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Sample records for chain variable region

  1. Possible deletion of a developmentally regulated heavy-chain variable region gene in autoimmune diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Pei-Ming; Olee, Tsaiwei; Kozin, F.; Carson, D.A.; Chen, P.P. (Research Institute of Scripps Clinic, La Jolla, CA (USA)); Olsen, N.J. (Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (USA)); Siminovitch, K.A. (Univ. of Toronto (Canada))

    1990-10-01

    Several autoantibody-associated variable region (V) genes are preferentially expressed during early ontogenic development, suggesting strongly that they are of developmental and physiological importance. As such, it is possible that polymorphisms in one or more of these genes may alter susceptibility to autoimmune disease. The authors have searched extensively for a probe related to a developmentally regulated V gene that has the power to differentiate among highly homologous V genes in human populations. Using such a probe (i.e., Humhv3005/P1) related to both anti-DNA and anti-IgG autoantibodies, they studied restriction fragment length polymorphisms in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus and found an apparent heavy-chain V (V{sub H}) gene deletion that was nearly restricted to the autoimmune patients. These data suggest that deletions of physiologically important V{sub H} genes may increase the risk of autoimmunity through indirect effects on the development and homeostasis of the B-cell repertoire.

  2. Comparison of the variable loop regions of myosin heavy chain genes from Antarctic and temperate isopods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, J M; Whiteley, N M; Magnay, J L; El Haj, A J

    2002-03-01

    The evolutionary adaptations of functional genes to life at low temperatures are not well characterised in marine and fresh water invertebrates. Temperature has been shown to affect the functional characteristics of fish muscles, with changes in the velocity of shortening and ATPase activity being associated with myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoform composition and the structure of the surface loop regions. Two PCR products spanning loops 1 and 2 of a MyHC gene from an Antarctic isopod (Glyptonotus antarcticus) were sequenced and compared with those of a temperate isopod (Idotea resecata), slow and fast fibres from lobster (Homarus gammarus) and a cold water amphipod (Eulimnogammarus verrucosus), revealing specific differences between the species, possibly related to fibre type and habitat temperature. The loop 2 region from G. antarcticus myosin was cloned and used for Northern analysis of total RNA from the other species. The cloned myosin cDNA hybridised specifically to a 6.6-kb transcript, in G. antarcticus muscle. In contrast, cDNA probes for lobster slow myosin and actin hybridised to muscle RNA from all species, demonstrating that a distinct MyHC isoform is expressed in the Antarctic isopod, as opposed to the temperate species. The inter- and intra-specific sequence differences in loop 2 region suggest that this may be a site for muscle adaptation to enable function at the low temperatures found in the Southern Ocean. PMID:11959017

  3. MODELING SUPPLY CHAIN PERFORMANCE VARIABLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Agarwal

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand the dynamic behavior of the variables that can play a major role in the performance improvement in a supply chain, a System Dynamics-based model is proposed. The model provides an effective framework for analyzing different variables affecting supply chain performance. Among different variables, a causal relationship among different variables has been identified. Variables emanating from performance measures such as gaps in customer satisfaction, cost minimization, lead-time reduction, service level improvement and quality improvement have been identified as goal-seeking loops. The proposed System Dynamics-based model analyzes the affect of dynamic behavior of variables for a period of 10 years on performance of case supply chain in auto business.

  4. Immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region gene repertoire and B-cell receptor stereotypes in Indian patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Lata; Mathur, Nitin; Gogia, Ajay; Vishnubhatla, Sreenivas; Kumar, Lalit; Sharma, Atul; Dube, Divya; Kaur, Punit; Gupta, Ritu

    2016-10-01

    In chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), the geographical bias in immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable (IGHV) gene usage lead us to analyze IGHV gene usage and B-cell receptor stereotypy in 195 patients from India. IGHV3, IGHV4, and IGHV1 families were the most frequently used. 20.5% sequences had stereotyped BCR and were clustered in 12 pre-defined and 6 novel subsets. Unmutated IGHV was significantly associated with reduced time to first treatment (p cases (p = 0.045) in early stage patients. Regarding subfamily usage, only IGHV1-69 expression was found to have statistically significant poor outcome (p = 0.017). Our results from the analysis of various molecular and clinical features suggest that the expression of specific IGHV gene influences the outcome in early stage CLL, and hence its assessment may be added to the clinical leukemia laboratory armamentarium. PMID:26942309

  5. Stochastically Perturbed Chains of Variable Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, Nancy L.; Moreira, Lucas

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we study inference for chains of variable order under two distinct contamination regimes. Consider we have a chain of variable memory on a finite alphabet containing zero. At each instant of time an independent coin is flipped and if it turns head a contamination occurs. In the first regime a zero is read independent of the value of the chain. In the second regime, the value of another chain of variable memory is observed instead of the original one. Our results state that the ...

  6. Somatic diversification in the heavy chain variable region genes expressed by human autoantibodies bearing a lupus-associated nephritogenic anti-DNA idiotype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demaison, C.; Chastagner, P.; Theze, J.; Zouali, M. (Institut Pasteur, Paris (France))

    1994-01-18

    Monoclonal anti-DNA antibodies bearing a lupus nephritis-associated idiotype were derived from five patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Genes encoding their heavy (H)-chain variable (V[sub H]) regions were cloned and sequenced. When compared with their closest V[sub h] germ-line gene relatives, these sequences exhibit a number of silent (S) and replacement (R) substitutions. The ratios of R/S mutations were much higher in the complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) of the antibodies than in the framework regions. Molecular amplification of genomic V[sub H] genes and Southern hybridization with somatic CDR2-specific oligonucleotide probes showed that the configuration of the V[sub H] genes corresponding to V[sub H] sequences in the nephritogenic antibodies is not present in the patient's own germ-line DNA, implying that the B-cell clones underwent somatic mutation in vivo. These findings, together with the characteristics of the diversity and junctional gene elements utilized to form the antibody, indicate that these autoantibodies have been driven through somatic selection processes reminiscent of those that govern antibody responses triggered by exogenous stimuli.

  7. Stochastic chains with memory of variable length

    OpenAIRE

    Galves, Antonio; Loecherbach, Eva

    2008-01-01

    International audience Stochastic chains with memory of variable length constitute an interesting family of stochastic chains of infinite order on a finite alphabet. The idea is that for each past, only a finite suffix of the past, called context, is enough to predict the next symbol. These models were first introduced in the information theory literature by Rissanen (1983) as a universal tool to perform data compression. Recently, they have been used to model up scientific data in areas a...

  8. Design Method Amelioration of Human Immunoglobulin Gene Primer in Heavy Chain Variable Region%人免疫球蛋白重链可变区基因引物设计方法的改良

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜晶; 孙颖; 刘红艳; 牟玲; 罗恩杰

    2012-01-01

    针对抗体胚系基因数据库的数据不断更新和完善,为获得人全部免疫球蛋白(Ig)重链可变区基因,改进引物设计方法,自主设计针对可变区基因高度保守的框架区1(FR1)和框架区4(FR4)的引物,提取未经免疫的健康人外周血单个核细胞,通过RT-PCR扩增重链可变区基因.其DNA序列与GenBank数据库和IMGT/V-QUEST软件比对,序列分析符合人免疫球蛋白重链基本框架结构,为胚系基因重排产生的序列.多个克隆的测序结果对比分析显示了良好的多样性.获得的重链序列为研制基因工程抗体及构建噬菌体抗体库奠定了物质基础,也为扩增其他物种Ig可变区基因的引物提供新的设计思路.%Aiming at the continuous renovation and consummation of dala of databank on antibody germ line gene, in order to obtain full gene of heavy chain variable region of human immunoglobin (Ig) , to ameliorate primer design method, a primer was independently designed aiming at variable gene highly conservative region framework 1 ( FR1) and framework 4 ( FR4) , and extracted peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy volunteer, and amplified its heavy chain variable region gene through RT-PCR. After comparison with databank in CenBank and IMGT/V-QUEST software and sequence analysis, the DNA sequence accorded with basic framework structure of human Ig heavy chain, and was the sequence produced by the rearrangement of germ line gene. Comparative analysis of multiple clones sequencing showed a good diversity. The obtained data of heavy chain sequence had provided the material foundation for research and development of gene engineering antibodies and phage libraries, and new design ideas for amplifying Ig variable region gene primers of other species.

  9. Evidence indicating independent assortment of framework and complementarity-determining segments of the variable regions of rabbit light chains. Delineation of a possible J minigene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabat, E A; Wu, T T; Bilofsky, H

    1980-07-01

    Amino acid sequences of rabbit light chains show considerable evidence of independent assortment of framework (FR) and complementarity-determining (CDR) segments. This suggests that they are coded for by independent genetic units (minigaenes) and that individual light chains are assembled somatically by recombining these units. Identical FR sets with multiple members generally comprise chains with different specificities, whereas identical CDR sets tend to have chains of a single specificity. A J segment, which, by analogy with mouse light chains, is made up of the last two residues of CDR3 plus all of FR4, contained 18 different sets and could contribute to diversity generated by CDR3. The longest segment, FR3, had a very large number of sets. Evidence is presented showing that the number of sets could be substantially reduced by permitting FR3 to be formed by two independently assorting segments comprising residues 57-68 and 69-88.

  10. Supply chain performance: the role of regional markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ghasemi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the role of exports in the regional markets on the performance of supply chain. The study first determines critical variables affecting exports for entering into the regional markets and then measures the effects of these variables on the effectiveness of supply chain performance. The study uses two questionnaires, one for measuring the effects of various factors on export development and the other for measuring supply chain performance in Likert scale. Cronbach alpha for the mentioned questionnaires were calculated as 0.84 and 0.78, respectively. The population of the survey includes all small and medium enterprises active in city of Tehran, Iran and the study selects a sample of 250 people as a sample size. Using factor analysis, the study has determined seven factors including product development, government support, strategic orientation, customer satisfaction, competitive pressures, organizational capability and distribution strategies for entry into regional markets. In addition, the implementation of structural equation modeling has disclosed that product development and distribution strategies maintained the highest impact on export activities.

  11. 抗人喉癌单克隆抗体轻链可变区基因的克隆%Cloning of the light chain variable region gene of monoclonal antibody against human laryngeal carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管国芳; 黄华梁; 孙丽丽; 王安兆; 王祥斌; 石毅; 孙立群; 金春顺; 李野; 文连姬

    2006-01-01

    目的 分离抗人喉癌单克隆抗体LC9-G5轻链可变区(liht chain variable region,VL)基因,并测定分析其核苷酸序列.方法 使用PCR方法体外扩增抗人喉癌单克隆抗体LC9-G5 VL基因,将其克隆入PMD18-T载体,重组子测序,将其序列使用数据库NCBI和Kabat进行分析.结果 这段序列与小鼠卵巢癌抗体VL基因的同源性为99%,基因全长336 bp,属于小鼠免疫球蛋白轻链第Ⅱ亚类,该VL基因序列已被Gene Bank收录,收录号为U60463.结论 该基因为抗人喉癌单克隆抗体LC9-G5轻链可变区基因.

  12. The association of heavy and light chain variable domains in antibodies: implications for antigen specificity.

    KAUST Repository

    Chailyan, Anna

    2011-06-28

    The antigen-binding site of immunoglobulins is formed by six regions, three from the light and three from the heavy chain variable domains, which, on association of the two chains, form the conventional antigen-binding site of the antibody. The mode of interaction between the heavy and light chain variable domains affects the relative position of the antigen-binding loops and therefore has an effect on the overall conformation of the binding site. In this article, we analyze the structure of the interface between the heavy and light chain variable domains and show that there are essentially two different modes for their interaction that can be identified by the presence of key amino acids in specific positions of the antibody sequences. We also show that the different packing modes are related to the type of recognized antigen.

  13. Value chain dynamics, settlement trajectories and regional development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fold, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Global value chain (GVC) analysis has little to say about the interaction between regions and global chain dynamics. However, recent calls to address broader development issues have resulted in efforts to incorporate a spatial dimension in GVC analysis. Addressing this issue, the paper argues...... by value chain dynamics will improve by adding elements from global production network (GPN) theory to the combined methodology, namely by an examination of territorial embeddedness and value (creation, enhancement, capture, distribution) at settlement level....

  14. Implications Of Human Resource Variables On Supply Chain Performance And Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar Marwah

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a conceptual model indicating the effect of Human Resource (HR variables on supply chain (SC performance and to suggest best approach suited for Indian manufacturing organizations, in general, and automotive industries, in particular. This study is a part of a larger research project exploring SC related practices. The methodology of critical evaluation involved literature review of empirical research articles on performance measurement, SCM and HR practices. A critical analysis is carried out so as to identify research gaps in content of effect of HR on performance measurement of supply chains, as well as to propose directions for future research. A conceptual model is also proposed. Critical investigation of selected articles led to an idea that there can be significant effect of the role of human involvement on overall SC Performance. It is to be seen that how various parameters, taken from the literature review, affect SC performance and ultimately contributing to its competitiveness. The study is limited to supply chains of the automotive industries and their ancillaries located in Malwa region of M.P., India. Further research can be carried out by using data of various supply chains located in other parts of India to generalize the research. Also, other sectors and industries can be included.

  15. Landform Variability in the Chaine Des Puys Tracing Multiple Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wyk de Vries, B.; Grosse, P.

    2014-12-01

    The Chaîne des Puys is a highly varied, type monogenetic field, and was acknowledged by 38th WH UNESCO Committee to contain Outstanding Universal Value. The Chaîne des Puys - Limagne Fault should be presented in 2016 for World Heritage Status. The 30 km long Chaîne des Puys contains ranges from simple basaltic scoria cones to complex, multicrater cones, and small simple domes to complicated trachytic edifices. There is also a range of phreatomagmatic landforms from tuff rings to maars and vulcanian to sub plinian deposits. There is a wide range of pahoehoe and aa lava types, that have flowed over different topographies. Here we take morphometrical data to analyse the variability of the edifices using a 10 m regional topographic DTM. The volcanoes form a broad continuum of morphological features, and height/widths of domes and cones overlap. Some edifices, are smooth and elliptical, even though they have erupted complex lava sequences, while others complex shapes, but are related to simple lava flows. There seems to be no easy correlation between cone morphology and eruption histories derived from lava fields and distal tephras. In the few cones where the interior is visible, the shape of the cone is seen to vary with changing eruption events. The final shape is a combination of changing activity, with the last events having the strongest morphometic signature. The broad variations in edifice, lava field, and deposit morphology are described and quantified, however it becomes clear from the few individual eruptions already studied, that to fully appreciate the range of monogenetic eruption scenarios presented by the Chaîne des Puys, much more detailed work is required. This is being made possible by new acquisitions of LiDAR imagery, new geophysical work, and the combination of excellent preservation and extensive outcrop that is partly the result the original geology and long term responsible land management by the local populace, regional park and local

  16. Improving performance of supply chain processes by reducing variability

    OpenAIRE

    Poiger, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Supply chain management (SCM) has become one of the most popular and fastest growing areas in management. One major issue of SCM is the proper design of supply chains to serve customers effectively (high customer service) and efficiently (at low costs). This is particularly difficult as companies nowadays face a series of challenges like shrinking product life cycles, the proliferation of product variants (mass customization), and increasing uncertainty on both the demand and the supply side....

  17. Cloning,sequencing and analyzing of the heavy chain V region genes of human polyreactive antibodies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGJINSONG; MINGYEH

    1994-01-01

    The heavy chain variable region genes of 5 human polyreactive mAbs generated in our laboratory have been cloned and sequenced using polymerase chain reaction(PCR) technique.We found that 2 and 3 mAbs utilized genes of the VHIV and VHⅢ families,respectively.The former 2 VH segments were in germline configuration.A common VH segment,with the best similarity of 90.1% to the published VHⅢ germline genes,was utilized by 2 different rearranged genes encoding the V regions of other 3 mAbs.This strongly suggests that the common VH segment is a unmutated copy of an unidentified germline VHⅢ gene.All these polyreactive mAbs displayed a large NDN region(VH-D-JH junction).The entire H chain V regions of these polyreactive mAbs are unusually basic.The analysis of the charge properties of these mAbs as well as those of other poly-and mono-reactive mAbs from literatures prompts us to propose that the charged amino acids with a particular distribution along the H chain V region,especially the binding sites(CDRs),may be an important structural feature involved in antibody polyreactivity.

  18. Cloning and Sequence Analysis of Light Variable Region Gene of Anti-human Retinoblastoma Monoclonal Antibody

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiufeng Zhong; Yongping Li; Shuqi Huang; Bo Ning; Chunyan Zhang; Jianliang Zheng; Guanguang Feng

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To clone the variable region gene of light chain of monoclonal antibody against human retinoblastoma and to analyze the characterization of its nucleotide sequence as well as amino acid sequence.Methods: Total RNA was extracted from 3C6 hybridoma cells secreting specific monoclonal antibody(McAb)against human retinoblastoma(RB), then transcripted reversely into cDNA with olig-dT primers.The variable region of the light chain (VL) gene fragments was amplified using polymeerase chain reaction(PCR) and further cloned into pGEM(R) -T Easy vector. Then, 3C6 VL cDNA was sequenced by Sanger's method.Homologous analysis was done by NCBI BLAST.Results: The complete nucleotide sequence of 3C6 VL cDNA consisted of 321 bp encoding 107 amino acid residues, containing four workframe regions(FRs)and three complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) as well as the typical structure of two cys residues. The sequence is most homological to a member of the Vk9 gene family, and its chain utilizes the Jkl gene segment.Conclusion: The light chain variable region gene of the McAb against human RB was amplified successfully , which belongs to the Vk9 gene family and utilizes Vk-Jk1 gene rearrangement. This study lays a good basis for constructing a recombinant antibody and for making a new targeted therapeutic agents against retinoblastoma.

  19. Mutations in specific structural regions of immunoglobulin light chains are associated with free light chain levels in patients with AL amyloidosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya L Poshusta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The amyloidoses are protein misfolding diseases characterized by the deposition of amyloid that leads to cell death and tissue degeneration. In immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis (AL, each patient has a unique monoclonal immunoglobulin light chain (LC that forms amyloid deposits. Somatic mutations in AL LCs make these proteins less thermodynamically stable than their non-amyloidogenic counterparts, leading to misfolding and ultimately the formation of amyloid fibrils. We hypothesize that location rather than number of non-conservative mutations determines the amyloidogenicity of light chains. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed sequence alignments on the variable domain of 50 kappa and 91 lambda AL light chains and calculated the number of non-conservative mutations over total number of patients for each secondary structure element in order to identify regions that accumulate non-conservative mutations. Among patients with AL, the levels of circulating immunoglobulin free light chain varies greatly, but even patients with very low levels can have very advanced amyloid deposition. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that in specific secondary structure elements, there are significant differences in the number of non-conservative mutations between normal and AL sequences. AL sequences from patients with different levels of secreted light chain have distinct differences in the location of non-conservative mutations, suggesting that for patients with very low levels of light chains and advanced amyloid deposition, the location of non-conservative mutations rather than the amount of free light chain in circulation may determine the amyloidogenic propensity of light chains.

  20. Conditional probability Markov chain simulation based reliability analysis method for nonnormal variables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Based on fast Markov chain simulation for generating the samples distributed in failure region and saddlepoint approximation(SA) technique,an efficient reliability analysis method is presented to evaluate the small failure probability of non-linear limit state function(LSF) with non-normal variables.In the presented method,the failure probability of the non-linear LSF is transformed into a product of the failure probability of the introduced linear LSF and a feature ratio factor.The introduced linear LSF which approximately has the same maximum likelihood points as the non-linear LSF is constructed and its failure probability can be calculated by SA technique.The feature ratio factor,which can be evaluated on the basis of multiplicative rule of probability,exhibits the relation between the failure probability of the non-linear LSF and that of the linear LSF,and it can be fast computed by utilizing the Markov chain algorithm to directly simulate the samples distributed in the failure regions of the non-linear LSF and those of the linear LSF.Moreover,the expectation and variance of the failure probability estimate are derived.The results of several examples demonstrate that the presented method has wide applicability,can be easily implemented,and possesses high precision and high efficiency.

  1. Preparation and Identification of a Single-chain Variable Fragment Antibody Against Canine Distemper Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Li; Cheng, Shipeng

    2015-08-01

    The variable regions of the heavy chain (VH) and light chain (VL) were amplified by RT-PCR from the hybridoma 1N8, which secretes the monoclonal antibody against CDV N protein (aa 277-471). The VL and VH amplicons were combined using SOE-PCR by a 12 amino acid flexible linker (SSGGGGSGGGGS), which produced the scFv gene (named scFv/1N8). After sequence analysis, the scFv/1N8 gene was cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector PET32a with a His-tag. The recombinant scFv/1N8 protein was successfully expressed in recombinant Escherichia coli by IPTG induction. Moreover, the binding activity and specificity of the scFv were determined by indirect ELISA (His-tag) and competitive ELISA. The recombinant scFv/1N8 protein reported here will provide some basis for further antiviral drug research based on the scFv molecule. PMID:26301925

  2. Equivalence of chain conformations in the surface region of a polymer melt and a single Gaussian chain nder critical conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skvortsov, A.M.; Leermakers, F.A.M.; Fleer, G.J.

    2013-01-01

    In the melt polymer conformations are nearly ideal according to Flory's ideality hypothesis. Silberberg generalized this statement for chains in the interfacial region. We check the Silberberg argument by analyzing the conformations of a probe chain end-grafted at a solid surface in a sea of floatin

  3. Separation of Variables in the Classical Integrable SL(3) Magnetic Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Sklyanin, E. K.

    1992-01-01

    There are two fundamental problems studied by the theory of hamiltonian integrable systems: integration of equations of motion, and construction of action-angle variables. The third problem, however, should be added to the list: separation of variables. Though much simpler than two others, it has important relations to the quantum integrability. Separation of variables is constructed for the $SL(3)$ magnetic chain --- an example of integrable model associated to a nonhyperelliptic algebraic c...

  4. 甲型H1N1流感病毒血凝素单克隆抗体轻链和重链可变区基因的巢式PCR扩增及序列分析%Nested PCR Amplifying and DNA Sequence Analysis of Light and Heavy Chain Variable Region Gene of Monoclonal Antibody Against H1N1 Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李慧瑾; 胡军; 李研; 孙晶莹; 高锦伟; 赵向绒; 封青; 谭天天; 胡巧侠; 李元

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To clone and analysis light and heavy chain genes of monoclonal antibody against H1N1 influenza virus hemagglutinin by Nested PCR, then construct a common method for cloning light and heavy chain variable region genes of mouse anti-human H1N1 influenza virus hemagglutinin monoclonal antibody. Methods:We designed 22 pairs of primers for amplifying Igκ light and heavy chain variable region gene, and cloned light and heavy chain variable region genes of 6 mouse anti-human H1N1 influenza virus hemagglutinin monoclonal anti⁃bodies. Cloning and subsequent sequences analysis of immunoglobulin gene were performed, sequence alignment with mouse immunoglobulin in NCBI. Results: The nucleotide and corresponding amino acid sequences were in line with characteristics of mouse immunoglobulin variable region. Conclusion: In this study, we cloned 6 mouse antibody variable region genes, and found a common method for cloning immunoglobulin light and heavy chain variable region genes. It provides a basis for late amplifying monoclonal antibody variable region, and experimental data for analysis of H1N1 influenza virus hemagglutinin and antibody binding sites.%  目的:采用巢式PCR对甲型H1N1流感病毒血凝素单克隆抗体的轻链和重链基因进行扩增,对获得的基因进行序列分析,并找出克隆鼠Igκ轻链和重链可变区基因的通用方法。方法:设计22对扩增鼠Igκ轻链可变区和重链可变区基因的引物,对6株鼠抗人甲型H1N1流感病毒血凝素单克隆抗体的轻链和重链可变区基因进行克隆并测序,与NCBI公布的鼠免疫球蛋白序列比对分析。结果:巢式PCR方法可以有效避免单克隆抗体克隆过程的假基因,并且得到的单克隆抗体的氨基酸序列均符合鼠免疫球蛋白可变区特征。结论:建立了克隆鼠免疫球蛋白轻链和重链可变区基因的通用方法,为后期克隆鼠源性单克隆抗体的可变区基因提供了

  5. Chimeric antibody with human constant regions and mouse variable regions directed against carcinoma-associated antigen 17-1A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have cloned the genomic DNA fragments encoding the heavy and light chain variable regions of monoclonal antibody 17-1A, and they have inserted them into mammalian expression vectors containing genomic DNA segments encoding human γ3 and kappa constant regions. The transfer of these expression vectors containing mouse-human chimeric immunoglobulin genes into Sp2/0 mouse myeloma cells resulted in the production of functional IgG that retained the specific binding to the surface antigen 17-1A expressed on colorectal carcinoma cells

  6. Chimeric antibody with human constant regions and mouse variable regions directed against carcinoma-associated antigen 17-1A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, L.K.; Curtis, P.; Rakowicz-Szulczynska, E.; Ghrayeb, J.; Chang, N.; Morrison, S.L.; Koprowski, H.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have cloned the genomic DNA fragments encoding the heavy and light chain variable regions of monoclonal antibody 17-1A, and they have inserted them into mammalian expression vectors containing genomic DNA segments encoding human ..gamma..3 and kappa constant regions. The transfer of these expression vectors containing mouse-human chimeric immunoglobulin genes into Sp2/0 mouse myeloma cells resulted in the production of functional IgG that retained the specific binding to the surface antigen 17-1A expressed on colorectal carcinoma cells.

  7. Climate variability in the Carpathian Mountains Region over 1961-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheval, Sorin; Birsan, Marius-Victor; Dumitrescu, Alexandru

    2014-07-01

    The Carpathian Mountains Region (CMR) lies over parts of the territories of seven Central and Southeastern European countries, and the mountain chain induces major changes in the temperate climate specific to the latitudes between 43° and 49°N. Different administrations govern the long-term meteorological networks; the infrastructure, collection protocols, and storage capacities are specific to each country, so that a comprehensive study on the climate of the area has met considerable difficulties along time. Climate of the Carpathian Region (CARPATCLIM) is a regional initiative developed between 2010 and 2013 aiming to enhance the climatic information in the area by providing comprehensive, temporally and spatially homogenous data sets of the main meteorological variables. Based on daily data aggregated to a monthly scale at 10-km resolution, this study exploits and promotes the results of the CARPATCLIM project, documenting the variability of the main climatic variables over 1961-2010. For each month, the significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified, mapped and placed in the context of previous studies and climate change perspectives. The study has revealed several patterns in the climatic variability, i.e., positive or negative trends prevailing over the entire area, very distinct delineation between various trends induced by the Carpathian Mountain chain, and pledges for further scientific approaches, i.e., causes of the variability and applications in other domains.

  8. Expression and Functional Properties of an Anti-Triazophos High-Affinity Single-Chain Variable Fragment Antibody with Specific Lambda Light Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Liu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Triazophos is a widely used organophosphorous insecticide that has potentially adverse effects to organisms. In the present study, a high-affinity single-chain variable fragment (scFv antibody with specific lambda light chain was developed for residue monitoring. First, the specific variable regions were correctly amplified from a hybridoma cell line 8C10 that secreted monoclonal antibody (mAb against triazophos. The regions were then assembled as scFv via splicing by overlap extension polymerase chain reaction. Subsequently, the recombinant anti-triazophos scFv-8C10 was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli strain HB2151 in soluble form, purified through immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography, and verified via Western blot and peptide mass fingerprinting analyses. Afterward, an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was established based on the purified anti-triazophos scFv-8C10 antibody. The assay exhibited properties similar to those based on the parent mAb, with a high sensitivity (IC50 of 1.73 ng/mL to triazophos and no cross reaction for other organophosphorus pesticides; it was reliable in detecting triazophos residues in spiked water samples. Moreover, kinetic measurement using a surface plasmon resonance biosensor indicated that the purified scFv-8C10 antibody had a high affinity of 1.8 × 10−10 M and exhibited good binding stability. Results indicated that the recombinant high-affinity scFv-8C10 antibody was an effective detection material that would be promising for monitoring triazophos residues in environment samples.

  9. Expression and production of llama variable heavy-chain antibody fragments (VHHs) by Aspergillus awamori

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, V.; Gouka, R.J.; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. van den; Verrips, C.T.; Lokman, B.C.

    2005-01-01

    We report the expression and production of llama variable heavy-chain antibody fragments (VHHs) by Aspergillus awamori. Fragments encoding VHHs were cloned in a suitable Aspergillus expression vector and transformants secreting VHH fragments were analysed for integrated gene copy-numbers, mRNA level

  10. Affinity improvement by fine tuning of single-chain variable fragment against aflatoxin B1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Won-Ki; Na, Kang-In; Yoon, Jung-Hyun; Heo, Yoon-Jee; Lee, Daesang; Kim, Sung-Gun; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2016-10-15

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) produced in Aspergillus flavus is a major hepatocarcinogen found in foods and feed. For effective immunological detection of AFB1 at low concentrations, the development of high affinity antibody for AFB1 is required. Previously, an affinity-maturated single-chain variable fragment containing 6 mutations (scFv-M37) was isolated from an artificial mutagenic library, which showed a 9-fold higher affinity than its wild type scFv. In this study, the effect of the 6 mutated residues on the affinity improvement was characterized using surface plasmon resonance analysis, which identified a deleterious mutation (VH-A110T) located on a framework region of the scFv-M37. The back mutation of VH-A110T resulted in a 3.2-fold affinity improvement, which was attributed to decrease of dissociation rate constant (kd) in interaction between AFB1 and the back mutant scFv. The biophysical analyses using circular dichroism and gel filtration revealed that the back mutation of VH-A110T caused a subtle conformational change of the scFv toward tighter binding to AFB1. PMID:27173568

  11. The role of CTCF binding sites in the 3' immunoglobulin heavy chain regulatory region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birshtein, Barbara K

    2012-01-01

    The immunoglobulin heavy chain locus undergoes a series of DNA rearrangements and modifications to achieve the construction and expression of individual antibody heavy chain genes in B cells. These events affect variable regions, through VDJ joining and subsequent somatic hypermutation, and constant regions through class switch recombination (CSR). Levels of IgH expression are also regulated during B cell development, resulting in high levels of secreted antibodies from fully differentiated plasma cells. Regulation of these events has been attributed primarily to two cis-elements that work from long distances on their target sequences, i.e., an ∼1 kb intronic enhancer, Eμ, located between the V region segments and the most 5' constant region gene, Cμ; and an ∼40 kb 3' regulatory region (3' RR) that is located downstream of the most 3' C(H) gene, Cα. The 3' RR is a candidate for an "end" of B cell-specific regulation of the Igh locus. The 3' RR contains several B cell-specific enhancers associated with DNase I hypersensitive sites (hs1-4), which are essential for CSR and for high levels of IgH expression in plasma cells. Downstream of this enhancer-containing region is a region of high-density CTCF binding sites, which extends through hs5, 6, and 7 and further downstream. CTCF, with its enhancer-blocking activities, has been associated with all mammalian insulators and implicated in multiple chromosomal interactions. Here we address the 3' RR CTCF-binding region as a potential insulator of the Igh locus, an independent regulatory element and a predicted modulator of the activity of 3' RR enhancers. Using chromosome conformation capture technology, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and genetic approaches, we have found that the 3' RR with its CTCF-binding region interacts with target sequences in the V(H), Eμ, and C(H) regions through DNA looping as regulated by protein binding. This region impacts on B cell-specific Igh processes at different stages of B cell

  12. ZnO hybrid photovoltaics with variable side-chain lengths of thienothiophene polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of the side-chain length of poly(3,6-dialkylthieno[3,2-b]thiophene-co-bithiophene) (pATBT) on the performance of hybrid polymer-metal oxide photovoltaics (PVs) utilizing zinc oxide (ZnO) acceptor is investigated. The pATBT attached with a dodecyl side chain (pATBT-C12) in hybrid photovoltaics with ZnO was compared to pATBT with a hexadecyl side chain (pATBT-C16). Atomic force microscopic analysis reveals a smoother surface for the pATBT-C16 photoactive layer compared to the pATBT-C12. For hybrid PVs using pATBT-C16, the relative intensity of the external quantum efficiency (EQE) increased particularly in wavelength region associated with the ZnO. Furthermore, the EQE spectrum shows a red shift for pATBT-C16 indicating better structural ordering compared to hybrid PVs with pATBT-C12. As a result, the hybrid PV utilizing pATBT-C16:ZnO blend layer is observed to display a better performance with a power conversion efficiency of 1.02% compared to 0.672% of pATBT-C12:ZnO PV. - Highlights: • The effect of polymer side-chain length on hybrid photovoltaics is investigated. • Longer side chains positively influence structural and optical properties of hybrid films. • Longer side-chain length leads to better photovoltaic performance

  13. Production of Single-Chain Variable-Fragments against Carbohydrate Antigens

    OpenAIRE

    Yoko Fujita-Yamaguchi

    2014-01-01

    The production of human single-chain variable-fragments (scFvs) against carbohydrate antigens by phage display technology is seemingly a logical strategy towards the development of antibody therapeutics, since carbohydrates are self-antigens. Panning and screening of phages displaying human scFvs using a variety of neoglycolipids presenting structurally-defined carbohydrates resulted in a number of candidate phage clones as judged by cautious evaluation of DNA sequences and specific binding t...

  14. Amplifying variable region gene of light chain(VL)of monoclonal antibody against human papillomavirus 16 L1(HPV16 L1)protein by 5'-RACE and sequence analysis%5'-RACE法扩增抗人乳头瘤病毒16型L1蛋白单克隆抗体轻链可变区基因及序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王燕; 商庆龙; 陈思佳; 邵迪; 韩聪; 李茉; 谷鸿喜

    2008-01-01

    Objective To acquire the variable region gene of light chain(VL)of monoclonal antibody a-gainst human papillomavirus 16 LI(HPV16 LI)protein.Methods Total RNA waft extract from hybridoma cells secreting specific monoclonal antibody against HPV16L1,transcripted reversely into cDNA with random primers.The variable region of the light chain gene fragments was ampliflied using 5'-RACE.Sequencing was confirmed by agarose gel electrophoresis and sequencing analysis.Results Full letIsth of VL gene Was 336bp that encoding 112 amino acids.The VL gene was homologous with the published gene sequences of mouse antibody variable region.Conclusion The light chain sequence of monoclonal antibody against HPV16L1 protein Was obtained by 5'-RACE,which provides a good basis for construction of a recombinant antibody against HPV16 L1.%目的 获得抗人乳头瘤病毒16型(HPV16)L1蛋白单克隆抗体的轻链可变区(VL)基因并分析序列.方法 从分泌抗HPV16L1蛋白单克隆抗体的杂交瘤细胞中提取总RNA,逆转录形成cDNA,用5'-RACE策略扩增抗体轻链可变区基因,经琼脂糖凝胶电泳鉴定,并测序及进行序列分析.结果 VL基因全长336bp,编码112个氨基酸,基因测序结果符合小鼠抗体轻链可变区特征.结论 5'-RACE法成功获得了抗HPV16L1蛋白的单克隆抗体轻链可变区基因的真实序列,为基因工程抗体研究奠定了良好基础.

  15. Analysis of Users’ Web Navigation Behavior using GRPA with Variable Length Markov Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindu Madhuri. Ch

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available With the never-ending growth of Web services and Web-based information systems, the volumes of click stream and user data collected by Web-based organizations in their daily operations has reached enormous proportions. Analyzing such huge data can help to evaluate the effectiveness of promotional campaigns, optimize the functionality of Web-based applications, and provide more personalized content to visitors. In the previous work, we had proposed a method, Grey Relational Pattern Analysis using Markov chains, which involves to discovering the meaningful patterns and relationships from a large collection of data, often stored in Web and applications server access logs, proxy logs etc. Herein, we propose a novel approach to analyse the navigational behavior of User using GRPA with Variable-Length Markov Chains. A VLMC is a model extension that allows variable length history to be captured. GRPA with VariableLength Markov Chains, which reflects on sequential information in Web usage data effectively and efficiently, and it can be extended to allow integration with a Web user navigation behavior prediction model for better Web Usage mining Applications.

  16. Globalization or Regionalization? A New Approach to Measure International Fragmentation of Value Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Los, Bart; Timmer, Marcel; Vries, Gaaitzen J. de

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing evidence of denser networks of intermediate input flows between countries suggesting ongoing fragmentation of production chains. But to what extent is this process mainly regional, taking place between countries within a region, or mainly global, involving countries outside the region? We provide new macro-economic evidence regarding this issue, by extending the Feenstra and Hanson (1999) measure of fragmentation to a multi-country setting. We identify the value chain of a...

  17. Business systems, value chains and inclusive regional development in South-East Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Andriesse; N. Beerepoot; B. van Helvoirt; G. van Westen

    2011-01-01

    Regional economic development is played out in a network of relations along value chains and within a territorial setting. Chain insertion favours growth but also exclusion or inclusion on adverse terms. This may happen at different levels of scale, especially when a nation-state has not produced a

  18. Porous silicon biosensor for detection of variable domain of heavy-chain of HCAb antibody

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hong-yan; Lü Xiao-yi; JIA Zhen-hong; LI Jiang-wei; ZHANG Fu-chun

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,we produce porous silicon (PSi) by electrochemical etching,and it is the first time to evaluate the performance of label-free porous silicon biosensor for detection of variable domain of heavy chain of heavy-chain antibody (VHH).The binding of hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) and VHH causes a red shift in the reflection spectrum of the biosensor.The red shift is proportional to the VHH concentration in the range from 14 μg · ml-1 to 30μg·ml-1 with a detection limit of 0.648 ng ·ml-1.The research is useful for the development of label-free biosensor applied in the rapid and sensitive determination of small molecules.

  19. New Construction of Eigenstates and Separation of Variables for SU(N) Quantum Spin Chains

    CERN Document Server

    Gromov, Nikolay; Sizov, Grigory

    2016-01-01

    We conjecture a new way to construct eigenstates of integrable XXX quantum spin chains with SU(N) symmetry. The states are built by repeatedly acting on the vacuum with a single operator B^{good}(u) evaluated at the Bethe roots. Our proposal serves as a compact alternative to the usual nested algebraic Bethe ansatz. Furthermore, the roots of the operator B^{good}(u) give the separated variables of the model, explicitly generalizing Sklyanin's approach to the SU(N) case. We present many tests of the conjecture and prove it in several special cases. We focus on rational spin chains with fundamental representation at each site, but expect many of the results to be valid more generally.

  20. POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF CLIMATIC VARIABILITY ON INDIAN HIMALAYAN REGION

    OpenAIRE

    Kavita Tariyal; Dhanesh Mohan Bartwal

    2014-01-01

    The Himalayan region represents enormous variability of climates, hydrological and ecological systems, plus a diversity of cultures and communities. It is an essentiality to the ecological security of the Indian landmass, through providing forest cover, feeding recurrent rivers that are the source of potable water, irrigation, and hydropower, conserving biodiversity, providing a rich foundation for high value agriculture, and spectacular landscapes for sustainable tourism. Increasing concentr...

  1. Mid-Holocene regional reorganization of climate variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. W. Wirtz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We integrate 130 globally distributed proxy time series to refine the understanding of climate variability during the Holocene. Cyclic anomalies and temporal trends in periodicity from the Lower to the Upper Holocene are extracted by combining Lomb-Scargle Fourier-transformed spectra with bootstrapping. Results were cross-checked by counting events in the time series. Main outcomes are: First, the propensity of the climate system to fluctuations is a region specific property. Many records of adjacent sites reveal a similar change in variability although they belong to different proxy types (e.g., δ18O, lithic composition. Secondly, at most sites, irreversible change occured in the Mid-Holocene. We suggest that altered ocean circulation together with slightly modified coupling intensity between regional climate subsystems around the 5.5 kyr BP event (termination of the African Humid Period were responsible for the shift. Fluctuations especially intensified along a pan-American corridor. This may have led to an unequal crisis probability for early human civilizations in the Old and New World. Our study did not produce evidence for millennial scale cyclicity in some solar activity proxies for the Upper Holocene, nor for a privileged role of the prominent 250, 550, 900 and 1450 yr cycles. This lack of global periodicities corroborates the regional character of climate variability.

  2. Attributing Sources of Variability in Regional Climate Model Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, C. G.; Sain, S. R.

    2008-12-01

    Variability in regional climate model (RCM) projections may be due to a number of factors, including the choice of RCM itself, the boundary conditions provided by a driving general circulation model (GCM), and the choice of emission scenario. We describe a new statistical methodology, Gaussian Process ANOVA, which allows us to decompose these sources of variability while also taking account of correlations in the output across space. Our hierarchical Bayesian framework easily allows joint inference about high probability envelopes for the functions, as well as decompositions of total variance that vary over the domain of the functions. These may be used to create maps illustrating the magnitude of each source of variability across the domain of the regional model. We use this method to analyze temperature and precipitation data from the Prudence Project, an RCM intercomparison project in which RCMs were crossed with GCM forcings and scenarios in a designed experiment. This work was funded by the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP).

  3. An efficient method for variable region assembly in the construction of scFv phage display libraries using independent strand amplification

    OpenAIRE

    Sotelo, Pablo H.; Collazo, Noberto; Zuñiga, Roberto; Gutiérrez-González, Matías; Catalán, Diego; Ribeiro, Carolina Hager; Aguillón, Juan Carlos; MOLINA, MARÍA CARMEN

    2012-01-01

    Phage display library technology is a common method to produce human antibodies. In this technique, the immunoglobulin variable regions are displayed in a bacteriophage in a way that each filamentous virus displays the product of a single antibody gene on its surface. From the collection of different phages, it is possible to isolate the virus that recognizes specific targets. The most common form in which to display antibody variable regions in the phage is the single chain variable fragment...

  4. Trends and variability of droughts over the Indian monsoon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganeshchandra Mallya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Drought characteristics for the Indian monsoon region are analyzed using two different datasets and standard precipitation index (SPI, standardized precipitation-evapotranspiration index (SPEI, Gaussian mixture model-based drought index (GMM-DI, and hidden Markov model-based drought index (HMM-DI for the period 1901–2004. Drought trends and variability were analyzed for three epochs: 1901–1935, 1936–1971 and 1972–2004. Irrespective of the dataset and methodology used, the results indicate an increasing trend in drought severity and frequency during the recent decades (1972–2004. Droughts are becoming more regional and are showing a general shift to the agriculturally important coastal south-India, central Maharashtra, and Indo-Gangetic plains indicating higher food security and socioeconomic vulnerability in the region.

  5. Cloning approach and functional analysis of anti-intimin single-chain variable fragment (scFv

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Waldir P

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimin is an important virulence factor involved in the pathogenesis of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC. Both pathogens are still important causes of diarrhea in children and adults in many developing and industrialized countries. Considering the fact that antibodies are important tools in the detection of various pathogens, an anti-intimin IgG2b monoclonal antibody was previously raised in immunized mice with the conserved sequence of the intimin molecule (int388-667. In immunoblotting assays, this monoclonal antibody showed excellent specificity. Despite good performance, the monoclonal antibody failed to detect some EPEC and EHEC isolates harboring variant amino acids within the 338-667 regions of intimin molecules. Consequently, motivated by its use for diagnosis purposes, in this study we aimed to the cloning and expression of the single-chain variable fragment from this monoclonal antibody (scFv. Findings Anti-intimin hybridoma mRNA was extracted and reversely transcripted to cDNA, and the light and heavy chains of the variable fragment of the antibody were amplified using commercial primers. The amplified chains were cloned into pGEM-T Easy vector. Specific primers were designed and used in an amplification and chain linkage strategy, obtaining the scFv, which in turn was cloned into pAE vector. E. coli BL21(DE3pLys strain was transformed with pAE scFv-intimin plasmid and subjected to induction of protein expression. Anti-intimin scFv, expressed as inclusion bodies (insoluble fraction, was denatured, purified and submitted to refolding. The protein yield was 1 mg protein per 100 mL of bacterial culture. To test the functionality of the scFv, ELISA and immunofluorescence assays were performed, showing that 275 ng of scFv reacted with 2 mg of purified intimin, resulting in an absorbance of 0.75 at 492 nm. The immunofluorescence assay showed a strong reactivity with

  6. Development of single chain variable fragment (scFv) antibodies against Xylella fastidiosa subsp. pauca by phage display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Qing; Jordan, Ramon; Brlansky, Ronald H; Istomina, Olga; Hartung, John

    2015-10-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a member of the gamma proteobacteria. It is fastidious, insect-vectored and xylem-limited and causes a variety of diseases, some severe, on a wide range of economically important perennial crops, including grape and citrus. Antibody based detection assays are commercially available for X. fastidiosa, and are effective at the species, but not at the subspecies level. We have made a library of scFv antibody fragments directed against X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca strain 9a5c (citrus) by using phage display technology. Antibody gene repertoires were PCR-amplified using 23 primers for the heavy chain variable region (V(H)) and 21 primers for the light chain variable region (V(L)). The V(H) and V(L) were joined by overlap extension PCR, and then the genes of the scFv library were ligated into the phage vector pKM19. The library contained 1.2×10(7) independent clones with full-length scFv inserts. In each of 3cycles of affinity-selection with 9a5c, about 1.0×10(12) phage were used for panning with 4.1×10(6), 7.1×10(6), 2.1×10(7) phage recovered after the first, second and third cycles, respectively. Sixty-six percent of clones from the final library bound X. fastidiosa 9a5c in an ELISA. Some of these scFv antibodies recognized strain 9a5c and did not recognize X. fastidiosa strains that cause Pierce's disease of grapevine. PMID:26232710

  7. IgG variable region and VH CDR3 diversity in unimmunized mice analyzed by massively parallel sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jin; Panavas, Tadas; Thys, Kim; Aerssens, Jeroen; Naso, Michael; Fisher, Jamie; Rycyzyn, Michael; Sweet, Raymond W

    2014-02-01

    Most antigen-specific mouse antibodies have been derived by hybridoma technology, predominantly through use of the Balb/c strain. Much of the Balb/c germline repertoire of variable genes (V regions) is known. However, there is little information about the background expressed repertoire of IgG antibodies in mice, which reflects the baseline against which antigen-specific antibodies are generated through immunization. To assess this baseline repertoire, RNA was isolated from splenic B-cells enriched for expression of IgG from three mice. The RNA was individually amplified with three distinct PCR primer sets for comprehensive recovery of the heavy and light chain variable regions. Each PCR product was independently subjected to deep sequencing using 454 pyro-sequencing technology and analysed for redundancy, open reading frame, germline representation, and CDR3 sequence of the heavy chain variable region (VH CDR3) within and across the primer sets and mice. A highly skewed abundance of heavy and light chain variable gene usage was observed for all three primers in all three mice. While showing considerable overlap, there were differences among these profiles indicative of primer bias and animal-to-animal variation. VH CDR3 sequences were likewise highly skewed indicating that the heavy chain genes profiles substantially reflected individual antibodies. This observation was confirmed through analysis of randomly selected complete heavy chain variable sequences. However, there was very little redundancy in VH CDR3 sequences across the different mice. We conclude that the background IgG repertoire in young, unimmunized mice is highly skewed within individual mice and is diverse among them, a pattern similar to that observed in highly immunized mice.

  8. Stoichiometry and heterogeneity of the pro-region chain in tetrameric human cathepsin C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigić, B; Krizaj, I; Kralj, B; Turk, V; Pain, R H

    1998-01-15

    The subunit structure and composition of mature human cathepsin C, an oligomeric cysteine proteinase, has been characterised in detail. The heavy chain, light chain and pro-region peptides are shown to be held together solely by non-covalent interactions, and to be present in equimolar ratio, suggesting an important structural role for the residual pro-region chain which is strongly bound to the enzyme. The mass of the light chain, as determined by mass spectrometry, combined with its N-terminal sequence, determines the position of cleavage from the heavy chain. Amino-acid sequencing has led to definition of the 13.5 kDa N-terminal part of the pro-region which remains in the mature enzyme, the C-terminal moiety of 10 kDa being cleaved out and lost from the pro-peptide on activation. The residual pro-region is heterogeneous, a proportion being intact and the remainder being cleaved at alternative positions 58 or 61, yielding two smaller peptides joined by disulphide bond. The proportion of cleaved form was found to vary with tissue and enzyme preparation but did not affect enzyme activity. The molecular masses of the constituent chains after deglycosylation lead to a protein mass of 158 kDa. All four potential glycosylation sites are glycosylated.

  9. Globalization or Regionalization? A New Approach to Measure International Fragmentation of Value Chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Los, Bart; Timmer, Marcel; Vries, Gaaitzen J. de

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing evidence of denser networks of intermediate input flows between countries suggesting ongoing fragmentation of production chains. But to what extent is this process mainly regional, taking place between countries within a region, or mainly global, involving countries outside the r

  10. Using Intensive Variables to Constrain Magma Source Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, B. R.; Russell, J. K.

    2006-05-01

    In the modern world of petrology, magma source region characterization is commonly the realm of trace element and isotopic geochemistry. However, major element analyses of rocks representing magmatic compositions can also be used to constrain source region charactertistics, which enhance the results of isotopic and trace element studies. We show examples from the northern Cordilleran volcanic province (NCVP), in the Canadian Cordillera, where estimations of thermodynamic intensive variables are used to resolve different source regions for mafic alkaline magmas. We have taken a non-traditional approach to using the compositions of three groups of mafic, alkaline rocks to characterize the source regions of magmas erupted in the NCVP. Based on measured Fe2O3 and FeO in rocks from different locations, the Atlin volcanic district (AVD), the Fort Selkirk volcanic complex (FSVC), the West Tuya volcanic field, (WTVF), we have estimated oxygen fugacities (fO2) for the source regions of magmas based on the model of Kress and Carmichael (1991) and the computational package MELTS/pMelts (Ghiorso and Sack, 1995; Ghiorso et al., 2002). We also have used Melts/pMelts to estimate liquidus conditions for the compositions represented by the samples as well as activities of major element components. The results of our calculations are useful for distinguishing between three presumably different magma series: alkaline basalts, basanites, and nephelinites (Francis and Ludden, 1990; 1995). Calculated intensive variables (fO2, activities SiO2, KAlSiO4, Na2SiO3) show clear separation of the samples into two groups: i) nephelinites and ii) basanites/alkaline basalts. The separation is especially evident on plots of log fO2 versus activity SiO2. The source region for nephelinitic magmas in the AVD is up to 2 log units more oxidized than that for the basanites/basalts as well as having a distinctly lower range of activities of SiO2. Accepting that our assumptions about the magmas

  11. Regional crustal thickness and precipitation in young mountain chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, W G

    2004-10-19

    Crustal thickness is related to climate through precipitation-induced erosion. Along the Andes, the highest mountains and thickest crust (approximately 70 km) occur at 25 degrees south, a region of low precipitation. Westerly winds warm passing over the Atacama Desert; precipitation is modest in the High Andes and eastward over the Altiplano. Severe aridity, hence low erosion rates, helps to account for the elevated volcanogenic contractional arc and high, internally draining plateau in its rain shadow. Weak erosion along the north-central arc provides scant amounts of sediment to the Chile-Peru Trench, starving the subduction channel. Subcrustal removal might be expected to reduce the crustal thickness, but is not a factor at 25 degrees south. The thickness of the gravitationally compensated continental crust cannot reflect underplating and/or partial fusion of sediments, but must be caused chiefly by volcanism-plutonism and contraction. Contrasting climate typifies the terrain at 45 degrees south where moisture-laden westerly winds encounter a cool margin, bringing abundant precipitation. The alpine landscape is of lower average elevation compared with the north-central Andes and is supported by thinner continental crust (approximately 35 km). Intense erosion supplies voluminous clastic debris to the offshore trench, and vast quantities are subducted. However, the southern Andean crust is only about half as thick as that at 25 degrees south, suggesting that erosion, not subcrustal sediment accretion or anatexis, is partly responsible for the thickness of the mountain belt. The Himalayas plus Tibetan Plateau, the Sierra Nevada plus Colorado Plateau, and the Japanese Islands exhibit analogous relationships between crustal thickness and climate. PMID:15471988

  12. North Karelia regional chain of care: Finnish experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itkonen, Pentti

    2004-01-01

    Information--and communication technology is one of the most important cornerstones in more and more data and knowledge intensive health care sector. However these factors don't create financial gains and productivity benefits spontaneously. They need organisational and social innovations and new business models. The growth of productivity is connected to the process and organisational innovations and not to the number of computers and the growth of using ICT. One of the problems prohibiting health care profession to move to real e-work environment is the lack of the reliable measures and on these measures based performance measurement and strategic management. Health care can be improved by utilizing ICT and tools like performance measuring are key weapons in the arsenal of new e-work environment and measuring based new strategic management. Neither public sector nor not-for-profit hospitals look for financial rewards as their ultimate proof of success. Instead, they seek to achieve ambitious missions aimed at improving the health standards and wellbeing of the citizens. ICT- based new way of managing in the public sector is just beginning to gain a critical level of digitalization and will most likely come to its own in the coming years. Therefore, it is essential to research on how the health care sector can be moved towards new regional models and clinical workflow using intelligent standard based strategic management and performance measurement. If the breakthrough of the eight-hour working day and shortening of working time are evaluated afterwards, it can be stated that they have made the society more anthropocentric and humane. During one century the annual working time has shortened from 3000 hours to 1700 hours in the European Union countries. These foundations of a more humane society--eight-hour working day and shortening of regular working time--are however disappearing in the post-industrialized information society. There are various grounds for the

  13. North Karelia regional chain of care: Finnish experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itkonen, Pentti

    2004-01-01

    Information--and communication technology is one of the most important cornerstones in more and more data and knowledge intensive health care sector. However these factors don't create financial gains and productivity benefits spontaneously. They need organisational and social innovations and new business models. The growth of productivity is connected to the process and organisational innovations and not to the number of computers and the growth of using ICT. One of the problems prohibiting health care profession to move to real e-work environment is the lack of the reliable measures and on these measures based performance measurement and strategic management. Health care can be improved by utilizing ICT and tools like performance measuring are key weapons in the arsenal of new e-work environment and measuring based new strategic management. Neither public sector nor not-for-profit hospitals look for financial rewards as their ultimate proof of success. Instead, they seek to achieve ambitious missions aimed at improving the health standards and wellbeing of the citizens. ICT- based new way of managing in the public sector is just beginning to gain a critical level of digitalization and will most likely come to its own in the coming years. Therefore, it is essential to research on how the health care sector can be moved towards new regional models and clinical workflow using intelligent standard based strategic management and performance measurement. If the breakthrough of the eight-hour working day and shortening of working time are evaluated afterwards, it can be stated that they have made the society more anthropocentric and humane. During one century the annual working time has shortened from 3000 hours to 1700 hours in the European Union countries. These foundations of a more humane society--eight-hour working day and shortening of regular working time--are however disappearing in the post-industrialized information society. There are various grounds for the

  14. Investigation of adolescent accident predictive variables in hilly regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Malaya; Gupta, Ankit

    2016-09-01

    The study aims to determine the significant personal and environmental factors in predicting the adolescent accidents in the hilly regions taking into account two cities Hamirpur and Dharamshala, which lie at an average elevation of 700--1000 metres above the mean sea level (MSL). Detailed comparisons between the results of 2 cities are also studied. The results are analyzed to provide the list of most significant factors responsible for adolescent accidents. Data were collected from different schools and colleges of the city with the help of a questionnaire survey. Around 690 responses from Hamirpur and 460 responses from Dharamshala were taken for study and analysis. Standard deviations (SD) of various factors affecting accidents were calculated and factors with relatively very low SD were discarded and other variables were considered for correlations. Correlation was developed using Kendall's-tau and chi-square tests and factors those were found significant were used for modelling. They were - the victim's age, the character of road, the speed of vehicle, and the use of helmet for Hamirpur and for Dharamshala, the kind of vehicle involved was an added variable found responsible for adolescent accidents. A logistic regression was performed to know the effect of each category present in a variable on the occurrence of accidents. Though the age and the speed of vehicle were considered to be important factors for accident occurrence according to Indian accident data records, even the use of helmet comes out as a major concern. The age group of 15-18 and 18-21 years were found to be more susceptible to accidents than the higher age groups. Due to the presence of hilly area, the character of road becomes a major concern for cause of accidents and the topography of the area makes the kind of vehicle involved as a major variable for determining the severity of accidents. PMID:26077876

  15. The global monsoon across timescales: coherent variability of regional monsoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P. X.; Wang, B.; Cheng, H.; Fasullo, J.; Guo, Z. T.; Kiefer, T.; Liu, Z. Y.

    2014-11-01

    Monsoon has earned increasing attention from the climate community since the last century, yet only recently have regional monsoons been recognized as a global system. It remains a debated issue, however, as to what extent and at which timescales the global monsoon can be viewed as a major mode of climate variability. For this purpose, a PAGES (Past Global Changes) working group (WG) was set up to investigate the concept of the global monsoon and its future research directions. The WG's synthesis is presented here. On the basis of observation and proxy data, the WG found that the regional monsoons can vary coherently, although not perfectly, at various timescales, varying between interannual, interdecadal, centennial, millennial, orbital and tectonic timescales, conforming to the global monsoon concept across timescales. Within the global monsoon system, each subsystem has its own features, depending on its geographic and topographic conditions. Discrimination between global and regional components in the monsoon system is a key to revealing the driving factors in monsoon variations; hence, the global monsoon concept helps to enhance our understanding and to improve future projections of the regional monsoons. This paper starts with a historical review of the global monsoon concept in both modern and paleo-climatology, and an assessment of monsoon proxies used in regional and global scales. The main body of the paper is devoted to a summary of observation data at various timescales, providing evidence of the coherent global monsoon system. The paper concludes with a projection of future monsoon shifts in a warming world. The synthesis will be followed by a companion paper addressing driving mechanisms and outstanding issues in global monsoon studies.

  16. Directed evolution of human heavy chain variable domain (VH) using in vivo protein fitness filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Sik; Song, Hyung-Nam; Nam, Hyo Jung; Kim, Sung-Geun; Park, Young-Seoub; Park, Jae-Chan; Woo, Eui-Jeon; Lim, Hyung-Kwon

    2014-01-01

    Human immunoglobulin heavy chain variable domains (VH) are promising scaffolds for antigen binding. However, VH is an unstable and aggregation-prone protein, hindering its use for therapeutic purposes. To evolve the VH domain, we performed in vivo protein solubility selection that linked antibiotic resistance to the protein folding quality control mechanism of the twin-arginine translocation pathway of E. coli. After screening a human germ-line VH library, 95% of the VH proteins obtained were identified as VH3 family members; one VH protein, MG2x1, stood out among separate clones expressing individual VH variants. With further screening of combinatorial framework mutation library of MG2x1, we found a consistent bias toward substitution with tryptophan at the position of 50 and 58 in VH. Comparison of the crystal structures of the VH variants revealed that those substitutions with bulky side chain amino acids filled the cavity in the VH interface between heavy and light chains of the Fab arrangement along with the increased number of hydrogen bonds, decreased solvation energy, and increased negative charge. Accordingly, the engineered VH acquires an increased level of thermodynamic stability, reversible folding, and soluble expression. The library built with the VH variant as a scaffold was qualified as most of VH clones selected randomly were expressed as soluble form in E. coli regardless length of the combinatorial CDR. Furthermore, a non-aggregation feature of the selected VH conferred a free of humoral response in mice, even when administered together with adjuvant. As a result, this selection provides an alternative directed evolution pathway for unstable proteins, which are distinct from conventional methods based on the phage display.

  17. Ancestry inference in complex admixtures via variable-length Markov chain linkage models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Jesse M; Bercovici, Sivan; Elmore, Megan; Batzoglou, Serafim

    2013-03-01

    Inferring the ancestral origin of chromosomal segments in admixed individuals is key for genetic applications, ranging from analyzing population demographics and history, to mapping disease genes. Previous methods addressed ancestry inference by using either weak models of linkage disequilibrium, or large models that make explicit use of ancestral haplotypes. In this paper we introduce ALLOY, an efficient method that incorporates generalized, but highly expressive, linkage disequilibrium models. ALLOY applies a factorial hidden Markov model to capture the parallel process producing the maternal and paternal admixed haplotypes, and models the background linkage disequilibrium in the ancestral populations via an inhomogeneous variable-length Markov chain. We test ALLOY in a broad range of scenarios ranging from recent to ancient admixtures with up to four ancestral populations. We show that ALLOY outperforms the previous state of the art, and is robust to uncertainties in model parameters. PMID:23421795

  18. Fusion protein of single-chain variable domain fragments for treatment of myasthenia gravis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fangfang Li; Fanping Meng; Quanxin Jin; Changyuan Sun; Yingxin Li; Honghua Li; Songzhu Jin

    2014-01-01

    Single-chain variable domain fragment (scFv) 637 is an antigen-specific scFv of myasthenia gravis. In this study, scFv and human serum albumin genes were conjugated and the fusion pro-tein was expressed in Pichia pastoris. The afifnity of scFv-human serum albumin fusion protein to bind to acetylcholine receptor at the neuromuscular junction of human intercostal muscles was detected by immunolfuorescence staining. The ability of the fusion protein to block myas-thenia gravis patient sera binding to acetylcholine receptors and its stability in healthy serum were measured by competitive ELISA. The results showed that the inhibition rate was 2.0-77.4%, and the stability of fusion protein in static healthy sera was about 3 days. This approach suggests the scFv-human serum albumin is a potential candidate for speciifc immunosuppressive therapy of myasthenia gravis.

  19. Separation of variables for the quantum SL(2,R) spin chain

    CERN Document Server

    Derkachov, S E; Manashov, A N

    2003-01-01

    We construct representation of the Separated Variables (SoV) for the quantum SL(2,R) Heisenberg closed spin chain and obtain the integral representation for the eigenfunctions of the model. We calculate explicitly the Sklyanin measure defining the scalar product in the SoV representation and demonstrate that the language of Feynman diagrams is extremely useful in establishing various properties of the model. The kernel of the unitary transformation to the SoV representation is described by the same "pyramid diagram" as appeared before in the SoV representation for the SL(2,C) spin magnet. We argue that this kernel is given by the product of the Baxter Q-operators projected onto a special reference state.

  20. 寻常性银屑病患者外周血T细胞受体β可变区优势表达分析%Preferential expressions of peripheral blood T cell receptor beta chain variable region subfamilies in patients with psoriasis vulgaris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔红宙; 侯瑞霞; 李俊琴; 尹国华; 张静; 李新华; 张开明

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the preferential expressions of peripheral blood T cell receptor beta chain variable region (TRBV) subfamilies in patients with psoriasis vulgaris(PV), and to estimate their role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Methods Thirty-three upstream primers were designed to target the human functional TRBV genes, downstream primers to target the common T cell receptor beta constant (TRBC) gene,with T cell receptor alpha constant (TRAC) gene as the internal reference. Total RNA was extracted from the peripheral blood T cells of 10 health human controls and 10 patients with PV, and transcribed into cDNA.Then, TRBV genes were amplified by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (RFQ-PCR) and the fluorescence intensity of each samples was detected. The expression levels of TRBV genes in the control group were used to calculate the cut-off values (mean expression levels of TRBV subfamilies in the 10 normal controls + 3 standard deviations). When the expression level of a TRBV subfamily from patients with PV was equal to or higher than the cut-off value, it was considered as the preferentially expressed TRBV subfamily. Results The threshold cycle (Ct) value varied from 21 to 24 for TRAC gene. The difference in the Ct value between TRBV subfamily genes and TRAC gene in patients with PV was 2.98 for TRBV2 gene, 3.24 for TRBV5-7 gene, 2.52 for TRBV6-6/6-9 gene, 2.04 for TRBV 12 gene, 3.56 for TRBV 24 gene, and 4.12 for TRBV 29 gene, and the expression levels of these subfamily genes were significantly higher than those in the normal controls (all P < 0.05). According to the above standard, TRBV6-6/6-9, TRBV12 and TRBV29 were considered to be preferentially expressed subfamilies. Conclusions There is a preferential expression of TRBV gene subfamilies in peripheral blood of patients with psoriasis vulgaris, which may play a vital role in the abnormal T cell-mediated immune responses in psoriasis.%目的 分析寻常性银屑病患者外周血中T细胞受体β

  1. Regional Patterns of Baseflow Variability in Mexican Subwatersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Salas-Aguilar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the challenges faced by subwatershed hydrology is the discovery of patterns associated with climate and landscape variability with the available data. This study has three objectives: (1 to evaluate the annual recession curves; (2 to relate the recession parameter (RP with physiographic characteristics of 21 Mexican subwatersheds in different climate regions; and (3 to formulate a Baseflow (BF model based on a top-down approach. The RP was calibrated utilizing the largest magnitude curves. The RP was related to topographical, climate and soil variables. A non-linear model was employed to separate the baseflow which considers RP as a recharge rate. Our results show that RP increases with longitude and decreases with latitude. RP displayed a sustained non-linear behavior determined by precipitation rate and evapotranspiration replace the P/E parts with \\(\\frac{P}{E}\\ over years and subwatersheds. The model was fit to a parameter concurrent with invariance and space-time symmetry conditions. The dispersion of our model was associated with the product of replace the P/E parts with \\(\\frac{P}{E}\\ by the aquifer’s transmissivity. We put forward a generalized baseflow model, which made the discrimination of baseflow from direct flow in subwatersheds possible. The proposed model involves the recharge-storage-discharge relation and could be implemented in basins where there are no suitable ground-based data.

  2. Statistical study of atmospheric gravity waves in the mesopause region observed by a lidar chain in eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Shaohua; Yang, Guotao; Dou, Xiankang; Xu, Jiyao; Chen, Chunxia; Gong, Shunsheng

    2015-08-01

    Atmospheric gravity wave activities in the mesopause region have been observed and statistically investigated with a sodium lidar chain in eastern China. In total, there were 471 gravity waves identified from over 5400 h of observations at Hainan (19.99°N, 110.34°E), Hefei (31.87°N, 117.23°E), and Beijing (40.47°N, 115.97°E). These waves typically had vertical wavelengths of λz = 2 - 4 km, observed periods of Tob = 1 - 4 h, amplitude growth factors of β = - 0.025 ~ + 0.05 km-1, and wave amplitudes of Aeβ * 90km = 1.5 - 6 %. Strong systematic parameter relationships were found, and they agree with the predictions of diffusive filtering theory. Statistical results show that the seasonal variability of gravity wave activity had a summer-maximum and winter-minimum characteristics in the mesopause region over eastern China. A qualitative interpretation is proposed regarding the seasonal and geographic variability observed by the lidar chain, based on analysis of source properties and influences from background wind, which vary by season.

  3. An Analysis of Some Moderating Variables on the Value, Brand Trust and Brand Loyalty Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambiz Heidarzadeh Hanzaee

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective in this study was to investigate the moderating effect of some variables on the value, brand trust, and brand loyalty chain. These moderating variables are customer characteristics (Age, Gender, Involvement, Price consciousness, Brand consciousness. More specifically, we investigate both the link between hedonic and utilitarian values of a product and brand trust and the link between brand trust and attitudinal and purchase loyalty and the impact of selected customer characteristics on these relationships in the context of four product groups (mobile phones, sunglasses, running shoes, and notebooks that can be characterized as consumer durables with high brand relevance. In a basic research model after reviewing the literature on brand trust, hedonic and utilitarian value as selected contributors to brand trust and brand loyalty as an important outcome of trust, we measured the effects of product value-brand loyalty on brand trust. Then in the second phase we analyzed the moderator effects. The proposed relationships have been tested using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM via lisrel. We first report the main effect model and then present the impact of moderators.

  4. Production of a human single-chain variable fragment antibody against esophageal carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-Yan Xu; Xiao-Hu Xu; Geng-Zhen Chen; Xiao-Ling Deng; Jonathan Li; Xiao-Jun Yu; Mei-Zhen Chen

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To construct a phage display library of human singlechain variable fragment (scFv) antibodies associated with esophageal cancer and to preliminarily screen a scFv antibody against esophageal cancer.METHODS: Total RNA extracted from metastatic lymph nodes of esophageal cancer patients was used to construct a scFv gene library. Rescued by M13K07 helper phage, the scFv phage display library was constructed. esophageal cancer cell line Eca 109 and normal human esophageal epithelial cell line (NHEEC) were used for panning and subtractive panning of the scFv phage display library to obtain positive phage clones. Soluble scFv was expressed in E.coli HB2151 which was transfected with the positive phage clone, then purified by affinity chromatography.Relative molecular mass of soluble scFv was estimated by Western blotting, its bioactivity was detected by cell ELISA assay. Sequence of scFv was determined using the method of dideoxynucleotide sequencing.RESULTS: The size of scFv gene library was approximately 9×106 clones. After four rounds of panning with Eca109 and three rounds of subtractive panning with NHEEC cells, 25 positive phage clones were obtained. Soluble scFv was found to have a molecular mass of 31 ku and was able to bind to Eca109 cells, but not to HeLa and NHEEC cells. Variable heavy (VH) gene from one of the positive clones was shown to be derived from the γ chain subgroup Ⅳ of immunoglobulin, and variable light (VL) gene from the κchain subgroup I of immunoglobulin.CONCLUSION: A human scFv phage display library can be constructed from the metastatic lymph nodes of esophageal cancer patients. A whole human scFv against esophageal cancer shows some bioactivity.

  5. Climate variability and wine quality over Portuguese regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Célia M.; Gani, Érico A.; Liberato, Margarida L. R.

    2015-04-01

    characterized in each region by high/low quality wines. Finally, we also investigated how climate variability is related to DOC wine quality for different regions using North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index. Results reveal a strong dependence of wine quality for all regions on maximum temperature and precipitation during spring and summer (the growing season) as expected. However the role of temperature on wine quality seems to be distinct among the diverse regions probably due to their different climate zoning. Moreover, it is shown that the differences associated with high/low quality wine are in agreement with different synoptic fields patterns. Our results suggest that this type of analysis may be used in developing a tool that may help anticipating a vintage/high quality year, based on already available seasonal climate outlooks. Santo F.E., de Lima M.I.P., Ramos A.M., Trigo R.M., Trends in seasonal surface air temperature in mainland Portugal, since 1941, International Journal Climatolology, 34: 1814-1837, doi: 10.1002/joc.3803 (2014) de Lima M.I.P., Santo F.E., Ramos A.M. , Trigo, R.M., Trends and correlations in annual extreme precipitation indices for mainland Portugal, 1941-2007, Theoretical and Applied Climatology, DOI:10.1007/s00704-013-1079-6 (2014) Acknowledgements: This work was partially supported by national funds through FCT (Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, Portugal) under project QSECA (PTDC/AAGGLO/4155/2012).

  6. Temperature dependence of amino acid side chain IR absorptions in the amide I' region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Benjamin A; Literati, Alex; Ball, Borden; Kubelka, Jan

    2014-05-01

    Amide I' IR spectra are widely used for studies of structural changes in peptides and proteins as a function of temperature. Temperature dependent absorptions of amino acid side-chains that overlap the amide I' may significantly complicate the structural analyses. While the side-chain IR spectra have been investigated previously, thus far their dependence on temperature has not been reported. Here we present the study of the changes in the IR spectra with temperature for side-chain groups of aspartate, glutamate, asparagine, glutamine, arginine, and tyrosine in the amide I' region (in D2O). Band fitting analysis was employed to extract the temperature dependence of the individual spectral parameters, such as peak frequency, integrated intensity, band width, and shape. As expected, the side-chain IR bands exhibit significant changes with temperature. The majority of the spectral parameters, particularly the frequency and intensity, show linear dependence on temperature, but the direction and magnitude vary depending on the particular side-chain group. The exception is arginine, which exhibits a distinctly nonlinear frequency shift with temperature for its asymmetric CN3H5(+) bending signal, although a linear fit can account for this change to within ~1/3 cm(-1). The applicability of the determined spectral parameters for estimations of temperature-dependent side-chain absorptions in peptides and proteins are discussed.

  7. POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF CLIMATIC VARIABILITY ON INDIAN HIMALAYAN REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Tariyal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Himalayan region represents enormous variability of climates, hydrological and ecological systems, plus a diversity of cultures and communities. It is an essentiality to the ecological security of the Indian landmass, through providing forest cover, feeding recurrent rivers that are the source of potable water, irrigation, and hydropower, conserving biodiversity, providing a rich foundation for high value agriculture, and spectacular landscapes for sustainable tourism. Increasing concentration of greenhouse gases in the troposphere and the consequential global warming is posing a great environmental threat to water and food security at universal level. Change in climate may affect exposures to air pollutants by affecting weather, anthropogenic emissions, and by changing the distribution and types of airborne allergens. This potential variability in climate will have a serious impact on several ecosystem services, such as cleaning water and removing carbon from the atmosphere. Various services of ecosystems viz. land and water resources, agriculture, biodiversity will experience a wide range of stresses together with pests and pathogens, invasive species, atmospheric pollution, acute events, wildfires and floods. Direct stresses posed due to climate change may get intensified through high temperatures, reduced water availability, and altered frequency of extreme events and severe storms. Climate change will potentially make a threat on the availability of, and access to, water resources. The Himalayan ecosystem is vulnerable to the impacts and consequences of a changes on account of natural causes, b climate change resulting from human-induced emissions and c developmental paradigms of the modern society. Adaptation factors in the element of ‘sustainability’ into development initiatives and provides for additional measures and resources to safeguard environmental gains against climate impacts.

  8. Preparation of single chain variable fragment of MG7 mAb by phage display technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao-Cai Yu; Jie Ding; Yong-Zhan Nie; Dai-Ming Fan; Xue-Yong Zhang

    2001-01-01

    AIM To develop the single chain variable fragment of MG7 murine anti-human gastric cancer monoclonal antibody using the phage display technology for obtaining a tumor-targeting mediator. METHODS mRNA was isolated from MG7-producing murine hybridoma cell line and converted into cDNA. The variable fragments of heavy and light chain were amplified separately and assembled into ScFv with a specially constructed DNA linker by PCR. The ScFvs DNA was ligated into the phagmid vector pCANTAB5E and the ligated sample was transformed into competent E. Coli TG1. The transformed cells were infected with M13K07 helper phage to form MG7 recombinant phage antibody library. The volume and recombinant rate of the library were evaluated by means of bacterial colony count and restriction analysis. After two rounds of panning with gastric cancer cell line KATOⅢ of highly expressing MG7binding antigen, the phage clones displaying ScFv of the antibody were selected by ELISA from the enriched phage clones. The antigen-binding affinity of the positive clone was detected by competition ELISA. HB2151 E. Coli was transfected with the positive phage clone demonstrated by competition ELISA for production of a soluble form of the MG7 ScFv. ELISA assay was used to detect the antigenbinding affinity of the soluble MG7 ScFv. Finally, the relative molecular mass of soluble MG7 ScFv was measured by SDS-PAGE. RESULTS The VH, VL and ScFv DNAs were about 340bp,320bp and 750bp, respectively. The volume of the library was up to 2 × 106 and 8 of 11 random clones were recombinants. Two phage clones could strongly compete with the original MG7 antibody for binding to the antigen expressed on KATO Ⅲ cells. Within 2 strong positive phage clones, the soluble MG7 ScFv from one clone was found to have the binding activity with KATO Ⅲ cells.SDS-PAGE showed that the relative molecular weight of soluble MG7 ScFv was 32. CONCLUSION The MG7 ScFv was successfully produced by phage antibody technology, which may

  9. Leading chiral three-nucleon forces along isotope chains in the calcium region

    CERN Document Server

    Somà, V; Barbieri, C; Navrátil, P; Duguet, T

    2013-01-01

    Three-nucleon forces (3NFs), and in particular terms of the Fujita-Miyazawa type, strongly influence the structure of neutron-rich exotic isotopes. Ab-initio calculations have shown that chiral two- and three-nucleon interactions correctly reproduce binding energy systematics and neutron driplines of oxygen and nearby isotopes. Exploiting the novel self-consistent Gorkov-Green's function approach, we present the first investigation of Ar, K, Ca, Sc and Ti isotopic chains. Leading chiral 3N interactions are mandatory to reproduce the trend of binding energies throughout these chains and to obtain a good description of two-neutron separation energies. At the same time, nuclei in this mass region are systematically overbound by about 40 MeV and the $N=20$ magic gap is significantly overestimated. We conclude that ab-initio many-body calculations of mid-mass isotopic chains challenge modern theories of elementary nuclear interactions.

  10. Antiperiodic XXZ chains with arbitrary spins: Complete eigenstate construction by functional equations in separation of variables

    CERN Document Server

    Niccoli, G

    2014-01-01

    Generic inhomogeneous integrable XXZ chains with arbitrary spins are studied by means of the quantum separation of variables (SOV) method. Within this framework, a complete description of the spectrum (eigenvalues and eigenstates) of the antiperiodic transfer matrix is derived in terms of discrete systems of equations involving the inhomogeneity parameters of the model. We show here that one can reformulate this discrete SOV characterization of the spectrum in terms of functional T-Q equations of Baxter's type, hence proving the completeness of the solutions to the associated systems of Bethe-type equations. More precisely, we consider here two such reformulations. The first one is given in terms of Q-solutions, in the form of trigonometric polynomials of a given degree $N_s$, of a one-parameter family of T-Q functional equations with an extra inhomogeneous term. The second one is given in terms of Q-solutions, again in the form of trigonometric polynomials of degree $N_s$ but with double period, of Baxter's ...

  11. Expression of secreted human single-chain fragment variable antibody against human amyloid beta peptide in Pichia pastoris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiong Cai; Fang Li; Shizhen Wang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that monoclonal or polyclonal antibody injections ofamyloid β peptide arc effective in removing amyloid β peptide overload in the brain.OBJECTIVE: Based on successful screening of a human single-chain fragment variable antibody specific to amyloid β peptide, this paper aimed to express recombinant human single-chain variable antibody against amyloid β peptide.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: A single sample experiment was performed at the Department of Nuclear Medicine, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Hospital (Beijing, China) from January to July 2006.MATERIALS: Human single-chain fragment variable antibody gene against amyloid β peptide was screened from a human phage-display antibody library.METHODS: Human single-chain fragment variable antibody gene was mutated to eliminate a BamHI restriction site and cloned into a Teasy plasmid for pT-seFvAβ construction, which was identified by PCR amplification and endonuclease digestion. Plasmid pT-scFvA β was cut by EcoRl and Notl endonucleases, and the antibody gene was cloned into pPIC9K plasmid to construct pPIC9K-scFvA β expression vector, which was confirmed by gene sequencing. Linearized pPICgK-scFvA β was used to transform a Pichia pastoris GS115 cell line, and the recombinant was induced by 0.5 % methanol to express human single-chain fragment variable antibody specific to amyloid β peptide.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Protein electrophoresis was used to identify PCR products, gene sequencing was uscd to verify the pPIC9K-scFvA sequence, and SDS-PAGE was used to detect recombinant expression of human single-chain fragment variable antibody specific to amyloid β peptide in Pichia pastoris.RESULTS: Gene sequencing confirmed pPICgK-scFvA β orientation. Rccomhinants were obtained by lineadzed pPIC9K-scFvA β transformation. After induction with 0.5% methanol, the recombinant yeast cells secreted proteins of 33-ku size

  12. Single chain variable fragment antibodies block aggregation and toxicity induced by familial ALS-linked mutant forms of SOD1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadge, Ghanashyam D.; Pavlovic, John; Koduvayur, Sujatha P.; Kay, Brian K.; Roos, Raymond P.

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 10% of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) cases are familial (known as FALS) with an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern, and ~25% of FALS cases are caused by mutations in Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1). There is convincing evidence that mutant SOD1 (mtSOD1) kills motor neurons (MNs) because of a gain-of-function toxicity, most likely related to aggregation of mtSOD1. A number of recent reports have suggested that antibodies can be used to treat mtSOD1-induced FALS. To follow up on the use of antibodies as potential therapeutics, we generated single chain fragments of variable region antibodies (scFvs) against SOD1, and then expressed them as ‘intrabodies’ within a motor neuron cell line. In the present study, we describe isolation of human scFvs that interfere with mtSOD1 in vitro aggregation and toxicity. These scFvs may have therapeutic potential in sporadic ALS, as well as FALS, given that sporadic ALS may also involve abnormalities in the SOD1 protein or activity. PMID:23607939

  13. Design and construction of a new human naïve single-chain fragment variable antibody library, IORISS1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasello, Michela; Zamboni, Silvia; Mallano, Alessandra; Flego, Michela; Picci, Piero; Cianfriglia, Maurizio; Scotlandi, Katia

    2016-04-20

    Human monoclonal antibodies are a powerful tool with increasingly successful exploitations and the single chain fragment variable format can be considered the building block for the implementation of more complex and effective antibody-based constructs. Phage display is one of the best and most efficient methods to isolate human antibodies selected from an efficient and variable phage display library. We report a method for the construction of a human naïve single-chain variable fragment library, termed IORISS1. Many different sets of oligonucleotide primers as well as optimized electroporation and ligation reactions were used to generate this library of 1.2×10(9) individual clones. The key difference is the diversity of variable gene templates, which was derived from only 15 non-immunized human donors. The method described here, was used to make a new human naïve single-chain fragment variable phage display library that represents a valuable source of diverse antibodies that can be used as research reagents or as a starting point for the development of therapeutics. Using biopanning, we determined the ability of IORISS1 to yield antibodies. The results we obtained suggest that, by using an optimized protocol, an efficient phage antibody library can be generated. PMID:26945728

  14. Random antiferromagnetic quantum spin chains: Exact results from scaling of rare regions

    OpenAIRE

    Igloi, F.; Juhasz, R.; Rieger, H.

    1999-01-01

    We study XY and dimerized XX spin-1/2 chains with random exchange couplings by analytical and numerical methods and scaling considerations. We extend previous investigations to dynamical properties, to surface quantities and operator profiles, and give a detailed analysis of the Griffiths phase. We present a phenomenological scaling theory of average quantities based on the scaling properties of rare regions, in which the distribution of the couplings follows a surviving random walk character...

  15. Reducing the impact of demand process variability within a multi-echelon supply chain

    OpenAIRE

    Campuzano Bolarín, Francisco; Ros Mcdonnell, Lorenzo Brian; Martín García, Juan

    2008-01-01

    Forrester analyzed Supply Chain and the different levels existing in it, as well as the participant companies and the role played by each of them inside the chain as a global group, and observed that small variations in end item demand caused oscillations that are amplified throughout the chain. This phenomenon, called the Bullwhip effect, has detrimental consequences on inventory levels and on all kind of inventory costs that may affect the added value of the activities throughout the logist...

  16. Inventory cost consequences of variability demand process within a multi-echelon supply chain

    OpenAIRE

    Campuzano Bolarín, Francisco; Lisec, Andrej; Lario Esteban, Francisco Cruz

    2012-01-01

    The bullwhip effect (Lee et al, 1997a) is a known supply chain phenomenon where small variations in end item demand create oscillations that amplify throughout the chain. Different price elasticity of demand influence different changes of demand when prices of items are changing on the time horizon. The variance of the orders at the end user placed on suppliers or on manufacturer increases with the orders flow upstream in the logistics chain. This creates harmful consequences in i...

  17. Reducing the impact of demand process variability within a multi-echelon supply chain. Poster

    OpenAIRE

    Campuzano Bolarín, Francisco; Ros Mcdonnell, Lorenzo Brian; Martín García, Juan

    2008-01-01

    Forrester analyzed Supply Chain and the different levels existing in it, as well as the participant companies and the role played by each of them inside the chain as a global group, and observed that small variations in end item demand caused oscillations that are amplified throughout the chain. This phenomenon, called the Bullwhip effect, has detrimental consequences on inventory levels and on all kind of inventory costs that may affect the added value of the activities throughout the logist...

  18. Viability assessment of regional biomass pre-processing center based bioethanol value chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolan, Joseph E.

    Petroleum accounts for 94% of all liquid fuels and 36% of the total of all energy consumed in the United States. Petroleum dependence is problematic because global petroleum reserves are estimated to last only for 40 to 60 years at current consumption rates; global supplies are often located in politically unstable or unfriendly regions; and fossil fuels have negative environmental footprints. Domestic policies have aimed at promoting alternative, renewable liquid fuels, specifically bio-fuels derived from organic matter. Cellulosic bio-ethanol is one promising alternative fuel that has featured prominently in federal bio-fuel mandates under the Energy Independence and Security Act, 2007. However, the cellulosic bio-ethanol industry faces several technical, physical and industrial organization challenges. This dissertation examines the concept of a network of regional biomass pre-treatment centers (RBPC) that form an extended biomass supply chain feeding into a simplified biorefinery as a way to overcome these challenges. The analyses conducted address the structural and transactional issues facing bio-ethanol value chain establishment; the technical and financial feasibility of a stand alone pre-treatment center (RBPC); the impact of distributed pre-treatment on biomass transport costs; a comparative systems cost evaluation of the performance of the RBPC chain versus a fully integrated biorefinery (gIBRh), followed by application of the analytical framework to three case study regions.

  19. Altered development and function of the placental regions in preeclampsia and its association with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Alka; Wadhwani, Nisha; Chavan-Gautam, Preeti; Joshi, Sadhana

    2016-09-01

    The placenta is an essential organ formed during pregnancy that mainly transfers nutrients from the mother to the fetus. Nutrients taken up by the placenta are required for its own growth and development and to optimize fetal growth. Hence, placental function is an important determinant of pregnancy outcome. Among various nutrients, fatty acids, especially long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs), including omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acids, are essential for placental development from the time of implantation. Studies have associated these LCPUFAs with placental development through their roles in regulating oxidative stress, angiogenesis, and inflammation, which may in turn influence their transfer to the fetus. The placenta has a heterogeneous morphology with variable regional vasculature, oxidative stress, and LCPUFA levels in healthy pregnancies depending upon the location within the placenta. However, these regional structural and functional parameters are found to be disturbed in pathological conditions, such as preeclampsia (PE), thereby affecting pregnancy outcome. Hence, the alterations in LCPUFA metabolism and transport in different regions of the PE placenta as compared with normal placenta could potentially be contributing to the pathological features of PE. The regional variations in development and function of the placenta and its possible association with placental LCPUFA metabolism and transport in normal and PE pregnancies are discussed in this review. WIREs Dev Biol 2016, 5:582-597. doi: 10.1002/wdev.238 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:27239793

  20. Epigenetic Regulation of Individual Modules of the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus 3' Regulatory Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birshtein, Barbara K

    2014-01-01

    The Igh locus undergoes an amazing array of DNA rearrangements and modifications during B cell development. During early stages, the variable region gene is constructed from constituent variable (V), diversity (D), and joining (J) segments (VDJ joining). B cells that successfully express an antibody can be activated, leading to somatic hypermutation (SHM) focused on the variable region, and class switch recombination (CSR), which substitutes downstream constant region genes for the originally used Cμ constant region gene. Many investigators, ourselves included, have sought to understand how these processes specifically target the Igh locus and avoid other loci and potential deleterious consequences of malignant transformation. Our laboratory has concentrated on a complex regulatory region (RR) that is located downstream of Cα, the most 3' of the Igh constant region genes. The ~40 kb 3' RR, which is predicted to serve as a downstream major regulator of the Igh locus, contains two distinct segments: an ~28 kb region comprising four enhancers, and an adjacent ~12 kb region containing multiple CTCF and Pax5 binding sites. Analysis of targeted mutations in mice by a number of investigators has concluded that the entire 3' RR enhancer region is essential for SHM and CSR (but not for VDJ joining) and for high levels of expression of multiple isotypes. The CTCF/Pax5 binding region is a candidate for influencing VDJ joining early in B cell development and serving as a potential insulator of the Igh locus. Components of the 3' RR are subject to a variety of epigenetic changes during B cell development, i.e., DNAse I hypersensitivity, histone modifications, and DNA methylation, in association with transcription factor binding. I propose that these changes provide a foundation by which regulatory elements in modules of the 3' RR function by interacting with each other and with target sequences of the Igh locus.

  1. Epigenetic Regulation of Individual Modules of the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus 3' Regulatory Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birshtein, Barbara K

    2014-01-01

    The Igh locus undergoes an amazing array of DNA rearrangements and modifications during B cell development. During early stages, the variable region gene is constructed from constituent variable (V), diversity (D), and joining (J) segments (VDJ joining). B cells that successfully express an antibody can be activated, leading to somatic hypermutation (SHM) focused on the variable region, and class switch recombination (CSR), which substitutes downstream constant region genes for the originally used Cμ constant region gene. Many investigators, ourselves included, have sought to understand how these processes specifically target the Igh locus and avoid other loci and potential deleterious consequences of malignant transformation. Our laboratory has concentrated on a complex regulatory region (RR) that is located downstream of Cα, the most 3' of the Igh constant region genes. The ~40 kb 3' RR, which is predicted to serve as a downstream major regulator of the Igh locus, contains two distinct segments: an ~28 kb region comprising four enhancers, and an adjacent ~12 kb region containing multiple CTCF and Pax5 binding sites. Analysis of targeted mutations in mice by a number of investigators has concluded that the entire 3' RR enhancer region is essential for SHM and CSR (but not for VDJ joining) and for high levels of expression of multiple isotypes. The CTCF/Pax5 binding region is a candidate for influencing VDJ joining early in B cell development and serving as a potential insulator of the Igh locus. Components of the 3' RR are subject to a variety of epigenetic changes during B cell development, i.e., DNAse I hypersensitivity, histone modifications, and DNA methylation, in association with transcription factor binding. I propose that these changes provide a foundation by which regulatory elements in modules of the 3' RR function by interacting with each other and with target sequences of the Igh locus. PMID:24795714

  2. Structural re-alignment in an immunologic surface region of ricin A chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zemla, A T; Zhou, C E

    2007-07-24

    We compared structure alignments generated by several protein structure comparison programs to determine whether existing methods would satisfactorily align residues at a highly conserved position within an immunogenic loop in ribosome inactivating proteins (RIPs). Using default settings, structure alignments generated by several programs (CE, DaliLite, FATCAT, LGA, MAMMOTH, MATRAS, SHEBA, SSM) failed to align the respective conserved residues, although LGA reported correct residue-residue (R-R) correspondences when the beta-carbon (Cb) position was used as the point of reference in the alignment calculations. Further tests using variable points of reference indicated that points distal from the beta carbon along a vector connecting the alpha and beta carbons yielded rigid structural alignments in which residues known to be highly conserved in RIPs were reported as corresponding residues in structural comparisons between ricin A chain, abrin-A, and other RIPs. Results suggest that approaches to structure alignment employing alternate point representations corresponding to side chain position may yield structure alignments that are more consistent with observed conservation of functional surface residues than do standard alignment programs, which apply uniform criteria for alignment (i.e., alpha carbon (Ca) as point of reference) along the entirety of the peptide chain. We present the results of tests that suggest the utility of allowing user-specified points of reference in generating alternate structural alignments, and we present a web server for automatically generating such alignments.

  3. Biological activities of the homologous loop regions in the laminin α chain LG modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagiri, Fumihiko; Hara, Toshihiro; Yamada, Yuji; Urushibata, Shunsuke; Hozumi, Kentaro; Kikkawa, Yamato; Nomizu, Motoyoshi

    2014-06-10

    Each laminin α chain (α1-α5 chains) has chain-specific diverse biological functions. The C-terminal globular domain of the α chain consists of five laminin-like globular (LG1-5) modules and plays a critical role in biological activities. The LG modules consist of a 14-stranded β-sheet (A-N) sandwich structure. Previously, we described the chain-specific biological activities of the loop regions between the E and F strands in the LG4 modules using five homologous peptides (G4EF1-G4EF5). Here, we further analyze the biological activities of the E-F strands loop regions in the rest of LG modules. We designed 20 homologous peptides (approximately 20 amino acid length), and 17 soluble peptides were used for the cell attachment assay. Thirteen peptides promoted cell attachment activity with different cell morphologies. Cell attachment to peptides G1EF1, G1EF2, G2EF1, G3EF4, and G5EF4 was inhibited by heparin, and peptides G1EF1, G1EF2, and G2EF1 specifically bound to syndecan-overexpressing cells. Cell attachment to peptides G2EF3, G3EF1, G3EF3, G5EF1, G5EF3, and G5EF5 was inhibited EDTA. Further, cell attachment to peptides G3EF3, G5EF1, and G5EF5 was inhibited by both anti-integrin α2 and β1 antibodies, whereas cell attachment to peptide G5EF3 was inhibited by only anti-integrin β1 antibody. Cell attachment to peptides G1EF4, G3EF4, and G5EF4 was inhibited by both heparin and EDTA and was not inhibited by anti-integrin antibodies. The active peptide sequence alignments suggest that the syndecan-binding peptides contain a "basic amino acid (BAA)-Gly-BAA" motif in the middle of the molecule and that the integrin-binding peptides contain an "acidic amino acid (AAA)"-Gly-BAA motif. Core-switched peptide analyses suggested that the "BAA-Gly-BAA" motif is critical for binding to syndecans and that the "AAA-Gly-BAA" motif has potential to recognize integrins. These findings are useful for understanding chain-specific biological activities of laminins and to evaluate

  4. Surface antigen expression and correlation with variable heavy-chain gene mutation status in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilpo, Juhani; Tobin, Gerard; Hulkkonen, Janne; Hurme, Mikko; Thunberg, Ulf; Sundström, Christer; Vilpo, Leena; Rosenquist, Richard

    2003-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) consists of two clinical entities with either somatically hypermutated (M-CLL) or unmutated (UM-CLL) immunoglobulin variable heavy-chain (VH) regions. In view of the fact that the cellular biology of these two subsets of disease is currently unexplored, we performed an extensive analysis of the surface antigen expression and correlated this with the VH gene mutation status in a cohort of 32 CLL patients. Using polymerase chain reaction amplification and nucleotide sequencing, the VH genes were shown to be mutated in 10 cases (31%) and unmutated in 22 (69%). The expression of 27 surface membrane antigens in peripheral blood leukemic cells was analyzed by flow cytometry, measuring both the percentage of positive cells as well as the geometric mean fluorescence intensity (GMF). Most of the surface membrane antigens (CD5, CD11c, CD19, CD20, CD21, CD22, CD23, CD25, CD40, CD45, VD79b, CD80, CD95, CD122, CD124, CD126, CD130, CD154, IgM, and IgD) showed a similar expression pattern in both UM-CLL and M-CLL patients. The similarity of M-CLL and UM-CLL, as demonstrated here for the first time with many protein markers, indicates a considerably homogeneous phenotype in both subsets. Furthermore, CD27 was strongly expressed in all cases, which may suggest a memory cell phenotype for both M-CLL and UM-CLL. More positive cells in the UM-CLL group were observed regarding CD38, but CD38 was not a good predictor of VH gene mutation status. Seventy percent of the M-CLL cases, but only 36% of UM-CLL cases, were Ig-lambda+. The most striking differential expression, however, was observed in the two slicing variants of the common leukocyte antigen CD45, namely CD45RO and CD45RA. CD45RO expression was significantly associated with M-CLL, whereas the GMF intensity of CD45RA tended to be associated with UM-CLL. The role of these CD45 splicing variants in the pathogenesis of CLL deserves further investigation

  5. Nonlinear dynamics of a friction-limited drive: Application to a chain continuously variable transmission (CVT) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Nilabh; Haque, Imtiaz

    2009-03-01

    Over the past two decades, extensive research has been conducted on developing vehicle transmissions that meet the goals of reduced exhaust emissions and increased vehicle efficiency. A continuously variable transmission is an emerging automotive transmission technology that offers a continuum of gear ratios between desired limits. A chain CVT is a friction-limited drive whose dynamic performance and torque capacity rely significantly on the friction characteristic of the contact patch between the chain and the pulley. Although a CVT helps to maximize the vehicle fuel economy, its complete potential has not been accomplished in a mass-production vehicle. The present research focuses on developing models to analyze friction-induced nonlinear dynamics of a chain CVT drive and identify possible mechanisms that cause degradation of the overall dynamic performance by inducing chaos and self-sustained vibrations in the system. Two different mathematical models of friction, which characterize different operating or loading conditions, are embedded into a detailed planar multibody model of chain CVT in order to capture the various friction-induced effects in the system. Tools such as stick-slip oscillator dynamics, Lyapunov exponents, phase-space reconstruction, and recurrence plotting are incorporated to characterize the nonlinear dynamics of such a friction-limited system. The mathematical models, the computational scheme, and the results corresponding to different loading scenarios are discussed. The results discuss the influence of friction characteristics on the nonlinear dynamics and torque transmitting capacity of a chain CVT drive.

  6. The spread amongst ENSEMBLES regional scenarios: regional climate models, driving general circulation models and interannual variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deque, M.; Somot, S. [Meteo-France, Centre National de Recherches Meteorologiques, CNRS/GAME, Toulouse Cedex 01 (France); Sanchez-Gomez, E. [Cerfacs/CNRS, SUC URA1875, Toulouse Cedex 01 (France); Goodess, C.M. [University of East Anglia, Climatic Research Unit, Norwich (United Kingdom); Jacob, D. [Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg (Germany); Lenderink, G. [KNMI, Postbus 201, De Bilt (Netherlands); Christensen, O.B. [Danish Meteorological Institute, Copenhagen Oe (Denmark)

    2012-03-15

    Various combinations of thirteen regional climate models (RCM) and six general circulation models (GCM) were used in FP6-ENSEMBLES. The response to the SRES-A1B greenhouse gas concentration scenario over Europe, calculated as the difference between the 2021-2050 and the 1961-1990 means can be viewed as an expected value about which various uncertainties exist. Uncertainties are measured here by variance explained for temperature and precipitation changes over eight European sub-areas. Three sources of uncertainty can be evaluated from the ENSEMBLES database. Sampling uncertainty is due to the fact that the model climate is estimated as an average over a finite number of years (30) despite a non-negligible interannual variability. Regional model uncertainty is due to the fact that the RCMs use different techniques to discretize the equations and to represent sub-grid effects. Global model uncertainty is due to the fact that the RCMs have been driven by different GCMs. Two methods are presented to fill the many empty cells of the ENSEMBLES RCM x GCM matrix. The first one is based on the same approach as in FP5-PRUDENCE. The second one uses the concept of weather regimes to attempt to separate the contribution of the GCM and the RCM. The variance of the climate response is analyzed with respect to the contribution of the GCM and the RCM. The two filling methods agree that the main contributor to the spread is the choice of the GCM, except for summer precipitation where the choice of the RCM dominates the uncertainty. Of course the implication of the GCM to the spread varies with the region, being maximum in the South-western part of Europe, whereas the continental parts are more sensitive to the choice of the RCM. The third cause of spread is systematically the interannual variability. The total uncertainty about temperature is not large enough to mask the 2021-2050 response which shows a similar pattern to the one obtained for 2071-2100 in PRUDENCE. The uncertainty

  7. Regional variability among nonlinear chlorophyll-phosphorus relationships in lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filstrup, Christopher T.; Wagner, Tyler; Soranno, Patricia A.; Stanley, Emily H.; Stow, Craig A.; Webster, Katherine E.; Downing, John A.

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between chlorophyll a (Chl a) and total phosphorus (TP) is a fundamental relationship in lakes that reflects multiple aspects of ecosystem function and is also used in the regulation and management of inland waters. The exact form of this relationship has substantial implications on its meaning and its use. We assembled a spatially extensive data set to examine whether nonlinear models are a better fit for Chl a—TP relationships than traditional log-linear models, whether there were regional differences in the form of the relationships, and, if so, which regional factors were related to these differences. We analyzed a data set from 2105 temperate lakes across 35 ecoregions by fitting and comparing two different nonlinear models and one log-linear model. The two nonlinear models fit the data better than the log-linear model. In addition, the parameters for the best-fitting model varied among regions: the maximum and lower Chl aasymptotes were positively and negatively related to percent regional pasture land use, respectively, and the rate at which chlorophyll increased with TP was negatively related to percent regional wetland cover. Lakes in regions with more pasture fields had higher maximum chlorophyll concentrations at high TP concentrations but lower minimum chlorophyll concentrations at low TP concentrations. Lakes in regions with less wetland cover showed a steeper Chl a—TP relationship than wetland-rich regions. Interpretation of Chl a—TP relationships depends on regional differences, and theory and management based on a monolithic relationship may be inaccurate.

  8. Screening, expression, and characterization of an anti-human oxidized low-density lipoprotein single-chain variable fragment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumano-Kuramochi, Miyuki; Fujimura, Takashi; Komba, Shiro; Maeda-Yamamoto, Mari; Machida, Sachiko

    2016-09-01

    Increased levels of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL) in the blood circulation are correlated with atherosclerosis. Monoclonal antibody-based detection systems have been reported for OxLDL. We identified novel single-chain variable fragments (scFvs) having affinity for human OxLDL and related ligands. We constructed an scFv library from nonimmunized human spleen mRNA. Two types (γ+κ and μ+λ) of scFv phage libraries were enriched by biopanning, and five scFv clones with affinity for OxLDL were identified. The γκ5 scFv, which showed the highest affinity for OxLDL, was cloned into pET-22b(+) and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). γκ5, expressed as an inclusion body in BL21(DE3), was refolded and purified. The specificity and sensitivity of γκ5 were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). The γκ5 scFv showed affinity for OxLDL and acetylated LDL. The sensitivity of γκ5 to low concentrations (1-2 μg/mL) of OxLDL was higher than that to AcLDL and LDL. Finally, we developed a sandwich ELISA using γκ5 and CTLD14 (a lectin-like OxLDL receptor-1 ligand recognition region), which allowed specific detection of OxLDL at a level below 0.1 μg/mL. Our results indicated that the γκ5 scFv was a promising molecule for the detection of modified LDL at very low concentrations. PMID:27038672

  9. Potential, spatial distribution and economic performance of regional biomass chains: The North of the Netherlands as example

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hilst, F.; Dornburg, V.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Elbersen, B.; Graves, A.; Turkenburg, W.C.; Elbersen, H.W.; van Dam, J.M.C.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2010-01-01

    This work assesses the viability of regional biomass chains by comparing the economic performance of potential bioenergy crops with the performance of current agricultural land uses. The biomass chains assessed are ethanol production from Miscanthus and from sugar beet in the North of the Netherland

  10. Sub-regional ecosystem variability in the Canary Current upwrelling

    OpenAIRE

    Aristegui, J.; Barton, E D; Alvarez-Salgado, X. A.; Santos, A.M.P.; Figueiras, F. G.; Kifani, S.; Hernandez-Leon, S.; Mason, E.; Machu, Eric; Demarcq, Hervé

    2009-01-01

    The Canary Current upwelling ecosystem (CanC) constitutes one of the four main eastern boundary upwelling ecosystems (EBUEs) of the world, thus hosting high productivity and fisheries. Recent observations indicate that the CanC region as a whole has been experiencing a progressive warming and a decrease in productivity over the last decades. This overall trend is however not directly reflected in the fisheries of the region. Here we update recent results and previous reviews on the CanC, cove...

  11. Seasonal TEC Variability in West Africa Equatorial Anomaly Region

    OpenAIRE

    ZOUNDI, Christian; Ouattara, Fréderic; FLEURY, Rolland; Amory-Mazaudier, Christine; Lassudrie-Duchesne, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    This paper presented the seasonal variability of TEC/ GPS data recorded at Ouagadougou a West Africa GPS station located near the magnetic equator. Seasonal data TEC time variations are compared to those of TEC derived from IGS GPS network maps. The present study showed that TEC map model predicts well data TEC during equinoctial months and fairly well during solstice months. The best prediction is obtained during spring and the worst during winter. The analysis of seasonal TEC profiles highl...

  12. Indian monsoon variability in relation to Regional Pressure Index

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S S Dugam; S B Kakade

    2003-12-01

    In this paper Regional Pressure Index (RPI) over the Indian region (20°N-40°N and 70°E-85°E) has been constructed for 101 years (1899-1999) on a monthly scale. The relationship of these indices was carried out with the Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall (June-September) (ISMR) over the various homogeneous regions, for all the time scales. From the analysis it has been seen that RPI in the month of May is significantly associated with ISMR over various regions on all the scales. The relationship is statistically significant at 1% level. The study reveals that RPI in the month of May and January will be a new precursor for the long range forecasting of ISMR on the smaller spatial scale. On the decadal and climatological scale, winter and spring time RPI show a significant inverse relationship with the rainfall over the regions Peninsular India (PI) and North West India (NWI), while the association is direct with Central North East India (CNEI) and North East India (NEI). The relationship is significant at 0.1 and 1% level respectively.

  13. A Four-Type Decision-Variable MINLP Model for a Supply Chain Network Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Monteiro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a mixed integer nonlinear programming model for the design of a one-period planning horizon supply chain with integrated and flexible decisions on location of plants and of warehouses, on levels of production and of inventory, and on transportation models, considering stochastic demand and the ABC classification for finished goods, which is an NP-hard industrial engineering optimization problem. Furthermore, computational implementation of the proposed model is presented through the direct application of the outer approximation algorithm on some randomly generated supply chain data.

  14. SST Diurnal Variability: Regional Extent & Implications in Atmospheric Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karagali, Ioanna; Høyer, Jacob L.

    2013-01-01

    and quantify regional diurnal warming from the experimental MSG/SEVIRI hourly SST fields, for the period 2006-2012. ii) To investigate the impact of the increased SST temporal resolution in the atmospheric model WRF, in terms of modeled 10-m winds and surface heat fluxes. Withing this context, 3 main tasks...... regional diurnal warming over the SEVIRI disk, a SEVIRI derived reference field representative of the well mixed night-time conditions is required. Different methodologies are tested and the results are validated against SEVIRI pre-dawn SSTs and in situ data from moored and drifting buoys....

  15. A green supply chain network design model for enhancing competitiveness and sustainability of companies in high north arctic regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Yu, Wei Deng Solvang, Chen Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To survive in today’s competitive and ever-changing marketplace, companies need not only to engage in their products and/or services, but also to focus on the management of the whole supply chain. Effectively managing and balancing the profitability and interconnection of each player in the supply chain will improve the overall supply chain surplus as well as individual profit. However, it is extremely difficult to simultaneously optimize several objectives in design and planning of a supply chain, i.e., cost-minimization, risk-minimization, responsiveness-maximization, etc., which are somehow conflict with one another. Furthermore, the natural and infrastructural challenges in high north arctic regions make it become much more difficult and complicated to design and develop cost-efficient, highly responsive, environmentally friendly, and sustainable supply chain network. In order to provide companies in high north arctic regions with decision support tool for the design and planning of theirs supply chain networks, a green supply chain network design (GrSCND model is formulated in this study based on multi-objective mixed integer programming (MIP. The optimal trade-off among several conflicting objectives is the focus of this GrSCND model aiming to enhance both competitive competence and sustainability of companies and supply chains operated in high north regions. In addition, a numerical experiment is also given to present a deep insight of the GrSCND model.

  16. Automotive Lithium-ion Cell Manufacturing: Regional Cost Structures and Supply Chain Considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Donald [Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center, Godlen, CO (United States); Elgqvist, Emma [Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center, Godlen, CO (United States); Santhanagopalan, Shriram [Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center, Godlen, CO (United States)

    2016-04-08

    Manufacturing capacity for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs)--which power many consumer electronics and are increasingly used to power electric vehicles--is heavily concentrated in east Asia. Currently, China, Japan, and Korea collectively host 88% of all LIB cell and 79% of automotive LIB cell manufacturing capacity. Mature supply chains and strong cumulative production experience suggest that most LIB cell production will remain concentrated in Asia. However, other regions--including North America--could be competitive in the growing automotive LIB cell market under certain conditions. To illuminate the factors that drive regional competitiveness in automotive LIB cell production, this study models cell manufacturing cost and minimum sustainable price, and examines development of LIB supply chains and current LIB market conditions. Modeled costs are for large format, 20-Ah stacked pouch cells with lithium-nickel-manganese-cobalt-oxide (NMC) cathodes and graphite anodes suitable for automotive application. Production volume is assumed to be at commercial scale, 600 MWh per year.

  17. Averaging over fast variables in the fluid limit for Markov chains: application to the supermarket model with memory

    CERN Document Server

    Luczak, M J

    2010-01-01

    We set out a general procedure which allows the approximation of certain Markov chains by the solutions of differential equations. The chains considered have some components which oscillate rapidly and randomly, while others are close to deterministic. The limiting dynamics are obtained by averaging the drift of the latter with respect to a local equilibrium distribution of the former. Some general estimates are proved under a uniform mixing condition on the fast variable which give explicit error probabilities for the fluid approximation. Mitzenmacher, Prabhakar and Shah \\cite{MPS} introduced a variant with memory of the `join the shortest queue' or `supermarket' model, and obtained a limit picture for the case of a stable system in which the number of queues and the total arrival rate are large. In this limit, the empirical distribution of queue sizes satisfies a differential equation, while the memory of the system oscillates rapidly and randomly. We illustrate our general fluid limit estimate in giving a ...

  18. Quarterly Regional GDP Flash Estimates by Means of Benchmarking and Chain Linking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuevas Ángel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we propose a methodology for estimating the GDP of a country’s different regions, providing quarterly profiles for the annual official observed data. Thus the article offers a new instrument for short-term monitoring that allows the analysts to quantify the degree of synchronicity among regional business cycles. Technically, we combine time-series models with benchmarking methods to process short-term quarterly indicators and to estimate quarterly regional GDPs ensuring their temporal and transversal consistency with the National Accounts data. The methodology addresses the issue of nonadditivity, explicitly taking into account the transversal constraints imposed by the chain-linked volume indexes used by the National Accounts, and provides an efficient combination of structural as well as short-term information. The methodology is illustrated by an application to the Spanish economy, providing real-time quarterly GDP estimates, that is, with a minimum compilation delay with respect to the national quarterly GDP. The estimated quarterly data are used to assess the existence of cycles shared among the Spanish regions.

  19. INVERSION SYMMETRY, ARCHITECTURE AND DISPERSITY, AND THEIR EFFECTS ON THERMODYNAMICS IN BULK AND CONFINED REGIONS: FROM RANDOMLY BRANCHED POLYMERS TO LINEAR CHAINS, STARS AND DENDRIMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.D.Gujrati

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical evidence is presented in this review that architectural aspects can play an important role, not only in the bulk but also in confined geometries by using our recursive lattice theory, which is equally applicable to fixed architectures (regularly branched polymers, stars, dendrimers, brushes, linear chains, etc. and variable architectures, i.e. randomly branched structures. Linear chains possess an inversion symmetry (IS of a magnetic system (see text, whose presence or absence determines the bulk phase diagram. Fixed architectures possess the IS and yield a standard bulk phase diagram in which there exists a theta point at which two critical lines C and C' meet and the second virial coefficient A2 vanishes. The critical line C appears only for infinitely large polymers, and an order parameter is identified for this criticality. The critical line C' exists for polymers of all sizes and represents phase separation criticality. Variable architectures, which do not possess the IS, give rise to a topologically different phase diagram with no theta point in general. In confined regions next to surfaces, it is not the IS but branching and monodispersity, which becomes important in the surface regions. We show that branching plays no important role for polydisperse systems, but become important for monodisperse systems. Stars and linear chains behave differently near a surface.

  20. Climate Change and Climate Variability in the Latin American Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrin, G. O.; Gay Garcia, C.; Cruz Choque, D.; Gimenez-Sal, J. C.; Moreno, A. R.; Nagy, G. J.; Nobre, C.; Villamizar, A.

    2007-05-01

    Over the past three decades LA was subjected to several climate-related impacts due to increased El Niño occurrences. Two extremely intense episodes of El Niño and other increased climate extremes happened during this period contributing greatly to augment the vulnerability of human systems to natural disasters. In addition to weather and climate, the main drivers of the increased vulnerability are demographic pressure, unregulated urban growth, poverty and rural migration, low investment in infrastructure and services, and problems in inter-sector coordination. As well, increases in temperature and increases/decreases in precipitation observed during the last part of 20th century have yet led to intensification of glaciers melting, increases in floods/droughts and forest fires frequency, increases in morbidity and mortality, increases in plant diseases incidence; lost of biodiversity, reduction in dairy cattle production, and problems with hydropower generation, highly affecting LA human system. For the end of the 21st century, the projected mean warming for LA ranges from 1 to 7.5ºC and the frequency of weather and climate extremes could increase. Additionally, deforestation is projected to continue leading to a reduction of 25 percent in Amazonia forest in 2020 and 40 percent in 2050. Soybeans planted area in South America could increase by 55 percent by 2020 enhancing aridity/desertification in many of the already water- stressed regions. By 2050 LA population is likely to be 50 percent larger than in 2000, and migration from the country sides to the cities will continue. In the near future, these predicted changes are very likely to severely affect a number of ecosystems and sectors distribution; b) Disappearing most tropical glaciers; c) Reducing water availability and hydropower generation; d) Increasing desertification and aridity; e) Severely affecting people, resources and economic activities in coastal areas; f) Increasing crop's pests and diseases

  1. Winter climate variability and classification in the Bulgarian Mountainous Regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problems of snowiness and thermal conditions of winters are of high interest of investigations because of the more frequent droughts, occurred in the region. In the present study an attempt to reveal tendencies existing during the last 70 years of 20 th century in the course winter precipitation and,temperature as well as in some of the snow cover parameters. On the base of mean winter air temperature winters in the Bulgarian mountains were analyzed and classified. The main results of the study show that winter precipitation has decrease tendencies more significant in the highest parts of the mountains. On the other hand winter air temperature increases. It shows a relatively well-established maximum at the end of the studied period. In the Bulgarian mountains normal winters are about 35-40% of all winters. (Author)

  2. Is Regional Root Reinforcement Controlled by Soil Moisture Variability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, T.; Ford, C. R.

    2011-12-01

    of "bound water" (water present in the cell wall), which in turn affected the strength of the cellulose fibrils that provide tensile strength. This phenomenon, which is the reason any wet wood is weaker than dry wood, results in a 50% difference in root tensile strength within the range of soil moisture measured in the field. We used a one-dimensional finite difference model to explore the effects of soil moisture on root cohesion. Our model shows that changes in the distribution of root biomass represent the primary control on root cohesion (representing up to 50% of intra-specific variability in root cohesion). Local changes in soil moisture result in ~20% change in the overall root cohesion. Our work suggest a feed-forward process in precipitation (and thus soil moisture), root strength changes, and debris flow hazard.

  3. Explosive Nuclear Burning in the pp-Chain Region and the Breakout Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubono S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear reactions in the pp-chain region and on the breakout process from the pp-chain region under very high temperature conditions are reviewed, and some possibilities for experimental investigation are discussed. The reactions discussed could play an important role typically for the primordial nucleosynthesis and supernova nucleosynthesis. Specifically, I discuss here the reactions starting from the two key nuclei, 7Be and 7Li. The 7Be(n,α reaction, which destroys 7Be, is considered to have a large impact to the primordial 7Li problem. Our recent estimate of the reaction rate indicates that the reaction rate can be about one order of magnitude smaller than the rate currently adopted, suggesting this channel has a minor effect for the 7Li problem. Under a proton-rich environment at high temperature like the νp-process, the 7Be(α,γ11C(α,p14N pathway is expected to play a majpr role for heavy element synthesis, comparable to the triple alpha process. These two reactions on the pathway were investigated by using low-energy, high-intensity RI beams of 7Be and 11C. The results support the theoretical prediction of heavy nucleus production at around mass 90-100 by the νp-process, where the anomalously abundant p-nuclei exist. The reactions on the breakout sequence of 7Li(n,γ8Li(α,n11B are also discussed which could paly a crucial role in nuetron-rich envirnments, like in the primirdial universe as well as the early stage of the r-process. The cross sections of the first step reaction 7Li(n,γ8Li seems well confirmed, but the second step reaction 8Li(α,n11B still is not well known yet, whose status of the study is discussed.

  4. Dairy Supply Chain Risk Management in Bangladesh: Field studies of Factors and Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasnuba Nasir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Supply chain risk management (SCRM has gained wide attention among the academia and the business community in the present competitive business world. This paper aims to investigate the main risk factors associated with the dairy industry along with focuses on possible mitigation strategy to mitigate those risks. Qualitative field study has been undertaken in this research. The results of the interviews identify the different risk issues along with the possible mitigation strategies, embedded at storage, processing and distribution level in dairy industry of Bangladesh. The practical implication will contribute significantly to the dairy sector in terms of mitigating risks.

  5. Multiannual runoff variability in the upper Danube region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main results and new knowledge of the presented Thesis can be summarized as follows: - The daily mean discharge time series of the river Danube at Bratislava has been supplemented with data from years 1876-1890. So it has been extended into the full-uninterrupted daily data series for the length of 130 years. Such series of the daily mean discharges is suitable for statistical analyses of the hydrological characteristics changes, and also for identification of the multi-annual (up to 30- years) cycles. - Using the combined periodogram method and the series filtration, in the discharge time series, the variegation cycles of dry and wet time periods were searched. For such objective, the time series were used, of more than 100 rivers of the world. From the longer cycles in the series the approximately 28-30 and 20-22 yrs. cycles of the dry and wet periods occurrence were identified. However, the cycle lengths is not exactly 28 and 21 years, but in the long term average, they come close to these values. From the shorter cycles, those with 7.8-, 6.5-, 5.2-; 4.14-, 3.65, and 2.4- years were identified. - These periods were documented for the discharge series of the analyzed rivers in various physiographic latitudes of the world. It is then possible to consider this piece of knowledge as generally valid for the whole Earth. These periods are connected with the Solar activity and with the thermohaline circulation (ocean conveyor belt). Their parts are also the El Nino, AO, NAO, and QBO phenomena. - Through the cross-correlations (two variables), time shift of the dry and wet periods was identified depending upon the geographical longitude and latitude of the river basins location. From these results it follows, that the dry and wet periods do not occur at the same time on various locations. This time shift depends upon the basins location, and it follows upon the shift in the precipitations occurrence. - The trend analysis did not indicate any significant trends in

  6. SINGLE CHAIN VARIABLE FRAGMENTS OF ANTIBODIES AGAINST DIPHTHERIA TOXIN B-SUBUNIT ISOLATED FROM PHAGE DISPLAY HUMAN ANTIBODY LIBRARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliinyk O. S.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Diphtheria toxin is an exoantigen of Corynebacterium diphtheriae that inhibits protein synthesis and kills sensitive cells. The aim of this study was to obtain human recombinant single-chain variable fragment (scFv antibodies against receptor-binding B subunit of diphtheria toxin. 12 specific clones were selected after three rounds of a phage display naїve (unimmunized human antibody library against recombinant B-subunit. scFv DNA inserts from these 12 clones were digested with MvaI, and 6 unique restriction patterns were found. Single-chain antibodies were expressed in Escherichia coli XL1-blue. The recombinant proteins were characterized by immunoblotting of bacterial extracts and detection with an anti-E-tag antibody. The toxin B-subunit-binding function of the single-chain antibody was shown by ELISA. The affinity constants for different clones were found to be from 106 to 108 М–1. Due to the fact, that these antibody fragments recognized epitopes in the receptor-binding Bsubunit of diphtheria toxin, further studies are interesting to evaluate their toxin neutralization properties and potential for therapeutic applications. Obtained scFv-antibodies can also be used for detection and investigation of biological properties of diphtheria toxin.

  7. Supplemental dietary inulin of variable chain lengths alters intestinal bacterial populations in young pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Jannine K; Yasuda, Koji; Welch, Ross M; Miller, Dennis D; Lei, Xin Gen

    2010-12-01

    Previously, we showed that supplementation of diets with short-chain inulin (P95), long-chain inulin (HP), and a 50:50 mixture of both (Synergy 1) improved body iron status and altered expression of the genes involved in iron homeostasis and inflammation in young pigs. However, the effects of these 3 types of inulin on intestinal bacteria remain unknown. Applying terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, we determined the abundances of luminal and adherent bacterial populations from 6 segments of the small and large intestines of pigs (n = 4 for each group) fed an iron-deficient basal diet (BD) or the BD supplemented with 4% of P95, Synergy 1, or HP for 5 wk. Compared with BD, all 3 types of inulin enhanced (P inulin on bacterial populations in the lumen contents were found. Meanwhile, all 3 types of inulin suppressed the less desirable bacteria Clostridium spp. and members of the Enterobacteriaceae in the lumen and mucosa of various gut segments. Our findings suggest that the ability of dietary inulin to alter intestinal bacterial populations may partially account for its iron bioavailability-promoting effect and possibly other health benefits.

  8. Modelling the Consequences of Variability in Food Production Chains on Human Health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, M.; Verkerk, R.

    2005-01-01

    Epidemiological studies on the relation between fruit and vegetable intake and chronic diseases show variable results. In many studies a small protective effect is found for fruit and vegetable intake and the risk for cardiovascular diseases and cancers. In other studies these effects could not be f

  9. Variable fragment of heavy chain antibody against the terminal protein region of hepatitis B virus polymerase introduced by Tat protein transduction domain inhibits the replication of hepatitis B virus in vitro%蛋白转导结构域介导乙型肝炎病毒聚合酶末端蛋白重链可变区抗体体外抑制病毒的复制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于俊岩; 兰林; 李俊刚; 张长江; 王宇明

    2009-01-01

    目的 蛋白转导结构域(TAT)介导HBV聚合酶末端蛋白(TP)重链可变区(VH)抗体,研究特异性TAT-VH抗体体外对HBV复制的影响.方法 将TAT-VH基因克隆入原核表达载体pET28a(+),在大肠埃希菌BL21(DE3)LysS内诱导融合蛋白表达并进行纯化.纯化的TAT-VH加入培养的HepG2.2.15细胞,间接免疫荧光法检测其导入HepG2.2.15细胞的效率,四甲基偶氮唑盐(MTT)法检测其对细胞生长代谢的影响,将TAT-VH加入培养的HepG2.2.15细胞,定量PCR法检测HBV DNA水平.数据行单因素方差分析和t检验.结果 成功制备了TAT-VH融合蛋白,间接免疫荧光及MTT证实TAT-VH可以跨膜导入HepG2.2.15细胞,且对细胞生长无影响;加入5 000 nmol/L TAT-VH的HepG2.2.15细胞培养上清液内HBV DNA为(1.211±0.132)lg拷贝/mL,对照组为(5.325±0.041)lg拷贝/mL(t=72.91,P<0.05);细胞内分别为(3.521±0.411)和(8.532±0.132)Ig拷贝/mL(t=28.41,P<0.05).结论 HBV聚合酶TP区特异性TAT-VH抗体在体外可抑制HBV复制,为应用细胞内抗体治疗HBV感染提供了良好的实验基础.%Objective To study a functional variable fragment of heavy chain(VH)antibody against the terminal protein(TP)region of hepatitis B virus(HBV)polymerase introduced by human immunodeficiency virus Tat protein transduction domain(TAT)and the inhibitive activity of TAT-VH on the replication of HBV in vitro.Methods The gene encoding TAT-VH was cloned into prokaryotic expression vector pET28a(+).Recombinant plasmid was transduced into E coli BL21(DE3)LysS,then the protein was expressed and purified.The purified TAT-VH fusion protein was added into HepG2.2.15 cell culture.The transduction efficiency was evaluated by indirect fluorescence assay(IFA).The cytotoxicity of TAT-VH was detected by Methabenzthiazuron(MTT)assay.HBV DNA level in HepG2.2.15 cell culture was measured using quantitative polymerase chain reaction(PCR).The data were analyzed by one-factor analysis of variance and t test.Results TAT

  10. Stochastic Monte-Carlo Markov Chain Inversions on Models Regionalized Using Receiver Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larmat, C. S.; Maceira, M.; Kato, Y.; Bodin, T.; Calo, M.; Romanowicz, B. A.; Chai, C.; Ammon, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    There is currently a strong interest in stochastic approaches to seismic modeling - versus deterministic methods such as gradient methods - due to the ability of these methods to better deal with highly non-linear problems. Another advantage of stochastic methods is that they allow the estimation of the a posteriori probability distribution of the derived parameters, meaning the envisioned Bayesian inversion of Tarantola allowing the quantification of the solution error. The cost to pay of stochastic methods is that they require testing thousands of variations of each unknown parameter and their associated weights to ensure reliable probabilistic inferences. Even with the best High-Performance Computing resources available, 3D stochastic full waveform modeling at the regional scale still remains out-of-reach. We are exploring regionalization as one way to reduce the dimension of the parameter space, allowing the identification of areas in the models that can be treated as one block in a subsequent stochastic inversion. Regionalization is classically performed through the identification of tectonic or structural elements. Lekic & Romanowicz (2011) proposed a new approach with a cluster analysis of the tomographic velocity models instead. Here we present the results of a clustering analysis on the P-wave receiver-functions used in the subsequent inversion. Different clustering algorithms and quality of clustering are tested for different datasets of North America and China. Preliminary results with the kmean clustering algorithm show that an interpolated receiver function wavefield (Chai et al., GRL, in review) improve the agreement with the geological and tectonic regions of North America compared to the traditional approach of stacked receiver functions. After regionalization, 1D profile for each region is stochastically inferred using a parallelized code based on Monte-Carlo Markov Chains (MCMC), and modeling surfacewave-dispersion and receiver

  11. 5DFRXXL region of long myosin light chain kinase causes F-actin bundle formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Chunxiang; WEI Dongmei; CHEN Chen; YU Weiping; ZHU Minsheng

    2005-01-01

    Long myosin light chain kinase (L-MLCK) contains five DFRXXL motifs with ability to bind F-actin. Binding stoichiometry data indicated that each DFRXXL motif might bind each G-actin, but its biological significance remained unknown. We hypothesized that L-MLCK might act as an F-actin bundle peptides by its multiple binding sites of 5DFRXXL motifs to actin. In order to characterize F-actin-bundle formation properties of 5DFRXXL region of long myosin light chain kinase, we expressed and purified 5DFRXXL peptides tagged with HA in vitro. The properties of 5DFRXXL peptides binding to myofilaments or F-actin were analyzed by binding stoichiometries assays. The results indicated that 5DFRXXL peptides bound to myofilaments or F-actin with high affinity. KD values of 5DFRXXL binding to myofilaments and F-actin were 0.45 and 0.41 μmol/L, re- spectively. Cross-linking assay demonstrated that 5DFRXXL peptides could bundle F-actin efficiently. Typical F-actin bundles were observed morphologically through determina- tion of confocal and electron microscopy after adding 5DFRXXL peptides. After transfection of pEGFP-5DFRXXL plasmid into eukaryocyte, spike structure was observed around cell membrane edge. We guess that such structure formation may be attributable to F-actin over-bundle forma- tion caused by 5DFRXXL peptides. Therefore, we suppose that L-MLCK may be a new bundling protein and somehow play a certain role in organization of cell skeleton besides mediating cell contraction by it kinase activity.

  12. Phylogeny of immunoglobulin heavy chain isotypes: structure of the constant region of Ambystoma mexicanum upsilon chain deduced from cDNA sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellah, J S; Kerfourn, F; Wiles, M V; Schwager, J; Charlemagne, J

    1993-01-01

    An RNA polymerase chain reaction strategy was used to amplify and clone a cDNA segment encoding for the complete constant part of the axolotl IgY heavy (C upsilon) chain. C upsilon is 433 amino acids long and organized into four domains (C upsilon 1-C upsilon 4); each has the typical internal disulfide bond and invariant tryptophane residues. Axolotl C upsilon is most closely related to Xenopus C upsilon (40% identical amino acid residues) and C upsilon 1 shares 46.4% amino acid residues among these species. The presence of additional cysteines in C upsilon 1 and C upsilon 2 domains is consistent with an additional intradomain S-S bond similar to that suggested for Xenopus C upsilon and C chi, and for the avian C upsilon and the human C epsilon. C upsilon 4 ends with the Gly-Lys dipeptide characteristic of secreted mammalian C gamma 3, human C epsilon 4, and avian and anuran C upsilon 4, and contains the consensus [G/GT(AA)] nucleotide splice signal sequence for joining C upsilon 4 to the transmembrane region. These results are consistent with the hypothesis of an ancestral structural relationship between amphibian, avian upsilon chains, and mammalian epsilon chains. However, these molecules have different biological properties: axolotl IgY is secretory Ig, anuran and avian IgY behave like mammalian IgG, and mammalian IgE is implicated in anaphylactic reactions. PMID:8344718

  13. Capturing subregional variability in regional-scale climate change vulnerability assessments of natural resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buotte, Polly C; Peterson, David L; McKelvey, Kevin S; Hicke, Jeffrey A

    2016-03-15

    Natural resource vulnerability to climate change can depend on the climatology and ecological conditions at a particular site. Here we present a conceptual framework for incorporating spatial variability in natural resource vulnerability to climate change in a regional-scale assessment. The framework was implemented in the first regional-scale vulnerability assessment conducted by the US Forest Service. During this assessment, five subregional workshops were held to capture variability in vulnerability and to develop adaptation tactics. At each workshop, participants answered a questionnaire to: 1) identify species, resources, or other information missing from the regional assessment, and 2) describe subregional vulnerability to climate change. Workshop participants divided into six resource groups; here we focus on wildlife resources. Participants identified information missing from the regional assessment and multiple instances of subregional variability in climate change vulnerability. We provide recommendations for improving the process of capturing subregional variability in a regional vulnerability assessment. We propose a revised conceptual framework structured around pathways of climate influence, each with separate rankings for exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity. These revisions allow for a quantitative ranking of species, pathways, exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity across subregions. Rankings can be used to direct the development and implementation of future regional research and monitoring programs. The revised conceptual framework is equally applicable as a stand-alone model for assessing climate change vulnerability and as a nested model within a regional assessment for capturing subregional variability in vulnerability.

  14. The Role of Low-Level Jets in Regional Climate Variability and Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    Low Level Jets are ubiquitous features of the global climate system. These "rivers of air" in the lower atmosphere act as a scale transfer mechanism, bridging the larger scale climate variability and change to regionally focused impacts. During the boreal spring and summer, the North American low-level jet (NALLJ) transports copious amounts of momentum, heat, and moisture into central and eastern United States, with significant impacts on regional hydroclimate variability (drought and pluvial), extreme events (tornadic activity), ecology (jellyfish and bird migration), atmospheric constituent transport (ozone), and energy development (wind power). Given the interdisciplinary importance of the NALLJ, its mean state and variability on seasonal to multidecadal timescales will be discussed in a simple framework to stimulate cross-disciplinary thought and discussion with regard to warm season regional climate variability and change.

  15. Cloning and expression in Escherichia coli of a human gelatinase B-inhibitory single-chain immunoglobulin variable fragment (scFv).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, N; Paemen, L; Opdenakker, G; Froyen, G

    1997-09-15

    The murine monoclonal antibody REGA-3G12 selectively and specifically inhibits the activity of human gelatinase B. The cDNA fragments which encode the variable regions of the light and heavy chains were isolated by PCR-mediated cloning and sequenced. Single-chain Fv expression constructs for Escherichia coli were generated in which c-myc tag sequences were encoded. Inducible expression of the scFv and secretion to the periplasm were obtained with higher yields when the c-myc tag sequence was positioned at the amino-terminal side. The inhibitory activity of purified scFv on neutrophil gelatinase B was tested in a gelatin degradation assay and it was found to possess a similar specific activity as that of the intact monoclonal antibody and of the pepsin-clipped F(ab')2 derivative. This shows for the first time that inhibition of soluble enzymes with scFv is possible and opens new perspectives for the treatment of diseases with excessive and detrimental enzyme production in the host.

  16. Linking the uncertainty of low frequency variability in tropical forcing in regional climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forest, Chris E. [The Pennsylvania State University; Barsugli, Joseph J. [Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES) at the University of Colorado at Boulder and NOAA Earth Systems Research Laboratory; Li, Wei [The Pennsylvania State University

    2015-02-20

    The project utilizes multiple atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs) to examine the regional climate sensitivity to tropical sea surface temperature forcing through a series of ensemble experiments. The overall goal for this work is to use the global teleconnection operator (GTO) as a metric to assess the impact of model structural differences on the uncertainties in regional climate variability.

  17. Airborne black carbon concentrations over an urban region in western India-temporal variability, effects of meteorology, and source regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bapna, Mukund; Sunder Raman, Ramya; Ramachandran, S; Rajesh, T A

    2013-03-01

    This study characterizes over 5 years of high time resolution (5 min), airborne black carbon (BC) concentrations (July 2003 to December 2008) measured over Ahmedabad, an urban region in western India. The data were used to obtain different time averages of BC concentrations, and these averages were then used to assess the diurnal, seasonal, and annual variability of BC over the study region. Assessment of diurnal variations revealed a strong association between BC concentrations and vehicular traffic. Peaks in BC concentration were co-incident with the morning (0730 to 0830, LST) and late evening (1930 to 2030, LST) rush hour traffic. Additionally, diurnal variability in BC concentrations during major festivals (Diwali and Dushera during the months of October/November) revealed an increase in BC concentrations due to fireworks displays. Maximum half hourly BC concentrations during the festival days were as high as 79.8 μg m(-3). However, the high concentrations rapidly decayed suggesting that local meteorology during the festive season was favorable for aerosol dispersion. A multiple linear regression (MLR) model with BC as the dependent variable and meteorological parameters as independent variables was fitted. The variability in temperature, humidity, wind speed, and wind direction accounted for about 49% of the variability in measured BC concentrations. Conditional probability function (CPF) analysis was used to identify the geographical location of local source regions contributing to the effective BC measured (at 880 nm) at the receptor site. The east north-east (ENE) direction to the receptor was identified as a major source region. National highway (NH8) and two coal-fired thermal power stations (at Gandhinagar and Sabarmati) were located in the identified direction, suggesting that local traffic and power plant emissions were likely contributors to the measured BC.

  18. Capturing field-scale variability in crop performance across a regional-scale climosequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, E. S.; Poggio, M.; Anderson, T. R.; Gasch, C.; Yourek, M. A.; Ward, N. K.; Magney, T. S.; Brown, D. J.; Huggins, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    With the increasing availability of variable rate technology for applying fertilizers and other agrichemicals in dryland agricultural production systems there is a growing need to better capture and understand the processes driving field scale variability in crop yield and soil water. This need for a better understanding of field scale variability has led to the recent designation of the R. J. Cook Agronomy Farm (CAF) (Pullman, WA, USA) as a United States Department of Agriculture Long-Term Agro-Ecosystem Research (LTAR) site. Field scale variability at the CAF is closely monitored using extensive environmental sensor networks and intensive hand sampling. As investigating land-soil-water dynamics at CAF is essential for improving precision agriculture, transferring this knowledge across the regional-scale climosequence is challenging. In this study we describe the hydropedologic functioning of the CAF in relation to five extensively instrumented field sites located within 50 km in the same climatic region. The formation of restrictive argillic soil horizons in the wetter, cooler eastern edge of the region results in the development of extensive perched water tables, surface saturation, and surface runoff, whereas excess water is not an issue in the warmer, drier, western edge of the region. Similarly, crop and tillage management varies across the region as well. We discuss the implications of these regional differences on field scale management decisions and demonstrate how we are using proximal soil sensing and remote sensing imagery to better understand and capture field scale variability at a particular field site.

  19. Immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region gene utilization by B cell hybridomas derived from rheumatoid synovial tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C M; Longhurst, C; Haynes, G; Plater-Zyberk, C; Malcolm, A; Maini, R N

    1992-08-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease that primarily affects synovial joints. Activated B lymphocytes and plasma cells are present in the synovial tissue and are thought to contribute to the immunopathology of the rheumatoid joint. To investigate rheumatoid synovial B lymphocytes, we have generated B cell hybridomas from synovial tissue of an RA patient. Here we describe the immunoglobulin VH gene repertoire of eight IgM- and 10 IgG-secreting synovial-derived hybridomas. The VH4 gene family is highly represented (38.5%) in this panel of hybridomas compared with the frequency of VH4 gene expression in circulating B lymphocytes reported previously (19-22%) and with the VH4 gene frequency we observed in a panel of hybridomas derived in the same manner from the spleen and tonsil of normal individuals (19%). The increased frequency of VH4 gene expression was not due to the expansion of a single B cell clone in vivo as none of these hybridomas was clonally related. Two synovial-derived hybridomas secreted autoantibodies; one (VH3+) secreted an IgM-rheumatoid factor (RF) and the other (VH4+) secreted IgM with polyreactive binding to cytoskeletal proteins and cardiolipin. The antibodies secreted by the remaining synovial-derived hybridomas were not reactive with the autoantigens tested. The VH gene usage in a proportion (5/17) of synovial-derived hybridomas that expressed CD5 antigen provided preliminary evidence that CD5+ B cells in RA synovium have a similar increase of VH4 gene expression reported for CD5+ B cells from normal individuals and patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. PMID:1379132

  20. Modelling the regional variability of the probability of high trihalomethane occurrence in municipal drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cool, Geneviève; Lebel, Alexandre; Sadiq, Rehan; Rodriguez, Manuel J

    2015-12-01

    The regional variability of the probability of occurrence of high total trihalomethane (TTHM) levels was assessed using multilevel logistic regression models that incorporate environmental and infrastructure characteristics. The models were structured in a three-level hierarchical configuration: samples (first level), drinking water utilities (DWUs, second level) and natural regions, an ecological hierarchical division from the Quebec ecological framework of reference (third level). They considered six independent variables: precipitation, temperature, source type, seasons, treatment type and pH. The average probability of TTHM concentrations exceeding the targeted threshold was 18.1%. The probability was influenced by seasons, treatment type, precipitations and temperature. The variance at all levels was significant, showing that the probability of TTHM concentrations exceeding the threshold is most likely to be similar if located within the same DWU and within the same natural region. However, most of the variance initially attributed to natural regions was explained by treatment types and clarified by spatial aggregation on treatment types. Nevertheless, even after controlling for treatment type, there was still significant regional variability of the probability of TTHM concentrations exceeding the threshold. Regional variability was particularly important for DWUs using chlorination alone since they lack the appropriate treatment required to reduce the amount of natural organic matter (NOM) in source water prior to disinfection. Results presented herein could be of interest to authorities in identifying regions with specific needs regarding drinking water quality and for epidemiological studies identifying geographical variations in population exposure to disinfection by-products (DBPs).

  1. Production of a soluble single-chain variable fragment antibody against okadaic acid and exploration of its specific binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Kuo; Zhang, Xiuyuan; Wang, Lixia; Du, Xinjun; Wei, Dong

    2016-06-15

    Okadaic acid is a lipophilic marine algal toxin commonly responsible for diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP). Outbreaks of DSP have been increasing and are of worldwide public health concern; therefore, there is a growing demand for more rapid, reliable, and economical analytical methods for the detection of this toxin. In this study, anti-okadaic acid single-chain variable fragment (scFv) genes were prepared by cloning heavy and light chain genes from hybridoma cells, followed by fusion of the chains via a linker peptide. An scFv-pLIP6/GN recombinant plasmid was constructed and transformed into Escherichia coli for expression, and the target scFv was identified with IC-CLEIA (chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay). The IC15 was 0.012 ± 0.02 μg/L, and the IC50 was 0.25 ± 0.03 μg/L. The three-dimensional structure of the scFv was simulated with computer modeling, and okadaic acid was docked to the scFv model to obtain a putative structure of the binding complex. Two predicted critical amino acids, Ser32 and Thr187, were then mutated to verify this theoretical model. Both mutants exhibited significant loss of binding activity. These results help us to understand this specific scFv-antigen binding mechanism and provide guidance for affinity maturation of the antibody in vitro. The high-affinity scFv developed here also has potential for okadaic acid toxin detection. PMID:26772159

  2. Detection of variable DNA repeats in diverse eukaryotic microorganisms by a single set of polymerase chain reaction primers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, D E; Samadpour, M; Krieger, J N

    1991-12-01

    We cloned and sequenced a variable DNA repeat from Trichomonas vaginalis, a flagellated protozoan parasite. Targeting of this repeat in the polymerase chain reaction resulted in complex and intense product patterns for a wide variety of eukaryotic microorganisms, including the pathogenic protozoan parasites T. vaginalis, Giardia lamblia, Leishmania donovani, three species of Trypanosoma, and four species of Acanthamoeba; the nonpathogenic protozoans, Paramecium tetraurelia and Tetrahymena thermophilia; and a yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Each microorganism exhibited a distinctive pattern of repeats. For example, a characteristic pattern was exhibited by six clinical T. vaginalis isolates. Eight G. lamblia isolates exhibited either one of two characteristic pattern types. There was no reaction with human DNA or DNA from the prokaryotes Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis. This approach may facilitate detection of a wide variety of eukaryotic microorganisms by use of a single primer set and holds promise for the development of typing schemes for both T. vaginalis and G. lamblia. PMID:1757544

  3. An assay for the detection of grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 using a single-chain fragment variable antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogotzi, Laura; Giampetruzzi, Annalisa; Nölke, Greta; Orecchia, Martin; Elicio, Vito; Castellano, Maria Antonietta; Martelli, Giovanni P; Fischer, Rainer; Schillberg, Stefan; Saldarelli, Pasquale

    2009-01-01

    Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3) is a major pathogen of grapevine. A previously described single-chain fragment variable (scFv) antibody (scFvLR3), directed against the coat protein (CP) of GLRaV-3, was expressed in Escherichia coli and used to develop a diagnostic ELISA kit. The antibody was fused to the light chain constant domain of human immunoglobulin to create the bivalent reagent C(L)-LR3, which was purified from the periplasmic fraction, giving a yield of ~5 mg/l. The sensitivity of the reagent against recombinant GLRaV-3 CP was 0.1 ng. The sensitivity, specificity and durability of the reagent was similar to a commercial kit. The C(L)-LR3 showed a weak cross-reaction in immune electron microscopy assays to GLRaV-1 and -7, but not with the phylogenetically more distant GLRaV-2. A fully recombinant kit was developed with the inclusion of a recombinant GLRaV-3 CP expressed in bacteria, thus avoiding problems associated with virus propagation and purification. This system represents a rapid, simple, sensitive and standardized diagnostic protocol for GLRaV-3 detection. PMID:19082687

  4. Rainfall variability, climate change and regionalization in the African monsoon region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This summary recalls some results at the end of the AMMA international experiment (2003-2010) in terms of variability of the African monsoon at the intra-seasonal to multi-decadal scales and of climate prospective. The results confirmed the weight of surface temperatures and marine tele-connections for inter-annual and decadal fluctuations and stressed the importance of atmospheric variability. They also described the dominant modes of intra-seasonal variability as their interactions with the surface. Several hypotheses involving memory effects related to soil water and vegetation, particularly in boreal spring and autumn have also been made. Prospective analysis from model output suggests rainfall surplus around 2050 over the Eastern-central Sahel and relative deficit to the West. Phase 2 of AMMA (2010-2020) will focus more on aspects that have a high social impact in direct collaboration with meteorological services predictability, prediction scores, operational indicators, evaluation of the part of anthropogenic forcing in the current and future variations. (authors)

  5. [Differential geometry expression and analysis of regionalized variables of typical pollutants concentration in terrestrial environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Han-Feng; Guo, Shu-Hai; Wu, Bo; Wang, Yan-Hu

    2009-10-01

    Based on the basic concepts of differential geometry in analyzing environmental data and establishing related models, the methodology for differential geometry expression and analysis of pollutants concentration in terrestrial environment was presented. As a kind of regionalized variables, the spatial distribution pattern of the pollutants concentration was transformed into 3-dimension form, and fitted with conicoid. This approach made it possible to analyze the quantitative relationships between the regionalized variables and their spatial structural attributes. For illustration purpose, several sorts of typical space fabrics, such as convexity, concavity, ridge, ravine, saddle, and slope, were calculated and characterized. It was suggested that this approach was feasible for analyzing the regionalized variables of pollutants concentration in terrestrial environment.

  6. Development of a single-chain variable fragment-alkaline phosphatase fusion protein and a sensitive direct competitive chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay for detection of ractopamine in pork

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong Jiexian; Li Zhenfeng; Lei Hongtao; Sun Yuanming [Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Food Quality and Safety, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Ducancel, Frederic [CEA, iBiTec-S, Service de Pharmacologie et d' Immnoanalyse (SPI), CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Xu Zhenlin [Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Food Quality and Safety, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Boulain, Jean-Claude [CEA, iBiTec-S, Service de Pharmacologie et d' Immnoanalyse (SPI), CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Yang Jinyi; Shen Yudong [Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Food Quality and Safety, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Wang Hong, E-mail: gzwhongd@63.com [Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Food Quality and Safety, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China)

    2012-07-29

    Graphical abstract: Detection model of dc-CLEIA based on anti-RAC scFv-AP fusion protein. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The scFv-AP fusion protein against ractopamine (RAC) was produced. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A dc-CLEIA for RAC was developed based on the purified scFv-AP fusion protein. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The sensitivity of dc-CLEIA was 10 times as sensitive as dc-ELISA for RAC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Recovery tests from pork samples were studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Good accuracy was obtained. - Abstract: A rapid, sensitive chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) for ractopamine (RAC) based on a single-chain variable fragment (scFv)-alkaline phosphatase (AP) fusion protein was developed. The scFv gene was prepared by cloning the heavy- and light-chain variable region genes (V{sub H} and V{sub L}) from hybridoma cell line AC2, which secretes antibodies against RAC, and assembling V{sub H} and V{sub L} genes with a linker by means of splicing overlap extension polymerase chain reaction. The resulting scFv gene was inserted into the expression vector pLIP6/GN containing AP to produce the fusion protein in Escherichia coli strain BL21. The purified scFv-AP fusion protein was used to develop a direct competitive CLEIA (dcCLEIA) protocol for detection of RAC. The average concentration required for 50% inhibition of binding and the limit of detection of the assay were 0.25 {+-} 0.03 and 0.02 {+-} 0.004 ng mL{sup -1}, respectively, and the linear response range extended from 0.05 to 1.45 ng mL{sup -1}. The assay was 10 times as sensitive as the corresponding enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on the same fusion protein. Cross-reactivity studies showed that the fusion protein did not cross react with RAC analogs. DcCLEIA was used to analyze RAC spiked pork samples, and the validation was confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). The results showed a good correlation between

  7. Regional Variability of the Effects of Land Use Systems on Soil Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In order to explore the regional variability of the effects of land use systems on soil properties, Shouyang County in Shanxi Province and Danling County in Sichuan Province of China were selected as the study areas. Field soil samples of the four land use systems (natural forest, forest plantation, shrubland, and cropland) were collected, respectively, from the two areas. The general statistical tools were used to analyze soil data. The results showed that the influence of land use systems on soil properties was significant. In general, soils in slightly human-disturbed land use systems presented a higher fertility level than those in strongly human-disturbed land use systems in both areas. Furthermore, the impacts of the same land use systems on soil properties showed a distinct regional variability, and even in the same land use system,different farming systems and site management measures (such as irrigation, fertilization, and pesticides) could also lead to the regional heterogeneity in soil properties. The regional variability of land use effects on soil properties reveals the regional variability of the effects of human activities on environmental changes, and could explain the complex relationship between humans and the natural environment in certain ways.

  8. Plasticity in the contribution of T cell receptor variable region residues to binding of peptide-HLA-A2 complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sheena N.; Sommermeyer, Daniel; Piepenbrink, Kurt H.; Blevins, Sydney J.; Bernhard, Helga; Uckert, Wolfgang; Baker, Brian M.; Kranz, David M.

    2013-01-01

    One hypothesis to account for MHC-restriction by T cell receptors (TCRs) holds that there are several evolutionary-conserved residues in TCR variable regions that contact MHC. While this ‘germline-codon’ hypothesis is supported by various lines of evidence, it has been difficult to test. The difficulty stems in part from the fact that TCRs exhibit low affinities for pep/MHC, thus limiting the range of binding energies that can be assigned to these key interactions using mutational analyses. To measure the magnitude of binding energies involved, here we used high-affinity TCRs engineered by mutagenesis of CDR3. The TCRs included a high-affinity, MART-1/HLA-A2-specific single-chain TCR and two other high-affinity TCRs that all contain the same Vα (HLA-A2), with different peptides and Vβ regions. Mutational analysis of residues in CDR1 and CDR2 of the three Vα2 regions showed the importance of the key ‘germline codon” residue Y51. However, two other proposed key residues showed significant differences among the TCRs in their relative contributions to binding. Using single-position, yeast-display libraries in two of the key residues, MART-1/HLA-A2 selections also revealed strong preferences for wild-type ‘germline codon’ residues, but several alternative residues could also accommodate binding and hence, MHC-restriction. Thus, although a single residue (Y51) could account for a proportion of the energy associated with positive selection (i.e. MHC-restriction), there is significant plasticity in requirements for particular side-chains in CDR1 and CDR2 and in their relative binding contributions among different TCRs. PMID:23954306

  9. 服务供应链及其区域经济影响研究%Research on Service Supply Chain and Its Impacts on Regional Economics.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雅萍

    2007-01-01

    It shows in the tendency of the global economic development in recent years that Services Science would no doubt become the next hot topic in economic study. And service supply chain is a new study aspect in supply chain management of services science. This article begins with study on the definition and characters of service supply chain, compares this with traditional supply chain, establishes the structure of its form and puts it into our regional economics to examine its impacts.

  10. The biogas value chains in the Swedish region of Skåne

    OpenAIRE

    Ericsson, Karin; Nikoleris, Alexandra; Nilsson, Lars J

    2013-01-01

    Biogas systems are complex in the sense that they cut across several sectors, mainly agriculture, waste management and energy. Cooperation between actors in these sectors must work for biogas projects to be realised and successful. The aim of this report is to describe the biogas systems in Skåne from a value chain perspective, including important development pathways. The different segments in the value chain are mapped with regard to actors, actors in supporting activities, technologies ...

  11. Regional Climate and Variability of the Summertime Continental United States in Reanalyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosilovich, M G.; Robertson, F. R.; Roberts, B.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding climate variability at regional scales is an important for research and societal needs. Atmospheric retrospective-analyses (or reanalyses) integrate multitudes of observing systems with numerical models to produce continuous data that include variables not easily observed, if at all. The breadth of variables as well as observational influence included in reanalyses make them ideal for investigating climate variability. In this paper, we assess NASA s Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Application (MERRA) regional variability in North America, specifically the United States, in conjunction with current satellite data reanalyses. Emphasis is placed on summertime precipitation because 1) it is a difficult parameter to capture in the most difficult season, 2) significant observational resources exist to benchmark comparisons, and 3) accurate assessment of precipitation variability is crucial to a multitude of sectors and applications. Likewise, we have also begun to evaluate surface air temperature. While precipitation biases are identified, year to year variability of the precipitation variations, in many cases, are quite reasonable. However, some spurious long term trends and sudden shifts in the time series are also identified. In surface air temperature, analysis of station observations provides ERA Interim a clear overall advantage. However, in a number of regions, all the reanalyses are quite comparable in variability and trend. In other regions, significant precipitation biases may occur, which has implications for the ancillary process data in a reanalysis, such as surface fluxes. We also characterize the reanalyses ability to capture variability related to ENSO. In general, the summertime variations of precipitation in the reanalyses are more highly correlated (positively) to ENSO (using ENSO34) than are the observations. The Northwestern US shows the largest positive correlations to ENSO34, and reanalyses agree with that, and

  12. Compositional Variations of Primary Basalts in the Poison Lake Chain, Lassen Region of Northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, G. T.; Teasdale, R.; Wenner, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Multiple compositional mantle domains are represented by primitive basalts of the Poison Lake chain (PLC), located east of the Lassen Volcanic Center in the southern Cascades and on the western margin of the Basin and Range. Four of the nine compositional groups of PLC basalts include primary basalt samples that represent distinct mantle compositions from which other samples are likely derived. Primitive basalts from two of the groups, the old railroad grade (bg; 102.1 +/- 11.4 ka) and the basalts of Poison Butte (bp; 105.0 +/- 6.0 ka), spatially and chronologically overlap. Both groups are primitive basalts that have phenocrysts of olivine, plagioclase and clinopyroxene. However, bg has larger, more euhedral olivine while bp has fewer, smaller, anhedral and embayed olivine phenocrysts. Compositionally, bg has higher whole-rock MgO (9.2-12.2 %) and Ni (189-238 ppm) and lower Zr (57-89 ppm) than bp (MgO = 5.3-7.8 %; Ni = 35-89 ppm; Zr = 98-153 ppm), suggesting bp has undergone more fractionation than bg. MELTS and REE models predict that the most primitive unit of bg (bg3) could have fractionated to produce the other three bg units. Similarly, MELTS and REE models suggest that four of the six units of bp can be derived by fractional crystallization from bg3. However, those models require that bg3 would need to fractionate between 40-50% in order to generate the bp compositions. Unreasonably high % fractionation suggests that the relationship between bg and bp groups is more complex than simple fractionation allows, but their similar Cr spinel compositions (bg Cr# =32.9-50.9 and bp Cr# = 44.0-56.3) suggest bg and bp are likely derived from a common mantle source. Additional petrogenetic modeling and isotope analyses will help clarify the relationship between PLC primitive basalt groups. The combination of small scale mantle heterogeneities along with detailed examination of magma processing are only recognized in the PLC with high density sampling, which may be

  13. YSOVAR: Mid-infrared variability in the star-forming region Lynds 1688

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Günther, H. M.; Poppenhaeger, K.; Wolk, S. J.; Hora, J. L. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Cody, A. M. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Covey, K. R. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Hillenbrand, L. A. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Plavchan, P. [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, California Institute of Technology, 770 South Wilson Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Rebull, L. M.; Stauffer, J. R. [Spitzer Science Center/Caltech, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Allen, L. [National Optical Astronomy Observatories, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Bayo, A. [Max Planck Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Gutermuth, R. A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Meng, H. Y. A. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, MC 100-22, 770 South Wilson Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Morales-Calderón, M. [Centro de Astrobiología (INTA-CSIC), ESAC Campus, P.O. Box 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Canada (Spain); Parks, J. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, 25 Park Place South, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Song, Inseok, E-mail: hguenther@cfa.harvard.edu [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-2451 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The emission from young stellar objects (YSOs) in the mid-infrared (mid-IR) is dominated by the inner rim of their circumstellar disks. We present IR data from the Young Stellar Object VARiability (YSOVAR) survey of ∼800 objects in the direction of the Lynds 1688 (L1688) star-forming region over four visibility windows spanning 1.6 yr using the Spitzer Space Telescope in its warm mission phase. Among all light curves, 57 sources are cluster members identified based on their spectral energy distribution and X-ray emission. Almost all cluster members show significant variability. The amplitude of the variability is larger in more embedded YSOs. Ten out of 57 cluster members have periodic variations in the light curves with periods typically between three and seven days, but even for those sources, significant variability in addition to the periodic signal can be seen. No period is stable over 1.6 yr. Nonperiodic light curves often still show a preferred timescale of variability that is longer for more embedded sources. About half of all sources exhibit redder colors in a fainter state. This is compatible with time-variable absorption toward the YSO. The other half becomes bluer when fainter. These colors can only be explained with significant changes in the structure of the inner disk. No relation between mid-IR variability and stellar effective temperature or X-ray spectrum is found.

  14. YSOVAR: Mid-infrared variability in the star-forming region Lynds 1688

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The emission from young stellar objects (YSOs) in the mid-infrared (mid-IR) is dominated by the inner rim of their circumstellar disks. We present IR data from the Young Stellar Object VARiability (YSOVAR) survey of ∼800 objects in the direction of the Lynds 1688 (L1688) star-forming region over four visibility windows spanning 1.6 yr using the Spitzer Space Telescope in its warm mission phase. Among all light curves, 57 sources are cluster members identified based on their spectral energy distribution and X-ray emission. Almost all cluster members show significant variability. The amplitude of the variability is larger in more embedded YSOs. Ten out of 57 cluster members have periodic variations in the light curves with periods typically between three and seven days, but even for those sources, significant variability in addition to the periodic signal can be seen. No period is stable over 1.6 yr. Nonperiodic light curves often still show a preferred timescale of variability that is longer for more embedded sources. About half of all sources exhibit redder colors in a fainter state. This is compatible with time-variable absorption toward the YSO. The other half becomes bluer when fainter. These colors can only be explained with significant changes in the structure of the inner disk. No relation between mid-IR variability and stellar effective temperature or X-ray spectrum is found.

  15. Modeling Urban Expansion in Bangkok Metropolitan Region Using Demographic–Economic Data through Cellular Automata-Markov Chain and Multi-Layer Perceptron-Markov Chain Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chudech Losiri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Urban expansion is considered as one of the most important problems in several developing countries. Bangkok Metropolitan Region (BMR is the urbanized and agglomerated area of Bangkok Metropolis (BM and its vicinity, which confronts the expansion problem from the center of the city. Landsat images of 1988, 1993, 1998, 2003, 2008, and 2011 were used to detect the land use and land cover (LULC changes. The demographic and economic data together with corresponding maps were used to determine the driving factors for land conversions. This study applied Cellular Automata-Markov Chain (CA-MC and Multi-Layer Perceptron-Markov Chain (MLP-MC to model LULC and urban expansions. The performance of the CA-MC and MLP-MC yielded more than 90% overall accuracy to predict the LULC, especially the MLP-MC method. Further, the annual population and economic growth rates were considered to produce the land demand for the LULC in 2014 and 2035 using the statistical extrapolation and system dynamics (SD. It was evident that the simulated map in 2014 resulting from the SD yielded the highest accuracy. Therefore, this study applied the SD method to generate the land demand for simulating LULC in 2035. The outcome showed that urban occupied the land around a half of the BMR.

  16. Affinity maturation of single-chain variable fragment specific for aflatoxin B(1) using yeast surface display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Won-Ki; Kim, Sung-Gun; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2015-12-01

    As aflatoxin B1 is one of the most toxic mycotoxins, it is important to detect and to quantify aflatoxin B1 accurately by immunological methods. To enhance aflatoxin B1-binding affinity of the single-chain variable fragment, yeast surface display technique combined with fluorescence-activated cell sorting was applied. A randomly mutated scFv library was subjected to 4 rounds of fluorescence-activated cell sorting, resulting in isolation of 5 scFv variants showing an affinity improvement compared to the parental wild type scFv. The best scFv with a 9-fold improvement in affinity for aflatoxin B1 exhibited similar specificity to the monoclonal antibody. Most of the mutations in scFv-M37 were located outside of the canonical antigen-contact loops, suggesting that its affinity improvement might be driven by an allosteric effect inducing scFv-M37 to form a more favorable binding pocket for aflatoxin B1 than the wild type scFv. PMID:26041237

  17. Participation in global horticulture value chains:Implications for poverty alleviation in the Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) region

    OpenAIRE

    Afari-Owusu, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    There are approximately one billion people predominantly in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) who live in extreme poverty because they are adversely linked to the process of globalization and not optimally integrated in global value chains. In the SSA region, agriculture is the main occupation where most of the rural population are employed and earn incomes. The horticulture sector a subset of agriculture is one of the value creating sectors where opportunities exist for the rural population ...

  18. Supply chains for innovation activity in regional industrial systems in Poland – some evidence from empirical research

    OpenAIRE

    Arkadiusz Swiadek

    2015-01-01

    Space and relations with suppliers and customers are significant determinants of innovativeness in industry not only in Poland, but also in much more developed countries. In industrial systems at their early phases of development, high tech solutions are usually owned by a relatively small number of enterprises, usually foreign ones. It affects the slow and limited diffusion of knowledge in regions without connection to an international chains of knowledge flow. In a such cases enclaves of in...

  19. Production of bifunctional proteins by Aspergillus awamori: Llama variable heavy chain antibody fragment (V-HH) R9 coupled to Arthromyces ramosus peroxidase (ARP)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, V.; Roelofs, M.S.; Dries, van den N.; Goosen, T.; Verrips, C.T.; Hondel, van den C.A.M.J.J.; Lokman, B.C.

    2005-01-01

    The Arthromyces ramosus peroxidase gene (arp) was genetically fused to either the 5'- or 3'-terminal ends of the gene encoding llama variable heavy chain antibody fragment V-HH R9, resulting in the fusion expression cassettes ARP-R9 or R9-ARP. Aspergillus awamori transformants were obtained which pr

  20. Characterization of a single-chain variable fragment recognizing a linear epitope of aβ: a biotechnical tool for studies on Alzheimer's disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke Dornieden

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder with devastating effects. Currently, therapeutic options are limited to symptomatic treatment. For more than a decade, research focused on immunotherapy for the causal treatment of AD. However, clinical trials with active immunization using Aβ encountered severe complications, for example meningoencephalitis. Consequently, attention focused on passive immunization using antibodies. As an alternative to large immunoglobulins (IgGs, Aβ binding single-chain variable fragments (scFvs were used for diagnostic and therapeutic research approaches. scFvs can be expressed in E. coli and may provide improved pharmacokinetic properties like increased blood-brain barrier permeability or reduced side-effects in vivo. In this study, we constructed an scFv from an Aβ binding IgG, designated IC16, which binds the N-terminal region of Aβ (Aβ(1-8. scFv-IC16 was expressed in E. coli, purified and characterized with respect to its interaction with different Aβ species and its influence on Aβ fibril formation. We were able to show that scFv-IC16 strongly influenced the aggregation behavior of Aβ and could be applied as an Aβ detection probe for plaque staining in the brains of transgenic AD model mice. The results indicate potential for therapy and diagnosis of AD.

  1. Impact of region contouring variability on image-based focal therapy evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Eli; Donaldson, Ian A.; Shah, Taimur T.; Hu, Yipeng; Ahmed, Hashim U.; Barratt, Dean C.

    2016-03-01

    Motivation: Focal therapy is an emerging low-morbidity treatment option for low-intermediate risk prostate cancer; however, challenges remain in accurately delivering treatment to specified targets and determining treatment success. Registered multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (MPMRI) acquired before and after treatment can support focal therapy evaluation and optimization; however, contouring variability, when defining the prostate, the clinical target volume (CTV) and the ablation region in images, reduces the precision of quantitative image-based focal therapy evaluation metrics. To inform the interpretation and clarify the limitations of such metrics, we investigated inter-observer contouring variability and its impact on four metrics. Methods: Pre-therapy and 2-week-post-therapy standard-of-care MPMRI were acquired from 5 focal cryotherapy patients. Two clinicians independently contoured, on each slice, the prostate (pre- and post-treatment) and the dominant index lesion CTV (pre-treatment) in the T2-weighted MRI, and the ablated region (post-treatment) in the dynamic-contrast- enhanced MRI. For each combination of clinician contours, post-treatment images were registered to pre-treatment images using a 3D biomechanical-model-based registration of prostate surfaces, and four metrics were computed: the proportion of the target tissue region that was ablated and the target:ablated region volume ratio for each of two targets (the CTV and an expanded planning target volume). Variance components analysis was used to measure the contribution of each type of contour to the variance in the therapy evaluation metrics. Conclusions: 14-23% of evaluation metric variance was attributable to contouring variability (including 6-12% from ablation region contouring); reducing this variability could improve the precision of focal therapy evaluation metrics.

  2. Climatic variability of river outflow in the Pantanal region and the influence of sea surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Carlos Batista; Silva, Maria Elisa Siqueira; Ambrizzi, Tércio

    2016-03-01

    This paper investigates possible linear relationships between climate, hydrology, and oceanic surface variability in the Pantanal region (in South America's central area), over interannual and interdecadal time ranges. In order to verify the mentioned relations, lagged correlation analysis and linear adjustment between river discharge at the Pantanal region and sea surface temperature were used. Composite analysis for atmospheric fields, air humidity flux divergence, and atmospheric circulation at low and high levels, for the period between 1970 and 2003, was analyzed. Results suggest that the river discharge in the Pantanal region is linearly associated with interdecadal and interannual oscillations in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans, making them good predictors to continental hydrological variables. Considering oceanic areas, 51 % of the annual discharge in the Pantanal region can be linearly explained by mean sea surface temperature (SST) in the Subtropical North Pacific, Tropical North Pacific, Extratropical South Pacific, and Extratropical North Atlantic over the period. Considering a forecast approach in seasonal scale, 66 % of the monthly discharge variance in Pantanal, 3 months ahead of SST, is explained by the oceanic variables, providing accuracy around 65 %. Annual discharge values in the Pantanal region are strongly related to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) variability (with 52 % of linear correlation), making it possible to consider an interdecadal variability and a consequent subdivision of the whole period in three parts: 1st (1970-1977), 2nd (1978-1996), and 3rd (1997-2003) subperiods. The three subperiods coincide with distinct PDO phases: negative, positive, and negative, respectively. Convergence of humidity flux at low levels and the circulation pattern at high levels help to explain the drier and wetter subperiods. During the wetter 2nd subperiod, the air humidity convergence at low levels is much more evident than during the other two

  3. Regional myocardial extraction of a radioiodinated branched chain fatty acid during right ventricular pressure overload due to acute pulmonary hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine whether branched chain fatty acid extraction is reduced during right ventricular (RV) dysfunction due to acute pulmonary artery hypertension, studies were done in 6 anesthetized dogs. Regional branched chain fatty acid extraction was measured by comparing the myocardial uptake of I-125 labeled 15-[p-(iodophenyl)]-3-methylpentadecanoic acid (I-PDA) to myocardial blood flow. Acute pulmonary hypertension was induced by incremental intravenous injection of 100 micron diameter glass beads into six pentobarbital anesthetized, mechanically ventilated dogs. Myocardial blood flow was measured by radiolabeled microspheres both under baseline conditions and during pulmonary hypertension. Mean RV pressure rose from 12 +- 2 (mean +- SEM) to 30 +-3mmHg resulting in a 225 +- 16% increase in RV stroke work. RV ejection fraction, as assessed by gated blood pool scans fell from 39 +- 2 to 18 +- 2%. Left ventricular (LV) pressures, stroke work and ejection fraction were unchanged. Myocardial blood flow increased 132 + 59% in the RV free wall and 67 +- 22% in the RV septum. LV blood flow was unchanged. Despite increased RV work and myocardial blood flow, no differences were noted in the branched chain fatty acid extraction ratios among LV or RV free walls or septum. The authors conclude that early RV dysfunction associated with pulmonary artery hypertension is not due to inadequate myocardial blood flow or branched chain fatty acid extraction

  4. Identification of mammalian species using the short and highly variable regions of mitochondrial DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jianhui; Zhu, Wei; Zhou, Yueqin; Liu, Zhiping; Chen, Yang; Zhao, Ziqin

    2015-08-01

    The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) typing is useful for the species determination of degraded samples and the nucleotide diversity of target fragments across species is crucial for the discrimination. In this study, the short and highly polymorphic regions flanked by two conserved termini were sought by the sequence alignment of mtDNA across species and two target regions located at 12S rRNA gene were characterized. Two universal primer sets were developed that appear to be effective for a wide variety of mammalian species, even for domestic birds. The two target regions could be efficiently amplified using their universal primer sets on degraded samples and provide sufficient information for species determination. Therefore, the two short and highly variable target regions might provide a high discriminative capacity and should be suitable for the species determination of degraded samples.

  5. Coupled decadal variability of the North Atlantic Oscillation, regional rainfall and karst spring discharges in the Campania region (southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. De Vita

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Thus far, studies on climate change have focused mainly on the variability of the atmospheric and surface components of the hydrologic cycle, investigating the impact of this variability on the environment, especially with respect to the risks of desertification, droughts and floods. Conversely, the impacts of climate change on the recharge of aquifers and on the variability of groundwater flow have been less investigated, especially in Mediterranean karst areas whose water supply systems depend heavily upon groundwater exploitation.

    In this paper, long-term climatic variability and its influence on groundwater recharge were analysed by examining decadal patterns of precipitation, air temperature and spring discharges in the Campania region (southern Italy, coupled with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO.

    The time series of precipitation and air temperature were gathered over 90 yr, from 1921 to 2010, using 18 rain gauges and 9 air temperature stations with the most continuous functioning. The time series of the winter NAO index and of the discharges of 3 karst springs, selected from those feeding the major aqueducts systems, were collected for the same period.

    Regional normalised indexes of the precipitation, air temperature and karst spring discharges were calculated, and different methods were applied to analyse the related time series, including long-term trend analysis using smoothing numerical techniques, cross-correlation and Fourier analysis.

    The investigation of the normalised indexes highlighted the existence of long-term complex periodicities, from 2 to more than 30 yr, with differences in average values of up to approximately ±30% for precipitation and karst spring discharges, which were both strongly correlated with the winter NAO index.

    Although the effects of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO had already been demonstrated in the long-term precipitation and streamflow patterns of

  6. Coupled decadal variability of the North Atlantic Oscillation, regional rainfall and karst spring discharges in the Campania region (southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vita, P.; Allocca, V.; Manna, F.; Fabbrocino, S.

    2012-05-01

    Thus far, studies on climate change have focused mainly on the variability of the atmospheric and surface components of the hydrologic cycle, investigating the impact of this variability on the environment, especially with respect to the risks of desertification, droughts and floods. Conversely, the impacts of climate change on the recharge of aquifers and on the variability of groundwater flow have been less investigated, especially in Mediterranean karst areas whose water supply systems depend heavily upon groundwater exploitation. In this paper, long-term climatic variability and its influence on groundwater recharge were analysed by examining decadal patterns of precipitation, air temperature and spring discharges in the Campania region (southern Italy), coupled with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The time series of precipitation and air temperature were gathered over 90 yr, from 1921 to 2010, using 18 rain gauges and 9 air temperature stations with the most continuous functioning. The time series of the winter NAO index and of the discharges of 3 karst springs, selected from those feeding the major aqueducts systems, were collected for the same period. Regional normalised indexes of the precipitation, air temperature and karst spring discharges were calculated, and different methods were applied to analyse the related time series, including long-term trend analysis using smoothing numerical techniques, cross-correlation and Fourier analysis. The investigation of the normalised indexes highlighted the existence of long-term complex periodicities, from 2 to more than 30 yr, with differences in average values of up to approximately ±30% for precipitation and karst spring discharges, which were both strongly correlated with the winter NAO index. Although the effects of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) had already been demonstrated in the long-term precipitation and streamflow patterns of different European countries and Mediterranean areas, the results

  7. Hydrological Impacts of Land Use Change and Climate Variability in the Headwater Region of the Heihe River Basin, Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Nan, Zhuotong; Xu, Yi; Li, Shuo

    2016-01-01

    Land use change and climate variability are two key factors impacting watershed hydrology, which is strongly related to the availability of water resources and the sustainability of local ecosystems. This study assessed separate and combined hydrological impacts of land use change and climate variability in the headwater region of a typical arid inland river basin, known as the Heihe River Basin, northwest China, in the recent past (1995–2014) and near future (2015–2024), by combining two land use models (i.e., Markov chain model and Dyna-CLUE) with a hydrological model (i.e., SWAT). The potential impacts in the near future were explored using projected land use patterns and hypothetical climate scenarios established on the basis of analyzing long-term climatic observations. Land use changes in the recent past are dominated by the expansion of grassland and a decrease in farmland; meanwhile the climate develops with a wetting and warming trend. Land use changes in this period induce slight reductions in surface runoff, groundwater discharge and streamflow whereas climate changes produce pronounced increases in them. The joint hydrological impacts are similar to those solely induced by climate changes. Spatially, both the effects of land use change and climate variability vary with the sub-basin. The influences of land use changes are more identifiable in some sub-basins, compared with the basin-wide impacts. In the near future, climate changes tend to affect the hydrological regimes much more prominently than land use changes, leading to significant increases in all hydrological components. Nevertheless, the role of land use change should not be overlooked, especially if the climate becomes drier in the future, as in this case it may magnify the hydrological responses. PMID:27348224

  8. Hydrological Impacts of Land Use Change and Climate Variability in the Headwater Region of the Heihe River Basin, Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Nan, Zhuotong; Xu, Yi; Li, Shuo

    2016-01-01

    Land use change and climate variability are two key factors impacting watershed hydrology, which is strongly related to the availability of water resources and the sustainability of local ecosystems. This study assessed separate and combined hydrological impacts of land use change and climate variability in the headwater region of a typical arid inland river basin, known as the Heihe River Basin, northwest China, in the recent past (1995-2014) and near future (2015-2024), by combining two land use models (i.e., Markov chain model and Dyna-CLUE) with a hydrological model (i.e., SWAT). The potential impacts in the near future were explored using projected land use patterns and hypothetical climate scenarios established on the basis of analyzing long-term climatic observations. Land use changes in the recent past are dominated by the expansion of grassland and a decrease in farmland; meanwhile the climate develops with a wetting and warming trend. Land use changes in this period induce slight reductions in surface runoff, groundwater discharge and streamflow whereas climate changes produce pronounced increases in them. The joint hydrological impacts are similar to those solely induced by climate changes. Spatially, both the effects of land use change and climate variability vary with the sub-basin. The influences of land use changes are more identifiable in some sub-basins, compared with the basin-wide impacts. In the near future, climate changes tend to affect the hydrological regimes much more prominently than land use changes, leading to significant increases in all hydrological components. Nevertheless, the role of land use change should not be overlooked, especially if the climate becomes drier in the future, as in this case it may magnify the hydrological responses.

  9. Investigations at regional scales of reconstruct sea level variability over the past 50 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, M.; Meyssignac, B.; Llovel, W.; Cazenave, A. A.; Rogel, P.

    2010-12-01

    Sea level rise is a major consequence of global warming, which threatens many low-lying, highly populated coastal regions of the world. In such regions, sea level rise amplifies other stresses due to natural phenomena (e.g., sediment load-induced ground subsidence in deltaic areas, vertical ground motions due to tectonics, volcanism and post-glacial rebound, etc.) or human activities (e.g., ground subsidence due to ground water pumping and/or oil extraction, urbanisation, etc.). Observations for the recent decades from tide gauges and satellite altimetry show that sea level rise is far from being geographically uniform. Here we present an analysis of decadal / multi-decadal sea level variations in a number of selected regions: Tropical Pacific, Indian Ocean, Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean region. For that purpose, we use a reconstruction of past sea level -last 50 years- based on the joint statistical analysis of tide gauge records and gridded sea level from an ocean circulation model. We highlight the sea level trends over the past 50 years in each region. Comparison between reconstructed sea-level trends with tide gauge records at sites not included in the reconstruction shows general good agreement, suggesting that regional trend patterns infer from the reconstruction are realistic (in addition, reconstructed sea-level agrees well with altimeter measurements since 1993). We find above-global average sea level rise since 1950 at several islands in the Eastern Tropical Pacific (Funafuti, Samoa, Kiribati, Cook Islands). Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analyses are performed for each region to describe accurately the spatio-temporal interannual variability. We also compute spatial trend patterns in thermal expansion to determine which part of the observed regional sea level variability can be attributed to change in ocean temperature.

  10. Epigenetic regulation of individual modules of the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus 3’ regulatory region (3’ RR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara K Birshtein

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Igh locus undergoes an amazing array of DNA rearrangements and modifications during B cell development. During early stages, the variable region gene is constructed from constituent variable (V, diversity (D and joining (J segments (VDJ joining. B cells that successfully express an antibody can be activated, leading to somatic hypermutation (SHM focused on the variable region, and class switch recombination (CSR, which substitutes downstream constant region genes for the originally used Cμ constant region gene. Many investigators, ourselves included, have sought to understand how these processes specifically target the Igh locus and avoid other loci and potential deleterious consequences of malignant transformation. Our laboratory has concentrated on a complex regulatory region (RR that is located downstream of Cα, the most 3’ of the Igh constant region genes. The ~40 kb 3’ RR, which is predicted to serve as a downstream major regulator of the Igh locus, contains two distinct segments: an ~28 kb region of four enhancers and an adjacent ~12 kb region containing multiple CTCF and Pax5 binding sites. Analysis of targeted mutations in mice by a number of investigators has concluded that the entire 3’ RR enhancer region is essential for SHM and CSR (but not for VDJ joining and for high levels of expression of multiple isotypes. The CTCF/Pax5 binding region is a candidate for influencing VDJ joining early in B cell development and serving as a potential insulator of the Igh locus. Components of the 3’ RR are subject to a variety of epigenetic changes during B cell development, i.e., DNAse I hypersensitivity, histone modifications and DNA methylation, in association with transcription factor binding. We propose that these changes provide a foundation by which regulatory elements in modules of the 3’ RR function by interacting with each other and with target sequences of the Igh locus.

  11. Regional Fat Distribution and Blood Pressure Level and Variability: The Dallas Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Yuichiro; Vongpatanasin, Wanpen; Ayers, Colby; Turer, Aslan; Chandra, Alvin; Carnethon, Mercedes R; Greenland, Philip; de Lemos, James A; Neeland, Ian J

    2016-09-01

    Our aim was to investigate the associations of regional fat distribution with home and office blood pressure (BP) levels and variability. Participants in the Dallas Heart Study, a multiethnic cohort, underwent 5 BP measurements on 3 occasions during 5 months (2 in home and 1 in office) and quantification of visceral adipose tissue, abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue, and liver fat by magnetic resonance imaging, and lower body subcutaneous fat by dual x-ray absorptiometry. The relation of regional adiposity with short-term (within-visit) and long-term (overall visits) mean BP and average real variability was assessed with multivariable linear regression. We have included 2595 participants with a mean age of 44 years (54% women; 48% black), and mean body mass index was 29 kg/m(2) Mean systolic BP/diastolic BP was 127/79 mm Hg and average real variability systolic BP was 9.8 mm Hg during 3 visits. In multivariable-adjusted models, higher amount of visceral adipose tissue was associated with higher short-term (both home and office) and long-term mean systolic BP (β[SE]: 1.9[0.5], 2.7[0.5], and 2.1[0.5], respectively; all Pfat was associated with lower short-term home and long-term mean BP (β[SE]: -0.30[0.13] and -0.24[0.1], respectively; both Pfat was associated with BP levels or variability. In conclusion, excess visceral fat was associated with persistently higher short- and long-term mean BP levels and with lower long-term BP variability, whereas lower body fat was associated with lower short- and long-term mean BP. Persistently elevated BP, coupled with lower variability, may partially explain increased risk for cardiac hypertrophy and failure related to visceral adiposity.

  12. ESA STSE “SST Diurnal Variability: Regional Extend - Implications in Atmospheric Modelling”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karagali, Ioanna

    The diurnal variability of SST, driven by the coincident occurrence of low enough wind and solar heating, has been observed in various regions of the global ocean [4, 5, 6]. Atmospheric, oceanic and climate models are not adequately resolving the daily SST cycle, resulting in biases of the total...... heat budget estimates and demised model accuracies [2, 1]. The ESA STSE project SSTDV:R.EX.-IM.A.M. focused on different aspects....

  13. 500 years of regional forest growth variability and links to climatic extreme events in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Babst, Flurin; Carrer, Marco; Poulter, Benjamin; Urbinati, Carlo; Neuwirth, Burkhard; Frank, David

    2012-01-01

    Climatic extreme events strongly affect forest growth and thus significantly influence the inter-annual terrestrial carbon balance. As we are facing an increase in frequency and intensity of climate extremes, extensive empirical archives are required to assess continental scale impacts of temperature and precipitation anomalies. Here we divide a tree-ring network of approximately 1000 sites into fifteen groups of similar high-frequency growth variability to reconstruct regional positive and n...

  14. Production and characterization of a biotinylated single-chain variable fragment antibody for detection of parathion-methyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huimin; Zhao, Fengchun; Han, Xiao; Yang, Zhengyou

    2016-10-01

    In this article, we reported the development of a biotinylated single-chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody based indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IC-ELISA) for parathion-methyl (PM) detection. Firstly, a phage display library was generated using a pre-immunized BALB/C mouse against a specific hapten of PM. After four rounds of panning, the scFv gene fragments were transferred into a secreted expression vector. Then, the scFv antibodies were secreted expressed and screened by IC-ELISA against PM. The selected scFv antibody was fused with a biotin acceptor domain (BAD) and inserted into pET-28a(+) vector for high-level expression in Escherichia coli BL2 (DE3). After optimizing expression conditions, the scFv-BAD antibody was expressed as a soluble protein and biotinylated in vitro by the E. coli biotin ligase (BirA). Subsequently, the biotinylated scFv-BAD antibody was purified with a high yield of 59.2 ± 3.7 mg/L of culture, and was characterized by SDS-PAGE and western blotting. Finally, based on the biotinylated scFv-BAD, a sensitive IC-ELISA for detection of PM was developed, and the 50% inhibition value (IC50) of PM was determined as 14.5 ng/mL, with a limit of detection (LOD, IC10) of 0.9 ng/mL. Cross-reactivity (CR) studies revealed that the scFv antibody showed desirable specificity for PM. PMID:27181246

  15. A conjugate of an anti-midkine single-chain variable fragment to doxorubicin inhibits tumor growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuli Zhao

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Doxorubicin (DOX was conjugated to a single-chain variable fragment (scFv against human midkine (MK, and the conjugate (scFv-DOX was used to target the chemotherapeutic agent to a mouse solid tumor model in which the tumor cells expressed high levels of human MK. The His-tagged recombinant scFv was expressed in bacteria, purified by metal affinity chromatography, and then conjugated to DOX using oxidative dextran (Dex as a linker. The molecular formula of this immunoconjugate was scFv(Dex1.3(DOX20. In vitro apoptosis assays showed that the scFv-DOX conjugate was more cytotoxic against MK-transfected human adenocarcinoma cells (BGC823-MK than untransfected cells (55.3 ± 2.4 vs 22.4 ± 3.8% for three independent experiments. Nude mice bearing BGC823-MK solid tumors received scFv-DOX or equivalent doses of scFv + DOX for 2 weeks and tumor growth was more effectively inhibited by the scFv-DOX conjugate than by scFv + DOX (51.83% inhibition vs 40.81%. Histological analysis of the tumor tissues revealed that the highest levels of DOX accumulated in tumors from mice treated with scFv-DOX and this resulted in more extensive tumor cell death than in animals treated with the equivalent dose of scFv + DOX. These results show that the scFv-DOX conjugate effectively inhibited tumor growth in vivo and suggest that antigen-specific scFv may be competent drug-carriers.

  16. A conjugate of an anti-midkine single-chain variable fragment to doxorubicin inhibits tumor growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Shuli [Immunology and Reproductive Biology Laboratory, Medical School & State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Nanjing University, Nanjing (China); Nanjing Affiliated First Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China); Zhao, Guangfeng; Xie, Hao; Huang, Yahong [Immunology and Reproductive Biology Laboratory, Medical School & State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Nanjing University, Nanjing (China); Hou, Yayi [Immunology and Reproductive Biology Laboratory, Medical School & State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Nanjing University, Nanjing (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Nanjing University, Nanjing (China)

    2012-01-27

    Doxorubicin (DOX) was conjugated to a single-chain variable fragment (scFv) against human midkine (MK), and the conjugate (scFv-DOX) was used to target the chemotherapeutic agent to a mouse solid tumor model in which the tumor cells expressed high levels of human MK. The His-tagged recombinant scFv was expressed in bacteria, purified by metal affinity chromatography, and then conjugated to DOX using oxidative dextran (Dex) as a linker. The molecular formula of this immunoconjugate was scFv(Dex){sub 1.3}(DOX){sub 20}. In vitro apoptosis assays showed that the scFv-DOX conjugate was more cytotoxic against MK-transfected human adenocarcinoma cells (BGC823-MK) than untransfected cells (55.3 ± 2.4 vs 22.4 ± 3.8%) for three independent experiments. Nude mice bearing BGC823-MK solid tumors received scFv-DOX or equivalent doses of scFv + DOX for 2 weeks and tumor growth was more effectively inhibited by the scFv-DOX conjugate than by scFv + DOX (51.83% inhibition vs 40.81%). Histological analysis of the tumor tissues revealed that the highest levels of DOX accumulated in tumors from mice treated with scFv-DOX and this resulted in more extensive tumor cell death than in animals treated with the equivalent dose of scFv + DOX. These results show that the scFv-DOX conjugate effectively inhibited tumor growth in vivo and suggest that antigen-specific scFv may be competent drug-carriers.

  17. Coupled decadal variability of the North Atlantic Oscillation, regional rainfall and spring discharges in the Campania region (Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. De Vita

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is one of the issues most debated by the scientific community with a special focus to the combined effects of anthropogenic modifications of the atmosphere and the natural climatic cycles. Various scenarios have been formulated in order to forecast the global atmospheric circulation and consequently the variability of the global distribution of air temperature and rainfall. The effects of climate change have been analysed with respect to the risks of desertification, droughts and floods, remaining mainly limited to the atmospheric and surface components of the hydrologic cycle. Consequently the impact of the climate change on the recharge of regional aquifers and on the groundwater circulation is still a challenging topic especially in those areas whose aqueduct systems depend basically on springs or wells, such as the Campania region (Southern Italy.

    In order to analyse the long-term climatic variability and its influence on groundwater circulation, we analysed decadal patterns of precipitation, air temperature and spring discharges in the Campania region (Southern Italy, coupled with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO.

    The time series of precipitation and air temperature were gathered over 90 yr, in the period from 1921 to 2010, choosing 18 rain gauges and 9 air temperature stations among those with the most continuous functioning as well as arranged in a homogeneous spatial distribution. Moreover, for the same period, we gathered the time series of the winter NAO index (December to March mean and of the discharges of the Sanità spring, belonging to an extended carbonate aquifer (Cervialto Mount located in the central-eastern area of the Campania region, as well as of two other shorter time series of spring discharges. The hydrogeological features of this aquifer, its relevance due to the feeding of an important regional aqueduct system, as well as the unique availability of a long-lasting time series of

  18. Quantification of β region IgA paraproteins - should we include immunochemical "heavy/light chain" measurements? Counterpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolini, Lucia

    2016-06-01

    Serum protein electrophoresis (SPE), serum immunofixation (s-IFE), free light chain measurement (FLC) and nephelometric measurements of total immunoglobulin in serum (IgTot) are some of the laboratory tests required for the management of plasma cell proliferative disorders. The monoclonal protein is usually visible on SPE as a spike (M-spike) in the γ region and the derived densitogram is used to quantify it relative to serum total protein concentration. IgA M-protein, however, often migrates in the β region on SPE and its quantification can be masked by other serum proteins that migrate in this region. The immunoassay Hevylite™ (heavy/light chain, HLC) seems to solve this problem: it quantifies the involved/uninvolved isotype, calculating the ratio IgAκ/IgAλ, considered indicative of clonal proliferation. However, this test seems redundant in the case of artifacts on SPE such as obvious hemolysis or lipemia, or if the IgA M-spike is clearly visible in the β region. In conclusion whereas the IgA HLC assay does not represent an alternative to SPE and s-IFE in the diagnostic patient workup, it may prove to be an alternative to SPE, s-IFE and total IgA quantification in risk stratification and evaluation of response to therapy in patients affected by MM and other monoclonal plasma proliferative disorders.

  19. Characterization of CagA variable region of Helicobacter pylori isolates from Chinese patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Liang Zhu; Shu Zheng; Qin Du; Ke-Da Qian; Ping-Chu Fang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To characterize the CagA variable region of Helicobacter pylori isolates from Chinese patients.METHODS: DNA fragments in CagA variable region were amplified and sequenced respectively from genomic DNA of 19 isolates from patients with gastric cancer and 20isolates from patients with chronic gastritis. The tendency of phosphorylation in tyrosine(s) of CagA proteins was evaluated subsequently by phosphorylation assay in vivo and in vitro respectively.RESULTS: About 97.44% (38/39) H pylori isolates possessed CagA gene. CagA+ strains contained 2-4tandem five-amino-acid motifs EPIYA but only one EPIYA had repeated sequence in CagA variable region in different isolates. There was no significant difference between the number of EPIYA motifs in H pylori from patients with different diseases. However, only tyrosine site in EPIYA within repeated sequence could be phosphorylated by AGS cells in vivo although all tyrosine sites in EPIYA could be phosphorylated in vitro.CONCLUSION: CagA in Chinese has no functional difference in perturbing cellular signal pathway among different H pylori isolates.

  20. CGHScan: finding variable regions using high-density microarray comparative genomic hybridization data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajashekara Gireesh

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparative genomic hybridization can rapidly identify chromosomal regions that vary between organisms and tissues. This technique has been applied to detecting differences between normal and cancerous tissues in eukaryotes as well as genomic variability in microbial strains and species. The density of oligonucleotide probes available on current microarray platforms is particularly well-suited for comparisons of organisms with smaller genomes like bacteria and yeast where an entire genome can be assayed on a single microarray with high resolution. Available methods for analyzing these experiments typically confine analyses to data from pre-defined annotated genome features, such as entire genes. Many of these methods are ill suited for datasets with the number of measurements typical of high-density microarrays. Results We present an algorithm for analyzing microarray hybridization data to aid identification of regions that vary between an unsequenced genome and a sequenced reference genome. The program, CGHScan, uses an iterative random walk approach integrating multi-layered significance testing to detect these regions from comparative genomic hybridization data. The algorithm tolerates a high level of noise in measurements of individual probe intensities and is relatively insensitive to the choice of method for normalizing probe intensity values and identifying probes that differ between samples. When applied to comparative genomic hybridization data from a published experiment, CGHScan identified eight of nine known deletions in a Brucella ovis strain as compared to Brucella melitensis. The same result was obtained using two different normalization methods and two different scores to classify data for individual probes as representing conserved or variable genomic regions. The undetected region is a small (58 base pair deletion that is below the resolution of CGHScan given the array design employed in the study

  1. Variability of the tandem repeat region of the Escherichia coli tolA gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Kai; Vanoirbeek, Kristof; Aertsen, Abram; Michiels, Chris W

    2012-06-01

    An intragenic tandem repeat (TR) region has been previously reported in the tolA gene of Escherichia coli. In silico analysis of 123 E. coli tolA sequences from Genbank and PCR analysis of the tolA TR region from 111 additional E. coli strains revealed that this TR region is highly variable. Nine different TR sizes with 8 up to 16 repeat units were found in in silico analysis and 6 of these were also found by PCR analysis. The 13-unit TR emerged as the predominant type using both approaches (47.2% and 86.5%, respectively). Remarkably, TRs in pathogenic strains appeared to be more variable than those in non-pathogens. To demonstrate the occurrence of TR variation in a clonal population, a selection system for TR deletion events was constructed by inserting the 13-unit TR region of MG1655 in frame into a plasmid-borne chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) gene. The resulting cat gene no longer conferred chloramphenicol resistance unless the insert size was reduced by TR contraction. Using this system, Cm-resistant revertants with a TR contraction were recovered at a frequency of 1.1 × 10(-7), and contraction was shown to be recA-dependent and enhanced in a DNA repair-deficient mutS background. PMID:22659144

  2. Generation and transfer of internal variability in a regional climate model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Simon

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a strong need for tools allowing the comparison between the performance of a regional climate model (RCM and the corresponding model providing lateral boundary conditions (LBC for the RCM, which is a global general circulation model (GCM in most cases. A method is presented to investigate the temporal scales on which a RCM is able to generate internal variability on its own and on which variability is copied from the driving model. This is implemented by a cross-spectral analysis between the RCM output and a bi-linearly interpolated version of the driving model, leading to an estimate of the coherence spectrum. Applying the aforementioned technique to surface temperature and temperature and specific humidity at 850 hPa from the RCM COSMO-CLM East Asia with a horizontal resolution of 50 km and its driving model ECHAM5, it was found that features in the spatial distribution of coherence are related to atmospheric dynamics in East Asia, e.g. monsoons and inter-tropical convergence zone (ITCZ. A further application to a double-nesting approach, where COSMO-CLM East Asia is the driving model for two domains – namely the Haihe catchment and the Poyang catchment – each with a horizontal resolution of 7 km, shows that the frequencies on which internal variability is generated by the driven model are much higher compared to the first nesting step. Concluding RCMs can produce a considerable variability on the respective temporal scales. This implies that a dynamical downscaling with a re-analysis as LBC is conceptually different to a regional re-analysis, i.e. data assimilation on the regional scale.

  3. Basal respiration - a proxy to understand spatial variability of soil CO2 emissions in urban regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasenev, Viacheslav; Stoorvogel, Jetse; Ananyeva, Nadezhda; Ivashchenko, Kristina; Vizirskaya, Marya; Valentini, Riccardo

    2015-04-01

    Soil respiration (Rs) is an important terrestrial CO2 efflux and received significant attention at different scale levels. However, the sampling density is limited and global Rs databases are biased towards natural ecosystems and towards north America and Europe. This limits our understanding of the spatial variability of Rs. The methodological constraints of direct Rs measurements in the field limit the number of observations. As an alternative approach to approximate the spatial variability of Rs, we used basal respiration (BR) as an indirect measurement. First, the direct Rs and indirect BR measurements were compared at a 10 km2 test area in Moscow city, which included adjacent forests, croplands and urban lawn plots. Rs was monitored by in situ chamber approach with an IR Li-820 gas analyzer at 50 points during the growing season (June-October 2013, 9 time repetitions per point). In the same area, 32 locations were sampled and BR was measured under controlled conditions. Rs was affected by anthropogenic disturbance with the highest values in urban lawns. BR was mainly controlled by soil organic carbon (SOC) with maximum rates in the forested area. Total variability reported by direct observations was 10% higher, than one for BR, although the spatial variability captured by both approaches was similar confirmed by significant correlation between variance coefficients (CV) of the values. This shows that BR is a relevant proxy to analyze the spatial variability of Rs. Subsequently, the sampling area was expanded to the Moscow region for which respiration was mapped using digital soil mapping techniques and BR as a proxy for Rs. Although the absolute levels of respiration remained uncertain, the spatial patterns of BR are likely to correspond well with Rs patterns. Land use largely determined the spatial heterogeneity of soil respiration. Most variation occurred in the urban areas. BR is a relevant and straightforward proxy to understand patterns of Rs especially

  4. Variability of wind direction statistics of mean and extreme wind events over the Baltic Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svenja E. Bierstedt

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available It is not clear to what extent the variations of seasonal mean winds and seasonal extreme winds are related. We investigate this relationship for the Baltic Sea area by analysing two regional climate gridded data sets, coastDat2 and HiResAFF, for the periods 1948–2009 and 1850–2009, respectively. Both data sets are based on regional climate simulations incorporating information from observations with the aim of reproducing the observed trajectory of climate variables. We compare the wind direction distribution of mean and extreme wind events by analysing seasonal wind roses. Mean wind directions display a more isotropic distribution, with a seasonally varying maximum. Extreme winds are much more constrained to south-westerly and westerly directions. The co-variability in time between the wind speed along the dominant directions of seasonal mean and the seasonal extreme winds was investigated using a complex correlation coefficient. This coefficient enables the simultaneous investigation of the co-variability of two-dimensional variables, for example wind. This coefficient is small for all seasons, indicating a very weak co-variance in time between seasonal mean and seasonal extremes. Hence, deviations in the direction of the mean wind are not a good indicator for deviations in the direction of extreme winds. We also assess the spatial structure and temporal variability of mean and extreme wind statistics using a principal component analysis. The principal components exhibit no significant long-term trends over the simulation periods, although multidecadal trends are detected for some periods and seasons. In recent decades, wintertime mean and extremes shifted to a more south-westerly direction. In the other seasons, no trends in wind directions are detected. We also investigate the possibility that seasonal patterns of extreme winds might persist over several adjacent seasons. No such persistent patterns can be identified, and hence extreme

  5. YSOVAR: MID-INFRARED VARIABILITY AMONG YSOs IN THE STAR FORMATION REGION GGD12-15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolk, Scott J.; Günther, H. Moritz; Poppenhaeger, Katja; Forbrich, J. [Harvard–Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Cody, A. M. [NASA Ames Research Center, M/S 244-5 Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Rebull, L. M.; Stauffer, J. R. [Spitzer Science Center/Caltech, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Gutermuth, R. A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Hillenbrand, L. A. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Plavchan, P. [Department of Physics Astronomy and Materials Science, Missouri State University, Springfield, MO 65897 (United States); Covey, K. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Western Washington Univ., Bellingham, WA 98225-9164 (United States); Song, Inseok, E-mail: swolk@cfa.harvard.edu [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-2451 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    We present an IR-monitoring survey with the Spitzer Space Telescope of the star-forming region GGD 12-15. More than 1000 objects were monitored, including about 350 objects within the central 5′, which is found to be especially dense in cluster members. The monitoring took place over 38 days and is part of the Young Stellar Object VARiability project. The region was also the subject of a contemporaneous 67 ks Chandra observation. The field includes 119 previously identified pre-main sequence star candidates. X-rays are detected from 164 objects, 90 of which are identified with cluster members. Overall, we find that about half the objects in the central 5′ are young stellar objects (YSOs) based on a combination of their spectral energy distribution, IR variability, and X-ray emission. Most of the stars with IR excess relative to a photosphere show large amplitude (>0.1 mag) mid-infrared (mid-IR) variability. There are 39 periodic sources, and all but one is found to be a cluster member. Almost half of the periodic sources do not show IR excesses. Overall, more than 85% of the Class I, flat spectrum, and Class II sources are found to vary. The amplitude of the variability is larger in more embedded YSOs. Most of the Class I/II objects exhibit redder colors in a fainter state, which is compatible with time-variable extinction. A few become bluer when fainter, which can be explained with significant changes in the structure of the inner disk. A search for changes in the IR due to X-ray events is carried out, but the low number of flares prevented an analysis of the direct impact of X-ray flares on the IR light curves. However, we find that X-ray detected Class II sources have longer timescales for change in the MIR than a similar set of non-X-ray detected Class IIs.

  6. Circulation and its seasonal variability in region around the Kerguelen Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Jiuxin(史久新); Le Kentang(乐肯堂); Byung Ho Choi

    2002-01-01

    A coupled ice-ocean isopycnal numerical model of the Southern Ocean is established to study the circulation and its seasonal variability in the region around the Kerguelen Plateau. An analysis of the simulated results shows significant stripe-like structure and non-zonal feature of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) in this region. ACC begins to bifurcate and to turn its direction before meeting the plateau. The southernmost branch of ACC is near to the Antarctic coast and displays its strong interaction with the westward Antarctic Slope Current. The northern branch of ACC has a tendency of annual variations while the southern one varies in a semiannual cycle. The variation phases of both branches are coincident with that of the wind stress in this region.

  7. Specific amplification by PCR of rearranged genomic variable regions of immunoglobulin genes from mouse hybridoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdoz, J; Monath, T P; Kraehenbuhl, J P

    1995-04-01

    We have designed a novel strategy for the isolation of the rearranged genomic fragments encoding the L-VH-D-JH and L-V kappa/lambda-J kappa/lambda regions of mouse immunoglobulin genes. This strategy is based on the PCR amplification of genomic DNA from mouse hybridomas using multiple specific primers chosen in the 5'-untranslated region and in the intron downstream of the rearranged JH/J kappa/lambda sequences. Variable regions with intact coding sequences, including full-length leader peptides (L) can be obtained without previous DNA sequencing. Our strategy is based on a genomic template that produces fragments that do not need to be adapted for recombinant antibody expression, thus facilitating the generation of chimeric and isotype-switched immunoglobulins.

  8. Temporal Structures of the North Atlantic Oscillation and Its Impact on the Regional Climate Variability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the temporal structure of the variation of North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and its impact on regional climate variability are analyzed using various datasets. The results show that blocking formations in the Atlantic region are sensitive to the phase of the NAO. Sixty-seven percent more winter blocking days are observed during the negative phase compared to the positive phase of the NAO. The average length of blocking during the negative phase is about 11 days, which is nearly twice as long as the 6-day length observed during the positive phase of the NAO. The NAO-related differences in blocking frequency and persistence are associated with changes in the distribution of the surface air temperature anomaly, which, to a large extent, is determined by the phase of the NAO. The distribution of regional cloud amount is also sensitive to the phase of the NAO. For the negative phase, the cloud amounts are significant, positive anomalies in the convective zone in the Tropics and much less cloudiness in the mid latitudes. But for the positive phase of the NAO, the cloud amount is much higher in the mid-latitude storm track region. In the whole Atlantic region, the cloud amount shows a decrease with the increase of surface air temperature. These results suggest that there may be a negative feedback between the cloud amount and the surface air temperature in the Atlantic region.

  9. Regional and landscape-scale variability of Landsat-observed vegetation dynamics in northwest Siberian tundra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widespread increases in Arctic tundra productivity have been documented for decades using coarse-scale satellite observations, but finer-scale observations indicate that changes have been very uneven, with a high degree of landscape- and regional-scale heterogeneity. Here we analyze time-series of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) observed by Landsat (1984–2012), to assess landscape- and regional-scale variability of tundra vegetation dynamics in the northwest Siberian Low Arctic, a little-studied region with varied soils, landscape histories, and permafrost attributes. We also estimate spatio-temporal rates of land-cover change associated with expansion of tall alder (Alnus) shrublands, by integrating Landsat time-series with very-high-resolution imagery dating to the mid-1960s. We compiled Landsat time-series for eleven widely-distributed landscapes, and performed linear regression of NDVI values on a per-pixel basis. We found positive net NDVI trends (‘greening’) in nine of eleven landscapes. Net greening occurred in alder shrublands in all landscapes, and strong greening tended to correspond to shrublands that developed since the 1960s. Much of the spatial variability of greening within landscapes was linked to landscape physiography and permafrost attributes, while between-landscape variability largely corresponded to differences in surficial geology. We conclude that continued increases in tundra productivity in the region are likely in upland tundra landscapes with fine-textured, cryoturbated soils; these areas currently tend to support discontinuous vegetation cover, but are highly susceptible to rapid increases in vegetation cover, as well as land-cover changes associated with the development of tall shrublands. (paper)

  10. Streamflow estimation using WRF-Hydro with dynamically downscaled climate variables over southern tropical Indian region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, S.; Sudheer, K. P.; Gunthe, S. S.

    2015-12-01

    Indian summer monsoon rainfall (ISMR; June to September), which constitutes around 80% of India's annual rainfall, has shown an increasing trend in intensity and frequency of extreme events (Goswami et al., 2006). It is a widely recognized fact that the increasing temperature in association with anthropogenic activities can affect the hydrological cycle, which leads to extreme events. In addition a shift in extremes of the spatial pattern of ISMR has recently been observed (Ghosh et al., 2011). Such changes in rainfall on temporal and spatial scale can further affect the stream flow over a given region subsequently making water resource management a difficult task (Mondal and Mujumdar, 2015). The hydrological models used for the stream flow estimation are dependent on various climate variables as input data. These climate variables could be obtained through either observational networks or climate model outputs. Due to the scarcity of the observational data over the Indian region and the coarse resolution of global climate model output, which is used as input to hydrologic models, large uncertainties are introduced in stream flow output (Overgaard et al., 2007). In the present study we have used the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model (Skamarock et al. 2008) to downscale the essential climate variables (surface temperature, precipitation, relative humidity, etc.) as an input for its coupled hydrological extension, WRF Hydro (NCAR user's guide). We will present the results obtained from the WRF-hydro simulation to estimate the stream flow over the Thamirabarani river basin in Southern Tropical Indian region. Preliminary simulations using WRF to estimate the precipitation showed the reasonable quantitative agreement with observed values. An attempt will be made to demonstrate how these results can further be used for developing flood-forecasting techniques and for local regional water resource management.

  11. Evidence for a quadruplex structure in the polymorphic hs1.2 enhancer of the immunoglobulin heavy chain 3' regulatory regions and its conservation in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sette, Marco; D'Addabbo, Pietro; Kelly, Geoffrey; Cicconi, Alessandro; Micheli, Emanuela; Cacchione, Stefano; Poma, Anna; Gargioli, Cesare; Giambra, Vincenzo; Frezza, Domenico

    2016-11-01

    Regulatory regions in the genome can act through a variety of mechanisms that range from the occurrence of histone modifications to the presence of protein-binding loci for self-annealing sequences. The final result is often the induction of a conformational change of the DNA double helix, which alters the accessibility of a region to transcription factors and consequently gene expression. A ∼300 kb regulatory region on chromosome 14 at the 3' end (3'RR) of immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy-chain genes shows very peculiar features, conserved in mammals, including enhancers and transcription factor binding sites. In primates, the 3'RR is present in two copies, both having a central enhancer named hs1.2. We previously demonstrated the association between different hs1.2 alleles and Ig plasma levels in immunopathology. Here, we present the analysis of a putative G-quadruplex structure (tetraplex) consensus site embedded in a variable number tandem repeat (one to four copies) of hs1.2 that is a distinctive element among the enhancer alleles, and an investigation of its three-dimensional structure using bioinformatics and spectroscopic approaches. We suggest that both the role of the enhancer and the alternative effect of the hs1.2 alleles may be achieved through their peculiar three-dimensional-conformational rearrangement. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers 105: 768-778, 2016. PMID:27287611

  12. Impacts of seasonal and regional variability in biogenic VOC emissions on surface ozone in the Pearl River Delta region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Situ

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the BVOC emissions in November 2010 over the Pearl River Delta (PRD region in southern China have been estimated by the latest version of a Biogenic Volatile Organic Compound (BVOC emission model (MEGAN v2.1. The evaluation of MEGAN performance at a representative forest site within this region indicates MEGAN can estimate BVOC emissions reasonably well in this region except overestimating isoprene emission in autumn for reasons that are discussed in this manuscript. Along with the output from MEGAN, the Weather Research and Forecasting model with chemistry (WRF-Chem is used to estimate the impacts of BVOC emissions on surface ozone in the PRD region. The results show BVOC emissions increase the daytime ozone peak by ~3 ppb on average, and the max hourly impacts of BVOC emissions on the daytime ozone peak is 24.8 ppb. Surface ozone mixing ratios in the central area of Guangzhou-Foshan and the western Jiangmen are most sensitive to BVOC emissions BVOCs from outside and central PRD influence the central area of Guangzhou-Foshan and the western Jiangmen significantly while BVOCs from rural PRD mainly influence the western Jiangmen. The impacts of BVOC emissions on surface ozone differ in different PRD cities, and the impact varies in different seasons. Foshan and Jiangmen being most affected in autumn, result in 6.0 ppb and 5.5 ppb increases in surface ozone concentrations, while Guangzhou and Huizhou become more affected in summer. Three additional experiments concerning the sensitivity of surface ozone to MEGAN input variables show that surface ozone is more sensitive to landcover change, followed by emission factors and meteorology.

  13. Impacts of seasonal and regional variability in biogenic VOC emissions on surface ozone in the Pearl River Delta region, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Situ, S.; Guenther, Alex B.; Wang, X. J.; Jiang, X.; Turnipseed, A.; Wu, Z.; Bai, J.; Wang, X.

    2013-12-05

    In this study, the BVOC emissions in November 2010 over the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region in southern China have been estimated by the latest version of a Biogenic Volatile Organic Compound (BVOC) emission model (MEGAN v2.1). The evaluation of MEGAN performance at a representative forest site within this region indicates MEGAN can estimate BVOC emissions reasonably well in this region except overestimating isoprene emission in autumn for reasons that are discussed in this manuscript. Along with the output from MEGAN, the Weather Research and Forecasting model with chemistry (WRF-Chem) is used to estimate the impacts of BVOC emissions on surface ozone in the PRD region. The results show BVOC emissions increase the daytime ozone peak by *3 ppb on average, and the max hourly impacts of BVOC emissions on the daytime ozone peak is 24.8 ppb. Surface ozone mixing ratios in the central area of Guangzhou- Foshan and the western Jiangmen are most sensitive to BVOC emissions BVOCs from outside and central PRD influence the central area of Guangzhou-Foshan and the western Jiangmen significantly while BVOCs from rural PRD mainly influence the western Jiangmen. The impacts of BVOC emissions on surface ozone differ in different PRD cities, and the impact varies in different seasons. Foshan and Jiangmen being most affected in autumn, result in 6.0 ppb and 5.5 ppb increases in surface ozone concentrations, while Guangzhou and Huizhou become more affected in summer. Three additional experiments concerning the sensitivity of surface ozone to MEGAN input variables show that surface ozone is more sensitive to landcover change, followed by emission factors and meteorology.

  14. Analysis of information on food chain in Europe and Piedmont region, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Pattono

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Food chain information (FCI is an innovation of the new European regulation. Its purpose is to enhance the concept of food security. FCI includes specifications such as: health status, information on treatments and diseases, analytical reports on control plans, zoonoses or environmental contaminants, production performance, etc. The aim of this article is to compare the different European guidelines and analyse the situation in Piedmont in order to assess potential problems and propose solutions. European guidelines are similar one another, but they have been tailored to the epidemiological situations of each state. Except for Spain and Germany, FCI models are different for each species and the poultry sector is the most detailed. Unfortunately, Italy has not provided guidelines yet, and this has generated considerable differences. Overall, the number of FCI models with incomplete information is the largest group compared to the models not completed for each entry. The main deficiencies are related to pharmacological treatments. The health status of the farm is listed consistently regarding the compulsory eradication plans, but other national voluntary or accreditation plans are rarely mentioned. The situation is similar in other European countries. In conclusion, FCI is an effective tool if applied with consistency and reason. Only in this way the collection of data will be effective and representative of the food chain.

  15. Molecular Line Observations of Carbon-Chain-Producing Regions L1495B and L1521B

    CERN Document Server

    Hirota, T; Yamamoto, S; Hirota, Tomoya; Maezawa, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Satoshi

    2004-01-01

    We present the first comprehensive study on physical and chemical properties of quiescent starless cores L1495B and L1521B, which are known to be rich in carbon-chain molecules like the cyanopolyyne peak of TMC-1 and L1521E. We have detected radio spectral lines of various carbon-chain molecules such as CCS, C$_{3}$S, C$_{4}$H, HC$_{3}$N, and HC$_{5}$N. On the other hand, the NH$_{3}$ lines are weak and the N$_{2}$H$^{+}$ lines are not detected. According to our mapping observations of the HC$_{3}$N, CCS, and C$_{3}$S lines, the dense cores in L1495B and L1521B are compact with the radius of 0.063 and 0.044 pc, respectively, and have a simple elliptical structure. The distributions of CCS seem to be different from those of well-studied starless cores, L1498 and L1544, where the distribution of CCS shows a shell-like structure. Since the H$^{13}$CO$^{+}$, HN$^{13}$C, and C$^{34}$S lines are detected in L1495B and L1521B, the densities of these cores are high enough to excite the NH$_{3}$ and N$_{2}$H$^{+}$ lin...

  16. YSOVAR: Mid-infrared Variability Among YSOs in the Star Formation Region GGD 12-15

    CERN Document Server

    Wolk, Scott J; Poppenhaeger, Katja; Cody, A M; Rebull, L M; Forbrich, J; Gutermuth, R A; Hillenbrand, L A; Plavchan, P; Stauffer, J R; Covey, K R; Song, Inseok

    2015-01-01

    We present an IR-monitoring survey with the $Spitzer$ Space Telescope of the star forming region GGD 12-15. Over 1000 objects were monitored including about 350 objects within the central 5 arcminutes which is found to be especially dense in cluster members. The monitoring took place over 38 days and is part of the Young Stellar Object VARiability (YSOVAR) project. The region was also the subject of a contemporaneous 67ks $Chandra$ observation. The field includes 119 previously identified pre-main sequence star candidates. X-rays are detected from 164 objects, 90 of which are identified with cluster members. Overall, we find that about half the objects in the central 5 arcminutes are young stellar objects based on a combination of their spectral energy distribution, IR variability and X-ray emission. Most of the stars with IR excess relative to a photosphere show large amplitude (>0.1 mag) mid-IR variability. There are 39 periodic sources, all but one of these is found to be a cluster member. Almost half of t...

  17. YSOVAR: Mid-IR variability in the star forming region Lynds 1688

    CERN Document Server

    Günther, H M; Covey, K R; Hillenbrand, L A; Plavchan, P; Poppenhaeger, K; Rebull, L M; Stauffer, J R; Wolk, S J; Allen, L; Bayo, A; Gutermuth, R A; Hora, J L; Meng, H Y A; Morales-Calderon, M; Parks, J R; Song, Inseok

    2014-01-01

    The emission from young stellar objects (YSOs) in the mid-IR is dominated by the inner rim of their circumstellar disks. We present an IR-monitoring survey of about 800 objects in the direction of the Lynds 1688 (L1688) star forming region over four visibility windows spanning 1.6 years using the \\emph{Spitzer} space telescope in its warm mission phase. Among all lightcurves, 57 sources are cluster members identified based on their spectral-energy distribution and X-ray emission. Almost all cluster members show significant variability. The amplitude of the variability is larger in more embedded YSOs. Ten out of 57 cluster members have periodic variations in the lightcurves with periods typically between three and seven days, but even for those sources, significant variability in addition to the periodic signal can be seen. No period is stable over 1.6 years. Non-periodic lightcurves often still show a preferred timescale of variability which is longer for more embedded sources. About half of all sources exhib...

  18. Generation and replication of continuous-variable quadripartite cluster and Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states in four chains of superconducting transmission line resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Ma, Sheng-li; Yang, Zhi-peng; Fang, Ai-ping; Li, Pen-bo; Gao, Shao-yan; Li, Fu-li

    2016-04-01

    We consider a system consisting of four independent chains of coupled single-mode superconducting transmission line resonators and a gap-tunable qubit. When the first four resonators of the chains are coupled to the qubit properly driven by multicolor fields, we show that the resonators can be prepared in continuous-variable quadripartite cluster states via the decay of the qubit to its ground state. Moreover, the resulting cluster states can be replicated in the other resonators in column via the nearest-neighbor swapping interaction of the resonators. This means that one can generate a set of cluster states, each of which involves the four resonators from the different chains. By a similar protocol, we show that the generation and replication of continuous-variable quadripartite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states in the chains of the resonators can be achieved. The numerical simulation shows that the present scheme is realizable in current accessible on-chip quantum circuit experiments. The present result may have a potential application for the realization of a large-scale one-way quantum computation.

  19. Analysis of meteorological variables in the Australasian region using ground- and space-based GPS techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuleshov, Yuriy; Choy, Suelynn; Fu, Erjiang Frank; Chane-Ming, Fabrice; Liou, Yuei-An; Pavelyev, Alexander G.

    2016-07-01

    Results of analysis of meteorological variables (temperature and moisture) in the Australasian region using the global positioning system (GPS) radio occultation (RO) and GPS ground-based observations verified with in situ radiosonde (RS) data are presented. The potential of using ground-based GPS observations for retrieving column integrated precipitable water vapour (PWV) over the Australian continent has been demonstrated using the Australian ground-based GPS reference stations network. Using data from the 15 ground-based GPS stations, the state of the atmosphere over Victoria during a significant weather event, the March 2010 Melbourne storm, has been investigated, and it has been shown that the GPS observations has potential for monitoring the movement of a weather front that has sharp moisture contrast. Temperature and moisture variability in the atmosphere over various climatic regions (the Indian and the Pacific Oceans, the Antarctic and Australia) has been examined using satellite-based GPS RO and in situ RS observations. Investigating recent atmospheric temperature trends over Antarctica, the time series of the collocated GPS RO and RS data were examined, and strong cooling in the lower stratosphere and warming through the troposphere over Antarctica has been identified, in agreement with outputs of climate models. With further expansion of the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) system, it is expected that GNSS satellite- and ground-based measurements would be able to provide an order of magnitude larger amount of data which in turn could significantly advance weather forecasting services, climate monitoring and analysis in the Australasian region.

  20. Simulated impacts of afforestation in East China monsoon region as modulated by ocean variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Di; Notaro, Michael; Liu, Zhengyu; Chen, Guangshan; Liu, Yongqiang

    2013-11-01

    Using the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate System Model Version 3.5, this paper examines the climatic effects of afforestation in the East China monsoon region with a focus on land-atmosphere interactions and the modulating influence of ocean variability. In response to afforestation, the local surface air temperature significantly decreases in summer and increases in winter. The summer cooling is attributed to enhanced evapotranspiration from increased tree cover. During winter, afforestation induces greater roughness and weaker winds over the adjacent coastal ocean, leading to diminished latent heat flux and increased sea-surface temperature (SST). The enhanced SST supports greater atmospheric water vapor, which is accompanied by anomalous wind, and transported into the East China monsoon region. The increase in atmospheric water vapor favors more cloud cover and precipitation, especially in the eastern afforestation region. Furthermore, the increase in atmospheric water vapor and cloud cover produce a greenhouse effect, raising the wintertime surface air temperature. By comparing simulations in which ocean temperature are either fixed or variable, we demonstrate that a significant hydrologic response in East China to afforestation only occurs if ocean temperatures are allowed to vary and the oceanic source of moisture to the continent is enhanced.

  1. Role of climate variability in the heatstroke death rates of Kanto region in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akihiko, Takaya; Morioka, Yushi; Behera, Swadhin K

    2014-07-10

    The death toll by heatstroke in Japan, especially in Kanto region, has sharply increased since 1994 together with large interannual variability. The surface air temperature and humidity observed during boreal summers of 1980-2010 were examined to understand the role of climate in the death toll. The extremely hot days, when the daily maximum temperature exceeds 35 °C, are more strongly associated with the death toll than the conventional Wet Bulb Globe Temperature index. The extremely hot days tend to be associated with El Niño/Southern Oscillation or the Indian Ocean Dipole, suggesting a potential link with tropical climate variability to the heatstroke related deaths. Also, the influence of these climate modes on the death toll has strengthened since 1994 probably related to global warming. It is possible to develop early warning systems based on seasonal climate predictions since recent climate models show excellent predictability skills for those climate modes.

  2. Role of climate variability in the heatstroke death rates of Kanto region in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akihiko, Takaya; Morioka, Yushi; Behera, Swadhin K.

    2014-07-01

    The death toll by heatstroke in Japan, especially in Kanto region, has sharply increased since 1994 together with large interannual variability. The surface air temperature and humidity observed during boreal summers of 1980-2010 were examined to understand the role of climate in the death toll. The extremely hot days, when the daily maximum temperature exceeds 35°C, are more strongly associated with the death toll than the conventional Wet Bulb Globe Temperature index. The extremely hot days tend to be associated with El Niño/Southern Oscillation or the Indian Ocean Dipole, suggesting a potential link with tropical climate variability to the heatstroke related deaths. Also, the influence of these climate modes on the death toll has strengthened since 1994 probably related to global warming. It is possible to develop early warning systems based on seasonal climate predictions since recent climate models show excellent predictability skills for those climate modes.

  3. Spatial and Temporal Variability of Remotely Sensed Ocean Color Parameters in Coral Reef Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otis, Daniel Brooks

    The variability of water-column absorption due to colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and phytoplankton in coral reef regions is the focus of this study. Hydrographic and CDOM absorption measurements made on the Bahamas Banks and in Exuma Sound during the spring of 1999 and 2000 showed that values of salinity and CDOM absorption at 440nm were higher on the banks (37.18 psu, 0.06 m. -1), compared to Exuma Sound (37.04 psu, 0.03 m. -1). Spatial patternsof CDOM absorption in Exuma Sound revealed that plumes of CDOM-rich water flow into Exuma Sound from the surrounding banks. To examine absorption variability in reef regions throughout the world, a thirteen-year time series of satellite-derived estimates of water-column absorption due to CDOM and phytoplankton were created from Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. Time series data extracted adjacent to coral reef regions showed that variability in absorption depends on oceanographic conditions such as circulation patterns and winds as well as proximity to sources of light-absorbing materials that enter the water column, such as from terrestrial runoff. Waters near reef regions are generally clear, exhibiting a lower "baseline" level of CDOM absorption of approximately 0.01 m. -1 at 443nm. The main differences between regions lie in the periodsduring the year when increased levels of absorption are observed, which can be triggered by inputs of terrestrially-derived material, as in the Great Barrier Reef lagoon, or wind-driven upwelling as in the Andaman Sea and eastern Pacific Ocean near Panama. The lowest CDOM absorption levels found were approximately 0.003 m. -1 at 443nm near the islands of Palau and Yap, which are removed fromsources of colored materials. The highest absorption levels near reefs were associated with wind-driven upwelling during the northeast monsoon on the Andaman coast of Thailand where values of CDOM absorption at 443nm

  4. Ocean Current Energy Conversion System in Wallacea Region Using Variable Speed Control Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Sukma Nugraha

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Ocean Current Energy Conversion System (OCECS is a promising green energy resource in this globe. The Thermohaline circulation data indicates that the Wallacea region has the potential of ocean current energy resources. This paper is aimed to propose research and development of OCECSs to be implemented in the Wallacea region. Firstly, four types of green energy conversion systems extracted from ocean are reviewed. Their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Secondly, the potential of OCECS in the Wallacea region is described. Third, many types of turbines used for OCECS are reviewed and the turbine type for OCECS is selected to be implemented in the Wallacea region. Fourth, control strategy is proposed.From the work reported in this paper it is concluded that it is appropriate to implement OCECSs using axial flow water turbines in the Wallacea region, and that to maximize energy conversion variable speed control approach is selected together with control of mechanism to move the turbine vertically as well as to rotate the turbine in yaw direction. 

  5. A VL-linker-VH Orientation Dependent Single Chain Variable Antibody Fragment Against Rabies Virus G Protein with Enhanced Neutralizing Potency in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yue; Li, Zhuang; Xi, Hualong; Gu, Tiejun; Yuan, Ruosen; Chen, Xiaoxu; Jiang, Chunlai; Kong, Wei; Wu, Yongge

    2016-01-01

    Lethal rabies can be prevented effectively by post-exposure prophylactic (PEP) with rabies immunoglobulin (RIG). Single-chain variable fragment (scFv), which is composed of a variable heavy chain (VH) and variable light chain (VL) connected by a peptide linker, may be developed as alternative to RIG for neutralizing rabies virus (RV). However, our previously constructed scFv (FV57S) with the (NH2) VH-linker-VL (COOH) orientation showed a lower neutralizing potency than its parent RIG. This orientation may inhibit FV57S from refolding into an intact and correct conformation. Therefore, the RFV57S protein with a VL-linker-VH orientation was constructed based on FV57S. A HIS tag was incorporated to aid in purification and detection of RFV57S and FV57S. However, abilities of RFV57S and FV57S to bind with the anti-HIS tag mAb were different. Therefore, a novel direct ELISA was established by utilizing a biotin-labeled truncated glycoprotein of RV. Although with similar stability and in vitro neutralizing potency as FV57S, RFV57S showed enhanced binding ability, affinity and in vivo protective efficacy against lethal dose of RV. Our studies support the feasibility of developing a scFv with reversed orientation and provide a novel method for evaluating the binding ability, stability and affinity of engineered antibodies recognizing linear epitope.

  6. Source, variability, and transformation of nitrate in a regional karst aquifer: Edwards aquifer, central Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musgrove, M; Opsahl, S P; Mahler, B J; Herrington, C; Sample, T L; Banta, J R

    2016-10-15

    Many karst regions are undergoing rapid population growth and expansion of urban land accompanied by increases in wastewater generation and changing patterns of nitrate (NO3(-)) loading to surface and groundwater. We investigate variability and sources of NO3(-) in a regional karst aquifer system, the Edwards aquifer of central Texas. Samples from streams recharging the aquifer, groundwater wells, and springs were collected during 2008-12 from the Barton Springs and San Antonio segments of the Edwards aquifer and analyzed for nitrogen (N) species concentrations and NO3(-) stable isotopes (δ(15)N and δ(18)O). These data were augmented by historical data collected from 1937 to 2007. NO3(-) concentrations and discharge data indicate that short-term variability (days to months) in groundwater NO3(-) concentrations in the Barton Springs segment is controlled by occurrence of individual storms and multi-annual wet-dry cycles, whereas the lack of short-term variability in groundwater in the San Antonio segment indicates the dominance of transport along regional flow paths. In both segments, longer-term increases (years to decades) in NO3(-) concentrations cannot be attributed to hydrologic conditions; rather, isotopic ratios and land-use change indicate that septic systems and land application of treated wastewater might be the source of increased loading of NO3(-). These results highlight the vulnerability of karst aquifers to NO3(-) contamination from urban wastewater. An analysis of N-species loading in recharge and discharge for the Barton Springs segment during 2008-10 indicates an overall mass balance in total N, but recharge contains higher concentrations of organic N and lower concentrations of NO3(-) than does discharge, consistent with nitrification of organic N within the aquifer and consumption of dissolved oxygen. This study demonstrates that subaqueous nitrification of organic N in the aquifer, as opposed to in soils, might be a previously unrecognized

  7. Intraseasonal Variability of the Indian Summer Monsoon in the Regional Climate Model COSMO-CLM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Befort, Daniel J.; Leckebusch, Gregor C.; Cubasch, Ulrich

    2015-04-01

    The regional climate model COSMO-CLM driven by ERA-Interim reanalysis data with a spatial resolution of 55km is used to simulate observed features of the intraseasonal variability of the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) during the period 1979 until 2011. One of these features is the northward propagation of the monsoon intraseasonal oscillations. We find, that the temporal evolution of this oscillation between model and observation is in good agreement, but the strength is less well simulated. Additionally, the models capability to simulate observed dry and wet events on a weekly time scale is investigated using the standardized precipitation index. In general, the model is capable to simulate these events with a similar magnitude at the same time, but we find a higher ability for dry compared to wet events. We hypothesize this is related to differences in the atmospheric circulation during dry and wet events. Analyses show, that dry events are characterized by a cyclonic vortex over India as well as an anti-cyclonic vortex over Pakistan region in 500hPa, whereas wet events are characterized by an anti-cyclonic vortex over India, only. It is found that COSMO-CLM has a higher ability to simulate the observed anomalous circulation over Pakistan region compared to observed anomalous circulation patterns over India. Overall, this study shows that the current configuration of COSMO-CLM is able to simulate key features of the intraseasonal variability of the Indian summer monsoon. Thus, under consideration of its limitations, COSMO-CLM is suitable to investigate possible changes of the intraseasonal variability of ISM under changed climate conditions.

  8. Long-term Radiation Budget Variability in the Northern Eurasian Region: Assessing the Interaction with Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackhouse, P. W.; Soja, A. J.; Zhang, T.; Mikovitz, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    In terms of global change, boreal regions are particularly important, because significant warming and change are already evident and significant future warming is predicted. Mean global air temperature has increased by 0.74°C in the last century, and temperatures are predicted to increase by 1.8°C to 4°C by 2090, depending on the Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) scenario. Some of the greatest temperature increases are currently found in the Northern Eurasian winter and spring, which has led to longer growing seasons, increased potential evapotranspiration and extreme fire weather [Groisman et al., 2007]. In the Siberian Sayan, winter temperatures have already exceeded a 2090 Hadley Centre scenario (HadCM3GGa1) [Soja et al., 2007]. There is evidence of climate-induced change across the circumboreal in terms of increased infestations, alterations in vegetation and increased fire regimes (area burned, fire frequency, severity and number of extreme fire seasons). In this paper, we analyzed long-term surface radiation data sets from the NASA/GEWEX (Global Energy and Water Exchanges) Surface Radiation Budget data products, CERES Surface EBAF and SYN data products and also the available surface radiation measurements in the region. First, we show that during overlap years SRB and CERES data products agree very well in terms of anomalies and we'll use this fact to evaluate 30 years of satellite based estimates of the variability of downwelling SW parameters first corresponding to locations of surface measurements and then for the region as a whole. We also show the observed variability of other SW components such as the net SW and the albedo. Next we assess the variability of the downward and LW fluxes over time and compare these to variability observed in the surface temperature and other meteorological measurements. We assess anomalies on various spatial scales. Finally, we assess the correlation of this variability in specific locations to known fire

  9. Critical regions with central charge c=1/2,7/10,4/5 in the spin-1 quantum chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phase diagramm of the Blume-Emery-Griffiths spin-1-quantum chain is calculated by finite-size scaling with respect to all four parameters. We locate the three-dimensional critical manifold and determine a two-dimensional tricritical surface where the spectra exhibit conformal invariance corresponding to the central charges c=7/10 and 4/5. Choosing one parameter to be zero, we can treat the model analytically and from this the spectrum on a large part of the Ising-like critical region can be understood: there the spectrum consists of conformal c=1/2-levels on which a massive spectrum is superimposed. Calculating three-point functions we study which perturbations by primary fields lead from c=4/5 or c=7/10-critical points to Ising-type regions. (orig.)

  10. Discovery of variable infrared polarization in the star-forming region W33

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discovery of variable NIR polarization in the star-forming region W33C IRS 3 and IRS 1 is reported. The polarization for both of these sources varies on time scales of a few years. For IRS 3, the K polarization ranges from a low of about 1 percent in the late 1970s to about 20 percent in 1985. Between 1985 and 1989, the K polarization of IRS 1 dropped from about 19 percent to about 3 percent. The observed polarization properties and variations of both IRS 1 and IRS 3 can be explained by a clumpy disk in IRS 3. 14 refs

  11. Hydrological response to changing climate conditions: Spatial streamflow variability in the boreal region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teutschbein, Claudia; Grabs, Thomas; Karlsen, Reinert H.; Laudon, Hjalmar; Bishop, Kevin

    2016-04-01

    It has long been recognized that streamflow-generating processes are not only dependent on climatic conditions, but also affected by physical catchment properties such as topography, geology, soils and land cover. We hypothesize that these landscape characteristics do not only lead to highly variable hydrologic behavior of rather similar catchments under the same stationary climate conditions (Karlsen et al., 2014), but that they also play a fundamental role for the sensitivity of a catchment to a changing climate (Teutschbein et al., 2015). A multi-model ensemble based on 15 regional climate models was combined with a multi-catchment approach to explore the hydrologic sensitivity of 14 partially nested and rather similar catchments in Northern Sweden to changing climate conditions and the importance of small-scale spatial variability. Current (1981-2010) and future (2061-2090) streamflow was simulated with the HBV model. As expected, projected increases in temperature and precipitation resulted in increased total available streamflow, with lower spring and summer flows, but substantially higher winter streamflow. Furthermore, significant changes in flow durations with lower chances of both high and low flows can be expected in boreal Sweden in the future. This overall trend in projected streamflow pattern changes was comparable among the analyzed catchments while the magnitude of change differed considerably. This suggests that catchments belonging to the same region can show distinctly different degrees of hydrological responses to the same external climate change signal. We reason that differences in spatially distributed physical catchment properties at smaller scales are not only of great importance for current streamflow behavior, but also play a major role as first-order control for the sensitivity of catchments to changing climate conditions. References Karlsen, R.H., T. Grabs, K. Bishop, H. Laudon, and J. Seibert (2014). Landscape controls on

  12. Observations of regional and local variability in the optical properties of maritime clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, A.B. [Univ. of Colorado at Boulder/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO (United States); Fairall, C.W. [Environmental Technology Lab., Boulder, CO (United States)

    1996-04-01

    White and Fairall (1995) calculated the optical properties of the marine boundary layer (MBL) clouds observed during the Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) and compared their results with the results obtained by Fairall et al. for the MBL clouds observed during the First International Satellite Climatology Program (ISSCP) Regional Experiment (FIRE). They found a factor of two difference in the optical depth versus liquid water relationship that applies to the clouds observed in each case. In the present study, we present evidence to support this difference. We also investigate the local variability exhibited in the ASTEX optical properties using measurements of the boundary layer aerosol concentration.

  13. Simulation of soil moisture for typical plain region using the Variable Infiltration Capacity model

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Z.; Mao, Y.; Lu, G.; Zhang, J.(High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL, USA)

    2015-01-01

    Droughts have a severe impact on the development of the social economy in developed plain areas. Soil moisture is a good index, it can reasonably reflect changes in drought. In this study, Jiangsu province in the Yangtze River Plain was selected as the research region, and the VIC (Variable Infiltration Capacity) large-scale hydrological model was selected to simulate the daily soil moisture with a resolution of 0.125 × 0.125 degree from 1956 to 2009. The simulated soil moisture was verified ...

  14. Generation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes specific for B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia family-shared peptides derived from immunoglobulin heavy chain framework region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ying; ZHU Ping; HU Ya-mei

    2007-01-01

    Background Immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region (IgHV) is a well-characterized tumor antigen for B-cell malignancies. It can function as a target for T cell-mediated immune response. Clinical trials of IgHV protein vaccines against lymphoma have demonstrated induction of tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses. However,complementary determining regions-based individual vaccines have disadvantages for wide clinical application. Although a recent study demonstrated that immunogenic peptides are derived from framework regions (FR) shared among patients with B-cell lymphoma, how to choose the appropriate peptides for each patient is still unsolved. The aim of this study was to investigate whether immunoglobulin heavy chain FR-derived peptides shared in each IgHV family are potential CTL epitopes presented by B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). Such CTL epitopes might be beneficial to shifting vaccination strategies against B-ALL from individual specificity to family specificity.Methods Seven IgHV gene families were amplified respectively by PCR and sequenced directly from 71 childhood B-ALL cases. Bioinformatics was applied in analyzing characteristics of sequences available and predicting HLA-A*0201-restricted CTL epitopes for each IgHV family. An antigen-specific T cell expansion system was used to generate peptide-specific CTLs. The cytotoxicity of CTLs against B-ALL cells was assessed in the lactate dehydrogenase release assay.Results Complete IgHV rearrangements were identified in all of the 71 B-ALL cases. All of 40 sequences available showed ≥98% homology with the nearest germline IgHV genes, indicating IgHV genes in B-ALL of germline nature.Twelve nonapeptides of high HLA-A*0201-binding scores were obtained from 26 productive IgHV protein sequences. Ten (83%) of the peptides were located in FR1 and FR3 shared among the corresponding IgHV family. CTLs specific for the peptide QLVQSGAEV located in FR1 (3-11) shared among the IgHV1

  15. Protein loops, solitons, and side-chain visualization with applications to the left-handed helix region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Martin; Niemi, Antti J; Sha, Fan

    2012-06-01

    Folded proteins have a modular assembly. They are constructed from regular secondary structures like α helices and β strands that are joined together by loops. Here we develop a visualization technique that is adapted to describe this modular structure. In complement to the widely employed Ramachandran plot that is based on toroidal geometry, our approach utilizes the geometry of a two sphere. Unlike the more conventional approaches that describe only a given peptide unit, ours is capable of describing the entire backbone environment including the neighboring peptide units. It maps the positions of each atom to the surface of the two-sphere exactly how these atoms are seen by an observer who is located at the position of the central C_{α} atom. At each level of side-chain atoms we observe a strong correlation between the positioning of the atom and the underlying local secondary structure with very little if any variation between the different amino acids. As a concrete example we analyze the left-handed helix region of nonglycyl amino acids. This region corresponds to an isolated and highly localized residue independent sector in the direction of the C_{β} carbons on the two-sphere. We show that the residue independent localization extends to C_{γ} and C_{δ} carbons and to side-chain oxygen and nitrogen atoms in the case of asparagine and aspartic acid. When we extend the analysis to the side-chain atoms of the neighboring residues, we observe that left-handed β turns display a regular and largely amino acid independent structure that can extend to seven consecutive residues. This collective pattern is due to the presence of a backbone soliton. We show how one can use our visualization techniques to analyze and classify the different solitons in terms of selection rules that we describe in detail.

  16. Aerosol composition and variability in the Baltimore-Washington, DC region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyersdorf, A. J.; Ziemba, L. D.; Chen, G.; Corr, C. A.; Crawford, J. H.; Diskin, G. S.; Moore, R. H.; Thornhill, K. L.; Winstead, E. L.; Anderson, B. E.

    2015-08-01

    In order to utilize satellite-based aerosol measurements for the determination of air quality, the relationship between aerosol optical properties (wavelength-dependent, column-integrated extinction measured by satellites) and mass measurements of aerosol loading (PM2.5 used for air quality monitoring) must be understood. This connection varies with many factors including those specific to the aerosol type, such as composition, size and hygroscopicity, and to the surrounding atmosphere, such as temperature, relative humidity (RH) and altitude, all of which can vary spatially and temporally. During the DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) project, extensive in-situ atmospheric profiling in the Baltimore, MD-Washington, DC region was performed during fourteen flights in July 2011. Identical flight plans and profile locations throughout the project provide meaningful statistics for determining the variability in and correlations between aerosol loading, composition, optical properties and meteorological conditions. Measured water-soluble aerosol mass was composed primarily of ammonium sulfate (campaign average of 32 %) and organics (57 %). A distinct difference in composition was observed with high-loading days having a proportionally larger percentage of ammonium sulfate (up to 49 %) due to transport from the Ohio River Valley. This composition shift caused a change in the aerosol water-uptake potential (hygroscopicity) such that higher relative contributions of ammonium sulfate increased the bulk aerosol hygroscopicity. These days also tended to have higher relative humidity causing an increase in the water content of the aerosol. Conversely, low aerosol loading days had lower ammonium sulfate and higher black carbon contributions causing lower single scattering albedos (SSAs). The average black carbon concentrations were 240 ng m-3 in the lowest 1 km decreasing to 35 ng m-3

  17. Aerosol composition and variability in the Baltimore–Washington, DC region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Beyersdorf

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to utilize satellite-based aerosol measurements for the determination of air quality, the relationship between aerosol optical properties (wavelength-dependent, column-integrated extinction measured by satellites and mass measurements of aerosol loading (PM2.5 used for air quality monitoring must be understood. This connection varies with many factors including those specific to the aerosol type, such as composition, size and hygroscopicity, and to the surrounding atmosphere, such as temperature, relative humidity (RH and altitude, all of which can vary spatially and temporally. During the DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality project, extensive in-situ atmospheric profiling in the Baltimore, MD–Washington, DC region was performed during fourteen flights in July 2011. Identical flight plans and profile locations throughout the project provide meaningful statistics for determining the variability in and correlations between aerosol loading, composition, optical properties and meteorological conditions. Measured water-soluble aerosol mass was composed primarily of ammonium sulfate (campaign average of 32 % and organics (57 %. A distinct difference in composition was observed with high-loading days having a proportionally larger percentage of ammonium sulfate (up to 49 % due to transport from the Ohio River Valley. This composition shift caused a change in the aerosol water-uptake potential (hygroscopicity such that higher relative contributions of ammonium sulfate increased the bulk aerosol hygroscopicity. These days also tended to have higher relative humidity causing an increase in the water content of the aerosol. Conversely, low aerosol loading days had lower ammonium sulfate and higher black carbon contributions causing lower single scattering albedos (SSAs. The average black carbon concentrations were 240 ng m−3 in the lowest 1 km

  18. Precipitation variability, extremes and uncertainties over southeastern Brazil projected by the Eta regional model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Iracema; Silveira, Virginia; Chan, Chou; Marengo, Jose Antonio

    2014-05-01

    Southeastern Brazil is an area affected by extreme precipitation, mainly in the austral summer, associated with frontal systems or the South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ). Flooding and landslides have occurred in the region with serious impact on society and economy. The region has many vulnerable areas, therefore, projections of precipitation and extremes in the future for the region are important to provide information that can be used in adaptations and management decisions. Results of regional models in South America have been analyzed to assess the future climate changes with higher resolution than global models. In this study the Regional Eta model is used with resolution of 40 and 20 Km to analyze the projections of precipitation changes and extremes over Brazil and mainly over the southeastern region. Simulations and projections obtained from four integrations of the Regional Eta model are analyzed to investigate the model behavior during the period of 1961-1990 and the projections in the near (2011 to 2040) and more distant future (2041 to 2100). Results from four integrations with resolution of 40 km with different lateral boundary conditions from the HadCM3 Global Model and one integration with resolution of 20 km are used to give a confidence interval and the related uncertainty. The first analysis was to verify changes in the main mode of precipitation variability in the future projections, compared to the base period. There is a change in the main centers of extremes variability over South America, which was comparable to changes projected in CMIP5 models. The second analysis was related to changes in the position and intensity of the SACZ. Specific locations in southeastern Brazil were analyzed regarding indices of extremes, such as SDII (mean precipitation of rainy days), SDII_10 (mean precipitation of rainy days >=10 mm/day), R10mm (number of days with precipitation >= 10 mm/day), CDD (maximum number of consecutive dry days), CWD (maximum number

  19. Demolition waste generation for development of a regional management chain model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Miguel; Gomes, Marta Castilho; de Brito, Jorge

    2016-03-01

    Even though construction and demolition waste (CDW) is the bulkiest waste stream, its estimation and composition in specific regions still faces major difficulties. Therefore new methods are required especially when it comes to make predictions limited to small areas, such as counties. This paper proposes one such method, which makes use of data collected from real demolition works and statistical information on the geographical area under study. Based on a correlation analysis between the demolition waste estimates and indicators such as population density, buildings ageing index, buildings density and land occupation type, relationships are established that can be used to determine demolition waste outputs in a given area. The derived models are presented and explained. This methodology is independent from the specific region with which it is exemplified (the Lisbon Metropolitan Area) and can therefore be applied to any region of the world, from the country to the county level. Generation of demolition waste data at the county level is the basis of the design of a systemic model for CDW management in a region. Future developments proposed include a mixed-integer linear programming formulation of such recycling network. PMID:26838607

  20. The National Biofuels Strategy - Importance of sustainable feedstock production systems in regional-based supply chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Region-based production systems are needed to produce the feedstocks that will be turned into the biofuels required to meet Federal mandated targets. Executive and Legislative actions have put into motion significant government responses designed to advance the development and production of domestic...

  1. Reproducibility and observer variability of tissue phase mapping for the quantification of regional myocardial velocities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kai; Chowdhary, Varun; Benzuly, Keith H; Yancy, Clyde W; Lomasney, Jon W; Rigolin, Vera H; Anderson, Allen S; Wilcox, Jane; Carr, James; Markl, Michael

    2016-08-01

    To systematically investigate the reproducibility of global and segmental left ventricular (LV) velocities derived from tissue phase mapping (TPM). Breath held and ECG synchronized TPM data (spatial/temporal resolution = 2 × 2 mm(2)/20.8 ms) were acquired in 18 healthy volunteers. To analyze scan-rescan variability, TPM was repeated in all subjects during a second visit separated by 16 ± 5 days. Data analysis included LV segmentation, and quantification of global and regional (AHA 16-segment modal) metrics of LV function [velocity-time curves, systolic and diastolic peak and time-to-peak (TTP) velocities] for radial (Vr), long-axis (Vz) and circumferential (VΦ) LV velocities. Mean velocity time curves in basal, mid-ventricular, and apical locations showed highly similar LV motion patterns for all three velocity components (Vr, VΦ, Vz) for scan and rescan. No significant differences for both systolic and diastolic peak and TTP myocardial velocities were observed. Segmental analysis revealed similar regional peak Vr and Vz during both systole and diastole except for three LV segments (p = 0.045, p = 0.033, and p = 0.009). Excellent (p TPM based analysis of global and regional myocardial velocities can be performed with good reproducibility. Robustness of regional quantification of long-axis velocities was limited but spatial velocity distributions across the LV could reliably be replicated. PMID:27116238

  2. Interannual variability in rainy season characteristics over the Limpopo region of southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reason, C. J. C.; Hachigonta, S.; Phaladi, R. F.

    2005-11-01

    This study focuses on the interannual variability of dry spell frequencies, dry and wet spell characteristics and onset dates of the austral summer rainy season over the Limpopo region (22-25 °S, 27-32 °E) of northern South Africa. These characteristics of the rainy season are of considerable interest to farmers, water resource managers and other user groups. The Limpopo region supports a large rural population dependent on rain-fed agriculture as well as significant biodiversity, particularly in the Kruger National/Limpopo Transfrontier Park. It is also a region prone to devastating floods and droughts. Evidence is presented that summer dry spell frequency and onset date are related to ENSO via changes in regional circulation. Niño 3.4 sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies appear to show a robust relationship with dry spell frequency during the 1979-2002 period analysed. Anomalies in onset date of the rainy season during 1979-2002 appear to be inversely related to Niño 3.4 SST, with the relationship strengthening after 1986. These results suggest that there may be some predictability in these parameters, particularly in dry spell frequency during austral summer, based on existing skill in predicting tropical Pacific SST. Copyright

  3. Assessing the impact of regional rainfall variability on rapid pesticide leaching potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Gavan; Hinz, Christoph; Sivapalan, Murugesu

    2010-04-01

    The timing and magnitude of rainfall events are known to be dominant controls on pesticide migration into streams and groundwater, by triggering rapid flow processes, such as preferential flow and surface runoff. A better understanding of how regional differences in rainfall impact rapid leaching risk is required in order to match the scale at which water regulation occurs. We estimated the potential amount of rapid leaching, and the frequencies of these events in a case study of the southwest of Western Australia, for one soil type and a range of linearly sorbing, first order degrading chemicals. At the regional scale, those chemicals with moderate sorption and long half lives were the most susceptible to rapid transport within a year of application. Within the region, this susceptibility varied depending upon application time and seasonality in storm patterns. Those chemicals and areas with a high potential for rapid transport on average, also experience the greatest inter-annual variability in rapid leaching, as measured by the coefficient of variation. The timing and frequencies of rapid leaching events appeared to strongly relate to an area's relative susceptibility to rapid leaching. In the study region the results also suggested that frontal rainfall dominates rapid leaching along the western and southern coasts while convective thunderstorms play a greater role in the arid east. PMID:20079952

  4. Climate Variability, Andean Livelihood Strategies, Development and Adaptation in the Andean Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivia, C.; Quiroz, R.; Zorogastua, P.; Baigorrea, G.

    2002-05-01

    Development programs in the Andes have failed to recognize climate variability as an element that is crucial to the adoption of new alternatives. Dairy, potatoes, improved sheep, forages are all part of the history of development in this region. A combination of climate variability, changes in the economy, the political environment, and land tenure reform shape rural livelihoods and welfare. Diversification, linking to markets, and networking are some elements that contribute to the resilience of families in the Andes. Strategies change, are flexible, and may incorporate non-agricultural activities. While some farmers are able to improve their welfare through the life cycle, others become poorer. Climate variability increases the vulnerability of some groups; in other cases, because of diversification and assets, households build economic portfolios that are more resilient to the elements. The many projects provide insights into how in the long run households improve their environment, hinting at mechanisms to adapt to climate change. In order to understand changing composition of portfolios in future scenarios of spatial heterogeneous areas such as mountains (Andes), estimates of models predicting climate change at a global scale are not useful because their resolution. Therefore, downscaling tools are useful. Spatial heterogeneity is assessed through agroecozoning. Both production and the impact on some environmental indicators are simulated through process-based models, for the Ilave-Huenque watershed in Peru that help in discussing scenarios of adaptation.

  5. An X-ray variable absorber within the Broad Line Region in Fairall 51

    CERN Document Server

    Svoboda, Jiri; Guainazzi, Matteo; Longinotti, Anna Lia; Piconcelli, Enrico; Wilms, Joern

    2015-01-01

    Fairall 51 is a polar-scattered Seyfert 1 galaxy, a type of active galaxies believed to represent a bridge between unobscured type-1 and obscured type-2 objects. Fairall 51 has shown complex and variable X-ray absorption but only little is known about its origin. In our research, we observed Fairall 51 with the X-ray satellite Suzaku in order to constrain a characteristic time-scale of its variability. We performed timing and spectral analysis of four observations separated by 1.5, 2 and 5.5 day intervals. We found that the 0.5-50 keV broadband X-ray spectra are dominated by a primary power-law emission (with the photon index ~ 2). This emission is affected by at least three absorbers with different ionisations (log(xi) ~ 1-4). The spectrum is further shaped by a reprocessed emission, possibly coming from two regions -- the accretion disc and a more distant scattering region. The accretion disc emission is smeared by the relativistic effects, from which we measured the spin of the black hole as a ~ 0.8 (+-0.2...

  6. Impacts of Present and Future Climate Variability on Agriculture and Forestry in the Temperate Regions. Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agriculture and forestry will be particularly sensitive to changes in mean climate and climate variability in the northern and southern regions of Europe. Agriculture may be positively affected by climate change in the northern areas through the introduction of new crop species and varieties, higher crop production and expansion of suitable areas for crop cultivation. The disadvantages may be determined by an increase in need for plant protection, risk of nutrient leaching and accelerated breakdown of soil organic matter. In the southern areas the benefits of the projected climate change will be limited, while the disadvantages will be predominant. The increased water use efficiency caused by increasing CO2 will compensate for some of the negative effects of increasing water limitation and extreme weather events, but lower harvestable yields, higher yield variability and reduction in suitable areas of traditional crops are expected for these areas. Forestry in the Mediterranean region may be mainly affected by increases in drought and forest fires. In northern Europe, the increased precipitation is expected to be large enough to compensate for the increased evapotranspiration. On the other hand, however, increased precipitation, cloudiness and rain days and the reduced duration of snow cover and soil frost may negatively affect forest work and timber logging determining lower profitability of forest production and a decrease in recreational possibilities. Adaptation management strategies should be introduced, as effective tools, to reduce the negative impacts of climate change on agricultural and forestry sectors

  7. Late Holocene climate variability in the southwestern Mediterranean region: an integrated marine and terrestrial geochemical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Martín-Puertas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A combination of marine (Alboran Sea cores, ODP 976 and TTR 300 G and terrestrial (Zoñar Lake, Andalucia, Spain geochemical proxies provides a high-resolution reconstruction of climate variability and human influence in the southwestern Mediterranean region for the last 4000 years at inter-centennial resolution. Proxies respond to changes in precipitation rather than temperature alone. Our combined terrestrial and marine archive documents a succession of dry and wet periods coherent with the North Atlantic climate signal. A dry period occurred prior to 2.7 cal ka BP – synchronously to the global aridity crisis of the third-millennium BC – and during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (1.4–0.7 cal ka BP. Wetter conditions prevailed from 2.7 to 1.4 cal ka BP. Hydrological signatures during the Little Ice Age are highly variable but consistent with more humidity than the Medieval Climate Anomaly. Additionally, Pb anomalies in sediments at the end of the Bronze Age suggest anthropogenic pollution earlier than the Roman Empire development in the Iberian Peninsula. The Late Holocene climate evolution of the in the study area confirms the see-saw pattern between the eastern and western Mediterranean regions and the higher influence of the North Atlantic dynamics in the western Mediterranean.

  8. Assessment of Impacts of Climate Variability on Crop Yield over the Terai Region of Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subedi, S.; Acharya, A.

    2015-12-01

    Agricultural sector in Nepal which alone contributes about 42 % of the total GDP have a huge influence on national economy. This sector is very much susceptible to climate change. This study is emphasized on Terai region (situated at an altitude of 60m to 300m) of Nepal which investigates the impacts of climate variability on various stages of cropping (paddy) periods such as transplant, maturity and harvest. The climate variables namely temperature and rainfall are used to explore the relationship between climate and paddy yields based on 30 years of historical observed data. Observed monthly rainfall and temperature data are collected from the department of hydrology and meteorology, and paddy yield data are collected from the Ministry of Agricultural Development. A correlation analysis will be carried out between the backward difference filtered climate parameters and the backward difference filtered rice yield. This study will also analyze average monthly and annual rainfall, and, min, max and mean temperature during the period of 1981-2010 based on 15 synoptic stations of Nepal. This study will visualize rainfall and temperature distribution over Nepal, and also evaluate the effect of change in rainfall and temperature in the paddy yield. While evaluating the impacts of climate on crop yield, this study will not consider the impact of irrigation in crop yield. The major results, climate distribution and its local/regional impacts on agriculture, could be utilized by planners, decision makers, and climate and agricultural scientists as a basis in formulating/implementing future plans, policies and projects.

  9. Remote influences on freshwater flux variability in the Atlantic warm pool region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liping; Wang, Chunzai

    2012-10-01

    The understanding of freshwater flux variability is both scientifically and socially important. Local freshwater flux response to a large Atlantic warm pool (AWP) is excessive freshwater or negative Evaporation minus Precipitation (EmP) anomalies, whereas the response is deficient to a small AWP. However, the EmP anomalies in the AWP region are also influenced by the SST anomalies in the tropical eastern Pacific and in the tropical South Atlantic. These remote influences operate through the inter-basin mode represented by the SST gradient between the tropical North Atlantic and eastern Pacific and the Atlantic meridional mode (AMM) defined as the SST gradient between the tropical North and South Atlantic. When either of these two modes is in the negative phase, the EmP and sea surface salinity anomalies in the AWP region can be positive although the AWP is large. This indicates that the remote influences of the inter-basin mode and/or the AMM can overwhelm the local effect and induce an opposite freshwater response. Additionally, although ENSO and the AMM sometimes coincide with AWP variability, an El Niño in the preceding winter or a positive AMM in the spring does not necessarily follow a large AWP in the summer.

  10. Immunoglobulin variable region hypermutation is associated with a DNA repair deficit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The molecular mechanism of Ig variable region hypermutation is unknown, but has been hypothesized to involve an error-prone DNA repair process. In this study, the authors used a novel PCR-based assay to compare repair of UV-induced DNA damage in mantle zone versus germinal center B lymphocytes. They observed that DNA repair activity within rearranged VDJ loci was sluggish in germinal center B lymphocytes compared to repair activity monitored in mantle zone B lymphocytes. In contrast, DNA repair times within the germline VH5 gene family, the variable region JH endash CH intron, and the N-ras gene was rapid and similar in both germinal center and mantle zone B cells. These results reflect a DNA repair deficit which, as expected for hypermutation, is selective for rearranged Ig VDG in germinal center cells. To directly measure the fidelity of DNA repair, the repaired PCR-amplified gene segments were analyzed for sequence changes by restriction enzyme digestion. In experiments thus far, repair of germline VH5 was error-free in both germinal center and mantle zone B cells. However, while rearranged VH5 segments were also error-free in mantle zone cells, they were highly mutated in germinal center cells. These findings provide direct biochemical evidence for the role of a sequence- and stage-specific error-prone DNA repair pathway in Ig V gene hypermutation

  11. Typing and surface charges of the variable loop regions of PorB from Neisseria meningitidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanelli, Paola; Neri, Arianna; Tanabe, Mikio; Fazio, Cecilia; Massari, Paola

    2016-06-01

    PorB is a pan-Neisserial major outer membrane protein with a trimeric β-barrel structure. Each monomer presents eight periplasmic turns and eight surface exposed loop regions with sequence variability. PorB induces activation of host cell responses via a TLR2-dependent mechanism likely mediated by electrostatic interactions between TLR2 and PorB surface exposed loops. Variability in the loop amino acid sequence is known to influence cell responses to PorB in vitro, particularly for the residues in L5 and L7. In this work, the sequence of the porB gene and the electrostatic surface charges of PorB from 35 invasive meningococcal isolates belonging to the main clonal complexes identified in Italy and from five carriage genomes available on the website http://pubmlst.org/neisseria/ were examined. Analysis of the porB encoding regions from the invasive meningococci has identified four new alleles and a potential association between porB alleles, serogroup, and clonal complexes. Through computer-based modeling and analysis of the electrostatic surface charges of PorB from these strains, loop charge segregation between PorB from invasive serogroups B and C was observed. Specifically, loops 1, 4, and 7 were negatively charged and L2 and L8 were mostly neutral in serogroup B isolates, while an overall homogeneous positive surface charge was present in PorB from invasive serogroup C strains. A higher PorB sequence variability was observed among carriage genomes, and a general prevalence of negative loop surface charges. The surface charge differences in PorB from serogroups B and C invasive and carriage strains may, in part, influence the outcomes of Neisseriae interactions with host cells. © 2016 IUBMB Life, 68(6):488-495, 2016. PMID:27156582

  12. Regional variability of acidification in the Arctic: a sea of contrasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Popova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic Ocean is a region that is particularly vulnerable to the impact of ocean acidification driven by rising atmospheric CO2, with potentially negative consequences for calcifying organisms such as coccolithophorids and foraminiferans. In this study, we use an ocean-only general circulation model, with embedded biogeochemistry and a comprehensive description of the ocean carbon cycle, to study the response of pH and saturation states of calcite and aragonite to rising atmospheric pCO2 and changing climate in the Arctic Ocean. Particular attention is paid to the strong regional variability within the Arctic, and, for comparison, simulation results are contrasted with those for the global ocean. Simulations were run to year 2099 using the RCP8.5 (an Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC Fifth Assessment Report (AR5 scenario with the highest concentrations of atmospheric CO2. The separate impacts of the direct increase in atmospheric CO2 and indirect effects via impact of climate change (changing temperature, stratification, primary production and freshwater fluxes were examined by undertaking two simulations, one with the full system and the other in which atmospheric CO2 was prevented from increasing beyond its preindustrial level (year 1860. Results indicate that the impact of climate change, and spatial heterogeneity thereof, plays a strong role in the declines in pH and carbonate saturation (Ω seen in the Arctic. The central Arctic, Canadian Arctic Archipelago and Baffin Bay show greatest rates of acidification and Ω decline as a result of melting sea ice. In contrast, areas affected by Atlantic inflow including the Greenland Sea and outer shelves of the Barents, Kara and Laptev seas, had minimal decreases in pH and Ω because diminishing ice cover led to greater vertical mixing and primary production. As a consequence, the projected onset of undersaturation in respect to aragonite is highly variable regionally within the

  13. Intensification of the regional scale variability of extreme precipitation derived from RCM simulations and observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmann, H.; Schädler, G.; Panitz, H.-J.

    2012-04-01

    Future climate change patterns are usually derived from ensembles of coarse global climate model simulations (GCMs), for instance within the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) or from regional climate projections at resolutions of some tens of km, for instance for Europe from the ENSEMBLES or PRUDENCE projects. For regions with complex topography like Central Europe the horizontal resolution of these climate projections is still too coarse to resolve the typical topographical length scales, and therefore the impact of the large scale changes with the regional geography cannot be captured adequately. For this task high resolution ensemble simulations with regional climate models (RCMs) are needed. The generation of an ensemble of such high resolution simulations requires great computational efforts. With the RCM COSMO-CLM several simulations with resolutions down to 7 km have been performed, using different driving GCMs and GCM realisations. This ensemble approach is needed to estimate the robustness of the change signals and to account for the uncertainties introduced by differences in the large scale forcing due to the variability of the climate change signals caused by the different GCMs or the natural variability. The focus of the study is on the changes of extreme precipitation for the near future until the middle of the 21st century. An increase of the temporal and spatial variability is found for the precipitation extremes, especially for summer. The change patterns seem to be statistically robust. Based on long-term observation climatologies for the second half of the 20th century, similar structures where found with areas of decrease and increase only a few tens of kilometres apart from each other. The combination of the findings from the RCM projections and observations suggests a continuation of the trends from the recent past into the near future. Possible causes for the horizontally heterogeneous change patterns are related to weather pattern

  14. Effects of regional infrastructure and offered services in the supply chains performance: Case Ciudad Juarez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Avelar-Sosa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta un análisis de los efectos que tienen la infraestructura regional y los servicios en el desempeño de la cadena de suministro en empresas manufactureras de Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, México. Para colectar la información se aplicaron cuestionarios a 120 empresas, y para obtener un modelo de ecuaciones estructurales explicativo de los efectos se utilizó la metodología de mínimos cuadrados parciales usando WarpPLS 3.0. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que cuando existe buen nivel en la infraestructura regional se tienen impactos positivos sobre los servicios logísticos; y éstos a su vez impactan en los costos. Asimismo, la infraestructura regional tiene impactos positivos sobre el tiempo de entrega de los productos. Con relación al nivel de infraestructura (transporte, telecomunicaciones, internet y de servicios (aéreos, terrestres, financieros, legales en Ciudad Juárez, los encuestados lo consideran bueno por lo que las entregas de producto han sido completas y a tiempo en los últimos 3 años.

  15. The preferential codon usages in variable and constant regions of immunoglobulin genes are quite distinct from each other.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, T; Hayashida, H; Yasunaga, T; Hasegawa, M

    1979-12-20

    The pattern of codon utilization in the variable and constant regions of immunoglobulin genes are compared. It is shown that, in these regions, codon utilizations are quite distinct from one another: For most degenerate codons, there is a selective bias that prefers C and/or G ending codons to U and/or A ending codons in the constant region compared with the bias in the variable region. This would strongly suggest that, in immunoglobulin genes, the bias in code word usage is determined by other factors than those concerning with the translational mechanism such as tRNA availability and codon-anticodon interaction. A possibility is also suggested that this differance of code word usage between them is due to the existence of secondary structure in the constant region but not in the variable region.

  16. Climate Variability is Influencing Agricultural Expansion and Output in a Key Agricultural Region of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spera, S. A.; Cohn, A.; VanWey, L.; Mustard, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    Over the last decade, the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso has both expanded and intensified its agricultural production to become the country's leading producer of soy, corn, and cotton. Yet this increase in agricultural production may be threatened due to changes in the region's climate stemming from deforestation caused by the agricultural expansion itself. The sensitivity of Mato Grosso's agriculture to climate variability has important implications for both climate change mitigation and climate adaptation. The vast bulk of research on the drivers of land use change in the region has examined economic and institutional drivers. Leveraging a novel remote sensing-derived dataset classifying shifts between single (cultivating one commercial crop per growing season) and double cropping (cultivating two commercial crops per growing season), we investigated the influence of climate variability on land use change during the period 2000 to 2011. Over the past decade, over half of Mato Grosso's farm area transitioned from single cropping to double cropping. We used regression analysis (controlling for space and time fixed effects) to show monthly rainfall, monthly temperature, agricultural commodity prices, and agricultural revenue to be the main drivers of adoption of double cropping and reversion to single cropping in the region. The influence of climate varies as much as five orders of magnitude across these outcomes, with both temperature and precipitation exhibiting the largest climatic influence on the transition from single to double cropping. Temperature consistently proves to be more important, explaining three times more of the variance than precipitation for each outcome. Months at the beginning of a given first crop season, the end of that first crop season, and middle of the subsequent second crop season are particularly important for planting decisions in the subsequent growing year. Fitting our land transition models using remote-sensing derived

  17. The Global Monsoon across Time Scales: is there coherent variability of regional monsoons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P. X.; Wang, B.; Cheng, H.; Fasullo, J.; Guo, Z. T.; Kiefer, T.; Liu, Z. Y.

    2014-05-01

    Monsoon has earned increasing attention from the climate community since the last century, yet only recently regional monsoons have been recognized as a global system. It remains a debated issue, however, as to what extent and at which time scales the global monsoon can be viewed as a major mode of climate variability. For this purpose a PAGES Working Group (WG) was set up to investigate the concept of the global monsoon and its future research directions. The WG's synthesis is presented here. On the basis of observation and proxy data, the WG found that the regional monsoons can vary coherently, although not perfectly, at various time scales, ranging from interannual, interdecadal, centennial and millennial, up to orbital and tectonics time scales, conforming the global monsoon concept across time scales. Within the global monsoon system each subsystem has its own features depending on its geographic and topographic conditions. Discrimination of global and regional components in the monsoon system is a key to reveal the driving factors of monsoon variations, hence the global monsoon concept helps to enhance our understanding and to improve future projection of the regional monsoons. This paper starts with a historical review of the global monsoon concept in both modern and paleo-climatology, and an assessment of monsoon proxies used in regional and global scales. The main body of the paper is devoted to a summary of observation data at various time scales, providing evidence for the coherent global monsoon system. The paper concludes with a projection of future monsoon shifts into a warming world. The synthesis will be followed by a companying paper to discuss driving mechanisms and outstanding issues in the global monsoon studies.

  18. Intraseasonal variability of organized convective systems in the Central Andes: Relationship to Regional Dynamical Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, K. I.; Slayback, D. A.; Nicholls, S.; Yager, K.

    2013-12-01

    The Andes extend from the west coast of Colombia (10N) to the southern tip of Chile (53S). In southern Peru and Bolivia, the Central Andes is split into separate eastern and western cordilleras, with a high plateau (≥ 3000 m), the Altiplano, between them. Because 90% of the Earth's tropical mountain glaciers are located in the Central Andes, our study focuses on this region, defining its zonal extent as 7S-21S and the meridional extent as the terrain 1000 m and greater. Although intense convection occurs during the wet season in the Altiplano, it is not included in the lists of regions with frequent or the most intense convection. The scarcity of in-situ observations with sufficient density and temporal resolution to resolve individual storms or even mesoscale-organized cloud systems and documented biases in microwave-based rainfall products in poorly gauged mountainous regions have impeded the development of an extensive literature on convection and convective systems in this region. With the tropical glaciers receding at unprecedented rates, leaving seasonal precipitation as an increasingly important input to the water balance in alpine valley ecosystems and streams, understanding the nature and characteristics of the seasonal precipitation becomes increasingly important for the rural economies in this region. Previous work in analyzing precipitation in the Central Andes has emphasized interannual variability with respect to ENSO, this is the first study to focus on shorter scale variability with respect to organized convection. The present study took advantage of the University of Utah's Precipitation Features database compiled from 14 years of TRMM observations (1998-2012), supplemented by field observations of rainfall and streamflow, historical gauge data, and long-term WRF-simulations, to analyze the intraseasonal variability of precipitating systems and their relationship regional dynamical features such as the Bolivian High. Through time series and

  19. A Study of Precipitation Climatology and Its Variability over Europe Using an Advanced Regional Model (WRF)

    KAUST Repository

    Dasari, Hari Prasad

    2015-03-06

    In recent years long-term precipitation trends on a regional scale have been given emphasis due to the impacts of global warming on regional hydrology. In this study, regional precipitation trends are simulated over the Europe continent for a 60-year period in 1950-2010 using an advanced regional model, WRF, to study extreme precipitation events over Europe. The model runs continuously for each year during the period at a horizontal resolution of 25 km with initial/ boundary conditions derived from the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) 2.5 degree reanalysis data sets. The E-OBS 0.25 degree rainfall observation analysis is used for model validation. Results indicate that the model could reproduce the spatial annual rainfall pattern over Europe with low amounts (250 - 750 mm) in Iberian Peninsula, moderate to large amounts (750 - 1500 mm) in central, eastern and northeastern parts of Europe and extremely heavy falls (1500 - 2000 mm) in hilly areas of Alps with a slight overestimation in Alps and underestimation in other parts of Europe. The regional model integrations showed increasing errors (mean absolute errors) and decreasing correlations with increasing time scale (daily to seasonal). Rainfall is simulated relatively better in Iberian Peninsula, northwest and central parts of Europe. A large spatial variability with the highest number of wet days over eastern, central Europe and Alps (~200 days/year) and less number of wet days over Iberian Peninsula (≤150 days/year) is also found in agreement with observations. The model could simulate the spatial rainfall climate variability reasonably well with low rainfall days (1 - 10 mm/days) in almost all zones, heavy rainfall events in western, northern, southeastern hilly and coastal zones and extremely heavy rainfall events in northern coastal zones. An increasing trend of heavy rainfall in central, southern and southeastern parts, a decreasing trend in Iberian Peninsula and a steady trend in other

  20. Spatial and temporal variability of rainfall in the Tocantins-Araguaia hydrographic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauber Epifanio Loureiro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Current paper examines the space-time dynamics of yearly rainfall of the Tocantins-Araguaia Hydrographic Region (TAHR, foregrounded on rainfall volume from isohyet maps and interpolated by Kriging geo-statistical method.  Rainfall space dynamics was undertaken by the analysis of descriptive statistics, Index of Meteorological Irregularity (IMI and Variation Coefficient. Temporal dynamics was analyzed through the distribution of total annual volume precipitation for each TAHR sub-basin by the Standardized Anomaly Index, trend and magnitude test provided by Mann-Kendall and Sen Tests. Results correlated with meteorological anomalies of the Atlantic (Dipole and Pacific (ENOS Oceans show a highly heterogeneous rainfall behavior with temporal variability. Or rather, a decrease of rainfall extensiveness during years of intense meteorological anomaly with a rainfall increase south of the High Tocantins and Araguaia sub-basins and a decrease of rainfall in the Lower Tocantins sub-basin, with El Niño features. Although the Mann-Kendall test does not show statistically a significant trend for rainfall in the TAHR region, Sen’s estimator reveals a decrease in rainfall in the High Tocantins (-1.24 km³ year-1 and Araguaia (-1.13 km³ year-1 sub-basins and a rainfall increase in the Lower Tocantins sub-basin (0.53 km³ year-1 and in the TAHR region (-1.5 km³ year-1.

  1. Source, variability, and transformation of nitrate in a regional karst aquifer: Edwards aquifer, central Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musgrove, Marylynn; Opsahl, Stephen P.; Mahler, Barbara J.; Herrington, Chris; Sample, Thomas; Banta, John (Ryan)

    2016-01-01

    Many karst regions are undergoing rapid population growth and expansion of urban land accompanied by increases in wastewater generation and changing patterns of nitrate (NO3−) loading to surface and groundwater. We investigate variability and sources of NO3− in a regional karst aquifer system, the Edwards aquifer of central Texas. Samples from streams recharging the aquifer, groundwater wells, and springs were collected during 2008–12 from the Barton Springs and San Antonio segments of the Edwards aquifer and analyzed for nitrogen (N) species concentrations and NO3− stable isotopes (δ15N and δ18O). These data were augmented by historical data collected from 1937 to 2007. NO3− concentrations and discharge data indicate that short-term variability (days to months) in groundwater NO3− concentrations in the Barton Springs segment is controlled by occurrence of individual storms and multi-annual wet-dry cycles, whereas the lack of short-term variability in groundwater in the San Antonio segment indicates the dominance of transport along regional flow paths. In both segments, longer-term increases (years to decades) in NO3− concentrations cannot be attributed to hydrologic conditions; rather, isotopic ratios and land-use change indicate that septic systems and land application of treated wastewater might be the source of increased loading of NO3−. These results highlight the vulnerability of karst aquifers to NO3− contamination from urban wastewater. An analysis of N-species loading in recharge and discharge for the Barton Springs segment during 2008–10 indicates an overall mass balance in total N, but recharge contains higher concentrations of organic N and lower concentrations of NO3−than does discharge, consistent with nitrification of organic N within the aquifer and consumption of dissolved oxygen. This study demonstrates that subaqueous nitrification of organic N in the aquifer, as opposed to in soils, might be a previously

  2. The properties of tests for spatial effects in discrete Markov chain models of regional income distribution dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Sergio J.; Kang, Wei; Wolf, Levi

    2016-10-01

    Discrete Markov chain models (DMCs) have been widely applied to the study of regional income distribution dynamics and convergence. This popularity reflects the rich body of DMC theory on the one hand and the ability of this framework to provide insights on the internal and external properties of regional income distribution dynamics on the other. In this paper we examine the properties of tests for spatial effects in DMC models of regional distribution dynamics. We do so through a series of Monte Carlo simulations designed to examine the size, power and robustness of tests for spatial heterogeneity and spatial dependence in transitional dynamics. This requires that we specify a data generating process for not only the null, but also alternatives when spatial heterogeneity or spatial dependence is present in the transitional dynamics. We are not aware of any work which has examined these types of data generating processes in the spatial distribution dynamics literature. Results indicate that tests for spatial heterogeneity and spatial dependence display good power for the presence of spatial effects. However, tests for spatial heterogeneity are not robust to the presence of strong spatial dependence, while tests for spatial dependence are sensitive to the spatial configuration of heterogeneity. When the spatial configuration can be considered random, dependence tests are robust to the dynamic spatial heterogeneity, but not so to the process mean heterogeneity when the difference in process means is large relative to the variance of the time series.

  3. An analysis of the variables that provide a supply chain with sustainable competitiveness An analysis of the variables that provide a supply chain with sustainable competitiveness Análisis de las variables que proporcionan una competitividad sostenible de la cadena de suministro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A.D. Machuca

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: An agile, adaptable and aligned (Triple A supply chain (SC would seem to be key to obtaining sustainable competitive advantages. Little previous research has been done into the topic, however, and there are even discrepancies on the conceptual level. For this reason this study aims to propose a reference framework to determine the dimensions and factors that define agility, adaptability and alignment in the SC and to facilitate both the evaluation of its state by managers and researchers with respect to these variables and also the development of empirical research that determines its impact on performance.Design/methodology: A systematic literature review was carried out of specialist Operations Management, Logistics, Management and Supply Chain Management journals using the ProQuest (Abi/Inform Global database. The articles retrieved were examined and those that were relevant for this study were selected. Using these, a qualitative analysis was done that led to the proposed goal being achieved. Findings: This study sets out the definitions, dimensions and factors of the three variables and groups them together for the first time, thus providing a solid conceptual frame. Although the number of articles that analyse one or other of the variables is growing, it is still low. Agility is the variable on which most research has been done, while adaptability is the least analysed.Research limitations/implications: A theoretical reference framework is proposed for the Triple A in the SC based on earlier studies which do not discuss the joint effect of three variables, as a result of which there is no tested theoretical base. The model will be analysed empirically in future research.Originality/value: The lack of papers on agility, adaptability and alignment in the supply chain and the lack of a consensus regarding the dimensions and factors to define them reveal a need for studies such as this. Normal 0 21 false false false Microsoft

  4. Satellite observations of seasonal and regional variability of particulate organic carbon concentration in the Barents Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stramska, Malgorzata; Białogrodzka, Jagoda

    2016-04-01

    The Nordic and Barents Seas are of special interest for research on climate change, since they are located on the main pathway of the heat transported from low to high latitudes. Barents Sea is known to be an important area for formation of deep water and significant uptake from the atmosphere and sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2). This region is characterized by supreme phytoplankton blooms and large amount of carbon is sequestered here due to biological processes. It is important to monitor the biological variability in this region in order to derive in depth understanding whether the size of carbon reservoirs and fluxes may vary as a result of climate change. In this presentation we analyze the 17 years (1998-2014) of particulate organic carbon (POC) concentration derived from remotely sensed ocean color. POC concentrations in the Barents Sea are among the highest observed in the global ocean with monthly mean concentrations in May exceeding 300 mg m-3. The seasonal amplitude of POC concentration in this region is larger when compared to other regions in the global ocean. Our results indicate that the seasonal increase in POC concentration is observed earlier in the year and higher concentrations are reached in the southeastern part of the Barents Sea in comparison to the southwestern part. Satellite data indicate that POC concentrations in the southern part of the Barents Sea tend to decrease in recent years, but longer time series of data are needed to confirm this observation. This work was funded by the Norway Grants (NCBR contract No. 201985, project NORDFLUX). Partial support for MS comes from the Institute of Oceanology (IO PAN).

  5. Intraindividual Variability and Association of Human Collateral Supply to Different Arterial Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoller, Michael; Seiler, Christian

    2016-02-15

    The intraindividual variability and association of human collateral functional supply to different arterial regions is unknown. The primary study end point was collateral flow index (CFI) as obtained in the coronary artery (CA), renal artery (RA), left superficial femoral artery (SFA), and left subclavian artery (SCA) of the same individual. CFI is the ratio between simultaneously recorded mean arterial occlusive pressure divided by mean aortic pressure both subtracted by mean central venous pressure. In 100 patients admitted for diagnostic coronary angiography, CFI was assessed in 3 arterial regions (CA, RA, and SFA), 13 patients underwent CFI measurements in all 4 territories. By quantitative coronary angiography, 82 patients had a stenosis <50% in diameter in the CA who underwent CFI measurement. CFI in the CA, RA, left SFA, and left SCA region amounted to 0.110 ± 0.093, 0.119 ± 0.082, 0.512 ± 0.147, and 0.563 ± 0.155, respectively (p <0.0001). There was a direct and linear correlation between CA and SFA CFI: CFI_SFA = 0.47 + 0.47CFI_CA (r(2) = 0.05; p = 0.0259). In patients with CFI values in all 4 arterial regions, an inverse linear relation between left SFA and left SCA CFI was observed: CFI_SCA = 0.91-0.67CFI_SFA (r(2) = 0.36; p = 0.0305). In conclusion, intraindividual, preexistent collateral function is widely varying between different arterial supply areas. On average, collateral flow ranges from approximately 12% in comparison to flow during arterial patency in the coronary and renal circulation to over 50% in the left SFA and left SCA, that is, circle of Willi's territory. CA and SFA CFIs are directly related to each other. PMID:26772443

  6. Transport of multiple tracers in variably saturated humid region structured soils and semi-arid region laminated sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, M. A.; Jardine, P. M.; Mehlhorn, T. L.; Bjornstad, B. N.; Ladd, J. L.; Zachara, J. M.

    2003-05-01

    The processes governing physical nonequilibrium (PNE)—coupled preferential flow and matrix diffusion—are diverse between humid and semi-arid regions, and are directly related to climate and rock/sediment type, and indirectly related to subsequent soil profile development. The fate and transport of contaminants in these variably saturated undisturbed media is largely a function of the influence of PNE processes. Large cores of laminated silts and sands were collected from the US Department of Energy Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in semi-arid south central Washington. Additional cores of weathered, fractured interbedded limestone and shale saprolite were collected from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in humid eastern Tennessee. PNNL cores were collected parallel (FBP) and perpendicular (FXB) to bedding, and the ORNL core was 30° to bedding. Saturated and unsaturated transport experiments were performed using multiple nonreactive tracers that had different diffusion coefficients (Br -, PFBA, and PIPES), in order to identify the influence of PNE on the fate and transport of solutes. In the ORNL structured saprolite, solute transport was governed by coupled preferential flow and matrix diffusion, as evidenced by tracer separation and highly asymmetric breakthrough curves (BTC). BTCs became more symmetric as preferential flowpaths became inactive during drainage. Tracer separation persisted during unsaturated flow suggesting the continued importance of nonequilibrium mass transfer between flowpaths and the immobile water that was held in the soil matrix. No evidence of PNE was observed under near-saturated conditions in the semi-arid region (PNNL) laminated silts and sands. Unsaturated flow in cores with discontinuous layering resulted in preferential flow and the development of perched, immobile water as evidenced by early breakthrough and separation of tracers. Conversely, transport parallel to laterally continuous beds did not result in

  7. Seasonal variability as a source of uncertainty in the West Siberian regional CH4 flux upscaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study compares seasonal and spatial variations in methane fluxes as sources of uncertainty in regional CH4 flux upscaling from the wetlands of West Siberia. The study examined variability in summertime CH4 emissions from boreal peatlands, with a focus on two subtaiga fen sites in the southern part of West Siberia (Novosibirskaya oblast). We measured CH4 flux, water table depth, air and peat temperature, pH and electric conductivity of peat water during three field campaigns in summer 2011 (9–12 July, 26–28 July and 20–21 August). Fluxes were measured with static chambers at sites chosen to represent two of the most widespread types of wetlands for this climatic zone: soligenous poor fens and topogenous fens. In both sites the water table level acts as the primary control on fluxes. For the poor fen site with good drainage, water table controls CH4 fluxes on the seasonal scale but not on a local spatial scale; for the fen site with weak drainage and microtopographic relief, the water table controls fluxes on the local spatial scale, but does not drive seasonal variations in the flux magnitude. This difference in hydrology shows the necessity of including detailed wetland type classification schemes into large-scale modeling efforts. From these three measurement periods, we estimated the relative seasonal variation in CH4 emissions as 8% for the fen site and 26% for the poor fen site. These results were compared to estimates of other sources of uncertainty (such as interannual variation and spatial heterogeneity) to show that quantifying seasonal variability is less critical than these other variations for an improved estimate of regional CH4 fluxes. This research demonstrates and ranks the challenges in upscaling measured wetland CH4 fluxes across West Siberia and can guide future field campaigns. (paper)

  8. Phenotypic variability and heritability of the cephalic region of Caiman latirostris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhoff, Carolina; Giri, Federico; Siroski, Pablo; Amavet, Patricia

    2016-03-01

    The study of the cephalic shape of crocodilian is relevant in the fields of ecology, systematics, evolution, and conservation. Therefore, the integration of geometric analysis within quantitative genetics allows the evaluation of the inheritable shape components. In this study, the dorsal cephalic region of 210 Caiman latirostris hatchlings was analyzed from seven populations in Santa Fe, Argentina, to detect intra-, and inter-population phenotypic variability, and to determine the heritability of biological shape and size, using newly available geometric morphometric tools. The principal component analysis showed two configurations of cephalic shape that could be related to sexual dimorphism. In the canonical variate analysis, Procrustes distances between groups indicated that there are differences in shape among populations. Furthermore, the method of partial least squares indicated a covariation between cephalic shape and environmental variables. Regarding to CS of the skull we found significant differences among populations, moreover the partial least squares was also significant. Estimates of the heritability of shape and size were high, indicating that the components of these features are susceptible to the selection. PMID:26682625

  9. Deciphering the importance of the palindromic architecture of the immunoglobulin heavy-chain 3' regulatory region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saintamand, Alexis; Vincent-Fabert, Christelle; Garot, Armand; Rouaud, Pauline; Oruc, Zeliha; Magnone, Virginie; Cogné, Michel; Denizot, Yves

    2016-02-17

    The IgH 3' regulatory region (3'RR) controls class switch recombination (CSR) and somatic hypermutation (SHM) in B cells. The mouse 3'RR contains four enhancer elements with hs1,2 flanked by inverted repeated sequences and the centre of a 25-kb palindrome bounded by two hs3 enhancer inverted copies (hs3a and hs3b). hs4 lies downstream of the palindrome. In mammals, evolution maintained this unique palindromic arrangement, suggesting that it is functionally significant. Here we report that deconstructing the palindromic IgH 3'RR strongly affects its function even when enhancers are preserved. CSR and IgH transcription appear to be poorly dependent on the 3'RR architecture and it is more or less preserved, provided 3'RR enhancers are present. By contrast, a 'palindromic effect' significantly lowers VH germline transcription, AID recruitment and SHM. In conclusion, this work indicates that the IgH 3'RR does not simply pile up enhancer units but also optimally exposes them into a functional architecture of crucial importance.

  10. Deciphering the importance of the palindromic architecture of the immunoglobulin heavy-chain 3' regulatory region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saintamand, Alexis; Vincent-Fabert, Christelle; Garot, Armand; Rouaud, Pauline; Oruc, Zeliha; Magnone, Virginie; Cogné, Michel; Denizot, Yves

    2016-01-01

    The IgH 3' regulatory region (3'RR) controls class switch recombination (CSR) and somatic hypermutation (SHM) in B cells. The mouse 3'RR contains four enhancer elements with hs1,2 flanked by inverted repeated sequences and the centre of a 25-kb palindrome bounded by two hs3 enhancer inverted copies (hs3a and hs3b). hs4 lies downstream of the palindrome. In mammals, evolution maintained this unique palindromic arrangement, suggesting that it is functionally significant. Here we report that deconstructing the palindromic IgH 3'RR strongly affects its function even when enhancers are preserved. CSR and IgH transcription appear to be poorly dependent on the 3'RR architecture and it is more or less preserved, provided 3'RR enhancers are present. By contrast, a 'palindromic effect' significantly lowers VH germline transcription, AID recruitment and SHM. In conclusion, this work indicates that the IgH 3'RR does not simply pile up enhancer units but also optimally exposes them into a functional architecture of crucial importance. PMID:26883548

  11. ANALYSIS AND PLANNING OF REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT - CONTEXTUAL VARIABLES TO DEVELOP A MODEL FOR MONITORING FINANCIAL INDICATORS AT REGIONAL LEVEL

    OpenAIRE

    CRIS TINA GRADEA

    2013-01-01

    Application of quantitative techniques in regional analysis can provide an understanding of both the change in time of regional economic performance and the interdependencies between economic sectors, including the use of projections to test the potential future development of the region. Qualitative techniques allow also the explanation of the reason for regional development patterns occurring in a region and the improvement of analysts' ability to reflect on the results and economic opportu...

  12. Cost and time models for the evaluation of intermodal chains by using short sea shipping in the North Sea Region: the Rosyth-Zeebrugge route

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez, Alba Martínez; Kronbak, Jacob; Jiang, Liping

    2015-01-01

    This paper is framed in the context of the EU Interreg IVB North Sea Region project Food Port. In line with this project, this paper aims to define mathematically cost and time models able to provide realistic information about the performances of road haulage and of intermodal chains using short...... for the success of intermodal chains using the Rosyth-Zeebrugge route. The results obtained validate the utility of the models and they suggest possible changes to the current operation of this SSS service in order to increase the marked potential possibilities for the intermodal chains through Rosyth-Zeebrugge....

  13. Dynamic changes in binding of immunoglobulin heavy chain 3' regulatory region to protein factors during class switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Sanjukta; Ju, Zhongliang; Hassan, Rabih; Volpi, Sabrina A; Emelyanov, Alexander V; Birshtein, Barbara K

    2011-08-19

    The 3' regulatory region (3' RR) of the Igh locus works at long distances on variable region (V(H)) and switch region (I) region promoters to initiate germ line (non-coding) transcription (GT) and promote class switch recombination (CSR). The 3' RR contains multiple elements, including enhancers (hs3a, hs1.2, hs3b, and hs4) and a proposed insulator region containing CTCF (CCCTC-binding factor) binding sites, i.e. hs5/6/7 and the downstream region ("38"). Notably, deletion of each individual enhancer (hs3a-hs4) has no significant phenotypic consequence, suggesting that the 3' RR has considerable structural flexibility in its function. To better understand how the 3' RR functions, we identified transcription factor binding sites and used chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays to monitor their occupancy in splenic B cells that initiate GT and undergo CSR (LPS±IL4), are deficient in GT and CSR (p50(-/-)), or do not undergo CSR despite efficient GT (anti-IgM+IL4). Like 3' RR enhancers, hs5-7 and the 38 region were observed to contain multiple Pax5 binding sites (in addition to multiple CTCF sites). We found that the Pax5 binding profile to the 3' RR dynamically changed during CSR independent of the specific isotype to which switching was induced, and binding focused on hs1.2, hs4, and hs7. CTCF-associated and CTCF-independent cohesin interactions were also identified. Our observations are consistent with a scaffold model in which a platform of active protein complexes capable of facilitating GT and CSR can be formed by varying constellations of 3' RR elements.

  14. Causal Chains Arising from Climate Change in Mountain Regions: the Core Program of the Mountain Research Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, G. B.

    2014-12-01

    Mountains are a widespread terrestrial feature, covering from 12 to 24 percent of the world's terrestrial surface, depending of the definition. Topographic relief is central to the definition of mountains, to the benefits and costs accruing to society and to the cascade of changes expected from climate change. Mountains capture and store water, particularly important in arid regions and in all areas for energy production. In temperate and boreal regions, mountains have a great range in population densities, from empty to urban, while tropical mountains are often densely settled and farmed. Mountain regions contain a wide range of habitats, important for biodiversity, and for primary, secondary and tertiary sectors of the economy. Climate change interacts with this relief and consequent diversity. Elevation itself may accentuate warming (elevationi dependent warming) in some mountain regions. Even average warming starts complex chains of causality that reverberate through the diverse social ecological mountain systems affecting both the highlands and adjacent lowlands. A single feature of climate change such as higher snow lines affect the climate through albedo, the water cycle through changes in timing of release , water quality through the weathering of newly exposed material, geomorphology through enhanced erosion, plant communities through changes in climatic water balance, and animal and human communities through changes in habitat conditions and resource availabilities. Understanding these causal changes presents a particular interdisciplinary challenge to researchers, from assessing the existence and magnitude of elevation dependent warming and monitoring the full suite of changes within the social ecological system to climate change, to understanding how social ecological systems respond through individual and institutional behavior with repercussions on the long-term sustainability of these systems.

  15. Aquifer response to regional climate variability in a part of Kashmir Himalaya in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeelani, Gh

    2008-12-01

    Forty major perennial springs, under different lithological controls, in a part of Kashmir Himalaya in India were studied to understand the response of spring discharges to regional climate variability. The average monthly spring discharge is high in Triassic Limestone-controlled springs (karst springs) and low in alluvium- and Karewa-controlled springs. In general, the measured monthly spring discharges show an inverse relation with the monthly precipitation data. However, a direct correlation exists between the spring discharges and the degree of snow/ice melt. The results suggest that the creation of a low and continuous (but stable) recharge from the Triassic Limestone and Panjal Trap aquifers, due to blockage of groundwater flow between strata with contrasting hydraulic conductivity, attenuates the discharge and gives rise to small fluctuations in the alluvium- and Karewa-controlled springs. The average monthly discharge of the karst and alluvial springs showed an overall decreasing trend for two and a half decades, with the lowest discharge recorded in 2001. The study revealed that the regional/global warming and below-normal precipitation in the period of snow accumulation (PSA) has triggered the receding of glaciers and attenuation of spring discharges.

  16. Climate variability as reflected in a regional atmospheric CO2 record

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyses a 15-year long atmospheric CO2 mixing ratio record measured at a mid-continental, low-elevation station (Hegyhatsal, Hungary) to reveal the effect of regional climate variability. While the long-term trend and the temporal fluctuation of the growth rate of CO2 mixing ratio follow the global tendencies to a large extent, the shorter-term variations show special features. We present the distorted seasonal cycle caused by the seasonality in the atmospheric vertical mixing and the tendentious change in its shape, which can be attributed to the gradual warming and to the resulted prolongation of the growing season. The decreasing summer diurnal amplitude and the decreasing seasonal amplitude in the mixing ratio, furthermore the higher than average summer CO2 mixing ratio growth rate in the first period of the measurements (1994-2003) with generally rising temperature and decreasing precipitation are explained as the consequence of the reduced activity of the biosphere in the influence area of the station and that of the reduced biomass under environmental conditions getting increasingly unfavourable. The explanation is supported by the co-located tall tower surface-atmosphere CO2 exchange measurements and by the crop yield statistics of the dominantly agricultural region around the station.

  17. Assessing Regional Scale Variability in Extreme Value Statistics Under Altered Climate Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunsell, Nathaniel [University of Kansas; Mechem, David [University of Kansas; Ma, Chunsheng [Wichita State University

    2015-02-20

    Recent studies have suggested that low-frequency modes of climate variability can significantly influence regional climate. The climatology associated with extreme events has been shown to be particularly sensitive. This has profound implications for droughts, heat waves, and food production. We propose to examine regional climate simulations conducted over the continental United States by applying a recently developed technique which combines wavelet multi–resolution analysis with information theory metrics. This research is motivated by two fundamental questions concerning the spatial and temporal structure of extreme events. These questions are 1) what temporal scales of the extreme value distributions are most sensitive to alteration by low-frequency climate forcings and 2) what is the nature of the spatial structure of variation in these timescales? The primary objective is to assess to what extent information theory metrics can be useful in characterizing the nature of extreme weather phenomena. Specifically, we hypothesize that (1) changes in the nature of extreme events will impact the temporal probability density functions and that information theory metrics will be sensitive these changes and (2) via a wavelet multi–resolution analysis, we will be able to characterize the relative contribution of different timescales on the stochastic nature of extreme events. In order to address these hypotheses, we propose a unique combination of an established regional climate modeling approach and advanced statistical techniques to assess the effects of low-frequency modes on climate extremes over North America. The behavior of climate extremes in RCM simulations for the 20th century will be compared with statistics calculated from the United States Historical Climatology Network (USHCN) and simulations from the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP). This effort will serve to establish the baseline behavior of climate extremes, the

  18. Regional groundwater flow in the Atikokan research area : spatially variable density and viscosity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In modelling the regional groundwater flow at the Atikokan Research Area (ARA), it was anticipated that fluid viscosity might vary significantly as a function of total dissolved solids (TDS) because pore fluids range from fresh through brackish and saline waters to brines. An empirical fluid viscosity-solute concentration equation adopted from Robinson and Stokes was modified and used to estimate viscosity from field-observed TDS. A molecular weight of 53.65 g and a temperature dependent Di coefficient of 0.1223 were estimated from groundwater chemistry data and used in the viscosity calculations. The calculated viscosities fell in the expected range in comparison with experimental values derived for sodium chloride solutions. Results of initial groundwater flow simulations in the ARA using the MOTIF finite-element code were found to be inconsistent with expectations. Employing hypothetical 'unit basin' models and accounting for concentration in the viscosity equation yielded results that are consistent with expected buoyancy effects. The influence of solute concentration must be considered in calculating both fluid density and viscosity for accurate simulation of variable density flow in an environment like the ARA. Simulations of groundwater flow for the ARA suggest that both flow directions and magnitudes should be simultaneously considered during model calibration. Simulations were also performed to assess the effects of varying the vertical boundary conditions, and to test the hypothesis that deep flow in the ARA may be regionally continuous and isolated from shallow -local systems. Hydrostatic-pressure boundary conditions. based on a fluid density distribution, were specified to allow horizontal inflow and outflow at the vertical boundaries which modified the flow pattern only in their proximities, and no continuous regional flow system was produced. Groundwater flow in the ARA may be analyzed with no-flow vertical boundary conditions. (author). 28 refs., 7

  19. Variability of trace gas concentrations over Asian region: satellite observations vs model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheel, Varun; Richter, Andreas; Srivastava, Shuchita; Lal, Shyam

    2012-07-01

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO_2) and Carbon Monoxide (CO) play a key role in the chemistry of the tropospheric ozone and are emitted mainly by anthropogenic processes. These emissions have been increasing over Asia over the past few years due to rapid economic growth and yet there are very few systematic ground based observations of these species over this region. We have analysed ten years of data from space borne instruments: Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME), SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY) and Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT), which have been measuring the tropospheric abundance of these trace gases. We have examined trends over the period 1996-2008 in NO_2 and CO over a few Indian regions where high economic growth in the present decade is likely to see increased emissions for these species. However, even the highest growth rate of these species seen in the present study, is less when compared with similar polluted regions of China, where a much more rapid increase has been observed. In order to understand the trends and variability in atmospheric trace gas concentrations, one must take into account changes in emissions and transport. Only by assessing the relevance of each of these factors will it be possible to predict future changes with reasonable confidence. To this effect we have used a global chemical transport model, MOZART, to simulate concentrations of NO_2 and CO using the POET (European) and REAS (Asian) emission inventories. These are compared with satellite measurements to study seasonal variations and the discrepancies are discussed. The combined uncertainties of the emission inventory and retrieval of the satellite data could be contributing factors to the discrepancies. It may be thus worthwhile to develop emission inventories for India at a higher resolution to include local level activity data.

  20. The Effect of Regional Climate Variability on Outbreak of Bartonellosis Epidemics in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jia-Yu; Lau, K.-M.; Laughlin, Larry W.; Masuoka, Penny M.; Andre, Richard G.; Chamberlin, Judith; Lawyer, Phillip; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Bartonellosis is a vector-borne, highly fatal, emerging infectious disease, which has been known in the Peruvian Andes since the early 1600s and has continued to be a problem in many mountain valleys in Peru and other Andean South American countries. The causative bacterium, Bartonella bacilliformis (Bb), is believed to be transmitted to humans by bites of the sand fly Lutzomyia verrucarum. According to available medical records, the transmission of infection often occurs in river valleys of the Andes Mountains at an altitude between 800 and 3500 meters above sea level. It shows a seasonal pattern, which usually begins to rise in December, peaks in February and March, and is at its lowest from July until November. The epidemics of bartonellosis also vary interannually, occurring every four to eight years, and appear to be associated with the El Nino cycle. In response to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) announcement on climate variability and human health, which was constructed to stimulate integrated multidisciplinary research in the area of climate variability and health interactions, we have conducted a study to investigate the relationship between the El Nino induced regional climate variation and the outbreak of bartonellosis epidemics in Peru. Two test sites, Caraz and Cusco, were selected for this study. According to reports, Caraz has a long-standing history of endemic transmission and Cusco, which is located about five degrees poleward of Caraz, had no recorded epidemics until the most recent 1997/1998 El Nino event. The goal of this study is to clarify the relative importance of climatic risk factors for each area that could be predicted in advance, thus allowing implementation of cost-effective control measures, which would reduce disease morbidity and mortality.

  1. Adaptation of rainfed agriculture to climatic variability in the Mixteca Alta Region of Oaxaca, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogé, P.; Friedman, A. R.; Astier, M.; Altieri, M.

    2015-12-01

    The traditional management systems of the Mixteca Alta Region of Oaxaca, Mexico offer historical lessons about resilience to climatic variability. We interviewed small farmers to inquire about the dynamics of abandonment and persistence of a traditional management systems. We interpret farmers' narratives from a perspective of general agroecological resilience. In addition, we facilitated workshops in small farmers described their adaptation to past climate challenges and identified 14 indicators that they subsequently used to evaluate the condition of their agroecosystems. The most recent years presented increasingly extreme climatic and socioeconomic hardships: increased temperatures, delayed rainy seasons, reduced capacity of soils to retain soil moisture, changing cultural norms, and reduced rural labor. Farmers reported that their cropping systems were changing for multiple reasons: more drought, later rainfall onset, decreased rural labor, and introduced labor-saving technologies. Examination of climate data found that farmers' climate narratives were largely consistent with the observational record. There have been increases in temperature and rainfall intensity, and an increase in rainfall seasonality that may be perceived as later rainfall onset. Farmers ranked landscape-scale indicators as more marginal than farmer management or soil quality indicators. From this analysis, farmers proposed strategies to improve the ability of their agroecosystems to cope with climatic variability. Notably, they recognized that social organizing and education are required for landscape-level indicators to be improved. Transformative change is required to develop novel cropping systems and complementary activities to agriculture that will allow for farming to be sustained in the face of these challenges. Climate change adaptation by small farmers involves much more than just a set of farming practices, but also community action to tackle collective problems.

  2. Regions of variable DNA methylation in human placenta associated with newborn neurobehavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, Alison G; Houseman, E Andres; Green, Benjamin B; Lesseur, Corina; Armstrong, David A; Lester, Barry; Marsit, Carmen J

    2016-08-01

    The placenta regulates the in utero environment and functionally impacts fetal development. Candidate gene studies identified variation in placental DNA methylation is associated with newborn neurologic and behavioral outcomes including movement quality, lethargic behavior, attention, and arousal. We sought to identify novel regions of variable DNA methylation associated with newborn attention, lethargy, quality of movement, and arousal by performing an epigenome-wide association study in 335 infants from a US birth cohort. Methylation status was quantified using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array and associations to newborn outcomes assessed by the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scales (NNNS) were identified while incorporating established bioinformatics algorithms to control for confounding by cell type composition. Methylation of CpGs within FHIT (cg15970800) and ANKRD11 (cg16710656) demonstrated genome-wide significance (P < 1.8 × 10(-7)) in specific associations with infant attention. CpGs whose differential methylation was associated with all 4 neurobehavioral outcomes were common to 50 genes involved in biological processes relating to cellular adhesion and nervous system development. Comprehensive methylation profiling identified relationships between methylation of FHIT and ANKRD11, which have been previously linked to neurodevelopment and behavioral outcomes in genetic association studies. Subtle changes in DNA methylation of these genes within the placenta may impact normal variation of a newborn's ability to alter and track visual and auditory stimuli. Gene ontology analysis suggested that those genes with variable methylation related to these outcomes are over-represented in biological pathways involved in brain development and placental physiology, supportive of our hypothesis for a key role of the placenta in neurobehavioral outcomes. PMID:27366929

  3. Modeling South America regional smoke plume: aerosol optical depth variability and shortwave surface forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosário, N. E.; Longo, K. M.; Freitas, S. R.; Yamasoe, M. A.; Fonseca, R. M.

    2012-07-01

    Intra-seasonal variability of smoke aerosol optical depth (AOD) and downwelling solar irradiance at the surface during the 2002 biomass burning season in South America was modeled using the Coupled Chemistry-Aerosol-Tracer Transport model to the Brazilian developments on the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (CCATT-BRAMS). Measurements of AOD from the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) and solar irradiance at the surface from the Solar Radiation Network (SolRad-NET) were used to evaluate model results. In general, the major features associated with AOD evolution over the southern part of the Amazon Basin and cerrado ecosystem are captured by the model. The main discrepancies were found for high aerosol loading events. In the northeastern portion of the Amazon Basin the model systematically underestimated AOD. This is likely due to the cloudy nature of the region, preventing accurate detection of the fire spots used in the emission model. Moreover, measured AOD were very often close to background conditions and emissions other than smoke were not considered in the simulation. Therefore, under the background scenario, one would expect the model to underestimate AOD. The issue of high aerosol loading events in the southern part of the Amazon and cerrado is also discussed in the context of emission shortcomings. The Cuiabá cerrado site was the only one where the highest quality AERONET data were unavailable. Thus, lower quality data were used. Root-mean-square-error (RMSE) between the model and observations decreased from 0.48 to 0.17 when extreme AOD events (AOD550 nm ≥ 1.0) and Cuiabá were excluded from analysis. Downward surface solar irradiance comparisons also followed similar trends when extremes AOD were excluded. This highlights the need to improve the modelling of the regional smoke plume in order to enhance the accuracy of the radiative energy budget. Aerosol optical model based on the mean intensive properties of smoke from the southern part of the

  4. Singular vector decomposition of the internal variability of the Canadian Regional Climate Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaconescu, Emilia Paula; Laprise, Rene [University of Quebec at Montreal (UQAM), Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Canadian Network for Regional Climate Modelling and Diagnostics, P.O. Box 8888, Montreal, QC (Canada); Centre ESCER (Etude et Simulation du Climat a l' Echelle Regionale), Montreal, QC (Canada); Zadra, Ayrton [University of Quebec at Montreal (UQAM), Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Canadian Network for Regional Climate Modelling and Diagnostics, P.O. Box 8888, Montreal, QC (Canada); Environment Canada, Meteorological Research Division, Montreal, QC (Canada); Centre ESCER (Etude et Simulation du Climat a l' Echelle Regionale), Montreal, QC (Canada)

    2012-03-15

    Previous studies have shown that Regional Climate Models (RCM) internal variability (IV) fluctuates in time depending on synoptic events. This study focuses on the physical understanding of episodes with rapid growth of IV. An ensemble of 21 simulations, differing only in their initial conditions, was run over North America using version 5 of the Canadian RCM (CRCM). The IV is quantified in terms of energy of CRCM perturbations with respect to a reference simulation. The working hypothesis is that IV is arising through rapidly growing perturbations developed in dynamically unstable regions. If indeed IV is triggered by the growth of unstable perturbations, a large proportion of the CRCM perturbations must project onto the most unstable singular vectors (SVs). A set of ten SVs was computed to identify the orthogonal set of perturbations that provide the maximum growth with respect to the dry total-energy norm during the course of the CRCM ensemble of simulations. CRCM perturbations were then projected onto the subspace of SVs. The analysis of one episode of rapid growth of IV is presented in detail. It is shown that a large part of the IV growth is explained by initially small-amplitude unstable perturbations represented by the ten leading SVs, the SV subspace accounting for over 70% of the CRCM IV growth in 36 h. The projection on the leading SV at final time is greater than the projection on the remaining SVs and there is a high similarity between the CRCM perturbations and the leading SV after 24-36 h tangent-linear model integration. The vertical structure of perturbations revealed that the baroclinic conversion is the dominant process in IV growth for this particular episode. (orig.)

  5. Dissolved Organic Matter in Headwater Streams: Compositional Variability across Climatic Regions of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffé, R.; Yamashita, Y.; Maie, N.; Cooper, W. T.; Dittmar, T.; Dodds, W. K.; Jones, J. B.; Myoshi, T.; Ortiz-Zayas, J. R.; Podgorski, D. C.; Watanabe, A.

    2012-10-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) represents the largest organic matter pool in freshwater systems, but much of it remains molecularly uncharacterized. Although freshwater systems cover only a small area of the earth's surface, inland waters are an important component of the global carbon cycle. The traditional idea that rivers are simply conduits for refractory carbon delivery to coastal areas is inconsistent with carbon flux estimates, and streams have been shown to serve as reactors for DOM cycling. The overall quality of DOM, and its associated reactivity, can be related to its chemical composition and molecular structure. However, the variability of DOM composition in freshwater ecosystems, particularly in headwater streams, is poorly characterized. Detailed molecular studies of DOM from small streams across climatic regions, which could provide critical information regarding carbon dynamics on a more global scale, have not been performed. To address these issues, this study applies a multi-method analytical approach in an attempt to assess molecular characteristics of DOM and ultrafiltered DOM (UDOM) in headwater streams from different climatic regions in North America. In general terms the chemical and molecular characteristics of UDOM from six different biomes were determined in unsurpassed detail to feature some clear general similarities but also specific differences. While the degree of similarity is remarkable, and suggests similar source strengths, such as soil-derived organic matter and/or similar diagenetic degradation processes for DOM from vastly different environments, each sample was clearly unique in its overall composition, featuring some distinct molecular patterns for at least one or more of the analytical determinations. Molecular and compositional differences of DOM from headwater streams should result from variations in DOM sources and localized environmental conditions, and consequently feature different photo- and bio-reactivity and

  6. Variability on the Hypoxic Conditions in the Northwestern Region of the Baja California Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustos-Serrano, H.

    2015-12-01

    The NW region of the Baja California peninsula in México is dominated by the California Current System (CCS). Dissolved oxygen (DO) is a key variable in water bodies because it is considered as a health in biological processes. Hypoxic conditions (DO 60 to 120 μmol kg-1) occur naturally in large areas of the ocean. In the Eastern Pacific, the DO can be altered by eutrophication, derived from anthropogenic activity, especially in shallow and enclosed seas. Fluctuations in the conditions of hypoxia zones may have significant ecological and economic impact. It is of interest in assessing whether hypoxic conditions in the vicinity of Bahia de Todos Santos (BTS) and Coronado Islands in México are altered by anthropogenic activity (Figs. 1 and 2 respectively). For the present study, we worked with data collected from oceanographic expeditions during the period October 2010 to June 2015. The DO was determined using a CTD (SBE Model 25) and by sea water collection with hydrographic bottles using a modification of the Winkler method. The signs of hypoxia are evident in the area near BTS and in the vicinity of Coronado´s Islands, mainly on locations between the Todos Santos Islands and the peninsula of Punta Banda, which shows that the hypoxic zone begins to occur in shallow water between 50-200 m depth. This particular area corresponds to the point where the Mexican Navy determined as a site for dredging materials from the ports of Ensenada and El Sauzal, it is possible that the anthropogenic activity alters the natural conditions of hypoxia in the area to enlarge. In June 2012 for the first time in that region we obtained sediment samples below 700 m depth, which are mixed terrigenous clastic and oceanic sediments.

  7. Airborne mineral components and trace metals in Paris region: spatial and temporal variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulakis, E; Theodosi, C; Bressi, M; Sciare, J; Ghersi, V; Mihalopoulos, N

    2015-10-01

    A variety of mineral components (Al, Fe) and trace metals (V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb) were simultaneously measured in PM2.5 and PM10 fractions at three different locations (traffic, urban, and suburban) in the Greater Paris Area (GPA) on a daily basis throughout a year. Mineral species and trace metal levels measured in both fractions are in agreement with those reported in the literature and below the thresholds defined by the European guidelines for toxic metals (Cd, Ni, Pb). Size distribution between PM2.5 and PM10 fractions revealed that mineral components prevail in the coarse mode, while trace metals are mainly confined in the fine one. Enrichment factor analysis, statistical analysis, and seasonal variability suggest that elements such as Mn, Cr, Zn, Fe, and Cu are attributed to traffic, V and Ni to oil combustion while Cd and Pb to industrial activities with regional origin. Meteorological parameters such as rain, boundary layer height (BLH), and air mass origin were found to significantly influence element concentrations. Periods with high frequency of northern and eastern air masses (from high populated and industrialized areas) are characterized by high metal concentrations. Finally, inner city and traffic emissions were also evaluated in PM2.5 fraction. Significant contributions (>50 %) were measured in the traffic site for Mn, Fe, Cr, Zn, and Cu, confirming that vehicle emissions contribute significantly to their levels, while in the urban site, the lower contributions (18 to 33 %) for all measured metals highlight the influence of regional sources on their levels.

  8. Assessment of sequence variability in a p23 gene region within and among three genotypes of the Theileria orientalis complex from south-eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Piyumali K; Gasser, Robin B; Jabbar, Abdul

    2015-03-01

    Oriental theileriosis is a tick-borne, protozoan disease of cattle caused by one or more genotypes of Theileria orientalis complex. In this study, we assessed sequence variability in a region of the 23kDa piroplasm membrane protein (p23) gene within and among three T. orientalis genotypes (designated buffeli, chitose and ikeda) in south-eastern Australia. Genomic DNA (n=100) was extracted from blood of infected cattle from various locations endemic for oriental theileriosis and tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-coupled mutation scanning (single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP)) and targeted sequencing analysis. Eight distinct sequences represented all DNA samples, and three genotypes were found: buffeli (n=3), chitose (3) and ikeda (2). Nucleotide pairwise comparisons among these eight sequences revealed considerably higher variability among the genotypes (6.6-11.7%) than within them (0-1.9%), indicating that the p23 gene region allows the accurate identification of T. orientalis genotypes. In the future, we will combine this gene with other molecular markers to study the genetic structure of T. orientalis populations in Australasia, which will pave the way to establish a highly sensitive and specific PCR-based assay for genotypic diagnosis of infection and for assessing levels of parasitaemia in cattle.

  9. Spatial variability of 137Cs in the soil of Belgrade region (Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković-Mandić Ljiljana J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Among radionuclides in the soil deposited after Chernobyl accident, 137Cs poses considerable environmental and radiological problems because of its relatively long half-life (30.17 y, its abundance in the fallout, high mobility and similarity to potassium as the major plant nutrient. In this study the samples of undisturbed surface soil (n=250 were taken from 70 regions in Belgrade, during 2006-2010. The specific activities of 137Cs were measured by gamma-ray spectrometry. Based on obtained results external effective dose rates were calculated according to the internationally accepted activity to dose rate conversion equations. The specific activities of 137Cs were geographically mapped. The presence of 137Cs has been detected in all soil samples, with high variability of its specific activity, ranging from 3 Bq kg-1 to 87 Bq kg-1. The mean specific activity of 137Cs was 23 Bq kg-1 and the corresponding absorbed dose was 1.5 nSv h-1. The observed range reflects the inhomogeneity of the deposition process following the Chernobyl accident. It could also be attributed to topographic differences and spatial differences in physicochemical and biological soil properties, soil type and vegetation cover. The results of the present study could be valuable database for future estimations of the impact of radioactive pollution.

  10. Mitochondrial Control Region Variability in Mytilus galloprovincialis Populations from the Central-Eastern Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis A. Giantsis

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The variable domain 1 (VD1 domain of the control region and a small segment of the rrnaL gene of the F mtDNA type were sequenced and analyzed in 174 specimens of Mytilus galloprovincialis. Samples were collected from eight locations in four Central-Eastern (CE Mediterranean countries (Italy, Croatia, Greece and Turkey. A new primer, specific for the F mtDNA type, was designed for the sequencing procedure. In total 40 different haplotypes were recorded, 24 of which were unique. Aside from the two populations situated in Thermaikos gulf (Northern Aegean, Greece, relatively high levels of haplotype and nucleotide diversity were estimated for both Central and Eastern Mediterranean populations. Eight out of the 40 haplotypes were shared by at least three populations while two of them were found in all populations. ΦST and cluster analysis revealed lack of structuring among CE Mediterranean populations with the exception of those located at the Sea of Marmara and Croatian coast which were highly differentiated. Apart from the species’ inherit dispersal ability, anthropogenic activities, such as the repeated translocations of mussel spat, seem to have played an important role in shaping the current genetic population structure of CE M. galloprovincialis mussels.

  11. Structural characteristics of the variable regions of immunoglobulin genes encoding a pathogenic autoantibody in murine lupus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, B P; Ebling, F M; Roman, C; Panosian-Sahakian, N; Calame, K; Hahn, B H

    1990-02-01

    We have studied several monoclonal anti-double-stranded (ds) DNA antibodies for their ability to accelerate lupus nephritis in young NZB X NZW F1 female mice and to induce it in BALB/c mice. Two identified as pathogens in both strains have characteristics previously associated with nephritogenicity: expression of IgG2a isotype and IdGN2 idiotype. Both pathogenic antibodies used the combination of genes from the VHJ558 and VK9 subfamilies. Two weak pathogens failed to accelerate nephritis in young BW mice, but induced lupus nephritis in BALB/c mice. They both express IdGN2; one is cationic and an IgG3, the other is an IgG2a. Additional MAbs (some IgG2a, one IdGN2-positive) did not accelerate or induce nephritis. We have cloned and sequenced the variable regions of the immunoglobulin genes of one pathogenic autoantibody. No unique V, D, or J gene segments and no evidence of unusual mechanisms in generating diversity were used to construct this antibody. These data argue against use of unique abnormal Ig genes by systemic lupus erythematosus individuals to construct pathogenic autoantibody subsets. Instead, the major abnormality may be immunoregulatory.

  12. A green supply chain network design model for enhancing competitiveness and sustainability of companies in high north arctic regions

    OpenAIRE

    Hao Yu, Wei Deng Solvang, Chen Chen

    2014-01-01

    To survive in today’s competitive and ever-changing marketplace, companies need not only to engage in their products and/or services, but also to focus on the management of the whole supply chain. Effectively managing and balancing the profitability and interconnection of each player in the supply chain will improve the overall supply chain surplus as well as individual profit. However, it is extremely difficult to simultaneously optimize several objectives in design and planning of a supply ...

  13. Orders Of Healthier Children's Items Remain High More Than Two Years After Menu Changes At A Regional Restaurant Chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzman-Frasca, Stephanie; Mueller, Megan P; Lynskey, Vanessa M; Harelick, Linda; Economos, Christina D

    2015-11-01

    In a previous study we showed that customers ordered healthier food following the April 2012 implementation of a healthier children's menu at Silver Diner, a regional restaurant chain. In this study we used newly available data to assess orders of children's menu items both one and two years after our last assessment. Previous assessments took place in September 2011-March 2012 and in September 2012-March 2013, before and after implementation of the new menu, respectively. Orders were abstracted from the restaurant's central database. We found that the overarching changes from the previous study were sustained during the two follow-up periods, with some small fluctuations (for example, the prevalence of healthy side dish orders changed from 38 percent of children's meals ordered to 74 percent, then 76 percent, and then 75 percent in the successive study periods). Ordering patterns at follow-up remained healthier than before the menu change and in some cases continued to improve. Similar interventions have the potential to promote sustainable healthier ordering patterns and inform policy. PMID:26526246

  14. Mutation in the B chain coding region is associated with impaired proinsulin conversion in a family with hyperproinsulinemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A family has recently been described in which hyperproinsulinemia is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern, suggesting a structural abnormality in the proinsulin molecule as the basis for this disorder. However, unlike two previous kindreds with a similar syndrome, the serum proinsulin-like material in this family did not appear to be an intermediate conversion product but instead behaved like normal human proinsulin by several criteria. To further characterize this disorder the authors isolated and sequenced the insulin gene of the propositus. Leukocyte DNA was cloned in λgt-WES and recombinants containing the two insulin alleles, λMD41 and λMD51, were isolated by plaque hybridization. DNA sequencing of λMD51 showed that it contained the normal coding sequence for human preproinsulin. Sequence analysis of λMD41, however, revealed a single nucleotide substitution in the codon for residue 10 of proinsulin (CAC → GAC) that predicts the exchange of aspartic acid for histidine in the insulin B chain region. This mutation was also found in an insulin allele cloned from a second affected family member (propositus's father). These results strongly implicate this mutation as the cause of the hyperproinsulinemia in this family. Inhibition of the conversion of proinsulin to insulin may be related to altered folding and/or self-association properties of the [Asp10]proinsulin

  15. Mutation in the B chain coding region is associated with impaired proinsulin conversion in a family with hyperproinsulinemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, S.J.; Seino, S.; Gruppuso, P.A.; Schwartz, R.; Steiner, D.F.

    1987-04-01

    A family has recently been described in which hyperproinsulinemia is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern, suggesting a structural abnormality in the proinsulin molecule as the basis for this disorder. However, unlike two previous kindreds with a similar syndrome, the serum proinsulin-like material in this family did not appear to be an intermediate conversion product but instead behaved like normal human proinsulin by several criteria. To further characterize this disorder the authors isolated and sequenced the insulin gene of the propositus. Leukocyte DNA was cloned in lambdagt-WES and recombinants containing the two insulin alleles, lambdaMD41 and lambdaMD51, were isolated by plaque hybridization. DNA sequencing of lambdaMD51 showed that it contained the normal coding sequence for human preproinsulin. Sequence analysis of lambdaMD41, however, revealed a single nucleotide substitution in the codon for residue 10 of proinsulin (CAC ..-->.. GAC) that predicts the exchange of aspartic acid for histidine in the insulin B chain region. This mutation was also found in an insulin allele cloned from a second affected family member (propositus's father). These results strongly implicate this mutation as the cause of the hyperproinsulinemia in this family. Inhibition of the conversion of proinsulin to insulin may be related to altered folding and/or self-association properties of the (Asp/sup 10/)proinsulin.

  16. A case study of natural variability of water vapor content in the Baltic Sea region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobson, E.; Keernik, H.

    2012-12-01

    Water vapor is the most essential component of the Earth's atmosphere. It is contributing about 60 % of the natural greenhouse effect, being the resource for precipitation in the lower troposphere and playing a critical role in many chemical reactions. Therefore, its quantity must be known precisely to understand, associate and forecast meteorological processes. On the other hand, temporal as well as spatial variability of water vapor occur such a fine scales, that resolving it adequately presuppose observing systems with high sampling resolution in space and time. Regular radiosondes with 12 h or 24 h sampling interval are not sufficient for detecting fast changes neither in the humidity profiles nor in the water vapor total content. During three days (10th-12th August 2010) total of 24 radiosoundings with interval 3 h were made in Toravere, Estonia (58°15' N, 26°27' E), using GRAW DFM-06 radiosondes. Column-integrated water vapor content, known as precipitable water, varied during the campaign from 24 mm to 36 mm. The temporal variation of specific humidity was surprisingly uniform, up to 2 g/kg within any layer in the profile below 6 km. It is noteworthy, as the average values varied even one magnitude - from 12 g/kg at the ground level to 1 g/kg at 6000 m. These changes in the humidity content in the whole profile can be explained only with exchanges of the air masses. In addition to the radiosondes data, NCEP-CFSR vertical profile data of specific humidity and temperature for the Baltic Sea region (here defined as region 52° - 68° N, 12° - 32° E) was used with temporal and spatial resolution of 6 h and 0.5 degrees, respectively. For the overlapping period, NCEP-CFSR followed the measured profiles reasonably well, giving us some justice to use this model for the whole period and region. The region average of precipitable water was 22.8 mm, though local extreme values varied through the summer even one magnitude - from 4.5 mm to 51 mm. The average

  17. Effect of a long chain n-3 PUFA-enriched diet on production and reproduction variables in Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elis, Sebastien; Freret, Sandrine; Desmarchais, Alice; Maillard, Virginie; Cognié, Juliette; Briant, Eric; Touzé, Jean-Luc; Dupont, Mickael; Faverdin, Philippe; Chajès, Véronique; Uzbekova, Svetlana; Monget, Philippe; Dupont, Joëlle

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a rumen-protected fish oil supplement on the production and reproduction variables in postpartum dairy cows. Holstein cows (n=46) were given a basal total mixed diet plus one PUFA supplement: n-3 (n-3; protected fish oil; 1% dry matter intake (DMI); n=23) or control (n-6; toasted soybeans; 1.8% DMI; n=23), in a switchback design over two consecutive lactations. Supplements were added to the diet between calving and 2 months after calving to assess the effect on growth and maturation of ovarian follicles from which ovulation occurred around the day of insemination. Body weight (BW), milk yield (MY) and composition, dry matter intake (DMI), energy balance (EB), subcutaneous fat thickness, plasma fatty acid composition, plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), glucose and urea concentrations, follicular activity, embryo mortalities and fertility (conception rate after first AI, AI1) were assessed. BW, MY, DMI, plasma NEFA, glucose and urea were unaffected by the diet. There was a trend of an increased number of large follicles (diameter≥10mm) with the n-3 dietary supplementation (P=0.06) and a decrease in infertility or early embryo mortality rate 21 days after AI, 13.5% in the n-3 compared with 38.8% in the n-6 group (P=0.09), with no effect on the conception rate at 35d or 90d after AI1. These data suggest that the effect seen on ovarian variables is not associated with an effect on production and metabolic variables and is specific to n-3 PUFA supplementation. Further studies are necessary to determine whether DHA or EPA enhances fertility in lactating dairy cattle. PMID:26651949

  18. Modulation of extremes in the Atlantic region by modes of climate variability/change: A mechanistic coupled regional model study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saravanan, Ramalingam

    2015-01-09

    During the course of this project, we have accomplished the following: 1) Explored the parameter space of component models to minimize regional model bias 2) Assessed the impact of air-sea interaction on hurricanes, focusing in particular on the role of the oceanic barrier layer 3) Contributed to the activities of the U.S. CLIVAR Hurricane Working Group 4) Assessed the impact of lateral and lower boundary conditions on extreme flooding events in the U.S. Midwest in regional model simulations 5) Analyzed the concurrent impact of El Niño-Southern Oscillation and Atlantic Meridional Mode on Atlantic Hurricane activity using observations and regional model simulations

  19. Follicular lymphoma with a novel t(14;18) breakpoint involving the immunoglobulin heavy chain switch mu region indicates an origin from germinal center B cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fenton, JAL; Vaandrager, JW; Aarts, WM; Bende, RJ; Heering, K; van Dijk, M; Morgan, G; van Noesel, CJM; Schuuring, E; Kluin, PM

    2002-01-01

    With the use of DNA-fiber fluorescent in situ hybridization, a BCL2 protein positive follicular lymphoma with a novel BCL2 breakpoint involving the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) switch mu (S-mu) region instead of the J(H) or D-H gene segments was identified. Sequence analysis showed that the geno

  20. Modeling South America regional smoke plume: aerosol optical depth variability and shortwave surface forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. E. Rosário

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Intra-seasonal variability of smoke aerosol optical depth (AOD and downwelling solar irradiance at the surface during the 2002 biomass burning season in South America was modeled using the Coupled Chemistry-Aerosol-Tracer Transport model to the Brazilian developments on the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (CCATT-BRAMS. Measurements of AOD from the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET and solar irradiance at the surface from the Solar Radiation Network (SolRad-NET were used to evaluate model results. In general, the major features associated with AOD evolution over the southern part of the Amazon Basin and cerrado ecosystem are captured by the model. The main discrepancies were found for high aerosol loading events. In the northeastern portion of the Amazon Basin the model systematically underestimated AOD. This is likely due to the cloudy nature of the region, preventing accurate detection of the fire spots used in the emission model. Moreover, measured AOD were very often close to background conditions and emissions other than smoke were not considered in the simulation. Therefore, under the background scenario, one would expect the model to underestimate AOD. The issue of high aerosol loading events in the southern part of the Amazon and cerrado is also discussed in the context of emission shortcomings. The Cuiabá cerrado site was the only one where the highest quality AERONET data were unavailable. Thus, lower quality data were used. Root-mean-square-error (RMSE between the model and observations decreased from 0.48 to 0.17 when extreme AOD events (AOD550 nm ≥ 1.0 and Cuiabá were excluded from analysis. Downward surface solar irradiance comparisons also followed similar trends when extremes AOD were excluded. This highlights the need to improve the modelling of the regional smoke plume in order to enhance the accuracy of the radiative energy budget. Aerosol optical model based on the mean intensive properties of smoke from the

  1. Modeling the South American regional smoke plume: aerosol optical depth variability and surface shortwave flux perturbation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. E. Rosário

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Intra-seasonal variability of smoke aerosol optical depth (AOD and downwelling solar irradiance at the surface during the 2002 biomass burning season in South America was modeled using the Coupled Chemistry-Aerosol-Tracers Transport model with the Brazilian developments on the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (CCATT-BRAMS. Measurements of total and fine mode fraction (FMF AOD from the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET and solar irradiance at the surface from the Solar Radiation Network (SolRad-NET were used to evaluate model results. In general, the major features associated with AOD evolution over the southern part of the Amazon basin and cerrado ecosystem are captured by the model. The main discrepancies were found for high aerosol loading events. In the northeastern portion of the Amazon basin the model systematically underestimated total AOD, as expected, since smoke contribution is not dominant as it is in the southern portion and emissions other than smoke were not considered in the simulation. Better agreement was obtained comparing the model results with observed FMF AOD, which pointed out the relevance of coarse mode aerosol emission in that region. Likewise, major discrepancies over cerrado during high AOD events were found to be associated with coarse mode aerosol omission in our model. The issue of high aerosol loading events in the southern part of the Amazon was related to difficulties in predicting the smoke AOD field, which was discussed in the context of emissions shortcomings. The Cuiabá cerrado site was the only one where the highest quality AERONET data were unavailable for both total and FMF AOD. Thus, lower quality data were used. Root-mean-square error (RMSE between the model and observed FMF AOD decreased from 0.34 to 0.19 when extreme AOD events (FMF AOD550 nm ≥ 1.0 and Cuiabá were excluded from the analysis. Downward surface solar irradiance comparisons also followed similar trends when extreme AOD were excluded

  2. The Large-Scale Oscillations Influence Over the Interdecadal Climate Variability in Mexico's Central Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jofre, R.; Brito-Castillo, L.; Tereshchenko, I.; Atmospheric Sciences Climatology Climate Variability

    2013-05-01

    Climate in the highlands of Mexico displays high variability due to its complex terrain and elevation. The knowledge to elucidate the principal forcings of these variations can be useful for forecasting annual and seasonal temperature and precipitation over this area. Due to its complexity a small area in the highlands was delimited with defined physical boundaries, encompassing several states of Mexico. The study area was defined as Mexico's Central Region (MCR), which is located between 19.5 ° - 22.5 ° N and 98.5 ° - 104 ° W. Most of this area overlies the plateau of Anahuac, whose physical boundaries extend to the north from the "Sierras Transversales" (composed by the "Sierra de Zacatecas", the "Sierra de la "Breña" and the "Sierra de San Luis") to the "Eje Neovolcánico" to the south; east and west boundaries are confined by the "Sierra Madre Oriental" and the "Sierra Madre Occidental", respectively. Daily data of maximum and minimum temperature and precipitation series from a total of 112 weather stations were obtained from CLICOM and ERICIII databases. Several climatic indices with average periods of phase oscillations greater than five years, such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDOI), the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMOI), The Arctic Oscillation (AOI), the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAOI), and Aleutian Low Pressure (ALPI) on a monthly basis for all series, except the ALPI series which is on annual rate, were also used in this study. Indices data were obtained from the web site http://www.cicimar.ipn.mx/oacis/Indices_Climaticos.php/. The common period of all series was 1961-2000. We applied Principal Component Analysis to precipitation and temperature series to identify the principal modes of variation of the series. The first mode explained more than 68% of the variance in the original series and corresponds to annual variations. Contour maps were useful to elucidate that temperature variations are highly correlated with the terrain

  3. Evaluating climate variables, indexes and thresholds governing Arctic urban sustainability: case study of Russian permafrost regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimov, O. A.; Kokorev, V.

    2013-12-01

    Addressing Arctic urban sustainability today forces planners to deal with the complex interplay of multiple factors, including governance and economic development, demography and migration, environmental changes and land use, changes in the ecosystems and their services, and climate change. While the latter can be seen as a factor that exacerbates the existing vulnerabilities to other stressors, changes in temperature, precipitation, snow, river and lake ice, and the hydrological regime also have direct implications for the cities in the North. Climate change leads to reduced demand for heating energy, on one hand, and heightened concerns about the fate of the infrastructure built upon thawing permafrost, on the other. Changes in snowfall are particularly important and have direct implications for the urban economy, as together with heating costs, expenses for snow removal from streets, airport runways, roofs and ventilation corridors underneath buildings erected on pile foundations on permafrost constitute the bulk of the city's maintenance budget. Many cities are located in river valleys and are prone to flooding that leads to enormous economic losses and casualties, including human deaths. The severity of the northern climate has direct implications for demographic changes governed by regional migration and labor flows. Climate could thus be viewed as an inexhaustible public resource that creates opportunities for sustainable urban development. Long-term trends show that climate as a resource is becoming more readily available in the Russian North, notwithstanding the general perception that globally climate change is one of the challenges facing humanity in the 21st century. In this study we explore the sustainability of the Arctic urban environment under changing climatic conditions. We identify key governing variables and indexes and study the thresholds beyond which changes in the governing climatic parameters have significant impact on the economy

  4. Variability of adenoidectomy/tonsillectomy rates among children of the Veneto Region, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andretta Marilisa

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite national guidelines in 2003 aimed at limiting the recourse to tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy (A/T, the latter are among the most frequent pediatric surgeries performed in Italy. Aim of the study is to investigate variability of A/T rates among children of the Veneto Region, Italy. Methods All discharges of Veneto residents with Diagnosis-Related Groups 57–60 and ICD9-CM intervention codes 28.2 (tonsillectomy, 28.3 (adenotonsillectomy, 28.6 (adenoidectomy were selected in the period 2000–2006 for a descriptive analysis. A multilevel Poisson regression model was applied to estimate Incidence Rate Ratios (IRR with 95% Confidence Intervals (CI for A/T surgery among children aged 2–9 years in 2004–2006, while taking into account clustering of interventions within the 21 Local Health Units. Results Through 2000–2006, the overall number of A/T surgeries decreased (-8%; there was a decline of adenoidectomies (-20% and tonsillectomies (-8%, whereas adenotonsillectomies raised (+18%. Analyses on children aged 2–9 resulted in an overall rate of 14.4 surgeries per 1000 person-years (16.1 among males and 12.5 among females, with a wide heterogeneity across Local Health Units (range 8.1–27.6. At random intercept Poisson regression, while adjusting for sex and age, intervention rates were markedly lower among foreign than among Italian children (IRR = 0.57, CI 0.53–0.61. A/T rates in the 10–40 age group (mainly tonsillectomies computed for each Local Health Unit and introduced in the regression model accounted for 40% of the variance at Local Health Unit level of pediatric rates (mainly adenoidectomies and adenotonsillectomies. Conclusion A/T rates in the Veneto Region, especially adenoidectomies among children aged 2–9 years, remain high notwithstanding a decrease through 2000–2006. A wide heterogeneity according to nationality and Local Health Units is evident. The propensity to A/T surgery of each Local

  5. Generation and characterization of a human single-chain fragment variable (scFv antibody against cytosine deaminase from Yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tombesi Marina

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability of cytosine deaminase (CD to convert the antifungal agent 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC into one of the most potent and largely used anticancer compound such as 5-fluorouracil (5-FU raised considerable interest in this enzyme to model gene or antibody – directed enzyme-prodrug therapy (GDEPT/ADEPT aiming to improve the therapeutic ratio (benefit versus toxic side-effects of cancer chemotherapy. The selection and characterization of a human monoclonal antibody in single chain fragment (scFv format represents a powerful reagent to allow in in vitro and in vivo detection of CD expression in GDEPT/ADEPT studies. Results An enzymatic active recombinant CD from yeast (yCD was expressed in E. coli system and used as antigen for biopanning approach of the large semi-synthetic ETH-2 antibody phage library. Several scFvs were isolated and specificity towards yCD was confirmed by Western blot and ELISA. Further, biochemical and functional investigations demonstrated that the binding of specific scFv with yCD did not interfere with the activity of the enzyme in converting 5-FC into 5-FU. Conclusion The construction of libraries of recombinant antibody fragments that are displayed on the surface of filamentous phage, and the selection of phage antibodies against target antigens, have become an important biotechnological tool in generating new monoclonal antibodies for research and clinical applications. The scFvH5 generated by this method is the first human antibody which is able to detect yCD in routinary laboratory techniques without interfering with its enzymatic function.

  6. Characterizing seawater oxygen isotopic variability in a regional ocean modeling framework: Implications for coral proxy records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, S.; Powell, B. S.; Merrifield, M. A.; Cobb, K. M.; Nusbaumer, J.; Noone, D.

    2015-11-01

    Reconstructions of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) are often created using the oxygen isotopic ratio in tropical coral skeletons (δ18O). However, coral δ18O can be difficult to interpret quantitatively, as it reflects changes in both temperature and the δ18O value of seawater. Small-scale (10-100 km) processes affecting local temperature and seawater δ18O are also poorly quantified and contribute an unknown amount to intercoral δ18O offsets. A new version of the Regional Ocean Modeling System capable of directly simulating seawater δ18O (isoROMS) is therefore presented to address these issues. The model is used to simulate δ18O variations over the 1979-2009 period throughout the Pacific at coarse (O(50 km)) resolution, in addition to 10 km downscaling experiments covering the central equatorial Pacific Line Islands, a preferred site for paleo-ENSO reconstruction from corals. A major impact of downscaling at the Line Islands is the ability to resolve fronts associated with tropical instability waves (TIWs), which generate large excursions in both temperature and seawater δ18O at Palmyra Atoll (5.9°N, 162.1°W). TIW-related sea surface temperature gradients are smaller at neighboring Christmas Island (1.9°N, 157.5°W), but the interaction of mesoscale features with the steep island topography nonetheless generates cross-island temperature differences of up to 1°C. These nonlinear processes alter the slope of the salinity:seawater δ18O relationship at Palmyra and Christmas, as well as affect the relation between coral δ18O and indices of ENSO variability. Consideration of the full physical oceanographic context of reef environments is therefore crucial for improving δ18O-based ENSO reconstructions.

  7. The influence of external forcing on subdecadal variability of regional surface temperature in CMIP5 simulations of the last millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Thanh; Sjolte, Jesper; Muscheler, Raimund

    2016-02-01

    We use Granger causality to investigate the influences of external forcings on subdecadal variability of regional near-surface air temperature (SAT) in past millennium simulations (period 850-1850 A.D.) of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) models. Our results strengthen the conclusion for robust influence of volcanic forcing on SAT during preindustrial times of the last millennium. The SAT response to solar variations is detected in tropical and subtropical regions. In other regions, this response is weak. The impact of greenhouse gases (GHGs) radiative forcing to regional SAT is weak and uncertain. This is most probably due to the low amplitude of the variations in GHGs and hence weak GHGs forcing during the preindustrial millennium. The low agreement between models in simulating the impacts of solar variations on SAT in several regions suggests the different dynamical responses in these models, possibly associated with inaccurate parameterization of the processes related to solar forcing. Our analysis suggests that internal climate variability played a more significant role than external forcings in short-term SAT variability in the regions of the North Atlantic, the North Pacific, the Arctic, the Antarctic Peninsula, and its surrounding oceans. The possibility of long-term impacts of external forcings on SAT and the uncertainties that might be contained due to effects of internal climate modes other than El Niño-Southern Oscillation underscore the necessity for a more detailed understanding of the dynamical response of SAT to external forcings.

  8. Development of a biotinylated broad-specificity single-chain variable fragment antibody and a sensitive immunoassay for detection of organophosphorus pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fengchun; Tian, Yuan; Wang, Huimin; Liu, Jiye; Han, Xiao; Yang, Zhengyou

    2016-09-01

    Organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) are the most widely used pesticides in agriculture, and OP residues have been broadly reported in food and environmental samples. The aim of this study is to develop a recombinant antibody-based broad-specificity immunoassay for OPs. A phage display library was prepared from a mouse pre-immunized with a generic immunogen of OPs, and a single-chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody was selected. The selected scFv antibody was fused with biotin acceptor domain (BAD) and overexpressed as an inclusion body in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). Then, the protein was refolded by stepwise urea gradient dialysis and biotinylated in vitro by E. coli biotin ligase (BirA). Subsequently, the scFv-BAD protein was purified from the biotinylated system with high yield (66.7 mg L(-1)) and confirmed by SDS-PAGE and Western blot. Based on the biotinylated scFv-BAD, a sensitive and broad-specificity competitive indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ciELISA) for detection of OPs was developed. The cross-reactivity (CR) studies demonstrated that the ciELISA described here exhibited the broadest detection spectrum for OPs up to now, and 30 OPs could be determined with 50 % inhibition value (IC50) values ranging from 19.4 to 515.2 ng mL(-1). Moreover, the developed ciELISA was used for the recovery study of the spiked samples and showed satisfactory recoveries. Graphical Abstract Schematic diagram of the development of biotinylated broad-specificity single-chain variable fragment antibody-based immunoassay for organophosphorus pesticides. PMID:27411546

  9. Evolution of vertebrate IgM: complete amino acid sequence of the constant region of Ambystoma mexicanum mu chain deduced from cDNA sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellah, J S; Wiles, M V; Charlemagne, J; Schwager, J

    1992-10-01

    cDNA clones coding for the constant region of the Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) mu heavy immunoglobulin chain were selected from total spleen RNA, using a cDNA polymerase chain reaction technique. The specific 5'-end primer was an oligonucleotide homologous to the JH segment of Xenopus laevis mu chain. One of the clones, JHA/3, corresponded to the complete constant region of the axolotl mu chain, consisting of a 1362-nucleotide sequence coding for a polypeptide of 454 amino acids followed in 3' direction by a 179-nucleotide untranslated region and a polyA+ tail. The axolotl C mu is divided into four typical domains (C mu 1-C mu 4) and can be aligned with the Xenopus C mu with an overall identity of 56% at the nucleotide level. Percent identities were particularly high between C mu 1 (59%) and C mu 4 (71%). The C-terminal 20-amino acid segment which constitutes the secretory part of the mu chain is strongly homologous to the equivalent sequences of chondrichthyans and of other tetrapods, including a conserved N-linked oligosaccharide, the penultimate cysteine and the C-terminal lysine. The four C mu domains of 13 vertebrate species ranging from chondrichthyans to mammals were aligned and compared at the amino acid level. The significant number of mu-specific residues which are conserved into each of the four C mu domains argues for a continuous line of evolution of the vertebrate mu chain. This notion was confirmed by the ability to reconstitute a consistent vertebrate evolution tree based on the phylogenic parsimony analysis of the C mu 4 sequences. PMID:1382992

  10. Relationship between Eurasian large-scale patterns and regional climate variability over the Black and Baltic Seas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stankunavicius, G.; Pupienis, D. [Vilnius Univ. (Lithuania). Dept. of Hydrology and Climatology; Basharin, D. [National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Sevastopol (Ukraine). Sevastopol Marine Hydrophysical Inst.

    2012-11-01

    Using a NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis dataset and the empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis approach we studied interannual to decadal variabilities of the sea-level air pressure (SLP) and the surface air temperature (SAT) fields over Eurasia during the 2nd part of the 20th century. Our results agree with those of the previous studies, which conclude that Eurasian trends are the result of storm-path changes driven by the interdecadal behaviour of the NAO-like meridional dipole pattern in the Atlantic. On interannual and decadal time scales, significant synchronous correlations between correspondent modes of SAT and SLP EOF patterns were found. This fact suggests that there is a strong and stable Eurasian interrelationship between SAT and SLP large-scale fields which affects the local climate of two sub-regions: the Black and Baltic Seas. The climate variability in these sub-regions was studied in terms of Eurasian large-scale surface-temperature and air-pressure patterns responses. We concluded that the sub-regional climate variability substantially differs over the Black and Baltic Seas, and depends on different Eurasian large-scale patterns. We showed that the Baltic Sea region is influenced by the patterns arising primary from NAO-like meridional dipole, as well as Scandinavian patterns, while the Black Sea's SAT/SLP variability is influenced mainly by the second mode EOF (eastern Atlantic) and large scale tropospheric wave structures. (orig.)

  11. Identification and genetic effect of a variable duplication in the promoter region of the cattle ADIPOQ gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ADIPOQ gene of cattle, is located in the vicinity of the quantitative trait locus (QTL) wich effects marbling, the rib eye muscle area and fat thickness on BTA1. In our study, a novel variable duplication (NW_003103812.1:g.9232067_9232133 dup) in the bovine ADIPOQ promoter region was identified ...

  12. Continental and Marine Environmental changes in Europe induced by Global Climate variability and Regional Palaeography Changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    dinoflagellate cyst records from DSDP Site 380 (7 - 4 Ma) were completed from 4 Ma to Present in order to evidence the impact of glacial-interglacial cycles over the regional vegetation and to reconstruct the climate variability for the last 7 Ma; d. I was the first to demonstrate the solar cycles forcing (Hale and Gleissberg cycles) on the regional vegetation (through the 'Thermophilus trees / Artemisia' ratio) since the Last Glacial Maximum were evidenced in cored sediments from the Black and Marmara seas (unpublished data), that is a unique outcome. Using the bio-metric approach on the dinoflagellate cysts in association with statistical analyses, I demonstrated that fluctuations in salinity are partially responsible for modifying size, shape and ornamentation of the cysts, providing the first reliable paleo-ecological and paleo-bio-geographic reconstructions of the brackish Paratethyan basins (Popescu et al., palynology, in press). Simultaneously, I performed experimental cultures on a living-dinoflagellate species (Scrippsiella trifida): suggested relationships between cyst morphological variations and stress under controlled salinity are confirmed by the preliminary results, while reproduction rate seems also modified (unpublished data). Hence, my palynological and biological expertise offers an exclusive tool for establishing a continuous high resolution chronology, paleo-climatic, paleo-bio-geographic and paleo-environmental reconstructions. This is particularly important for the basins impacted by important environmental changes, such as the Mediterranean and Black seas, the sediments of the latter being precisely dated for the first time by this approach. (author)

  13. Proline-rich region of non-muscle myosin light chain kinase modulates kinase activity and endothelial cytoskeletal dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belvitch, Patrick; Adyshev, Djanybek; Elangovan, Venkateswaran R; Brown, Mary E; Naureckas, Caitlin; Rizzo, Alicia N; Siegler, Jessica H; Garcia, Joe G N; Dudek, Steven M

    2014-09-01

    Disruption of the pulmonary endothelial barrier and subsequent vascular leak is a hallmark of acute lung injury. Dynamic rearrangements in the endothelial cell (EC) peripheral membrane and underlying cytoskeleton are critical determinants of barrier function. The cytoskeletal effector protein non-muscle myosin light chain kinase (nmMLCK) and the actin-binding regulatory protein cortactin are important regulators of the endothelial barrier. In the present study we functionally characterize a proline-rich region of nmMLCK previously identified as the possible site of interaction between nmMLCK and cortactin. A mutant nmMLCK construct deficient in proline residues at the putative sites of cortactin binding (amino acids 973, 976, 1019, 1022) was generated. Co-immunoprecipitation studies in human lung EC transfected with wild-type or mutant nmMLCK demonstrated similar levels of cortactin interaction at baseline and after stimulation with the barrier-enhancing agonist, sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P). In contrast, binding studies utilizing recombinant nmMLCK fragments containing the wild-type or proline-deficient sequence demonstrated a two-fold increase in cortactin binding (pmutant construct. Immunofluorescent microscopy revealed an increased stress fiber density in ECs expressing GFP-labeled mutant nmMLCK at baseline (p=0.02) and after thrombin (p=0.01) or S1P (p=0.02) when compared to wild-type. Mutant nmMLCK demonstrated an increase in kinase activity in response to thrombin (pthrombin in cells expressing the mutant vs. the wild-type nmMLCK construct. These results provide evidence that critical prolines within nmMLCK (amino acids 973, 976, 1019, 1022) regulate cytoskeletal and membrane events associated with pulmonary endothelial barrier function. PMID:25072537

  14. Analysis of inter-variable relations in regional climate model output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcke, Renate; Chandler, Richard

    2015-04-01

    The topic of physical consistency and inter-variable relations of climate model output, in particular when applying statistical downscaling and bias correction to single variables, is widely discussed in the climate impact modelling and climate impact communities. Many situations require the consideration of several climate variables simultaneously, as a result of which it is also necessary to check that the inter-variable dependence structure is simulated realistically by the RCMs. Given that it is common practice to bias-adjust RCM outputs so as to improve their properties with respect to the distribution of variables taken individually, it is also of interest to determine whether inter-variable relationships are affected by empirical bias adjustment procedures such as quantile mapping, that are applied separately to each variable. A pragmatic reason to look at this is, if bias-adjusted outputs are to be used in impacts studies, it is necessary to check that the inter-variable relationships are realistic. A more fundamental reason is, that RCMs are physically based and, before bias correction, their outputs should therefore ideally be physically consistent. However, an empirical bias adjustment procedure has the potential to break the physical consistency, thereby removing one of the strongest justifications for using RCMs in the first place. Based on these considerations, the study aims to answer two questions. The first is to assess the inter-variable relationships in a suite of RCM outputs in more detail than has previously been attempted, by examining conditional probability densities instead of correlations. The second is to quantify the extent to which these conditional densities are distorted by an empirical bias adjustment procedure. The results can be used both to evaluate the ability of current RCMs (bias-adjusted or not) to provide useful information for climate change impact assessments; and also to determine the viability of quantile mapping as a

  15. A regional landslide warning system based on spatially variable rainfall thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segoni, Samuele; Rossi, Guglielmo; Rosi, Ascanio; Catani, Filippo

    2010-05-01

    Rainfall is widely recognized as one of the major causes for landsliding. When studying the conditions of triggering of mass movements at regional scale, a process-based approach is seldom possible because of the complexity in the spatial organization of the involved independent variables (e.g. soil properties). Therefore, empirical methods based on the definition of triggering thresholds are usually employed for the definition of warning systems or for landslide hazard assessments. Such thresholds are defined by observing the characteristics of past rainfall events that have resulted in landslides and selecting the lower bound envelope curve in intensity-duration plots depicting such events. These curves, generally represented by power-law type functions linking, e.g., intensity and duration of the critical rainfall, define the lowest level above which landslides should be expected. In the present work, concerning the territory of Tuscany (ab. 23,000 km2), a similar approach is adopted and described which presents some improvements with respect to traditional methods. First of all, the strong variability of environmental, meteorological and geological factors within the study area, together with evidences from available data on triggering conditions, imply that a single general threshold would be affected by a too large degree of overestimation of hazard and suggest the adoption of locally defined thresholds. The studied area was then partitioned in 25 Alert Zones and each of them has been analyzed separately to provide distinct rainfall thresholds. Secondly, to handle the amount of available data (the analysis regards the period 2000-2007 and involves 408 rainfall events, which were registered by a network of 332 rain-gauges and that caused 2132 landslides), a software has been developed for automatically analyzing rainfall patterns and defining such thresholds. In particular, the automated analysis performs the following tasks: i) Defining, for every rain

  16. The Analysis of Variability of Morphological Features of Water Snake (Natrix tessellata of the Volgograd Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prilipko Sergey Konstantinovich

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the variability of indicators of water snake pholidosis in populations of Volga Akhtubinsk and Don flood-plains. The article shows that the number of plates on snake’s body is quite steady. The limits of variability of these features in the studied populations are slightly wider, than the species limits mentioned in literature. The author makes distinctions in the nature of variability of bilateral structures. The number of the first row temporal plates is stable, while the combination of the supralabial, postorbital and preorbital is more varied. The combination of the second row temporal and lower-labial plates is mostly varied; they are characterized by the highest level of polymerization. The indicators of pholidosis are distinguished by variability degree: the lowerand supralabial plates variability is minimal (to 10 %, the preorbital and 2nd row temporal plates variability is maximal (from 24 to 36 %. The different elements of pholidosis reveal varying degrees of fluctuating asymmetry: high rates of asymmetry are specific for the second row temporal plates, minimal rates are specific for the supralabial ones. The article reveals the interpopulation distinctions in pholidosis features. In the population of the Don flood-plain the range of bilateral structures variability is wider; in the population of the Volga and Akhtubinsk flood-plains the coefficient of asymmetry is higher. It testifies to the bigger destabilization of the process of water snake ontogenesis in the Volga Akhtubinsk flood-plains.

  17. Farm Advisory Services for the Agro-Food Supply Chain as a Foster of Innovation: The Case of Veneto Region

    OpenAIRE

    Ascione, Elisa; Cristiano, Simona; Tarangioli, Serena

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the potentiality of the extension services in agriculture, to mainstream innovation in terms of sectoral competitiveness, when integrated into the agro-food supply chain. In doing this, the case of Venetian agriculture will give empirical evidence to the assumptions of this study, serving the identification of key factors, related to the use of extension services integrated into the so-called Integrated Supply Chain Projects (ISCPs), which are emerging as i...

  18. Approaches to supply chain logistics integration in the textile/clothing sector: an exploratory study in the Region of Campania

    OpenAIRE

    De Martino, Marcella; Marasco, Alessandra

    2007-01-01

    Given its potential to reduce lead times and total costs of operations, increase delivery speed, responsiveness and flexibility, and ultimately customer satisfaction, supply chain logistics integration can help to improve the competitiveness of the Italian textile and clothing (T/C) firms. However, little research works on supply chain management in general, and few studies on logistics integration in particular have focused their attention on this sector. This paper analyses the approaches t...

  19. Novel exons and splice variants in the human antibody heavy chain identified by single cell and single molecule sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Vollmers

    Full Text Available Antibody heavy chains contain a variable and a constant region. The constant region of the antibody heavy chain is encoded by multiple groups of exons which define the isotype and therefore many functional characteristics of the antibody. We performed both single B cell RNAseq and long read single molecule sequencing of antibody heavy chain transcripts and were able to identify novel exons for IGHA1 and IGHA2 as well as novel isoforms for IGHM antibody heavy chain.

  20. Novel Exons and Splice Variants in the Human Antibody Heavy Chain Identified by Single Cell and Single Molecule Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmers, Christopher; Penland, Lolita; Kanbar, Jad N.; Quake, Stephen R.

    2015-01-01

    Antibody heavy chains contain a variable and a constant region. The constant region of the antibody heavy chain is encoded by multiple groups of exons which define the isotype and therefore many functional characteristics of the antibody. We performed both single B cell RNAseq and long read single molecule sequencing of antibody heavy chain transcripts and were able to identify novel exons for IGHA1 and IGHA2 as well as novel isoforms for IGHM antibody heavy chain. PMID:25611855

  1. The variability of radiative balance elements and air temperature over the Asian region of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Kharyutkina

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The variability of spatial-temporal distribution of temperature and heat balance elements is investigated for the Asian territory of Russia (45–80° N, 60–180° E using JRA-25, NCEP/DOE AMIP-II reanalysis data and observational data for the period of global warming 1979–2008. It is shown that temperature trend over the territory is 1.4 °C for the period under study according to reanalysis data. Since the beginning of 90s of 20th century the increase of back earth-atmosphere shortwave radiation is observed. Such tendency is in conformity with the cloud cover distribution and downward shortwave radiation at the surface. Regression model describing temperature variability with variability of heat balance elements was presented. We conclude that possible applications for the model include the convenient estimate of temperature variability according to reanalysis data.

  2. Complete sequence of a cDNA clone specifying sandbar shark immunoglobulin light chain: gene organization and implications for the evolution of light chains.

    OpenAIRE

    Hohman, V S; Schluter, S F; Marchalonis, J J

    1992-01-01

    A full-length cDNA clone specifying sandbar shark (Carcharhinus plumbeus) immunoglobulin light chain has been isolated and sequenced. By alignment with human lambda chains, the leader, framework, complementarity-determining, joining, and constant regions are clearly identified in the shark light chain. Approximately 40-50% identity is shared between the human and shark sequences in the variable and constant regions. We have performed sequence comparisons of the individual segments and constru...

  3. Analyses of Disrupted Supply Chains by the Great East Japan Earthquake and Reconstruction of the Disaster-affected Region by the Cluster of the Automotive Industry: Utilizing the regional CGE model (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    Tokunaga, Suminori; Okiyama, Mitsuru; Akune, Yuko

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is first to analyze a negative supply shock due to "disrupted supply chains" caused by the earthquake and, secondly, to examine which of the policies to reconstruct the disaster-affected region is the most advisable way to proceed with the accumulation of the automotive industry. Using the two-regional computable general equilibrium (CGE) model, we initially found that had the alternative production at other plants been very easy, even if the production volume of mot...

  4. Searching for I-band variability in stars in the M/L spectral transition region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Gavin; Hakala, Pasi; Doyle, J. Gerry

    2015-10-01

    We report on I-band photometric observations of 21 stars with spectral types between M8 and L4 made using the Isaac Newton Telescope. The total amount of time for observations which had a cadence of <2.3 min was 58.5 h, with additional data with lower cadence. We test for photometric variability using the Kruskal-Wallis H-test and find that four sources (2MASS J10224821+5825453, 2MASS J07464256+2000321, 2MASS J16262034+3925190 and 2MASS J12464678+4027150) were found to be significantly variable at least on one epoch. Three of these sources are reported as photometrically variable for the first time. If we include sources which were deemed marginally variable, the number of variable sources is 6 (29 per cent). No flares were detected from any source. The percentage of sources which we found were variable is similar to previous studies. We summarize the mechanisms which have been put forward to explain the light curves of brown dwarfs.

  5. Searching for I band variability in stars in the M/L spectral transition region

    CERN Document Server

    Ramsay, Gavin; Doyle, J Gerry

    2015-01-01

    We report on I band photometric observations of 21 stars with spectral types between M8 and L4 made using the Isaac Newton Telescope. The total amount of time for observations which had a cadence of <2.3 mins was 58.5 hrs, with additional data with lower cadence. We test for photometric variability using the Kruskal-Wallis H-test and find that 4 sources (2MASS J10224821+5825453, 2MASS J07464256+2000321, 2MASS J16262034+3925190 and 2MASS J12464678+4027150) were found to be significantly variable at least on one epoch. Three of these sources are reported as photometrically variable for the first time. If we include sources which were deemed marginally variable, the number of variable sources is 6 (29 percent). No flares were detected from any source. The percentage of sources which we found were variable is similar to previous studies. We summarise the mechanisms which have been put forward to explain the light curves of brown dwarfs.

  6. Evaluation on the Risks of Agricultural Industrial Chain Based on FAHP——A Case of Regions Inhabited by Ethnic Groups in Wuling Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Through recognizing the risking factors of industrial chain and selecting appropriate evaluation method, the index system on evaluating risking factors including market risk, natural risk, contact risk and efficiency risk in industrial chain is constructed,26 weighting indicators under the four layers are set up. Taking regions inhabited by ethnic groups in Wuling Mountain as an example, the risking factors of agricultural industrial chain in the area are analyzed by adopting the FAHP. The influencing degree of each risking factor on credit risks is analyzed. The results assume that with the market risk, contract risk, natural risk and efficiency risk. The natural risks become the principal risks of agricultural industrial chain and it should be paid much attention to. The low credit risk is a major factor that causes the contract between enterprise and rural households. The flood, pests, diseases and disasters also should be paid high attention to that is regarded as risking factors. The risking factors that come from the efficiency risk layer, for example, the unequal profit distribution among enterprises has little effect on enterprises in industrial chain. The research results provide evidence for stipulating risk prevention measures.

  7. Diverse Responses of Remotely Sensed Grassland Phenology to Interannual Climate Variability over Frozen Ground Regions in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Sun

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Frozen ground may regulate the phenological shifts of dry and cold grasslands at the southern edge of the Eurasian cryosphere. In this study, an investigation based on the MODIS Collection 5 phenology product and climatic data collected from 2001 to 2009 reveals the diverse responses of grassland phenology to interannual climate variability over various frozen ground regions in Mongolia. Compared with middle and southern typical steppe and desert steppe, the spring (start of season; SOS and autumn (end of season; EOS phenological events of northern forest steppe with lower air temperature tend to be earlier and later, respectively. Both the SOS and EOS are less sensitive to climate variability in permafrost regions than in other regions, whereas the SOS of typical steppe is more sensitive to both air temperature and precipitation over sporadic permafrost and seasonal frozen ground regions. Over various frozen ground regions in Mongolia; the SOS is mainly dominated by the prior autumn precipitation, and frozen ground plays a vital role in storing the precipitation of the previous autumn for the subsequent grass green-up. The EOS is mainly dominated by autumn air temperature. These findings could help to improve phenological models of grasslands in extremely dry and cold regions.

  8. Santa Ana Winds of Southern California: Their Climatology and Variability Spanning 6.5 Decades from Regional Dynamical Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Morales, J.; Gershunov, A.

    2015-12-01

    Santa Ana Winds (SAWs) are an integral feature of the regional climate of Southern California/Northern Baja California region. In spite of their tremendous episodic impacts on the health, economy and mood of the region, climate-scale behavior of SAW is poorly understood. In the present work, we identify SAWs in mesoscale dynamical downscaling of a global reanalysis product and construct an hourly SAW catalogue spanning 65 years. We describe the long-term SAW climatology at relevant time-space resolutions, i.e, we developed local and regional SAW indices and analyse their variability on hourly, daily, annual, and multi-decadal timescales. Local and regional SAW indices are validated with available anemometer observations. Characteristic behaviors are revealed, e.g. the SAW intensity-duration relationship. At interdecadal time scales, we find that seasonal SAW activity is sensitive to prominent large-scale low-frequency modes of climate variability rooted in the tropical and north Pacific ocean-atmosphere system that are also known to affect the hydroclimate of this region. Lastly, we do not find any long-term trend in SAW frequency and intensity as previously reported. Instead, we identify a significant long-term trend in SAW behavior whereby contribution of extreme SAW events to total seasonal SAW activity has been increasing at the expense of moderate events. These findings motivate further investigation on SAW evolution in future climate and its impact on wildfires.

  9. EMCCD photometry reveals two new variable stars in the crowded central region of the globular cluster NGC 6981

    CERN Document Server

    Skottfelt, Jesper; Jaimes, R Figuera; Jørgensen, U G; Kains, N; Harpsoe, K B W; Liebig, C; Penny, M T; Alsubai, K A; Andersen, J M; Bozza, V; Browne, P; Novati, S Calchi; Damerdji, Y; Diehl, C; Dominik, M; Elyiv, A; Giannini, E; Hessman, F; Hinse, T C; Hundertmark, M; Juncher, D; Kerins, E; Korhonen, H; Mancini, L; Martin, R; Rabus, M; Rahvar, S; Southworth, G Scarpetta J; Snodgrass, C; Street, R A; Surdej, J; Tregloan-Reed, J; Vilela, C; Williams, A

    2013-01-01

    Two previously unknown variable stars in the crowded central region of the globular cluster NGC 6981 are presented. The observations were made using the Electron Multiplying CCD (EMCCD) camera at the Danish 1.54m Telescope at La Silla, Chile.The two variables were not previously detected by conventional CCD imaging because of their proximity to a bright star. This discovery demonstrates that EMCCDs are a powerful tool for performing high-precision time-series photometry in crowded fields and near bright stars, especially when combined with difference image analysis (DIA).

  10. The Key Oceanic Regions Responsible for the Interannual Variability of the Western North Pacific Subtropical High and Associated Mechanisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    The western North Pacifi c subtropical high (WNPSH) is an important circulation system that impacts the East Asian summer climate. The interannual variability of the WNPSH is modulated by tropical air-sea interaction. In order to make it clear which oceanic regions are crucial to the interannual variability of the WNPSH, the research progresses in this regard in the past decade are reviewed. Based on the review, it is recognized that fi ve oceanic regions are responsible for the interannual variability of the WNPSH in summer, including the equatorial central–eastern Pacifi c Ocean, tropical Indian Ocean, subtropical western North Pacifi c, the vicinity of the maritime continent, and the tropical Atlantic Ocean. The mechanisms how the sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTAs) in these regions aff ect the WNPSH are elaborated. The formation mechanisms for the SSTAs in these fi ve regions are discussed. Strengths and weaknesses of the climate models in simulating and predicting the WNPSH are also documented. Finally, key scientifi c problems deserving further studies are proposed.

  11. Regional variability of a projected sea ice-free Arctic during the summer months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laliberté, F.; Howell, S. E. L.; Kushner, P. J.

    2016-01-01

    Climate projections of sea ice retreat under anthropogenic climate change at the regional scale and in summer months other than September have largely not been evaluated. Information at this level of detail is vital for future planning of safe Arctic marine activities. Here the timing of when Arctic waters will be reliably ice free across Arctic regions from June to October is presented. It is shown that during this century regions along the Northern Sea Route and Arctic Bridge will be more reliably ice free than regions along the Northwest Passage and the Transpolar Sea Route, which will retain substantial sea ice cover past midcentury. Moreover, ice-free conditions in the Arctic will likely be confined to September for several decades to come in many regions. Projections using a selection of models that accounts for agreement of models in each region and calendar month with observations yield similar conclusions.

  12. Troponin T Core Structure and the Regulatory NH2-Terminal Variable Region

    OpenAIRE

    Biesiadecki, Brandon J.; Chong, Stephen M.; Nosek, Thomas M.; Jin, J.-P.

    2007-01-01

    The conserved central and COOH-terminal regions of troponin T (TnT) interacts with troponin C, troponin I and tropomyosin to regulate striated muscle contraction. Phylogenic data show that the NH2-terminal region has evolved as an addition to the conserved core structure of TnT. This NH2-terminal region does not bind other thin filament proteins and its sequence is hypervariable among fiber type and developmental isoforms. Previous studies have demonstrated that NH2-terminal modifications alt...

  13. Regional Genetic Structure and Environmental Variables Influence our Conservation Approach for Feather Heads (Ptilotus macrocephalus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Collin W; James, Elizabeth A

    2016-05-01

    Continued alterations to the Australian environment compromise the long-term viability of many plant species. We investigate the population genetics of Ptilotus macrocephalus, a perennial herb that occurs in 2 nationally endangered communities on the Victorian Volcanic Plain Bioregion (VVP), Australia, to answer key questions regarding regional differentiation and to guide conservation strategies. We evaluate genetic structure and diversity within and among 17 P. macrocephalus populations from 3 regions of southeastern Australia using 17 microsatellite markers developed de novo. Genetic structure was present in P. macrocephalus between the 3 regions but not at the population level. Environmental factors, namely temperature and precipitation, significantly explained differentiation between the North region and the other 2 regions indicating isolation by environment. Within regions, genetic structure currently shows a high level of gene flow and genetic variation. Our results suggest that within-region gene flow does not reflect current habitat fragmentation in southeastern Australia whereas temperature and precipitation are likely to be responsible for the differentiation detected among regions. Climate change may severely impact P. macrocephalus on the VVP and test its evolutionary resilience. We suggest taking a proactive conservation approach to improve long-term viability by sourcing material for restoration to assist gene flow to the VVP region to promote an increased adaptive capacity. PMID:26865733

  14. Regional Genetic Structure and Environmental Variables Influence our Conservation Approach for Feather Heads (Ptilotus macrocephalus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Collin W; James, Elizabeth A

    2016-05-01

    Continued alterations to the Australian environment compromise the long-term viability of many plant species. We investigate the population genetics of Ptilotus macrocephalus, a perennial herb that occurs in 2 nationally endangered communities on the Victorian Volcanic Plain Bioregion (VVP), Australia, to answer key questions regarding regional differentiation and to guide conservation strategies. We evaluate genetic structure and diversity within and among 17 P. macrocephalus populations from 3 regions of southeastern Australia using 17 microsatellite markers developed de novo. Genetic structure was present in P. macrocephalus between the 3 regions but not at the population level. Environmental factors, namely temperature and precipitation, significantly explained differentiation between the North region and the other 2 regions indicating isolation by environment. Within regions, genetic structure currently shows a high level of gene flow and genetic variation. Our results suggest that within-region gene flow does not reflect current habitat fragmentation in southeastern Australia whereas temperature and precipitation are likely to be responsible for the differentiation detected among regions. Climate change may severely impact P. macrocephalus on the VVP and test its evolutionary resilience. We suggest taking a proactive conservation approach to improve long-term viability by sourcing material for restoration to assist gene flow to the VVP region to promote an increased adaptive capacity.

  15. Estimation and Preparation of the Hypervariable Regions I/II Templates for Mitochondrial DNA Typing From Human Bones and Teeth Remains Using Singleplex Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Thien Ngoc; Van Phan, Hieu; Dang, Anh Tuan Mai; Nguyen, Vy Thuy

    2016-09-01

    A method was designed for estimating and sequencing of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) that effectively and more quickly provides a complete mtDNA profile. In this context, we have developed this novel strategy for typing mtDNA from 10 bones and teeth remains (3 months to 44 years). The quantification of mtDNA was achieved by singleplex real-time polymerase chain reaction of the hypervariable region I fragment (445 bp) and hypervariable region II fragment (617 bp). Combined with the melting curve analysis, we have determined as little as 10 pg of mtDNA template that is suitable for sequence analysis. Furthermore, quantitative polymerase chain reaction products were directly used for following step of mtDNA typing by Sanger sequencing. This method allows the profile to be completely provided for faster human identification. PMID:27356010

  16. PRODUCTION OF PHAGE-DISPLAYED ANTI-IDIOTYPIC ANTIBODY SINGLE CHAIN VARIABLE FRAGMENTS TO MG7 MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY DIRECTED AGAINST GASTRIC CARCINOMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何凤田; 聂勇战; 陈宝军; 乔太东; 韩者艺; 樊代明

    2002-01-01

    Objective. To generate phage-displayed anti-idiotypic antibody single chain variable fragments (anti -Id ScFv) to MG7 monoclonal antibody (McAb) directed against gastric carcinoma so as to lay a foundation for developing anti-Id ScFv vaccine of the cancer.Methods. Balb/c mice were immunized i. p. with MG7 McAb conjugated with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), and mRNA was isolated from the spleens of the immunized mice. Heavy and light chain (VH and VL)genes of antibody were amplified separately and assembled into ScFv genes with a linker DNA by PCR. The ScFv genes were ligated into the phagemid vector pCANTAB5E and the ligated sample was transformed into competent E. coli TG1. The transformants were infected with M13KO7 helper phage to yield recombinant phages displaying ScFv on the tips of M13 phage. After 4 rounds of panning with MG7, the MG7-positive clones were selected by ELISA from the enriched phages. Thetypesoftheanti-IdScFvdisplayedontheselectedphagecloneswerepreliminarily identified by competition ELISA.Results. The VH, VL and ScFv DNAs were about 340 bp, 320 bp and 750 bp respectively. Twenty-four MG7-positive clones were selected from 60 enriched phage clones, among which 5 displayed β or γtype anti-Id ScFv.Conclsion. The anti-Id ScFv to MG7 McAb can be successfully selected by recombinant phage antibody technique, which paves a way for the study of prevention and cure of gastric carcinoma by using anti-Id ScFv.

  17. Modelling regional variability of irrigation requirements due to climate change in Northern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riediger, Jan; Breckling, Broder; Svoboda, Nikolai; Schröder, Winfried

    2016-01-15

    The question whether global climate change invalidates the efficiency of established land use practice cannot be answered without systemic considerations on a region specific basis. In this context plant water availability and irrigation requirements, respectively, were investigated in Northern Germany. The regions under investigation--Diepholz, Uelzen, Fläming and Oder-Spree--represent a climatic gradient with increasing continentality from West to East. Besides regional climatic variation and climate change, soil conditions and crop management differ on the regional scale. In the model regions, temporal seasonal droughts influence crop success already today, but on different levels of intensity depending mainly on climate conditions. By linking soil water holding capacities, crop management data and calculations of evapotranspiration and precipitation from the climate change scenario RCP 8.5 irrigation requirements for maintaining crop productivity were estimated for the years 1991 to 2070. Results suggest that water requirement for crop irrigation is likely to increase with considerable regional variation. For some of the regions, irrigation requirements might increase to such an extent that the established regional agricultural practice might be hard to retain. Where water availability is limited, agricultural practice, like management and cultivated crop spectrum, has to be changed to deal with the new challenges.

  18. Analysis of the rDNA internal transcribed spacer region of the Fusarium species by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism

    OpenAIRE

    Zarrin, Majid; GANJ, FARZANEH; FARAMARZI, SAMA

    2016-01-01

    The Fusarium species are a widely spread phytopathogen identified in an extensive variety of hosts. The Fusarium genus is one of the most heterogeneous fungi and is difficult to classify. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis is a useful method in detection of DNA polymorphism in objective sequences. The aim of the present study was to identify the phylogenetic associations and usefulness of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region as a gen...

  19. Predicting Climate Variability over the Indian Region Using Data Mining Strategies

    CERN Document Server

    Mallenahalli, Naresh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    In this paper an approach based on expectation maximization (EM) clustering to find the climate regions and a support vector machine to build a predictive model for each of these regions is proposed. To minimize the biases in the estimations a ten cross fold validation is adopted both for obtaining clusters and building the predictive models. The EM clustering could identify all the zones as per the Koppen classification over Indian region. The proposed strategy when employed for predicting temperature has resulted in an RMSE of $1.19$ in the Montane climate region and $0.89$ in the Humid Sub Tropical region as compared to $2.9$ and $0.95$ respectively predicted using k-means and linear regression method.

  20. 30,000 years of hydroclimatic variability in the coastal southwest United States: regional synthesis and forcings analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    The coastal southwest United States is characterized by a winter dominated hydroclimate. Far from dependable, this region's supply of winter precipitation is highly variable and often characterized by hydrologic opposites - droughts and floods. Predicting future precipitation and hydrologic dynamics requires a paleoperspective. Here, we present an up-to-date synthesis of hydroclimatic variability over the past 30,000 years. A variety of terrestrial-based studies are examined and compared to understand patterns of regional hydroclimatic change. This comparison is extended into the San Joaquin Basin of California where future climate change will impact the region's agricultural stability and economy. Particularly interesting is the apparent role that Pacific sea surface temperatures (SSTs) play in modulating the region's hydroclimate over a variety of timescales. Are past periods of above average Pacific SSTs analogs for future global warming? If yes, the region might expect an increase in winter precipitation as SSTs rise in response to global warming. However, how this potential precipitation increase is manifest is unknown. For example, will the intensity of precipitation events increase and thus present increased flood hazards and diminished freshwater capture? Finally, we present evidence for changes in the source of winter precipitation over time as well as ecological responses to past hydrologic change.

  1. Transforming p21 ras protein: flexibility in the major variable region linking the catalytic and membrane-anchoring domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willumsen, B M; Papageorge, A G; Hubbert, N;

    1985-01-01

    that is required for post-translational processing, membrane localization and transforming activity of the proteins. We have now used the viral oncogene (v-rasH) of Harvey sarcoma virus to study the major variable region by deleting or duplicating parts of the gene. Reducing this region to five amino acids...... or increasing it to 50 amino acids has relatively little effect on the capacity of the gene to induce morphological transformation of NIH 3T3 cells. Assays of GTP binding, GTPase and autophosphorylating activities of such mutant v-rasH-encoded proteins synthesized in bacteria indicated that the sequences...

  2. Multispecies Fisheries in the Lower Amazon River and Its Relationship with the Regional and Global Climate Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinaya, Walter Hugo Diaz; Lobon-Cervia, Francisco Javier; Pita, Pablo; Buss de Souza, Ronald; Freire, Juan; Isaac, Victoria Judith

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to describe the spatial-temporal variability in catch of the main fishery resources of the Amazon River and floodplain lakes of the Lower Amazon, as well as relating the Catch per Unit of Effort with anomalies of some of the Amazon River, atmosphere and Atlantic Ocean system variables, determining the influence of the environment on the Amazonian fishery resources. Finfish landings data from the towns and villages of the Lower Amazon for the fisheries of three sites (Óbidos, Santarém and Monte Alegre), were obtained for the period between January 1993 and December 2004. Analysis of variance, detrended correspondence analysis, redundancy analysis and multiple regression techniques were used for the statistical analysis of the distinct time series. Fisheries production in the Lower Amazon presents differences between the Amazon River and the floodplain lakes. Production in the Amazon River is approximately half of the one of the floodplain lakes. This variability occurs both along the Lower Amazon River region (longitudinal gradient) and laterally (latitudinal gradient) for every fishing ground studied here. The distinct environmental variables alone or in association act differently on the fishery stocks and the success of catches in each fishery group studied here. Important variables are the flooding events; the soil the sea surface temperatures; the humidity; the wind and the occurence of El Niño-Southern Oscillation events. Fishery productivity presents a large difference in quantity and distribution patterns between the river and floodplain lakes. This variability occurs in the region of the Lower Amazon as well as laterally for each fishery group studied, being dependent on the ecological characteristics and life strategies of each fish group considered here. PMID:27314951

  3. Multispecies Fisheries in the Lower Amazon River and Its Relationship with the Regional and Global Climate Variability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Hugo Diaz Pinaya

    Full Text Available This paper aims to describe the spatial-temporal variability in catch of the main fishery resources of the Amazon River and floodplain lakes of the Lower Amazon, as well as relating the Catch per Unit of Effort with anomalies of some of the Amazon River, atmosphere and Atlantic Ocean system variables, determining the influence of the environment on the Amazonian fishery resources. Finfish landings data from the towns and villages of the Lower Amazon for the fisheries of three sites (Óbidos, Santarém and Monte Alegre, were obtained for the period between January 1993 and December 2004. Analysis of variance, detrended correspondence analysis, redundancy analysis and multiple regression techniques were used for the statistical analysis of the distinct time series. Fisheries production in the Lower Amazon presents differences between the Amazon River and the floodplain lakes. Production in the Amazon River is approximately half of the one of the floodplain lakes. This variability occurs both along the Lower Amazon River region (longitudinal gradient and laterally (latitudinal gradient for every fishing ground studied here. The distinct environmental variables alone or in association act differently on the fishery stocks and the success of catches in each fishery group studied here. Important variables are the flooding events; the soil the sea surface temperatures; the humidity; the wind and the occurence of El Niño-Southern Oscillation events. Fishery productivity presents a large difference in quantity and distribution patterns between the river and floodplain lakes. This variability occurs in the region of the Lower Amazon as well as laterally for each fishery group studied, being dependent on the ecological characteristics and life strategies of each fish group considered here.

  4. Multispecies Fisheries in the Lower Amazon River and Its Relationship with the Regional and Global Climate Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinaya, Walter Hugo Diaz; Lobon-Cervia, Francisco Javier; Pita, Pablo; Buss de Souza, Ronald; Freire, Juan; Isaac, Victoria Judith

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to describe the spatial-temporal variability in catch of the main fishery resources of the Amazon River and floodplain lakes of the Lower Amazon, as well as relating the Catch per Unit of Effort with anomalies of some of the Amazon River, atmosphere and Atlantic Ocean system variables, determining the influence of the environment on the Amazonian fishery resources. Finfish landings data from the towns and villages of the Lower Amazon for the fisheries of three sites (Óbidos, Santarém and Monte Alegre), were obtained for the period between January 1993 and December 2004. Analysis of variance, detrended correspondence analysis, redundancy analysis and multiple regression techniques were used for the statistical analysis of the distinct time series. Fisheries production in the Lower Amazon presents differences between the Amazon River and the floodplain lakes. Production in the Amazon River is approximately half of the one of the floodplain lakes. This variability occurs both along the Lower Amazon River region (longitudinal gradient) and laterally (latitudinal gradient) for every fishing ground studied here. The distinct environmental variables alone or in association act differently on the fishery stocks and the success of catches in each fishery group studied here. Important variables are the flooding events; the soil the sea surface temperatures; the humidity; the wind and the occurence of El Niño-Southern Oscillation events. Fishery productivity presents a large difference in quantity and distribution patterns between the river and floodplain lakes. This variability occurs in the region of the Lower Amazon as well as laterally for each fishery group studied, being dependent on the ecological characteristics and life strategies of each fish group considered here.

  5. Multispecies Fisheries in the Lower Amazon River and Its Relationship with the Regional and Global Climate Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss de Souza, Ronald; Freire, Juan; Isaac, Victoria Judith

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to describe the spatial-temporal variability in catch of the main fishery resources of the Amazon River and floodplain lakes of the Lower Amazon, as well as relating the Catch per Unit of Effort with anomalies of some of the Amazon River, atmosphere and Atlantic Ocean system variables, determining the influence of the environment on the Amazonian fishery resources. Finfish landings data from the towns and villages of the Lower Amazon for the fisheries of three sites (Óbidos, Santarém and Monte Alegre), were obtained for the period between January 1993 and December 2004. Analysis of variance, detrended correspondence analysis, redundancy analysis and multiple regression techniques were used for the statistical analysis of the distinct time series. Fisheries production in the Lower Amazon presents differences between the Amazon River and the floodplain lakes. Production in the Amazon River is approximately half of the one of the floodplain lakes. This variability occurs both along the Lower Amazon River region (longitudinal gradient) and laterally (latitudinal gradient) for every fishing ground studied here. The distinct environmental variables alone or in association act differently on the fishery stocks and the success of catches in each fishery group studied here. Important variables are the flooding events; the soil the sea surface temperatures; the humidity; the wind and the occurence of El Niño-Southern Oscillation events. Fishery productivity presents a large difference in quantity and distribution patterns between the river and floodplain lakes. This variability occurs in the region of the Lower Amazon as well as laterally for each fishery group studied, being dependent on the ecological characteristics and life strategies of each fish group considered here. PMID:27314951

  6. REGIONAL SOIL WATER RETENTION IN THE CONTIGUOUS US: SOURCES OF VARIABILITY AND VOLCANIC SOIL EFFECTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water retention of mineral soil is often well predicted using algorithms (pedotransfer functions) with basic soil properties but the spatial variability of these properties has not been well characterized. A further source of uncertainty is that water retention by volcanic soils...

  7. 16S-23S rRNA Gene Intergenic Spacer Region Variability Helps Resolve Closely Related Sphingomonads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokajian, Sima; Issa, Nahla; Salloum, Tamara; Ibrahim, Joe; Farah, Maya

    2016-01-01

    Sphingomonads comprise a physiologically versatile group many of which appear to be adapted to oligotrophic environments, but several also had features in their genomes indicative of host associations. In this study, the extent variability of the 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer (ITS) sequences of 14 ATCC reference sphingomonad strains and 23 isolates recovered from drinking water was investigated through PCR amplification and sequencing. Sequencing analysis of the 16S-23S rRNA gene ITS region revealed that the ITS sizes for all studied isolates varied between 415 and 849 bp, while their G+C content was 42.2-57.9 mol%. Five distinct ITS types were identified: ITS(none) (without tRNA genes), ITS(Ala(TGC)), ITS(Ala(TGC)+Ile(GAT)), ITS(Ile(GAT)+Ala(TGC)), and ITS (Ile(GAT)+Pseudo). All of the identified tRNA(Ala(TGC)) molecules consisted of 73 bases, and all of the tRNA(Ile(GAT)) molecules consisted of 74 bases. We also detected striking variability in the size of the ITS region among the various examined isolates. Highest variability was detected within the ITS-2. The importance of this study is that this is the first comparison of the 16S-23S rDNA ITS sequence similarities and tRNA genes from sphingomonads. Collectively the data obtained in this study revealed the heterogeneity and extent of variability within the ITS region compared to the 16S rRNA gene within closely related isolates. Sequence and length polymorphisms within the ITS region along with the ITS types (tRNA-containing or lacking and the type of tRNA) and ITS-2 size and sequence similarities allowed us to overcome the limitation we previously encountered in resolving closely related isolates based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence.

  8. Validation of EURO-CORDEX regional climate models in reproducing the variability of precipitation extremes in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitrescu, Alexandru; Busuioc, Aristita

    2016-04-01

    EURO-CORDEX is the European branch of the international CORDEX initiative that aims to provide improved regional climate change projections for Europe. The main objective of this paper is to document the performance of the individual models in reproducing the variability of precipitation extremes in Romania. Here three EURO-CORDEX regional climate models (RCMs) ensemble (scenario RCP4.5) are analysed and inter-compared: DMI-HIRHAM5, KNMI-RACMO2.2 and MPI-REMO. Compared to previous studies, when the RCM validation regarding the Romanian climate has mainly been made on mean state and at station scale, a more quantitative approach of precipitation extremes is proposed. In this respect, to have a more reliable comparison with observation, a high resolution daily precipitation gridded data set was used as observational reference (CLIMHYDEX project). The comparison between the RCM outputs and observed grid point values has been made by calculating three extremes precipitation indices, recommended by the Expert Team on Climate Change Detection Indices (ETCCDI), for the 1976-2005 period: R10MM, annual count of days when precipitation ≥10mm; RX5DAY, annual maximum 5-day precipitation and R95P%, precipitation fraction of annual total precipitation due to daily precipitation > 95th percentile. The RCMs capability to reproduce the mean state for these variables, as well as the main modes of their spatial variability (given by the first three EOF patterns), are analysed. The investigation confirms the ability of RCMs to simulate the main features of the precipitation extreme variability over Romania, but some deficiencies in reproducing of their regional characteristics were found (for example, overestimation of the mea state, especially over the extra Carpathian regions). This work has been realised within the research project "Changes in climate extremes and associated impact in hydrological events in Romania" (CLIMHYDEX), code PN II-ID-2011-2-0073, financed by the Romanian

  9. Genetic and morphometric variability of Triatoma sordida (Hemiptera: Reduviidae from the eastern and western regions of Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsa Elizabeth Gonzalez-Britez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Triatoma sordida is widely distributed throughout the Chaco and the Eastern Region of Paraguay. It is associated to palm trees and artificial ecotopes located in peridomestic environments. The aim of this work was to determine genetic and morphometric variability and feeding behavior among population of T. sordida captured in domicile and peridomicile areas of Paraguay. Feeding contents and levels of genetic and morphometric variation were determined in 124 T. sordida from domicile and peridomicile populations of San Pedro and Paraguarí departments of the Eastern Region and Boquerón and Presidente Hayes departments of the Western region using Double Diffusion Gel, Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA and head and wings morphometry. Morphometric analysis revealed isolation of populations by geographic region and larger size in triatomine populations from the Western Region. RAPD showed no specific patterns for domicile and peridomicile populations. The estimator of diversity (FST; 0.08 and high gene flow obtained (Nm; 5.7 did not allow the establishment of genetic differentiation within the same region. The blood meal source showed that poultry feeding was 38% of host preferences and human blood was the second feeding preference (24% in the insects from the Eastern Region while poultry feeding was predominant in those from the Western Region (30%. This work showed homogeneity between T. sordida populations of the same region and between domicile and peridomicile. The genetic structure was determined among T. sordida populations of both geographical regions suggesting differentiation associated to eco-geographical isolation by distance. It is important to notice that pattern feedings were different between the two regions. Further studies should be focused on how phenetic and genetic variations could be related to the adaptation capacity of these triatomine populations to domicile, increasing their vector potentiality in the transmission of Chagas

  10. Structural repertoire of immunoglobulin λ light chains

    KAUST Repository

    Chailyan, Anna

    2011-03-01

    The immunoglobulin λ isotype is present in nearly all vertebrates and plays an important role in the human immune system. Despite its importance, few systematic studies have been performed to analyze the structural conformation of its variable regions, contrary to what is the case for κ and heavy chains. We show here that an analysis of the structures of λ chains allows the definition of a discrete set of recurring conformations (canonical structures) of their hypervariable loops and, most importantly, the identification of sequence constraints that can be used to predict their structure. We also show that the structural repertoire of λ chains is different and more varied than that of the κ chains, consistently with the current view of the involvement of the two major light-chain families in complementary strategies of the immune system to ensure a fine tuning between diversity and stability in antigen recognition. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Identification of human rotavirus serotype by hybridization to polymerase chain reaction-generated probes derived from a hyperdivergent region of the gene encoding outer capsid protein VP7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, J.; Sears, J.; Schael, I.P.; White, L.; Garcia, D.; Lanata, C.; Kapikian, A.Z. (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1990-08-01

    We have synthesized {sup 32}P-labeled hybridization probes from a hyperdivergent region (nucleotides 51 to 392) of the rotavirus gene encoding the VP7 glycoprotein by using the polymerase chain reaction method. Both RNA (after an initial reverse transcription step) and cloned cDNA from human rotavirus serotypes 1 through 4 could be used as templates to amplify this region. High-stringency hybridization of each of the four probes to rotavirus RNAs dotted on nylon membranes allowed the specific detection of corresponding sequences and thus permitted identification of the serotype of the strains dotted. The procedure was useful when applied to rotaviruses isolated from field studies.

  12. Key environmental challenges for food groups and regions representing the variation within the EU, Ch.3 Salmon Aquaculture Supply Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    G., Ólafsdóttir; Andrade, Grace Patricia Viera; Nielsen, Thorkild;

    2013-01-01

    The report is aimed to give a thorough review of different environmental impacts that the food and drink sector are producing along the whole chain, from fork to farm and to assess which of them are the key environmental challenges for Europe. A representative range of product groups have been ch...... chosen: • Orange juice • Beef and dairy • Aquaculture (salmon)...

  13. Observation of Seasonal Variability of Landforms in the Martian South Polar Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, J.; van Gasselt, S.; Neesemann, A.

    2016-09-01

    We report on a systematic seasonal survey started with spiders together with dark spots and polygonal terrain show seasonal and spatial changes. We provide a detailed mapping of landform types and a systematic analysis on Cavi Angusti City region.

  14. A New Model Incorporating Leadership and Institutional Factors as Mediating Variables in Regional Endogenous Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Stimson, Robert J; Stough, Roger R.

    2004-01-01

    Theories and approaches to endogenous growth and regional development tend to neglect or at best underplay the role of leadership and the way institutional factors are considered is usually simplistic. This paper builds on work the authors have been developing over the last year or so to develop a model framework of regional economic development that explicitly incorporates leadership and institutional factors along with the consideration of resource endowments and market fit and of entrepren...

  15. Relationship of regional PM2.5 variations in east Asia and climate variability in the North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, J.; Yeh, S. W.; Kim, M.; Park, R.

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies have suggested that the Short Lived Climate Pollutants (SLCPs) such as Sulfate aerosols, Black carbon, Seasalt play a role to influence the weather and climate variability by changing radiative forcings. Therefore, it is useful to examine the relationship between atmospheric variability and SLCPs. Particularly, the concentration of Particle Matter 2.5 (PM2.5) is significant in east Asia, which is mostly due to a rapid industrialization. It is known that both the atmospheric circulation and cloud variability is closely associated with the variations of PM2.5 in east Asia are associated with major atmospheric variables for 1986-2010 using the GEOS-Chem model and the observational datasets. The composite analysis reveals that the high and low concentration year of PM2.5 in east Asia is differently associated with the spatial pattern of atmospheric anomalies over the North Pacific. In addition, the changes in the PM2.5 concentration in east Asia may lead the changes in the amount of high and low cloud in the downstream region of the North Pacific. This indicates that the PM2.5 variations in east Asia may significantly influence the weather and climate variability in the North Pacific by modulating the cloud amount and atmospheric circulation, which is largely consistent with some previous studies.

  16. Exploring the crowded central region of 10 Galactic globular clusters using EMCCDs. Variable star searches and new discoveries

    CERN Document Server

    Jaimes, R Figuera; Skottfelt, J; Kains, N; Jørgensen, U G; Horne, K; Dominik, M; Alsubai, K A; Bozza, V; Novati, S Calchi; Ciceri, S; D'Ago, G; Galianni, P; Gu, S -H; Harpsøe, K B W; Haugbølle, T; Hinse, T C; Hundertmark, M; Juncher, D; Korhonen, H; Liebig, C; Mancini, L; Popovas, A; Rabus, M; Rahvar, S; Scarpetta, G; Schmidt, R W; Snodgrass, C; Southworth, J; Starkey, D; Street, R A; Surdej, J; Wang, X -B; Wertz, O

    2015-01-01

    Obtain time-series photometry of the very crowded central regions of Galactic globular clusters with better angular resolution than previously achieved with conventional CCDs on ground-based telescopes to complete, or improve, the census of the variable star population in those stellar systems. Images were taken using the Danish 1.54-m Telescope at the ESO observatory at La Silla in Chile. The telescope was equipped with an electron-multiplying CCD and the short-exposure-time images obtained (10 images per second) were stacked using the shift-and-add technique to produce the normal-exposure-time images (minutes). Photometry was performed via difference image analysis. Automatic detection of variable stars in the field was attempted. The light curves of 12541 stars in the cores of 10 globular clusters were statistically analysed in order to automatically extract the variable stars. We obtained light curves for 31 previously known variable stars (3 L, 2 SR, 20 RR Lyrae, 1 SX Phe, 3 cataclysmic variables, 1 EW a...

  17. Drought Variability and Land Degradation in Semiarid Regions: Assessment Using Remote Sensing Data and Drought Indices (1982–2011)

    KAUST Repository

    Vicente-Serrano, Sergio

    2015-04-14

    We analyzed potential land degradation processes in semiarid regions worldwide using long time series of remote sensing images and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) for the period 1981 to 2011. The objectives of the study were to identify semiarid regions showing a marked decrease in potential vegetation activity, indicative of the occurrence of land degradation processes, and to assess the possible influence of the observed drought trends quantified using the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). We found that the NDVI values recorded during the period of maximum vegetation activity (NDVImax) predominantly showed a positive evolution in the majority of the semiarid regions assessed, but NDVImax was highly correlated with drought variability, and the trends of drought events influenced trends in NDVImax at the global scale. The semiarid regions that showed most increase in NDVImax (the Sahel, northern Australia, South Africa) were characterized by a clear positive trend in the SPEI values, indicative of conditions of greater humidity and lesser drought conditions. While changes in drought severity may be an important driver of NDVI trends and land degradation processes in semiarid regions worldwide, drought did not apparently explain some of the observed changes in NDVImax. This reflects the complexity of vegetation activity processes in the world’s semiarid regions, and the difficulty of defining a universal response to drought in these regions, where a number of factors (natural and anthropogenic) may also affect on land degradation.

  18. Drought Variability and Land Degradation in Semiarid Regions: Assessment Using Remote Sensing Data and Drought Indices (1982–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio M. Vicente-Serrano

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed potential land degradation processes in semiarid regions worldwide using long time series of remote sensing images and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI for the period 1981 to 2011. The objectives of the study were to identify semiarid regions showing a marked decrease in potential vegetation activity, indicative of the occurrence of land degradation processes, and to assess the possible influence of the observed drought trends quantified using the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI. We found that the NDVI values recorded during the period of maximum vegetation activity (NDVImax predominantly showed a positive evolution in the majority of the semiarid regions assessed, but NDVImax was highly correlated with drought variability, and the trends of drought events influenced trends in NDVImax at the global scale. The semiarid regions that showed most increase in NDVImax (the Sahel, northern Australia, South Africa were characterized by a clear positive trend in the SPEI values, indicative of conditions of greater humidity and lesser drought conditions. While changes in drought severity may be an important driver of NDVI trends and land degradation processes in semiarid regions worldwide, drought did not apparently explain some of the observed changes in NDVImax. This reflects the complexity of vegetation activity processes in the world’s semiarid regions, and the difficulty of defining a universal response to drought in these regions, where a number of factors (natural and anthropogenic may also affect on land degradation.

  19. The geofingerprint of Pyroclastic Rocks/Typic Herorthents/Piedirosso chain surveyed in the Roccamonfina terroir, northwest Campania region, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercurio, M.; Grilli, E.; Morra, V.; Prohaska, T.; Buondonno, A.; Langella, A.

    2012-04-01

    KEYWORDS: geofingerprint, strontium isotope ratio, Campanian Ignimbrite, Typic Xerorthents, Roccamonfina Investigations were carried out to evaluate the geofingerprint of Piedirosso wine produced in the volcanic areas of Campania region (Southern Italy). The research was focused on the terroir located in the southern area of the Roccamonfina volcanic complex according to a procedure developed by the Authors. The protocol accounts for a careful sampling of the soil and the grapes (branches, leaves) within the vineyards of "Masseria Felicia" farm, located in Carano di Sessa Aurunca (Caserta), followed by a Piedirosso wine production (monocultivar) on a pilot plant scale (grape harvest 2009). Samples were digested by using strong acids (HF, HClO4) and suitably selected digestion programs. Only soil samples were analysed after treatments with NH4NO3 in order to simulate the labile fraction of metals in soil useful to estimate the 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratio. ICP-MC-MS analyses allowed to determine the 87Sr/86Sr isotopic composition whereas ICP-QMS were carried out to measure Li, Be, B, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Ba, Tl, Pb, Bi, U and Rare Earth Elements. Finally, XRPD analyses provided qualitative and semi-quantitative evaluations of the mineral phases occurring in soil samples. Suitable agronomic analyses allowed a careful soil classification. The soil profile exhibits an Ap1-Ap2-Ap3-C1-2C2-3C3-4C4 horizonation. The color varies from dark brown in Ap horizons to light yellowish brown in C horizons. Rock fragments distribution varies irregularly along soil profile. Texture is loam in all horizons, except Ap1, C1 and 3C3 that show a sandy loam texture. Mottles are evident in all horizons except in 3C3 with a contrasting colors as reddish yellow or strong brown. Redoximorphic features occur in poorly (C1) and very poorly (2C2, 4C4) drained horizons as coatings of iron and manganese oxides. Their color ranges between very dark gray and reddish

  20. Correcting air pollution time series for meteorological variability. With an application to regional PM10 concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Visser H; Noordijk H; CIM; LLO

    2003-01-01

    It is well-known that a large part of the year-to-year variation in annual distribution of daily concentrations of air pollutants is due to fluctuations in the frequency and severity of meteorological conditions. This variability makes it difficult to estimate the effectiveness of emission control strategies. In this report we have demonstrated how a series of binary decision rules, known as Classification And Regression Trees (CART), can be used to calculate pollution concentrations that are...

  1. Holocene climate variability in the western Mediterranean region from a deepwater sediment record

    OpenAIRE

    Frigola, Jaime; Moreno Caballud, Ana; Cacho, Isabel; Canals, Miquel; Sierro, Francisco Javier; Flores, José Abel; Joan O Grimalt; Hodell, David A.; Curtis, Jason H.

    2007-01-01

    The detailed analysis of the International Marine Past Global Changes Study core MD99-2343 recovered from a sediment drift at 2391 m water depth north of the island of Minorca illustrates the effects of climate variability on thermohaline circulation in the western Mediterranean during the last 12 kyr. Geochemical ratios associated with terrigenous input resulted in the identification of four phases representing different climatic and deepwater overturning conditions in the Western Mediterran...

  2. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibody and its recombinant single chain variable fragment specific for a food-born mycotoxin, fumonisin B1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Won-Ki; Cho, Young-Jin; Park, Jun-Bock; Bae, Yi-Hyun; Kim, Eun-Jeong; Park, Kyungmoon; Park, Yong-Cheol; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2010-01-01

    Fumonisin B(1) (FMB(1)) is a food-born mycotoxin produced by Fusarium moniliforme. Monoclonal antibody against FMB(1) (anti-FMB(1) mAb) was produced in the hybridoma DV9, which was established from a BALB/c mouse immunized with bovine serum albumin conjugated FMB(1) (FMB(1)-BSA). A competitive direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) showed that anti-FMB(1) mAb has about 10 ppb of minimum FMB(1) detection concentration and 220 ppb of 50% inhibition concentration (IC(50)). Much lower cross-reactivity of anti-FMB(1) mAb on ochratoxin A, aflatoxin B(1) and deoxynivalenol provided that anti-FMB(1) mAb was specific for FMB(1). The gene coding single chain variable fragment against FMB(1) (anti-FMB(1) scFv) was cloned from the hybridoma DV9 and was expressed in recombinant Escherichia coli. Insoluble anti-FMB(1) scFv required optimization of its refolding condition, and hence functional scFv was obtained. By using indirect ELISA, about 12-fold lower binding activity of anti-FMB(1) scFv on FMB(1)-BSA was obtained in comparison with that of the parental mAb. PMID:19597742

  3. Single Chain Variable Fragments Produced in Escherichia coli against Heat-Labile and Heat-Stable Toxins from Enterotoxigenic E. coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Y Ozaki

    Full Text Available Diarrhea is a prevalent pathological condition frequently associated to the colonization of the small intestine by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC strains, known to be endemic in developing countries. These strains can produce two enterotoxins associated with the manifestation of clinical symptoms that can be used to detect these pathogens. Although several detection tests have been developed, minimally equipped laboratories are still in need of simple and cost-effective methods. With the aim to contribute to the development of such diagnostic approaches, we describe here two mouse hybridoma-derived single chain fragment variable (scFv that were produced in E. coli against enterotoxins of ETEC strains.Recombinant scFv were developed against ETEC heat-labile toxin (LT and heat-stable toxin (ST, from previously isolated hybridoma clones. This work reports their design, construction, molecular and functional characterization against LT and ST toxins. Both antibody fragments were able to recognize the cell-interacting toxins by immunofluorescence, the purified toxins by ELISA and also LT-, ST- and LT/ST-producing ETEC strains.The developed recombinant scFvs against LT and ST constitute promising starting point for simple and cost-effective ETEC diagnosis.

  4. Single Chain Variable Fragments Produced in Escherichia coli against Heat-Labile and Heat-Stable Toxins from Enterotoxigenic E. coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Fernanda B.; Nepomuceno, Roberto; Silva, Anderson; Munhoz, Danielle D.; Yamamoto, Bruno B.; Luz, Daniela; Abreu, Patrícia A. E.; Horton, Denise S. P. Q.; Elias, Waldir P.; Ramos, Oscar H. P.; Piazza, Roxane M. F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Diarrhea is a prevalent pathological condition frequently associated to the colonization of the small intestine by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains, known to be endemic in developing countries. These strains can produce two enterotoxins associated with the manifestation of clinical symptoms that can be used to detect these pathogens. Although several detection tests have been developed, minimally equipped laboratories are still in need of simple and cost-effective methods. With the aim to contribute to the development of such diagnostic approaches, we describe here two mouse hybridoma-derived single chain fragment variable (scFv) that were produced in E. coli against enterotoxins of ETEC strains. Methods and Findings Recombinant scFv were developed against ETEC heat-labile toxin (LT) and heat-stable toxin (ST), from previously isolated hybridoma clones. This work reports their design, construction, molecular and functional characterization against LT and ST toxins. Both antibody fragments were able to recognize the cell-interacting toxins by immunofluorescence, the purified toxins by ELISA and also LT-, ST- and LT/ST-producing ETEC strains. Conclusion The developed recombinant scFvs against LT and ST constitute promising starting point for simple and cost-effective ETEC diagnosis. PMID:26154103

  5. Modeling of Surface Tension and Viscosity for Non-electrolyte Systems by Means of the Equation of State for Square-well Chain Fluids with Variable Interaction Range

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jinlong; HE Changchun; MA Jun; PENG Changjun; LIU Honglai; HU Ying

    2011-01-01

    The equation of state(EOS)for square-well chain fluid with variable range(SWCF-VR) developed in our previous work based on statistical mechanical theory for chemical association is employed for the correlations of surface tension and viscosity of common fluids and ionic liquids(ILs).A model of surface tension for multi-component mixtures is presented by combining the SWCF-VR EOS and the scaled particle theory and used to produce the surface tension of binary and ternary mixtures.The predicted surface tensions are in excellent agreement with the experimental data with an overall average absolute relative deviation(AAD)of 0.36%.A method for the calculation of dynamic viscosity of common fluids and ILs at high pressure is presented by combining Eyring’s rate theory of viscosity and the SWCF-VR EOS.The calculated viscosities are in good agreement with the experimental data with the overall AAD of 1.44% for 14 fluids in 84 cases.The salient feature is that the molecular parameters used in these models are self-consistent and can be applied to calculate different thermodynamic properties such as pVT,vapor-liquid equilibrium,caloric properties,surface tension,and viscosity.

  6. Expression of anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) single-chain variable fragment (scFv) in Spirodela punctata plants transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, Parthasarathy; Satheeshkumar, P K; Venkataraman, Krishnan; Vijayalakshmi, M A

    2016-05-01

    Therapeutic antibodies against tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) have been considered effective for some of the autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's diseases, and so on. But associated limitations of the current therapeutics in terms of cost, availability, and immunogenicity have necessitated the need for alternative candidates. Single-chain variable fragment (scFv) can negate the limitations tagged with the anti-TNFα therapeutics to a greater extent. In the present study, Spirodela punctata plants were transformed with anti-TNFα through in planta transformation using Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain, EHA105. Instead of cefotaxime, garlic extract (1 mg/mL) was used to remove the agrobacterial cells after cocultivation. To the best of our knowledge, this report shows for the first time the application of plant extracts in transgenic plant development. 95% of the plants survived screening under hygromycin. ScFv cDNA integration in the plant genomic DNA was confirmed at the molecular level by PCR. The transgenic protein expression was followed up to 10 months. Expression of scFv was confirmed by immunodot blot. Protein expression levels of up to 6.3% of total soluble protein were observed. β-Glucuronidase and green fluorescent protein expressions were also detected in the antibiotic resistant plants. The paper shows the generation of transgenic Spirodela punctuata plants through in planta transformation. PMID:25786575

  7. Making the best of climatic variability: options for upgrading rainfed farming in water scarce regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockström, J

    2004-01-01

    Coping with climatic variability for livelihood security is part of everyday life for rural communities in semi-arid and dry sub-humid savannas. Water scarcity caused by rainfall fluctuations is common, causing meteorological droughts and dry spells. However, this paper indicates, based on experiences in sub-Saharan Africa and India, that the social impact on rural societies of climatically induced droughts is exaggerated. Instead, water scarcity causing food deficits is more often caused by management induced droughts and dry spells. A conceptual framework to distinguish between manageable and unmanageable droughts is presented. It is suggested that climatic droughts require focus on social resilience building instead of land and water resource management. Focus is then set on the manageable part of climatic variability, namely the almost annual occurrence of dry spells, short 2-4 week periods of no rainfall, affecting farmer yields. On-farm experiences in savannas of sub-Saharan Africa of water harvesting systems for dry spell mitigation are presented. It is shown that bridging dry spells combined with soil fertility management can double and even triple on-farm yield levels. Combined with innovative systems to ensure maximum plant water availability and water uptake capacity, through adoption of soil fertility improvement and conservation tillage systems, there is a clear opportunity to upgrade rainfed farming systems in vulnerable savanna environments, through appropriate local management of climatic variability. PMID:15195432

  8. A Search for Interstellar Carbon Chain Alcohol HC4OH in Star-Forming Region L1527 and Dark Cloud TMC-1

    CERN Document Server

    Araki, Mitsunori; Yamabe, Hiromichi; Koshikawa, Naohiro; Tsukiyama, Koichi; Nakane, Aya; Okabayashi, Toshiaki; Kunimatsu, Arisa; Kuze, Nobuhiko

    2011-01-01

    We report a sensitive search for the rotational transitions of the carbon chain alcohol HC4OH in the frequency range of 21.2-46.7 GHz in the star-forming region L1527 and the dark cloud TMC-1. The motivation was laboratory detection of HC4OH by microwave spectroscopy. Despite achieving rms noise levels of several millikelvin in the antenna temperature using the 45 m telescope at Nobeyama Radio Observatory, the detection was not successful, leading to 3 sigma upper limits corresponding to the column densities of 2.0 \\times 1012 and 5.6 \\times 1012 cm-2 in L1527 and TMC-1, respectively. These upper limits indicate that [HC4OH]/[HC5N] ratios are less than 0.3 and 0.1 in L1527 and TMC-1, respectively, where HC5N is an HC4-chain cyanide and HC4OH is a hydroxide. These ratios suggest that the cyano carbon chain molecule dominates the hydroxyl carbon chain molecule in L1527 and TMC-1. This is contrary to the case of saturated compounds in hot cores, e.g., CH3OH and CH3CN, and can be a chemical feature of carbon chai...

  9. Variability of sunspot cycle QBO and total ozone over high altitude western Himalayan regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ningombam, Shantikumar Singh

    2011-10-01

    Long-term trend of total column ozone at high altitude region in Ladakh is studied, using a total ozone mapping spectrometer and an ozone monitoring instrument during 1979-2008. In the region, total ozone exhibits seasonality with maximum in spring and minimum in autumn. The decreasing trend of total ozone was found as -2.51±0.45% per decade with 95% confidence level in the region. Ozone deficiency in the Ladakh region is strongest (-33.9 DU at Hanle) in May and weakest (-11.5 DU at Hanle) in January-February. In the study, the solar maximum in 1990 is in phase with ozone maximum, while ozone variation lags in phase with the 1980 and 2000 solar maxima. However, a significant correlation between total ozone and sunspot number is achieved in the westerly phase of quasi-biennial oscillation during spring season. Decreasing trend of ozone in the region is correlating well with the cooling rate in the lower stratosphere.

  10. Production and characterization of a single-chain variable fragment linked alkaline phosphatase fusion protein for detection of O,O-diethyl organophosphorus pesticides in a one-step enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    A single-chain variable fragment (scFv) and alkaline phosphatase (AP) fusion protein for detection of O, O-diethyl organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) was produced and characterized. The scFv gene was prepared by cloning VL and VH genes from a hybridoma cell secreting monoclonal antibody with broad-s...

  11. Finding stability regions for preserving efficiency classification of variable returns to scale technology in data envelopment analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, P.; Borzouei, M.

    2016-06-01

    This paper addresses issue of sensitivity of efficiency classification of variable returns to scale (VRS) technology for enhancing the credibility of data envelopment analysis (DEA) results in practical applications when an additional decision making unit (DMU) needs to be added to the set being considered. It also develops a structured approach to assisting practitioners in making an appropriate selection of variation range for inputs and outputs of additional DMU so that this DMU be efficient and the efficiency classification of VRS technology remains unchanged. This stability region is simply specified by the concept of defining hyperplanes of production possibility set of VRS technology and the corresponding halfspaces. Furthermore, this study determines a stability region for the additional DMU within which, in addition to efficiency classification, the efficiency score of a specific inefficient DMU is preserved and also using a simulation method, a region in which some specific efficient DMUs become inefficient is provided.

  12. The economic viability of value-based food chain for dairy farms in mountain regions: an econometric analysis approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernej Prišenk

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The attention of this paper is drawn to analyze the economic potential of involvement of farmers into the small-medium sized value-based food chain (VBFC. The survey represents a solid dana basis from which econometric modelling approach was further developed. Empirical results reveal the positive economic viability on a general level; this means more stable purchase price of raw milk for dairy farms, which are the part of value-based food chain. Results point at inelastic demand for milk and milk related products. Furthermore, there are some accompanying and underlying indirect social benefits, such as production of high-quality food products, more stable and constant demand for raw milk, steady payments and better social situation. The last one is especially important for the farms operating in less-favored mountain areas where the survey was actually conducted.

  13. The Precise Radio Observation of the 13C Isotopic Fractionation for Carbon Chain Molecule HC3N in the Low-Mass Star Forming Region L1527

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Mitsunori; Takano, Shuro; Sakai, Nami; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Oyama, Takahiro; Kuze, Nobuhiko; Tsukiyama, Koichi

    2016-06-01

    We observed the three 13C isotopic species of HC3N with the high signal-to-noise ratios in L1527 using Green Bank 100 m telescope and Nobeyama 45 m telescope to explore the production scheme of HC3N, where L1527 is the low-mass star forming region in the phase of a warm carbon chain chemistry region. The spectral lines of the J = 5--4, 9--8, 10--9, and 12--11 transitions in the 44-109 GHz region were used to measure isotopic ratios. The abundance of HCCCN was determined from the line intensities of the two weak hyperfine components of the J = 5-4 transition. The isotopic ratios were precisely determined to be 1.00 : 1.01 : 1.35 : 86.4 for [H13CCCN] : [HC13CCN] : [HCC13CN] : [HCCCN]. It was found that the abundance of H13CCCN is equal to that of HC13CCN, and it was implied that HC3N is mainly formed by the reaction schemes via C2H2 and C2H2+ in L1527. This would suggest a universality of dicarbide chemistry producing HC3N irrespective of evolutional phases from a starless dark cloud to a warm carbon chain chemistry region. Sakai, N., Sakai, T., Hirota, T., & Yamamoto, S. 2008, ApJ, 672, 371 Takano, S., Masuda, A., Hirahara, Y., et al. 1998, A&A, 329, 1156

  14. Study of the influence of solar variability on a regional (Indian) climate: 1901-2007

    CERN Document Server

    Aslam, O P M

    2014-01-01

    We use Indian temperature data of more than 100 years to study the influence of solar activity on climate. We study the Sun-climate relationship by averaging solar and climate data at various time scales; decadal, solar activity and solar magnetic cycles. We also consider the minimum and maximum values of sunspot number (SSN) during each solar cycle. This parameter SSN is correlated better with Indian temperature when these data are averaged over solar magnetic polarity epochs (SSN maximum to maximum). Our results indicate that the solar variability may still be contributing to ongoing climate change and suggest for more investigations.

  15. Climate change and water storage variability over an arid endorheic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Wang, Chao; Chen, Yaning; Chen, Xi; Yu, Zhongbo

    2015-10-01

    Terrestrial Water Storage (TWS) plays an important role in regional climate and water resources management, especially in arid regions under global change context. However, serious lack of in-situ measurements in remote alpine mountains is hindering our current understanding of regional TWS change in the Tarim River Basin (TRB), a large and typical arid endorheic area in Northwest China of Central Asia. To solve the problem, four different hydrology products from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite, model simulations from Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) in conjunction with in-situ measurements, are utilized to investigate patterns and underlying causes of TWS and its component changes. An excess of precipitation over evapotranspiration (ET) plus runoff contributes to an increase of TWS. The phase of Total Soil Moisture (TSM) lags that of Snow Water Equivalent (SWE), indicating a recharge from snowmelt to TSM. Increasing TWS together with decreasing SWE resulted in an increase of subsurface water. Our results are of great value to amend basin-wide water management and conservation strategies for the similar arid regions considering climate change.

  16. Regional variability in occurrence and distribution of polymetallic nodules in the central Indian Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.B.; Rebello, J.M.S.

    Regional scale morphological studies on different-sized polymetallic nodules from the Central Indian Basin show that only 2–5 cm sized nodules have highest occurrence per station (92–94% along latitudes; 88–94% along longitudes). A nodule size shows...

  17. Quantitative remote sensing for monitoring forest canopy structural variables in the Three Gorges region of China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeng, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Bridging various scales ranging from local to regional and global, remote sensing has facilitated extraordinary advances in modeling and mapping ecosystems and their functioning. Since forests are one of the most important natural resources on the terrestrial Earth surface, accurate and up-to-date i

  18. Impact of climate variability and anthropogenic activity on streamflow in the Three Rivers Headwater Region, Tibetan Plateau, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chong; Li, Daiqing; Gao, Yanni; Liu, Wenfeng; Zhang, Linbo

    2016-05-01

    Under the impacts of climate variability and human activities, there is violent fluctuation for streamflow in the large basins in China. Therefore, it is crucial to separate the impacts of climate variability and human activities on streamflow fluctuation for better water resources planning and management. In this study, the Three Rivers Headwater Region (TRHR) was chosen as the study area. Long-term hydrological data for the TRHR were collected in order to investigate the changes in annual runoff during the period of 1956-2012. The nonparametric Mann-Kendall test, moving t test, Pettitt test, Mann-Kendall-Sneyers test, and the cumulative anomaly curve were used to identify trends and change points in the hydro-meteorological variables. Change point in runoff was identified in the three basins, which respectively occurred around the years 1989 and 1993, dividing the long-term runoff series into a natural period and a human-induced period. Then, the hydrologic sensitivity analysis method was employed to evaluate the effects of climate variability and human activities on mean annual runoff for the human-induced period based on precipitation and potential evapotranspiration. In the human-induced period, climate variability was the main factor that increased (reduced) runoff in LRB and YARB (YRB) with contribution of more than 90 %, while the increasing (decreasing) percentage due to human activities only accounted for less than 10 %, showing that runoff in the TRHR is more sensitive to climate variability than human activities. The intra-annual distribution of runoff shifted gradually from a double peak pattern to a single peak pattern, which was mainly influenced by atmospheric circulation in the summer and autumn. The inter-annual variation in runoff was jointly controlled by the East Asian monsoon, the westerly, and Tibetan Plateau monsoons.

  19. Exploring the crowded central region of ten Galactic globular clusters using EMCCDs. Variable star searches and new discoveries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figuera Jaimes, R.; Bramich, D. M.; Skottfelt, J.; Kains, N.; Jørgensen, U. G.; Horne, K.; Dominik, M.; Alsubai, K. A.; Bozza, V.; Calchi Novati, S.; Ciceri, S.; D'Ago, G.; Galianni, P.; Gu, S.-H.; Harpsøe, K. B. W.; Haugbølle, T.; Hinse, T. C.; Hundertmark, M.; Juncher, D.; Korhonen, H.; Mancini, L.; Popovas, A.; Rabus, M.; Rahvar, S.; Scarpetta, G.; Schmidt, R. W.; Snodgrass, C.; Southworth, J.; Starkey, D.; Street, R. A.; Surdej, J.; Wang, X.-B.; Wertz, O.

    2016-04-01

    Aims: We aim to obtain time-series photometry of the very crowded central regions of Galactic globular clusters; to obtain better angular resolution thanhas been previously achieved with conventional CCDs on ground-based telescopes; and to complete, or improve, the census of the variable star population in those stellar systems. Methods: Images were taken using the Danish 1.54-m Telescope at the ESO observatory at La Silla in Chile. The telescope was equipped with an electron-multiplying CCD, and the short-exposure-time images obtained (ten images per second) were stacked using the shift-and-add technique to produce the normal-exposure-time images (minutes). Photometry was performed via difference image analysis. Automatic detection of variable stars in the field was attempted. Results: The light curves of 12 541 stars in the cores of ten globular clusters were statistically analysed to automatically extract the variable stars. We obtained light curves for 31 previously known variable stars (3 long-period irregular, 2 semi-regular, 20 RR Lyrae, 1 SX Phoenicis, 3 cataclysmic variables, 1 W Ursae Majoris-type and 1 unclassified) and we discovered 30 new variables (16 long-period irregular, 7 semi-regular, 4 RR Lyrae, 1 SX Phoenicis and 2 unclassified). Fluxes and photometric measurements for these stars are available in electronic form through the Strasbourg astronomical Data Center. Based on data collected by the MiNDSTEp team with the Danish 1.54m telescope at ESO's La Silla observatory in Chile.Full Table 1 is only available at CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/588/A128

  20. Tidal and sub-tidal sea level variability at the northern shelf of the Brazilian Northeast Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FELIPE F. FROTA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A characterization of the sea level variability at tidal and sub-tidal frequencies at the northern shore of the Brazilian Northeast shelf for the period 2009-2011 is presented. The sea level data used was obtained from the Permanent Geodetic Tide Network from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics for the Fortaleza gauge station. Local wind data was also used to assess its effects on the low-frequency sea level variability. The variability of the sea level was investigated by classical harmonic analysis and by morphology assessment over the tidal signal. The low frequencies were obtained by low-pass filtering. The tidal range oscillated with the highest value of 3.3 m during the equinox and the lowest value of 0.7 m during the solstice. Differences between the spring and neap tides were as high as 1 m. A total of 59 tidal constituents were obtained from harmonic analysis, and the regional tide was classified as semi-diurnal pure with a form number of 0.11. An assessment of the monthly variability of the main tidal constituents (M2, S2, N2, O1, and K1 indicated that the main semi-diurnal solar S2 presented the highest variability, ranging from 0.21 to 0.41 m; it was the main element altering the form number through the years. The low frequency sea-level variability is negligible, although there is a persistent signal with an energy peak in the 10-15 day period, and it cannot be explained by the effects of local winds.

  1. Regional variability of imaging biomarkers in autosomal dominant Alzheimer’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzinger, Tammie L. S.; Blazey, Tyler; Jack, Clifford R.; Koeppe, Robert A.; Su, Yi; Xiong, Chengjie; Raichle, Marcus E.; Snyder, Abraham Z.; Ances, Beau M.; Bateman, Randall J.; Cairns, Nigel J.; Fagan, Anne M.; Goate, Alison; Marcus, Daniel S.; Aisen, Paul S.; Christensen, Jon J.; Ercole, Lindsay; Hornbeck, Russ C.; Farrar, Angela M.; Aldea, Patricia; Jasielec, Mateusz S.; Owen, Christopher J.; Xie, Xianyun; Mayeux, Richard; Brickman, Adam; McDade, Eric; Klunk, William; Mathis, Chester A.; Ringman, John; Thompson, Paul M.; Ghetti, Bernardino; Saykin, Andrew J.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Johnson, Keith A.; Salloway, Stephen; Correia, Stephen; Schofield, Peter R.; Masters, Colin L.; Rowe, Christopher; Villemagne, Victor L.; Martins, Ralph; Ourselin, Sebastien; Rossor, Martin N.; Fox, Nick C.; Cash, David M.; Weiner, Michael W.; Holtzman, David M.; Buckles, Virginia D.; Moulder, Krista; Morris, John C.

    2013-01-01

    Major imaging biomarkers of Alzheimer’s disease include amyloid deposition [imaged with [11C]Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) PET], altered glucose metabolism (imaged with [18F]fluro-deoxyglucose PET), and structural atrophy (imaged by MRI). Recently we published the initial subset of imaging findings for specific regions in a cohort of individuals with autosomal dominant Alzheimer’s disease. We now extend this work to include a larger cohort, whole-brain analyses integrating all three imaging modalities, and longitudinal data to examine regional differences in imaging biomarker dynamics. The anatomical distribution of imaging biomarkers is described in relation to estimated years from symptom onset. Autosomal dominant Alzheimer’s disease mutation carrier individuals have elevated PiB levels in nearly every cortical region 15 y before the estimated age of onset. Reduced cortical glucose metabolism and cortical thinning in the medial and lateral parietal lobe appeared 10 and 5 y, respectively, before estimated age of onset. Importantly, however, a divergent pattern was observed subcortically. All subcortical gray-matter regions exhibited elevated PiB uptake, but despite this, only the hippocampus showed reduced glucose metabolism. Similarly, atrophy was not observed in the caudate and pallidum despite marked amyloid accumulation. Finally, before hypometabolism, a hypermetabolic phase was identified for some cortical regions, including the precuneus and posterior cingulate. Additional analyses of individuals in which longitudinal data were available suggested that an accelerated appearance of volumetric declines approximately coincides with the onset of the symptomatic phase of the disease. PMID:24194552

  2. Water maser variability over 20 years in a large sample of star-forming regions: the complete database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felli, M.; Brand, J.; Cesaroni, R.; Codella, C.; Comoretto, G.; Di Franco, S.; Massi, F.; Moscadelli, L.; Nesti, R.; Olmi, L.; Palagi, F.; Panella, D.; Valdettaro, R.

    2007-12-01

    Context: Water vapor emission at 22 GHz from masers associated with star-forming regions is highly variable. Aims: We present a database of up to 20 years of monitoring of a sample of 43 masers within star-forming regions. The sample covers a large range of luminosities of the associated IRAS source and is representative of the entire population of H2O masers of this type. The database forms a good starting point for any further study of H2O maser variability. Methods: The observations were obtained with the Medicina 32-m radiotelescope, at a rate of 4-5 observations per year. Results: To provide a database that can be easily accessed through the web, we give for each source: plots of the calibrated spectra, the velocity-time-flux density plot, the light curve of the integrated flux, the lower and upper envelopes of the maser emission, the mean spectrum, and the rate of the maser occurrence as a function of velocity. Figures for just one source are given in the text for representative purposes. Figures for all the sources are given in electronic form the appendix. A discussion of the main properties of the H2O variability in our sample will be presented in a forthcoming paper. Based on observations with the Medicina radiotelescope operated by INAF - Istituto di Radioastronomia.

  3. 116S-23S rRNA Gene Intergenic Spacer Region Variability Helps Resolve Closely Related Sphingomonads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima eTokajian

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Sphingomonads comprise a physiologically versatile group many of which appear to be adapted to oligotrophic environments, but several also had features in their genomes indicative of host associations. In this study, the extent variability of the 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer (ITS sequences of 14 ATCC reference sphingomonad strains and 23 isolates recovered from drinking water was investigated through PCR amplification and sequencing. Sequencing analysis of the 16S-23S rRNA gene ITS region revealed that the ITS sizes for all studied isolates varied between 415 to 849 bp, while their G+C content was 42.2 mol% to 57.9 mol%. Five distinct ITS types were identified: ITSnone (without tRNA genes, ITSAla(TGC, ITSAla (TGC+Ile (GAT, ITSIle (GAT+Ala (TGC and ITS Ile (GAT+Pseudo. All of the identified tRNAAla (TGC molecules consisted of 73 bases, and all of the tRNAIle (GAT molecules consisted of 74 bases. We also detected striking variability in the size of the ITS region among the various examined isolates. Highest variability was detected within the ITS-2.

  4. Regional variability in secondary remodeling within long bone cortices of catarrhine primates: the influence of bone growth history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlin, Shannon C; Terranova, Carl J; Zihlman, Adrienne L; Enlow, Donald H; Bromage, Timothy G

    2008-09-01

    Secondary intracortical remodeling of bone varies considerably among and within vertebrate skeletons. Although prior research has shed important light on its biomechanical significance, factors accounting for this variability remain poorly understood. We examined regional patterning of secondary osteonal bone in an ontogenetic series of wild-collected primates, at the midshaft femur and humerus of Chlorocebus (Cercopithecus) aethiops (n = 32) and Hylobates lar (n = 28), and the midshaft femur of Pan troglodytes (n = 12). Our major objectives were: 1) to determine whether secondary osteonal bone exhibits significant regional patterning across inner, mid-cortical and outer circumferential cortical rings within cross-sections; and if so, 2) to consider the manner in which this regional patterning may reflect the influence of relative tissue age and other circumstances of bone growth. Using same field-of-view images of 100-microm-thick cross-sections acquired in brightfield and circularly polarized light microscopy, we quantified the percent area of secondary osteonal bone (%HAV) for whole cross-sections and across the three circumferential rings within cross-sections. We expected bone areas with inner and middle rings to exhibit higher %HAV than the outer cortical ring within cross-sections, the latter comprising tissues of more recent depositional history. Observations of primary bone microstructural development provided an additional context in which to evaluate regional patterning of intracortical remodeling. Results demonstrated significant regional variability in %HAV within all skeletal sites. As predicted,%HAV was usually lowest in the outer cortical ring within cross-sections. However, regional patterning across inner vs. mid-cortical rings showed a more variable pattern across taxa, age classes, and skeletal sites examined. Observations of primary bone microstructure revealed that the distribution of endosteally deposited bone had an important influence on

  5. Multi-Site and Multi-Variables Statistical Downscaling Technique in the Monsoon Dominated Region of Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Firdos; Pilz, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    South Asia is under the severe impacts of changing climate and global warming. The last two decades showed that climate change or global warming is happening and the first decade of 21st century is considered as the warmest decade over Pakistan ever in history where temperature reached 53 0C in 2010. Consequently, the spatio-temporal distribution and intensity of precipitation is badly effected and causes floods, cyclones and hurricanes in the region which further have impacts on agriculture, water, health etc. To cope with the situation, it is important to conduct impact assessment studies and take adaptation and mitigation remedies. For impact assessment studies, we need climate variables at higher resolution. Downscaling techniques are used to produce climate variables at higher resolution; these techniques are broadly divided into two types, statistical downscaling and dynamical downscaling. The target location of this study is the monsoon dominated region of Pakistan. One reason for choosing this area is because the contribution of monsoon rains in this area is more than 80 % of the total rainfall. This study evaluates a statistical downscaling technique which can be then used for downscaling climatic variables. Two statistical techniques i.e. quantile regression and copula modeling are combined in order to produce realistic results for climate variables in the area under-study. To reduce the dimension of input data and deal with multicollinearity problems, empirical orthogonal functions will be used. Advantages of this new method are: (1) it is more robust to outliers as compared to ordinary least squares estimates and other estimation methods based on central tendency and dispersion measures; (2) it preserves the dependence among variables and among sites and (3) it can be used to combine different types of distributions. This is important in our case because we are dealing with climatic variables having different distributions over different meteorological

  6. Stellar variability in low-extinction regions towards the Galactic Bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Dominici, T P; Medina-Tanco, G A; Teixeira, R G; Benevides-Soares, P

    1999-01-01

    Intensive monitoring of low-extinction windows towards the galactic bulge has provided in the last years valuable information for studies about the dynamics, kinematics and formation history of this part of the galaxy, mainly by characterizing the bulge stellar populations (Paczy\\'nski, 1996). Since 1997, we have been conducting an intensive photometric-astrometric survey of the galactic bulge, with the monitoring of about 120000 stars in 12 windows uniformly distributed in galactic latitude and longitude (Blanco & Terndrup, 1989 e Blanco, 1988) never before submitted to this kind of survey. For this purpose, we have used the IAG/USP CCD Meridian Circle of the Abrahão de Moraes Observatory. The main objective of this work is the identification and classification of variable objects. In this work we present the set up and development of the necessary tools for a project like this and the posterior analysis of our data. We briefly describe the construction of a program to organize and detect variables amon...

  7. Reliability Measurement for Software with Variable Length Markov Control Transfer Chain%VLMC控制流软件可靠性度量方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵瑞曼; 潘冠华; 方建勇

    2014-01-01

    The classical software reliability model of Cheung based on architecture analysis is imperfect when applied to soft-ware which has non-uniqueness terminal node because of ideal assumptions. In order to handle this problem, an improved model is established through two improvement as follows:first, probability matrix of control transfer from start node to other inner nodes in a given software is computed independently of control transfer within inner nodes on the assumptions that the start node is inaccessible to control transfer from any inner nodes;and then, probability matrixes of control transfer within in-ner nodes are reconfigured by weaken the difference between inner nodes and ending nodes. In order to measure the reliability of software with VLMC control transfer flow, the variable length Markov control sequence chain is converted to simple Markov chain by node expansion and conditional transfer probability redistribution. By using deductive inference, a formal proof for the new model is given in this essay. In the end, effectiveness and simplicity of the proposed method is verified by a software example.%针对现有软件可靠性模型普遍不适用于实际软件的问题,分析了软件内部模块间控制转移机理,通过分离入口模块,提取一阶控制转移概率矩阵;弱化内部模块与出口模块间差异,重构二阶以上转移概率矩阵,在改进Cheung模型的基础上建立一个更符合软件实际的可靠性度量模型。针对变阶依赖( VLMC)控制转移导致的可靠性度量难问题,通过对导致复杂依赖的多入多出模块进行节点扩展,将VLMC控制流转化为Markov链,利用所建立的软件可靠性模型对VLMC控制流软件进行可靠性度量。研究利用演绎推理对所建立模型进行了正确性形式化证明。最后给出了方法的实例验证。

  8. Construction and characterization of a non-immune Llama variable heavy chain phage display antibody library%羊驼非免疫重链单域抗体库的构建和鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴标; 王树军; 夏立亮; 季萍; 葛海良; 赵国屏; 王颖

    2011-01-01

    本研究旨在通过构建羊驼非免疫重链单域抗体库,完成抗体库多样性的鉴定,为进一步筛选抗原特异性重链抗体奠定基础.我们从未经免疫的羊驼外周血中分离外周血单个核细胞(PBMC),抽提RNA后,用RT-PCR方法特异性扩增羊驼重链抗体可变区(VHH)片段;并采用两步连接方法将重链抗体可变区片段与噬菌粒载体pCANTAB5E连接获得重组子,多次电转感受态大肠杆菌TG1后获得VHH抗体基因库;并采用稀释计数法测定抗体库库容量,随机挑取克隆测序验证抗体库多样性.结果显示,我们所构建的羊驼非免疫重链单域抗体库的库容量为1.5×109,随机克隆测序验证多样性良好,独立克隆所占比例为80%,并显示出和人源抗体较高的同源性.上述结果表明,我们已经成功构建获得大容量的羊驼非免疫重链单域抗体库,为进一步筛选抗原特异性重链抗体奠定基础.%To construct a non-immune Llama variable domain of heavy chain antibody(VHH) phage display antibody library (VHH antibody library). Llama peripheral blood mononuclear lymphocytes were isolated from whole blood by Ficoll-hypaque density gradient centrifugation. Total RNA was extracted from PBMCs and reverse-transcripted into cDNA by using specific primers. VHH were amplified by nested PCR. PCR products of VHH fragments were then purified and ligated with phagemid vector pCANTAB5E by a modified two-step ligation method. Recombinant pCANTAB5E-VHH vectors were electroporated into competent TGI E.coli cells to obtain the primary VHH antibody library. The library capacity was titrated through limited dilution. Recombination efficacy and diversity of VHH antibody library was determined by sequencing analysis. Alignment a-nalysis was performed to compare the homology between Llama VHH domain and human/mouse variable regions of heavy chains. By using a modified strategy, we have constructed a non-immune Llama VHH antibody library with 1. 5

  9. Expression of Ciona intestinalis variable region-containing chitin-binding proteins during development of the gastrointestinal tract and their role in host-microbe interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assunta Liberti

    Full Text Available Variable region-containing chitin-binding proteins (VCBPs are secreted, immune-type molecules that have been described in both amphioxus, a cephalochordate, and sea squirt, Ciona intestinalis, a urochordate. In adult Ciona, VCBP-A, -B and -C are expressed in hemocytes and the cells of the gastrointestinal tract. VCBP-C binds bacteria in the stomach lumen and functions as an opsonin in vitro. In the present paper the expression of VCBPs has been characterized during development using in situ hybridization, immunohistochemical staining and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR technologies. The expression of VCBP-A and -C is detected first in discrete areas of larva endoderm and becomes progressively localized during differentiation in the stomach and intestine, marking the development of gut tracts. In "small adults" (1-2 cm juveniles expression of VCBP-C persists and VCBP-A gradually diminishes, ultimately replaced by expression of VCBP-B. The expression of VCBP-A and -C in stage 7-8 juveniles, at which point animals have already started feeding, is influenced significantly by challenge with either Gram-positive or -negative bacteria. A potential role for VCBPs in gut-microbiota interactions and homeostasis is indicated.

  10. Improvement in affinity and HIV-1 neutralization by somatic mutation in the heavy chain first complementarity-determining region of antibodies triggered by HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torán, J L; Sánchez-Pulido, L; Kremer, L; del Real, G; Valencia, A; Martínez-A, C

    2001-01-01

    We assessed the impact of somatic hypermutation in the framework region 1 (FR1) and complementarity-determining region 1 (CDR1) of three clonally-related heavy chains from the human monovalent antigen-binding fragments Fab S19, S8 and S20 on gp120 binding and HIV-1 neutralization capacity. Nucleotide changes were introduced in the heavy chains to revert single and multiple amino acid residues, and two Fab libraries were constructed with the same light chain to express equivalent amounts of parental and reverted phage Fab. We studied the contribution of each amino acid replacement to antigen binding by calculating the frequency of phage Fab retrieval after competitive library selection on gp120. Whereas mutations in FR1 had no effect on antigen binding, somatic replacements in the CDR1 of the heavy chain (HCDR1) appeared to produce significant changes. In S19 HCDR1, somatic mutation of residue 32 reduced gp120 binding. In Fab S20, the Arg(30) and Asp(31) somatically replaced residues in HCDR1 improved antigen binding. Both of these residues are necessary to increase Fab binding to gp120; reversion of either residue alone results in a decrease in binding. The impact of these two replacements was confirmed by the greater neutralization capacity of S20 compared to the other Fab. Molecular modeling of S20 HCDR1 suggests that Arg(30) and Asp(31) are the main interaction sites for gp120, increasing antibody affinity and promoting the enhanced neutralization ability of S20. These findings are consistent with a gp120-driven process, supporting a role for affinity maturation and intraclonal evolution of HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies.

  11. Detecting regional variability in sources and sinks of carbon dioxide: a synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Dolman

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The current paper reviews the experimental setup of the CarboEurope Experimental Strategy (CERES campaigns with the aim of providing an overview of the instrumentation used, the data-set and associated modelling. It then assesses progress in the field of regional observation and modelling of carbon fluxes, bringing the papers of this special issue into a somewhat broader context of analysis.

    Instrumental progress has been obtained in the field of remotely monitoring from tall towers and the experimental planning. Flux measurements from aircraft are now capable, within some constraints, to provide regular regional observations of fluxes of CO2, latent and sensible heat.

    Considerable effort still needs to be put into calibrating the surface schemes of models, as they have direct impact on the input of energy, moisture and carbon fluxes in the boundary layer. Overall, the mesoscale models appear to be capable of simulating the large scale dynamics of the region, but in the fine detail, like the precise horizontal and vertical CO2 field differences between the models still exist. These errors translate directly into transport uncertainty, when the forward simulations are used in inverse mode. Quantification of this uncertainty, including that of inadequate boundary layer height modelling, still remains a major challenge for state of the art mesoscale models. Progress in inverse models has been slow, but has shown that it is possible to estimate some of the errors involved, and that using the combination of observations. Overall, the capability to produce regional, high-resolution estimates of carbon exchange, exist in potential, but the routine application will require considerable effort, both in the experimental as in the modelling domain.

  12. Inference of haplotypic phase and missing genotypes in polyploid organisms and variable copy number genomic regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balding David J

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The power of haplotype-based methods for association studies, identification of regions under selection, and ancestral inference, is well-established for diploid organisms. For polyploids, however, the difficulty of determining phase has limited such approaches. Polyploidy is common in plants and is also observed in animals. Partial polyploidy is sometimes observed in humans (e.g. trisomy 21; Down's syndrome, and it arises more frequently in some human tissues. Local changes in ploidy, known as copy number variations (CNV, arise throughout the genome. Here we present a method, implemented in the software polyHap, for the inference of haplotype phase and missing observations from polyploid genotypes. PolyHap allows each individual to have a different ploidy, but ploidy cannot vary over the genomic region analysed. It employs a hidden Markov model (HMM and a sampling algorithm to infer haplotypes jointly in multiple individuals and to obtain a measure of uncertainty in its inferences. Results In the simulation study, we combine real haplotype data to create artificial diploid, triploid, and tetraploid genotypes, and use these to demonstrate that polyHap performs well, in terms of both switch error rate in recovering phase and imputation error rate for missing genotypes. To our knowledge, there is no comparable software for phasing a large, densely genotyped region of chromosome from triploids and tetraploids, while for diploids we found polyHap to be more accurate than fastPhase. We also compare the results of polyHap to SATlotyper on an experimentally haplotyped tetraploid dataset of 12 SNPs, and show that polyHap is more accurate. Conclusion With the availability of large SNP data in polyploids and CNV regions, we believe that polyHap, our proposed method for inferring haplotypic phase from genotype data, will be useful in enabling researchers analysing such data to exploit the power of haplotype-based analyses.

  13. Spatial and temporal variability of rainfall in the Tocantins-Araguaia hydrographic region

    OpenAIRE

    Glauber Epifanio Loureiro; Lindemberg Lima Fernandes; Júnior Hiroyuki Ishihara

    2015-01-01

    Current paper examines the space-time dynamics of yearly rainfall of the Tocantins-Araguaia Hydrographic Region (TAHR), foregrounded on rainfall volume from isohyet maps and interpolated by Kriging geo-statistical method.  Rainfall space dynamics was undertaken by the analysis of descriptive statistics, Index of Meteorological Irregularity (IMI) and Variation Coefficient. Temporal dynamics was analyzed through the distribution of total annual volume precipitation for each TAHR sub-basin by th...

  14. Research on Regional Spatial Variability of Soil Moisture Based on GIS

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Yongcun; Zhang, Changli; Fang, Junlong; Tian, Lei

    2010-01-01

    International audience As one of soil dynamics properties, soil moisture content is an important factor of soil fertility which counts for much to crop growth situation and scientific irrigation management. A design plan of regional spatial variation of soil moisture measurement was introduced. Its main job includes the use of differential GPS technology for each sampling points in farmland, collecting data of high-precision geo-spatial information and soil moisture in farmland resorting o...

  15. Sex differences in synaptic plasticity in stress-responsive brain regions following chronic variable stress

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho-Netto, Eduardo F.; Myers, Brent; Jones, Kenneth; Solomon, Matia B.; Herman, James P.

    2011-01-01

    Increased stress responsiveness is implicated in the etiology of mood and anxiety disorders, including depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. Additionally, stress-related affective disorders have a higher incidence in women than men. Chronic stress in rodents produces numerous neuromorphological changes in a variety of limbic brain regions. Here, we examined the sex-dependent differences in presynaptic innervation of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), prefrontal co...

  16. Local and regional variability in snow conditions in northern Finland: A reindeer herding perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmus, Sirpa; Kivinen, Sonja; Bavay, Mathias; Heiskanen, Janne

    2016-05-01

    Weather station measurements were used to force the SNOWPACK snow model and combined with reindeer herders' experiences to study the local and regional variations in snow conditions in a Finnish reindeer herding area for the 1981-2010 period. Winter conditions varied significantly between the four selected herding districts and between open and forest environments within the districts. The highest snow depths and densities, the thicknesses of ground ice, and the lengths of snow cover period were generally found in the northernmost districts. The snow depths showed the strongest regional coherence, whereas the thicknesses of ground ice were weakly correlated among the districts. The local variation in snow depths was higher than the regional variation and limits for rare or exceptional events varied notably between different districts and environments. The results highlight that forests diversify snow and foraging conditions, e.g., ground ice rarely forms simultaneously in different environments. Sufficient and diverse forest pastures are important during the critical winter season if reindeer herding is pursued on natural grazing grounds also in the future. PMID:26754168

  17. Simulated climate variability in the region of Rapa Nui during the last millennium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Junk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Easter Island, an isolated island in the Southeast Pacific, was settled by the Polynesians probably between 600 and 1200 AD and discovered by the Europeans in 1722 AD. While the Polynesians presumably found a profuse palm woodland on Easter Island, the Europeans faced a landscape dominated by grassland. Scientists have examined potential anthropogenic, biological and climatic induced vegetation changes on Easter Island. Here, we analyze observational climate data for the last decades and climate model results for the period 800–1750 AD to explore potential causes for a climatic-induced vegetation change. A direct influence of the ENSO phenomenon on the climatic parameters of Easter Island could not be found in the model simulations. Furthermore, strong climatic trends from a warm Medieval Period to a Little Ice Age or rapid climatic fluctuations due to large volcanic eruptions were not verifiable for the Easter Island region, although they are detectable in the simulations for many regions world wide. Hence we tentatively conclude that large-scale climate changes in the oceanic region around Easter Island might be too small to explain strong vegetation changes on the island over the last millennium.

  18. Simulated climate variability in the region of Rapa Nui during the last millennium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Junk

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Rapa Nui, an isolated island in the Southeast Pacific, was settled by the Polynesians most likely around 1200 AD and was discovered by the Europeans in 1722 AD. While the Polynesians presumably found a profuse palm woodland on Rapa Nui, the Europeans faced a landscape dominated by grassland. Scientists have examined potential anthropogenic, biological and climatic induced vegetation changes on Rapa Nui. Here, we analyse observational climate data for the last decades and climate model results for the period 800–1750 AD to explore the potential for a climatic-induced vegetation change. A direct influence of the ENSO phenomenon on the climatic parameters of Rapa Nui could not be found in the model simulations. Furthermore, strong climatic trends from a warm Medieval Period to a Little Ice Age or rapid climatic fluctuations due to large volcanic eruptions were not verifiable for the Rapa Nui region, although they are detectable in the simulations for many regions world wide. Hence, we tentatively conclude that large-scale climate changes in the oceanic region around Rapa Nui might be too small to explain strong vegetation changes on the island over the last millennium.

  19. The variability of radiative balance elements and air temperature on the Asian region of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Kharyutkina

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The variability of spatial-temporal distribution of temperature and radiative and heat balances components is investigated for the Asian territory of Russia (45–80° N, 60–180° E using JRA-25, NCEP/DOE AMIP reanalysis data and observational data for the period of current global warming 1979–2008. It is shown that since the beginning of 90s of XX century the increase of back earth-atmosphere short-wave radiation is observed. Such tendency is in conformity with the cloud cover dynamics and downward short-wave radiation at the surface. Annual averaged radiative balance values at the top are negative; it is consistent with negative annual averaged air temperature, averaged over territory. The downward trend of radiative balance is the most obvious after the beginning of 90s of XX century.

  20. Variability in 14C contents of soil organic matter at the plot and regional scale across climatic and geologic gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Voort, Tessa Sophia; Hagedorn, Frank; McIntyre, Cameron; Zell, Claudia; Walthert, Lorenz; Schleppi, Patrick; Feng, Xiaojuan; Eglinton, Timothy Ian

    2016-06-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) forms the largest terrestrial pool of carbon outside of sedimentary rocks. Radiocarbon is a powerful tool for assessing soil organic matter dynamics. However, due to the nature of the measurement, extensive 14C studies of soil systems remain relatively rare. In particular, information on the extent of spatial and temporal variability in 14C contents of soils is limited, yet this information is crucial for establishing the range of baseline properties and for detecting potential modifications to the SOM pool. This study describes a comprehensive approach to explore heterogeneity in bulk SOM 14C in Swiss forest soils that encompass diverse landscapes and climates. We examine spatial variability in soil organic carbon (SOC) 14C, SOC content and C : N ratios over both regional climatic and geologic gradients, on the watershed- and plot-scale and within soil profiles. Results reveal (1) a relatively uniform radiocarbon signal across climatic and geologic gradients in Swiss forest topsoils (0-5 cm, Δ14C = 130 ± 28.6, n = 12 sites), (2) similar radiocarbon trends with soil depth despite dissimilar environmental conditions, and (3) micro-topography dependent, plot-scale variability that is similar in magnitude to regional-scale variability (e.g., Gleysol, 0-5 cm, Δ14C 126 ± 35.2, n = 8 adjacent plots of 10 × 10 m). Statistical analyses have additionally shown that Δ14C signature in the topsoil is not significantly correlated to climatic parameters (precipitation, elevation, primary production) except mean annual temperature at 0-5 cm. These observations have important consequences for SOM carbon stability modelling assumptions, as well as for the understanding of controls on past and current soil carbon dynamics.

  1. Prokaryotic expression and purification of anti-AEG-1 single-chain variable antibody%抗 AEG-1单链可变区抗体的原核表达及纯化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路蔓; 刘昕阳; 龙敏; 王琛; 刘冲; 郜赵伟; 欧阳永日; 陈曦; 张惠中

    2015-01-01

    Objective To construct anti-astrocyte elevated gene-1(AEG-1)single-chain variable antibody (V23)prokaryotic ex-pression vector,and to conduct the protein purification and immunological activity detection.Methods The Primer5 software was applied to design the primers aiming at the gene sequence of the antibody anti-AEG-1 single-chain variable region for constructing the prokaryotic expression plasmid of PRsetC/V23.After the enzyme digestion by the restriction enzyme Pst1 and correct DNA se-quencing,the prokaryotic expression plasmid was led to E.coli BL21 ,the prokaryotic expression engineering strain containing the V23 gene was constructed.After the induction with IPTG,the interest protein was purified by the magnetic beads with the HIS tag,and the content of interest protein was determined by the SDS-PAGE electrophoresis.Western blot and ELISA were adopted to detect the immune activity of the nti-AEG-1 single-chain variable region antibody.Results For the constructed prokaryotic expres-sion plasmid PRsetC/V23,the single enzyme digestion and sequencing analysis displayed that the constructed V23 gene was com-pletely consistent to the designing sequences.After IPTG induction,SDS-PAGE electrophoresis showed an apparent protein band at 31×103 ,the Western blot detection showed a specific AEG-1 response band at 80 ×103 ,the ELISA test showed the positive re-sults.Conclusion The PRsetC/V23 prokaryotic expression plasmid and the V23 prokaryotic expression engineering strain are suc-cessfully constructed,this engineering strain can express anti-AEG-1 single-chain variable region antibody protein,and the protein has good immune activity.%目的:构建抗星形细胞上调基因1(AEG-1)单链可变区抗体(V23)的原核表达载体,并对表达蛋白进行纯化及免疫活性检测。方法应用 Primer5软件设计针对抗 AEG-1单链可变区抗体基因序列的引物,构建 PRsetC/V23原核表达质粒,经限制性内切酶 Pst1酶切以及 DNA

  2. Lithofacies variability in the Lower Khvalynian sediments of the North Caspian Sea region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makshaev, Radik; Svitoch, Aleksandr

    2016-04-01

    The Early Khvalynian period (~15 500-12 500 cal years B.P.) is characterized by continuous dynamic changes in North Caspian Sea region environment, which has been confirmed by numerous data obtained during the lithofacies analysis of its key sections. Lithofacies complex of the North Caspian Sea region contains four subfacies - clayey, laminated, sandy-clayey and aleurite-clayey. Clayey facie is characterized by absolutely clayey structure with massive nonlamellated or subfissile dark-brown clays and rarely contains thin aleurite layers. This subfacie is one of the most widespread in the North Caspian Sea region. Clayey facies are typical for the most of the key sections in the Middle Volga (Bykovo, Torgun, Rovnoe, Novoprivolnoe, Chapaevka), Lower Volga (Svetly Yar) and on the left side of the Volga River valley (Verkhny Baskunchak, Krivaya Loshchina, Bolshoy Liman). Deep paleodepressions of the Lower Volga and the left side of the Volga River valley are also characterized by the maximum of the average clays thickness, which can reach up to 10 m. Sandy-clayey subfacie is characterized by stratified structure with horizontal and lenticular lamination of clays with sandy-aleuritic interlayers. The average thickness of sand layers is 2-5 cm. At most of the key sections thickness of clay layers is up to twice larger than the sands layers and only on depressions' periphery can be exceeded by some terrigenous interlayers. Sandy-aleuritic parts of clays have different mineral structure. Light suite is dominated by quartz and feldspar with some debris of heavy minerals, glauconite and calcite. Fraction of the heavy minerals contains titano ferrite, epidote, granite, zircon, amphibole, rutile, disthene, tourmaline, sillimanite. Layered subfacie is the most abundant among the chocolate clays and is widespread in the Lower Volga River region and the Ural River valley, but sporadic in Kalmykia and the Volga Delta. Sandy-clayey and aleurit-clayey subfacies have rare

  3. Rainfall and temperature changes and variability in the Upper East Region of Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issahaku, Abdul-Rahaman; Campion, Benjamin Betey; Edziyie, Regina

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the research was to assess the current trend and variation in rainfall and temperature in the Upper East Region, Ghana, using time series moving average analysis and decomposition methods. Meteorological data obtained from the Ghana Meteorological Agency in Accra, Ghana, from 1954 to 2014 were used in the models. The additive decomposition model was used to analyze the rainfall because the seasonal variation was relatively constant over time, while the multiplicative model was used for both the daytime and nighttime temperatures because their seasonal variations increase over time. The monthly maximum and the minimum values for the entire period were as follows: rainfall 455.50 and 0.00 mm, nighttime temperature 29.10°C and 13.25°C and daytime temperature 41.10°C and 26.10°C, respectively. Also, while rainfall was decreasing, nighttime and daytime temperatures were increasing in decadal times. Since both the daytime and nighttime temperatures were increasing and rainfall was decreasing, climate extreme events such as droughts could result and affect agriculture in the region, which is predominantly rain fed. Also, rivers, dams, and dugouts are likely to dry up in the region. It was also observed that there was much variation in rainfall making prediction difficult. Day temperatures were generally high with the months of March and April have been the highest. The months of December recorded the lowest night temperature. Inhabitants are therefore advised to sleep in well-ventilated rooms during the warmest months and wear protective clothing during the cold months to avoid contracting climate-related diseases.

  4. Anti-CD20 single chain variable antibody fragment–apolipoprotein A-I chimera containing nanodisks promote targeted bioactive agent delivery to CD20-positive lymphomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Natasha M.; Ghosh, Mistuni; Su, Betty; Beckstead, Jennifer A.; Kamei, Ayako; Simonsen, Jens B.; Luo, Bing; Gordon, Leo I.; Forte, Trudy M.; Ryan, Robert O.

    2015-01-01

    A fusion protein comprising an α-CD20 single chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody, a spacer peptide, and human apolipoprotein (apo) A-I was constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli. The lipid interaction properties intrinsic to apoA-I as well as the antigen recognition properties of the scFv were retained by the chimera. scFv•apoA-I was formulated into nanoscale reconstituted high-density lipoprotein particles (termed nanodisks; ND) and incubated with cultured cells. α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I ND bound to CD20-positive non-Hodgkins lymphoma (NHL) cells (Ramos and Granta) but not to CD20-negative T lymphocytes (i.e., Jurkat). Binding to NHL cells was partially inhibited by pre-incubation with rituximab, a monoclonal antibody directed against CD20. Confocal fluorescence microscopy analysis of Granta cells following incubation with α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I ND formulated with the intrinsically fluorescent hydrophobic polyphenol, curcumin, revealed α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I localizes to the cell surface, while curcumin off-loads and gains entry to the cell. Compared to control incubations, viability of cultured NHL cells was decreased upon incubation with α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I ND harboring curcumin. Thus, formulation of curcumin ND with α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I as the scaffold component confers cell targeting and enhanced bioactive agent delivery, providing a strategy to minimize toxicity associated with chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:25994015

  5. Anti-CD20 single chain variable antibody fragment-apolipoprotein A-I chimera containing nanodisks promote targeted bioactive agent delivery to CD20-positive lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Natasha M; Ghosh, Mistuni; Su, Betty; Beckstead, Jennifer A; Kamei, Ayako; Simonsen, Jens B; Luo, Bing; Gordon, Leo I; Forte, Trudy M; Ryan, Robert O

    2015-08-01

    A fusion protein comprising an α-CD20 single chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody, a spacer peptide, and human apolipoprotein (apo) A-I was constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli. The lipid interaction properties intrinsic to apoA-I as well as the antigen recognition properties of the scFv were retained by the chimera. scFv•apoA-I was formulated into nanoscale reconstituted high-density lipoprotein particles (termed nanodisks; ND) and incubated with cultured cells. α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I ND bound to CD20-positive non-Hodgkins lymphoma (NHL) cells (Ramos and Granta) but not to CD20-negative T lymphocytes (i.e., Jurkat). Binding to NHL cells was partially inhibited by pre-incubation with rituximab, a monoclonal antibody directed against CD20. Confocal fluorescence microscopy analysis of Granta cells following incubation with α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I ND formulated with the intrinsically fluorescent hydrophobic polyphenol, curcumin, revealed α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I localizes to the cell surface, while curcumin off-loads and gains entry to the cell. Compared to control incubations, viability of cultured NHL cells was decreased upon incubation with α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I ND harboring curcumin. Thus, formulation of curcumin ND with α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I as the scaffold component confers cell targeting and enhanced bioactive agent delivery, providing a strategy to minimize toxicity associated with chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:25994015

  6. Phenology Analysis of Forest Vegetation to Environmental Variables during - and Post-Monsoon Seasons in Western Himalayan Region of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, S.; Latifi, H.; Ghosh, K.

    2016-06-01

    To assess the phenological changes in Moist Deciduous Forest (MDF) of western Himalayan region of India, we carried out NDVI time series analysis from 2013 to 2015 using Landsat 8 OLI data. We used the vegetation index differencing method to calculate the change in NDVI (NDVIchange) during pre and post monsoon seasons and these changes were used to assess the phenological behaviour of MDF by taking the effect of a set of environmental variables into account. To understand the effect of environmental variables on change in phenology, we designed a linear regression analysis with sample-based NDVIchange values as the response variable and elevation aspect, and Land Surface Temperature (LST) as explanatory variables. The Landsat-8 derived phenology transition stages were validated by calculating the phenology variation from Nov 2008 to April 2009 using Landsat-7 which has the same spatial resolution as Landsat-8. The Landsat-7 derived NDVI trajectories were plotted in accordance with MODIS derived phenology stages (from Nov 2008 to April 2009) of MDF. Results indicate that the Landsat -8 derived NDVI trajectories describing the phenology variation of MDF during spring, monsoon autumn and winter seasons agreed closely with Landsat-7 and MODIS derived phenology transition from Nov 2008 to April 2009. Furthermore, statistical analysis showed statistically significant correlations (p < 0.05) amongst the environmental variables and the NDVIchange between full greenness and maximum frequency stage of Onset of Greenness (OG) activity.. The major change in NDVI was observed in medium (600 to 650 m) and maximum (650 to 750 m) elevation areas. The change in LST showed also to be highly influential. The results of this study can be used for large scale monitoring of difficult-to-reach mountainous forests, with additional implications in biodiversity assessment. By means of a sufficient amount of available cloud-free imagery, detailed phenological trends across mountainous

  7. Regional patterns of low-frequency sea level variability: case of the Japan/East Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trusenkova, Olga

    An increasing trend is detected in globally averaged sea level derived from satellite altimetry measurements for the last two decades. Sea level trends in the North Pacific can be attributed to steric expansion, mostly due to the temperature increase, while the spatial distribution resembles the negative phase of Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). The latter is attributed to water redistribution caused by circulation (Fukumore, Wang, 2013). As for the East Asia marginal seas, there are strong positive sea level trends in the subtropical areas but only weak positive or even negative trends in the subarctic areas (Marcos et al., 2012). Strong seasonal sea level oscillations, with amplitude of 15-25 cm, occur simultaneously in the entire Japan/East Sea, with maxima and minima in October and March, respectively (Choi et al., 2004; Trusenkova et al., 2010). The timing of the extremes can be explained by maximum inflow of warm water through the Korea Strait in October and strong winter cooling. This study is focused on low-frequency sea level variability in the Japan/East Sea, beyond the steric effects. To this purpose, AVISO 0.25 dergee gridded weekly sea level anomalies (SLA) for the period from October 1992 onwards are low-pass filtered, with the cut-off period of 1.3 years. Decomposition to Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF) yields the leading mode of synchronous, weak but statistically significant, quasi-biennial oscillations in the entire Sea. They also manifest interannual and decadal variability but no linear trend. This mode should be attributed to variation of water volume in the sea, i.e. transport imbalance through the straits. The strong SLA are timed with the strong anomalies of the inflow transport in the Korea Strait. An out-of-phase relationship of sea level with PDO was found and explained by transport variations in the Korea Strait (Gordon and Giulivi, 2004). However, the alternating out-of-phase and in-phase regimes are detected when the altimetry

  8. Seasonal variability of planktonic copepods (Copepoda: Crustacea in a tropical estuarine region in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina de Oliveira Dias

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Caravelas River estuary and adjacent coastal region were studied during the rainy and dry seasons of 2003-2004 to assess the copepod community structure. Abiotic and biotic parameters were measured, and the total density, frequency and percentage of copepod taxa were determined for each sampling period. Copepod densities showed significant differences between sampling periods, with higher densities in the rainy seasons (Mean: 90,941.80 ind.m-3; S.D.: 26,364.79. The sampling stations located to the north and south, in the coastal region adjacent to the Caravelas River estuary presented the lowest copepod density values. The copepod assemblage was composed mainly of estuarine and estuarine/coastal copepods. The seasonal variations in temperature and salinity influenced the abundance of species during the rainy and dry seasons, with the following dominant species alternating: Paracalanus quasimodo Bowman, 1971 in the rainy season of 2003, Parvocalanus crassirostris Dahl, 1894 in the dry season of 2003 and Acartia lilljeborgii Giesbrecht, 1892 in the rainy and dry seasons of 2004. Non-parametric multidimensional scaling indicated differences in copepod assemblages between sampling periods, but not between sampling stations.

  9. Variability or conservation of hepatitis C virus hypervariable region 1? Implications for immune responses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mario U Mondelli; Antonella Cerino; Annalisa Meola; Alfredo Nicosia

    2003-04-01

    The hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) of the E2 protein of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is highly heterogeneous in its primary sequence and is responsible for significant inter- and intra-individual variation of the infecting virus, which may represent an important pathogenetic mechanism leading to immune escape and persistent infection. A binding site for neutralizing antibodies (Ab) has also been allegedly identified in this region. Prospective studies of serological responses to synthetic oligopeptides derived from naturally-occurring HVR1 sequences showed promiscuous recognition of HVR1 variants in most patients via binding to C-terminal amino acid residues with conserved physicochemical properties. Monoclonal antibodies generated by immunization of mice with peptides derived from natural HVR1 sequences were shown to recognize several HVR1 variants in line with evidence gathered from studies using human sera. In addition, selected mAbs were able to bind HVR1 in the context of a complete soluble form of the E2 glycoprotein, indicating recognition of correctly folded sequences, and were shown to specifically capture circulating and recombinant HCV particles, suggesting that HVR1 is expressed on intact virus particles and therefore potentially able to interact with cellular receptor(s). These findings suggest that it is possible to induce a broadly reactive clonal immune response to multiple HCV variants and that this mechanism could be used in principle to induce protective immunity for a large repertoire of HCV variants.

  10. Structure effects in the region of superheavy elements via the $\\alpha$-decay chain of $^{293}$118

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Raj K; Kumar, Rajesh; Balasubramaniam, M; Scheid, W; 10.1088/0954-3899/28/11/310

    2011-01-01

    The $\\alpha$-decay chain of $^{293}$118, first proposed in the Berkeley cold fusion experiment $^{208}$Pb($^{86}$Kr,1n) and now retracted, is calculated by using the preformed cluster model (PCM) of one of us (RKG). Also, the possible branchings of $\\alpha$-particles to heavier cluster decays of all the parents in this chain are calculated for the first time. The calculated Q-values, penetrabilities and preformation factors for $\\alpha$-decays suggest that the $^{285}$114 nucleus with Z=114, N=171 is a magic nucleus, either due to the magicity of Z=114, or of N=172 or of both. The N=172 is proposed to be a magic number in certain relativistic mean-field calculations, but with Z=120. The calculated cluster decays point to new interesting possibilities of $^{14}$C decay of the $^{281}$112 parent, giving rise to a (reasonably) deformed Z=106, N=161, $^{267}$106 daughter (N=162 being now established as the deformed magic shell) or to a doubly magic $^{48}$Ca cluster emitted from any of the parent nucleus in the $...

  11. Haplotypes and variable position detection in the mitochondrial DNA coding region encompassing nucleotide positions 10,716-11,184.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, Imad Hadi; Abdulzahra, Ameer Ibrahim; Jebor, Mohammed Abdullah; Kqueen, Cheah Yoke; Ommer, Aamera Jaber

    2015-08-01

    This study evaluates the mitochondrial noncoding regions by using the Sanger sequencing method for application in Forensic Science. FTA® Technology (FTA™ paper DNA extraction) was utilized to extract DNA. Portion of coding region encompassing positions from (10,716 to 11,184) amplified in accordance with the Anderson reference sequence. PCR products purified by EZ-10 spin column were then sequenced and detected using the ABI 3730 × L DNA Analyzer. A new polymorphic positions 10,750 and 10,790 that are described may be suitable sources in future for identification purpose. The data obtained can be used to identify variable nucleotide positions characterized by frequent occurrence, most promising for identification variants.

  12. DR Tau: Temporal variability of the brightness distribution in the potential planet-forming region

    CERN Document Server

    Brunngräber, Robert; Ratzka, Thorsten; Ober, Florian

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the variability of the brightness distribution and the changing density structure of the protoplanetary disk around DR Tau, a classical T Tauri star. DR Tau is known for its peculiar variations from the ultraviolet (UV) to the mid-infrared (MIR). Our goal is to constrain the temporal variation of the disk structure based on photometric and MIR interferometric data. We observed DR Tau with the MID-infrared Interferometric instrument (MIDI) at the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) at three epochs separated by about nine years, two months, respectively. We fit the spectral energy distribution and the MIR visibilities with radiative transfer simulations. We are able to reproduce the spectral energy distribution as well as the MIR visibility for one of the three epochs (third epoch) with a basic disk model. We were able to reproduce the very different visibility curve obtained nine years earlier with a very similar baseline (first epoch), using the same disk model with a smaller scale heigh...

  13. Rice Root Architectural Plasticity Traits and Genetic Regions for Adaptability to Variable Cultivation and Stress Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Nitika; Raman, K Anitha; Torres, Rolando O; Audebert, Alain; Dardou, Audrey; Kumar, Arvind; Henry, Amelia

    2016-08-01

    Future rice (Oryza sativa) crops will likely experience a range of growth conditions, and root architectural plasticity will be an important characteristic to confer adaptability across variable environments. In this study, the relationship between root architectural plasticity and adaptability (i.e. yield stability) was evaluated in two traditional × improved rice populations (Aus 276 × MTU1010 and Kali Aus × MTU1010). Forty contrasting genotypes were grown in direct-seeded upland and transplanted lowland conditions with drought and drought + rewatered stress treatments in lysimeter and field studies and a low-phosphorus stress treatment in a Rhizoscope study. Relationships among root architectural plasticity for root dry weight, root length density, and percentage lateral roots with yield stability were identified. Selected genotypes that showed high yield stability also showed a high degree of root plasticity in response to both drought and low phosphorus. The two populations varied in the soil depth effect on root architectural plasticity traits, none of which resulted in reduced grain yield. Root architectural plasticity traits were related to 13 (Aus 276 population) and 21 (Kali Aus population) genetic loci, which were contributed by both the traditional donor parents and MTU1010. Three genomic loci were identified as hot spots with multiple root architectural plasticity traits in both populations, and one locus for both root architectural plasticity and grain yield was detected. These results suggest an important role of root architectural plasticity across future rice crop conditions and provide a starting point for marker-assisted selection for plasticity. PMID:27342311

  14. Optical system design with variable working distance for monitoring of environmental contamination in infrared region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanova, G. E.; Zaitceva, A. S.

    2016-04-01

    The project is dedicated to a research and development of a compact optical system for an identification of dangerous substances in a surrounding environment using a spectrum of scattered laser radiation. There is a whole class of tasks for diagnostics of environments and substances which are solved by mobile systems on distances of 0.5 - 10 m from the object. The key feature of an optical system in this case is having the highest functionality, to meet this demands it should be able to work on variable distances and provide the minimal light spot. The purpose of the work is a research of the best possible initial system parameters and its components, designing of an optical system with minimum possible number of elements providing acceptable quality of the image in the required dimensions. An image quality criterion for such systems is the size of the light spot, which defines an operation speed of the system. Using the beam diameter and allowable system dimensions as initial parameters of the two components system, relations were found which helps to define optimal component parameters for future design. To provide the possibility of working on various distances the thickness between the components can be varied. An example of a two component system consisted of three lenses with spherical surfaces is presented. The system works with a laser with the wavelength of 0.785 μm and provides the light spot less than 2.3 mm for all working distances within the range of 2 - 5 m.

  15. Intra-seasonal and Inter-annual variability of Bowen Ratio over rain-shadow region of North peninsular India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morwal, S. B.; Narkhedkar, S. G.; Padmakumari, B.; Maheskumar, R. S.; Deshpande, C. G.; Kulkarni, J. R.

    2016-02-01

    Intra-seasonal and inter-annual variability of Bowen Ratio (BR) have been studied over the rain-shadow region of north peninsular India during summer monsoon season. Daily grid point data of latent heat flux (LHF), sensible heat flux (SHF) from NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis for the period 1970-2014 have been used to compute daily area-mean BR. Daily grid point rainfall data at a resolution of 0.25° × 0.25° from APHRODITE's Water Resources for the available period 1970-2007 have been used to study the association between rainfall and BR. The study revealed that BR rapidly decreases from 4.1 to 0.29 in the month of June and then remains nearly constant at the same value (≤0.1) in the rest of the season. High values of BR in the first half of June are indicative of intense thermals and convective clouds with higher bases. Low values of BR from July to September period are indicative of weak thermals and convective clouds with lower bases. Intra-seasonal and inter-annual variability of BR is found to be inversely related to precipitation over the region. BR analysis indicates that the land surface characteristics of the study region during July-September are similar to that over oceanic regions as far as intensity of thermals and associated cloud microphysical properties are concerned. Similar variation of BR is found in El Nino and La Nina years. During June, an increasing trend is observed in SHF and BR and decreasing trend in LHF from 1976 to 2014. Increasing trend in the SHF is statistically significant.

  16. Climate variability and change in high elevation regions: Past, present & future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Henry F.; Grosjean, Martin; Graumlich, Lisa J.

    2003-01-01

    This special issue of Climatic Change contains a series of research and review articles, arising from papers that were presented and discussed at a workshop held in Davos, Switzerland on 25–28 June 2001. The workshop was titled ‘Climate Change at High Elevation Sites: Emerging Impacts’, and was convened to reprise an earlier conference on the same subject that was held in Wengen, Switzerland in 1995 (Diaz et al., 1997). The Davos meeting had as its main goals, a discussion of the following key issues: (1) reviewing recent climatic trends in high elevation regions of the world, (2) assessing the reliability of various biological indicators as indicators of climatic change, and (3) assessing whether physical impacts of climatic change in high elevation areas are becoming evident, and to discuss a range of monitoring strategies needed to observe and to understand the nature of any changes.

  17. Observations of Saharan dust in the Caribbean and Implications for Regional Climate Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remer, L.; Einaudi, Franco

    2001-01-01

    Massive quantities of dust aerosol, originating at source locations in the Saharan desert are frequently transported westward across the Atlantic. Saharan dust has been frequently identified at ground-based stations in South America, on Barbados, in Florida and in Texas. Recently, in July of 2000, the Puerto Rican Dust Experiment (PRiDE), consisting of researchers from the U.S. Navy, NASA, the University of Miami and the University of Puerto Rico joined together to study this important phenomenon. Numerical forecast models tracked each dust event as the dust left the African continent and transversed the Atlantic. Ground-based, ship-based, airborne and satellite sensors were used to characterize the physical and radiative properties of the dust aerosol. The dust plays an important role in terms of radiative forcing of regional climate. Satellite sensors such as NASA's EOS-MODIS aboard the Terra satellite will provide important continuing information on the dust aerosol and its climatic effects.

  18. Demographic variability indicators of somatically healthy men from different administrative and territorial regions of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishalov Volodymyr

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Our work has revealed a rather low level of similarity in regard to the finger dermatoglyphics of somatically healthy men, 19-35 years old, between Ukraine’s north and west, north and south, center and west, center and south, as well as the palmar dermatoglyphics between central regions and the east, center and west, center and south. The obtained finger/palmar dermatoglyphics did not differentiate administrative-territorial local groups of men between the north and the center, south and west (quantitative characteristics; or palmar – between the north and west, north and east, south and west, south and east, north and center. The differences between the administrative and territorial division of dermatoglyphic signs are a reflection of the historical and cultural differences induced by migration, as well as the intensive process of mixing, in addition to the isolation of particular groups.

  19. Time variability of atmospheric and marine parameters over the Adriatic region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raicich, F.; Crisciani, F. [CNR, Centro Nazionale delle Ricerche, Trieste (Italy). Istituto Sperimentale Talassografico

    1999-04-01

    The time evolution of atmospheric and marine parameters over the Adriatic region is studied for the period 1946-1996 on different time-scales. On the inter annual and interdecadal time-scales evidence is found of the inverted barometer effect on sea level and the strong connection between air and sea temperatures. By contrast, opposite relationship are found on longer (secular) time-scales, which might be explained as different results of global climatic fluctuations on the atmospheric and marine parameters involved. On the inter annual time-scale a correlation is found between sea-level pressure gradient along the basin and the water inflow/outflow through the Otranto Channel, in terms of sea level and sea temperature.

  20. Genetic variability in the tumor necrosis factor-lymphotoxin region influences susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulcahy, B.; Waldron-Lynch, F.; Adams, C.; O`Gara, F. [Cork Univ. Hospital (Ireland)] [and others

    1996-09-01

    The major histocompatibility complex class H1 tumor necrosis factor-tymphotoxin (TNF-LT) region (6p21.3) was investigated as a possible susceptibility locus for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Inheritance of five TNF microsatellite markers was determined in 50 multiplex families. Overall, 47 different haplotypes were observed. One of these, the TNF a6, b5, c1, d3, e3 (H1) haplotype, was present in 35.3% of affected, but in only 20.5% of unaffected, individuals (P < .005). This haplotype accounted for 21.5% of the parental haplotypes transmitted to affected offspring and only 7.3 % not transmitted to affected offspring (P = .0003). The TNF a6 and TNF c1 alleles were individually associated with RA (P = .0005 and .0008, respectively), as were the HLA-DRB1 {open_quotes}shared epitope{close_quotes} (SE) (P = .0001) and HLA-DRB1*0401 (P = .0018). Both univariate and bivariate conditional logistic regression analysis showed significant effects of TNF c1 and SE in increasing risk to RA (P < .001). Stratification by the presence of SE indicated an independent effect of the TNFc1 allele (P = .0003) and the HLA A1, BS, DR3 extended haplotype (always TNFa2, b3, c1, d1, e3) (P = .0027) in SE heterozygotes, while the H1 haplotype was associated with RA in SE homozygotes (P = .0018). The TNF-LT region appears to influence susceptibility to RA, distinct from HLA-DR. 50 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  1. GCM Hindcasts for SST Forced Climate Variability over Agriculturally Intensive Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druyan, Leonard M.; Shah, Kathryn P.; Chandler, Mark A.; Rind, David

    1998-01-01

    The ability to forecast seasonal climate is of great practical interest. One of the most obvious benefits would be agriculture, for which various preparations (planting, machinery, irrigation, manpower) would be enabled. The expectation of being able to make such forecasts far enough in advance (on the order of 9 months) hinges on components of the system with the longest persistence or predictability. The mixed results of El Nino forecasts has raised the hope that tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures (SST) fall into this category. For agriculturally-relevant forecasts to be made, and utilized, requires several conditions. The SST in the regions that affect agricultural areas must be forecast successfully, many months in advance. The climate response to such sea surface temperatures must then be ascertained, either through the use of historical empirical studies or models (e.g., GCMS). For practical applications, the agricultural production must be strongly influenced by climate, and farmers on either the local level or through commercial concerns must be able to adjust to using such forecasts. In a continuing series of papers, we will explore each of these components. This article concerns the question of utilizing SST to forecast the climate in several regions of agricultural production. We optimize the possibility of doing so successfully by using observed SST in a hindcast mode (i.e., a perfect forecast), and we also use the globally observed values (rather than just those from the tropical Pacific, for which predictability has been shown). This then is the ideal situation; in subsequent papers we will explore degrading the results by using only tropical Pacific SSTs, and then using only

  2. Meteo-marine parameters for highly variable environment in coastal regions from satellite radar images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleskachevsky, A. L.; Rosenthal, W.; Lehner, S.

    2016-09-01

    The German Bight of the North Sea is the area with highly variable sea state conditions, intensive ship traffic and with a high density of offshore installations, e.g. wind farms in use and under construction. Ship navigation and the docking on offshore constructions is impeded by significant wave heights HS > 1.3 m. For these reasons, improvements are required in recognition and forecasting of sea state HS in the range 0-3 m. Thus, this necessitates the development of new methods to determine the distribution of meteo-marine parameters from remote sensing data with an accuracy of decimetres for HS. The operationalization of these methods then allows the robust automatic processing in near real time (NRT) to support forecast agencies by providing validations for model results. A new empirical algorithm XWAVE_C (C = coastal) for estimation of significant wave height from X-band satellite-borne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data has been developed, adopted for coastal applications using TerraSAR-X (TS-X) and Tandem-X (TD-X) satellites in the German Bight and implemented into the Sea Sate Processor (SSP) for fully automatic processing for NRT services. The algorithm is based on the spectral analysis of subscenes and the model function uses integrated image spectra parameters as well as local wind information from the analyzed subscene. The algorithm is able to recognize and remove the influence of non-sea state produced signals in the Wadden Sea areas such as dry sandbars as well as nonlinear SAR image distortions produced by e.g. short wind waves and breaking waves. Also parameters of very short waves, which are not visible in SAR images and produce only unsystematic clutter, can be accurately estimated. The SSP includes XWAVE_C, a pre-filtering procedure for removing artefacts such as ships, seamarks, buoys, offshore constructions and slicks, and an additional procedure performing a check of results based on the statistics of the whole scene. The SSP allows an

  3. NO2 climatology in the northern subtropical region: diurnal, seasonal and interannual variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Navarro

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Daily NO2 vertical column density (VCD has been routinely measured by zenith sky spectroscopy at the subtropical station of Izaña (28° N, 16° W since 1993 in the framework of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC. Based on 14 years of data the first low latitudes NO2 VCD climatology has been established and the main characteristics from short scales of one day to inter-annual variability are presented. Instrumental descriptions and different source of errors are described in detail. The observed diurnal cycle follows that expected by gas-phase NOx chemistry, as can be shown by the good agreement with a vertically integrated chemical box model, and is modulated by solar radiation. The seasonal evolution departs from the phase of the hours of daylight, showing the signature of upper stratospheric temperature changes. From the data record no significant long-term trends in NO2 VCD can be inferred. Comparison of the ground-based data sets with nadir looking satellite spectrometers shows excellent agreement for SCIAMACHY with differences between both datasets of 1.1%. GOME displays unrealistic features with largest discrepancies during summer. The ground-based data are compared with long-term output of the SLIMCAT 3-D chemical transport model (CTM. The basic model, forced by ECMWF (ERA-40 analyses, captures the observed NO2 annual cycle but significantly underestimates the spring/summer maximum. In a model run which uses assimilation of satellite CH4 profiles to constrain the model long-lived tracers the agreement is significantly improved. This improvement in modelled column NO2 is due to better modelled NOy profiles and points to transport errors in the ECMWF ERA-40 reanalyses.

  4. Regional Heat Sources and the Active and Break Phases of Boreal Summer Intraseasonal Variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annamalai, H; Sperber, K R

    2003-12-15

    The boreal summer intraseasonal variability (BSISV) associated with the 30-50 day mode is represented by the co-existence of three components, poleward propagation of convection over the Indian and tropical west Pacific longitudes and eastward propagation along the equator. The hypothesis that the three components influence each other has been investigated using observed OLR, NCEP-NCAR reanalysis, and solutions from an idealized linear model. The null hypothesis is that the three components are mutually independent. Cyclostationary EOF (CsEOF) analysis is applied on filtered OLR to extract the life-cycle of the BSISV. The dominant mode of CsEOF is significantly tied to observed rainfall over the Indian subcontinent. The components of the heating patterns from CsEOF analysis serve as prescribed forcings for the linear model. This allows us to ascertain which heat sources and sinks are instrumental in driving the large-scale monsoon circulation during the BSISV life-cycle. We identify three new findings: (1) the circulation anomalies that develop as a Rossby wave response to suppressed convection over the equatorial Indian Ocean associated with the previous break phase of the BSISV precondition the ocean-atmosphere system in the western Indian Ocean and trigger the next active phase of the BSISV, (2) the development of convection over the tropical west Pacific forces descent anomalies to the west. This, in conjunction with the weakened cross-equatorial flow due to suppressed convective anomalies over the equatorial Indian Ocean reduce the tropospheric moisture over the Arabian Sea, and promote westerly wind anomalies that do not recurve over India. As a result the low-level cyclonic vorticity shifts from India to southeast Asia and break conditions are initiated over India, and (3) the circulation anomalies forced by equatorial Indian Ocean convective anomalies significantly influence the active/break phases over the tropical west Pacific. Our model solutions support

  5. Three Ingredients for Improved Global Aftershock Forecasts: Tectonic Region, Time-Dependent Catalog Incompleteness, and Inter-Sequence Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, M. T.; Hardebeck, J.; Felzer, K. R.; Michael, A. J.; van der Elst, N.

    2015-12-01

    Following a large earthquake, seismic hazard can be orders of magnitude higher than the long-term average as a result of aftershock triggering. Due to this heightened hazard, there is a demand from emergency managers and the public for rapid, authoritative, and reliable aftershock forecasts. In the past, USGS aftershock forecasts following large, global earthquakes have been released on an ad-hoc basis with inconsistent methods, and in some cases, aftershock parameters adapted from California. To remedy this, we are currently developing an automated aftershock product that will generate more accurate forecasts based on the Reasenberg and Jones (Science, 1989) method. To better capture spatial variations in aftershock productivity and decay, we estimate regional aftershock parameters for sequences within the Garcia et al. (BSSA, 2012) tectonic regions. We find that regional variations for mean aftershock productivity exceed a factor of 10. The Reasenberg and Jones method combines modified-Omori aftershock decay, Utsu productivity scaling, and the Gutenberg-Richter magnitude distribution. We additionally account for a time-dependent magnitude of completeness following large events in the catalog. We generalize the Helmstetter et al. (2005) equation for short-term aftershock incompleteness and solve for incompleteness levels in the global NEIC catalog following large mainshocks. In addition to estimating average sequence parameters within regions, we quantify the inter-sequence parameter variability. This allows for a more complete quantification of the forecast uncertainties and Bayesian updating of the forecast as sequence-specific information becomes available.

  6. Genetic variability and population structure of Plasmodium falciparum parasite populations from different malaria ecological regions of Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingasia, Luicer A; Cheruiyot, Jelagat; Okoth, Sheila Akinyi; Andagalu, Ben; Kamau, Edwin

    2016-04-01

    Transmission intensity, movement of human and vector hosts, biogeographical features, and malaria control measures are some of the important factors that determine Plasmodium falciparum parasite genetic variability and population structure. Kenya has different malaria ecologies which might require different disease intervention methods. Refined parasite population genetic studies are critical for informing malaria control and elimination strategies. This study describes the genetic diversity and population structure of P. falciparum parasites from the different malaria ecological zones in Kenya. Twelve multi-locus microsatellite (MS) loci previously described were genotyped in 225 P. falciparum isolates collected between 2012 and 2013 from five sites; three in lowland endemic regions (Kisumu, Kombewa, and Malindi) and two in highland, epidemic regions (Kisii and Kericho). Parasites from the lowland endemic and highland epidemic regions of western Kenya had high genetic diversity compared to coastal lowland endemic region of Kenya [Malindi]. The Kenyan parasites had a mean genetic differentiation index (FST) of 0.072 (p=0.011). The multi-locus genetic analysis of the 12 MS revealed all the parasites had unique haplotypes. Significant linkage disequilibrium (LD) was observed in all the five parasite populations. Kisumu had the most significant index of association values (0.16; partemether-lumefantrine is important in refining the spread of drug resistant strains and malaria transmission for more effective control and eventual elimination of malaria in Kenya. PMID:26472129

  7. Influence of topographic and environmental variability on model uncertainty: a case study on snow and ground temperatures in mountain regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubler, S.; Gruber, S.; Purves, R.; Endrizzi, S.

    2012-12-01

    A variety of physically based models to predict and understand the spatio-temporal behaviour of snow and ground temperatures have been developed in recent years. Model evaluation including the analysis of model uncertainty and validation is widely accepted as fundamental in enhancing trust in decisions that are based on model simulations. Due to constraints on resources or lack of distributed validation data, model evaluation is often restricted to one or few locations only, even if the model is applied to make predictions for large spatial areas and time periods. Thus, conclusions about model behaviour entail the tacit assumption that validation at one point can inform decisions about model performance in different environmental conditions. The effect of this assumption on model application and development when modeling phenomena in highly variable terrain or over large distances has rarely been studied. This study is focused on a sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of an energy and mass balance model that simulates snow and ground temperatures. It serves as a case study examining the role of topography and soil on parametric model uncertainty and sensitivity. A sensitivity analysis on individual parameters and a Monte Carlo based uncertainty study are performed at a variety of locations covering the range of topographic and environmental variability typically found in mountain regions. The results indicate that model uncertainties and sensitivities vary strongly under differing environmental conditions. This demonstrates that model evaluation (validation, sensitivity and uncertainty analyses) benefits strongly from the consideration of differing variables and, especially, the environmental variation of their behaviour.

  8. Dense water formation and BiOS-induced variability in the Adriatic Sea simulated using an ocean regional circulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunić, Natalija; Vilibić, Ivica; Šepić, Jadranka; Somot, Samuel; Sevault, Florence

    2016-08-01

    A performance analysis of the NEMOMED8 ocean regional circulation model was undertaken for the Adriatic Sea during the period of 1961-2012, focusing on two mechanisms, dense water formation (DWF) and the Adriatic-Ionian Bimodal Oscillating System (BiOS), which drive interannual and decadal variability in the basin. The model was verified based on sea surface temperature and sea surface height satellite measurements and long-term in situ observations from several key areas. The model qualitatively reproduces basin-scale processes: thermohaline-driven cyclonic circulation and freshwater surface outflow along the western Adriatic coast, dense water dynamics, and the inflow of Ionian and Levantine waters to the Adriatic. Positive temperature and salinity biases are reported; the latter are particularly large along the eastern part of the basin, presumably because of the inappropriate introduction of eastern Adriatic rivers into the model. The highest warm temperature biases in the vertical direction were found in dense-water-collecting depressions in the Adriatic, indicating either an inappropriate quantification of DWF processes or temperature overestimation of modelled dense water. The decadal variability in the thermohaline properties is reproduced better than interannual variability, which is considerably underestimated. The DWF rates are qualitatively well reproduced by the model, being larger when preconditioned by higher basin-wide salinities. Anticyclonic circulation in the northern Ionian Sea was modelled only during the Eastern Mediterranean Transient. No other reversals of circulation that could be linked to BiOS-driven changes were modelled.

  9. Water maser variability over 20 years in a large sample of star-forming regions: the complete database

    CERN Document Server

    Felli, M; Cesaroni, R; Codella, C; Comoretto, G; Di Franco, S; Massi, F; Moscadelli, L; Nesti, R; Olmi, L; Palagi, F; Panella, D; Valdettaro, R

    2007-01-01

    Context. Water vapor emission at 22 GHz from masers associated with star-forming regions is highly variable. Aims. We present a database of up to 20 years of monitoring of a sample of 43 masers within star-forming regions. The sample covers a large range of luminosities of the associated IRAS source and is representative of the entire population of H2O masers of this type. The database forms a good starting point for any further study of H2O maser variability. Methods. The observations were obtained with the Medicina 32-m radiotelescope, at a rate of 4-5 observations per year. Results. To provide a database that can be easily accessed through the web, we give for each source: plots of the calibrated spectra, the velocity-time-flux density plot, the light curve of the integrated flux, the lower and upper envelopes of the maser emission, the mean spectrum, and the rate of the maser occurrence as a function of velocity. Figures for just one source are given in the text for representative purposes. Figures for al...

  10. Spatial multi-scale variability of soil nutrients in relation to environmental factors in a typical agricultural region, eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Lv, Jianshu; Zhang, Bing; Bi, Jun

    2013-04-15

    Identifying the sources of spatial variability and deficiency risk of soil nutrients is a crucial issue for soil and agriculture management. A total of 1247 topsoil samples (0-20 cm) were collected at the nodes of a 2×2 km grid in Rizhao City and the contents of soil organic carbon (OC), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) were determined. Factorial kriging analysis (FKA), stepwise multiple regression, and indicator kriging (IK) were appled to investigate the scale dependent correlations among soil nutrients, identify the sources of spatial variability at each spatial scale, and delineate the potential risk of soil nutrient deficiency. Linear model of co-regionalization (LMC) fitting indicated that the presence of multi-scale variation was comprised of nugget effect, an exponential structure with a range of 12 km (local scale), and a spherical structure with a range of 84 km (regional scale). The short-range variation of OC and TN was mainly dominated by land use types, and TP was controlled by terrain. At long-range scale, spatial variation of OC, TN, and TP was dominated by parent material. Indicator kriging maps depicted the probability of soil nutrient deficiency compared with the background values in eastern Shandong province. The high deficiency risk area of all nutrient integration was mainly located in eastern and northwestern parts. PMID:23467181

  11. ASSESSING GLOBAL CLIMATE VARIABILITY UNDER COLDEST AND WARMEST PERIODS AT DIFFERENT LATITUDINAL REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Runtunuwu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Effect of climate change on water balance will play a key role in the biosphere system. To study the global climate change impact on water balance during 95-year period (1901-1995, long-term grid climatic data including global mean monthly temperature and precipitation at 0.5 x 0.5 degree resolution were analysed. The trend and variation of climate change, the time series of monthly air temperature and precipitation data were aggregated into annual arithmetic means for two extreme periods (1901-1920 and 1990-1995. The potential evapotranspiration (Eo was calculated using Thornthwaite method.The changes in mean annual value were obtained by subtracting the maximum period data from 1990 to 1995 (Max with the minimum period data from 1901 to 1920 (Min. The results revealed that over 95-year period, mean global air temperature increased by 0.57oC. The temperature increase varied greatly in Asia, with more than 3.0oC, especially at 45-70oN, as well over the northern part of America (60-65oN and Europe (55- 75oN. In low latitude across Asia, Africa, and South America, the variation was less than 1.5oC. In 80-85ºN region, the variation was relatively small and at higher latitudes it increasedsignificantly. Precipitation varied temporally and spatially. In the 40-45ºN and 40-45ºS regions, increasing precipitation of more than 100 mm occurred during the June-August andSeptember-November, especially in the northern hemisphere. The Eo increase of 2000 mm during 95 years occurred in the tropical northern America, middle Africa, and South-East Asia. A grid in Central Java of Indonesia showed that the Eo increase of 2500 mm during 95 years resulted in the decrease of growing period by 100 days. In coping with climate change, adjustment of cropping calendar is imperative.

  12. Creative use of pilot points to address site and regional scale heterogeneity in a variable-density model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dausman, Alyssa M.; Doherty, John; Langevin, Christian D.

    2010-01-01

    Pilot points for parameter estimation were creatively used to address heterogeneity at both the well field and regional scales in a variable-density groundwater flow and solute transport model designed to test multiple hypotheses for upward migration of fresh effluent injected into a highly transmissive saline carbonate aquifer. Two sets of pilot points were used within in multiple model layers, with one set of inner pilot points (totaling 158) having high spatial density to represent hydraulic conductivity at the site, while a second set of outer points (totaling 36) of lower spatial density was used to represent hydraulic conductivity further from the site. Use of a lower spatial density outside the site allowed (1) the total number of pilot points to be reduced while maintaining flexibility to accommodate heterogeneity at different scales, and (2) development of a model with greater areal extent in order to simulate proper boundary conditions that have a limited effect on the area of interest. The parameters associated with the inner pilot points were log transformed hydraulic conductivity multipliers of the conductivity field obtained by interpolation from outer pilot points. The use of this dual inner-outer scale parameterization (with inner parameters constituting multipliers for outer parameters) allowed smooth transition of hydraulic conductivity from the site scale, where greater spatial variability of hydraulic properties exists, to the regional scale where less spatial variability was necessary for model calibration. While the model is highly parameterized to accommodate potential aquifer heterogeneity, the total number of pilot points is kept at a minimum to enable reasonable calibration run times.

  13. Assessment of the nucleotide sequence variability in the bovine T-cell receptor alpha delta joining gene region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, R; Ewald, D; Thaller, G; Buitkamp, J

    2001-05-01

    The sequence of 2,193 nucleotides from the bovine T-cell receptor alpha/delta joining gene region (TCRADJ) was determined and compared with the corresponding human and murine sequences. The identity was 75.3% for the comparison of the Bos taurus vs. the Homo sapiens sequence and 63.8% for the Bos taurus vs. the Mus musculus sequence. This comparison permitted the identification of the putatively functional elements within the bovine sequence. Direct sequencing of 2,110 nucleotides in nine animals revealed 12 variable sites. Estimates, based on direct sequencing in three Holstein Friesian animals, for the two measures of sequence variability, nucleotide polymorphism (u) and nucleotide diversity (p), were 0.00050 (60.00036) and 0.00077 (60.00056), respectively. The test statistic, Tajima's D, for the comparison of the two measures indicates that the difference between u and p is close to significance (P Braunvieh, 115 Fleckvieh, 47 Holstein Friesian, 50 Simmental and 43 Pinzgauer) using the oligonucleotide ligation assay (OLA) in combination with the enzyme linked immunoabsorbant assay (ELISA). Nine unambiguous haplotypes could be derived based on animals with a maximum of one heterozygous site. Four to seven haplotypes were present in the different breeds. When taking into account the frequencies of the haplotypes in the different breeds, especially in Anatolian Black, an ancestral cattle population, we could establish the likely phylogenetic relationships of the haplotypes. Such haplotype trees are the basis for cladistic candidate gene analysis. Our study demonstrates that the systematic search of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) is useful for analysing all aspects of variability of a given genomic region.

  14. Robustness Analysis of Regional Water Supply Portfolios using Synthetic Inflow Scenarios with Variable Drought Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, J. D.; Zeff, H. B.; Lamontagne, J. R.; Reed, P. M.; Characklis, G. W.

    2015-12-01

    Robustness analyses of water supply systems have moved toward exploratory simulation to discover scenarios in which existing or planned policies may fail to meet stakeholder objectives. Such assessments rely heavily on the choice of plausible future scenarios, which, in the case of drought management, requires sampling or generating a broad ensemble of reservoir inflows which do not necessarily reflect the historical record. Here we adapt a widely used synthetic streamflow generation method to adjust the frequency of low-flow periods, which can be related to impactful historical events from the perspective of decision makers. Specifically, the modified generation procedure allows the user to specify parameters n, p such that events with observed weekly non-exceedance frequency p appear in the synthetic scenario with approximate frequency np (i.e., the pth percentile flow occurs n times more frequently). Additionally, the generator preserves the historical autocorrelation of streamflow and its seasonality, as well as approximate multi-site correlation. Using model simulations from recent work in multi-objective urban drought portfolio planning in North Carolina, a region whose water supply faces both climate and population pressures, we illustrate the decision-relevant consequences caused by raising the frequency of low flows associated with the 2007-2008 drought. This method explores system performance under extreme events of increasing frequency prior to reconciling these findings with climate model projections, and thus can be used to support bottom-up robustness methods in water systems planning.

  15. Variable Refractive Index Effects on Radiation in Semitransparent Scattering Multilayered Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, R.; Spuckler, C. M.

    1993-01-01

    A simple set of equations is derived for predicting the temperature distribution and radiative energy flow in a semitransparent layer consisting of an arbitrary number of laminated sublayers that absorb, emit, and scatter radiation. Each sublayer can have a different refractive index and optical thickness. The plane composite region is heated on each exterior side by a different amount of incident radiation. The results are for the limiting case where heat conduction within the layers is very small relative to radiative transfer, and is neglected. The interfaces are assumed diffuse, and all interface reflections are included in the analysis. The thermal behavior is readily calculated from the analytical expressions that are obtained. By using many sublayers, the analytical expressions provide the temperature distribution and heat flow for a diffusing medium with a continuously varying refractive index, including internal reflection effects caused by refractive index gradients. Temperature and heat flux results are given to show the effect of variations in refractive index and optical thickness through the multilayer laminate.

  16. Biological and Molecular Variability of Alfalfa mosaic virus Affecting Alfalfa Crop in Riyadh Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saleh, Mohammed A; Amer, Mahmoud A

    2013-12-01

    In 2011-2012, sixty nine samples were collected from alfalfa plants showing viral infection symptoms in Riyadh region. Mechanical inoculation with sap prepared from two collected samples out of twenty five possitive for Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) by ELISA were produced systemic mosaic on Vigna unguiculata and Nicotiana tabacum, local lesion on Chenopodium amaranticolor and C. quinoa. Vicia faba indicator plants that induce mosaic and mottle with AMV-Sagir isolate and no infection with AMV-Wadi aldawasser isolate. Approximately 700-bp was formed by RT-PCR using AMV coat protein specific primer. Samples from infected alfalfa gave positive results, while healthy plant gave negative result using dot blot hybridization assay. The nucleotide sequences of the Saudi isolates were compared with corresponding viral nucleotide sequences reported in GenBank. The obtained results showed that the AMV from Australia, Brazil, Puglia and China had the highest similarity with AMV-Sajer isolate. While, the AMV from Spain and New Zealaland had the lowest similarity with AMV-Sajer and Wadi aldawasser isolates. The data obtained in this study has been deposited in the GenBank under the accession numbers KC434083 and KC434084 for AMV-Sajer and AMV- Wadialdawasser respectively. This is the first report regarding the gnetic make up of AMV in Saudi Arabia. PMID:25288969

  17. The Size of the Emitting Region in the Magnetic Eclipsing Cataclysmic Variable Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Andrych, Kateryna D

    2015-01-01

    We discuss a method for determination of the size of the emitting region close to the compact star in a binary system with eclipses by a secondary, which fills its Roche lobe. The often used approach is to model the Roche lobe by a sphere with the "effective radius" corresponding to the volume of the Roche lobe. This approach leads to a 4-6% overestimate of the radius, if taking into account the angular dimensions of the Roche lobe seen form the compact star. Andronov (1992) had shown that the projection of the Roche lobe onto the celestial sphere is close to an ellipse and had tabulated these dimensions as a function of the mass ratio. Also he published the coefficients of the approximation similar to that of the Eggleton (1983) for the "sphere corresponding to the same volume". We compare results obtained for the "circle+circle", "ellipse+circle" and "ellipse+point" approximations of the projections of the red dwarf and a white dwarf, respectively. Results are applied to the recently discovered eclipsing po...

  18. Biological and Molecular Variability of Alfalfa mosaic virus Affecting Alfalfa Crop in Riyadh Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A. AL-Saleh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2011–2012, sixty nine samples were collected from alfalfa plants showing viral infection symptoms in Riyadh region. Mechanical inoculation with sap prepared from two collected samples out of twenty five possitive for Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV by ELISA were produced systemic mosaic on Vigna unguiculata and Nicotiana tabacum, local lesion on Chenopodium amaranticolor and C. quinoa. Vicia faba indicator plants that induce mosaic and mottle with AMV-Sagir isolate and no infection with AMV-Wadi aldawasser isolate. Approximately 700-bp was formed by RT-PCR using AMV coat protein specific primer. Samples from infected alfalfa gave positive results, while healthy plant gave negative result using dot blot hybridization assay. The nucleotide sequences of the Saudi isolates were compared with corresponding viral nucleotide sequences reported in GenBank. The obtained results showed that the AMV from Australia, Brazil, Puglia and China had the highest similarity with AMV-Sajer isolate. While, the AMV from Spain and New Zealaland had the lowest similarity with AMV-Sajer and Wadi aldawasser isolates. The data obtained in this study has been deposited in the GenBank under the accession numbers KC434083 and KC434084 for AMV-Sajer and AMV- Wadialdawasser respectively. This is the first report regarding the gnetic make up of AMV in Saudi Arabia.

  19. IDENTIFICATION OF THOSE VARIABLES THAT HAVE A SIGNIFICANT INFLUENCE ON THE EXPECTED NUMBER OF DAYS OF STAYING IN THE CENTRE DEVELOPMENT REGION OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika KULCSÁR

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available I started from the assumption that there are more variables that have a significant influence on the expected number of days of staying in the Centre Development Region. To identify those variables this paper includes the analysis of variance with two variables that are not interacting, in this case the dependent variable is the question "How many days did you plan to stay in Centre Development Region?" and the independent variables are: "What is the purpose of your stay?" "What is the highest level of education?". Given that there are cases when interactions occur between variables, I also analyzed the interaction effects between the two independent variables. The paper also includes an ANOVA analysis with three variables between which interactions relationships occur. After identifying the dependency relations between the variables I found that the inclusion of the third variable, namely the "Marital status" of respondents, adds value to the model. Following the results obtained by ANOVA analysis, I identified those socio-demographic characteristics that, in my opinion, companies that operate on tourist market in the Center Development Region should consider when fundamenting marketing strategies in tourism.

  20. Spatial and temporal variability of annual greenhouse gas fluxes from constructed wetland in an arid region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, J.; Chapman, E. J.; Childers, D. L.

    2013-12-01

    Wetlands support ecological functions that result in valuable services to society, including the purification of water through processes such as denitrification, plant uptake, and soil retention. Wetlands are also sources of greenhouse gases (GHG), such as nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4), and carbon dioxide (CO2). Many free-water surface constructed treatment wetland systems (CW) in North America have been developed to remove nutrients from secondarily-treated water, but little is known about the contributions of CWS on greenhouse gas emissions, especially in arid regions. Since 2011, the 42-ha cell-1 of the Tres Rios CW in Phoenix, AZ has removed approximately 30-40% of excess nitrogen (NO3- and NH4+) from the surface water entering the CW; with most of the nitrogen uptake occurring within the 21-ha vegetated-marsh area of the CW. To increase our knowledge of ecosystem dynamics of CW in arid regions, we investigated the GHG fluxes of N2O, CH4, and CO2 from a whole-system perspective and from a vegetated-marsh to open-water gradient within the CW. Since the spring of 2012, we have been utilizing the floating chamber technique to collect and measure gas samples from two transects in the vegetated-marsh area of the CW (nearest to inflow and nearest to outflow) and along three gradient subsites within the transects (shoreline, midmarsh, and open-water). From March 2012 to March 2013, we found seasonal significant differences in CO2 and CH4 fluxes (p<0.001), but not in N2O fluxes. CO2 fluxes were higher in the spring months compared to summer and winter months however, CH4 fluxes were higher in late spring and summer compared to the fall, winter, and early spring months. We found two significant spatial patterns in GHG fluxes in the CW, between the inflow and outflow transects and along the transect gradient subsites. Between the transects, we found significantly larger CO2 and N2O fluxes at the inflow compared to the outflow (p<0.001) but not CH4, possibly as a

  1. Variability of Aquatic Chemistry in Central Guizhou Karst Region,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白占国; 万国江

    1998-01-01

    It is necessary to understand the aquatic chemical characterstics of natural surface fresh water for water quality assessment.The chemical data from different kinds of water in the central Guizhou karst area showd that spring water from carbonate rock cracks(crack-water)is of neutrality or meta-alkalinity and [C] Ca II type.The amounts of all ions and the concentrations of HCO3- and Ca2+ were higher in the autumn than in the spring,The crack-water was influenced by the infiltration of surface water in the process of erosion and /or trans-portation with decreasing HCO3 and increasing pH,SO42-,Cl-,K+ and Na+ during running in a certain distance on the land surface .In particular,the chemical compositions of the waters at Tianxingqiao(upper-stream),Shuiliandong(mid-waterfall)and Luoshuitan(down-pool)near the Huangguoshu Waterfall were much different from those of the crack-water.The concentration of SO42-,Na+,Fe3+ and NO3- varied closely with seasons.The CaCO3 deposited violently with CO2 release in the spring ,In Lake Hongfeng the HCO3-/SO42- equivalent ratios were only 2.1-2.4 ,but Ca2+/Mg2+ up to 2.4-4.2.The Cl- concentration increased by a factor of 1 and Na+ by order of magnitude relative to the spring water.These indicated the increase in artificial pollutant discharge in the Lake Hongfeng watershed.In addition,Proewater in the soils covering carbonate rocks belongs to strongly mineralized water,The obvious differences in water quality were controlled by carbonate deposition,sulphate mineralization and nitrogen fixation as well as ammonification.It is indicated thaty the chemical compositions in the waters from the karst region were unstable and changeable.

  2. Temporal Variability and Characterization of Aerosols across the Pakistan Region during the Winter Fog Periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Fahim Khokhar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Fog is a meteorological/environmental phenomenon which happens across the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP and leads to significant social and economic problems, especially posing significant threats to public health and causing disruptions in air and road traffic. Meteorological stations in Pakistan provide limited information regarding fog episodes as these provide only point observations. Continuous monitoring, as well as a spatially coherent picture of fog distribution, is possible through the use of satellite observations. This study focuses on the 2012–2015 winter fog episodes over the Pakistan region using the Moderate Resolution Image Spectrometer (MODIS, the Ozone Monitoring Instrument and the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO products. The main objective of the study was to map the spatial distribution of aerosols, their types, and to identify the aerosol origins during special weather conditions like fog in Pakistan. The study also included ground monitoring of particulate matter (PM concentrations, which were conducted during the 2014–2015 winter period only. Overall, this study is part of a multi-country project supported by the International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD, started in 2014–2015 winter period, whereby scientists from Bangladesh, India and Nepal have also conducted measurements at their respective sites. A significant correlation between MODIS (AOD and AERONET Station (AOD data from Lahore was identified. Mass concentration of PM10 at all sampling sites within Lahore city exceeded the National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS levels on most of the occasions. Smoke and absorbing aerosol were found to be major constituents of winter fog in Pakistan. Furthermore, an extended span of winter fog was also observed in Lahore city during the winter of 2014–2015. The Vertical Feature Mask (VFM provided by CALIPSO satellite confirmed the low-lying aerosol

  3. Observations and modelling of microphysical variability, aggregation and sedimentation in tropical anvil cirrus outflow regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, M. W.; Connolly, P. J.; Crawford, I.; Heymsfield, A.; Bower, K. N.; Choularton, T. W.; Allen, G.; Flynn, M. J.; Vaughan, G.; Hacker, J.

    2012-07-01

    Aircraft measurements of the microphysics of a tropical convective anvil (at temperatures ~-60 °C) forming above the Hector storm, over the Tiwi Islands, Northern Australia, have been conducted with a view to determining ice crystal aggregation efficiencies from in situ measurements. The observed microphysics have been compared to an explicit bin-microphysical model of the anvil region, which includes crystal growth by vapour diffusion and aggregation and the process of differential sedimentation. It has been found in flights made using straight and level runs perpendicular to the storm that the number of ice crystals initially decreased with distance from the storm as aggregation took place resulting in larger crystals, followed by their loss from the cloud layer due to sedimentation. The net result was that the mass (i.e. Ice Water Content) in the anvil Ci cloud decreased, but also that the average particle size (weighted by number) remained relatively constant along the length of the anvil outflow. Comparisons with the explicit microphysics model showed that the changes in the shapes of the ice crystal spectra as a function of distance from the storm could be explained by the model if the aggregation efficiency was set to values of Eagg~0.5 and higher. This result is supported by recent literature on aggregation efficiencies for complex ice particles and suggests that either the mechanism of particle interlocking is important to the aggregation process, or that other effects are occuring, such as enhancement of ice-aggregation by high electric fields that arise as a consequence of charge separation within the storm. It is noteworthy that this value of the ice crystal aggregation efficiency is much larger than values used in cloud resolving models at these temperatures, which typically use E~0.0016. These results are important to understanding how cold clouds evolve in time and for the treatment of the evolution of tropical Ci in numerical models.

  4. Regional variability of grassland CO2 fluxes in Tyrol/Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irschick, Christoph; Hammerle, Albin; Haslwanter, Alois; Wohlfahrt, Georg

    2010-05-01

    ecosystem respiration (RECO), (ii) GPP depended mainly on the amount of incident photosynthetically active radiation and the amount of green plant matter, the scale of influence of these two factors varying fourfold between the sites, and not so much on the available water, (iii) RECO was mainly affected by the soil temperature, but some evidence for priming effects was also found, (iv) the NEE was mainly influenced by GPP and to a lower extent by RECO. Taken together our results indicate that even within the same ecosystem type exposed to similar climate and land use, site selection may strongly affect the resulting NEE estimates. References: [1] D.D. Baldocchi, "Breathing of the terrestrial biosphere: lessons learned from a global network of carbon dioxide flux measurement systems", Australian Journal of Botany vol.56 (2008) pp. 1-26. [2] A. Hammerle, A. Haslwanter, U. Tappeiner, A. Cernusca, G. Wohlfahrt, "Leaf area controls on energy partitioning of a temperate mountain grassland", Biogeosciences vol.5 (2008) pp. 421 431. [3] G. Wohlfahrt, A. Hammerle, A. Haslwanter, M. Bahn, U. Tappeiner, A. Cernusca, "Seasonal and inter-annual variability of the net ecosystem CO2 exchange of a temperate mountain grassland: effects of weather and management", Journal of Geophysical Research 113 (2008) D08110, doi:10.1029/2007JD009286.

  5. Competitiveness of Small Farms and Innovative Food Supply Chains: The Role of Food Hubs in Creating Sustainable Regional and Local Food Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giaime Berti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, the economic, social and environmental sustainability of the conventional agri-food system has and continues to be contested within both academic and public institutions. For small farms, the unsustainability of the food system is even more serious; farms’ declining share of profit and the cost-price squeeze of commodity production has increased barriers to market access with the inevitable effect of agricultural abandonment. One way forward to respond to the existing conventional agri-food systems and to create a competitive or survival strategy for small family farms is the re-construction of regional and local agri-food systems, aligning with Kramer and Porter’s concept of shared value strategy. Through a critical literature review, this paper presents “regional and local food hubs” as innovative organizational arrangements capable of bridging structural holes in the agri-food markets between small producers and the consumers—individuals and families as well as big buyers. Food hubs respond to a supply chain (or supply network organizational strategy aiming at re-territorialising the agri-food systems through the construction of what in the economic literature are defined as values-based food supply chains.

  6. OptMAVEn--a new framework for the de novo design of antibody variable region models targeting specific antigen epitopes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Li

    Full Text Available Antibody-based therapeutics provides novel and efficacious treatments for a number of diseases. Traditional experimental approaches for designing therapeutic antibodies rely on raising antibodies against a target antigen in an immunized animal or directed evolution of antibodies with low affinity for the desired antigen. However, these methods remain time consuming, cannot target a specific epitope and do not lead to broad design principles informing other studies. Computational design methods can overcome some of these limitations by using biophysics models to rationally select antibody parts that maximize affinity for a target antigen epitope. This has been addressed to some extend by OptCDR for the design of complementary determining regions. Here, we extend this earlier contribution by addressing the de novo design of a model of the entire antibody variable region against a given antigen epitope while safeguarding for immunogenicity (Optimal Method for Antibody Variable region Engineering, OptMAVEn. OptMAVEn simulates in silico the in vivo steps of antibody generation and evolution, and is capable of capturing the critical structural features responsible for affinity maturation of antibodies. In addition, a humanization procedure was developed and incorporated into OptMAVEn to minimize the potential immunogenicity of the designed antibody models. As case studies, OptMAVEn was applied to design models of neutralizing antibodies targeting influenza hemagglutinin and HIV gp120. For both HA and gp120, novel computational antibody models with numerous interactions with their target epitopes were generated. The observed rates of mutations and types of amino acid changes during in silico affinity maturation are consistent with what has been observed during in vivo affinity maturation. The results demonstrate that OptMAVEn can efficiently generate diverse computational antibody models with both optimized binding affinity to antigens and reduced

  7. Variability of daily winter wind speed distribution over Northern Europe during the past millennium in regional and global climate simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierstedt, Svenja; Hünicke, Birgit; Zorita, Eduardo; Wagner, Sebastian; José Gomez-Navarro, Juán

    2016-04-01

    We analyse the variability of the probability distribution of daily wind speed in wintertime over Northern and Central Europe in a series of global and regional climate simulations covering the last centuries, and in reanalysis products covering approximately the last 60 years. The focus of the study lies on identifying the link of the variations in the wind speed distribution to the regional near-surface temperature, to the meridional temperature gradient and to the North Atlantic Oscillation. The climate simulations comprise three simulations, each conducted with a global climate model that includes a different version of the atmospheric model ECHAM. Two of these global simulations have been downscaled with the regional climate models MM5 and CCLM. The reanalysis products are the global NCEP/NCAR meteorological reanalysis version 1 and a regional reanalysis conducted with a regional atmospheric model driven at its domain boundaries by the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis. Our main result is that the link between the daily wind distribution and the regional climate drivers is strongly model dependent. The global models tend to behave similarly, although they show some discrepancies. The two regional models also tend to behave similarly to each other, but surprisingly the results derived from each regional model strongly deviates from the results derived from its driving global model. The links between wind speed and large-scale drivers derived from the reanalysis data sets overall tend to resemble those of the global models. In addition, considering multi-centennial time scales, we find in two global simulations a long term tendency for the probability distribution of daily wind speed to widen through the last centuries. The cause for this widening is likely the effect of the deforestation prescribed in these simulations. We conclude that no clear systematic relationship between the mean temperature, the temperature gradient and/or the North Atlantic Oscillation, with the

  8. A multi-year study of lower tropospheric aerosol variability and systematic relationships from four North American regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, J. P.; Sheridan, P. J.; Ogren, J. A.; Andrews, E.; Hageman, D.; Schmeisser, L.; Jefferson, A.; Sharma, S.

    2015-11-01

    Hourly averaged aerosol optical properties (AOPs) measured over the years 2010-2013 at four continental North American NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory (NOAA/ESRL) cooperative aerosol network sites - Southern Great Plains near Lamont, OK (SGP), Bondville, IL (BND), Appalachian State University in Boone, NC (APP), and Egbert, Ontario, Canada (EGB) are analyzed. Aerosol optical properties measured over 1996-2009 at BND and 1997-2009 at SGP are also presented. The aerosol sources and types in the four regions differ enough so as to collectively represent rural, anthropogenically perturbed air conditions over much of eastern continental North America. Temporal AOP variability on monthly, weekly, and diurnal timescales is presented for each site. Differences in annually averaged AOPs and those for individual months at the four sites are used to examine regional AOP variability. Temporal and regional variability are placed in the context of reported aerosol chemistry at the sites, meteorological measurements (wind direction, temperature), and reported regional mixing layer heights. Basic trend analysis is conducted for selected AOPs at the long-term sites (BND and SGP). Systematic relationships among AOPs are also presented. Seasonal variability in PM1 (sub-1 μm particulate matter) scattering and absorption coefficients at 550 nm (σsp and σap, respectively) and most of the other PM1 AOPs is much larger than day of week and diurnal variability at all sites. All sites demonstrate summer σsp and σap peaks. Scattering coefficient decreases by a factor of 2-4 in September-October and coincides with minimum single-scattering albedo (ω0) and maximum hemispheric backscatter fraction (b). The co-variation of ω0 and b lead to insignificant annual cycles in top-of-atmosphere direct radiative forcing efficiency (DRFE) at APP and SGP. Much larger annual DRFE cycle amplitudes are observed at EGB (~ 40 %) and BND (~ 25 %), with least negative DRFE in September-October at

  9. Variability in the sensitivity among model simulations of permafrost and carbon dynamics in the permafrost region between 1960 and 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, A. David; Koven, Charles; Lawrence, David M.; Clein, Joy S.; Xia, Jiangyang; Beer, Christian; Burke, Eleanor; Chen, Guangsheng; Chen, Xiaodong; Delire, Christine; Jafarov, Elchin; MacDougall, Andrew H.; Marchenko, Sergey; Nicolsky, Dmitry; Peng, Shushi; Rinke, Annette; Saito, Kazuyuki; Zhang, Wenxin; Alkama, Ramdane; Bohn, Theodore J.; Ciais, Philippe; Decharme, Bertrand; Ekici, Altug; Gouttevin, Isabelle; Hajima, Tomohiro; Hayes, Daniel J.; Ji, Duoying; Krinner, Gerhard; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.; Luo, Yiqi; Miller, Paul A.; Moore, John C.; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Schädel, Christina; Schaefer, Kevin; Schuur, Edward A. G.; Smith, Benjamin; Sueyoshi, Tetsuo; Zhuang, Qianlai

    2016-07-01

    A significant portion of the large amount of carbon (C) currently stored in soils of the permafrost region in the Northern Hemisphere has the potential to be emitted as the greenhouse gases CO2 and CH4 under a warmer climate. In this study we evaluated the variability in the sensitivity of permafrost and C in recent decades among land surface model simulations over the permafrost region between 1960 and 2009. The 15 model simulations all predict a loss of near-surface permafrost (within 3 m) area over the region, but there are large differences in the magnitude of the simulated rates of loss among the models (0.2 to 58.8 × 103 km2 yr-1). Sensitivity simulations indicated that changes in air temperature largely explained changes in permafrost area, although interactions among changes in other environmental variables also played a role. All of the models indicate that both vegetation and soil C storage together have increased by 156 to 954 Tg C yr-1 between 1960 and 2009 over the permafrost region even though model analyses indicate that warming alone would decrease soil C storage. Increases in gross primary production (GPP) largely explain the simulated increases in vegetation and soil C. The sensitivity of GPP to increases in atmospheric CO2 was the dominant cause of increases in GPP across the models, but comparison of simulated GPP trends across the 1982-2009 period with that of a global GPP data set indicates that all of the models overestimate the trend in GPP. Disturbance also appears to be an important factor affecting C storage, as models that consider disturbance had lower increases in C storage than models that did not consider disturbance. To improve the modeling of C in the permafrost region, there is the need for the modeling community to standardize structural representation of permafrost and carbon dynamics among models that are used to evaluate the permafrost C feedback and for the modeling and observational communities to jointly develop data sets

  10. Spectrophotometric variability of the magnetic CP star 56 Arietis in spectral region from 1950 to 3200 A

    CERN Document Server

    Sokolov, Nikolay A

    2010-01-01

    The spectrophotometric variability of the magnetic CP star 56 Arietis (56 Ari) in the ultraviolet spectral region from 1950 to 3200 A is investigated. This study is based on the archival International Ultraviolet Explorer data obtained at different phases of the rotational cycle. The brightness of 56 Ari is not constant in the investigated wavelengths over the whole rotational period. The monochromatic light curves continuously change their shape with wavelength. This indicates that we do not observe a truly 'null wavelength region' where the monochromatic light curve has a zero amplitude. Probably, an uneven surface distribution of silicon and iron mainly influences the flux redistribution from the far-UV to near-UV spectral regions, although additional sources of opacity may be involved. The redistribution of the flux at phase 0.25 is connected with the nonuniform distribution of silicon on the stellar surface of 56 Ari. On the other hand, the redistribution of the flux at phase 0.65 is quite complex, becau...

  11. The transfer of seasonal isotopic variability between precipitation and drip water at eight caves in the monsoon regions of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Wuhui; Ruan, Jiaoyang; Luo, Weijun; Li, Tingyong; Tian, Lijun; Zeng, Guangneng; Zhang, Dezhong; Bai, Yijun; Li, Jilong; Tao, Tao; Zhang, Pingzhong; Baker, Andy; Tan, Ming

    2016-06-01

    This study presents new stable isotope data for precipitation (δ18Op) and drip water (δ18Od) from eight cave sites in the monsoon regions of China (MRC), with monthly to bi-monthly sampling intervals from May-2011 to April-2014, to investigate the regional-scale climate forcing on δ18Op and how the isotopic signals are transmitted to various drip sites. The monthly δ18Op values show negative correlation with surface air temperature at all the cave sites except Shihua Cave, which is opposite to that expected from the temperature effect. In addition, although the monthly δ18Op values are negatively correlated with precipitation at all the cave sites, only three sites are significant at the 95% level. These indicate that, due to the various vapor sources, a large portion of variability in δ18Op in the MRC cannot be explained simply by either temperature or precipitation alone. All the thirty-four drip sites are classified into three types based on the δ18Od variability. About 82% of them are static drips with little discernable variation in δ18Od through the whole study period, but the drip rates of these drips are not necessary constant. Their discharge modes are site-specific and the oxygen isotopic composition of the stalagmites growing from them may record the average of multi-year climatic signals, which are modulated by the seasonality of recharge and potential effects of evaporation, and in some cases infiltration from large rainfall events. About 12% of the thirty-four drip sites are seasonal drips, although the amplitude of δ18Od is narrower than that of δ18Op, the monthly response of δ18Od to coeval precipitation is not completely damped, and some of them follow the seasonal trend of δ18Op very well. These drips may be mainly recharged by present-day precipitation, mixing with some stored water. Thus, the stalagmites growing under them may record portions of the seasonal climatic signals embedded in δ18Op. About 6% of the thirty-four drip sites

  12. Protein loops, solitons and side-chain visualization with applications to the left-handed helix region

    CERN Document Server

    Lundgren, Martin; Sha, Fan

    2012-01-01

    Folded proteins have a modular assembly. They are constructed from regular secondary structures like alpha-helices and beta-strands that are joined together by loops. Here we develop a visualization technique that is adapted to describe this modular structure. In complement to the widely employed Ramachandran plot that is based on toroidal geometry, our approach utilizes the geometry of a two-sphere. Unlike the more conventional approaches that only describea given peptide unit, ours is capable of describing the entire backbone environment including the neighboring peptide units. It maps the positions of each atom to the surface of the two-sphere exactly how these atoms are seen by an observer who is located at the position of the central C-alpha atom. At each level of side-chain atoms we observe a strong correlation between the positioning of the atom and the underlying local secondary structure with very little if any variation between the different amino acids. As a concrete example we analyze the left-han...

  13. Regional variability in particulate organic matter remineralization depths: an optimization and sensitivity study using a fast Earth system model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jamie; Barker, Stephen; Ridgwell, Andy

    2015-04-01

    Nutrient distributions and atmospheric CO2 concentrations are sensitive to changes in the global average depth of particulate organic matter (POM) remineralization in models. Model optimization studies have used this sensitivity to find global mean remineralization depths that result in the statistically best fit to tracer observations such as phosphate (PO4). However, recent global syntheses of sediment trap data have started to suggest the existence of significant spatial variability in the depth of POM remineralization. A number of hypothetical mechanisms have been proposed to explain this variability invoking a wide range of feedbacks on atmospheric CO2. Progress has been hindered by the relatively low sampling density of sediment trap data. In response to this, we explore whether there is an optimal set of regionally variable remineralization depths in an Earth system model that best fits observed PO4 fields and how robust these solutions are. We develop a new computationally fast phosphorous-only version of the Earth system model GENIE using a transport matrix to represent steady-state circulation. The ocean is divided into 15 biogeochemical biomes within which the remineralization depth is an independent parameter. Latin hypercube sampling is used to produce an ensemble of runs that efficiently sample across the range of potential combinations of remineralization depths, producing probability distributions for each region. Despite sensitivity to the global remineralization depth, we find that PO4 is actually relatively insensitive to regional changes in remineralization. An optimal combination of remineralization depths in the Atlantic is found that predicts deeper remineralization in the low latitudes and shallower at high latitudes, matching sediment trap observations. Shallow remineralization is also predicted in the North Pacific. However, remineralization depths in the Southern Ocean, South and Equatorial Pacific, and Indian Ocean cannot be successfully

  14. THE BIVARIATE ANALYSIS BETWEEN THE VARIABLES THAT DEFINE THE INVESTIGATED TOURIST POPULATION IN THE CENTER DEVELOPMENT REGION AND THE OTHER IMPORTANT TOURIST VARIABLES

    OpenAIRE

    Assist. Ph.D Kulcsár Erika

    2010-01-01

    In the marketing research the instances when we need to examine the relationship between two variables are frequent. Knowing the relationship between the two variables involves the use of tests that can be parametric and nonparametric. This paper includes the non-parametric tests used in the bivariate analysis. The used tests are: chi square test, the Mann-Whitney test, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Besides these tests, this paper also includes measuring the association between nominal variabl...

  15. Facilitators and Inhibitors of Supply Chain Innovation-prospects for Supply Chain Managment in the Irish Grocery Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Keegan, Joan; O'Callaghan, Edmund; Wilcox, Mary

    2001-01-01

    Supply chain management is one of the most significant strategic challenges currently facing the Irish grocery sector. The UK grocery market with its emphasis on composite deliveries via regional distribution centres is extremely sophisticated; the Irish grocery sector, however, is in the embryonic stage of implementing central distribution. The potential to develop innovative supply chain systems is mediated by both national logistic-related variables and company characteristics. In additio...

  16. Predicting superdeformed rotational band-head spin in A ∼ 190 mass region using variable moment of inertia model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V S Uma; Alpana Goel; Archana Yadav; A K Jain

    2016-01-01

    The band-head spin (0) of superdeformed (SD) rotational bands in ∼ 190 mass region is predicted using the variable moment of inertia (VMI) model for 66 SD rotational bands. The superdeformed rotational bands exhibited considerably good rotational property and rigid behaviour. The transition energies were dependent on the prescribed band-head spins. The ratio of transition energies over spin /2 (RTEOS) vs. angular momentum ( ) have confirmed the rigid behaviour, provided the band-head spin value is assigned correctly. There is a good agreement between the calculated and the observed transition energies. This method gives a very comprehensive interpretation for spin assignment of SD rotational bands which could help in designing future experiments for SD bands.

  17. Idiotypes as immunogens: facing the challenge of inducing strong therapeutic immune responses against the variable region of immunoglobulins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro eLopez-Requena

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Idiotype (Id-based immunotherapy has been exploited as cancer treatment option. Conceived as therapy for malignancies bearing idiotypic antigens, it has been also extended to solid tumours because of the capacity of anti-idiotypic antibodies to mimick Id-unrelated antigens. In both these two settings, efforts are being made to overcome the poor immune responsiveness often experienced when using self immunoglobulins as immunogens. Despite bearing a unique gene combination, and thus particular epitopes, it is normally difficult to stimulate the immune response against antibody variable regions. Different strategies are currently used to strengthen Id immunogenicity, such as concomitant use of immune-stimulating molecules, design of Id-containing immunogenic recombinant proteins, specific targeting of relevant immune cells and genetic immunization. This review focuses on the role of anti-Id vaccination in cancer management and on the current developments used to foster anti-idiotypic B- and T-cell responses.

  18. Low-frequency lower E-region wind and reflection height measurements as sensor for climate variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Jacobi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of reflection heights of low-frequency (LF radio waves at oblique incidence and estimates of mesosphere/lower thermosphere (MLT region horizontal winds applying the D1 spaced receiver method on LF field strength registrations are analyzed with respect to possible long-term trends and interdecadal variability in the time interval from ~1980 to date. While no clear signal of mesospheric height trend is registered during the last two decades, significant trends of MLT horizontal winds are found. These trends are non-linear, in particular a change of trends around 1990 is found, which is probably connected with changes in tropospheric and stratospheric conditions at that time.

  19. Description, evaluation and clinical decision making according to various fetal heart rate patterns. Inter-observer and regional variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1992-01-01

    departments, especially between departments far apart. It is concluded that we still need a scientific clarification of which specific heart rate changes are the best predictors of fetal stress. Artificial intelligence programs for interpreting fetal cardiotocograms and ECG signals constitute one promising...... and the presence of silent or sinusoidal pattern (87-94% on an arbitrary 0-100% scale), and low regarding the assessment of variability and type of deceleration (50-72%). The degree of agreement in interpreting heart rate patterns was 59% (on an arbitrary 0-100% scale). Senior residents generally interpreted...... the changes as indicative of less serious fetal stress than did their junior colleagues, explaining why junior residents 30% more frequently than their older colleagues found an indication for Cesarean section. Relatively low regional inter-observer agreement scores were primarily due to low agreement between...

  20. Trend and interannual variability of summer precipitation and the atmospheric water vapor convergence in the Arctic circumpolar region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiyama, T.; Fujinami, H.; Oshima, K.

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated trend and interannual variability of summer (June, July and August) precipitation and the atmospheric water vapor convergence in the Arctic circumpolar region, with an emphasis on recent increase of those around the Lena river basin in eastern Siberia. Data used in this study are an archived precipitation data (PREC/L) and atmospheric re-analysis data (JRA-25, JRA-55). Previous studies have revealed a negative correlation in the summer atmospheric circulation pattern between the Lena and Ob river basins. However little is known about the atmospheric water cycles in the Arctic circumpolar region, including the Mackenzie river basin. Hence we compared the trend and interannual variability of summer precipitation and the atmospheric water vapor convergence in three large North Eurasian river (Lena, Yenisei, and Ob) basins together with the Mackenzie basin. The analyzed results are as follows. 1) In the highest five-year summer precipitation in the Lena river basin during the period 1958 to 2012, the center of the cyclonic circulation shifted to the east, from the Kara and Barents Seas over the region across the Yenisei and Lena. In the years, significant cyclonic deviation was present. The deviation distribution of the height field and the atmospheric water vapor flux from the west to the Lena river basin were significantly increased, so as to form a positive deviation of summer precipitation. 2) Significant increases (positive trend) in the summer precipitation were detected from 1984 to 2011 in the Lena, Yenisei, and the Mackenzie river basins. However, summer precipitation showed significant decreases (negative trend) over Mongolia and Europe/Russia. This was because anticyclones dominated in these regions. 3) A significant enhancement of cyclonic circulation was detected from 2005 to 2008 on the Eurasian side of the Arctic Ocean. However, anticyclones appeared over Mongolia. These probably increased the atmospheric water vapor convergence

  1. Spatial and temporal soil water variability in the plowing horizon of agriculturally used soils in two regions of Southwest Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poltoradnev, Maxim; Ingwersen, Joachim; Streck, Thilo

    2015-04-01

    Soil water dynamics plays an important role in soil-plant-atmosphere interactions. There is a lack of long-term continuous measurements of topsoil water content at the regional scale. The objective of the present study was to quantify and elucidate the seasonal dynamics of spatial soil water content variability in the plowing horizon (Ap) of agricultural soils at the regional scale. The study was conducted in the central part of the Kraichgau and the Mid Swabian Alb in Southwest Germany. In each region a soil water network embracing 21 stations was set up. All stations were installed on cropped agricultural sites and distributed across three spatial domains: an inner domain 3 km × 3 km (5 stations), a middle 9 km × 9 km (8 stations), and an outer domain 27 km × 27 km (8 stations). Each station consists of a TDT sensor (SI.99 Aquaflex Soil Moisture Sensor, Streat Instruments Ltd, New Zealand), which senses both soil water content and soil temperature, a rain gauge, and a remote transfer unit (RTU, datalogger + GSM modem), which stores and transfers data via GPRS modem to the central data server (Adcon Telemetry GmbH, Austria) located at the University of Hohenheim. The TDT sensors were installed at 0.15 m depth. A sensor consists of a three meter long and three centimeter wide flat transmission line. The relationship between the standard deviation (σθ) of the soil water content (SWC) and mean spatial soil water content () formed combinations of concave and convex hyperbolas. However, it strongly depended on SWC state and season. Generally, σθ was found to be changing along a convex trend during dry out and rewetting phases with a maximum in the intermediate SWC range. At the rain event scale, σθ() was either ascending or converging with decreasing . A concave shape was observed when approached to dry state. The majority of σθ() hysteresis loops were observed in intermediate and intermediate/wet state of SWC. All hysteretic loops were clockwise oriented

  2. Characterization of the variable region in the class 1 integron of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli isolated from surface water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Canal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fecal bacteria are considered to be a potential reservoir of antimicrobial resistance genes in the aquatic environment and could horizontally transfer these genes to autochthonous bacteria when carried on transferable and/or mobile genetic elements. Such circulation of resistance genes constitutes a latent public health hazard. The aim of this study was to characterize the variable region of the class 1 integron and relate its genetic content to resistance patterns observed in antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli isolated from the surface waters of Patos Lagoon, Southern Brazil. Genetic diversity of the isolates and presence of the qacEΔ1 gene, which confers resistance to quaternary ammonium compounds, were also investigated. A total of 27 isolates were analyzed. The variable region harbored dfrA17, dfrA1 and dfrA12 genes, which confer resistance to trimethoprim, and aadA1, aadA5 and aadA22 genes that encode resistance to streptomycin/spectinomycin. Most of the isolates were considered resistant to quaternary ammonium compounds and all of them carried the qacE Δ1 gene at the 3′ conserved segment of the integron. ERIC-PCR analyses of E. coli isolates that presented the integrons showed great genetic diversity, indicating diverse sources of contamination in this environment. These results suggest that fecal bacteria with class 1 integrons in aquatic environments are potentially important reservoirs of antibiotic-resistance genes and may transfer these elements to other bacteria that are capable of infecting humans.

  3. Inter-hourly variability of Total Electron Content during the quiet condition over Nigeria, within the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayorinde, T. T.; Rabiu, A. B.; Amory-Mazaudier, C.

    2016-07-01

    The inter-hourly variability (IHV) of the Total Electron Content (TEC) over Nigeria during the quiet days (ApGNSS) Reference Network (NIGNET) operated by the office of the surveyor general of Nigeria. Nigeria is a country that lies within Equatorial Ionospheric Anomaly (EIA) region. The IHV was calculated by converting the observed hourly slant TEC (STEC) value into the hourly vertical TEC (VTEC) and the differencing (∆TEC) with its corresponding hourly value from the previous day. There is a clear variation which depicts the expected temporal variability. The IHV in TEC in all the stations ranges between 0 and 20 TECU (TEC Units). The seasonal variation of the IHV of TEC over Nigeria maximizes (5-20 TECU) during Equinoctial months and minimizes (1-10 TECU) during the Solstice months. The IHV of TEC in September equinox period is higher than that of March equinox. Minimum value of IHV (~7 TECU at equinoxes and ~5 TECU at Solstice) was recorded at the Office of Surveyor General of the Federation (OSGF) station and the maximum value (~12 TECU at equinoxes and ~16 TECU at Solstice) was recorded at the Birni Kebbi Federal Polytechnic (BKFP) station which may be due to the fact that BKFP at 0.72° dip latitude is closer to the dip equator.

  4. Regional stratigraphic framework and compositional variability of the Montney Formation : the never-ending search for reservoir quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bereskin, S.R.; Edwards, D.E.

    2008-07-01

    The Montney Formation is not a shale, but is largely comprised of silt/sand and a spectrum of diagenetic products. It is variably pressured, and can produce oil and/or gas. The reservoir quality is affected by original depositional setting and also by diagenetic products. The regional stratigraphic framework and compositional variability of the Montney Formation and the never-ending search for reservoir quality was discussed in this presentation. Several illustrations and figures were also shown, including a type log; paleogeography; a depositional model of basin filling; and lower and upper Montney correlation. Major facies such as shoreface facies, shelf facies, turbidite facies, and shale basin facies were also discussed and illustrated through photographs. Other topics that were also discussed, such as coregraphs; Doig phosphate; porosity in siltstone; laminar porosity; porosity occlusion; and types of diagenetic products. The presentation concluded with a discussion of important parameters and thoughts such as that sand content is somewhat conducive to reservoir development. tabs., figs.

  5. Studies of regional-scale climate variability and change. Hidden Markov models and coupled ocean-atmosphere modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghil, M. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Kravtsov, S. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Robertson, A. W. [IRI, Palisades, NY (United States); Smyth, P. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2008-10-14

    This project was a continuation of previous work under DOE CCPP funding, in which we had developed a twin approach of probabilistic network (PN) models (sometimes called dynamic Bayesian networks) and intermediate-complexity coupled ocean-atmosphere models (ICMs) to identify the predictable modes of climate variability and to investigate their impacts on the regional scale. We had developed a family of PNs (similar to Hidden Markov Models) to simulate historical records of daily rainfall, and used them to downscale GCM seasonal predictions. Using an idealized atmospheric model, we had established a novel mechanism through which ocean-induced sea-surface temperature (SST) anomalies might influence large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns on interannual and longer time scales; we had found similar patterns in a hybrid coupled ocean-atmosphere-sea-ice model. The goal of the this continuation project was to build on these ICM results and PN model development to address prediction of rainfall and temperature statistics at the local scale, associated with global climate variability and change, and to investigate the impact of the latter on coupled ocean-atmosphere modes. Our main results from the grant consist of extensive further development of the hidden Markov models for rainfall simulation and downscaling together with the development of associated software; new intermediate coupled models; a new methodology of inverse modeling for linking ICMs with observations and GCM results; and, observational studies of decadal and multi-decadal natural climate results, informed by ICM results.

  6. Trophodynamics of current use pesticides and ecological relationships in the Bathurst region vegetation-caribou-wolf food chain of the Canadian Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Adam D; Muir, Derek C G; Solomon, Keith R; Teixeira, Camilla; Duric, Mark; Wang, Xiaowa

    2014-09-01

    The bioaccumulation of current use pesticides (CUPs) and stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen were investigated in vegetation-caribou-wolf food chain in the Bathurst region (Nunavut, Canada). Volumetric bioconcentration factors (BCF(v)) in vegetation were generally greatest for dacthal (10-12) ≥ endosulfan sulfate (10-11) > ß-endosulfan (>9.0-9.7) ≥ pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB; 8.4-9.6) > α-endosulfan (8.3-9.3) > chlorpyrifos (8.0-8.7) >chlorothalonil (7.6-8.3). The BCF(v) values in vegetation were significantly correlated with the logarithm of the octanol-air partition coefficients (log K(OA)) of CUPs (r(2)  = 0.90, p = 0.0040), although dacthal was an outlier and not included in this relationship. Most biomagnification factors (BMFs) for CUPs in caribou:diet comparisons were significantly less than 1. Similarly, the majority of wolf:caribou BMFs were either significantly less than 1 or were not statistically greater than 1. Significant trophic magnification factors (TMFs) were all less than 1, indicating that these CUPs exhibit trophic dilution through this terrestrial food chain. The log K(OA) reasonably predicted bioconcentration in vegetation for most CUPs but was not correlated with BMFs or TMFs in mammals. Our results, along with those of metabolic studies, suggest that mammals actively metabolize these CUPs, limiting their biomagnification potential despite entry into the food chain through effective bioconcentration in vegetation.

  7. Improvement of regional cerebral blood flow after oral intake of branched-chain amino acids in patients with cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mika Yamamoto; Motoh Iwasa; Kaname Matsumura; Yuri Nakagawa; Naoki Fujita; Yoshinao Kobayashi; Masahiko Kaito; Kan Takeda; Yukihiko Adachi

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effect of oral intake of branchedchain amino acids (BCAA) on brain perfusion in patients with liver cirrhosis.METHODS: Single photon emission computed tomography scans were performed in 43 patients with cirrhosis and in 15 age-matched healthy subjects.Twenty-nine out of forty-three patients were randomly treated with either BCAA granules or placebo, and single photon emission computed tomography was performed before and after the treatment. We measured the regional cerebral blood flow values using a threedimensional stereotaxic region of interest template.RESULTS: Cirrhotic patients had regions of significant hypoperfusion in the bilateral central (right P=0.039,P<0.05; left P = 0.006 P<0.01), parietal (right P=0.018, P<0.05;left P=0.009, P<0.01), angular (right P=0.039, P<0.05;left P = 0.008, P<0.01), and left pericallosal segments (P= 0.038 P<0.05) as compared with healthy subjects. A significant increase in cerebral perfusion was observed 70 min after the oral intake of BCAA in the angular (right P=0.012,P<0.05;left P=0.049, P<0.05), temporal (right P=0.012, P<0.05; left P=0.038, P<0.05), pericallosal segments (right P = 0.025,P<0.05; left P = 0.049, P<0.05) and left precentral (P=0.044, P<0.05), parietal (P=0.040, P<0.05) and thalamus (P=0.033, P<0.05). No significant change in perfusion was observed in the placebo group.CONCLUSION: Administration of BCAA rapidly improves cerebral perfusion.

  8. Spatial variability of the response to climate change in regional groundwater systems -- examples from simulations in the Deschutes Basin, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waibel, Michael S.; Gannett, Marshall W.; Chang, Heejun; Hulbe, Christina L.

    2013-01-01

    We examine the spatial variability of the response of aquifer systems to climate change in and adjacent to the Cascade Range volcanic arc in the Deschutes Basin, Oregon using downscaled global climate model projections to drive surface hydrologic process and groundwater flow models. Projected warming over the 21st century is anticipated to shift the phase of precipitation toward more rain and less snow in mountainous areas in the Pacific Northwest, resulting in smaller winter snowpack and in a shift in the timing of runoff to earlier in the year. This will be accompanied by spatially variable changes in the timing of groundwater recharge. Analysis of historic climate and hydrologic data and modeling studies show that groundwater plays a key role in determining the response of stream systems to climate change. The spatial variability in the response of groundwater systems to climate change, particularly with regard to flow-system scale, however, has generally not been addressed in the literature. Here we simulate the hydrologic response to projected future climate to show that the response of groundwater systems can vary depending on the location and spatial scale of the flow systems and their aquifer characteristics. Mean annual recharge averaged over the basin does not change significantly between the 1980s and 2080s climate periods given the ensemble of global climate models and emission scenarios evaluated. There are, however, changes in the seasonality of groundwater recharge within the basin. Simulation results show that short-flow-path groundwater systems, such as those providing baseflow to many headwater streams, will likely have substantial changes in the timing of discharge in response changes in seasonality of recharge. Regional-scale aquifer systems with flow paths on the order of many tens of kilometers, in contrast, are much less affected by changes in seasonality of recharge. Flow systems at all spatial scales, however, are likely to reflect

  9. Single-chain protein mimetics of the N-terminal heptad-repeat region of gp41 with potential as anti-HIV-1 drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespillo, Sara; Cámara-Artigas, Ana; Casares, Salvador; Morel, Bertrand; Cobos, Eva S; Mateo, Pedro L; Mouz, Nicolas; Martin, Christophe E; Roger, Marie G; El Habib, Raphaelle; Su, Bin; Moog, Christiane; Conejero-Lara, Francisco

    2014-12-23

    During HIV-1 fusion to the host cell membrane, the N-terminal heptad repeat (NHR) and the C-terminal heptad repeat (CHR) of the envelope subunit gp41 become transiently exposed and accessible to fusion inhibitors or Abs. In this process, the NHR region adopts a trimeric coiled-coil conformation that can be a target for therapeutic intervention. Here, we present an approach to rationally design single-chain protein constructs that mimic the NHR coiled-coil surface. The proteins were built by connecting with short loops two parallel NHR helices and an antiparallel one with the inverse sequence followed by engineering of stabilizing interactions. The constructs were expressed in Escherichia coli, purified with high yield, and folded as highly stable helical coiled coils. The crystal structure of one of the constructs confirmed the predicted fold and its ability to accurately mimic an exposed gp41 NHR surface. These single-chain proteins bound to synthetic CHR peptides with very high affinity, and furthermore, they showed broad inhibitory activity of HIV-1 fusion on various pseudoviruses and primary isolates. PMID:25489108

  10. Single-chain protein mimetics of the N-terminal heptad-repeat region of gp41 with potential as anti–HIV-1 drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespillo, Sara; Cámara-Artigas, Ana; Casares, Salvador; Morel, Bertrand; Cobos, Eva S.; Mateo, Pedro L.; Mouz, Nicolas; Martin, Christophe E.; Roger, Marie G.; El Habib, Raphaelle; Su, Bin; Moog, Christiane; Conejero-Lara, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    During HIV-1 fusion to the host cell membrane, the N-terminal heptad repeat (NHR) and the C-terminal heptad repeat (CHR) of the envelope subunit gp41 become transiently exposed and accessible to fusion inhibitors or Abs. In this process, the NHR region adopts a trimeric coiled-coil conformation that can be a target for therapeutic intervention. Here, we present an approach to rationally design single-chain protein constructs that mimic the NHR coiled-coil surface. The proteins were built by connecting with short loops two parallel NHR helices and an antiparallel one with the inverse sequence followed by engineering of stabilizing interactions. The constructs were expressed in Escherichia coli, purified with high yield, and folded as highly stable helical coiled coils. The crystal structure of one of the constructs confirmed the predicted fold and its ability to accurately mimic an exposed gp41 NHR surface. These single-chain proteins bound to synthetic CHR peptides with very high affinity, and furthermore, they showed broad inhibitory activity of HIV-1 fusion on various pseudoviruses and primary isolates. PMID:25489108

  11. Effects of closed chain exercises for the lumbar region performed with local vibration applied to an unstable support surface on the thickness and length of the transverse abdominis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Kihyun; Lee, Sangyong; Park, Jinsik

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of closed chain exercises performed with local vibration applied to an unstable support surface on the thickness and length of the transverse abdominis. [Subjects] The subjects were 64 healthy university students who were randomly assigned to a bridge exercise with sling and vibration group (BESVG, n=30) and a bridge exercise with sling group (BESG, n=34). [Methods] The bridge exercise was repeated four times per set and a total of 18 sets were performed: 9 sets in a supine position and 9 sets in a prone position. In both the BESVG and the BESG groups, the thickness and length of the transverse abdominis (TrA) were measured using ultrasonography with the abdomen "drawn-in" and the pressure of a biofeedback unit maintained at 40 mmHg, both before and after the intervention. [Results] In intra-group comparisons, the BESVG showed significant increases in the thickness of the TrA and significant decreases in the length of the TrA. The BESG showed significant increases in the thickness of the TrA. The BESVG showed significant increases in the thickness of the TrA and significant decreases in the length of the TrA compared to BESG. [Conclusion] Closed chain exercises for the lumbar region performed with local vibration applied to slings, which are unstable support surfaces, are an effective intervention for altering the thickness and length of the TrA.

  12. Comparison of the genetic variability of Blastocystis subtypes between human carriers from two contrasting climatic regions of México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas-Gómez, Isaac; Martínez-Hernández, Fernando; Urrea-Quezada, Alejandro; González-Díaz, Mariana; Durazo, María; Hernández, Jesús; Orozco-Mosqueda, Guadalupe Erendira; Villalobos, Guiehdani; Maravilla, Pablo; Valenzuela, Olivia

    2016-10-01

    Blastocystis sp. is an anaerobic intestinal microorganism commonly identified in the feces of several animals, including humans. Blastocystis exhibits high genetic polymorphism and at least 17 subtypes (ST) have been identified; ST1-ST3 are frequently found in the Americas. Furthermore, in vitro assays have shown that temperature and humidity can affect the viability of Blastocystis cysts. In this study, we describe the genetic variability and genetic differentiation among and within Blastocystis STs in adults and children from the cities of Hermosillo and Morelia cities, which represent arid and humid subtropical climatic regions of México, respectively. Phylogenetic and genetic diversity was assessed by analyzing a region of the small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) gene as a marker. Blastocystis ST3 and ST1 were associated with children from Hermosillo and Morelia, respectively. An analysis of the nucleotide diversity (π) and haplotype polymorphism (θ) indexes showed that they were similar within each ST, but different between ST1 and ST3. Interestingly, the group of symptomatic carriers from Hermosillo showed scarce mean nucleotide diversity compared to the asymptomatic carriers (0.0039±0.0030 and 0.0329±0.0286, respectively). Furthermore, the gene flow and genetic differentiation indexes between the children and adults suggested that the Blastocystis haplotypes in the adult carriers were "highly mobile" among humans, while the haplotypes found in the children were more isolated and genetically differentiated between them. PMID:27476606

  13. Global and Regional Variability and Change in Terrestrial Ecosystems Net Primary Production and NDVI: A Model-Data Comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafique, Rashid; Zhao, Fang; de Jong, Rogier; Zeng, Ning; Asrar, Ghassem R.

    2016-02-25

    The net primary productivity (NPP) is commonly used for understanding the dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems and their role in carbon cycle. We used a combination of the most recent NDVI and model–based NPP estimates (from five models of the TRENDY project) for the period 1982-2012, to study the role of terrestrial ecosystems in carbon cycle under the prevailing climate conditions. We found that 80% and 67% of the global land area showed positive NPP and NDVI values, respectively, for this period. The global NPP was estimated to be about 63 Pg C y-1, with an increase of 0.214 Pg C y-1 y-1. Similarly, the global mean NDVI was estimated to be 0.33, with an increasing trend of 0.00041 y-1. The spatial patterns of NPP and NDVI demonstrated substantial variability, especially at the regional level, for most part of the globe. However, on temporal scale, both global NPP and NDVI showed a corresponding pattern of increase (decrease) for the duration of this study except for few years (e.g. 1990 and 1995-98). Generally, the Northern Hemisphere showed stronger NDVI and NPP increasing trends over time compared to the Southern Hemisphere; however, NDVI showed larger trends in Temperate regions while NPP showed larger trends in Boreal regions. Among the five models, the maximum and minimum NPP were produced by JULES (72.4 Pg C y-1) and LPJ (53.72 Pg C y-1) models, respectively. At latitudinal level, the NDVI and NPP ranges were ~0.035 y-1 to ~-0.016 y-1 and ~0.10 Pg C y-1 y-1 to ~-0.047 Pg C y-1 y-1, respectively. Overall, the results of this study suggest that the modeled NPP generally correspond to the NDVI trends in the temporal dimension. The significant variability in spatial patterns of NPP and NDVI trends points to a need for research to understand the causes of these discrepancies between molded and observed ecosystem dynamics, and the carbon cycle.

  14. Functional interpretation of representative soil spatial-temporal variability at the Central region of European territory of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasenev, I.

    2012-04-01

    The essential spatial and temporal variability is mutual feature for most natural and man-changed soils at the Central region of European territory of Russia. The original spatial heterogeneity of forest and forest-steppe soils has been further complicated by a specific land-use history and different-direction soil successions due to environmental changes and human impacts. For demand-driven land-use planning and decision making the quantitative analysis, modeling and functional-ecological interpretation of representative soil cover patterns spatial variability is an important and challenging task that receives increasing attention from scientific society, private companies, governmental and environmental bodies. On basis of long-term different-scale soil mapping, key plot investigation, land quality and land-use evaluation, soil forming and degradation processes modeling, functional-ecological typology of the zonal set of elementary soil cover patterns (ESCP) has been done in representative natural and man transformed ecosystems of the forest, forest-steppe and steppe zones at the Central region of European territory of Russia (ETR). The validation and ranging of the limiting factors of functional quality and ecological state have been made for dominating and most dynamical components of ESCP regional-typological forms - with application of local GIS, traditional regression kriging and correlation tree models. Development, zonal-regional differentiation and verification of the basic set of criteria and algorithms for logically formalized distinguishing of the most "stable" & "hot" areas in soil cover patterns make it possible for quantitative assessment of dominating in them elementary landscape, soil-forming and degradation processes. The received data essentially expand known ranges of the soil forming processes (SFP) rate «in situ». In case of mature forests mutual for them the windthrow impacts and lateral processes make SFPs more active and complex both in

  15. Refining regional SOC estimates: Accounting for erosion induced within field variability of the vertical distribution of SOC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meersmans, Jeroen; Quine, Tim

    2013-04-01

    Recently, soil organic carbon (SOC) is considered as a dynamic soil property largely influencing soil quality and global C-cycling. Consequently, accurate mapping of SOC at the regional or national scale becomes an important issue in order to help policymakers in developing an appropriate soil and climate change management strategy. So far, in these studies, only factors determining the spatial and temporal distribution of SOC at the landscape scale, such as soil type, land use (change), climate and agro-management, were considered. Despite the fact that a few recent studies incorporated as well the distribution of SOC with depth, resulting in an improved representation of the 3D distribution of SOC, most studies only considers topsoil and/or are characterized by simple sampling by site at rather coarse resolution. Consequently, they omit quantification of stable subsoil carbon buried in depositional areas and does not allow to clearly identify significant differences of SOC and erosion at the within field scale. Hence, the variability of SOC at smaller scales in complex terrain driven by lateral soil transport processes (such as soil erosion), is still rather understudied and is not (well) presented in existing regional SOC estimates. Nevertheless, incorporating this smaller level of spatial detail will most probably have a major influence on SOC mapping and regional SOC stock dynamics' calculations. Consequently, there exists an urgent need in conducting an appropriate soil sampling strategy considering deeper layers and enabling us to detect significant patterns at detailed spatial levels. In this study we aim to unravel the variation of SOC depth distributions along typical hillslope transects under cropland (Devon, UK) and link these to soil redistribution rates and variations in C input, i.e. below and above ground biomass productivity. The radionuclide isotope Caesium-137 (137Cs) was used as proxy for erosion. Furthermore, a soil sampling strategy was

  16. Characterization of Biomphalaria orbignyi, Biomphalaria peregrina and Biomphalaria oligoza by polymerase chain reaction and restriction enzyme digestion of the internal transcribed spacer region of the RNA ribosomal gene

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    Spatz Linus

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The correct identification of Biomphalaria oligoza, B. orbignyi and B. peregrina species is difficult due to the morphological similarities among them. B. peregrina is widely distributed in South America and is considered a potential intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni. We have reported the use of the polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal DNA for the molecular identification of these snails. The snails were obtained from different localities of Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay. The restriction patterns obtained with MvaI enzyme presented the best profile to identify the three species. The profiles obtained with all enzymes were used to estimate genetic similarities among B. oligoza, B. peregrina and B. orbignyi. This is also the first report of B. orbignyi in Uruguay.

  17. Deletions of Immunoglobulin heavy chain and T cell receptor gene regions are uniquely associated with lymphoid blast transformation of chronic myeloid leukemia

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    Valgañon Mikel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML results from the neoplastic transformation of a haematopoietic stem cell. The hallmark genetic abnormality of CML is a chimeric BCR/ABL1 fusion gene resulting from the Philadelphia chromosome rearrangement t(9;22(q34;q11. Clinical and laboratory studies indicate that the BCR/ABL1 fusion protein is essential for initiation, maintenance and progression of CML, yet the event(s driving the transformation from chronic phase to blast phase are poorly understood. Results Here we report multiple genome aberrations in a collection of 78 CML and 14 control samples by oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization. We found a unique signature of genome deletions within the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH and T cell receptor regions (TCR, frequently accompanied by concomitant loss of sequences within the short arm regions of chromosomes 7 and 9, including IKZF1, HOXA7, CDKN2A/2B, MLLT3, IFNA/B, RNF38, PAX5, JMJD2C and PDCD1LG2 genes. Conclusions None of these genome losses were detected in any of the CML samples with myeloid transformation, chronic phase or controls, indicating that their presence is obligatory for the development of a malignant clone with a lymphoid phenotype. Notably, the coincidental deletions at IGH and TCR regions appear to precede the loss of IKZF1 and/or p16 genes in CML indicating a possible involvement of RAG in these deletions.

  18. Spatial variability of organochlorine pesticides (DDTs and HCHs) in surface soils from the alluvial region of Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hong-yan; GAO Ru-tai; HUANG Yuan-fang; JIA Xiao-hong; JIANG Shu-ren

    2007-01-01

    The spatial variability in the concentrations of 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis-(p-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDT) in surface soils was studied on the basis of the analysis of 131 soil samples collected from the surface layer (0-20 cm depth) of the alluvial region of Beijing, China. The concentrations of total HCHs (including α-, β-, γ-, and δ-isomers) and total DDTs (i ncluding p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDE, and o,p'-DDT) in the surface soils tested were in the range from nondetectable to 31.72 μg/kg dry soil, with a mean value of 0.91, and from nondetectable to 5910.83 μg/kg dry soil, with a mean value of 32.13,respectively. It was observed that concentrations of HCHs in all soil samples and concentrations of DDTs in 112 soil samples were much lower than the first grade (50 μg/kg) permitted in "Environment quality standard for soils in China (GB15618-1995)". This suggests that the pollution due to organochlorine pesticides was generally not significant in the farmland soils in the Beijing alluvial region. In this study, the spatial distribution and trend of HCHs and DDTs were analyzed using Geostatistical Analyst and GS+(513).Spatial distribution indicated how these pesticides had been applied in the past. Trend analysis showed that the concentrations of HCHs,DDTs, and their related metabolites followed an obvious distribution trend in the surface soils from the alluvial region of Beijing.

  19. Temporal and spatial patterns of wetland extent influence variability of surface water connectivity in the Prairie Pothole Region, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderhoof, Melanie; Alexander, Laurie C.; Todd, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Context. Quantifying variability in landscape-scale surface water connectivity can help improve our understanding of the multiple effects of wetlands on downstream waterways. Objectives. We examined how wetland merging and the coalescence of wetlands with streams varied both spatially (among ecoregions) and interannually (from drought to deluge) across parts of the Prairie Pothole Region. Methods. Wetland extent was derived over a time series (1990-2011) using Landsat imagery. Changes in landscape-scale connectivity, generated by the physical coalescence of wetlands with other surface water features, were quantified by fusing static wetland and stream datasets with Landsat-derived wetland extent maps, and related to multiple wetness indices. The usage of Landsat allows for decadal-scale analysis, but limits the types of surface water connections that can be detected. Results. Wetland extent correlated positively with the merging of wetlands and wetlands with streams. Wetness conditions, as defined by drought indices and runoff, were positively correlated with wetland extent, but less consistently correlated with measures of surface water connectivity. The degree of wetland-wetland merging was found to depend less on total wetland area or density, and more on climate conditions, as well as the threshold for how wetland/upland was defined. In contrast, the merging of wetlands with streams was positively correlated with stream density, and inversely related to wetland density. Conclusions. Characterizing the degree of surface water connectivity within the Prairie Pothole Region in North America requires consideration of 1) climate-driven variation in wetness conditions and 2) within-region variation in wetland and stream spatial arrangements.

  20. Interannual Variations in Growing-Season NDVI and Its Correlation with Climate Variables in the Southwestern Karst Region of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjuan Hou

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the updated Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI dataset for growing season (April to October, which can better reflect the vegetation vigor, was used to investigate the interannual variations in NDVI and its relationship with climatic factors, in order to preliminarily understand the climate impact on vegetation and provide theoretical basis for the response of ecosystem to climate change. Multivariate linear regression models, including the Ordinary Least Squares (OLS and Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR, were adopted to analyze the correlation between NDVI and climatic factors (temperature and precipitation together. Average growing-season NDVI significantly increased at a rate of 0.0015/year from 1982 to 2013, larger than several regions in China. On the whole, its relationship with temperature is positive and also stronger than precipitation, which indicated that temperature may be a limiting factor for the vegetation growth in the Karst region. Moreover, the correlation coefficients between grassland NDVI and climatic factors are the largest. Under the background of NDVI increasing trend from 1982 to 2013, the period of 2009–2012 was chosen to investigate the influencing factors of a sharp decline in NDVI. It can be found that the reduced temperature and solar radiation, caused by the increase in cloud cover and precipitation, may play important roles in the vegetation cover change. All in all, the systematic research on the interannual variations of growing-season NDVI and its relationship with climate revealed the heterogeneity and variability in the complicated climate change in the Karst ecosystem for the study area. It is the Karst characteristics that hinder obtaining more representative conclusions and tendencies in this region. Hence, more attention should be paid to promoting Karst research in the future.

  1. Combined Effect of El Nino Southern Oscillation and Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation on Lake Chad Level Variability Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okonkwo, Churchill; Demoz, Belay; Sakai, Ricardo; Ichoku, Charles; Anarado, Chigozie; Adegoke, Jimmy; Amadou, Angelina; Abdullahi, Sanusu Imran

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the combined effect of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) and El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on the Lake Chad (LC) level variability is explored. Our results show that the lake level at the Bol monitoring station has a statistically significant correlation with precipitation (R2 = 0.6, at the 99.5% confidence level). The period between the late 1960s and early 1970s marked a turning point in the response of the regional rainfall to climatic drivers, thereby severely affecting the LC level. Our results also suggest that the negative impact of the cold phase of AMO on Sahel precipitation masks and supersedes the positive effect of La Niña in the early the 1970s. The drop in the size of LC level from 282.5 m in the early 1960s to about 278.1 m in 1983/1984 was the largest to occur within the period of study (1900-2010) and coincides with the combined cold phase of AMO and strong El Niño phase of ENSO. Further analyses show that the current warm phase of AMO and increasing La Niña episodes appear to be playing a major role in the increased precipitation in the Sahel region. The LC level is responding to this increase in precipitation by a gradual recovery, though it is still below the levels of the 1960s. This understanding of the AMO-ENSO-rainfall-LC level association will help in forecasting the impacts of similar combined episodes in the future. These findings also have implications for long-term water resources management in the LC region.

  2. Spatiotemporal Phylogenetic Analysis and Molecular Characterisation of Infectious Bursal Disease Viruses Based on the VP2 Hyper-Variable Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulahi Alfonso-Morales

    Full Text Available Infectious bursal disease is a highly contagious and acute viral disease caused by the infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV; it affects all major poultry producing areas of the world. The current study was designed to rigorously measure the global phylogeographic dynamics of IBDV strains to gain insight into viral population expansion as well as the emergence, spread and pattern of the geographical structure of very virulent IBDV (vvIBDV strains.Sequences of the hyper-variable region of the VP2 (HVR-VP2 gene from IBDV strains isolated from diverse geographic locations were obtained from the GenBank database; Cuban sequences were obtained in the current work. All sequences were analysed by Bayesian phylogeographic analysis, implemented in the Bayesian Evolutionary Analysis Sampling Trees (BEAST, Bayesian Tip-association Significance testing (BaTS and Spatial Phylogenetic Reconstruction of Evolutionary Dynamics (SPREAD software packages. Selection pressure on the HVR-VP2 was also assessed. The phylogeographic association-trait analysis showed that viruses sampled from individual countries tend to cluster together, suggesting a geographic pattern for IBDV strains. Spatial analysis from this study revealed that strains carrying sequences that were linked to increased virulence of IBDV appeared in Iran in 1981 and spread to Western Europe (Belgium in 1987, Africa (Egypt around 1990, East Asia (China and Japan in 1993, the Caribbean Region (Cuba by 1995 and South America (Brazil around 2000. Selection pressure analysis showed that several codons in the HVR-VP2 region were under purifying selection.To our knowledge, this work is the first study applying the Bayesian phylogeographic reconstruction approach to analyse the emergence and spread of vvIBDV strains worldwide.

  3. Accounting for inter-annual and seasonal variability in regionalization of hydrologic response in the Great Lakes basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kult, J. M.; Fry, L. M.; Gronewold, A. D.

    2012-12-01

    Methods for predicting streamflow in areas with limited or nonexistent measures of hydrologic response typically invoke the concept of regionalization, whereby knowledge pertaining to gauged catchments is transferred to ungauged catchments. In this study, we identify watershed physical characteristics acting as primary drivers of hydrologic response throughout the US portion of the Great Lakes basin. Relationships between watershed physical characteristics and hydrologic response are generated from 166 catchments spanning a variety of climate, soil, land cover, and land form regimes through regression tree analysis, leading to a grouping of watersheds exhibiting similar hydrologic response characteristics. These groupings are then used to predict response in ungauged watersheds in an uncertainty framework. Results from this method are assessed alongside one historical regionalization approach which, while simple, has served as a cornerstone of Great Lakes regional hydrologic research for several decades. Our approach expands upon previous research by considering multiple temporal characterizations of hydrologic response. Due to the substantial inter-annual and seasonal variability in hydrologic response observed over the Great Lakes basin, results from the regression tree analysis differ considerably depending on the level of temporal aggregation used to define the response. Specifically, higher levels of temporal aggregation for the response metric (for example, indices derived from long-term means of climate and streamflow observations) lead to improved watershed groupings with lower within-group variance. However, this perceived improvement in model skill occurs at the cost of understated uncertainty when applying the regression to time series simulations or as a basis for model calibration. In such cases, our results indicate that predictions based on long-term characterizations of hydrologic response can produce misleading conclusions when applied at shorter

  4. Field application of a combined pig and poultry market chain and risk pathway analysis within the Pacific Islands region as a tool for targeted disease surveillance and biosecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brioudes, Aurélie; Gummow, Bruce

    2016-07-01

    Limited resources are one of the major constraints in effective disease monitoring and control in developing countries. This paper examines the pig and poultry market chains of four targeted Pacific Island countries and territories (PICTs): Fiji, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands and Vanuatu and combines them with a risk pathway analysis to identify the highest risk areas (risk hotspots) and risky practices and behaviours (risk factors) of animal disease introduction and/or spread, using highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) and foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) as model diseases because of their importance in the region. The results show that combining a market chain analysis with risk pathways is a practical way of communicating risk to animal health officials and improving biosecurity. It provides a participatory approach that helps officials to better understand the trading regulations in place in their country and to better evaluate their role as part of the control system. Common risk patterns were found to play a role in all four PICTs. Legal trade pathways rely essentially on preventive measures put in place in the exporting countries while no or only limited control measures are undertaken by the importing countries. Legal importations of animals and animal products are done mainly by commercial farms which then supply local smallholders. Targeting surveillance on these potential hotspots would limit the risk of introduction and spread of animal diseases within the pig and poultry industry and better rationalize use of skilled manpower. Swill feeding is identified as a common practice in the region that represents a recognized risk factor for dissemination of pathogens to susceptible species. Illegal introduction of animals and animal products is suspected, but appears restricted to small holder farms in remote areas, limiting the risk of spread of transboundary animal diseases along the market chain. Introduction of undeclared goods hidden within a legal

  5. Field application of a combined pig and poultry market chain and risk pathway analysis within the Pacific Islands region as a tool for targeted disease surveillance and biosecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brioudes, Aurélie; Gummow, Bruce

    2016-07-01

    Limited resources are one of the major constraints in effective disease monitoring and control in developing countries. This paper examines the pig and poultry market chains of four targeted Pacific Island countries and territories (PICTs): Fiji, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands and Vanuatu and combines them with a risk pathway analysis to identify the highest risk areas (risk hotspots) and risky practices and behaviours (risk factors) of animal disease introduction and/or spread, using highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) and foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) as model diseases because of their importance in the region. The results show that combining a market chain analysis with risk pathways is a practical way of communicating risk to animal health officials and improving biosecurity. It provides a participatory approach that helps officials to better understand the trading regulations in place in their country and to better evaluate their role as part of the control system. Common risk patterns were found to play a role in all four PICTs. Legal trade pathways rely essentially on preventive measures put in place in the exporting countries while no or only limited control measures are undertaken by the importing countries. Legal importations of animals and animal products are done mainly by commercial farms which then supply local smallholders. Targeting surveillance on these potential hotspots would limit the risk of introduction and spread of animal diseases within the pig and poultry industry and better rationalize use of skilled manpower. Swill feeding is identified as a common practice in the region that represents a recognized risk factor for dissemination of pathogens to susceptible species. Illegal introduction of animals and animal products is suspected, but appears restricted to small holder farms in remote areas, limiting the risk of spread of transboundary animal diseases along the market chain. Introduction of undeclared goods hidden within a legal

  6. Spatial variability of initial 230Th/ 232Th in modern Porites from the inshore region of the Great Barrier Reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Tara R.; Zhao, Jian-xin; Feng, Yue-xing; Done, Terry J.; Jupiter, Stacy; Lough, Janice; Pandolfi, John M.

    2012-02-01

    The main limiting factor in obtaining precise and accurate uranium-series (U-series) ages of corals that lived during the last few hundred years is the ability to constrain and correct for initial thorium-230 ( 230Th 0), which is proportionally much higher in younger samples. This is becoming particularly important in palaeoecological research where accurate chronologies, based on the 230Th chronometer, are required to pinpoint changes in coral community structure and the timing of mortality events in recent time (e.g. since European settlement of northern Australia in the 1850s). In this study, thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS) U-series dating of 43 samples of known ages collected from living Porites spp. from the far northern, central and southern inshore regions of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) was performed to spatially constrain initial 230Th/ 232Th ( 230Th/ 232Th 0) variability. In these living Porites corals, the majority of 230Th/ 232Th 0 values fell within error of the conservative bulk Earth 230Th/ 232Th atomic value of 4.3 ± 4.3 × 10 -6 (2 σ) generally assumed for 230Th 0 corrections where the primary source is terrestrially derived. However, the results of this study demonstrate that the accuracy of 230Th ages can be further improved by using locally determined 230Th/ 232Th 0 values for correction, supporting the conclusion made by Shen et al. (2008) for the Western Pacific. Despite samples being taken from regions adjacent to contrasting levels of land modification, no significant differences were found in 230Th/ 232Th 0 between regions exposed to varying levels of sediment during river runoff events. Overall, 39 of the total 43 230Th/ 232Th 0 atomic values measured in samples from inshore reefs across the entire region show a normal distribution ranging from 3.5 ± 1.1 to 8.1 ± 1.1 × 10 -6, with a weighted mean of 5.76 ± 0.34 × 10 -6 (2 σ, MSWD = 8.1). Considering the scatter of the data, the weighted mean value with a more

  7. Variabilidade local e regional da evapotranspiração estimada pelo algoritmo SEBAL Local and regional variability of evapotranspiration estimated by SEBAL algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis C. J. Moreira

    2010-12-01

    balance. The hourly evapotranspiration values obtained were greater than 0.60 mm h-1 in irrigated or dense native vegetation areas, from 0.35 to 0.60 mm h-1 in sparse vegetation areas and almost null in degradated areas. The analysis of hourly evapotranspiration means by Tukey test at 5% probability level showed not only a significant variability locally but also at a regional scale in the state of Ceará.

  8. The Variable Regions of Lactobacillus rhamnosus Genomes Reveal the Dynamic Evolution of Metabolic and Host-Adaptation Repertoires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceapa, Corina; Davids, Mark; Ritari, Jarmo; Lambert, Jolanda; Wels, Michiel; Douillard, François P; Smokvina, Tamara; de Vos, Willem M; Knol, Jan; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus is a diverse Gram-positive species with strains isolated from different ecological niches. Here, we report the genome sequence analysis of 40 diverse strains of L. rhamnosus and their genomic comparison, with a focus on the variable genome. Genomic comparison of 40 L. rhamnosus strains discriminated the conserved genes (core genome) and regions of plasticity involving frequent rearrangements and horizontal transfer (variome). The L. rhamnosus core genome encompasses 2,164 genes, out of 4,711 genes in total (the pan-genome). The accessory genome is dominated by genes encoding carbohydrate transport and metabolism, extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) biosynthesis, bacteriocin production, pili production, the cas system, and the associated clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) loci, and more than 100 transporter functions and mobile genetic elements like phages, plasmid genes, and transposons. A clade distribution based on amino acid differences between core (shared) proteins matched with the clade distribution obtained from the presence-absence of variable genes. The phylogenetic and variome tree overlap indicated that frequent events of gene acquisition and loss dominated the evolutionary segregation of the strains within this species, which is paralleled by evolutionary diversification of core gene functions. The CRISPR-Cas system could have contributed to this evolutionary segregation. Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains contain the genetic and metabolic machinery with strain-specific gene functions required to adapt to a large range of environments. A remarkable congruency of the evolutionary relatedness of the strains' core and variome functions, possibly favoring interspecies genetic exchanges, underlines the importance of gene-acquisition and loss within the L. rhamnosus strain diversification. PMID:27358423

  9. Paleolimnological reconstruction of environmental variability during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene in the south-east Baltic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kublitskiy, Iurii; Subetto, Dmitriy; Druzhinina, Olga; Kulkova, Marianna; Arslanov, Khikmatula

    2016-04-01

    The main goal of our research is the high-resolution reconstruction of environmental and climatic changes in SE Baltic region since the Last Glacial Maximum by palaeolimnological data. The 6 objects - lakes and peat-bogs, were studied since 2009 in the Kaliningrad region, Russian Federation. According to palaeolimnological studies of bottom sediments of the Kamyshovoe Lake (N 54°22,6`; E22°42,8`, 189 m a.s.l.), located in the Vishtynets Highland, the south-east part of Kaliningrad district, the environmental and climatic changes after the late glacial have been reconstructed. At that moment the radiocarbon and loss-on-ignition (LOI) data, geochemistry and diatom analysis for the whole sediment core, and pollen analyze for the bottom part of the core have been completed. According to the pollen data the Alleröd interstadial starts at 13 200 cal. yrs BP and is marked by the rising of birch and pine pollen. The transition to the Younger Dryas around 12 700 cal. yrs BP corresponds with the development of patches of shrublands in which light-demanding species, such as juniper, flourished and communities of steppe herbs. The late Preboreal is marked by the appearance of Populus and an increase of the role of grasses in the vegetation cover 11 300-11 100 cal. yrs BP (Druzinina et al., 2015). The Holocene climatic zones have been identified by LOI and geochemistry analyses. The Boreal period started about 10 200 cal. yrs BP, Atlantic around 9100 cal. yrs BP, Subboreal 5800 cal. yrs BP, and Subatlantic 3200 cal. yrs BP (Kublitskiy et al., 2015). During the conference the new palaeolimnological data of environmental variability during the late Pleistocene and Holocene in SE Baltic region will be presented. Acknowledgements The investigations have been granted by the Russian Fund for Basic Research (12-05-33013, 13-05-41457, 15-35-50721). References Druzhinina, O., Subetto, D., Stančikaitė, M., Vaikutienė, G., Kublitsky, J., Arslanov, Kh., 2015. Sediment record from the

  10. Seasonal variability of the oxygen minimum zone off Peru in a high-resolution regional coupled model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara, Oscar; Dewitte, Boris; Montes, Ivonne; Garçon, Veronique; Ramos, Marcel; Paulmier, Aurélien; Pizarro, Oscar

    2016-08-01

    In addition to being one of the most productive upwelling systems, the oceanic region off Peru is embedded in one of the most extensive oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) of the world ocean. The dynamics of the OMZ off Peru remain uncertain, partly due to the scarcity of data and to the ubiquitous role of mesoscale activity on the circulation and biogeochemistry. Here we use a high-resolution coupled physical/biogeochemical model simulation to investigate the seasonal variability of the OMZ off Peru. The focus is on characterizing the seasonal cycle in dissolved O2 (DO) eddy flux at the OMZ boundaries, including the coastal domain, viewed here as the eastern boundary of the OMZ, considering that the mean DO eddy flux in these zones has a significant contribution to the total DO flux. The results indicate that the seasonal variations of the OMZ can be interpreted as resulting from the seasonal modulation of the mesoscale activity. Along the coast, despite the increased seasonal low DO water upwelling, the DO peaks homogeneously over the water column and within the Peru Undercurrent (PUC) in austral winter, which results from mixing associated with the increase in both the intraseasonal wind variability and baroclinic instability of the PUC. The coastal ocean acts therefore as a source of DO in austral winter for the OMZ core, through eddy-induced offshore transport that is also shown to peak in austral winter. In the open ocean, the OMZ can be divided vertically into two zones: an upper zone above 400 m, where the mean DO eddy flux is larger on average than the mean seasonal DO flux and varies seasonally, and a lower part, where the mean seasonal DO flux exhibits vertical-zonal propagating features that share similar characteristics than those of the energy flux associated with the annual extratropical Rossby waves. At the OMZ meridional boundaries where the mean DO eddy flux is large, the DO eddy flux has also a marked seasonal cycle that peaks in austral winter (spring

  11. Oxygen isotope values of tree ring α-cellulose as a proxy of hydroclimate variability in arid regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, J. P.; Freimuth, E. J.; Olson, E. J.; Diefendorf, A. F.

    2015-12-01

    One of the main goals of tree ring isotope studies is to reconstruct climate-driven variations in the source water and antecedent precipitation; however, evaporation in the soil and leaves can significantly modify the isotope values of the source water. This is particularly the case in arid environments where evaporative effects are perhaps the most significant unknown variable when attempting to reconstruct regional-scale hydroclimate variations from tree ring isotope proxies. To quantify the effects of extreme aridity on α-cellulose δ18O values, we measured the oxygen isotope values of groundwater, xylem water, leaf water, and tree ring α-cellulose in an endemic species of drought-resistant trees (Prosopis tamarugo) from different microenvironments throughout the Atacama Desert of Northern Chile. Average annual precipitation is <5 mm/yr, and groundwater is the primary water source for P. tamarugo trees in the region. Groundwater δ18O values at the sample locations range from -6.7 to -9.7‰, and xylem water δ18O values record a systematic increase (ave. Δ18Ox-gw =+1.3‰; 2σ =1.0‰). Leaf waters are significantly affected by evaporative enrichment with a range of δ18O values from 7 to 23‰. This range most likely reflects a number of physiological and environmental conditions including tree size, canopy development, and sample time (i.e. morning vs. evening). However, despite the large variation in leaf water δ18O values, the average difference between the α-cellulose and groundwater is very consistent (Δ18Oc-gw = +39.7‰; 2σ =1.3‰). P. tamarugo samples were collected in austral spring, when tree growth was at its maximum; therefore, any seasonal variations in plant physiology not captured with this dataset will have a limited impact on cellulose production. These data demonstrate that despite the variable evaporative enrichment of 18O in the leaf water, the α-cellulose δ18O values provide a remarkably consistent record of variations in

  12. Potential impacts of a future Grand Solar Minimum on decadal regional climate change and interannual hemispherical climate variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegl, Tobias; Langematz, Ulrike

    2016-04-01

    The political, technical and socio-economic developments of the next decades will determine the magnitude of 21st century climate change, since they are inextricably linked to future anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. To assess the range of uncertainty that is related to these developments, it is common to assume different emission scenarios for 21st climate projections. While the uncertainties associated with the anthropogenic greenhouse gas forcing have been studied intensely, the contribution of natural climate drivers (particularly solar variability) to recent and future climate change are subject of intense debate. The past 1,000 years featured at least 5 excursions (lasting 60-100 years) of exceptionally low solar activity, induced by a weak magnetic field of the Sun, so called Grand Solar Minima. While the global temperature response to such a decrease in solar activity is assumed to be rather small, nonlinear mechanisms in the climate system might amplify the regional temperature signal. This hypothesis is supported by the last Grand Solar Minimum (the Maunder Minimum, 1645-1715) which coincides with the Little Ice Age, an epoch which is characterized by severe cold and hardship over Europe, North America and Asia. The long-lasting minimum of Solar Cycle 23 as well as the overall weak maximum of Cycle 24 reveal the possibility for a return to Grand Solar Minimum conditions within the next decades. The quantification of the implications of such a projected decrease in solar forcing is of ultimate importance, given the on-going public discussion of the role of carbon dioxide emissions for global warming, and the possible role a cooling due to decreasing solar activity could be ascribed to. Since there is still no clear consensus about the actual strength of the Maunder Minimum, we used 3 acknowledged solar reconstruction datasets that show significant differences in both, total solar irradiance (TSI) and spectral irradiance (SSI) to simulate a future

  13. Engineering a disulfide bond in the lid hinge region of Rhizopus chinensis lipase: increased thermostability and altered acyl chain length specificity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Wei Yu

    Full Text Available The key to enzyme function is the maintenance of an appropriate balance between molecular stability and structural flexibility. The lid domain which is very important for "interfacial activation" is the most flexible part in the lipase structure. In this work, rational design was applied to explore the relationship between lid rigidity and lipase activity by introducing a disulfide bond in the hinge region of the lid, in the hope of improving the thermostability of R. chinensis lipase through stabilization of the lid domain without interfering with its catalytic performance. A disulfide bridge between F95C and F214C was introduced into the lipase from R. chinensis in the hinge region of the lid according to the prediction of the "Disulfide by Design" algorithm. The disulfide variant showed substantially improved thermostability with an eleven-fold increase in the t(1/2 value at 60°C and a 7°C increase of T(m compared with the parent enzyme, probably contributed by the stabilization of the geometric structure of the lid region. The additional disulfide bond did not interfere with the catalytic rate (k(cat and the catalytic efficiency towards the short-chain fatty acid substrate, however, the catalytic efficiency of the disulfide variant towards pNPP decreased by 1.5-fold probably due to the block of the hydrophobic substrate channel by the disulfide bond. Furthermore, in the synthesis of fatty acid methyl esters, the maximum conversion rate by RCLCYS reached 95% which was 9% higher than that by RCL. This is the first report on improving the thermostability of the lipase from R. chinensis by introduction of a disulfide bond in the lid hinge region without compromising the catalytic rate.

  14. Variability of 500-mb geopotential heights in a general circulation model and the projection of regional greenhouse effect climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many researchers have utilized general circulation models (GCMs) in establishing climate change scenarios for specific regions or locations, despite the mismatch of spatial scales involved. A major underlying assumption involved in utilizing model output in this manner is that the GCM contains mid-tropospheric dynamics that are internally consistent with those of the real climate system. The main purpose of this study is examine the forms and processes of mid-tropospheric variability in the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) GCM, with the hope of shedding light on this model-analog strategy. The response of mean 500 mb and surface air temperature fields in the GISS GCM to a doubling of CO2 indicates a substantial relationship between the two. Unfortunately, the GISS GCM demonstrates systematic flaws in its simulation of mid-tropospheric dynamics. These are revealed in an examination of high-frequency and low-frequency 500-mb teleconnections in the model. The shapes and amplitudes of known teleconnection patterns are not well simulated. This is likely due to the weak stationary wave structure found in the control run of the model. More importantly, several model teleconnections appear to coincide geographically with the patterns of mean climate change. This may indicate a direct relationship between the modeled mid-tropospheric dynamics and the spatial patterns of mean climate change. This finding has two important implications. First, it is necessary to further study the influence of GCM mid-tropospheric dynamics on the spatial distribution of climate changes being modeled. Second, and more fundamentally, spatially specific climate system feedbacks may be substantially affected by variations in teleconnection strength and frequency, potentially impacting the global climate far beyond the regional scale

  15. Rapid diagnosis and genotyping of Leishmania isolates from cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis by microcapillary cultivation and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism of miniexon region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serin, Mehmet S; Daglioglu, Kenan; Bagirova, Melahat; Allahverdiyev, Adil; Uzun, Soner; Vural, Zeynep; Kayar, Begum; Tezcan, Seda; Yetkin, Mesut; Aslan, Gonul; Emekdas, Gurol; Koksal, Fatih

    2005-11-01

    We have performed a combination of microcapillary cultivation method and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of amplified products by 1 single PCR of miniexon region of Leishmania for molecular diagnosis and genotyping of different Leishmania species isolated from cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and visceral leishmaniasis. We have analyzed 10 microcapillary cultivated isolates from cutaneous cases and 5 microcapillary cultivated isolates from visceral cases (totally 15) by polymerase chain reaction-RFLP (PCR-RFLP). Of 10 isolates, 3 (30%) were genotyped as Leishmania infantum and 7 (70%) of 10 isolates were genotyped as Leishmania tropica from the microcapillary cultivated isolates of cutaneous cases. On the other hand, all 5 isolates (100%) were genotyped as L. infantum from microcapillary cultivated visceral cases. Our most interesting finding is the presence of 3 L. infantum isolates in CL cases without kala-azar history. Therefore, we suggest that further investigations must be done about this subject. On the other hand, we suggest the combination of microcapillary culture method and PCR-RFLP of miniexon region of leishmaniae can be used in routine laboratory experimentation because of their simple, cheap, and rapid benefits (within a week), whereas other different approaches offer a multitude of valid taxonomic characters for species identification. PMID:16249065

  16. Different regions of the immunoglobulin heavy-chain locus are involved in chromosomal translocations in distinct pathogenic forms of Burkitt lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neri, A.; Barriga, F.; Knowles, D.M.; Magrath, I.T.; Dalla-Favera, R.

    1988-04-01

    The authors show that endemic (eBL), sporadic (sBL), and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-associated (AIDS-BL) forms of Burkitt lymphoma (BL) carrying t(8; 14) chromosomal translocations display different breakpoints within the immunoglobulin heavy-chain locus (IGH) on chromosome 14. In sBL (7 out of 11) and AIDS-BL (5 out of 6), the breakpoints occurred within or near the IGH ..mu.. switch (S/sub mu/) region on chromosome 14 and within the c-myc locus (MYC) on chromosome 8. In most eBL (13 out of 16) the breakpoints were mapped within or 5' to the IGH joining J/sub H/ region on chromosome 14 and outside the MYC locus on chromosome 8. Cloning and sequencing of the (8; 14) chromosomal junctions from two eBL cell lines and one eBL biopsy sample show that the recombination do not involve IGH-specific recombination signals on chromosome 14 or homologous sequences on chromosome 8, suggesting that these events are not likely to be mediated by the same mechanisms or enzymes as in IGH rearrangements. In general, these data have implications for the timing of occurrence of chromosomal translocations during B-cell differentiation in different BL types.

  17. 3-D VARIABLE PARAMETER NUMERICAL MODEL FOR EVALUATION OF THE PLANNED EXPLOITABLE GROUNDWATER RESOURCE IN REGIONAL UNCONSOLIDATED SEDIMENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Zu-jiang; WANG Yan

    2012-01-01

    In order to correctly evaluate the exploitable groundwater resource in regional complex,thick Quaternary unconsolidated sediments,the whole Quaternary unconsolidated sediments are considered as a unified hydrogeological unit and a 3-D unsteady groundwater flow numerical model is adopted.Meanwhile,with the consideration of the dynamic changes of the porosity,the hydraulic conductivity and the specific storage with the groundwater level dropping during the exploitation process,an improved composite element seepage matrix adjustment method is applied to solve the unsteady flow problem of free surface.In order to evaluate the exploitable groundwater resource in Cangzhou,Hebei Province,the hydrogeological conceptual model of Cangzhou is generalized to establish,a 3-D variable parameter numerical model of Cangzhou.Based on the prediction of the present groundwater exploitation,and by adjusting the groundwater exploitation layout,the exploitable groundwater resource is predicted.The model enjoys features like good convergence,good stability and high precision.

  18. Future agricultural water demand under climate change: regional variability and uncertainties arising from CMIP5 climate projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schewe, J.; Wada, Y.; Wisser, D.

    2012-12-01

    The agricultural sector (irrigation and livestock) uses by far the largest amount of water among all sectors and is responsible for 70% of the global water withdrawal. At a country scale, irrigation water withdrawal often exceeds 90% of the total water used in many of emerging and developing countries such as India, Pakistan, Iran and Mexico, sustaining much of food production and the livelihood of millions of people. The livestock sector generally accounts less than 1-2% of total water withdrawal, yet exceeds 10-30% of the total water used in many of the African countries. Future agricultural water demand is, however, subject to large uncertainties due to anticipated climate change, i.e. warming temperature and changing precipitation variability, in various regions of the world. Here, we use a global hydrological and water resources model to quantify the impact of climate change on regional irrigation and livestock water demand, and the resulting uncertainties arsing from newly available CMIP5 climate projections obtained through Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISI-MIP; http://www.isi-mip.org/). Irrigation water requirement per unit crop area is estimated by simulating daily soil water balance with crop-related data. Livestock water demand is calculated by combining livestock densities with their drinking water requirements that is a function of air temperature. The results of the ensemble mean show that global irrigation and livestock water demand increased by ~6% and ~12% by 2050 respectively primarily due to higher evaporative demand as a result of increased temperature. At a regional scale, agricultural water demand decreased over some parts of Europe (e.g., Italy, Germany) and Southeast Asia (e.g., the Philippines, Malaysia), but increased over South Asia, the U.S., the Middle East and Africa. However, the projections are highly uncertain over many parts of the world. The results of the ensemble projections in agricultural water demand

  19. Towards integrating the influence of erosion on within field variability of C input, stock and stability in regional SOC estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meersmans, J.; Quine, T. A.

    2013-12-01

    Improved management of the SOC pool has become an important issue for policymakers in order to maintain soil quality and reduce climate change. Hence, there exists an increased interest in accurate mapping of SOC at the regional scale. Most of these studies are limited to topsoil, consider only factors present at the landscape scale (e.g. climate, land use, soil type) and are at rather coarse resolution. Consequently, the variability of SOC at smaller scales in complex terrain driven by soil erosion, such as stable subsoil carbon buried in depositional areas, is still rather understudied and is not (well) presented in these estimates. Nevertheless, incorporating this smaller level of spatial detail will most probably have a major influence on regional SOC stock dynamics' calculations and mapping. In the present study we aim to unravel the variation in quantity and quality of SOC depth distributions along typical hillslope transects under cropland (Devon, UK) and relate these to soil redistribution rates and variations in C input, i.e. below and above ground biomass productivity. The radionuclide isotope Caesium-137 (137Cs) was used as proxy for erosion. The results show contrasting vertical patterns in SOC stock and stability depending on the rate and type of erosion. For example, sites characterized by deposition due to water erosion (i.e. foot slope) have much higher SOC values near the surface, but show a fast decline with depth, while sites characterized by deposition due to tillage erosion (i.e. most concave position) have moderated SOC surface values that stay constant until a depth of 50 cm, but with increasing stability with depth. The above ground biomass productivity is most linked to water erosion, since we found lowest above ground biomass at the steepest slope position and the highest above ground biomass at the foot slopes. Furthermore, root biomass in the most concave section is significantly higher as compared to any other topo-position. The present

  20. Agricultural production and groundwater depletion under climate variability in India - Results from a regional scale crop modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegfried, T. U.; Sobolowski, S.; Fishman, R.; Vasquez, V.; Raj, P.; Narula, K. K.; Modi, V.; Lall, U.

    2009-12-01

    In India, recent declines in national food security may point to systemic deficiencies of agricultural production. Over the past decade and in the face of declining public investments in irrigation projects, the growth of production has increasingly become reliant on the allocation of large volumes of groundwater in an unsustainable manner. As a result, shallow as well as deep fossil groundwater resources are increasingly depleted and the buffer that mitigates negative impacts on production in case of Monsoonal dry-spells / drought conditions is lost. In the face of future climate and food supply uncertainty, it is vital that the connections between climate variability, unsustainable irrigation practices and their impacts on regional scale agricultural production be quantified and better understood. In our analysis, we focus on rice production in the Telengana region in Andhra Pradesh, which is characterized by a semi-arid tropical climate that is driven by the bimodal seasonality of the south-western monsoon. Traditionally, agricultural production of rice was constrained by precipitation variations during the wet season (Kharif). However, the advent of inexpensive pump technology in the 1970's, coupled with governmentally subsidized electricity has allowed year-round rice production. Thus, the Monsoon rains must not only drive wet season production but must also sufficiently recharge groundwater in order to support dry season production. Observed Production time series are characterized by non-stationarity and heteroscedasticity. Using a subset of eight districts, a non-linear Gaussian Process regression model is developed and yearly crop production is modeled at the district level over 48 years. We show that interannual climate variations, in the form of the monsoon rains, play a significant role in determining the area of land set aside for dry season planting and thus affect total yearly production. The results suggest that a non-linear Bayesian regression

  1. Technical Note: An operational landslide early warning system at regional scale based on space-time variable rainfall thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segoni, S.; Battistini, A.; Rossi, G.; Rosi, A.; Lagomarsino, D.; Catani, F.; Moretti, S.; Casagli, N.

    2014-10-01

    We set up an early warning system for rainfall-induced landslides in Tuscany (23 000 km2). The system is based on a set of state-of-the-art intensity-duration rainfall thresholds (Segoni et al., 2014b), makes use of LAMI rainfall forecasts and real-time rainfall data provided by an automated network of more than 300 rain-gauges. The system was implemented in a WebGIS to ease the operational use in civil protection procedures: it is simple and intuitive to consult and it provides different outputs. Switching among different views, the system is able to focus both on monitoring of real time data and on forecasting at different lead times up to 48 h. Moreover, the system can switch between a very straightforward view where a synoptic scenario of the hazard can be shown all over the region and a more in-depth view were the rainfall path of rain-gauges can be displayed and constantly compared with rainfall thresholds. To better account for the high spatial variability of the physical features, which affects the relationship between rainfall and landslides, the region is subdivided into 25 alert zones, each provided with a specific threshold. The warning system reflects this subdivision: using a network of 332 rain gauges, it allows monitoring each alert zone separately and warnings can be issued independently from an alert zone to another. An important feature of the warning system is the use of thresholds that may vary in time adapting at the conditions of the rainfall path recorded by the rain-gauges. Depending on when the starting time of the rainfall event is set, the comparison with the threshold may produce different outcomes. Therefore, a recursive algorithm was developed to check and compare with the thresholds all possible starting times, highlighting the worst scenario and showing in the WebGIS interface at what time and how much the rainfall path has exceeded or will exceed the most critical threshold. Besides forecasting and monitoring the hazard scenario

  2. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis with allele-specific oligonucleotide primers for individual IgH VDJ regions to evaluate tumor burden in myeloma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sata, Hiroshi; Shibayama, Hirohiko; Maeda, Ikuhiro; Habuchi, Yoko; Nakatani, Eiji; Fukushima, Kentaro; Fujita, Jiro; Ezoe, Sachiko; Tadokoro, Seiji; Maeda, Tetsuo; Mizuki, Masao; Kosugi, Satoru; Nakagawa, Masashi; Ueda, Shuji; Iida, Masato; Tokumine, Yukihiro; Azenishi, Yasuhiko; Mitsui, Hideki; Oritani, Kenji; Kanakura, Yuzuru

    2015-05-01

    Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with patient-specific, allele-specific oligonucleotide (ASO) primers for individual immunoglobulin H VDJ region (ASO-PCR) amplification was performed using several sources of clinical material, including mRNA from peripheral blood cells (PBMNCs), whole bone marrow cells (BMMNCs), and the CD20+ CD38- B-cell population in bone marrow, as well as cell-free DNA from the sera of patients with multiple myeloma (MM). We designed the ASO primers and produced sufficient PCR fragments to evaluate tumor burden in 20 of 30 bone marrow samples at diagnosis. Polymerase chain reaction amplification efficiency depended on primer sequences because the production of ASO-PCR fragments did not correlate with serum M-protein levels. However, the ASO-PCR levels in BMMNCs showed statistically significant correlations with those in PBMNCs and CD20+ CD38- B-cells. The good association between the BMMNC and PBMNC data indicated that PBMNCs could be a suitable source for monitoring minimal residual disease (MRD). In the case of cell-free DNA, ASO-PCR levels showed a unique pattern and remained high even after treatment. Because the sequence information for each ASO-PCR product was identical to the original, the cell-free DNA might also be useful for evaluating MRD. Moreover, the ASO-PCR products were clearly detected in 17 of 22 mRNA samples from CD20+ CD38- populations, suggesting that MM clones might exist in relatively earlier stages of B cells than in plasma cells. Thus, ASO-PCR analysis using various clinical materials is useful for detecting MRD in MM patients as well as for clarifying MM pathogenesis.

  3. Climate Variability-Observations, Reconstructions, and Model Simulations for the Atlantic-European and Alpine Region from 1500-2100 AD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raible, Christoph C. [Climate and Environmental Physics, Physics Institute, University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Casty, C.; Luterbacher, J.; Pauling, A.; Wanner, H. [Institute of Geography, University of Bern, Hallerstrasse 12, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Esper, J.; Frank, D.C.; Buentgen, U. [Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, Zuercherstrasse 111, CH-8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Roesch, A.C.; Tschuck, P.; Wild, M.; Vidale, P.L.; Schaer, C. [Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science ETH, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2006-11-15

    A detailed analysis is undertaken of the Atlantic-European climate using data from 500-year-long proxy-based climate reconstructions, a long climate simulation with perpetual 1990 forcing, as well as two global and one regional climate change scenarios. The observed and simulated interannual variability and teleconnectivity are compared and interpreted in order to improve the understanding of natural climate variability on interannual to decadal time scales for the late Holocene. The focus is set on the Atlantic-European and Alpine regions during the winter and summer seasons, using temperature, precipitation, and 500 hPa geopotential height fields. The climate reconstruction shows pronounced interdecadal variations that appear to 'lock' the atmospheric circulation in quasi-steady long-term patterns over multi-decadal periods controlling at least part of the temperature and precipitation variability. Different circulation patterns are persistent over several decades for the period 1500 to 1900. The 500-year-long simulation with perpetual 1990 forcing shows some substantial differences, with a more unsteady teleconnectivity behaviour. Two global scenario simulations indicate a transition towards more stable teleconnectivity for the next 100 years. Time series of reconstructed and simulated temperature and precipitation over the Alpine region show comparatively small changes in interannual variability within the time frame considered, with the exception of the summer season, where a substantial increase in interannual variability is simulated by regional climate models.

  4. Decadal trend of precipitation and temperature patterns and impacts on snow-related variables in a semiarid region, Sierra Nevada, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    José Pérez-Palazón, María; Pimentel, Rafael; Herrero, Javier; José Polo, María

    2016-04-01

    In the current context of global change, mountainous areas constitute singular locations in which these changes can be traced. Early detection of significant shifts of snow state variables in semiarid regions can help assess climate variability impacts and future snow dynamics in northern latitudes. The Sierra Nevada mountain range, in southern Spain, is a representative example of snow areas in Mediterranean-climate regions and both monitoring and modelling efforts have been performed to assess this variability and its significant scales. This work presents a decadal trend analysis throughout the 50-yr period 1960-2010 performed on some snow-related variables over Sierra Nevada, in Spain, which is included in the global climate change observatories network around the world. The study area comprises 4583 km2 distributed throughout the five head basins influenced by these mountains, with altitude values ranging from 140 to 3479 m.a.s.l., just 40 km from the Mediterranean coastline. Meteorological variables obtained from 44 weather stations from the National Meteorological Agency were studied and further used as input to the distributed hydrological model WiMMed (Polo et al., 2010), operational at the study area, to obtain selected snow variables. Decadal trends were obtained, together with their statistical significance, over the following variables, averaged over the whole study area: (1) annual precipitation; (2) annual snowfall; annual (3) mean, (4) maximum and (5) minimum daily temperature; annual (6) mean and (7) maximum daily fraction of snow covered areas; (8) annual number of days with snow cover; (9) mean and (10) maximum daily snow water equivalent; (11) annual number of extreme precipitation events; and (12) mean intensity of the annual extreme precipitation events. These variables were also studied over each of the five regions associated to each basin in the range. Globally decreasing decadal trends were obtained for all the meteorological variables

  5. Variable sediment flux in generation of Permian subduction-related mafic intrusions from the Yanbian region, NE China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Feng; Li, Hongxia; Fan, Weiming; Li, Jingyan; Zhao, Liang; Huang, Miwei

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents petrology, mineralogy, zircon U-Pb ages, and whole-rock major, trace element and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic compositions of four Permian (273-253 Ma) subduction-related mafic intrusions (including the Qinggoushan and Qianshan gabbros, and the Wangqing and Shuguang diorites) from the Yanbian region, NE China, with aims to understand the role of subducted sediment flux in generation of arc mafic cumulates. These intrusions have mineral assemblages crystallized in water-saturated parental magmas and show variable degrees of crystal accumulation as observed in mafic cumulates in subduction zones. Mass-balance consideration indicates that their parental magmas were calc-alkaline with arc-type trace element features (enrichments in large ion lithophile elements (LILE) and light rare earth elements (LREE) and depletions in Nb-Ta). They also have Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic compositions, i.e., 87Sr/86Sr(i) = 0.7029-0.7047, εNd(t) = + 0.9 ~ + 6.8, εHf(t) = + 5.6 ~ + 14.6, similar to modern arc basalts. The parental magmas were likely derived from a mantle wedge variably metasomatized by sediment melt and fluid from the subducting paleo-Asian Oceanic slab. Combined trace elemen