Norris, Alison; Harrington, Bryna J; Grossman, Daniel; Hemed, Maryam; Hindin, Michelle J
In Zanzibar, a semi-autonomous region of Tanzania, induced abortion is illegal but common, and fewer than 12% of married reproductive-aged women use modern contraception. As part of a multi-method study about contraception and consequences of unwanted pregnancies, the objective of this study was to understand the experiences of Zanzibari women who terminated pregnancies. The cross-sectional study was set in Zanzibar, Tanzania. Participants were a community-based sample of women who had terminated pregnancies. We carried out semi-structured interviews with 45 women recruited via chain-referral sampling. We report the characteristics of women who have had abortions, the reasons they had abortions, and the methods used to terminate their pregnancies. Women in Zanzibar terminate pregnancies that are unwanted for a range of reasons, at various points in their reproductive lives, and using multiple methods. While clinical methods were most effective, nearly half of our participants successfully terminated a pregnancy using non-clinical methods and very few had complications requiring post abortion care (PAC). Even in settings where abortion is illegal, some women experience illegal abortions without adverse health consequences, what we might call 'safer' unsafe abortions; these kinds of abortion experiences can be missed in studies about abortion conducted among women seeking PAC in hospitals.
Norris, Alison; Harrington, Bryna J.; Grossman, Daniel; Hemed, Maryam; Hindin, Michelle J.
Background In Zanzibar, a semi-autonomous region of Tanzania, induced abortion is illegal but common, and fewer than 12?% of married reproductive-aged women use modern contraception. As part of a multi-method study about contraception and consequences of unwanted pregnancies, the objective of this study was to understand the experiences of Zanzibari women who terminated pregnancies. Methods The cross-sectional study was set in Zanzibar, Tanzania. Participants were a community-based sample of ...
Maria Arbatskaya; Hideo Konishi
We consider the optimal pricing and referral strategy of a monopoly that uses a simple consumer communication network (a chain) to spread product information. The first-best policy with fully discriminatory position-based referral fees involves standard monopoly pricing and referral fees that provide consumers with strictly positive referral incentives. Effective price discrimination among consumers based on their positions in the chain occurs in both the first-best solution and the second-be...
Tan, Aixin; Doss, Hani; Hobert, James P
Importance sampling is a classical Monte Carlo technique in which a random sample from one probability density, π 1 , is used to estimate an expectation with respect to another, π . The importance sampling estimator is strongly consistent and, as long as two simple moment conditions are satisfied, it obeys a central limit theorem (CLT). Moreover, there is a simple consistent estimator for the asymptotic variance in the CLT, which makes for routine computation of standard errors. Importance sampling can also be used in the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) context. Indeed, if the random sample from π 1 is replaced by a Harris ergodic Markov chain with invariant density π 1 , then the resulting estimator remains strongly consistent. There is a price to be paid however, as the computation of standard errors becomes more complicated. First, the two simple moment conditions that guarantee a CLT in the iid case are not enough in the MCMC context. Second, even when a CLT does hold, the asymptotic variance has a complex form and is difficult to estimate consistently. In this paper, we explain how to use regenerative simulation to overcome these problems. Actually, we consider a more general set up, where we assume that Markov chain samples from several probability densities, π 1 , …, π k , are available. We construct multiple-chain importance sampling estimators for which we obtain a CLT based on regeneration. We show that if the Markov chains converge to their respective target distributions at a geometric rate, then under moment conditions similar to those required in the iid case, the MCMC-based importance sampling estimator obeys a CLT. Furthermore, because the CLT is based on a regenerative process, there is a simple consistent estimator of the asymptotic variance. We illustrate the method with two applications in Bayesian sensitivity analysis. The first concerns one-way random effects models under different priors. The second involves Bayesian variable
Swiler, Laura Painton [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ray, Jaideep [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Ebeida, Mohamed Salah [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Huang, Maoyi [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hou, Zhangshuan [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bao, Jie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ren, Huiying [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
We present the development of a parallel Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method called SAChES, Scalable Adaptive Chain-Ensemble Sampling. This capability is targed to Bayesian calibration of com- putationally expensive simulation models. SAChES involves a hybrid of two methods: Differential Evo- lution Monte Carlo followed by Adaptive Metropolis. Both methods involve parallel chains. Differential evolution allows one to explore high-dimensional parameter spaces using loosely coupled (i.e., largely asynchronous) chains. Loose coupling allows the use of large chain ensembles, with far more chains than the number of parameters to explore. This reduces per-chain sampling burden, enables high-dimensional inversions and the use of computationally expensive forward models. The large number of chains can also ameliorate the impact of silent-errors, which may affect only a few chains. The chain ensemble can also be sampled to provide an initial condition when an aberrant chain is re-spawned. Adaptive Metropolis takes the best points from the differential evolution and efficiently hones in on the poste- rior density. The multitude of chains in SAChES is leveraged to (1) enable efficient exploration of the parameter space; and (2) ensure robustness to silent errors which may be unavoidable in extreme-scale computational platforms of the future. This report outlines SAChES, describes four papers that are the result of the project, and discusses some additional results.
Kooper Angelique JA
Full Text Available Abstract As a routine, karyotyping of invasive prenatal samples is performed as an adjunct to referrals for DNA mutation detection and metabolic testing. We performed a retrospective study on 500 samples to assess the diagnostic value of this procedure. These samples included 454 (90.8% chorionic villus (CV and 46 (9.2% amniocenteses specimens. For CV samples karyotyping was based on analyses of both short-term culture (STC and long-term culture (LTC cells. Overall, 19 (3.8% abnormal karyotypes were denoted: four with a common aneuploidy (trisomy 21, 18 and 13, two with a sex chromosomal aneuploidy (Klinefelter syndrome, one with a sex chromosome mosaicism and twelve with various autosome mosaicisms. In four cases a second invasive test was performed because of an abnormal finding in the STC. Taken together, we conclude that STC and LTC karyotyping has resulted in a diagnostic yield of 19 (3.8% abnormal cases, including 12 cases (2.4% with an uncertain significance. From a diagnostic point of view, it is desirable to limit uncertain test results as secondary test findings. Therefore, we recommend a more targeted assay, such as e.g. QF-PCR, as a replacement of the STC and to provide parents the autonomy to choose between karyotyping and QF-PCR.
Glasman, Laura R; Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Lechuga, Julia; Tarima, Sergey; Bodnar, Gloria; de Mendoza, Lorena Rivas
In El Salvador, crack users are at high risk for HIV but they are not targeted by efforts to promote early HIV diagnosis. We evaluated the promise of peer-referral chains with incentives to increase HIV testing and identify undiagnosed HIV infections among networks of crack users in San Salvador. For 14 months, we offered HIV testing in communities with a high prevalence of crack use. For the following 14 months, we promoted chains in which crack users from these communities referred their peers to HIV testing and received a small monetary incentive. We recorded the monthly numbers of HIV testers, and their crack use, sexual risk behaviors and test results. After launching the referral chains, the monthly numbers of HIV testers increased significantly (Z = 6.90, p < .001) and decayed more slowly (Z = 5.93, p < .001), and the total number of crack-using testers increased nearly fourfold. Testers in the peer-referral period reported fewer HIV risk behaviors, but a similar percentage (~5 %) tested HIV positive in both periods. More women than men received an HIV-positive diagnosis throughout the study (χ(2)(1, N = 799) = 4.23, p = .040). Peer-referral chains with incentives can potentially increase HIV testing among networks of crack users while retaining a focus on high-risk individuals.
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ENGLISH ABSTRACT: In this research, a Markov analysis of acceptance sampling plans in a single stage and in two stages is proposed, based on the quality of the items inspected. In a stage of this policy, if the number of defective items in a sample of inspected items is more than the upper threshold, the batch is rejected. However, the batch is accepted if the number of defective items is less than the lower threshold. Nonetheless, when the number of defective items falls between the upper and lower thresholds, the decision-making process continues to inspect the items and collect further samples. The primary objective is to determine the optimal values of the upper and lower thresholds using a Markov process to minimise the total cost associated with a batch acceptance policy. A solution method is presented, along with a numerical demonstration of the application of the proposed methodology.
AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: In hierdie navorsing word ’n Markov-ontleding gedoen van aannamemonsternemingsplanne wat plaasvind in ’n enkele stap of in twee stappe na gelang van die kwaliteit van die items wat geïnspekteer word. Indien die eerste monster toon dat die aantal defektiewe items ’n boonste grens oorskry, word die lot afgekeur. Indien die eerste monster toon dat die aantal defektiewe items minder is as ’n onderste grens, word die lot aanvaar. Indien die eerste monster toon dat die aantal defektiewe items in die gebied tussen die boonste en onderste grense lê, word die besluitnemingsproses voortgesit en verdere monsters word geneem. Die primêre doel is om die optimale waardes van die booonste en onderste grense te bepaal deur gebruik te maak van ’n Markov-proses sodat die totale koste verbonde aan die proses geminimiseer kan word. ’n Oplossing word daarna voorgehou tesame met ’n numeriese voorbeeld van die toepassing van die voorgestelde oplossing.
We describe a simple method that can be used to sample the rare fluctuations of discrete-time Markov chains. We focus on the case of Markov chains with well-defined steady-state measures, and derive expressions for the large-deviation rate functions (and upper bounds on such functions) for dynamical quantities extensive in the length of the Markov chain. We illustrate the method using a series of simple examples, and use it to study the fluctuations of a lattice-based model of active matter that can undergo motility-induced phase separation.
Full Text Available In order to fully characterize the state-transition behaviour of finite Markov chains one needs to provide the corresponding transition matrix P. In many applications such as molecular simulation and drug design, the entries of the transition matrix P are estimated by generating realizations of the Markov chain and determining the one-step conditional probability Pij for a transition from one state i to state j. This sampling can be computational very demanding. Therefore, it is a good idea to reduce the sampling effort. The main purpose of this paper is to design a sampling strategy, which provides a partial sampling of only a subset of the rows of such a matrix P. Our proposed approach fits very well to stochastic processes stemming from simulation of molecular systems or random walks on graphs and it is different from the matrix completion approaches which try to approximate the transition matrix by using a low-rank-assumption. It will be shown how Markov chains can be analyzed on the basis of a partial sampling. More precisely. First, we will estimate the stationary distribution from a partially given matrix P. Second, we will estimate the infinitesimal generator Q of P on the basis of this stationary distribution. Third, from the generator we will compute the leading invariant subspace, which should be identical to the leading invariant subspace of P. Forth, we will apply Robust Perron Cluster Analysis (PCCA+ in order to identify metastabilities using this subspace.
Goel, Sharad; Salganik, Matthew J
Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) is a recently introduced, and now widely used, technique for estimating disease prevalence in hidden populations. RDS data are collected through a snowball mechanism, in which current sample members recruit future sample members. In this paper we present RDS as Markov chain Monte Carlo importance sampling, and we examine the effects of community structure and the recruitment procedure on the variance of RDS estimates. Past work has assumed that the variance of RDS estimates is primarily affected by segregation between healthy and infected individuals. We examine an illustrative model to show that this is not necessarily the case, and that bottlenecks anywhere in the networks can substantially affect estimates. We also show that variance is inflated by a common design feature in which the sample members are encouraged to recruit multiple future sample members. The paper concludes with suggestions for implementing and evaluating RDS studies.
Elliott, Panda; Holmes, Daniel T
Adrenal vein sampling (AVS) is the gold standard for localization of aldosterone producing adenoma. The anatomy of the right adrenal vein makes this procedure technically demanding and it may yield no clinical information if the adrenal veins are not adequately cannulated. Having frequently observed the technical failure of AVS, we undertook a review of 220 procedures in British Columbia, Canada. Subjects were retrospectively identified through the laboratory information system. The following were collected: demographics, screening aldosterone concentration and renin activity/mass, results of dynamic function tests, AVS aldosterone and cortisol results. Standard calculations were performed on AVS data and site-specific success rates were compared. The effect of adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) stimulation on the selectivity index (SI) and lateralization index (LI) were explored. The overall technical success-rate of AVS procedures was only 44% in procedures where no ACTH-stimulation was used (n=200) but this rose significantly (psuccess of AVS is lower than reported elsewhere. Provided that effects on the LI are considered, the use of ACTH-stimulation during AVS assists in the identification of unilateral forms of PA. Copyright © 2013 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fraune, Claudia Kümmerle; Schweighauser, Ariane; Francey, Thierry
To determine the diagnostic value of a serologic microagglutination test (MAT) and a PCR assay on urine and blood for the diagnosis of leptospirosis in dogs with acute kidney injury (AKI). Cross-sectional study. Animals-76 dogs with AKI in a referral hospital (2008 to 2009). Dogs' leptospirosis status was defined with a paired serologic MAT against a panel of 11 Leptospira serovars as leptospirosis-associated (n = 30) or nonleptospirosis-associated AKI (12). In 34 dogs, convalescent serologic testing was not possible, and leptospirosis status was classified as undetermined. The diagnostic value of the MAT single acute or convalescent blood sample was determined in dogs in which leptospirosis status could be classified. The diagnostic value of a commercially available genus-specific PCR assay was evaluated by use of 36 blood samples and 20 urine samples. Serologic acute testing of an acute blood sample had a specificity of 100% (95% CI, 76% to 100%), a sensitivity of 50% (33% to 67%), and an accuracy of 64% (49% to 77%). Serologic testing of a convalescent blood sample had a specificity of 92% (65% to 99%), a sensitivity of 100% (87% to 100%), and an accuracy of 98% (88% to 100%). Results of the Leptospira PCR assay were negative for all samples from dogs for which leptospirosis status could be classified. Serologic MAT results were highly accurate for diagnosis of leptospirosis in dogs, despite a low sensitivity for early diagnosis. In this referral setting of dogs pretreated with antimicrobials, testing of blood and urine samples with a commercially available genus-specific PCR assay did not improve early diagnosis.
Nasarabadi, Shanavaz [Livermore, CA
A polymerase chain reaction system for analyzing a sample containing nucleic acid includes providing magnetic beads; providing a flow channel having a polymerase chain reaction chamber, a pre polymerase chain reaction magnet position adjacent the polymerase chain reaction chamber, and a post pre polymerase magnet position adjacent the polymerase chain reaction chamber. The nucleic acid is bound to the magnetic beads. The magnetic beads with the nucleic acid flow to the pre polymerase chain reaction magnet position in the flow channel. The magnetic beads and the nucleic acid are washed with ethanol. The nucleic acid in the polymerase chain reaction chamber is amplified. The magnetic beads and the nucleic acid are separated into a waste stream containing the magnetic beads and a post polymerase chain reaction mix containing the nucleic acid. The reaction mix containing the nucleic acid flows to an analysis unit in the channel for analysis.
Vrugt, Jasper A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Diks, Cees G H [NON LANL; Clark, Martyn P [NON LANL
Bayesian model averaging (BMA) has recently been proposed as a statistical method to calibrate forecast ensembles from numerical weather models. Successful implementation of BMA however, requires accurate estimates of the weights and variances of the individual competing models in the ensemble. In their seminal paper (Raftery etal. Mon Weather Rev 133: 1155-1174, 2(05)) has recommended the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm for BMA model training, even though global convergence of this algorithm cannot be guaranteed. In this paper, we compare the performance of the EM algorithm and the recently developed Differential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis (DREAM) Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm for estimating the BMA weights and variances. Simulation experiments using 48-hour ensemble data of surface temperature and multi-model stream-flow forecasts show that both methods produce similar results, and that their performance is unaffected by the length of the training data set. However, MCMC simulation with DREAM is capable of efficiently handling a wide variety of BMA predictive distributions, and provides useful information about the uncertainty associated with the estimated BMA weights and variances.
Liang, Faming; Carrol, Raymond J
This book provides comprehensive coverage of simulation of complex systems using Monte Carlo methods. Developing algorithms that are immune to the local trap problem has long been considered as the most important topic in MCMC research. Various advanced MCMC algorithms which address this problem have been developed include, the modified Gibbs sampler, the methods based on auxiliary variables and the methods making use of past samples. The focus of this book is on the algorithms that make use of past samples. This book includes the multicanonical algorithm, dynamic weighting, dynamically weight
Hogben, M; St Lawrence, J S; Montaño, D E; Kasprzyk, D; Leichliter, J S; Phillips, W R
The United States has relied upon partner notification strategies to help break the chain of infection and re-infection for sexually transmitted diseases (STD). Physicians are a vital link in the system of STD control, but little is known of physician opinions about partner notification strategies. We collected opinions about partner notification from a national probability sample of physicians in specialties diagnosing STDs. Physicians responded to 17 questions about three relevant forms of STD partner notification: patient based referral, provider based referral, and case reporting. Exploratory factor analyses showed that responses for each form of partner notification could be grouped into four categories: perceived practice norms, infection control, patient relationships, and time/money. Multivariate analyses of the factors showed that physicians endorsed patient based referral most favourably and provider based referral least favourably. Physicians' opinions about partner notification strategies appear to reflect objective reality in some areas, but not in others. Strategies that improve the fit between physicians' opinions and effective notification are needed: some are discussed here.
Full Text Available Supply Chain Management, which is concerned with material and information flows between facilities and the final customers, has been considered the most popular operations strategy for improving organizational competitiveness nowadays. With the advanced development of computer technology, it is getting easier to derive an acceptance sampling plan satisfying both the producer's and consumer's quality and risk requirements. However, all the available QC tables and computer software determine the sampling plan on a noneconomic basis. In this paper, we design an economic model to determine the optimal sampling plan in a two-stage supply chain that minimizes the producer's and the consumer's total quality cost while satisfying both the producer's and consumer's quality and risk requirements. Numerical examples show that the optimal sampling plan is quite sensitive to the producer's product quality. The product's inspection, internal failure, and postsale failure costs also have an effect on the optimal sampling plan.
Hatta, Mochammad; Smits, Henk L.
A nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) specific for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi was used for the detection of the pathogen in blood, urine, and stool samples from 131 patients with clinical suspicion of typhoid fever. The sensitivity of blood culture, the PCRs with blood, urine, and feces,
Matsukami, Hidenori; Kurunthachalam, S; Ohi, Etsumasa; Takasuga, Takumi [Shimadzu Techno Research, Inc., Kyoto (Japan); Iino, Fukuya; Nakanishi, Junko [National Inst. of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba (Japan)
Polychlorinated n-alkanes (PCAs) are group of chemicals manufactured by chlorination of liquid n-paraffin or paraffin wax that contain 30 to 70% chlorine by weight. Large amounts of PCAs are widely used as plasticizers for vinyl chloride, lubricants, paints, and flame retardants and number of other industrial applications. Annual global production of PCAs is approximately 300 kilo tones, with a majority having medium-carbon-chain (C14-C19) length. According to the investigation made by Kagaku Kogyo Nippon-Sha, the annual consumption of PCAs in Japan was about 83,000 tons in between 1986-2001. Short-carbon-chain (C10-C13) has been placed on the Priority Substance List under Canadian Environmental Protection Act and on the Environmental Protection Agency Toxic Release Inventory in the USA due to its potential to act as tumor promoters in mammals. Data on environment levels of PCAs is meager, nevertheless, PCAs have been measured at relatively high concentrations in biota from Sweden, biota, sediment from Canada and marine biota and human milk from the Canadian Arctic. In our earlier study, we reported concentrations of short-chain PCAs from sewage treatment plant (STP) collected from Tama River, Tokyo and river water and sediment from Tokyo and Osaka. STP influent water contained greater shortchain PCAs concentrations than STP effluent. In addition, some river water and sediment samples contained detectable concentrations of short-chain PCAs, which was similar to other industrial countries. However, there is no study conducted to explore the contamination profiles of short-chain PCAs in human foodstuff samples. In the present study, we analyzed eleven foodstuff samples that were purchased from various supermarkets in order to know the short-chain PCAs concentrations in the foodstuff and possible human total daily intake (TDI) amounts.
Shangguan Danhua; Bao Jingdong
We introduce the potential-decomposition strategy (PDS), which can he used in Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling algorithms. PDS can be designed to make particles move in a modified potential that favors diffusion in phase space, then, by rejecting some trial samples, the target distributions can be sampled in an unbiased manner. Furthermore, if the accepted trial samples are insufficient, they can be recycled as initial states to form more unbiased samples. This strategy can greatly improve efficiency when the original potential has multiple metastable states separated by large barriers. We apply PDS to the 2d Ising model and a double-well potential model with a large barrier, demonstrating in these two representative examples that convergence is accelerated by orders of magnitude.
Full Text Available Polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay had been used to detect Salmonella in food and beverage samples using suitable primers which are based on specific invA gene of Salmonella. Twenty nine samples were collected from street food counters and some canteens in Margonda Street, Depok, West Java, Indonesia. It was found that five of twenty nine samples were detected to contain Salmonella and showed the presence of the amplified product of the size 244 bp. The method of PCR demonstrated the specificity of invA primers for detection of Salmonella as confirmed by biochemical and serological assay. The results of this study revealed that PCR was a rapid and useful tool for detection of Salmonella in food and beverage samples.
Vrugt, Jasper A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hyman, James M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Robinson, Bruce A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Higdon, Dave [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ter Braak, Cajo J F [NETHERLANDS; Diks, Cees G H [UNIV OF AMSTERDAM
Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods have found widespread use in many fields of study to estimate the average properties of complex systems, and for posterior inference in a Bayesian framework. Existing theory and experiments prove convergence of well constructed MCMC schemes to the appropriate limiting distribution under a variety of different conditions. In practice, however this convergence is often observed to be disturbingly slow. This is frequently caused by an inappropriate selection of the proposal distribution used to generate trial moves in the Markov Chain. Here we show that significant improvements to the efficiency of MCMC simulation can be made by using a self-adaptive Differential Evolution learning strategy within a population-based evolutionary framework. This scheme, entitled DiffeRential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis or DREAM, runs multiple different chains simultaneously for global exploration, and automatically tunes the scale and orientation of the proposal distribution in randomized subspaces during the search. Ergodicity of the algorithm is proved, and various examples involving nonlinearity, high-dimensionality, and multimodality show that DREAM is generally superior to other adaptive MCMC sampling approaches. The DREAM scheme significantly enhances the applicability of MCMC simulation to complex, multi-modal search problems.
© 2014 IEEE. Reachable volumes are a geometric representation of the regions the joints of a robot can reach. They can be used to generate constraint satisfying samples for problems including complicated linkage robots (e.g. closed chains and graspers). They can also be used to assist robot operators and to help in robot design.We show that reachable volumes have an O(1) complexity in unconstrained problems as well as in many constrained problems. We also show that reachable volumes can be computed in linear time and that reachable volume samples can be generated in linear time in problems without constraints. We experimentally validate reachable volume sampling, both with and without constraints on end effectors and/or internal joints. We show that reachable volume samples are less likely to be invalid due to self-collisions, making reachable volume sampling significantly more efficient for higher dimensional problems. We also show that these samples are easier to connect than others, resulting in better connected roadmaps. We demonstrate that our method can be applied to 262-dof, multi-loop, and tree-like linkages including combinations of planar, prismatic and spherical joints. In contrast, existing methods either cannot be used for these problems or do not produce good quality solutions.
McMahon, Troy; Thomas, Shawna; Amato, Nancy M.
© 2014 IEEE. Reachable volumes are a geometric representation of the regions the joints of a robot can reach. They can be used to generate constraint satisfying samples for problems including complicated linkage robots (e.g. closed chains and graspers). They can also be used to assist robot operators and to help in robot design.We show that reachable volumes have an O(1) complexity in unconstrained problems as well as in many constrained problems. We also show that reachable volumes can be computed in linear time and that reachable volume samples can be generated in linear time in problems without constraints. We experimentally validate reachable volume sampling, both with and without constraints on end effectors and/or internal joints. We show that reachable volume samples are less likely to be invalid due to self-collisions, making reachable volume sampling significantly more efficient for higher dimensional problems. We also show that these samples are easier to connect than others, resulting in better connected roadmaps. We demonstrate that our method can be applied to 262-dof, multi-loop, and tree-like linkages including combinations of planar, prismatic and spherical joints. In contrast, existing methods either cannot be used for these problems or do not produce good quality solutions.
Khan, S; Miah, M R; Khatun, S
A nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) specific for Salmonella enterica subspecies enteric serovar Typhi was used for the detection of the pathogen, in blood. This study was done during the period of March 2013 to February 2014. A total of 80 clinically suspected cases of typhoid fever were included in the study. Blood was collected from all participating individuals. Nested PCR targeting the flagellin gene (fliC) of Salmonella Typhi & blood culture were done for each of the cases. The positivity rate of PCR & blood culture was 70%& 20% respectively. The positivity rate of PCR was significantly higher than blood culture (Ptyphoid fever cases on the basis of clinical features but with negative cultures. We conclude that the PCR technique could be used as a novel diagnostic method of typhoid fever, particularly in culture-negative cases in an endemic country like Bangladesh.
Ren, Huiying; Ray, Jaideep; Hou, Zhangshuan; Huang, Maoyi; Bao, Jie; Swiler, Laura
In this paper we developed an efficient Bayesian inversion framework for interpreting marine seismic Amplitude Versus Angle and Controlled-Source Electromagnetic data for marine reservoir characterization. The framework uses a multi-chain Markov-chain Monte Carlo sampler, which is a hybrid of DiffeRential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis and Adaptive Metropolis samplers. The inversion framework is tested by estimating reservoir-fluid saturations and porosity based on marine seismic and Controlled-Source Electromagnetic data. The multi-chain Markov-chain Monte Carlo is scalable in terms of the number of chains, and is useful for computationally demanding Bayesian model calibration in scientific and engineering problems. As a demonstration, the approach is used to efficiently and accurately estimate the porosity and saturations in a representative layered synthetic reservoir. The results indicate that the seismic Amplitude Versus Angle and Controlled-Source Electromagnetic joint inversion provides better estimation of reservoir saturations than the seismic Amplitude Versus Angle only inversion, especially for the parameters in deep layers. The performance of the inversion approach for various levels of noise in observational data was evaluated — reasonable estimates can be obtained with noise levels up to 25%. Sampling efficiency due to the use of multiple chains was also checked and was found to have almost linear scalability.
Ren, Huiying; Ray, Jaideep; Hou, Zhangshuan; Huang, Maoyi; Bao, Jie; Swiler, Laura
In this study we developed an efficient Bayesian inversion framework for interpreting marine seismic Amplitude Versus Angle and Controlled-Source Electromagnetic data for marine reservoir characterization. The framework uses a multi-chain Markov-chain Monte Carlo sampler, which is a hybrid of DiffeRential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis and Adaptive Metropolis samplers. The inversion framework is tested by estimating reservoir-fluid saturations and porosity based on marine seismic and Controlled-Source Electromagnetic data. The multi-chain Markov-chain Monte Carlo is scalable in terms of the number of chains, and is useful for computationally demanding Bayesian model calibration in scientific and engineering problems. As a demonstration, the approach is used to efficiently and accurately estimate the porosity and saturations in a representative layered synthetic reservoir. The results indicate that the seismic Amplitude Versus Angle and Controlled-Source Electromagnetic joint inversion provides better estimation of reservoir saturations than the seismic Amplitude Versus Angle only inversion, especially for the parameters in deep layers. The performance of the inversion approach for various levels of noise in observational data was evaluated - reasonable estimates can be obtained with noise levels up to 25%. Sampling efficiency due to the use of multiple chains was also checked and was found to have almost linear scalability.
Blasone, Roberta-Serena; Madsen, Henrik; Rosbjerg, Dan
uncertainty estimation (GLUE) procedure based on Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling is applied in order to improve the performance of the methodology in estimating parameters and posterior output distributions. The description of the spatial variations of the hydrological processes is accounted for by defining......In recent years, there has been an increase in the application of distributed, physically-based and integrated hydrological models. Many questions regarding how to properly calibrate and validate distributed models and assess the uncertainty of the estimated parameters and the spatially......-site validation must complement the usual time validation. In this study, we develop, through an application, a comprehensive framework for multi-criteria calibration and uncertainty assessment of distributed physically-based, integrated hydrological models. A revised version of the generalized likelihood...
A numerical method was recently proposed in Herdeiro and Doyon [Phys. Rev. E 94, 043322 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevE.94.043322] showing a precise sampling of the infinite plane two-dimensional critical Ising model for finite lattice subsections. The present note extends the method to a larger class of models, namely the O(n) loop gas models for n ∈(1 ,2 ] . We argue that even though the Gibbs measure is nonlocal, it is factorizable on finite subsections when sufficient information on the loops touching the boundaries is stored. Our results attempt to show that provided an efficient Markov chain mixing algorithm and an improved discrete lattice dilation procedure the planar limit of the O(n) models can be numerically studied with efficiency similar to the Ising case. This confirms that scale invariance is the only requirement for the present numerical method to work.
Nowadays, the science evolves and the used techniques become more pointed. At the same time, instruments are more powerful. This rule also applies in the domain of the nuclear science. The object of these works goes in this sense and touch the branch of the X-Ray spectrometry and that brings back himself to the conception and the realization of an automatic sample changer system for the chain of X-Ray Spectrometry. Baptized KEN-001 , it is an instrument of sample changer ordered from certain distance. Indeed, the sample carriers are placed of advance in compartments on its tray and by a control, KEN-001 put one by one those reflectors in the carries reflective for analysis. Once the analysis is finished, the system is in charge of taking and replacing the reflector in its compartment of origin. Of this way, one wins in time and therefore in number of analysis to do in an interval of time given. This instrument of precision contributes to the improvement of the analysis and the evolution of the technique of the X-Ray fluorescence [fr
Liddy, Clare; Arbab-Tafti, Sadaf; Moroz, Isabella; Keely, Erin
In many countries, the referral-consultation process faces a number of challenges from inefficiencies and rising demand, resulting in excessive wait times for many specialties. We collected referral data from a sample of family doctors across the province of Ontario, Canada as part of a larger program of research. The purpose of this study is to describe referral patterns from primary care to specialist and allied health services from the primary care perspective. We conducted a prospective study of patient referral data submitted by primary care providers (PCP) from 20 clinics across Ontario between June 2014 and January 2016. Monthly referral volumes expressed as a total number of referrals to all medical and allied health professionals per month. For each referral, we also collected data on the specialty type, reason for referral, and whether the referral was for a procedure. PCPs submitted a median of 26 referrals per month (interquartile range 11.5 to 31.8). Of 9509 referrals eligible for analysis, 97.8% were directed to medical professionals and 2.2% to allied health professionals. 55% of medical referrals were directed to non-surgical specialties and 44.8% to surgical specialties. Medical referrals were for procedures in 30.8% of cases and non-procedural in 40.9%. Gastroenterology received the largest share (11.2%) of medical referrals, of which 62.3% were for colonoscopies. Psychology received the largest share (28.3%) of referrals to allied health professionals. We described patterns of patient referral from primary care to specialist and allied health services for 30 PCPs in 20 clinics across Ontario. Gastroenterology received the largest share of referrals, nearly two-thirds of which were for colonoscopies. Future studies should explore the use of virtual care to help manage non-procedural referrals and examine the impact that procedural referrals have on wait times for gastroenterology.
Ren, Huiying; Ray, Jaideep; Hou, Zhangshuan; Huang, Maoyi; Bao, Jie; Swiler, Laura
In this study we developed an efficient Bayesian inversion framework for interpreting marine seismic amplitude versus angle (AVA) and controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) data for marine reservoir characterization. The framework uses a multi-chain Markov-chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampler, which is a hybrid of DiffeRential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis (DREAM) and Adaptive Metropolis (AM) samplers. The inversion framework is tested by estimating reservoir-fluid saturations and porosity based on marine seismic and CSEM data. The multi-chain MCMC is scalable in terms of the number of chains, and is useful for computationally demanding Bayesian model calibration in scientific and engineering problems. As a demonstration, the approach is used to efficiently and accurately estimate the porosity and saturations in a representative layered synthetic reservoir. The results indicate that the seismic AVA and CSEM joint inversion provides better estimation of reservoir saturations than the seismic AVA-only inversion, especially for the parameters in deep layers. The performance of the inversion approach for various levels of noise in observational data was evaluated – reasonable estimates can be obtained with noise levels up to 25%. Sampling efficiency due to the use of multiple chains was also checked and was found to have almost linear scalability.
Brown, Jeremy M; Thomson, Robert C
Bayesian phylogenetic inference involves sampling from posterior distributions of trees, which sometimes exhibit local optima, or peaks, separated by regions of low posterior density. Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithms are the most widely used numerical method for generating samples from these posterior distributions, but they are susceptible to entrapment on individual optima in rugged distributions when they are unable to easily cross through or jump across regions of low posterior density. Ruggedness of posterior distributions can result from a variety of factors, including unmodeled variation in evolutionary processes and unrecognized variation in the true topology across sites or genes. Ruggedness can also become exaggerated when constraints are placed on topologies that require the presence or absence of particular bipartitions (often referred to as positive or negative constraints, respectively). These types of constraints are frequently employed when conducting tests of topological hypotheses (Bergsten et al. 2013; Brown and Thomson 2017). Negative constraints can lead to particularly rugged distributions when the data strongly support a forbidden clade, because monophyly of the clade can be disrupted by inserting outgroup taxa in many different ways. However, topological moves between the alternative disruptions are very difficult, because they require swaps between the inserted outgroup taxa while the data constrain taxa from the forbidden clade to remain close together on the tree. While this precise form of ruggedness is particular to negative constraints, trees with high posterior density can be separated by similarly complicated topological rearrangements, even in the absence of constraints.
Kawooya, M.; Perez, M.; Lau, L.; Reeed, M.
The medical imaging specialists called for global referral guidelines which would be made available to referring doctors. These referral guidelines should be:- Applicable in different health care settings, including resource-poor settings; Inclusive in terms of the range of clinical conditions; User-friendly and accessible (format/media); Acceptable to stakeholders, in particular to the referrers as the main target audience. To conceive evidence-based medicine as an integration of best research evidence with clinical expertise and patient values. The Direct recipients of the Referral Guidelines would be:- Referrers: general practitioners / family doctors; paediatricians; emergency department doctors; other specialists and health workers. Providers (medical imaging practitioners): radiologists; nuclear medicine physicians; radiographers; other appropriately qualified practitioners providing diagnostic imaging services. For the Referral Guidelines to be effective there need to be: Credibility evidence-based Practicality end user involvement Context local resources, disease profiles Endorsement, opinion leaders Implementation- policy, education, CPOE - Monitoring of the use clinical audit, report feedback. The aim of the Referral Guidelines Project was to: Produce global referral guidelines that are evidence-based, cost effective and appropriate for the local setting, and include consideration of available equipment and expertise (RGWG; SIGs); Include supporting information about radiation doses, potential risks, protection of children and pregnant women (introductory chapter); Facilitate the implementation of the guidelines through guidance and tools (e.g. implementation guides, checklists, capacity building tools, guides on stakeholders engagement, audit support criteria); Conduct pilot testing in different clinical settings from each of the six WHO regions; Promote the inclusion of the referral guidelines in the curricula of medical schools; Develop and implement
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The physician referral data was initially provided as a response to a Freedom of Information (FOIA) request. These files represent data from 2009 through June 2013...
Raju, C.; Vidya, R.
Chain Sampling Plan is widely used whenever a small sample attributes plan is required to be used for situations involving destructive products coming out of continuous production process [1, 2]. This paper presents a procedure for the construction and selection of a ChSP-1 by attributes inspection based on membership functions . A procedure using search technique is developed for obtaining the parameters of single sampling plan for a given set of AQL and LQL values. A sample of tables providing ChSP-1 plans for various combinations of AQL and LQL values are presented .
Kim, Jimin; Barreix, Maria; Babcock, Christine; Bills, Corey B
Introduction Following two decades of armed conflict in Liberia, over 95% of health care facilities were partially or completely destroyed. Although the Liberian health system has undergone significant rehabilitation, one particular weakness is the lack of organized systems for referral and prehospital care. Acute care referral systems are a critical component of effective health care delivery and have led to improved quality of care and patient outcomes. Problem This study aimed to characterize the referral and transfer systems in the largest county of Liberia. A cross-sectional, health referral survey of a representative sample of health facilities in Montserrado County, Liberia was performed. A systematic random sample of all primary health care (PHC) clinics, fraction proportional to district population size, and all secondary and tertiary health facilities were included in the study sample. Collected data included baseline information about the health facility, patient flow, and qualitative and quantitative data regarding referral practices. A total of 62 health facilities-41 PHC clinics, 11 health centers (HCs), and 10 referral hospitals (RHs)-were surveyed during the 6-week study period. In sum, three percent of patients were referred to a higher-level of care. Communication between health facilities was largely unsystematic, with lack of specific protocols (n=3; 5.0%) and standardized documentation (n=26; 44.0%) for referral. While most health facilities reported walking as the primary means by which patients presented to initial health facilities (n=50; 81.0%), private vehicles, including commercial taxis (n=37; 60.0%), were the primary transport mechanism for referral of patients between health facilities. This study identified several weaknesses in acute care referral systems in Liberia, including lack of systematic care protocols for transfer, documentation, communication, and transport. However, several informal, well-functioning mechanisms for
Sharifdini, Meysam; Mirhendi, Hossein; Ashrafi, Keyhan; Hosseini, Mostafa; Mohebali, Mehdi; Khodadadi, Hossein; Kia, Eshrat Beigom
This study was performed to evaluate nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR methods for detection of Strongyloides stercoralis in fecal samples compared with parasitological methods. A total of 466 stool samples were examined by conventional parasitological methods (formalin ether concentration [FEC] and agar plate culture [APC]). DNA was extracted using an in-house method, and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and 18S ribosomal genes were amplified by nested PCR and real-time PCR, respectively. Among 466 samples, 12.7% and 18.2% were found infected with S. stercoralis by FEC and APC, respectively. DNA of S. stercoralis was detected in 18.9% and 25.1% of samples by real-time PCR and nested PCR, respectively. Considering parasitological methods as the diagnostic gold standard, the sensitivity and specificity of nested PCR were 100% and 91.6%, respectively, and that of real-time PCR were 84.7% and 95.8%, respectively. However, considering sequence analyzes of the selected nested PCR products, the specificity of nested PCR is increased. In general, molecular methods were superior to parasitological methods. They were more sensitive and more reliable in detection of S. stercoralis in comparison with parasitological methods. Between the two molecular methods, the sensitivity of nested PCR was higher than real-time PCR. PMID:26350449
Liu Yang; Yao Xiong; Xiao-jiao Tong
We construct a new two-stage stochastic model of supply chain with multiple factories and distributors for perishable product. By introducing a second-order stochastic dominance (SSD) constraint, we can describe the preference consistency of the risk taker while minimizing the expected cost of company. To solve this problem, we convert it into a one-stage stochastic model equivalently; then we use sample average approximation (SAA) method to approximate the expected values of the underlying r...
Sharpe, G; Durham, J A; Preshaw, P M
To examine the attitudes of dental practitioners towards specialist periodontal referral in the North East of England. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 10 practitioners. Interviews continued until data saturation occurred. The data were organised using a framework and analysed by two researchers working independently. Perceptions of periodontal disease and treatment appear to be heavily influenced by the NHS remuneration system. Treatment in general practice was limited to simple scaling and there was an apparent reluctance to treat advanced periodontitis. Such cases were commonly referred to specialists, confirming the demand for a referral service in periodontics. The perceived potential for medico-legal consequences was a strong driver of referrals. Distance to the referral centre and the perceived costs of treatment were significant barriers to referral. Dentists valued the specialist's personal reputation and clinical skills more highly than academic status. Deficiencies in communication between primary and secondary care were highlighted. Increased resources are required to manage periodontal diseases within the NHS. There is a need for a periodontal referral service in the North East of England to improve accessibility to specialist care. This would appear to be most appropriately delivered by increased numbers of specialist practitioners.
Svanevik, Cecilie Smith; Roiha, Irja Sunde; Levsen, Arne; Lunestad, Bjørn Tore
Microbes play an important role in the degradation of fish products, thus better knowledge of the microbiological conditions throughout the fish production chain may help to optimise product quality and resource utilisation. This paper presents the results of a ten-year spot sampling programme (2005-2014) of the commercially most important pelagic fish species harvested in Norway. Fish-, surface-, and storage water samples were collected from fishing vessels and processing factories. Totally 1,181 samples were assessed with respect to microbiological quality, hygiene and food safety. We introduce a quality and safety assessment scheme for fresh pelagic fish recommending limits for heterotrophic plate counts (HPC), thermos tolerant coliforms, enterococci and Listeria monocytogenes. According to the scheme, in 25 of 41 samplings, sub-optimal conditions were found with respect to quality, whereas in 21 and 9 samplings, samples were not in compliance concerning hygiene and food safety, respectively. The present study has revealed that the quality of pelagic fish can be optimised by improving the hygiene conditions at some critical points at an early phase of the production chain. Thus, the proposed assessment scheme may provide a useful tool for the industry to optimise quality and maintain consumer safety of pelagic fishery products. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Reiband, Hanna K; Lundin, Kira; Alsbjørn, Bjarne
INTRODUCTION: Correct estimation of the severity of burns is important to obtain the right treatment of the patient and to avoid over- and undertriage. In this study we aimed to assess how often the guidelines for referral of burn injured patients are met at the national burn centre (NBC), Denmar...
Cho, Pyo Yun; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Mi Choi, Kyung; Kim, Jin Su; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Lee, Won-Ja; Lim, Sung-Bin; Cha, Seok Ho; Park, Yun-Kyu; Pak, Jhang Ho; Lee, Hyeong-Woo; Hong, Sung-Jong; Kim, Tong-Soo
Microscopic examination of eggs of parasitic helminths in stool samples has been the most widely used classical diagnostic method for infections, but tiny and low numbers of eggs in stool samples often hamper diagnosis of helminthic infections with classical microscopic examination. Moreover, it is also difficult to differentiate parasite eggs by the classical method, if they have similar morphological characteristics. In this study, we developed a rapid and sensitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based molecular diagnostic method for detection of Clonorchis sinensis eggs in stool samples. Nine primers were designed based on the long-terminal repeat (LTR) of C. sinensis retrotransposon1 (CsRn1) gene, and seven PCR primer sets were paired. Polymerase chain reaction with each primer pair produced specific amplicons for C. sinensis, but not for other trematodes including Metagonimus yokogawai and Paragonimus westermani. Particularly, three primer sets were able to detect 10 C. sinensis eggs and were applicable to amplify specific amplicons from DNA samples purified from stool of C. sinensis-infected patients. This PCR method could be useful for diagnosis of C. sinensis infections in human stool samples with a high level of specificity and sensitivity. PMID:23916334
Kitchen James L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Next generation sequencing technologies often require numerous primer designs that require good target coverage that can be financially costly. We aimed to develop a system that would implement primer reuse to design degenerate primers that could be designed around SNPs, thus find the fewest necessary primers and the lowest cost whilst maintaining an acceptable coverage and provide a cost effective solution. We have implemented Metropolis-Hastings Markov Chain Monte Carlo for optimizing primer reuse. We call it the Markov Chain Monte Carlo Optimized Degenerate Primer Reuse (MCMC-ODPR algorithm. Results After repeating the program 1020 times to assess the variance, an average of 17.14% fewer primers were found to be necessary using MCMC-ODPR for an equivalent coverage without implementing primer reuse. The algorithm was able to reuse primers up to five times. We compared MCMC-ODPR with single sequence primer design programs Primer3 and Primer-BLAST and achieved a lower primer cost per amplicon base covered of 0.21 and 0.19 and 0.18 primer nucleotides on three separate gene sequences, respectively. With multiple sequences, MCMC-ODPR achieved a lower cost per base covered of 0.19 than programs BatchPrimer3 and PAMPS, which achieved 0.25 and 0.64 primer nucleotides, respectively. Conclusions MCMC-ODPR is a useful tool for designing primers at various melting temperatures at good target coverage. By combining degeneracy with optimal primer reuse the user may increase coverage of sequences amplified by the designed primers at significantly lower costs. Our analyses showed that overall MCMC-ODPR outperformed the other primer-design programs in our study in terms of cost per covered base.
Kitchen, James L; Moore, Jonathan D; Palmer, Sarah A; Allaby, Robin G
Next generation sequencing technologies often require numerous primer designs that require good target coverage that can be financially costly. We aimed to develop a system that would implement primer reuse to design degenerate primers that could be designed around SNPs, thus find the fewest necessary primers and the lowest cost whilst maintaining an acceptable coverage and provide a cost effective solution. We have implemented Metropolis-Hastings Markov Chain Monte Carlo for optimizing primer reuse. We call it the Markov Chain Monte Carlo Optimized Degenerate Primer Reuse (MCMC-ODPR) algorithm. After repeating the program 1020 times to assess the variance, an average of 17.14% fewer primers were found to be necessary using MCMC-ODPR for an equivalent coverage without implementing primer reuse. The algorithm was able to reuse primers up to five times. We compared MCMC-ODPR with single sequence primer design programs Primer3 and Primer-BLAST and achieved a lower primer cost per amplicon base covered of 0.21 and 0.19 and 0.18 primer nucleotides on three separate gene sequences, respectively. With multiple sequences, MCMC-ODPR achieved a lower cost per base covered of 0.19 than programs BatchPrimer3 and PAMPS, which achieved 0.25 and 0.64 primer nucleotides, respectively. MCMC-ODPR is a useful tool for designing primers at various melting temperatures at good target coverage. By combining degeneracy with optimal primer reuse the user may increase coverage of sequences amplified by the designed primers at significantly lower costs. Our analyses showed that overall MCMC-ODPR outperformed the other primer-design programs in our study in terms of cost per covered base.
Vigliar, E; Malapelle, U; Bellevicine, C; de Luca, C; Troncone, G
Guidelines from the College of American Pathologists (CAP), the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) and the Association for Molecular Pathology (AMP) consider cytology suitable for testing epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations in lung adenocarcinoma. The guidelines recommend that cytopathologists first discuss the possibility of testing squamous cell carcinomas (SqCC) in multidisciplinary meetings. Second, cell blocks should be analysed rather than smear preparations and, third, specimens should be sent to external molecular laboratories within three working days of receiving requests. This study monitored how these recommendations are met in practice. Our laboratory received 596 requests from cytologists from 13 different institutions. For each case, the cytological diagnosis, cytopreparation type, and time between the request and sample mailing were compared with the recommendations. Of the 596 samples, 32 (5.4%) had been reported as SqCC. Three of these (9.4%) showed EGFR mutation. Cytological slides, either ThinPrep(™) (51.2%) or direct smears (43.2%), were more frequently received than cell blocks (5.7%). The mean time between the oncologist's request and specimen dispatching was 5.8 working days. The occurrence of mutations in samples reported as SqCC was higher than expected. This questions the reliability of the original diagnosis, which reinforced the recommendation to evaluate the opportunity for testing non-adenocarcinoma cytology on a case-by-case basis. In spite of CAP/IASLC/AMP recommendations, cell blocks were underutilized for EGFR testing, but cytological slides were suitable for DNA analyses. Significant efforts are needed to avoid delays in outsourcing cytological samples for EGFR testing. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Laserson, K F; Petralanda, I; Hamlin, D M; Almera, R; Fuentes, M; Carrasquel, A; Barker, R H
We have examined the reproducibility, sensitivity, and specificity of detecting Plasmodium falciparum using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the species-specific probe pPF14 under field conditions in the Venezuelan Amazon. Up to eight samples were field collected from each of 48 consenting Amerindians presenting with symptoms of malaria. Sample processing and analysis was performed at the Centro Amazonico para la Investigacion y Control de Enfermedades Tropicales Simon Bolivar. A total of 229 samples from 48 patients were analyzed by PCR methods using four different P. falciparum-specific probes. One P. vivax-specific probe and by conventional microscopy. Samples in which results from PCR and microscopy differed were reanalyzed at a higher sensitivity by microscopy. Results suggest that microscopy-negative, PCR-positive samples are true positives, and that microscopy-positive and PCR-negative samples are true negatives. The sensitivity of the DNA probe/PCR method was 78% and its specificity was 97%. The positive predictive value of the PCR method was 88%, and the negative predictive value was 95%. Through the analysis of multiple blood samples from each individual, the DNA probe/PCR methodology was found to have an inherent reproducibility that was highly statistically significant.
Full Text Available Purpose: Genital Ulcer Disease (GUD is common sexually transmitted infection (STI. Multiple studies have shown that GUDs are strongly associated with the transmission and the acquisition of HIV infection. An accurate diagnosis of common etiology of GUD namely Herpes, syphilis and Chancroid is possible using Multiplex PCR (M-PCR. However, frequent presence of Polymerase Chain Reaction inhibitors in the ulcer swab specimen limits the performance of the assay. In order to overcome this problem, alternative specimen preparation method was used. Materials and Methods: To determine the common etiology, GUD specimens obtained under an STI operations research study were tested with M-PCR after the samples were prepared using Roche Amplicor specimen preparation kit. PCR inhibiting samples were identified from that, which showed negative results. These samples were subjected to phenol-chloroform extraction and ethanol precipitation before the conduct of M-PCR on them. Results: Of the 237 GUD specimens tested, in 145 etiologies could be detected, whereas 92 samples were found negative. Further spiking with one of the target DNA, 128 of the negative samples were found to contain the inhibitors. These 126 samples were then subjected to phenol chloroform extraction and ethanol precipitation followed by M-PCR. Using this method for sample preparation, etiology could be determined in 46 (23% additional samples. This success rate of altered sample preparation method has been lower than that has reported. Conclusion: The results indicate that sample preparation using phenol chloroform extraction and ethanol precipitation, prior to M-PCR helps to eliminate the inhibitors and increase the yield of the assay. However, being a laborious procedure, it may be used for samples giving negative results after the screening by Roche Amplicor specimen preparation kit.
Pinzon, Vanessa Dentzien; Turkiewicz, Gizela; Monteiro, Denise Oliveira; Koritar, Priscila; Fleitlich-Bilyk, Bacy
To investigate the sociodemographic and clinical profile of patients receiving treatment at a specialized service for children and adolescents with eating disorders (ED) in São Paulo, Brazil, and to compare data with the relevant literature. This cross-sectional study assessed male and female patients with ED up to 18 years of age. All data were collected upon admission. A total of 100 subjects were assessed. Mean age was 15.41±0.18 years, and mean age at ED onset was 13.5±0.19 years. Mean disease duration was 21.06 ±1.67 months. Of the total sample, 82% of the patients were female, 84% were Caucasian, 64% came from A and B economic tiers. Moreover, in 60% ED started at 14 years of age or less, and 74% had psychiatric comorbidities. Anorexia nervosa was the most prevalent diagnosis (43%). Hospitalized patients had lower body mass index, longer ED duration, and more severe scores on the Children's Global Assessment Scale than outpatients (p studies and indicate greater ED severity.
Vanessa Dentzien Pinzon
Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the sociodemographic and clinical profile of patients receiving treatment at a specialized service for children and adolescents with eating disorders (ED in São Paulo, Brazil, and to compare data with the relevant literature. Methods: This cross-sectional study assessed male and female patients with ED up to 18 years of age. All data were collected upon admission. Results: A total of 100 subjects were assessed. Mean age was 15.41±0.18 years, and mean age at ED onset was 13.5±0.19 years. Mean disease duration was 21.06 ±1.67 months. Of the total sample, 82% of the patients were female, 84% were Caucasian, 64% came from A and B economic tiers. Moreover, in 60% ED started at 14 years of age or less, and 74% had psychiatric comorbidities. Anorexia nervosa was the most prevalent diagnosis (43%. Hospitalized patients had lower body mass index, longer ED duration, and more severe scores on the Children's Global Assessment Scale than outpatients (p < 0.05. Conclusions: Our young Brazilian patients with ED present epidemiological and symptomatic characteristics very similar to those found in the scientific literature, including a high prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities. The higher frequency of full syndrome ED, the predominance of cases with an early onset, the delay in beginning specialized treatment, and the more severe state of inpatients provide grounds for concern because these factors differ from what has been reported in reference studies and indicate greater ED severity.
Full Text Available We construct a new two-stage stochastic model of supply chain with multiple factories and distributors for perishable product. By introducing a second-order stochastic dominance (SSD constraint, we can describe the preference consistency of the risk taker while minimizing the expected cost of company. To solve this problem, we convert it into a one-stage stochastic model equivalently; then we use sample average approximation (SAA method to approximate the expected values of the underlying random functions. A smoothing approach is proposed with which we can get the global solution and avoid introducing new variables and constraints. Meanwhile, we investigate the convergence of an optimal value from solving the transformed model and show that, with probability approaching one at exponential rate, the optimal value converges to its counterpart as the sample size increases. Numerical results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm and analysis.
Cavazos-Cadena, R.; Montes-de-Oca, R.; Sladký, Karel
Roč. 52, č. 2 (2015), s. 419-440 ISSN 0021-9002 Grant - others:GA AV ČR(CZ) 171396 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Dominated Convergence theorem for the expected average criterion * Discrepancy function * Kolmogorov inequality * Innovations * Strong sample-path optimality Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 0.665, year: 2015 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2015/E/sladky-0449029.pdf
Sidstedt, Maja; Romsos, Erica L; Hedell, Ronny; Ansell, Ricky; Steffen, Carolyn R; Vallone, Peter M; Rådström, Peter; Hedman, Johannes
Digital PCR (dPCR) enables absolute quantification of nucleic acids by partitioning of the sample into hundreds or thousands of minute reactions. By assuming a Poisson distribution for the number of DNA fragments present in each chamber, the DNA concentration is determined without the need for a standard curve. However, when analyzing nucleic acids from complex matrixes such as soil and blood, the dPCR quantification can be biased due to the presence of inhibitory compounds. In this study, we evaluated the impact of varying the DNA polymerase in chamber-based dPCR for both pure and impure samples using the common PCR inhibitor humic acid (HA) as a model. We compared the TaqMan Universal PCR Master Mix with two alternative DNA polymerases: ExTaq HS and Immolase. By using Bayesian modeling, we show that there is no difference among the tested DNA polymerases in terms of accuracy of absolute quantification for pure template samples, i.e., without HA present. For samples containing HA, there were great differences in performance: the TaqMan Universal PCR Master Mix failed to correctly quantify DNA with more than 13 pg/nL HA, whereas Immolase (1 U) could handle up to 375 pg/nL HA. Furthermore, we found that BSA had a moderate positive effect for the TaqMan Universal PCR Master Mix, enabling accurate quantification for 25 pg/nL HA. Increasing the amount of DNA polymerase from 1 to 5 U had a strong effect for ExTaq HS, elevating HA-tolerance four times. We also show that the average Cq values of positive reactions may be used as a measure of inhibition effects, e.g., to determine whether or not a dPCR quantification result is reliable. The statistical models developed to objectively analyze the data may also be applied in quality control. We conclude that the choice of DNA polymerase in dPCR is crucial for the accuracy of quantification when analyzing challenging samples.
Chaya, Dr; Parija, Subhash Chandra
Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a chronic zoonosis which presents with variable clinical manifestations. Currently the diagnosis of this disease is based on radiological findings and serological tests which lack specificity. Although antigen detection from the cyst fluid is the most specific, it is seldom done due to the complications involved. Detecting the presence of Echinococcus granulosus specific deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) could provide a definitive diagnosis of CE. An in-house PCR assay was devised to detect E. granulosus specific DNA in serum, urine and hydatid cyst fluid. The ability of the PCR to detect E. granulosus in the above mentioned samples were observed in comparison with other antigen and antibody detection tests. Serum samples from surgically confirmed patients of CE with ruptured cysts contained the corresponding DNA while the in the majority of cases who had an intact cyst had no DNA of E. granulosus in their serum. DNA of E. granulosus was not found to be excreted in urine. PCR performed equal to antigen detection ELISA while testing hydatid cyst fluid samples. Serum and urine might not serve as useful samples for the molecular diagnosis of cystic echinococcosis. However, PCR can be useful on serum samples to detect ruptured hydatid cysts and on hydatid cyst fluid to confirm the parasitic diagnosis.
Smith, W.L.; Altmaier, E.; Berberoglu, L.; Morris, K.
The expectation of the referring physician are key to developing a successful practice in radiology. Structured interviews with 17 clinicians in both community care and academic practice documented that accuracy of the radiologic report was the single most important factor in clinician satisfaction. Data intercorrelation showed that accuracy of report correlated with frequency of referral (r = .49). Overall satisfaction of the referring physician with radiology correlated with accuracy (r = .69), patient satisfaction (r = .36), and efficiency in archiving (r = .42). These data may be weighted by departmental managers to allocate resources for improving referring physician satisfaction
Landis, R Clive; Carmichael-Simmons, Kelly; Hambleton, Ian R; Best, Anton
Since 2009, seven countries in the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS), Antigua & Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada, Montserrat, St. Kitts & Nevis, Saint Lucia, and St. Vincent & the Grenadines, have been utilizing a laboratory referral service for HIV-1 viral load (VL) offered by The Ladymeade Reference Unit (LRU) Laboratory, Barbados. The objective of this study was to evaluate 5 year VL trends in the six larger OECS countries participating in this regional referral service. Blood samples were collected in source countries and transported to Barbados as frozen plasma according to a standardized protocol. Plasma specimens were amplified by RT PCR on a Roche TaqMan 48 analyser (Roche Diagnostics, Panama City, Panama). VL was considered optimally suppressed below a threshold level of < 200 HIV-1 copies/mL of blood. The same threshold was used as a binary indicator in an analysis of the secular change in VL suppression. Montserrat was excluded due to insufficient number of samples. A steady rise in VL referrals from OECS countries was recorded, rising from 312 samples in 2009 to 1,060 samples in 2013. A total of 3,543 samples were tested, with a sample rejection rate (9.2%) mostly due to breaks in the cold chain. Aggregate VL data showed the odds of VL suppression in the Eastern Caribbean improved by 66% for each additional year after 2009 (Odds Ratio 1.66 [95% CI 1.46 to 1.88]; p<0.001). We demonstrate the feasibility of establishing a regional laboratory referral service for HIV VL monitoring in the Eastern Caribbean. Aggregate VL trends showed a significant year-on-year improvement in VL suppression, implying public health benefits through treatment as prevention in the OECS. VL provides a powerful monitoring & evaluation tool for strengthening HIV programs at country level among the small island states participating in this regional referral network.
R Clive Landis
Full Text Available Since 2009, seven countries in the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS, Antigua & Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada, Montserrat, St. Kitts & Nevis, Saint Lucia, and St. Vincent & the Grenadines, have been utilizing a laboratory referral service for HIV-1 viral load (VL offered by The Ladymeade Reference Unit (LRU Laboratory, Barbados. The objective of this study was to evaluate 5 year VL trends in the six larger OECS countries participating in this regional referral service.Blood samples were collected in source countries and transported to Barbados as frozen plasma according to a standardized protocol. Plasma specimens were amplified by RT PCR on a Roche TaqMan 48 analyser (Roche Diagnostics, Panama City, Panama. VL was considered optimally suppressed below a threshold level of < 200 HIV-1 copies/mL of blood. The same threshold was used as a binary indicator in an analysis of the secular change in VL suppression. Montserrat was excluded due to insufficient number of samples.A steady rise in VL referrals from OECS countries was recorded, rising from 312 samples in 2009 to 1,060 samples in 2013. A total of 3,543 samples were tested, with a sample rejection rate (9.2% mostly due to breaks in the cold chain. Aggregate VL data showed the odds of VL suppression in the Eastern Caribbean improved by 66% for each additional year after 2009 (Odds Ratio 1.66 [95% CI 1.46 to 1.88]; p<0.001.We demonstrate the feasibility of establishing a regional laboratory referral service for HIV VL monitoring in the Eastern Caribbean. Aggregate VL trends showed a significant year-on-year improvement in VL suppression, implying public health benefits through treatment as prevention in the OECS. VL provides a powerful monitoring & evaluation tool for strengthening HIV programs at country level among the small island states participating in this regional referral network.
Blasone, Roberta-Serena; Vrugt, Jasper A.; Madsen, Henrik
propose an alternative strategy to determine the value of the cutoff threshold based on the appropriate coverage of the resulting uncertainty bounds. We demonstrate the superiority of this revised GLUE method with three different conceptual watershed models of increasing complexity, using both synthetic......In the last few decades hydrologists have made tremendous progress in using dynamic simulation models for the analysis and understanding of hydrologic systems. However, predictions with these models are often deterministic and as such they focus on the most probable forecast, without an explicit...... of applications. However, the MC based sampling strategy of the prior parameter space typically utilized in GLUE is not particularly efficient in finding behavioral simulations. This becomes especially problematic for high-dimensional parameter estimation problems, and in the case of complex simulation models...
Longstaff, Louise; Porter, Emily; Crossley, Victoria J; Hayhow, Sophie E; Helps, Christopher R; Tasker, Séverine
Objectives The aim of the study was to determine whether feline coronavirus (FCoV) RNA in effusion samples can be used as a diagnostic marker of feline infectious peritonitis (FIP); and in FCoV RNA-positive samples to examine amino acid codons in the FCoV spike protein at positions 1058 and 1060 where leucine and alanine, respectively, have been associated with systemic or virulent (FIP) FCoV infection. Methods Total RNA was extracted from effusion samples from 20 cats with confirmed FIP and 23 cats with other diseases. Feline coronavirus RNA was detected using a reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay (qRT-PCR), and positive samples underwent pyrosequencing of position 1058 with or without Sanger sequencing of position 1060 in the FCoV spike protein. Results Seventeen (85%) of the effusion samples from 20 cats with FIP were positive for FCoV RNA, whereas none of the 23 cats with other diseases were positive. Pyrosequencing of the 17 FCoV-positive samples showed that 11 (65%) of the cats had leucine and two (12%) had methionine at position 1058. Of the latter two samples with methionine, one had alanine at position 1060. Conclusions and relevance A positive FCoV qRT-PCR result on effusions appears specific for FIP and may be a useful diagnostic marker for FIP in cats with effusions. The majority of FCoVs contained amino acid changes previously associated with systemic spread or virulence (FIP) of the virus.
Full Text Available Background: Approximately 50% of the world population is infected with Helicobacter pylori, which corresponds to a high infection rate. Furthermore, the incidence of antibiotic-resistant H. pylori has increased with the recent rise in use of antibiotics for H. pylori elimination, suggesting growing treatment failures. Aim: The study was aimed to assess the use of residual samples from rapid urease test (RUT for biomolecular testing as an effective and accurate method to detect antibiotic-resistant H. pylori. Settings and Design: This study was a retrospective study performed using data obtained from medical records of previously isolated H. pylori strains. Materials and Methods: RUT was conducted for 5440 biopsy samples from individuals who underwent health examination in South Korea. Subsequently, 469 RUT residual samples were randomly selected and subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR to detect antibiotic-resistant H. pylori. Statistical Analysis Used: The Chi-square test was used to analyse categorical data. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The results showed a concordance between the results of PCR and conventional RUT in 450 of 469 samples, suggesting that the H. pylori PCR test is a time- and cost-effective detection method. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that PCR test can aid physicians to prescribe the appropriate antibiotics at the time of diagnosis, thus preventing the reduction in H. pylori eradication due to antibiotic resistance, averting progression to serious diseases and increasing the treatment success rate.
Kugler, Adriana D.
Many workers believe that personal contacts are crucial for obtaining jobs in high-wage sectors. On the other hand, firms in high-wage sectors report using employee referrals because they help provide screening and monitoring of new employees. This Paper develops a matching model that can explain the link between inter-industry wage differentials and the use of employee referrals. Referrals lower monitoring costs because high-effort referees can exert peer pressure on co-workers, allowing fir...
Lysdahl, Kristin Bakke; Hofmann, Bjoern Morten; Espeland, Ansgar
To investigate radiologists' responses to inadequate imaging referrals. A survey was mailed to Norwegian radiologists; 69% responded. They graded the frequencies of actions related to referrals with ambiguous indications or inappropriate examination choices and the contribution of factors preventing and not preventing an examination of doubtful usefulness from being performed as requested. Ninety-five percent (344/361) reported daily or weekly actions related to inadequate referrals. Actions differed among subspecialties. The most frequent were contacting the referrer to clarify the clinical problem and checking test results/information in the medical records. Both actions were more frequent among registrars than specialists and among hospital radiologists than institute radiologists. Institute radiologists were more likely to ask the patient for additional information and to examine the patient clinically. Factors rated as contributing most to prevent doubtful examinations were high risk of serious complications/side effects, high radiation dose and low patient age. Factors facilitating doubtful examinations included respect for the referrer's judgment, patient/next-of-kin wants the examination, patient has arrived, unreachable referrer, and time pressure. In summary, radiologists facing inadequate referrals considered patient safety and sought more information. Vetting referrals on arrival, easier access to referring clinicians, and time for radiologists to handle inadequate referrals may contribute to improved use of imaging. (orig.)
Marildes Josefina Lemos Neto; Elizabeth de Souza Nascimento; Mariza Landgraf; Vera Akiko Maihara; Silva, P.S.C.
Shellfish such as squid and octopus, class Cephalopoda, has high commercial value in restaurants and for export. As, Se and Zn concentrations were determined in 117 octopus acquired in different points of the distribution chain in 4 coastal cities of Sao Paulo state (Guaruja, Santos, Sao Vicente and Praia Grande)-Brazil. The methodology for elemental determination was Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The element concentration in the octopus samples (wet weight) range from: 0.184 to 35.4 mg kg -1 for As, 0.203 to 2.26 mg kg -1 for Se and 4.73 to 37.4 mg kg -1 for Zn. Arsenic and Se levels were above the limit for fish established by Brazilian legislation, while Zn concentrations were in accordance with literature values. (author)
Full Text Available The Global Program for the Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF aims to eliminate this disease by the year 2020. However, the development of more specific and sensitive tests is important for the success of the GPELF. The present study aimed to standardise polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based systems for the diagnosis of filariasis in serum and urine. Twenty paired biological urine and serum samples from individuals already known to be positive for Wuchereria bancrofti were collected during the day. Conventional PCR and semi-nested PCR assays were optimised. The detection limit of the technique for purified W. bancrofti DNA extracted from adult worms was 10 fg for the internal systems (WbF/Wb2 and 0.1 fg by using semi-nested PCR. The specificity of the primers was confirmed experimentally by amplification of 1 ng of purified genomic DNA from other species of parasites. Evaluation of the paired urine and serum samples by the semi-nested PCR technique indicated only two of the 20 tested individuals were positive, whereas the simple internal PCR system (WbF/Wb2, which has highly promising performance, revealed that all the patients were positive using both samples. This study successfully demonstrated the possibility of using the PCR technique on urine for the diagnosis of W. bancrofti infection.
Full Text Available Respondent-driven sampling (RDS is a network sampling technique typically employed for hard-to-reach populations when traditional sampling approaches are not feasible (e.g., homeless or do not work well (e.g., people with HIV. In RDS, seed respondents recruit additional respondents from their network of friends. The recruiting process repeats iteratively, thereby forming long referral chains.
Anees, M.; Mumtaz, A.; Nazir, M.; Ibrahim, M.; Kausar, T.
To determine the referral pattern of dialysis patients to nephrologists and the effects of late referral on clinical, hematological and biochemical parameters in patients presenting for the first-time to dialysis center. This study was conducted on all patients of end stage renal diseases presenting for the first-time for undergoing hemodialysis at our center. Patients with acute renal failure were excluded from the study. At presentation, a history was taken from all the patients regarding seeking of nephrology services and referral pattern. Early and late referral was defined as the time of first referral or admission to a nephrologists greater or less than six months respectively before initiation of hemodialysis. All the patients were examined and their blood sample was drawn at the same time for routine hematological, biochemical parameters (urea, creatinine, serum potassium, calcium, phosphate and albumin) and viral markers (Anti HCV and HbsAg). In this study, 248 patients were enrolled, amongst them, 131 (52.8%) were male and 117 (47.2%) were female. Major causes of renal failure were diabetes mellitus, chronic glomerulonephritis and hypertension. Most of the patients were euvolemic and hypertensive. Sixty percent of patients were having very high urea (>200 mg/dl) and creatinine (>8.0 mg/dl). Most of the patients, 226 (91.1%), were anemic (Hemoglobin <11gm/dl) and 224 (90%) were hypoalbuminemic (serum albumin < 4gm/dl) on first presentation. Majority of patients were hyperkalemic, 139 (56.0%), hypocalcemic, 168 (67.7%) and serum phosphate level was high in only 117 (47%) patients. All the patients presented in emergency room to nephrologists at very late stage (100% late referral), when disease was very much advanced. All of them did not have permanent vascular access for hemodialysis on first presentation to dialysis center. Reasons for late referral were non-availability of nephrologists and nephrology services, non-renal doctors biased, unawareness and
Chen, Yu-Hsuan; Chang, Chia-Yu; Ding, Wang-Hsien
A simple and effective method for determining short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) in indoor dust is presented. The method employed a modified vortex-homogenized matrix solid-phase dispersion (VH-MSPD) prior to its detection by gas chromatography - electron-capture negative-ion mass spectrometry (GC-ECNI-MS) operating in the selected-ion-monitoring (SIM) mode. Under the best extraction conditions, 0.1-g of dust sample was dispersed with 0.1-g of silica gel by using vortex (2min) instead of using a mortar and pestle (3min). After that step, the blend was transferred to a glass column containing 3-g acidic silica gel, 2-g basic silica gel, and 2-g of deactivated silica gel, used as clean-up co-sorbents. Then, target analytes were eluted with 5mL of n-hexane/dichloromethane (2:1, v/v) mixture. The extract was evaporated to dryness under a gentle stream of nitrogen. The residue was then re-dissolved in n-hexane (10μL), and subjected to GC-ECNI-MS analysis. The limits of quantitation (LOQs) ranged from 0.06 to 0.25μg/g for each SCCP congener. Precision was less than 7% for both intra- and inter-day analysis. Trueness was above 89%, which was calculated by mean extraction recovery. The VH-MSPD combined with GC-ECNI-MS was successfully applied to quantitatively detect SCCPs from various indoor dust samples, and the concentrations ranged from 1.2 to 31.2μg/g. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Oates, A C; Wollberg, P; Achen, M G; Wilks, A F
The polymerase chain reaction (PCR), with cDNA as template, has been widely used to identify members of protein families from many species. A major limitation of using cDNA in PCR is that detection of a family member is dependent on temporal and spatial patterns of gene expression. To circumvent this restriction, and in order to develop a technique that is broadly applicable we have tested the use of genomic DNA as PCR template to identify members of protein families in an expression-independent manner. This test involved amplification of DNA encoding protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) genes from the genomes of three animal species that are well known development models; namely, the mouse Mus musculus, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, and the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans. Ten PTK genes were identified from the mouse, 13 from the fruit fly, and 13 from the nematode worm. Among these kinases were 13 members of the PTK family that had not been reported previously. Selected PTKs from this screen were shown to be expressed during development, demonstrating that the amplified fragments did not arise from pseudogenes. This approach will be useful for the identification of many novel members of gene families in organisms of agricultural, medical, developmental and evolutionary significance and for analysis of gene families from any species, or biological sample whose habitat precludes the isolation of mRNA. Furthermore, as a tool to hasten the discovery of members of gene families that are of particular interest, this method offers an opportunity to sample the genome for new members irrespective of their expression pattern.
Eduardo J. Boeri
Full Text Available Aim: This study aimed to compare the sensitivity (S, specificity (Sp, and positive likelihood ratios (LR+ of four polymerase chain reaction (PCR assays for the detection of Brucella spp. in dog's clinical samples. Materials and Methods: A total of 595 samples of whole blood, urine, and genital fluids were evaluated between October 2014 and November 2016. To compare PCR assays, the gold standard was defined using a combination of different serological and microbiological test. Bacterial isolation from urine and blood cultures was carried out. Serological methods such as rapid slide agglutination test, indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, agar gel immunodiffusion test, and buffered plate antigen test were performed. Four genes were evaluated: (i The gene coding for the BCSP31 protein, (ii the ribosomal gene coding for the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region, (iii the gene coding for porins omp2a/omp2b, and (iv the gene coding for the insertion sequence IS711. Results: The results obtained were as follows: (1 For the primers that amplify the gene coding for the BCSP31 protein: S: 45.64% (confidence interval [CI] 39.81-51.46, Sp: 95.62% (CI 93.13-98.12, and LR+: 10.43 (CI 6.04-18; (2 for the primers that amplify the ribosomal gene of the 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer region: S: 69.80% (CI 64.42-75.18, Sp: 95.62 % (CI 93.13-98.12, and LR+: 11.52 (CI 7.31-18.13; (3 for the primers that amplify the omp2a and omp2b genes: S: 39.26% (CI 33.55-44.97, Sp: 97.31% (CI 95.30-99.32, and LR+ 14.58 (CI 7.25-29.29; and (4 for the primers that amplify the insertion sequence IS711: S: 22.82% (CI 17.89 - 27.75, Sp: 99.66% (CI 98.84-100, and LR+ 67.77 (CI 9.47-484.89. Conclusion: We concluded that the gene coding for the 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer region was the one that best detected Brucella spp. in canine clinical samples.
Andresen, K; Gasim, S; Elhassan, A M
We have evaluated the sensitivity of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as a diagnostic tool for Leishmania donovani using blood, bone marrow and lymph node samples from Sudanese patients with a confirmed infection. Forty patients were diagnosed by microscopic examination of bone marrow or lymph...
Rubio, J.M.; Post, R.J.; Docters van Leeuwen, W.M.; Henry, M.C.; Lindergard, G.; Hommel, M.
A simplified protocol for the identification of Plasmodium species by semi-nested multiplex polymerase chain reaction (SnM-PCR) in human blood samples is compared with microscopical examination of thin and thick blood films in 2 field trials in Côte d'Ivoire and Cameroon. Also, dried blood spots or
Solcà, Manuela da Silva; Guedes, Carlos Eduardo Sampaio; Nascimento, Eliane Gomes; Oliveira, Geraldo Gileno de Sá; dos Santos, Washington Luis Conrado; Fraga, Deborah Bittencourt Mothé; Veras, Patrícia Sampaio Tavares
Because infected dogs are widely considered to be the main domestic reservoir for Leishmania infantum (syn Leishmania chagasi) parasites in Brazil, the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) must be made both accurately and promptly. The present study attempted to standardize a conventional polymerase chain reaction (cPCR) protocol for the detection of L. infantum DNA in canine spleen samples. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) technique was used to confirm the presence of Leishmania DNA in the canine spleen fragments. A comparison was made between the efficacies of these molecular diagnostic techniques and conventional parasitological and serological methods. cPCR protocols for spleen samples were standardized using primers that amplify a 145 bp fragment, located at the parasite kinetoplast minicircle. The genus specificity of the cPCR protocol was assessed by its inability to amplify the DNA of other common canine pathogens, such as Ehrlichia canis, Babesia canis, Toxoplasma gondii and Trypanosoma cruzi. cPCR protocol sensitivity was tested by assessing the reaction detection limit, determined to be 10 fg of L. infantum reference strain DNA, which corresponds to a range of 0.03-0.1 parasites per fragment. Standardized cPCR protocol was used to detect the presence of Leishmania in 45 dog spleen samples. Our results showed that 40% of the spleen fragment cultures were positive for Leishmania parasites, 58% of the dog serum samples tested positive using ELISA, and parasite DNA was detected in 44% using qPCR, while 47% of the spleen samples using cPCR. Diagnostic methods performance was assessed and revealed a better degree of ascertainment for cPCR when compared to other diagnostic methods. The sensitivity of ELISA was 83.3%, qPCR was 83.3%, and cPCR was 88.9%; PPV for ELISA was 57.7%, qPCR was 75% and cPCR was 76.2%; the Kappa coefficients were found to be 0.40 (fair) for ELISA, 0.64 (substantial) for qPCR and 0.68 (substantial) for cPCR. In both oligosymptomatic
Yeung, Leo W Y; Stadey, Christopher; Mabury, Scott A
An analytical method using ultra performance convergence chromatography (UPC 2 ) coupled to a tandem mass spectrometer operated in negative electrospray mode was developed to measure perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) including the ultrashort-chain PFASs (C2-C3). Compared to the existing liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method using an ion exchange column, the new method has a lower detection limit (0.4pg trifluoroacetate (TFA) on-column), narrower peak width (3-6s), and a shorter run time (8min). Using the same method, different classes of PFASs (e.g., perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs) and perfluorinated carboxylates (PFCAs), perfluorinated phosphonates (PFPAs) and phosphinates (PFPiAs), polyfluoroalkyl phosphate diesters (diPAPs)) can be measured in a single analysis. Rain (n=2) and river water (n=2) samples collected in Toronto, ON, were used for method validation and application. Results showed that short-chain PFAS (C2-C7 PFCAs and C4 PFSA) contributed to over 80% of the detectable PFASs in rain samples and the C2-C3 PFASs alone accounted for over 40% of the total. Reports on environmental levels of these ultrashort-chain PFASs are relatively scarce. Relatively large contribution of these ultrashort-chain PFASs to the total PFASs indicate the need to include the measurement of short-chain PFASs, especially C2 and C3 PFASs, in environmental monitoring. The sources of TFA and other short-chain PFASs in the environment are not entirely clear. The newly developed analytical method may help further investigation on the sources and the environmental levels of these ultrashort-chain PFASs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Cubbin, S; Llewellyn-Jones, S; Donnelly, P
It was noticed that over some years the number of referrals to the outpatient clinic (from various sources) which were marked 'urgent' had increased. We aimed to examine who makes these urgent referrals and the clinical factors associated with 'urgent' status. A sample of 201 referrals over a 26-month period was examined. Details of the referral requests were collected using a specially designed form. After each 'urgent' assessment, the referral was scored for appropriateness. This gave an indication of the agreement between referrer and clinic doctor as to what should constitute an ¤ urgent' referral. The majority of urgent referrals were from community psychiatric nurses, who, together with psychiatric social workers, make the most appropriate referrals. The more appropriate referrals clearly specified the clinical factors associated with urgent need for review. Patients regarded as suicidal were not associated with significantly higher appropriateness scores. Referrers should try and make 'urgent' outpatient requests as specific as possible: more clinical detail gives a clearer picture to the clinic doctor. Telephone consultations with general practitioners may help to ascertain a clearer picture of urgent requests if detail is lacking. Health professionals may all benefit from education in suicidal risk assessment. ( Int J Psych Clin Pract 2000; 4: 233 - 235).
Lal, Sham; Ndyomugenyi, Richard; Paintain, Lucy
BACKGROUND: Several malaria endemic countries have implemented community health worker (CHW) programmes to increase access to populations underserved by health care. There is considerable evidence on CHW adherence to case management guidelines, however, there is limited evidence on the compliance...... in the control arm were trained to treat malaria with ACTs based on fever symptoms. Caregivers' referral forms were linked with CHW treatment forms to determine whether caregivers complied with the referral advice. Factors associated with compliance were examined with logistic regression. RESULTS: CHW saw 18......,497 child visits in the moderate-to-high transmission setting and referred 15.2% (2815/18,497) of all visits; in the low-transmission setting, 35.0% (1135/3223) of all visits were referred. Compliance to referral was low, in both settings
Grace, Sherry L; Grewal, Keerat; Stewart, Donna E
Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is widely underutilized because of multiple factors including physician referral practices. Previous research has shown CR referral varies by type of provider, with cardiologists more likely to refer than primary care physicians. The objective of this study was to compare factors affecting CR referral in primary care physicians versus cardiac specialists. A cross-sectional survey of a stratified random sample of 510 primary care physicians and cardiac specialists (cardiologists or cardiovascular surgeons) in Ontario identified through the Canadian Medical Directory Online was administered. One hundred four primary care physicians and 81 cardiac specialists responded to the 26-item investigator-generated survey examining medical, demographic, attitudinal, and health system factors affecting CR referral. Primary care physicians were more likely to endorse lack of familiarity with CR site locations (P negatively impacting CR referral practices than cardiac specialists. Cardiac specialists were significantly more likely to perceive that their colleagues and department would regularly refer patients to CR than primary care physicians (P Marketing CR site locations, provision of standardized referral forms, and ensuring discharge summaries are communicated to primary care physicians may improve their willingness to refer to CR.
Oyarzún, Bernardo; Mognetti, Bortolo Matteo
We present a new simulation technique to study systems of polymers functionalized by reactive sites that bind/unbind forming reversible linkages. Functionalized polymers feature self-assembly and responsive properties that are unmatched by the systems lacking selective interactions. The scales at which the functional properties of these materials emerge are difficult to model, especially in the reversible regime where such properties result from many binding/unbinding events. This difficulty is related to large entropic barriers associated with the formation of intra-molecular loops. In this work, we present a simulation scheme that sidesteps configurational costs by dedicated Monte Carlo moves capable of binding/unbinding reactive sites in a single step. Cross-linking reactions are implemented by trial moves that reconstruct chain sections attempting, at the same time, a dimerization reaction between pairs of reactive sites. The model is parametrized by the reaction equilibrium constant of the reactive species free in solution. This quantity can be obtained by means of experiments or atomistic/quantum simulations. We use the proposed methodology to study the self-assembly of single-chain polymeric nanoparticles, starting from flexible precursors carrying regularly or randomly distributed reactive sites. We focus on understanding differences in the morphology of chain nanoparticles when linkages are reversible as compared to the well-studied case of irreversible reactions. Intriguingly, we find that the size of regularly functionalized chains, in good solvent conditions, is non-monotonous as a function of the degree of functionalization. We clarify how this result follows from excluded volume interactions and is peculiar of reversible linkages and regular functionalizations.
Shawar, R M; el-Zaatari, F A; Nataraj, A; Clarridge, J E
Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in clinical specimens by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was compared with detection by culture. A 317-bp segment within the M. tuberculosis-specific insertion sequence IS6110 was amplified. The detection limit of the PCR assay for cultured mycobacteria was 50 cells per reaction by ethidium bromide-stained agarose gel electrophoresis and 5 cells per reaction by hybridization with an oligonucleotide probe conjugated with either digoxigenin or alkalin...
Full Text Available The “360° GH in Europe” meeting, which examined various aspects of GH diseases, was held in Lisbon, Portugal, in June 2016. The Merck KGaA (Germany funded meeting comprised three sessions entitled “Short Stature Diagnosis and Referral,” “Optimizing Patient Management,” and “Managing Transition.” Each session had three speaker presentations, followed by a discussion period, and is reported as a manuscript, authored by the speakers. The first session examined current processes of diagnosis and referral by endocrine specialists for pediatric patients with short stature. Requirements for referral vary widely, by country and by patient characteristics such as age. A balance must be made to ensure eligible patients get referred while healthcare systems are not over-burdened by excessive referrals. Late referral and diagnosis of non-GH deficiency conditions can result in increased morbidity and mortality. The consequent delays in making a diagnosis may compromise the effectiveness of GH treatment. Algorithms for growth monitoring and evaluation of skeletal disproportions can improve identification of non-GH deficiency conditions. Performance and validation of guidelines for diagnosis of GH deficiency have not been sufficiently tested. Provocative tests for investigation of GH deficiency remain equivocal, with insufficient information on variations due to patient characteristics, and cutoff values for definition differ not only by country but also by the assay used. When referring and diagnosing causes of short stature in pediatric patients, clinicians need to rely on many factors, but the most essential is clinical experience.
Muscalu, Alina M; Morse, Dave; Reiner, Eric J; Górecki, Tadeusz
The analysis of persistent organic pollutants in environmental samples is a challenge due to the very large number of compounds with varying chemical and physical properties. Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) are complex mixtures of chlorinated n-alkanes with varying chain lengths (C 10 to C 30 ) and degree of chlorination (30 to 70% by weight). Their physical-chemical properties make these compounds persistent in the environment and able to bioaccumulate in living organisms. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) coupled with micro-electron capture detection (μECD) was used to separate and quantify short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCP) in sediment samples. Distinct ordered bands were observed in the GC × GC chromatograms pointing to group separation. Using the Classification function of the ChromaTOF software, summary tables were generated to determine total area counts to set up multilevel-calibration curves for different technical mixes. Fortified sediment samples were analyzed by GC × GC-μECD with minimal extraction and cleanup. Recoveries ranged from 120 to 130%. To further validate the proposed method for the analysis of SCCPs, the laboratory participated in interlaboratory studies for the analysis of standards and sediment samples. The results showed recoveries between 75 and 95% and z-score values <2, demonstrating that the method is suitable for the analysis of SCCPs in soil/sediment samples. Graphical abstract Quantification of SCCPs by 2D-GC-μECD.
Bottino, Clement J; Rhodes, Erinn T; Kreatsoulas, Catherine; Cox, Joanne E; Fleegler, Eric W
To describe a clinical approach for food insecurity screening incorporating a menu offering food-assistance referrals, and to examine relationships between food insecurity and referral selection. Caregivers of 3- to 10-year-old children presenting for well-child care completed a self-administered questionnaire on a laptop computer. Items included the US Household Food Security Survey Module: 6-Item Short Form (food insecurity screen) and a referral menu offering assistance with: 1) finding a food pantry, 2) getting hot meals, 3) applying for Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), and 4) applying for Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Referrals were offered independent of food insecurity status or eligibility. We examined associations between food insecurity and referral selection using multiple logistic regression while adjusting for covariates. A total of 340 caregivers participated; 106 (31.2%) reported food insecurity, and 107 (31.5%) selected one or more referrals. Forty-nine caregivers (14.4%) reported food insecurity but selected no referrals; 50 caregivers (14.7%) selected one or more referrals but did not report food insecurity; and 57 caregivers (16.8%) both reported food insecurity and selected one or more referrals. After adjustment, caregivers who selected one or more referrals had greater odds of food insecurity compared to caregivers who selected no referrals (adjusted odds ratio 4.0; 95% confidence interval 2.4-7.0). In this sample, there was incomplete overlap between food insecurity and referral selection. Offering referrals may be a helpful adjunct to standard screening for eliciting family preferences and identifying unmet social needs. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Yu, Wenya; Li, Meina; Nong, Xin; Ding, Tao; Ye, Feng; Liu, Jiazhen; Dai, Zhixing; Zhang, Lulu
In China, the rate of downward referral is relatively low, as most people are unwilling to be referred from hospitals to community health systems (CHSs). The aim of this study was to explore the effect of doctors' and patients' practices and attitudes on their willingness for downward referral and the relationship between downward referral and sociodemographic characteristics. Doctors and patients of 13 tertiary hospitals in Shanghai were stratified through random sampling. The questionnaire surveyed their sociodemographic characteristics, attitudes towards CHSs and hospitals, understanding of downward referral, recognition of the community first treatment system, and downward referral practices and willingness. Descriptive statistics, χ 2 test and stepwise logistic regression analysis were employed for statistical analysis. Only 20.8% (161/773) of doctors were willing to accept downward referrals, although this proportion was higher among patients (37.6%, 326/866). Doctors' willingness was influenced by education, understanding of downward referral, and perception of health resources in hospitals. Patients' willingness was influenced by marital status, economic factors and recognition of the community first treatment system. Well-educated doctors who do not consider downward referral would increase their workloads and those with a more comprehensive understanding of hospitals and downward referral process were more likely to make a downward referral decision. Single-injury patients fully recognising the community first treatment system were more willing to accept downward referral. Patients' willingness was significantly increased if downward referral was cost-saving. A better medical insurance system was another key factor for patients to accept downward referral decisions, especially for the floating population. To increase the rate of downward referral, the Chinese government should optimise the current referral system and conduct universal publicity for
Benowitz, Isaac; Fitzhenry, Robert; Boyd, Christopher; Dickinson, Michelle; Levy, Michael; Lin, Ying; Nazarian, Elizabeth; Ostrowsky, Belinda; Passaretti, Teresa; Rakeman, Jennifer; Saylors, Amy; Shamoonian, Elena; Smith, Terry-Ann; Balter, Sharon
We investigated an outbreak of eight Legionnaires’ disease cases among persons living in an urban residential community of 60,000 people. Possible environmental sources included two active cooling towers (air-conditioning units for large buildings) cooling, and potable water. To support a timely public health response, we used real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identify Legionella DNA in environmental samples within hours of specimen collection. We detected L. pneumophila serogroup 1 DNA only at a power plant cooling tower, supporting the decision to order remediation before culture results were available. An isolate from a power plant cooling tower sample was indistinguishable from a patient isolate by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, suggesting the cooling tower was the outbreak source. PCR results were available <1 day after sample collection, and culture results were available as early as 5 days after plating. PCR is a valuable tool for identifying Legionella DNA in environmental samples in outbreak settings. PMID:29780175
Benowitz, Isaac; Fitzhenry, Robert; Boyd, Christopher; Dickinson, Michelle; Levy, Michael; Lin, Ying; Nazarian, Elizabeth; Ostrowsky, Belinda; Passaretti, Teresa; Rakeman, Jennifer; Saylors, Amy; Shamoonian, Elena; Smith, Terry-Ann; Balter, Sharon
We investigated an outbreak of eight Legionnaires' disease cases among persons living in an urban residential community of 60,000 people. Possible environmental sources included two active cooling towers (air-conditioning units for large buildings) cooling, and potable water. To support a timely public health response, we used real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identify Legionella DNA in environmental samples within hours of specimen collection. We detected L. pneumophila serogroup 1 DNA only at a power plant cooling tower, supporting the decision to order remediation before culture results were available. An isolate from a power plant cooling tower sample was indistinguishable from a patient isolate by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, suggesting the cooling tower was the outbreak source. PCR results were available <1 day after sample collection, and culture results were available as early as 5 days after plating. PCR is a valuable tool for identifying Legionella DNA in environmental samples in outbreak settings.
Faron, Gilles; Vancutsem, Ellen; Naessens, Anne; Buyl, Ronald; Gucciardo, Leonardo; Foulon, Walter
Objective. This study aimed to compare the qualitative and quantitative reproducibility of quantitative PCR (qPCR) for Ureaplasma species (Ureaplasma spp.) throughout pregnancy and according to the genital sampling site. Study Design. Between 5 and 14 weeks of gestation (T1), vaginal, fornix, and two cervical samples were taken. Sampling was repeated during the 2nd (T2) and 3rd (T3) trimester in randomly selected T1 positive and negative women. Qualitative and quantitative reproducibility wer...
Thompson, Steven K
Praise for the Second Edition "This book has never had a competitor. It is the only book that takes a broad approach to sampling . . . any good personal statistics library should include a copy of this book." —Technometrics "Well-written . . . an excellent book on an important subject. Highly recommended." —Choice "An ideal reference for scientific researchers and other professionals who use sampling." —Zentralblatt Math Features new developments in the field combined with all aspects of obtaining, interpreting, and using sample data Sampling provides an up-to-date treat
Fischer, Jane P
The pervasive negative impact of cardiovascular disease in the United States is well documented. Although advances have been made, the campaign to reduce the occurrence, progression, and mortality continues. Determining evidence-based data is only half the battle. Implementing new and updated clinical guidelines into daily practice is a challenging task. Cardiac rehabilitation is an example of a proven intervention whose benefit is hindered through erratic implementation. The American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation (AACVPR), the American College of Cardiology (ACC), and the American Heart Association (AHA) have responded to this problem by publishing the AACVPR/ACC/AHA 2007 Performance Measures on Cardiac Rehabilitation for Referral to and Delivery of Cardiac Rehabilitation/Secondary Prevention Services. This new national guideline recommends automatic referral to cardiac rehabilitation for every eligible patient (performance measure A-1). This article offers guidance for the initiation of an automatic referral system, including individualizing your protocol with regard to electronic or paper-based order entry structures.
Dhumpa, Raghuram; Handberg, Kurt; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik
Avian influenza virus (AIV) causes great economic losses for the poultry industry worldwide and threatens the human population with a pandemic. The conventional detection method for AIV involves sample preparation of viral RNA extraction and purification from raw sample such as bird droppings...
Grote, F.K.; Dommelen, P. van; Oostdijk, W.; Muinck Keizer-Schrama, S.M.P.F. de; Verkerk, P.H.; Wit, J.M.; Buuren, S. van
Objective: To establish evidence based guidelines for growth monitoring on a population basis. Study design: Several auxological referral criteria were formulated and applied to longitudinal growth data from four different patient groups, as well as three samples from the general population.
Glycosyltransferases as marker genes for the quantitative polymerase chain reaction-based detection of circulating tumour cells from blood samples of patients with breast cancer undergoing adjuvant therapy.
Kölbl, Alexandra C; Hiller, Roman A; Ilmer, Mathias; Liesche, Friederike; Heublein, Sabine; Schröder, Lennard; Hutter, Stefan; Friese, Klaus; Jeschke, Udo; Andergassen, Ulrich
Altered glycosylation is a predominant feature of tumour cells; it serves for cell adhesion and detachment, respectively, and facilitates the immune escape of these cells. Therefore changes in the expression of glycosyltransferase genes could help to identify circulating tumour cells (CTCs) in the blood samples of cancer patients using a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approach. Blood samples of healthy donors were inoculated with certain numbers of established breast cancer cell line cells, thus creating a model system. These samples were analysed by quantitative PCR for the expression of six different glycosyltransferase genes. The three genes with the best results in the model system were consecutively applied to samples from adjuvant breast cancer patients and of healthy donors. FUT3 and GALNT6 showed the highest increase in relative expression, while GALNT6 and ST3GAL3 were the first to reach statistically significant different ∆CT-values comparing the sample with and without addition of tumour cells. These three genes were applied to patient samples, but did not show any significant results that may suggest the presence of CTCs in the blood. Although the relative expression of some of the glycosyltransferase genes exhibited reasonable results in the model system, their application to breast cancer patient samples will have to be further improved, e.g. by co-analysis of patient blood samples by gold-standard methods.
Full Text Available Because of insufficient communication between primary health care providers and specialists, which leads to inefficiencies and ineffectiveness in rural population health outcomes, to implement a well-functioning referral system is one of the most important tasks for some countries. Using purposive and snowballing sampling methods, we included health experts, policy-makers, family physicians, clinical specialists, and experts from health insurance organizations in this study according to pre-determined criteria. We recorded all interviews, transcribed and analyzed their content using qualitative methods. We extracted 1,522 individual codes initially. We also collected supplementary data through document review. From reviews and summarizations, four main themes, ten subthemes, and 24 issues emerged from the data. The solutions developed were: care system reform, education system reform, payment system reform, and improves in culture-building and public education. Given the executive experience, the full familiarity, the occupational and geographical diversity of participants, the solutions proposed in this study could positively affect the implementation and improvement of the referral system in Iran. The suggested solutions are complementary to each other and have less interchangeability.
Faron, Gilles; Vancutsem, Ellen; Naessens, Anne; Buyl, Ronald; Gucciardo, Leonardo; Foulon, Walter
Objective . This study aimed to compare the qualitative and quantitative reproducibility of quantitative PCR (qPCR) for Ureaplasma species (Ureaplasma spp.) throughout pregnancy and according to the genital sampling site. Study Design . Between 5 and 14 weeks of gestation (T1), vaginal, fornix, and two cervical samples were taken. Sampling was repeated during the 2nd (T2) and 3rd (T3) trimester in randomly selected T1 positive and negative women. Qualitative and quantitative reproducibility were evaluated using, respectively, Cohen's kappa ( κ ) and interclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and repeated measures ANOVA on the log-transformed mean number of DNA copies for each sampling site. Results . During T1, 51/127 women were positive for U. parvum and 8 for U. urealyticum (4 patients for both). Sampling was repeated for 44/55 women at T2 and/or T3; 43 (97.7%) remained positive at the three timepoints. κ ranged between 0.83 and 0.95 and the ICC for cervical samples was 0.86. Conclusions . Colonization by Ureaplasma spp. seems to be very constant during pregnancy and vaginal samples have the highest detection rate.
Xia, Dan; Gao, Lirong; Zhu, Shuai; Zheng, Minghui
Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are highly complex technical mixtures with thousands of isomers and numerous homologs. They are classified as priority candidate persistent organic pollutants under the Stockholm Convention for their persistence, bioaccumulation, and toxicity. Analyzing SCCPs is challenging because of the complexity of the mixtures. Chromatograms of SCCPs acquired using one-dimensional (1D) gas chromatography (GC) contain a large characteristic "peak" with a broad and unresolved profile. Comprehensive two-dimensional GC (GC×GC) shows excellent potential for separating complex mixtures. In this study, GC×GC coupled with micro electron capture detection (μECD) was used to separate and screen SCCPs. The chromatographic parameters, including the GC column types, oven temperature program, and modulation period, were systematically optimized. The SCCP congeners were separated into groups using a DM-1 column connected to a BPX-50 column. The SCCP congeners in technical mixtures were separated according to the number of chlorine substituents for a given carbon chain length and according to the number of carbon atoms plus chlorine atoms for different carbon chain lengths. A fish tissue sample was analyzed to illustrate the feasibility of the GC×GC-μECD method in analyzing biological samples. Over 1,500 compounds were identified in the fish extract, significantly more than were identified using 1D GC. The detection limits for five selected SCCP congeners were between 1 and 5 pg/L using the GC×GC method, and these were significantly lower than those achieved using 1D GC. This method is a good choice for analysis of SCCPs in environmental samples, exhibiting good separation and good sensitivity.
Arroyo-Salgado, Bárbara; Buelvas-Montes, Yaleyvis; Villalba-Vizcaíno, Vivian; Salomón-Arzuza, Octavio
Giardia intestinalis (G. Intestinalis) is a protozoan that causes diarrheal disease and malabsorption syndrome in humans and other mammals. It presents a high genetic diversity evidenced in the recognition of 7 genotypes (A-G). Genotypes A and B are commonly associated to humans and domestic animals such as dogs. The aim of this study was to conduct a preliminary genetic characterization of G. intestinalis in humans and dogs from two cities on the Caribbean coast of Colombia. Sampling areas were selected according to the highest numbers of acute diarrheal disease. Stool samples were collected from children under 7 years old, with positive medical tests for G. intestinalis. Cysts were purified by sucrose gradient and DNA samples were isolated by extraction with organic solvents. Molecular characterization was performed by amplifying the gene triose phosphate isomerase (tpi) by using a semi-nested PCR. A total of 202 samples of DNA were obtained; of these, 111 were positive in coproparasitological analysis (13 dogs and 98 children). Genotype distribution in positive samples was: 5.1% belonged to genotype A and 92.3% to genotype B. Genotype B was present in humans and animals. The most common genotype in both human and animal samples was genotype B, suggesting a zoonotic transmission cycle. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.
Pournajaf, Abazar; Rajabnia, Ramazan; Sedighi, Mansour; Kassani, Aziz; Moqarabzadeh, Vahid; Lotfollahi, Lida; Ardebilli, Abdollah; Emadi, Behzad; Irajian, Gholamreza
This study aimed to determine the prevalence, and virulence factors of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from various samples by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (MPCR). A total of 617 isolates were obtained and MPCR was employed for detection of the inlA, inlC, and inlJ genes. L. monocytogenes was detected in 46 (7.45%) of the 617 specimens. inlA, inlC, and inlJ were detected in 100%, 76.26%, and 71% isolates, respectively. This study validated MPCR in the analysis and rapid detection of L. monocytogenes. The role of the genes in pathogenesis of the strains can also be affirmed.
Peluso, A L; Cozzolino, I; Bottiglieri, A; Lucchese, L; Di Crescenzo, R M; Langella, M; Selleri, C; Zeppa, P
To evaluate and compare the DNA yield and quality extracted from lymph node fine needle cytology (FNC) samples stored on FTA cards to those cryopreserved, and to assess the immunoglobulin heavy and light chains (IGHK) and T-Cell receptor beta and gamma chains (TCRBG) PCR tests. DNA extractions were performed on FNC of 80 non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL), four myelomas and 56 benign reactive hyperplasias (BRH) cryopreserved and stored on FTA cards. The JAK2 gene was amplified to assess the DNA integrity and the IGHK/TCRBG clonality status was tested. IGHK monoclonality was found in 99% of B-cell NHL and 100% of myeloma. TCRBG monoclonality was found in 100% of T-cell NHL. TCRBG polyclonality was detected in 97% of B-cell NHL, 100% of myeloma and 96% of BRH. IGHK/TCRBG PCR data were confirmed by histological and/or follow-up controls. No differences were found in the DNA quality between cryopreservation and FTA cards storage methods. IGHK/TCRBG PCR of the lymphoproliferative process on FTA cards is comparable to those cryopreserved. FTA cards can be used to store lymph node FNC for further molecular investigations. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Jawad, Nisreen; Ahemd, Asmat; Abdullah, Aminah
The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of Bacillus cereus and detection of enterotoxigenic genes in food samples by utilizing a Polymerase Chain Reaction technique (PCR). In this study the providence of B. cereus was carried out to food samples. The B. cereus isolates were investigated for enterotoxigenic gene. The cooked seafood, and raw milk samples were purchased from several restaurants and market in the area of (Bangi, Kajang, Serdang and UKM) Selangor, Malaysia. A total of 60 samples have been analyzed. B. cereus contamination has been formed between 1.4×105 - 3×105 cfu/mL of cooked seafood and raw milk samples. Five colonies have been detected as B. cereus using biochemical test. All B. cereus isolates named BC1 to BC27, were characterized for haemolytic enterotoxin (HBL) complex encoding genes (hblA), non-haemolytic enterotoxin encoding gene (NheA). 10 isolates have been reported to be positive towards hblA and 12 isolates were positive towards NheA. The presence of B. cereus and their enterotoxigenic genes in cooked seafood and raw milk from to food samples obtained may pose a potential risk for public health.
Chen, Laiguo; Huang, Yumei; Han, Shuang; Feng, Yongbin; Jiang, Guo; Tang, Caiming; Ye, Zhixiang; Zhan, Wei; Liu, Ming; Zhang, Sukun
Accurately quantifying short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) in soil samples with gas chromatograph coupled with electron capture negative ionization mass spectrometry (GC-ECNI-MS) is difficult because many other polychlorinated pollutants are present in the sample matrices. These pollutants (e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and toxaphene) can cause serious interferences during SCCPs analysis with GC-MS. Four main columns packed with different adsorbents, including silica gel, Florisil and alumina, were investigated in this study to determine their performance for separating interfering pollutants from SCCPs. These experimental results suggest that the optimum cleanup procedure uses a silica gel column and a multilayer silica gel-Florisil composite column. This procedure completely separated 22 PCB congeners, 23 OCPs and three toxaphene congeners from SCCPs. However, p,p'-DDD, cis-nonachlor and o,p'-DDD were not completely removed and only 53% of the total toxaphene was removed. This optimized method was successfully and effectively applied for removing interfering pollutants from real soil samples. SCCPs in 17 soil samples from different land use areas within a suburban region were analyzed with the established method. The concentrations of SCCPs in these samples were between 7 and 541 ng g(-1) (mean: 84 ng g(-1)). Similar homologue SCCPs patterns were observed between the soil samples collected from different land use areas. In addition, lower chlorinated (Cl(6/7)) C(10)- and C(11)- SCCPs were the dominant congeners. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Pedersen, Ken Steen; Johansen, Markku; Jorsal, Sven Erik Lind
Procedures in which biological specimens are mixed and tested as 1 sample (pooling) have been applied for various biological specimens and laboratory examinations. The objective of the current study was to investigate agreement between laboratory testing of fecal pools and theoretical values obta...
Immunoglobulin heavy-chain fluorescence in situ hybridization-chromogenic in situ hybridization DNA probe split signal in the clonality assessment of lymphoproliferative processes on cytological samples.
Zeppa, Pio; Sosa Fernandez, Laura Virginia; Cozzolino, Immacolata; Ronga, Valentina; Genesio, Rita; Salatiello, Maria; Picardi, Marco; Malapelle, Umberto; Troncone, Giancarlo; Vigliar, Elena
The human immunoglobulin heavy-chain (IGH) locus at chromosome 14q32 is frequently involved in different translocations of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), and the detection of any breakage involving the IGH locus should identify a B-cell NHL. The split-signal IGH fluorescence in situ hybridization-chromogenic in situ hybridization (FISH-CISH) DNA probe is a mixture of 2 fluorochrome-labeled DNAs: a green one that binds the telomeric segment and a red one that binds the centromeric segment, both on the IGH breakpoint. In the current study, the authors tested the capability of the IGH FISH-CISH DNA probe to detect IGH translocations and diagnose B-cell lymphoproliferative processes on cytological samples. Fifty cytological specimens from cases of lymphoproliferative processes were tested using the split-signal IGH FISH-CISH DNA probe and the results were compared with light-chain assessment by flow cytometry (FC), IGH status was tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and clinicohistological data. The signal score produced comparable results on FISH and CISH analysis and detected 29 positive, 15 negative, and 6 inadequate cases; there were 29 true-positive cases (66%), 9 true-negative cases (20%), 6 false-negative cases (14%), and no false-positive cases (0%). Comparing the sensitivity of the IGH FISH-CISH DNA split probe with FC and PCR, the highest sensitivity was obtained by FC, followed by FISH-CISH and PCR. The split-signal IGH FISH-CISH DNA probe is effective in detecting any translocation involving the IGH locus. This probe can be used on different samples from different B-cell lymphoproliferative processes, although it is not useful for classifying specific entities. Cancer (Cancer Cytopathol) 2012;. © 2012 American Cancer Society. Copyright © 2012 American Cancer Society.
Nadin-Davis, Susan; Knowles, Margaret K; Burke, Teresa; Böse, Reinhard; Devenish, John
A quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction method (qPCR) was developed and tested for the detection of Taylorella equigenitalis. It was shown to have an analytical sensitivity of 5 colony-forming units (CFU) of T. equigenitalis when applied to the testing of culture swabs that mimicked field samples, and a high analytical specificity in not reacting to 8 other commensal bacterial species associated with horses. As designed, it could also differentiate specifically between T. equigenitalis and T. asinigenitalis. The qPCR was compared to standard culture in a study that included 45 swab samples from 6 horses (1 stallion, 5 mares) naturally infected with T. equigenitalis in Canada, 39 swab samples from 5 naturally infected stallions in Germany, and 311 swab samples from 87 culture negative horses in Canada. When the comparison was conducted on an individual sample swab basis, the qPCR had a statistical sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 96.4%, respectively, and 100% and 99.1% when the comparison was conducted on a sample set basis. A comparison was also made on 203 sample swabs from the 5 German stallions taken over a span of 4 to 9 mo following antibiotic treatment. The qPCR was found to be highly sensitive and at least as good as culture in detecting the presence of T. equigenitalis in post-treatment samples. The work demonstrates that the qPCR assay described here can potentially be used to detect the presence of T. equigenitalis directly from submitted sample swabs taken from infected horses and also for determining T. equigenitalis freedom following treatment.
Gao, Yuan; Wang, Cheng; Zhang, Hai-jun; Zou, Li-li; Tian, Yu-zeng; Chen, Ji-ping
An analytical method for quantifying short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) by high-resolution gas chromatography/electron capture negative ion low-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/ECNI-LRMS) was presented. The cleanup procedure with an acid silica gel column and activated neutral alumina column was optimized to remove the interferences. As illustration of the application of the method to environmental samples, it is found that lower chlorinated C10 and C11 compounds were the main SCCPs compounds in six sediment samples from the mouth of the Daliao River. The concentrations of SCCPs in sediments were determined to be in the range of 64.9-407.0 ng/g and showed a decreasing tendency from the shore to the remote location.
Alarcón, Gonzalo; Barraza, Gabriela; Vera, Andrea; Wozniak, Aniela; García, Patricia
Trichomonas vaginalis, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma spp. are microorganisms responsible for genitourinary and pregnancy pathologies. Nucleic acid amplification methods have shown several advantages, but have not been widely studied for the detection of these microorganisms. To implement a conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of the microorganisms and to compare its results versus the methods currently used at our laboratory. 91 available samples were processed by PCR, culture (M. hominis y Ureaplasma spp.) and wet mount (T vaginalis). Results were compared and statistically analyzed by kappa agreement test. 85, 80 and 87 samples resulted in agreement for the detection of M. hominis, Ureaplasma spp. y T. vaginalis, respectively. For M. hominis and Ureaplasma spp., agreement was substantial, whereas for T. vaginalis it was moderate, however, for the latter, PCR detected more cases than wet mount. We recommend the implementation of PCR for detection of T. vaginalis whereas culture kit is still a useful method for the other microorganisms.
Cavazos-Cadena, R.; Montes-de-Oca, R.; Sladký, Karel
Roč. 163, č. 2 (2014), s. 674-684 ISSN 0022-3239 Grant - others:PSF Organization(US) 012/300/02; CONACYT (México) and ASCR (Czech Republic)(MX) 171396 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Strong sample-path optimality * Lyapunov function condition * Stationary policy * Expected average reward criterion Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 1.509, year: 2014 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/E/sladky-0432661.pdf
Blanco, Roberta Morozetti; Romero, Eliete Caló
The aim of this study was to analyse the nested polymerase chain reaction (nested PCR) in human serum samples of patients with clinical manifestations of leptospirosis. The cases of leptospirosis were defined by the microagglutination test (MAT). The samples were collected in 2010. Of 1042 serum samples collected from 521 patients, 28 (5.4%) were considered positive cases of leptospirosis, and 493 (94.6%) were negative. Twenty-three confirmed cases had no MAT-detectable antibodies in the acute sample (mean of 5.6 days after onset). Nested PCR was positive in 22/23 (95.7%) patients during the acute phase of the disease, with negative results by MAT. Nested PCR was negative in all convalescent serum samples with positive results by MAT. All negative cases of leptospirosis were negative by nested PCR. The nested PCR is an alternative diagnostic tool for early detection of leptospires in sera during the first 7 days of the disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Stelzer, Erin A.; Strickler, Kriston M.; Schill, William B.
During summer and early fall 2010, 15 river samples and 6 fecal-source samples were collected in West Virginia. These samples were analyzed by three laboratories for three microbial source tracking (MST) markers: AllBac, a general fecal indicator; BacHum, a human-associated fecal indicator; and BoBac, a ruminant-associated fecal indicator. MST markers were analyzed by means of the quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method. The aim was to assess interlaboratory precision when the three laboratories used the same MST marker and shared deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extracts of the samples, but different equipment, reagents, and analyst experience levels. The term assay refers to both the markers and the procedure differences listed above. Interlaboratory precision was best for all three MST assays when using the geometric mean absolute relative percent difference (ARPD) and Friedman's statistical test as a measure of interlaboratory precision. Adjustment factors (one for each MST assay) were calculated using results from fecal-source samples analyzed by all three laboratories and applied retrospectively to sample concentrations to account for differences in qPCR results among labs using different standards and procedures. Following the application of adjustment factors to qPCR results, ARPDs were lower; however, statistically significant differences between labs were still observed for the BacHum and BoBac assays. This was a small study and two of the MST assays had 52 percent of samples with concentrations at or below the limit of accurate quantification; hence, more testing could be done to determine if the adjustment factors would work better if the majority of sample concentrations were above the quantification limit.
Wu, Cai; Sandoval, Alex; Hicks, Katrina N; Edwards, Tim J; Green, Lyle D
The Office of Physician Relations at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center (MDACC) has developed a dynamic referral productivity reporting tool for its Multidisciplinary Care Centers (MCC). The tool leverages information within the institution's Enterprise Information Warehouse (EIW) using business intelligent software Hyperion Intelligent Explorer Suite 8.3. the referral productivity reports are intended to provide each MCC with detailed referral and registration data outlining how, and from where, patients arrive here for treatment. The reports supports operational and strategic initiatives aimed at improving referral processes and market related program development.
Lysdahl, Kristin Bakke [Oslo University College, Faculty of Health Sciences, Oslo (Norway); University of Oslo, Section for Medical Ethics, Faculty of Medicine, P.O. Box 1130, Blindern, Oslo (Norway); Hofmann, Bjoern Morten [University of Oslo, Section for Medical Ethics, Faculty of Medicine, P.O. Box 1130, Blindern, Oslo (Norway); Gjoevik University College, Faculty of Health Care and Nursing, Gjoevik (Norway); Espeland, Ansgar [Haukeland University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Bergen (Norway); University of Bergen, Section for Radiology, Department of Surgical Sciences, Bergen (Norway)
To investigate radiologists' responses to inadequate imaging referrals. A survey was mailed to Norwegian radiologists; 69% responded. They graded the frequencies of actions related to referrals with ambiguous indications or inappropriate examination choices and the contribution of factors preventing and not preventing an examination of doubtful usefulness from being performed as requested. Ninety-five percent (344/361) reported daily or weekly actions related to inadequate referrals. Actions differed among subspecialties. The most frequent were contacting the referrer to clarify the clinical problem and checking test results/information in the medical records. Both actions were more frequent among registrars than specialists and among hospital radiologists than institute radiologists. Institute radiologists were more likely to ask the patient for additional information and to examine the patient clinically. Factors rated as contributing most to prevent doubtful examinations were high risk of serious complications/side effects, high radiation dose and low patient age. Factors facilitating doubtful examinations included respect for the referrer's judgment, patient/next-of-kin wants the examination, patient has arrived, unreachable referrer, and time pressure. In summary, radiologists facing inadequate referrals considered patient safety and sought more information. Vetting referrals on arrival, easier access to referring clinicians, and time for radiologists to handle inadequate referrals may contribute to improved use of imaging. (orig.)
Hill, D E; Liddell, S; Jenkins, M C; Dubey, J P
Neospora caninum oocysts, passed in the feces of a definitive host (dog), were isolated, and genomic DNA was extracted. A polymerase cahin reaction (PCR) targeting the N. caninum-specific Nc 5 genomic sequence was performed using the isolated DNA. A synthesized competitor molecule containing part of the Nc 5 sequence was included in the assay as a check against false-negative PCR results and to quantify N. caninum oocyst DNA in fecal samples. A standard curve of the ratio of fluorescence intensity of PCR-amplified competitor to that of oocyst DNA was constructed to compare oocyst equivalents from fecal samples containing unknown numbers of N. caninum oocysts and to assess the sensitivity of the assay. The specificity of the assay was determined using the Nc 5-specific primers in PCR assays against other parasites likely to be found in canine feces. Genomic DNA sequences from the canine coccidians Hammondia heydorni, Cryptosporidium parvum, Sarcocystis cruzi, S. tenella, and Isospora ohioensis and the canine helminth parasites Strongyloides stercoralis, Toxocara canis, Dipylidium caninum, and Ancylostoma caninum were not amplified. In addition, genomic DNA sequences from oocysts of coccidian parasites that might contaminate dog feces, such as Hammondia hammondi, Toxoplasma gondii, or Eimeria tenella, were not amplified in the PCR assay. The assay should be useful in epidemiological surveys of both domestic and wild canine hosts and in investigations of oocyst biology in experimental infections.
Choi, Eun-Jung; Lee, Sung-Hoon; Kim, Young-Jae
Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus are closely associated with the development of early childhood caries (ECC). Recently, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) has been used for rapid and accurate quantification of these bacterial species. This study aims to detect quantitatively the levels of S. mutans and S. sobrinus in plaque samples by qRT-PCR, and to assess their association with the prevalence of ECC in Korean preschool children. One hundred and five children (71 months old or younger) were examined and classified into three groups (caries-free, ECC, severe ECC). Dental plaque samples were collected and qRT-PCR was conducted using oligonucleotide primers specific for glucosyltransferase gene (S. mutans-gtfB, S. sobrinus-gtfU) and universal primer. Pearson's correlation test was conducted to evaluate the relationship between the dmfs (decayed, missing, or filled surfaces primary teeth) scores and the microbiological findings. There was a significant difference between the levels of S. mutans and S. sobrinus in the plaque samples of the three groups (P plaque samples. The children with higher ratio of S. sobrinus to S. mutans in their dental plaque showed higher incidence of ECC.
Zhu, Yazhen; Lu, Dan; Lira, Maruja E; Xu, Qing; Du, Yunzhi; Xiong, Jianghong; Mao, Mao; Chung, Hyun Cheol; Zheng, Guangjuan
Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is a key driver of tumorigenesis, and over-expression as a result of HER2 gene amplification has been observed in a number of solid tumors. Recently HER2 has become an important biomarker for the monoclonal antibody treatment of HER2-positive metastatic breast and advanced gastric cancer. The HER2 targeting antibody trastuzumab treatment requires accurate measurement of HER2 levels for proper diagnosis. Droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) with highly direct, precise and absolute nucleic acid quantification could be used to detect HER2 amplification levels. Our objective was to evaluate a robust, accurate and less subjective application of ddPCR for HER2 amplification levels and test the assay performance in clinical formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) breast and gastric carcinoma samples. Genomic DNA from HER2 amplified cell line SK-BR-3 was used to set up the ddPCR assays. The copy number of HER2 was compared to the chromosome 17 centromere reference gene (CEP17), expressed as HER2:CEP17 ratio. Genomic DNAs of FFPE specimens from 145 Asian patients with breast and gastric carcinomas were assayed using both standard methods, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and/or fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and ddPCR. Based on 145 clinical breast and gastric carcinoma cases, our study demonstrated a high concordance of ddPCR results to FISH and IHC. In breast cancer specimens, the ddPCR results had high concordance with FISH and IHC defined HER2 status with a sensitivity of 90.9% (30/33) and a specificity of 100% (77/77). In gastric cancer specimens that were concordant in both FISH and IHC, our assay was 95.5% concordant with FISH and IHC (21/22). ddPCR has the advantage of automation and also allows levels of HER2 amplification to be easily evaluated in large numbers of samples, and presents a potential option to define HER2 status. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gao, Wei; Wu, Jing; Wang, Yawei; Jiang, Guibin
Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) are technical products produced and used in bulk for a number of purposes. However, the analysis of CPs is challenging, as they are complex mixtures of compounds and isomers. We herein report the development of an analytical method for the analysis of short-chain CPs (SCCPs) and medium-chain CPs (MCCPs) using quadrupole time-of-flight high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-NCI-qTOF-HRMS). This method employs gas chromatography with a chemical ionization source working in negative mode. The linear relationship between chlorination and the CP total response factors was applied to quantify the CP content and the congener group distribution patterns. In a single injection, 24 SCCP formula groups and 24 MCCP formula groups were quantified. Extraction of accurate masses using qTOF-HRMS allowed the SCCPs and MCCPs to be distinguished, with interference from other chemicals (e.g., PCBs) being largely avoided. The SCCP and MCCP detection limits were 24-81ng/mL and 27-170ng/mL, respectively. Comparison of the obtained results with analytical results from gas chromatography coupled with electron capture negative ionization low-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-ECNI-LRMS) indicate that the developed technique is a more accurate and convenient method for the analysis of CPs in samples from a range of matrices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sparsity has become a key concept for solving of high-dimensional inverse problems using variational regularization techniques. Recently, using similar sparsity-constraints in the Bayesian framework for inverse problems by encoding them in the prior distribution has attracted attention. Important questions about the relation between regularization theory and Bayesian inference still need to be addressed when using sparsity promoting inversion. A practical obstacle for these examinations is the lack of fast posterior sampling algorithms for sparse, high-dimensional Bayesian inversion. Accessing the full range of Bayesian inference methods requires being able to draw samples from the posterior probability distribution in a fast and efficient way. This is usually done using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling algorithms. In this paper, we develop and examine a new implementation of a single component Gibbs MCMC sampler for sparse priors relying on L1-norms. We demonstrate that the efficiency of our Gibbs sampler increases when the level of sparsity or the dimension of the unknowns is increased. This property is contrary to the properties of the most commonly applied Metropolis–Hastings (MH) sampling schemes. We demonstrate that the efficiency of MH schemes for L1-type priors dramatically decreases when the level of sparsity or the dimension of the unknowns is increased. Practically, Bayesian inversion for L1-type priors using MH samplers is not feasible at all. As this is commonly believed to be an intrinsic feature of MCMC sampling, the performance of our Gibbs sampler also challenges common beliefs about the applicability of sample based Bayesian inference. (paper)
... Practitioners (GMPS) sent the most referrals (507 or 74.0%), specialist medical practitioners (SMPs) sent 86(12.6%) and general dental practitioners (GDPs) sent 59(8.6%) referrals. The medical specialty with most referrals was paediatrics (29.0 % of the SMPs referrals). 44.5% of the referrals had no provisional diagnosis, ...
Full Text Available Abstract INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to determine the prevalence, and virulence factors of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from various samples by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (MPCR. METHODS: A total of 617 isolates were obtained and MPCR was employed for detection of the inlA, inlC, and inlJ genes. RESULTS: L. monocytogenes was detected in 46 (7.45% of the 617 specimens. inlA, inlC, and inlJ were detected in 100%, 76.26%, and 71% isolates, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study validated MPCR in the analysis and rapid detection of L. monocytogenes. The role of the genes in pathogenesis of the strains can also be affirmed.
Over an 8-year period, 23 consenting infertile patients/ couples were given referral for assisted conception. The median age was 36 years and mean duration of infertility was 43 months. Indications for referral as shown in Table 1 were male factor in five (21.7%) patients, female factor in seven (30.4%) patients, and both ...
Polcyn, Dawn M.; Levine-Donnerstein, Deborah; Perfect, Michelle M.; Obrzut, John E.
This study examined whether consistently implementing reading fluency interventions prior to referring students for a special education evaluation led to fewer overall special education referrals, as well as more accurate special education referrals. Results indicated that the implementation of a peer-mediated reading fluency intervention…
Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is a zoonotic disease caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii. Ingestion of raw milk has been suggested as a risk for transmission to humans. Here the authors evaluated pre-treatment protocols for DNA extraction on T. gondii tachyzoite-spiked sheep milk with the aim of identifying the method that resulted in the most rapid and reliable polymerase chain reaction (PCR positivity. This protocol was then used to analyse milk samples from sheep of three different farms in Southern Italy, including real time PCR for DNA quantification and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism for genotyping. The pre-treatment protocol using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and Tris-HCl to remove casein gave the best results in the least amount of time compared to the others on spiked milk samples. One sample of 21 collected from sheep farms was positive on one-step PCR, real time PCR and resulted in a Type I genotype at one locus (SAG3. Milk usually contains a low number of tachyzoites and this could be a limiting factor for molecular identification. Our preliminary data has evaluated a rapid, cost-effective and sensitive protocol to treat milk before DNA extraction. The results of the present study also confirm the possibility of T. gondii transmission through consumption of raw milk and its unpasteurised derivatives.
Diez, Cristina; Lorenz, Virginia; Ortiz, Silvia; Gonzalez, Verónica; Racca, Andrea; Bontempi, Iván; Manattini, Silvia; Solari, Aldo; Marcipar, Iván
We have evaluated blood samples of chronic and congenital Trypanosoma cruzi-infected patients from the city of Reconquista located in the northeast of Argentina where no information was previously obtained about the genotype of infecting parasites. Fourteen samples of congenital and 19 chronical patients were analyzed by hybridization with DNA probes of minicircle hypervariable regions (mHVR). In congenital patients, 50% had single infections with TcIId, 7% single infections with TcIIe, 29% mixed infections with TcIId/e, and 7% had mixed infections with TcIId/b and 7% TcIId/b, respectively. In Chronical patients, 52% had single infections with TcIId, 11% single infections with TcIIe, 26% had mixed infections with TcIId/e, and 11% had non-identified genotypes. With these samples, we evaluated the minicircle lineage-specific polymerase chain reaction assay (MLS-PCR), which involves a nested PCR to HVR minicircle sequences and we found a correlation with hybridization probes of 96.4% for TcIId and 54.8% for TcIIe. PMID:20064998
Full Text Available Abstract Background The main objective of this study is to establish a benchmark for referral rates in rural Niger so as to allow interpretation of routine referral data to assess the performance of the referral system in Niger. Methods Strict and controlled application of existing clinical decision trees in a sample of rural health centres allowed the estimation of the corresponding need for and characteristics of curative referrals in rural Niger. Compliance of referral was monitored as well. Need was matched against actual referral in 11 rural districts. The referral patterns were registered so as to get an idea on the types of pathology referred. Results The referral rate benchmark was set at 2.5 % of patients consulting at the health centre for curative reasons. Niger's rural districts have a referral rate of less than half this benchmark. Acceptability of referrals is low for the population and is adding to the deficient referral system in Niger. Mortality because of under-referral is highest among young children. Conclusion Referral patterns show that the present programme approach to deliver health care leaves a large amount of unmet need for which only comprehensive first and second line health services can provide a proper answer. On the other hand, the benchmark suggests that well functioning health centres can take care of the vast majority of problems patients present with.
The use of epifluorescent microscopy and quantitative polymerase chain reaction to determine the presence/absence and identification of microorganisms associated with domestic and foreign wallboard samples
Griffin, Dale W.
Epifluorescent microscopy and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) were utilized to determine the presence, concentration and identification of bacteria, and more specifically sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) in subsamples of Chinese and North American wallboard, and wallboard-mine rock. Bacteria were visible in most subsamples, which included wallboard-lining paper from each side of the wallboard, wallboard filler, wallboard tape and fragments of mined wallboard rock via microscopy. Observed bacteria occurred as single or small clusters of cells and no mass aggregates indicating colonization were noted. Universal 16S qPCR was utilized to directly examine samples and detected bacteria at concentrations ranging from 1.4 x 103 to 6.4 x 104 genomic equivalents per mm2 of paper or per gram of wallboard filler or mined rock, in 12 of 41 subsamples. Subsamples were incubated in sulfate reducing broth for ~30 to 60 days (enrichment assay) and then analyzed by universal 16S and SRB qPCR. Enrichment universal 16S qPCR detected bacteria in 32 of 41 subsamples at concentrations ranging from 1.5 x 104 to 4.2 x 107 genomic equivalents per ml of culture broth. Evaluation of enriched subsamples by SRB qPCR demonstrated that SRB were not detectable in most of the samples and if they were detected, detection was not reproducible (an indication of low concentrations, if present). Enrichment universal 16S and SRB qPCR demonstrated that viable bacteria were present in subsamples (as expected given exposure of the samples following manufacture, transport and use) but that SRB were either not present or present at very low numbers. Further, no differences in trends were noted between the various Chinese and North American wallboard samples. In all, the microscopy and qPCR data indicated that the suspected ‘sulfur emissions’ emanating from suspect wallboard samples is not due to microbial activity.
Logroscino, Giancarlo; Marin, Benoit; Piccininni, Marco; Arcuti, Simona; Chiò, Adriano; Hardiman, Orla; Rooney, James; Zoccolella, Stefano; Couratier, Philippe; Preux, Pierre-Marie; Beghi, Ettore
Despite concerns about the representativeness of patients from ALS tertiary centers as compared to the ALS general population, the extent of referral bias in clinical studies remains largely unknown. Using data from EURALS consortium we aimed to assess nature, extent and impact of referral bias. Four European ALS population-based registries located in Ireland, Piedmont, Puglia, Italy, and Limousin, France, covering 50 million person-years, participated. Demographic and clinic characteristics of ALS patients diagnosed in tertiary referral centers were contrasted with the whole ALS populations enrolled in registries in the same geographical areas. Patients referred to ALS centers were younger (with difference ranging from 1.1 years to 2.4 years), less likely to present a bulbar onset, with a higher proportion of familial antecedents and a longer survival (ranging from 11% to 15%) when compared to the entire ALS population in the same geographic area. A trend for referral bias is present in cohorts drawn from ALS referral centers. The magnitude of the possible referral bias in a particular tertiary center can be estimated through a comparison with ALS patients drawn from registry in the same geographic area. Studies based on clinical cohorts should be cautiously interpreted. The presence of a registry in the same area may improve the complete ascertainment in the referral center.
Meyler, Kenneth L
Since the introduction of the Haemophilus influenzae serotype b vaccine, invasive H. influenzae disease has become dominated by nontypeable (NT) strains. Several widely used molecular diagnostic methods have been shown to lack sensitivity or specificity in the detection of some of these strains. Novel real-time assays targeting the fucK, licA, and ompP2 genes were developed and evaluated. The fucK assay detected all strains of H. influenzae tested (n = 116) and had an analytical sensitivity of 10 genome copies\\/polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This assay detected both serotype b and NT H. influenzae in 12 previously positive specimens (culture and\\/or bexA PCR) and also detected H. influenzae in a further 5 of 883 culture-negative blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples. The fucK assay has excellent potential as a diagnostic test for detection of typeable and nontypeable strains of invasive H. influenzae in clinical samples of blood and CSF.
Huang, Xiu; Liu, Qian; Gao, Wei; Wang, Yawei; Nie, Zhou; Yao, Shouzhuo; Jiang, Guibin
As an important class of emerging chemical contaminants, short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are considered as one of the most challenging groups of compounds to analyze. In this paper, we report a new method for fast screening of SCCPs based on matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) with graphene as a matrix and 2,5,6,9-tetrachlorodecane as an internal standard. We found that the use of graphene as MALDI matrix generated high peak intensities for SCCPs while producing few background noises. The ion fragmentation mechanisms of SCCPs in MALDI are discussed in detail. Under the optimized conditions, much lower detection limits of SCCP congeners (0.1-5ng/mL) than those reported previously were obtained. Other distinct advantages such as short analysis time and simplified sample preparation procedures are also demonstrated. The method was successfully applied in fast screening of SCCPs in indoor dust samples and monitoring of human exposure levels to SCCPs, and the results were verified by gas chromatography coupled to negative chemical ionization quadrupole time-of-flight high-resolution mass spectrometry. This work not only offers a new promising tool for SCCP studies, but also further demonstrates the promise of graphene as a new generation of MALDI matrix. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Burt, Richard D; Thiede, Hanne
Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) is a form of peer-based study recruitment and analysis that incorporates features designed to limit and adjust for biases in traditional snowball sampling. It is being widely used in studies of hidden populations. We report an empirical evaluation of RDS's consistency and variability, comparing groups recruited contemporaneously, by identical methods and using identical survey instruments. We randomized recruitment chains from the RDS-based 2012 National HIV Behavioral Surveillance survey of injection drug users in the Seattle area into two groups and compared them in terms of sociodemographic characteristics, drug-associated risk behaviors, sexual risk behaviors, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status and HIV testing frequency. The two groups differed in five of the 18 variables examined (P ≤ .001): race (e.g., 60% white vs. 47%), gender (52% male vs. 67%), area of residence (32% downtown Seattle vs. 44%), an HIV test in the previous 12 months (51% vs. 38%). The difference in serologic HIV status was particularly pronounced (4% positive vs. 18%). In four further randomizations, differences in one to five variables attained this level of significance, although the specific variables involved differed. We found some material differences between the randomized groups. Although the variability of the present study was less than has been reported in serial RDS surveys, these findings indicate caution in the interpretation of RDS results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Meyler, Kenneth L; Meehan, Mary; Bennett, Desiree; Cunney, Robert; Cafferkey, Mary
Since the introduction of the Haemophilus influenzae serotype b vaccine, invasive H. influenzae disease has become dominated by nontypeable (NT) strains. Several widely used molecular diagnostic methods have been shown to lack sensitivity or specificity in the detection of some of these strains. Novel real-time assays targeting the fucK, licA, and ompP2 genes were developed and evaluated. The fucK assay detected all strains of H. influenzae tested (n = 116) and had an analytical sensitivity of 10 genome copies/polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This assay detected both serotype b and NT H. influenzae in 12 previously positive specimens (culture and/or bexA PCR) and also detected H. influenzae in a further 5 of 883 culture-negative blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples. The fucK assay has excellent potential as a diagnostic test for detection of typeable and nontypeable strains of invasive H. influenzae in clinical samples of blood and CSF. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Warren, Jim; Gu, Yulong; Day, Karen; White, Sue; Pollock, Malcolm
Between September 2010 and May 2011 we evaluated three implementations of electronic referral (eReferral) systems at Hutt Valley, Northland and Canterbury District Health Boards in New Zealand. Qualitative and quantitative data were gathered through project documentation, database records and stakeholder interviews. This paper reports on the user perspectives based on interviews with 78 clinical, management and operational stakeholders in the three regions. Themes that emerge across the regions are compared and synthesised. Interviews focused on pre-planned domains including quality of referral, ease of use and patient safety, but agendas were adapted progressively to elaborate and triangulate on themes emerging from earlier interviews and to clarify indications from analysis of database records. The eReferral users, including general practitioners, specialists and administrative staff, report benefits in the areas of: (1) availability and transparency of referral-related data; (2) work transformation; (3) improved data quality and (4) the convenience of auto-population from the practice management system into the referral forms. eReferral provides enhanced visibility of referral data and status within the limits of the implementation (which only goes to the hospital door in some cases). Users in all projects indicated the desire to further exploit IT to enhance two-way communication between community and hospital. Reduced administrative handling is a clear work transformation benefit with mixed feedback regarding clinical workload impact. Innovations such as GP eReferral triaging teams illustrate the further potential for workflow transformation. Consistent structure in eReferrals, as well as simple legibility, enhances data quality. Efficiency and completeness is provided by auto-population of forms from system data, but opens issues around data accuracy. All three projects highlight the importance of user involvement in design, implementation and refinement. In
Gómez, Luisa F; Torres, Isaura P; Jiménez-A, María Del Pilar; McEwen, Juan Gmo; de Bedout, Catalina; Peláez, Carlos A; Acevedo, José M; Taylor, María L; Arango, Myrtha
Histoplasma capsulatum is the causative agent of histoplasmosis and this fungus inhabits soils rich in phosphorus and nitrogen that are enriched with bird and bat manure. The replacement of organic matter in agroecosystems is necessary in the tropics, and the use of organic fertilizers has increased. Cases and outbreaks due to the presence of the fungus in these components have been reported. The Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario resolution 150 of 2003 contains the parameters set by the Colombian Technical Standard (NTC 5167) on the physicochemical and microbiological features of fertilizers, but it does not regulate the search for H. capsulatum . The aim of this study was to demonstrate H. capsulatum presence in organic fertilizers by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total of 239 samples were collected: 201 (84.1%) corresponded to organic fertilizers, 30 (12.5%) to bird excrement, and 8 (3.4%) to cave soils. The Hc100 nested PCR had a detection limit of 0.1 pg/µL and a specificity of 100%. A total of 25 (10.5%) samples were positive and validated by sequencing. Seven of the positive samples represented locations where H. capsulatum was previously detected, suggesting the persistence of the fungus. No significant correlations were detected between the physicochemical and microbiological parameters with the presence of H. capsulatum by nested PCR, indicating the fungus existence in organic fertilizers that complied with the NTC 5167. The Hc100 nested PCR targeting H. capsulatum standardized in this work will improve the evaluation of organic fertilizers and ensure the prevention of outbreaks and cases due to manufacturing, marketing, and use of fertilizers contaminated with H. capsulatum .
Referral letters act as permission slips to allow patients easy access to ... Methods: A qualitative study method was used, as the purpose of this study was to .... The total list of topics ..... Research design: qualitative and quantitative approaches.
Appropriateness of Referrals for Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. ... Accra between January and December, 2008 were interviewed and evaluated for this study. ... Presentations with bleeding and suspicion of malignancy showed statistical ...
Steltenkamp Carol L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Information transfer is critical in the primary care to specialist referral process and has been examined extensively in the US and other countries, yet there has been little attention to the patient's perspective of the information transfer process. This cross-sectional study examined the quality of the information received by patients with a chronic condition from the referring and specialist physician in the specialist referral process and the relationship of the quality of information received to trust in the physicians. Methods Structured telephone interviews were conducted with a random sample of 250 patients who had experienced a referral to a specialist for the first visit for a chronic condition within the prior six months. The sample was selected from the patients who visited specialist physicians at any of the 500 hospitals from the National Research Corporation client base. Results Most patients (85% received a good explanation about the reason for the specialist visit from the referring physician yet 26% felt unprepared about what to expect. Trust in the referring physician was highly associated with the preparatory information patients received. Specialists gave good explanations about diagnosis and treatment, but 26% of patients got no information about follow-up. Trust in the specialist correlated highly with good explanations of diagnosis, treatment, and self-management. Conclusion Preparatory information from referring physicians influences the quality of the referral process, the subsequent coordination of care, and trust in the physician. Changes in the health care system can improve the information transfer process and improve coordination of care for patients.
Sears, Clinton; Andersson, Zach; Cann, Meredith
Supporting the diverse needs of people living with HIV (PLHIV) can help reduce the individual and structural barriers they face in adhering to antiretroviral treatment (ART). The Livelihoods and Food Security Technical Assistance II (LIFT) project sought to improve adherence in Malawi by establishing 2 referral systems linking community-based economic strengthening and livelihoods services to clinical health facilities. One referral system in Balaka district, started in October 2013, connected clients to more than 20 types of services while the other simplified approach in Kasungu and Lilongwe districts, started in July 2014, connected PLHIV attending HIV and nutrition support facilities directly to community savings groups. From June to July 2015, LIFT visited referral sites in Balaka, Kasungu, and Lilongwe districts to collect qualitative data on referral utility, the perceived association of referrals with client and household health and vulnerability, and the added value of the referral system as perceived by network member providers. We interviewed a random sample of 152 adult clients (60 from Balaka, 57 from Kasungu, and 35 from Lilongwe) who had completed their referral. We also conducted 2 focus group discussions per district with network providers. Clients in all 3 districts indicated their ability to save money had improved after receiving a referral, although the percentage was higher among clients in the simplified Kasungu and Lilongwe model than the more complex Balaka model (85.6% vs. 56.0%, respectively). Nearly 70% of all clients interviewed had HIV infection; 72.7% of PLHIV in Balaka and 95.7% of PLHIV in Kasungu and Lilongwe credited referrals for helping them stay on their ART. After the referral, 76.0% of clients in Balaka and 92.3% of clients in Kasungu and Lilongwe indicated they would be willing to spend their savings on health costs. The more diverse referral network and use of an mHealth app to manage data in Balaka hindered provider uptake
Brito, Barbara P; Gardner, Ian A; Hietala, Sharon K; Crossley, Beate M
Bluetongue is a vector-borne viral disease that affects domestic and wild ruminants. The epidemiology of this disease has recently changed, with occurrence in new geographic areas. Various real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (real-time qRT-PCR) assays are used to detect Bluetongue virus (BTV); however, the impact of biologic differences between New World camelids and domestic ruminant samples on PCR efficiency, for which the BTV real-time qRT-PCR was initially validated are unknown. New world camelids are known to have important biologic differences in whole blood composition, including hemoglobin concentration, which can alter PCR performance. In the present study, sheep, cattle, and alpaca blood were spiked with BTV serotypes 10, 11, 13, and 17 and analyzed in 10-fold dilutions by real-time qRT-PCR to determine if species affected nucleic acid recovery and assay performance. A separate experiment was performed using spiked alpaca blood subsequently diluted in 10-fold series in sheep blood to assess the influence of alpaca blood on performance efficiency of the BTV real-time qRT-PCR assay. Results showed that BTV-specific nucleic acid detection from alpaca blood was consistently 1-2 logs lower than from sheep and cattle blood, and results were similar for each of the 4 BTV serotypes analyzed.
Orsi, Carlotta Francesca; Gennari, William; Venturelli, Claudia; La Regina, Annunziata; Pecorari, Monica; Righi, Elena; Machetti, Marco; Blasi, Elisabetta
This article investigates the performance of 2 commercial real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays, MycAssay™ Aspergillus (Myc(Asp)Assay) and MycAssay™ Pneumocystis (Myc(PCP)Assay), on the ABI 7300 platform for the detection of Aspergillus (Asp) or Pneumocystis jirovecii (Pj) DNA in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples from 20 patients. Operationally, patients enrolled were clustered into 3 groups: invasive aspergillosis group (IA, 7 patients), Pj pneumonia group (PCP, 8 patients), and negative control group (5 patients). All the IA patients were Myc(Asp)Assay positive, whereas 12 non-IA patients returned negative PCR results. Furthermore, 7 of 8 PCP patients were Myc(PCP)Assay positive, while 9 non-PCP patients were PCR negative. In conclusion, these data provide an early indication of the effectiveness of both the Myc(Asp)Assay and Myc(PCP)Assay on the ABI 7300 platform for the detection of either Asp or Pj DNA in BAL from patients with deep fungal infections. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Roberta Flávia Ribeiro Rolando
Full Text Available This study reports the first genetic characterisation of Cryptosporidium isolates in Brazil using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. A total of 1,197 faecal specimens from children and 10 specimens from human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients were collected between 1999-2010 and screened using microscopy. Forty-eight Cryptosporidium oocyst-positive isolates were identified and analysed using a generic TaqMan assay targeting the 18S rRNA to detect Cryptosporidium species and two other TaqMan assays to identify Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum. The 18S rRNA assay detected Cryptosporidium species in all 48 of the stool specimens. The C. parvum TaqMan assay correctly identified five/48 stool samples, while 37/48 stool specimens were correctly amplified in the C. hominis TaqMan assay. The results obtained in this study support previous findings showing that C. hominis infections are more prevalent than C. parvum infections in Brazil and they demonstrate that the TaqMan RT-PCR procedure is a simple, fast and valuable tool for the detection and differentiation of Cryptosporidium species.
Cendagorta, Joseph R; Bačić, Zlatko; Tuckerman, Mark E
We introduce a scheme for approximating quantum time correlation functions numerically within the Feynman path integral formulation. Starting with the symmetrized version of the correlation function expressed as a discretized path integral, we introduce a change of integration variables often used in the derivation of trajectory-based semiclassical methods. In particular, we transform to sum and difference variables between forward and backward complex-time propagation paths. Once the transformation is performed, the potential energy is expanded in powers of the difference variables, which allows us to perform the integrals over these variables analytically. The manner in which this procedure is carried out results in an open-chain path integral (in the remaining sum variables) with a modified potential that is evaluated using imaginary-time path-integral sampling rather than requiring the generation of a large ensemble of trajectories. Consequently, any number of path integral sampling schemes can be employed to compute the remaining path integral, including Monte Carlo, path-integral molecular dynamics, or enhanced path-integral molecular dynamics. We believe that this approach constitutes a different perspective in semiclassical-type approximations to quantum time correlation functions. Importantly, we argue that our approximation can be systematically improved within a cumulant expansion formalism. We test this approximation on a set of one-dimensional problems that are commonly used to benchmark approximate quantum dynamical schemes. We show that the method is at least as accurate as the popular ring-polymer molecular dynamics technique and linearized semiclassical initial value representation for correlation functions of linear operators in most of these examples and improves the accuracy of correlation functions of nonlinear operators.
Cendagorta, Joseph R.; Bačić, Zlatko; Tuckerman, Mark E.
We introduce a scheme for approximating quantum time correlation functions numerically within the Feynman path integral formulation. Starting with the symmetrized version of the correlation function expressed as a discretized path integral, we introduce a change of integration variables often used in the derivation of trajectory-based semiclassical methods. In particular, we transform to sum and difference variables between forward and backward complex-time propagation paths. Once the transformation is performed, the potential energy is expanded in powers of the difference variables, which allows us to perform the integrals over these variables analytically. The manner in which this procedure is carried out results in an open-chain path integral (in the remaining sum variables) with a modified potential that is evaluated using imaginary-time path-integral sampling rather than requiring the generation of a large ensemble of trajectories. Consequently, any number of path integral sampling schemes can be employed to compute the remaining path integral, including Monte Carlo, path-integral molecular dynamics, or enhanced path-integral molecular dynamics. We believe that this approach constitutes a different perspective in semiclassical-type approximations to quantum time correlation functions. Importantly, we argue that our approximation can be systematically improved within a cumulant expansion formalism. We test this approximation on a set of one-dimensional problems that are commonly used to benchmark approximate quantum dynamical schemes. We show that the method is at least as accurate as the popular ring-polymer molecular dynamics technique and linearized semiclassical initial value representation for correlation functions of linear operators in most of these examples and improves the accuracy of correlation functions of nonlinear operators.
Arandjelovic, M; Guschanski, K; Schubert, G; Harris, T R; Thalmann, O; Siedel, H; Vigilant, L
Many studies in molecular ecology rely upon the genotyping of large numbers of low-quantity DNA extracts derived from noninvasive or museum specimens. To overcome low amplification success rates and avoid genotyping errors such as allelic dropout and false alleles, multiple polymerase chain reaction (PCR) replicates for each sample are typically used. Recently, two-step multiplex procedures have been introduced which drastically increase the success rate and efficiency of genotyping. However, controversy still exists concerning the amount of replication needed for suitable control of error. Here we describe the use of a two-step multiplex PCR procedure that allows rapid genotyping using at least 19 different microsatellite loci. We applied this approach to quantified amounts of noninvasive DNAs from western chimpanzee, western gorilla, mountain gorilla and black and white colobus faecal samples, as well as to DNA from ~100-year-old gorilla teeth from museums. Analysis of over 45 000 PCRs revealed average success rates of > 90% using faecal DNAs and 74% using museum specimen DNAs. Average allelic dropout rates were substantially reduced compared to those obtained using conventional singleplex PCR protocols, and reliable genotyping using low (< 25 pg) amounts of template DNA was possible. However, four to five replicates of apparently homozygous results are needed to avoid allelic dropout when using the lowest concentration DNAs (< 50 pg/reaction), suggesting that use of protocols allowing routine acceptance of homozygous genotypes after as few as three replicates may lead to unanticipated errors when applied to low-concentration DNAs. © 2008 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2008 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Babafemi, Emmanuel O; Cherian, Benny P; Banting, Lee; Mills, Graham A; Ngianga, Kandala
Rapid and accurate diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) is key to manage the disease and to control and prevent its transmission. Many established diagnostic methods suffer from low sensitivity or delay of timely results and are inadequate for rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in pulmonary and extra-pulmonary clinical samples. This study examined whether a real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay, with a turn-a-round time of 2 h, would prove effective for routine detection of MTB by clinical microbiology laboratories. A systematic literature search was performed for publications in any language on the detection of MTB in pathological samples by RT-PCR assay. The following sources were used MEDLINE via PubMed, EMBASE, BIOSIS Citation Index, Web of Science, SCOPUS, ISI Web of Knowledge and Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialised Register, grey literature, World Health Organization and Centres for Disease Control and Prevention websites. Forty-six studies met set inclusion criteria. Generated pooled summary estimates (95% CIs) were calculated for overall accuracy and bivariate meta-regression model was used for meta-analysis. Summary estimates for pulmonary TB (31 studies) were as follows: sensitivity 0.82 (95% CI 0.81-0.83), specificity 0.99 (95% CI 0.99-0.99), positive likelihood ratio 43.00 (28.23-64.81), negative likelihood ratio 0.16 (0.12-0.20), diagnostic odds ratio 324.26 (95% CI 189.08-556.09) and area under curve 0.99. Summary estimates for extra-pulmonary TB (25 studies) were as follows: sensitivity 0.70 (95% CI 0.67-0.72), specificity 0.99 (95% CI 0.99-0.99), positive likelihood ratio 29.82 (17.86-49.78), negative likelihood ratio 0.33 (0.26-0.42), diagnostic odds ratio 125.20 (95% CI 65.75-238.36) and area under curve 0.96. RT-PCR assay demonstrated a high degree of sensitivity for pulmonary TB and good sensitivity for extra-pulmonary TB. It indicated a high degree of specificity for ruling in TB infection from sampling
Kand'ár, Roman; Záková, Pavla; Jirosová, Jana; Sladká, Michaela
The determination of branched chain amino acids [BCAA; valine (Val), leucine (Leu), isoleucine (Ile)], alpha-keto acids derived from BCAA [BCKA; alpha-ketoisovaleric acid (KIV), alpha-ketoisocaproic acid (KIC), alpha-ketomethylvaleric acid (KMV)], methionine (Met), phenylalanine (Phe) and tyrosine (Tyr) is currently the most reliable approach for the diagnosis of maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), hypermethioninemia, phenylketonuria (PKU) and tyrosinemia. The aim of this study was to develop rapid and simple HPLC methods for measurement of BCAA, Met, Phe, Tyr and BCKA in plasma and dried blood samples. Samples of peripheral venous blood with EDTA as anticoagulant were obtained from a group of healthy blood donors (n=70, 35 females, 27-41 years of age and 35 males, 28-43 years of age). Blood-spot samples from a group of newborns (n=80, 40 girls and 40 boys 3-5 days of age) were collected onto #903 Specimen Collection Paper and allowed to dry for at least 24 h before analysis. Prior to separation, the amino acids (AA) were derivatized with o-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) and BCKA with o-phenylenediamine (OPD). Reverse phase column chromatography (LiChroCart 125-4 Purospher RP-18e, 5 microm) was used for separation and fluorescence detection used to monitoring of effluent. For AA analysis, 25 mmol/L sodium hydrogenphosphate-methanol (90:10, v/v), pH 6.5+/-0.1 was used as mobile phase A and 100% methanol was used as mobile phase B. Measurement of BCKA used a mixture of methanol and deionized water (55:45, v/v) as mobile phase A and mobile phase B consisted of 100% methanol. Analytical performance of these methods was satisfactory for the determination of all AA and BCKA. The intra-assay and inter-assay coefficients of variation were below 10% and recovery ranged from 90%-110%. We have developed simple, rapid and selective HPLC methods with fluorescence detection for the determination of BCAA, Met, Phe, Tyr and BCKA in plasma and dried blood samples.
van Buuren Stef
Full Text Available Abstract Background To promote early diagnosis and treatment of short stature, consensus meetings were held in the mid nineteen nineties in the Netherlands and the UK. This resulted in guidelines for referral. In this study we evaluate the referral pattern of short stature in primary health care using these guidelines, comparing it with cut-off values mentioned by the WHO. Methods Three sets of referral rules were tested on the growth data of a random sample (n = 400 of all children born between 01-01-1985 and 31-12-1988, attending school doctors between 1998 and 2000 in Leiden and Alphen aan den Rijn (the Netherlands: the screening criteria mentioned in the Dutch Consensus Guideline (DCG, those of the UK Consensus Guideline (UKCG and the cut-off values mentioned in the WHO Global Database on Child growth and Malnutrition. Results Application of the DCG would lead to the referral of too many children (almost 80%. The largest part of the referrals is due to the deflection of height, followed by distance to target height and takes primarily place during the first 3 years. The deflection away from the parental height would also lead to too many referrals. In contrast, the UKCG only leads to 0.3% referrals and the WHO-criteria to approximately 10%. Conclusion The current Dutch consensus guideline leads to too many referrals, mainly due to the deflection of length during the first 3 years of life. The UKCG leads to far less referrals, but may be relatively insensitive to detect clinically relevant growth disorders like Turner syndrome. New guidelines for growth monitoring are needed, which combine a low percentage of false positive results with a good sensitivity.
Can, Hüseyin; İnceboz, Tonay; Caner, Ayşe; Atalay Şahar, Esra; Karakavuk, Muhammet; Döşkaya, Mert; Çelebi, Fehmi; Değirmenci Döşkaya, Aysu; Gülçe İz, Sultan; Gürüz, Yüksel; Korkmaz, Metin
Cystic echinococcosis (CE) and alveolar echinococcosis (AE) caused by Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis, respectively, are important helminthic diseases worldwide as well as in our country. Epidemiological studies conducted in Turkey showed that the prevalence of CE is 291-585/100.000. It has also been showed that the seroprevalence of AE is 3.5%. For the diagnosis of CE and AE, radiological (ultrasonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance) and serological methods, in addition to clinical findings, are being used. The definitive diagnosis relies on pathological examination When the hydatid cysts are sterile or does not contain protoscolex, problems may occur during pathological discrimination of E.granulosus and E.multilocularis species. In this study, we aimed to develop a novel multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (M-RT-PCR) targeting mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene of E.granulosus and E.multilocularis using Echi S (5'-TTTATGAATATTGTGACCCTGAGAT-3') and Echi A (5'-GGTCTTAACTCAACTCATGGAG-3') primers and three different probes; Anchor Ech (5'-GTTTGCCACCTCGATGTTGACTTAG-fluoroscein-3'), Granulosus (5'-LC640-CTAAGGTTTTGGTGTAGTAATTGATATTTT-phosphate-3') and Multilocularis (5'-LC705-CTGTGATCTTGGTGTAGTAGTTGAGATT-phosphate-3') that will enable the diagnosis of CE and AE in same assay. During M-RTR-PCR, plasmids containing E.granulosus (GenBank: AF297617.1) and E.multilocularis (GenBank: NC_000928.2) mitochondrial 12S rRNA regions were used as positive controls. Cysts samples of patients which were pathologically confirmed to be CE (n: 10) and AE (n: 15) and healthy human DNA samples (n: 25) as negative control as well as DNA samples of 12 different parasites (Taenia saginata, Hymenolepis nana, Trichuris trichiura, Fasciola hepatica, Enterobius vermicularis, Toxoplasma gondii, Pneumocystis jirovecii, Trichomonas vaginalis, Cryptosporidium hominis, Strongyloides stercoralis, Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax) were used to develop M
When there is no sampling frame within a certain group or the group is concerned that making its population public would bring social stigma, we say the population is hidden. It is difficult to approach this kind of population survey-methodologically because the response rate is low and its members are not quite honest with their responses when probability sampling is used. The only alternative known to address the problems caused by previous methods such as snowball sampling is respondent-driven sampling (RDS), which was developed by Heckathorn and his colleagues. RDS is based on a Markov chain, and uses the social network information of the respondent. This characteristic allows for probability sampling when we survey a hidden population. We verified through computer simulation whether RDS can be used on a hidden population of cancer survivors. According to the simulation results of this thesis, the chain-referral sampling of RDS tends to minimize as the sample gets bigger, and it becomes stabilized as the wave progresses. Therefore, it shows that the final sample information can be completely independent from the initial seeds if a certain level of sample size is secured even if the initial seeds were selected through convenient sampling. Thus, RDS can be considered as an alternative which can improve upon both key informant sampling and ethnographic surveys, and it needs to be utilized for various cases domestically as well.
Lohr, Robert H; West, Colin P; Beliveau, Margaret; Daniels, Paul R; Nyman, Mark A; Mundell, William C; Schwenk, Nina M; Mandrekar, Jayawant N; Naessens, James M; Beckman, Thomas J
To compare the quality of referrals of patients with complex medical problems from nurse practitioners (NPs), physician assistants (PAs), and physicians to general internists. We conducted a retrospective comparison study involving regional referrals to an academic medical center from January 1, 2009, through December 31, 2010. All 160 patients referred by NPs and PAs combined and a random sample of 160 patients referred by physicians were studied. Five experienced physicians blinded to the source of referral used a 7-item instrument to assess the quality of referrals. Internal consistency, interrater reliability, and dimensionality of item scores were determined. Differences between item scores for patients referred by physicians and those for patients referred by NPs and PAs combined were analyzed by using multivariate ordinal logistical regression adjusted for patient age, sex, distance of the referral source from Mayo Clinic, and Charlson Index. Factor analysis revealed a 1-dimensional measure of the quality of patient referrals. Interrater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient for individual items: range, 0.77-0.93; overall, 0.92) and internal consistency for items combined (Cronbach α=0.75) were excellent. Referrals from physicians were scored higher (percentage of agree/strongly agree responses) than were referrals from NPs and PAs for each of the following items: referral question clearly articulated (86.3% vs 76.0%; P=.0007), clinical information provided (72.6% vs 54.1%; P=.003), documented understanding of the patient's pathophysiology (51.0% vs 30.3%; P<.0001), appropriate evaluation performed locally (60.3% vs 39.0%; P<.0001), appropriate management performed locally (53.5% vs 24.1%; P<.0001), and confidence returning patient to referring health care professional (67.8% vs 41.4%; P<.0001). Referrals from physicians were also less likely to be evaluated as having been unnecessary (30.1% vs 56.2%; P<.0001). The quality of referrals to an
Claus, B.; Geyskens, K.; Millet, K.; Dewitte, S.
The present paper shows that when a person has the experience of giving advice but that advice is not acted upon, there is a reduced openness to external information. We call this the "referral backfire effect". We argue that this referral backfire effect is due to the identity threatening nature of
The objective of the present study was to assess the activity of the Liaison Psychiatry service of Cork University Hospital in relation to all in-patient neurology referrals over a 12-month period. Of 1685 neurology admissions, 106 (6%) were referred to liaison psychiatry for assessment. 91 referrals (86%) met criteria for a psychiatric disorder according to DSM-IV, the commonest being major depression (24%) and somatoform disorder (23%). Patients with multiple sclerosis or epilepsy comprised nearly half of all referrals (48 cases; 45%). Approximately 20% of M.S. in-patients (21 cases) were referred for psychiatric assessment, with the corresponding figure in epilepsy being 25% (18 cases). Although only 106 (6%) neurology in-patients were referred to liaison psychiatry, psychiatric diagnoses were documented in 327 (20%) discharge forms, presumably reflecting previous diagnosis. The above findings indicate that psychiatric illness is common among neurology inpatients screened by liaison psychiatry yet referral rates are relatively low in terms of the overall number of neurology in-patients. Psychiatric disorders were diagnosed in 86% of referrals indicating high concordance between neurologists and liaison psychiatry regarding the presence of a psychiatric disorder.
Faham Khamesipour; Shahin Nejat Dehkordi; Taghi Taktaz Hafshejani; Elahe Tajbakhsh; Shahrzad Azizi
Leptospirosis and brucellosis are common zoonosis that affect many species of mammals mostly causing economical losses. Further, very important fact is huge danger for human and animal health around the world. The purpose of the study is to determine the prevalence of Brucella spp. and Leptospira spp. using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) method, in blood samples collected from cattle, sheep and goats. In this study, a total number of 250 blood samples (5 cc of blood with ethilen d...
Emmanuel O. Babafemi
Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid and accurate diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB is key to manage the disease and to control and prevent its transmission. Many established diagnostic methods suffer from low sensitivity or delay of timely results and are inadequate for rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB in pulmonary and extra-pulmonary clinical samples. This study examined whether a real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assay, with a turn-a-round time of 2 h, would prove effective for routine detection of MTB by clinical microbiology laboratories. Methods A systematic literature search was performed for publications in any language on the detection of MTB in pathological samples by RT-PCR assay. The following sources were used MEDLINE via PubMed, EMBASE, BIOSIS Citation Index, Web of Science, SCOPUS, ISI Web of Knowledge and Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialised Register, grey literature, World Health Organization and Centres for Disease Control and Prevention websites. Forty-six studies met set inclusion criteria. Generated pooled summary estimates (95% CIs were calculated for overall accuracy and bivariate meta-regression model was used for meta-analysis. Results Summary estimates for pulmonary TB (31 studies were as follows: sensitivity 0.82 (95% CI 0.81–0.83, specificity 0.99 (95% CI 0.99–0.99, positive likelihood ratio 43.00 (28.23–64.81, negative likelihood ratio 0.16 (0.12–0.20, diagnostic odds ratio 324.26 (95% CI 189.08–556.09 and area under curve 0.99. Summary estimates for extra-pulmonary TB (25 studies were as follows: sensitivity 0.70 (95% CI 0.67–0.72, specificity 0.99 (95% CI 0.99–0.99, positive likelihood ratio 29.82 (17.86–49.78, negative likelihood ratio 0.33 (0.26–0.42, diagnostic odds ratio 125.20 (95% CI 65.75–238.36 and area under curve 0.96. Conclusions RT-PCR assay demonstrated a high degree of sensitivity for pulmonary TB and good sensitivity for extra-pulmonary TB. It indicated a
Wong, Chun Wa; Yasui, Kosuke
The one-dimensional fall of a folded chain with one end suspended from a rigid support and a chain falling from a resting heap on a table is studied. Because their Lagrangians contain no explicit time dependence, the falling chains are conservative systems. Their equations of motion are shown to contain a term that enforces energy conservation when masses are transferred between subchains. We show that Cayley's 1857 energy nonconserving solution for a chain falling from a resting heap is inco...
Dossett, Lesly A; Kauffmann, Rondi M; Lee, Jay S; Singh, Harkamal; Lee, M Catherine; Morris, Arden M; Jagsi, Reshma; Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Dimick, Justin B
Our objective was to determine specialist physicians' attitudes and practices regarding disclosure of pre-referral errors. Physicians are encouraged to disclose their own errors to patients. However, no clear professional norms exist regarding disclosure when physicians discover errors in diagnosis or treatment that occurred at other institutions before referral. We conducted semistructured interviews of cancer specialists from 2 National Cancer Institute-designated Cancer Centers. We purposively sampled specialists by discipline, sex, and experience-level who self-described a >50% reliance on external referrals (n = 30). Thematic analysis of verbatim interview transcripts was performed to determine physician attitudes regarding disclosure of pre-referral medical errors; whether and how physicians disclose these errors; and barriers to providing full disclosure. Participants described their experiences identifying different types of pre-referral errors including errors of diagnosis, staging and treatment resulting in adverse events ranging from decreased quality of life to premature death. The majority of specialists expressed the belief that disclosure provided no benefit to patients, and might unnecessarily add to their anxiety about their diagnoses or prognoses. Specialists had varying practices of disclosure including none, non-verbal, partial, event-dependent, and full disclosure. They identified a number of barriers to disclosure, including medicolegal implications and damage to referral relationships, the profession's reputation, and to patient-physician relationships. Specialist physicians identify pre-referral errors but struggle with whether and how to provide disclosure, even when clinical circumstances force disclosure. Education- or communication-based interventions that overcome barriers to disclosing pre-referral errors warrant development.
Full Text Available Mikael Björkeborn,1 Henrik Nilsson,2 Jonas Anderud1 1Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Halmstad Hospital, Halmstad, Sweden; 2Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Växjö Hospital, Växjö, Sweden Aim: To assess the quality of routine oral surgery referrals received at Halmstad Hospital and Växjö Hospital and to emphasize areas for improvement. Method: A retrospective study was performed on all routine oral surgery referrals received between 2014 and 2015 at both Halmstad Hospital and Växjö Hospital. A total of 1,891 referral letters were assessed for their quality against a predetermined checklist of basic requirements of a satisfactory referral. The referrals were also categorized according to if it was sent by a male, female, private dental service, or the Swedish Public Dental Health service. Results: A diagnosis was missing in 30% of all referrals. Radiographs and information about previous radiographic examinations were not included in 10% of the referrals. Of those referrals that included radiographs, only around half were deemed adequate for diagnostic purposes. The presenting complaint was missing in 40% of all referrals. Current medical history was absent in 40% and current medication was omitted in 60% of the referrals. Information about tobacco use was only included in 10% of all referrals. Overall, female referrers performed better than male colleagues. Private referrals more regularly included information about diagnosis, previous treatment, and current medication. On the other hand, referrals from the public dental health service more frequently included radiographs, tobacco use, and current medical history. Conclusion: There is plenty of room for improving the standards of oral surgery referrals. We suggest that future electronic referral systems should only allow for submission once all of the essential information has been considered. Keywords: clinical audit, referral quality, oral surgery referrals
Blanchette, M. A.; Rivard, M.; Dionne, C. E.
, and the percentage of patients referred to other health care providers were associated with a higher number of MD referrals to DCs. The percentage of patients with somatovisceral conditions, using a particular chiropractic technique (hole in one and Thompson), taking his/her own radiographs, being the client...
Dufrene, Brad A.; Zoder-Martell, Kimberly A.; Dieringe, Shannon Titus; Labrot, Zachary
Applied behavior analysis provides a technology of human behavior that demonstrates great potential for improving socially important outcomes for individuals. School-based consultation may provide a vehicle for delivering applied behavior analysis services in schools to address academic referral concerns. In this article, we propose that…
... referral, a point of contact by name, a telephone number (commercial and DSN), and an e-mail address (if... record any FOIA request for investigative, intelligence, or any other type of records that are on loan to.... However, if for investigative or intelligence purposes, the outside agency desires anonymity, a DON...
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has provided recommended beach advisory values in its 2012 recreational water quality criteria (RWQC) for states wishing to use quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for the monitoring of Enterococcus fecal indicator bacteria...
Full Text Available Purpose: Increasing reports on New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 (NDM-1 producing Escherichia coli constitute a serious threat to global health since it is found to be highly resistant to most of the currently available antibiotics including carbapenems. This study has been performed to find out the incidence blaNDM-1 in E. coli isolates recovered from the various clinical samples at a tertiary care referral hospital in Northeast India. Materials and Methods: A total of 270 non-duplicated E. coli isolates were recovered from the various clinical samples at a tertiary care referral hospital in Northeast India. All isolates with reduced susceptibility to meropenem or ertapenem (diameter of zones of inhibition, ≤21 mm were further phenotypically confirmed for carbapenemase production by modified Hodge test. All screened isolates were also subjected to the polymerase chain reaction detection of blaNDM-1 gene and additional bla genes coding for transmission electron microscopy, SHV, CTX-M, and AmpC. Results: Out of 270 E. coli isolates, 14 were screened for carbapenemase production on the basis of their reduced susceptibility to meropenem or ertapenem. All screened isolates were found to be positive for blaNDM-1 . Each of the blaNDM-1 possessing isolate was also positive for two or more additional bla genes, such as blaTEM , blaCTX-M and blaAmpC . Phylogenetic analysis showed very less variation in blaNDM-1 gene with respect to blaNDM-1 possessing E. coli isolates from other parts of India and abroad. Conclusions: Our findings highlight the incidence of blaNDM-1 in E. coli isolates with a reduced susceptibility to meropenem or ertapenem.
referral of high risk and complicated pregnancies and deliveries (Afr. J. Reprod. Health 2010 ... proportion of pregnant women are attended at childbirth ... tility; management of threatened abortion; ... refuse referral and whatever is the outcome.
physicians' mode of referral of patients for physiotherapy in Nigeria. A total of 1192 physicians .... The Influence of Medical School of Graduation. Table 1 shows the .... This must have also been responsible for the high rate of referral observed.
Blundell, N; Clarke, Aileen; Mays, N
To explore interpretations of "appropriate" and "inappropriate" elective referral from primary to secondary surgical care among senior clinical and non-clinical managers in five purposively sampled primary care trusts (PCTs) and their main associated acute hospitals in the English National Health Service (NHS). Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were undertaken with senior managerial staff from clinical and non-clinical backgrounds. Interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed and analysed according to the Framework approach developed at the National Centre for Social Research using N6 (NUD*IST6) qualitative data analysis software. Twenty-two people of 23 approached were interviewed (between three and five respondents per PCT and associated acute hospital). Three attributes relating to appropriateness of referral were identified: necessity: whether a patient with given characteristics was believed suitable for referral; destination or level: where or to whom a patient should be referred; and quality (or process): how a referral was carried out, including (eg, investigations undertaken before referral, information contained in the referral and extent of patient involvement in the referral decision. Attributes were hierarchical. "Necessity" was viewed as the most fundamental attribute, followed by "destination" and, finally, "quality". In general, but not always, all three attributes were perceived as necessary for a referral to be defined as appropriate. For senior clinical and non-clinical managers at the local level in the English NHS, three hierarchical attributes (necessity, appropriateness of destination and quality of referral process) contributed to the overall concept of appropriateness of referral from primary to secondary surgical care.
Rapid detection of cytomegalovirus in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and serum samples by polymerase chain reaction: correlation of virus isolation and clinical outcome for patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection
Hansen, K K; Vestbo, Jørgen; Benfield, T
Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids and serum samples from 153 patients with pulmonary symptoms who were infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and underwent BAL were examined for the presence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) by conventional culture and by polymerase chain reaction (PCR...... technique than conventional culture. Detection of CMV DNA in BAL fluid or serum predicted subsequent development of extrapulmonary CMV disease but not death for HIV-infected patients with pulmonary symptoms....
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Referral to Department of Justice... Procedures § 17.9 Referral to Department of Justice. When Department of Justice approval or consultation is required under § 17.8, the referral or request shall be transmitted to the Department of Justice by the...
... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Referral to Department of Justice. 1014.7 Section 1014.7... § 1014.7 Referral to Department of Justice. (a) When Department of Justice approval or consultation is required under § 1014.6, the referral or request shall be transmitted to the Department of Justice by the...
... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Referral to immigration judge. 235.6 Section 235.6 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS INSPECTION OF PERSONS APPLYING FOR ADMISSION § 235.6 Referral to immigration judge. (a) Notice—(1) Referral by Form I...
Many referral mechanisms can be found in the context of entrepreneurship. Networks and third party referrals play a prominent role in spotting entrepreneurial opportunities and in acquiring the resources necessary for growth. In this dissertation, the focus is on the role of referrals in acquiring
Background: This study was aimed at establishing the degree of conformity with the referral system, level of pre-referral investigative evaluations and degree of diagnosis concordance between the referring centres and the referral hospital in Western region of Kenya. Methods: This was a hospital based descriptive, ...
The process in deciding to seek referral care is envisaged within community .... The three phases of delays model in accessing .... as dangerous at home and immediate care is required, the ... referral or is unable to pay the costs of referral, the ...
Full Text Available Objectives. The national Department of Health strongly advocates the strengthening of primary health care systems, and recommendations for appropriate level of care referrals exist. Very few published data on the scope of current ambulatory specialised psychiatric hospital services in South Africa are currently available, making it difficult to assess whether these recommendations are being followed. As a starting point, an audit was conducted to obtain a profile of new non-urgent general adult patients seen at Stikland Hospital with a view to evaluating system needs and demands. Methods. The folders of 103 consecutively seen patients were selected for retrospective review. Patient demographic, referral and assessment information was entered into a single database. Descriptive statistics were compiled with reference to the above variables using SPSS. Results. Overall 58.3% of referrals were from the private sector. More than a third (36.7% of referral letters stated no clear reason for referral and 41.7% no psychiatric diagnosis, and 29.1% of patients were referred without psychotropic medication being started. On assessment 62.1% of patients were found to have a single Axis I diagnosis. Despite virtually no referral letters making any mention of them, substance use disorders (30.1%, personality traits/disorders (35.9% and co-morbid medical illness (36.7% were commonly found on assessment. Conclusions. A significant portion of the patients in our sample could have been managed at primary care level and were referred prematurely. The overall quality of referral letters was poor, and they lacked vital information required for appropriate pre-assessment decision making. Undergraduate training focusing on these skills should be intensified, and consideration should be given to incorporating aspects of our findings into primary health care updates.
Full Text Available Background and purpose: Although, economically, referral systems make utilization of health facilities at different levels sound, in many countries caretakers often bypass primary care facilities that are regularly costlier for caretakers and health care systems. The main objective of the current study was to assess the utilization of hospital services with more emphasis on economic point of view. Materials and methods: The present study was a facility-based cross-sectional study. A researcher developed questionnaire was used to collect the data. The samples were randomly selected and interviewed on their consent. SPSS Software was also used to analyze the collected data through Chi-2, correlation, and t-test. Results: Just 29.4 percent of the attendees to the hospital were carrying out a referral slip from their family medicine. Five variables including type of care, type of attending, appointment arrangement, satisfaction with family medicine, and vising family medicine were statistically analyzed and found significantly related to carrying referral slip. Conclusion: Because of dysfunction of referral system, Iran’s health care system was found to be far from achieving economic advantages of a referral based DHS. It is actually an inappropriate use of limited health resources in a country like Iran that seriously suffers from shortage of financial and health system resources. This is likely due to deficiencies in the components of its referral system, therefore, a full revision of current reforms and appropriate remedies for deficiencies in the components of referral system was found to be in top priority in Iran.
Full Text Available Referral of patients to a pediatric emergency department (PED should be medically justified and the need for referral well communicated. The objectives of this paper were (1 to create a list of criteria for referral from the community to the PED, (2 to describe how community physicians categorize their need for referral, and (3 to determine agreement between the physician's referral letter and the selected criteria. We present a descriptive study of referrals to the PED of Soroka University Medical Center, Beer-Sheva, Israel, during February to April 2003. A list of 22 criteria for referral was created, using the Delphi method for reaching consensus. One or more criteria could be selected from this list for each referral, by the referring community physicians and, independently, based on the physicians' referral letters, by two consultants, and compared. There were 140 referrals included in the study. A total of 262 criteria for referral were selected by the referring community physicians. The criteria most frequently selected were: “Need for same-day consultation/laboratory/imaging result not available in the community” (32.1%, “Suspected life- or organ-threatening infection” (16.4%, and “Need for hospitalization” (15.7%. Rates of agreement regarding criteria for referral between the referring physicians and the two consultants, and a senior community pediatrician and a senior PED pediatrician, were 57.9 and 48.6%, respectively. We conclude that the standard referral letter does not convey in full the level of need for referral to the PED. A list of criteria for referral could augment efficient utilization of emergency department services and improve communication between community physicians and the PED.
Employee-referral schemes (‘introduce a friend’) are in common usage in recruitment. They carry a potential to discriminate by perpetuating an already unbalanced workforce (say, by gender and ethnicity). With this, or course, comes the risk of litigation and bad publicity as well as any inherent inefficiencies associated with discrimination. This article is threefold. First, it examines the present state of the law. Second, it is based on a survey of employers who use these schemes. Third, it...
Mustafa, Rozina; Hashmi, Haleema; Mustafa, Rubina
In Pakistan 90% of births are conducted by TBA's. In most cases, TBA's are unable to diagnose the complications and are often unable to take decisions on timely referral. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, nature and outcome of life threatening obstetrical conditions in referrals by Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs). This Observational, Descriptive study was conducted from January to December 2007, in the obstetrical unit of Fatima Hospital, Baqai Medical University, a tertiary care community based hospital. The study included patients referred by TBA's who developed life threatening obstetric conditions (LTOCs). Total 64 patients were referred by TBA's. The prevalence was 7.8%. Out of them, 53 (82.8%) patients admitted with life threatening obstetric conditions. The near-miss morbidities and mortalities were 45 (84.9%) and 8 (15%) respectively. Maternal mortality to Near-miss morbidity ratio was 1:6. Obstructed labour caused near-miss morbidity in 32 (60.3%) patients with no mortality. Postpartum haemorrhage as life threatening condition developed in 16 (30.1%) patients with 10 (18.8%) near-miss morbidities and 6 (11.3%) mortalities. Puerperal sepsis accounted for 1 (1.88%) near-miss morbidity and 2 (3.76%) mortalities. The mortality index for puerperal sepsis is (66.6%) almost double of postpartum haemorrhage (37.5%). Mortality to near miss morbidity ratio is high. Misidentification and late referrals of complicated cases by TBA's were responsible for near-miss morbidities and mortalities.
Shannon, Patricia J.; Vinson, Gregory A.; Cook, Tonya; Lennon, Evelyn
In this community based participatory research study, we explored key characteristics of mental health referrals of refugees using stories of providers collected through an on-line survey. Ten coders sorted 60 stories of successful referrals and 34 stories of unsuccessful referrals into domains using the critical incident technique. Principal Components Analysis yielded categories of successful referrals that included: active care coordination, proactive resolution of barriers, establishment of trust, and culturally responsive care. Unsuccessful referrals were characterized by cultural barriers, lack of care coordination, language barriers, system barriers, providers being unwilling to see refugees. Recommendations for training and policy are discussed. PMID:25735618
Despite virtually no referral letters making any mention of them, substance use disorders (30.1%), personality traits/disorders (35.9%) and co-morbid medical illness (36.7%) were commonly found on assessment. Conclusions. A significant portion of the patients in our sample could have been managed at primary care level ...
Taylor, Walter R.; Nguyen, Kinh; Nguyen, Duc; Nguyen, Huyen; Horby, Peter; Nguyen, Ha L.; Lien, Trinh; Tran, Giang; Tran, Ninh; Nguyen, Ha M.; Nguyen, Thai; Nguyen, Ha H.; Nguyen, Thanh; Tran, Giap; Farrar, Jeremy; de Jong, Menno; Schultsz, Constance; Tran, Huong; Nguyen, Diep; Vu, Bich; Le, Hoa; Dao, Trinh; Nguyen, Trung; Wertheim, Heiman
To determine prospectively the causative pathogens of central nervous system (CNS) infections in patients admitted to a tertiary referral hospital in Hanoi, Vietnam. From May 2007 to December 2008, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from 352 adults with suspected meningitis or encephalitis underwent
A quasi-experimental study was carried out to determine the effect of health education and training on the Knowledge,attitude and practices of patient referral by primary health care workers in Mushin and Surulere Local Government Areas of Lagos State of Nigeria. Material and method: A total sample of 170 primary health ...
Wiskar, Katie J; Celi, Leo Anthony; McDermid, Robert C; Walley, Keith R; Russell, James A; Boyd, John H; Rush, Barret
Palliative care is recommended for advanced heart failure (HF) by several major societies, though prior studies indicate that it is underutilized. To investigate patterns of palliative care referral for patients admitted with HF exacerbations, as well as to examine patient and hospital factors associated with different rates of palliative care referral. Retrospective nationwide cohort analysis utilizing the National Inpatient Sample from 2006 to 2012. Patients referred to palliative care were compared to those who were not. Patients ≥18 years of age with a primary diagnosis of HF requiring mechanical ventilation (MV) were included. A cohort of non-HF patients with metastatic cancer was created for temporal comparison. Between 2006 and 2012, 74 824 patients underwent MV for HF. A referral to palliative care was made in 2903 (3.9%) patients. The rate of referral for palliative care in HF increased from 0.8% in 2006 to 6.4% in 2012 ( P care referral in patients with cancer increased from 2.9% in 2006 to 11.9% in 2012 ( P care ( P care. The use of palliative care for patients with advanced HF increased during the study period; however, palliative care remains underutilized in this setting. Patient factors such as race and SES affect access to palliative care.
Biggerstaff, Mary Ellen; Short, Nancy
Transition to a value-based care system involves reducing costs improving population health and enhancing the patient experience. Many rural hospitals must rely on specialist referrals because of a lack of an internal system of specialists on staff. This evaluation of the existing specialist referrals from primary care was conducted to better understand and improve the referral process and address costs, population health, and the patient experience. A 6-month retrospective chart review was conducted to evaluate quality and outcomes of specialty referrals submitted by 10 primary care providers. During a 6-month period in 2015, there was a total of 13,601 primary care patient visits and 3814 referrals, a referral rate of approximately 27%. The most striking result of this review was that nearly 50% of referred patients were not making the prescribed specialist appointment. Rather than finding a large number of unnecessary referrals, we found overall referral rates higher than expected, and a large percentage of our patients were not completing their referrals. The data and patterns emerging from this investigation would guide the development of referral protocols for a newly formed accountable care organization and lead to further quality improvement projects: a LEAN effort, dissemination of results to clinical and executive staff, protocols for orthopedic and neurosurgical referrals, and recommendations for future process improvements. ©2017 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.
Xu, Xiao; Spurr, Stephen J; Nan, Bin; Fendrick, A Mark
Using nationally representative data from the United States, this paper analyzed the effect of a state’s medical malpractice environment on referral visits received by specialist physicians. The analytic sample included 12,839 ambulatory visits to specialist care doctors in office-based settings in the United States during 2003–2007. Whether the patient was referred for the visit was examined for its association with the state’s malpractice environment, assessed by the frequency and severity of paid medical malpractice claims, medical malpractice insurance premiums and an indicator for whether the state had a cap on non-economic damages. After accounting for potential confounders such as economic or professional incentives within practices, the analysis showed that statutory caps on non-economic damages of $250,000 were significantly associated with lower likelihood of a specialist receiving referrals, suggesting a potential impact of a state’s medical malpractice environment on physicians’ referral behavior.
Full Text Available This study explores determining the sex of humans from blood stains taken from different surfaces and compares the time course of detection with the conventional PCR, Conventional Loop Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP, and LAMP-Lateral Flow Dipstick (LFD. For the DNA templates, 7 male and 7 female blood stained samples were extracted and added to LAMP and PCR reaction solution to amplify the SRY gene. The DNA samples were extracted from the following blood stained materials: cloth, wood, clay, and tile. Then, the samples were stored at room temperature for 1, 7, 30, and 60 day(s. After the DNA amplification, the gel electrophoresis process was applied to detect LAMP product. The LFD was combined with the LAMP to detect LAMP product on the male cloth samples. For the male samples, the time course of detection on the first and seventh days indicated positive for both LAMP and PCR products on all the surfaces while no DNA amplification was found on any of the female samples. On day 30, positive LAMP product was still found on all the male samples. However, it had faded on the tiles. Moreover, all the male samples, which had tested positive for PCR product, were blurred and unclear. On day 60, LAMP product was still found on all the male samples. Conversely, the PCR method resulted in no bands showing for any of the male samples. However, the LAMP-LFD method detected product on all the male samples of cloth. The results show that the LAMP is an effective, practical, and reliable molecular-biological method. Moreover, the LFD can increase the efficiency and sensitivity of the LAMP, making it more suitable for field studies because gel electrophoresis apparatus is not required.
Rowlands, G; Willis, S; Singleton, A
GP referrals to secondary care are an important factor in the cost of running the NHS. The known variation in referral rates between doctors has the potential to cause tension within primary care which will be exacerbated by the latest reorganization of primary care and the trend towards capitation-based budgets. The importance of postgraduate learning for GPs has been recognized; continuing professional development is moving towards self-directed practice-based learning programmes. Educational interventions have been shown to alter doctors' prescribing behaviour. This, together with the pressure on accounting for referral activity, makes the prospect of improving, and possibly reducing, referral activity through educational interventions very attractive. This study complemented a randomized controlled trial (RCT) which investigated whether an intervention of the type which had reduced prescribing costs would have a similar effect on referral activity. The context of the study, description of the characteristics of the practice and the issues seen as important by the doctors and practice manager were identified through preliminary semi-structured interviews. The practice then held a series of educational in-practice meetings to discuss referrals and issues arising from referrals. The audio- and videotaped transcripts were interpreted using content and group dynamic analysis. Participants commented upon our preliminary findings. In addition, we used dimensional analysis to induce a preliminary theory describing the effect of the intervention on this general practice which enabled us to review the findings of the parallel RCT. The educational value of the meetings and the learning needs of the participants were also assessed. Our complementary study showed no alteration of practice referral rates following the educational intervention. The qualitative study, unencumbered by the assumptions inherent in the development of the hypothesis tested in the RCT, highlighted
Musila, Nyokabi; Underwood, Martin; McCaskie, Andrew W; Black, Nick; Clarke, Aileen; van der Meulen, Jan H
Background. GPs have to respond to conflicting policy developments. As gatekeeper they are supposed to manage the growing demand for specialist services and as patient advocate they should be responsive to patients' preferences. We used an innovative approach to develop a referral guideline for patients with chronic knee pain that explicitly incorporates patients' preferences. Methods. A guideline development group of 12 members including patients, GPs, orthopaedic surgeons and other health care professionals used formal consensus development informed by systematic evidence reviews. They rated the appropriateness of referral for 108 case scenarios describing patients according to symptom severity, age, body mass, co-morbidity and referral preference. Appropriateness was expressed on scale from 1 (‘strongly disagree’) to 9 (‘strongly agree’). Results. Ratings of referral appropriateness were strongly influenced by symptom severity and patients' referral preferences. The influence of other patient characteristics was small. There was consensus that patients with severe knee symptoms who want to be referred should be referred and that patient with moderate or mild symptoms and strong preference against referral should not be referred. Referral preference had a greater impact on the ratings of referral appropriateness when symptoms were moderate or severe than when symptoms were mild. Conclusions. Referral decisions for patients with osteoarthritis of the knee should only be guided by symptom severity and patients' referral preferences. The guideline development group seemed to have given priority to avoiding inefficient resource use in patients with mild symptoms and to respecting patient autonomy in patients with severe symptoms. PMID:20817791
Lal, Sham; Ndyomugenyi, Richard; Paintain, Lucy
artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) and recognize symptoms in children that required immediate referral to the nearest health centre. Intervention arm CHWs had additional training on how to conduct an RDT; CHWs in the control arm used a presumptive diagnosis for malaria using clinical signs......Background Many malaria-endemic countries have implemented national community health worker (CHW) programmes to serve remote populations that have poor access to malaria diagnosis and treatment. Despite mounting evidence of CHWs’ ability to adhere to malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs...
Smart management of sample dilution using an artificial neural network to achieve streamlined processes and saving resources: the automated nephelometric testing of serum free light chain as case study.
Ialongo, Cristiano; Pieri, Massimo; Bernardini, Sergio
Saving resources is a paramount issue for the modern laboratory, and new trainable as well as smart technologies can be used to allow the automated instrumentation to manage samples more efficiently in order to achieve streamlined processes. In this regard the serum free light chain (sFLC) testing represents an interesting challenge, as it usually causes using a number of assays before achieving an acceptable result within the analytical range. An artificial neural network based on the multi-layer perceptron (MLP-ANN) was used to infer the starting dilution status of sFLC samples based on the information available through the laboratory information system (LIS). After the learning phase, the MLP-ANN simulation was applied to the nephelometric testing routinely performed in our laboratory on a BN ProSpec® System analyzer (Siemens Helathcare) using the N Latex FLC kit. The MLP-ANN reduced the serum kappa free light chain (κ-FLC) and serum lambda free light chain (λ-FLC) wasted tests by 69.4% and 70.8% with respect to the naïve stepwise dilution scheme used by the automated analyzer, and by 64.9% and 66.9% compared to a "rational" dilution scheme based on a 4-step dilution. Although it was restricted to follow-up samples, the MLP-ANN showed good predictive performance, which alongside the possibility to implement it in any automated system, made it a suitable solution for achieving streamlined laboratory processes and saving resources.
This study explores determining the sex of humans from blood stains taken from different surfaces and compares the time course of detection with the conventional PCR, Conventional Loop Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP), and LAMP-Lateral Flow Dipstick (LFD). For the DNA templates, 7 male and 7 female blood stained samples were extracted and added to LAMP and PCR reaction solution to amplify the SRY gene. The DNA samples were extracted from the following blood stained materials: cloth, w...
The Second Processing Chain (CHAIN2) consists of a suite of ten programs which together provide a full local analysis of the bulk plasma physics within the JET Tokamak. In discussing these ten computational models this report is intended to fulfil two broad purposes. Firstly it is meant to be used as a reference source for any user of CHAIN2 data, and secondly it provides a basic User Manual sufficient to instruct anyone in running the CHAIN2 suite of codes. In the main report text each module is described in terms of its underlying physics and any associated assumptions or limitations, whilst deliberate emphasis is put on highlighting the physics and mathematics of the calculations required in deriving each individual datatype in the standard module PPF output. In fact each datatype of the CHAIN2 PPF output listed in Appendix D is cross referenced to the point in the main text where its evaluation is discussed. An effort is made not only to give the equation used to derive a particular data profile but also to explicitly define which external data sources are involved in the computational calculation
Naroditskiy, Victor; Rahwan, Iyad; Cebrian, Manuel; Jennings, Nicholas R.
Online social networks offer unprecedented potential for rallying a large number of people to accomplish a given task. Here we focus on information gathering tasks where rare information is sought through “referral-based crowdsourcing”: the information request is propagated recursively through invitations among members of a social network. Whereas previous work analyzed incentives for the referral process in a setting with only correct reports, misreporting is known to be both pervasive in crowdsourcing applications, and difficult/costly to filter out. A motivating example for our work is the DARPA Red Balloon Challenge where the level of misreporting was very high. In order to undertake a formal study of verification, we introduce a model where agents can exert costly effort to perform verification and false reports can be penalized. This is the first model of verification and it provides many directions for future research, which we point out. Our main theoretical result is the compensation scheme that minimizes the cost of retrieving the correct answer. Notably, this optimal compensation scheme coincides with the winning strategy of the Red Balloon Challenge. PMID:23071530
Full Text Available A prospective study was undertaken to compare the patterns of psychiatric referrals in two general hospitals in Bombay viz. the King Edward Memorial Hospital (64 cases and the Jaslok Hospital and Research Centre (62 cases. It was observed that depressive symptoms were the most common presenting symptoms in these patients attending either of the hospitals. Similarly, the commonest diagnoses were depression and organic mental disorder. Attempted suicide with organophosphorous compounds was the commonest reason for hospitalization at K.E.M. Hospital (p less than 0.001. A significant number of these patients were females (p less than 0.05. The psychiatric referrals at Jaslok had been hospitalized mainly for suspected medical or neurological illness (p less than 0.001. These patients belonged to higher economic strata and hence had a better paying capacity compared to patients at KEM hospital, a significant number of whom were unemployed (p less than 0.001. The duration of pre-referred illness of patients and their stay at Jaslok hospital were longer as compared to those at KEM Hospital (p less than 0.01. The number of non-relevant special investigations carried out on patients in Jaslok was more (p less than 0.01. Further analysis of diagnoses revealed that a significant number of patients at KEM Hospital were admitted as primary psychiatric illness (p less than 0.05.
Parija Subhash C
Full Text Available Abstract Background E. histolytica, a pathogenic amoeba, is indistinguishable in its cyst and trophozoite stages from those of non-pathogenic E. moshkovskii and E. dispar by light microscopy. We have developed a nested multiplex PCR targeting a 16S-like rRNA gene for differential detection of all the three morphologically similar forms of E. histolytica, E. moshkovskii and E. dispar simultaneously in stool samples. Results The species specific product size for E. histolytica, E. moshkovskii and E. dispar was 439, 553 and 174 bp respectively, which was clearly different for all the three Entamoeba species. The nested multiplex PCR showed a sensitivity of 94% and specificity of 100% for the demonstration of E. histolytica, E. moshkovskii and E. dispar DNA in stool samples. The PCR was positive for E. histolytica, E. moshkovskii and E. dispar in a total of 190 out of 202 stool specimens (94% sensitive that were positive for E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii by examination of stool by microscopy and/or culture. All the 35 negative control stool samples that were negative for E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii by microscopy and culture were also found negative by the nested multiplex PCR (100% specific. The result from the study shows that only 34.6% of the patient stool samples that were positive for E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii by examination of stool by microscopy and/or culture, were actually positive for pathogenic E. histolytica and the remaining majority of the stool samples were positive for non-pathogenic E. dispar or E. moshkovskii as demonstrated by the use of nested multiplex PCR. Conclusion The present study reports a new nested multiplex PCR strategy for species specific detection and differentiation of E. histolytica, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii DNA in stool specimens. The test is highly specific, sensitive and also rapid, providing the results within 12 hours of receiving stool specimens.
Rovai, M; Caja, G; Salama, A A K; Jubert, A; Lázaro, B; Lázaro, M; Leitner, G
Use of DNA-based methods, such as real-time PCR, has increased the sensitivity and shortened the time for bacterial identification, compared with traditional bacteriology; however, results should be interpreted carefully because a positive PCR result does not necessarily mean that an infection exists. One hundred eight lactating dairy ewes (56 Manchega and 52 Lacaune) and 24 Murciano-Granadina dairy goats were used for identifying the main bacteria causing intramammary infections (IMI) using traditional bacterial culturing and real-time PCR and their effects on milk performance. Udder-half milk samples were taken for bacterial culturing and somatic cell count (SCC) 3 times throughout lactation. Intramammary infections were assessed based on bacteria isolated in ≥2 samplings accompanied by increased SCC. Prevalence of subclinical IMI was 42.9% in Manchega and 50.0% in Lacaune ewes and 41.7% in goats, with the estimated milk yield loss being 13.1, 17.9, and 18.0%, respectively. According to bacteriology results, 87% of the identified single bacteria species (with more than 3 colonies/plate) or culture-negative growth were identical throughout samplings, which agreed 98.9% with the PCR results. Nevertheless, the study emphasized that 1 sampling may not be sufficient to determine IMI and, therefore, other inflammatory responses such as increased SCC should be monitored to identify true infections. Moreover, when PCR methodology is used, aseptic and precise milk sampling procedures are key for avoiding false-positive amplifications. In conclusion, both PCR and bacterial culture methods proved to have similar accuracy for identifying infective bacteria in sheep and goats. The final choice will depend on their response time and cost analysis, according to the requirements and farm management strategy. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
be obtained as a limiting value of a sample path of a suitable ... makes a mathematical model of chance and deals with the problem by .... Is the Markov chain aperiodic? It is! Here is how you can see it. Suppose that after you do the cut, you hold the top half in your right hand, and the bottom half in your left. Then there.
Sandra Mara Silva Brignol
Full Text Available Abstract Social and sexual contact networks between men who have sex with men (MSM play an important role in understanding the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs. In Salvador (Bahia State, Brazil, one of the cities in the survey Behavior, Attitudes, Practices, and Prevalence of HIV and Syphilis among Men Who Have Sex with Men in 10 Brazilian Cities, data were collected in 2008/2009 from a sample of 383 MSM using Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS. Network analysis was used to study friendship networks and sexual partner networks. The study also focused on the association between the number of links (degree and the number of sexual partners, in addition to socio-demographic characteristics. The networks’ structure potentially facilitates HIV transmission. However, the same networks can also be used to spread messages on STI/HIV prevention, since the proximity and similarity of MSM in these networks can encourage behavior change and positive attitudes towards prevention.
Brignol, Sandra Mara Silva; Dourado, Inês; Amorim, Leila Denise; Miranda, José Garcia Vivas; Kerr, Lígia R F S
Social and sexual contact networks between men who have sex with men (MSM) play an important role in understanding the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In Salvador (Bahia State, Brazil), one of the cities in the survey Behavior, Attitudes, Practices, and Prevalence of HIV and Syphilis among Men Who Have Sex with Men in 10 Brazilian Cities, data were collected in 2008/2009 from a sample of 383 MSM using Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS). Network analysis was used to study friendship networks and sexual partner networks. The study also focused on the association between the number of links (degree) and the number of sexual partners, in addition to socio-demographic characteristics. The networks' structure potentially facilitates HIV transmission. However, the same networks can also be used to spread messages on STI/HIV prevention, since the proximity and similarity of MSM in these networks can encourage behavior change and positive attitudes towards prevention.
Full Text Available Contagious agalactiae (C.A. is one of the most common disease affecting small ruminants which is caused by Mycoplasma agalactiae. This disease is particularly widespread around the world and Iran is one of the countries that C.A. is present. The aim of this study was isolation and identification of M. agalactiae (MG with culture and PCR technique in milk samples in Kordestan province, Iran. A total of 367 milk samples were collected from sheep and goat. Specific published primers amplify a 375 bp gene of MG were used for PCR. Twenty (5.5% out of 367 were positive in PPLO agar and 5 (25% out of these isolates were positive with Mycoplasma agalactiae primers. Four (75% out of 5 isolates was from sheep and 1(25% from goat. Result of PCR with 367 milk samples showed that 11(3% of them were positive with these primers. The isolation of M. agalactiae showed that C.A is present in Kordestan province and our results suggested that PCR method because of reduces the time consuming could be an alternative method beside culture.
Full Text Available Introduction. This study investigated unmonitored referrals in a nationwide, collaborative chat reference service. Specifically, it examined the extent to which questions are referred, the types of questions that are more likely to be referred than others, and the level of user satisfaction with the referrals in the collaborative chat reference service. Method. The data analysed for this study were 420 chat reference transaction transcripts along with corresponding online survey questionnaires submitted by the service users. Both sets of data were collected from an electronic archive of a southeastern state public library system that has participated in 24/7 Reference of the Metropolitan Cooperative Library System (MCLS. Results. Referrals in the collaborative chat reference service comprised approximately 30% of the total transactions. Circulation-related questions were the most often referred among all question types, possibly because of the inability of 'outside' librarians to access patron accounts. Most importantly, user satisfaction with referrals was found to be significantly lower than that of completed answers. Conclusion. The findings of this study addressed the importance of distinguishing two types of referrals: the expert research referrals conducive to collaborative virtual reference services; and the re-directional local referrals that increase unnecessary question traffic, thereby being detrimental to effective use of collaborative reference. Continuing efforts to conceptualize referrals in multiple dimensions are anticipated to fully grasp complex phenomena underlying referrals.
Bell, Carolyn A; Ilomäki, Jenni; Pichenda, Koeut; Duncan, Gregory J; Saini, Bandana
Cambodia is one of the 22 countries with a high burden of tuberculosis (TB). People often first seek treatment for cough and other TB symptoms through private pharmacies. The National Tuberculosis Programme trained willing private sector pharmacies to refer TB symptomatic clients to their closest public sector clinic for diagnosis and treatment. The study objective was to investigate factors associated with referral of TB symptomatic clients from pharmacies to public sector clinics in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Face-to-face structured interviews were conducted with staff from a stratified random sample of 180 private pharmacies in Phnom Penh in 2012. Trained interviewers were Khmer speakers. Logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for factors associated with self-reported referral during the previous 3 months. Fifty (29.6%) pharmacies reported that they had referred 125 clients (range 1-10) to public sector clinics during the previous 3 months. In total, 164 (96.5%) pharmacies reported that they always referred all TB symptomatic clients to DOTS (directly observed treatment, short course) clinics. More than 6-year participation in the programme (OR 5.23, 95% CI 1.93-14.18) and willingness to always continue referring (OR 12.24, 95% CI 11.61-93.10) were associated with referral of one or more clients in the previous 3 months. Referral to the client's closest clinic was negatively associated with referral (OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.23-0.99). Pharmacies' ongoing commitment to the Referral Programme was strongly associated with referral. Increased advocacy among the high number of non-referring pharmacies may improve programme performance. Factors negatively associated with referral may need investigation. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Tran, Hong Hanh; Trinh, Kieu The Loan; Lee, Nae Yoon
In this study, we fabricate a monolithic poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) microdevice on which solid phase-based DNA preparation and flow-through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) units were functionally integrated for one-step sample preparation and amplification operated by pressure. Chelex resin, which is used as a solid support for DNA preparation, can capture denatured proteins but releases DNA, and the purified DNA can then be used as a template in a subsequent amplification process. Using the PMMA microdevices, DNA was successfully purified from both Escherichia coli and human hair sample, and the plasmid vector inserted in E. coli and the D1S80 locus in human genomic DNA were successfully amplified from on-chip purified E. coli and human hair samples. Furthermore, the integration potential of the proposed sample preparation and flow-through PCR units was successfully demonstrate on a monolithic PMMA microdevice with a seamless flow, which could pave the way for a pressure-driven, simple one-step sample preparation and amplification with greatly decreased manufacture cost and enhanced device disposability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Application and Comparative Evaluation of Fluorescent Antibody, Immunohistochemistry and Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction Tests for the Detection of Rabies Virus Antigen or Nucleic Acid in Brain Samples of Animals Suspected of Rabies in India
K. Nithin Prabhu
Full Text Available Accurate and early diagnosis of animal rabies is critical for undertaking public health measures. Whereas the direct fluorescent antibody (DFA technique is the recommended test, the more convenient, direct rapid immunochemistry test (dRIT, as well as the more sensitive, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, have recently been employed for the laboratory diagnosis of rabies. We compared the three methods on brain samples from domestic (dog, cat, cattle, buffalo, horse, pig and goat and wild (leopard, wolf and jackal animals from various parts of India. Of the 257 samples tested, 167 were positive by all the three tests; in addition, 35 of the 36 decomposed samples were positive by RT-PCR. This is the first study in which such large number of animal samples have been subjected to the three tests simultaneously. The results confirm 100% corroboration between DFA and dRIT, buttress the applicability of dRIT in the simple and rapid diagnosis of rabies in animals, and reaffirm the suitability of RT-PCR for samples unfit for testing either by DFA or dRIT.
Development and accuracy of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assays for detection and quantification of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) heat labile and heat stable toxin genes in travelers' diarrhea samples.
Youmans, Bonnie P; Ajami, Nadim J; Jiang, Zhi-Dong; Petrosino, Joseph F; DuPont, Herbert L; Highlander, Sarah K
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), the leading bacterial pathogen of travelers' diarrhea, is routinely detected by an established DNA hybridization protocol that is neither sensitive nor quantitative. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays that detect the ETEC toxin genes eltA, sta1, and sta2 in clinical stool samples were developed and tested using donor stool inoculated with known quantities of ETEC bacteria. The sensitivity of the qPCR assays is 89%, compared with 22% for the DNA hybridization assay, and the limits of detection are 10,000-fold lower than the DNA hybridization assays performed in parallel. Ninety-three clinical stool samples, previously characterized by DNA hybridization, were tested using the new ETEC qPCR assays. Discordant toxin profiles were observed for 22 samples, notably, four samples originally typed as ETEC negative were ETEC positive. The qPCR assays are unique in their sensitivity and ability to quantify the three toxin genes in clinical stool samples.
Application and Comparative Evaluation of Fluorescent Antibody, Immunohistochemistry and Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction Tests for the Detection of Rabies Virus Antigen or Nucleic Acid in Brain Samples of Animals Suspected of Rabies in India.
Prabhu, K Nithin; Isloor, Shrikrishna; Veeresh, B Hanchinal; Rathnamma, Doddamane; Sharada, R; Das, Lekshmi J; Satyanarayana, M L; Hegde, Nagendra R; Rahman, Sira Abdul
Accurate and early diagnosis of animal rabies is critical for undertaking public health measures. Whereas the direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) technique is the recommended test, the more convenient, direct rapid immunochemistry test (dRIT), as well as the more sensitive, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), have recently been employed for the laboratory diagnosis of rabies. We compared the three methods on brain samples from domestic (dog, cat, cattle, buffalo, horse, pig and goat) and wild (leopard, wolf and jackal) animals from various parts of India. Of the 257 samples tested, 167 were positive by all the three tests; in addition, 35 of the 36 decomposed samples were positive by RT-PCR. This is the first study in which such large number of animal samples have been subjected to the three tests simultaneously. The results confirm 100% corroboration between DFA and dRIT, buttress the applicability of dRIT in the simple and rapid diagnosis of rabies in animals, and reaffirm the suitability of RT-PCR for samples unfit for testing either by DFA or dRIT.
Mitchell, Rachael; Jacob, Hannah; Morrissey, Benita; Macaulay, Chloe; Gomez, Kumudini; Fertleman, Caroline
Although a great deal of paediatric consultations are not urgent, doctors in training spend so much time providing service for acute conditions that they spend little time focusing on outpatient work before they become a consultant. Engaging clinicians in the managerial aspects of providing clinical care is a key to improving outcomes, and this article addresses these aspects of the outpatient consultation from referral to discharge. We aim to provide doctors in training with a tool to use during their training and their first few years as a consultant, to think about how outpatient work is organised and how it can be improved to maximise patient experience. The non-urgent consultation varies across the world; this article is aimed to be relevant to an international audience. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
... of heavy chain produced: Alpha Gamma Mu Alpha Heavy Chain Disease Alpha heavy chain disease (IgA heavy ... the disease or lead to a remission. Gamma Heavy Chain Disease Gamma heavy chain disease (IgG heavy ...
Chiesa, Luca Maria; Nobile, Maria; Panseri, Sara; Arioli, Francesco
The antibiotic overuse in zoothechnics, due to prophylactic and therapeutic treatments, or to their growth-promoting activity, is a major cause for the onset of widespread antibiotic resistance. Of particular relevance to this study, is the antibiotic abuse in pig breeding. Despite the comprehensive literature on residue controls in pig muscle, data on pig urine, a non-invasive, on-farm collectable matrix, are lacking. Therefore, we validated an HPLC-MS/MS method to detect 29 antimicrobials from eight classes and applied it to 43 anonymous pig urine and muscle paired samples and fulfilled the parameters in agreement with the Commission Decision 2002/657/UE. The analytical limits were moreover much lower than the maximum residue limits (MRLs) required by the Commission Regulation 37/2010/UE. In the samples, antibiotics were usually detected at higher frequencies and concentrations in urine than muscle. Urine proved a useful tool to detect antibiotic administration and their excessive use in pig farming is depicted. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Referrals of Debts to Justice. 3.21 Section 3.21... and Compromise of Claims § 3.21 Referrals of Debts to Justice. An agency shall promptly refer to Justice for litigation debts on which aggressive collection activity has been taken in accordance with...
... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Referral to Department of Justice. 177... ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS UNDER THE FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT § 177.108 Referral to Department of Justice. When Department of Justice approval or consultation is required, or the advice of the Department of Justice is...
... Justice. 11.17 Section 11.17 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY... Referral to Department of Justice. When Department of Justice approval or consultation is required under § 11.16, the referral or request shall be transmitted to the Department of Justice by the Chief Counsel...
... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Referral to Department of Justice... ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS ARISING UNDER THE FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT § 1620.8 Referral to Department of Justice. When Department of Justice approval or consultation is required, or the advice of the Department of Justice is...
Background: Healthcare workers at primary healthcare (PHC) clinics are frustrated by the fact that they do not receive replies to their referral letters to doctors. Referral letters act as permission slips to allow patients easy access to treatment by specialists at secondary and tertiary service levels and communicate reasons for ...
... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Referral to the Attorney General. 820.72 Section 820.72... Referral to the Attorney General. If there is reason to believe a criminal violation of the Act or the DOE Nuclear Safety Requirements has occurred, DOE may refer the matter to the Attorney General of the United...
... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Referral to the Attorney General. 1601.29 Section 1601.29... of Civil Actions § 1601.29 Referral to the Attorney General. If the Commission is unable to obtain... shall inform the Attorney General of the appropriate facts in the case with recommendations for the...
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Referral to the Attorney General... Referral to the Attorney General. If the results of a complaint investigation or a compliance review... appropriate cases shall recommend that the General Counsel refer the case to the Attorney General of the...
... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Referral to the Attorney General. 430.54 Section 430.54... Business Exemptions § 430.54 Referral to the Attorney General. Notice of the application for exemption under this subpart shall be transmitted to the Attorney General by the Secretary and shall contain (a) a...
Result: A majority (>80%) of the referral letters had no information on the current medication list, relevant psychosocial history, outline of management to date, results of investigations to date, and known allergies. Conclusion: Deficits in communication or information transfer through referral letters to the psychiatrist are ...
... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Referral to immigration judge. 1235.6 Section 1235.6 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS INSPECTION OF PERSONS APPLYING FOR ADMISSION § 1235.6 Referral to immigration judge...
history, may not be elements that non-psychiatrist phy- sicians routinely collect during their examinations and, therefore, one would not expect such information to be available to be included in referral letters. Conclusion. Deficits in communication or information transfer through referral letters to the psychiatrist are common.
Less than 20% of the referral letters included information on previous psychiatric consultations, current psychotropic medication, the outcome of physical examinations, and results of special investigations. Only 17 (6%) referral letters indicated a preliminary diagnosis according to an officially recognised classification system ...
Direct access referral for radiological investigations from General Practice (GP) provides an indispensable diagnostic tool and avoids the inherently long waiting time that referral through a hospital based specialty would entail. Improving access to hospital based radiology services is one of Health Information and Quality Authority\\'s key recommendations in its report on patient referrals from general practice. This study aimed to review all GP referrals for ultrasound investigations to a tertiary referral teaching hospital over a seven month period with respect to their demographics, waiting times and diagnostic outcomes. 1,090 ultrasounds originating in general practice were carried out during the study period. Positive findings were recorded in 332 (30.46%) examinations. The median waiting time from receipt of referral to the diagnostic investigation was 56 days (range 16 - 91 years). 71 (6.5%) patients had follow-up imaging investigations while recommendation for hospital based specialty referral was made in 35 cases (3.2%). Significant findings included abdominal aortic aneurysms, metastatic disease and lymphoma. Direct access to ultrasound for general practitioners allows the referring physician to make an informed decision with regard to the need for specialist referral. We believe these findings help support the case for national direct access to diagnostic ultrasound for general practitioners.
Introduction: This study investigated unmonitored referrals in a nationwide, collaborative chat reference service. Specifically, it examined the extent to which questions are referred, the types of questions that are more likely to be referred than others, and the level of user satisfaction with the referrals in the collaborative chat reference…
Objective: To review the management of childhood intussusception at the Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital, Eldoret and identify factors that require attention for improved outcome. Design: A retrospective descriptive study covering the period January 2000 to December 2003. Setting: Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital, ...
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Referral to the Corporation. 1619.3 Section 1619.3 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION DISCLOSURE OF INFORMATION § 1619.3 Referral to the Corporation. If a person requests information, not required...
Katholm, Jørgen; Bennedsgaard, T.W.; Koskinen, M.T.
Results of a commercial real-time PCR analysis for 11 mastitis pathogens from bulk tank milk (BTM) samples from all 4,258 Danish dairy herds in November 2009 to January 2010 were compared with somatic cell count (SCC) and total bacteria count (TBC) estimates in BTM. For Streptococcus agalactiae......, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, and Streptococcus uberis, a low real-time PCR cycle threshold (Ct) value (corresponding to high bacterial DNA quantity) was correlated with higher SCC and higher TBC. For Staphylococcus aureus, low Ct values were correlated only with higher SCC. For the environmental mastitis...... pathogens Klebsiella spp., Enterococcus spp., and Escherichia coli, low Ct values had a correlation with higher TBC. Staphylococcus spp. were found in the BTM from all herds, Strep. uberis in 95%, Staph. aureus in 91%, and Strep. dysgalactiae in 86%, whereas E. coli, Klebsiella, and Strep. agalactiae were...
Li, Kai; Chen, Bei; Zhou, Yuxun; Huang, Rui; Liang, Yinming; Wang, Qinxi; Xiao, Zhenxian; Xiao, Junhua
A new method, based on ligase detection reaction (LDR), was developed for quantitative detection of multiplex PCR amplicons of 16S rRNA genes present in complex mixtures (specifically feces). LDR has been widely used in single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assay but never applied for quantification of multiplex PCR products. This method employs one pair of DNA probes, one of which is labeled with fluorescence for signal capture, complementary to the target sequence. For multiple target sequence analysis, probes were modified with different lengths of polyT at the 5' end and 3' end. Using a DNA sequencer, these ligated probes were separated and identified by size and dye color. Then, relative abundance of target DNA were normalized and quantified based on the fluorescence intensities and exterior size standards. 16S rRNA gene of three preponderant bacteria groups in human feces: Clostridium coccoides, Bacteroides and related genera, and Clostridium leptum group, were amplified and cloned into plasmid DNA so as to make standard curves. After PCR-LDR analysis, a strong linear relationship was found between the florescence intensity and the diluted plasmid DNA concentrations. Furthermore, based on this method, 100 human fecal samples were quantified for the relative abundance of the three bacterial groups. Relative abundance of C. coccoides was significantly higher in elderly people in comparison with young adults, without gender differences. Relative abundance of Bacteroides and related genera and C. leptum group were significantly higher in young and middle aged than in the elderly. Regarding the whole set of sample, C. coccoides showed the highest relative abundance, followed by decreasing groups Bacteroides and related genera, and C. leptum. These results imply that PCR-LDR can be feasible and flexible applied to large scale epidemiological studies.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Uganda’s under-five mortality is high, currently estimated at 66/1000 live births. Poor referral of sick children that seek care from the private sector is one of the contributory factors. The proposed intervention aims to improve referral and uptake of referral advice for children that seek care from private facilities (registered drug shops/private clinics. Methods/Design A cluster randomized design will be applied to test the intervention in Mukono District, central Uganda. A sample of study clusters will implement the intervention. The intervention will consist of three components: i raising awareness in the community: village health teams will discuss the importance of referral and encourage households to save money, ii training and supervision of providers in the private sector to diagnose, treat and refer sick children, iii regular meetings between the public and private providers (convened by the district health team to discuss the referral system. Twenty clusters will be included in the study, randomized in the ratio of 1:1. A minimum of 319 sick children per cluster and the total number of sick children to be recruited from all clusters will be 8910; adjusting for a 10 % loss to follow up and possible withdrawal of private outlets. Discussion The immediate sustainable impact will be appropriate treatment of sick children. The intervention is likely to impact on private sector practices since the scope of the services they provide will have expanded. The proposed study is also likely to have an impact on families as; i they may appreciate the importance of timely referral on child illness management, ii the cost savings related to reduced morbidity will be used by household to access other social services. The linkage between the private and public sectors will create a potential avenue for delivery of other public health interventions and improved working relations in the two sectors. Further, improved quality of
Schaffer, W A; Holloman, F C
The traditional exchange of medical expertise between physicians for patient benefit has been accomplished by referral. Physicians have traditionally decided when and to whom to refer patients. Health care "systems" now dominate medical practice, and their formats can alter spontaneous collegial interaction in referral. Institutional programs now pursue patient referrals as part of a marketing strategy to attract new patients who then become attached to the institution, rather than to a physician. Referral behavior can affect a physician's personal income in prepaid insurance programs where referrals are discouraged. The referring physician may bear legal liability for actions of the consultant. New practice arrangements and affiliations may place physicians in financial conflict-of-interest situations, challenge ethical commitments, and add new moral responsibility.
Full Text Available Purpose: The correlation between the presence of specific gene sequence of M. tuberculosis and specific diagnosis of clinical tuberculosis is not known. This study compared the results of polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplification of M . tuberculosis specific DNA sequences (IS6110, 65kDa, 38kDa and mRNA coding for 85 B protein from different clinical samples of pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Methods: One hundred and seventy-two clinical samples from suspected tuberculosis patients were tested for smear examination, culture (LJ and rapid BACTEC 460 TB system and PCR. PCR was performed with specific primers for the targets: IS6110, 65kDa, 38kDa and 85B. Results: Each PCR test was found to have a much higher positivity than conventional test and BACTEC culture ( P < 0.05. Smear positive samples (56 and the samples (36 showing positive results by conventional methods (smear and LJ medium culture and BACTEC were found to be positive by all PCR protocols. No significant difference was found between the four PCR protocols ( P >0.05. The primer specific for amplifying the 123bp IS6110 fragment gave the highest positivity (83%, followed by 65kDa, 38kDa and 85B RT-PCR in descending order. Conclusions: These data suggest that the presence of IS6110 correlates more closely with the diagnosis of clinical tuberculosis than that of 65kDa, 38kDa and 85B proteins.
Simba, Daudi O; Warsame, Marian; Kimbute, Omari; Kakoko, Deodatus; Petzold, Max; Tomson, Goran; Premji, Zul; Gomes, Melba
WHO recommends artemisinin suppository formulations as pre-referral treatment for children who are unable to take oral medication and cannot rapidly reach a facility for parenteral treatment. We investigated factors influencing caretakers' adherence to referral advice following pre-referral treatment of their children with rectal artesunate suppositories. The study was nested within an intervention study that involved pre-referral treatment of all children who came to a community dispenser for treatment because they were unable to take oral medications because of repeated vomiting, lethargy, convulsions or altered consciousness. All patients who did not comply with referral advice were stratified by actions taken post-referral: taking their children to a drug shop, a traditional healer, or not seeking further treatment, and added to a random selection of patients who complied with referral advice. Caretakers of the children were interviewed about their socio-economic status (SES), knowledge about malaria, referral advice given and actions they took following pre-referral treatment. Interview data for 587 caretakers were matched with symptoms of the children, the time of treatment, arrival at a health facility or other actions taken post-pre-referral treatment. The majority (93.5%) of caretakers reported being given referral advice by the community drug dispenser. The odds of adherence with this advice were three times greater for children with altered consciousness and/or convulsions than for children with other symptoms [odds ratio (OR) 3.47, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.32-5.17, P < 0.001]. When questioned, caretakers who remembered when (OR 2.19, 95% CI 1.48-3.23, P < 0.001) and why (OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.07-2.95, P = 0.026) they were advised to proceed to health facility - were more likely to follow referral advice. Cost did not influence adherence except within a catchment area of facilities that charged for services. In these areas, costs deterred adherence by
Rao, Sowmya R.; Rogers, Robert S.; Mailhot, Johanna R.; Galvin, Robert
BACKGROUND Given increasing interest in helping consumers choose high-performing (higher quality, lower cost) physicians, one approach chosen by several large employers is to provide assistance in the form of a telephonic “health coach” — a registered nurse who assists with identifying appropriate and available providers. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the health coach’s influence on provider choice and the quality of the user experience in the early introduction of this service. DESIGN Cross-sectional survey of 3490 employees and covered dependents of a large national firm that offered health coach services to all employees and covered dependents. The survey began in September 2007 with proportionate stratified sampling of 1750 employees and covered dependents who used the services between October 2007 and February 2008, and 1740 non-users. PARTICIPANTS Insured adults (ages 21–64) employed by a large national firm or covered dependents of employees. MEASUREMENTS Awareness of the service, reason for using service, visits to providers recommended by service, use of health advice provided by service, user satisfaction. MAIN RESULTS The primary reason for using the service was to obtain provider referrals (73%). Fifty-two percent of users sought a specialist referral, 33% a PCP referral and 9% a hospital referral. Eighty-nine percent of users seeking a provider referral were referred in-network; 81% of those referred visited the referred provider. Measures of satisfaction with both the service and the care delivered by recommended providers were over 70%. CONCLUSIONS Customers largely follow the provider recommendation of the health coach. Users express general satisfaction with existing health coach services, but differences in performance between vendors highlight the need for the services to be well implemented. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11606-010-1428-4) contains supplementary material, which is available
Thomas, James C; Reynolds, Heidi W; Alterescu, Xavier; Bevc, Christine; Tsegaye, Ademe
The service needs of people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in low-income settings are wide-ranging. Service provision in a community is often disjointed among a variety of providers. We sought to reduce unmet patient needs by increasing referral coordination for HIV and family planning, measured as network density, with an organizational network approach. We conducted organizational network analysis on two networks in sub-cities of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. There were 25 organizations in one sub-city network and 26 in the other. In one of them we sought to increase referrals through three network strengthening meetings. We then conducted the network analysis again in both sub-cities to measure any changes since baseline. We also quantitatively measured reported client service needs in both sub-cities before and after the intervention with two cross-sectional samples of face-to-face interviews with clients (459 at baseline and 587 at follow-up). In the sub-city with the intervention, the number of referral connections between organizations, measured as network density, increased 55%. In the control community, the density decreased over the same period. Reported unmet client service needs declined more consistently across services in the intervention community. This quasi experiment demonstrated that (1) an organizational network analysis can inform an intervention, (2) a modest network strengthening intervention can enhance client referrals in the network, (3) improvement in client referrals was accompanied by a decrease in atient-reported unmet needs and (4) a series of network analyses can be a useful evaluation tool. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Levin, Roger P
The research findings indicate that the field of implant dentistry will only grow at a moderately low level unless certain changes are made. Findings indicated that the effort by the implant companies has been nothing short of dramatic, and yet almost 60% of restorative doctors do not participate annually in any implant case. There was no clear indication that younger restorative doctors will significantly increase the number of implant referrals, as their overall implant education has not dramatically differed from those dentists who graduated in earlier years. Once the research was completed, it became obvious to Levin Group that the driving force behind implant referral growth will be implant surgeons, because of their one-to-one relationship with restorative doctors. The Levin Group Implant Management and Marketing Consulting Program is based on approaching restorative doctors in several different levels, starting with awareness all the way through to case facilitation and long-term tracking and communication. Finally, a continuing marketing/education effort needs to be consistently in place with effective materials, not only to create a high level of awareness, but also to motivate restorative doctors to refer cases and then work through the case with the implant surgeon to a satisfactory completion for the restorative doctor, implant surgeon, and patient. While the surgical insertion of implants may seem to carry a high-profit margin relative to the restoration of implants, the truth is that the restoration of implants usually provides a 40% higher profit margin for the restorative doctor than traditional dental services. One of the key issues is that referring doctors have not necessarily learned how to set fees and present cases with regard to implant dentistry. The key factor here is to ensure that the patient understands that implant services involve higher fees than traditional services, because of the necessarily higher levels of experience, education
Measurement of indicator genes using global complementary DNA (cDNA) amplification, by polyadenylic acid reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (poly A RT-PCR): A feasibility study using paired samples from tissue and ductal juice in patients undergoing pancreatoduodenectomy.
Sanyal, Sudip; Siriwardena, Ajith K; Byers, Richard
The aim of this study is to compare gene expression profiles in RNA isolated from pancreatic ductal juice with the RNA expression profiles of the same genes from matched intra-operative tissue samples from pancreatic tumours. Intra-operative sampling of pancreatic juice and collection of matched tissue samples was undertaken in patients undergoing pancreatoduodenectomy for clinically suspected pancreatic cancer and a precursor lesion, main-duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm. RNA was isolated and Poly A PCR was used to globally amplify the RNA. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to measure expression levels of 17 genes selected from microarray studies. Spearman's rank correlation test was used to examine the relationship of gene expression between pancreatic juice and tissue. The study was approved by Regional Ethics Committee. Mesothelin (MSLN) showed significant correlation (p cDNA using poly A PCR is technically feasible. Application of the technique to non-invasively obtained pancreatic juice during endoscopic assessment of tumours and the use of gene arrays of cancer indicator genes are the next steps in development of this technique. Copyright © 2018 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
[Determination of short-chain chlorinated paraffins in ambient air using high-volume sampling combined with high resolutimi gas chromatography-electron capture negative ion-low resolution mass spectrometry].
Shi, Loimeng; Gao, Yuan; Hou, Xiaohong; Zhang, Haijun; Zhang, Yichi; Chen, Jiping
An analytical method for quantifying short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) in ambient air using high-volume sampling combined with high resolution gas chromatography-electron capture negative ion-low resolution mass spectrometry ( HRGC-ECNI-LRMS) was developed. An acidified silica gel column and a basic alumina column were used to optimize the cleanup procedures. The results showed a good linearity (R2>0. 99) between the total response factors and the degree of chlorination of SCCPs in the content range of 58. 1%-63. 3%. The limits of detection (S/N ≥3) and the limits of quantification (S/N ≥ 10) were 4. 2 and 12 µg, respectively. The method detection limit (MDL) for SCCPs was 0. 34 ng/m3 (n = 7). The recoveries of SCCPs in air samples were in the range of 81. 9% to 94. 2%. It is demonstrated that the method is suitable for the quantitative analysis of SCCPs in air samples.
Brenes Bermúdez, F J; Cozar Olmo, J M; Esteban Fuertes, M; Fernández-Pro Ledesma, A; Molero García, J M
Despite the high incidence of urinary incontinence (UI), health professional awareness of this disease is low, which in itself is not serious but significantly limits the lives of the patients. The Primary Care associations, Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria [SEMERGEN], Sociedad Española de Médicos Generales y de Familia [SEMG], Sociedad Española de Medicina de Familia y Comunitaria [semFYC]) along with the Asociación Española de Urología (EAU) have developed this consensus with the proposal of making GPs aware, and to help them in the diagnosis, treatment and referral to Urologists. The first goal in primary care must be the detection of UI, thus an opportunistic screening at least once in the lifetime of asymptomatic women > 40 years old and asymptomatic men > 55 years old. The diagnosis, based on medical history and physical examination, must determine the type and severity of the UI in order to refer severe cases to the Urologist. Except for overactive bladder (OAB), non-pharmacological conservative treatment is the first approach to uncomplicated UI in females and males. Antimuscarinics are the only drugs that have demonstrated efficacy and safety in urge urinary incontinence (UUI) and OAB. In men with mixed symptoms, excluding severe obstruction cases, a combination therapy of alpha-blockers and antimuscarinics should be chosen. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Leptospirosis and brucellosis are common zoonosis that affect many species of mammals mostly causing economical losses. Further, very important fact is huge danger for human and animal health around the world. The purpose of the study is to determine the prevalence of Brucella spp. and Leptospira spp. using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR method, in blood samples collected from cattle, sheep and goats. In this study, a total number of 250 blood samples (5 cc of blood with ethilen diamin tetra asetic acid were collected randomly from 100 cattle, 80 sheep and 70 goats located on 6 herds in Chaharmahal Va Bakhtiari and Esfahan provinces, Iran. After DNA extraction and setting of mPCR for Brucella spp. and Leptospira spp. mPCR products were screened. The DNA of these microorganisms was detected by multiplex PCR from 31 and 21 out of 100 cattle, respectively. Four of 70 goat’s blood samples from goat breeding farms were positive for Leptospira spp. and 11 were positive for Brucella spp. Out of 80 sheep blood samples 23 were positive for Brucella spp. and 14 for Leptospira spp. The results of the present study show ruminant as an important reservoir for transmission of these zoonotic diseases to humans in Iran. mPCR has the ability to concurrently detect both Brucella and Leptospira species from blood samples of ruminants. The convenience and the possibility of detection of both bacteria at a time, strongly support the use of this mPCR for routine diagnostics.
Warren, J; White, S; Day, K J; Gu, Y; Pollock, M
Electronic referral (eReferral) from community into public secondary healthcare services was introduced to 30 referring general medical practices and 28 hospital based services in late 2007. To measure the extent of uptake of eReferral and its association with changes in referral processing. Analysis of transactional data from the eReferral message service and the patient information management system of the affected hospital; interview of clinical, operational and management stakeholders. eReferral use rose steadily to 1000 transactions per month in 2008, thereafter showing moderate growth to 1200 per month in 2010. Rate of eReferral from the community in 2010 is estimated at 56% of total referrals to the hospital from general practice, and as 71% of referrals from those having done at least one referral electronically. Referral latency from letter date to hospital triage improves significantly from 2007 to 2009 (psystem usability issues. With eReferrals, a referral's status can be checked, and its content read, by any authorized user at any time. The period of eReferral uptake was associated with significant speed-up in referral processing without changes in staffing levels. The eReferral system provides a foundation for further innovation in the community-secondary interface, such as electronic decision support and shared care planning systems. We observed substantial rapid voluntary uptake of eReferrals associated with faster, more reliable and more transparent referral processing.
Holt, Kelsey; Janiak, Elizabeth; McCormick, Marie C; Lieberman, Ellice; Dehlendorf, Christine; Kajeepeta, Sandhya; Caglia, Jacquelyn M; Langer, Ana
Primary care physicians (PCPs) can play a critical role in addressing unintended pregnancy through high-quality options counseling and referrals. We surveyed a nationally representative sample of 3,000 PCPs in general, family, and internal medicine on practices and opinions related to options counseling for unintended pregnancy. We assessed predictors of physician practices using multivariable logistic regression weighted for sampling design and differential non-response. Response rate was 29%. Seventy-one percent believed residency training in options counseling should be required, and 69% believed PCPs have an obligation to provide abortion referrals even in the presence of a personal objection to abortion. However, only 26% reported routine options counseling when caring for women with unintended pregnancy compared to 60% who routinely discuss prenatal care. Among physicians who see women seeking abortion, 62% routinely provide referrals, while 14% routinely attempt to dissuade women. Family physicians were more likely to provide routine options counseling when seeing patients with unintended pregnancy than internal medicine physicians (32% vs 21%, P=0.002). In multivariable analyses, factors associated with higher odds of routine abortion referrals were more years in practice (OR=1.03 for each additional year, 95% CI: 1.00-1.05), identifying as a woman vs a man (OR=2.11, 95% CI: 1.31-3.40), practicing in a hospital vs private primary care/multispecialty setting (OR=3.17, 95% CI: 1.10-9.15), and no religious affiliation of practice vs religious affiliation (OR for Catholic affiliation=0.27, 95% CI: 0.11-0.66; OR for other religious affiliation=0.36, 95% CI: 0.15-0.83). Personal Christian religious affiliation among physicians who regularly attend religious services vs no religious affiliation was associated with lower odds of counseling (OR=0.48, 95% CI: 0.26-0.90) and referrals (OR=0.31, 95% CI: 0.15-0.62), and higher odds of abortion dissuasion (OR=4.03, 95
The aim of this present study was to verify the effects of gamma radiation on the growth of Aspergillus flavus Link aflatoxins producer; to demonstrate the application of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technique in the diagnostic of A. Flavus, as well to verify the effect of radiation in the profile of DNA bands. Twenty samples of grains maize with 200 g each were individually irradiated with 20 kGy, to eliminate the microbial contamination. In following, the samples were inoculated with an toxigenic A. flavus (1x10 6 spores/ml), incubated for 15 days at 25 deg C with a relative humidity of around 97,5% and irradiated with 0, 2; 5 and 10 kGy. The samples, 5 to each dose of irradiation, were individually analyzed for the number of fungal cells, water activity, viability test (fluorescein diacetate and ethidium bromide), PCR and aflatoxins (AFB) detection. The results showed that the doses used were effective in reducing the number of Colony Forming Units (CFU/g) mainly the doses of 5 and 10 kGy. In addition, the viability test showed a decrease of viable cells with increase of irradiation doses. The reduction of AFB 1 and AFB-2, was more efficient with the use of 2 kGy in comparison with the dose of 5 kGy, while the dose of 10 kGy, degraded the aflatoxins. Thereby, it was observed that AFB2 showed to be more radiosensitive. The use of PCR technique showed the presence of DNA bands, in all samples. (author)
Aggarwal, Vishal R.; Joughin, Amy; Zakrzewska, Joanna; Appelbe, Priscilla; Tickle, Martin
Aim: To explore the diagnosis, treatment and referral patterns of chronic oro-facial pain patients by generalist primary care dentists (GDPs) in the UK. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a non-stratified random sample of 500 GDPs who were selected from the General Dental Council register. A self-complete postal questionnaire…
Medication errors are common when patients transfer across healthcare boundaries. This study was designed to investigate the quality of information on medicines provided by general practitioners (GPs) on emergency department (ED) referral letters. A convenience sample of referral letters to the ED of a teaching hospital was reviewed. The medication list and\\/or patient\\'s drug allergy status were noted. Medicines reconciliation including patient (or carer) interview was conducted to determine the patient\\'s actual home medication list. This was compared with the GP list and any discrepancies were identified and addressed. A total of 92 referral letters were included in the analysis of which 60 were computer-generated and 32 were hand-written. GPs provided dose and frequency of administration information in 47 (51%) of the letters sampled i.e. 44 (71%) computer-generated versus 3 (10%) hand-written; p < 0.001. In addition, the patient was taking their medicines exactly as per the GP list in 20 (22%) of cases. The patient\\'s drug allergy status was documented in 13 (14%) of the letters.
Medicine, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, 5Department of Obstetrics and ... Aim: The aim was to audit childbirth emergency referrals by trained TBAs to a ..... training of TBAs has been documented by previous African.
Lal, Sham; Ndyomugenyi, Richard; Magnussen, Pascal
Malaria-endemic countries have implemented community health worker (CHW) programs to provide malaria diagnosis and treatment to populations living beyond the reach of health systems. However, there is limited evidence describing the referral practices of CHWs. We examined the impact of malaria...... rapid diagnostic tests (mRDTs) on CHW referral in two cluster-randomized trials, one conducted in a moderate-to-high malaria transmission setting and one in a low-transmission setting in Uganda, between January 2010 and July 2012. All CHWs were trained to prescribe artemisinin-based combination therapy...... (ACT) for malaria and recognize signs and symptoms for referral to health centers. CHWs in the control arm used a presumptive diagnosis for malaria based on clinical symptoms, whereas intervention arm CHWs used mRDTs. CHWs recorded ACT prescriptions, mRDT results, and referral inpatient registers...
CHILDREN PRESENTING AT THE EMERGENCY UNIT OF A TEACHING. HOSPITAL IN LAGOS ... infrequently reported in referral letters to a tertiary care hospital in Lagos,. Nigeria. .... researcher, a pharmacist and clinical pharmacologist.
Clinical Usefulness of a One-Tube Nested Reverse Transcription Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay for Evaluating Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 mRNA Overexpression in Formalin-Fixed and Paraffin-Embedded Breast Cancer Tissue Samples.
Wang, Hye-Young; Ahn, Sungwoo; Park, Sunyoung; Kim, SeungIl; Lee, Hyeyoung
Currently, the two main methods used to analyze human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) amplification or overexpression have a limited accuracy and high costs. These limitations can be overcome by the development of complementary quantitative methods. In this study, we analyzed HER2 mRNA expression in clinical formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples using a one-tube nested reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assay. We measured expression relative to 3 reference genes and compared the results to those obtained by conventional immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assays with 226 FFPE breast cancer tissue samples. The one-tube nested RT-qPCR assay proved to be highly sensitive and specific based on comparisons with IHC (96.9 and 97.7%, respectively) and FISH (92.4 and 92.9%, respectively) obtained with the validation set. Comparisons with clinicopathological data revealed significant associations between HER2 overexpression and TNM stage (p < 0.01), histological type (p < 0.01), ER status (p < 0.001), PR status (p < 0.05), HER2 status (p < 0.001), and molecular subtypes (p < 0.001). Based on these findings, our one-tube nested RT-qPCR assay is a potentially useful and complementary screening tool for the detection of HER2 mRNA overexpression. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Casalino, Lawrence P
Physician self-referral ranges from suggesting a follow-up appointment, to sending a patient to a facility in which the doctor has an ownership interest or financial relationship. Physician referral to facilities in which the physicians have an ownership interest is becoming increasingly common and not always medically appropriate. This Synthesis reviews the evidence on physician self-referral arrangements, their effect on costs and utilization, and their effect on general hospitals. Key findings include: the rise in self-referral is sparked by financial, regulatory and clinical incentives, including patient convenience and doctors trying to preserve their income in the changing health care landscape. Strong evidence suggests self-referral leads to increased usage of health care services; but there is insufficient evidence to determine whether this increased usage reflects doctors meeting an unmet need or ordering clinically inappropriate care. The more significant a physician's financial interest in a facility, the more likely the doctor is to refer patients there. Arrangements through which doctors receive fees for patient referrals to third-party centers, such as "pay-per-click," time-share, and leasing arrangements, do not seem to offer benefits beyond increasing physician income. So far, the profit margins of general hospitals have not been harmed by the rise in doctor-owned facilities.
Benson, B E; Smith, C A; McKinney, P E; Litovitz, T L; Tandberg, W D
The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which poison center triage guidelines influence healthcare facility referral rates for acute, unintentional acetaminophen-only poisoning and acute, unintentional adult formulation iron poisoning. Managers of US poison centers were interviewed by telephone to determine their center's triage threshold value (mg/kg) for acute iron and acute acetaminophen poisoning in 1997. Triage threshold values and healthcare facility referral rates were fit to a univariate logistic regression model for acetaminophen and iron using maximum likelihood estimation. Triage threshold values ranged from 120-201 mg/kg (acetaminophen) and 16-61 mg/kg (iron). Referral rates ranged from 3.1% to 24% (acetaminophen) and 3.7% to 46.7% (iron). There was a statistically significant inverse relationship between the triage value and the referral rate for acetaminophen (p variability in poison center triage values and referral rates for iron and acetaminophen poisoning. Guidelines can account for a meaningful proportion of referral variation. Their influence appears to be substance dependent. These data suggest that efforts to determine and utilize the highest, safe, triage threshold value could substantially decrease healthcare costs for poisonings as long as patient medical outcomes are not compromised.
Full Text Available There is a growing need to assess the psychological outcomes of exercise referral and the National Institute of Health and Care Excellence has called for the routine assessment of life-quality. However, a quality of life scale specific to the requirements of exercise referral is currently unavailable. Therefore, the aim of this study was to produce a quality of life measure for this purpose. The Exercise Referral Quality of Life Scale is a 22-item measure comprising three domains: mental and physical health, injury pain and illness and physical activity facilitators. Exploratory factor analysis determined the initial factor structure and was subsequently confirmed by confirmatory factor analysis. Additional scale properties were also assessed. The scale contributes to the global need for improved consistent psychological outcome assessment of exercise referral.
Chain Reaction is a work of recent American political history. It seeks to explain how and why America came to depend so heavily on its experts after World War II, how those experts translated that authority into political clout, and why that authority and political discretion declined in the 1970s. The author's research into the internal memoranda of the Atomic Energy Commission substantiates his argument in historical detail. It was not the ravages of American anti-intellectualism, as so many scholars have argued, that brought the experts back down to earth. Rather, their decline can be traced to the very roots of their success after World War II. The need to over-state anticipated results in order to garner public support, incessant professional and bureaucratic specialization, and the sheer proliferation of expertise pushed arcane and insulated debates between experts into public forums at the same time that a broad cross section of political participants found it easier to gain access to their own expertise. These tendencies ultimately undermined the political influence of all experts. (author)
... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Referrals to the Department of Justice... COLLECTION STANDARDS Referrals § 13.33 Referrals to the Department of Justice. (a) Prompt referral. The... Justice, Washington, DC 20530. (2) Unless otherwise provided by DOJ regulations or procedures, EPA refers...
Gast, A. P.; Furst, E. M.
fluctuating chains of dipolar particles. Resolving this issue would contribute greatly to the understanding of these interesting and important materials. We have begun to test the predictions of the HT model by both examining the dynamics of individual chains and by measuring the forces between dipolar chains directly to accurately and quantitatively assess the interactions that they experience. To do so, we employ optical trapping techniques and video-microscopy to manipulate and observe our samples on the microscopic level. With these techniques, it is possible to observe chains that are fluctuating freely in three-dimensions, independent of interfacial effects. More importantly, we are able to controllably observe the interactions of two chains at various separations to measure the force-distance profile. The techniques also allow us to study the mechanical properties of individual chains and chain clusters. Our work to this point has focused on reversibly-formed dipolar chains due to field induced dipoles where the combination of this chaining, the dipolar forces, and the hydrodynamic interactions that dictate the rheology of the suspensions. One can envision, however, many situations where optical, electronic, or rheological behavior may be optimized with magneto-responsive anisotropic particles. Chains of polarizable particles may have the best properties as they can coil and flex in the absence of a field and stiffen and orient when a field is applied. We have recently demonstrated a synthesis of stable, permanent paramagnetic chains by both covalently and physically linking paramagnetic colloidal particles. The method employed allows us to create monodisperse chains of controlled length. We observed the stability, field-alignment, and rigidity of this new class of materials. The chains may exhibit unique rheological properties in an applied magnetic field over isotropic suspensions of paramagnetic particles. They are also useful rheological models as bead
Full Text Available Background: Children with chronic physical illnesses frequently have psychiatric comorbidities, which often go un-noticed and may lead to more resource utilization and morbidity. Pediatric liaison services can be effectively used to bridge this gap. Literature on pediatric liaison services is sparse. Aims: To study the referral patterns, reasons for referrals, psychiatric diagnoses and interventions in children and adolescents referred to psychiatry department in a tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: A retrospective chart analysis of all children and adolescents below 19 years of age, referred to psychiatry department from 2010 to 2015, was done. Data was collected and statistical analysis was done. Results: Two hundred and nine subjects were included in the study. Mean age of sample was 12.15 (±4.20 years, with about 66.02% being males. About 54.06% of the participants were referred from pediatricians. Almost three fourth (72.25% of children had no diagnosable physical illness. Intellectual disability (19.62% was the most common psychiatric diagnosis, followed by depressive disorders (14.35%, and dissociative disorders (12.92%. Conclusions: In our study, majority of the referrals were the adolescent males from pediatric department. Intellectual disability, depressive disorder, and stress-related disorders were the common diagnoses. The fact that three-fourth of the referred children had no physical illness implies lack of awareness, stigma toward mental illness, and pathway of care.
Lowstuter, Katrina J; Sand, Sharon; Blazer, Kathleen R; MacDonald, Deborah J; Banks, Kimberly C; Lee, Carol A; Schwerin, Barbara U; Juarez, Margaret; Uman, Gwen C; Weitzel, Jeffrey N
To describe nongenetics clinicians' perceptions and knowledge of cancer genetics and laws prohibiting genetic discrimination, attitudes toward the use of cancer genetic testing, and referral practices. Invitations to participate were sent to a random stratified sample of California Medical Association members and to all members of California Association of Nurse Practitioners and California Latino Medical Association. Responders in active practice were eligible and completed a 47-item survey. There were 1181 qualified participants (62% physicians). Although 96% viewed genetic testing as beneficial for their patients, 75% believed fear of genetic discrimination would cause patients to decline testing. More than 60% were not aware of federal or California laws prohibiting health insurance discrimination--concern about genetic discrimination was selected as a reason for nonreferral by 11%. A positive attitude toward genetic testing was the strongest predictor of referral (odds ratio: 3.55 [95% confidence interval: 2.24-5.63], P genetic discrimination, the less likely a participant was to refer (odds ratio: 0.72 [95% confidence interval: 0.518-0.991], P genetic discrimination law was associated with comfort recommending (odds ratio: 1.18 [95% confidence interval: 1.11-1.25], P genetic discrimination and knowledge deficits may be barriers to cancer genetics referrals. Clinician education may help promote access to cancer screening and prevention.
Full Text Available Although home-based care (HBC programs are widely implemented throughout Africa, their success depends on the existence of an enabling environment, including a referral system and supply of essential commodities. The objective of this study was to explore the current state of client referral patterns and practices by community care workers (CCWs, in an evolving environment of one rural South African sub-district. Using a participant triangulation approach, in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 17 CCWs, 32 HBC clients and 32 primary caregivers (PCGs. An open-ended interview guide was used for data collection. Participants were selected from comprehensive lists of CCWs and their clients, using a diversified criterion-based sampling method. Three independent researchers coded three sets of data - CCWs, Clients and PCGs, for referral patterns and practices of CCWs. Referrals from clinics and hospitals to HBC occurred infrequently, as only eight (25% of the 32 clients interviewed were formally referred. Community care workers showed high levels of commitment and personal investment in supporting their clients to use the formal health care system. They went to the extent of using their own personal resources. Seven CCWs used their own money to ensure client access to clinics, and eight gave their own food to ensure treatment adherence. Community care workers are essential in linking clients to clinics and hospitals and to promote the appropriate use of medical services, although this effort frequently necessitated consumption of their own personal resources. Therefore, risk protection strategies are urgently needed so as to ensure sustainability of the current work performed by HBC organizations and the CCW volunteers.
Sips, Ilona; Haeri Mazanderani, Ahmad; Schneider, Helen; Greeff, Minrie; Barten, Francoise; Moshabela, Mosa
Although home-based care (HBC) programs are widely implemented throughout Africa, their success depends on the existence of an enabling environment, including a referral system and supply of essential commodities. The objective of this study was to explore the current state of client referral patterns and practices by community care workers (CCWs), in an evolving environment of one rural South African sub-district. Using a participant triangulation approach, in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 17 CCWs, 32 HBC clients and 32 primary caregivers (PCGs). An open-ended interview guide was used for data collection. Participants were selected from comprehensive lists of CCWs and their clients, using a diversified criterion-based sampling method. Three independent researchers coded three sets of data - CCWs, Clients and PCGs, for referral patterns and practices of CCWs. Referrals from clinics and hospitals to HBC occurred infrequently, as only eight (25%) of the 32 clients interviewed were formally referred. Community care workers showed high levels of commitment and personal investment in supporting their clients to use the formal health care system. They went to the extent of using their own personal resources. Seven CCWs used their own money to ensure client access to clinics, and eight gave their own food to ensure treatment adherence. Community care workers are essential in linking clients to clinics and hospitals and to promote the appropriate use of medical services, although this effort frequently necessitated consumption of their own personal resources. Therefore, risk protection strategies are urgently needed so as to ensure sustainability of the current work performed by HBC organizations and the CCW volunteers.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Swedish society, as in many other societies, many children and adolescents with mental health problems do not receive the help they need. As the Swedish society becomes increasingly multicultural, and as ethnic and economic residential segregation become more pronounced, this study utilises ethnicity and neighbourhood context to examine referral pathways to child and adolescent psychiatric (CAP clinics. Methods The analysis examines four different sources of referrals: family referrals, social/legal agency referrals, school referrals and health/mental health referrals. The referrals of 2054 children aged 11-19 from the Stockholm Child-Psychiatric Database were studied using multilevel logistic regression analyses. Results Results indicate that ethnicity played an important role in how children and adolescents were referred to CAP-clinics. Family referrals were more common among children and adolescents with a Swedish background than among those with an immigrant background. Referrals by social/legal agencies were more common among children and adolescents with African and Asian backgrounds. Children with Asian or South American backgrounds were more likely to have been referred by schools or by the health/mental health care sector. A significant neighbourhood effect was found in relation to family referrals. Children and adolescents from neighbourhoods with low levels of socioeconomic deprivation were more likely to be referred to CAP-clinics by their families in comparison to children from other neighbourhoods. Such differences were not found in relation in relation to the other sources of referral. Conclusions This article reports findings that can be an important first step toward increasing knowledge on reasons behind differential referral rates and uptake of psychiatric care in an ethnically diverse Swedish sample. These findings have implications for the design and evaluation of community mental health outreach
Wang, Jen-Pang; Wu, Chia-Yi; Chiu, Chih-Chiang; Yang, Tsu-Hui; Liu, Tzong-Hsien; Chou, Pesus
The police are the frontline workers in crisis situations involving patients with severe mental illness and act as a primary referral source for psychiatric emergency services (PES) in the community. The aims of this study were to investigate the distribution and characteristics of police referral among psychiatric patients in Taiwan. The study cohort consisted of patients who visited the PES of Taipei City Psychiatric Center from January 2009 to December 2010. The associations between the factors of demographics, clinical characteristics, and psychiatric service utilization and police referral were evaluated. Among the 7656 psychiatric emergency visits, 3029 (39.6%) were referred by the police. These patients referred by police were more likely to be male and aged between 30 to 49 years. Clinical factors related to police referrals including a higher triage assessment level, chief problems included violence, disturbance, substance use, less anxiety, and a diagnosis of unspecified psychosis. The triage assessment level and chief problems assessed by nurses were major predictors. These patients tended to be referred from the catchment area and during the nighttime shift, were discharged during the daytime shift, and stayed longer in the PES. Disposition arrangements such as discharge against medical advice and involuntary admission were also associated with police referrals. Patients referred by the police to the PES were those with more severe psychiatric problems and illnesses assessed by psychiatric nurses and psychiatrists. They tended to have more complex service utilization at the PES. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Samant, Rajiv S.; Fitzgibbon, Edward; Meng, Joanne; Graham, Ian D.
Radiotherapy is an effective but underutilized treatment modality for cancer patients. We decided to investigate the factors influencing radiotherapy referral among family physicians in our region. A 30-item survey was developed to determine palliative radiotherapy knowledge and factors influencing referral. It was sent to 400 physicians in eastern Ontario (Canada) and the completed surveys were evaluated. The overall response rate was 50% with almost all physicians seeing cancer patients recently (97%) and the majority (80%) providing palliative care. Approximately 56% had referred patients for radiotherapy previously and 59% were aware of the regional community oncology program. Factors influencing radiotherapy referral included the following: waiting times for radiotherapy consultation and treatment, uncertainty about the benefits of radiotherapy, patient age, and perceived patient inconvenience. Physicians who referred patients for radiotherapy were more than likely to provide palliative care, work outside of urban centres, have hospital privileges and had sought advice from a radiation oncologist in the past. A variety of factors influence the referral of cancer patients for radiotherapy by family physicians and addressing issues such as long waiting times, lack of palliative radiotherapy knowledge and awareness of Cancer Centre services could increase the rate of appropriate radiotherapy patient referral
Kniss, Andreas; Schuetz, Denise; Kazemi, Sina; Pluska, Lukas; Spindler, Philipp E; Rogov, Vladimir V; Husnjak, Koraljka; Dikic, Ivan; Güntert, Peter; Sommer, Thomas; Prisner, Thomas F; Dötsch, Volker
Ubiquitination is the most versatile posttranslational modification. The information is encoded by linkage type as well as chain length, which are translated by ubiquitin binding domains into specific signaling events. Chain topology determines the conformational space of a ubiquitin chain and adds an additional regulatory layer to this ubiquitin code. In particular, processes that modify chain length will be affected by chain conformations as they require access to the elongation or cleavage sites. We investigated conformational distributions in the context of chain elongation and disassembly using pulsed electron-electron double resonance spectroscopy in combination with molecular modeling. Analysis of the conformational space of diubiquitin revealed conformational selection or remodeling as mechanisms for chain recognition during elongation or hydrolysis, respectively. Chain elongation to tetraubiquitin increases the sampled conformational space, suggesting that a high intrinsic flexibility of K48-linked chains may contribute to efficient proteasomal degradation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Detección de Chlamydia trachomatis en muestras de exudado endocervical por la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in samples of endocervical exudate by polymerase chain reaction
Maydelín Frontela Noda
polymerase chain reaction (PCR with primers KL1 and KL2 specific for the plasmid. The samples were assayed by PCR-plasmid, by cell culture and by another method of PCR based on the amplification of a region of the main protein of the external membrane (MOMP of Chlamydia, which was used as a confirmatory trial. It was observed that in 43 samples the results of the culture and of the PCR-plasmid coincided: 4 positive and 39 negative. The other 16 had discordant results. An inhibition study was conducted in the 8 culture negative/PCR-plasmid positive samples and it was proved that 2 of them had inhibitors, whose action was reverted on adding BSA to the reaction mixture. Of the 8 negative culture/positive PCR-plasmid discordant samples, 5 were confirmed as positive after being processed by PCR-MOMP. Taking the coincidence of at least 2 of the 3 assayed methods as a positive true criterion, 100 % of sensitivity and 94 % of specificity were obtained for PCR-plasmid compared with 54 % and 87 % for the culture, respectively. The PCR-plasmid presented a positive predictive value of 79 % and a negative predictive value of 100 %; whereas the culture had 50 % and 89 %, respectively. It was proved that the results of the PCR-plasmid under our laboratory conditions are reliable in the diagnosis of Chlamydia in samples of endocervical exudate.
1 - Description of program or function: CHAINS computes the atom density of members of a single radioactive decay chain. The linearity of the Bateman equations allows tracing of interconnecting chains by manually accumulating results from separate calculations of single chains. Re-entrant loops can be treated as extensions of a single chain. Losses from the chain are also tallied. 2 - Method of solution: The Bateman equations are solved analytically using double-precision arithmetic. Poles are avoided by small alterations of the loss terms. Multigroup fluxes, cross sections, and self-shielding factors entered as input are used to compute the effective specific reaction rates. The atom densities are computed at any specified times. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Maxima of 100 energy groups, 100 time values, 50 members in a chain
Jongerden, Loes; Simon, Ellin; Bodden, Denise H M; Dirksen, Carmen D; Bögels, Susan M
This study aims to identify factors that predict the mental health care referral of anxious children. In total, 249 children and families, aged 8-13 years, participated: 73 children were referred with anxiety disorders to mental health care [mean (M) age = 10.28, standard deviation (SD) = 1.35], 176 non-referred anxious children recruited in primary schools (M age = 9.94, SD = 1.22). Child anxiety and other disorders were assessed with semi-structured interviews. Child anxiety symptoms, behavioural problems, parental anxiety, the parenting styles overprotection, autonomy encouragement, rejection, and the family functioning dimensions control and relational functioning, were assessed with child, father and mother report on questionnaires. The summed interference rating of children's anxiety disorders was a predictor of referral, consistent over child and parent reports, but not comorbidity. Most family and parenting variables did not predict referral, nor differed between the referred and non-referred sample. Contrary to our hypothesis, maternal self-reported anxiety decreased the odds of referral and child reported parental autonomy granting increased, while child reported overprotection decreased the odds of referral. The impairment for the child due to the number and severity of their anxiety disorder(s) is, based on child, mother and father report associated with referral. This indicates that those who need it most, receive clinical treatment. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Slats, P.A.; Bhola, B.; Evers, J.J.M.; Dijkhuizen, G.
Logistic chain modelling is very important in improving the overall performance of the total logistic chain. Logistic models provide support for a large range of applications, such as analysing bottlenecks, improving customer service, configuring new logistic chains and adapting existing chains to
... section, the railroad treats the referral and subsequent handling, including counseling and treatment, as confidential. (3) The railroad will, to the extent necessary for treatment and rehabilitation, grant the employee a leave of absence from the railroad for the period necessary to complete primary treatment and...
The distribution of oesophageal, liver, stomach and colorectal cancers diagnosed per year across the five referral hospitals was ... Conclusion: Oesophageal, liver, stomach and colorectal cancer remain the most common gastrointestinal malignancies and their rate is .... intake, poor dietary patterns such as consumption of a.
clinical practice in both primary and secondary care.4 It is therefore ... specifically related to stigma4, severity of illness and past ... patients, stigma, concerns about the effect of psychiatric referral on ... They found the use of psychotropic drugs often necessary, ... The cross-sectional study was conducted at the University of.
Most patients were young males from Addis Ababa-the capital. The commonest single diagnosis was osteoarthritis, followed by ACL tear. The top three procedures for which the patients were referred are total hip replacement, ACL reconstruction and total knee replacement. Inter-consultant variation in number of referrals ...
Molecular confirmation of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) was introduced in South Africa (SA) at the end of 2011. We report on the detection of these resistance genes based on referral isolates. Enterobacteriaceae with non-susceptibility to any of the carbapenems according to defined criteria for ...
Dijk, C.E. van; Verheij, R.A.; Hansen, J.; Velden, L. van der; Nijpels, G.; Groenewegen, P.P.; Bakker, D.H. de
BACKGROUND: Primary care nurses play an important role in diabetes care, and were introduced in GP-practice partly to shift care from hospital to primary care. The aim of this study was to assess whether the referral rate for hospital treatment for diabetes type II (T2DM) patients has changed with
... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Referral to Department of Justice. 15.8 Section 15.8 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS UNDER THE FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT AND RELATED... Justice. An award, compromise or settlement of a claim under § 2672 title 28, United States Code, and this...
The paper discusses a small segment of the findings of a sociolinguistic study that was conducted at a Republic of China-funded referral hospital located in the predominantly Chitumbuka-speaking Northern Malawi. The main objective of the study was to identify linguistic barriers to communication that existed at the hospital ...
Delays in diagnosis, referral and management of head and neck cancer presenting at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. ... Vol 83, No 4 (2006) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Background: The most important prognostic factor in head and neck cancer is the stage of the disease at presentation.
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intake, referrals and targeting. 628.510 Section 628.510 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR PROGRAMS... training have been provided subsequent to the objective assessment. (g) The SDA's method of meeting the...
Wijers, D.; Wieske, L.; Vergouwen, M. D. I.; Richard, E.; Stam, J.; Smets, E. M. A.
Although the number of neurological second opinions (SOs) and tertiary referrals (TRs) is increasing, only little is known about expectations and patient satisfaction in this group of patients. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore expectations of patients who get a neurological SO or
Bender, A D; Geoghegan, S S; Lundquist, S H; Cantone, J M; Krasnick, C J
With increasing competition among hospitals, primary care referral development and management programs offer an opportunity for hospitals to increase their admissions. Such programs require careful development, the commitment of the hospital staff to the strategy, an integration of hospital activities, and an understanding of medical practice management.
The process in deciding to seek referral care is envisaged within community perception of seriousness of the condition, difficulty to access and cost involved in transport, living expenses at the hospital, and perceived quality of care at facility level. The hospitals were seen as providing acceptable quality of care, whereas, the ...
Predicting referral practices of traditional healers of their patients with a mental illness: An application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour. ... From the TPB application, the following cognitive variables were found to predict intentions: attitudes (ß = 0.612, p< 0.01); perceived behavioural control (ß = 0.355, p< 0.01); and past ...
Nov 1, 2013 ... One can find support for all three proposals in the scientific literature.. Though this is a ... associations is the particular risk that the schizophrenic patient ... illness. This is comparable to the current study, in that all referrals for.
Wood, Joanne N.; Pecker, Lydia H.; Russo, Michael E.; Henretig, Fred; Christian, Cindy W.
Objective: Although the majority of poisonings in young children are due to exploratory ingestions and might be prevented through improved caregiver supervision, the circumstances that warrant evaluation for suspected maltreatment and referral to Child Protective Services (CPS) are unclear. Therefore the objective of this study was to determine…
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Referral to Administrative Law Judge. 502.37 Section 502.37 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS ENFORCEMENT OF CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS FOR TEMPORARY ALIEN AGRICULTURAL WORKERS ADMITTED UNDER SECTION 218 OF...
Background. Referral between psychiatrists and spiritual workers (e.g. Christian pastoral care workers, traditional healers, imams, rabbis and others) in the heterogeneous South African (SA) society is complicated and requires investigation to establish appropriate norms. Objective. To capture the views of some local ...
Matloob, Samir A; Hyam, Jonathan A; Thorne, Lewis; Bradford, Robert
Documentation of urgent referrals to neurosurgical units and communication with referring hospitals is critical for effective handover and appropriate continuity of care within a tertiary service. Referrals to our neurosurgical unit were audited and we found that the majority of referrals were not documented and this led to more calls to the on-call neurosurgery registrar regarding old referrals. We implemented a new referral system in an attempt to improve documentation of referrals, communication with our referring hospitals and to professionalise the service we offer them. During a 14-day period, number of bleeps, missed bleeps, calls discussing new referrals and previously processed referrals were recorded. Whether new referrals were appropriately documented and referrers received a written response was also recorded. A commercially provided secure cloud-based data archiving telecommunications and database platform for referrals was subsequently introduced within the Trust and the questionnaire repeated during another 14-day period 1 year after implementation. Missed bleeps per day reduced from 16% (SD ± 6.4%) to 9% (SD ± 4.8%; df = 13, paired t-tests p = 0.007) and mean calls per day clarifying previous referrals reduced from 10 (SD ± 4) to 5 (SD ± 3.5; df = 13, p = 0.003). Documentation of new referrals increased from 43% (74/174) to 85% (181/210), and responses to referrals increased from 74% to 98%. The use of a secure cloud-based data archiving telecommunications and database platform significantly increased the documentation of new referrals. This led to fewer missed bleeps and fewer calls about old referrals for the on call registrar. This system of documenting referrals results in improved continuity of care for neurosurgical patients, a significant reduction in risk for Trusts and a more efficient use of Registrar time.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Recognition and referral of sick children to a facility where they can obtain appropriate treatment is critical for helping reduce child mortality. A well-functioning referral system and compliance by caretakers with referrals are essential. This paper examines referral patterns for sick children, and factors that influence caretakers’ compliance with referral of sick children to higher-level health facilities in Afghanistan. Methods The study was conducted in 5 rural districts of 5 Afghan provinces using interviews with parents or caretakers in 492 randomly selected households with a child from 0 to 2 years old who had been sick within the previous 2 weeks with diarrhea, acute respiratory infection (ARI, or fever. Data collectors from local nongovernmental organizations used a questionnaire to assess compliance with a referral recommendation and identify barriers to compliance. Results The number of referrals, 99 out of 492 cases, was reasonable. We found a high number of referrals by community health workers (CHWs, especially for ARI. Caretakers were more likely to comply with referral recommendations from community members (relative, friend, CHW, traditional healer than with recommendations from health workers (at public clinics and hospitals or private clinics and pharmacies. Distance and transportation costs did not create barriers for most families of referred sick children. Although the average cost of transportation in a subsample of 75 cases was relatively high (US$11.28, most families (63% who went to the referral site walked and hence paid nothing. Most caretakers (75% complied with referral advice. Use of referral slips by health care providers was higher for urgent referrals, and receiving a referral slip significantly increased caretakers’ compliance with referral. Conclusions Use of referral slips is important to increase compliance with referral recommendations in rural Afghanistan.
Newbrander, William; Ickx, Paul; Werner, Robert; Mujadidi, Farooq
Recognition and referral of sick children to a facility where they can obtain appropriate treatment is critical for helping reduce child mortality. A well-functioning referral system and compliance by caretakers with referrals are essential. This paper examines referral patterns for sick children, and factors that influence caretakers' compliance with referral of sick children to higher-level health facilities in Afghanistan. The study was conducted in 5 rural districts of 5 Afghan provinces using interviews with parents or caretakers in 492 randomly selected households with a child from 0 to 2 years old who had been sick within the previous 2 weeks with diarrhea, acute respiratory infection (ARI), or fever. Data collectors from local nongovernmental organizations used a questionnaire to assess compliance with a referral recommendation and identify barriers to compliance. The number of referrals, 99 out of 492 cases, was reasonable. We found a high number of referrals by community health workers (CHWs), especially for ARI. Caretakers were more likely to comply with referral recommendations from community members (relative, friend, CHW, traditional healer) than with recommendations from health workers (at public clinics and hospitals or private clinics and pharmacies). Distance and transportation costs did not create barriers for most families of referred sick children. Although the average cost of transportation in a subsample of 75 cases was relatively high (US$11.28), most families (63%) who went to the referral site walked and hence paid nothing. Most caretakers (75%) complied with referral advice. Use of referral slips by health care providers was higher for urgent referrals, and receiving a referral slip significantly increased caretakers' compliance with referral. Use of referral slips is important to increase compliance with referral recommendations in rural Afghanistan.
...) Describe the procedures used in conducting any tests, including the sample selection criteria, sample size... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Food-chain crops. 264.276 Section 264... Treatment § 264.276 Food-chain crops. The Regional Administrator may allow the growth of food-chain crops in...
Huang, M.; Ray, J.; Ren, H.; Hou, Z.; Bao, J.
Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods are used to infer model parameters from observational data. The parameters are inferred as probability densities, thus capturing estimation error due to sparsity of the data, and the shortcomings of the model. Multiple communicating chains executing the MCMC method have the potential to explore the parameter space better, and conceivably accelerate the convergence to the final distribution. We present results from tests conducted with the multi-chain method to show how the acceleration occurs i.e., for loose convergence tolerances, the multiple chains do not make much of a difference. The ensemble of chains also seems to have the ability to accelerate the convergence of a few chains that might start from suboptimal starting points. Finally, we show the performance of the chains in the estimation of O(10) parameters using computationally expensive forward models such as the Community Land Model, where the sampling burden is distributed over multiple chains.
Lee, Joo-Young; Jung, Dooyoung; Kim, Won-Hyoung; Lee, Hyuk-Joon; Noh, Dong-Young; Hahm, Bong-Jin
Depression in cancer patients is under-recognized and under-treated. To better identify depression, we designed a voluntary depression screening system. Based on its data, we examined trends in oncologist-issued referrals for the psycho-oncology service (POS). The Electronic Voluntary Screening and Referral System for Depression (eVSRS-D) comprises self-screening, automated reporting, and referral guidance. Using touch-screen kiosks at a tertiary hospital in Korea, participants with cancer completed the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 at their convenience, received the results, and reported their willingness to participate in POS. At oncology appointments, oncologists received the screening reports and issued referrals following pre-recommended guidelines. The correlates of actual referrals were examined across all participants and within the willing and non-willing groups. Among the 838 participants, 56.3% reported severe depression symptoms, 30.5% wanted a referral, and 14.8% were actually referred. The correlates of participants' desire for referral were more severe depression symptoms, being unmarried, and being metastasis and recurrence free. Among all participants, the correlates of actual referrals were unemployment, less severe depression symptoms, poorer performance, treatment status, and wanting a referral. The sole correlate of actual referrals within the non-willing group was poorer performance, and no significant correlates existed within the willing group. The non-referrals were mostly (87.1%) because of postponed decisions. The eVSRS-D cannot definitively diagnose major depression but may efficiently self-select a population with significant depression symptoms. The patients' willingness to engage the POS most strongly predicted the actual referrals. Oncologist reviews of screening reports may not result in further depression severity-specific referrals. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
healthcare systems in certain regions of SA. ... Care Unit owing to incorrect use of referral pathways or during ... Due to budget constraints, limited resources .... Hospital. Home. Primary care clinic. Fig. 2. Origin of referral for each SD for 2011.
Andersen, Merethe Kirstine Kousgaard; Torfing, Trine; Ulrichsen, Walther
and MRI regarding musculoskeletal issues. The reviews were conducted according to a preformed registration schema. Themes for the survey were: Relevance of referral, relevance of chosen modality, exhaustiveness of referral information, relevance of information and eventual suggestions for a more relevant......-scanning was the most relevant (87%). Overall, referral information was relevant in 80% of the cases, and most relevant in referrals to x-ray (87%). In 9.5% of referrals the chosen modality was not the optimal, which was most pronounced for ultrasound referrals (13%). Referral information was most insufficient...... regarding MRI, where 56.4% of information was described as less insufficient/insufficient. It was a frequent notation, that there was too much irrelevant information, which was ascribed to copy-paste from the general practitioners’ records. Conclusion A majority of referrals from general practice...
Conclusions Three iterations of the model correctly predicted at least 75% of the approved referrals in the validation set. A correct prediction of whether or not a referral will be approved can be made in three out of four cases.
Berney, M J
Sagittal synostosis (SS) is the commonest form of craniosynostosis. Children with sagittal synostosis in Ireland are treated in the National Paediatric Craniofacial Centre (NPCC) in Temple Street Children’s University Hospital. This retrospective study analysed the correlation between referral patterns to the unit and age at operation. The notes of 81 patients referred over a 5 year period (April 2008 – April 2013) to the NPCC with non-syndromic SS were reviewed and demographics and referral information were recorded. Of 81 patients reviewed, 60 (74%) were referred before 6 months of age, while 21 (26%) had late referrals. Neonatologists referred 100% of infants before 6 months, paediatricians referred 71%, and GPs 64%. Later referral was associated with a more complex referral pathway, including multiple-steps of referral and unnecessary investigations. Improved clinician knowledge and emphasis on the importance of early referral may lead to a reduction in late referrals.
Sopeña-Sutil, R; Tejido-Sánchez, A; Galván-Ortiz de Urbina, M; Guerrero-Ramos, F; García-Álvarez, G; Passas-Martínez, J B
To analyze the evolution of primary care referrals to the Urology Department after the implementation of a joint protocol on prostate disease and a continuing education program in our healthcare area. In January 2011, we launched an action protocol on prostate disease, which was complemented by training sessions and an e-mail-based consultation system. We analyzed primary care referrals to the Urology Department between 2011 and 2013 and determined the reasons for the consultations and the compliance with the established criteria on prostate disease. We obtained data from the "Request for Appointment in Specialized Care" program of the Community of Madrid. We calculated the sample size with a 95% confidence level and a 50% heterogeneity. A total of 19,048 referrals were conducted. The most common reason for the referrals was lower urinary tract symptoms associated with benign prostate hyperplasia, with a 27% reduction and a compliance that went from 46% at 67%. Although prostate-specific antigen consultations increased by 40%, they improved their appropriateness (from 55% to 72%). This was the main type of consultation for suspicion of malignancy (30%). Also worth mentioning were female incontinence, which doubled in number, and a 41% reduction in erectile dysfunction, which could be due to the primary care training. The collaboration between the Department of Urology and primary care succeeded in improving the appropriateness of prostate disease referrals and modified the tendency to refer the rest of the diseases included in the project. Copyright © 2014 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Allergy is a serious and apparently increasing public health problem yet relatively little is known about the types of allergy seen in routine tertiary practice, including their spatial distribution, co-occurrence or referral patterns. This study reviewed referrals over an eleven year period to a regional allergy clinic that had a well defined geographical boundary. For those patients confirmed as having an allergy we explored: (i differences over time and by demographics, (ii types of allergy, (iii co-occurrence, and (iv spatial distributions. Methods Data were extracted from consultant letters to GPs, from September 1998 to September 2009, for patients confirmed as having an allergy. Other data included referral statistics and population data by postcode. Simple descriptive analysis was used to describe types of allergy. We calculated 11 year standardised morbidity ratios for postcode districts and checked for spatial clustering. We present maps showing 11 year rates by postcode, and 'difference' maps which try to separate referral effect from possible environmental effect. Results Of 5778 referrals, 961 patients were diagnosed with an allergy. These were referred by a total of 672 different GPs. There were marked differences in referral patterns between GP practices and also individual GPs. The mean age of patients was 35 and there were considerably more females (65% than males. Airborne allergies were the most frequent (623, and there were very high rates of co-occurrence of pollen, house dust mite, and animal hair allergies. Less than half (410 patients had a food allergy, with nuts, fruit, and seafood being the most common allergens. Fifteen percent (142 had both a food and a non-food allergy. Certain food allergies were more likely to co-occur, for example, patients allergic to dairy products were more likely to be allergic to egg. There were age differences by types of allergy; people referred with food allergies were
Bals, Lydia; Tate, Wendy
A significant conceptual and practical challenge is how to integrate triple bottom line (TBL; including economic, social and environmental) sustainability into global supply chains. Although this integration is necessary to slow down global resource depletion, understanding is limited of how...... to implement TBL goals across the supply chain. In supply chain design, the classic economic perspective still dominates, although the idea of the TBL is more widely disseminated. The purpose of this research is to add to the sustainable supply chain management literature (SSCM) research agenda...... by incorporating the physical chain, and the (information and financial) support chains into supply chain design. This manuscript tackles issues of what the chains are designed for and how they are designed structurally. Four sustainable businesses are used as illustrative case examples of innovative supply chain...
Hysong, Sylvia J; Esquivel, Adol; Sittig, Dean F; Paul, Lindsey A; Espadas, Donna; Singh, Simran; Singh, Hardeep
Successful subspecialty referrals require considerable coordination and interactive communication among the primary care provider (PCP), the subspecialist, and the patient, which may be challenging in the outpatient setting. Even when referrals are facilitated by electronic health records (EHRs) (i.e., e-referrals), lapses in patient follow-up might occur. Although compelling reasons exist why referral coordination should be improved, little is known about which elements of the complex referral coordination process should be targeted for improvement. Using Okhuysen & Bechky's coordination framework, this paper aims to understand the barriers, facilitators, and suggestions for improving communication and coordination of EHR-based referrals in an integrated healthcare system. We conducted a qualitative study to understand coordination breakdowns related to e-referrals in an integrated healthcare system and examined work-system factors that affect the timely receipt of subspecialty care. We conducted interviews with seven subject matter experts and six focus groups with a total of 30 PCPs and subspecialists at two tertiary care Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) medical centers. Using techniques from grounded theory and content analysis, we identified organizational themes that affected the referral process. Four themes emerged: lack of an institutional referral policy, lack of standardization in certain referral procedures, ambiguity in roles and responsibilities, and inadequate resources to adapt and respond to referral requests effectively. Marked differences in PCPs' and subspecialists' communication styles and individual mental models of the referral processes likely precluded the development of a shared mental model to facilitate coordination and successful referral completion. Notably, very few barriers related to the EHR were reported. Despite facilitating information transfer between PCPs and subspecialists, e-referrals remain prone to coordination
Paul Lindsey A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Successful subspecialty referrals require considerable coordination and interactive communication among the primary care provider (PCP, the subspecialist, and the patient, which may be challenging in the outpatient setting. Even when referrals are facilitated by electronic health records (EHRs (i.e., e-referrals, lapses in patient follow-up might occur. Although compelling reasons exist why referral coordination should be improved, little is known about which elements of the complex referral coordination process should be targeted for improvement. Using Okhuysen & Bechky's coordination framework, this paper aims to understand the barriers, facilitators, and suggestions for improving communication and coordination of EHR-based referrals in an integrated healthcare system. Methods We conducted a qualitative study to understand coordination breakdowns related to e-referrals in an integrated healthcare system and examined work-system factors that affect the timely receipt of subspecialty care. We conducted interviews with seven subject matter experts and six focus groups with a total of 30 PCPs and subspecialists at two tertiary care Department of Veterans Affairs (VA medical centers. Using techniques from grounded theory and content analysis, we identified organizational themes that affected the referral process. Results Four themes emerged: lack of an institutional referral policy, lack of standardization in certain referral procedures, ambiguity in roles and responsibilities, and inadequate resources to adapt and respond to referral requests effectively. Marked differences in PCPs' and subspecialists' communication styles and individual mental models of the referral processes likely precluded the development of a shared mental model to facilitate coordination and successful referral completion. Notably, very few barriers related to the EHR were reported. Conclusions Despite facilitating information transfer between PCPs and
... 0720-AB36 TRICARE: Non-Physician Referrals for Physical Therapy, Occupational Therapy, and Speech... referrals of beneficiaries to the Military Health System for physical therapy, occupational therapy, and... practitioners will be allowed to issue referrals to patients for physical therapy, occupational therapy, and...
Conclusions: Patient referral systems in Liberia are relatively unsystematic. While formal and informal mechanisms for referrals exist at both rural and urban health facilities, establishing guidelines for referral care practices and transportation strategies tailored to each of these settings will help to strengthen the healthcare system as a whole.
... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Referrals to the Department of Justice. 11.13 Section 11.13 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CLAIMS § 11.13 Referrals to the Department of Justice. Referrals of debts to the Department of Justice for collection will...
... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Referral to the Department of Justice. 304.9... Procedures § 304.9 Referral to the Department of Justice. When Department of Justice approval or consultation is required under § 304.8, the referral or request shall be transmitted to the Department of Justice...
... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum amount of referrals to the Department of Justice... THE UNITED STATES Referrals to the Department of Justice § 1015.505 Minimum amount of referrals to the Department of Justice. (a) DOE shall not refer for litigation claims of less than $2,500, exclusive of...
... referrals to the Department of Justice. 1.953 Section 1.953 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL PROVISIONS Referrals to Gao, Department of Justice, Or Irs § 1.953 Minimum amount of referrals to the Department of Justice. (a) Except as otherwise provided in paragraphs...
... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Referral to the Department of Justice. 15.67 Section 15.67 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DEBT COLLECTION PROCEDURES Referral of a Claim § 15.67 Referral to the Department of Justice. (a) Unless excepted by DOJ, the NRC shall complete the CCLR accompanied by...
Objectives: To determine the referral pattern and assess the quality and accuracy of referral letters to the ophthalmic outpatient clinic of University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu. Methods: This study is a prospective cross-sectional survey of all new ophthalmic referrals to the ophthalmic outpatient clinic at University of ...
Conner-Spady, Barbara L; Marshall, Deborah A; Bohm, Eric; Dunbar, Michael J; Loucks, Lynda; Hennigar, Allan W; Frank, Cy; Noseworthy, Tom W
Although the option of next available surgeon can be found on surgeon referral forms for total joint replacement surgery, its selection varies across surgical practices. Objectives are to assess the determinants of (a) a patient's request for a particular surgeon; and (b) the actual referral to a specific versus the next available surgeon. Questionnaires were mailed to 306 consecutive patients referred to orthopedic surgeons. We assessed quality of life (Oxford Hip and Knee scores, Short Form-12, EuroQol 5D, Pain Visual Analogue Scale), referral experience, and the importance of surgeon choice, surgeon reputation, and wait time. We used logistic regression to build models for the 2 objectives. We obtained 176 respondents (response rate, 58%), 60% female, 65% knee patients, mean age of 65 years, with no significant differences between responders versus nonresponders. Forty-three percent requested a particular surgeon. Seventy-one percent were referred to a specific surgeon. Patients who rated surgeon choice as very/extremely important [adjusted odds ratio (OR), 6.54; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.57-16.64] and with household incomes of $90,000+ versus <$30,000 (OR, 5.74; 95% CI, 1.56-21.03) were more likely to request a particular surgeon. Hip patients (OR, 3.03; 95% CI, 1.18-7.78), better Physical Component Summary-12 (OR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.02-1.63), and patients who rated surgeon choice as very/extremely important (OR, 3.88; 95% CI, 1.56-9.70) were more likely to be referred to a specific surgeon. Most patients want some choice in the referral decision. Providing sufficient information is important, so that patients are aware of their choices and can make an informed choice. Some patients prefer a particular surgeon despite longer wait times.
Down-referral was associated with reduced transportation and meal costs (p ≤ 0.001) and travel time to an ART facility (p = 0.043). The down-referred users were less likely to complain of long queues (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.06; 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 0.01–0.29), were more likely to feel respected by health ...
Sørensen, Olav Jull
The conference paper aims to develop the global value chain concept by including corporate internal value adding activities and competition to the basic framework in order to turn the global value chain into a strategic management tool......The conference paper aims to develop the global value chain concept by including corporate internal value adding activities and competition to the basic framework in order to turn the global value chain into a strategic management tool...
Hagedorn Douglas WJ
Full Text Available Abstract Background Limited access to weight management care can have a negative impact on the health and well-being of obese children and youth. Our objectives were to describe the characteristics of clients referred to a pediatric weight management centre and explore potential differences according to proximity. Methods All demographic and anthropometric data were abstracted from standardized, one-page referral forms, which were received by a pediatric weight management centre in Edmonton, AB (Canada between April, 2005 and April, 2009. Results Referrals (n = 555; 52% male; age [mean +/- standard deviation]: 12.4 +/- 2.6 y; BMI: 32.3 +/- 6.8 kg/m2; BMI percentile: 98.4 +/- 1.7; BMI z-score: 2.3 +/- 0.4 were received from 311 physicians. Approximately 95% of referrals were for boys and girls classified as obese or very obese. Based on postal code data, individuals were dichotomized as either living within (local; n = 455 or beyond (distant; n = 100 the Edmonton Census Metropolitan Area. Numerous families resided several hundred kilometres away from our centre. Overall, distant clients were taller, weighed more, and were more overweight than their local counterparts. For distant clients, the degree of overweight was higher in youth versus children. Conclusion Pediatric weight management services must be designed to optimize access to health services, especially for distant clients who may be at increased obesity-related health risk.
W. F. Harris
Full Text Available A previous paper develops the general theory of aperture referral in linear optics and shows how several ostensibly distinct concepts, including the blur patch on the retina, the effective corneal patch, the projective field and the field of view, are now unified as particular applications of the general theory. The theory allows for astigmatism and heterocentricity. Symplecticity and the generality of the approach, however, make it difficult to gain insight and mean that the material is not accessible to readers unfamiliar with matrices and linear algebra. The purpose of this paper is to examine whatis, perhaps, the most important special case, that in which astigmatism is ignored. Symplecticity and, hence, the mathematics become greatly simplified. The mathematics reduces largely to elementary vector algebra and, in some places, simple scalar algebra and yet retains the mathematical form of the general approach. As a result the paper allows insight into and provides a stepping stone to the general theory. Under referral an aperture under-goes simple scalar magnification and transverse translation. The paper pays particular attention to referral to transverse planes in the neighbourhood of a focal point where the magnification may be positive, zero or negative. Circular apertures are treated as special cases of elliptical apertures and the meaning of referred apertures of negative radius is explained briefly. (S Afr Optom 2012 71(1 3-11
Seo, B; Hussaini, H M; Rich, A M
Referral for a second opinion is an important aspect of pathology practice, which reduces the rate of diagnostic error and ensures consistency with diagnoses. The Oral Pathology Centre (OPC) is the only specialist oral diagnostic centre in New Zealand. OPC provides diagnostic services to dentists and dental specialists throughout New Zealand and acts as a referral centre for second opinions for oral pathology specimens that have been sent to anatomical pathologists. The aim of this study was to review second opinion referral cases sent to the OPC over a 15-year period and to assess the levels of concordance between the original and final diagnoses. The findings indicated that the majority of referred cases were odontogenic lesions, followed by connective tissue, epithelial and salivary lesions. The most prevalent diagnoses were ameloblastoma and keratocystic odontogenic tumour, followed by oral squamous cell carcinoma. Discordant diagnoses were recorded in 24% of cases. Diagnostic discrepancies were higher in odontogenic and salivary gland lesions, resulting in the change of diagnoses. Second opinion of oral pathology cases should be encouraged in view of the relative rarity of these lesions in general pathology laboratories and the rates of diagnostic discrepancy, particularly for odontogenic and salivary gland lesions. Copyright © 2017 Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Mustard, C.A.; McClarty, B.M.; MacEwan, D.W. [Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg, MB (Canada)
The influence of referral protocols on the utilization of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) services was studied. Three neuroradiologists and one radiologist reviewed the indications for MRI for 198 referrals to a facility in Winnipeg, selected at random from patients seen in 1991 for suspected disorders of the brain or the spine. Out-of-province referrals had not been subject to referral protocols, whereas those from within Manitoba had been subject to such protocols. At least three of the four radiologists agreed on whether an examination was appropriate in 88.4 % of the cases. Out-of-province referrals were significantly more likely to be considered inappropriate for MRI (24 %) than referrals from within Manitoba (10 %). It was estimated that the combined effect of instituting protocols and reviewing each referral before the examination could result in a 16 % to 31 % reduction in the demand for MRI services without compromising diagnostic information. 18 refs., 3 tabs.
... from sampling, through sample preparation, calibration to final measurement and reporting. This paper, therefore offers useful information on practical guidance on sampling protocols in line with best practice and international standards. Keywords: Sampling, sampling protocols, chain of custody, analysis, documentation ...
Fernández, Leobardo; Good, Chris; Puljiz, Mate; Ramírez, Ártico
Given a non-empty compact metric space X and a continuous function f: X → X, we study the dynamics of the induced maps on the hyperspace of non-empty compact subsets of X and on various other invariant subspaces thereof, in particular symmetric products. We show how some important dynamical properties transfer across induced systems. These amongst others include, chain transitivity, chain (weakly) mixing, chain recurrence, exactness by chains. From our main theorem we derive an ε-chain version of Furstenberg’s celebrated 2 implies n Theorem. We also show the implications our results have for dynamics on continua.
Abdulla, Parosh Aziz; Henda, Noomene Ben; Mayr, Richard
We consider qualitative and quantitative verification problems for infinite-state Markov chains. We call a Markov chain decisive w.r.t. a given set of target states F if it almost certainly eventually reaches either F or a state from which F can no longer be reached. While all finite Markov chains are trivially decisive (for every set F), this also holds for many classes of infinite Markov chains. Infinite Markov chains which contain a finite attractor are decisive w.r.t. every set F. In part...
Belyaev, Alexander; Sukhanov, Alexander; Tsvetkov, Alexander
This article addresses the problem in which a chain falls from a glass from some height. This phenomenon demonstrates a paradoxical rise of the chain over the glass. To explain this effect, an initial hypothesis and an appropriate theory are proposed for calculating the steady fall parameters of the chain. For this purpose, the modified Cayley's problem of falling chain given its rise due to the centrifugal force of upward inertia is solved. Results show that the lift caused by an increase in linear density at the part of chain where it is being bent (the upper part) is due to the convergence of the chain balls to one another. The experiments confirm the obtained estimates of the lifting chain.
Dahhan, Ali; Maddox, William R; Krothapalli, Siva; Farmer, Matthew; Shah, Amit; Ford, Benjamin; Rhodes, Marc; Matthews, Laurie; Barnes, Vernon A; Sharma, Gyanendra K
Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is an effective preventive measure that remains underutilised in the United States. The study aimed to determine the CR referral rate (RR) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) at an academic tertiary care centre, identify barriers to referral, and evaluate awareness of CR benefits and indications (CRBI) among cardiologists. Subsequently, it aimed to evaluate if an intervention consisting of physicians' education about CRBI and implementation of a formal CR referral system could improve RR and consequently participation rate (PR). Data were retrospectively collected for all consecutive patients who underwent PCI over 12 months. Referral rate was determined and variables were compared for differences between referred and non-referred patients. A questionnaire was distributed among the physicians in the Division of Cardiology to assess awareness of CRBI and referral practice patterns. After implementation of the intervention, data were collected retrospectively for consecutive patients who underwent PCI in the following six months. Referral rate and changes in PRs were determined. Prior to the intervention, RR was 17.6%. Different barriers were identified, but the questionnaire revealed lack of physicians' awareness of CRBI and inconsistent referral patterns. After the intervention, RR increased to 88.96% (Odds Ratio 37.73, 95% CI 21.34-66.70, pEducation of providers and implementation of a formal referral system can improve RR and PR. Published by Elsevier B.V.
This study examines the governance _pal/ern and upgrading _practices of value chain of cloth _production, focusing on micro and small cloth _producing entetprises in Addis Ababa. The study is based on a sample of 222 respondents drawn from various actors of the value chain in the city. The value chain is found out to ...
Wang, Xiao-Hui; Cong, Ronggang
Supply chain management played a critical role in the electric power industrial chain optimization. The purpose of this paper was to review a sample of the literature relating to supply chain management and its possible applications in electricity power system, especially in the context of climate...... change. The study compared the difference between electric power supply chain management and traditional supply chain management. Furthermore, some possible research topics are addressed. The aim of this paper was to promote the application of supply chain management in the China electricity sector...
Naseriasl, Mansour; Adham, Davoud; Janati, Ali
around the world health systems constantly face increasing pressures which arise from many factors, such as an ageing population, patients and providers demands for equipment's and services. In order to respond these challenges and reduction of health system's transactional costs, referral solutions are considered as a key factor. This study was carried out to identify referral solutions that have had successes. relevant studies identified using keywords of referrals, consultation, referral system, referral model, referral project, electronic referral, electronic booking, health system, healthcare, health service and medical care. These searches were conducted using PubMed, ProQuest, Google Scholar, Scopus, Emerald, Web of Knowledge, Springer, Science direct, Mosby's index, SID, Medlib and Iran Doc data bases. 4306 initial articles were obtained and refined step by step. Finally, 27 articles met the inclusion criteria. we identified seventeen e-referral systems developed in UK, Norway, Finland, Netherlands, Denmark, Scotland, New Zealand, Canada, Australia, and U.S. Implemented solutions had variant degrees of successes such as improved access to specialist care, reduced wait times, timeliness and quality of referral communication, accurate health information transfer and integration of health centers and services. each one of referral solutions has both positive and changeable aspects that should be addressed according to sociotechnical conditions. These solutions are mainly formed in a small and localized manner.
Horne-Thompson, Anne; Daveson, Barbara; Hogan, Bridgit
The purpose of this project is to analyze music therapy (MT) referral trends from palliative care team members across nine Australian inpatient and community-based palliative care settings. For each referral 6 items were collected: referral source, reason and type; time from Palliative Care Program (PCP) admission to MT referral; time from MT referral to death/discharge; and profile of referred patient. Participants (196 female, 158 male) were referred ranging in age from 4-98 years and most were diagnosed with cancer (91%, n = 323). Nurses (47%, n = 167) referred most frequently to music therapy. The mean average time in days for all referrals from PCP admission to MT referral was 11.47 and then 5.19 days to time of death. Differences in length of time to referral ranged from 8.19 days (allied health staff) to 43.75 days (families). Forty-eight percent of referrals (48.5%, n = 172) were completed when the patient was rated at an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance (ECOG) of three. Sixty-nine percent (n = 244) were living with others at the time of referral and most were Australian born. Thirty-six percent (36.7%, n = 130) were referred for symptom-based reasons, and 24.5% (n = 87) for support and coping. Implications for service delivery of music therapy practice, interdisciplinary care and benchmarking of music therapy services shall be discussed.
Wiley, Matthew T; Rivas, Ryan L; Hristidis, Vagelis
There has been a recent growth in health provider search portals, where patients specify filters-such as specialty or insurance-and providers are ranked by patient ratings or other attributes. Previous work has identified attributes associated with a provider's quality through user surveys. Other work supports that intuitive quality-indicating attributes are associated with a provider's quality. We adopt a data-driven approach to study how quality indicators of providers are associated with a rich set of attributes including medical school, graduation year, procedures, fellowships, patient reviews, location, and technology usage. In this work, we only consider providers as individuals (e.g., general practitioners) and not organizations (e.g., hospitals). As quality indicators, we consider the referral frequency of a provider and a peer-nominated quality designation. We combined data from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) and several provider rating web sites to perform our analysis. Our data-driven analysis identified several attributes that correlate with and discriminate against referral volume and peer-nominated awards. In particular, our results consistently demonstrate that these attributes vary by locality and that the frequency of an attribute is more important than its value (e.g., the number of patient reviews or hospital affiliations are more important than the average review rating or the ranking of the hospital affiliations, respectively). We demonstrate that it is possible to build accurate classifiers for referral frequency and quality designation, with accuracies over 85 %. Our findings show that a one-size-fits-all approach to ranking providers is inadequate and that provider search portals should calibrate their ranking function based on location and specialty. Further, traditional filters of provider search portals should be reconsidered, and patients should be aware of existing pitfalls with these filters and educated on local
José Díaz Novás
Full Text Available Se aborda el tema de la ínterconsulta y la referencia como habilidades esenciales del Médico de Familia, se explica su naturaleza y cómo llevar a cabo estos procedimientos, enfatizándose en la importancia de su desarrollo correcto, las causas que los motivan y la responsabilidad del médico con el paciente.Interconsultation and referral as essential skills of the family physician are approached. Their nature is also explained, as well as how to implement these procedures, making emphasis on the importance of their correct development, the causes motivating them and the responsibility of the doctor with the patient.
Ponzurick, T G; France, K R; Logar, C M
Customer satisfaction literature has contributed significantly to the development of marketing strategies in the health-care arena. The research has led to the development of hospital-driven relationship marketing programs. This study examines the inclusion of referring physicians as partners in the hospital's relationship marketing program. In exploring this relationship, medical and hospital facility characteristics that referring physicians find important in making patient referrals to specialty care hospitals are identified and analyzed. The results lead to the development of strategic initiatives which hospital marketers should consider when developing relationship marketing programs designed to satisfy their referring physicians.
Christopher K. Bitten
Full Text Available This article examines Alcoholics Anonymous (AA as a relational therapy, seen through the lens of the relational needs described by Richard Erskine. AA as a resource may be underemployed by therapists who do not realize its potential to heal the relational damage suffered and inflicted by their alcoholic clients. Common misconceptions about AA are addressed, and ways for therapists to facilitate successful referrals of clients to AA are described. The author posits that there is a synergistic benefit in combining integrative psychotherapy with the client’s involvement in AA.
Full Text Available This special issue has followed up the 3rd Olympus International Conference on Supply Chains held on Athens Metropolitan Expo, November 7 & 8 2015, Greece. The Conference was organized by the Department of Logistics Technological Educational Institute of Central Macedonia, in collaboration with the: a Laboratory of Quantitative Analysis, Logistics and Supply Chain Management of the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTH, b Greek Association of Supply Chain Management (EEL of Northern Greece and the c Supply Chain & Logistics Journal. During the 2-Days Conference more than 60 research papers were presented covering the following thematic areas: (i Transportation, (ii Best Practices in Logistics, (iii Information and Communication Technologies in Supply Chain Management, (iv Food Logistics, (v New Trends in Business Logistics, and (vi Green Supply Chain Management. Three keynote invited speakers addressed interesting issues for the Operational Research, the Opportunities and Prospects of Greek Ports chaired Round Tables with other Greek and Foreign Scientists and Specialists.
Nielsen, Steen; Mortensen, Ole
Formålet med denne artikel er at belyse de muligheder som ligger i at integrere virksomhedens økonomiske styring med begrebet Supply Chain Management (SCM). Dette søges belyst ved først at beskrive den teoretiske ramme, hvori SCM indgår. Herefter analyseres begrebet Supply Chain Costing (SCC) som...... Århus. Et resultat er, at via begrebet Supply Chain Costing skabes der mulighed for at måle logistikkædens aktiviteter i kr./øre. Anvendelsen af denne information har også strategisk betydning for at kunne vælge kunde og leverandør. Ved hjælp af integrationen skabes der også helt nye mulighed...
Tan, Yen Y.; Fitzgerald, Lisa J.
This article explores the views of general practitioners and specialists on their referral of patients with suspected Lynch syndrome to cancer genetic services. Using a purposive maximum variation sampling strategy, we conducted semi-structured interviews face-to-face with 28 general practitioners and specialists in public or private hospitals and specialist clinics between March and August 2011. General practitioners and specialists were recruited in a major metropolitan area in Australia. Interview transcripts were reviewed by two independent researchers, and thematic analysis was performed using NVivo10 software. The main barriers and motivators identified were: (1) clinician-related (e.g., familiarity with Lynch syndrome and family history knowledge); (2) patient-related (e.g., patients’ interests and personal experience with cancer); and (3) organizational-related (e.g., access to services, guidelines and referral pathway). Referral of patients with suspected Lynch syndrome to cancer genetic services is motivated and hindered by a range of individual, interpersonal and organizational factors. In order to improve the care and quality of life of patients and family with suspected Lynch syndrome, further research is needed to develop supportive tools for clinicians. PMID:25562140
Yen Y. Tan
Full Text Available This article explores the views of general practitioners and specialists on their referral of patients with suspected Lynch syndrome to cancer genetic services. Using a purposive maximum variation sampling strategy, we conducted semi-structured interviews face-to-face with 28 general practitioners and specialists in public or private hospitals and specialist clinics between March and August 2011. General practitioners and specialists were recruited in a major metropolitan area in Australia. Interview transcripts were reviewed by two independent researchers, and thematic analysis was performed using NVivo10 software. The main barriers and motivators identified were: (1 clinician-related (e.g., familiarity with Lynch syndrome and family history knowledge; (2 patient-related (e.g., patients’ interests and personal experience with cancer; and (3 organizational-related (e.g., access to services, guidelines and referral pathway. Referral of patients with suspected Lynch syndrome to cancer genetic services is motivated and hindered by a range of individual, interpersonal and organizational factors. In order to improve the care and quality of life of patients and family with suspected Lynch syndrome, further research is needed to develop supportive tools for clinicians.
Epaenetus A. Awuzu
Full Text Available Various studies have reported that abuse of cannabis is a risk factor for psychosis. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of delta 9-tetrahydrocanabinol (Δ 9 -THC, a major metabolite of cannabis, in psychiatric patients in Uganda, and to assess the diagnostic capacity of two referral mental health hospitals to screen patients for exposure to cannabis in Uganda. Socio-demographic characteristics of the patients were collected through questionnaires and review of medical records. Urine samples were collected from 100 patients and analyzed using Δ 9 -THC immunochromatographic kit (Standard Diagnostics®, South Korea. Seventeen percent of the patients tested positive for Δ 9 -THC residues in their urine. There was strong association ( p < 0.05 between history of previous abuse of cannabis and presence of Δ 9 -THC residues in the urine. Alcohol, cocaine, heroin, pethidine, tobacco, khat and kuber were the other substances abused in various combinations. Both referral hospitals lacked laboratory diagnostic kits for detection of cannabis in psychiatric patients. In conclusion, previous abuse of cannabis is associated with occurrence of the residues in psychiatric patients, yet referral mental health facilities in Uganda do not have the appropriate diagnostic kits for detection of cannabis residues as a basis for evidence-based psychotherapy.
Richerson, Lindsay P.; Watkins, Marley W.; Beaujean, A. Alexander
Measurement invariance of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) was investigated with a group of 352 students eligible for psychoeducational evaluations tested, on average, 2.8 years apart. Configural, metric, and scalar invariance were found. However, the error variance of the Coding subtest was not constant…
Devena, Sarah E.; Gay, Catherine E.; Watkins, Marley W.
Confirmatory factor analysis was used to determine the factor structure of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) scores of 297 children referred to a children's hospital in the Southwestern United States. Results support previous findings that indicate the WISC-IV is best represented by a direct hierarchical…
Vieraşu, T.; Bălăşescu, M.
In this article I will go through three main logistics components, which are represented by: transportation, inventory and facilities, and the three secondary logistical components: information, production location, price and how they determine performance of any supply chain. I will discuss then how these components are used in the design, planning and operation of a supply chain. I will also talk about some obstacles a supply chain manager may encounter.
Full Text Available In this article I will go through three main logistics components, which are represented by: transportation, inventory and facilities, and the three secondary logistical components: information, production location, price and how they determine performance of any supply chain. I will discuss then how these components are used in the design, planning and operation of a supply chain. I will also talk about some obstacles a supply chain manager may encounter.
janssen, Anja; Segers, Johan
The extremes of a univariate Markov chain with regularly varying stationary marginal distribution and asymptotically linear behavior are known to exhibit a multiplicative random walk structure called the tail chain. In this paper we extend this fact to Markov chains with multivariate regularly varying marginal distributions in Rd. We analyze both the forward and the backward tail process and show that they mutually determine each other through a kind of adjoint relation. In ...
Sukkel, W.; Hommes, M.
In their pursuit of growth and professionalisation, the Dutch organic sector focuses primarily on market development. But how do you stimulate the market for organic foods? This is the subject of many research projects concerning market, consumer preferences and the supply chain. These projects focus specifically at consumer purchasing behaviour, product development, supply chain formation and minimising cost price. As a rule, this research takes place in close cooperation with chain actors
Dunlea, Robert; Lenert, Leslie
A specialty referral is a common but complex decision that often requires a primary care provider to balance his or her own interests with those of the patient. To examine the factors that influence a patient's choice of a specialist for consultation for an asymptomatic condition and better understand the tradeoffs that patients are and are not willing to make in this decision. Stratified cross-sectional convenience sample of subjects selected to parallel US population demographics. Members of an Internet survey panel who reported seeing a physician in the past year whose responses met objective quality metrics for attention. Respondents completed an adaptive conjoint analysis survey comparing specialists regarding eight attributes. The reliability of assessments and the predictive validity of models were measured using holdout samples. The relative importance (RI) of different attributes was computed using paired t tests. The implications of utility values were studied using market simulation methods. Five hundred and thirty subjects completed the survey and had responses that met quality criteria. The reliability of responses was high (86% agreement), and models were predictive of patients' preferences (82.6% agreement with holdout choices). The most important attribute for patients was out-of-pocket cost (RI of 19.5%, P communication" with the primary care provider was the most important attribute (RI of 13.1% P importance was whether the specialist practiced shared decision making (RI of 12.2% P well with their primary care provider and practiced shared decision making. Most patients prefer to wait for a doctor who practices shared decision making: Only one-third (32.3%) of patients preferred a paternalistic doctor who was available in 2 weeks over a doctor who practiced decision making but was available in 4 weeks. In the setting of a referral for an asymptomatic but serious condition, out-of-pocket costs are important to patients; however, they also value
Hvolby, Hans-Henrik; Trienekens, Jacques; Bonde, Hans
Industry experience a need to shift in focus from internal production planning towards planning in the supply network. In this respect customer oriented thinking becomes almost a common good amongst companies in the supply network. An increase in the use of information technology is needed to enable companies to better tune their production planning with customers and suppliers. Information technology opportunities and supply chain planning systems facilitate companies to monitor and control their supplier network. In spite if these developments, most links in today's supply chains make individual plans, because the real demand information is not available throughout the chain. The current systems and processes of the supply chains are not designed to meet the requirements now placed upon them. For long term relationships with suppliers and customers, an integrated decision-making process is needed in order to obtain a satisfactory result for all parties. Especially when customized production and short lead-time is in focus. An effective value chain makes inventory available and visible among the value chain members, minimizes response time and optimizes total inventory value held throughout the chain. In this paper a supply chain planning classification grid is presented based current manufacturing classifications and supply chain planning initiatives.
Bakwatanisa, Bosco; Enywaku, Alfred; Kiwanuka, Martin; Lamunu, Claire; Mbowa, Nicholas; Mukiibi, Denis; Namayega, Catherine; Ngabirano, Beryl; Ntambi, Henry; Reichert, William
Students in Biomaterials BBE3102 at Makerere University in Kampala, Uganda were assigned semester long group projects in the first semester of the 2014-15 academic year to determine the biomaterials type and usage in Mulago National Referral Hospital, which is emblematic of large public hospitals across East Africa. Information gathering was conducted through student interviews with Mulago physicians because there were no archival records. The students divided themselves into seven project groups covering biomaterials use in the areas of wound closure, dental and oral surgery, cardiology, burn care, bone repair, ophthalmology and total joint replacement. As in the developed world, the majority of biomaterials used in Mulago are basic wound closure materials, dental materials, and bone fixation materials, all of which are comparatively inexpensive, easy to store, and readily available from either the government or local suppliers; however, there were significant issues with the implant supply chain, affordability, and patient compliance and follow-up in cases where specialty expertise and expensive implants were employed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Fayyaz, A.; Ahmed, W.
To identify the referral factors for fetal echocardiography which are associated with congenital cardiac defects in the fetus. Study Design: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Radiology Department, CMH, Rawalpindi, from January 2007 to November 2010. Methodology: All patients referred for fetal echocardiography with one or more risk factors for the development of congenital heart disease, and those patients with incidental discovery of congenital heart disease on antenatal ultrasound were evaluated. Patients with no risk factors who were found to have normal fetal echocardiography were excluded from the study. Univariate logistic regression analysis was carried out for each variable. The variables with statistical significance of less than 0.05 were subjected to multivariate logistic regression. Fetal echocardiographic diagnosis was taken as the dependent variable and all other variables were the independent variables. Results: Two hundred and sixty four patients were evaluated by fetal echocardiography for congenital heart disease. The statistically significant factor was detection of congenital heart disease on routine ultrasound examination. Conclusion: A routine obstetric scan should include evaluation of the heart with four-chamber and base-of-heart views to exclude cardiac anomalies. A cardiac anomaly picked up on routine ultrasound scan is the most important indication for referral for fetal echocardiography. Fetal arrhythmias and echogenic focus in the left ventricle do not have a significant association with structural cardiac malformation. (author)
Maina-Gathigi, L; Omolo, J; Wanzala, P; Lindan, C; Makokha, A
To determine utilization of iron and folic acid supplementation services among pregnant women in Kenya. A cross sectional study was conducted at Nyeri Hospital, a regional referral hospital in central Kenya. Women attending the antenatal clinic were selected through systematic sampling. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to collect information on utilization of folic acid and iron supplementation services. Women who ingested folic acid or iron supplements for >4 days in a week were considered "highly compliant". The health worker in-charge of the antenatal clinic was interviewed about the frequency of supplement stock-outs during the past year. Haemoglobin concentration was measured directly from one drop of capillary blood and measured using portable HEMOCUE B-Hb photometer. Of the 381 women interviewed, only 23.6 % obtained antenatal care in the first trimester; 69.3 and 51.2 % received folic acid and iron supplements, respectively. However, only half (45-58 %) received any information about supplementation. Most women were initiated on folic acid (80.7 %) or iron (67.7 %) after 12 and 16 weeks of gestation, respectively, well after the recommended time period. However, more than 80 % of those who received folic acid and iron were highly compliant. Stock-outs were common at the facility. Of 361 women tested for Hb level, the prevalence of anaemia (Hb levels importance of supplements to pregnant women. Women who come late to antenatal clinic miss opportunities to start supplementation early in pregnancy. Problems with supply chain management exacerbate the problem.
Pattison, Natalie; Eastham, Elizabeth
To explore referrals to a critical care outreach team (CCOT), associated factors around patient management and survival to discharge, and the qualitative exploration of referral characteristics (identifying any areas for service improvement around CCOT). A single-centre mixed method study in a specialist hospital was undertaken, using an explanatory design: participant selection model. In this model, quantitative results (prospective and retrospective episode of care review, including modified early warning system (MEWS), time and delay of referral and patient outcomes for admission and survival) are further explained by qualitative (interview) data with doctors and nurses referring to outreach. Quantitative data were analysed using SPSS +17 and 19, and qualitative data were analysed using grounded theory principles. A large proportion of referrals (124/407 = 30·5%) were made by medical staff. For 97 (97/407 = 23·8%) referrals, there was a delay between the point at which patients deteriorated (as verified by retrospective record review and MEWS score triggers) and the time at when patients were referred. The average delay was 2·96 h (95% CI 1·97-3·95; SD 9·56). Timely referrals were associated with improved outcomes; however, no causal attribution can be made from the circumstances around CCOT referral. Qualitative themes included indications for referral, facilitating factors for referral, barriers to referral and consequences of referral, with an overarching core theory of reassurance. Outreach was seen as back-up and this core theory demonstrates the important, and somewhat less tangible, role outreach has in supporting ward staff to care for at-risk patients. Mapping outreach episodes of care and patient outcomes can help highlight areas for improvement. This study outlines reasons for referral and how outreach can facilitate patient pathways in critical illness. © 2011 The Authors. Nursing in Critical Care © 2011 British Association of Critical Care
Muen, Wisam J; Hewick, Simon A
Objectives To evaluate the quality of referrals to a neovascular age-related macular degeneration clinic from optometrists using the standard Rapid Access Referral Form (RARF) from the Royal College of Ophthalmologists. Design A prospective study. Prospective data were gathered from all optometry referrals using the RARF, between the periods of December 2006 to August 2009. These were assessed for accuracy of history, clinical signs and final diagnosis as compared to a macula expert. Setting ...
Wieland, Andreas; Handfield, Robert B.
Supply chain management has made great strides in becoming a discipline with a standalone body of theories. As part of this evolution, researchers have sought to embed and integrate observed supply chain management phenomena into theoretical statements. In our review, we explore where we have been...
Doyle, John Kevin
Critical Chains project management focuses on holding buffers at the project level vs. task level, and managing buffers as a project resource. A number of studies have shown that Critical Chain project management can significantly improve organizational schedule fidelity (i.e., improve the proportion of projects delivered on time) and reduce…
Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum; Slepniov, Dmitrij
This workbook is recommended for the attention of students of and managers in Danish small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). Danish SMEs are currently facing a number of key challenges related to their position in global value chains. This book provides an insight into value chain management t...
A simple construction of two-dimensional (2-D) fields is presented. Rows and columns are outcomes of the same Markov chain. The entropy can be calculated explicitly.......A simple construction of two-dimensional (2-D) fields is presented. Rows and columns are outcomes of the same Markov chain. The entropy can be calculated explicitly....
Larsson, Laura S; Kuster, Emilie
The Nurse's Desk health screening project used the Intervention Wheel model to conduct outreach, screening, education, and referral for food bank clients (n = 506). Blood glucose, blood pressure, health care utilization, and unmet referral needs were assessed. Screening results identified 318 clients (62.8%) with 1 or more unmet referral needs, including 6 clients (3.16%) with capillary blood glucose more than 199 mg/dL and 132 (31.9%) with hypertension. Clients had higher-than-average systolic and diastolic blood pressures and undiagnosed diabetes than in the general population. A client-approved method for tracking completed referrals is needed for this potentially high-risk population.
Full Text Available Background: The maternal mortality ratio in India is high. An effective emergency obstetric care (EmOC strategy has been identified as a priority to reduce maternal deaths. Since the capacity of different levels of public health facilities to provide EmOC is varied, an effective referral system is crucial. However, few studies have evaluated the functioning and quality of referral systems in India. A systematic monitoring of referrals helps to identify current gaps in the provision of essential obstetric care. Objective: This study was conducted to identify the medical and logistic reasons for emergency obstetric referrals from a subdistrict hospital (SDH. Methods: An audit of emergency referrals during the period January 2015–December 2015 was carried out. Records of all obstetric patients referred from the maternity ward during the study period were reviewed. Results: The referral rate was found to be 31.7%. Preterm labor (30.6%, pregnancy-induced hypertension (17%, and fetal distress (10.6% were the main reasons for referral. Deficiencies were found in critical determinants of functionality, that is, nonavailability of emergency cesarean, neonatal care unit, and blood bank. Conclusions: The referral rate at the SDH was high. Lack of workforce and infrastructural facilities led to referrals of women who ought to have been managed at this level of the hospital.
Discussion: Timely referral to outpatient nephrology care is associated with slowed disease progression, less hospital admissions, reduced total treatment costs, and improved survival in patients with CKD.
Cash, Ayla; Luo, Xun; Chow, Eric K H; Bowring, Mary Grace; Shaffer, Ashton A; Doby, Brianna; Wickliffe, Corey E; Alexander, Charles; McRann, Deborah; Tobian, Aaron A R; Segev, Dorry L; Durand, Christine M
HIV-infected (HIV+) donor organs can be transplanted into HIV+ recipients under the HIV Organ Policy Equity (HOPE) Act. Quantifying HIV+ donor referrals received by organ procurement organizations (OPOs) is critical for HOPE Act implementation. We surveyed the 58 USA OPOs regarding HIV+ referral records and newly discovered HIV+ donors. Using data from OPOs that provided exact records and CDC HIV prevalence data, we projected a national estimate of HIV+ referrals. Fifty-five (95%) OPOs reported HIV+ referrals ranging from 0 to 276 and newly discovered HIV+ cases ranging from 0 to 10 annually. Six OPOs in areas of high HIV prevalence reported more than 100 HIV+ donor referrals. Twenty-seven (47%) OPOs provided exact HIV+ referral records and 28 (51%) OPOs provided exact records of discovered HIV+ cases, totaling 1450 HIV+ referrals and 39 discovered HIV+ donors in the prior year. These OPOs represented 67% and 59% of prevalent HIV cases in the USA; thus, we estimated 2164 HIV+ referrals and 66 discovered HIV+ cases nationally per year. OPOs reported a high volume of HIV+ referrals annually, of which a subset will be medically eligible for donation. Particularly in areas of high HIV prevalence, OPOs require ongoing support to implement the HOPE Act. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Home Based Management of fever (HBM was introduced as a national policy in Uganda to increase access to prompt presumptive treatment of malaria. Pre-packed Chloroquine/Fansidar combination is distributed free of charge to febrile children Methods A case-series study was performed during 20 weeks in a West-Ugandan sub-county with an under-five population of 3,600. Community drug distributors (DDs were visited fortnightly and recording forms collected. Referred children were located and primary caretaker interviewed in the household. Referral health facility records were studied for those stating having completed referral. Results Overall referral rate was 8% (117/1454. Fever was the main reason for mothers to seek DD care and for DDs to refer. Twenty-six of the 28 (93% "urgent referrals" accessed referral care but 8 (31% delayed >24 hours. Waiting for antimalarial drugs to finish caused most delays. Of 32 possible pneumonias only 16 (50% were urgently referred; most delayed ≥ 2 days before accessing referral care. Conclusion The HBM has high referral compliance and extends primary health care to the communities by maintaining linkages with formal health services. Referral non-completion was not a major issue but failure to recognise pneumonia symptoms and delays in referral care access for respiratory illnesses may pose hazards for children with acute respiratory infections. Extending HBM to also include pneumonia may increase prompt and effective care of the sick child in sub-Saharan Africa.
Poesen, K; Pottel, H; Colaert, J; De Niel, C
Guidelines for diagnosis of infective endocarditis are largely based upon epidemiological studies in referral hospitals. Referral bias, however, might impair the validity of guidelines in non-referral hospitals. Recent studies in non-referral care centres on infective endocarditis are sparse. We conducted a retrospective epidemiological study on infective endocarditis in a large non-referral hospital in a Belgian city (Kortrijk). The medical record system was searched for all cases tagged with a putative diagnosis of infective endocarditis in the period 2003-2010. The cases that fulfilled the modified Duke criteria for probable or definite infective endocarditis were included. Compared to referral centres, an older population with infective endocarditis, and fewer predisposing cardiac factors and catheter-related infective endocarditis is seen in our population. Our patients have fewer prosthetic valve endocarditis as well as fewer staphylococcal endocarditis. Our patients undergo less surgery, although mortality rate seems to be highly comparable with referral centres, with nosocomial infective endocarditis as an independent predictor of mortality. The present study suggests that characteristics of infective endocarditis as well as associative factors might differ among non-referral hospitals and referral hospitals.
Macdonald, S; Albert, W; Maynard, M; French, P
This study examined characteristics of referrals to employee assistance programs (EAP) associated with subsequent termination of employment. As well, relationships between characteristics of the referrals and program characteristics were explored. Longitudinal data were collected at several time periods for 163 referrals to EAPs from five organizations. Survival analysis was conducted to determine which variables were associated with termination of employment. Females, cohabitating couples, and employees who worked for the organization for 5 or more years were most likely to remain employed. One interesting finding was that people with alcohol problems were significantly more likely to be formal referrals.
Zillich, Alan J.; Corelli, Robin L.; Zbikowski, Susan M.; Magnusson, L. Brooke; Fenlon, Christine M.; Prokhorov, Alexander V.; de Moor, Carl; Hudmon, Karen S.
Background Historically, community pharmacies have not integrated tobacco cessation activities into routine practice, instead unbundling them as unique services. This approach might have limited success and viability. Objective The objective of this report is to describe the methods and baseline findings for a two-state, randomized trial evaluating two intervention approaches for increasing pharmacy-based referrals to their state’s tobacco quitline. Methods Participating community pharmacies in Connecticut (n=32) and Washington (n=32) were randomized to receive either (a) on-site education with an academic detailer, describing methods for implementing brief interventions with patients and providing referrals to the tobacco quitline, or (b) quitline materials delivered by mail. Both interventions advocated for pharmacy personnel to ask about tobacco use, advise patients who smoke to quit, and refer patients to the tobacco quitline for additional assistance with quitting. Study outcome measures include the number of quitline registrants who are referred by pharmacies (before and during the intervention period), the number of quitline materials distributed to patients, and self-reported behavior of cessation counseling and quitline referrals, assessed using written surveys completed by pharmacy personnel (pharmacists, technicians). Results Pharmacists (n=124) and pharmacy technicians (n=127), representing 64 participating pharmacies with equal numbers of retail chain and independently-owned pharmacies, participated in the study. Most pharmacists (67%) and half of pharmacy technicians (50%) indicated that they were “not at all” familiar with the tobacco quitline. During the baseline (pre-intervention) monitoring period, the quitline registered 120 patients (18 in CT and 102 in WA) who reported that they heard about the quitline from a pharmacy. Conclusion Novel tobacco intervention approaches are needed to capitalize on the community pharmacy’s frequent
Riaan Bredell; Jackie Walters
Integrated supply chain risk management (ISCRM) has become indispensable to the theory and practice of supply chain management. The economic and political realities of the modern world require not only a different approach to supply chain management, but also bold steps to secure supply chain performance and sustainable wealth creation. Integrated supply chain risk management provides supply chain organisations with a level of insight into their supply chains yet to be achieved. If correctly ...
Kaplan, C D; Korf, D; Sterk, C
Snowball sampling is a method that has been used in the social sciences to study sensitive topics, rare traits, personal networks, and social relationships. The method involves the selection of samples utilizing "insider" knowledge and referral chains among subjects who possess common traits that are of research interest. It is especially useful in generating samples for which clinical sampling frames may be difficult to obtain or are biased in some way. In this paper, snowball samples of heroin users in two Dutch cities have been analyzed for the purpose of providing descriptions and limited inferences about the temporal and social contexts of their lifestyles. Two distinct heroin-using populations have been discovered who are distinguished by their life cycle stage. Significant contextual explanations have been found involving the passage from adolescent peer group to criminal occupation, the functioning of network "knots" and "outcroppings," and the frequency of social contact. It is suggested that the snowball sampling method may have utility in studying the temporal and social contexts of other populations of clinical interest.
Patalinghug, Epictetus E.
Supply chain connectivity is vital for the efficient flow of trade among APEC economies. This paper reviews the literature and supply chain management, describes the barriers to enhancing participation in global supply chain, analyzes the various measures of supply chain performance, and suggests steps for the Philippines to fully reap the benefits of the global value chain.
Ball, Sarah L; Greenhalgh, Joanne; Roland, Martin
The rising volume of referrals to secondary care is a continuing concern in the NHS in England, with considerable resource implications. Referral management centres (RMCs) are one of a range of initiatives brought in to curtail this rise, but there is currently limited evidence for their effectiveness, and little is known about their mechanisms of action. This study aimed to gain a better understanding of how RMCs operate and the factors contributing to the achievement of their goals. Drawing on the principles of realist evaluation, we sought to elicit programme theories (the ideas and assumptions about how a programme works) and to identify the key issues to be considered when establishing or evaluating such schemes. Qualitative study with a purposive sample of health professionals and managers involved in the commissioning, set-up and running of four referral management centres in England and with GPs referring through these centres. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 18 participants. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed. Data were analysed thematically. Interview data highlighted the diverse aims and functions of RMCs, reflecting a range of underlying programme theories. These included the overarching theory that RMCs work by ensuring the best use of limited resources and three sub-theories, relating to how this could be achieved, namely, improving the quality of referrals and patient care, reducing referrals, and increasing efficiency in the referral process. The aims of the schemes, however, varied between sites and between stakeholders, and evolved significantly over time. Three themes were identified relating to the context in which RMCs were implemented and managed: the impact of practical and administrative difficulties; the importance and challenge of stakeholder buy-in; and the dependence of perceived effectiveness on the aims and priorities of the scheme. Many RMCs were described as successful by those involved, despite limited
Raines, Tara C.
The overrepresentation of minority students identified for special education services continues to plague schools and serves as a challenge for researchers and practitioners (Ferri & Conner, 2005). Teacher nomination, office discipline referrals (ODR), and functional behavior assessments (FBA) continue to guide referral processes (Bradshaw, Mitchell, O'Brennen, & Leaf, 2010; Eklund, et al., 2009; Mustian, 2010). These methods have been found to be riddled with inconsistencies. Practices used to identify students for behavioral and emotional interventions over-identify students from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds. The use of a behavioral and emotional screener to make data-based decisions regarding placement and services could provide an objective assessment of student risk. The first chapter of this dissertation reviews methods used in the identification of students for behavioral and emotional support services. Additionally, the use of universal screening in conjunction with student self-report are proposed as tools for alleviating the overrepresentation of minority students in special education programs for behavioral and emotional disorders. The second chapter of this dissertation explores the measurement equivalence of Behavior Assessment System for Children, Second Edition (BASC-2) Behavioral and Emotional Screening System Student form (BESS Student) across the Black, Hispanic, and White participants in the norming sample. The BESS Student as a universal screening tool is poised to alleviate the disproportionate number of children of color identified by schools as having behavior and emotional disorders. This instrument also provides an avenue to identify students with internalizing disorders who are often overlooked in present referral practices (Bradshaw, Buckley, & Ialongo, 2008; Kataoka, Zhang, & Wells, 2002). The findings of the measurement equivalence study suggests that the BESS Student is, as designed, identifying behavioral and
This study aims to assess the supply chain process management of Coca Cola Ghana Ltd; this research is of importance due to its potential to point out processes that can yield higher performance of the supply chain and those processes that can be enhanced for higher per-formance levels. The sample for this study was selected using purposive sampling; five supply chain man-agement practitioners in the company were used for the data extraction. Questionnaires were sent to these five respond...
Richards, P.J.; Tins, B.; Cherian, R.; Rae, F.; Dharmarajah, R.; Phair, I.C.; McCall, I.
AIM: To evaluate the hypothesis that where there is good clinical practice in an emergency department (ED), there is a low uptake of plain radiography. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Emergency notes and radiography records were reviewed over one week in January 1999, to determine the rate of radiography of first time attenders at the North Staffordshire NHS Trust. The clinical appropriateness of the imaging was assessed by pairs of radiology specialist registrars and casualty physicians. They judged the appropriateness of the imaging by the 1998 Royal College of Radiologists (RCR) guidelines and/or their clinical judgement, by consensus. Where there was no consensus or the data appeared incomplete, the radiology and ED consultant reviewed the notes. RESULTS: A total of 1615 notes were found out of 1643 (98%). Of these, 147 (9%) return attenders were excluded and 32 patients left without being seen. The number of first time attenders was 1436 (87%), of whom 637 (44%) were radiographed; 95% of these radiography examinations were appropriate and 5% were inappropriate. Of the first time attenders who were not radiographed the decision was appropriate in 95% of cases, and inappropriate for 5%, i.e. 5% of those who had no radiography, should have been X-rayed. There were no disagreements between RCR guidelines and the clinical judgements, but in 16% there were no suitable RCR guidelines. Junior doctors were not always able to find the relevant RCR guideline (relevant clinical guideline found in 73% of cases) in the guideline book, compared to the consultants (relevant clinical guideline found in 84% of cases). CONCLUSION: The application of the RCR guidelines is taken as representing good clinical practice in determining when to refer a patient for radiography. Based on this assumption, a referral rate for radiography of 44% of first time attenders was found to be appropriate. This referral rate can be taken as a benchmark. A benchmark is necessary in order to allow departments
Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate the assessment, management and referral practices of South African optometrists in the care of patients with diabetic retinop-athy (DR and to recommend strategies to improve and standardize patient management as required. Methods: The study design incorporated quantitative, qualitative and clinical measures that were administered to fourteen experienced optometrists from the Durban area. The quan-titative measure, the questionnaire in appendix I, evaluated the optometrists’ management pro-tocols of patients with diabetes mellitus (DM. These included the optometrists’ referral and co-management practices, their awareness and usage of appropriate guidelines in the man-agement and referral of these patients, their perceived levels of competence and confidence in their education, levels of service offered to the patients and finally the role of Continuous Professional Development (CPD. This self-report information was supplemented by a set of clinical measures where the study sample grad-ed levels of DR, chose appropriate management options and indicated prognosis for disease progression based on a set of slides presented to them. Finally the fourteen optometrists, as well as two ophthalmologists, were interviewed using tailored, semi-structured interview sched-ules. These interviews were used to elaborate and corroborate information obtained from the other two research approaches. Results: Descriptive analysis was used to analyse the data from the quantitative and clinical measures, whilst the interviews were analysed thematically. Although 86% of the sample routinely screened for ocular manifesta-tions of DM, there was no standardization in the criteria used by the fourteen optometrists
Full Text Available Supply chain management represents new business philosophy and includes strategically positioned and much wider scope of activity in comparison with its "older brother" - management of logistics. Philosophy of the concept of supply chain is directed to more coordination of key business functions of every link in distribution chain in the process of organization of the flow of both goods and information, while logistic managing instruments are focused on internal optimum of flows of goods and information within one company. Applying the concept of integrated supply chain among several companies makes the importance of operative logistics activity even greater on the level of one company, thus advancing processes of optimum and coordination within and between different companies and confirms the importance of logistics performances for the company’s profitability. Besides the fact that the borders between companies are being deleted, this concept of supply chain in one distribution channel influences increasing of importance of functional, i.e. traditional business managing approaches but instead it points out the importance of process managing approaches. Although the author is aware that "there is nothing harder, more dangerous and with uncertain success, but to find a way for introducing some novelties (Machiavelli, it would be even his additional stimulation for trying to bring closer the concept and goals of supply chain implementation that are identified in key, relevant, modern, theoretical and consulting approaches in order to achieve better understanding of the subject and faster implementation of the concept of supply chain management by domestic companies.
... of crop and soil characteristics, sample selection criteria, sample size determination, analytical... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Food chain crops. 265.276 Section 265... FACILITIES Land Treatment § 265.276 Food chain crops. (a) An owner or operator of a hazardous waste land...
Carter, Marion W; Robbins, Cheryl L; Gavin, Loretta; Moskosky, Susan
Referrals to other medical services are central to healthcare, including family planning service providers; however, little information exists on the nature of referral practices among health centers that offer family planning. We used a nationally representative survey of administrators from 1,615 publicly funded health centers that offered family planning in 2013-14 to describe the use of six referral practices. We focused on associations between various health center characteristics and frequent use of three active referral practices. In the prior 3 months, a majority of health centers (73%) frequently asked clients about referrals at clients' next visit. Under half (43%) reported frequently following up with referral sources to find out if their clients had been seen. A third (32%) of all health centers reported frequently using three active referral practices. In adjusted analysis, Planned Parenthood clinics (adjusted odds ratio 0.55) and hospital-based clinics (AOR 0.39) had lower odds of using the three active referral practices compared with health departments, and Title X funding status was not associated with the outcome. The outcome was positively associated with serving rural areas (AOR 1.39), having a larger client volume (AOR 3.16), being a part of an insurance network (AOR 1.42), and using electronic health records (AOR 1.62). Publicly funded family planning providers were heavily engaged in referrals. Specific referral practices varied widely and by type of care. More assessment of these and other aspects of referral systems and practices is needed to better characterize the quality of care.
Narendra, P L; Hegde, Harihar V; Khan, Maroof Ahmad; Talikoti, Dayanand G; Nallamilli, Samson
Anesthetists come in contact with more than two-third of hospital patients. Timely referral to anesthetists is vital in perioperative and remote site settings. Delayed referrals, improper referrals, and referrals at inappropriate levels can result in inadequate preparation, perioperative complications, and poor outcome. The self administered paper survey to delegates attending anesthesia conferences. Questions were asked on how high-risk, emergency surgical cases remote site and critical care patients were referred to anesthetists and presence of rapid response teams. The response rate was 43.8%. Sixty percent (55.3-64.8, P - 0.001) reported high-risk elective cases were referred after admission. Sixty-eight percent (63.42-72.45, P - 0.001) opined preoperative resting echocardiographs were useful. Six percent (4.16-8.98, P - 0.001) reported emergency room referral before arrival of the patient. Twenty-five percent (20.92-29.42, P - 0.001) indicated high-risk obstetric cases were referred immediately after admission. Consultants practiced preoperative stabilization more commonly than residents (32% vs. 22%) ( P - 0.004). For emergency surgery, resident referrals occurred after surgery time was fixed (40% vs. 28%) ( P - 0.012). Residents dealt with more cases without full investigations in obstetrics (28% vs. 15) ( P = 0.002). Remote site patients were commonly referred to residents after sedation attempts (32% vs. 20%) ( P = 0.036). Only 34.8 said hosptals where tbey practiced had dedicated cardiac arrest team in place. Anesthetic departments must periodically assess whether subgroups of patients are being referred in line with current guidelines. Cancellations, critical incidents and complications arising out of referral delays, and improper referrals must be recorded as referral incidents and a separate referral incident registry must be maintained in each department. Regular referral audits must be encouraged.
Smits, M; Rutten, M; Schepers, L; Giesen, P
There is a trend for General Practitioner Cooperatives (GPCs) to co-locate with emergency departments (EDs) of hospitals at Emergency Care Access Points (ECAPs), where the GPCs generally conduct triage and treat a large part of self-referrals who would have gone to the ED by themselves in the past. We have examined patient and care characteristics of self-referrals at ECAPs where triage was conducted by GPCs, also to determine the percentage of self-referrals being referred to the ED. Retrospective cross-sectional observational study. Descriptive analyses of routine registration data from self-referrals of five ECAPs (n = 20.451). Patient age, gender, arrival time, urgency, diagnosis and referral were analysed. Of the self-referrals, 57.9% was male and the mean age was 32.7 years. The number of self-referrals per hour was highest during weekends, particularly between 11 a.m. and 5 p.m. On weekdays, there was a peak between 5 and 9 p.m. Self-referrals were mostly assigned a low-urgency grade (35.7% - U4 or U5) or a mid-urgency grade (49% - U3). Almost half of the self-referrals had trauma of the locomotor system (28%) or the skin (27.3%). In total, 23% of the patients was referred to the ED. Self-referred patients at GPCs are typically young, male and have low- to mid-urgency trauma-related problems. Many self-referrals present themselves on weekend days or early weekday evenings. Over three quarters of these patients can be treated by the GPCs, without referral to the ED. This reduces the workload at the ED.
Hassan M K Ghomrawi
Full Text Available Efforts to reduce racial disparities in total hip replacement (THR have focused mainly on patient behaviors. While these efforts are no doubt important, they ignore the potentially important role of provider- and system-level factors, which may be easier to modify. We aimed to determine whether the patterns of interaction among physicians around THR episodes differ in communities with low versus high concentrations of black residents.We analyzed national Medicare claims from 2008 to 2011, identifying all fee-for-service beneficiaries who underwent THR. Based on physician encounter data, we then mapped the physician referral networks at the hospitals where beneficiaries' procedures were performed. Next, we measured two structural properties of these networks that could affect care coordination and information sharing: clustering, and the number of external ties. Finally, we estimated multivariate regression models to determine the relationship between the concentration of black residents in the community [as measured by the hospital service area (HSA] served by a given network and each of these 2 network properties.Our sample included 336,506 beneficiaries (mean age 76.3 ± SD, 63.1% of whom were women. HSAs with higher concentrations of black residents tended to be more impoverished than those with lower concentrations. While HSAs with higher concentrations of black residents had, on average, more acute care beds and medical specialists, they had fewer surgeons per capita than those with lower concentrations. After adjusting for these differences, we found that HSAs with higher concentrations of black residents were served by physician referral networks that had significantly higher within-network clustering but fewer external ties.We observed differences in the patterns of interaction among physicians around THR episodes in communities with low versus high concentrations of black residents. Studies investigating the impact of these differences
Alireza Keshtkar Jafari
Full Text Available Background: Eye-related complaints compose approximately 1-6% of complaints of patients referring to general emergency ward around the world. Eye injuries are the most common cause of referral to eye emergency ward. To understand the impact of eye injuries in Iran and to plan preventive strategies, it is important to understand the complete magnitude of the problem with regard to true population-based data and standard reproducible definitions. Aim: The main goal of this study was to identify the major causes of referrals to eye emergency ward in patients with eye-related complaints in an eye referral Hospital in Iran. Settings and Design: In a cross-sectional study, 3150 patients who referred to Farabi Hospital emergency ward, Tehran, Iran, from January to December 2007 were included in the study and their detailed information were recorded. Materials and Methods: The patients′ demographic data, medical history and final diagnosis were recorded in a questionnaire. Results: The mean age of patients was 33.2±16.8 years and 2380 patients (75.6% were males. While 299 patients (9.5% were referred for non-urgent reasons, work-related injuries were the most common cause of referral (955 patients; 30.3%. In patients referred due to trauma (1950 patients, work-related injuries occurred in 955 patients (49% and occurred accidentally (by chance in 819 patients (42%. The majority of patients referred with traumatic injuries were males (1708 patients; 87.6% versus 242 patients; 12.4%. The most common etiologies of eye trauma (1950 patients were metal filings (814 patients; 41.8%, blunt trauma (338 patients; 17.3%, fireworks (236 patients; 12.1% and sharp objects (222 patients; 11.4%. Globe injury was diagnosed in 1865 patients (95.7% of trauma cases. In patients referred due to non-traumatic reason (1200 patients, eye infection occurred in 482 patients (40.2% and 299 patients (24.9% were referred for non-urgent reasons. There was little difference
Liu, Ching-Ming; Chang, Shuenn-Dyh; Cheng, Po-Jen
This retrospective cohort study analyzed the clinical manifestations in patients with preeclampsia and eclampsia, assessed the risk factors compared to the severity of hypertensive disorders on maternal and perinatal morbidity, and mortality between the referral and non-referral patients. 271 pregnant women with preeclampsia and eclampsia were assessed (1993 to 1997). Chi-square analysis was used for the comparison of categorical variables, and the comparison of the two independent variables of proportions in estimation of confidence intervals and calculated odds ratio of the referral and non-referral groups. Multivariate logistic regression was used for adjusting potential confounding risk factors. Of the 271 patients included in this study, 71 (26.2%) patients were referrals from other hospitals. Most of the 62 (87.3%) referral patients were transferred during the period 21 and 37 weeks of gestation. Univariate analysis revealed that referral patients with hypertensive disorder were significantly associated with SBP > or =180, DBP > or =105, severe preclampsia, haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelets (HELLP), emergency C/S, maternal complications, and low birth weight babies, as well as poor Apgar score. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that the risk factors identified to be significantly associated with increased risk of referral patients included: diastolic blood pressure above 105 mmHg (adjusted odds ratio, 2.09; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.06 to 4.13; P = 0.034), severe preeclampsia (adjusted odds ratio, 3.46; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.76 to 6.81; P < 0.001), eclampsia (adjusted odds ratio, 2.77; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.92 to 8.35; P = 0.071), HELLP syndrome (adjusted odds ratio, 18.81; 95 percent confidence interval, 2.14 to 164.99; P = 0.008). The significant factors associated with the referral patients with hypertensive disorders were severe preeclampsia, HELLP, and eclampsia. Lack of prenatal care was
Baxter, John; Wahlstrom, Margareta; Zu Castell-Rüdenhausen, Malin
Optimizing plastic value chains is regarded as an important measure in order to increase recycling of plastics in an efficient way. This can also lead to improved awareness of the hazardous substances contained in plastic waste, and how to avoid that these substances are recycled. As an example......, plastics from WEEE is chosen as a Nordic case study. The project aims to propose a number of improvements for this value chain together with representatives from Nordic stakeholders. Based on the experiences made, a guide for other plastic value chains shall be developed....
Rolstadås, Asbjørn; Pinto, Jeffrey K.; Falster, Peter
To add value to project performance and help obtain project success, a new framework for decision making in projects is defined. It introduces the project decision chain inspired by the supply chain thinking in the manufacturing sector and uses three types of decisions: authorization, selection......, and plan decision. A primitive decision element is defined where all the three decision types can be accommodated. Each task in the primitive element can in itself contain subtasks that in turn will comprise new primitive elements. The primitive elements are nested together in a project decision chain....
Hydrocarbon chains are a basic component in a number of systems as diverse as biological membranes, phospholipids and polymers. A better understanding of the physical properties of n-alkane chains should provide a better understanding of these more complex systems. With this aim, vibrational spectroscopy has been extensively used. This technique, sensitive to molecular details, is the only one able to both identify and quantify conformational disorder present in paraffinic systems. To achieve this, methyl deformations have been widely used as ''internal standards'' for the normalisation of peak areas. However, in the case of n-alkanes with short chain length, such as n-C 44 H 90 for example, the infrared spectra recorded at liquid nitrogen temperature and reported here show the sensitivity of these latter peaks to the various crystal structures formed. Indeed, the main frequencies of the symmetric methyl bending mode were found between 1384 cm -1 and 1368 cm -1 as a function of the crystal form. Changes in the frequency of the first order of the L.A.M. present in the Raman spectra were also observed. At higher temperatures, non all-trans conformers, inferred from different infrared bands present in the wagging mode region, were found to be essentially placed at the end of the n-alkane chains. At the monoclinic phase transition, the concentration of end-gauche conformers, proportional to the area of the infrared band at 1342 cm -1 , increases abruptly. On the contrary, in the spectra recorded at liquid nitrogen temperature no such band is observed. We also studied the degree of disorder in two purely monodisperse long chain n-alkanes, namely n-C 198 H 398 and n-C 246 H 494 . The chain conformation as well as the tilt angle of the chains from the crystal surfaces were determined by means of low frequency Raman spectroscopy and S.A.X.S. measurements on solution-crystallised samples. The increase in the number of end-gauche conformers which was expected to occur with
Pozniak, Alyssa S; Hirth, Richard A; Banaszak-Holl, Jane; Wheeler, John R C
To determine the predictors of chain acquisition among independent dialysis providers. Retrospective facility-level data combined from CMS Cost Reports, Medical Evidence Forms, Annual Facility Surveys, and claims for 1996-2003. Independent dialysis facilities' probability of acquisition by a dialysis chain (overall and by chain size) was estimated using a discrete time hazard rate model, controlling for financial and clinical performance, practice patterns, market factors, and other facility characteristics. The sample includes all U.S. freestanding dialysis facilities that report not being chain affiliated for at least 1 year between 1997 and 2003. Above-average costs and better quality outcomes are significant determinants of dialysis chain acquisition. Facilities in larger markets were more likely to be acquired by a chain. Furthermore, small dialysis chains have different acquisition strategies than large chains. Dialysis chains appear to employ a mix of turn-around and cream-skimming strategies. Poor financial health is a predictor of chain acquisition as in other health care sectors, but the increased likelihood of chain acquisition among higher quality facilities is unique to the dialysis industry. Significant differences among predictors of acquisition by small and large chains reinforce the importance of using a richer classification for chain status.
Ali Sanayei; Alireza Haddadian; Amirhossein Bagherieh
The purpose of this paper is to investigate customer loyalty model for the chain stores of Iran according to factors include perceived value, customer satisfaction, perceived quality, store image, customer relationship, perceived equity, trust and store atmosphere as preconditions of loyalty and brand preference, repurchase intention, word of mouth referral and expected switching cost as consequences of customer loyalty. This study is applied research and descriptive - correlation in terms of...
Full Text Available Kristen M Peterson, Carrie E Huisingh, Christopher Girkin, Cynthia Owsley, Lindsay A Rhodes Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the factors associated with glaucoma patients’ satisfaction with their medical care by fellowship-trained glaucoma specialists in an urban tertiary referral clinic in the US.Methods: A total of 110 established patients aged ≥60 years with a diagnosis of either primary open angle glaucoma, glaucoma suspect, or ocular hypertension monitored by an ophthalmologist with fellowship training in glaucoma were enrolled at an academic, urban, tertiary referral eye clinic. Enrolled patients were administered a general demographics questionnaire along with a Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire-18 (PSQ-18, a Likert scale validated tool. The seven dimensions of patient satisfaction from the PSQ-18 were summarized for the sample overall and by the patients’ age, race, employment status, education level, distance travelled from home address to clinic, and glaucoma therapy type. Two-sample t-tests were used to compare group means. Spearman correlation coefficients were used to correlate satisfaction scores with peripheral vision and visual acuity function.Results: Overall, the general satisfaction scores were high (mean 4.62. Patients ≥70 years of age had lower general satisfaction with their care (mean 4.5 vs 4.8, p=0.03, the interpersonal manner of their appointment (mean 4.7 vs 4.9, p=0.009, and with their time spent with their doctor (mean 4.4 vs 4.7, p=0.03 than patients aged 60–69 years. Non-European descent patients (47% African descent and 1% other of sample were more satisfied with the time they spent with the doctor (mean 4.7 vs 4.4, p=0.04 and with the communication during the appointment (mean 4.8 vs 4.6, p=0.04 than European descent patients (52% of sample. Patients with a higher level of
Hong-Ha M Truong
Full Text Available Respondent-driven sampling (RDS offers a recruitment strategy for hard-to-reach populations. However, RDS faces logistical and theoretical challenges that threaten efficiency and validity in settings worldwide. We present innovative adaptations to conventional RDS to overcome barriers encountered in recruiting a large, representative sample of men who have sex with men (MSM who travel internationally.Novel methodological adaptations for the "International Travel Research to Inform Prevention" or "I-TRIP" study were offering participants a choice between electronic and paper coupons referrals for recruitment and modifying the secondary incentives structure from small cash amounts to raffle entries for periodic large cash prize raffle drawings. Staged referral limit increases from 3 to 10 referrals and progressive addition of 70 seeds were also implemented.There were 501 participants enrolled in up to 13 waves of growth. Among participants with a choice of referral methods, 81% selected electronic referrals. Of participants who were recruited electronically, 90% chose to remain with electronic referrals when it was their turn to recruit. The mean number of enrolled referrals was 0.91 for electronic referrals compared to 0.56 for paper coupons. Median referral lag time, i.e., the time interval between when recruiters were given their referrals and when a referred individual enrolled in the study, was 20 days (IQR 10-40 for electronic referrals, 20 days (IQR 8-58 for paper coupons, 20 days (IQR 10-41 for raffle entries and 33 days (IQR 16-148 for small cash incentives.The recruitment of MSM who travel internationally required maximizing known flexible tools of RDS while at the same time necessitating innovations to increase recruitment efficiency. Electronic referrals emerged as a major advantage in recruiting this hard-to-reach population who are of high socio-economic status, geographically diffuse and highly mobile. These enhancements may improve
Full Text Available This special issue has followed up the 2nd Olympus International Conference on Supply Chains held on October 5-6, 2012, in Katerini, Greece. The Conference was organized by the Department of Logistics of Alexander Technological Educational Institution (ATEI of Thessaloniki, in collaboration with the Laboratory of Quantitative Analysis, Logistics and Supply Chain Management of the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTH. During the 2-Days Conference more than 50 research papers were presented covering the following thematic areas: (i Business Logistics, (ii Transportation, Telematics and Distribution Networks, (iii Green Logistics, (iv Information and Communication Technologies in Supply Chain Management, and (v Services and Quality. Three keynote invited speakers addressed interesting issues for the Humanitarian Logistics, Green Supply Chains of the Agrifood Sector and the Opportunities and Prospects of Greek Ports chaired Round Tables with other Greek and Foreign Scientists and Specialists.
In many regions throughout the world, freight models are used to aid infrastructure investment and : policy decisions. Since freight is such an integral part of efficient supply chains, more realistic : transportation models can be of greater assista...
Millennium Challenge Corporation — The evaluation of the GHS value chain training subactivity wwas designed to measure the extent, if any, to which the training activities improved the productivity...
Van Lerberghe Wim
Full Text Available Abstract Background For a health district to function referral from health centres to district hospitals is critical. In many developing countries referral systems perform well below expectations. Niger is not an exception in this matter. Beyond obvious problems of cost and access this study shows to what extent the behaviour of the health worker in its interaction with the patient can be a barrier of its own. Methods Information was triangulated from three sources in two rural districts in Niger: first, 46 semi-structured interviews with health centre nurses; second, 42 focus group discussions with an average of 12 participants – patients, relatives of patients and others; third, 231 semi-structured interviews with referred patients. Results Passive patients without 'voice' reinforce authoritarian attitudes of health centre staff. The latter appear reluctant to refer because they see little added value in referral and fear loss of power and prestige. As a result staff communicates poorly and show little eagerness to convince reluctant patients and families to accept referral proposals. Conclusions Diminishing referral costs and distance barriers is not enough to correct failing referral systems. There is also a need for investment in district hospitals to make referrals visibly worthwhile and for professional upgrading of the human resources at the first contact level, so as to allow for more effective referral patterns.
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Referral of non-JS-related complaints. 658... ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS GOVERNING THE JOB SERVICE SYSTEM Job Service Complaint System State Agency Js Complaint System § 658.414 Referral of non-JS-related complaints. (a) To facilitate the operation of the...
An analysis of referrals received by a psychiatric unit in a general hospital part 1: the need for and research design adopted to study referrals received by a psychiatric unit in a general hospital: research. M. Dor, V.J. Ehlers, M.M. Van der Merwe ...
... Administrative Law Judge to conduct such hearings as may be necessary to decide the disputed matters. A copy of... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Referral to Chief Administrative Law Judge. 6.41 Section 6... Substantial Interest Proceedings § 6.41 Referral to Chief Administrative Law Judge. (a) Upon timely receipt of...
Iarussi, Melanie M.; Shaw, Brian M.
The need to refer students to off-campus mental health providers is common in college counseling. Such referrals can be challenging for college counselors who strive to meet students' counseling needs while adhering to ethical and center policy guidelines. In this article, the authors explore the nature and challenges of referral in college…
Aim: To study the presentation of herpes zoster (shingles) in self-referral urban primary care setting. Patients and method: During nearly 20 years, patients of Igbo ethnic group presented with herpes zoster, on a self-referral basis, to my urban, week day evening, out patient clinic. The recorded epidemiological parameters ...
... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Referral of debts to Department of Justice. 1403.17... PROCEDURES § 1403.17 Referral of debts to Department of Justice. Debts which cannot be collected in accordance with these regulations may be referred to the Department of Justice for collection action. ...
... Department of Justice. 904.4 Section 904.4 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FEDERAL CLAIMS COLLECTION STANDARDS (DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY-DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE) REFERRALS TO THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE § 904.4 Minimum amount of referrals to the Department of Justice. (a...
... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Referral of debts to Department of Justice. 792.18... § 792.18 Referral of debts to Department of Justice. (a) Debts that exceed $100,000.00 exclusive of... referred to the Department of Justice before they can be discharged. (b) Debts which cannot be compromised...
... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Referral to the Department of Justice. 1018.72... Claim § 1018.72 Referral to the Department of Justice. (a) Claims for which the gross original amount is... Justice, Washington, DC 20530. Claims for which the gross original amount is $500,000 or less must be...
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Referrals to the Department of Justice. 213.37... Department of Justice § 213.37 Referrals to the Department of Justice. (a) The CFO, through the FMS cross... of Justice's Nationwide Central Intake Facility as required by the Claims Collection Litigation...
Hughes, Danny R; Sunshine, Jonathan H; Bhargavan, Mythreyi; Forman, Howard
As the cost of both chronic care and diagnostic imaging continue to rise, it is important to consider methods of cost containment in these areas. Therefore, it seems important to study the relationship between self-referral for imaging and the cost of care of chronic illnesses. Previous studies, mostly of acute illnesses, have found self-referral increases utilization and, thus, probably imaging costs. To evaluate the relationship between physician self-referral for imaging and the cost of episodes of chronic care. Using Medicare's 5% Research Identifiable Files for 2004 to 2007, episodes of care were constructed for 32 broad chronic conditions using the Symmetry Episode Treatment Grouper. Using multivariate regression, we evaluated the association between whether the treating physician self-referred for imaging and total episode cost, episode imaging cost, and episode nonimaging cost. Analyses were controlled for patient characteristics (eg, age and general health status), the condition's severity, and treating physician specialty. Self-referral in imaging was significantly (P nonimaging costs were much more often significantly higher (in 24 combinations) with self-referral than being lower (in 4 combinations). We find broad evidence that physician self-referral for imaging is associated with significantly and substantially higher chronic care costs. Unless self-referral has empirically demonstrable benefits, curbing self-referral may be an appropriate route to containing chronic care costs.
MacGregor, Daune; Parker, Sandra; MacMillan, Sharon; Blais, Irene; Wong, Eugene; Robertson, Chris J; Bruce-Barrett, Cindy
The provision of timely and optimal patient care is a priority in pediatric academic health science centres. Timely access to care is optimized when there is an efficient and consistent referral system in place. In order to improve the patient referral process and, therefore, access to care, an innovative web-based system was developed and implemented. The Ambulatory Referral Management System enables the electronic routing for submission, review, triage and management of all outpatient referrals. The implementation of this system has provided significant metrics that have informed how processes can be improved to increase access to care. Use of the system has improved efficiency in the referral process and has reduced the work associated with the previous paper-based referral system. It has also enhanced communication between the healthcare provider and the patient and family and has improved the security and confidentiality of patient information management. Referral guidelines embedded within the system have helped to ensure that referrals are more complete and that the patient being referred meets the criteria for assessment and treatment in an ambulatory setting. The system calculates and reports on wait times, as well as other measures.
Nunkoosing, Karl; Haydon-Laurelut, Mark
The texts of referrals written by workers in residential services for people with learning difficulties constitute sites where contemporary discourses of intellectual disabilities are being constructed. This paper uses Critical Discourse Analysis to examine referrals made to a Community Learning Disability Team (CLDT). The study finds referral…
Roane, Brandy Michelle; Valleley, Rachel J.; Allen, Keith D.
The American Academy of Pediatrics has recommended an algorithm for identifying children with potential developmental delays. It includes a recommendation that positive screening should result in referral for additional evaluation or intervention. Yet, it is not known whether positive screens do, in fact, influence physician referrals. The primary…
... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Referral of Complaint and answer to the ALJ. 13.11 Section 13.11 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 13.11 Referral of Complaint and answer to the ALJ. Upon receipt of an answer, the...
Sips, I.I.; Haeri Mazanderani, A.; Schneider, H.; Greeff, M.; Barten, F.J.; Moshabela, M.
Although home-based care (HBC) programs are widely implemented throughout Africa, their success depends on the existence of an enabling environment, including a referral system and supply of essential commodities. The objective of this study was to explore the current state of client referral
Grote, F.K.; Oostdijk, W.; Muinck Keizer-Schrama, S.M.P.F. de; Dekker, F.W.; Dommelen, P. van; Buuren, S. van; Lodder-van der Kooij, A.M.; Verkerk, P.H.; Wit, J.M.
Background. To promote early diagnosis and treatment of short stature, consensus meetings were held in the mid nineteen nineties in the Netherlands and the UK. This resulted in guidelines for referral. In this study we evaluate the referral pattern of short stature in primary health care using these
Referral criteria for school-based hearing screening in South Africa: Considerations for resource-limited contexts. ... Diagnostic audiometry confirmed that almost half (47%) of the referred children had a hearing loss. Conclusion: A screening intensity of 25 dB HL andimmediate rescreen reduces the referral rate significantly ...
In southern Tanzania, few high-risk pregnancies are channeled through antenatal care to the referral level. We studied the influences that make pregnant women heed or reject referral advice. Semi-structured interviews with sixty mothers-to-be, twenty-six health workers and six key-informants to identify barriers to use of ...
Selhorst, Mitchell; Fischer, Anastasia; Graft, Kristine; Ravindran, Reno; Peters, Eric; Rodenberg, Richard; Welder, Eric; MacDonald, James
The purposes of this study were (1) to determine whether the duration of rest before referral to physical therapy (PT) affects the time to make a full return to activity for patients with an acute spondylolysis, (2) to assess the safety of an early referral to PT in patients with an acute spondylolysis. Retrospective chart review. Hospital-based sports medicine clinic. The medical charts of 196 adolescent athletes (mean age = 14.3 ± 1.8 years) with an acute spondylolytic injury met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Patients were subgrouped based on physician referral to PT. An aggressive referral group (10 weeks). Duration of rest before clearance to a full return to activity and the frequency of adverse reactions during the course of treatment. Safety was assessed by calculating the risk of experiencing an adverse reaction in each group. Median days to a full return to activity for aggressive referral group (115.5 days, interquartile range 98-150 days) and conservative referral group (140.0 days, interquartile range 114.5-168 days) were significantly different (P = 0.002). Eleven patients had adverse reactions during the course of treatment. The risk of adverse reaction was not statistically significant between groups (P = 0.509). Patients with acute spondylolysis in the aggressive referral group were able to make a full return activity almost 25 days sooner. No differences in the risk of adverse reactions were noted between aggressive and conservative referral groups.
Full Text Available David Price,1,2 Leif Bjermer,3 David A Bergin,4 Rafael Martinez5 1Centre of Academic Primary Care, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK; 2Observational and Pragmatic Research Institute, Singapore; 3Department of Respiratory Medicine and Allergology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden; 4Novartis Ireland Limited, Dublin, Ireland; 5Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland Abstract: Heterogeneity of asthma and difficulty in achieving optimal control are the major challenges in the management of asthma. To help attain the best possible clinical outcomes in patients with asthma, several guidelines provide recommendations for patients who will require a referral to a specialist. Such referrals can help in clearing the uncertainty from the initial diagnosis, provide tailored treatment options to patients with persistent symptoms and offer the patients access to health care providers with expertise in the management of the asthma; thus, specialist referrals have a substantial impact on disease prognosis and the patient’s health status. Hurdles in implementing these recommendations include lack of their dissemination among health care providers and nonadherence to these guidelines; these hurdles considerably limit the implementation of specialist referrals, eventually affecting the rate of referrals. In this review, recommendations for specialist referrals from several key international and national asthma guidelines and other relevant published literature are evaluated. Furthermore, we highlight why referrals are not happening, how this can be improved, and ultimately, what should be done in the specialist setting, based on existing evidence in published literature. Keywords: asthma, disease management, specialization, primary care physicians, referral
Schoon, Y.; Hoogsteen Ossewaarde, M. E.; Scheffer, A. C.; van Rooij, F. J. M.; Olde Rikkert, M. G. M.; de Rooij, S. E.
To study the potential differences in patient characteristics between two referral methods to a fall clinic, specifically: case-finding of patients admitted to an emergency department because of a fall, compared to direct referral to the fall clinic via the general practitioner. Cross-sectional
Schoon, Y.; Hoogsteen-Ossewaarde, M.E.; Scheffer, A.C.; Rooij, F.J.M. van; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Rooij, S.E. De
OBJECTIVE To study the potential differences in patient characteristics between two referral methods to a fall clinic, specifically: case-finding of patients admitted to an emergency department because of a fall, compared to direct referral to the fall clinic via the general practitioner. DESIGN:
Harley, David A.
Relatively little empirical research has been done on the supervisory referral of employees to employee assistance programs (EAPs). Inclusion of constructive confrontation (supervisory referral) into program standards and its continued promotion as a "central strategy" of program theory and operation calls for critical investigation of…
Rawlins, Matthew D M; Raby, Edward; Sanfilippo, Frank M; Douglass, Rae; Chambers, Jonathan; McLellan, Duncan; Dyer, John R
To evaluate the impact of the adaptation of an existing electronic referral application for use in antimicrobial stewardship prospective audit and feedback rounds (antimicrobial rounds). Retrospective, single-centre observational study between March 2015 and February 2016. A new quaternary referral centre. Adults referred for antimicrobial rounds outside of the intensive care and haematology units. Adaptation of an electronic referral application used by medical and allied health staff. A questionnaire-style referral form was designed to capture patient clinical details using a combination of free text and dropdown menus. Clinical pharmacists were educated and granted access to the system. The proportion of completed electronic referrals of total round reviews by month for the 12 months after implementation. The time from request to completion of reviews. The impact on adherence to advice provided on rounds. The impact on the institutional usage of broad-spectrum antibiotics: glycopeptides, carbapenems, third and fourth generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones and piperacillin/tazobactam. Over the study period, the proportion of electronic referrals of completed antimicrobial round reviews increased from 59% to 88% (P < 0.001); 75.7% of accepted electronic referrals were seen within 48 h of request. The proportion of advice ignored fell from 18% to 8.5% (P < 0.001). Piperacillin/tazobactam, fluoroquinolone and glycopeptide usage decreased. The adaptation of an electronic referral application for antimicrobial rounds was associated with increased adherence to advice and reduction in use in target antibiotics. Our model is now used at other institutions.
Druehl, Cheryl; Carrillo, Janice; Hsuan, Juliana
Innovation is an integral part of every firm’s ongoing operations. Beyond product innovation, supply chain innovations offer a unique source of competitive advantage. We synthesize recent research on innovation in the supply chain, specifically, innovative supply chain processes...
Christian Hollstein; Frank Himpel
Background: Supply chain risk management increasingly gains prominence in many international industries. In order to strengthen supply chain structures, processes, and networks, adequate potentials for risk management need to be built (focus on effective logistics) and to be utilized (focus on efficient logistics). Natural-based disasters, such as the case of Fukushima, illustrate how crucial risk management is. Method: By aligning a theoretical-conceptual framework with empirical-induct...
Full Text Available Risks in supply chains represent one of the major business issues today. Since every organizationstrives for success and uninterrupted operations, efficient supply chain risk management is crucial.During supply chain risk research at the Faculty of Logistics in Maribor (Slovenia some keyissues in the field were identified, the major being the lack of instruments which can make riskmanagement in an organization easier and more efficient. Consequently, a model which captures anddescribes risks in an organization and its supply chain was developed. It is in accordance with thegeneral risk management and supply chain security standards, the ISO 31000 and ISO 28000families. It also incorporates recent finding from the risk management field, especially from theviewpoint of segmenting of the public.The model described in this paper focuses on the risks itself by defining them by different keydimensions, so that risk management is simplified and can be undertaken in every supply chain andorganizations within them. Based on our mode and consequent practical research in actualorganizations, a freely accessible risk catalog has been assembled and published online from the risksthat have been identified so far. This catalog can serve as a checklist and a starting point in supplychain risk management in organizations. It also incorporates experts from the field into a community,in order to assemble an ever growing list of possible risks and to provide insight into the model andits value in practice.
Lewinter, Christian; Bland, John M; Crouch, Simon
BACKGROUND: International guidelines recommend referral for cardiac rehabilitation (CR) after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, the impact on long-term survival after CR referral has not been adjusted by time-variance. We compared the effects of CR referral after hospitalization for AMI......% CI, 0.66 to 0.96, p = 0.02 in 2003) when patients entered the model at three months after discharge and had a common exit at 90 months. Significant positive and negative predictors for CR referral were beta-blocker prescription (+), reperfusion (+) and age (-) in 1995, and reperfusion...... (+), revascularization (+), heart failure (HF) (+), antiplatelets (+), angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor (ACE-I) (+), statins (+), diabetes (-), and the modified Global Registry of Acute Cardiac Events (GRACE) risk score (-) in 2003. CONCLUSIONS: CR referral was associated with improved survival in 2003...
Pembe, Andrea B; Mbekenga, Columba K; Olsson, Pia; Darj, Elisabeth
In most low-income countries, many women with high-risk pregnancies and complications do not reach the referral hospitals despite the provision of referral advice. To explore how antenatal maternal referral advice is understood and handled in a rural Tanzanian community. Individual in-depth interviews were conducted with six women who did not go to hospital and 13 people who were involved in the referral advice. Narrative analysis was used to describe and create meanings out of the decision-making process. In all interviews, not following the referral advice was greatly influenced by close family members. Three main traits of how referral advice was understood emerged: convinced referral is not necessary, accepting referral advice but delayed by others, and passive and moving with the wind. The main reasons given for declining the referral advice included discrediting midwives' advice, citing previous successful deliveries despite referral advice; being afraid of undergoing surgery; lack of support for care of siblings at home; and high costs incurred during referral. Declining maternal referral advice centred around the pregnant women's position and their dependence on the family members around them, with a decreased ability to show autonomy. If they were socially and economically empowered, women could positively influence decision making during maternal referrals.
Driver, J M; Nelson, T G; Simpson, R; Wall, C
There are currently over 9000 British soldiers serving in Afghanistan. The Defence Medical Services provide primary health care to soldiers at forward locations using Regimental Medical Officers (RMOs) and General Duties Medical Officers (GDMOs). If required, GDMOs can refer patients to senior colleagues. Currently, little is known about the reasons for referrals by GDMOs. This study aims to identify the main factors affecting why GDMOs refer from forward locations. Nine GDMOs, who deployed on Operation HERRICK 13, were invited to join the study. They maintained a log of their referrals for two 14 day periods, one in each half of their tour. In addition, a semi-structured interview was performed with each GDMO in order to elicit the common themes surrounding referrals. The mean referral rate was 0.9 referrals/GDMO/week. The main reasons for referral were dental problems, musculoskeletal injuries, abdominal pain of unknown cause, and ano-genital problems. Factors that influenced referrals included availability of forwardly projected services (dentist and physiotherapist), manpower availability at the locations, the availability of flights (affected by weather, enemy action, and schedule of routine flights), and the timing of the tour in relation to leave. Referrals from GDMOs were due to doctor inexperience in the treatment of a particular condition, lack of access to investigations and the potential for deterioration in a location without adequate support. The referral decision process was affected by the patient's importance with regards to the mission, the weather and access to safe transportation. The introduction of clinical guidelines for common conditions in conjunction with minor alterations to GDMO training could help reduce referrals from Role 1, preserving manpower, reducing costs, and minimising risk to evacuation aircraft.
José Juvenal Linhares
Full Text Available Objective: To describe the appropriateness of referrals of high-risk pregnancies in the basic healthcare network of Sobral, in Ceará, Brazil. Methods: A descriptive quantitative study. The medical files of 173 pregnant patients referred to the high-risk outpatient clinic of Centro de Especialidades Médicas of Sobral, during the period from July 2006 to April 2007, were analyzed. Variables analyzed were correctness of the referrals, professionals who made them, causes and origins of the referrals, and age bracket of the patients referred. The referrals were divided into “appropriate” and “inappropriate”, according to the classification of risk established by the technical manual of the Ministry of Health. Rresults: Of the 173 cases, 102 (59% were considered appropriate/correct, and 71 (41% referrals were considered inappropriate/incorrect. The referrals were divided according to the professional class of the referring individuals: physicians or nurses. Of the 173 referrals, 49 (28.3% were made by physicians, and 124 (71.7% by nurses. Of the 49 patients referred by physicians, 39 (79.6% were considered correct. Of the 124 referrals made by nurses, 63 (50.8% were considered incorrect, revealing a significant difference between the groups (p < 0.00001. The most common causes of referrals of pregnant patients were hypertensive syndromes (23.6%, physiological modifications of pregnancy (22.6%, prolonged pregnancy (15.1%, and diabetes (12.3%. Cconclusions: There was a low rate of appropriate/correct referrals. There is a need for training in the basic healthcare network for quality prenatal care, with special emphasis on referring nurses.
Full Text Available Referral of patients to hospitals, specialists and other institutions is an essential part of primary health care. Patients are referred to specialists when investigation or therapeutic options are exhausted in primary care or when opinion or advice is needed from them. Referral has considerable implications for patients, health care system and health care costs. Good communication between primary and secondary care is essential for the smooth running of any health care system. Referral and reply letters are the sole means of communication between doctors most of the time and breakdown in communication could lead to poor continuity of care, delayed diagnoses, polypharmacy, increased litigation risk and unnecessary testing. A referral letter also helps to avoid patient dissatisfaction and loss of confidence in family physician. Studies of referral letters have reported that specialists are dissatisfied with their quality and content. Inclusion of letter writing skills in the medical curriculum, peer assessment and feedback have shown to improve the quality of referral letters. . Form letters have shown to enhance information content and communication in referral process. In Sri Lanka referral letters are usually hand written and frequent complaints are that these letters do not contain adequate information and retrieval of information is a problem due to poor legibility and clarity. Sometimes Primary care doctors refer patients to hospitals and specialists with only verbal instructions. To address these short comings this form letter was introduced. Based on the guidelines and systematic review of published articles, items of information to be included were decided. Printed forms of the letter are kept in the practice and the doctor has to just fill up relevant information under each heading. The objectives of introducing this structured referral letter was to improve the quality and standard of referral letters and save time for both general
Aragam, Krishna G; Dai, Dadi; Neely, Megan L; Bhatt, Deepak L; Roe, Matthew T; Rumsfeld, John S; Gurm, Hitinder S
Rates of referral to cardiac rehabilitation after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) have been historically low despite the evidence that rehabilitation is associated with lower mortality in PCI patients. This study sought to determine the prevalence of and factors associated with referral to cardiac rehabilitation in a national PCI cohort, and to assess the association between insurance status and referral patterns. Consecutive patients who underwent PCI and survived to hospital discharge in the National Cardiovascular Data Registry between July 1, 2009 and March 31, 2012 were analyzed. Cardiac rehabilitation referral rates, and patient and institutional factors associated with referral were evaluated for the total study population and for a subset of Medicare patients presenting with acute myocardial infarction. Patients who underwent PCI (n = 1,432,399) at 1,310 participating hospitals were assessed. Cardiac rehabilitation referral rates were 59.2% and 66.0% for the overall population and the AMI/Medicare subgroup, respectively. In multivariable analyses, presentation with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (odds ratio 2.99; 95% confidence interval: 2.92 to 3.06) and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (odds ratio: 1.99; 95% confidence interval: 1.94 to 2.03) were associated with increased odds of referral to cardiac rehabilitation. Models adjusted for insurance status showed significant site-specific variability in referral rates, with more than one-quarter of all hospitals referring rehabilitation. Site-specific variation in referral rates is significant and is unexplained by insurance coverage. These findings highlight the potential need for hospital-level interventions to improve cardiac rehabilitation referral rates after PCI. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Inglis, Tom; Armour, Paul; Inglis, Grahame; Hooper, Gary
The aim of this paper is to outline the development of a triage system for elective hip and knee referrals to the Orthopaedic Department of the Canterbury District Health Board (CDHB), and to determine the unmet need within this population for accessing first specialist assessment (FSA). Between 1 August 2015 and 31 March 2016 data was collected from all elective hip and knee referrals that underwent triage for a FSA. The number of outpatient appointments available according to the government four-month waiting time is set by the CDHB. Patients were triaged by two consultant surgeons on the basis of their referral letter and radiological imaging into one of five categories: accepted for FSA, insufficient information, no capacity, low priority or direct entry to waiting list (if already seen by a specialist). Those not accepted for an FSA were returned to general practitioner (GP) care. During the study period there were 1,733 referrals (838 hip related referrals and 895 knee related referrals) to the orthopaedic department with a request for FSA. All patients had failed conservative management. Of these referrals 43% of hip and 54% of knee related referrals could not be offered an FSA and were returned, following triage, to general practitioner care unseen. Only 8% and 9% respectively were declined for insufficient information in the referral letter or lack of need. This study details the implementation of a triage system for elective hip and knee referrals to the CDHB and with accurate data we have been able to determine the large number of patients unable to access a specialist opinion. These patients represent the unmet need within our community and highlights the degree of rationing taking place within the public hospital.
Zhang, Ling; Li, Guantian; Yao, Weirong; Zhu, Fan
Unit chain length distributions of amylopectin and its φ, β-limit dextrins, which reflect amylopectin internal structure from three maca starches, were determined by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection after debranching, and the samples were compared with maize starch. The amylopectins exhibited average chain lengths ranging from 16.72 to 17.16, with ranges of total internal chain length, external chain length, and internal chain length of the maca amylopectins at 12.49 to 13.68, 11.24 to 11.89, and 4.27 to 4.48. The average chain length, external chain length, internal chain length, and total internal chain length were comparable in three maca amylopectins. Amylopectins of the three maca genotypes studied here presented no significant differences in their unit chain length profiles, but did show significant differences in their internal chain profiles. Additional genetic variations between different maca genotypes need to be studied to provide unit- and internal chain profiles of maca amylopectin. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Full Text Available Fetene Netsanet,1 Ayalew Dessie21IMA World Health SuddHealth Multi Donor Trust Fund-Basic Package of Health Services Project, Juba, South Sudan; 2United States Agency for International Development, Private Health Sector Program, Abt Associates Inc, Addis Ababa, EthiopiaBackground: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-positive individuals who do not disclose their HIV status to their partners are more likely to present late for HIV and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS care than those who have disclosed their HIV status to their partners. A major area of challenge with regards to HIV counseling for clients is disclosure of their HIV status to their partners. The main methods of partner notification are patient referral, provider referral, contract referral, and outreach assistance. The emphasis on a plausible and comprehensive partner referral strategy for widespread positive case detection in resource-limited countries needs to be thought out and developed.Methods: A qualitative study was conducted among newly HIV-positive clients to identify partners for notification and acceptance of referral by their partners. Health service providers working in HIV testing and counseling clinics were also provided with semistructured questionnaires in order to assess their view towards partner notification strategies for clients testing positive for HIV.Results: Fifteen newly diagnosed HIV-positive clients were counseled to provide referral slips to their partners. All clients agreed and took the referral card. However, only eight were willing and actually provided the card to their partners. Five of the eight partners of clients who tested HIV-positive and who were provided with referral cards responded to the referral and were tested for HIV. Three were positive and two were negative. Nine of 11 counselors did not agree to requesting partner locator information from HIV-positive clients for contractual referral and/or outreach assistance. The findings
Sabouni, Farah; Mahmoudi, Shima; Bahador, Abbas; Pourakbari, Babak; Sadeghi, Reihaneh Hosseinpour; Ashtiani, Mohammad Taghi Haghi; Nikmanesh, Bahram; Mamishi, Setareh
The clinical importance of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is attributed to notable virulence factors, surface proteins, toxins, and enzymes as well as the rapid development of drug resistance. The aim of this study was to compare the occurrence of virulence factors produced by S. aureus strains isolated from children in an Iranian referral children's hospital. The presence of genes encoding for the enterotoxins A (sea), B (seb), C (sec), D (sed), TSST-1 (tsst), exfoliative toxin A (eta), and exfoliative toxin B (etb) were detected by Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using specific primers. In addition, the standardized Kirby-Bauer disc-diffusion method was performed on Mueller-Hinton agar. In total, 133 S. aureus isolates were obtained from different patients. Of these S. aureus isolates, 64 (48%) were methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), and all of these tested positive for the mecA gene. Regarding the classical enterotoxin genes, sea gene (40.6%) was the most prevalent followed by seb (19.6%), tsst (12.8%), eta (11.3%), etb (9%), sed (4.5%), and sec (3%). Among methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolates, seb and tsst were the more prevalent toxins in comparison with MRSA isolates (p 0.05). In our study enterotoxin A was produced by 40.6% of the isolates (48% from MRSA and 33% from MSSA isolates) which was higher than in previous reports. According to our results, strict hygiene and preventative measures during food processing are highly recommended.
El Yazid Boudaren, Mohamed; Monfrini, Emmanuel; Pieczynski, Wojciech; Aïssani, Amar
Hidden Markov chains have been shown to be inadequate for data modeling under some complex conditions. In this work, we address the problem of statistical modeling of phenomena involving two heterogeneous system states. Such phenomena may arise in biology or communications, among other fields. Namely, we consider that a sequence of meaningful words is to be searched within a whole observation that also contains arbitrary one-by-one symbols. Moreover, a word may be interrupted at some site to be carried on later. Applying plain hidden Markov chains to such data, while ignoring their specificity, yields unsatisfactory results. The Phasic triplet Markov chain, proposed in this paper, overcomes this difficulty by means of an auxiliary underlying process in accordance with the triplet Markov chains theory. Related Bayesian restoration techniques and parameters estimation procedures according to the new model are then described. Finally, to assess the performance of the proposed model against the conventional hidden Markov chain model, experiments are conducted on synthetic and real data.
Bzdušek, Tomáš; Wu, QuanSheng; Rüegg, Andreas; Sigrist, Manfred; Soluyanov, Alexey A
The band theory of solids is arguably the most successful theory of condensed-matter physics, providing a description of the electronic energy levels in various materials. Electronic wavefunctions obtained from the band theory enable a topological characterization of metals for which the electronic spectrum may host robust, topologically protected, fermionic quasiparticles. Many of these quasiparticles are analogues of the elementary particles of the Standard Model, but others do not have a counterpart in relativistic high-energy theories. A complete list of possible quasiparticles in solids is lacking, even in the non-interacting case. Here we describe the possible existence of a hitherto unrecognized type of fermionic excitation in metals. This excitation forms a nodal chain-a chain of connected loops in momentum space-along which conduction and valence bands touch. We prove that the nodal chain is topologically distinct from previously reported excitations. We discuss the symmetry requirements for the appearance of this excitation and predict that it is realized in an existing material, iridium tetrafluoride (IrF 4 ), as well as in other compounds of this class of materials. Using IrF 4 as an example, we provide a discussion of the topological surface states associated with the nodal chain. We argue that the presence of the nodal-chain fermions will result in anomalous magnetotransport properties, distinct from those of materials exhibiting previously known excitations.
Teschke, Kay; Marion, Stephen A; Tsui, Joseph K C; Shen, Hui; Rugbjerg, Kathrine; Harris, M Anne
We used a population-based sample of 403 Parkinson's disease cases and 405 controls to examine risks by occupation. Results were compared to a previous clinic-based analysis. With censoring of jobs held within 10 years of diagnosis, the following had significantly or strongly increased risks: social science, law and library jobs (OR = 1.8); farming and horticulture jobs (OR = 2.0); gas station jobs (OR = 2.6); and welders (OR = 3.0). The following had significantly decreased risks: management and administration jobs (OR = 0.70); and other health care jobs (OR = 0.44). These results were consistent with other findings for social science and farming occupations. Risks for teaching, medicine and health occupations were not elevated, unlike our previous clinic-based study. This underscores the value of population-based over clinic-based samples. Occupational studies may be particularly susceptible to referral bias because social networks may spread preferentially via jobs. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Pembe, Andrea B.; Mbekenga, Columba K.; Olsson, Pia; Darj, Elisabeth
ABSTRACT Background: In most low-income countries, many women with high-risk pregnancies and complications do not reach the referral hospitals despite the provision of referral advice. Objective: To explore how antenatal maternal referral advice is understood and handled in a rural Tanzanian community. Methods: Individual in-depth interviews were conducted with six women who did not go to hospital and 13 people who were involved in the referral advice. Narrative analysis was used to describe ...
Zheng, Xiaojiao; Qiu, Yunping; Zhong, Wei; Baxter, Sarah; Su, Mingming; Li, Qiong; Xie, Guoxiang; Ore, Brandon M.; Qiao, Shanlei; Spencer, Melanie D.; Zeisel, Steven H.; Zhou, Zhanxiang; Zhao, Aihua; Jia, Wei
Research in obesity and metabolic disorders that involve intestinal microbiota demands reliable methods for the precise measurement of the short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) concentration. Here, we report a rapid method of simultaneously determining SCFAs and BCAAs in biological samples using propyl chloroformate (PCF) derivatization followed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. A one-step derivatization using 100 µL of PCF in a reactio...
Hannan Amoozad Mahdiraji
Full Text Available In recent years, there are several methods introduced for the improvement of operational performances. Total quality management and supply chain management are two methods recommended for this purpose. These two approaches have been studied in most researches separately, while they have objectives in common, and this makes them a strategic means, which can be used, simultaneously. Total quality management and supply chain management play significant roles to increase the organizational competitiveness power. Moreover, they have only one purpose that is customer satisfaction, and they are different only on their approaches to reach their objectives. In this research, we aim to study both approaches of quality management and supply chain, their positive increasing effects that may be generated after their integration. For this purpose, the concept and definitions of each approach is studied, independently, their similarities and differences are recognized, and finally, the advantages of their integration are introduced.
Chialva, Diego; Danielsson, Ulf H
This paper represents an in-depth treatment of the chain inflation scenario. We fully determine the evolution of the universe in the model, the conditions necessary in order to have a successful inflationary period, and the matching with the observational results regarding the cosmological perturbations. We study in great detail, and in general, the dynamics of the background, as well as the mechanism of generation of the perturbations. We also find an explicit formula for the spectrum of adiabatic perturbations. Our results prove that chain inflation is a viable model for solving the horizon, entropy and flatness problems of standard cosmology and for generating the right amount of adiabatic cosmological perturbations. The results are radically different from those found in previous works on the subject. Finally, we argue that there is a natural way to embed chain inflation into flux compactified string theory. We discuss the details of the implementation and how to fit observations
Eskeland, Sigrun Losada; Brunborg, Cathrine; Seip, Birgitte; Wiencke, Kristine; Hovde, Øistein; Owen, Tanja; Skogestad, Erik; Huppertz-Hauss, Gert; Halvorsen, Fred-Arne; Garborg, Kjetil; Aabakken, Lars; de Lange, Thomas
Objective To create and validate an objective and reliable score to assess referral quality in gastroenterology. Design An observational multicentre study. Setting and participants 25 gastroenterologists participated in selecting variables for a Thirty Point Score (TPS) for quality assessment of referrals to gastroenterology specialist healthcare for 9 common indications. From May to September 2014, 7 hospitals from the South-Eastern Norway Regional Health Authority participated in collecting and scoring 327 referrals to a gastroenterologist. Main outcome measure Correlation between the TPS and a visual analogue scale (VAS) for referral quality. Results The 327 referrals had an average TPS of 13.2 (range 1–25) and an average VAS of 4.7 (range 0.2–9.5). The reliability of the score was excellent, with an intra-rater intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.87 and inter-rater ICC of 0.91. The overall correlation between the TPS and the VAS was moderate (r=0.42), and ranged from fair to substantial for the various indications. Mean agreement was good (ICC=0.47, 95% CI (0.34 to 0.57)), ranging from poor to good. Conclusions The TPS is reliable, objective and shows good agreement with the subjective VAS. The score may be a useful tool for assessing referral quality in gastroenterology, particularly important when evaluating the effect of interventions to improve referral quality. PMID:27855107
Suguitan, G A; Cabanayan-Casasola, C B; Danguilan, R A; Jaro, J M A
The Human Organ Preservation Effort is a government organ procurement organization that pioneered the Deceased Organ Donation Program in the Philippines. Deceased organ donation comprises only 20% of kidney transplantation in the Philippines in the last 3 years. Various measures were implemented to improve deceased organ donor referrals and organ retrieval. To compare outcome of deceased organ donor referrals from 2002 to 2008 and 2009 to 2012 in the Philippines. This retrospective study reviewed the deceased organ donor referrals from 2002 to 2008 and 2009 to 2012. There were 437 referrals for potential deceased organ donors from 2009 to 2012, compared to 434 referrals from 2002 to 2008. Referrals were mainly trauma victims (76%) followed by those with cerebrovascular accidents (12%). In the recent cohort, 81% were approached and 60% consented for donation, but only 23% were retrieved and transplanted. Among those not retrieved, the majority (19%) were medically unsuitable and 6% retracted their consent. Although there was an increasing trend of organ donation referrals in the last 4 years, only 25% were procured. The reasons for nonprocurement should be addressed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Berg, Shipra; Berg, Erlend
To investigate whether the youngest children in each school cohort are overrepresented as users of specialist mental health services. Dates of birth were obtained for all 9,157 children and adolescents referred to specialist mental health services in 3 London boroughs from 2008 to 2011. The actual frequency of referrals by month of birth is compared to the expected frequency of referrals as determined by birth statistics for the relevant age group. August-born children, who are the youngest in their cohorts in England, represent 9.38% of referrals but only 8.59% of the population in the relevant age segment. Hence, August-born children are overrepresented in referrals to specialist mental health services (P value = .007). September- and October-born children, who are the oldest in their cohorts, are underrepresented: September-born children represent 8.62% of the population but 7.99% of referrals to mental health services (P value = .032), and October-born children are 8.56% of the population but 7.86% of referrals (P value = .016). Being among the youngest in a school cohort is associated with a higher risk of referral to mental health services, while being among the oldest is a protective factor. © Copyright 2014 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.
Awoonor-Williams, John Koku; Bailey, Patricia E; Yeji, Francis; Adongo, Ayire Emmanuel; Baffoe, Peter; Williams, Afua; Mercer, Sarah
Ghana Health Service conducted an audit to strengthen the referral system for pregnant or recently pregnant women and newborns in northern Ghana. The audit took place in 16 facilities with two 3-month cycles of data collection in 2011. Midwife-led teams tracked 446 referred women until they received definitive treatment. Between the two audit cycles, teams identified and implemented interventions to address gaps in referral services. During this time period, we observed important increases in facilitating referral mechanisms, including a decrease in the dependence on taxis in favour of national or facility ambulances/vehicles; an increase in health workers escorting referrals to the appropriate receiving facility; greater use of referral slips and calling ahead to alert receiving facilities and higher feedback rates. As referral systems require attention from multiple levels of engagement, on the provider end we found that regional managers increasingly resolved staffing shortages; district management addressed the costliness and lack of transport and increased midwives' ability to communicate with pregnant women and drivers; and that facility staff increasingly adhered to guidelines and facilitating mechanisms. By conducting an audit of maternal and newborn referrals, the Ghana Health Service identified areas for improvement that service providers and management at multiple levels addressed, demonstrating a platform for problem solving that could be a model elsewhere.
Young, D W; Reichman, W R; Levy, M F
Potential factors underlying sex differences in the referral of problem-drinking subordinates to employee assistance programs (EAPs) were explored in interviews with 120 supervisors in four organizations. Analyses of data obtained in these interviews assessed the relative ability of eight variables to predict supervisor's actual identification and referral of female and male problem drinkers. In addition to numbers of employees supervised, the supervisors' judgment of the EAP's effectiveness was the best predictor of referral and identification, regardless of the sex of the referred subordinate. Knowledge and training in the EAP was a secondary contributor to referral of men, but played no role in female referrals. When controlling for all other variables, the extent to which supervisors held an egalitarian attitude toward women's rights and roles was found to be marginally positively related to identification of female drinkers. Similarly, a less stigmatized, stereotyped view of women's use and abuse of alcohol was marginally associated with a greater likelihood of referral of a female drinker to the EAP. Neither of these attitudinal variables was related to identification or referral of male problem drinkers.
Quiett, William F.; Sealing, Scott L.
The Supply-Chain Optimization Template (SCOT) is an instructional guide for identifying, evaluating, and optimizing (including re-engineering) aerospace- oriented supply chains. The SCOT was derived from the Supply Chain Council s Supply-Chain Operations Reference (SCC SCOR) Model, which is more generic and more oriented toward achieving a competitive advantage in business.
Hugos, Michael H
The latest thinking, strategies, developments, and technologies to stay current in supply chain management Presenting the core concepts and techniques of supply chain management in a clear, concise and easily readable style, the Third Edition of Essentials of Supply Chain Management outlines the most crucial tenets and concepts of supply chain management.
Full Text Available Everyone likes Porsche but few can afford it. Budget constraints always play a critical role in a customer’s decision-making. The literature disproportionally focuses on how firms can induce customer valuations toward the product, but does not address how to assess the influence of budget constraints. We study these questions in the context of a referral reward program (RRP. RRP is a prominent marketing strategy that utilizes recommendations passed from existing customers to their friends and effectively stimulates word of mouth (WoM. We build a stylized game-theoretical model with a nested Stackelberg game involving three players: a firm, an existing customer, and a potential customer who is a friend of the existing customer. The budget is the friend’s private information. We show that RRPs might be optimal when the friend has either a low or a high valuation, but they work differently in each situation because of the budget. Furthermore, there are two budget thresholds, a fixed one and a variable one, which limit a firm’s ability to use rewards.
Rosén, Birgitta; Ehrsson, H Henrik; Antfolk, Christian; Cipriani, Christian; Sebelius, Fredrik; Lundborg, Göran
Hand prostheses that are currently available on the market are used by amputees to only a limited extent, partly because of lack of sensory feedback from the artificial hand. We report a pilot study that showed how amputees can experience a robot-like advanced hand prosthesis as part of their own body. We induced a perceptual illusion by which touch applied to the stump of the arm was experienced from the artificial hand. This illusion was elicited by applying synchronous tactile stimulation to the hidden amputation stump and the robotic hand prosthesis in full view. In five people who had had upper limb amputations this stimulation caused referral touch sensation from the stump to the artificial hand, and the prosthesis was experienced more like a real hand. We also showed that this illusion can work when the amputee controls the movements of the artificial hand by recordings of the arm muscle activity with electromyograms. These observations indicate that the previously described "rubber hand illusion" is also valid for an advanced hand prosthesis, even when it has a robotic-like appearance.
Bennett, Alice L
The formerly named "Dangerous and Severe Personality Disorder" (DSPD) units are no longer standalone services within the criminal justice system in England and Wales. These sites now provide personality disorder treatment services in the high-security prison estate as part of the new national Offender Personality Disorder (OPD) Pathway Strategy. The OPD Pathway intends to take responsibility for the assessment, treatment, and management of offenders who are likely to have a personality disorder and who present a high risk of re-offending (men and women) and serious harm to others (men). Further PD treatment and progression services are being commissioned in lower security prisons and in the community as part of the new PD Strategy. While the suitability criteria for the two male high-security PD treatment sites are the same, the individual units have their own assessment and treatment methods. This article aims to communicate the referral, assessment, and treatment methods employed within the prison-based Westgate Personality Disorder Treatment Service, HMP Frankland. © The Author(s) 2014.
Margreet van Rijn
Full Text Available Lifelong low-phenylalanine (Phe dietary management is the foundation of care in phenylketonuria (PKU. However, strict monitoring of food intake places a burden on patients and their caregivers, and adherence to the required diet frequently decreases in later childhood and adolescence. Rarely, parents of children with PKU refuse to recognise the importance of treatment and follow-up for this chronic condition. Here, two case studies are presented that document consideration of placement of children into foster care or kinship homes as a last resort to improve persistently high Phe concentrations. In the first case, social service referral led to a 3-year-old girl being placed in a kinship home with her grandparents, resulting in excellent Phe control thereafter. In the second case, discussion with the parents of possible placement of a 12-year-old child into foster care was sufficient to have a positive effect on Phe control. A staged approach for managing intractable non-adherence in PKU is proposed.
Kaplowitz, Paul; Bloch, Clifford
Concerns about possible early pubertal development are a common cause for referral to pediatric medical subspecialists. Several recent studies have suggested that onset of breast and/or pubic hair development may be occurring earlier than in the past. Although there is a chance of finding pathology in girls with signs of puberty before 8 years of age and in boys before 9 years of age, the vast majority of these children with signs of apparent puberty have variations of normal growth and physical development and do not require laboratory testing, bone age radiographs, or intervention. The most common of these signs of early puberty are premature adrenarche (early onset of pubic hair and/or body odor), premature thelarche (nonprogressive breast development, usually occurring before 2 years of age), and lipomastia, in which girls have apparent breast development which, on careful palpation, is determined to be adipose tissue. Indicators that the signs of sexual maturation may represent true, central precocious puberty include progressive breast development over a 4- to 6-month period of observation or progressive penis and testicular enlargement, especially if accompanied by rapid linear growth. Children exhibiting these true indicators of early puberty need prompt evaluation by the appropriate pediatric medical subspecialist. Therapy with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist may be indicated, as discussed in this report. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
OBJECTIVE: The management of wounds in children is stressful, not only for the child, but also for parents and staff. In our Emergency Department (ED), we currently do not have a paediatric sedation policy, and thus children requiring suturing, not amenable to distraction and infiltrative anaesthesia, are referred to specialty teams for general anaesthesia. We proposed that the introduction of a topical anaesthetic gel (lidocaine, adrenaline, tetracaine - LAT) might help to reduce the number of referrals, by allowing the ED staff to perform the procedures, in combination with nonpharmacological approaches. METHODS: We carried out a retrospective review of ED records of all children aged 14 years or less attending with wounds, over an 8-month period, from 01 May 2007 to 31 January 2008. RESULTS: Two hundred and one (50.6%) patients presented before the introduction of LAT gel, whereas 196 (49.3%) patients presented afterwards. A total of 39 (19.4%) patients were referred for specialty review pre-LAT, whereas only 19 (9.7%) patients were referred in the LAT group. Of these, 31 (15.4%) pre-LAT and 15 (7.7%) LAT group required general anaesthesia. There is a significant difference between these two groups, using Fischer\\'s exact test, P=0.018. CONCLUSION: We have found that the introduction of topical anaesthetic gel in ED has significantly reduced the number of children with wounds referred to specialty teams for general anaesthesia. This has important implications for patient safety and hospital resources.
Aldridge, Arnie; Linford, Robyn; Bray, Jeremy
To estimate changes in the substance use behaviors of patients who received services as part of the US Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) grant program. We use a pre-post design and performance monitoring data collected by SBIRT organizations. For a sample of 17 575 patients, we compare pre-SBIRT substance use with substance use 6 months after receipt of SBIRT services. SBIRT's correlation with changes in substance use was estimated using generalized linear mixed models to account for the clustering of patients within health-care facility and US state. From pre- to post-SBIRT we found large and statistically significant decreases for almost every measure of substance use. Model-adjusted means indicate that the prevalence of alcohol use was lower 6 months later by 35.6%, heavy drinking by 43.4% and illicit drug use by 75.8%. Greater intervention intensity was associated with larger decreases in substance use. The study design does not support causal conclusions and estimated decreases in reported substance use are due, at least in part, to a well-known set of confounders and natural substance use patterns that may be unrelated to any particular SBIRT intervention. Compared with previously published findings on the Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment grant program, our estimates of substance use reduction were smaller, but still consistently large in absolute magnitude and within ranges of estimates from past trials of Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Paquette, Dana; Bryant, Joanne; de Wit, John
Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) is a form of chain-referral sampling, similar to snowball sampling, which was developed to reach hidden populations such as people who inject drugs (PWID). RDS is said to reach members of a hidden population that may not be accessible through other sampling methods. However, less attention has been paid as to whether there are segments of the population that are more likely to be missed by RDS. This study examined the ability of RDS to capture people with small injecting networks. A study of PWID, using RDS, was conducted in 2009 in Sydney, Australia. The size of participants' injecting networks was examined by recruitment chain and wave. Participants' injecting network characteristics were compared to those of participants from a separate pharmacy-based study. A logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the characteristics independently associated with having small injecting networks, using the combined RDS and pharmacy-based samples. In comparison with the pharmacy-recruited participants, RDS participants were almost 80% less likely to have small injecting networks, after adjusting for other variables. RDS participants were also more likely to have their injecting networks form a larger proportion of those in their social networks, and to have acquaintances as part of their injecting networks. Compared to those with larger injecting networks, individuals with small injecting networks were equally likely to engage in receptive sharing of injecting equipment, but less likely to have had contact with prevention services. These findings suggest that those with small injecting networks are an important group to recruit, and that RDS is less likely to capture these individuals.
Full Text Available Integrated supply chain risk management (ISCRM has become indispensable to the theory and practice of supply chain management. The economic and political realities of the modern world require not only a different approach to supply chain management, but also bold steps to secure supply chain performance and sustainable wealth creation. Integrated supply chain risk management provides supply chain organisations with a level of insight into their supply chains yet to be achieved. If correctly applied, this process may optimise management decision-making and assist in the protection and enhancement of shareholder value.
Wallace, David J; Mohan, Deepika; Angus, Derek C; Driessen, Julia R; Seymour, Christopher M; Yealy, Donald M; Roberts, Mark M; Kurland, Kristen S; Kahn, Jeremy M
Regional, coordinated care for time-sensitive and high-risk medical conditions is a priority in the United States. A necessary precursor to coordinated regional care is regions that are actionable from clinical and policy standpoints. The Dartmouth Atlas of Health Care, the major health care referral construct in the United States, uses regions that cross state and county boundaries, limiting fiscal or political ownership by key governmental stakeholders in positions to create incentive and regulate regional care coordination. Our objective is to develop and evaluate referral regions that define care patterns for patients with acute myocardial infraction, acute stroke, or trauma, yet also preserve essential political boundaries. We developed a novel set of acute care referral regions using Medicare data in the United States from 2011. For acute myocardial infraction, acute stroke, or trauma, we iteratively aggregated counties according to patient home location and treating hospital address, using a spatial algorithm. We evaluated referral political boundary preservation and spatial accuracy for each set of referral regions. The new set of referral regions, the Pittsburgh Atlas, had 326 distinct regions. These referral regions did not cross any county or state borders, whereas 43.1% and 98.1% of all Dartmouth Atlas hospital referral regions crossed county and state borders. The Pittsburgh Atlas was comparable to the Dartmouth Atlas in measures of spatial accuracy and identified larger at-risk populations for all 3 conditions. A novel and straightforward spatial algorithm generated referral regions that were politically actionable and accountable for time-sensitive medical emergencies. Copyright © 2018 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Studies have shown large variation of referral probabilities in different countries, and many influencing factors have been described. This variation is most likely explained by different healthcare systems, particularly to which extent primary care physicians (PCPs act as gatekeepers. In Switzerland no mandatory gatekeeping system exists, however insurance companies offer voluntary managed care plans with reduced insurance premiums. We aimed at investigating the role of managed care plans as a potential referral determinant in a non-gatekeeping healthcare system. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 90 PCPs collecting data on consultations and referrals in 2012/2013. During each consultation up to six reasons for encounters (RFE were documented. For each RFE PCPs indicated whether a referral was initiated. Determinants for referrals were analyzed by hierarchical logistic regression, taking the potential cluster effect of the PCP into account. To further investigate the independent association of the managed care plan with the referral probability, a hierarchical multivariate logistic regression model was applied, taking into account all available data potentially affecting the referring decision. PCPs collected data on 24'774 patients with 42'890 RFE, of which 2427 led to a referral. 37.5% of patients were insured in managed health care plans. Univariate analysis showed significant higher referral rates of patients with managed care plans (10.7% vs. 8.5%. The difference in referral probability remained significant after controlling for other confounders in the hierarchical multivariate regression model (OR 1.355. Patients in managed care plans were more likely to be referred than patients without such a model. These data contradict the argument that patients in managed care plans have limited healthcare access, but underline the central role of PCPs as coordinator of care.
Mbonye, Anthony K; Buregyeya, Esther; Rutebemberwa, Elizeus; Clarke, Siân E; Lal, Sham; Hansen, Kristian S; Magnussen, Pascal; LaRussa, Philip
In Uganda, referral of sick children seeking care at public health facilities is poor and widely reported. However, studies focusing on the private health sector are scanty. The main objective of this study was to assess referral practices for sick children seeking care at private health facilities in order to explore ways of improving treatment and referral of sick children in this sector. A survey was conducted from August to October 2014 in Mukono district, central Uganda. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire supplemented by Focus Group Discussions and Key Informant interviews with private providers and community members. A total of 241 private health facilities were surveyed; 170 (70.5%) were registered drug shops, 59 (24.5%) private clinics and 12 (5.0%) pharmacies. Overall, 104/241 (43.2%) of the private health facilities reported that they had referred sick children to higher levels of care in the two weeks prior to the survey. The main constraints to follow referral advice as perceived by caretakers were: not appreciating the importance of referral, gender-related decision-making and negotiations at household level, poor quality of care at referral facilities, inadequate finances at household level; while the perception that referral leads to loss of prestige and profit was a major constraint to private providers. In conclusion, the results show that referral of sick children at private health facilities faces many challenges at provider, caretaker, household and community levels. Thus, interventions to address constraints to referral of sick children are urgently needed.
Manciu, M.; Sen, S.; Hurd, A.J.
The authors consider a chain of elastic (Hertzian) grains that repel upon contact according to the potential V = adelta u , u > 2, where delta is the overlap between the grains. They present numerical and analytical results to show that an impulse initiated at an end of a chain of Hertzian grains in contact eventually propagates as a soliton for all n > 2 and that no solitons are possible for n le 2. Unlike continuous, they find that colliding solitons in discrete media initiative multiple weak solitons at the point of crossing
Robbins, M.C.; Eames, G.F.; Mayell, J.R.
An original scheme has been developed for expressing the complex interrelationships associated with the engineered safeguards provided for a nuclear power station. This management tool, based upon network diagrams called Nuclear Safety Chains, looks at the function required of a particular item of safety plant, defines all of the vital supplies and support features necessary for successful operation, and expresses them in visual form, to facilitate analysis and optimisation for operations and maintenance staff. The safety chains are confined to manual schemes at present, although they are designed to be compatible with modern computer techniques. Their usefulness with any routine maintenance planning application on high technology plant is already being appreciated. (author)
Hartfiel, Darald J
In this study extending classical Markov chain theory to handle fluctuating transition matrices, the author develops a theory of Markov set-chains and provides numerous examples showing how that theory can be applied. Chapters are concluded with a discussion of related research. Readers who can benefit from this monograph are those interested in, or involved with, systems whose data is imprecise or that fluctuate with time. A background equivalent to a course in linear algebra and one in probability theory should be sufficient.
Uhler, Lauren M.; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Saxena, Anjali; Losina, Elena; Muniyandi, Malaisamy; Stoler, Adam W.; Lu, Zhigang; Walensky, Rochelle P.; Flanigan, Timothy P.; Bender, Melissa A.; Freedberg, Kenneth A.; Swaminathan, Soumya
Background Indian guidelines recommend routine referral for HIV testing of all tuberculosis (TB) patients in the nine states with the highest HIV prevalence, and selective referral for testing elsewhere. We assessed the clinical impact and cost-effectiveness of alternative HIV testing referral strategies among TB patients in India. Methods and Findings We utilized a computer model of HIV and TB disease to project outcomes for patients with active TB in India. We compared life expectancy, cost, and cost-effectiveness for three HIV testing referral strategies: 1) selective referral for HIV testing of those with increased HIV risk, 2) routine referral of patients in the nine highest HIV prevalence states with selective referral elsewhere (current standard), and 3) routine referral of all patients for HIV testing. TB-related data were from the World Health Organization. HIV prevalence among TB patients was 9.0% in the highest prevalence states, 2.9% in the other states, and 4.9% overall. The selective referral strategy, beginning from age 33.50 years, had a projected discounted life expectancy of 16.88 years and a mean lifetime HIV/TB treatment cost of US$100. The current standard increased mean life expectancy to 16.90 years with additional per-person cost of US$10; the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was US$650/year of life saved (YLS) compared to selective referral. Routine referral of all patients for HIV testing increased life expectancy to 16.91 years, with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of US$730/YLS compared to the current standard. For HIV-infected patients cured of TB, receiving antiretroviral therapy increased survival from 4.71 to 13.87 years. Results were most sensitive to the HIV prevalence and the cost of second-line antiretroviral therapy. Conclusions Referral of all patients with active TB in India for HIV testing will be both effective and cost-effective. While effective implementation of this strategy would require investment, routine
At baseline, it was found that 18 of 57 (31.6% attempts to book dietetic appointments were not successful due to fully booked clinics (7 new and 11 reviews. While 6 of the 11 reviews were for reasons of higher dietetic urgency e.g. hyperkalaemia and malnutrition, 6 out of 7 new referrals were for lifestyle related reasons e.g. obesity, diabetes, and cholesterol. It is felt the new categorised referral tool and pathways will provide better guidance for referral and appropriate use of dietetic resources for CKD management, to be evaluated in early 2012.
Hanley, Judy; Adams, Jane
This article describes the initial development and subsequent evolution of a simple referral assessment tool for stoma care. The first author's personal experience identified that there was widespread inconsistency in perceptions of local multidisciplinary teams as to when it was appropriate to refer to specific specialist nursing teams. This resulted in both inappropriate and delayed referrals. A 'Think Specialist Nurse' initiative was developed across the author's trust, building on the traffic light template from the 'ThinkGlucose' tool, to facilitate referrals to clinical nurse specialists. The stoma-care specific tool, 'Think Stoma Nurse', has subsequently evolved beyond its initial audience, and has been adapted into materials aimed at patients and carers.
This was a retrospective observational study of neurophysiology referrals over 8 years from a tertiary referral center in Ireland. A total of 68 of the 73 referrals yielded one or more abnormalities. Thirty-nine (53%) patients had one or more mononeuropathies; iatrogenic mononeuropathies believed to be associated with arterio-venous fistula creation occurred in 15 patients. Polyneuropathy was identified in 43 patients (59%). Access to an experienced neurophysiology department offers valuable insight into dialysis-associated neuropathies, especially when associated with arterio-venous fistulae.
Full Text Available Abstract Background A cost-effectiveness analysis of timely dialysis referral after renal transplant failure was undertaken from the perspective of the Public Administration. The current Spanish situation, where all the patients undergoing graft function loss are referred back to dialysis in a late manner, was compared to an ideal scenario where all the patients are timely referred. Methods A Markov model was developed in which six health states were defined: hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, kidney transplantation, late referral hemodialysis, late referral peritoneal dialysis and death. The model carried out a simulation of the progression of renal disease for a hypothetical cohort of 1,000 patients aged 40, who were observed in a lifetime temporal horizon of 45 years. In depth sensitivity analyses were performed in order to ensure the robustness of the results obtained. Results Considering a discount rate of 3 %, timely referral showed an incremental cost of 211 €, compared to late referral. This cost increase was however a consequence of the incremental survival observed. The incremental effectiveness was 0.0087 quality-adjusted life years (QALY. When comparing both scenarios, an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of 24,390 €/QALY was obtained, meaning that timely dialysis referral might be an efficient alternative if a willingness-to-pay threshold of 45,000 €/QALY is considered. This result proved to be independent of the proportion of late referral patients observed. The acceptance probability of timely referral was 61.90 %, while late referral was acceptable in 38.10 % of the simulations. If we however restrict the analysis to those situations not involving any loss of effectiveness, the acceptance probability of timely referral was 70.10 %, increasing twofold that of late referral (29.90 %. Conclusions Timely dialysis referral after graft function loss might be an efficient alternative in Spain, improving both
Villa, Guillermo; Sánchez-Álvarez, Emilio; Cuervo, Jesús; Fernández-Ortiz, Lucía; Rebollo, Pablo; Ortega, Francisco
A cost-effectiveness analysis of timely dialysis referral after renal transplant failure was undertaken from the perspective of the Public Administration. The current Spanish situation, where all the patients undergoing graft function loss are referred back to dialysis in a late manner, was compared to an ideal scenario where all the patients are timely referred. A Markov model was developed in which six health states were defined: hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, kidney transplantation, late referral hemodialysis, late referral peritoneal dialysis and death. The model carried out a simulation of the progression of renal disease for a hypothetical cohort of 1,000 patients aged 40, who were observed in a lifetime temporal horizon of 45 years. In depth sensitivity analyses were performed in order to ensure the robustness of the results obtained. Considering a discount rate of 3 %, timely referral showed an incremental cost of 211 €, compared to late referral. This cost increase was however a consequence of the incremental survival observed. The incremental effectiveness was 0.0087 quality-adjusted life years (QALY). When comparing both scenarios, an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of 24,390 €/QALY was obtained, meaning that timely dialysis referral might be an efficient alternative if a willingness-to-pay threshold of 45,000 €/QALY is considered. This result proved to be independent of the proportion of late referral patients observed. The acceptance probability of timely referral was 61.90 %, while late referral was acceptable in 38.10 % of the simulations. If we however restrict the analysis to those situations not involving any loss of effectiveness, the acceptance probability of timely referral was 70.10 %, increasing twofold that of late referral (29.90 %). Timely dialysis referral after graft function loss might be an efficient alternative in Spain, improving both patients' survival rates and health-related quality of life at an
Bøge Sørensen, Lars
Keywords Supply Chain Management, Supply Chain Design, Literature study Abstract Argues stability is a design objective for supply chain design alongside cost, lead time and responsiveness. Performs an extensive literature study on supply chain design, identifies methods, theories and objectives in the existing literature. Describes the concept external specificity and how it’s used to design supply chains. Using the concept upstream, archetypes of risk minimal and maximal desi...
A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF CHAINEarly DevelopmentsCog ChainCast Detachable ChainCast Pintle ChainPrecision Roller ChainEngineering Steel ChainSilent ChainFlat-Top ChainTerminologyA CHAIN OVERVIEW: USES AND ADVANTAGESGeneralTypes of ChainScope of Chains CoveredStyles and Forms of ChainsStraight and Offset Link ChainsChains With and Without RollersUses of ChainStandard Chains and Their UsesThe Advantages of Chains in ApplicationsAdvantages of Roller Chains in DrivesAdvantages of Silent Chain Drives
S. Drost (Sarah); J.C.A.C. van Wijk (Jeroen); S.R. Vellema (Sietze)
textabstractValue chain promotion is considered a key element of private sector development strategies and pro-poor growth. However, (value) chain concepts are rather complex and unclear. This paper unravels the concept of global value chains and studies the diversity of key value chain-related
Maier, Maximilian; Korbel, Jakob; Brem, Alexander
. Moreover, along with the fourth industrial revolution – industry 4.0 – new technologies such as cyber physical systems are fast gaining popularity. Hence, based on the analysis of relevant literature, we further develop the supply chain committee model, developed by Kaluza et al. (2003) to demonstrate how...
... lab's website in order to provide you with background information about the test(s) you had performed. You will need to return ... the free light chains have a much shorter half-life (3-5 hours) than ... cell disorders, the test is also used for assessing response and minimal ...
Ucke, C.; Schlichting, H. J.
This relatively rare thermometer has a rather unusual display: lower temperatures are located at the top of the scale, higher ones at the bottom. A sphere on a chain floats in a suitable liquid, sinking at high temperatures when the density of the liquid decreases and rising in the increased density at low temperatures. With reasonable effort and…
Asmussen, Jesper Normann; Kristensen, Jesper; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum
Based Costing (ABC) på et forsyningskædeniveau – heri benævnt Supply Chain Costing (SCC). Udoverdefordelederfindesved ABCtilføjerSCCogså et økonomisk grundlag til det strategiske rationale, der ofte ligger bag opbygningen af virksomhedens forsyningskæde, og kan dermed medvirke til konkret...
Hernandez, Virginia; Pedersen, Torben
modes chosen and the different ways of coordinating them. We also examine the outcomes of a global value chain configuration in terms of performance and upgrading. Our aim is to review the state of the art of these issues, identify research gaps and suggest new lines for future research that would...
The Exploration Supply Chain Simulation project was chartered by the NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate to develop a software tool, with proper data, to quantitatively analyze supply chains for future program planning. This tool is a discrete-event simulation that uses the basic supply chain concepts of planning, sourcing, making, delivering, and returning. This supply chain perspective is combined with other discrete or continuous simulation factors. Discrete resource events (such as launch or delivery reviews) are represented as organizational functional units. Continuous resources (such as civil service or contractor program functions) are defined as enabling functional units. Concepts of fixed and variable costs are included in the model to allow the discrete events to interact with cost calculations. The definition file is intrinsic to the model, but a blank start can be initiated at any time. The current definition file is an Orion Ares I crew launch vehicle. Parameters stretch from Kennedy Space Center across and into other program entities (Michaud Assembly Facility, Aliant Techsystems, Stennis Space Center, Johnson Space Center, etc.) though these will only gain detail as the file continues to evolve. The Orion Ares I file definition in the tool continues to evolve, and analysis from this tool is expected in 2008. This is the first application of such business-driven modeling to a NASA/government-- aerospace contractor endeavor.
Solan, Eilon; Vieille, Nicolas
We study irreducible time-homogenous Markov chains with finite state space in discrete time. We obtain results on the sensitivity of the stationary distribution and other statistical quantities with respect to perturbations of the transition matrix. We define a new closeness relation between transition matrices, and use graph-theoretic techniques, in contrast with the matrix analysis techniques previously used.
Sukkel, W.; Hommes, M.
In their pursuit of growth and professionalisation, the Dutch organic sector focuses primarily on market development. But how do you stimulate the market for organic foods? This is the subject of many research projects concerning market, consumer preferences and the supply chain. These projects
Moghimi, Seyed Moein; Rahbarizadeh, Fatemeh; Ahmadvand, Davoud
Unlike conventional antibodies, heavy chain only antibodies derived from camel contain a single variable domain (VHH) and two constant domains (CH2 and CH3). Cloned and isolated VHHs possess unique properties that enable them to excel conventional therapeutic antibodies and their smaller antigen...
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 3. Markov Chain Monte Carlo - Examples. Arnab Chakraborty. General Article Volume 7 Issue 3 March 2002 pp 25-34. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/007/03/0025-0034. Keywords.
Full Text Available Background: Today it is virtually impossible to operate alone on the international level in the logistics business. This promotes the establishment and development of new integrated business entities - logistic operators. However, such cooperation within a supply chain creates also many problems related to the supply chain reliability as well as the optimization of the supplies planning. The aim of this paper was to develop and formulate the mathematical model and algorithms to find the optimum plan of supplies by using economic criterion and the model for the probability evaluating of non-failure operation of supply chain. Methods: The mathematical model and algorithms to find the optimum plan of supplies were developed and formulated by using economic criterion and the model for the probability evaluating of non-failure operation of supply chain. Results and conclusions: The problem of ensuring failure-free performance of goods supply channel analyzed in the paper is characteristic of distributed network systems that make active use of business process outsourcing technologies. The complex planning problem occurring in such systems that requires taking into account the consumer's requirements for failure-free performance in terms of supply volumes and correctness can be reduced to a relatively simple linear programming problem through logical analysis of the structures. The sequence of the operations, which should be taken into account during the process of the supply planning with the supplier's functional reliability, was presented.
Astrup, P.; Mikkelsen, T.; Deme, S.
The METRODOS meteorological preprocessor chain combines measured tower data and coarse grid numerical weather prediction (NWP) data with local scale flow models and similarity scaling to give high resolution approximations of the meteorological situation. Based on available wind velocity and dire...
Phan, Olivier; Henderson, Craig E; Angelidis, Tatiana; Weil, Patricia; van Toorn, Manja; Rigter, Renske; Soria, Cecilia; Rigter, Henk
MDFT (Multidimensional Family Therapy) is a family based outpatient treatment programme for adolescent problem behaviour. MDFT has been found effective in the USA in adolescent samples differing in severity and treatment delivery settings. On request of five governments (Belgium, France, Germany, the Netherlands, and Switzerland), MDFT has now been tested in the joint INCANT trial (International Cannabis Need of Treatment) for applicability in Western Europe. In each of the five countries, study participants were recruited from the local population of youth seeking or guided to treatment for, among other things, cannabis use disorder. There is little information in the literature if these populations are comparable between sites/countries or not. Therefore, we examined if the study samples enrolled in the five countries differed in baseline characteristics regarding demographics, clinical profile, and treatment delivery setting. INCANT was a multicentre phase III(b) randomized controlled trial with an open-label, parallel group design. It compared MDFT with treatment as usual (TAU) at and across sites in Berlin, Brussels, Geneva, The Hague and Paris.Participants of INCANT were adolescents of either sex, from 13 through 18 years of age, with a cannabis use disorder (dependence or abuse), and at least one parent willing to take part in the treatment. In total, 450 cases/families were randomized (concealed) into INCANT. We collected data about adolescent and family demographics (age, gender, family composition, school, work, friends, and leisure time). In addition, we gathered data about problem behaviour (substance use, alcohol and cannabis use disorders, delinquency, psychiatric co-morbidity).There were no major differences on any of these measures between the treatment conditions (MDFT and TAU) for any of the sites. However, there were cross-site differences on many variables. Most of these could be explained by variations in treatment culture, as reflected by
Full Text Available Abstract Background MDFT (Multidimensional Family Therapy is a family based outpatient treatment programme for adolescent problem behaviour. MDFT has been found effective in the USA in adolescent samples differing in severity and treatment delivery settings. On request of five governments (Belgium, France, Germany, the Netherlands, and Switzerland, MDFT has now been tested in the joint INCANT trial (International Cannabis Need of Treatment for applicability in Western Europe. In each of the five countries, study participants were recruited from the local population of youth seeking or guided to treatment for, among other things, cannabis use disorder. There is little information in the literature if these populations are comparable between sites/countries or not. Therefore, we examined if the study samples enrolled in the five countries differed in baseline characteristics regarding demographics, clinical profile, and treatment delivery setting. Methods INCANT was a multicentre phase III(b randomized controlled trial with an open-label, parallel group design. It compared MDFT with treatment as usual (TAU at and across sites in Berlin, Brussels, Geneva, The Hague and Paris. Participants of INCANT were adolescents of either sex, from 13 through 18 years of age, with a cannabis use disorder (dependence or abuse, and at least one parent willing to take part in the treatment. In total, 450 cases/families were randomized (concealed into INCANT. Results We collected data about adolescent and family demographics (age, gender, family composition, school, work, friends, and leisure time. In addition, we gathered data about problem behaviour (substance use, alcohol and cannabis use disorders, delinquency, psychiatric co-morbidity. There were no major differences on any of these measures between the treatment conditions (MDFT and TAU for any of the sites. However, there were cross-site differences on many variables. Most of these could be explained by
Jefee-Bahloul, Hussam; Moustafa, Moustafa K; Shebl, Fatma M; Barkil-Oteo, Andres
Given the scarcity of mental health resources available for refugees in areas of conflict, it is imperative to investigate interventions that would be accepted by the refugees. In this study we surveyed 354 Syrian refugees using the HADStress screening tool and asked about their openness to referral to psychiatry and telepsychiatry. Of the surveyed sample, 41.8% had scores on HADStress that correlate to posttraumatic stress disorder. However, only 34% of the whole sample reported a perceived need to see a psychiatrist, and of those only 45% were open to telepsychiatry. Women, those who were bilingual, and those with positive HADStress status were less likely to accept telepsychiatry; however, this finding did not reach statistical significance. This study reports a partial acceptance of Syrian refugees for telepsychiatric services despite the high prevalence of psychological stress.
Rosenberg, Katherine B.; Monk, Catherine; Kleinman, Charles S.; Glickstein, Julie S.; Levasseur, Stephanie M.; Simpson, Lynne L.; Williams, Ismee A.
Background Referral for fetal echocardiography is an acute stressor that may induce significant maternal anxiety. To promote good clinical management of expectant mothers in this situation, including adequate screening for possible psychiatric interventions, data is needed regarding the psychosocial functioning of women scheduled for fECHO procedures. Objective To investigate the association between fECHO and maternal anxiety. Methods Pregnant women answered two questionnaires prior to first fECHO. The Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) assessed how subjects feel “now” (state) versus how they “usually feel” (trait). Separate state and trait anxiety scores were calculated; scores were compared between the study cohort and a gestational age-matched historical cohort of 31 pregnant women who did not undergo fECHO. A second questionnaire developed by the investigators ascertained pregnancy specific concerns and characteristics. Results 40 subjects were enrolled. The mean state score of the fECHO cohort (42.1±15.1) differed from the historical cohort (32.8±11.3; p=0.006); however there was no difference between trait scores (34.7±10.8 vs. 35.4 ±12.8; p=0.8). A multivariate linear regression model controlling for race and maternal age demonstrated that fECHO was a strong independent predictor of maternal state anxiety score (p=0.004, β=10.4). Conclusions Pregnant women presenting for fECHO report high anxiety levels compared with women not presenting for fECHO. Clinician awareness and sensitivity is recommended and further investigation of modifiers of anxiety in this high risk group should be explored. PMID:20443657
José Carlos Jaime-Pérez
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To document the experience of one referral service with patients diagnosed with Evans syndrome, the treatment and response and to briefly review current treatment strategies and results.METHODS: Patients enrolled in this study fulfilled criteria for Evans syndrome. Data were retrieved from the clinical files and electronic databases of the Department of Hematology, Hospital Universitario "Dr. José Eleuterio González". Treatment modalities and response and the use of additional therapies were evaluated. The literature was reviewed in the context of the clinical course of the studied patients.RESULTS: Six patients were diagnosed with Evans syndrome in the study period. Patient 1 was treated with steroids, relapsed twice and was again treated with steroids. Patient 2 treated initially with steroids plus intravenous immunoglobulin was subsequently lost to follow-up. A good response was achieved in Patients 3 and 4, who were treated with steroids plus rituximab; patient 4 also received danazol as a second-line therapy. However both relapsed and subsequently underwent splenectomy at ten and nine months, respectively. One patient, number 5, treated with steroids, danazol and rituximab did not relapse within four years of follow-up and Patient 6, who received steroids plus danazol did not relapse within three years of follow-up.CONCLUSION: Evans syndrome is an uncommon hematologic condition rarely diagnosed and not widely studied. Clinicians must have it in mind when evaluating a patient with a positive direct antiglobulin test, anemia and thrombocytopenia, since prognosis depends on its early recognition and opportune therapy, but even this leads to variable results.
Nan Hee Cho
Full Text Available BackgroundHypoglycemia is an important complication in the treatment of patients with diabetes. We surveyed the insight by patients with diabetes into hypoglycemia, their hypoglycemia avoidance behavior, and their level of worry regarding hypoglycemia.MethodsA survey of patients with diabetes, who had visited seven tertiary referral centers in Daegu or Gyeongsangbuk-do, Korea, between June 2014 and June 2015, was conducted. The survey contained questions about personal history, symptoms, educational experience, self-management, and attitudes about hypoglycemia.ResultsOf 758 participants, 471 (62.1% had experienced hypoglycemia, and 250 (32.9% had experienced hypoglycemia at least once in the month immediately preceding the study. Two hundred and forty-two (31.8% of the participants had received hypoglycemia education at least once, but only 148 (19.4% knew the exact definition of hypoglycemia. Hypoglycemic symptoms identified by the participants were dizziness (55.0%, sweating (53.8%, and tremor (40.8%. They mostly chose candy (62.1%, chocolate (37.7%, or juice (36.8% as food for recovering hypoglycemia. Participants who had experienced hypoglycemia had longer duration of diabetes and a higher proportion of insulin usage. The mean scores for hypoglycemia avoidance behavior and worry about hypoglycemia were 21.2±10.71 and 23.38±13.19, respectively. These scores tended to be higher for participants with higher than 8% of glycosylated hemoglobin, insulin use, and experience of emergency room visits.ConclusionMany patients had experienced hypoglycemia and worried about it. We recommend identifying patients that are anxious about hypoglycemia and educating them about what to do when they develop hypoglycemic symptoms, especially those who have a high risk of hypoglycemia.
Cho, Nan Hee; Kim, Nam Kyung; Han, Eugene; Hong, Jun Hwa; Jeon, Eon Ju; Moon, Jun Sung; Seo, Mi Hae; Lee, Ji Eun; Seo, Hyun Ae; Kim, Mi Kyung; Kim, Hye Soon
Hypoglycemia is an important complication in the treatment of patients with diabetes. We surveyed the insight by patients with diabetes into hypoglycemia, their hypoglycemia avoidance behavior, and their level of worry regarding hypoglycemia. A survey of patients with diabetes, who had visited seven tertiary referral centers in Daegu or Gyeongsangbuk-do, Korea, between June 2014 and June 2015, was conducted. The survey contained questions about personal history, symptoms, educational experience, self-management, and attitudes about hypoglycemia. Of 758 participants, 471 (62.1%) had experienced hypoglycemia, and 250 (32.9%) had experienced hypoglycemia at least once in the month immediately preceding the study. Two hundred and forty-two (31.8%) of the participants had received hypoglycemia education at least once, but only 148 (19.4%) knew the exact definition of hypoglycemia. Hypoglycemic symptoms identified by the participants were dizziness (55.0%), sweating (53.8%), and tremor (40.8%). They mostly chose candy (62.1%), chocolate (37.7%), or juice (36.8%) as food for recovering hypoglycemia. Participants who had experienced hypoglycemia had longer duration of diabetes and a higher proportion of insulin usage. The mean scores for hypoglycemia avoidance behavior and worry about hypoglycemia were 21.2±10.71 and 23.38±13.19, respectively. These scores tended to be higher for participants with higher than 8% of glycosylated hemoglobin, insulin use, and experience of emergency room visits. Many patients had experienced hypoglycemia and worried about it. We recommend identifying patients that are anxious about hypoglycemia and educating them about what to do when they develop hypoglycemic symptoms, especially those who have a high risk of hypoglycemia. Copyright © 2018 Korean Diabetes Association
The importance of rice (Oryza sativa L.) as a food and cash crop in Eastern Africa, is increasing, but its value chain is becoming complex. In 2012/13, rice value chain analysis was conducted in rice farming systems of Lake, Eastern and Southern-Highlands zones of Tanzania. A sample of 240 producers, 60 traders and 30 ...
Full Text Available Background: HIV/AIDS pandemic brought into focus the importance of safe blood donor pool. Aims: To analyze true seroprevalence of HIV infection in our blood donors and devise an algorithm for donor recall avoiding unnecessary referrals to voluntary counseling and testing centre (VCTC. Materials and Methods: 39,784 blood units were screened for anti-HIV 1/2 using ELISA immunoassay (IA-1. Samples which were repeat reactive on IA-1 were further tested using two different immunoassays (IA-2 and IA-3 and Western blot (WB. Based on results of these sequential IAs and WB, an algorithm for recall of true HIV seroreactive blood donors is suggested for countries like India where nucleic acid testing or p24 antigen assays are not mandatory and given the limited resources may not be feasible. Results: The anti-HIV seroreactivity by repeat IA-1, IA-2, IA-3 and WB were 0.16%, 0.11%, 0.098% and 0.07% respectively. Of the 44 IA-1 reactive samples, 95.2% (20/21 of the seroreactive samples by both IA-2 and IA-3 were also WB positive and 100% (6/6 of the non-reactive samples by these IAs were WB negative. IA signal/cutoff ratio was significantly low in biological false reactive donors. WB indeterminate results were largely due to non-specific reactivity to gag protein (p55. Conclusions: HIV seroreactivity by sequential immunoassays (IA-1, IA-2 and IA-3; comparable to WHO Strategy-III prior to donor recall results in decreased referral to VCTC as compared to single IA (WHO Strategy-I being followed currently in India. Moreover, this strategy will repose donor confidence in our blood transfusion services and strengthen voluntary blood donation program.
Abodunrin, O L; Akande, T M; Musa, I O; Aderibigbe, S A
A sizeable number of deliveries still take place with the assistance of Traditional Birth Attendants in Nigeria. This study aims to determine the factors that determine the referral practices of the TBAs in Ilorin of high risk and complicated pregnancies. This descriptive study was conducted among all the 162 registered TBAs in Ilorin that were traceable using pre-tested semi-structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. About 90%, whose source of skill acquisition was by inheritance did not refer their clients appropriately compared with 48% of those whose source of skill acquisition was through formal training (p<0.05). The more the numbers of trainings, the more appropriate the referral (p<0.05). Having supervisory visit by qualified personnel is associated with appropriate referral practices (p<0.05). Regular training and re-training of TBAs with routine monitoring and supportive supervision will promote prompt referral of high risk and complicated pregnancies and deliveries.
Hansen, Tina B; Berg, Selina K; Sibilitz, Kirstine L
variation. The overall uptake rate was 52%. Simultaneous CABG was associated with a higher probability of referral to CR (OR 2.02 (95%CI 1.12-3.65)); being unmarried (0.44 (0.27-0.72)) and having TAVI with a lower probability (0.26; 0.13-0.52). The referral pattern varied across administrative regions...... were linked to nationwide registries. We analysed the provision and content of programmes using descriptive statistics, and factors associated with referral and participation using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Coverage of CR programmes for these patients was high, with national programme......- and patient-level influenced uptake and included significant regional variation in referral pattern. Further research into the effect and organization of CR post heart valve surgery is needed....
AIM: To analyse inpatient consultation referrals to the Dermatology Department and to identify the educational needs of junior\\/trainee doctors. METHODS: Consultation data of inpatients referred to the Dermatology Department between 2001 and 2006 was reviewed. RESULTS: There were 703 referrals identified. Patients were referred from all wards in the hospital. There were a total of 113 different dermatological diagnoses in the group. One-fifth (22%) consultations were for skin infections, 12% had atopic dermatitis, 8% had psoriasis and 8% had clear or suspected drug cause for their rash. In 391 cases, the Consultant Dermatologist\\'s diagnosis was different to the inpatient referral diagnosis on the consultation referral form. CONCLUSIONS: Our results emphasise the need for junior dermatology trainees to undertake extra training in both the dermatologic conditions. This data supports the need for expansion of service provision of dermatology in the region.
Quinlan, M R
BACKGROUND: Referrals to Urology OPD of men with a likely diagnosis of BPH are common. AIMS: To review referrals to OPD of men with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) to establish how many could have been managed without specialist assessment. METHODS: We reviewed records of 200 male patients referred to OPD with LUTS. We assessed whether the referral source had performed digital rectal examination (DRE), International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), Bother Score or PSA level. RESULTS: 74% of patients were referred by GPs. In 31.5% of cases DRE was performed prior to referral. One GP had completed an IPSS, none a Bother Score. 96% had a PSA checked before OPD. Ultimately, 88.5% of our patients were diagnosed with BPH. CONCLUSIONS: With better pre-assessment in the form of DRE, IPSS and Bother Score, allied to a PSA check, many patients with LUTS could be managed in a primary care setting.
Sanders, A.P.; Stoeldraaijers, L.G.M.C.; Pero, M.W.M.; Hermkes, P.J.; Carolina, R.C.A.; Elders, P.J.M.
Aims: A cohort study investigated referral and treatment trajectories of patients with diabetic foot ulceration consulting podiatrists. The study aims were to quantify patient, professional and treatment (=total) delay and to identify relationships between patient- or professional-related
Weiss, Christian H; Pollett, Philip K
We establish a connection between a class of chain-binomial models of use in ecology and epidemiology and binomial autoregressive (AR) processes. New results are obtained for the latter, including expressions for the lag-conditional distribution and related quantities. We focus on two types of chain-binomial model, extinction-colonization and colonization-extinction models, and present two approaches to parameter estimation. The asymptotic distributions of the resulting estimators are studied, as well as their finite-sample performance, and we give an application to real data. A connection is made with standard AR models, which also has implications for parameter estimation. © 2011, The International Biometric Society.
Wood, M E; Flynn, B S; Stockdale, A
Risk stratification based on family history is a feature of screening guidelines for a number of cancers and referral guidelines for genetic counseling/testing for cancer risk. Our aim was to describe primary care physician perceptions of their role in managing cancer risk based on family history. Structured interviews were conducted by a medical anthropologist with primary care physicians in 3 settings in 2 north-eastern states. Transcripts were systematically analyzed by a research team to identify major themes expressed by participants. Forty interviews were conducted from May 2003 through May 2006. Physicians provided a diversity of views on roles in management of cancer risk based on family history, management practices and patient responses to risk information. They also provided a wide range of perspectives on criteria used for referral to specialists, types of specialists referred to and expected management roles for referred patients. Some primary care physicians appeared to make effective use of family history information for cancer risk management, but many in this sample did not. Increased focus on efficient assessment tools based on recognized guidelines, accessible guides to management options, and patient education and decision aids may be useful directions to facilitate broader use of family history information for cancer risk management. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Ndetei, D M; Omar, A; Mutiso, V N; Ongecha, F A; Kokonya, D A
To document the socio-demographic characteristics and psychiatric profiles of the survivors of the Nairobi United States Embassy terrorist bomb blast referred to a psychiatric and psychotherapy (counselling) service. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Clinical interviews and structured questionnaires for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and stress were administered. Survivors of the bomb blast referred to a psychiatric and psychotherapy service one year or more after the bombing were included in the study. These survivors had been treated using psychopharmacotherapy and individualised (not group) therapy/counselling. Eighty-three consecutive referrals to a psychiatric service participated in this study. There were more males and the sample was generally well educated. The referrals made contact with the referring agency for a number of reasons including seeking psychological, financial and medical assistance. All the patients reported varying degrees of psychiatric symptoms and functional impairment on various aspects of social occupational functioning. High scores for PTSD and other related stress were recorded one or more years after the bombing. Although the survivors indicated that initial counselling following the blast had helped them, they still scored high on PTSD suggesting that clinically, the initial counselling had little, if any impact on the development of PTSD. There is need for a holistic approach to the management of psychotrauma in individuals.
Verma, Amol A; Klich, John; Thurston, Adam; Scantlebury, Jordan; Kiss, Alex; Seddon, Gayle; Sinha, Samir K
We examined the association between paramedic-initiated home care referrals and utilization of home care, 9-1-1, and Emergency Department (ED) services. This was a retrospective cohort study of individuals who received a paramedic-initiated home care referral after a 9-1-1 call between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2012 in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Home care, 9-1-1, and ED utilization were compared in the 6 months before and after home care referral. Nonparametric longitudinal regression was performed to assess changes in hours of home care service use and zero-inflated Poisson regression was performed to assess changes in the number of 9-1-1 calls and ambulance transports to ED. During the 24-month study period, 2,382 individuals received a paramedic-initiated home care referral. After excluding individuals who died, were hospitalized, or were admitted to a nursing home, the final study cohort was 1,851. The proportion of the study population receiving home care services increased from 18.2% to 42.5% after referral, representing 450 additional people receiving services. In longitudinal regression analysis, there was an increase of 17.4 hours in total services per person in the six months after referral (95% CI: 1.7-33.1, p = 0.03). The mean number of 9-1-1 calls per person was 1.44 (SD 9.58) before home care referral and 1.20 (SD 7.04) after home care referral in the overall study cohort. This represented a 10% reduction in 9-1-1 calls (95% CI: 7-13%, p home care referral and 0.79 (SD 6.27) after home care referral, representing a 7% reduction (95% CI: 3-11%, p home care records were included in the analysis, the reductions in 9-1-1 calls and ambulance transports to ED were attenuated but remained statistically significant. Paramedic-initiated home care referrals in Toronto were associated with improved access to and use of home care services and may have been associated with reduced 9-1-1 calls and ambulance transports to ED.
Full Text Available Background. Clinical neurophysiologists observe a large number of examinees referred to a electromyographic (EMG laboratory without clinical symptoms or signs of the peripheral nervous system lesion. Such referrals do not improve management of patients, but only unnecessarily burden examinees and laboratory personnel. The aim of the present study was to check appropriateness of referrals to electrodiagnostic examination, look for reasons for problems and suggest possible improvements.Methods. From the database of the Institute of Clinical Neurophysiology in Ljubljana all examinees evaluated by the author in a »general« EMG laboratory in the first 4 months of 2002 were included. From data about examinees, referral doctors, referral diagnoses, clinical symptoms and signs and electrophysiological findings, predictive values for neurological referral diagnoses and electrodiagnostic abnormalities were calculated using descriptive and multivariate statistical analyses.Results. Three hundred examinees (42% men were included. Neurological diagnosis was provided in 55% of referrals. Electrodiagnostic abnormalities were found in 45% of examinees (carpal tunnel syndrome 50%, radiculopathy 25%, other mononeuropathies 15%, polineuropathy 9%. In 9% of examinees only clinical, and in 47% neither clinical nor electrodiagnostic abnormalities were demonstrated. Using a multivariate analysis positive effect of referral with neurological diagnosis, of paraesthesiae and findings of weakness and sensory loss, and negative effect of pain and referral diagnosis cervicobrachialgia or lumboischialgia on pathological electrodiagnostic findings were found. Isolated pain and paraesthesiae (with carpal tunnel syndrome excluded were particularly poor predictors of abnormal electrodiagnostic findings (9% and 16%, respectively. With exception of 20 patients with carpal tunnel syndrome, none with normal clinical neurological examination had abnormal electrodiagnostic findings
Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of studies have identified advanced age as a barrier to accessing specialised oncological care. Many factors can influence the care provided for elderly patients after a diagnosis of cancer has been established or is suspected. Only one European study has analysed the decision processes leading general practitioners (GPs to refer elderly patients with cancer to oncologists. The objectives of the current study are to describe the factors that influence these decisions and to identify the particular factors and GP characteristics that are associated with systematic referral of these patients in South-West France. Methods This is a cross-sectional study on a representative sample of GPs in Aquitaine, South-West France. Questionnaire items were selected using a Delphi consensus approach and sent by post. Two logistic regression models were constructed to investigate GPs' decisions to refer these patients. Results The response rate obtained was 30%. Half of the general practitioners reported "always" referring their elderly cancer patients to oncologists. More than 75% reported being influenced by patient-related elements (patient and/or family wishes, comorbid factors, unsuitability of invasive investigations, physical and mental autonomy, by cancer-related elements (severity of symptoms, expected side-effects and an organisational element (whether the general practitioner was used to collaborating with oncologists. Logistic regression analysis showed that cancer site and organisational difficulties in patient management were significantly associated with the decision to refer elderly patients with early-stage cancer. For advanced stages, oncology training, patient age, organisational difficulties in patient management and stage of cancer were significantly associated with the decision to refer elderly patients. Conclusions Cancer-linked factors and organisational difficulties have been highlighted as influencing the
Lord, M; Casey, R A; Loftus, B A; Blackwell, E J
Risk factors for human-directed aggression were investigated using retrospective analysis of data from a referral-level clinical behaviour population in the UK. A sample of 200 cases involving human-directed canine aggression and 200 control cases involving no instance of human-directed aggression were selected at random from a population of 746 cases. The final model suggested that clinical cases with human-directed aggression were significantly younger than those presenting with other undesired behaviours (P=0.008) and that male dogs were 1.4 times more likely to be aggressive towards human beings than female dogs (P=0.019). Dogs were 1.7 times more likely to be aggressive towards people if they had attended more than five puppy classes than if they had never attended puppy class (P=0.015) and that dogs were 2.8 times more likely to be aggressive towards human beings if there was another dog between 0 months and 24 months of age in the home (P=0.004). These factors only account for 7 per cent to 10 per cent of the variance between the human-directed aggression population and the control population, but factors such as attendance at puppy classes and numbers of dogs in the household suggest the need for longitudinal studies to investigate temporal relationships.
Mishkin, Arie; Cohen-Hadad, Gerard; Lang, Michal; Kofler, Esther; Vardi, Yoel; Schrira, Samuel; Heresco-Levy, Uriel
The role of the sick funds in the delivery of mental health outpatient services is expected to increase in Israel in the near future. Consequently there is an urgent need for assessing relevant parameters of the patient populations and treatment patterns presently characterizing sick fund's mental health delivery frameworks. During a random census month all patients who referred to Kupat Holim Meuhedet mental health services in Jerusalem district completed structured questionnaires including demographic, medical and mental health history data, and the Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90). The professionals who performed the screening assessments filled in a structured questionnaire referring to clinical status parameters, diagnosis and treatment decisions. Eighty-three new referrals were screened during the period studied, out of which 54 (65%) were absorbed within the treatment framework of the sick fund. Women patients were twice as numerous as men. The sample was heterogeneous in terms of demographic characteristics and included relatively high rates of recent physical injury and medical hospitalization. Only approximately 10% of the patients had been referred by their family doctor and only approximately 3% had psychotic disorders. The symptom profile reported was characterized by mild to moderate severity and the most common DSM-IV diagnoses made were depressive, anxiety adjustment and personality disorders. About 50% of the sample was recommended individual psychotherapy and though not mutually exclusive approximately 40% psychotropic medication. Relatively small sample size and catchment area. Before generalization of the findings, larger scale studies are warranted. This pilot study offers a rigorous examination of the content of care of a small sick fund mental health delivery system. Our findings may be instrumental in the development of new services and adaptations to changes in mental health policies.
Penny, Rachel; Coffey, Rebecca; Jones, Larry; Bailey, J Kevin
It is generally agreed that patients with large burns will be referred to organized burn centers, however, the referral of patients with smaller burns is less certain. A two-part survey was conducted to identify referral patterns for burn patients that meet American Burn Association referral criteria, and any effect insurance type might have on the referral patterns. The emergency departments of our state hospital association's member hospitals were contacted seeking a referral for a fictitious patient with a third-degree scald of the dominant hand. The referral sites were contacted twice, first stating that the patient had commercial insurance, next stating that the patient had Medicaid. Data collected included wait time for an appointment or reasons for denial of an appointment. Of 218 hospitals, 46 were excluded because they did not offer emergency care, and eight because they were listed as burn centers on the American Burn Association website. Of the remaining 164, 119 (73%) would refer to a burn center, 21 (13%) to a plastic surgeon, 10 (6%) to a hand surgeon, 7 (4%) to a wound center, 7 (4%) to another nonburn physician resource. There was no difference in wait time to the first available appointment with regards to insurance type (6.56 ± 4.68 vs 6.53 ± 5.05 days). Our state's referral pattern gives us insight into the regional referral pattern. This information will be used to guide a focused education and communication program to provide better service for the burn victims of our state.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In the United States, a medical home model has been shown to improve the outcomes for children with special health care needs. As part of this model, primary care physicians provide comprehensive medical care that includes identification of delayed and/or atypical development in children and coordination of care with specialists. However, it is not clear if families of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD rely on the medical home model for care of their child to the same extent as families of children with other special health care needs. This study aims to add to the understanding of medical care for children with ASD by examining the referral source for specialty care. Methods This retrospective study was accomplished by evaluating parent completed intake data for children with ASD compared to those with other neurological disorders in a single physician Pediatric Neurology Practice at a major urban medical center in Northern New Jersey. To account for referral bias, a similar comparison study was conducted using a multispecialty ASD practice at the same medical center. Parent reported "source of referral" and "reason for the referral" of 189 ASD children and 108 non-ASD neurological disordered children were analyzed. Results The specialty evaluations of ASD were predominantly parent initiated. There were significantly less referrals received from primary care physicians for children with ASD compared to children with other neurodevelopmental disorders. Requirement of an insurance referral was not associated with a primary care physician prompted specialty visit.We identified different patterns of referral to our specialty clinics for children with ASD vs. children with other neurolodevelopmental disorders. Conclusion The majority of the families of children with ASD evaluated at our autism center did not indicate that a primary care physician initiated the specialty referral. This study suggests that families of
Kortuem, Karsten; Fasler, Katrin; Charnley, Amanda; Khambati, Hussain; Fasolo, Sandro; Katz, Menachem; Balaskas, Konstantinos; Rajendram, Ranjan; Hamilton, Robin; Keane, Pearse A; Sim, Dawn A
The increasing incidence of medical retinal diseases has created capacity issues across UK. In this study, we describe the implementation and outcomes of virtual medical retina clinics (VMRCs) at Moorfields Eye Hospital, South Division, London. It represents a promising solution to ensure that patients are seen and treated in a timely fashion METHODS: First attendances in the VMRC (September 2016-May 2017) were included. It was open to non-urgent external referrals and to existing patients in a face-to-face clinic (F2FC). All patients received visual acuity testing, dilated fundus photography and optical coherence tomography scans. Grading was performed by consultants, fellows and allied healthcare professionals. Outcomes of these virtual consultations and reasons for F2FC referrals were assessed. A total number of 1729 patients were included (1543 were internal and 186 external referrals). The majority were diagnosed with diabetic retinopathy (75.1% of internal and 46.8% of external referrals). Of the internal referrals, 14.6% were discharged, 54.5% continued in VMRC and 30.9% were brought to a F2FC. Of the external referrals, 45.5% were discharged, 37.1% continued in VMRC and 17.4% were brought to a F2FC. The main reason for F2FC referrals was image quality (34.7%), followed by detection of potentially treatable disease (20.2%). VMRC can be implemented successfully using existing resources within a hospital eye service. It may also serve as a first-line rapid-access clinic for low-risk referrals. This would enable medical retinal services to cope with increasing demand and efficiently allocate resources to those who require treatment. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Cruz, Mario; Cruz, Patricia B; Weirich, Christine; McGorty, Ryan; McColgan, Maria D
To describe the referral patterns and utilization of on-site intimate partner violence (IPV) services in both inpatient and outpatient settings at a large urban children's hospital. Retrospective review of case records from IPV victims referred to an on-site IPV counselor between September 2005 and February 2010. Descriptive statistics were used to examine IPV victim demographics, number of referrals per hospital department, referral source (type of staff member), time spent by IPV counselor for initial consultation, and services provided to IPV victims. A total of 453 unique referrals were made to the IPV counselor: 81% were identified by universal screening and 19% by risk-based screening. Thirty-six percent of IPV victims were referred from primary care clinics; 26% from inpatient units; 13% from outpatient subspecialty clinics; 12.5% from the emergency department; 5% from the Child Protection Program; and 4% were employee self-referrals. Social workers generated the most referrals (55%), followed by attending physicians (17%), residents (13%), nurses (7%), and other individuals (self-referrals) (4%). The median initial IPV intervention required 42 minutes. Supportive counseling and safety planning were the services most often utilized by IPV victims. IPV screening can be successfully integrated in both inpatient and outpatient settings by a multidisciplinary group of hospital staff. Most referrals were generated by universal screening outside of the primary care setting. IPV victims generally desired supportive counseling and safety planning over immediate housing relocation. Many IPV screening opportunities were missed by using verbal screening alone. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Stephen J. Spurr
This article provides an empirical analysis of the practices used in referrals of legal work made by one lawyer to another. I examine a major change in referral practices that has evidently been caused by four important changes in the market for lawyers -- the innovation of advertising by lawyers, an increase in the supply of lawyers, the enactment of no-fault insurance laws, and changes in the composition of personal injury claims.
Bøge Sørensen, Lars
Keywords Supply Chain Management, Supply Chain Design, Literature studyAbstract Argues stability is a design objective for supply chain design alongside cost, leadtime and responsiveness. Performs an extensive literature study on supply chain design,identifies methods, theories and objectives...... in the existing literature. Describes the conceptexternal specificity and how it's used to design supply chains. Using the concept upstream,archetypes of risk minimal and maximal design are identified. Downstream the conceptdescribes two viable scenarios, one minimizing the impact, the other minimizing...... theprobability of (intended) departure of a supply chain partner. Finally, principles for supplychain design are described and managerial outlined....
Lettice, Fiona; Durowoju, Olatunde
Effective supply chain integration, and the tight co-ordination it creates, is an essential pre-requisite for successful supply chain management. Decision-Making for Supply Chain Integration is a practical reference on recent research in the area of supply chain integration focusing on distributed decision-making problems. Recent applications of various decision-making tools for integrating supply chains are covered including chapters focusing on: •Supplier selection, pricing strategy and inventory decisions in multi-level supply chains, •RFID-enabled distributed decision-making, •Operational risk issues and time-critical decision-making for sensitive logistics nodes, Modelling end to end processes to improve supply chain integration, and •Integrated systems to improve service delivery and optimize resource use. Decision-Making for Supply Chain Integration provides an insight into the tools and methodologies of this field with support from real-life case studies demonstrating successful application ...
Kotecha, A; Brookes, J; Foster, P J
PurposeThe purpose of this study is to describe the outcomes of a technician-delivered glaucoma referral triaging service with 'virtual review' of resultant data by a consultant ophthalmologist.Patients and methodsThe Glaucoma Screening Clinic reviewed new optometrist or GP-initiated glaucoma suspect referrals into a specialist ophthalmic hospital. Patients underwent testing by three ophthalmic technicians in a dedicated clinical facility. Data were reviewed at a different time and date by a consultant glaucoma ophthalmologist. Approximately 10% of discharged patients were reviewed in a face-to-face consultant-led clinic to examine the false-negative rate of the service.ResultsBetween 1 March 2014 and 31 March 2016, 1380 patients were seen in the clinic. The number of patients discharged following consultant virtual review was 855 (62%). The positive predictive value of onward referrals was 84%. Three of the 82 patients brought back for face-to-face review were deemed to require treatment, equating to negative predictive value of 96%.ConclusionsOur technician-delivered glaucoma referral triaging clinic incorporates consultant 'virtual review' to provide a service model that significantly reduces the number of onward referrals into the glaucoma outpatient department. This model may be an alternative to departments where there are difficulties in implementing optometrist-led community-based referral refinement schemes.
Full Text Available Introduction: Patients with chronic conditions can improve their health through participation in self-care programs. However, awareness of and enrollment in these programs are generally low. Objective: We sought to identify factors influencing patients’ receptiveness to a referral for programs and services supporting chronic disease management. Methods: We analyzed data from 541 high-risk diabetic patients who completed an assessment between 2010 and 2013 from a computer-based, nurse-led Navigator referral program within a large primary care clinic. We compared patients who accepted a referral to those who declined. Results: A total of 318 patients (75% accepted 583 referrals, of which 52% were for self-care programs. Patients who accepted a referral had more primary care visits in the previous year, were more likely to be enrolled in another program, expressed more interest in using the phone and family or friends for support, and were more likely to report recent pain than those who declined a referral. Discussion: Understanding what factors influence patients’ decisions to consider and participate in self-care programs has important implications for program design and development of strategies to connect patients to programs. This work informs outreach efforts to identify and engage patients who are likely to benefit from self-care activities.
Emmanuel Osaigbovo Ighodaro
Full Text Available Introduction: The demand for radiological examination has increased tremendously despite paucity of referring clinicians' knowledge on radiation protection. Reasons to justify these referrals vary. Consequently, the aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between clinicians' knowledge of radiological imaging dosage to their referral justification and guideline. Materials and Methods: Structured questionnaires were developed with four sections (Section 1, sociodemographic data; Section 2, justification for imaging referral; Section 3, knowledge of radiation dose to patients; Section 4, effect of irradiation. The questionnaires were administered at a previous Nigerian Medical Association National Conference, which took place at Lagos in 2013. Sections 3 and 4 were scored and rated. Results: The respondents gave plausible reasons to refer patients for radiological evaluation despite the observation that majority of them were unaware of the existence of referral guidelines and had poor knowledge on radiation. Only 16 (12.2% of the respondents had a fair score on knowledge about radiation dose to patients while 110 (84.0% had poor score. Five (3.8% of the respondents had good score. Similarly, on identifying effect of radiation, 10 (7.6% had good score, 4 (3.1% fair score, and 117 (89.3% poor score. Conclusion: Most of the referrals of patients for radiological evaluation by the respondents were not based on the standard guidelines. Therefore, it is pertinent that referral guidelines should be developed and implemented and clinicians should be educated and trained on radiation protection.
BACKGROUND: Cork University Hospital (CUH) provides a tertiary service for all neurophysiology referrals in the Southern Health Board region. AIM: To ascertain the number, source, symptoms and diagnosis of neurophysiology referrals at CUH. METHODS: We did a prospective audit of the referral patterns to the neurophysiology department over a 12 -week period. RESULTS: Of 635 referrals, 254 had electromyograms (EMG), 359 had electro-encephalograms (EEG), 18 had visual evoked potentials (VEP), three had somato-sensory evoked potentials (SSEP) and one had multiple sleep latency tests (MSLT). We analysed the demographic pattern, reason for referrals, the average waiting time for neurophysiology tests and the patterns of diagnosis in this audit. CONCLUSIONS: Patients from County Cork are making more use of the neurophysiology services than patients from other counties within the Southern Health Board. The average waiting time for an EEG was 32 days and for an EMG was 74 days. However, more than 35% of those patients waiting for an EEG or an EMG had their tests done within four weeks of referral. The appointments of EEG and EMG were assigned on the basis of clinical need.
Kennedy, I.; Jones, N.; Sharpley, J.; Greenberg, N.
Background The UK military runs a comprehensive mental health service ordinarily accessed via primary care referrals. Aims To evaluate the feasibility of self-referral to mental health services within a military environment. Methods Three pilot sites were identified; one from each service (Royal Navy, Army, Air Force). Socio-demographic information included age, rank, service and career duration. Clinical data included prior contact with general practitioner (GP), provisional diagnosis and assessment outcome. Results Of the 57 self-referrals, 69% (n = 39) had not previously accessed primary care for their current difficulties. After their mental health assessment, 47 (82%) were found to have a formal mental health problem and 41 (72%) were offered a further mental health clinician appointment. The data compared favourably with a large military mental health department that reported 87% of primary care referrals had a formal mental health condition. Conclusions The majority of self-referrals had formal mental health conditions for which they had not previously sought help from primary care; most were offered further clinical input. This supports the view that self-referral may be a useful option to encourage military personnel to seek professional care over and above the usual route of accessing care through their GP. PMID:27121634