increase of the bandgap energy with mass-specific laser energy input has been observed for the examples of ZnO and B{sub 4}C particles. Trends are analysed by density gradient centrifugation, electron microscopy, UV–vis and X-ray diffraction analysis of the crystal structure. The study contributes to quantitative model parameters for up-scaling and provides insight into the mechanisms occurring when suspended particles are irradiated with pulsed laser sources.

  16. Kinetic multi-layer model of gas-particle interactions in aerosols and clouds (KM-GAP: linking condensation, evaporation and chemical reactions of organics, oxidants and water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shiraiwa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel kinetic multi-layer model for gas-particle interactions in aerosols and clouds (KM-GAP that treats explicitly all steps of mass transport and chemical reaction of semi-volatile species partitioning between gas phase, particle surface and particle bulk. KM-GAP is based on the PRA model framework (Pöschl-Rudich-Ammann, 2007, and it includes gas phase diffusion, reversible adsorption, surface reactions, bulk diffusion and reaction, as well as condensation, evaporation and heat transfer. The size change of atmospheric particles and the temporal evolution and spatial profile of the concentration of individual chemical species can be modeled along with gas uptake and accommodation coefficients. Depending on the complexity of the investigated system and the computational constraints, unlimited numbers of semi-volatile species, chemical reactions, and physical processes can be treated, and the model shall help to bridge gaps in the understanding and quantification of multiphase chemistry and microphysics in atmospheric aerosols and clouds.

    In this study we demonstrate how KM-GAP can be used to analyze, interpret and design experimental investigations of changes in particle size and chemical composition in response to condensation, evaporation, and chemical reaction. For the condensational growth of water droplets, our kinetic model results provide a direct link between laboratory observations and molecular dynamic simulations, confirming that the accommodation coefficient of water at ~270 K is close to unity (Winkler et al., 2006. Literature data on the evaporation of dioctyl phthalate as a function of particle size and time can be reproduced, and the model results suggest that changes in the experimental conditions like aerosol particle concentration and chamber geometry may influence the evaporation kinetics and can be optimized for efficient probing of specific physical effects and parameters. With regard to oxidative

  17. Soluble iron modulates iron oxide particle-induced inflammatory responses via prostaglandin E2 synthesis: In vitro and in vivo studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayer Paula

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ambient particulate matter (PM-associated metals have been shown to play an important role in cardiopulmonary health outcomes. To study the modulation of PM-induced inflammation by leached off metals, we investigated intracellular solubility of radio-labeled iron oxide (59Fe2O3 particles of 0.5 and 1.5 μm geometric mean diameter. Fe2O3 particles were examined for the induction of the release of interleukin 6 (IL-6 as pro-inflammatory and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 as anti-inflammatory markers in cultured alveolar macrophages (AM from Wistar Kyoto (WKY rats. In addition, we exposed male WKY rats to monodispersed Fe2O3 particles by intratracheal instillation (1.3 or 4.0 mg/kg body weight to examine in vivo inflammation. Results Particles of both sizes are insoluble extracellularly in the media but moderately soluble in AM with an intracellular dissolution rate of 0.0037 ± 0.0014 d-1 for 0.5 μm and 0.0016 ± 0.0012 d-1 for 1.5 μm 59Fe2O3 particles. AM exposed in vitro to 1.5 μm particles (10 μg/mL for 24 h increased IL-6 release (1.8-fold; p 2 synthesis (1.9-fold; p 2 synthesis (2.5-fold, p 2 synthesis by indomethacin caused a pro-inflammatory phenotype as noted by increased IL-6 release from AM exposed to 0.5 μm particles (up to 3-fold; p Conclusions Fe2O3 particle-induced neutrophilic inflammatory response in vivo and pro-inflammatory cytokine release in vitro might be modulated by intracellular soluble iron via PGE2 synthesis. The suppressive effect of intracellular released soluble iron on particle-induced inflammation has implications on how ambient PM-associated but soluble metals influence pulmonary toxicity of ambient PM.

  18. Tobacco Smoke: Involvement of Reactive Oxygen Species and Stable Free Radicals in Mechanisms of Oxidative Damage, Carcinogenesis and Synergistic Effects with Other Respirable Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Fiotakis

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoke contains many toxic, carcinogenic and mutagenic chemicals, as well as stable and unstable free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS in the particulate and the gas phase with the potential for biological oxidative damage. Epidemiological evidence established that smoking is one of the most important extrinsic factor of premature morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to investigate oxidative and carcinogenic mechanisms of tobacco and synergistic action with other respirable particles in the respiratory system of smokers. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR and spin- trapping techniques were used to study stable free radicals in the cigarette tar, and unstable superoxide anion (O2·- and hydroxyl (HO· radicals in the smoke Results showed that the semiquinone radical system has the potential for redox recycling and oxidative action. Further, results proved that aqueous cigarette tar (ACT solutions can generate adducts with DNA nucleobases, particularly the mutagenic 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine (a biomarker for carcinogenesis.Also, we observed synergistic effects in the generation of HO·, through the Fenton reaction, with environmental respirable particles (asbestos fibres, coal dust, etc. and ambient particulate matter (PM, such as PM10, PM2.5 and diesel exhaust particles (DEP. The highest synergistic effects was observed with the asbestos fibres (freshly grounded, PM2.5 and DEP. Finally, we discuss results from our previous study of conventional cellulose acetate filters and “bio-filters” with hemoglobin impregnated activated carbon, which showed that these filters do not substantially alter the free radical content of smoke in the particulate and in the gaseous phase.

  19. In vitro comparative bond strength of contemporary self-adhesive resin cements to zirconium oxide ceramic with and without air-particle abrasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatz, Markus B; Phark, Jin-Ho; Ozer, Fusun; Mante, Francis K; Saleh, Najeed; Bergler, Michael; Sadan, Avishai

    2010-04-01

    This study compared shear bond strengths of six self-adhesive resin cements to zirconium oxide ceramic with and without air-particle abrasion. One hundred twenty zirconia samples were air-abraded (group SB; n = 60) or left untreated (group NO). Composite cylinders were bonded to the zirconia samples with either BisCem (BC), Maxcem (MC), G-Cem (GC), RelyX Unicem Clicker (RUC), RelyX Unicem Applicator (RUA), or Clearfil SA Cement (CSA). Shear bond strength was tested after thermocycling, and data were analyzed with analysis of variance and Holm-Sidak pairwise comparisons. Without abrasion, RUA (8.0 MPa), GC (7.9 MPa), and CSA (7.6 MPa) revealed significantly higher bond strengths than the other cements. Air-particle abrasion increased bond strengths for all test cements (p MDP/4-META) were superior to other compositions.

  20. Beta particle detection efficiency of the radiation sensor made from a mixture of polyaniline and titanium oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, M., E-mail: tamuram@hep.sc.niigata-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Carlit Holdings Co., Ltd., Tokyo 104-0031 (Japan); Miyata, H., E-mail: miyata@hep.sc.niigata-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Department of Physics, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Katsumata, M. [Department of Physics, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Matsuda, K.; Ueno, T.; Ito, D. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Suzuki, T. [Carlit Holdings Co., Ltd., Tokyo 104-0031 (Japan)

    2016-08-21

    We developed a new real-time radiation sensor using an organic semiconductor and measured its β-particle detection sensitivity. This sensor is fabricated by simply combining a p-type semiconductor, polyaniline (Pani), with an n-type semiconductor, TiO{sub 2}, and processing the compound. Since Pani and TiO{sub 2} are both inexpensive materials, the sensor can be fabricated at a lower cost than inorganic semiconductor sensors. The signal of each fabricated sensor was measured by a charge sensitive ADC for the irradiation of β-particles. The response signal data of the ADC for each irradiation was measured to calculate the detection efficiency of the detector. The maximum detection efficiency measured as β-particle sensitivity of the sensor was 1%. This β-particle sensitivity is higher than that reported of Pani sensors in the past.

  1. Evaluation of cytotoxic, oxidative stress, proinflammatory and genotoxic responses of micro- and nano-particles of dolomite on human lung epithelial cells A(549).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Govil; Khan, Mohd Imran; Patel, Devendra Kumar; Sultana, Sarwat; Prasad, Rajendra; Ahmad, Iqbal

    2012-09-01

    Dolomite is a natural mineral of great industrial importance and used worldwide, thus millions of workers are at risk of occupational exposure. Its toxicity is however, meagerly documented. In the present investigation, a dolomite powder obtained from its milling unit was analyzed by some standard methods namely, optical microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. Results showed that dolomite powder contained particles of different shapes and size both microparticles (MPs) and nanoparticles (NPs), suggesting potential occupational exposure of these particles. An attempt was therefore, made to investigate dolomite toxicity in a particle size-dependent manner in human lung epithelial cells A(549). The comparative toxicity evaluation of MPs and NPs was carried out by assessing their effects on cell viability, membrane damage, glutathione, reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation (LPO), micronucleus (MN) and proinflammatory cytokines, namely tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). These markers of cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and inflammation were assayed in cells exposed to MPs and NPs in a dose-and time-dependent manner. Invariably, their toxic effects were dose-and time-dependent while NPs in general were significantly more toxic. Notably, NPs caused oxidative stress, genotoxicity and inflammatory responses, as seen by significant induction of ROS, LPO, MN, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6. Thus, the study tends to suggest that separate health safety standards would be required for micrometer and nanometer scale particles of dolomite.

  2. Precise control over shape and size of iron oxide nanocrystals suitable for assembly into ordered particle arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetterskog, Erik; Agthe, Michael; Mayence, Arnaud; Grins, Jekabs; Wang, Dong; Rana, Subhasis; Ahniyaz, Anwar; Salazar-Alvarez, German; Bergström, Lennart

    2014-10-01

    Here we demonstrate how monodisperse iron oxide nanocubes and nanospheres with average sizes between 5 and 27 nm can be synthesized by thermal decomposition. The relative importance of the purity of the reactants, the ratio of oleic acid and sodium oleate, the maximum temperature, and the rate of temperature increase, on robust and reproducible size and shape-selective iron oxide nanoparticle synthesis are identified and discussed. The synthesis conditions that generate highly monodisperse iron oxide nanocubes suitable for producing large ordered arrays, or mesocrystals are described in detail.

  3. A single-source precursor route to anisotropic halogen-doped zinc oxide particles as a promising candidate for new transparent conducting oxide materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Lehr

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Numerous applications in optoelectronics require electrically conducting materials with high optical transparency over the entire visible light range. A solid solution of indium oxide and substantial amounts of tin oxide for electronic doping (ITO is currently the most prominent example for the class of so-called TCOs (transparent conducting oxides. Due to the limited, natural occurrence of indium and its steadily increasing price, it is highly desired to identify materials alternatives containing highly abundant chemical elements. The doping of other metal oxides (e.g., zinc oxide, ZnO is a promising approach, but two problems can be identified. Phase separation might occur at the required high concentration of the doping element, and for successful electronic modification it is mandatory that the introduced heteroelement occupies a defined position in the lattice of the host material. In the case of ZnO, most attention has been attributed so far to n-doping via substitution of Zn2+ by other metals (e.g., Al3+. Here, we present first steps towards n-doped ZnO-based TCO materials via substitution in the anion lattice (O2− versus halogenides. A special approach is presented, using novel single-source precursors containing a potential excerpt of the target lattice 'HalZn·Zn3O3' preorganized on the molecular scale (Hal = I, Br, Cl. We report about the synthesis of the precursors, their transformation into halogene-containing ZnO materials, and finally structural, optical and electronic properties are investigated using a combination of techniques including FT-Raman, low-T photoluminescence, impedance and THz spectroscopies.

  4. FeMnMg氧化物Fenton催化降解有机废水%Research of FeMnMg Oxide Nano Particles Fenton-Degraded Methylene Blue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾若琨; 李佳

    2014-01-01

    采用高温煅烧硝化法制备FeMnMg氧化物纳米晶,并采用扫描电镜( SEM)对FeMnMg氧化物进行表征。结果表明,高温煅烧硝化法制备的FeMnMg氧化物粒径为纳米范围,具有均匀的粒子尺寸和晶体尺寸。采用不同配比的FeMnMg氧化物纳米晶催化剂对亚甲基蓝模拟的有机废水进行Fenton催化降解实验,对实验结果进行分析讨论。 FeMnMg的摩尔比为2∶3∶1的氧化物对亚甲基蓝的降解效果最好。当pH值为7左右,反应温度为25℃时,降解速率最快。 FeMnMg 氧化物催化剂的投加量为0.012 g,保证了亚甲基蓝较好的降解率。在反应体系中采用选取30% H2O20.5 mL(即2 mmol/L),能达到较好的氧化降解效果。%FeMnMg oxide nanocrystals were prepared by a high temperature calcination method,and they were characterized by scanning electron microscope ( SEM ) . The results showed that FeMnMg oxide nanocrystals prepared with temperature calcination method were nano particle size range, and the FeMnMg oxide nanocrystals had uniform particle size and crystallite size. The strong H2 O2-activating ability of FeMnMg oxide nanocrystals showed promising applications in the oxidative degradation of organic pollutants methylene blue. Using the best catalyst of degradation effect of methylene blue in the experiments,carried on the optimal Fenton catalytic conditions on the exploring experiment. We studied the dosing quantity of catalyst FeMnMg oxide nanocrystals,the addition content of H2 O2 ,pH value and reaction temperature effect influence on catalytic deg-radation of methylene blue solution.

  5. Enhancement of the photocatalytic activity of Ferrous Oxide by doping onto the nano-clinoptilolite particles towards photodegradation of tetracycline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nezamzadeh-Ejhieh, Alireza; Shirzadi, Arezoo

    2014-07-01

    Photodegradation of tetracycline (TC) aqueous solution by FeO doped onto nano-clinoptilolite particles was investigated using a high pressure Hg lamp as radiation source. Nano-particles of clinoptilolite were prepared using ball-milling of micro crystals of zeolite. The pretreated nano-particles ion exchanged in a ferrous solution and the Fe(II)-exchanged form was calcined at 450°C. All samples were characterized by FT-IR, DRS, SEM and XRD. The degradation extent was determined via UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy and COD. Based on the study of the effect of key operating parameters, the optimal conditions were determined to reach the higher efficiency of the process. The best photocatalytic activity was obtained in presence of the catalyst containing 5.4% FeO.

  6. Sum-frequency generation spectroscopy on metals, oxides, and oxide-supported metal particles; Summenfrequenzerzeugungsspektroskopie an Metallen, Oxiden und oxidgetraegerten Metallpartikeln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aumer, Andreas

    2010-06-21

    This thesis focuses on 4 different model systems of surface science. The experimental techniques used for the measurements include sum frequency generation (SFG), thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS), low energy electron diffraction (LEED), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), infrared adsorption spectrosocopy (IRAS) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). By using SFG, measurements could be performed up to a pressure of 50 mbar. The systems under investigation were: CO on Pt(111), water on Ag(001) and on MgO/Ag(001), CO on Au/MgO/Ag(001), and CO on Au-Pd/MgO/Ag(001). The system of CO on Pt(111) exhibits a two peak-pattern under certain pressure and temperature conditions which has not been studied so far. Various experiments helped to elucidate the origin of this distinct behaviour. The measurements of water on Ag(001) and MgO/Ag(001) show that on MgO, water first adsorbs as a monolayer with a following multilayer, whereas on Ag(001) it adsorbs as a multilayer from the beginning. The monolayer can be studied below the multilayer and some resonances can be identified. For the case of Au/MgO/Ag(001), STM shows that the growth mode of Au depends on the thickness of the supporting MgO film, which can not be seen with spectroscopic methods. For mixed Au-Pd particles on MgO/Ag(001) a clear difference in the adsorption behaviour between pure metal particles and mixed particles can be seen, which is explained by an interaction between these metals. Annealing the mixed particles to 600 K leads to a segregation of the metals, where the Au atoms diffuse to the shell and the Pd atoms make up the core. The results of all these measurements are discussed in the light of recent publications. (orig.)

  7. A study of a ceria-zirconia-supported manganese oxide catalyst for combustion of Diesel soot particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Escribano, V.; Fernandez Lopez, E.; del Hoyo Martinez, C. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Pa. de la Merced s/n, E-37008 Salamanca (Spain); Gallardo-Amores, J.M. [Lab. Complutense de Altas Presiones, Departamento de Quimica Inorganica I, Universidad Complutense, Ciudad Universitaria, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Pistarino, C.; Panizza, M.; Resini, C.; Busca, G. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica e di Processo, Universita di Genova, P.le J.F. Kennedy, Pad. D, I-16129 Genoa (Italy)

    2008-04-15

    A study has been conducted on the structural and morphological characterization of a Ce-Zr mixed oxide-supported Mn oxide as well as on its catalytic activity in the oxidation of particulate matter arising from Diesel engines. X-ray powder diffraction analysis (XRD) and FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopy evidence that the support is a fluorite-like ceria-zirconia solid solution, whereas the supported phase corresponds to the manganese oxide denoted as bixbyite ({alpha}-Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3}). Thermal analyses and FT-IR spectra in air at varying temperatures of soot mechanically mixed with the catalyst evidence that the combustion takes place to a total extent in the range 420-720 K, carboxylic species being detected as intermediate compounds. Moreover, the soot oxidation was studied in a flow reactor and was found to be selective to CO{sub 2}, with CO as by-product in the range 420-620 K. The amount of the generated CO decreases significantly with increasing O{sub 2} concentration in the feed. (author)

  8. Shape and catalytic mechanism of RuO{sub 2} particles at CO oxidation reaction conditions. First-principles based multi-scale modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reuter, Karsten [TU Muenchen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Theoretische Chemie

    2016-11-01

    For model catalyst studies on low-index single-crystal surfaces close agreement between detailed measurements and quantitative microkinetic modeling can increasingly be achieved. However, for 'real' catalyst particles, such structure-morphology-activity relationships are only scarcely established. This is prototypically reflected by the situation for RuO{sub 2}, as a most active catalyst for CO oxidation. Here, existing first-principles kinetic modeling is restricted to just one facet, namely the RuO{sub 2}(110) surface, which is not able to fully account for activity data obtained from polycrystalline RuO{sub 2} powder catalysts. The overarching objective of this project was correspondingly to close this gap and demonstrate that similarly close agreement as for individual single-crystal model catalysts can also be achieved for catalyst particles. Specifically, we addressed experiments where an intact RuO{sub 2} bulk structure is conserved, and establish the atomic-scale structure and reactivity of other RuO{sub 2} low-index facets under the gas-phase conditions characteristic for catalytic CO oxidation.

  9. Nanoscale zero-valent iron particles supported on reduced graphene oxides by using a plasma technique and their application for removal of heavy-metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Chen, Changlun; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Xiangke

    2015-06-01

    Nanoscale zero-valent iron particles supported on reduced graphene oxides (NZVI/rGOs) from spent graphene oxide (GO)-bound iron ions were developed by using a hydrogen/argon plasma reduction method to improve the reactivity and stability of NZVI. The NZVI/rGOs exhibited excellent water treatment performance with excellent removal capacities of 187.16 and 396.37 mg g(-1) for chromium and lead, respectively. Moreover, the NZVI/rGOs could be regenerated by plasma treatment and maintained high removal ability after four cycles. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis results implied that the removal mechanisms could be attributed to adsorption/precipitation, reduction, or both. Such multiple removal mechanisms by the NZVI/rGOs were attributed to the reduction ability of the NZVI particles and the role of dispersing and stabilizing abilities of the rGOs. The results indicated that the NZVI/rGOs prepared by a hydrogen/argon plasma reduction method might be an effective composite for heavy-metal-ion removal.

  10. Oxidant and particle photochemical processes above a south-east Asian tropical rain forest (the OP3 project: introduction, rationale, location characteristics and tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. N. Hewitt

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In April–July 2008, intensive measurements were made of atmospheric composition and chemistry in Sabah, Malaysia, as part of the "Oxidant and particle photochemical processes above a South-East Asian tropical rain forest" (OP3 project. Fluxes and concentrations of trace gases and particles were made from and above the rain forest canopy at the Bukit Atur Global Atmosphere Watch station and at the nearby Sabahmas oil palm plantation, using both ground-based and airborne measurements. Here, the measurement and modelling strategies used, the characteristics of the sites and an overview of data obtained are described. Composition measurements show that the rainforest site was not impacted by significant sources of anthropogenic pollution, and this is confirmed by satellite retrievals of NO2 and HCHO. The dominant modulators of atmospheric chemistry at the rain forest site were therefore emissions of BVOCs and soil emissions of reactive nitrogen oxides. At the observed BVOC:NOx volume mixing ratio (~104 pptv/pptv, current chemical models suggest that daytime maximum OH concentrations should be ca. 105 radicals cm−3, but observed OH concentrations were an order of magnitude greater than this. We confirm, therefore, previous measurements which suggest that an unexplained source of OH must exist above tropical forests and continue to interrogate the data to find explanations for this.

  11. Overview: oxidant and particle photochemical processes above a south-east Asian tropical rainforest (the OP3 project: introduction, rationale, location characteristics and tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. N. Hewitt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In April–July 2008, intensive measurements were made of atmospheric composition and chemistry in Sabah, Malaysia, as part of the "Oxidant and particle photochemical processes above a South-East Asian tropical rainforest" (OP3 project. Fluxes and concentrations of trace gases and particles were made from and above the rainforest canopy at the Bukit Atur Global Atmosphere Watch station and at the nearby Sabahmas oil palm plantation, using both ground-based and airborne measurements. Here, the measurement and modelling strategies used, the characteristics of the sites and an overview of data obtained are described. Composition measurements show that the rainforest site was not significantly impacted by anthropogenic pollution, and this is confirmed by satellite retrievals of NO2 and HCHO. The dominant modulators of atmospheric chemistry at the rainforest site were therefore emissions of BVOCs and soil emissions of reactive nitrogen oxides. At the observed BVOC:NOx volume mixing ratio (~100 pptv/pptv, current chemical models suggest that daytime maximum OH concentrations should be ca. 105 radicals cm−3, but observed OH concentrations were an order of magnitude greater than this. We confirm, therefore, previous measurements that suggest that an unexplained source of OH must exist above tropical rainforest and we continue to interrogate the data to find explanations for this.

  12. Novel differential refractometry study of the enzymatic degradation kinetics of poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(epsilon-caprolactone) particles dispersed in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, HiuFung; Gong, Xiangjun; Wu, Chi

    2007-02-22

    A poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PEO-b-PCL) diblock copolymer was micronized into small micelle-like particles (approximately 80 nm) via dialysis-induced microphase inversion. The enzymatic biodegradation of the PCL portion of these particles in water was in situ investigated inside a recently developed novel differential refractometer. Using this refractometry method, we were able to monitor the real-time biodegradation via the refractive index change (Deltan) of the dispersion because Deltan is directly proportional to the particle mass concentration. We found that the degradation rate is proportional to either the polymer or enzyme concentration. Our results directly support previous speculation on the basis of the light-scattering data that the biodegradation follows the first-order kinetics for a given enzyme concentration. This study not only leads to a better understanding of the enzymatic biodegradation of PCL, but also demonstrates a novel, rapid, noninvasive, and convenient way to test the degradability of polymers.

  13. Organ burden and pulmonary toxicity of nano-sized copper (II) oxide particles after short-term inhalation exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosens, Ilse; Cassee, Flemming R|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/143038990; Zanella, Michela; Manodori, Laura; Brunelli, Andrea; Costa, Anna Luisa; Bokkers, Bas G H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304847062; de Jong, Wim H; Brown, David; Hristozov, Danail; Stone, Vicki

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Increased use of nanomaterials has raised concerns about the potential for undesirable human health and environmental effects. Releases into the air may occur and, therefore, the inhalation route is of specific interest. Here we tested copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) after

  14. Cytotoxic effects of incense particles in relation to oxidative stress, the cell cycle and F-actin assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; Jones, Tim; Chen, Tzu-Tao; BéruBé, Kelly

    2013-07-18

    Epidemiological studies have suggested that combustion-derived smoke, such as that produced during incense burning, is a deleterious air pollutant. It is capable of initiating oxidative stress and mutation; however, the related apoptotic processes remain unclear. In order to elucidate the biological mechanisms of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced respiratory toxicology, alveolar epithelial A549 cells were exposed to incense particulate matter (PM), with and without antioxidant N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC). The cross-linking associations between oxidative capacity, cell cycle events, actin cytoskeletal dynamics and intracellular calcium signals were investigated. An incense PM suspension caused significant oxidative stress in A549 cells, as shown by inhibition of the cell cycle at G1 and G2/M check-points, and the induction of apoptosis at Sub-G1. At the same time, alterations in the F-actin filamentous assemblies were observed. The levels of intracellular Ca(2+) were increased after incense PM exposure. Antioxidant NAC treatment revealed that oxidative stress and F-actin remodelling was significantly mitigated. This suggests that ROS accumulation could alter cell cycle regulation and anomalous remodelling of the cortical cytoskeleton that allowed impaired cells to enter into apoptosis. This study has elucidated the integral patho-physiological interactions of incense PM and the potential mechanisms for the development of ROS-driven respiratory impairment.

  15. Uptake and accumulation of bulk and nanosized cerium oxide particles and ionic cerium by radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weilan; Ebbs, Stephen D; Musante, Craig; White, Jason C; Gao, Cunmei; Ma, Xingmao

    2015-01-21

    The potential toxicity and accumulation of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in agricultural crops has become an area of great concern and intense investigation. Interestingly, although below-ground vegetables are most likely to accumulate the highest concentrations of ENMs, little work has been done investigating the potential uptake and accumulation of ENMs for this plant group. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate how different forms of cerium (bulk cerium oxide, cerium oxide nanoparticles, and the cerium ion) affected the growth of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and accumulation of cerium in radish tissues. Ionic cerium (Ce(3+)) had a negative effect on radish growth at 10 mg CeCl3/L, whereas bulk cerium oxide (CeO2) enhanced plant biomass at the same concentration. Treatment with 10 mg/L cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) had no significant effect on radish growth. Exposure to all forms of cerium resulted in the accumulation of this element in radish tissues, including the edible storage root. However, the accumulation patterns and their effect on plant growth and physiological processes varied with the characteristics of cerium. This study provides a critical frame of reference on the effects of CeO2 NPs versus their bulk and ionic counterparts on radish growth.

  16. Organ burden and pulmonary toxicity of nano-sized copper (II) oxide particles after short-term inhalation exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosens, Ilse; Cassee, Flemming R; Zanella, Michela; Manodori, Laura; Brunelli, Andrea; Costa, Anna Luisa; Bokkers, Bas G H; de Jong, Wim H; Brown, David; Hristozov, Danail; Stone, Vicki

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Increased use of nanomaterials has raised concerns about the potential for undesirable human health and environmental effects. Releases into the air may occur and, therefore, the inhalation route is of specific interest. Here we tested copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) after repeate

  17. Effects of ultrafine petrol exhaust particles on cytotoxicity, oxidative stress generation, DNA damage and inflammation in human A549 lung cells and murine RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durga, Mohan; Nathiya, Soundararajan; Rajasekar, Abbu; Devasena, Thiyagarajan

    2014-09-01

    Air pollution has persistently been the major cause of respiratory-related illness and death. Environmental pollutants such as diesel and petrol exhaust particles (PEPs) are the major contributors to urban air pollution. The aim of the present study was to characterize and investigate the in vitro cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, DNA damage and inflammation induced by PEPs. Cultured type II epithelium cells (human A549 lung cells) and alveolar macrophages (murine RAW 264.7 cells) were exposed to control, vehicle control and to different concentrations of PEPs for up to 24h. Each treatment was evaluated by cell viability, cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, DNA damage and inflammatory parameters. Overall in vitro studies demonstrated that both cell lines showed similar patterns in response to the above studies induced by petrol exhaust nanoparticles (PENPs). Vehicle control showed no changes compared with the control. In both cell lines, significant changes at the dose of 20 and 50μg/mL (A549 cell lines) and 10and 20μg/mL (macrophages) for PENPs were found. The reactive oxygen species production in both cell lines shot up in minutes, reached the maximum within an hour and came down after 4h. Hence, exposure to PENPs resulted in dose-dependent toxicity in cultured A549 cells and RAW 264.7 cells and was closely correlated to increased oxidative stress, DNA damage and inflammation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The investigation of different particle size magnesium-doped zinc oxide (Zn0.92Mg0.08O) nanoparticles on the lubrication behavior of paraffin oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyani; Jaiswal, V.; Rastogi, R. B.; Kumar, D.

    2015-06-01

    Magnesium-doped zinc oxide (Zn0.92Mg0.08O) (ZMO) nanoparticles of 23 nm particle size have been synthesized by auto-combustion method. The variation in particle size of these nanoparticles has been performed by their further calcination at 800 and 1000 °C for 2 h and the corresponding calcined particles are designated as ZMO-1 and ZMO-2, respectively. The nanoparticles have been characterized by powder-XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray and transmission electron microscope. The effect of particle size on the antiwear lubrication behavior of paraffin base oil has been investigated on four-ball lubricant tester. The tribological tests of these nanoparticles as antiwear additives have been studied at an optimized concentration (0.5 %w/v) by varying load for 30 min test duration and by varying the test durations at 392 N load. Various tribological parameters such as mean wear scar diameter, friction coefficient (µ), mean wear volume, running-in and steady-state wear rates show that these nanoparticles act as efficient antiwear additives and possess high load-carrying ability. From these tribological tests it has been observed that the lubrication behavior of studied nanoparticles is strongly size-dependent. The best tribological behavior is shown by nanoparticles of the smallest size, ZMO. Being sulfur, halogen and phosphorous free, ZMO nanoparticles have potential to be used as low SAPS lubricant additives. The SEM and atomic force microscopy analysis of the worn surfaces lubricated with ZMO nanoparticles at 392 N applied load for 60 min test duration show drastic decrease in surface roughness. The values of surface roughness of different additives are in good agreement with their observed tribological behavior.

  19. The investigation of different particle size magnesium-doped zinc oxide (Zn0.92Mg0.08O) nanoparticles on the lubrication behavior of paraffin oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyani; Jaiswal, V.; Rastogi, R. B.; Kumar, D.

    2017-08-01

    Magnesium-doped zinc oxide (Zn0.92Mg0.08O) (ZMO) nanoparticles of 23 nm particle size have been synthesized by auto-combustion method. The variation in particle size of these nanoparticles has been performed by their further calcination at 800 and 1000 °C for 2 h and the corresponding calcined particles are designated as ZMO-1 and ZMO-2, respectively. The nanoparticles have been characterized by powder-XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray and transmission electron microscope. The effect of particle size on the antiwear lubrication behavior of paraffin base oil has been investigated on four-ball lubricant tester. The tribological tests of these nanoparticles as antiwear additives have been studied at an optimized concentration (0.5 %w/v) by varying load for 30 min test duration and by varying the test durations at 392 N load. Various tribological parameters such as mean wear scar diameter, friction coefficient (µ), mean wear volume, running-in and steady-state wear rates show that these nanoparticles act as efficient antiwear additives and possess high load-carrying ability. From these tribological tests it has been observed that the lubrication behavior of studied nanoparticles is strongly size-dependent. The best tribological behavior is shown by nanoparticles of the smallest size, ZMO. Being sulfur, halogen and phosphorous free, ZMO nanoparticles have potential to be used as low SAPS lubricant additives. The SEM and atomic force microscopy analysis of the worn surfaces lubricated with ZMO nanoparticles at 392 N applied load for 60 min test duration show drastic decrease in surface roughness. The values of surface roughness of different additives are in good agreement with their observed tribological behavior.

  20. Glass formation and unusual hygroscopic growth of iodic acid solution droplets with relevance for iodine oxide particles in the coastal marine boundary layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. J. Murray

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Iodine oxide particles are known to nucleate in the marine boundary layer where gas phase molecular iodine and organoiodine species are produced by macroalgae. There has been some debate over the chemical identity of these particles. Hygroscopic measurements have been used to infer that they are composed of insoluble I2O4, while elemental analysis of laboratory generated particles suggests soluble I2O5 or its hydrated form iodic acid, HIO3 (I2O5 · H2O. In this paper we explore the response of super-micron sized aqueous iodic acid solution droplets to varying humidity using both Raman microscopy and single particle electrodynamic traps. These measurements reveal that the propensity of an iodic acid solution droplet to crystallise is negligible on drying to ~0% relative humidity (RH. On applying mechanical pressure to these droplets they shatter in a manner consistent with an ultra-viscous liquid or a brittle glass, but subsequent water uptake between 10 and 20% RH causes their viscosity to reduce sufficiently that the cracked droplets flow and merge. The persistence of iodic acid solution in an amorphous state, rather than a crystalline state, suggests they will more readily accommodate other condensable material and are therefore more likely to grow to sizes where they may serve as cloud condensation nuclei. On increasing the humidity to ~90% the mass of the droplets only increases by ~20% with a corresponding increase in radius of only ~6 %, which is remarkably small for a highly soluble material. We suggest that the small growth factor of aqueous iodic acid solution droplets is consistent with the small aerosol growth factors observed in field experiments.

  1. Detection of zinc oxide and cerium dioxide nanoparticles during drinking water treatment by rapid single particle ICP-MS methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Ariel R; Adams, Craig D; Ma, Yinfa; Stephan, Chady; Eichholz, Todd; Shi, Honglan

    2016-07-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) entering water systems are an emerging concern as NPs are more frequently manufactured and used. Single particle inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (SP-ICP-MS) methods were validated to detect Zn- and Ce-containing NPs in surface and drinking water using a short dwell time of 0.1 ms or lower, ensuring precision in single particle detection while eliminating the need for sample preparation. Using this technique, information regarding NP size, size distribution, particle concentration, and dissolved ion concentrations was obtained simultaneously. The fates of Zn- and Ce-NPs, including those found in river water and added engineered NPs, were evaluated by simulating a typical drinking water treatment process. Lime softening, alum coagulation, powdered activated carbon sorption, and disinfection by free chlorine were simulated sequentially using river water. Lime softening removed 38-53 % of Zn-containing and ZnO NPs and >99 % of Ce-containing and CeO2 NPs. Zn-containing and ZnO NP removal increased to 61-74 % and 77-79 % after alum coagulation and disinfection, respectively. Source and drinking water samples were collected from three large drinking water treatment facilities and analyzed for Zn- and Ce-containing NPs. Each facility had these types of NPs present. In all cases, particle concentrations were reduced by a minimum of 60 % and most were reduced by >95 % from source water to finished drinking water. This study concludes that uncoated ZnO and CeO2 NPs may be effectively removed by conventional drinking water treatments including lime softening and alum coagulation.

  2. Increasing the Collision Rate of Particle Impact Electroanalysis with Magnetically Guided Pt-Decorated Iron Oxide Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Donald A; Yoo, Jason J; Castañeda, Alma D; Gu, Brett; Dasari, Radhika; Crooks, Richard M; Stevenson, Keith J

    2015-07-28

    An integrated microfluidic/magnetophoretic methodology was developed for improving signal response time and detection limits for the chronoamperometric observation of discrete nanoparticle/electrode interactions by electrocatalytic amplification. The strategy relied on Pt-decorated iron oxide nanoparticles which exhibit both superparamagnetism and electrocatalytic activity for the oxidation of hydrazine. A wet chemical synthetic approach succeeded in the controlled growth of Pt on the surface of FeO/Fe3O4 core/shell nanocubes, resulting in highly uniform Pt-decorated iron oxide hybrid nanoparticles with good dispersibility in water. The unique mechanism of hybrid nanoparticle formation was investigated by electron microscopy and spectroscopic analysis of isolated nanoparticle intermediates and final products. Discrete hybrid nanoparticle collision events were detected in the presence of hydrazine, an electrochemical indicator probe, using a gold microband electrode integrated into a microfluidic channel. In contrast with related systems, the experimental nanoparticle/electrode collision rate correlates more closely with simple theoretical approximations, primarily due to the accuracy of the nanoparticle tracking analysis method used to quantify nanoparticle concentrations and diffusion coefficients. Further modification of the microfluidic device was made by applying a tightly focused magnetic field to the detection volume to attract the magnetic nanoprobes to the microband working electrode, thereby resulting in a 6-fold increase to the relative frequency of chronoamperometric signals corresponding to discrete nanoparticle impact events.

  3. Performance of nitrogen-doped graphene aerogel particle electrodes for electro-catalytic oxidation of simulated Bisphenol A wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zhuang [Environmental Research Academy, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); Labortory of Environmental Remediation and Functional Material, Suzhou Research Academy of North China Electric Power University, Suzhou, Jiangsu, 215026 (China); Zhang, Yimei, E-mail: yimei.zhang1@gmail.com [Environmental Research Academy, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); Labortory of Environmental Remediation and Functional Material, Suzhou Research Academy of North China Electric Power University, Suzhou, Jiangsu, 215026 (China); Zhou, Lincheng; Zhu, Hao; Wan, Fei; Wang, Yue [Labortory of Environmental Remediation and Functional Material, Suzhou Research Academy of North China Electric Power University, Suzhou, Jiangsu, 215026 (China); Zhang, Dandan [Environmental Research Academy, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • The new three-dimensional electrode system with the nitrogen-doped graphene aerogels particle electrodes is developed. • The optimal technique parameters were explored. • Simulated BPA waste waters are effectively degraded. • Degradation pathway and intermediates are proposed. • Three-dimensional electrode system shows good and stable removal performance. - Abstract: The treatment of effluent containing Bisphenol A (BPA) was investigated experimentally using nitrogen-doped graphene aerogel (NGAs) as particle electrodes in a three-dimensional electrode reactor for the electrochemical treatment was studied. The effects of the cell voltage, pH, the ratio of NGAs mass to solution volume and repeated times on the removal efficiency were investigated. Compared with commercial carbon particle electrodes, the NGAs exhibited stronger activity to remove BPA simulated wastewater. For 15 mg L{sup −1} of BPA solution, the degradation rate of BPA exceeded 90% after treatment for only 30 min under the optimum conditions. The COD{sub Cr} removal rate of BPA was 85%. Moreover, in the process of reused 50 times, the degradation rate of BPA can be kept in more than 85%. The COD{sub Cr} removal rate was stable at about 73%. The intermediate products of electrochemical degradation of BPA were identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry liquid chromatography (LC–MS), and a probable BPA degradation pathway was proposed. It was considered that ·OH radicals by water electrolysis could constantly attack the aromatic ring to form various intermediates such as hydroxylated-BPA, isopropylphenol, hydroquinone, phenol and butantetraol, maleic acid, oxalic acid. These compounds were eventually mineralized by electrolysis into CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O.

  4. Evaluation of the interface between bone and titanium surfaces being blasted by aluminium oxide or bioceramic particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müeller, Wolf-Dieter; Gross, Ulrich; Fritz, Thomas; Voigt, Christian; Fischer, Peter; Berger, Georg; Rogaschewski, Sigfried; Lange, Klaus-Peter

    2003-06-01

    The surface structure, in particular the surface roughness, and the surface chemistry of titanium implants influence their anchoring in bone. The aim of this study was to analyse metal-bone contact (MBC) after modification of the implant surface, using different materials for blasting. The surface modification of titanium was produced by blasting it with particles made of Al2O3 or bioceramics. The biological effects were then investigated experimentally using 27 rabbits, analysed after 7, 28 and 84 days after the implantation of titanium cylinders treated accordingly. The MBC showed a tendency for more bone after bioceramics were used as a blasting material, compared to Al2O3.

  5. DNA adduct formation and oxidative stress in colon and liver of Big Blue (R) rats after dietary exposure to diesel particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dybdahl, M.; Risom, L.; Møller, P.

    2003-01-01

    Exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) via the gastrointestinal route may impose risk of cancer in the colon and liver. We investigated the effects of DEP given in the diet to Big Blue(R) rats by quantifying a panel of markers of DNA damage and repair, mutation, oxidative damage to proteins...... and lipids, and antioxidative defence mechanisms in colon mucosa cells, liver tissue and the blood compartment. Seven groups of rats were fed a diet with 0, 0.2, 0.8, 2, 8, 20 or 80 mg DEP/kg feed for 21 days. DEP induced a significant increase in DNA strand breaks in colon and liver. There was no effect...

  6. A particle assembly/constrained expansion (PACE) model for the formation and structure of porous metal oxide deposits on nuclear fuel rods in pressurized light water reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Donald W.; Lu, Shijing; O'Brien, Christopher J.; Bucholz, Eric W.; Rak, Zsolt

    2015-02-01

    A new model is proposed for the structure and properties of porous metal oxide scales (aka Chalk River Unidentified Deposits (CRUD)) observed on the nuclear fuel rod cladding in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR). The model is based on the thermodynamically-driven expansion of agglomerated octahedral nickel ferrite particles in response to pH and temperature changes in the CRUD. The model predicts that porous nickel ferrite with internal {1 1 1} surfaces is a thermodynamically stable structure under PWR conditions even when the free energy of formation of bulk nickel ferrite is positive. This explains the pervasive presence of nickel ferrite in CRUD, observed CRUD microstructures, why CRUD maintains its porosity, and variations in porosity within the CRUD observed experimentally. This model is a stark departure from decades of conventional wisdom and detailed theoretical analysis of CRUD chemistry, and defines new research directions for model validation, and for understanding and ultimately controlling CRUD formation.

  7. Biogenic VOC measurements during the Oxidant and Particle Photochemical Processes (OP3) above a South-East Asian tropical rainforest Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Charlotte; Hopkins, James; Lee, James; Lewis, Alastair; Hamilton, Jacqueline

    2010-05-01

    We present the first ambient air speciated monoterpene measurements from the UK FGAM (Facility for Ground based Atmospheric Measrements) - York dual channel gas chromatograph system with flame ionisation detectors, alongside measurements of other biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) such as isoprene, which were made during the Oxidant and Particle Photochemical Processes above a South-East Asian tropical rainforest (OP3) campaign in Danum Valley, Borneo, in 2008. The monoterpenes measured were alpha-pinene, camphene, 3-carene, gamma-terpinene and limonene. We compare the relative concentrations and diurnal profiles of the different monoterpene species and other BVOCs such as isoprene, and analyse variability in their concentrations in light of various environmental conditions, in order to gain insight into factors which influence their emission rates, and therefore regulate their potential impact upon photochemical processes within the boundary layer. We also present regional BVOC measurements made onboard the FAAM BAE 146 aircraft over both the natural rainforest and oil palm plantations.

  8. Disposable amperometric immunosensor based on layer-by-layer electro-depositing of the nanogold particles, prussian blue-modified indium tin oxide for determination of -fetoprotein

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yan Li; Wen-Bin Liang; Li-Chao Fang; Hui Huang; Jun Deng; Jun-Song Zheng

    2009-11-01

    In this paper, a novel disposable immunosensor for the detection of -fetoprotein (AFP) based on the Indium tin oxide (ITO) modified by the sequential electro-deposition of the nanogold particles (nano-Au) and prussian blue (PB) is described. The ITO is employed to reduce the cost, instead of expensive gold electrode, glassy carbon electrode or platinum electrode. The layer-by-layer (LBL) electro-deposition of the nano-Au, PB is used for blocking the possible leakage from the substrate electrode surface and to prevent shedding of composite membrane. Under optimal conditions, the proposed immunosensor displays a broad linear response to AFP, the working range being 0.25 to 300.0 ng mL-1 with a detection limit of 0.04 ng mL-1. The studied immunosensor exhibits high sensitivity, fast analytical time and good stability. The proposed methodology is potentially attractive for clinical immunoassays.

  9. The effect of fish oil enriched margarine on plasma lipids, low density lipoprotein particle composition, size and susceptibility to oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Skall; Marckmann, Peter; Høy, Carl-Erik;

    1998-01-01

    We investigated the effect of incorporating n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) into the diet on the lipid-class composition of LDLs, their size, and their susceptibility to oxidation. Forty-seven healthy volunteers incorporated 30 g sunflower-oil (SO) margarine/d into their habitual diet...... during a 3-wk run-in period and then used either SQ or a fish-oil-enriched sunflower oil (FO) margarine for the following 4 wk. Plasma concentrations of total cholesterol, triacylglycerols, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and apolipoproteins A-I and B did not differ significantly between the groups...

  10. Novel processing of bioglass ceramics from silicone resins containing micro- and nano-sized oxide particle fillers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiocco, L; Bernardo, E; Colombo, P; Cacciotti, I; Bianco, A; Bellucci, D; Sola, A; Cannillo, V

    2014-08-01

    Highly porous scaffolds with composition similar to those of 45S5 and 58S bioglasses were successfully produced by an innovative processing method based on preceramic polymers containing micro- and nano-sized fillers. Silica from the decomposition of the silicone resins reacted with the oxides deriving from the fillers, yielding glass ceramic components after heating at 1000°C. Despite the limited mechanical strength, the obtained samples possessed suitable porous architecture and promising biocompatibility and bioactivity characteristics, as testified by preliminary in vitro tests.

  11. Titania Supported Pt and Pt/Pd Nano-particle Catalysts for the Oxidation of Sulfur Dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koutsopoulos, Sotiris; Johannessen, Tue; Eriksen, Kim Michael

    2006-01-01

    Several types of titania (anatase) were used as supports for pure platinum and Pt–Pd bimetallic alloy catalysts. The preparation methods, normal wet impregnation technique and flame aerosol synthesis, obtained metal loadings of 2% by weight. The prepared catalysts were tested for SO2 oxidation...... activity at atmospheric pressure in the temperature range 250–600 °C. The SO2 to SO3 conversion efficiency of the Pt–Pd alloy was significantly higher than that of the individual metals. The effects of the preparation method and the titania type used on the properties and activity of the resulting catalyst...

  12. About oxide dispersion particles chemical compatibility with areas coherent dissipation/sub-grains of bcc-alloys in Fe - (Cr, V, Mo, W systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udovsky A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A concept of partial magnetic moments (PMM of the iron atoms located in the first ч four coordination spheres (1÷4 CS for bcc lattice have been introduced based on analysis of results obtained by quantum-mechanical calculations (QMC for volume dependence of the average magnetic moment ferromagnetic (FM Fe. The values of these moments have been calculated for pure bcc Fe and bcc - Fe-Cr alloys. This concept has been used to formulate a three sub-lattice model for binary FM alloys of the Fe-M systems (M is an alloying paramagnetic element. Physical reason for sign change dependence of the short-range order and mixing enthalpy obtained by QMCs for Fe-(Cr, V bcc phases has been found. Using this model it has been predicted that static displacements of Fe - atoms in alloy matrix increase with increasing the of CS number and result in reducing of the area of coherent dissipation (ACD size with growth of the dimension factor (DF in the Fe-(Cr, V, Mo, W systems in agreement with the X-ray experiments. It has been shown theoretically that anisotropy of spin- density in bcc lattice Fe and DF in binary Fe - (Cr, V, Mo, W systems is main factor for origins of segregations on small angle boundaries of ACD and sub-grains boundaries To prevent the coagulation of both ACD and sub-grains, and to increase the strength of alloys, it is advisable to add oxide dispersion particles into ferrite steel taking into account their chemical compatibility and coherent interfacing with the crystalline lattice of a ferrite matrix. Application of phase diagrams for binary and ternary the Fe-(Y, Zr-O systems to verify chemical compatibility of oxide dispersion particles with ferrite matrix have been discussed

  13. Recent progress in oxide scintillation crystals development by low-thermal gradient Czochralski technique for particle physics experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlegel, V. N.; Borovlev, Yu. A.; Grigoriev, D. N.; Grigorieva, V. D.; Danevich, F. A.; Ivannikova, N. V.; Postupaeva, A. G.; Vasiliev, Ya. V.

    2017-08-01

    Modern particle physics experiments call for high performance scintillation detectors with unique properties: radiation-resistant in high energy and astrophysics, highly radiopure, containing certain elements or enriched isotopes in astroparticle physics. The low-thermal gradient Czochralski (LTG CZ) crystal growth technique provides excellent quality large volume radiopure crystal scintillators. Absence of thermoelastic stress in the crystal and overheating of the melt in the LTG CZ method is particularly significant in production of crystalline materials with strong thermal anisotropic properties and low mechanical strength, with a very high yield of crystalline boules and low losses of initial charge, crucially important in production of crystal scintillators from enriched isotopes for double beta decay experiments. Here we discuss progress in development of the well known scintillators (Bi4Ge3O12 (BGO), CdWO4, ZnWO4, CaMoO4, PbMoO4), as well as R&D of new materials (ZnMoO4, Li2MoO4, Na2Mo2O7) for the next generation experiments in particle physics.

  14. Synthesis of Plate-like Zinc Oxide Particles by the Transcription of Precursor's Shape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    YIN, S; GOTO, T; GOBO, F; HUANG, Y F; ZHANG, P L; SATO, T, E-mail: shuyin@tgaen.tohoku.ac.jp [IMRAM, Tohoku University (Japan)

    2011-06-27

    Plate-like zinc contained precursors such as simonkoleite or basic sulphate were successfully synthesized by using equilmolar of Zn{sup 2+} / hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) acted as precursors, ethylene glycol(EG) as dispersant and surfactant additive, respectively. The reaction solution was sealed in a glass bottle and heated at 95 deg. C for 3h. The zinc contained precursors possessed layered structure and plate-like morphology were successfully synthesized by controlling the zinc ions concentration, reaction temperature, organic solvent additives, anion additives. It was found that plate-like simonkolleite transformed to plate-like ZnO after calcination in air at 400 deg. C, while it transformed to rod-like ZnO under hydrothermal conditions above 140 deg. C. The additive of ethylene glycol decreased the particle size and affected the particle size distribution. The conductivity of the pressured powders was improved by small amount of Ga and Al doping followed by H{sub 2} reduction treatment at 500 deg. C for 1h.

  15. Impact of particle shape on electron transport and lifetime in zinc oxide nanorod-based dye-sensitized solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Chang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Owing to its high electron mobility, zinc oxide represents a promising alternative to titanium dioxide as the working electrode material in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs. When zinc oxide is grown into 1-D nanowire arrays and incorporated into the working electrode of DSCs, enhanced electron dynamics and even a decoupling of electron transport (τd and electron lifetime (τn have been observed. In this work, DSCs with working electrodes composed of solution-grown, unarrayed ZnO nanorods are investigated. In order to determine whether such devices give rise to similar decoupling, intensity modulated photocurrent and photovoltage spectroscopies are used to measure τd and τn, while varying the illumination intensity. In addition, ZnO nanorod-based DSCs are compared with ZnO nanoparticle-based DSCs and nanomaterial shape is shown to affect electron dynamics. Nanorod-based DSCs exhibit shorter electron transport times, longer electron lifetimes, and a higher τn/τd ratio than nanoparticle-based DSCs.

  16. Cell toxicity and oxidative potential of engine exhaust particles: impact of using particulate filter or biodiesel fuel blend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlofs-Nijland, Miriam E; Totlandsdal, Annike I; Tzamkiozis, Theodoros; Leseman, Daan L A C; Samaras, Zissis; Låg, Marit; Schwarze, Per; Ntziachristos, Leonidas; Cassee, Flemming R

    2013-06-01

    The link between emissions of vehicular particulate matter (PM) and adverse health effects is well established. However, the influence of new emission control technologies and fuel types on both PM emissions and health effects has been less well investigated. We examined the health impact of PM emissions from two vehicles equipped with or without a diesel particulate filter (DPF). Both vehicles were powered either with diesel (B0) or a 50% v/v biodiesel blend (B50). The DPF effectively decreased PM mass emissions (∼85%), whereas the fuel B50 without DPF lead to less reduction (∼50%). The hazard of PM per unit distance driven was decreased for the DPF-equipped vehicle as indicated by a reduced cytotoxicity, oxidative, and pro-inflammatory potential. This was not evident and even led to an increase when the hazard was expressed on a per unit of mass basis. In general, the PM oxidative potential was similar or reduced for the B50 compared to the B0 powered vehicle. However, the use of B50 resulted in increased cytotoxicity and IL-6 release in BEAS-2B cells irrespective of the expression metric. This study shows that PM mass reduction achieved by the use of B50 will not necessarily decrease the hazard of engine emissions, while the application of a DPF has a beneficial effect on both PM mass emission and PM hazard.

  17. Smart surface for elution of protein-protein bound particles: nanonewton dielectrophoretic forces using atomic layer deposited oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emaminejad, Sam; Javanmard, Mehdi; Dutton, Robert W; Davis, Ronald W

    2012-12-18

    By increasing the strength of the negative dielectrophoresis force, we demonstrated a significantly improved electrokinetic actuation and switching microsystem that can be used to elute specifically bound beads from the surface. In this work using atomic layer deposition we deposited a pinhole free nanometer-scale thin film oxide as a protective layer to prevent electrodes from corrosion, when applying high voltages (>20 V(pp)) at the electrodes. Then, by exciting the electrodes at high frequency, we capacitively coupled the electrodes to the buffer in order to avoid electric field degradation and, hence, reduction in dielectrophoresis force due to the presence of the insulating oxide layer. To illustrate the functionality of our system, we demonstrated 100% detachment of anti-IgG and IgG bound beads (which is on the same order of magnitude in strength as typical antibody-antigen interactions) from the surface, upon applying the improved negative dielectrophoresis force. The significantly enhanced switching performance presented in this work shows orders of magnitude of improvement in on-to-off ratio and switching response time, without any need for chemical eluting agents, as compared to the previous work. The promising results from this work vindicates that the functionality of this singleplexed platform can be extended to perform a multiplexed bead-based assay where in a single channel an array of proteins are patterned each targeting a different antigen or protein.

  18. Magnetic Particle Spectroscopy Reveals Dynamic Changes in the Magnetic Behavior of Very Small Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles During Cellular Uptake and Enables Determination of Cell-Labeling Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poller, Wolfram C; Löwa, Norbert; Wiekhorst, Frank; Taupitz, Matthias; Wagner, Susanne; Möller, Konstantin; Baumann, Gert; Stangl, Verena; Trahms, Lutz; Ludwig, Antje

    2016-02-01

    In vivo tracking of nanoparticle-labeled cells by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) crucially depends on accurate determination of cell-labeling efficacy prior to transplantation. Here, we analyzed the feasibility and accuracy of magnetic particle spectroscopy (MPS) for estimation of cell-labeling efficacy in living THP-1 cells incubated with very small superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (VSOP). Cell viability and proliferation capacity were not affected by the MPS measurement procedure. In VSOP samples without cell contact, MPS enabled highly accurate quantification. In contrast, MPS constantly overestimated the amount of cell associated and internalized VSOP. Analyses of the MPS spectrum shape expressed as harmonic ratio A₅/A₃ revealed distinct changes in the magnetic behavior of VSOP in response to cellular uptake. These changes were proportional to the deviation between MPS and actual iron amount, therefore allowing for adjusted iron quantification. Transmission electron microscopy provided visual evidence that changes in the magnetic properties correlated with cell surface interaction of VSOP as well as with alterations of particle structure and arrangement during the phagocytic process. Altogether, A₅/A₃-adjusted MPS enables highly accurate, cell-preserving VSOP quantification and furthermore provides information on the magnetic characteristics of internalized VSOP.

  19. Chondrocyte gene expression is affected by very small iron oxide particles-labeling in long-term in vitro MRI tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foldager, Casper Bindzus; Pedersen, Michael; Ringgaard, Steffen; Bünger, Cody; Lind, Martin

    2011-03-01

    To investigate the effect and dose response of very small iron oxide particles (VSOP) labeling of human chondrocytes for long-term in vitro MRI tracking. Chondrocytes were isolated from cartilage biopsies from four patients. The cells for the dose-response study were labeled with 25, 50, or 100 μg/mL VSOP. Quantitative gene expression and cellular proliferation were compared with unlabeled controls at day 1, 3, and 7. The cells suited for MRI tracking were labeled with 50 μg/mL VSOP and embedded in alginate beads, followed by MRI (using T2-weighted sequences) at day 0, 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, and histology was performed at each time-point. Histology revealed that VSOP particles were intracellularly confined at all time-points, whereas no extracellular VSOPs were observed. A mean reduction in T2-value of 25.1 ms (±SD 3.5 ms) was found on T2-maps. The chondrocyte-specific genes aggrecan, collagen type 2, and sox9 were all affected by labeling, the two latter in a dose-dependent manner. VSOPs had no effect on proliferation. VSOP labeling of chondrocytes affected gene expression but not proliferation. The labeled chondrocytes could be recognized by MRI for 4 weeks without significant changes in the T2 relaxation time. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. 纳米改性矿物绝缘油的老化特性研究%Oxidation Resistance Study of Nano-Particles Modiifed Mineral Transformer Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马军; 周月梅; 朱正国; 舒俊; 黄超

    2016-01-01

    The preparative nano-modiifcation mineral oil was taken as the specimen to respectively test oil sample micro-water content, break-down voltage, dielectric loss and acid value for the mineral transformer oil with the temperature of 100℃ and 35 days aging at the intervals of 7 days before and after nano-particles added, to examine the property of the mineral transformer oil before and after aging. The test results show that the physicochemical and electrical properties of different types of mineral transformer oil after aging have different degrees of degradation and deterioration, and the oxidation resistance of nano-particles mineral oil is better.%以制备的纳米改性矿物油为研究样品,对添加纳米颗粒前后矿物绝缘油在100℃、老化35天、每隔7天分别测试油样微水含量、击穿电压、介质损耗及酸值,考核老化前后矿物绝缘油性能。测试结果显示,老化前后不同矿物绝缘油理化电气性能均会出现不同程度劣化,添加有纳米颗粒的矿物油表现出更好的抗氧化性能。

  1. Use of high-resolution X-ray computed tomography and 3D image analysis to quantify mineral dissemination and pore space in oxide copper ore particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bao-hua; Wu, Ai-xiang; Narsilio, Guillermo A.; Miao, Xiu-xiu; Wu, Shu-yue

    2017-09-01

    Mineral dissemination and pore space distribution in ore particles are important features that influence heap leaching performance. To quantify the mineral dissemination and pore space distribution of an ore particle, a cylindrical copper oxide ore sample (ϕ4.6 mm × 5.6 mm) was scanned using high-resolution X-ray computed tomography (HRXCT), a nondestructive imaging technology, at a spatial resolution of 4.85 μm. Combined with three-dimensional (3D) image analysis techniques, the main mineral phases and pore space were segmented and the volume fraction of each phase was calculated. In addition, the mass fraction of each mineral phase was estimated and the result was validated with that obtained using traditional techniques. Furthermore, the pore phase features, including the pore size distribution, pore surface area, pore fractal dimension, pore centerline, and the pore connectivity, were investigated quantitatively. The pore space analysis results indicate that the pore size distribution closely fits a log-normal distribution and that the pore space morphology is complicated, with a large surface area and low connectivity. This study demonstrates that the combination of HRXCT and 3D image analysis is an effective tool for acquiring 3D mineralogical and pore structural data.

  2. Quercetin attenuates oxidative damage induced by treatment of embryonic chicken spermatogonial cells with 4-nitro-3-phenylphenol in diesel exhaust particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Yuling; Zhang, Caiqiao; Li, ChunMei; Taneda, Shinji; Watanabe, Gen; Suzuki, Akira K; Taya, Kazuyoshi

    2010-01-01

    Quercetin, an antioxidant flavonoid, is considered beneficial for human and animal health. In this study, the protective effect of quercetin on oxidative damage to testicular cells was studied in embryonic chickens after treatment with 4-nitro-3-phenylphenol (PNMPP) derived from diesel exhaust particles. Testicular cells were challenged with PNMPP (10(-8)-10(-6) M) alone and in combination with quercetin for 48 h. The results showed that quercetin manifested no deleterious effect on spermatogonial cells up to 1.0 microg/ml. Exposure to PNMPP (10(-6) M) induced condensed nuclei and vacuolated cytoplasm and reductions in testicular cell viability and spermatogonial cell numbers (p<0.05). It also induced lipid peroxidation by an elevation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and decreased glutathione peroxidase activity and superoxide dismutase activity (p<0.05). Simultaneous supplementation with quercetin restored these parameters to the same levels as in the control. These data indicate that quercetin protects spermatogonial cells from oxidative damage in embryonic chickens intoxicated with PNMPP.

  3. Infantile Refsum disease: deficiency of catalase-containing particles (peroxisomes), alkyldihydroxyacetone phosphate synthase and peroxisomal beta-oxidation enzyme proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanders, R J; Schutgens, R B; Schrakamp, G; van den Bosch, H; Tager, J M; Schram, A W; Hashimoto, T; Poll-Thé, B T; Saudubrau, J M

    1986-08-01

    In recent years a number of biochemical abnormalities have been described in patients with the infantile form of Refsum disease, including the accumulation of very long chain fatty acids, trihydroxycoprostanoic acid and pipecolic acid. In this paper we show that catalase-containing particles (peroxisomes), alkyl dihydroxyacetone phosphate synthase and acyl-CoA oxidase protein are deficient in patients with infantile Refsum disease. These findings suggest that in the infantile form of Refsum disease, as in the cerebro-hepato-renal (Zellweger) syndrome the multiplicity of biochemical abnormalities is due to a deficiency of peroxisomes and hence to a generalized loss of peroxisomal functions. As a consequence the infantile form of Refsum disease can be diagnosed biochemically by methods already available for the prenatal and postnatal diagnosis of the cerebro-hepato-renal (Zellweger) syndrome.

  4. The solvothermal synthesis of magnetic iron oxide nanocrystals and the preparation of hybrid poly(L-lactide)-polyethyleneimine magnetic particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanović, Zoran; Otoničar, Mojca; Lee, Jongwook; Stevanović, Magdalena M; Hwang, Mintai P; Lee, Kwan Hyi; Choi, Jonghoon; Uskoković, Dragan

    2013-09-01

    We report a simple and green procedure for the preparation of magnetic iron oxide nanocrystals via solvothermal synthesis. The nanocrystal synthesis was carried out under mild conditions in the water-ethanol-oleic acid solvent system with the use of the oleate anion as a surface modifier of nanocrystals and glucose as a reducing agent. Specific conditions for homogenous precipitation achieved in such a reaction system lead to the formation of uniform high-quality nanocrystals down to 5 nm in diameter. The obtained hydrophobic nanocrystals can easily be converted to hydrophilic magnetic nanoparticles by being immobilized in a poly(L-lactide)-polyethyleneimine polymeric matrix. These hybrid nano-constructs may find various biomedical applications, such as magnetic separation, gene transfection and/or magnetic resonance imaging. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Note: Ion-induced secondary electron emission from oxidized metal surfaces measured in a particle beam reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcak, Adrian; Corbella, Carles; de los Arcos, Teresa; von Keudell, Achim

    2015-10-01

    The secondary electron emission of metals induced by slow ions is characterized in a beam chamber by means of two coaxial semi-cylindrical electrodes with different apertures. The voltages of the outer electrode (screening), inner electrode (collector), and sample holder (target) were set independently in order to measure the effective yield of potential and kinetic electron emissions during ion bombardment. Aluminum samples were exposed to quantified beams of argon ions up to 2000 eV and to oxygen atoms and molecules in order to mimic the plasma-surface interactions on metallic targets during reactive sputtering. The variation of electron emission yield was correlated to the ion energy and to the oxidation state of Al surfaces. This system provides reliable measurements of the electron yields in real time and is of great utility to explore the fundamental surface processes during target poisoning occurring in reactive magnetron sputtering applications.

  6. Note: Ion-induced secondary electron emission from oxidized metal surfaces measured in a particle beam reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcak, Adrian; Corbella, Carles, E-mail: carles.corbella@rub.de; Keudell, Achim von [Research Group Reactive Plasmas, Ruhr-University Bochum, 44801 Bochum (Germany); Arcos, Teresa de los [Technical and Macromolecular Chemistry, Paderborn University, 33098 Paderborn (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    The secondary electron emission of metals induced by slow ions is characterized in a beam chamber by means of two coaxial semi-cylindrical electrodes with different apertures. The voltages of the outer electrode (screening), inner electrode (collector), and sample holder (target) were set independently in order to measure the effective yield of potential and kinetic electron emissions during ion bombardment. Aluminum samples were exposed to quantified beams of argon ions up to 2000 eV and to oxygen atoms and molecules in order to mimic the plasma-surface interactions on metallic targets during reactive sputtering. The variation of electron emission yield was correlated to the ion energy and to the oxidation state of Al surfaces. This system provides reliable measurements of the electron yields in real time and is of great utility to explore the fundamental surface processes during target poisoning occurring in reactive magnetron sputtering applications.

  7. New generation of monomer-stabilized very small superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (VSOP) as contrast medium for MR angiography: preclinical results in rats and rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taupitz, M; Schnorr, J; Abramjuk, C; Wagner, S; Pilgrimm, H; Hünigen, H; Hamm, B

    2000-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the signal enhancement characteristics of very small superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (VSOP)-C63, a new monomer-coated, iron oxide-based magnetic resonance (MR) blood pool contrast medium with a very small particle size and optimized physical properties. Equilibrium MR angiography (MRA) of rats (thoracic and abdominal vessels) was performed at 1.5 T with a three-dimensional gradient-recalled echo (3D GRE) technique (TR/TE 6.6/2.3 msec, flip angle 25 degrees ) before and after (every 3-5 minutes up to 50 minutes) i.v. injection of VSOP-C63 [dosages: 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 micromol Fe/kg; diameter: 8 nm; relaxivities at 0.47 T: R1 = 30 l/(mmol * s); R2 = 39 l/(mmol * s)]. First-pass MRA images (3D-GRE, TR/TE 4.5/1.7 msec, flip angle 25 degrees ) were obtained with 45 micromol Fe/kg VSOP-C63 in comparison with 0.2 mmol Gd/kg of gadolinium diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (Gd DTPA; before and every 5 seconds p.i.). MRA (3D GRE, TR/TE 4.5/1.7 msec, flip angle 25 degrees) of coronary vessels in rabbits was performed after i.v. injection of 45 micromol Fe/kg of VSOP-C63. In rats maximal S/N ratio in thoracic and abdominal arteries directly after i.v. injection of VSOP-C63 was 25 +/- 1, 43 +/- 2, 49 +/- 4, 57 +/- 3, 64 +/- 3, and 63 +/- 3 for the different dosages. Blood half-life was dose dependent (15 +/- 2, 20 +/- 3, 29 +/- 6, 37 +/- 5, 61 +/- 16, and 86 +/- 21 minutes). At a dose of 30 micromol Fe/kg even small intrarenal arteries were sharply delineated. First-pass MRA showed no significant difference in the S/N ratio between Gd-DTPA (71.5 +/- 11.5) and VSOP-C63 (65.1 +/- 18. 3). The proximal segments of the coronary arteries in rabbits were clearly depicted at a dose of 45 micromol Fe/kg. The monomer-coated, iron oxide-based contrast medium VSOP-C63 exhibits favorable properties as a blood pool agent for both equilibrium and first-pass MRA. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2000;12:905-911. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Shadow-casted ultrathin surface coatings of titanium and titanium/silicon oxide sol particles via ultrasound-assisted deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karahan, H Enis; Birer, Özgür; Karakuş, Kerem; Yıldırım, Cansu

    2016-07-01

    Ultrasound-assisted deposition (USAD) of sol nanoparticles enables the formation of uniform and inherently stable thin films. However, the technique still suffers in coating hard substrates and the use of fast-reacting sol-gel precursors still remains challenging. Here, we report on the deposition of ultrathin titanium and titanium/silicon hybrid oxide coatings using hydroxylated silicon wafers as a model hard substrate. We use acetic acid as the catalyst which also suppresses the reactivity of titanium tetraisopropoxide while increasing the reactivity of tetraethyl orthosilicate through chemical modifications. Taking the advantage of this peculiar behavior, we successfully prepared titanium and titanium/silicon hybrid oxide coatings by USAD. Varying the amount of acetic acid in the reaction media, we managed to modulate thickness and surface roughness of the coatings in nanoscale. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy studies showed the formation of conformal coatings having nanoroughness. Quantitative chemical state maps obtained by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) suggested the formation of ultrathin (coatings and thickness measurements by rotating analyzer ellipsometry supported this observation. For the first time, XPS chemical maps revealed the transport effect of ultrasonic waves since coatings were directly cast on rectangular substrates as circular shadows of the horn with clear thickness gradient from the center to the edges. In addition to the progress made in coating hard substrates, employing fast-reacting precursors and achieving hybrid coatings; this report provides the first visual evidence on previously suggested "acceleration and smashing" mechanism as the main driving force of USAD.

  9. Solution ionic strength engineering as a generic strategy to coat graphene oxide (GO) on various functional particles and its application in high-performance lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Jiepeng; Ge, Mingyuan; Fang, Xin; Zhou, Chongwu

    2014-02-12

    A generic and facile method of coating graphene oxide (GO) on particles is reported, with sulfur/GO core-shell particles demonstrated as an example for lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery application with superior performance. Particles of different diameters (ranging from 100 nm to 10 μm), geometries, and compositions (sulfur, silicon, and carbon) are successfully wrapped up by GO, by engineering the ionic strength in solutions. Importantly, our method does not involve any chemical reaction between GO and the wrapped particles, and therefore, it can be extended to vast kinds of functional particles. The applications of sulfur/GO core-shell particles as Li-S battery cathode materials are further investigated, and the results show that sulfur/GO exhibit significant improvements over bare sulfur particles without coating. Galvanic charge-discharge test using GO/sulfur particles shows a specific capacity of 800 mAh/g is retained after 1000 cycles at 1 A/g current rate if only the mass of sulfur is taken into calculation, and 400 mAh/g if the total mass of sulfur/GO is considered. Most importantly, the capacity decay over 1000 cycles is less than 0.02% per cycle. The coating method developed in this study is facile, robust, and versatile and is expected to have wide range of applications in improving the properties of particle materials.

  10. Prolonged Pulmonary Exposure to Diesel Exhaust Particles Exacerbates Renal Oxidative Stress, Inflammation and DNA Damage in Mice with Adenine-Induced Chronic Renal Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abderrahim Nemmar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Epidemiological evidence indicates that patients with chronic kidney diseases have increased susceptibility to adverse outcomes related to long-term exposure to particulate air pollution. However, mechanisms underlying these effects are not fully understood. Methods: Presently, we assessed the effect of prolonged exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP on chronic renal failure induced by adenine (0.25% w/w in feed for 4 weeks, which is known to involve inflammation and oxidative stress. DEP (0.5m/kg was intratracheally (i.t. instilled every 4th day for 4 weeks (7 i.t. instillation. Four days following the last exposure to either DEP or saline (control, various renal endpoints were measured. Results: While body weight was decreased, kidney weight increased in DEP+adenine versus saline+adenine or DEP. Water intake, urine volume, relative kidney weight were significantly increased in adenine+DEP versus DEP and adenine+saline versus saline. Plasma creatinine and urea increased and creatinine clearance decreased in adenine+DEP versus DEP and adenine+saline versus saline. Tumor necrosis factor α, lipid peroxidation and reactive oxygen species were significantly increased in adenine+DEP compared with either DEP or adenine+saline. The antioxidant calase was significantly decreased in adenine+DEP compared with either adenine+saline or DEP. Notably, renal DNA damage was significantly potentiated in adenine+DEP compared with either adenine+saline or DEP. Similarly, systolic blood pressure was increased in adenine+DEP versus adenine+saline or DEP, and in DEP versus saline. Histological evaluation revealed more collagen deposition, higher number of necrotic cell counts and dilated tubules, cast formation and collapsing glomeruli in adenine+DEP versus adenine+saline or DEP. Conclusion: Prolonged pulmonary exposure to diesel exhaust particles worsen renal oxidative stress, inflammation and DNA damage in mice with adenine-induced chronic

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging of liver metastases: experimental comparison of anionic and conventional superparamagnetic iron oxide particles with a hepatobiliary contrast medium during dynamic and uptake phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufels, Nicola; Korn, Ronny; Wagner, Susanne; Schink, Tania; Hamm, Bernd; Taupitz, Matthias; Schnorr, Jörg

    2008-07-01

    To assess the contrast-enhancing effects of citrate-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (VSOP-C184) in a rat liver tumor model using dynamic and delayed magnetic resonance imaging in comparison to carboxydextran-coated particles (ferucarbotran) and a hepatobiliary contrast medium (gadobenate dimeglumine). A total of 32 male rats with liver tumors (CC-531 colorectal carcinoma) were examined at 1.5 T with a T1-weighted dynamic series (3D gradient echo sequence) and T1-weighted and T2*-weighted images (2D gradient echo sequences) before and 15 and 90 minutes after injection. VSOP-C184 was investigated at doses of 0.015, 0.045, and 0.06 mmol Fe/kg, ferucarbotran at 0.015 mmol Fe/kg, and gadobenate dimeglumine at 0.025, 0.05, and 0.1 mmol Gd/kg. Liver-tumor contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) was calculated and statistically compared. T1-weighted dynamic images: VSOP-C184 has significantly higher CNR values at a dose of 0,015 mmol Fe/kg than ferucarbotran at the same dose (P = 0.001). VSOP-C184 produces a significantly higher CNR at a dose of 0.045 mmol Fe/kg than gadobenate dimeglumine at a dose of 0.05 mmol Gd/kg (P = 0.019). At a dose of 0.06 mmol Fe/kg, the CNR for VSOP-C184 is significantly lower than that of gadobenate dimeglumine (0.1 mmol Gd/kg) (P = 0.005).T2-weighted delayed images: CNR values of VSOP-C184 are similar to those of ferucarbotran and are significantly higher than those of gadobenate dimeglumine (P VSOP-C184 produces a high contrast comparable to that of a hepatobiliary contrast medium in addition to its contrast-enhancing effect in T2-weighted imaging.

  12. Antimicrobial Effect of Nano-Zinc Oxide and Nano-Chitosan Particles in Dental Composite Used in Orthodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AmirHossein Mirhashemi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Incidence of  white  spots due  to  demineralization of  enamel  and  gingival problems  is  an  unacceptable  result  of  orthodontic  treatment.  Plaque  accumulation  and bacterial biofilm growth are responsible for these phenomena. The resin-based dental composites used as bonding agents in orthodontics play a major role in mentioned problems. As recent researches assert the antimicrobial effects of chitosan (CS and zinc oxide (ZnO nanoparticles  (NPs,  it  seems  that  adding  these  nanoparticles  to  the  composite  can  be beneficial in reducing the number and function of microorganisms. The aim of this study was to  evaluate  the  antimicrobial  effects  of  ZnO-NP  and  CS-NP-containing  orthodontic composite.Methods: Antibacterial effectiveness of ZnO-NPs and CS-NPs was assessed in four groups against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis and Lactobacillus acidophilus grown both planktonic and as a biofilm on composites. One group as the unmodified control group and  three  groups  consisting  of  three  different  concentrations of  ZnO-NPs  and  CS-NPs mixture: 1%, 5% and 10% (1:1 w/w. 108 CFU/ml microorganism suspensions were provided with spectrophotometer. Biofilm formation was quantified by viable counts. Disc agar diffusion (DAD test was carried out to determine antimicrobial effects of nanoparticles by measuring the inhibition diameter on brain heart infusion agar plates. Finally,viable counts of microorganisms on days 3, 15 and 30 were collected for the antimicrobial effects of eluted components from composite discs.Results: In biofilm formation test, a reduction in bacterial counts was observed with 10% nanoparticle-containing composites compared with their unmodified counterpart. In the DAD test only 10% nanoparticle-containing specimens showed statistically significant inhibition. The only noticeable datain eluted component test was on day 30 for 10

  13. Palladium nanoparticles decorated on reduced graphene oxide rotating disk electrodes toward ultrasensitive hydrazine detection: effects of particle size and hydrodynamic diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krittayavathananon, Atiweena; Srimuk, Pattarachai; Luanwuthi, Santamon; Sawangphruk, Montree

    2014-12-16

    Although metal nanoparticle/graphene composites have been widely used as the electrode in electrochemical sensors, two effects, consisting of the particle size of the nanoparticles and the hydrodynamic diffusion of analytes to the electrodes, are not yet fully understood. In this work, palladium nanoparticles/reduced graphene oxide (PdNPs/rGO) composites were synthesized using an in situ polyol method. Palladium(II) ions and graphene oxide were reduced together with a reducing agent, ethylene glycol. By varying the concentration of palladium(II) nitrate, PdNPs with different sizes were decorated on the surface of rGO sheets. The as-fabricated PdNPs/rGO rotating disk electrodes (RDEs) were investigated toward hydrazine detection. Overall, a 3.7 ± 1.4 nm diameter PdNPs/rGO RDE exhibits high performance with a rather low limit of detection of about 7 nM at a rotation speed of 6000 rpm and provides a wide linear range of 0.1-1000 μM with R(2) = 0.995 at 2000 rpm. This electrode is highly selective to hydrazine without interference from uric acid, glucose, ammonia, caffeine, methylamine, ethylenediamine, hydroxylamine, n-butylamine, adenosine, cytosine, guanine, thymine, and l-arginine. The PdNPs/rGO RDEs with larger sizes show lower detection performance. Interestingly, the detection performance of the electrodes is sensitive to the hydrodynamic diffusion of hydrazine. The as-fabricated electrode can detect trace hydrazine in wastewater with high stability, demonstrating its practical use as an electrochemical sensor. These findings may lead to an awareness of the effect of the hydrodynamic diffusion of analyte that has been previously ignored, and the 3.7 ± 1.4 nm PdNPs/rGO RDE may be useful toward trace hydrazine detection, especially in wastewater from related chemical industries.

  14. 钛颗粒着火过程氧化膜破裂行为的理论研究%Theoretical Research on Oxide Film Fracture Behavior during Titanium Particle Ignition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    弭光宝; 黄旭; 曹京霞; 曹春晓

    2012-01-01

    在着火热自燃理论基础上,通过分析钛颗粒表面氧化膜与基体之间的应力状态,结合实验事实,提出氧化膜最外层首先发生破裂但不形成贯穿裂纹的观点,基于该观点建立模型理论研究外层氧化膜的破裂行为对钛颗粒着火过程的影响,并对钛的着火过程进行物理模拟实验研究.结果表明:在673 ~1373K范围,当环境温度较低时,钛颗粒发生恒温氧化,氧化膜破裂导致氧化动力学曲线由抛物线向直线转化,当处于高温时,氧化膜的破裂使着火温度降低45K,不会对钛颗粒的着火过程产生强烈影响;当钛颗粒尺寸增大时,钛颗粒的着火温度未出现明显升高,与铝颗粒着火过程氧化膜的完全破裂机制不同;氧化膜内应力的变化使由外而内的裂纹扩展到一定程度后停止,即外层氧化膜不完全破裂,从而加速氧在内层氧化膜内扩散,增大了钛颗粒发生着火的敏感性;非等温氧化实验间接验证了外层氧化膜非贯穿破裂对钛着火过程影响的理论研究.%Based on thermal self-ignition theory, in combination with theoretical analysis of the stress between oxide film and matrix with experiment fact, the viewpoint that outermost oxide film fractured first without penetrating crack was put forward, and based on this viewpoint, the model, studying the effect of outer oxide film fracture behavior on titanium particles ignition was established. Further, the physical analogue experiments about titanium ignition were carried out. Research results showed that in lower temperature during 673 -1373K, titanium particles oxidized thermostatically, and oxidation kinetics curve changed into straight line from parabola due to oxide film fracture. While in higher temperature, ignition temperature was reduced by 45K due to oxide film fracture, which had no obvious effect on ignition process of titanium particles. With increasing in size of titanium particle, there was no obvious

  15. Inhibition of endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity and suppression of endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation by 1,2-naphthoquinone, a component of diesel exhaust particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yang; Taguchi, Keiko; Sumi, Daigo [University of Tsukuba, Department of Environmental Medicine, Doctoral Programs in Medical Sciences, Graduate School of Comprehensive Sciences, Ibaraki (Japan); Yamano, Shigeru [Fukuoka University, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan); Kumagai, Yoshito [University of Tsukuba, Department of Environmental Medicine, Doctoral Programs in Medical Sciences, Graduate School of Comprehensive Sciences, Ibaraki (Japan); Southern California Particle Center and Supersite, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2006-05-15

    Diesel exhaust particles contain redox-active quinones, such as 9,10-phenanthraquinone (9,10-PQ) and 1,2-naphthoquinone (1,2-NQ), which act as potent electron acceptors, thereby altering electron transfer on proteins. We have previously found that 9,10-PQ inhibits constitutive nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity, by shunting electrons away from NADPH on the cytochrome P450 reductase domain of NOS, and thus suppresses acetylcholine (Ach)-induced vasorelaxation in the aortic ring. However, the effect of 1,2-NQ on endothelial NOS (eNOS) activity is still poorly understood. With the membrane fraction of cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells, we found that 1,2-NQ was a potent inhibitor of eNOS with an IC{sub 50} value of 1.4 {mu}M, whereas trans-1,2-dihydroxy-1,2-dihydronaphthalene (1,2-DDN), a redox-negative naphthalene analog of 1,2-NQ, did not show such an inhibitory action. Although 1,2-DDN (5 {mu}M) did not affect Ach-mediated vasorelaxation, 1,2-NQ caused a significant suppression of Ach-induced endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in the aortic ring. However, 1,2-NQ did not affect sodium nitroprusside-induced endothelium-independent vasorelaxation. These results suggest that 1,2-NQ is an environmental quinone that inhibits eNOS activity, thereby disrupting NO-dependent vascular tone. (orig.)

  16. Controlled formation of reactive Fe particles dispersed in a carbon matrix active for the oxidation of aqueous contaminants with H₂O₂.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tristão, Juliana Cristina; de Mendonça, Fernanda Gomes; Lago, Rochel Montero; Ardisson, José Domingos

    2015-01-01

    In this work, reactive iron nanoparticles dispersed in a carbon matrix were produced by the controlled thermal decomposition of Fe(3+) ions in sucrose. During the sucrose decomposition, the Fe(3+) ions are reduced to form iron nanometric cores dispersed in a porous carbonaceous matrix. The materials were prepared with iron contents of 1, 4, and 8 wt.% and heated at 400, 600, and 800 °C. Analyses by X-ray diffraction, Mössbauer spectroscopy, magnetization measurements, Raman spectroscopy, termogravimetric analyses, BET surface area, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy showed that at 400 °C, the materials are composed essentially of Fe3O4 particles, while treatments at higher temperatures, i.e., 600 and 800 °C, produced phases such as Fe(0) and Fe3C. The composites were tested for the oxidation of methylene blue with H2O2 by a Fenton-type reaction and also H2O2 decomposition, showing better performance for the material containing 8 % of iron heated at 400 and 600 °C. These results are discussed in terms of Fe(2+) surface species in the Fe3O4 nanoparticles active for the Fenton reaction.

  17. 沉淀法制备纳米ZnO超细粉体%Preparation of Superfine Particles of Zinc Oxide by Precipitation Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐华军; 朱振中; 等

    2001-01-01

    以硝酸锌、碳酸钠为原料,通过在沉淀反应中加入表面活性剂的方法制备出ZnO超细粉体.讨论了制备过程中Zn2+浓度、反应物配比、表面活性剂的浓度和种类对ZnO粉体平均粒径的影响,并对其作用机理进行了分析.试验结果表明:在阴离子表面活性剂的作用下得到的沉淀粒子于450 ℃热分解3 h,得到的ZnO粉体的晶体尺寸约为50 nm左右.%Zinc oxide nanoparticles were prepared by using zinc nitrate and natrium carbonate as the starting materials. The crystalloid growth of precipitated zinc carbonate hydroxide precursor was inhabited by adding surfactants during the precipitation process. The effects on the average diameter of ZnO crystals of the Zn2+ concentration, mixing ratio of reactants and the concentration, the types of surfactants were discussed. The mechanism of inhabitation on the crystalloid growth was also analyzed. The results indicated that the particle size of ZnO at 450 ℃, 3 h was about 50 nm.

  18. The effect of polyol on multiple ligand capped silver alloyed nanobimetallic particles in tri-n-octylphosphine oxide and oleic acid matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemi Adekoya, Joseph; Olugbenga Dare, Enock; Olurotimi Ogunniran, Kehinde; Oluwasegun Siyanbola, Tolutope; Oyewale Ajani, Olayinka; Osereme Ehi-Eromosele, Cyril; Revaprasadu, Neerish

    2016-12-01

    The syntheses of Ag/M (M is Co, Ni, Pd, Pt and Ru) alloyed nanobimetallic particles in tri-n-octylphosphine oxide and oleic acid matrices were successfully carried out by the successive reduction of ligand capped metal ions with polyols, which resulted in rapid precipitation of some fractal high index faceted hybrid Ag/M bimetal nanoparticles. The optical measurements revealed the existence of modified surface plasmon band and peak broadening resulting from reaction-limited growth processes of the metal sols, making it possible to monitor the changes spectrometrically. The bimetallic nanoparticles were further characterized by powder x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and electron microscopy techniques which confirmed the formation of novel core-shell and alloyed clusters. The Ag/M nanoparticles thus synthesized within TOPO/OA matrices indicated significant reduction potential as a result of their energy band gap 2.65-2.77 eV which points to the fact that they could serve as reducing agents for electrocatalytic reaction.

  19. Comparison on the molecular response profiles between nano zinc oxide (ZnO) particles and free zinc ion using a genome-wide toxicogenomics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Guanyong; Zhang, Xiaowei; Giesy, John P; Musarrat, Javed; Saquib, Quaiser; Alkhedhairy, Abdulaziz A; Yu, Hongxia

    2015-11-01

    Increasing production and applications of nano zinc oxide particles (nano-ZnO) enhances the probability of its exposure in occupational and environmental settings, but toxicity studies are still limited. Taking the free Zn ion (Zn(2+)) as a control, cytotoxicity of a commercially available nano-ZnO was assessed with a 6-h exposure in Escherichia coli (E. coli). The fitted dose-cytotoxicity curve for ZnCl2 was significantly sharper than that from nano-ZnO. Then, a genome-wide gene expression profile following exposure to nano-ZnO was conducted by use of a live cell reporter assay system with library of 1820 modified green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing promoter reporter vectors constructed from E. coli K12 strains, which resulted in 387 significantly altered genes in bacterial (p 2) was different from the profile following exposure to 6 mg/L of free zinc ion. The result indicates that these two Zn forms might cause toxicity to bacterial in different modes of action. Our results underscore the importance of understanding the adverse effects elicited by nano-ZnO after entering aquatic environment.

  20. Distribution analysis of ultra-high molecular mass poly(ethylene oxide) containing silica particles by size-exclusion chromatography with dual light-scattering and refractometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porsch, Bedrich; Welinder, Anette; Körner, Anna; Wittgren, Bengt

    2005-03-18

    Two different size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) systems, connected in-line either to a low-angle light scattering (LALS) or to a multiangle light scattering (MALS) detector, are employed for determination of molecular mass distributions (MMD) of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) samples having a weight average molecular mass up to eight millions. The detrimental effect of the presence of strongly scattering silica particles in the samples on the light scattering signal can be eliminated using a suitable sample dissolution procedure utilizing silica solubility in aqueous mobile phase. The selection of flow-rate and sample concentration have a large impact on the obtained results. Hydrodynamic retardation phenomena and nonlinearity effects are shown to introduce severe errors in the molecular mass distributions unless flow-rate and sample concentration are kept at sufficiently low levels. Self-compensating ability of the dual detection in flow-rate effects is shown to be the main advantage here. A good agreement between the results obtained using LALS and MALS detection is found provided that a carefully selected angular extrapolation procedure is used in the case of MALS data. Thus, using carefully selected experimental conditions, SEC with light-scattering (LS) and refractometric detection proved to be an efficient technique for MMD characterisation also of ultra-high molecular mass (UHM) PEO polymers.

  1. Particle Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Health Particle Pollution Public Health Issues Particle Pollution Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Particle pollution ... see them in the air. Where does particle pollution come from? Particle pollution can come from two ...

  2. Analysis of plutonium isotope ratios including (238)Pu/(239)Pu in individual U-Pu mixed oxide particles by means of a combination of alpha spectrometry and ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esaka, Fumitaka; Yasuda, Kenichiro; Suzuki, Daisuke; Miyamoto, Yutaka; Magara, Masaaki

    2017-04-01

    Isotope ratio analysis of individual uranium-plutonium (U-Pu) mixed oxide particles contained within environmental samples taken from nuclear facilities is proving to be increasingly important in the field of nuclear safeguards. However, isobaric interferences, such as (238)U with (238)Pu and (241)Am with (241)Pu, make it difficult to determine plutonium isotope ratios in mass spectrometric measurements. In the present study, the isotope ratios of (238)Pu/(239)Pu, (240)Pu/(239)Pu, (241)Pu/(239)Pu, and (242)Pu/(239)Pu were measured for individual Pu and U-Pu mixed oxide particles by a combination of alpha spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). As a consequence, we were able to determine the (240)Pu/(239)Pu, (241)Pu/(239)Pu, and (242)Pu/(239)Pu isotope ratios with ICP-MS after particle dissolution and chemical separation of plutonium with UTEVA resins. Furthermore, (238)Pu/(239)Pu isotope ratios were able to be calculated by using both the (238)Pu/((239)Pu+(240)Pu) activity ratios that had been measured through alpha spectrometry and the (240)Pu/(239)Pu isotope ratios determined through ICP-MS. Therefore, the combined use of alpha spectrometry and ICP-MS is useful in determining plutonium isotope ratios, including (238)Pu/(239)Pu, in individual U-Pu mixed oxide particles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Arsenic Removal from Water Using Various Adsorbents: Magnetic Ion Exchange Resins, Hydrous Ion Oxide Particles, Granular Ferric Hydroxide, Activated Alumina, Sulfur Modified Iron, and Iron Oxide-Coated Microsand

    KAUST Repository

    Sinha, Shahnawaz

    2011-09-30

    The equilibrium and kinetic adsorption of arsenic on six different adsorbents were investigated with one synthetic and four natural types (two surface and two ground) of water. The adsorbents tested included magnetic ion exchange resins (MIEX), hydrous ion oxide particles (HIOPs), granular ferric hydroxide (GFH), activated alumina (AA), sulfur modified iron (SMI), and iron oxide-coated mic - rosand (IOC-M), which have different physicochemical properties (shape, charge, surface area, size, and metal content). The results showed that adsorption equilibriums were achieved within a contact period of 20 min. The optimal doses of adsorbents determined for a given equilibrium concentration of C eq = 10 μg/L were 500 mg/L for AA and GFH, 520–1,300 mg/L for MIEX, 1,200 mg/L for HIOPs, 2,500 mg/L for SMI, and 7,500 mg/L for IOC-M at a contact time of 60 min. At these optimal doses, the rate constants of the adsorbents were 3.9, 2.6, 2.5, 1.9, 1.8, and 1.6 1/hr for HIOPs, AA, GFH, MIEX, SMI, and IOC-M, respectively. The presence of silicate significantly reduced the arsenic removal efficiency of HIOPs, AA, and GFH, presumably due to the decrease in chemical binding affinity of arsenic in the presence of silicate. Additional experiments with natural types of water showed that, with the exception of IOC-M, the adsorbents had lower adsorption capacities in ground water than with surface and deionized water, in which the adsorption capacities decreased by approximately 60–95 % .

  4. Oxidation catalysts on alkaline earth supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohajeri, Nahid

    2017-03-21

    An oxidation catalyst includes a support including particles of an alkaline earth salt, and first particles including a palladium compound on the support. The oxidation catalyst can also include precious metal group (PMG) metal particles in addition to the first particles intermixed together on the support. A gas permeable polymer that provides a continuous phase can completely encapsulate the particles and the support. The oxidation catalyst may be used as a gas sensor, where the first particles are chemochromic particles.

  5. Oxidation catalysts on alkaline earth supports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohajeri, Nahid

    2017-03-21

    An oxidation catalyst includes a support including particles of an alkaline earth salt, and first particles including a palladium compound on the support. The oxidation catalyst can also include precious metal group (PMG) metal particles in addition to the first particles intermixed together on the support. A gas permeable polymer that provides a continuous phase can completely encapsulate the particles and the support. The oxidation catalyst may be used as a gas sensor, where the first particles are chemochromic particles.

  6. Oxide Scale Adherence Mechanisms and the Effects of Yttrium, Oxide Particles and Externally Applied Loads on the Oxidation of NiCrAl and CoCrAl Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-06-01

    Alloys in the Etched Condition. 50 Micrestructures of NiCrAl -- Tlo21 , CoCrAl - A12 0 3 and CoCrA! -- Y20 in the As-Polished and Etched Conditions. 51...Continuous AI-03 Layers Are Developed on NiCrAI Alloys. 53 12 Typical Transient Oxidation Features Developed Duritig Oxidatkin of the NiCrAl Alloy. 54...Cont’d) 0 FIGURE PAGE 15 Morphological Features Typical of NiCrAl and CoCrAl Alloys from Which the A12 0 3 Scales Had Spalled. 57 16 Photographs Showing

  7. Epidermal growth factor receptor-targeted ultra-small superparamagnetic iron oxide particles for magnetic resonance molecular imaging of lung cancer cells in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Chun-li; HU Guang-yuan; MEI Qi; QIU Hong; LONG Guo-xian; HU Guo-qing

    2012-01-01

    Background Magnetic resonance (MR) molecular imaging can detect abnormalities associated with disease at the level of cell and molecule.The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) plays an important role in the development of lung cancer.This study aimed to explore new MR molecular imaging targeting of the EGFR on lung cancer cells.Methods We attached ultra-small superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) particles to cetuximab (C225) anti-human IgG using the carbodiimide method.We made the molecular MR contrast agents C225-USPIO and IgG-USPIO,the latter as a control reagent,and determined concentrations according to the Fe content.Lung cancer A549 cells were cultured and immunocytochemistry (SP) was used to detect the expression of EGFR on cells.We detected the binding rate of C225-USPIO to A549 cells with immunofluorescence staining and flow cytometry.We cultured A549 cells with C225-USPIO at a Fe concentration of 50 μg/ml and assayed the binding of C225-USPIO after 1 hour with Prussian blue staining and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).We determined the effects on imaging of the contrast agent targeted to cells using a 4.7T MRi.We did scanning on the cells labeled with C225-USPIO,IgG-USPIO,and distilled water,respectively.The scanning sequences included axial T1W1,T2W1.Results Immunocytochemical detection of lung cancer A549 cells found them positive for EGFR expression.Immunofluorescence staining and flow cytometry after cultivation with different concentrations of C225-USPIO showed the binding rate higher than the control.Prussian blue staining and transmission electron microscopy revealed that in the C225-USPIO contrast agent group of cells the particle content of Fe in cytoplasmic vesicles or on surface was more than that in the control group.The 4.7T MR imaging (MRI) scan revealed the T2WI signal in the C225-USPIO group of cells decreased significantly more than in unlabeled cells,but there was no significant difference between the time gradients

  8. 镧修饰羧基化氧石墨烯的抑菌性能%The antimicrobial properties of carboxylated graphene oxide decorated with La particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓丹; 周宁琳; 汪炜燕; 汤毅达; 章峻; 沈健

    2012-01-01

    在氧化石墨烯(GO)的研究和应用中,为充分发挥其优良性质,必须对其进行功能化.笔者将稀土La3+离子接枝到羧基化的GO(GO-COOH)片层上,制备了一种功能化的镧修饰羧基化氧石墨烯(La/GO-COOH).利用红外光谱、热重分析和透射电镜等手段对合成的La/GO-COOH进行了表征,结果表明,La3+已通过化学和物理作用吸附在GO片层上.通过细菌生长动力学实验评价了La/GO-COOH的抑菌性能,结果表明,La/GO-COOH对大肠杆菌有很好的抑菌效果,当浓度为0.5 mg/mL,抑菌率达96.40%;对金黄色葡萄球菌和铜绿假单胞菌也均有抑菌效果,因此La/GO-COOH是具有抑菌性能的新型GO负载物;与未剥离的镧修饰氧化石墨(La/GTO)相比,由于剥离的GO片层的比表面积大,其吸附La3+离子的量高于氧化石墨(GTO),故La/GO-COOH复合物的抑菌性远优于La/GTO.%Graphene oxide ( GO) was functionalized by acetyl chloride to form carboxylated graphene oxide (GO-COOH). GO-COOH decorated with La particles with diameters between 0. 2 and 1 μm was prepared by the sonication of a LaCl3 aqueous solution with GO-COOH. The La-decorated GO-COOH was characterized by FT-IR, TGA and TEM, and its antibacterial properties were characterized by bacteria growth kinetics. Results showed that the La3+ ions were coordinated on edges and corrugated parts of the GO-COOH by physical and chemical bonding. The La-decorated GO-COOH had a good inhibitory efficiency of 96.4% on the E. coli when its concentration was 0. 5 mg/mL. It also had inhibitory effects on S. aureus and the P. Aeruginosa. The better antibacterial effect of the La-decorated GO-COOH than the corresponding La-decorated GTO was ascribed to the higher amount of La particles incorporated on the GO-COOH.

  9. Black carbon, particle number concentration and nitrogen oxide emission factors of random in-use vehicles measured with the on-road chasing method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Ježek

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The chasing method was used in an on-road measurement campaign, and emission factors (EF of black carbon (BC, particle number (PN and nitrogen oxides (NOx were determined for 139 individual vehicles of different types encountered on the roads. The aggregated results provide EFs for BC, NOx and PN for three vehicle categories: goods vehicles, gasoline and diesel passenger cars. This is the first on-road measurement study where BC EFs of numerous individual diesel cars were determined in real-world driving conditions. We found good agreement between EFs of goods vehicles determined in this campaign and the results of previous studies that used either chasing or remote sensing measurement techniques. The composition of the sampled car fleet determined from the national vehicle registry information is reflective of Eurostat statistical data on the Slovenian and European vehicle fleet. The median BC EF of diesel and gasoline cars that were in use for less than 5 years, decreased by 60 and 47% from those in use for 5–10 years, respectively, the median NOx and PN EFs, of goods vehicles that were in use for less than five years, decreased from those in use for 5–10 years by 52 and 67%, respectively. The influence of engine maximum power of the measured EFs showed an increase in NOx EF from least to more powerful vehicles with diesel engines. Finally a disproportionate contribution of high emitters to the total emissions of the measured fleet was found; the top 25% of emitting diesel cars contributed 63, 47 and 61% of BC, NOx and PN emissions respectively. With the combination of relatively simple on-road measurements with sophisticated post processing individual vehicles EF can be determined and useful information about the fleet emissions can be obtained by exactly representing vehicles which contribute disproportionally to vehicle fleet emissions; and monitor how the numerous emission reduction approaches are reflected in on-road driving

  10. Coronary MR angiography using citrate-coated very small superparamagnetic iron oxide particles as blood-pool contrast agent: initial experience in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Moritz; Wagner, Susanne; Schnorr, Jörg; Schellenberger, Eyk; Kivelitz, Dietmar; Krug, Lasse; Dewey, Marc; Laule, Michael; Hamm, Bernd; Taupitz, Matthias

    2011-10-01

    To evaluate very small superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (VSOP-C184) as blood-pool contrast agent for coronary MR angiography (CMRA) in humans. Six healthy volunteers and 14 patients with suspected coronary artery disease underwent CMRA after administration of VSOP-C184 at the following doses: 20 μmol Fe/kg (4 patients), 40 μmol Fe/kg (5 patients), 45 μmol Fe/kg (6 healthy volunteers), and 60 μmol Fe/kg (5 patients). In healthy volunteers, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and vessel edge definition (VED) of contrast-enhanced CMRA were compared with non-contrast-enhanced CMRA. In patients, a per-segment intention-to-diagnose evaluation of contrast-enhanced CMRA for detection of significant coronary stenosis (≥50%) was performed. Three healthy volunteers (45 μmol Fe/kg VSOP-C184) and two patients (60 μmol Fe/kg VSOP-C184) had adverse events of mild or moderate intensity. VSOP-C184 significantly increased CNR (15.1 ± 4.6 versus 6.9 ± 1.9; P = 0.010), SNR (21.7 ± 5.3 versus 15.4 ± 1.6; P = 0.048), and VED (2.3 ± 0.6 versus 1.2 ± 0.2; P VSOP-C184 was feasible and yielded moderate diagnostic accuracy for detection of significant coronary stenosis within this proof-of-concept setting. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Comparison of secondary organic aerosol formed with an aerosol flow reactor and environmental reaction chambers: effect of oxidant concentration, exposure time and seed particles on chemical composition and yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Lambe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We performed a systematic intercomparison study of the chemistry and yields of SOA generated from OH oxidation of a common set of gas-phase precursors in a Potential Aerosol Mass (PAM continuous flow reactor and several environmental chambers. In the flow reactor, SOA precursors were oxidized using OH concentrations ranging from 2.0×108 to 2.2×1010 molec cm−3 over exposure times of 100 s. In the environmental chambers, precursors were oxidized using OH concentrations ranging from 2×106 to 2×107 molec cm−3 over exposure times of several hours. The OH concentration in the chamber experiments is close to that found in the atmosphere, but the integrated OH exposure in the flow reactor can simulate atmospheric exposure times of multiple days compared to chamber exposure times of only a day or so. A linear correlation analysis of the mass spectra (m=0.91–0.92, r2=0.93–0.94 and carbon oxidation state (m=1.1, r2=0.58 of SOA produced in the flow reactor and environmental chambers for OH exposures of approximately 1011 molec cm−3 s suggests that the composition of SOA produced in the flow reactor and chambers is the same within experimental accuracy as measured with an aerosol mass spectrometer. This similarity in turn suggests that both in the flow reactor and in chambers, SOA chemical composition at low OH exposure is governed primarily by gas-phase OH oxidation of the precursors, rather than heterogeneous oxidation of the condensed particles. In general, SOA yields measured in the flow reactor are lower than measured in chambers for the range of equivalent OH exposures that can be measured in both the flow reactor and chambers. The influence of sulfate seed particles on isoprene SOA yield measurements was examined in the flow reactor. The studies show that seed particles increase the yield of SOA produced in flow reactors by a factor of 3 to 5 and may also account in part for higher SOA yields obtained in the chambers, where seed

  12. Direct observation and analysis of york-shell materials using low-voltage high-resolution scanning electron microscopy: Nanometal-particles encapsulated in metal-oxide, carbon, and polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunsuke Asahina

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Nanometal particles show characteristic features in chemical and physical properties depending on their sizes and shapes. For keeping and further enhancing their features, the particles should be protected from coalescence or degradation. One approach is to encapsulate the nanometal particles inside pores with chemically inert or functional materials, such as carbon, polymer, and metal oxides, which contain mesopores to allow permeation of only chemicals not the nanometal particles. Recently developed low-voltage high-resolution scanning electron microscopy was applied to the study of structural, chemical, and electron state of both nanometal particles and encapsulating materials in york-shell materials of Au@C, Ru/Pt@C, Au@TiO2, and Pt@Polymer. Progresses in the following categories were shown for the york-shell materials: (i resolution of topographic image contrast by secondary electrons, of atomic-number contrast by back-scattered electrons, and of elemental mapping by X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy; (ii sample preparation for observing internal structures; and (iii X-ray spectroscopy such as soft X-ray emission spectroscopy. Transmission electron microscopy was also used for characterization of Au@C.

  13. Direct observation and analysis of yolk-shell materials using low-voltage high-resolution scanning electron microscopy: Nanometal-particles encapsulated in metal-oxide, carbon, and polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asahina, Shunsuke; Suga, Mitsuo; Takahashi, Hideyuki [JEOL Ltd., SM Business Unit, Tokyo (Japan); Young Jeong, Hu [Graduate School of EEWS, WCU/BK21+, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Galeano, Carolina; Schüth, Ferdi [Department of Heterogeneous Catalysis, Max-Planck-Institut für Kohlenforschung, Mülheim (Germany); Terasaki, Osamu, E-mail: terasaki@mmk.su.se, E-mail: terasaki@kaist.ac.kr [Graduate School of EEWS, WCU/BK21+, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Berzelii Centre EXSELENT on Porous Materials, Stockholm University, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2014-11-01

    Nanometal particles show characteristic features in chemical and physical properties depending on their sizes and shapes. For keeping and further enhancing their features, the particles should be protected from coalescence or degradation. One approach is to encapsulate the nanometal particles inside pores with chemically inert or functional materials, such as carbon, polymer, and metal oxides, which contain mesopores to allow permeation of only chemicals not the nanometal particles. Recently developed low-voltage high-resolution scanning electron microscopy was applied to the study of structural, chemical, and electron state of both nanometal particles and encapsulating materials in yolk-shell materials of Au@C, Ru/Pt@C, Au@TiO{sub 2}, and Pt@Polymer. Progresses in the following categories were shown for the yolk-shell materials: (i) resolution of topographic image contrast by secondary electrons, of atomic-number contrast by back-scattered electrons, and of elemental mapping by X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy; (ii) sample preparation for observing internal structures; and (iii) X-ray spectroscopy such as soft X-ray emission spectroscopy. Transmission electron microscopy was also used for characterization of Au@C.

  14. Determination of isoprene and alpha-/beta-pinene oxidation products in boreal forest aerosols from Hyytiälä, Finland: diel variations and possible link with particle formation events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourtchev, I; Ruuskanen, T M; Keronen, P; Sogacheva, L; Dal Maso, M; Reissell, A; Chi, X; Vermeylen, R; Kulmala, M; Maenhaut, W; Claeys, M

    2008-01-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs), such as isoprene and alpha-/beta-pinene, are photo-oxidized in the atmosphere to non-volatile species resulting in secondary organic aerosol (SOA). The goal of this study was to examine time trends and diel variations of oxidation products of isoprene and alpha-/beta-pinene in order to investigate whether they are linked with meteorological parameters or trace gases. Separate day-night aerosol samples (PM(1)) were collected in a Scots pine dominated forest in southern Finland during 28 July-11 August 2005 and analyzed with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). In addition, inorganic trace gases (SO(2), CO, NO(x), and O(3)), meteorological parameters, and the particle number concentration were monitored. The median total concentration of terpenoic acids (i.e., pinic acid, norpinic acid, and two novel compounds, 3-hydroxyglutaric acid and 2-hydroxy-4-isopropyladipic acid) was 65 ng m(-3), while that of isoprene oxidation products (i.e., 2-methyltetrols and C(5) alkene triols) was 17.2 ng m(-3). The 2-methyltetrols exhibited day/night variations with maxima during day-time, while alpha-/beta-pinene oxidation products did not show any diel variation. The sampling period was marked by a relatively high condensation sink, caused by pre-existing aerosol particles, and no nucleation events. In general, the concentration trends of the SOA compounds reflected those of the inorganic trace gases, meteorological parameters, and condensation sink. Both the isoprene and alpha-/beta-pinene SOA products were strongly influenced by SO(2), which is consistent with earlier reports that acidity plays a role in SOA formation. The results support previous proposals that oxygenated VOCs contribute to particle growth processes above boreal forest.