WorldWideScience

Sample records for chain nonlinearity influence

  1. High Power Amplifiers Chain nonlinearity influence on the accelerating beam stability in free electron laser (FLASH)

    CERN Document Server

    Cichalewski, w

    2010-01-01

    The high power amplifiers transfer characteristics nonlinearities can have a negative influence on the overall system performance. This is also true for the TESLA superconducting cavities accelerating field parameters control systems. This Low Level Radio Frequency control systems uses microwave high power amplifiers (like 10 MW klystrons) as actuators in the mentioned feedback loops. The amplitude compression and phase deviations phenomena introduced to the control signals can reduce the feedback performance and cause electron beam energy instabilities. The transfer characteristics deviations in the Free Electron Laser in Hamburg experiment have been investigated. The outcome of this study together with the description of the developed linearization method based on the digital predistortion approach have been described in this paper. Additionally, the results from the linearization tool performance tests in the FLASH's RF systems have been placed.

  2. NONLINEAR EXPECTATIONS AND NONLINEAR MARKOV CHAINS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG SHIGE

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with nonlinear expectations. The author obtains a nonlinear generalization of the well-known Kolmogorov's consistent theorem and then use it to construct filtration-consistent nonlinear expectations via nonlinear Markov chains. Compared to the author's previous results, i.e., the theory of g-expectations introduced via BSDE on a probability space, the present framework is not based on a given probability measure. Many fully nonlinear and singular situations are covered. The induced topology is a natural generalization of Lp-norms and L∞-norm in linear situations.The author also obtains the existence and uniqueness result of BSDE under this new framework and develops a nonlinear type of von Neumann-Morgenstern representation theorem to utilities and present dynamic risk measures.

  3. Delocalized periodic vibrations in nonlinear electrical chains

    OpenAIRE

    Chechin, G. M.; Shcherbinin, S. A.

    2013-01-01

    We consider an electrical chain of N nonlinear capacitors coupled by linear inductors assuming that voltage dependence of capacitors represents an even function. We prove that only 5 symmetry determined nonlinear normal modes (NNM) can exist in the considered system. The stability of all these dynamical regimes for different N is studied with the aid of the group-theoretical method [Physical Review E 73 (2006) 36216] which allows to simplify radically the variational systems appearing in the ...

  4. Nonlinear dynamics of zigzag molecular chains (in Russian)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savin, A. V.; Manevitsch, L. I.; Christiansen, Peter Leth;

    1999-01-01

    Nonlinear, collective, soliton type excitations in zigzag molecular chains are analyzed. It is shown that the nonlinear dynamics of a chain dramatically changes in passing from the one-dimensional linear chain to the more realistic planar zigzag model-due, in particular, to the geometry...... types (such as extension and compression varieties) develop simultaneously in the chain. Accordingly, the inclusion of chain geometry is necessary if physical phenomena are to be described in terms of solitary waves...

  5. Self-organized escape of oscillator chains in nonlinear potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, D; Fugmann, S; Schimansky-Geier, L; Hänggi, P

    2007-10-01

    We present the noise-free escape of a chain of linearly interacting units from a metastable state over a cubic on-site potential barrier. The underlying dynamics is conservative and purely deterministic. The mutual interplay between nonlinearity and harmonic interactions causes an initially uniform lattice state to become unstable, leading to an energy redistribution with strong localization. As a result, a spontaneously emerging localized mode grows into a critical nucleus. By surpassing this transition state, the nonlinear chain manages a self-organized, deterministic barrier crossing. Most strikingly, these noise-free, collective nonlinear escape events proceed generally by far faster than transitions assisted by thermal noise when the ratio between the average energy supplied per unit in the chain and the potential barrier energy assumes small values. PMID:17994939

  6. Strongly nonlinear waves in a chain of Teflon beads

    OpenAIRE

    Daraio, C.; Nesterenko, V. F.; Herbold, E.; Jin, S.

    2005-01-01

    One-dimensional “sonic vacuum” type phononic crystals were assembled from a chain of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE,Teflon) spheres with different diameters in a Teflon holder. It was demonstrated that this polymer-based sonic vacuum, with exceptionally low elastic modulus of particles, supports propagation of strongly nonlinear solitary waves with a very low speed. These solitary waves can be described using the classical nonlinear Hertz law despite the viscoelastic nature of the polymer and ...

  7. Wave propagation properties in oscillatory chains with cubic nonlinearities via nonlinear map approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romeo, Francesco [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Strutturale e Geotecnica, Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , Via Gramsci 53, 00197 Rome (Italy)] e-mail: francesco.romeo@uniromal.it; Rega, Giuseppe [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Strutturale e Geotecnica, Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , Via Gramsci 53, 00197 Rome (Italy)] e-mail: giuseppe.rega@uniromal.it

    2006-02-01

    Free wave propagation properties in one-dimensional chains of nonlinear oscillators are investigated by means of nonlinear maps. In this realm, the governing difference equations are regarded as symplectic nonlinear transformations relating the amplitudes in adjacent chain sites (n, n + 1) thereby considering a dynamical system where the location index n plays the role of the discrete time. Thus, wave propagation becomes synonymous of stability: finding regions of propagating wave solutions is equivalent to finding regions of linearly stable map solutions. Mechanical models of chains of linearly coupled nonlinear oscillators are investigated. Pass- and stop-band regions of the mono-coupled periodic system are analytically determined for period-q orbits as they are governed by the eigenvalues of the linearized 2D map arising from linear stability analysis of periodic orbits. Then, equivalent chains of nonlinear oscillators in complex domain are tackled. Also in this case, where a 4D real map governs the wave transmission, the nonlinear pass- and stop-bands for periodic orbits are analytically determined by extending the 2D map analysis. The analytical findings concerning the propagation properties are then compared with numerical results obtained through nonlinear map iteration.

  8. Wave propagation properties in oscillatory chains with cubic nonlinearities via nonlinear map approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Free wave propagation properties in one-dimensional chains of nonlinear oscillators are investigated by means of nonlinear maps. In this realm, the governing difference equations are regarded as symplectic nonlinear transformations relating the amplitudes in adjacent chain sites (n, n + 1) thereby considering a dynamical system where the location index n plays the role of the discrete time. Thus, wave propagation becomes synonymous of stability: finding regions of propagating wave solutions is equivalent to finding regions of linearly stable map solutions. Mechanical models of chains of linearly coupled nonlinear oscillators are investigated. Pass- and stop-band regions of the mono-coupled periodic system are analytically determined for period-q orbits as they are governed by the eigenvalues of the linearized 2D map arising from linear stability analysis of periodic orbits. Then, equivalent chains of nonlinear oscillators in complex domain are tackled. Also in this case, where a 4D real map governs the wave transmission, the nonlinear pass- and stop-bands for periodic orbits are analytically determined by extending the 2D map analysis. The analytical findings concerning the propagation properties are then compared with numerical results obtained through nonlinear map iteration

  9. Parametrically Driven Solitons in a Chain of Nonlinear Coupled Pendula with an Impurity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Hai-Qing; TANG Yi

    2006-01-01

    The system consisting of a chain of parametrically driven and damped nonlinear coupled pendula with a mass impurity is studied by means of a discrete version of the envelope function approach. An analogue of theparametrically driven damped nonlinear Sch(o)dinger equation with an impurity term is derived from the original lattice equation.Analytical solutions of impurity pinned high-frequency breathers and kinks are obtained.The resuIts show that the mass impurity has striking influence on the high-frequency modes.In addition,we perform numerical sjmulations,showing that the light mass impurity has a stabilizing effect on the chain.The breathers seeding chaos in the homogeneous chain are pinned on a suitable light impurity to pull the chain from the chaotic state.

  10. Thermal conductivity of nonlinear waves in disordered chains

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sergej Flach; Mikhail Ivanchenko; Nianbei Li

    2011-11-01

    We present computational data on the thermal conductivity of nonlinear waves in disordered chains. Disorder induces Anderson localization for linear waves and results in a vanishing conductivity. Cubic nonlinearity restores normal conductivity, but with a strongly temperature-dependent conductivity (). We find indications for an asymptotic low-temperature ∼ 4 and intermediate temperature ∼ 2 laws. These findings are in accord with theoretical studies of wave packet spreading, where a regime of strong chaos is found to be intermediate, followed by an asymptotic regime of weak chaos (Laptyeva et al, Europhys. Lett. 91, 30001 (2010)).

  11. Self-organized escape of oscillator chains in nonlinear potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Hennig, D.; Fugmann, S.; Schimansky-Geier, L.; Hänggi, P

    2007-01-01

    We present the noise free escape of a chain of linearly interacting units from a metastable state over a cubic on-site potential barrier. The underlying dynamics is conservative and purely deterministic. The mutual interplay between nonlinearity and harmonic interactions causes an initially uniform lattice state to become unstable, leading to an energy redistribution with strong localization. As a result a spontaneously emerging localized mode grows into a critical nucleus. By surpassing this...

  12. The quasi-equilibrium phase of nonlinear chains

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T R Krishna Mohan; Surajit Sen

    2005-03-01

    We show that time evolution initiated via kinetic energy perturbations in conservative, discrete, spring-mass chains with purely nonlinear, non-integrable, algebraic potentials of the form ( − +1 ∼ $(_{} − _{+1})^{2}$, ≥ 2 and an integer, occurs via discrete solitary waves (DSWs) and discrete antisolitary waves (DASWs). Presence of reflecting and periodic boundaries in the system leads to collisions between the DSWs and DASWs. Such collisions lead to the breakage and subsequent reformation of (different) DSWs and DASWs. Our calculations show that the system eventually reaches a stable `quasi-equilibrium' phase that appears to be independent of initial conditions, possesses Gaussian velocity distribution, and has a higher mean kinetic energy and larger range of kinetic energy fluctuations as compared to the pure harmonic system with = 1; the latter indicates possible violation of equipartition.

  13. Establishing a framework for the effective design of resilient supply chains with inherent non-linearities

    OpenAIRE

    Spiegler, VLM; Naim, MM; Potter, AT; Towill, DR

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of this paper: Previous control theory research on supply chain dynamics has predominantly taken a linear perspective of the real world, whereas nonlinearities have usually been studied via a simulation approach. Nonlinearities can naturally occur in supply chains through the existence of physical and economic constraints, for example, capacity limitations. Since the ability to flex capacity is an important aspect of supply chain resilience, there is a need to rigorously study such no...

  14. Quantum Solitons and Localized Modes in a One-Dimensional Lattice Chain with Nonlinear Substrate Potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI De-Jun; MI Xian-Wu; DENG Ke; TANG Yi

    2006-01-01

    In the classical lattice theory, solitons and locaLized modes can exist in many one-dimensional nonlinear lattice chains, however, in the quantum lattice theory, whether quantum solitons and localized modes can exist or not in the one-dimensional lattice chains is an interesting problem. By using the number state method and the Hartree approximation combined with the method of multiple scales, we investigate quantum solitons and localized modes in a one-dimensional lattice chain with the nonlinear substrate potential. It is shown that quantum solitons do exist in this nonlinear lattice chain, and at the boundary of the phonon Brillouin zone, quantum solitons become quantum localized modes, phonons are pinned to the lattice of the vicinity at the central position j = j0.

  15. INFLUENCES OF NONLINEAR INTERACTIONS ON POLARITIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛家胜; 罗莹; 马本堃

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we have analysed theoretically the polarization and dielectric constant generated by the nonlinear interactions between ions in ionic crystals. The spectrum of polaritons (coupling modes of photons and optical phonons)under nonlinear interactions has been developed. A new branch of dispersion relations has emerged in the original frequency gap between CTO and ωLO.

  16. Role of Energy Exchange in the Deterministic Escape of a Coupled Nonlinear Oscillator Chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider the deterministic escape of a chain of harmonically coupled units from a metastable state over a cubic potential barrier. The underlying dynamics is conservative and noise-free. The supply of a sufficient total energy transforms the chain into the nonlinear regime from which an initially, nearly uniform lattice configuration becomes unstable, yielding a redistribution of energy. In an early stage of the dynamics, we estimate the degree of energy exchange enabling the coupled system to form strongly localized modes which eventually grow into a critical nucleus. Upon passing this transition state, the nonlinear chain performs a collective, deterministic escape. We analyze the associated nonlinear dynamics in phase space and relate the escape to diffusion in a separatrix layer. (author)

  17. Food-chain competition influences gene's size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembska, Marta; Dudek, Mirosław R.; Stauffer, Dietrich

    2006-11-01

    We have analyzed an effect of the Bak-Sneppen predator-prey food-chain self-organization on nucleotide content of evolving species. In our model, genomes of the species under consideration have been represented by their nucleotide genomic fraction and we have applied two-parameter Kimura model of substitutions to include the changes of the fraction in time. The initial nucleotide fraction and substitution rates were decided with the help of random number generator. Deviation of the genomic nucleotide fraction from its equilibrium value was playing the role of the fitness parameter, B, in Bak-Sneppen model. Our finding is, that the higher is the value of the threshold fitness, during the evolution course, the more frequent are large fluctuations in number of species with strongly differentiated nucleotide content; and it is more often the case that the oldest species, which survive the food-chain competition, might have specific nucleotide fraction making possible generating long genes.

  18. Food-chain competition influences gene's size

    OpenAIRE

    Dembska, Marta; M. R. Dudek; Stauffer, D.

    2006-01-01

    We have analysed an effect of the Bak-Sneppen predator-prey food-chain self-organization on nucleotide content of evolving species. In our model, genomes of the species under consideration have been represented by their nucleotide genomic fraction and we have applied two-parameter Kimura model of substitutions to include the changes of the fraction in time. The initial nucleotide fraction and substitution rates were decided with the help of random number generator. Deviation of the genomic nu...

  19. Deterministic escape dynamics of two-dimensional coupled nonlinear oscillator chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugmann, S; Hennig, D; Schimansky-Geier, L; Hänggi, P

    2008-06-01

    We consider the deterministic escape dynamics of a chain of coupled oscillators under microcanonical conditions from a metastable state over a cubic potential barrier. The underlying dynamics is conservative and noise free. We introduce a two-dimensional chain model and assume that neighboring units are coupled by Morse springs. It is found that, starting from a homogeneous lattice state, due to the nonlinearity of the external potential the system self-promotes an instability of its initial preparation and initiates complex lattice dynamics leading to the formation of localized large amplitude breathers, evolving in the direction of barrier crossing, accompanied by global oscillations of the chain transverse to the barrier. A few chain units accumulate locally sufficient energy to cross the barrier. Eventually the metastable state is left and either these particles dissociate or pull the remaining chain over the barrier. We show this escape for both linear rodlike and coil-like configurations of the chain in two dimensions. PMID:18643245

  20. Intrinsic localized modes and nonlinear impurity modes in curved Fermi-Pasta-Ulam chain

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ranja Sarkar; Bishwajyoti Dey

    2008-06-01

    We explore the nature of intrinsic localized modes (ILMs) in a curved FermiPasta-Ulam (FPU) chain and the effects of geometry and second-neighbor interaction on the localization and movability properties of such modes. We determine analytically the structure of the localized modes induced by an isotopic light-mass impurity in this chain. We further demonstrate that a nonlinear impurity mode may be treated as a bound state of an ILM with the impurity.

  1. Thermal rectification and negative differential thermal conductance in harmonic chains with nonlinear system-bath coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Yi; Li, Hui-Min; Ding, Ze-Jun

    2016-03-01

    Thermal rectification and negative differential thermal conductance were realized in harmonic chains in this work. We used the generalized Caldeira-Leggett model to study the heat flow. In contrast to most previous studies considering only the linear system-bath coupling, we considered the nonlinear system-bath coupling based on recent experiment [Eichler et al., Nat. Nanotech. 6, 339 (2011), 10.1038/nnano.2011.71]. When the linear coupling constant is weak, the multiphonon processes induced by the nonlinear coupling allow more phonons transport across the system-bath interface and hence the heat current is enhanced. Consequently, thermal rectification and negative differential thermal conductance are achieved when the nonlinear couplings are asymmetric. However, when the linear coupling constant is strong, the umklapp processes dominate the multiphonon processes. Nonlinear coupling suppresses the heat current. Thermal rectification is also achieved. But the direction of rectification is reversed compared to the results of weak linear coupling constant.

  2. Markov chains of nonlinear Markov processes and an application to a winner-takes-all model for social conformity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss nonlinear Markov processes defined on discrete time points and discrete state spaces using Markov chains. In this context, special attention is paid to the distinction between linear and nonlinear Markov processes. We illustrate that the Chapman-Kolmogorov equation holds for nonlinear Markov processes by a winner-takes-all model for social conformity. (fast track communication)

  3. Markov chains of nonlinear Markov processes and an application to a winner-takes-all model for social conformity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, T D [Center for the Ecological Study of Perception and Action, Department of Psychology, University of Connecticut, 406 Babbidge Road, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States)

    2008-07-18

    We discuss nonlinear Markov processes defined on discrete time points and discrete state spaces using Markov chains. In this context, special attention is paid to the distinction between linear and nonlinear Markov processes. We illustrate that the Chapman-Kolmogorov equation holds for nonlinear Markov processes by a winner-takes-all model for social conformity. (fast track communication)

  4. Investigating important factors influencing purchasing from chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we survey important factors, influencing customers to buy more from one of well known food market operating in capital city of Iran named Shahrvand. The survey studies the effects of six factors including customer's perception, persuasive factors, brand, customers' expectations, product's characteristics and special features of store on attracting more customers. We have distributed questionnaire among 196 customers who regularly visit stores and analyzed details of the data. The results indicate that customers' perception is the most important item, which includes eight components. Years of experience is the most important item in our survey followed by impact of color and working hours. Diversity of services is another factor, which plays the most important role followed by quality of services. Next, fidelity and brand are other most important factors and the name of store and risk are in lower degree of importance.

  5. Nonlinear ball chain waveguides for acoustic emission and ultrasound sensing of ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Stephen H.

    Harsh environment acoustic emission and ultrasonic wave sensing applications often benefit from placing the sensor in a remote and more benign physical location by using waveguides to transmit elastic waves between the structural location under test and the transducer. Waveguides are normally designed to have high fidelity over broad frequency ranges to minimize distortion -- often difficult to achieve in practice. This thesis reports on an examination of using nonlinear ball chain waveguides for the transmission of acoustic emission and ultrasonic waves for the monitoring of thermal protection systems undergoing severe heat loading, leading to ablation and similar processes. Experiments test the nonlinear propagation of solitary, harmonic and mixed harmonic elastic waves through a copper tube filled with steel and elastomer balls and various other waveguides. Triangulation of pencil lead breaks occurs on a steel plate. Data are collected concerning the usage of linear waveguides and a water-cooled linear waveguide. Data are collected from a second water-cooled waveguide monitoring Atmospheric Reentry Materials in UVM's Inductively-Coupled Plasma Torch Facility. The motion of the particles in the dimer waveguides is linearly modeled with a three ball and spring chain model and the results are compared per particle. A theoretical nonlinear model is presented which is capable of exactly modeling the motion of the dimer chains. The shape of the waveform propagating through the dimer chain is modeled in a sonic vacuum. Mechanical pulses of varying time widths and amplitudes are launched into one end of the ball chain waveguide and observed at the other end in both time and frequency domains. Similarly, harmonic and mixed harmonic mechanical loads are applied to one end of the waveguide. Balls of different materials are analyzed and discriminated into categories. A copper tube packed with six steel particles, nine steel or marble particles and a longer copper tube

  6. THE DEMAND DISRUPTION MANAGEMENT PROBLEM FOR A SUPPLY CHAIN SYSTEM WITH NONLINEAR DEMAND FUNCTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Minghui XU; Xiangtong QI; Gang YU; Hanqin ZHANG; Chengxiu GAO

    2003-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of handling the uncertainty of demand in aone-supplier-one-retailer supply chain system. Demand variation often makes the real productiondifferent from what is originally planned, causing a deviation cost from the production plan. Assumethe market demand is sensitive to the retail price in a nonlinear form, we show how to effectivelyhandle the demand uncertainty in a supply chain, both for the case of centralized-decision-makingsystem and the case of decentralized-decision-making system with perfect coordination.

  7. Transmittance fluctuations and non-linearity in random chains in the presence of applied electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have carried out numerical investigations of transmittance fluctuations in disordered chains in the presence of external electric fields. We have obtained an almost constant fluctuation in a length scale smaller than the localization length. However, the value of the fluctuation in the plateau region is dependent on the external electric field and strength of disorder. We have also studied the transmittance autocorrelation as a function of external electric field to probe non-linearity in transmittance. (author). 26 refs, 4 figs

  8. Radionuclide chain transport with matrix diffusion and non-linear sorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper describes a two-dimensional model for radionuclide transport in inhomogeneous rock. Advective and dispersive flux takes place in water conducting zones which may consist of a network either of tubelike veins or planar fractures. Out of these flowpaths nuclides diffuse into stagnant pore water of a spatially limited, adjacent zone (matrix diffusion). Sorption on rock surfaces is described by a non-linear isotherm. Under specific conditions matrix diffusion can be represented by an effective (non-linear) surface sorption. Radioactive decay and, in the case of a nuclide chain, ingrowth is also included in the model. The numerical solutions of transport equations based on the method of lines are developed in detail. The advantages of this approach are the efficiency, the reliability and the general flexibility especially to include arbitrary boundary and initial conditions and arbitrary solute/rock interactions. For 135Cs we present in a comprehensive sensitivity analysis the impact of non-linear (Freundlich) sorption isotherm on break-through curves. It is shown that, provided transport times are comparable or larger than nuclide half-life, non-linear sorption may reduce concentrations at the geosphere outlet by orders of magnitude. Some results are also given for the transport of the 238U chain. (author) 25 figs., 2 tabs., 27 refs

  9. Parameterisation effect on the behaviour of a head-dependent hydro chain using a nonlinear model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is on the problem of short-term hydro scheduling (STHS), particularly concerning a head-dependent hydro chain. We use a method based on nonlinear programming (NLP), namely quadratic programming, to consider hydroelectric power generation a function of water discharge and of the head. The method has been applied successfully to solve a test case based on a realistic cascaded hydro system with a negligible computational time requirement and is also applied to show that the role played by reservoirs in the hydro chain do not depend only on their relative position. As a new contribution to earlier studies, which presented reservoir operation rules mainly for medium and long-term planning procedures, we show that the physical data defining hydro chain parameters used in the nonlinear model have an effect on the STHS, implying different optimal storage trajectories for the reservoirs accordingly not only with their position in the hydro chain but also with the new parameterisation defining the data for the hydro system. Moreover, considering head dependency in the hydroelectric power generation, usually neglected for hydro plants with a large storage capacity, provides a better short-term management of the conversion of the potential energy available in the reservoirs into electric energy, which represents a major advantage for the hydroelectric utilities in a competitive electricity market. (author)

  10. On modulational instability of nonlinear waves in 1D ferromagnetic spin chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a theoretical study of modulational instability of extended nonlinear spin waves in a one-dimensional ferromagnetic chain. The investigation is made both analytically within the framework of the linear stability analysis and also numerically by means of molecular dynamics simulations. Using a Holstein-Primakoff transformation for the spin operators, the Hamiltonian, which is constituted by a Heisenberg exchange term, a biquadratic exchange energy, an anisotropic energy and a Zeeman term, is bosonized. Then we derive a discrete nonlinear Schroedinger-like equation for the spin-wave motion. Using a linear stability analysis, we establish the stability criteria of the spin waves in such a ferromagnetic chain. From our numerical simulations of the discrete spin chain for the onset of instability, it emerges that the analytical predictions are correctly verified. For a long timescale, depending on the strength of the biquadratic exchange interaction relative to the exchange energy and the anisotropy energy, on the one hand an intrinsic localized wave train can be created displaying properties of the breather motion. On the other hand, due to the increasing size of the instability domain, with increase of the biquadratic parameter, the instability can fully develop and the linear stability fails; consequently, the time evolution of the modulated spin waves can show both regular and chaotic behaviour

  11. Nonlinear vibrational-state excitation and piezoelectric energy conversion in harmonically driven granular chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, C; Kim, E; Charalampidis, E G; Kim, H; Li, F; Kevrekidis, P G; Lydon, J; Daraio, C; Yang, J

    2016-05-01

    This article explores the excitation of different vibrational states in a spatially extended dynamical system through theory and experiment. As a prototypical example, we consider a one-dimensional packing of spherical particles (a so-called granular chain) that is subject to harmonic boundary excitation. The combination of the multimodal nature of the system and the strong coupling between the particles due to the nonlinear Hertzian contact force leads to broad regions in frequency where different vibrational states are possible. In certain parametric regions, we demonstrate that the nonlinear Schrödinger equation predicts the corresponding modes fairly well. The electromechanical model we apply predicts accurately the conversion from the obtained mechanical energy to the electrical energy observed in experiments. PMID:27300876

  12. Nonlinear rheology and strain recovery of short chain branched polyolefin elastomers and thermoplastic olefin blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patham, Bhaskar

    Polyolefin elastomers are random copolymers having a polyethylene backbone with the higher olefinic comonomer incorporated as short-chain branches. These random copolymers are widely used as polymer modifiers for thermoplastic materials such as polypropylenes, resulting in thermoplastic olefin (TPO) blends. This thesis addresses the nonlinear rheological behavior of the elastomers and then of the TPO blends. The effects of varying short chain branch density (SCB) on the melt rheology of three ethylene-octene random copolymers have been investigated. In particular, the strain-hardening behavior in extensional flow and strain recovery following nonlinear shear creep has been evaluated. The zero-shear viscosity followed trends in the backbone molecular weight closely. While the three copolymers were indistinguishable in linear viscoelastic creep and recovery, recovery following nonlinear shear creep decreased progressively with increasing SCB density. This reveals that the extent of rapid chain equilibration that occurs over Rouse time scales at higher strains was progressively lower with increasing SCB density. Strain hardening in uniaxial extensional flow was observed for all three copolymers. At strain rates below the primitive chain equilibration rates, strain hardening increases progressively with increasing SCB density. At higher rates, upon onset of primitive chain stretch, the strain hardening behavior for the three melts merges. Two thermoplastic olefin (TPO) blends were characterized in the context of injection molding; the surface morphology of injection molded tensile bars with these materials showed surface defects or flow marks to different extents. The flow marks were traced to different degrees of strain recovery in the dispersed phases of the two blends. This recovery occurred over injection molding timescales of the order of a few seconds. Strain recovery after shear creep was higher in the blend that displayed more severe flow marks in injection

  13. Experimental evidence of ion acoustic soliton chain formation and validation of nonlinear fluid theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We perform one-dimensional fluid simulation of ion acoustic (IA) solitons propagating parallel to the magnetic field in electron-ion plasmas by assuming a large system length. To model the initial density perturbations (IDP), we employ a KdV soliton type solution. Our simulation demonstrates that the generation mechanism of IA solitons depends on the wavelength of the IDP. The short wavelength IDP evolve into two oppositely propagating identical IA solitons, whereas the long wavelength IDP develop into two indistinguishable chains of multiple IA solitons through a wave breaking process. The wave breaking occurs close to the time when electrostatic energy exceeds half of the kinetic energy of the electron fluid. The wave breaking amplitude and time of its initiation are found to be dependent on characteristics of the IDP. The strength of the IDP controls the number of IA solitons in the solitary chains. The speed, width, and amplitude of IA solitons estimated during their stable propagation in the simulation are in good agreement with the nonlinear fluid theory. This fluid simulation is the first to confirm the validity of the general nonlinear fluid theory, which is widely used in the study of solitary waves in laboratory and space plasmas

  14. Experimental evidence of ion acoustic soliton chain formation and validation of nonlinear fluid theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakad, Amar [Research Institute for Sustainable Humanosphere, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Indian Institute of Geomagnetism, New Panvel, Navi Mumbai 410-218 (India); Omura, Yoshiharu [Research Institute for Sustainable Humanosphere, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Kakad, Bharati [Indian Institute of Geomagnetism, New Panvel, Navi Mumbai 410-218 (India)

    2013-06-15

    We perform one-dimensional fluid simulation of ion acoustic (IA) solitons propagating parallel to the magnetic field in electron-ion plasmas by assuming a large system length. To model the initial density perturbations (IDP), we employ a KdV soliton type solution. Our simulation demonstrates that the generation mechanism of IA solitons depends on the wavelength of the IDP. The short wavelength IDP evolve into two oppositely propagating identical IA solitons, whereas the long wavelength IDP develop into two indistinguishable chains of multiple IA solitons through a wave breaking process. The wave breaking occurs close to the time when electrostatic energy exceeds half of the kinetic energy of the electron fluid. The wave breaking amplitude and time of its initiation are found to be dependent on characteristics of the IDP. The strength of the IDP controls the number of IA solitons in the solitary chains. The speed, width, and amplitude of IA solitons estimated during their stable propagation in the simulation are in good agreement with the nonlinear fluid theory. This fluid simulation is the first to confirm the validity of the general nonlinear fluid theory, which is widely used in the study of solitary waves in laboratory and space plasmas.

  15. Structural Health Monitoring under Nonlinear Environmental or Operational Influences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyrki Kullaa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibration-based structural health monitoring is based on detecting changes in the dynamic characteristics of the structure. It is well known that environmental or operational variations can also have an influence on the vibration properties. If these effects are not taken into account, they can result in false indications of damage. If the environmental or operational variations cause nonlinear effects, they can be compensated using a Gaussian mixture model (GMM without the measurement of the underlying variables. The number of Gaussian components can also be estimated. For the local linear components, minimum mean square error (MMSE estimation is applied to eliminate the environmental or operational influences. Damage is detected from the residuals after applying principal component analysis (PCA. Control charts are used for novelty detection. The proposed approach is validated using simulated data and the identified lowest natural frequencies of the Z24 Bridge under temperature variation. Nonlinear models are most effective if the data dimensionality is low. On the other hand, linear models often outperform nonlinear models for high-dimensional data.

  16. Dynamical soil-structure interactions: influence of soil behaviour nonlinearities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    the soil and the response of the soil-structure system. Through these parametric studies we show that depending on the soil properties, frequency content of the soil response could change significantly due to the soil nonlinearity. The peaks of the transfer function between free field and outcropping responses shift to lower frequencies and amplification happens at this frequency range. Amplification reduction for the high frequencies and even de-amplification may happen for high level input motions. These changes influence the structural response. We show that depending on the combination of the fundamental frequency of the structure and the the natural frequency of the soil, the effect of soil-structure interaction could be significant or negligible. However, the effect of structure weight and rocking of the superstructure could change the results. Finally, the basin of Nice is used as an example of wave propagation on a heterogeneous nonlinear media and dynamic soil-structure interaction. The basin response is strongly dependent on the combination of soil nonlinearity, topographic effects and impedance contrast between soil layers. For the selected structures and soil profiles of this work, the performed numerical simulations show that the shift of the fundamental frequency is not a good index to discriminate linear from nonlinear soil behavior. (author)

  17. Traveling wave solutions in a chain of periodically forced coupled nonlinear oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duanmu, M.; Whitaker, N.; Kevrekidis, P. G.; Vainchtein, A.; Rubin, J. E.

    2016-06-01

    Motivated by earlier studies of artificial perceptions of light called phosphenes, we analyze traveling wave solutions in a chain of periodically forced coupled nonlinear oscillators modeling this phenomenon. We examine the discrete model problem in its co-traveling frame and systematically obtain the corresponding traveling waves in one spatial dimension. Direct numerical simulations as well as linear stability analysis are employed to reveal the parameter regions where the traveling waves are stable, and these waves are, in turn, connected to the standing waves analyzed in earlier work. We also consider a two-dimensional extension of the model and demonstrate the robust evolution and stability of planar fronts. Our simulations also suggest the radial fronts tend to either annihilate or expand and flatten out, depending on the phase value inside and the parameter regime. Finally, we observe that solutions that initially feature two symmetric fronts with bulged centers evolve in qualitative agreement with experimental observations of phosphenes.

  18. Integrability and soliton in a classical one dimensional site dependent biquadratic Heisenberg spin chain and the effect of nonlinear inhomogeneity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The integrability of one dimensional classical continuum inhomogeneous biquadratic Heisenberg spin chain and the effect of nonlinear inhomogeneity on the soliton of an underlying completely integrable spin model are studied. The dynamics of the spin system is expressed in terms of a higher order generalized nonlinear Schroedinger equation through a differential geometric approach which becomes integrable for a particular choice of the biquadratic exchange interaction and for linear inhomogeneity. The effect of nonlinear inhomogeneity on the spin soliton is studied by carrying out a multiple scale perturbation analysis. (author)

  19. Coordination and Optimization: The Integrated Supply Chain Analysis with Non-Linear Price-Sensitive Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Forhad UDDIN

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a supply chain with a coordination mechanism consisting of a single vendor and buyeris considered. Further, instead of a price sensitive linear or deterministic demand function, a price-sensitivenon-linear demand function is introduced. To find the inventory cost, penalty cost and transportation cost, it isassumed that the production and shipping functions of the vendor are continuously harmonized and occur at thesame rate. In this integrated supply chain, the Buyer’s Linear Program (LP, vendor’s Integer Program (IP andcoordinated Mixed Integer Program (MIP models are formulated. In this research, numerical example ispresented which includes the sensitivity of the key parameters to illustrate the models. The solution proceduresdemonstrate that the individual profit as well as joint profit could be increased by a coordination mechanismeven though the demand function is non-linear. In addition, the results illustrate that Buyer’s selling price, alongwith the consumers purchasing price, could be decreased, which may increase the demand of the end market.Finally, a conclusion

  20. Key Factors Influencing Economic Relationships and Communication in Finnish Food Chains

    OpenAIRE

    LÀhdesmÀki, Merja; Viitaharju, Leena; Suvanto, Hannele; Valkosalo, Pauli; Kurki, Sami; Rantala, Sanna-Helena; Hartmann, Monika; Fischer, Christian; Reynolds, Nikolai; Bavorova, Miroslava

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this report is to discuss the role of the relationship type and communication in two Finnish food chains, namely the pig meat-to-sausage (pig meat chain) and the cereal-to-rye bread (rye chain) chains. Furthermore, the objective is to examine those factors influencing the choice of a relationship type and the sustainability of a business relationship. Altogether 1808 questionnaires were sent to producers, processors and retailers operating in these two chains of which 224 usable qu...

  1. Influence of isomerization on nonlinear optical properties of molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnibrugh, T; Bhattacharjee, S; Sullivan, P; Isborn, C; Robinson, B H; Eichinger, B E

    2006-07-13

    The influence of rotational and geometrical isomerism on the nonlinear optical (NLO) properties, specifically the first-order hyperpolarizability beta, of chromophores of current interest has been investigated with density functional theory (DFT). In the first of this two-part study, the rotational isomerism of a linear chromophore was explored. Calculation of the torsion potentials about two of the rotatable and conformation-changing single bonds in a chromophore demonstrated the near equality of the molecular energies at 0 degrees and 180 degrees rotational angles. To explore the consequences of this near conformational energy degeneracy to NLO behavior, the eight low energy rotational isomers of FTC [Robinson, B. H.; et al. Chem. Phys. 1999, 245, 35] were investigated. This study provides the first-reported DFT-based calculation of the statistical mechanical average of beta over the conformational space of a molecule having substantial nonlinear optical behavior. The influence of the solvent reaction field on rotameric populations and on the beta tensor is reported. In the second part, two molecules having two donors and two acceptors bonded respectively in ortho and meta positions on a central benzene ring are shown to have substantially different beta tensors. These two so-called molecular Xs have different highest occupied molecular orbital to lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (HOMO-LUMO) distributions, and consistent with expectations, it is found that the larger beta(zzz) is associated with a large spatial asymmetry between the HOMOs and LUMOs. Large hyperpolarizability correlates with the HOMO concentrated on the donor groups and the LUMO on the acceptor groups. PMID:16821878

  2. Influence of hotel chains on the development of accommodation facilities in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Burenkova, Nataliya

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, hotel chains have become an indispensable part of the hotel industry. Hotels which are managed by hotel chains may be found almost everywhere in the world. The main aims of this theses are to evaluate the current situation of accommodation facilities in Russia and to analyse the influence of the hotel chains on the development of accommodation facilities in the Russian market.

  3. Phase Diagram of the 1/2-1/2-1-1 Spin Chain by the Nonlinear Sigma Model

    OpenAIRE

    Takano, Ken'ichi

    1999-01-01

    We examine a periodic mixed spin chain with spin magnitudes 1/2 and 1 which are arrayed as 1/2-1/2-1-1. The three independent parameters are ratios of the four exchange couplings. We determine phase boundaries in the parameter space by using the gapless condition which was previously derived by mapping a general inhomogeneous spin chain to the nonlinear sigma model. We find two gapless boundaries separating three disordered phases. The features of the phases are explained in terms of singlet ...

  4. The influence of business conditions on supply chain information-sharing mechanisms : A study among supply chain links of SMEs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welker, Gera A.; van der Vaart, Taco; van Donk, Dirk Pieter

    2008-01-01

    The literature acknowledges that the type and the level of supply chain integration differ in various situations. This paper investigates the influence of business conditions on internal and external information sharing and the role of ICT in order processing, using a multi-case study among SMEs. Th

  5. Effects of Nonlinear Couplings on Entanglement in a Two-Qutrit Heisenberg XXX Chain under an Inhomogeneous Magnetic Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigates the entanglement of a two-qutrit Heisenberg XXX chain with nonlinear couplings under an inhomogeneous magnetic field. By the concept of negativity, we find that the critical temperature increases with the increase of inhomogeneous magnetic field b. Our study indicates that for any |K| > |J|, or |K| < |J| entanglement always exists for certain regions. We also find that at the critical point, the entanglement becomes a nonanalytic function of B and a quantum phase transition occurs. (general)

  6. A new look at kinetic modeling of nonlinear free radical polymerizations with terminal branching and chain transfer to polymer

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Rolando; Costa, Mário Rui

    2003-01-01

    The authors' previously developed method for the general kinetic analysis of nonlinear irreversible polymerizations based on moment generating functions is used for simulating free radical polymerization systems in which terminal branching and chain transfer to polymer are present, leading possibly to gel formation. The numerical solution of the equations needed for postgel predictions of sol fraction and average molecular weights (a major difficulty) is discussed with some detail. Finally, s...

  7. Transport of localized and extended excitations in chains embedded with randomly distributed linear and nonlinear n -mers

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-González, Dany; Molina, Mario I.

    2016-03-01

    We examine the transport of extended and localized excitations in one-dimensional linear chains populated by linear and nonlinear symmetric identical n -mers (with n =3 , 4, 5, and 6), randomly distributed. First, we examine the transmission of plane waves across a single linear n -mer, paying attention to its resonances, and looking for parameters that allow resonances to merge. Within this parameter regime we examine the transmission of plane waves through a disordered and nonlinear segment composed by n -mers randomly placed inside a linear chain. It is observed that nonlinearity tends to inhibit the transmission, which decays as a power law at long segment lengths. This behavior still holds when the n -mer parameters do not obey the resonance condition. On the other hand, the mean square displacement exponent of an initially localized excitation does not depend on nonlinearity at long propagation distances z , and shows a superdiffusive behavior ˜z1.8 for all n -mers, when parameters obey the resonance merging condition; otherwise the exponent reverts back to the random dimer model value ˜z1.5 .

  8. Influence of storm magnitude and watershed size on runoff nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwan Tun; Huang, Jen-Kuo

    2016-06-01

    The inherent nonlinear characteristics of the watershed runoff process related to storm magnitude and watershed size are discussed in detail in this study. The first type of nonlinearity is referred to rainfall-runoff dynamic process and the second type is with respect to a Power-law relation between peak discharge and upstream drainage area. The dynamic nonlinearity induced by storm magnitude was first demonstrated by inspecting rainfall-runoff records at three watersheds in Taiwan. Then the derivation of the watershed unit hydrograph (UH) using two linear hydrological models shows that the peak discharge and time to peak discharge that characterize the shape of UH vary event-to-event. Hence, the intention of deriving a unique and universal UH for all rainfall-runoff simulation cases is questionable. In contrast, the UHs by the other two adopted nonlinear hydrological models were responsive to rainfall intensity without relying on linear proportion principle, and are excellent in presenting dynamic nonlinearity. Based on the two-segment regression, the scaling nonlinearity between peak discharge and drainage area was investigated by analyzing the variation of Power-law exponent. The results demonstrate that the scaling nonlinearity is particularly significant for a watershed having larger area and subjecting to a small-size of storm. For three study watersheds, a large tributary that contributes relatively great drainage area or inflow is found to cause a transition break in scaling relationship and convert the scaling relationship from linearity to nonlinearity.

  9. Influence of storm magnitude and watershed size on runoff nonlinearity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kwan Tun Lee; Jen-Kuo Huang

    2016-06-01

    The inherent nonlinear characteristics of the watershed runoff process related to storm magnitude andwatershed size are discussed in detail in this study. The first type of nonlinearity is referred to rainfallrunoffdynamic process and the second type is with respect to a Power-law relation between peakdischarge and upstream drainage area. The dynamic nonlinearity induced by storm magnitude was firstdemonstrated by inspecting rainfall-runoff records at three watersheds in Taiwan. Then the derivation ofthe watershed unit hydrograph (UH) using two linear hydrological models shows that the peak dischargeand time to peak discharge that characterize the shape of UH vary event-to-event. Hence, the intentionof deriving a unique and universal UH for all rainfall-runoff simulation cases is questionable. In contrast,the UHs by the other two adopted nonlinear hydrological models were responsive to rainfall intensitywithout relying on linear proportion principle, and are excellent in presenting dynamic nonlinearity.Based on the two-segment regression, the scaling nonlinearity between peak discharge and drainagearea was investigated by analyzing the variation of Power-law exponent. The results demonstrate thatthe scaling nonlinearity is particularly significant for a watershed having larger area and subjecting toa small-size of storm. For three study watersheds, a large tributary that contributes relatively greatdrainage area or inflow is found to cause a transition break in scaling relationship and convert the scalingrelationship from linearity to nonlinearity.

  10. The Influence of Supply Chain Integration on the Intrapreneurship in Supply Chain Management (SCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FatemehAshrafganjouei,

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available These days, SMEs pay a lot of attention to concept of Supply Chain Management (SCM in order to achieve competitiveness. The logic behind such act is integrating the activities of value creation within any kind of organizational context. Such integrity would collaborate with managers to accomplish the competitive edge that they are aiming to achieve. The goal of current research is to identify scopes of a unique construct which is known as Entrepreneurial Supply Chain Management competency. Therefore, the notions of SCM and entrepreneurship are being aligned together for evaluating the organizational performance. The outcomes demonstrate that SCM in fact is a critical issue that can alter the organizational performance, thus, through consideration of SCM, we should focus on supply chain integration and its impacts on intrapreneurship and innovation of an organization. In order to be successful in such competitive context, SMEs need to provide novel competences which are not imitable and to increase their application in supply chain and also to improve their total performance.

  11. Complex spatiotemporal behavior in a chain of one-way nonlinearly coupled elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Berkemer, Rainer; Gorria, C.;

    2011-01-01

    The dynamics of asymmetrically coupled nonlinear elements is considered. It is shown that there are two distinctive regimes of oscillatory behavior of one-way nonlinearly coupled elements depending on the relaxation time and the strength of the coupling. In the subcritical regime when the...

  12. Harvesting thermal fluctuations: Activation process induced by a nonlinear chain in thermal equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a model in which the immediate environment of a bistable system is a molecular chain which in turn is connected to a thermal environment of the Langevin form. The molecular chain consists of masses connected by harmonic or by anharmonic springs. The distribution, intensity, and mobility of thermal fluctuations in these chains is strongly dependent on the nature of the springs and leads to different transition dynamics for the activated process. Thus, all else (temperature, damping, coupling parameters between the chain and the bistable system) being the same, the hard chain may provide an environment described as diffusion-limited and more effective in the activation process, while the soft chain may provide an environment described as energy-limited and less effective. The importance of a detailed understanding of the thermal environment toward the understanding of the activation process itself is thus highlighted. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  13. Resonancelike phenomena in the mobility of a chain of nonlinear coupled oscillators in a two-dimensional periodic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, S; Hennig, D; Fugmann, S; Schimansky-Geier, L

    2008-10-01

    We study the Langevin dynamics of a two-dimensional discrete oscillator chain absorbed on a periodic substrate and subjected to an external localized point force. Going beyond the commonly used harmonic bead-spring model, we consider a nonlinear Morse interaction between the next-nearest neighbors. We focus interest on the activation of directed motion instigated by thermal fluctuations and the localized point force. In this context the local transition states are identified and the corresponding activation energies are calculated. It is found that the transport of the chain in point force direction is determined by stepwise escapes of a single unit or segments of the chain due to the existence of multiple locally stable attractors. The nonvanishing net current of the chain is quantitatively assessed by the value of the mobility of the center of mass. It turns out that the latter as a function of the ratio of the competing length scales of the system, that is the period of the substrate potential and the equilibrium distance between two chain units, shows a resonance behavior. More precisely there exists a set of optimal parameter values maximizing the mobility. Interestingly, the phenomenon of negative resistance is found, i.e., the mobility possesses a minimum at a finite value of the strength of the thermal fluctuations for a given overcritical external driving force. PMID:18999393

  14. Influence of credit scoring on the dynamics of Markov chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galina, Timofeeva

    2015-11-01

    Markov processes are widely used to model the dynamics of a credit portfolio and forecast the portfolio risk and profitability. In the Markov chain model the loan portfolio is divided into several groups with different quality, which determined by presence of indebtedness and its terms. It is proposed that dynamics of portfolio shares is described by a multistage controlled system. The article outlines mathematical formalization of controls which reflect the actions of the bank's management in order to improve the loan portfolio quality. The most important control is the organization of approval procedure of loan applications. The credit scoring is studied as a control affecting to the dynamic system. Different formalizations of "good" and "bad" consumers are proposed in connection with the Markov chain model.

  15. Influence of lipid chain unsaturation on melittin-induced micellization.

    OpenAIRE

    Monette, M; Lafleur, M

    1996-01-01

    It is well known that melittin, an amphipathic helical peptide, causes the micellization of phosphatidylcholine vesicles. In the present work, we conclude that the extent of micellization is dependent on the level of unsaturation of the lipid acyl chains. We report the results obtained on two systems: dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), containing 10(mol)% saturated or unsaturated fatty acid (palmitic, oleic, or linoleic), and DPPC, containing 10(mol)% positively charged diacyloxy-3-(trime...

  16. Factors Influencing Customer Satisfaction with Chain Budget Hotels in Bangkok

    OpenAIRE

    P. Cherdchamadol; P. Kawachart

    2013-01-01

    The budget hotels in Thailand are likely to grow by the growth of low cost airline. Since cheaper airline ticket, middle management employees and their families including tourists travel more and more. Other than that, budget hotel business requires low investment but good return. Not surprisingly, the giant public company in Thailand hotel business, CENTEL, has been planned to expand new brand of 2 star hotel chain to serve the number of increasing travelers for AEC in 2015. However, IBIS Ba...

  17. The Influence of Relational Competencies on Supply Chain Resilience

    OpenAIRE

    Wieland, Andreas; Wallenburg, Carl Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This research explores the resilience domain, which is important in the field of supply chain management; it investigates the effects relational competencies have for resilience and the effect resilience, in turn, has on a supply chain’s customer value. Design/methodology/approach: The research is empirical in nature and employs a confirmatory approach that builds on the relational view as a primary theoretical foundation. It utilizes survey data collected from manufactur...

  18. Water environmental planning considering the influence of non-linear characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Guang-ming; QIN Xiao-sheng; WANG Wei; HUANG Guo-he; LI Jian-bing; B. Statzner

    2003-01-01

    In practical water environmental planning, the influence of the non-linear characteristics on the benefit of environmental investment was seldom taken into consideration. This paper demonstrates that there exist a lot of non-linear behaviors in water environment by emphatically analyzing the influence of the non-linear characteristics of the economic scale, the meandering river and the model on water environmental planning, which will make a certain impact on the water environmental planning that sometimes cannot be neglected. This paper also preliminarily explores how to integrate the non-linear characteristics into water environmental planning. The results showed that compared with traditional methods, water environmental planning considering non-linear characteristics has its prevalence and it is necessary to develop the relevant planning theories and methods.

  19. Nonlinear Bloch modes, optical switching and Bragg solitons in tightly coupled micro-ring resonator chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study nonlinear wave phenomena in coupled ring resonator optical waveguides in the tight coupling regime. A discrete model for the system dynamics is put forward and its steady-state nonlinear Bloch modes are derived. The switching behaviour of the transmission system is addressed numerically and the results are explained in the light of this analytical result. We also present a numerical study on the spontaneous generation of Bragg solitons from a continuous-wave input. (paper)

  20. Damping influence on the qualitative properties of nonlinear systems with parametric nonlinearities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hortel, Milan; Škuderová, Alena

    Praha : Ústav termomechaniky AV ČR, 2001 - (Poživilová, A.; Masák, J.), s. 320 KB [National conference ith international participation Engineering mechanics 2001. Svratka (CZ), 14.05.2001-17.05.2001] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/00/0225 Keywords : nonlinear dynamics * integrodifferential equations Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics

  1. Coordination and Optimization: The Integrated Supply Chain Analysis with Non-Linear Price-Sensitive Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Forhad UDDIN; Kazushi SANO

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a supply chain with a coordination mechanism consisting of a single vendor and buyeris considered. Further, instead of a price sensitive linear or deterministic demand function, a price-sensitivenon-linear demand function is introduced. To find the inventory cost, penalty cost and transportation cost, it isassumed that the production and shipping functions of the vendor are continuously harmonized and occur at thesame rate. In this integrated supply chain, the Buyer’s Linear Pr...

  2. Interacting Markov chain Monte Carlo methods for solving nonlinear measure-valued equations

    CERN Document Server

    Del Moral, Pierre; 10.1214/09-AAP628

    2010-01-01

    We present a new class of interacting Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms for solving numerically discrete-time measure-valued equations. The associated stochastic processes belong to the class of self-interacting Markov chains. In contrast to traditional Markov chains, their time evolutions depend on the occupation measure of their past values. This general methodology allows us to provide a natural way to sample from a sequence of target probability measures of increasing complexity. We develop an original theoretical analysis to analyze the behavior of these iterative algorithms which relies on measure-valued processes and semigroup techniques. We establish a variety of convergence results including exponential estimates and a uniform convergence theorem with respect to the number of target distributions. We also illustrate these algorithms in the context of Feynman-Kac distribution flows.

  3. Influence of the demand information quality on planning process accuracy in supply chain. Case studies

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia Szozda; Sylwia Werbińska-Wojciechowska

    2013-01-01

    Background: Identification and analysis of factors that affect the accuracy of demand planning process across the supply chain is one of the most important problems which influence the effectiveness of its material and information flows. Material and methods: On the basis of demand planning process investigation authors define the main elements affecting the right supply chain performance level and investigate the possible connections between demand information quality and demand plannin...

  4. Evidence for ion chain mechanism of the nonlinear charge transport of hydrophobic ions across lipid bilayers.

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, K.; Mauzerall, D

    1996-01-01

    The conductivity across a lipid bilayer by tetraphenylborate anion is increased 10-fold on the photoformation of lipophilic porphyrin cations. The cations alone have negligible conductivity. This nonlinear photogenerated increase of ion conductivity is termed the photogating effect. Substitution of H by Cl in the para position of tetraphenylborate leads to a 100-fold enhancement of conductivity, whereas the dark conductivities for this and other substituted borates are the same. Moreover, the...

  5. Understanding the nature of the value-satisfaction-loyalty chain concerning asymmetry and nonlinearity

    OpenAIRE

    Van Camp, Koen

    2015-01-01

    Value still resides at the heart of the marketing place. Companies creating superior value will achieve higher satisfaction among their customers leading to higher loyalty and profits. The different relationships in the customer value-satisfaction-loyalty chain are therefore of utmost importance. Most companies, assume that the relationships between customer value, customer satisfaction and customer loyalty are simple symmetric, linear ones. The question remains, if this assumption is always ...

  6. On Functional CLT for Reversible Markov Chains with nonlinear growth of the Variance

    CERN Document Server

    Longla, Martial; Peligrad, Magda

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we study the functional central limit theorem for stationary Markov chains with self-adjoint operator and general state space. We investigate the case when the variance of the partial sum is not asymptotically linear in n; and establish that conditional convergence in distribution of partial sums implies functional CLT. The main tools are maximal inequalities that are further exploited to derive conditions for tightness and convergence to the Brownian motion.

  7. A solution procedure for mixed-integer nonlinear programming formulation of supply chain planning with quantity discounts under demand uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Sisi; Nishi, Tatsushi

    2014-11-01

    Quantity discount policy is decision-making for trade-off prices between suppliers and manufacturers while production is changeable due to demand fluctuations in a real market. In this paper, quantity discount models which consider selection of contract suppliers, production quantity and inventory simultaneously are addressed. The supply chain planning problem with quantity discounts under demand uncertainty is formulated as a mixed-integer nonlinear programming problem (MINLP) with integral terms. We apply an outer-approximation method to solve MINLP problems. In order to improve the efficiency of the proposed method, the problem is reformulated as a stochastic model replacing the integral terms by using a normalisation technique. We present numerical examples to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method.

  8. Effects of delayed nonlinear response on wave packet dynamics in one-dimensional generalized Fibonacci chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jianxin; Zhang, Zhenjun [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical Physics, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Tong, Peiqing, E-mail: pqtong@njnu.edu.cn [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical Physics, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Numerical Simulation of Large Scale Complex Systems, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China)

    2013-07-15

    We investigate the spreading of an initially localized wave packet in one-dimensional generalized Fibonacci (GF) lattices by solving numerically the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation (DNLSE) with a delayed cubic nonlinear term. It is found that for short delay time, the wave packet is self-trapping in first class of GF lattices, that is, the second moment grows with time, but the corresponding participation number does not grow. However, both the second moment and the participation number grow with time for large delay time. This illuminates that the wave packet is delocalized. For the second class of GF lattices, the dynamic behaviors of wave packet depend on the strength of on-site potential. For a weak on-site potential, the results are similar to the case of the first class. For a strong on-site potential, both the second moment and the participation number does not grow with time in the regime of short delay time. In the regime of large delay time, both the second moment and the participation number exhibit stair-like growth.

  9. Influences of externally applied potential on the properties of microscopic particles in nonlinear quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When the Schroedinger equation in quantum mechanics is replaced by the nonlinear Schroedinger equation to describe microscopic particles in nonlinear quantum systems, it has been verified that the nature of the particles differs considerably from those in quantum mechanics, where they are localized and have also wave-corpuscle duality due to the nonlinear interactions. In this case the influences of externally applied potentials in the nonlinear Schroedinger equation on the natures of the microscopic particles have been studied by a perturbation theory. The studied results show that the external potential can change the states of the microscopic particles, such as the positions, amplitude and wave forms, but cannot change the wave-corpuscle duality. In the meanwhile, we find further that the relationship between the external potential and change of positions of the particle satisfies the rule of motion of classical particles. Thus we know from this study that the kinetic energy term, (h2/2m)∇2φ, in the nonlinear Schroedinger equation can only make the microscopic particles have a wave feature, but the nonlinear interaction b|φ|2φ determines its corpuscle feature, their combination makes the microscopic particles have a wave-corpuscle duality, and the potential V(r→,t)φ changes only the positions, amplitude and wave form of the particles. Therefore the nonlinear interaction plays an important role in determination of the wave-corpuscle duality of microscopic particles in quantum theory.

  10. Tourism policy and destination marketing in developing countries: the chain of influence

    OpenAIRE

    Kokkranikal, Jithendran; Cronje, Paul; Butler, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Tourism marketers including destination marketing organisations (DMOs) and international tour operators play a pivotal role in destination marketing, especially in creating destination images. These images, apparent in tourist brochures, are designed to influence tourist decision-making and behaviour. This paper proposes the concept of a “chain of influence” in destination marketing and image-making, suggesting that the content of marketing materials is influenced by the priorities of those w...

  11. Numerical experiments on the modulation theory for the nonlinear atomic chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyer, W.; Herrmann, M.

    2008-02-01

    Modulation theory with periodic travelling waves is a powerful, but not rigorous tool to derive a thermodynamic description for atomic chains with nearest neighbour interactions (FPU chains). This theory is sufficiently complex to deal with strong oscillations on the microscopic scale, and therefore it is capable to describe the creation of temperature and the transport of heat on a macroscopic scale. In this paper we investigate the validity of modulation theory by means of several numerical experiments. We start with a survey on the foundations of modulation theory. In particular, we discuss the hyperbolic scaling, the notion of cold data, microscopic oscillations and Young measures, periodic and modulated travelling waves, and, finally, the resulting macroscopic conservation laws. Afterwards we discuss how the validity of a macroscopic theory may be tested within numerical simulations of the microscopic dynamics. To this end we describe an approach to thermodynamic data exploration which is motivated by the theory of Young measures, and relies on mesoscopic windows in space and time. The last part is devoted to several numerical experiments including examples with periodic boundary conditions and smooth initial data, and macroscopic Riemann problems. We interpret the outcome of these experiments in the framework of thermodynamics, and end up with two conclusions. (1) There are many examples for which modulation theory provides in fact the right thermodynamic description because it can predict both the structure of the microscopic oscillations and their macroscopic evolution correctly. (2) Modulation theory will fail if the oscillations exhibit a more complicate structure.

  12. A non-linear approach to the structure-mobility relationship in protein main chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A correlation investigation was carried out on the series of atomic coordinates (MPV) and temperature factor (T f), respectively for human hemoglobin and HIV-1 protease protein main chains. The MPV series revealed resemblances to the corresponding T f series. Each minor or major peak in a series had a corresponding peak in the related series. This brings a qualitative evidence for the connection of the two parameters. The series were further subjected to spectral and detrended fluctuation analysis which all revealed long-range correlation properties. This combined analysis revealed that the data were controlled both by the correlation of stationary fluctuation and trends or non-stationary contribution to correlation. The correlation of all MPV series was found to be much less sensitive to ligand binding than the corresponding T f series. Thus the long-range correlation properties of the protein main chain structure and mobility revealed two complementary properties of protein molecules. While structure imparts constancy to the system, the atomic mobility represents function yet they are intimately connected

  13. New syndioregic main-chain, nonlinear optical polymers, and their ellipsometric characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Geoffrey A.; Nee, Soe-Mie F.; Hoover, James M.; Stenger-Smith, John D.; Henry, Ronald A.; Kubin, R. F.; Seltzer, Michael D.

    1991-12-01

    New nonlinear optical polymers (NLOP) having potential utility in waveguides for the modulation and switching of optical signals are reported. A new class of chromophoric polymers which assume a folded, polar conformation of the backbone have been prepared. The polymers have a syndioregic arrangement of chromophores within the backbone (i.e., a head-to-head, tail-to-tail configuration). Polymers were synthesized by the polymerization of difunctional, precoupled pairs of chromophores and difunctional, bridging groups. Glassy, noncentrosymmetric films were prepared by electric field poling and by Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) deposition. Characterization of multilayer LB films by null ellipsometry to determine the anisotropic refractive parameters was performed at different angles of incidence and at a wavelength of 1.0 (mu).

  14. Lattice model of linear telechelic polymer melts. II. Influence of chain stiffness on basic thermodynamic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lattice cluster theory (LCT) for semiflexible linear telechelic melts, developed in Paper I, is applied to examine the influence of chain stiffness on the average degree of self-assembly and the basic thermodynamic properties of linear telechelic polymer melts. Our calculations imply that chain stiffness promotes self-assembly of linear telechelic polymer melts that assemble on cooling when either polymer volume fraction ϕ or temperature T is high, but opposes self-assembly when both ϕ and T are sufficiently low. This allows us to identify a boundary line in the ϕ-T plane that separates two regions of qualitatively different influence of chain stiffness on self-assembly. The enthalpy and entropy of self-assembly are usually treated as adjustable parameters in classical Flory-Huggins type theories for the equilibrium self-assembly of polymers, but they are demonstrated here to strongly depend on chain stiffness. Moreover, illustrative calculations for the dependence of the entropy density of linear telechelic polymer melts on chain stiffness demonstrate the importance of including semiflexibility within the LCT when exploring the nature of glass formation in models of linear telechelic polymer melts

  15. Analysis of the Evolution and Influence on the Industrial Value Chain in Telecommunications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-ming; LI Shi-ming; TAN Yang

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the evolution of telecommunication industrial value chain(TIVC), analyzes the influence of technical innovation and customer demand on TIVC, and establishes the model. The appearance of the circuit switching technology and packet switching technology together with the diversity of the demand of customers change the structure of TIVC,causing vibration in value creation and distribution systems. With changes of the TIVC,enterprises in the chain will accordingly alter their business models, products (services) and the internal organizational structures. All these changes will lead to the reconstruction and optimization of the TIVC, and consequently, promote the development of the telecommunication industry.

  16. Influences of CCD nonlinear response on measurement of propagation factor M2 of a laser beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we analyze the influence of the nonlinear optoelectronic response on the measurement of the beam propagation factor M2 at different laser wavelengths. According to our theoretical investigation, the size of a laser beam with a standard Gaussian distribution will be estimated as larger than the real value when the response of a commercial non-calibrated CCD camera has a nonlinear relation to the recorded signal intensity. It has been demonstrated that the measurement accuracy in M2 becomes considerably worse by using such a CCD camera. The conclusion is thought to be useful for evaluation of the laser features in both research activities and industrial applications

  17. Influence of various solvents on the nonlinear optical properties of metallophthalocyanines (MPcs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derkowska-Zielinska, Beata

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this work was to learn how the influence of various solvents correlates with nonlinear optical properties of metallophthalocyanines (MPcs). The method, which was used to measure nonlinear optical properties, was degenerate four wave mixing (DFWM). We used ethanol, chloroform and dimethyl sulfoxide as solvent of metallophthalocyanines. The absorption spectra of MPcs solutions present a narrow Q-band in the visible region and a relatively wide B-band in the near ultraviolet. In all cases we observed the solvatochromism effect. Nonlinear optical properties of MPcs solutions change with using different polarity of solvent in the following way: n2 (ZnPc) < n2 (CoPc) < n2 (CuPc).

  18. Influence of the demand information quality on planning process accuracy in supply chain. Case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Szozda

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Identification and analysis of factors that affect the accuracy of demand planning process across the supply chain is one of the most important problems which influence the effectiveness of its material and information flows. Material and methods: On the basis of demand planning process investigation authors define the main elements affecting the right supply chain performance level and investigate the possible connections between demand information quality and demand planning process accuracy. Later, an overview of some recent developments in the analyzed research area is provided. Results: Based on the literature review, there is described the defined factors impact on the accuracy of demand plan in each echelon for case companies. There are considered three cases. The examples illustrate supply chains of different manufacturing companies. The focus is placed on demand planning across the supply chains. The issue of determining the accuracy of future sales plans in each echelon of supply chains and factors affecting it are raised. Taking into account the case companies demand planning process analyses, there are defined possible quality measures, that are possible to be used when forecasting the customer demand. Conclusions: One of the most important and difficult planning area in the companies is becoming planning demand. Errors in planning are reflected not just in the business resource planning but also in the entire supply chain. Presented cases show that many factors affect the proper demand planning process in the supply chain, like e.g.  information technologies, lead-time, or number of supplied materials. As it can be seen from the case studies, the model of collecting information from the market plays an important role in the demand planning process.

  19. Influence of chain topology and bond potential on the glass transition of polymer chains simulated with the bond fluctuation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freire, J J [Departamento de Ciencias y Tecnicas FisicoquImicas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (UNED), Senda del Rey 9, 28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: jfreire@invi.uned.es

    2008-07-16

    The bond fluctuation model with a bond potential has been applied to investigation of the glass transition of linear chains and chains with a regular disposition of small branches. Cooling and subsequent heating curves are obtained for the chain energies and also for the mean acceptance probability of a bead jump. In order to mimic different trends to vitrification, a factor B gauging the strength of the bond potential with respect to the long-range potential (i.e. the intramolecular or intermolecular potential between indirectly bonded beads) has been introduced. (A higher value of B leads to a preference for the highest bond lengths and a higher total energy, implying a greater tendency to vitrify.) Different cases have been considered for linear chains: no long-range potential, no bond potential and several choices for B. Furthermore, two distinct values of B have been considered for alternate bonds in linear chains. In the case of the branched chains, mixed models with different values of B for bonds in the main chain and in the branches have also been investigated. The possible presence of ordering or crystallization has been characterized by calculating the collective light scattering function of the different samples after annealing at a convenient temperature below the onset of the abrupt change in the curves associated with a thermodynamic transition. It is concluded that ordering is inherited more efficiently in the systems with branched chains and also for higher values of B. The branched molecules with the highest B values in the main chain bonds exhibit two distinct transitions in the heating curves, which may be associated with two glass transitions. This behavior has been detected experimentally for chains with relatively long flexible branches.

  20. Influence of the chain length on the biological behaviour of /sup 131/I fatty acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riche, F.; Mathieu, J.P.; Comet, M.; Vidal, M.; Pernin, C.; Marti-Batlle, D.; Busquet, G. (Universite de Grenoble, 38 (France)); Bardy, A. (C.E.A.-ORIS, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France))

    1983-01-01

    Saturated and acetylenic fatty acids labeled with /sup 131/I in ..omega.. position, differing by their chain length (C8 to C20) and the number odd or even of their carbon atoms are injected in mice. The evolution of the activity in myocardium, blood, liver and kidney is measured until 10 minutes after injection. The myocardial activity increases with chain length from C8 to C16 then decreases for C18 and C20. The odd or even number of carbon atoms does not influence myocardial activity but in the liver, activity is inferior with the odd fatty acids. The presence of a triple bond accelerates the output of activity from the myocardium and these fatty acids are not well suited for the study of myocardial metabolism.

  1. Influence of the chain length on the biological behaviour of 131I fatty acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saturated and acetylenic fatty acids labeled with 131I in ω position, differing by their chain length (C8 to C20) and the number odd or even of their carbon atoms are injected in mice. The evolution of the activity in myocardium, blood, liver and kidney is measured until 10 minutes after injection. The myocardial activity increases with chain length from C8 to C16 then decreases for C18 and C20. The odd or even number of carbon atoms does not influence myocardial activity but in the liver, activity is inferior with the odd fatty acids. The presence of a triple bond accelerates the output of activity from the myocardium and these fatty acids are not well suited for the study of myocardial metabolism

  2. Resonance-like phenomena of the mobility of a chain of nonlinear coupled oscillators in a two-dimensional periodic potential

    OpenAIRE

    Martens, S.; Hennig, D.; Fugmann, S.; Schimansky-Geier, L.

    2008-01-01

    We study the Langevin dynamics of a two-dimensional discrete oscillator chain absorbed on a periodic substrate and subjected to an external localized point force. Going beyond the commonly used harmonic bead-spring model, we consider a nonlinear Morse interaction between the next-nearest-neighbors. We focus interest on the activation of directed motion instigated by thermal fluctuations and the localized point force. In this context the local transition states are identified and the correspon...

  3. Influence of dispersants on petroleum bioavailability to primary producers in a brackish water food chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younghans-Haug, C.O.; Wolfe, M.F.; Tjeerdema, R.S. [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry; Sowby, M.L. [Office of Oil Spill Prevention and Response, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Petroleum is transported and processed within biologically rich brackish environments worldwide. Past research has investigated disposition of chemically dispersed oil in mammals, fish, and higher invertebrates, yet little is known about how chemical dispersion influences petroleum behavior within primary producers within brackish water food chains. One concern is whether chemical dispersion influences petroleum bioavailability to primary producers and the potential for increased petroleum bioaccumulation. This research examines changes in petroleum bioavailability to the euryhaline phytoplankton Isochrysis galbana by measuring bioconcentration factors (BCFS) including uptake and deputation rates for dispersed and undispersed brackish water oil spills. Isochrysis is a major food source for zooplankton which are consumed by a multitude of larval fish having both ecological and commercial importance. Prudhoe Bay Crude oil, Corexit 9527, and {sup 14}C-naphthalene were used for these studies. Constant-concentration flow-through exposures were employed for the uptake and BCF experiments. Work was performed below the ``no observable effect concentration`` to eliminate stress-induced metabolic altercations that could in themselves influence petroleum behavior. Exposure chamber and experimental design will be discussed, and study results presented. Understanding how chemical dispersion alters petroleum behavior within the lowest levels of the food chain leads to better delineation of consumer risks.

  4. The influence of interchain coupling on intramolecular oscillation mobility in coupled macromolecular chains: The case of coplanar parallel chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čevizović, D.; Petković, S.; Galović, S.; Chizhov, A.; Reshetnyak, A.

    2015-10-01

    We enlarge our results from the study of the hopping mechanism of the oscillation excitation transport in 1D model of one biologica-likel macromolecular chain to the case of a system composed from two 1D parallel macromolecular chains with consideration of the properties of intramolecular oscillation excitations. We suppose, that due to the exciton interaction with thermal oscillation (generated by mechanical phonon subsystem) of structural elements (consisting of the peptide group) of the chains, the exciton becomes by self trapped and forms the polaron state. We suggest a model which generalizes the modified Holstein polaron model to the case of two macromolecular chains and find that because of the interchain coupling, the exciton energy band is splitted into two subbands. The hopping process of exciton migration along the macromolecular chains is studied in dependence of system parameters and temperature. We pay an special attention to the temperature range (near T = 300 K) in which living cells operate. It is found that for the certain values of the system parameters there exists the abrupt change of the exciton migration nature from practically free (light) exciton motion to an immobile (heavy, dressed by phonon cloud) quasiparticle We discuss an application of the obtained results to the exciton transport both within deoxyribonucleic acid molecule and in the 2D polymer films organized from such macromolecular chains.

  5. Influence of nanoparticle size on the nonlinear optical properties of magnetite ferrofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, D.; Carlsson, L. B.; Neto, A. M. Figueiredo; Alves, S.

    2013-09-01

    The nonlinear index of refraction (n2) and the two-photon absorption coefficient (β) of water-based ferrofluids made of magnetite nanocrystals of different sizes and with different coatings have been measured through the Z-scan technique, with ultrashort (femtoseconds) laser pulses. Their third-order susceptibility is calculated from the values of n2 and β. The influence of different particles' coatings and sizes on these nonlinear optical properties are investigated. The values of n2 and β depend more significantly on the nanoparticles' size than on the particular coating. We observe a decrease of β as the nanoparticles' diameters decrease, although the optical gap is found to be the same for all samples. The results are interpreted considering modifications in the electronic orbital shape due to the particles' nanosize effect.

  6. Influence of nanoparticle size on the nonlinear optical properties of magnetite ferrofluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, D; Carlsson, L B; Neto, A M Figueiredo; Alves, S

    2013-09-01

    The nonlinear index of refraction (n_{2}) and the two-photon absorption coefficient (β) of water-based ferrofluids made of magnetite nanocrystals of different sizes and with different coatings have been measured through the Z-scan technique, with ultrashort (femtoseconds) laser pulses. Their third-order susceptibility is calculated from the values of n_{2} and β. The influence of different particles' coatings and sizes on these nonlinear optical properties are investigated. The values of n_{2} and β depend more significantly on the nanoparticles' size than on the particular coating. We observe a decrease of β as the nanoparticles' diameters decrease, although the optical gap is found to be the same for all samples. The results are interpreted considering modifications in the electronic orbital shape due to the particles' nanosize effect. PMID:24125263

  7. Competitive advantage in the ERP system's value-chain and its influence on future development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Björn; Newman, Mike

    2010-02-01

    Using the resource-based view, we present a set of propositions related to enterprise resource planning (ERP) development, reflections on competitive advantage and the different roles that stakeholders play in the value-chain. This has the goal of building a foundation for future research on ERPs and how stakeholders' desire to achieve competitive advantage influence ERP development, especially when it comes to development of a more standardised or pre-customised ERP system. The propositions also act as a foundation for increasing our knowledge concerning the difficulty in developing improved ERP systems.

  8. Influence of magnetic current on the ground state entanglement in an isotropic transverse XY chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    We study the ground state entanglement in a three-qubit XY chain under the influence of a magnetization current. It is found that the ground state changes from a W state to a disentangled state as the magnetic field varies. When the Lagrange multiplier λ>√3, namely under a strong magnetic current, the ground state holds onto a W state for a large range of the magnetic field strength. A phase transition to the magnetization-current phase occurs under a certain condition.

  9. Supply Chain Factors Influencing Small Scale Farmers’ Tea Production in Abothuguchi West Division in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Mbaabu Karanga; Henry M. Bwisa

    2014-01-01

    Low yields on the small scale tea farmers in Kenya led to this study. The purpose of this study was to establish the supply chain factors influencing small scale tea production in Abothuguchi West Division in Kenya. A survey of 70 small scale tea farmers of AWD was carried out with a target population of 5000 farmers registered to supply tea to the Kenya Tea Development Agency managed by Githongo Tea Factory. A questionnaire and interview guide was used to collect the data. A response rate of...

  10. Nonlinear supratransmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nonlinear system possessing a natural forbidden band gap can transmit energy of a signal with a frequency in the gap, as recently shown for a nonlinear chain of coupled pendulums (Geniet and Leon 2002 Phys. Rev. Lett. 89 134102). This process of nonlinear supratransmission, occurring at a threshold that is exactly predictable in many cases, is shown to have a simple experimental realization with a mechanical chain of pendulums coupled by a coil spring. It is then analysed in more detail. First we go to different (nonintegrable) systems which do sustain nonlinear supratransmission. Then a Josephson transmission line (a one-dimensional array of short Josephson junctions coupled through superconducting wires) is shown to also sustain nonlinear supratransmission, though being related to a different class of boundary conditions, and despite the presence of damping, finiteness, and discreteness. Finally, the mechanism at the origin of nonlinear supratransmission is found to be a nonlinear instability, and this is briefly discussed here

  11. The effect of chromophores concentration on the nonlinear optical activity of methacrylic copolymers with azochromophores in the side chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quadratic nonlinear-optical characteristics of thin films based on methacrylic copolymers with of chromophore-containing monomers incorporated at various concentrations are measured by Second Harmonic Generation technique. Optimal chromophores content is obtained to be about 17 mol%, rather high values of nonlinear-optical coefficient, d33, up to 60 pm/V, are determined

  12. Entanglement of conjugated polymer chains influences molecular self-assembly and carrier transport

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Kui

    2013-06-26

    The influence of polymer entanglement on the self-assembly, molecular packing structure, and microstructure of low-Mw (lightly entangled) and high-Mw (highly entangled) poly (3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), and the carrier transport in thin-film transistors, are investigated. The polymer chains are gradually disentangled in a marginal solvent via ultrasonication of the polymer solution, and demonstrate improved diffusivity of precursor species (coils, aggregates, and microcrystallites), enhanced nucleation and crystallization of P3HT in solution, and self-assembly of well-ordered and highly textured fibrils at the solid-liquid interface. In low-Mw P3HT, reducing chain entanglement enhances interchain and intrachain ordering, but reduces the interconnectivity of ordered domains (tie molecules) due to the presence of short chains, thus deteriorating carrier transport even in the face of improving crystallinity. Reducing chain entanglement in high-Mw P3HT solutions increases carrier mobility up to ≈20-fold, by enhancing interchain and intrachain ordering while maintaining a sufficiently large number of tie molecules between ordered domains. These results indicate that charge carrier mobility is strongly governed by the balancing of intrachain and interchain ordering, on the one hand, and interconnectivity of ordered domains, on the other hand. In high-Mw P3HT, intrachain and interchain ordering appear to be the key bottlenecks to charge transport, whereas in low-Mw P3HT, the limited interconnectivity of the ordered domains acts as the primary bottleneck to charge transport. Conjugated polymer chains of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) are gradually disentangled in solution and trends in carrier transport mechanisms in organic thin film transistors for low- and high-molecular weight P3HT are investigated. While intrachain and interchain ordering within ordered domains are the key bottlenecks to charge transport in high-Mw P3HT films, the limited interconnectivity of ordered

  13. The Influence of Chain Dynamics on the Far Infrared Spectrum of Liquid Methanol-Water Mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, K.N.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Wiedemann, H.; /SLAC, SSRL

    2005-07-12

    Far-infrared absorption spectroscopy has been used to study the low frequency ({center_dot} 100 cm{sup -1}) intermolecular modes of methanol in mixtures with water. With the aid of a first principles molecular dynamics simulation on an equivalent system, a detailed understanding about the origin of the low frequency IR modes has been established. The total dipole spectrum from the simulation suggests that the bands appearing in the experimental spectra at approximately 55 cm{sup -1} and 70 cm{sup -1} in methanol and methanol-rich mixtures arise from both fluctuations and torsional motions occurring within the methanol hydrogen-bonded chains. The influence of these modes on both the solvation dynamics and the relaxation mechanisms in the liquid are discussed within the context of recent experimental and theoretical results that have emerged from studies focusing on the short time dynamics in the methanol hydrogen bond network.

  14. On applying safety archetypes to the Fukushima accident to identify nonlinear influencing factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, A.L., E-mail: alsousa@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Ribeiro, A.C.O., E-mail: antonio.ribeiro@bayer.com [Bayer Crop Science Brasil S.A., Belford Roxo, RJ (Brazil); Duarte, J.P., E-mail: julianapduarte@poli.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Frutuoso e Melo, P.F., E-mail: frutuoso@nuclear.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COOPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2013-07-01

    Nuclear power plants are typically characterized as high reliable organizations. In other words, they are organizations defined as relatively error free over a long period of time. Another relevant characteristic of the nuclear industry is that safety efforts are credited to design. However, major accidents, like the Fukushima accident, have shown that new tools are needed to identify latent deficiencies and help improve their safety level. Safety archetypes proposed elsewhere (e. g., safety issues stalled in the face of technological advances and eroding safety) consonant with International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) efforts are used to examine different aspects of accidents in a systemic perspective of the interaction between individuals, technology and organizational factors. Safety archetypes can help consider nonlinear interactions. Effects are rarely proportional to causes and what happens locally in a system (near the current operating point) often does not apply to distant regions (other system states), so that one has to consider the so-called nonlinear interactions. This is the case, for instance, with human probability failure estimates and safety level identification. In this paper, we discuss the Fukushima accident in order to show how archetypes can highlight nonlinear interactions of factors that influenced it and how to maintain safety levels in order to prevent other accidents. The initial evaluation of the set of archetypes suggested in the literature showed that at least four of them are applicable to the Fukushima accident, as is inferred from official reports on the accident. These are: complacency (that is, the effects of complacency on safety), decreased safety awareness, fixing on symptoms and not the real causes and eroding safety. (author)

  15. On applying safety archetypes to the Fukushima accident to identify nonlinear influencing factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power plants are typically characterized as high reliable organizations. In other words, they are organizations defined as relatively error free over a long period of time. Another relevant characteristic of the nuclear industry is that safety efforts are credited to design. However, major accidents, like the Fukushima accident, have shown that new tools are needed to identify latent deficiencies and help improve their safety level. Safety archetypes proposed elsewhere (e. g., safety issues stalled in the face of technological advances and eroding safety) consonant with International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) efforts are used to examine different aspects of accidents in a systemic perspective of the interaction between individuals, technology and organizational factors. Safety archetypes can help consider nonlinear interactions. Effects are rarely proportional to causes and what happens locally in a system (near the current operating point) often does not apply to distant regions (other system states), so that one has to consider the so-called nonlinear interactions. This is the case, for instance, with human probability failure estimates and safety level identification. In this paper, we discuss the Fukushima accident in order to show how archetypes can highlight nonlinear interactions of factors that influenced it and how to maintain safety levels in order to prevent other accidents. The initial evaluation of the set of archetypes suggested in the literature showed that at least four of them are applicable to the Fukushima accident, as is inferred from official reports on the accident. These are: complacency (that is, the effects of complacency on safety), decreased safety awareness, fixing on symptoms and not the real causes and eroding safety. (author)

  16. The influence of chain defects on the crystallisation behaviour of isotactic polypropylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. W. van der Meer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The crystallization characteristics of the α-, β-and γ-phases of isotactic polypropylene were studied for welldefined and fully characterized polymers with varying amounts of stereo- and regio-defects. The specimens enabled us to study separately the influence of the type of chain defect and the concentration of defects on the parameters of interest. A combined defect fraction (CDF was introduced to describe arbitrary iPP samples with a varying amount of stereo- and regio-defects and a combination thereof. Crystal growth rates were found to decrease linearly with the defect fraction and were substantially stronger influenced by regio-defects as compared with stereo-defects. The deceleration of the growth rate of the β-phase is higher compared to the α-phase with increasing defect fraction. We also found a critical defect fraction, (Xcrit for which the growth rates of the α- and β-phases are equal. Analysis of the crystallization was performed using the model of Sanchez and Eby. Results of the analysis are in good agreement with the results found for the samples with a variation in the number of stereo-defects. The excess free energy for incorporating a stereo-defect into the trigonal crystal lattice of the β-phase is lower as compared with the α-phase. The theory correctly predicts the critical defect fraction, for which the growth rate of the α- and β-phase is equal.

  17. Influence of generalized external potentials on nonlinear tunneling of nonautonomous solitons: Soliton management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalingam, A.; Mani Rajan, M. S.

    2015-10-01

    Soliton control and management using generalized external potentials in an inhomogeneous fiber to the design of high speed optical devices and ultrahigh capacity transmission systems are investigated based on solving the variable-coefficient generalized nonautonomous nonlinear Schrödinger equation with the help of symbolic computation. We construct Lax pair for GNLS equation by means of AKNS method and two soliton solutions are obtained by virtue of the Darboux transformation. With symbolic computation, we manipulate the control parameters and external potentials to investigate the propagation behaviors of nonautonomous solitons. Moreover, the main evolution features of obtained two soliton solutions are exposed by some interesting figures through computer simulation. Especially, we analyze the influence of external potentials such as periodic, exponential and parabolic potential on soliton propagation. Finally, soliton propagation under the absence (vanishing) of external potential is also discussed. Obtained results confirmed that external potentials has strong influence on the soliton dynamics. Our results might provide a new method to achieve the soliton pulse compression while they passing through the potential barrier or well under the influence of external potentials.

  18. The influence of interleukin-7 receptor α-chain haplotypes on outcome after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broux, B; Shamim, Z; Wang, T; Spellman, S; Haagenson, M; Stinissen, P; Ryder, L P; Müller, K; Hellings, N

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the influence of IL-7 receptor α-chain (IL-7Rα) gene haplotypes in donors on the outcome of haematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Unlike the association between single donor SNPs and HCT outcome found previously, only trends towards association were found here, due to 'dilution...

  19. Influence of forced respiration on nonlinear dynamics in heart rate variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanters, J K; Højgaard, M V; Agner, E;

    1997-01-01

    Although it is doubtful whether the normal sinus rhythm can be described as low-dimensional chaos, there is evidence for inherent nonlinear dynamics and determinism in time series of consecutive R-R intervals. However, the physiological origin for these nonlinearities is unknown. The aim of this...... a metronome set to 12 min(-1). Nonlinear dynamics were measured as the correlation dimension and the nonlinear prediction error. Complexity expressed as correlation dimension was unchanged from normal respiration, 9.1 +/- 0.5, compared with forced respiration, 9.3 +/- 0.6. Also, nonlinear...... determinism expressed as the nonlinear prediction error did not differ between spontaneous respiration, 32.3 +/- 3.4 ms, and forced respiration, 31.9 +/- 5.7. It is concluded that the origin of the nonlinear dynamics in heart rate variability is not a nonlinear input from the respiration into the...

  20. New nonlinear dielectric materials: Linear electrorheological fluids under the influence of electrostriction

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, J. P.

    2004-01-01

    The usual approach to the development of new nonlinear dielectric materials focuses on the search for materials in which the components possess an inherently large nonlinear dielectric response. In contrast, based on thermodynamics, we have presented a first-principles approach to obtain the electrostriction-induced effective third-order nonlinear susceptibility for the electrorheological (ER) fluids in which the components have inherent linear, rather than nonlinear, responses. In detail, th...

  1. An Empirical Study on the Influencing Factors of Design Chain Integration

    OpenAIRE

    D.Y. Sha; G.R. Liang; Kun-Chih Huang

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to identify the key factors that will affect the successful execution of design chain as integrating into a traditional supply chain. Facing the current highly volatile global market, the industries have well accepted the concept of Supply Chain Management (SCM) which integrating upstream and downstream to improve the competitiveness of products. However, product innovation capability would become critical when most of th...

  2. Empirical Study on the Influence between Logistics Information Capabilities and Supply Chain Performance

    OpenAIRE

    He Xiaolan

    2013-01-01

    In this study, first, the relational model between logistics information capability, distribution capability, flexibility capability and the service quality, the response and the financial performance of supply chain is build. Then the model was examined by structure equation modeling. The result shows that logistics information capability does not have direct impact on the performance of supply chain, but have impact on the service quality of supply chain and financial performance through th...

  3. Bayesian M-T clustering for reduced parameterisation of Markov chains used for non-linear adaptive elements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Valečková, Markéta; Kárný, Miroslav; Sutanto, E. L.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 6 (2001), s. 1071-1078. ISSN 0005-1098 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/99/1564 Grant ostatní: IST(XE) 1999/12058 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1075907 Keywords : Markov chain * clustering * Bayesian mixture estimation Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 1.449, year: 2001

  4. A Nonlinear Finite Element Method for Magnetoelectric Composite and the Study on the Influence of Interfacial Bonding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He-Ling Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetoelectric composite material is effective in transferring magnetic field into electric signal. In this paper, a nonlinear finite element method is present to model the magnetoelectric composite of ferroelectric and magnetostrictive material. In the method, the nonlinear and coupling behavior of magnetostrictive material such as Terfenol-D is considered. The nonuniform magnetic, electric, and mechanical field distributions are present. An interfacial transferring coefficient is defined to investigate the performance of interfacial mechanical coupling quantitatively, and the influence of the properties of interfacial bonding material and interfacial cracks on magnetoelectric coefficient is discussed. A new laminate ME composite of curved interface is proposed to overcome weak interfacial bonding.

  5. Teaching Teachers about Supply Chain Management to Influence Students' Career and Education Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Leslie L.

    2013-01-01

    Since teachers are influential in high school students' career choices, enabling high school teachers to introduce educational and career opportunities in supply chain management is a viable strategy for reaching high school students about these opportunities. This article presents a pilot program of supply chain workshops to educate high school…

  6. Does ICT influence supply chain management and performance? A review of survey-based research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Xuan; van Donk, Dirk Pieter; van der Vaart, Taco

    2011-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to review and classify survey-based research connecting information and communication technology (ICT), supply chain management (SCM), and supply chain (SC) performance. The review evaluates present empirical results and aims at detecting explanations for simil

  7. Shear mechanical anisotropy of side chain liquid-crystal elastomers: Influence of sample preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogez, D.; Francius, G.; Finkelmann, H.; Martinoty, P.

    2006-08-01

    We study the mechanical anisotropy of a series of uniaxial side chain nematic elastomers prepared with the same chemical composition but with different preparation protocols. For all the compounds, the experiments performed as a function of temperature show no discontinuity in both G'// and G'⊥ (the labels // and ⊥ stand for the director parallel, respectively perpendicular to the shear displacement) around the nematic-isotropic (N-I) phase transition temperature determined by DSC. They also all show a small decrease in G'// starting at temperatures well above this temperature (from ˜ 4°C to ˜ 20°C depending on the compound studied) and leading to a small hydrodynamic value of the G'⊥/G'// ratio. The measurements taken as a function of frequency show that the second plateau in G'// and the associated dip in G//” expected from dynamic semi-soft elasticity are not observed. These results can be described by the de Gennes model, which predicts small elastic anisotropy in the hydrodynamic and linear regimes. They correspond to the behavior expected for compounds beyond the mechanical critical point, which is consistent with the NMR and specific heat measurements taken on similar compounds. We also show that a reduction in the cross-linking density does not change the non-soft character of the mechanical response. From the measurements taken as a function of frequency at several temperatures we deduce that the time-temperature superposition method does not apply. From these measurements, we also determine the temperature dependence of the longest relaxation time τE of the network for the situations where the director is either parallel or perpendicular to the shear velocity. Finally, we discuss the influence on the measurements of the mechanical constraint associated with the fact that the samples cannot change their shape around the pseudo phase transition, because of their strong adherence on the sample-bearing glass slides.

  8. Analysis of factors influencing fire damage to concrete using nonlinear resonance vibration method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the effects of different mix proportions and fire scenarios (exposure temperatures and post-fire-curing periods) on fire-damaged concrete were analyzed using a nonlinear resonance vibration method based on nonlinear acoustics. The hysteretic nonlinearity parameter was obtained, which can sensitively reflect the damage level of fire-damaged concrete. In addition, a splitting tensile strength test was performed on each fire-damaged specimen to evaluate the residual property. Using the results, a prediction model for estimating the residual strength of fire-damaged concrete was proposed on the basis of the correlation between the hysteretic nonlinearity parameter and the ratio of splitting tensile strength.

  9. Analysis of factors influencing fire damage to concrete using nonlinear resonance vibration method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Gang Kyu; Park, Sun Jong; Kwak, Hyo Gyoung [Civil and Environmental Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yim, Hong Jae [Dept. of Construction and Disaster Prevention Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Sangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    In this study, the effects of different mix proportions and fire scenarios (exposure temperatures and post-fire-curing periods) on fire-damaged concrete were analyzed using a nonlinear resonance vibration method based on nonlinear acoustics. The hysteretic nonlinearity parameter was obtained, which can sensitively reflect the damage level of fire-damaged concrete. In addition, a splitting tensile strength test was performed on each fire-damaged specimen to evaluate the residual property. Using the results, a prediction model for estimating the residual strength of fire-damaged concrete was proposed on the basis of the correlation between the hysteretic nonlinearity parameter and the ratio of splitting tensile strength.

  10. Identifying and prioritizing factors that influence reapeted patronage of Etka chain-stores customers: a neural network approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrouz Jahandideh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, chain stores are experiencing a severe competitive environment. In such an environment, a growing number of customers are equipped by high volumes of information and are more risk-taking. As they tend to switch their store based on the higher value that they might receive elsewhere, as customers switching behavior has become so commonplace and has become a challenge for retailers. Thus, factors that influence the willingness of customers to repurchase will play a critical role in the performance and success of chain stores. This paper aimed to identify and prioritize the determinative factors that cause customers repeat patronage in Etka chain stores. Factors were extracted based on a thorough literature review and then these factors were modified using pre-test and interview methods. In this study, questionnaires were used for data collection. Respectively, to identify and prioritize determinative factors, correlation analysis and artificial neural networks were used. Results showed that in order of importance, quality, price loyalty program, number of service counters, store staff, shelf labels, product selection, parking facilities, home delivery, store brand, and store atmosphere are factors that determine customers’ repeat patronage of Etka chain stores. Meanwhile, young, educated and wealthy customers showed lower store repeat patronage. Finally, the paper concludes with suggestions for increasing consumer repeat-patronage of Etka chain-stores and directions for future research.

  11. Influence of Lean and Green on supply chain performance: an interpretive structural modelling model

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Pedro Tomaz Leitão Cirne de

    2014-01-01

    This work aims to identify and rank a set of Lean and Green practices and supply chain performance measures on which managers should focus to achieve competitiveness and improve the performance of automotive supply chains. The identification of the contextual relationships among the suggested practices and measures, was performed through literature review. Their ranking was done by interviews with professionals from the automotive industry and academics with wide knowledge on the sub...

  12. Unlocking Chain Exchange in Highly Amphiphilic Block Polymer Micellar Systems: Influence of Agitation

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Ryan P.; Kelley, Elizabeth G.; Rogers, Simon A.; Sullivan, Millicent O.; Epps, Thomas H.

    2014-01-01

    Chain exchange between block polymer micelles in highly selective solvents, such as water, is well-known to be arrested under quiescent conditions, yet this work demonstrates that simple agitation methods can induce rapid chain exchange in these solvents. Aqueous solutions containing either pure poly(butadiene-b-ethylene oxide) or pure poly(butadiene-b-ethylene oxide-d 4) micelles were combined and then subjected to agitation by vortex mixing, concentric cylinder Couette flow, or nitrogen gas...

  13. Pyrrolidinobenzoic Acid Inhibitors of Influenza Virus Neuraminidase: the Hydrophobic Side Chain Influences Type A Subtype Selectivity

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yanwu; Silamkoti, Arundutt; Kolavi, Gundurao; Mou, Liyuan; Gulati, Shelly; Air, Gillian M; Brouillette, Wayne J.

    2012-01-01

    Neuraminidase (NA) plays a critical role in the life cycle of influenza virus and is a target for new therapeutic agents. A series of influenza neuraminidase inhibitors with the pyrrolidinobenzoic acid scaffold containing lipophilic side chains at the C3 position have been synthesized and evaluated for influenza neuraminidase inhibitory activity. The size and geometry of the C3 side chains have been modified in order to investigate structure-activity relationships. The results indicated that ...

  14. Systematic study of the structure of alternate pyromellitimide-PEO copolymers: Influence of the chain flexibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djurado, David [Laboratoire d' Electronique Moleculaire Organique and Hybride, DRFMC/SPrAM/CEA Grenoble, UMR CEA-CNRS-UJF 5819, 17 Avenue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Curtet, Jean Pierre; Bee, Marc [Laboratoire de Spectrometrie Physique (UMR CNRS-UJF-5588) Universite J. Fourier, Grenoble I, Domaine Universitaire, B.P. 87 38402 St Martin d' Heres Cedex (France); Michot, Christophe [Department of Chemistry, University of Montreal, C.P. 6128, Succursale Centre-Ville, Montreal, Quebec H3C JJ7 (Canada); Armand, Michel [Department of Chemistry, University of Montreal, C.P. 6128, Succursale Centre-Ville, Montreal, Quebec H3C JJ7 (Canada); Laboratoire de Reactivite et de Chimie des Solides, Universite de Picardie Jules Verne, UMR 6007 CNRS, 33 rue Saint-Leu, 80039 Amiens (France)

    2007-12-31

    The structure of a family of copolyimides in which are alternating stiff/redox pyromellitimide units and flexible/solvating polyethyleneoxide (PEO) strands were studied by using wide angle and small angle X-ray scattering techniques and is fully discussed. It is shown that the rich variety of structures exhibited by these compounds can be understood by considering the dramatic change of flexibility of the chain induced by the variation of the length of the PEO strand compared to that of the pyromellimide segment. In this respect, concerning the compounds which exhibit fully amorphous structures a better understanding of their structural behavior can be obtained in the framework of Flory's theory of semi-rigid polymers. In this approach, the degree of flexibility of the chain is mainly resulting from the relative amount of flexible units constituting the repetition unit of the polymer chain. The final structural mode adopted by each compound in the solid state is then directly a consequence of this intrinsic property of the chain. The introduction of a lithium salt in contact with the copolymer chains induces some structure changes which can also be explained by the modification of the degree of flexibility of the chain. It is found that the best performances in terms of electroactivity and mixed conduction are precisely obtained with the only compound which keeps full amorphicity in absence and in presence of the lithium salt. (author)

  15. Experimental investigation on the influence of instrument settings on pixel size and nonlinearity in SEM image formation

    OpenAIRE

    De Carli, Lorenzo; Genta, Gianfranco; Cantatore, Angela; Barbato, Giulio; De Chiffre, Leonardo; Levi, Raffaello

    2010-01-01

    The work deals with an experimental investigation on the influence of three Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) instrument settings, accelerating voltage, spot size and magnification, on the image formation process. Pixel size and nonlinearity were chosen as output parameters related to image quality and resolution. A silicon grating calibrated artifact was employed to investigate qualitatively and quantitatively, through a designed experiment approach, the parameters relevance. SEM magnificat...

  16. Experimental investigation on the influence of instrument settings on pixel size and nonlinearity in SEM image formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carli, Lorenzo; Genta, Gianfranco; Cantatore, Angela;

    2010-01-01

    The work deals with an experimental investigation on the influence of three Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) instrument settings, accelerating voltage, spot size and magnification, on the image formation process. Pixel size and nonlinearity were chosen as output parameters related to image...... quality and resolution. A silicon grating calibrated artifact was employed to investigate qualitatively and quantitatively, through a designed experiment approach, the parameters relevance. SEM magnification was found to account by far for the largest contribution on both parameters under consideration...

  17. Influence of a nonlinear reference temperature profile on oscillatory Bénard-Marangoni convection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondlinger, M; Colinet, P; Dauby, P C

    2003-12-01

    We analyze oscillatory instabilities in a fluid layer of infinite horizontal extent, heated from above or cooled from below, taking into account the nonlinearity of the reference temperature profile during the transient state of heat conduction. The linear stability analysis shows that a nonlinear reference temperature profile can have a strong effect on the system, either stabilizing or destabilizing, depending on the relative importance of buoyancy and surface tension forces. For the nonlinear analysis we use a Galerkin-Eckhaus method leading to a finite set of amplitude equations. In the two-dimensional (2D) case, we show the solution of these amplitude equations are standing waves. PMID:14754318

  18. Bottlebrush Copolymer Morphology Transition: Influence of Side Chain Length and Block Volume Fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gai, Yue; Song, Dong-Po; Watkins, James

    Brush block copolymers synthesized via living ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) offer unique advantages as templates for functional hybrid materials. Unlike linear block copolymer, the bottlebrush polymer phase transition not only depends on volume fractions of the two blocks but also on side chain length. Here we report the morphology transitions of PS-b-PEO bottlebrush copolymer (BBCP) as a function of PEO side chain length and block volume fraction. For the BBCPs with similar side chain lengths, highly ordered lamellar morphologies were observed with PEO volume fractions in a wide range from 32 vol% to 72 vol%, which is significantly different from that of traditional linear block copolymers. This study will lay the groundwork for nanostructure fabrications using the BBCPs and provides new insights into the phase behavior of the new type of materials. This work was supported by NSF center for Hierarchical Manufacturing at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst.

  19. Pyrrolidinobenzoic acid inhibitors of influenza virus neuraminidase: the hydrophobic side chain influences type A subtype selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanwu; Silamkoti, Arundutt; Kolavi, Gundurao; Mou, Liyuan; Gulati, Shelly; Air, Gillian M; Brouillette, Wayne J

    2012-07-15

    Neuraminidase (NA) plays a critical role in the life cycle of influenza virus and is a target for new therapeutic agents. A series of influenza neuraminidase inhibitors with the pyrrolidinobenzoic acid scaffold containing lipophilic side chains at the C3 position have been synthesized and evaluated for influenza neuraminidase inhibitory activity. The size and geometry of the C3 side chains have been modified in order to investigate structure-activity relationships. The results indicated that size and geometry of the C3-side chain are important for selectivity of inhibition against N1 versus N2 NA, important type A influenza variants that infect man, including the highly lethal avian influenza. PMID:22677529

  20. Bilinear forms and soliton solutions for a fourth-order variable-coefficient nonlinear Schrödinger equation in an inhomogeneous Heisenberg ferromagnetic spin chain or an alpha helical protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jin-Wei; Gao, Yi-Tian; Wang, Qi-Min; Su, Chuan-Qi; Feng, Yu-Jie; Yu, Xin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a fourth-order variable-coefficient nonlinear Schrödinger equation is studied, which might describe a one-dimensional continuum anisotropic Heisenberg ferromagnetic spin chain with the octuple-dipole interaction or an alpha helical protein with higher-order excitations and interactions under continuum approximation. With the aid of auxiliary function, we derive the bilinear forms and corresponding constraints on the variable coefficients. Via the symbolic computation, we obtain the Lax pair, infinitely many conservation laws, one-, two- and three-soliton solutions. We discuss the influence of the variable coefficients on the solitons. With different choices of the variable coefficients, we obtain the parabolic, cubic, and periodic solitons, respectively. We analyse the head-on and overtaking interactions between/among the two and three solitons. Interactions between a bound state and a single soliton are displayed with different choices of variable coefficients. We also derive the quasi-periodic formulae for the three cases of the bound states.

  1. Influence of alkane chain length on adsorption on an α-alumina surface by MD simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasma surface techniques provide both an efficient and ecological tool for the functionalization of surfaces. Hence, a proper understanding of the plasma–surface interactions of precursors and radicals during the deposition process is of great importance. Especially during the initial deposition process, the deposition of molecules and fragments is difficult to investigate by experimental techniques and import insights can be obtained by molecular dynamics simulations. In this work, the reactive force field developed by the group of Kieffer at the University of Michigan was used to study the adsorption of single linear alkane chains on an α-alumina surface. The chain length was changed from 6 backbone carbon atoms to 16 carbon atoms, the deposition energy from 0.01 to 10 eV and the incidence angle from 0° to 60° with respect to the surface normal. Results show that the adsorption depends a lot on the ratio of deposition energy to alkane chain length and the incidence angle. More grazing incidence reduces the adsorption probability and a low ratio of energy to chain length increases it

  2. Data Science in Supply Chain Management: Data-Related Influences on Demand Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yao

    2013-01-01

    Data-driven decisions have become an important aspect of supply chain management. Demand planners are tasked with analyzing volumes of data that are being collected at a torrential pace from myriad sources in order to translate them into actionable business intelligence. In particular, demand volatilities and planning are vital for effective and…

  3. Influence of alkane chain length on adsorption on an α-alumina surface by MD simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turgut, C. [Department of Science and Analysis of Materials (SAM), CRP-Gabriel Lippmann, L-4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg); Institut Jean Lamour (IJL) CNRS UMR 7198, Université de Lorraine, Faculté des Sciences et Technologies, BP 70239, F-54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex (France); Pandiyan, S. [Department of Science and Analysis of Materials (SAM), CRP-Gabriel Lippmann, L-4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg); Mether, L. [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 43, FI-00014 (Finland); Belmahi, M. [Institut Jean Lamour (IJL) CNRS UMR 7198, Université de Lorraine, Faculté des Sciences et Technologies, BP 70239, F-54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex (France); Nordlund, K. [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 43, FI-00014 (Finland); Philipp, P., E-mail: philipp@lippmann.lu [Department of Science and Analysis of Materials (SAM), CRP-Gabriel Lippmann, L-4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg)

    2015-06-01

    Plasma surface techniques provide both an efficient and ecological tool for the functionalization of surfaces. Hence, a proper understanding of the plasma–surface interactions of precursors and radicals during the deposition process is of great importance. Especially during the initial deposition process, the deposition of molecules and fragments is difficult to investigate by experimental techniques and import insights can be obtained by molecular dynamics simulations. In this work, the reactive force field developed by the group of Kieffer at the University of Michigan was used to study the adsorption of single linear alkane chains on an α-alumina surface. The chain length was changed from 6 backbone carbon atoms to 16 carbon atoms, the deposition energy from 0.01 to 10 eV and the incidence angle from 0° to 60° with respect to the surface normal. Results show that the adsorption depends a lot on the ratio of deposition energy to alkane chain length and the incidence angle. More grazing incidence reduces the adsorption probability and a low ratio of energy to chain length increases it.

  4. Influence of trehalose 6,6'-diester (TDX) chain length on the physicochemical and immunopotentiating properties of DDA/TDX liposomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallerup, Rie Selchau; Madsen, Cecilie Maria; Schiøth, Mikkel Lohmann;

    2015-01-01

    Linking physicochemical characterization to functional properties is crucial for defining critical quality attributes during development of subunit vaccines toward optimal safety and efficacy profiles. We investigated how the trehalose 6,6'-diester (TDX) chain length influenced the physicochemical...

  5. Influence of dispersants on trophic transfer of petroleum hydrocarbons in a marine food chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, M. F.; Schwartz, G. J. B.; Singaram, S.; Tjeerdema, R. S. [California Univ., Santa Cruz, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Mielbrecht, E. E. [California Univ., Santa Cruz, CA (United States). Inst. of Marine Sciences; Sowby, M. L. [California State Dept. of Fish and Game, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the impact of dispersing agents on petroleum hydrocarbons (PH) bioavailability and trophic transfer in primary levels of a marine food chain. Uptake, bioaccumulation and metabolic transformation of a model PH, ({sup 1}4C)naphthalene, were measured and compared with Prudhoe Bay Crude Oil (PBCO) dispersed with Corexit 9527, and undispersed preparations of PBCO. The model food chain consisted of a primary algae producer and a primary rotifer consumer. Results showed that uptake of naphthalene increased significantly in the presence of a dispersant in algae. A significant increase in uptake was also recorded in rotifers via trophic transfer. Trophic transfer played a significant, sometimes even dominant, role in uptake and bioaccumulation. 27 refs., 6 figs.

  6. Influence of dispersants on trophic transfer of petroleum hydrocarbons in a marine food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments were conducted to determine the impact of dispersing agents on petroleum hydrocarbons (PH) bioavailability and trophic transfer in primary levels of a marine food chain. Uptake, bioaccumulation and metabolic transformation of a model PH, (14C)naphthalene, were measured and compared with Prudhoe Bay Crude Oil (PBCO) dispersed with Corexit 9527, and undispersed preparations of PBCO. The model food chain consisted of a primary algae producer and a primary rotifer consumer. Results showed that uptake of naphthalene increased significantly in the presence of a dispersant in algae. A significant increase in uptake was also recorded in rotifers via trophic transfer. Trophic transfer played a significant, sometimes even dominant, role in uptake and bioaccumulation. 27 refs., 6 figs

  7. Productivity, Disturbance and Ecosystem Size Have No Influence on Food Chain Length in Seasonally Connected Rivers

    OpenAIRE

    Warfe, Danielle M.; Jardine, Timothy D.; Neil E. Pettit; Hamilton, Stephen K.; Pusey, Bradley J; Bunn, Stuart E.; Davies, Peter M; Douglas, Michael M.

    2013-01-01

    The food web is one of the oldest and most central organising concepts in ecology and for decades, food chain length has been hypothesised to be controlled by productivity, disturbance, and/or ecosystem size; each of which may be mediated by the functional trophic role of the top predator. We characterised aquatic food webs using carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes from 66 river and floodplain sites across the wet-dry tropics of northern Australia to determine the relative importance of produ...

  8. Sustainable supply chain management : The influence of local stakeholder expectations in China's agri-food industry

    OpenAIRE

    Kao, Pao T.; Redekop, William; Mark-Herbert, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    Multinational food processing corporations are facing rapid growth in emerging markets like China and a concurrent need for sustainable supply chain management (SSCM). These firms attempt to address supply risk and threat to the triple bottom line through managing suppliers and inputs, and at the same time need to overcome the uncertainty raised by the unfamiliar host environment. An exploratory qualitative case study of two multinational food processing corporations in China finds their SSCM...

  9. Influence of EDTA and magnesium on DNA extraction from blood samples and specificity of polymerase chain reaction

    OpenAIRE

    H. Khosravinia; Ramesha, KP

    2007-01-01

    This study consisting of two trails conducted to examine the impact of initial EDTA level added to blood samples on quantity and quality of genomic DNA isolated from avian fresh blood and the influence of initial EDTA level with various levels of $MgCl_2$ added to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) final volume on amplification pattern. EDTA level added to collected blood samples had no significant impact on quantity as well as quality of extracted genomic DNA. However, higher levels of EDTA inc...

  10. Dynamical soil-structure interactions: influence of soil behaviour nonlinearities; Interaction Dynamique Sol-Structure: Influence des Nonlinearites de Comportement du Sol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gandomzadeh, Ali

    2011-02-08

    the soil and the response of the soil-structure system. Through these parametric studies we show that depending on the soil properties, frequency content of the soil response could change significantly due to the soil nonlinearity. The peaks of the transfer function between free field and outcropping responses shift to lower frequencies and amplification happens at this frequency range. Amplification reduction for the high frequencies and even de-amplification may happen for high level input motions. These changes influence the structural response. We show that depending on the combination of the fundamental frequency of the structure and the the natural frequency of the soil, the effect of soil-structure interaction could be significant or negligible. However, the effect of structure weight and rocking of the superstructure could change the results. Finally, the basin of Nice is used as an example of wave propagation on a heterogeneous nonlinear media and dynamic soil-structure interaction. The basin response is strongly dependent on the combination of soil nonlinearity, topographic effects and impedance contrast between soil layers. For the selected structures and soil profiles of this work, the performed numerical simulations show that the shift of the fundamental frequency is not a good index to discriminate linear from nonlinear soil behavior. (author)

  11. An empirical investigation on factors influencing on customer loyalty: A case study of Shahrvand food chain in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Valiollah Tabatabaee Hanzaee

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In today's competitive business environment, consumers are exposed to make their choice from different alternatives. Customer loyalty has never been an easy task and many business owners may lose their customer as soon as new products appear on the market. This paper presents a study to find important factors influencing on sales force using factor analysis. The proposed study designed a questionnaire and distributed among 180 customers of a well-known food chain named Shahrvand in different regions in city of Tehran, Iran and managed to collect 156 filled ones. The questionnaire consists of 68 questions Cronbach alpha was calculated as 0.847, which is well above the minimum acceptable limit and validates the results. The results of our survey indicate that five major factors including multi-sensory brand experience, brand engagement, pleasing brand, brand communications and brand effectiveness influence brand loyalty, significantly.

  12. Influence of gas bubbles on nonlinear dynamic characteristics of the oil film of a tilting pad bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlopenko, N. Ya.

    1996-01-01

    The influence of a comparatively low volume concentration of gas microbubbles contained in oil on nonlinear characteristics describing the behavior of an oil film in the guide gap of a hydrodynamic tilting pad bearing under action of a low-frequency harmonic force is analyzed using a numerical dynamic model of a collar-oil film-pad system. It is shown that bubbles in the oil greatly affect the efficiency of the tilting pad bearing. Results of oil-film-dynamics investigations reported previously (including those of the present author) are generalized.

  13. Maternal short-chain fructooligosaccharide supplementation influences intestinal immune system maturation in piglets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy Le Bourgot

    Full Text Available Peripartum nutrition is crucial for developing the immune system of neonates. We hypothesized that maternal short-chain fructooligosaccharide (scFOS supplementation could accelerate the development of intestinal immunity in offspring. Thirty-four sows received a standard or a scFOS supplemented diet (10 g scFOS/d for the last 4 weeks of gestation and the 4 weeks of lactation. Colostrum and milk immunoglobulins (Ig and TGFβ1 concentrations were evaluated on the day of delivery and at d 6 and d 21 postpartum. Piglet intestinal structure, the immunologic features of jejunal and ileal Peyer's patches, and mesenteric lymph node cells were analysed at postnatal d 21. Short-chain fatty acid concentrations were measured over time in the intestinal contents of suckling and weaned piglets. Colostral IgA (P<0.05 significantly increased because of scFOS and TGFβ1 concentrations tended to improve (P<0.1. IFNγ secretion by stimulated Peyer's patch and mesenteric lymph node cells, and secretory IgA production by unstimulated Peyer's patch cells were increased (P<0.05 in postnatal d 21 scFOS piglets. These differences were associated with a higher proportion of activated CD25+CD4α+ T cells among the CD4+ helper T lymphocytes (P<0.05 as assessed by flow cytometry. IFNγ secretion was positively correlated with the population of activated T lymphocytes (P<0.05. Total short-chain fatty acids were unchanged between groups during lactation but were higher in caecal contents of d 90 scFOS piglets (P<0.05; specifically propionate, butyrate and valerate. In conclusion, we demonstrated that maternal scFOS supplementation modified the intestinal immune functions in piglets in association with increased colostral immunity. Such results underline the key role of maternal nutrition in supporting the postnatal development of mucosal immunity.

  14. Sustainable Supply Chain Management: The Influence of Disposal Scenarios on the Environmental Impact of a 2400 L Waste Container

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo Galve

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the influence of the supply chain management on the environmental impact of a 2400 L waste disposal container used in most cities of Spain. The studied functional unit, a waste disposal container, made up mostly of plastic materials and a metallic structure, and manufactured in Madrid (Spain, is distributed to several cities at an average distance of 392 km. A life cycle assessment of four different scenarios (SC has been calculated with the software EcoTool v4.0 (version 4.0; i+: Zaragoza, Spain, 2015 and using Ecoinvent v3.0 database (version 3.0; Swiss Centre for Life Cycle Inventories: St. Gallen, Switzerland, 2013. The environmental impact has been characterized with two different methodologies, recipe and carbon footprint. In order to reduce the environmental impact, several end of life scenarios have been performed, analyzing the influence of the supply chain on a closed-looped system that increases recycling. Closed loop management of the waste and reuse of parts allows companies to stop selling products and start selling the service that their products give to the consumers.

  15. The influence of surface roughness on the contact stiffness and the contact filter effect in nonlinear wheel-track interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Oskar E.; Nordborg, Anders; Lopez Arteaga, Ines

    2016-03-01

    A state-dependent contact model including nonlinear contact stiffness and nonlinear contact filtering is used to calculate contact forces and rail vibrations with a time-domain wheel-track interaction model. In the proposed method, the full three-dimensional contact geometry is reduced to a point contact in order to lower the computational cost and to reduce the amount of required input roughness-data. Green's functions including the linear dynamics of the wheel and the track are coupled with a point contact model, leading to a numerically efficient model for the wheel-track interaction. Nonlinear effects due to the shape and roughness of the wheel and the rail surfaces are included in the point contact model by pre-calculation of functions for the contact stiffness and contact filters. Numerical results are compared to field measurements of rail vibrations for passenger trains running at 200 kph on a ballast track. Moreover, the influence of vehicle pre-load and different degrees of roughness excitation on the resulting wheel-track interaction is studied by means of numerical predictions.

  16. Influence of dispersants on trophic transfer of petroleum hydrocarbons in a marine food chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, M.; Tjeerdema, R. [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry; Sowby, M. [California Dept. of Fish and Game, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    When crude oil is accidentally released into the ocean, it threatens many levels of marine life. Intervention, in the form of chemical dispersing agents, alters the normal behavior of petroleum hydrocarbons (PH) by increasing their functional water solubility and the extent of their exposure to sub-surface organisms. Dispersing agents may modify bioavailability as a result of altered interactions between dispersed PH droplets and organismal cell membranes.The objective of this research was to determine the impact of dispersing agents on PH bioavailability and trophic transfer in primary levels of a marine food chain. Uptake, bioaccumulation, depuration, and metabolic transformation of a model PH, {sup 14}C-naphthalene, were measured and compared for Prudhoe Bay Crude Oil (PBCO) dispersed with Corexit 9527 and undispersed preparations of the water-accommodated fractions (WAF) of PBCO at two salinities and temperatures. The model food chain consisted of Isochrysis galbana and Brachionus plicatilis. Direct aqueous exposure was compared with combined aqueous and dietary exposure. Fractionation and identification of metabolites was done by HPLC co-chromatography with analytical standards, and quantitation was done by liquid scintillation counting. GC-FID characterization of WAF and dispersed oil (DO) preparations shows higher concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons and a greater number of individual constituents in the dispersed oil preparations.

  17. Influence of dispersants on trophic transfer of petroleum hydrocarbons in a marine food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When crude oil is accidentally released into the ocean, it threatens many levels of marine life. Intervention, in the form of chemical dispersing agents, alters the normal behavior of petroleum hydrocarbons (PH) by increasing their functional water solubility and the extent of their exposure to sub-surface organisms. Dispersing agents may modify bioavailability as a result of altered interactions between dispersed PH droplets and organismal cell membranes.The objective of this research was to determine the impact of dispersing agents on PH bioavailability and trophic transfer in primary levels of a marine food chain. Uptake, bioaccumulation, depuration, and metabolic transformation of a model PH, 14C-naphthalene, were measured and compared for Prudhoe Bay Crude Oil (PBCO) dispersed with Corexit 9527 and undispersed preparations of the water-accommodated fractions (WAF) of PBCO at two salinities and temperatures. The model food chain consisted of Isochrysis galbana and Brachionus plicatilis. Direct aqueous exposure was compared with combined aqueous and dietary exposure. Fractionation and identification of metabolites was done by HPLC co-chromatography with analytical standards, and quantitation was done by liquid scintillation counting. GC-FID characterization of WAF and dispersed oil (DO) preparations shows higher concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons and a greater number of individual constituents in the dispersed oil preparations

  18. Existence of global weak solutions to compressible isentropic finitely extensible nonlinear bead-spring chain models for dilute polymers: The two-dimensional case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, John W.; Süli, Endre

    2016-07-01

    We prove the existence of global-in-time weak solutions to a general class of models that arise from the kinetic theory of dilute solutions of nonhomogeneous polymeric liquids, where the polymer molecules are idealized as bead-spring chains with finitely extensible nonlinear elastic (FENE) type spring potentials. The class of models under consideration involves the unsteady, compressible, isentropic, isothermal Navier-Stokes system in a bounded domain Ω in Rd, d = 2, for the density ρ, the velocity u ˜ and the pressure p of the fluid, with an equation of state of the form p (ρ) =cpργ, where cp is a positive constant and γ > 1. The right-hand side of the Navier-Stokes momentum equation includes an elastic extra-stress tensor, which is the classical Kramers expression. The elastic extra-stress tensor stems from the random movement of the polymer chains and is defined through the associated probability density function that satisfies a Fokker-Planck-type parabolic equation, a crucial feature of which is the presence of a centre-of-mass diffusion term. This extends the result in our paper J.W. Barrett and E. Süli (2016) [9], which established the existence of global-in-time weak solutions to the system for d ∈ { 2 , 3 } and γ >3/2, but the elastic extra-stress tensor required there the addition of a quadratic interaction term to the classical Kramers expression to complete the compactness argument on which the proof was based. We show here that in the case of d = 2 and γ > 1 the existence of global-in-time weak solutions can be proved in the absence of the quadratic interaction term. Our results require no structural assumptions on the drag term in the Fokker-Planck equation; in particular, the drag term need not be corotational. With a nonnegative initial density ρ0 ∈L∞ (Ω) for the continuity equation; a square-integrable initial velocity datum u˜0 for the Navier-Stokes momentum equation; and a nonnegative initial probability density function ψ0

  19. A pilot, short-term dietary manipulation of branched chain amino acids has modest influence on fasting levels of branched chain amino acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Landa Cavallaro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Elevated fasting levels of branched chain amino acids (BCAAs: valine, isoleucine, leucine in venous blood are associated with a variety of metabolic impairments, including increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D. Fasting BCAA levels are influenced by non-dietary factors. However, it is unknown whether fasting BCAAs can be altered through manipulation of dietary intake alone. Objective: To test whether a specific dietary intervention, using differences in BCAA intake, alters fasting BCAA levels independent of other factors. Design: Five healthy male volunteers underwent 4 days of a low and 4 days of a high BCAA content dietary intervention (ClinicalTrials.gov [NCT02110602]. All food and supplements were provided. Fasting BCAAs were measured from venous blood samples by mass spectrometry at baseline and after each intervention. Results: Diets were isocaloric; contained equal percentages of calories from carbohydrate, fats, and protein; and differed from each other in BCAA content (1.5±0.1 vs. 14.0±0.6 g for valine; 4.5±0.9 g vs. 13.8±0.5 g for isoleucine; 2.1±0.2 g vs. 27.1±1.0 g for leucine; p<0.0001 for all. Fasting valine was significantly lower (p=0.02 and fasting isoleucine and leucine were numerically lower following the low BCAA content vs. the high BCAA content diet levels. The inter-individual response to the dietary interventions was variable and not explained by adherence. Conclusion: Short-term dietary manipulation of BCAA intake led to modest changes in fasting levels of BCAAs. The approach from our pilot study can be expanded to test the metabolic implications of dietary BCAA manipulation.

  20. Influence of nonlinear effects on statistical properties of the radiation from SASE FEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldin, E. L.; Schneidmiller, E. A.; Yurkov, M. V.

    1998-02-01

    The paper presents analysis of statistical properties of the radiation from self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) free-electron laser operating in nonlinear mode. The present approach allows one to calculate the following statistical properties of the SASE FEL radiation: time and spectral field correlation functions, distribution of the fluctuations of the instantaneous radiation power, distribution of the energy in the electron bunch, distribution of the radiation energy after monochromator installed at the FEL amplifier exit and the radiation spectrum. It has been observed that the statistics of the instantaneous radiation power from SASE FEL operating in the nonlinear regime changes significantly with respect to the linear regime. All numerical results presented in the paper have been calculated for the 70 nm SASE FEL at the TESLA Test Facility under construction at DESY.

  1. Influence of Temperature and Pressure on Dispersion Properties of Nonlinear Single Mode Optical Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa H. Ali, Ahmed E. Elsamahy, Maher A. Farhoud and Taymour A. Hamdalla

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Near field distribution, propagation constant and dispersion characteristics of nonlinear single-mode optical fibers have been investigated. Shooting-method technique is used and implemented into a computer code for both profiles of step-index and graded-index fibers. An error function is defined to estimate the discrepancy between the expected electric-field radial derivative at the core-cladding interface and that obtained by numerically integrating the wave equation through the use of Runge-Kutta method. All of the above calculations done under the ocean depth in which the depth will affect the refractive index that have a direct effect on all the optical fiber parameters.KeyWords: Nonlinear refractive index, Normalized propagation constant, Mode delay factor, Material dispersion, Waveguide dispersion.

  2. Influence of Spectral Filtering and Nonlinear Gain on an Optical Soliton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ling-Hong; YAN Jia-Ren; TANG Zheng-Hua

    2007-01-01

    @@ Using the direct soliton perturbation theory, we investigate the evolution of soliton parameters and the firstorder correction of bright soliton in a system with linear and nonlinear gain (or loss) and spectral filtering in a comprehensive way. The results obtained by means of our analytic method are consistent with numerical simulations. It is also found that the stable soliton propagation which has been investigated in a previous report by others is the limit case of our results.

  3. RESEARCH OF INFLUENCE OF DRM BROADCAST TRANSMITTER NONLINEARITIES ONTO THE OUTPUT SIGNAL PARAMETERS

    OpenAIRE

    Varlamov, Oleg

    2014-01-01

    Digital Radio Mondiale (DRM) is an OFDM-based digital radio standard for long-, mediumand shortwave bands. Modern AM broadcast transmitters (with PDM or PSM modulator) with minor modifications or linear (SSB) transmitters may be used. Quality of transmitter is described by MER in output signal and accordance of out-of-band emissions spectrum mask. Nonlinearities in transmitter lead to increase out-of-band emissions in the adjacent channel and degradation of desired signal quality. A computer ...

  4. The Influence of the Balance of Dispersion and Nonlinearity on the Transmission Quality in Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This article analyzes the effect of the balance of dispersion and nonlinearity on the quality of a transmission system with super Gauss pulse input by altering the input power and adding a section of dispersion compensation fiber (DCF). The same mechanisms are applied to a 2-channel wave divide multiplex system(WDM) as well. DCF is proved to be a good solution in both situations.

  5. Influence of the Non-linear Effects in the Design of Viscous Dampers for Bridge Cables

    OpenAIRE

    Acar, Yalda; Jingstål, Pontus

    2014-01-01

    In this master thesis the performance of external viscous dampers attached to cables in cable-stayed bridges have been studied. A comparison has been performed between a linear and a non-linear cable model. The comparison was carried out for two bridge cables, one from the Dubrovnik Bridge and the other from the Normandie Bridge. The performance of the dampers have been measured in terms of maximum achieved damping ratio and minimum amplitude of vibration. The analysis was performed using the...

  6. Influence of the non-linearity of the collision operator on ion cyclotron resonance heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution function of ions heated in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies is obtained by solving the Fokker-Planck equation. For non-minority heating scenarios, the full non-linear Coulomb collision operator must be used in this equation. A method of resolution accounting for the complexity of this operator is presented. We consider a plasma immersed in a homogeneous magnetic field. The adopted method of resolution is based on an expansion of the distribution function in a series of Legendre polynomials. Results of the corresponding code non-linear Fokker-Planck in two-dimensional velocity space (NLFP-2D) are discussed for experimentally relevant JET-like parameters. The convergence of the Legendre expansion has been tested and the importance of the non-linear effects has been shown. Three different regimes, characterized by different modes of indirect ion heating and depending on the absorbed RF power density as well as the minority concentration, were identified. The NLFP-2D code has been used to study the validity of the Maxwellian approximation of the self-collision operator. One finds that this model is only correct in a very limited range of parameters, and leads mostly to an overestimation of the indirect ion heating

  7. Influence of gradual density transition and nonlinear saturation on Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linear theory of Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth at a density profile which varies exponentially between regions of constant density is discussed in detail. The exact theory provides an approximate but conservative simple formula for the growth constant and it shows that a hitherto widely used theory erroneously underestimates the growth constant. A simple but effective ''synthetical model'' of nonlinear bubble growth is obtained from a synthesis of linear theory and constant terminal bubble speed. It is applied to pusher shell break-up in an inertial confinement fusion pellet to determine the maximum allowable initial perturbations and the most dangerous wavelength. In a situation typical of heavy ion drivers it is found that the allowable initial perturbations are increased by a few orders of magnitude by the gradual density transition and another order of magnitude by nonlinear saturation of the bubble speed. The gradual density transition also shifts the most dangerous wavelength from about once to about four times the minimum pusher shell thickness. The following topics are treated briefly: Reasons conflicting with use of the synthetical model to decide whether the pusher shell in a certain simulation will be broken up; other nonlinear theories available in the literature; further realistic effects that might aggravate instability growth. (orig.)

  8. Influence of dispersants on petroleum bioavailability in a marine food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When crude oil is accidentally released into the ocean it threatens many levels of marine life. Intervention, in the form of chemical dispersing agents, may alter the normal behavior of petroleum hydrocarbons (PH) by increasing their functional water solubility and the extent of their exposure to sub-surface marine organisms. Further, the dispersing agent may modify bioavailability as a result of altered interactions between dispersed PH droplets and organismal cell membranes, To date, little information exists on the sub-lethal effects of dispersants and factors modifying their role in the bioavailability and disposition of PH in marine food chains. The objective of the current research was to determine the impact of dispersing agents on PH bioavailability to primary levels of a marine food chain. Uptake, bioaccumulation, deputation, and metabolic transformation of a model PH, 14C-naphthalene, were measured and compared for dispersed Prudhoe Bay Crude Oil (PBCO) vs. undispersed preparations of the water-accommodated fractions (WAF) of PBCO at two salinities (22 and 34 ppt) employing Isochrysis galbana, a primary producer, and Brachionus plicatilis, a primary consumer. Fractionation and identification of metabolites was done by HPLC co-chromatography with analytical standards, and quantitation was done by liquid scintillation counting. GC-FID characterization of WAF and dispersed oil preparations shows higher concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons and a greater number of individual constituents in the dispersed oil preparations. However, short term (eight hour) and long term (two week) static exposure studies indicate the uptake of14C-naphthalene from WAF preparations is inhibited by up to 50% from dispersed oil preparations. Results of comparative static and flow-through chamber exposure studies will be presented

  9. Polymer chains with nonlinear interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Fugmann, Simon Martin

    2011-01-01

    Ziel dieser Arbeit ist es, den Einfluss der gekoppelten Dynamik in nichtlinearen Polymerketten auf Prozesse wie den thermischen Zerfall und den kraftinduzierten Abriss zu untersuchen. Dafür betrachten wir zunächst die Gleichgewichtsrelaxationseigenschaften von Ketten mit nichtlinearen Wechselwirkungspotentialen. Es kann gezeigt werden, dass die Relaxationseigenschaften des End-zu-End-Abstandes wie auch der Hauptkomponenten jene der harmonischen Kette sind. Die Korrelationszeiten weichen jedoc...

  10. The influence of sodium-polyacrilic macromolecular chain length to the powder detergents secondary washing performances

    OpenAIRE

    Milojević Vladimir S.; Nikolić Ljubiša B.; Nikolić Goran; Stamenković Jakov

    2013-01-01

    In order to investigate the influence of sodium-polyacrylate polymer as a co-builder in addition to the carbonate/zeolite builders in detergent builder system, secondary washing performances of powder laundry detergent containing equal percentage of sodium polyacrylate with the different weight average molar mass, Mw, have been examined. The value of the degree of whiteness, elongation at break, and total residue content are the most important secondary washing performances that signifi...

  11. Excitations in ferromagnetic quantum chains: an experimental study on the influence of solitons and spinwaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis, the author deals with one of the simplest 1D magnetic systems: the S = 1/2 ferromagnetic chain with an almost isotropic interaction between adjacent magnetic moments. Experimental realizations of this system became available only recently with the synthesis of the compounds [C6H11NH3]CuCl3 (CHAC) and [C6H11NH3]CuBr3 (CHAB). The present understanding of the crystallographic and magnetic properties of CHAC and CHAB is summarized. Attention is given to the anisotropy in the intrachain interaction, which to a large extent determines the static and dynamic properties. Heat capacity measurements on CHAB are presented as well as nuclear spin-lattice relaxation measurements on both CHAC and CHAB. The experimental results on both compounds are compared with numerical calculations on the Raman and three-spinwave relaxation processes within the framework of linear spinwave theory. In the case of CHAB, the author also discusses the contribution of soliton excitations to the observed relaxation rate. (Auth.)

  12. Cerium Biomagnification in a Terrestrial Food Chain: Influence of Particle Size and Growth Stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Sanghamitra; Trujillo-Reyes, Jesica; Hernandez-Viezcas, Jose A; White, Jason C; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2016-07-01

    Mass-flow modeling of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) indicates that a major fraction of released particles partition into soils and sediments. This has aggravated the risk of contaminating agricultural fields, potentially threatening associated food webs. To assess possible ENM trophic transfer, cerium accumulation from cerium oxide nanoparticles (nano-CeO2) and their bulk equivalent (bulk-CeO2) was investigated in producers and consumers from a terrestrial food chain. Kidney bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris var. red hawk) grown in soil contaminated with 1000-2000 mg/kg nano-CeO2 or 1000 mg/kg bulk-CeO2 were presented to Mexican bean beetles (Epilachna varivestis), which were then consumed by spined soldier bugs (Podisus maculiventris). Cerium accumulation in plant and insects was independent of particle size. After 36 days of exposure to 1000 mg/kg nano- and bulk-CeO2, roots accumulated 26 and 19 μg/g Ce, respectively, and translocated 1.02 and 1.3 μg/g Ce, respectively, to shoots. The beetle larvae feeding on nano-CeO2 exposed leaves accumulated low levels of Ce since ∼98% of Ce was excreted in contrast to bulk-CeO2. However, in nano-CeO2 exposed adults, Ce in tissues was higher than Ce excreted. Additionally, Ce content in tissues was biomagnified by a factor of 5.3 from the plants to adult beetles and further to bugs. PMID:26690677

  13. INFLUENCE OF TRANSPORT FACTOR ON STOCKS IN LOGISTICS CHAINS OF RESOURCE BEHAVIOU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Lebedeva

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers behaviour of material flows at stages of complicated  logistic industrial and transport systems. Key parameters of logistic delivery schemes are analyzed in the paper. The paper estimates an influence of a time parameter on the level of transport and logistics costs and, as a consequence, on  a final finished product.While determining a stock level it is necessary to know not only an intensity of material resource consumption by manufacturing process  for a concrete period of time, but also a probability of non-observance of   transport service terms and cost of stock storage. Stocks of mass cargoes are basically formed at first stages of industrial and transport system and cost of their storage is relatively insignificant. However deficit presence of the given resources influences on functioning of all subsequent interrelated stages of the industrial and transport system.Thus, a risk of deficit occurrence of the given resources can be probably reduced by creating a high stock rate. There is a processing of hi-tech component items (or half-finished products at last stages of the industrial and transport system. Expenses on storage of such resources  are usually high and possibility of their substitution by analogous ones is insignificant. At last stages a mobilization of facilities for provision of on-time delivery is more profitable that allows to save on stock arrangement.

  14. On the influence of Gribov ambiguities in a class of nonlinear covariant gauges

    CERN Document Server

    Serreau, Julien; Tresmontant, Andréas

    2015-01-01

    We consider Yang-Mills theories in a recently proposed family of nonlinear covariant gauges that consistently deals with the issue of Gribov ambiguities. Such gauges provide a generalization of the Curci-Ferrari-Delbourgo-Jarvis gauges which can be formulated as an extremization procedure and might be implemented in numerical calculations. This would allow for nonperturbative studies of Yang-Mills correlators in a broad class of covariant gauges continuously connected to the well studied Landau gauge. We compute the ghost and gluon propagators in the continuum formulation at one-loop order in perturbation theory and we study their momentum dependence down to the deep infrared regime, with and without renormalization group improvement. In particular, we show that the theory admits infrared safe renormalization group trajectories with no Landau pole. Both the gluon and the ghost behave as massive fields at low energy, and the gluon propagator is transverse even away from the Landau gauge limit. We compare our r...

  15. Influence of nonlinear electrodynamics on stability of thin-shell wormholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, M.; Mumtaz, Saadia

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss stability of regular thin-shell wormholes coupled with non-linear electrodynamics and cosmological constant. The surface stresses are formulated by using Lanczos equations. We examine attractive and repulsive behavior of these constructed wormholes corresponding to outward and inward-directed acceleration components, respectively. We also investigate stability conditions for the existence of traversable thin-shell wormholes with arbitrarily small amount of different fluids as exotic matter. We consider linear, logarithmic and Chaplygin gas models and find that a modified generalized Chaplygin gas model provides maximum viable regions for stability of the respective thin-shell wormholes. It is found that formation of stable regions for ABGB thin-shell wormholes highly depends on the physically acceptable range of charge and other parameters.

  16. Influence of nonlinear effects on the neutral gas transport in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The linear Monte Carlo computer code EIRENE for calculation of free molecular flow of neutral gases through a background plasma has been extended to the non-linear transition flow regime (Knudsen number 0.1-10). Motivation arose from higher gas densities in the range of 1013-1015 cm-3 appearing in the srape-off layer and in parts of the vacuum system of advanced tokamak experiments. To treat the problem, the Direct Monte Carlo Simulation Method after Bird, a kinetic approach, was chosen, since the conditions for application of continuum theory are not met. First results with the extended code were obtained in calculating the conductance of plasma-free short cylindrical ducts and elbows. A steady increase in conductance with decreasing Knudsen number was found, which is in good agreement with experimental data. Further calculations for transition flows through fixed background plasmas were made. In these, solutions obtained were represented as differences from solutions obtained by linear calculations. Simulation of a 1-D plasma slab configuration (related to the gaseous divertor concept) revealed markedly varying neutral gas profiles due to neutral-neutral collisions. In addition, in these runs neutral-neutral inelastic collision processes turned out to be negligible. Finally, neutral gas behaviour at higher densities in pump limiter geometries was studied, related to experiments on the tokamak TEXTOR. An increase in conductance in the direction to the pumps of up to 25% relative to linear results was found. Recently obtained experimental data on the impact of non-linear neutral effects upon conductance could be confirmed. (orig.)

  17. The haven of the self-service store: A study of the fruit and vegetable department's influence on chain equity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino

    trend is that retail chain managers concentrate the effort on the key-departments of the chain store. So far, however, the academic research attempts to measure which departments are most significant for chain-equity have been scarce. This paper discusses the concept of chain-equity and gives a number...... of reasons why the fruit and vegetable department can be one of the keys to the creation of chain- equity. Furthermore, the paper describes the results of two empirical studies (a focus group and a survey), which aim at exploring a) the concept of chain-equity, b) the extent to which a positive customer...

  18. Influence of dispersants on petroleum bioavailability in a marine food chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, M.F.; Younghans-Haug, C.O.; Tjeerdema, R.S. [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Sowby, M.L. [Office of Oil Spill Prevention and Response, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Oil spills represent a serious threat to marine organisms. Crude oil consists of numerous compounds with a wide range of physicochemical properties critical in determining those organisms at greatest risk. Surface inhabitants may benefit from the application of dispersing agents, yet little is understood of the disposition of the dispersed components of a spill. As the functional water solubility of petroleum hydrocarbons increases in the water column, the portion that is available for uptake may also increase, placing another group of organisms at risk. Potential increases in adsorption and bioaccumulation may extend the threat of oil spills from marine organisms to human consumers. Studies to date have focused on the acute toxicity of oil and dispersants. The objective of this research was to determine the influence of a dispersant on the bioavailability of crude oil components at concentrations below the no observable effect level (NOEL). Flow-through chambers were used to expose the algae, Isochrysis galbana, to ``undispersed`` Prudhoe Bay Crude Oil (PBCO) spiked with {sup 14}C naphthalene and ``dispersed`` spiked PBCO/Corexit 9527 sea water preparations. Bioavailability to Isochrysis was assessed as uptake, bioconcentration, and deputation of {sup 14}C naphthalene and its metabolites. Results of exposure studies will be presented.

  19. The influence of sodium-polyacrilic macromolecular chain length to the powder detergents secondary washing performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milojević Vladimir S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the influence of sodium-polyacrylate polymer as a co-builder in addition to the carbonate/zeolite builders in detergent builder system, secondary washing performances of powder laundry detergent containing equal percentage of sodium polyacrylate with the different weight average molar mass, Mw, have been examined. The value of the degree of whiteness, elongation at break, and total residue content are the most important secondary washing performances that significantly depend on sodium polyacrylates efficiency used as crystal inhibitors, stabilizers for suspended soil, and agents for soil redisposition prevention on fabric surface. The values of the whiteness and elongation at break for cotton fabrics increase with the increase of average weight molecular mass, Mw, up to the value of 70000 g/mol, while in the case of further increase of weight average molar mass up to the 250000 g/mol value of these characteristics begin to decline. The values of the total residue content after combustion indicate an increase in its content with the increase of weight average molar mass of 3000 to 70000 g/mol, while the highest value has been reached in the sample of detergent containing sodiumpolyacrilic with the weight average molar mass of 250000 g/mol. All detergent samples show no significant dependence of the secondary washing characteristics on the number of washing cycles.

  20. Influence of dispersants on petroleum bioavailability in a marine food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oil spills represent a serious threat to marine organisms. Crude oil consists of numerous compounds with a wide range of physicochemical properties critical in determining those organisms at greatest risk. Surface inhabitants may benefit from the application of dispersing agents, yet little is understood of the disposition of the dispersed components of a spill. As the functional water solubility of petroleum hydrocarbons increases in the water column, the portion that is available for uptake may also increase, placing another group of organisms at risk. Potential increases in adsorption and bioaccumulation may extend the threat of oil spills from marine organisms to human consumers. Studies to date have focused on the acute toxicity of oil and dispersants. The objective of this research was to determine the influence of a dispersant on the bioavailability of crude oil components at concentrations below the no observable effect level (NOEL). Flow-through chambers were used to expose the algae, Isochrysis galbana, to ''undispersed'' Prudhoe Bay Crude Oil (PBCO) spiked with 14C naphthalene and ''dispersed'' spiked PBCO/Corexit 9527 sea water preparations. Bioavailability to Isochrysis was assessed as uptake, bioconcentration, and deputation of 14C naphthalene and its metabolites. Results of exposure studies will be presented

  1. Influencing the ultrafast plasmon damping time using Fano resonances for nonlinear plasmonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Olivier J. F.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We explore the possibility of strongly influencing the plasmon damping time in nanostructures for efficient second harmonic generation, by taking advantage of the tunability of the narrow linewidth feature in the extinction cross-section exhibited by plasmonic nanostructures under Fano resonance.

  2. Influence of nonlinear sorption kinetics on the slow-desorbing organic contaminant fraction in soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlebaum, W.; Schraa, G.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.

    1999-01-01

    Release rates of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) from the soil matrix influence the availability of HOCs in soils or sediments for microbial degradation or removal by physical means (e.g., soil washing or soil venting). In this study it was shown that the initial contaminant concentration influ

  3. Perception of human-derived risk influences choice at top of the food chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristescu, Bogdan; Stenhouse, Gordon B; Boyce, Mark S

    2013-01-01

    On human-used landscapes, animal behavior is a trade-off between maximizing fitness and minimizing human-derived risk. Understanding risk perception in wildlife can allow mitigation of anthropogenic risk, with benefits to long-term animal fitness. Areas where animals choose to rest should minimize risk from predators, which for large carnivores typically equate to humans. We hypothesize that high human activity leads to selection for habitat security, whereas low activity enables trading security for forage. We investigated selection of resting (bedding) sites by GPS radiocollared adult grizzly bears (n = 10) in a low density population on a multiple-use landscape in Canada. We compared security and foods at resting and random locations while accounting for land use, season, and time of day. On reclaimed mines with low human access, bears selected high horizontal cover far from trails, but did not avoid open (herbaceous) areas, resting primarily at night. In protected areas bears also bedded at night, in areas with berry shrubs and Hedysarum spp., with horizontal cover selected in the summer, during high human access. On public lands with substantial human recreation, bears bedded at day, selected resting sites with high horizontal cover in the summer and habitat edges, with bedding associated with herbaceous foods. These spatial and temporal patterns of selection suggest that bears perceive human-related risk differentially in relation to human activity level, season and time of day, and employ a security-food trade-off strategy. Although grizzly bears are presently not hunted in Alberta, their perceived risks associated with humans influence resting-site selection. PMID:24367549

  4. OPTIMAL CONTRACTS IN TWO-ECHELON SUPPLY CHAIN UNDER ASYMMETRIC INFORMATION AND NONLINEAR DEMAND%不对称信息和非线性需求下两级供应链优化契约

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄品; 赵林度

    2008-01-01

    The challenge for supply chain management is to create appropriate supply chain contracts so as to optimize the system performance. To examine the role of asymmetric information in a two-echelon supply chain system and derive supply chain contracts to deal with existing asymmetric information, a two level supply chain model including one supplier and one retailer under the demand of price elasticity is developed. By using the principal-agent principle and the optimal control theory, three types of supply chain contract, i.e., a wholesale pricing contract, a two-parameter linear and a two-parameter nonlinear contracts are obtained. In these contracts, the supplier has asymmetric information about the retailer cost structure. Simulation results show that the two-parameter contracts are more effective strategies to achieve supply chain coordination.%为研究两级供应链系统中不对称信息的作用,并设计供应链契约有效地解决信息不对称问题,文中建立了市场需求为价格弹性需求,包含一个供应商和一个零售商的两级供应链模型.当零售商成本结构为非对称信息时,利用委托-代理理论和最优控制原理设计了3种不对称信息和非线性需求下供应链契约:批发价契约、双参数线性契约和双参数非线性契约,并对上述3种契约模型进行数值仿真分析.研究显示双参数契约模型能够更有效地达到供应链协调.

  5. The Influence of Spatial Resolution on Nonlinear Force-Free Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    DeRosa, M L; Leka, K D; Barnes, G; Amari, T; Canou, A; Gilchrist, S A; Thalmann, J K; Valori, G; Wiegelmann, T; Schrijver, C J; Malanushenko, A; Sun, X; Régnier, S

    2015-01-01

    The nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) model is often used to describe the solar coronal magnetic field, however a series of earlier studies revealed difficulties in the numerical solution of the model in application to photospheric boundary data. We investigate the sensitivity of the modeling to the spatial resolution of the boundary data, by applying multiple codes that numerically solve the NLFFF model to a sequence of vector magnetogram data at different resolutions, prepared from a single Hinode/SOT-SP scan of NOAA Active Region 10978 on 2007 December 13. We analyze the resulting energies and relative magnetic helicities, employ a Helmholtz decomposition to characterize divergence errors, and quantify changes made by the codes to the vector magnetogram boundary data in order to be compatible with the force-free model. This study shows that NLFFF modeling results depend quantitatively on the spatial resolution of the input boundary data, and that using more highly resolved boundary data yields more self-c...

  6. Computational analysis of nonlinear creep of polyphase aggregates: Influence of phase morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, A. C.; Vel, S. S.; Gerbi, C.; Johnson, S. E.

    2014-09-01

    The constitutive laws of polyphase aggregates dominantly depend on the operative deformation mechanisms, phase morphology and modes, and environmental conditions. Each of these factors has the potential to dramatically affect bulk mechanical properties as well as the local stress and strain rate distributions. To focus on the effects of phase morphology, we have developed a rigorous multiscale approach based on asymptotic expansion homogenization. The proposed methodology has two fundamental goals: (1) accurately predict bulk behavior in aggregates by explicitly taking into account phase morphology and (2) calculate detailed distributions of strain rates, stresses, and viscosities in heterogeneous materials. The methodology is able to consider general nonlinear phase constitutive laws that relate strain rates to stresses, temperature, and other factors such as water fugacity and grain size. We demonstrate the approach by analyzing power law creep of computer-generated and natural polyphase systems and benchmarking the results against analytical solutions. As an outcome of this analysis, we find that the approximation of an aggregate as a power law material is reasonable for isotropic, homogeneous phase distributions but breaks down significantly with high degrees of phase organization. We also present distributions in strain rate, stress, and viscosity for different applied loading conditions. Results exhibit areas of high internal stresses and substantial localization. We describe and provide a freely available software package supporting these calculations.

  7. A note on Influence diagnostics in nonlinear mixed-effects elliptical models

    OpenAIRE

    Patriota, Alexandre G

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides general matrix formulas for computing the score function, the (expected and observed) Fisher information and the $\\Delta$ matrices (required for the assessment of local influence) for a quite general model which includes the one proposed by Russo et al. (2009). Additionally, we also present an expression for the generalized leverage. The matrix formulation has a considerable advantage, since although the complexity of the postulated model, all general formulas are compact,...

  8. Nonlinear Hysteretic Torsional Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabaret, J; Béquin, P; Theocharis, G; Andreev, V; Gusev, V E; Tournat, V

    2015-07-31

    We theoretically study and experimentally report the propagation of nonlinear hysteretic torsional pulses in a vertical granular chain made of cm-scale, self-hanged magnetic beads. As predicted by contact mechanics, the torsional coupling between two beads is found to be nonlinear hysteretic. This results in a nonlinear pulse distortion essentially different from the distortion predicted by classical nonlinearities and in a complex dynamic response depending on the history of the wave particle angular velocity. Both are consistent with the predictions of purely hysteretic nonlinear elasticity and the Preisach-Mayergoyz hysteresis model, providing the opportunity to study the phenomenon of nonlinear dynamic hysteresis in the absence of other types of material nonlinearities. The proposed configuration reveals a plethora of interesting phenomena including giant amplitude-dependent attenuation, short-term memory, as well as dispersive properties. Thus, it could find interesting applications in nonlinear wave control devices such as strong amplitude-dependent filters. PMID:26274421

  9. Analysis of the Influencing Factors and Key Driving Force concerning the Efficiency of Green Supply Chain of Fruits and Vegetables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yingtang; LI; Zhong; QIAO

    2014-01-01

    Like the general green supply chain,the green supply chain of fruits and vegetables also requires low negative effects of the environment and high resource utilization rate,as well as the healthiness and freshness of fruits and vegetables.Currently,the level of development of the green supply chain of fruits and vegetables is low in China,and the freshness of fruits and vegetables can not be well maintained,so there is an urgent need to improve the operational efficiency of the green supply chain of fruits and vegetables.The operational efficiency of the green supply chain of fruits and vegetables is affected by many factors,and the most important factor is the incomplete consistency between the individual interests of supply chain members and the overall interests of supply chain.Therefore,the key driving force to improve the efficiency of green supply chain of fruits and vegetables is to build the scientific and rational collaborative decision-making mechanism of supply chain,in order to solve the problems concerning the green supply chain of fruits and vegetables,such as risk sharing,cost control and revenue allocation,thereby achieving the coordinated development of the green supply chain of fruits and vegetables.

  10. The influence of fully nonlinear wave forces on aero-hydro-elastic calculations of monopile wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schløer, Signe; Bredmose, Henrik; Bingham, Harry B.

    2016-01-01

    and nonlinear irregular wave realizations are calculated using the fully nonlinear potential flow wave model OceanWave3D [1]. The linear and nonlinear wave realizations are compared using both a static analysis on a fixed monopile and dynamic calculations with the aeroelastic code Flex5 [2]. The...

  11. Influences of hydraulic gradient, surface roughness, intersecting angle, and scale effect on nonlinear flow behavior at single fracture intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Liu, Richeng; Jiang, Yujing

    2016-07-01

    Fluid flow tests were conducted on two crossed fracture models for which the geometries of fracture segments and intersections were measured by utilizing a visualization technique using a CCD (charged coupled device) camera. Numerical simulations by solving the Navier-Stokes equations were performed to characterize the fluid flow at fracture intersections. The roles of hydraulic gradient, surface roughness, intersecting angle, and scale effect in the nonlinear fluid flow behavior through single fracture intersections were investigated. The simulation results of flow rate agreed well with the experimental results for both models. The experimental and simulation results showed that with the increment of the hydraulic gradient, the ratio of the flow rate to the hydraulic gradient, Q/J, decreases and the relative difference of Q/J between the calculation results employing the Navier-Stokes equations and the cubic law, δ, increases. When taking into account the fracture surface roughness quantified by Z2 ranging 0-0.42 for J = 1, the value of δ would increase by 0-10.3%. The influences of the intersecting angle on the normalized flow rate that represents the ratio of the flow rate in a segment to the total flow rate, Ra, and the ratio of the hydraulic aperture to the mechanical aperture, e/E, are negligible when J 10-2. Based on the regression analysis on simulation results, a mathematical expression was proposed to quantify e/E, involving variables of J and Rr, where Rr is the radius of truncating circles centered at an intersection. For E/Rr > 10-2, e/E varies significantly and the scale of model has large impacts on the nonlinear flow behavior through intersections, while for E/Rr law to fluid flow through fracture intersections is suggested as J < 10-3, E/Rr < 10-3, and Z2 = 0.

  12. Influences of hydraulic gradient, surface roughness, intersecting angle, and scale effect on nonlinear flow behavior at single fracture intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Liu, Richeng; Jiang, Yujing

    2016-07-01

    Fluid flow tests were conducted on two crossed fracture models for which the geometries of fracture segments and intersections were measured by utilizing a visualization technique using a CCD (charged coupled device) camera. Numerical simulations by solving the Navier-Stokes equations were performed to characterize the fluid flow at fracture intersections. The roles of hydraulic gradient, surface roughness, intersecting angle, and scale effect in the nonlinear fluid flow behavior through single fracture intersections were investigated. The simulation results of flow rate agreed well with the experimental results for both models. The experimental and simulation results showed that with the increment of the hydraulic gradient, the ratio of the flow rate to the hydraulic gradient, Q/J, decreases and the relative difference of Q/J between the calculation results employing the Navier-Stokes equations and the cubic law, δ, increases. When taking into account the fracture surface roughness quantified by Z2 ranging 0-0.42 for J = 1, the value of δ would increase by 0-10.3%. The influences of the intersecting angle on the normalized flow rate that represents the ratio of the flow rate in a segment to the total flow rate, Ra, and the ratio of the hydraulic aperture to the mechanical aperture, e/E, are negligible when J 10-2. Based on the regression analysis on simulation results, a mathematical expression was proposed to quantify e/E, involving variables of J and Rr, where Rr is the radius of truncating circles centered at an intersection. For E/Rr > 10-2, e/E varies significantly and the scale of model has large impacts on the nonlinear flow behavior through intersections, while for E/Rr < 10-3, the scale effect is negligibly small. Finally, a necessary condition to apply the cubic law to fluid flow through fracture intersections is suggested as J < 10-3, E/Rr < 10-3, and Z2 = 0.

  13. An analysis of the influence of logistics activities on the export cold chain of temperature sensitive fruit through the Port of Cape Town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila L. Goedhals-Gerber

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: South Africa exports a large variety of different fruit types and cultivars worldwide. Yet, there is concern in the South African fruit industry that too much fruit and money is lost each year due to breaks along the fresh fruit export cold chain.Objective: The objective of this article was to identify the influence of logistics activities on breaks along the South African fruit export cold chain. The focus is specifically on temperature sensitive fruit, exported in refrigerated containers to Europe and the United Kingdom through the Port of Cape Town. This supply chain was selected as this was the most accessible supply chain in terms of retrieving the necessary temperature data.Method: The cold chain was investigated from the cold store, through all segments, until the Port of Cape Town. Temperature data collected with temperature monitoring devices from different fruit export supply chains of grapes, plums and pome fruit (apples and pears were analysed to identify the percentage of temperature breaks and the length of temperature breaks that occur at each segment of the cold chain.Results: The results show that a large number of breaks are experienced along South Africa’s fruit export cold chain, specifically at the interface between the cold store and the truck. In addition, the findings also show that there has been an improvement in the number of breaks experienced in the Port of Cape Town following the implementation of the NAVIS and Refcon systems.Conclusion: This article concludes by providing the fruit industry with areas that require addressing to improve operational procedures along the fruit export cold chain to help ensure that the fruit arrives at its final destination at optimal quality.

  14. A study on important factors influencing customers’ impulsive buying behavior: A case study of Shahrvand food chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Asgari

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Customer purchasing behavior plays an essential role on marketing planning in today’s competitive environment. Immediate purchasing behavior is one of the most important components of purchasing behavior. In this paper, we use factor analysis to extract important factors influencing immediate purchasing behavior.The proposed study of this paper designs a questionnaire including 35 questions and through basic investigation, the questions are reduced to 21 ones. The questionnaire is distributed among 200 regular customers and 149 questionnaires have been collected. Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.804, which is well above the minimum desirable level of 0.7. The survey is conducted among regular customers who normally make purchases from Shahrvand food chains in city of Tehran, Iran. The results of factor analysis reveals four major factors including intelligence pricing strategy, involvement, promotion margin and consumer behavior. The proposed study of this paper considers “intelligence pricing strategy” for the first time as an important factor in consumer’s purchasing behavior.

  15. A technique for determining the optimum mix of logistics service providers of a make-to-order supply chain by formulating and solving a constrained nonlinear cost optimization problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrityunjoy Roy

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a technique has been developed to determine the optimum mix of logistic service providers of a make-to-order (MTO supply chain. A serial MTO supply chain with different stages/ processes has been considered. For each stage different logistic service providers with different mean processing lead times, but same lead time variances are available. A realistic assumption that for each stage, the logistic service provider who charges more for his service consumes less processing lead time and vice-versa has been made in our study. Thus for each stage, for each service provider, a combination of cost and mean processing lead time is available. Using these combinations, for each stage, a polynomial curve, expressing cost of that stage as a function of mean processing lead time is fit. Cumulating all such expressions of cost for the different stages along with incorporation of suitable constraints arising out of timely delivery, results in the formulation of a constrained nonlinear cost optimization problem. On solving the problem using mathematica, optimum processing lead time for each stage is obtained. Using these optimum processing lead times and by employing a simple technique the optimum logistic service provider mix of the supply chain along with the corresponding total cost of processing is determined. Finally to examine the effect of changes in different parameters on the optimum total processing cost of the supply chain, sensitivity analysis has been carried out graphically.

  16. Nonlinear planar oscillation of a satellite in circular orbit under the influence of magnetic torque. I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, R.; Bhatnagar, K. B.

    1995-12-01

    The rotational motion of a satellite in a circular orbit under the influence of magnetic torque is being studied. The present paper deals with the non-resonance and resonance cases. By using Melnikov's method, the authors have shown that the equation of motion is non-integrable. Taking the magnetic torque perturbation to be small (ɛ ≪ 1) and using BKM method, it is observed that the amplitude of the oscillation remains constant up to the second order of approximation. The main resonance has been shown to exist. The analysis regarding the stability near the resonance frequency shows that discontinuity occurs in the amplitude of the oscillation at a frequency of the external periodic force which is less than the frequency of the natural oscillation.

  17. Influence of annealing on the linear and nonlinear optical properties of Mn doped ZnO thin films examined by z-scan technique in CW regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraja, K. K.; Pramodini, S.; Poornesh, P.; Rao, Ashok; Nagaraja, H. S.

    2016-08-01

    We present the studies on the influence of annealing on the third-order nonlinear optical properties of RF magnetron sputtered manganese doped zinc oxide (MZO) thin films with different doping concentration. It is revealed that the incorporation of Mn into ZnO and annealing lead to prominent changes in the third order nonlinearity. Nonlinear optical measurements were carried out by employing the z-scan technique using a continuous wave (CW) Hesbnd Ne laser of 633 nm. The z-scan results reveal that the films exhibit self-defocusing thermal nonlinearity. The third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility χ(3) was found to be of the order of 10-3 esu and 10-2 esu for annealed MZO thin films at 200 °C and 400 °C respectively. The dependence of grain size on the observed nonlinearity was revealed by atomic force microscopy analysis. Optical limiting studies were carried out for a range of input power levels and an optical limiting of about ∼8 mW was observed indicating the possible application for photonic devices.

  18. Nonlinear equilibrium structure of thin currents sheets: influence of electron pressure anisotropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Zelenyi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Thin current sheets represent important and puzzling sites of magnetic energy storage and subsequent fast release. Such structures are observed in planetary magnetospheres, solar atmosphere and are expected to be widespread in nature. The thin current sheet structure resembles a collapsing MHD solution with a plane singularity. Being potential sites of effective energy accumulation, these structures have received a good deal of attention during the last decade, especially after the launch of the multiprobe CLUSTER mission which is capable of resolving their 3D features. Many theoretical models of thin current sheet dynamics, including the well-known current sheet bifurcation, have been developed recently. A self-consistent 1D analytical model of thin current sheets in which the tension of the magnetic field lines is balanced by the ion inertia rather than by the plasma pressure gradients was developed earlier. The influence of the anisotropic electron population and of the corresponding electrostatic field that acts to restore quasi-neutrality of the plasma is taken into account. It is assumed that the electron motion is fluid-like in the direction perpendicular to the magnetic field and fast enough to support quasi-equilibrium Boltzmann distribution along the field lines. Electrostatic effects lead to an interesting feature of the current density profile inside the current sheet, i.e. a narrow sharp peak of electron current in the very center of the sheet due to fast curvature drift of the particles in this region. The corresponding magnetic field profile becomes much steeper near the neutral plane although the total cross-tail current is in all cases dominated by the ion contribution. The dependence of electrostatic effects on the ion to electron temperature ratio, the curvature of the magnetic field lines, and the average electron magnetic moment is also analyzed. The implications of these effects on the fine structure of thin current sheets

  19. Influence of Pichia pastoris cellular material on polymerase chain reaction performance as a synthetic biology standard for genome monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templar, Alexander; Woodhouse, Stefan; Keshavarz-Moore, Eli; Nesbeth, Darren N

    2016-08-01

    Advances in synthetic genomics are now well underway in yeasts due to the low cost of synthetic DNA. These new capabilities also bring greater need for quantitating the presence, loss and rearrangement of loci within synthetic yeast genomes. Methods for achieving this will ideally; i) be robust to industrial settings, ii) adhere to a global standard and iii) be sufficiently rapid to enable at-line monitoring during cell growth. The methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris (P. pastoris) is increasingly used for industrial production of biotherapeutic proteins so we sought to answer the following questions for this particular yeast species. Is time-consuming DNA purification necessary to obtain accurate end-point polymerase chain reaction (e-pPCR) and quantitative PCR (qPCR) data? Can the novel linear regression of efficiency qPCR method (LRE qPCR), which has properties desirable in a synthetic biology standard, match the accuracy of conventional qPCR? Does cell cultivation scale influence PCR performance? To answer these questions we performed e-pPCR and qPCR in the presence and absence of cellular material disrupted by a mild 30s sonication procedure. The e-pPCR limit of detection (LOD) for a genomic target locus was 50pg (4.91×10(3) copies) of purified genomic DNA (gDNA) but the presence of cellular material reduced this sensitivity sixfold to 300pg gDNA (2.95×10(4) copies). LRE qPCR matched the accuracy of a conventional standard curve qPCR method. The presence of material from bioreactor cultivation of up to OD600=80 did not significantly compromise the accuracy of LRE qPCR. We conclude that a simple and rapid cell disruption step is sufficient to render P. pastoris samples of up to OD600=80 amenable to analysis using LRE qPCR which we propose as a synthetic biology standard. PMID:27211507

  20. COFFEE COMMODITY CHAIN

    OpenAIRE

    Tine Olsen; Brett Inder

    2008-01-01

    To explain the value added along the coffee commodity chain we propose and estimate a theoretical model of the coffee commodity chain. The theoretical model consists of four markets and five agents in the coffee commodity chain and predicts that prices in the coffee commodity chain move together but are also influenced by income, technology and production. A vector error correction model is used to test the theoretical predictions. In addition to the theoretical conclusions the empirical mode...

  1. Influence of the cation alkyl chain length of imidazolium-based room temperature ionic liquids on the dispersibility of TiO2 nanopowders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of the length of the cation alkyl chain on the dispersibility by ultrasonic treatment of TiO2 nanopowders in hydrophilic imidazolium-based room temperature ionic liquids was studied for the first time by dynamic light scattering and advanced rheology. TiO2 nanopowders had been synthesized by chemical vapor synthesis (CVS) under varied conditions leading to two different materials. A commercial nanopowder had been used for comparison. Characterizations had been done using transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption with BET analysis, and FT-IR spectroscopy. Primary particle sizes were about 6 and 8 nm for the CVS-based and 26 nm for the commercial materials. The particle size distribution in the dispersion was strongly influenced by the length of the cation alkyl chain for all the investigated powders with different structural characteristics and concentrations in the dispersion. It was found that an increase of the alkyl chain length was beneficial, leading to a narrowing of the particle size distribution and a decrease of the agglomerate size in dispersion. The smallest average nanoparticle sizes in dispersion were around 30 nm. Additionally, the surface functionality of the nanoparticles, the concentration of the solid material in the liquid, and the period of ultrasonic treatment control the dispersion quality, especially in the case of the ionic liquids with the shorter alkyl chain. The influence of the nanopowders characteristics on their dispersibility decreases considerably with increasing cation alkyl chain length. The results indicate that ionic liquids with adapted structure are candidates as absorber media for nanoparticles synthesized in gas phase processes to obtain liquid dispersions directly without redispergation.

  2. Theoretical study on second-order nonlinear optical properties of unsymmetric bis (phenylethynyl) benzene series derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU, Wei; FENG, Ji-Kang; YU, Kun-Qian; REN, Ai-Min; CUI, Meng

    2000-01-01

    On the basis of Z1NDO methods, according to the sum-overstates (SOS) expression, the progran for the calculation of the second-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities βuk and βμ ofmolecules was devised, and the structures and nonlinear optical properties of unsymmetric bis (phenylethynyl) benzene series derivatives were studied. The influence of the molecular conjugated chain lengths, the donor and the acceptor on βμwas examined.

  3. Short communication: Influence of long-chain inulin and Lactobacillus paracasei subspecies paracasei on the sensory profile and acceptance of a traditional yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, T C; Cruz, A G; Prudencio, S H

    2013-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the influence of the addition of long-chain inulin as a fat replacer and prebiotic agent (20g/L) and (or) probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei on the sensory profile and acceptance of yogurts, and to assess the influence of descriptive attributes on the sensory acceptance of the products. The addition of inulin to low-fat yogurt improved its brightness and firmness, which was similar to the full-fat yogurt. However, the use of long-chain inulin increased the separation of serum and no influence on creaminess was observed. Regarding the product's acceptability, the low-fat yogurt with added inulin presented similar acceptance compared with the full-fat yogurt. The addition of Lb. paracasei ssp. paracasei did not affect the sensory profile and acceptance of the low-fat yogurt. Using external preference mapping, it was possible to verify that the sensory acceptance was driven positively by the sweetness and creaminess and negatively driven by firmness (appearance and texture) and homogeneity (appearance). It was possible to formulate low-fat yogurts with added probiotics that presented similar sensory characteristics to those of full-fat yogurts, and this was due to the addition of the long-chain inulin as a fat replacer. PMID:23932139

  4. The SFT-1 and OXA-1 respiratory chain complex assembly factors influence lifespan by distinct mechanisms in C. elegans

    OpenAIRE

    Maxwell, Sara; Harding, Joanne; Brabin, Charles; Peter J. Appleford; Brown, Ruth; Delaney, Carol; Brown, Garry; Woollard, Alison

    2013-01-01

    Background C. elegans mitochondrial (Mit) mutants have disrupted mitochondrial electron transport chain function, yet, surprisingly, they are often long-lived, a property that has offered unique insights into the molecular mechanisms of aging. In this study, we examine the phenotypic consequences of reducing the expression of the respiratory chain complex assembly factors sft-1 (homologous to human SURF1) and oxa-1 (homologous to human OXA1) by RNA interference (RNAi). Mutations in human SURF...

  5. Anthocyanins do not influence long-chain n-3 fatty acid status: studies in cells, rodents and humans ☆

    OpenAIRE

    Vauzour, D.; Pascual-Teresa, Sonia de; Minihane, Anne-Marie

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 The Authors. Increased tissue status of the long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is associated with cardiovascular and cognitive benefits. Limited epidemiological and animal data suggest that flavonoids, and specifically anthocyanins, may increase EPA and DHA levels, potentially by increasing their synthesis from the shorter-chain n-3 PUFA, α-linolenic acid. Using complimentary cell, rodent and human studies we ...

  6. The influence of non-linear frequency compression on the perception of music by adults with a moderate to severe hearing loss: Subjective impressions

    OpenAIRE

    Marinda Uys; Lidia Pottas; Bart Vinck; Catherine van Dijk

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To date, the main direction in frequency-lowering hearing aid studies has been in relation to speech perception abilities. With improvements in hearing aid technology, interest in musical perception as a dimension that could improve hearing aid users’ quality of life has grown. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of non-linear frequency compression (NFC) on hearing aid users’ subjective impressions of listening to music. Design & sample: A survey research ...

  7. ELECTROMAGNETISM, OPTICS, ACOUSTICS, HEAT TRANSFER, CLASSICAL MECHANICS, AND FLUID DYNAMICS: Influence of a Single Frequency Electromagnetic Wave on Energy Spectrum of Nonpolariton System in a Kerr Nonlinear Blackbody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qi-Jun; Cheng, Ze

    2010-06-01

    In a Kerr nonlinear blackbody, bare photons with opposite wave vectors and helicities are bound into pairs and unpaired photons are transformed into a different kind of quasiparticle, the nonpolariton. The present paper investigates the influence of a single frequency electromagnetic wave on the energy spectrum of the nonpolariton system. We find that the wave can lead to an energy shift of nonpolaritons. Moreover, we calculate the first-order energy shift on certain conditions.

  8. Determining the role of linear and nonlinear interactions in records of climate change: possible solar influences in annual to century-scale records

    OpenAIRE

    Hagelberg, Terri King; Cole, Julia

    1995-01-01

    Time series analysis methods have traditionally helped in identifying the role of various forcing mechanisms in influencing climate change. A challenge to understanding decadal and century-scale climate change has been that the linkages between climate changes and potential forcing mechanisms such as solar variability are often uncertain. However, most studies have focused on the role of climate forcing and climate response within a strictly linear framework. Nonlinear time series analysis pr...

  9. THE INFLUENCE OF HUMAN SINGLE CHAIN INTELEUKIN-12 GENE TRANSDUCTION ON THE BIOLOGICAL BEHAVIOR OF HEPATOMA 7721 CELLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金莉; 来保长; 耿宜萍; 王一理; 司履生

    2001-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the anti-tumor effects of human single chain interleukin-12 (hscIL-12). Method. pcDNA/hscIL-12 recombinant was transfected into human hepatic carcinoma cells (7721 cells) by lipofectin method. The 7721/hscIL-12 cells which secrete hscIL-12 stably, were obtained via G418 selection, and in vitro the influence of hscIL-12 gene transduction on the growth of tumor cells was evaluated by cellcycle analysis. In vivo, genetically engineered 7721 cells (7721/hscIL-12, 7721/pcDNA) and parental cells were implanted into BALB/c nude mice, respectively. 7721/pcDNA and 7721/hscIL-12 groups were divided into two sub-groups on day 8: one was administered with hPBL twice, 6 days at interval; the other was given equalvolume of PBS. Mice were sacrificed on day 26, and spleens and tumors were taken out for histologic assay. Results. hscIL-12 produced stably by 7721/hscIL-12 cells had bioactivity, and it was proved by Western blot, immunocytochemistry, and in situ hybridization. In vitro, compared with 7721 and 7721/pcDNA, the7721/hscIL-12 grew much more slowly. FACS assay showed apparent G1 arrest of 7721/hscIL-12 cells. In ani-mal experiment, on day 8 after inoculation, the tumors of 7721 and 7721/pcDNA group were up to 5 -7mm,while those of 7721/hscIL-12 group were 2 -4mm. When treated with hPBL, the tumor of 7721/hscIL-12 groupdisappeared completely. Histologically, the tumors from 7721/hscIL-12 without hPBL treatment had numerouslymphocyte infiltration, the tumor cells displayed depression looking, atrophy, focal necrosis and apoptosis, whereas the tumors of 7721 and 772l/pcDNA groups grew thrivingly.Conclusion. hsclL-12 transduced 7721 cells could induced significant antitumor immune response which resulted in tumor regression totally when the hPBL was inoculated, and also hscIL-12 has certain effects on mice immune system. These findings suggest that hscIL-12 and hscIL-12 gene therapy might have promising prospects in clinical application.

  10. Influence of external electrooptical modulator biasing on gain and nonlinear distortions in analog fiber-optic links

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dependences of gain and nonlinear distortions in analogue fiber-optic links on bias of an external electrooptical modulator were investigated. The increase in the gain by up to 5 dB as compared with the conventional quadrature point operation was demonstrated by shift the bias voltage applied to the external electrooptical modulator to a low transmission. Dependences of nonlinear distortions on the bias voltage of an electrooptical modulator were investigated. A minor increase in nonlinear distortions (less than 0.5 %) was observed at the conditions of a maximum gain. Proposed theoretical model is in a good agreement with the experimental data

  11. The Influence of the Sustainable Seafood Movement in the US and UK Capture Fisheries Supply Chain and Fisheries Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis eGutierrez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, a diverse coalition of actors has come together to develop and promote sustainability initiatives ranging from seafood eco-labels, seafood guides, traceability schemes, and sourcing policies in Western seafood supply chains. Based on a literature review, we trace the development of the Sustainable Seafood Movement, which has been working to reform sustainability practices in the seafood supply chain. Focusing on the US and the UK capture fisheries, we explore the roles of key actors and analyze the dynamics within and between actor groups through a conceptual model derived from semi-structured interviews. We argue that the Sustainable Seafood Movement is different from previous social movements in that, in addition to actors advocating for government reform, it has motivated supply chain actors to participate in non-state market driven governance regime. The movement and its actors have leveraged their legitimacy and authority garnered within the supply chain to increase their legitimacy and authority in public governance processes. As the movement continues to evolve, it will need to address several emerging issues to maintain its position of legitimacy and authority in both the supply chain and public governance processes.

  12. Integrability and soliton solutions for an inhomogeneous generalized fourth-order nonlinear Schrödinger equation describing the inhomogeneous alpha helical proteins and Heisenberg ferromagnetic spin chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For describing the dynamics of alpha helical proteins with internal molecular excitations, nonlinear couplings between lattice vibrations and molecular excitations, and spin excitations in one-dimensional isotropic biquadratic Heisenberg ferromagnetic spin with the octupole–dipole interactions, we consider an inhomogeneous generalized fourth-order nonlinear Schrödinger equation. Based on the Ablowitz–Kaup–Newell–Segur system, infinitely many conservation laws for the equation are derived. Through the auxiliary function, bilinear forms and N-soliton solutions for the equation are obtained. Interactions of solitons are discussed by means of the asymptotic analysis. Effects of linear inhomogeneity on the interactions of solitons are also investigated graphically and analytically. Since the inhomogeneous coefficient of the equation h=α x+β, the soliton takes on the parabolic profile during the evolution. Soliton velocity is related to the parameter α, distance scale coefficient and biquadratic exchange coefficient, but has no relation with the parameter β. Soliton amplitude and width are only related to α. Soliton position is related to β

  13. Length of hydrocarbon chain influences location of curcumin in liposomes: Curcumin as a molecular probe to study ethanol induced interdigitation of liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Khoury, Elsy; Patra, Digambara

    2016-05-01

    Using fluorescence quenching of curcumin in 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) and 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) liposomes by brominated derivatives of fatty acids, the location of curcumin has been studied, which indicates length of hydrocarbon chain has an effect on the location of curcumin in liposomes. Change of fluorescence intensity of curcumin with temperature in the presence of liposomes helps to estimate the phase transition temperature of these liposomes, thus, influence of cholesterol on liposome properties has been studied using curcumin as a molecule probe. The cooperativity due to the interactions between the hydrocarbon chains during melting accelerates the phase transition of DPPC liposomes in the presence of high percentage of cholesterol whereas high percentage of cholesterol generates a rather rigid DMPC liposome over a wide range of temperatures. We used ethanol to induce interdigitation between the hydrophobic chains of the lipids and studied this effect using curcumin as fluorescence probe. As a result of interdigitation, curcumin fluorescence is quenched in liposomes. The compact arrangement of the acyl chains prevents curcumin from penetrating deep near the midplane. In the liquid crystalline phase ethanol introduces a kind of order to the more fluid liposome, and does not leave space for curcumin to be inserted away from water. PMID:26945646

  14. Mesomorphism and Optical Properties of Peripherally Substituted Phthalocyanines: Influence of Chain Length, Linking Group and Central Metal Ion

    OpenAIRE

    Sleven, Jurgen

    2002-01-01

    Phthalocyanines form a colourful class of macrocyclic compounds, attracting the attention of many scientists. Some of these compounds – especially the metal containing phthalocyanines – play an important role in industrial activity and in society. Applications for phthalocyanines are found in the fields of non-linear optics, catalysis, electronic (bio)sensors, photovoltaic solar cells, optical data storage, lubricants, photo- and radiosensitizers for treatment of cancer, protein inhibitors … ...

  15. Influence of position-dependent effective mass on the nonlinear optical properties of impurity doped quantum dots in presence of Gaussian white noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratim Ghosh, Arghya; Mandal, Arkajit; Sarkar, Sucharita; Ghosh, Manas

    2016-05-01

    We examine the influence of position-dependent effective mass (PDEM) on a few nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of impurity doped quantum dots (QDs) in presence and absence of noise. The said properties include total optical absorption coefficient (TOAC), nonlinear optical rectification (NOR), second harmonic generation (SHG) and third harmonic generation (THG). The impurity potential is modeled by a Gaussian function and the noise applied being Gaussian white noise. The profiles of above NLO properties have been pursued as a function of incident photon energy for different values of PDEM. Using PDEM the said profiles exhibit considerable departure from that of fixed effective mass (FEM). Presence of noise almost invariably amplifies the NLO properties with a few exceptions. A change in the mode of application of noise also sometimes affects the above profiles. The investigation furnishes us with a detailed picture of the subtle interplay between noise and PDEM through which the said NLO properties of doped QD systems can be tailored.

  16. Influence of the nonlinear phase and ASE noise on DPSK balanced optical receiver in optical fiber communication system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李蔚; 梅君瑶; 韩庆生; 王腾

    2009-01-01

    The analytical expression of bit error probability in a balanced differential phase-shift keying(DPSK) optical receiver considering nonlinear phase noise and EDFA ASE noise is given,which is very useful to estimate the performance of DPSK balanced and unbalanced receiver in optical communication system.Through analysis,if only nonlinear phase noise is considered,both the balance and unbalanced receivers have the same performances.But if adding the ASE noise of EDFA,the balanced receiver is better.

  17. The Influence of Nonlinearity, Noise and Extinction Ratio on the Cascading Properties of 2R-Regenerators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Öhman, Filip; Mørk, Jesper

    2005-01-01

    We have derived an expression for the BER of a cascade of 2R-regenerators including the effects of nonlinearity, noise and extinction-ratio. The best choice of threshold and the interplay bet1-55752-770-9ween device parameters are investigated.......We have derived an expression for the BER of a cascade of 2R-regenerators including the effects of nonlinearity, noise and extinction-ratio. The best choice of threshold and the interplay bet1-55752-770-9ween device parameters are investigated....

  18. Influence of chain length and polymer concentration on the gelation of (amidated) low-methoxyl pectin induced by calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capel, François; Nicolai, Taco; Durand, Dominique; Boulenguer, Patrick; Langendorff, Virginie

    2005-01-01

    The gelation of low-methoxyl pectin (LMP) induced by addition of Ca2+ was studied by measuring the storage modulus as a function of temperature during cooling. Samples with different molar masses were prepared by mechanical degradation. The effect of the molar mass and the pectin concentration on the gelation properties was investigated. The effect of partial amidation was studied by comparing LMP and partially amidated LMP with the same molar mass and degree of methylation. The results are compared to those from a model developed for Ca2+-induced pectin gelation, and good agreement is found except at low concentrations and low molar masses where the gels are weaker than predicted. At low concentrations intrachain bonding weakens the gel, while the presence of small pectin chains weakens the gel because it neutralizes binding sites on larger chains. PMID:16283714

  19. DETERMINATION OF THE FOREST ROAD NETWORK INFLUENCE ON THE SUPPLY CHAIN FOR FIREWOOD PRODUCTION BY DISCRETE EVENT SIMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Cavalli

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study a Discrete-event simulation (D-es has been developed to analyze the wood supply chain for firewood production in a mountain area in North-eastern Italy. The D-es is applied in the modeling of extraction (Full Tree System, processing of roundwood into wood assortments (cross-cut and sorting, offroad and on-road transport. In order to estimate the productivity functions and parameters, field studies were conducted to gather data about the different operations linked in the model. Also a GIS network analysis was developed to integrate the spatial information onthe covered distance to the D-es model for each of the supposed Scenarios. The results indicats that an increment of 5 m ha-1 of the forest road network could significantly increase the productivity of the wood supply chain up to 2%.

  20. Thermal nucleation of kink-antikink pairs in a deformable chain: Influence of the non-Gaussian correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal nucleation of kink-antikink pairs in a nonlinear Klein- Gordon model with Remoissenet-Peyrard substrate potential coupled to an applied field is analyzed in the limits of moderate temperature and strong damping. We derive analytically the non- Gaussian correction to the nucleation rate formula of kink- antikink pairs previously calculated by Yemele and Kofane and show that the correction factor depends on the intensity of the applied field, the temperature of the system and the shape of the substrate potential. (author)

  1. The Factors Influencing the Development of Radio Frequency Identification Technology in E-Supply Chain Management (Case study: Iran Khodro Industrial Group (IKCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Sanayei

    2011-07-01

    The application of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID for the purpose of tracking each single part in the automotive supply chain management has become very crucial in recent years. In this study, the factors influencing the development of RFID in Iran Khodro Industrial Group as well as their weight and ranking are evaluated. It is notewothy that the Lin framework factors have been used as the basis of this research. The Fuzzy Delphi, Delphi, and Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP methods were applied for the research three stages. In the first stage, three of the Lin framework factors were rejected and replaced with seven more new factors. In the second stage, after three times performance of Delphi method, the dimension of each of the new seven factors was recognized, and finally in the third stage, the weight and ranking of factors and dimensions which influence the RFID development in supply chain management in our case study, Iran Khodro Company, was calculated. The results of the research have shown that the International Standard and Specification dimension has the highest weight among other influential dimensions. Also, the dimensions of Security, Cost, Infrastructure, Technology, and other factors have respectively the next highest weight after the International Standard and Specification dimension

  2. The Factors Influencing the Development of Radio Frequency Identification Technology in E-Supply Chain Management (Case study: Iran Khodro Industrial Group (IKCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sanayei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID for the purpose of tracking each single part in the automotive supply chain management has become very crucial in recent years. In this study, the factors influencing the development of RFID in Iran Khodro Industrial Group as well as their weight and ranking are evaluated. It is notewothy that the Lin framework factors have been used as the basis of this research. The Fuzzy Delphi, Delphi, and Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP methods were applied for the research three stages. In the first stage, three of the Lin framework factors were rejected and replaced with seven more new factors. In the second stage, after three times performance of Delphi method, the dimension of each of the new seven factors was recognized, and finally in the third stage, the weight and ranking of factors and dimensions which influence the RFID development in supply chain management in our case study, Iran Khodro Company, was calculated. The results of the research have shown that the International Standard and Specification dimension has the highest weight among other influential dimensions. Also, the dimensions of Security, Cost, Infrastructure, Technology, and other factors have respectively the next highest weight after the International Standard and Specification dimension.

  3. Subcritical localization in the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation with arbitrary power nonlinearity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, O.; Juul Rasmussen, J.; Christiansen, P.L.

    1994-01-01

    Discretizing the continuous nonlinear Schrodinger equation with arbitrary power nonlinearity influences the time evolution of its ground state solitary solution. In the subcritical case, for grid resolutions above a certain transition value, depending on the degree of nonlinearity, the solution...

  4. Influence of chain microstructure on thermodegradative behavior of furfuryl methacrylate-N-vinylpyrrolidone random copolymers by thermogravimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peniche, C.; Zaldivar, D. (Univ. de la Habana, Havana (Cuba). Centro de Biomateriales); Bulay, A. (Plastmassi, Moscow (Russian Federation)); Roman, J.S. (CSIC, Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Polimeros)

    1993-12-20

    The thermal behavior of random copolymers of furfuryl methacrylate (F) and N-vinyl-pyrrolidone (P) was studied by means of dynamic thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) in the range 100--600 C. The dynamic experiments show that these copolymers exhibit two degradation steps in the intervals 260--320 C and 350--520 C, respectively. The normalized weight loss in the low temperature interval increases as the mole fraction of F in the copolymer m[sub F] increases, whereas an inverted trend in the high temperature interval is observed. The apparent activation energy E[sub a] of the first degradation step for copolymers prepared with different composition, was obtained according to the treatment suggested by Broido. A plot of the values of E[sub a] versus the F dead molar fraction in the copolymer chains m[sub FF] gave a straight line that indicates that there is a direct relationship between the thermogravimetric behavior of these systems and their corresponding microstructure, that is, the distribution of comonomeric units along the copolymers chains. The first decomposition step was also studied by isothermal TGA and a good linearity for the variation of the weight loss percentage [Delta]W versus m[sub F] at least during the first 30 min of treatment was obtained.

  5. Influence of nanoscale temperature rises on photoacoustic generation: discrimination between optical absorbers based on nonlinear photoacoustics at high frequency

    CERN Document Server

    Simandoux, Oliver; Gâteau, Jérôme; Bossy, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    In the thermoelastic regime, photoacoustic sensing of optical absorption relies on conversion from light to acoustic energy via the coefficient of thermal expansion \\beta. In this work, we confront confront experimental measurements to theoretical predictions of nonlinear photoacoustic generation based on the dynamic variation of \\beta(T) during the optical excitation of absorbers in aqueous solution. The photoacoustic generation from solutions of organic dye and gold nanospheres (with same optical densities), illuminated with 532 nm nanosecond pulses, was detected using a high frequency ultrasound transducer (center frequency 20 MHz). Photoacoustic emission was observed with gold nanospheres at low fluence (a few mJ/cm2) for an equilibrium temperature around 4{\\deg}C, where the linear photoacoustic effect in water vanishes, highlighting the nonlinear emission from the solution of nanospheres. Under the same condition, no emission was observed with the absorbing organic dye. At a fixed fluence of 5 mJ/cm2, th...

  6. Influence of Ion Nonlinear Polarization Drift and Warm Ions on Solitary Kinetic Alfvén Wave

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Su-Ping; LI Zhong-Yuan

    2003-01-01

    Considering the effects of ion nonlinear polarization drift and warm ions, we adopt two-fluid model to results derived in this paper indicate that dip SKAW and hump SKAW both exist in a wide range in magnetosphere(for the pressure parameter β ~ 10-5 ~ 0.01, where βis the ratio of thermal pressure to magnetic pressure, i.e.region 1 > β > me/mi. These results are different from previous ones. That indicates that the effects of ion nonlinear polarization drift and warm ions are important and they cannot be neglected. The SKAW has an electric field parallel to the ambient magnetic field, which makes the SKAW take an important role in the acceleration and energization of field-aligned charged particles in magnetic plasmas. And the SKAW is also important for the heating of a local plasma.So it makes a novel physical mechanism of energy transmission possible.

  7. To influence of gear backlash and damping in tooth space on dynamics of nonlinear parametric systems with kinematic couplings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hortel, Milan; Škuderová, Alena

    Praha : Ústav termomechaniky AV ČR, 2004 - (Zolotarev, I.; Poživilová, A.), s. 111-112 ISBN 80-85918-88-9. [Engineering mechanics 2004. Svratka (CZ), 10.05.2004-13.05.2004] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS2076353 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2076919 Keywords : nonlinear dynamics * parametric vibration * gear ing Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics

  8. Influence of motion coupling and nonlinear effects on parametric roll for a floating production storage and offloading platform

    OpenAIRE

    Greco, M.; C. Lugni; Faltinsen, O. M.

    2015-01-01

    Occurrence and features of parametric roll (PR) on a weather-vaning floating production storage and offloading (FPSO) platform with a turret single-point mooring-line system are examined. The main focus is on the relevance of motions coupling and nonlinear effects on this phenomenon and on more general unstable conditions as well as on the occurrence and severity of water on deck. This work was motivated by recent experiments on an FPSO model without mooring systems highlighting the occurrenc...

  9. Nonlinear excitation of lo calized plasmon in one-dimensional atomic chain%一维原子链局域等离激元的非线性激发∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹海峰; 毛力

    2016-01-01

    本文基于含时密度泛函理论,研究了不同频率光脉冲场作用下一维钠原子链中电子的输运与等离激元共振之间的耦合规律.在等离激元共振点附近约0.8 eV频率范围内的光脉冲场,都可以激发体系的等离激元共振.这些不同频率外场激发的等离激元共振强度大小在一个数量级.外场频率越接近等离激元共振频率,外场激起的等离激元振动的振幅越大.对于线性原子链等离激元的非线性激发现象,本文用经典谐振子模型给出了定性解释.%At different frequencies of light pulse field, the coupling between plasmon resonance and electron transport of one-dimensional sodium atomic chain is investigated by using time-dependent density functional theory. Light pulse field, whose frequency is in about 0.8 eV range around the plasmon resonance point, can stimulate plasmon resonance of the system. Plasmon resonance intensity magnitude which is stimulated by these different frequency light pulse fields are in the same order of magnitude. The more closely the external field frequency approaches to plasmon resonance frequency, the larger plasmon resonance amplitude stimulated by the external field fields will be. With regard to the nonlinear excitation phenomenon of linear atomic chain plasmon, using a classical harmonic oscillator model, we gives a qualitative explanation.

  10. Influence of applied electric fields on the electron-related second and third-order nonlinear optical responses in two dimensional elliptic quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo-Tobón, Eugenio; Ospina, Walter; Miranda-Pedraza, Guillermo L.; Mora-Ramos, Miguel E.

    2015-07-01

    The coefficients of the second-order nonlinear optical rectification and the generation of second and third harmonics, related to electron energy transitions in a two-dimensional elliptical quantum dot are calculated. The conduction band states are obtained using the finite element method to numerically solve the effective mass Schrödinger differential equation in the parabolic approximation, including the influence of an externally applied static electric field. It comes about that the geometry of the ellipse has a strong influence on the optical response, being the large eccentricity case the more favorable one. Furthermore, it is shown that the application of an electric field is of most importance for achieving well-resolved higher harmonics signals.

  11. Nonlinear Dynamic Force Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Björnham, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic force spectroscopy (DFS) is an experimental technique that is commonly used to assess information of the strength, energy landscape, and lifetime of noncovalent bio-molecular interactions. DFS traditionally requires an applied force that increases linearly with time so that the bio-complex under investigation is exposed to a constant loading rate. However, tethers or polymers can modulate the applied force in a nonlinear regime. For example, bacterial adhesion pili and polymers with worm-like chain properties are examples of structures that show nonlinear force responses. In these situations, the theory for traditional DFS cannot be readily applied. In this work we expand the theory for DFS to also include nonlinear external forces while still maintaining compatibility with the linear DFS theory. To validate the theory we modeled a bio-complex expressed on a stiff, an elastic and a worm-like chain polymer, using Monte Carlo methods, and assessed the corresponding rupture force spectra. It was found th...

  12. Anthocyanins do not influence long-chain n-3 fatty acid status: studies in cells, rodents and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vauzour, David; Tejera, Noemi; O'Neill, Colette; Booz, Valeria; Jude, Baptiste; Wolf, Insa M A; Rigby, Neil; Silvan, Jose Manuel; Curtis, Peter J; Cassidy, Aedin; de Pascual-Teresa, Sonia; Rimbach, Gerald; Minihane, Anne Marie

    2015-03-01

    Increased tissue status of the long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is associated with cardiovascular and cognitive benefits. Limited epidemiological and animal data suggest that flavonoids, and specifically anthocyanins, may increase EPA and DHA levels, potentially by increasing their synthesis from the shorter-chain n-3 PUFA, α-linolenic acid. Using complimentary cell, rodent and human studies we investigated the impact of anthocyanins and anthocyanin-rich foods/extracts on plasma and tissue EPA and DHA levels and on the expression of fatty acid desaturase 2 (FADS2), which represents the rate limiting enzymes in EPA and DHA synthesis. In experiment 1, rats were fed a standard diet containing either palm oil or rapeseed oil supplemented with pure anthocyanins for 8 weeks. Retrospective fatty acid analysis was conducted on plasma samples collected from a human randomized controlled trial where participants consumed an elderberry extract for 12 weeks (experiment 2). HepG2 cells were cultured with α-linolenic acid with or without select anthocyanins and their in vivo metabolites for 24 h and 48 h (experiment 3). The fatty acid composition of the cell membranes, plasma and liver tissues were analyzed by gas chromatography. Anthocyanins and anthocyanin-rich food intake had no significant impact on EPA or DHA status or FADS2 gene expression in any model system. These data indicate little impact of dietary anthocyanins on n-3 PUFA distribution and suggest that the increasingly recognized benefits of anthocyanins are unlikely to be the result of a beneficial impact on tissue fatty acid status. PMID:25573539

  13. Influence of alkyl chain length and temperature on thermophysical properties of ammonium-based ionic liquids with molecular solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, T; Attri, Pankaj; Venkatesu, Pannuru; Devi, R S Rama; Hofman, T

    2012-04-19

    Mixing of ionic liquids (ILs) with molecular solvent can expand the range of structural properties and the scope of molecular interactions between the molecules of the solvents. Exploiting of these phenomena essentially require a basic fundamental understanding of mixing behavior of ILs with molecular solvents. In this context, a series of protic ILs possessing tetra-alkyl ammonium cation [R(4)N](+) with commonly used anion hydroxide [OH](-) were synthesized and characterized by temperature dependent thermophysical properties. The ILs [R(4)N](+)[OH](-) are varying only in the length of alkyl chain (R is methyl, ethyl, propyl, or butyl) of tetra-alkyl ammonium on the cationic part. The ILs used for the present study included tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide [(CH(3))(4)N](+)[OH](-) (TMAH), tetraethyl ammonium hydroxide [(C(2)H(5))(4)N](+)[OH](-) (TEAH), tetrapropyl ammonium hydroxide [(C(3)H(7))(4)N](+)[OH](-) (TPAH) and tetrabutyl ammonium hydroxide [(C(4)H(9))(4)N](+)[OH](-) (TBAH). The alkyl chain length effect has been analyzed by precise measurements such as densities (ρ), ultrasonic sound velocity (u), and viscosity (η) of these ILs with polar solvent, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP), over the full composition range as a function of temperature. The excess molar volume (V(E)), the deviation in isentropic compressibility (Δκ(s)) and deviation in viscosity (Δη) were predicted using these properties as a function of the concentration of ILs. Redlich-Kister polynomial was used to correlate the results. A qualitative analysis of the results is discussed in terms of the ion-dipole, ion-pair interactions, and hydrogen bonding between ILs and NMP molecules. Later, the hydrogen bonding features between ILs and NMP were also analyzed using a molecular modeling program with the help of HyperChem 7. PMID:22443087

  14. Investigation Of The Influence Of Integrated Dispersed Energy Resources And Non-Linear Loads On The Digital Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of the investigation concerning the behavior of digital protection devices implemented in a power system that contains dispersed energy resources such as wind power plants, fuel cells and photovoltaic; and non-linear loads. The study combines basic knowledge from the fields of power quality and protection technique. The goal is to test and analyse the impact of the new electrical environment on the different types of protection algorithms that can be implemented in the protection devices. A comparison of the different protection algorithms concerning their output results is presented. (Author)

  15. Influence of an n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid-enriched diet on experimentally induced synovitis in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Jones, T N; McIlwraith, C W; Kisiday, J D; Hess, T M; Hansen, D K; Black, J

    2016-06-01

    Dietary n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) supplementation has previously been shown to modify joint-related inflammation in several species, although information in the horse is lacking. We investigated whether dietary supplementation with n-3 LCPUFA would modify experimentally induced synovitis in horses. Twelve, skeletally mature, non-pregnant mares were randomly assigned to either a control diet (CONT) or an n-3 long-chain fatty acid-enriched treatment diet (N3FA) containing 40 g/day of n-3 LCPUFA for 91 days. Blood samples taken on days 0, 30, 60 and 90, and synovial fluid collected on days 0 and 90 were processed for lipid composition. On day 91, joint inflammation was stimulated using an intra-articular (IA) injection of 100 ng of recombinant equine IL-1beta (reIL-1β). Synovial fluid samples taken at post-injection hours (PIH) 0, 4, 8 and 24 were analysed for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity and routine cytology. Synovium and articular cartilage samples collected at PIH 8 were analysed for gene expression of MMP 1 and MMP 13, interleukin-1beta (IL-1β), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), tumour necrosis factor-alpha and the aggrecanases, a disintegrin and metalloprotease with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTS)-4 and ADAMTS-5. A 90-day feeding period of n-3 LCPUFA increased serum phospholipid and synovial fluid lipid compositions of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) compared to CONT horses. The reIL-1β injection caused an inflammatory response; however, there was no effect of dietary treatment on synovial fluid PGE2 content and MMP activity. Synovial tissue collected from N3FA horses exhibited lower expression of ADAMTS-4 compared to CONT horses. Despite the presence of EPA and DHA in the synovial fluid of N3FA horses, dietary n-3 LCPUFA supplementation did not modify synovial fluid biomarkers compared to CONT horses; however, the lower ADAMTS-4 mRNA expression in N3FA synovium warrants further

  16. A study on important factors influencing customers’ impulsive buying behavior: A case study of Shahrvand food chain

    OpenAIRE

    Hamed Asgari; Bahram Azizi; Naser Azad; Hamid Bagheri

    2013-01-01

    Customer purchasing behavior plays an essential role on marketing planning in today’s competitive environment. Immediate purchasing behavior is one of the most important components of purchasing behavior. In this paper, we use factor analysis to extract important factors influencing immediate purchasing behavior.The proposed study of this paper designs a questionnaire including 35 questions and through basic investigation, the questions are reduced to 21 ones. The questionnaire is distributed...

  17. Coupled influence of noise and damped propagation of impurity on linear and nonlinear polarizabilities of doped quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Linear and nonlinear polarizabilities of quantum dot are studied. • Quantum dot is doped with a repulsive impurity. • Doped system is subject to Gaussian white noise. • Dopant migrates under damped condition. • Noise-damping coupling affects polarizabilities. - Abstract: We investigate the profiles of diagonal components of static and frequency-dependent linear, first, and second nonlinear polarizabilities of repulsive impurity doped quantum dot. We have considered propagation of dopant within an environment that damps the motion. Simultaneous presence of noise inherent to the system has also been considered. The dopant has a Gaussian potential and noise considered is a Gaussian white noise. The doped system is exposed to an external electric field which could be static or time-dependent. Noise undergoes direct coupling with damping and the noise-damping coupling strength appears to be a crucial parameter that designs the profiles of polarizability components. This happens because the coupling strength modulates the dispersive and asymmetric character of the system. The frequency of external field brings about additional features in the profiles of polarizability components. The present investigation highlights some useful features in the optical properties of doped quantum dots

  18. The influence of alternative pathways of respiration that utilize branched-chain amino acids following water shortage in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Marcel V; Pereira Júnior, Adilson A; Medeiros, David B; Daloso, Danilo M; Pham, Phuong Anh; Barros, Kallyne A; Engqvist, Martin K M; Florian, Alexandra; Krahnert, Ina; Maurino, Veronica G; Araújo, Wagner L; Fernie, Alisdair R

    2016-06-01

    During dark-induced senescence isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase (IVDH) and D-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase (D-2HGDH) act as alternate electron donors to the ubiquinol pool via the electron-transfer flavoprotein/electron-transfer flavoprotein:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ETF/ETFQO) pathway. However, the role of this pathway in response to other stresses still remains unclear. Here, we demonstrated that this alternative pathway is associated with tolerance to drought in Arabidopsis. In comparison with wild type (WT) and lines overexpressing D-2GHDH, loss-of-function etfqo-1, d2hgdh-2 and ivdh-1 mutants displayed compromised respiration rates and were more sensitive to drought. Our results demonstrated that an operational ETF/ETFQO pathway is associated with plants' ability to withstand drought and to recover growth once water becomes replete. Drought-induced metabolic reprogramming resulted in an increase in tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates and total amino acid levels, as well as decreases in protein, starch and nitrate contents. The enhanced levels of the branched-chain amino acids in loss-of-function mutants appear to be related to their increased utilization as substrates for the TCA cycle under water stress. Our results thus show that mitochondrial metabolism is highly active during drought stress responses and provide support for a role of alternative respiratory pathways within this response. PMID:26616144

  19. Reversible and Irreversible Aggregation of Proteins from the FET Family: Influence of Repeats in Protein Chain on Its Aggregation Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galzitskaya, Oxana V

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of protein chain regions responsible for protein aggregation is an important result of studying of the molecular mechanisms of prion diseases and different proteinopathies associated with the formation of pathological aggregations through the prion mechanism. The ability to control aggregation of proteins could be an important tool in the arsenal of the drug development. Here we demonstrate, on an example of RNA-binding proteins of the FET family from six animal species (human, gorilla, pig, mouse, chicken, zebra fish), the possible role of repeats within the disordered regions. For these proteins, different repeats are revealed in the prion-like (N-terminal disordered) domains, and in the C-terminal disordered regions, predicted using bioinformatics methods. Moreover, we have found that in more complex organisms the number of repeats is increased. It can be hypothesized that the presence of a large number of repeats in the disordered regions in the proteins of the FET-family could both modulate and accelerate the formation of a dynamic cross-beta structure, and pathological aggregates. PMID:26100283

  20. Influences of bracket bonding on mutans streptococcus in plaque detected by real time fluorescence-quantitative polymerase chain reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AI Hong; LU Hong-fei; LIANG Huan-you; WU Jian; LI Ruo-lan; LIU Guo-ping; XI Yun

    2005-01-01

    Background Enamel demineralization occurs frequently during orthodontic treatment. In this study, we evaluated the changes of the density of mutans streptococcus (MS) in plaque after bracket bonding and using fluoride adhesive on maxillary incisors by real time fluorescence-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-FQ PCR).Methods The study was designed as a self-paired test. Brackets were bonded with fluoride adhesive on the left side, while non-fluoride adhesive on the right side for each patient. Plaque samples were taken from the surfaces around the brackets of four maxillary incisors before brackets bonding and after the bonding 4 weeks later. The amount of MS was measured by RT-FQ PCR. The data obtained were analyzed statistically using the SPSS 11.5 version and the alpha level was set at 0.05 (2-tailed).Results The amount of MS in plaque increased significantly after bracket bonding (P0.05), and among the incisors using and not using fluoride adhesive (P>0.05).Conclusions The increase of the density of MS in plaque after bracket bonding is one of the etiological factors for enamel demineralization in orthodontic patients. The result of this study did not support what we observed clinically that the incidence of enamel demineralization for lateral incisors was higher than that for central incisors. Using fluoride adhesive for bonding did not affect the amount of MS in plaque in our study. Further study is needed.

  1. Glucosinolates in Brassica vegetables: the influence of the food supply chain on intake, bioavailability and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkerk, Ruud; Schreiner, Monika; Krumbein, Angelika; Ciska, Ewa; Holst, Birgit; Rowland, Ian; De Schrijver, Remi; Hansen, Magnor; Gerhäuser, Clarissa; Mithen, Richard; Dekker, Matthijs

    2009-09-01

    Glucosinolates (GLSs) are found in Brassica vegetables. Examples of these sources include cabbage, Brussels sprouts, broccoli, cauliflower and various root vegetables (e.g. radish and turnip). A number of epidemiological studies have identified an inverse association between consumption of these vegetables and the risk of colon and rectal cancer. Animal studies have shown changes in enzyme activities and DNA damage resulting from consumption of Brassica vegetables or isothiocyanates, the breakdown products (BDP) of GLSs in the body. Mechanistic studies have begun to identify the ways in which the compounds may exert their protective action but the relevance of these studies to protective effects in the human alimentary tract is as yet unproven. In vitro studies with a number of specific isothiocyanates have suggested mechanisms that might be the basis of their chemoprotective effects. The concentration and composition of the GLSs in different plants, but also within a plant (e.g. in the seeds, roots or leaves), can vary greatly and also changes during plant development. Furthermore, the effects of various factors in the supply chain of Brassica vegetables including breeding, cultivation, storage and processing on intake and bioavailability of GLSs are extensively discussed in this paper. PMID:19035553

  2. The influence of myosin heavy chain isoform content on mechanical behavior of the vastus lateralis in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Michael A; Herda, Trent J; Fry, Andrew C; Gallagher, Philip M; Vardiman, John P; Mosier, Eric M; Miller, Jonathan D

    2016-06-01

    This study examined correlations between type I percent myosin heavy chain isoform content (%MHC) and mechanomyographic amplitude (MMGRMS) during isometric muscle actions. Fifteen (age=21.63±2.39) participants performed 40% and 70% maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) of the leg extensors that included increasing, steady force, and decreasing segments. Muscle biopsies were collected and MMG was recorded from the vastus lateralis. Linear regressions were fit to the natural-log transformed MMGRMS-force relationships (increasing and decreasing segments) and MMGRMS was selected at the targeted force level during the steady force segment. Correlations were calculated among type I%MHC and the b (slopes) terms from the MMGRMS-force relationships and MMGRMS at the targeted force. For the 40% MVC, correlations were significant (P<0.02) between type I%MHC and the b terms from the increasing (r=-0.804) and decreasing (r=-0.568) segments, and MMGRMS from the steady force segment (r=-0.606). Type I%MHC was only correlated with MMGRMS during the steady force segment (P=0.044, r=-0.525) during the 70% MVC. Higher type I%MHC reduced acceleration in MMGRMS (b terms) during the 40% MVC and the amplitude during the steady force segments. The surface MMG signal recorded during a moderate intensity contraction provided insight on the contractile properties of the VL in vivo. PMID:27152756

  3. The influence of novel gemini surfactants containing cycloalkyl side-chains on the structural phases of DNA in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietralik, Zuzanna; Kumita, Janet R; Dobson, Christopher M; Kozak, Maciej

    2015-07-01

    Very important to gene therapy is the delivery system of the nucleic acids (called a vector), which will enhance the efficiency of the transport of new DNA into cells whilst protecting against damage. A promising alternative to the currently used viral vectors are the systems based on amphiphilic compounds - lipoplexes. Among them, gemini surfactants, which consist of two hydrophobic chains and two cationic heads connected by a linker - spacer group, appear to be promising candidates. The subject of this study involves two gemini surfactants, alkoxy derivatives of bis-imidazolium quaternary salts, differing in the length of their spacer groups and how they interact with two types of salmon sperm DNA (low and high molecular weight (MW)) or plasmid DNA (pDNA). The mixtures of gemini surfactants with nucleic acids of differing p/n ratios (positive-to-negative charge ratio) were characterised by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) of synchrotron radiation, dynamic light scattering (DLS), circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and gel electrophoresis techniques. This analysis allows for the selection of the most suitable and promising candidates for non-viral vectors in gene therapy, determination of the conditions needed to form stable complexes, identification of conformational changes in the DNA molecules upon interactions with gemini surfactants and in some cases, determination of the structures formed in these lipoplexes. PMID:25969417

  4. AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF THE INFLUENCE OF RISK FACTORS ON THE FREQUENCY AND IMPACT OF SEVERE EVENTS ON THE SUPPLY CHAIN IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Caridad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper is focused on an analysis and evaluation of severe events according to their frequency of occurrence and their impact on the company's manufacturing and distribution supply chains performance in the Czech Republic. Risk factors are introduced for critical events.Design/methodology: An identification and classification of severe events are realized on the basis of median mapping and mapping of ordinal variability acquired through the questionnaire survey of 82 companies. Analysis of 46 risk factors was sorted into 5 groups. We used asymmetric Somers's d statistics for testing the dependence of frequency and impact of a severe event on selected risk sources. The hierarchical cluster analysis is performed to identify relatively homogeneous groups of critical severe events according to their dependency on risk factors and its strength.Findings: Results showed that ‘a lack of contracts’ is considered to be the most critical severe event. Groups of demand and supply side and an external risk factor group were identified to be the most significant sources of risk factors. The worst cluster encompasses 11% of examined risk factors which should be prevented. We concluded that organizations need to adopt appropriate precautions and risk management methods in logistics.Originality: In this paper, the methodology for severe events evaluation in supply chain is designed. This methodology involves assessing the critical factors which influence the critical events and which should be prevented.

  5. Nonlinear Waves in Complex Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    The study of nonlinear waves has exploded due to the combination of analysis and computations, since the discovery of the famous recurrence phenomenon on a chain of nonlinearly coupled oscillators by Fermi-Pasta-Ulam fifty years ago. More than the discovery of new integrable equations, it is the ......The study of nonlinear waves has exploded due to the combination of analysis and computations, since the discovery of the famous recurrence phenomenon on a chain of nonlinearly coupled oscillators by Fermi-Pasta-Ulam fifty years ago. More than the discovery of new integrable equations......, it is the universality and robustness of the main models with respect to perturbations that developped the field. This is true for both continuous and discrete equations. In this volume we keep this broad view and draw new perspectives for nonlinear waves in complex systems. In particular we address energy flow...

  6. Influence of the ester chain length on the mesogenic behavior and optical anisotropy of 4-[[4-(butoxy)phenyl]diazenyl]phenyl alkanoates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niezgoda, Izabela; Szypszak, Ewelina; Dardas, Dorota; Galewski, Zbigniew

    2016-04-01

    In this manuscript, we report synthesis and physico-chemical characterization of 4-[[4-(butoxy)phenyl]diazenyl]phenyl alkanoates homologous series. For the first time, nineteen derivatives are described here. The enantiotropic nematic phase is typically observed among all members of this series. However, in the case of 4-[[4-(butoxy)phenyl]diazenyl]phenyl stearate, the nematic phase shows a monotropic character. In addition to liquid-crystalline polymorphism, a second crystalline form was observed in some homologs. Furthermore, using a photoelastic modulator, the optical anisotropy in the nematic phase was determined in the first nine compounds of this series. Temperature dependence of optical anisotropy at significantly lower values of reduced temperature is relatively weak. In contrast, optical anisotropy shows a strong temperature effect near isotropization. Moreover, the influence of the ester chain elongation on liquid crystalline and optical properties was established.

  7. The influence of long chain polyunsaturate supplementation on docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid in baboon neonate central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkadi-Nagy Eszter A

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and arachidonic acid (ARA are major components of the cerebral cortex and visual system, where they play a critical role in neural development. We quantitatively mapped fatty acids in 26 regions of the four-week-old breastfed baboon CNS, and studied the influence of dietary DHA and ARA supplementation and prematurity on CNS DHA and ARA concentrations. Methods Baboons were randomized into a breastfed (B and four formula-fed groups: term, no DHA/ARA (T-; term, DHA/ARA supplemented (T+; preterm, no DHA/ARA (P-; preterm and DHA/ARA supplemented (P+. At four weeks adjusted age, brains were dissected and total fatty acids analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Results DHA and ARA are rich in many more structures than previously reported. They are most concentrated in structures local to the brain stem and diencephalon, particularly the basal ganglia, limbic regions, thalamus and midbrain, and comparatively lower in white matter. Dietary supplementation increased DHA in all structures but had little influence on ARA concentrations. Supplementation restored DHA concentrations to levels of breastfed neonates in all regions except the cerebral cortex and cerebellum. Prematurity per se did not exert a strong influence on DHA or ARA concentrations. Conclusion 1 DHA and ARA are found in high concentration throughout the primate CNS, particularly in gray matter such as basal ganglia; 2 DHA concentrations drop across most CNS structures in neonates consuming formulas with no DHA, but ARA levels are relatively immune to ARA in the diet; 3 supplementation of infant formula is effective at restoring DHA concentration in structures other than the cerebral cortex. These results will be useful as a guide to future investigations of CNS function in the absence of dietary DHA and ARA.

  8. The influence of environmental parameters on the catabolism of branched-chain amino acids by Staphylococcus xylosus and Staphylococcus carnosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Pelle Thonning; Stahnke, Louise Heller

    2004-01-01

    ionization detection (GC/FID). Main volatile catabolic products of leucine, isoleucine and valine were 3-methylbutanoic, 2-methylbutanoic and 2-methylpropanoic acids, respectively. The generation of branched flavour compounds was influenced significantly by most of the investigated environmental parameters....... The environmental conditions studied were temperature (12-28degreesC), NaCl concentration (4.0-12.0% (w/w)) acidity (pH 4.8-5.8) and addition of manganese (0-2.5mg Mn/kg). Flavour compounds were sampled by automatic static headspace collection and separated/quantified using gas chromatography/flame...

  9. Influence of fibrinogen β-chain gene variations on risk of myocardial infarction in a Chinese Han population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Xiang-feng; YU Hong-jiang; ZHOU Xiao-yang; WANG Lai-yuan; HUANG Jian-feng; GU Dong-feng

    2008-01-01

    Background Although the role of fibrinogen as a predictor of acute myocardial infarction(MI)has been well-established,the association of genetic polymorphisms in the fibrinogen gene with MI is still controversial.This study was conducted to elucidate the association between the genetic polymorphisms of the fibrinogen β-chain(FGB)gene and MI in Chinese Han population.Methods The occurrence of 3 common polymorphisms(i.e.-455G/A,R448K and 8558C/G)in a case-control study including 508 patients with MI and 503 healthy controls was investigated. Results Analyses of single polymorphisms showed that individuals carrying the rare alleles for the 3 polymorphisms were significantly associated with a decreased risk of MI.Logistic regression analysis indicated that R448K remained independently associated with MI after adjustment for environmental risk factors(adjusted odds ratio(OR)=0.71 for KK/RK versus RR.P=0.023).The three polymorphisms were found to be in strong linkage disequilibrium.Haplotype analyses showed that the A-K-G haplotype(-455A,448K,8558G)was associated with a protective effect against MI.Compared with the common haplotype G-R-C,the adjusted OR for A-K-G was 0.68(95% CI,0.51-0.90;P=0.006). Conclusion These data indicate that individuals carrying the FGB 448K allele may be protective against having MI in this population.

  10. Quantity and quality of food losses along the Swiss potato supply chain: Stepwise investigation and the influence of quality standards on losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willersinn, Christian; Mack, Gabriele; Mouron, Patrik; Keiser, Andreas; Siegrist, Michael

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents the results of a stepwise investigation of the quantity and quality of food losses along the Swiss potato supply chain. Quantitative data were collected from field trials, from structured interviews with wholesalers, processors and retailers, and from consumer surveys in combination with a 30-day diary study. The "Swiss trade customs for potatoes" pose the basis for the qualitative evaluation of losses. The influences of technological, institutional (business and economy; legislation and policy), and social drivers on the generation of fresh potato and processed potato products losses were assessed. Losses due to quality standards driven by food safety and consumer preferences for certain aesthetic standards have been evaluated too. Across the entire potato value chain, approximately 53-55% of the initial fresh potato production and 41-46% of the initial processing potato production are finally lost. Losses between organic and non-organic supply chains differ from 2% to 5%. From the total initial fresh potato production, 15-24% gets lost during agricultural production, a further 12-24% at wholesalers, 1-3% at retailers, and 15% at private households. In comparison, 5-11% of the initial production gets lost at wholesalers, a further 14-15% during processing, 0% at retailers, and 2% at private households. Losses during agricultural production do not vary much (13-25%) between fresh and processing potatoes. Approximately half of total potato losses occur because potatoes do not meet quality standards. 25-34% of these quality-driven losses are caused by food safety reasons, and the remainder are caused by consumer preferences or suitability for storage. In total, social drivers (e.g., consumer preferences, behavior, or socio-demographical factors) are responsible for two-thirds to three-fourths of all fresh potato losses and 40-45% of all processing potato losses. Technological drivers cause circa one-third of the total processing potato losses. The

  11. Influence of formic acid on electrical, linear and nonlinear optical properties of potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In present investigation 0.5 and 1 mol% formic acid (FA) added potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals have been grown by a slow evaporation technique. The cell parameters of the grown crystals were determined using single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The presence of different functional groups has been qualitatively analyzed by the FT-IR spectral analysis. The optical transparency and optical constants were assessed employing UV–visible studies in the range of 200–900 nm. The wide optical band gap of 1 mol% FA added KDP has been found to be 5 eV. The frequency dependent dielectric measurements were studied for pure and KDP added FA crystals. The enhanced second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency of grown crystals was determined by a classical Kurtz–Perry powder technique. The encouraging third order nonlinear properties were examined employing a Z-scan technique using He–Ne laser, at 632.8 nm. The effective negative index of refraction and high figure of merit (FOM) essential for laser stabilization were determined for grown crystals. - Highlights: • Study on electrical and optical properties of formic acid (FA) added KDP was reported for the first time. • Optical properties were found to be enhanced with increasing concentration of FA. • The SHG efficiency of 1 mol% FA added KDP was 1.13 times that of KDP. • The high concentration of FA contributed lower dielectric properties to KDP suitable for microelectronics applications. • The improved third order nonlinear parameters were ascertained with addition of FA in KDP crystal

  12. Influence of motion coupling and nonlinear effects on parametric roll for a floating production storage and offloading platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, M; Lugni, C; Faltinsen, O M

    2015-01-28

    Occurrence and features of parametric roll (PR) on a weather-vaning floating production storage and offloading (FPSO) platform with a turret single-point mooring-line system are examined. The main focus is on the relevance of motions coupling and nonlinear effects on this phenomenon and on more general unstable conditions as well as on the occurrence and severity of water on deck. This work was motivated by recent experiments on an FPSO model without mooring systems highlighting the occurrence of parametric resonance owing to roll-yaw coupling. A three-dimensional numerical hybrid potential-flow seakeeping solver was able to capture this behaviour. The same method, extended to include the mooring lines, is adopted here to investigate the platform behaviour for different incident wavelengths, steepnesses, headings, locations of the turret and pretensions. From the results, sway and yaw tend to destabilize the system, also bringing chaotic features. The sway-roll-yaw coupling widens the existence region of PR resonance and increases PR severity; it also results in a larger amount of shipped water, especially at smaller wavelength-to-ship length ratio and larger steepness. The chaotic features are excited when a sufficiently large yaw amplitude is reached. Consistently, a simplified stability analysis showed the relevance of nonlinear-restoring coefficients, first those connected with the sway-yaw coupling then those associated with the roll-yaw coupling, both destabilizing. From the stability analysis, the system is unstable for all longitudinal locations of the turret and pre-tensions examined, but the instability weakens as the turret is moved forward, and the pre-tension is increased. The use of a suitable dynamic-positioning system can control the horizontal motions, avoiding the instability. PMID:25512590

  13. Seasonal flows of international British Columbia-Alaska rivers: The nonlinear influence of ocean-atmosphere circulation patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, S. W.; Hood, E.; Dahlke, H. E.; O'Neel, S.

    2016-01-01

    The northern portion of the Pacific coastal temperate rainforest (PCTR) is one of the least anthropogenically modified regions on earth and remains in many respects a frontier area to science. Rivers crossing the northern PCTR, which is also an international boundary region between British Columbia, Canada and Alaska, USA, deliver large freshwater and biogeochemical fluxes to the Gulf of Alaska and establish linkages between coastal and continental ecosystems. We evaluate interannual flow variability in three transboundary PCTR watersheds in response to El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), Arctic Oscillation (AO), and North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO). Historical hydroclimatic datasets from both Canada and the USA are analyzed using an up-to-date methodological suite accommodating both seasonally transient and highly nonlinear teleconnections. We find that streamflow teleconnections occur over particular seasonal windows reflecting the intersection of specific atmospheric and terrestrial hydrologic processes. The strongest signal is a snowmelt-driven flow timing shift resulting from ENSO- and PDO-associated temperature anomalies. Autumn rainfall runoff is also modulated by these climate modes, and a glacier-mediated teleconnection contributes to a late-summer ENSO-flow association. Teleconnections between AO and freshet flows reflect corresponding temperature and precipitation anomalies. A coherent NPGO signal is not clearly evident in streamflow. Linear and monotonically nonlinear teleconnections were widely identified, with less evidence for the parabolic effects that can play an important role elsewhere. The streamflow teleconnections did not vary greatly between hydrometric stations, presumably reflecting broad similarities in watershed characteristics. These results establish a regional foundation for both transboundary water management and studies of long-term hydroclimatic and environmental change.

  14. Chain reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chain Reaction is a work of recent American political history. It seeks to explain how and why America came to depend so heavily on its experts after World War II, how those experts translated that authority into political clout, and why that authority and political discretion declined in the 1970s. The author's research into the internal memoranda of the Atomic Energy Commission substantiates his argument in historical detail. It was not the ravages of American anti-intellectualism, as so many scholars have argued, that brought the experts back down to earth. Rather, their decline can be traced to the very roots of their success after World War II. The need to over-state anticipated results in order to garner public support, incessant professional and bureaucratic specialization, and the sheer proliferation of expertise pushed arcane and insulated debates between experts into public forums at the same time that a broad cross section of political participants found it easier to gain access to their own expertise. These tendencies ultimately undermined the political influence of all experts. (author)

  15. The influence of the directional energy distribution on the nonlinear dispersion relation in a random gravity wave field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, N. E.; Tung, C.-C.

    1977-01-01

    The influence of the directional distribution of wave energy on the dispersion relation is calculated numerically using various directional wave spectrum models. The results indicate that the dispersion relation varies both as a function of the directional energy distribution and the direction of propagation of the wave component under consideration. Furthermore, both the mean deviation and the random scatter from the linear approximation increase as the energy spreading decreases. Limited observational data are compared with the theoretical results. The agreement is favorable.

  16. Energetics of clouding and size effects in non-ionic surfactant mixtures: The influence of alkyl chain length and NaCl addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► A study of mixed systems of nonionic surfactants belonging to different families. ► The micellar size is affected by composition, temperature, and salt addition. ► Clouding is analyzed from a thermodynamic point of view. ► The influence of the alkyl chain length of the sugar-based surfactant is examined. - Abstract: The clouding behavior of two non-ionic mixed surfactant systems (n-dodecyl-β-D-maltoside/n-dodecyl-hexaethylene-glycol and n-decyl-β-D-maltoside/n-dodecyl-hexaethylene-glycol) was investigated over the entire composition range in pure water and in 1 M NaCl. The evolution of micellar size as a function of temperature was monitored by dynamic light scattering and a unimodal distribution pattern of aggregates consistent with a single scattering species was found. Our results confirm that an increase of temperature induces micellar growth and that clustering of micelles occurs as the temperature approaches the cloud point. It was observed that, with increasing temperature, the higher the n-dodecyl-hexaethylene-glycol content the greater the micellar growth. The presence of sugar surfactant monomers in the mixed micelle enhances the cloud point of the system. This phase behavior is sensitive to the presence of NaCl in the micellar solution which induces cloud point depression. For a certain system composition, the cloud point decreases as the alkyl chain length of the sugar-based surfactant increases. Cloud-point thermodynamics were evaluated assuming that clouding indicates the solubility limit when phase separation occurs. The micelle–solvent interactions were characterized from the compensation temperatures, which were determined from the enthalpy–entropy plots.

  17. Compliance error compensation technique for parallel robots composed of non-perfect serial chains

    OpenAIRE

    Klimchik, Alexandr; Pashkevich, Anatol; Chablat, Damien; Hovland, Geir

    2012-01-01

    International audience The paper presents the compliance errors compensation technique for over-constrained parallel manipulators under external and internal loadings. This technique is based on the non-linear stiffness modeling which is able to take into account the influence of non-perfect geometry of serial chains caused by manufacturing errors. Within the developed technique, the deviation compensation reduces to an adjustment of a target trajectory that is modified in the off-line mod...

  18. Synthesis of a new β-amino acid with a 3-deoxy-L-ara furnaoside side chain: the influence of the side chain on the conformation of α/β-peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Gangavaram V M; Anjaiah, Gonuguntla; Kanakaraju, Marumudi; Sudhakar, Bommeda; Chatterjee, Deepak; Kunwar, Ajit C

    2016-01-14

    The important role of side chains in the stabilization of helical folds in peptidic foldamers containing C-linked carbo-β-amino acids (β-Caa), an interesting class of β-amino acids, with carbohydrate side chains has been extensively elaborated. As a pragmatic approach to alleviate the interference of substituents in the side chains on the folding propensities of the peptides, they are often modified or removed. The present study reports the synthesis of a new β-Caa with a 3-deoxy-L-ara furanoside side chain, [(R)-β-Caa(da)], from D-glucose, and its use in the synthesis of α/β-peptides in 1 : 1 alternation with D-Ala. The synthesis of peptides using (R)-β-Caa(da), was facile unlike those from (R)-β-Caa(a) having the L-ara furanoside side chain. The detailed NMR, molecular dynamics (MD) and CD studies on the new α/β-peptides showed the presence of robust left-handed 11/9-mixed helices. The study demonstrates that the new (R)-β-Caa(da), behaves differently compared to the other two related monomers, (R)-β-Caa(x) with the D-xylo furanoside side chain and (R)-β-Caa(a). PMID:26489370

  19. Influence of storage time on DNA of Chlamydia trachomatis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae for accurate detection by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y; Rong, C Z; Zhao, J Y; Lao, X J; Xie, L; Li, S; Qin, X

    2016-01-01

    The shipment and storage conditions of clinical samples pose a major challenge to the detection accuracy of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), and Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU) when using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The aim of the present study was to explore the influence of storage time at 4°C on the DNA of these pathogens and its effect on their detection by qRT-PCR. CT, NG, and UU positive genital swabs from 70 patients were collected, and DNA of all samples were extracted and divided into eight aliquots. One aliquot was immediately analyzed with qRT-PCR to assess the initial pathogen load, whereas the remaining samples were stored at 4°C and analyzed after 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. No significant differences in CT, NG, and UU DNA loads were observed between baseline (day 0) and the subsequent time points (days 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28) in any of the 70 samples. Although a slight increase in DNA levels was observed at day 28 compared to day 0, paired sample t-test results revealed no significant differences between the mean DNA levels at different time points following storage at 4°C (all P>0.05). Overall, the CT, UU, and NG DNA loads from all genital swab samples were stable at 4°C over a 28-day period. PMID:27580005

  20. Investigations on the adsorbents for uremic middle molecular toxins (II) —Influences of crosslinking agent chain length on the adsorption capacities of crosslinked chitosan adsorbents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Chitosan resins, which clinically served as adsorbents in hemoperfusion therapy, were prepared with reversed-phase suspension methodology using three differently structured crosslinking agents, methanal, glyoxal and glutaraldehyde. And the glyoxal and glutaraldehyde crosslinked chitosan resins were reduced with NaBH4 afterwards. By analyzing the results from FTIR and SEM, it was found that the reduction treatment to the adsorbents efficiently improved the chemical stability of these chitosan resins, and the shifts in crosslinking agents exerted influences over the morphologies of the adsorbents obviously. After being put to use in the adsorption tests upon some model uremic middle molecular toxins and BSA in vitro, all three adsorbents demon- strated a fairly realistic adsorption capability to the model toxins but little to BSA. And the adsorp- tion process reached the equilibrium in a clinically qualified short time. But the adsorption capaci- ties of these adsorbents to the model toxins were quite different. It had been found that with the growing of fatty chain length of crosslinking agent, these adsorbents showed a gradually increased adsorption capacity to the model toxins, and the glutaraldehyde crosslinked chitosan resin be- haved best.

  1. Understanding the supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aćimović Slobodan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Supply chain management represents new business philosophy and includes strategically positioned and much wider scope of activity in comparison with its "older brother" - management of logistics. Philosophy of the concept of supply chain is directed to more coordination of key business functions of every link in distribution chain in the process of organization of the flow of both goods and information, while logistic managing instruments are focused on internal optimum of flows of goods and information within one company. Applying the concept of integrated supply chain among several companies makes the importance of operative logistics activity even greater on the level of one company, thus advancing processes of optimum and coordination within and between different companies and confirms the importance of logistics performances for the company’s profitability. Besides the fact that the borders between companies are being deleted, this concept of supply chain in one distribution channel influences increasing of importance of functional, i.e. traditional business managing approaches but instead it points out the importance of process managing approaches. Although the author is aware that "there is nothing harder, more dangerous and with uncertain success, but to find a way for introducing some novelties (Machiavelli, it would be even his additional stimulation for trying to bring closer the concept and goals of supply chain implementation that are identified in key, relevant, modern, theoretical and consulting approaches in order to achieve better understanding of the subject and faster implementation of the concept of supply chain management by domestic companies.

  2. The change in cholesterol content of long chain fatty acid egg during processing and its influence to the Rattus norvegicus L. blood cholesterol content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dini Hardini

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Egg containing long chain unsaturated fatty acids is a functional food, because it is highly nutritious and could prevent diseases, (omega 3 and 6 such as coronary heart attack. The research was aimed to measure the change of egg cholesterol content during proceesing: frying, oiless frying and boiling and their influence to the blood plasma cholesterol of normal and hypercholesterolemia rat. Seven treatments of egg yolk were frying at 170°C for 3 min (welldone = GM, and 1min (half medium fried = GSM using deep fryer , oilless frying at 70°C for10 min (fried = TM, and 6 min (half fried = TSM using Teflon pan, and boiling at 100°C for 10’ (boiled = RM dan 4 min (half boiled = RSM using pan provided with thermoregulator and a fresh omega egg as a control. The Completely randomized design was apllied for 4 weeks research period. The data from different treatments were analyzed by Orthogonal Contrast. Fifty 2 months old male rats Rattus norvegicus L. separated in 2 groups; normal and hypercholesterolemia (blood cholesterol > 200 mg dl-1. The rats were placed in individual cage, fed 15 g h-1 day-1 and water drinking ad libitum. The ration was composed of 90% basal commercial feed BR II and 10% egg yolk was given to each animal at 20% of live weight. Factorial 2 x 7 of completely randomized design was applied. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. Processsing method of egg affected to cholesterol content of egg, The lowest and the highest cholesterol contents were observed in TSM (0.30 g/100g and GM (0.37 g/100g, respectively. Biological test using Rattus norvegicus L rat showed that either fresh and processed long chain fatty acid egg decreased plasma cholesterol. The highest and the lowest decreases of cholesterol content were found in the group consumed RSM (8.64% and GM (1.77% for normal rat; and control (46.3% followed by RSM (44.53% and GM (24.86%, respectively. To maintain normal cholesterol and decrease

  3. Nonlinear Science

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshida, Zensho

    2010-01-01

    This book gives a general, basic understanding of the mathematical structure "nonlinearity" that lies in the depths of complex systems. Analyzing the heterogeneity that the prefix "non" represents with respect to notions such as the linear space, integrability and scale hierarchy, "nonlinear science" is explained as a challenge of deconstruction of the modern sciences. This book is not a technical guide to teach mathematical tools of nonlinear analysis, nor a zoology of so-called nonlinear phenomena. By critically analyzing the structure of linear theories, and cl

  4. Particles geometry influence in the thermal stress level in an SiC reinforced aluminum matrix composite considering the material non-linear behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analytical methodology was developed to predict the thermal stress level that occurs in a metallic matrix composite reinforced with SiC particles, when the temperature decreases from 600 deg C to 20 deg C during the fabrication process. This analytical development is based on the Eshelby method, dislocation mechanisms, and the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution model. The material was assumed to have a linear elastic behavior. The analytical results from this formulation were verified against numerical linear analyses that were performed over a set of random non-uniform distribution of particles that covers a wide range of volumetric ratios. To stick with the analytical hypothesis, particles with round geometry were used. Each stress distribution, represented by the isostress curves at ΔT=-580 deg C, was analyzed with an image analyzer. A statistical procedure was applied to obtain the most probable thermal stress level. Analytical and numerical results compared very well. Plastic deformation as well as particle geometry can alter significantly the stress field in the material. To account for these effects, in this work, several numerical analyses were performed considering the non-linear behavior for the aluminum matrix and distinct particle geometries. Two distinct sets of data with were used. To allow a direct comparison, the first set has the same models (particle form, size and distribution) as used previously. The second set analyze quadrilateral particles and present very tight range of volumetric ratio, closer to what is found in actual SiC composites. A simple and fast algorithm was developed to analyze the new results. The comparison of these results with the previous ones shows, as expected, the strong influence of the elastic-plastic behavior of the aluminum matrix on the composite thermal stress distribution due to its manufacturing process and shows, also, a small influence of the particles geometry and volumetric ratio. (author)

  5. Some remarks on the influence of temperature-variations, non-linearities, repeatability and ageing on modal-analysis for structural health monitoring of real bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maas Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural Health Monitoring (SHM intends to identify damage by changes of characteristics as for instance the modal parameters. The eigenfrequencies, mode-shapes and damping-values are either directly used as damage indicators or the changes of derived parameters are analysed, such as e.g. flexibilities or updated finite element models. One common way is a continuous monitoring under environmental excitation forces, such as wind or traffic, i.e. the so-called output-only modal analysis. Alternatively, a forced measured external excitation in distinct time-intervals may be used for input-output modal analysis. Both methods are limited by the precision or the repeatability under real-life conditions at site. The paper will summarize several field tests of artificially step-by-step damaged bridges prior to their final demolishment and it will show the changes of eigenfrequencies due to induced artificial damage. Additionally, some results of a monitoring campaign of a healthy bridge in Luxembourg are presented. Reinforced concrete shows non-linear behaviour in the sense that modal parameters depend on the excitation force amplitude, i.e. higher forces lead often to lower eigenfrequencies than smaller forces. Furthermore, the temperature of real bridges is neither constant in space nor in time, while for instance the stiffness of asphalt is strongly dependant on it. Finally, ageing as such can also change a bridge’s stiffness and its modal parameters, e.g. because creep and shrinkage of concrete or ageing of elastomeric bearing pads influence their modulus of elasticity. These effects cannot be considered as damage, though they influence the measurement of modal parameters and hinder damage detection.

  6. The influence of non-linear frequency compression on the perception of music by adults with a moderate to severe hearing loss: Subjective impressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinda Uys

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To date, the main direction in frequency-lowering hearing aid studies has been in relation to speech perception abilities. With improvements in hearing aid technology, interest in musical perception as a dimension that could improve hearing aid users’ quality of life has grown. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of non-linear frequency compression (NFC on hearing aid users’ subjective impressions of listening to music. Design & sample: A survey research design was implemented to elicit participants’ (N=40 subjective impressions of musical stimuli with and without NFC. Results: The use of NFC significantly improved hearing aid users’ perception of the musical qualities of overall fidelity, tinniness and reverberance. Although participants preferred to listen to the loudness, fullness, crispness, naturalness and pleasantness of music with the use of NFC, these benefits were not significant. Conclusion: The use of NFC can increase hearing aid users’ enjoyment and appreciation of music. Given that a relatively large percentage of hearing aid users express a loss of enjoyment of music, audiologists should not ignore the possible benefits of NFC, especially if one takes into account that previous research indicates speech perception benefits with this technology.

  7. Parametrically Driven Nonlinear Oscillators with an Impurity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张卓; 唐翌

    2002-01-01

    By virtue of the method of multiple scales, we study a chain of parametrically driven nonlinear oscillators with a mass impurity. An equation is presented to describe the nonlinear wave of small amplitude in the chain.In our derivation, the equation is applicable to any eigenmode of coupled pendulum. Our result shows that a nonpropagation soliton emerges as the lowest or highest eigenmode of coupled pendulum is excited, and the impurity tends to pin the nonpropagation soliton excitation.

  8. Filamentation with nonlinear Bessel vortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jukna, V; Milián, C; Xie, C; Itina, T; Dudley, J; Courvoisier, F; Couairon, A

    2014-10-20

    We present a new type of ring-shaped filaments featured by stationary nonlinear high-order Bessel solutions to the laser beam propagation equation. Two different regimes are identified by direct numerical simulations of the nonlinear propagation of axicon focused Gaussian beams carrying helicity in a Kerr medium with multiphoton absorption: the stable nonlinear propagation regime corresponds to a slow beam reshaping into one of the stationary nonlinear high-order Bessel solutions, called nonlinear Bessel vortices. The region of existence of nonlinear Bessel vortices is found semi-analytically. The influence of the Kerr nonlinearity and nonlinear losses on the beam shape is presented. Direct numerical simulations highlight the role of attractors played by nonlinear Bessel vortices in the stable propagation regime. Large input powers or small cone angles lead to the unstable propagation regime where nonlinear Bessel vortices break up into an helical multiple filament pattern or a more irregular structure. Nonlinear Bessel vortices are shown to be sufficiently intense to generate a ring-shaped filamentary ionized channel in the medium which is foreseen as opening the way to novel applications in laser material processing of transparent dielectrics. PMID:25401574

  9. SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT – KEY FACTORS

    OpenAIRE

    Magdalena Daniela DINU

    2014-01-01

    This paper exposes Supply Chain Management by its key factors. Briefly, where the Supply Chain Management is treated as strategic part of a company then maintaining both control and influence throughout the entire supply chain are key factors and critical to success. On the other hand, finding the right partner to manage the non-strategic Supply Chains would be another key factor too. To define the most important key factors within Supply Chain Management means a deeply understanding of bot...

  10. A complete hydro-climate model chain to investigate the influence of sea surface temperature on recent hydroclimatic variability in subtropical South America (Laguna Mar Chiquita, Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troin, Magali; Vrac, Mathieu; Khodri, Myriam; Caya, Daniel; Vallet-Coulomb, Christine; Piovano, Eduardo; Sylvestre, Florence

    2016-03-01

    During the 1970s, Laguna Mar Chiquita (Argentina) experienced a dramatic hydroclimatic anomaly, with a substantial rise in its level. Precipitations are the dominant driving factor in lake level fluctuations. The present study investigates the potential role of remote forcing through global sea surface temperature (SST) fields in modulating recent hydroclimatic variability in Southeastern South America and especially over the Laguna Mar Chiquita region. Daily precipitation and temperature are extracted from a multi-member LMDz atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) ensemble of simulations forced by HadISST1 observed time-varying global SST and sea-ice boundary conditions from 1950 to 2005. The various members of the ensemble are only different in their atmospheric initial conditions. Statistical downscaling (SD) is used to adjust precipitation and temperature from LMDz ensemble mean at the station scale over the basin. A coupled basin-lake hydrological model ( cpHM) is then using the LMDz-downscaled (LMDz-SD) climate variables as input to simulate the lake behavior. The results indicate that the long-term lake level trend is fairly well depicted by the LMDz-SD- cpHM simulations. The 1970s level rise and high-level conditions are generally well captured in timing and in magnitude when SST-forced AGCM-SD variables are used to drive the cpHM. As the LMDz simulations are forced solely with the observed sea surface conditions, the global SST seems to have an influence on the lake level variations of Laguna Mar Chiquita. As well, this study shows that the AGCM-SD- cpHM model chain is a useful approach for evaluating long-term lake level fluctuations in response to the projected climate changes.

  11. Improved production of short-chain fatty acids from waste activated sludge driven by carbohydrate addition in continuous-flow reactors: Influence of SRT and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • SRT or temperature increase benefited the hydrolysis of fermentation substrates. • SCFAs, especially propionic acid, accumulated most at SRT 8 d and 37 °C. • The activities of key enzymes were in accordance with SCFAs production. • The ratio of Bacteria to Archaea was improved at SRT 8 d and 37 °C. - Abstract: During anaerobic fermentation of waste activated sludge (WAS), the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), especially propionic acid which is considered as the most preferred carbon source for enhanced biological phosphorus removal, can be improved by controlling the suitable mass ratio of carbon to nitrogen (C/N) and pH in batch mode. In this study the influences of solids retention time (SRT) and temperature on WAS hydrolysis and acidification in the continuous-flow systems in which the C/N ratio of WAS was modified by carbohydrate addition were investigated. Experimental results showed that the increase of SRT and temperature in a pertinent range benefited the hydrolysis of fermentation substrates and the accumulation of SCFAs, and SRT 8 d and temperature 37 °C were the most preferred conditions for the production of SCFAs, especially propionic acid. As there were more consumption of protein and carbohydrate and less production of methane at SRT 8 d and temperature 37 °C, more SCFAs were accumulated. Also, both the activities of key hydrolases and acid-forming enzymes and the ratio of acidogenic bacteria to methanogens showed good agreements with SCFAs production

  12. Nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Boyd, Robert W

    2013-01-01

    Nonlinear Optics is an advanced textbook for courses dealing with nonlinear optics, quantum electronics, laser physics, contemporary and quantum optics, and electrooptics. Its pedagogical emphasis is on fundamentals rather than particular, transitory applications. As a result, this textbook will have lasting appeal to a wide audience of electrical engineering, physics, and optics students, as well as those in related fields such as materials science and chemistry.Key Features* The origin of optical nonlinearities, including dependence on the polarization of light* A detailed treatment of the q

  13. The influence of post-growth annealing on the optical properties of InAs quantum dot chains grown on pre-patterned GaAs(100)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the effect of post-growth thermal annealing of [011]-, [01 1-bar ]-, and [010]-oriented quantum dot chains grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs(100) substrates patterned by UV-nanoimprint lithography. We show that the quantum dot chains experience a blueshift of the photoluminescence energy, spectral narrowing, and a reduction of the intersubband energy separation during annealing. The photoluminescence blueshift is more rapid for the quantum dot chains than for self-assembled quantum dots that were used as a reference. Furthermore, we studied polarization resolved photoluminescence and observed that annealing reduces the intrinsic optical anisotropy of the quantum dot chains and the self-assembled quantum dots. (paper)

  14. Moving discrete breathers in a Klein-Gordon chain with an impurity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyse the influence of an impurity in the evolution of moving discrete breathers in a Klein-Gordon chain with non-weak nonlinearity. Three different types of behaviour can be observed when moving breathers interact with the impurity: they pass through the impurity continuing their direction of movement; they are reflected by the impurity; they are trapped by the impurity, giving rise to chaotic breathers, as their Fourier power spectra show. Resonance with a breather centred at the impurity site is conjectured to be a necessary condition for the appearance of the trapping phenomenon. This paper establishes a difference between the resonance condition of the non-weak nonlinearity approach and the resonance condition with the linear impurity mode in the case of weak nonlinearity

  15. Chain Teleportation

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Chien-er

    2004-01-01

    By means of the idea of measurements on the crossed space-time nonlocal observables, we extend the mechanism for the two-way quantum teleportation to the chain teleportation among N spatially separated spin-1/2 systems. Since in the process only the local interactions are used, the microcausality is automatically satisfied.

  16. Nonlinear optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Ruszczynski, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    Optimization is one of the most important areas of modern applied mathematics, with applications in fields from engineering and economics to finance, statistics, management science, and medicine. While many books have addressed its various aspects, Nonlinear Optimization is the first comprehensive treatment that will allow graduate students and researchers to understand its modern ideas, principles, and methods within a reasonable time, but without sacrificing mathematical precision. Andrzej Ruszczynski, a leading expert in the optimization of nonlinear stochastic systems, integrates t

  17. Nonlinear Optical Properties and Structural Characteristics of Ionically Self-Assembled Nanoscale Polymer Films Influenced by Ionic Concentration and Incorporation of Monomer Chromophores

    OpenAIRE

    Neyman, Patrick J.

    2002-01-01

    Ionically self-assembled monolayer (ISAM) films are typically an assemblage of oppositely charged polymers built layer by layer through coulombic attraction utilizing an environmentally friendly process to form ordered structures that are uniform, molecularly smooth, and physically robust. ISAM films have been shown to be capable of the noncentrosymmetric order requisite for a second-order nonlinear optical response. However, films fabricated with a nonlinear optical (NLO) polymer result in...

  18. A Bayesian approach to identifying structural nonlinearity using free-decay response: Application to damage detection in composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, J.M.; Link, W.A.; Murphy, K.D.; Olson, C.C.

    2010-01-01

    This work discusses a Bayesian approach to approximating the distribution of parameters governing nonlinear structural systems. Specifically, we use a Markov Chain Monte Carlo method for sampling the posterior parameter distributions thus producing both point and interval estimates for parameters. The method is first used to identify both linear and nonlinear parameters in a multiple degree-of-freedom structural systems using free-decay vibrations. The approach is then applied to the problem of identifying the location, size, and depth of delamination in a model composite beam. The influence of additive Gaussian noise on the response data is explored with respect to the quality of the resulting parameter estimates.

  19. Catch Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Talbert, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Catch Chain is a book of poems that traces the journey of a Corrections Officer who attempts to combat issues of isolation, inhumane treatment of inmates and societal rejection in jails by embarking upon a cross-country road trip. However, the same issues the officer initially wrestled with begin cropping up in different cities, on various highways and in a multitude of states. The excitement and adventure of the open road runs parallel to the recurring imprisonment of the guard's mind.

  20. Clathrin light chain directs endocytosis by influencing the binding of the yeast Hip1R homologue, Sla2, to F-actin

    OpenAIRE

    Boettner, Douglas R.; Friesen, Helena; Andrews, Brenda; Lemmon, Sandra K.

    2011-01-01

    The role of clathrin light chain (CLC) in clathrin-mediated endocytosis is not completely understood. Previous studies showed that the CLC N-terminus (CLC-NT) binds the Hip1/Hip1R/Sla2 family of membrane/actin–binding factors and that overexpression of the CLC-NT in yeast suppresses endocytic defects of clathrin heavy-chain mutants. To elucidate the mechanistic basis for this suppression, we performed synthetic genetic array analysis with a clathrin CLC-NT deletion mutation (clc1-Δ19-76). clc...

  1. Effect of Hydrogen Bonding on Linear and Nonlinear Rheology of Entangled Polymer Melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabbir, Aamir; Goldansaz, Hadi; Hassager, Ole;

    2015-01-01

    AA along the backbone. Assuming superposition holds and subtracting out the linear chain rheology from LVE, the hydrogen bonding contribution to LVE is exposed. Hydrogen bonding affects linear viscoelasticity at frequencies below the inverse reptation time. More specifically, the presence of hydrogen...... bonds causes G′ and G″ as a function of frequency to shift to a power law scaling of 0.5. Furthermore, the magnitude of G′ and G″ scales linearly with the number of hydrogen-bonding groups. The nonlinear extensional rheology shows extreme strain hardening. The magnitude of extensional stress has a...... strongly nonlinear dependence on the number of hydrogenbonding groups. These results are aimed at uncovering the molecular influence of hydrogen bonding on linear and nonlinear rheology to aid future molecular synthesis and model development....

  2. Design of a medical non-linear drilling device: the influence of twist and wear on the fatigue behaviour of NiTi wires subjected to bending rotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, M.; Frenzel, J.; Eggeler, G. [Lehrstuhl Werkstoffwissenschaften, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, 44780 Bochum (Germany); Richter, J.; Groenemeyer, D. [Institut fuer Mikrotherapie, Universitaet Witten/ Herdecke (Germany)

    2004-05-01

    This paper considers fundamental and experimental aspects associated with the engineering design of a medical, non-linear drilling device which exploits shape memory pseudoelasticity of NiTi wires. For this application it is important that the NiTi wires have a good fatigue resistance. This is why the present authors have previously determined the influence of various parameters on cyclic life, crack growth and stress state of pseudoelastic wires subjected to bending rotation fatigue. The actual drilling device has to withstand twist in addition to bending rotation because the free rotation is constrained by friction between the drill head and the bone material. In addition, friction between the wire and a NiTi guiding tube results in wear and this may well promote fatigue crack nucleation. In this paper, we explain the function of the medical drill. We then report results on the effect of the additional parameters (1) twist and (2) wear on the fatigue life of thin pseudoelastic NiTi wires. We finally discuss the implications of our experimental results for the design process of the medical drilling device. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [German] Dieser Artikel behandelt Voruntersuchungen fuer die Entwicklung eines medizinischen nicht-linearen Bohrsystems. Aus materialwissenschaftlicher Sicht spielt die Ermuedung der mechanischen Komponenten aus NiTi eine wichtige Rolle. Die Autoren haben in bisherigen Studien den Einfluss verschiedener Parameter auf Lebensdauer, Risswachstum und Spannungszustand in pseudoelastischen Draehten waehrend Umlaufbiegung ermittelt. Der Draht im eigentlichen Bohrsystem wird jedoch nicht ausschliesslich durch reine Umlaufbiegung, sondern zusaetzlich durch eine Verdrillung aufgrund der Reibung zwischen Bohrkopf und Knochengewebe, belastet. Ausserdem bewirkt die Reibung zwischen dem Draht und einem Fuehrungsrohr aus NiTi Verschleiss; diese Materialschaedigung stellt einen weiteren Mechanismus zur Risseinleitung dar. In

  3. 供应链企业间知识流动影响要素效用分析%Analysis on Influencing Factors of Knowledge Flow among Supply Chain Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华连连; 张悟移

    2011-01-01

    初步探讨了供应链企业间知识流动的影响要素及指标,运用结合分析法和层次分析法对要素效用进行了测评,并分别选取了以制造业和IT业为核心企业的供应链来作为算例设计对象,比较不同链条的知识流动效用和侧重点.通过算例设计证明了知识流动过程中存在条件选择,对不同的供应链链条有不同的要求,以制造业为核心企业的供应链侧重企业间合作的效用,并在知识嵌入特性上对技术提出了比较高的要求;而以IT企业为核心企业的供应链在同样重视供应链合作的基础上,强调人员的知识领域及水平特征.%The influencing factors of knowledge flow are considered to be the key research on knowledge flow between enterprises of supply chain.On the basis of research and analysis of existing literature and survey, it proposes knowledge flow attributes and indexes among inter-enterprises in some supply chain.In order to better explore the characteristics of knowledge flows among enterprises, there are two supply chains with manufacturing and IT industry as core enterprises are chosen to be design objects, applying conjoint analysis methods to compare the effectiveness and focus of knowledge flow in different chains.The main purpose is to provide theoretical guidance to different knowledge flow.The conclusion finds that it needs to select right conditions in the process of knowledge flow, and different chains have different requirements.The two supply chains both consider inter-firm cooperation to be effective attributes.However, the manufacturing supply chain proposes higher requirements on the technology in the knowledge characteristics, while the IT business supply chain emphasis the employees' knowledge.

  4. Forward model nonlinearity versus inverse model nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehl, S.

    2007-01-01

    The issue of concern is the impact of forward model nonlinearity on the nonlinearity of the inverse model. The question posed is, "Does increased nonlinearity in the head solution (forward model) always result in increased nonlinearity in the inverse solution (estimation of hydraulic conductivity)?" It is shown that the two nonlinearities are separate, and it is not universally true that increased forward model nonlinearity increases inverse model nonlinearity. ?? 2007 National Ground Water Association.

  5. Nonlinear generalized master equations and accounting for initial correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Los, V. F.

    2009-08-01

    We develop a new method based on using a time-dependent operator (generally not a projection operator) converting a distribution function (statistical operator) of a total system into the relevant form that allows deriving new exact nonlinear generalized master equations (GMEs). The derived inhomogeneous nonlinear GME is a generalization of the linear Nakajima-Zwanzig GME and can be viewed as an alternative to the BBGKY chain. It is suitable for obtaining both nonlinear and linear evolution equations. As in the conventional linear GME, there is an inhomogeneous term comprising all multiparticle initial correlations. To include the initial correlations into consideration, we convert the obtained inhomogeneous nonlinear GME into the homogenous form by the previously suggested method. We use no conventional approximation like the random phase approximation (RPA) or the Bogoliubov principle of weakening of initial correlations. The obtained exact homogeneous nonlinear GME describes all evolution stages of the (sub)system of interest and treats initial correlations on an equal footing with collisions via the modified memory kernel. As an application, we obtain a new homogeneous nonlinear equation retaining initial correlations for a one-particle distribution function of the spatially inhomogeneous nonideal gas of classical particles. In contrast to existing approaches, this equation holds for all time scales and takes the influence of pair collisions and initial correlations on the dissipative and nondissipative characteristics of the system into account consistently with the adopted approximation (linear in the gas density). We show that on the kinetic time scale, the time-reversible terms resulting from the initial correlations vanish (if the particle dynamics are endowed with the mixing property) and this equation can be converted into the Vlasov-Landau and Boltzmann equations without any additional commonly used approximations. The entire process of transition can

  6. Influence of acid chain length on the properties of TiO2 prepared by sol-gel method and LC-MS studies of methylene blue photodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakre, Pratibha V; Volvoikar, Prajesh S; Vernekar, Amit A; Tilve, S G

    2016-07-15

    Nano-sized titanium dioxide photocatalysts were synthesized by hybrid hydrolytic nonhydrolytic sol-gel method using aliphatic organic acid templates to study the effect of chain length on their properties. X-ray diffraction pattern indicated crystalline anatase phase. The Barrett-Joyner-Halenda surface area measurement gave surface area ranging from 98.4 to 205.5m(2)/g and was found to be dependent on the chain length of the aliphatic acid. The longer chain acids rendered the material with high surface area. The organic acids acted as bidentate ligand and a surfactant in controlling the size and the mesoporosity. The size of the TiO2 nanoparticulate was found to be in the range of 10-18nm. The catalyst prepared by employing long chain acids octanoic acid and palmitic acid had smaller size, narrow pore radius, higher surface area and showed better photocatalytic activity than the commercially available Degussa P25 catalyst for the degradation of methylene blue dye. A new intermediate was identified by tandem liquid chromatography mass spectrometry studies during the degradation of methylene blue solution. PMID:27100905

  7. Influence of alkyl chain length and anion species on ionic liquid structure at the graphite interface as a function of applied potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) force measurements elucidate the effect of cation alkyl chain length and the anion species on ionic liquid (IL) interfacial structure at highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surfaces as a function of potential. Three ILs are examined: 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate ([HMIM] FAP), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate ([EMIM] FAP), and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([EMIM] TFSA). The step-wise force-distance profiles indicate the ILs adopt a multilayered morphology near the surface. When the surface is biased positively or negatively versus Pt quasireference electrode, both the number of steps, and the force required to rupture each step increase, indicating stronger interfacial structure. At all potentials, push-through forces for [HMIM] FAP are the highest, because the long alkyl chain results in strong cohesive interactions between cations, leading to well-formed layers that resist the AFM tip. The most layers are observed for [EMIM] FAP, because the C2 chains are relatively rigid and the dimensions of the cation and anion are similar, facilitating neat packing. [EMIM] TFSA has the smallest push-through forces and fewest layers, and thus the weakest interfacial structure. Surface-tip attractive forces are measured for all ILs. At the same potential, the attractions are the strongest for [EMIM] TFSA and the weakest for [HMIM] FAP because the interfacial layers are better formed for the longer alkyl chain cation. This means interfacial forces are stronger, which masks the weak attractive forces. (paper)

  8. Liposome encapsulation of lipophilic N-alkyl-propanediamine platinum complexes: impact on their cytotoxic activity and influence of the carbon chain length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Heveline; Fontes, Ana Paula S. [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (UFJF), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Lopes, Miriam Teresa P. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacologia; Frezard, Frederic, E-mail: frezard@icb.ufmg.b [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Fisiologia e Biofisica

    2010-07-01

    Antitumor platinum(II) complexes derived from N-alkyl-propanediamine differing in the length of their carbon chain (C8, C10, C12 and C14) were incorporated in liposomes and the cytotoxic activity of these formulations was evaluated against tumor (A{sub 549}, MDA-MB-231, B16-F1 and B16-F10) and non-tumor (BHK-21 and CHO) cell lines. Stable and monodisperse liposome suspensions incorporating the platinum complexes were obtained from the lipid composition consisting of distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, cholesterol and 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero- 3-phosphoethanolamine-N-(methoxy(polyethylene glycol)-2000) at 5:3:0.3 molar ratio. The entrapment efficiency (EE%) of the platinum complexes in liposomes increased with the carbon chain length. EE% was higher than 80% in C12- and C14-derivatives. The effect of liposome encapsulation on the cytotoxic activity of the complexes was found to depend on the carbon chain length. These data indicate that the highest drug bioavailability from liposome formulations was achieved with the complex showing intermediate carbon chain length and partition between the liposome membrane and aqueous phase. (author)

  9. Hotspots for Vitamin-Steroid-Thyroid Hormone Response Elements Within Switch Regions of Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Loci Predict a Direct Influence of Vitamins and Hormones on B Cell Class Switch Recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Julia L; Penkert, Rhiannon R; Xu, Beisi; Fan, Yiping; Partridge, Janet F; Maul, Robert W; Gearhart, Patricia J

    2016-03-01

    Vitamin A deficiencies are common throughout the world and have a significant negative influence on immune protection against viral infections. Mouse models demonstrate that the production of IgA, a first line of defense against viruses at mucosal sites, is inhibited in the context of vitamin A deficiency. In vitro, the addition of vitamin A to activated B cells can enhance IgA expression, but downregulate IgE. Previous reports have demonstrated that vitamin A modifies cytokine patterns, and in so doing may influence antibody isotype expression by an indirect mechanism. However, we have now discovered hundreds of potential response elements among Sμ, Sɛ, and Sα switch sites within immunoglobulin heavy chain loci. These hotspots appear in both mouse and human loci and include targets for vitamin receptors and related proteins (e.g., estrogen receptors) in the nuclear receptor superfamily. Full response elements with direct repeats are relatively infrequent or absent in Sγ regions although half-sites are present. Based on these results, we pose a hypothesis that nuclear receptors have a direct effect on the immunoglobulin heavy chain class switch recombination event. We propose that vitamin A may alter S site accessibility to activation-induced deaminase and nonhomologous end-joining machinery, thereby influencing the isotype switch, antibody production, and protection against viral infections at mucosal sites. PMID:26741514

  10. Modeling nonlinear compressional waves in marine sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. E. McDonald

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A computational model is presented which will help guide and interpret an upcoming series of experiments on nonlinear compressional waves in marine sediments. The model includes propagation physics of nonlinear acoustics augmented with granular Hertzian stress of order 3/2 in the strain rate. The model is a variant of the time domain NPE (McDonald and Kuperman, 1987 supplemented with a causal algorithm for frequency-linear attenuation. When attenuation is absent, the model equations are used to construct analytic solutions for nonlinear plane waves. The results imply that Hertzian stress causes a unique nonlinear behavior near zero stress. A fluid, in contrast, exhibits nonlinear behavior under high stress. A numerical experiment with nominal values for attenuation coefficient implies that in a water saturated Hertzian chain, the nonlinearity near zero stress may be experimentally observable.

  11. CALCULATION OF CONFORMATIONAL ENTROPY AND FREE ENERGY OF POLYSILANE CHAIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng-bo Luo; Ying-cai Chen; Jian-hua Huang; Jian-min Xu

    2001-01-01

    The conformational entropy S and free energy F were calculated by exact enumeration of polysilane chain up to 23 segments with excluded volume (EV) and long-range van der Waals (VW) interaction. A nonlinear relation between SEV+VW and chain length n was found though SEV was found to vary linearly with n. We found that the second-order transition temperature of polysilane chain with VW interaction increases with the increase of chain length, while that of polysilane chain without VW interaction is chain length independent. Moreover, the free energies FEV+VW and FEV are both linearly related with n, and FEV+VW<FEV for all temperatures.``

  12. The procedure for investigation of the influence of sucking the air into the short fluid film bearings on the nonlinear and chaotic vibration of flexible rotors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zapoměl, Jaroslav

    Besancon : Franch IFToMM National Committee, 2007, s. 1-6. [IFToMM World Congress /12./. Besancon (FR), 18.06.2007-21.06.2007] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/06/0063 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : short journal bearings * air entrainment * nonlinear and chaotic vibration Subject RIV: JR - Other Machinery

  13. An Assessment of the Influence of the Industry Distribution Chain on the Oxygen Levels in Commercial Modified Atmosphere Packaged Cheddar Cheese Using Non-Destructive Oxygen Sensor Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Karen A.M. O’ Callaghan; Papkovsky, Dmitri B.; Joseph P. Kerry

    2016-01-01

    The establishment and control of oxygen levels in packs of oxygen-sensitive food products such as cheese is imperative in order to maintain product quality over a determined shelf life. Oxygen sensors quantify oxygen concentrations within packaging using a reversible optical measurement process, and this non-destructive nature ensures the entire supply chain can be monitored and can assist in pinpointing negative issues pertaining to product packaging. This study was carried out in a commerci...

  14. The haven of the self-service store: A study of the fruit and vegetable department's influence on customer attitudes towards food chain stores

    OpenAIRE

    Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2000-01-01

    As a result of the increased competition between self-service chains, retail managers try to strengthen store identity and customer loyalty to an increasing degree. In this respect a number of measures, as for example service management and direct marketing programmes, have been instigated. Most of these developments have concentrated on the peripheral spheres of the purchase decision situation. More recently retail managers have concentrated their efforts on the departments believed to be mo...

  15. The haven of the self-service store – A study of the fruit and vegetable department’s influence on customer attitudes towards food chain stores

    OpenAIRE

    Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2000-01-01

    As a result of the increased competition between self-service chains, retail managers try to strengthen store identity and customer loyalty to an increasing degree. In this respect a number of measures, as for example service management and direct marketing programmes, have been instigated. Most of these developments have concentrated on the peripheral spheres of the purchase decision situation. More recently retail managers have concentrated their efforts on the departments believed to be mo...

  16. Influence of different rol gene products on the chain length of Shigella dysenteriae type 1 lipopolysaccharide O antigen expressed by Shigella flexneri carrier strains.

    OpenAIRE

    Klee, S R; Tzschaschel, B D; Timmis, K N; Guzman, C A

    1997-01-01

    Introduction of the rol genes of Shigella dysenteriae 1 and Escherichia coli K-12 into Shigella flexneri carrier strains expressing the heterologous S. dysenteriae type 1 lipopolysaccharide resulted in the formation of longer chains of S. dysenteriae 1 O antigen. In bacteria producing both homologous and heterologous O antigen, this resulted in a reduction of the masking of heterologous O antigen by homologous lipopolysaccharide and an increased immune response induced by intraperitoneal immu...

  17. Effect of foundation nonlinearity on the nonlinear transient response of orthotropic shallow spherical shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interaction of clamped orthotropic shallow spherical shells with nonlinear elastic foundations is studied under transient loads. The effect of softening and hardening foundation nonlinearities on the response behaviour of shallow shells has been investigated. Detailed analysis depicting the influence of hardening type foundation nonlinearity on the maximum response of orthotropic shallow spherical shells has been conducted. The numerical results suggest that for the shell-foundation interaction problems undergoing moderately large deformations, the nonlinear model for the foundation must be considered. (orig.)

  18. Supply Chain Management in Albania: An Empirical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Alma Spaho, Thoma Mitre

    2012-01-01

    Supply chain management in Albania has received little attention in the recent literature. Many companies now realize that actions taken by one member of the chain can influence the profitability of all others in the chain. Companies are increasingly thinking in terms of competing as part of a supply chain against other supply chains, rather than as a single firm against other individual firms. The aim of the paper is to investigate the current situation of supply chain management in Albania ...

  19. Weakly nonlinear analysis of Rayleigh-Bénard convection in a non-Newtonian fluid between plates of finite conductivity: Influence of shear-thinning effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouteraa, Mondher; Nouar, Chérif

    2015-12-01

    Finite-amplitude thermal convection in a shear-thinning fluid layer between two horizontal plates of finite thermal conductivity is considered. Weakly nonlinear analysis is adopted as a first approach to investigate nonlinear effects. The rheological behavior of the fluid is described by the Carreau model. As a first step, the critical conditions for the onset of convection are computed as a function of the ratio ξ of the thermal conductivity of the plates to the thermal conductivity of the fluid. In agreement with the literature, the critical Rayleigh number Rac and the critical wave number kc decrease from 1708 to 720 and from 3.11 to 0, when ξ decreases from infinity to zero. In the second step, the critical value αc of the shear-thinning degree above which the bifurcation becomes subcritical is determined. It is shown that αc increases with decreasing ξ . The stability of rolls and squares is then investigated as a function of ξ and the rheological parameters. The limit value ξc, below which squares are stable, decreases with increasing shear-thinning effects. This is related to the fact that shear-thinning effects increase the nonlinear interactions between sets of rolls that constitute the square patterns [M. Bouteraa et al., J. Fluid Mech. 767, 696 (2015), 10.1017/jfm.2015.64]. For a significant deviation from the critical conditions, nonlinear convection terms and nonlinear viscous terms become stronger, leading to a further diminution of ξc. The dependency of the heat transfer on ξ and the rheological parameters is reported. It is consistent with the maximum heat transfer principle. Finally, the flow structure and the viscosity field are represented for weakly and highly conducting plates.

  20. The mitochondrial precursor protein apocytochrome c strongly influences the order of the headgroup and acyl chains of phosphatidylserine dispersions. A 2H and 31P NMR study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deuterium and phosphorus nuclear magnetic resonance techniques were used to study the interaction of the mitochondrial precursor protein apocytochrome c with headgroup-deuterated (dioleoylphosphatidyl-L-[2-2H1]serine) and acyl chain deuterated (1,2-[11,11-2H2]dioleoylphosphatidylserine) dispersions. Binding of the protein to dioleoylphosphatidylserine liposomes results in phosphorus nuclear magnetic resonance spectra typical of phospholipids undergoing fast axial rotation in extended liquid-crystalline bilayers with a reduced residual chemical shift anisotropy and an increased line width. 2H NMR spectra on headgroup-deuterated dioleoylphosphatidylserine dispersions showed a decrease in quadrupolar splitting and a broadening of the signal on interaction with apocytochrome c. Addition of increasing amounts of apocytochrome c to the acyl chain deuterated dioleoylphosphatidylserine dispersions results in the gradual appearance of a second component in the spectra with a 44% reduced quadrupolar splitting. Such large reduction of the quadrupolar splitting has never been observed for any protein studied yet. The induction of a new spectral component with a well-defined reduced quadrupolar splitting seems to be confined to the N-terminus since addition of a small hydrophilic amino-terminal peptide (residues 1-38) also induces a second component with a strongly reduced quadrupolar splitting. A chemically synthesized peptide corresponding to amino acid residues 2-17 of the presequence of the mitochondrial protein cytochrome oxidase subunit IV also has a large perturbing effect on the order of the acyl chains, indicating that the observed effects may be a property shared by many mitochondrial precursor proteins. Implications of these data for the import of apocytochrome c into mitochondria will be discussed

  1. Photo-Induced Phase Transitions to Liquid Crystal Phases: Influence of the Chain Length from C8E4 to C14E4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Techert

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Photo-induced phase transitions are characterized by the transformation from phase A to phase B through the absorption of photons. We have investigated the mechanism of the photo-induced phase transitions of four different ternary systems CiE4/alkane (i with n = 8, 10, 12, 14; cyclohexane/H2O. We were interested in understanding the effect of chain length increase on the dynamics of transformation from the microemulsion phase to the liquid crystal phase. Applying light pump (pulse/x-ray probe (pulse techniques, we could demonstrate that entropy and diffusion control are the driving forces for the kind of phase transition investigated.

  2. Influence of the ordered structure of short-chain polymer molecule all-trans-β-carotene on Raman scattering cross section in liquid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qu Guan-Nan; OuYang Shun-Li; Wang Wei-Wei; Li Zuo-Wei; Sun Cheng-Lin; Men Zhi-Wei

    2011-01-01

    We measured the resonant Raman spectra of all-trans-β-carotene in solvents with different densities and concentrations at different temperatures. The results demonstrated that the Raman scattering cross section (RSCS) of short-chain polymer all-trans-β-carotene is extremely high in liquid. Resonance and strong coherent weakly damped CC bond vibrating properties play important roles under these conditions. Coherent weakly damped CC bond vibration strength is associated with molecular ordered structure. All-trans-β-carotene has highly ordered structure and strong coherent weakly damped CC bond vibrating properties, which lead to large RSCS in the solvent with large density and low concentration at low temperature.

  3. The haven of the self-service store: A study of the fruit and vegetable department's influence on customer attitudes towards food chain stores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2000-01-01

    of these developments have concentrated on the peripheral spheres of the purchase decision situation. More recently retail managers have concentrated their efforts on the departments believed to be most important to customers' overall shopping experience and attitudes towards the store. So far, academic studies...... self-service stores. With an outset in broad range theories of consumer choice and environmental psychology, this paper discusses a number of reasons why the fruit and vegetable department can be one of the keys to chain differentiation and creation of positive customer attitudes to the store. Also...

  4. Photo-induced phase transitions to liquid crystal phases: Influence of the chain length from C8E4 to C14E4.

    OpenAIRE

    Simone Techert; Wilson Quevedo; Gerhard Busse; Marcel Petri

    2009-01-01

    Photo-induced phase transitions are characterized by the transformation from phase A to phase B through the absorption of photons. We have investigated the mechanism of the photo-induced phase transitions of four different ternary systems CiE4/alkane (i) with n = 8, 10, 12, 14; cyclohexane/H2O. We were interested in understanding the effect of chain length increase on the dynamics of transformation from the microemulsion phase to the liquid crystal phase. Applying light pump (pulse)/x-ray pro...

  5. Influence of Side Chain Position on the Electrical Properties of Organic Solar Cells Based on Dithienylbenzothiadiazole-alt-phenylene Conjugated Polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Livi, Francesco; Zawacka, Natalia Klaudia; Angmo, Dechan; Jørgensen, Mikkel; Krebs, Frederik C; Bundgaard, Eva

    2015-01-01

    the benzene ring where power conversion efficiencies of up to 3.6% were achieved. All studied materials were prepared with an objective of low-cost starting materials, simple synthesis, and simple processing conditions which was most successful for the polymer P5. The polymer P7 containing fluorine...... performance results were corroborated with full optical and morphological characterization of the conjugated polymers. We conclude that the determination of the best anchoring position for the side chains is the most rational starting point for the optimization of a polymer with a potential for large...

  6. Influence of bromoalkyloxy side chain on mesomorphic behavior in heterocyclic 7-(4-bromoalkyloxy)-3-(4'-decyloxyphenyl)-4H-1 -benzopyran-4-ones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guan Yeow Yeap; Tze Nee Chan; Wan Sinn Yam; Daisuke Takeuchi; Masato M. Ito

    2011-01-01

    A new homologous series of isoflavone-based ethers, 7-(4-bromoalkyloxy)-3-(4'-decyloxyphenyl)-4H-1-benzopyran-4-ones were synthesized and characterized. The mesomorphic properties of all homologues were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and polarizing optical microscopy (POM). Enantiotropic smectic A (SmA) phase was observed for all homologues. The structure-property study was carried out by comparing the mesomorphic behavior of the homologues with those previously reported analogues. The bromine atom from the alkyloxy side chain of the benzene ring fused to the heterocyclic moiety was found to be capable of changing the mesomorphic properties.

  7. Influence of the nonlinearity parameter on the solar-wind sub-ion magnetic energy spectrum: FLR-Landau fluid simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Sulem, P L; Laveder, D; Borgogno, D

    2015-01-01

    The cascade of kinetic Alfv\\'en waves (KAWs) at the sub-ion scales in the solar wind is numerically simulated using a fluid approach that retains ion and electron Landau damping, together with ion finite Larmor radius corrections. Assuming initially equal and isotropic ion and electron temperatures, and an ion beta equal to unity, different simulations are performed by varying the propagation direction and the amplitude of KAWs that are randomly driven at a transverse scale of about one fifth of the proton gyroradius in order to maintain a prescribed level of turbulent fluctuations. The resulting turbulent regimes are characterized by the nonlinearity parameter, defined as the ratio of the characteristic times of Alfv\\'en wave propagation and of the transverse nonlinear dynamics. The corresponding transverse magnetic energy spectra display power laws with exponents spanning a range of values consistent with spacecraft observations. The meandering of the magnetic field lines together with the ion temperature h...

  8. SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT – KEY FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Daniela DINU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper exposes Supply Chain Management by its key factors. Briefly, where the Supply Chain Management is treated as strategic part of a company then maintaining both control and influence throughout the entire supply chain are key factors and critical to success. On the other hand, finding the right partner to manage the non-strategic Supply Chains would be another key factor too. To define the most important key factors within Supply Chain Management means a deeply understanding of both Supply Chain’ s components, procedures, workflow, processes and the importance of Supply Chain Management into maximizing company's value. SCORE model able to provide solid information about measuring performance and identifying priorities within Supply Chain Management will help us to understand the key factors by analyzing its elements: Plan, Source, Make, Deliver,Return, Enable. These elements covers all the challenging areas from first to third tier of Supply Chain Management.

  9. To the influence of nonlinear damping on the bifurcation phenomena in gear mesh of one branch of power flow og the pseudoplanetary gear system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hortel, Milan; Škuderová, Alena

    Prague: Institute of Thermomechanics AS CR, v. v. i., 2008 - (Fuis, V.; Pásek, M.), s. 92-93 ISBN 978-80-87012-11-6. [Engineering Mechanics 2008. Svratka (CZ), 12.05.2008-15.05.2008] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA101/07/0884 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : nonlinear damping * parametric vibration * gear system Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics

  10. Spin chain sigma models with fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, Rafael [Institut de Physique, Universite de Neuchatel, Breguet 1, CH-2000 Neuchatel (Switzerland)]. E-mail: rafael.hernandez@cern.ch; Lopez, [Departamento de Fisica Teorica C-XI and Instituto de Fisica Teorica C-XVI, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2004-11-01

    The complete one-loop planar dilatation operator of N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills is isomorphic to the hamiltonian of an integrable PSU(2,2 vertical bar 4) quantum spin chain. We construct the non-linear sigma models describing the continuum limit of the SU(1|3) and SU(2|3) sectors of the complete N=4 chain. We explicitly identify the spin chain sigma model with the one for a superstring moving in AdS{sub 5} x S{sup 5} with large angular momentum along the five-sphere. (author)

  11. Nonlinear (Anharmonic Casimir Oscillator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibollah Razmi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We want to study the dynamics of a simple linear harmonic micro spring which is under the influence of the quantum Casimir force/pressure and thus behaves as a (an nonlinear (anharmonic Casimir oscillator. Generally, the equation of motion of this nonlinear micromechanical Casimir oscillator has no exact solvable (analytical solution and the turning point(s of the system has (have no fixed position(s; however, for particular values of the stiffness of the micro spring and at appropriately well-chosen distance scales and conditions, there is (are approximately sinusoidal solution(s for the problem (the variable turning points are collected in a very small interval of positions. This, as a simple and elementary plan, may be useful in controlling the Casimir stiction problem in micromechanical devices.

  12. Influence of nonlinear thermal radiation and Magnetic field on upper-convected Maxwell fluid flow due to a convectively heated stretching sheet in the presence of dust particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koneri L. Krupalakshmi

    Full Text Available A numerical investigation of two-dimensional MHD boundary layer flow and thermal characteristics of an electrically conducting dusty non-Newtonian fluid over a convectively heated stretching sheet has been considered. The effects of nonlinear thermal radiation, heat source or sink and viscous dissipation are also taken into the account. The Rosseland approximation is used to model the nonlinear thermal radiation. Suitable similarity transformations are used to transform the flow governing equations into a set of nonlinear differential equations of one independent variable. The Shooting method is adopted to solve transformed equations. The effects of various material parameters on the flow and heat transfer in terms of velocity and temperature distributions are drawn in the form of graphs and are briefly discussed. The numerical computations for the Nusselt number and skin friction drag are also carried out for the emerging parameters of interest in the problem. The obtained numerical results show the good agreement with the existing one for limiting case.

  13. Innovation Trajectories in Honduras' Coffee Value Chain. Public and Private Influence on the Use of New Knowledge and Technology among Coffee Growers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Hartwich

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available  In this paper, results from a study on the use of improved coffee production technology schemes among smallholder coffee producers in three prominent coffee producing regions in Honduras are presented. The impact of various schemes (trajectories in which different agents influence the producers’ decision to use new technologies was analyzed. In particular, there are differences in the influence of a private coffee buying organizations and b government and public development agencies on the innovation behavior of coffee growers. Drawing from network data that depict the internal and outbound connectedness of producers in three village communities in main coffee producing zones in Honduras, tools of social network analysis were applied to find out how interactions with certain agents, separately and cumulatively, has influenced their use of improved methods in coffee production and marketing. The results suggest that there are significant differences in the way that various providers of knowledge and technology, especially private buyers and development agencies, influence the farmers’ behavior towards innovation. The influence of buyers, according to the data, is focused on certification and quality aspects, whereas development agents focus on improved agronomic practices. Farmers who communicate with the extension branch of input providers tend to be more innovative. These results suggest that development programs should take more seriously into account the role of private actors in innovation among agricultural producers and, hence, design development programs in such a way to allow for collaboration with these agents.

  14. MELTING AND CRYSTALLIZATION BEHAVIOR OF AN AROMATIC POLY (AZOMETHINE ETHER) WITH NON-LINEARLY SHAPED MOLECULAR CONFORMATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Jianan; XU Mao; LI Xiaofang; ZHANG Qizhen

    1995-01-01

    The melting and crystallization behavior have been investigated for an aromatic poly (azomethine ether)with non-linearly shaped molecular conformations.This polymer was found to undergo multiple melting processes and its phase transition behavior was influenced sensitively by the thermal history of sample. A significant difference between the polymer chain aggregation abilities of samples cooled from the different states was observed. The possible molecular morphology and aggregation models for describing the structures of this polymer were proposed and discussed. The crystallization behavior of the samples cooled from the partially isotropic state and the influence of cooling rate on it have also been examined with DSC.

  15. Crater Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] The large crater at the top of this THEMIS visible image has several other craters inside of it. Most noticeable are the craters that form a 'chain' on the southern wall of the large crater. These craters are a wonderful example of secondary impacts. They were formed when large blocks of ejecta from an impact crashed back down onto the surface of Mars. Secondaries often form radial patterns around the impact crater that generated them, allowing researchers to trace them back to their origin.Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 19.3, Longitude 347.5 East (12.5 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

  16. Optical regulation of cell chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoshuai; Huang, Jianbin; Zhang, Yao; Li, Baojun

    2015-06-01

    Formation of cell chains is a straightforward and efficient method to study the cell interaction. By regulating the contact sequence and interaction distance, the influence of different extracellular cues on the cell interaction can be investigated. However, it faces great challenges in stable retaining and precise regulation of cell chain, especially in cell culture with relatively low cell concentration. Here we demonstrated an optical method to realize the precise regulation of cell chain, including removing or adding a single cell, adjusting interaction distance, and changing cell contact sequence. After injecting a 980-nm wavelength laser beam into a tapered optical fiber probe (FP), a cell chain of Escherichia colis (E. colis) is formed under the optical gradient force. By manipulating another FP close to the cell chain, a targeted E. coli cell can be trapped by the FP and removed from the chain. Further, the targeted cell can be added back to the chain at different positions to change the cell contact sequence. The experiments were interpreted by numerical simulations and the impact of cell sizes and shapes on this method was analyzed.

  17. Nonlinear Observer Design for Nonlinear Pendulum Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. V. SUNDARAPANDIAN

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the nonlinear observer design for nonlinear pendulum systems. Explicitly, Sundarapandian’s theorem (2002) for observer design for nonlinear systems is used to solve the problem of local exponential observer design for nonlinear pendulum systems. In this paper, we derive results for exponential observer design for pendulum systems for three cases, viz. (a) no damping, (b) linear damping and (c) quadratic damping. Numerical examples and simulations of nonlinear observer ...

  18. Bacterial membrane activity of a-peptide/b-peptoid chimeras: Influence of amino acid composition and chain length on the activity against different bacterial strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hein-Kristensen, Line; Knapp, Kolja M; Franzyk, Henrik;

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Characterization and use of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) requires that their mode of action is determined. The interaction of membrane-active peptides with their target is often established using model membranes, however, the actual permeabilization of live bacterial cells and...... permeabilization of the bacterial cell envelope, and the outer membrane may act as a barrier in Gram-negative bacteria. The tolerance of S. marcescens to chimeras may be due to differences in the composition of the lipopolysaccharide layer also responsible for its resistance to polymyxin B....... subsequent killing is usually not tested. In this report, six α-peptide/β-peptoid chimeras were examined for the effect of amino acid/peptoid substitutions and chain length on the membrane perturbation and subsequent killing of food-borne and clinical bacterial isolates. RESULTS: All six AMP analogues...

  19. FTIR-ATR study of the influence of the pyrimidine analog of fluphenazine on the chain-melting phase transition of sphingomyelin membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuć, Marta; Cieślik-Boczula, Katarzyna; Świątek, Piotr; Jaszczyszyn, Agata; Gąsiorowski, Kazimierz; Malinka, Wiesław

    2015-09-01

    The membrane perturbing potency of the highly effective anti-multidrug resistance (MDR) pyrimidine analog of fluphenazine (FPh-prm), has been studied using attenuated total reflectance Fourier-transfer infrared spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR). The temperature- and FPh-prm-dose-dependent evolutions of the infrared spectra of FPh-prm/sphingomyelin (SM) mixtures were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA). It has been postulated that the distinct anti-MDR activity of FPh-prm could be related to its ability to affect the modification of SM membranes. A reduction in the temperature of the chain-melting phase transition was observed in FPh-prm-mixed SM membranes together with the loosing of the phase transition cooperativity. Increasing the temperature led to the trans to gauche isomerization of FPh-prm-rich lipid membranes, which resulted in the gradual release of FPh-prm from the lipid membrane to the water phase.

  20. Influence of the ordered structure of short-chain polymer molecule all-trans-β-carotene on Raman scattering cross section in liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We measured the resonant Raman spectra of all-trans-β-carotene in solvents with different densities and concentrations at different temperatures. The results demonstrated that the Raman scattering cross section (RSCS) of short-chain polymer all-trans-β-carotene is extremely high in liquid. Resonance and strong coherent weakly damped CC bond vibrating properties play important roles under these conditions. Coherent weakly damped CC bond vibration strength is associated with molecular ordered structure. All-trans-β-carotene has highly ordered structure and strong coherent weakly damped CC bond vibrating properties, which lead to large RSCS in the solvent with large density and low concentration at low temperature. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  1. Differential evolution Markov chain with snooker updater and fewer chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrugt, Jasper A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ter Braak, Cajo J F [NON LANL

    2008-01-01

    Differential Evolution Markov Chain (DE-MC) is an adaptive MCMC algorithm, in which multiple chains are run in parallel. Standard DE-MC requires at least N=2d chains to be run in parallel, where d is the dimensionality of the posterior. This paper extends DE-MC with a snooker updater and shows by simulation and real examples that DE-MC can work for d up to 50--100 with fewer parallel chains (e.g. N=3) by exploiting information from their past by generating jumps from differences of pairs of past states. This approach extends the practical applicability of DE-MC and is shown to be about 5--26 times more efficient than the optimal Normal random walk Metropolis sampler for the 97.5% point of a variable from a 25--50 dimensional Student T{sub 3} distribution. In a nonlinear mixed effects model example the approach outperformed a block-updater geared to the specific features of the model.

  2. Bayesian inference of nonlinear unsteady aerodynamics from aeroelastic limit cycle oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Rimple; Poirel, Dominique; Pettit, Chris; Khalil, Mohammad; Sarkar, Abhijit

    2016-07-01

    A Bayesian model selection and parameter estimation algorithm is applied to investigate the influence of nonlinear and unsteady aerodynamic loads on the limit cycle oscillation (LCO) of a pitching airfoil in the transitional Reynolds number regime. At small angles of attack, laminar boundary layer trailing edge separation causes negative aerodynamic damping leading to the LCO. The fluid-structure interaction of the rigid, but elastically mounted, airfoil and nonlinear unsteady aerodynamics is represented by two coupled nonlinear stochastic ordinary differential equations containing uncertain parameters and model approximation errors. Several plausible aerodynamic models with increasing complexity are proposed to describe the aeroelastic system leading to LCO. The likelihood in the posterior parameter probability density function (pdf) is available semi-analytically using the extended Kalman filter for the state estimation of the coupled nonlinear structural and unsteady aerodynamic model. The posterior parameter pdf is sampled using a parallel and adaptive Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm. The posterior probability of each model is estimated using the Chib-Jeliazkov method that directly uses the posterior MCMC samples for evidence (marginal likelihood) computation. The Bayesian algorithm is validated through a numerical study and then applied to model the nonlinear unsteady aerodynamic loads using wind-tunnel test data at various Reynolds numbers.

  3. Graphs: Associated Markov Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Murthy, Garimella Rama

    2012-01-01

    In this research paper, weighted / unweighted, directed / undirected graphs are associated with interesting Discrete Time Markov Chains (DTMCs) as well as Continuous Time Markov Chains (CTMCs). The equilibrium / transient behaviour of such Markov chains is studied. Also entropy dynamics (Shannon entropy) of certain structured Markov chains is investigated. Finally certain structured graphs and the associated Markov chains are studied.

  4. Influence of an ambient magnetic field on the nonlinear modulational stability of circularly polarized electromagnetic pulses in a two-component neutral plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous results on the nonlinear modulational stability properties of plasma electromagnetic pulses are extended to include the presence of an ambient magnetic field B0 parallel to the direction of propagation. As before, the pulse is assumed to be sufficiently strong to accelerate particles to weakly, but not fully, relativistic velocities. The positive component may consist of either positrons or singly charged ions, and no specific assumptions or approximations are made concerning the mass ratio of the components. The plasma is assumed to be fully ionized. The effects of a finite temperature are included for generality. Using singular perturbations, approximate solutions are derived that describe the evolution of a circularly polarized pulse. The envelope is shown to evolve over long time scales according to the cubic nonlinear Schrodinger (NLS) equation. Relativistic corrections and ponderomotive forces both contribute terms cubic in the amplitude. It is shown that, even for a cold plasma, the presence of an ambient magnetic field makes a decisive difference: modulational instability can arise within a broad range of frequencies and values of B0, in particular for a pure positron-electron plasma. For given B0 and polarization the existence of critical frequencies for the onset of modulational instability is demonstrated. This result has important consequences for observations of pulsar micropulses and possible technological applications. (author)

  5. The electrostatic interactions of relaxin-3 with receptor RXFP4 and the influence of its B-chain C-terminal conformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-Yi; Guo, Yu-Qi; Zhang, Wei-Jie; Shao, Xiao-Xia; Liu, Ya-Li; Xu, Zeng-Guang; Guo, Zhan-Yun

    2014-07-01

    Relaxin-3 (also known as insulin-like peptide 7) is an insulin/relaxin-superfamily peptide hormone that can bind and activate three relaxin-family peptide receptors: RXFP3, RXFP4, and RXFP1. Recently, we identified key electrostatic interactions between relaxin-3 and its cognate receptor RXFP3 by using a charge-exchange mutagenesis approach. In the present study, the electrostatic interactions between relaxin-3 and RXFP4 were investigated with the same approach. Mutagenesis of the negatively charged extracellular residues of human RXFP4 identified a conserved EXXXD(100-104) motif that is essential for RXFP4 activation by relaxin-3. Mutagenesis of the conserved positively charged Arg residues of relaxin-3 demonstrated that B12Arg, B16Arg and B26Arg were all involved in the binding and activation of RXFP4, especially B26Arg. The activity complementation between the mutant ligands and the mutant receptors suggested two probable electrostatic interaction pairs: Glu100 of RXFP4 versus B26Arg of relaxin-3, and Asp104 of RXFP4 versus both B12Arg and B16Arg of relaxin-3. For interaction with the essential EXXXD motifs of both RXFP3 and RXFP4, a folding-back conformation of the relaxin-3 B-chain C-terminus seems to be critical, because it brings B26Arg sufficiently close to B12Arg and B16Arg. To test this hypothesis, we replaced the conserved B23Gly-B24Gly dipeptide of relaxin-3 with an Ala-Ser dipeptide that occupied the corresponding position of insulin-like peptide 5 and resulted in an extended helical conformation. The mutant relaxin-3 showed a significant decrease in receptor-activation potency towards both RXFP3 and RXFP4, suggesting that a folding-back conformation of the B-chain C-terminus was important for relaxin-3 to efficiently interact with the EXXXD motifs of both receptors. PMID:24802387

  6. Dark Energy and Non-linear Perturbations

    OpenAIRE

    BRUCK, C.; Mota, D. F.

    2005-01-01

    Dark energy might have an influence on the formation of non--linear structures during the cosmic history. For example, in models in which dark energy couples to dark matter, it will be non--homogeneous and will influence the collapse of a dark matter overdensity. We use the spherical collapse model to estimate how much influence dark energy might have.

  7. Internal friction and mode relaxation in a simple chain model

    OpenAIRE

    Fugmann, S.; I. M. Sokolov

    2009-01-01

    We consider equilibrium relaxation properties of the end-to-end distance and of principal components in a one-dimensional polymer chain model with nonlinear interaction between the beads. While for the single-well potentials these properties are similar to the ones of a Rouse chain, for the double-well interaction potentials, modeling internal friction, they differ vastly from the ones of the harmonic chain at intermediate times and intermediate temperatures. This minimal description within a...

  8. Nonlinear resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Rajasekar, Shanmuganathan

    2016-01-01

    This introductory text presents the basic aspects and most important features of various types of resonances and anti-resonances in dynamical systems. In particular, for each resonance, it covers the theoretical concepts, illustrates them with case studies, and reviews the available information on mechanisms, characterization, numerical simulations, experimental realizations, possible quantum analogues, applications and significant advances made over the years. Resonances are one of the most fundamental phenomena exhibited by nonlinear systems and refer to specific realizations of maximum response of a system due to the ability of that system to store and transfer energy received from an external forcing source. Resonances are of particular importance in physical, engineering and biological systems - they can prove to be advantageous in many applications, while leading to instability and even disasters in others. The book is self-contained, providing the details of mathematical derivations and techniques invo...

  9. An Assessment of the Influence of the Industry Distribution Chain on the Oxygen Levels in Commercial Modified Atmosphere Packaged Cheddar Cheese Using Non-Destructive Oxygen Sensor Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O' Callaghan, Karen A M; Papkovsky, Dmitri B; Kerry, Joseph P

    2016-01-01

    The establishment and control of oxygen levels in packs of oxygen-sensitive food products such as cheese is imperative in order to maintain product quality over a determined shelf life. Oxygen sensors quantify oxygen concentrations within packaging using a reversible optical measurement process, and this non-destructive nature ensures the entire supply chain can be monitored and can assist in pinpointing negative issues pertaining to product packaging. This study was carried out in a commercial cheese packaging plant and involved the insertion of 768 sensors into 384 flow-wrapped cheese packs (two sensors per pack) that were flushed with 100% carbon dioxide prior to sealing. The cheese blocks were randomly assigned to two different storage groups to assess the effects of package quality, packaging process efficiency, and handling and distribution on package containment. Results demonstrated that oxygen levels increased in both experimental groups examined over the 30-day assessment period. The group subjected to a simulated industrial distribution route and handling procedures of commercial retailed cheese exhibited the highest level of oxygen detected on every day examined and experienced the highest rate of package failure. The study concluded that fluctuating storage conditions, product movement associated with distribution activities, and the possible presence of cheese-derived contaminants such as calcium lactate crystals were chief contributors to package failure. PMID:27331815

  10. INFLUENCE OF GREEN MANURE AND INTERCROPPING CULTURES IN THE CHAIN OF IRRIGATED CROP ROTATION ON PRODUCTIVITY AND QUALITY OF VEGETABLE CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babichev A. N.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results for the study of productivity and quality of vegetable crops in irrigated chains of crop rotation by using intermediate and green manure crops. The greatest number of units of grain produced in the first variant of the experiment, where in a part of crop rotation cultivated sweet corn, mustard as a green manure for potato and onion planting summer planting seeds in the ground and reached 37.4 tons of grain units. The infection of potato tubers with complex disease was lowest at the control variant and compose 11 %. The highest infection with diseases of potatoes fixed at the intermediate and without the use of Side-General culture and was 18 %, which is 63.6 % more than the control options. When we are using intermediate crops diseases of onion increased by 7,7–15,4 % in case of green manure using. When you include treatment of the soil under the previous culture it was the largest infest with diseases and was 16–17 %, which is by 23.1 and 30.8 % higher than in the control variant. Based on these results, we can conclude that the use of green manure crops and intermediates more favorable effect both on the productivity of the subsequent crops or the quality and marketability

  11. An Assessment of the Influence of the Industry Distribution Chain on the Oxygen Levels in Commercial Modified Atmosphere Packaged Cheddar Cheese Using Non-Destructive Oxygen Sensor Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’ Callaghan, Karen A.M.; Papkovsky, Dmitri B.; Kerry, Joseph P.

    2016-01-01

    The establishment and control of oxygen levels in packs of oxygen-sensitive food products such as cheese is imperative in order to maintain product quality over a determined shelf life. Oxygen sensors quantify oxygen concentrations within packaging using a reversible optical measurement process, and this non-destructive nature ensures the entire supply chain can be monitored and can assist in pinpointing negative issues pertaining to product packaging. This study was carried out in a commercial cheese packaging plant and involved the insertion of 768 sensors into 384 flow-wrapped cheese packs (two sensors per pack) that were flushed with 100% carbon dioxide prior to sealing. The cheese blocks were randomly assigned to two different storage groups to assess the effects of package quality, packaging process efficiency, and handling and distribution on package containment. Results demonstrated that oxygen levels increased in both experimental groups examined over the 30-day assessment period. The group subjected to a simulated industrial distribution route and handling procedures of commercial retailed cheese exhibited the highest level of oxygen detected on every day examined and experienced the highest rate of package failure. The study concluded that fluctuating storage conditions, product movement associated with distribution activities, and the possible presence of cheese-derived contaminants such as calcium lactate crystals were chief contributors to package failure. PMID:27331815

  12. Influence of Polymerization Methods and Chain-Extension Agent on Relative Molecular Weight of Polylactide%聚合方法和扩链剂对乳酸聚合物相对分子质量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    封瑞江; 时维振

    2001-01-01

    The influence of melt polycondensation a nd solvent refluxing methods of lactide polymerization and chain-extension agent s on relative molecular weight of polyla ctide was studied.It was found that the r elative molecular weight of the products from solvent refluxing method was 2~3 t imes higher than that of the products fr om melt polycondensation method.However, the relative molecular weight of the pro ducts for polylactide was increased more than ten times on using chain-extension agents.%研究了乳酸熔融缩聚和溶剂回流脱水缩聚两种聚合方法及几种扩链剂对乳酸聚合物相对分子质量的影响。结果表明,溶剂回流脱水缩聚所得聚合物的相对分子质量是乳酸熔融缩聚的2 ~3倍,而通过加入合适的扩链剂可使乳酸聚合物的相对分子质量提高十几倍。

  13. Polariton spectrum in nonlinear dielectric medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzedolik, Igor V; Karakchieva, Olga

    2013-05-01

    We obtain theoretically the phonon-polariton spectrum in nonlinear dielectric medium with the third-order Kerr-type nonlinearity. We investigate the dependence of number of the polariton spectrum branches on the intensity of electromagnetic field and demonstrate that the appearance of new branches located in the polariton spectrum gap is caused by the influence of dispersion of the third-order dielectric susceptibility at the intensive electromagnetic field in the medium. The modulation instability of new spectrum branch waves leads to the appearance of the cnoidal waves or solitons. These new nonlinear waves one can use for designing optical devices such as the nonlinear optical filter converter. PMID:23669776

  14. Influence of transition metal atoms doping on structural, electronic and nonlinear optical properties of Mg12O12 nanoclusters: A DFT study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamlouei, Hamid Reza; Nouri, Amin; Mohammadi, Asghar; Tehrani, Abbas Dadkhah

    2016-03-01

    Using density functional theory, we investigated the effect of transition metal doping on structural, electronic, energetic, linear and nonlinear optical properties of Mg12O12 nanocluster. The result revealed that transition metal atoms doping lead to reduce the Eg and increase the dipole moment. The doping of transition metal atom on Mg12O12 nanocluster enhances its polarizability value. Also polarizability values for doped nanoclusters decrease as the atomic number of transition metal increase. The first hyperpolarizability value dramatically increases as substitute a magnesium atom with a transition metal atom. Among the transition metal atom doped nanocage, scandium has the largest first hyperpolarizability value (β◦≈47,872 au). The stability and remarkable values of β◦ (for Sc, Ti and V doped of nanocage) suggest that these compounds may be applicable as NLO material in industrial.

  15. Modulational instability and resonant wave modes act on the metastability of oscillator chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Torsten; Hennig, Dirk; Schimansky-Geier, Lutz

    2014-09-01

    We describe the emergence and interactions of breather modes and resonant wave modes within a two-dimensional ringlike oscillator chain in a microcanonical situation. Our analytical results identify different dynamical regimes characterized by the potential dominance of either type of mode. The chain is initially placed in a metastable state, which it can leave by passing over the brim of the applied Mexican-hat-like potential. We elucidate the influence of the different wave modes on the mean-first passage time. A central finding is that also in this complex potential landscape a fast noise-free escape scenario solely relying on nonlinear cooperative effects is accomplishable even in a low-energy setting. PMID:25314516

  16. Nonlinear analysis of wind-induced vibration of high-speed railway catenary and its influence on pantograph-catenary interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yang; Liu, Zhigang; Wang, Hongrui; Lu, Xiaobing; Zhang, Jing

    2016-06-01

    The wind-induced vibration of the high-speed catenary and the dynamic behaviour of the pantograph-catenary under stochastic wind field are firstly analysed. The catenary model is established based on nonlinear cable and truss elements, which can fully describe the nonlinearity of each wire and the initial configuration. The model of the aerodynamic forces acting on the messenger/contact wire is deduced by considering the effect of the vertical and horizontal fluctuating winds. The vertical and horizontal fluctuating winds are simulated by employing the Davenport and Panofsky spectrums, respectively. The aerodynamic coefficients of the contact/messenger wire are calculated through computational fluid dynamics. The wind-induced vibration response of catenary is analysed with different wind speeds and angles. Its frequency-domain characteristics are discussed using Auto Regression model. Finally, a pantograph model is introduced and the contact force of the pantograph-catenary under stochastic wind is studied. The results show that both the wind speed and the attack angle exert a significant effect on the wind-induced vibration. The existence of the groove on the contact wire cross-section leads to a significant change of the aerodynamic coefficient, which affects largely the aerodynamic forces applied on the catenary wires, as well as the vibration response. The vibration frequency with high spectral power mainly concentrates on the predominant frequency of the fluctuating wind and the natural frequency of catenary. The increase in the wind speed results in a significant deterioration of the current collection. The numerical example shows that a relatively stable current collection can be ensured when the wind flows at the relatively horizontal direction.

  17. Dietary supplementation of short-chain fructooligosaccharides influences gastrointestinal microbiota composition and immunity characteristics of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, cultured in a recirculating system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Burr, Gary S; Gatlin, Delbert M; Hume, Michael E; Patnaik, Susmita; Castille, Frank L; Lawrence, Addison L

    2007-12-01

    Supplementation of prebiotic compounds, including short-chain fructooligosaccharides (scFOS) has been shown to confer benefits on nutrient utilization, growth, and disease resistance of various animal species through improved gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota. However, potential uses of prebiotics for shrimp have not been defined. A 6-wk feeding trial was conducted in a recirculating system to determine the effects of scFOS supplementation on growth performance, immune functions, and GI microbiota composition of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). scFOS was supplemented in a nutritionally complete diet (35% crude protein) at 0.025, 0.0500, 0.075, 0.100, 0.200, 0.400, and 0.800% by weight. After 6 wk of feeding, shrimp fed 0, 0.1, and 0.8% scFOS were sampled for assays of immune function and GI microbiota. Dietary supplementation of scFOS did not improve weight gain, feed conversion ratio, or survival of shrimp. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis suggested the intestinal tract microbial community from shrimp fed the basal diet was different from that of shrimp fed the scFOS diets [similarity coefficient (SC) = 74.9%)], although the intestinal tract microbial community from shrimp fed the scFOS-supplemented diets was very similar (SC = 92.3%). All the bacterial species contributing to the GI microbial differences were identified, although most of them are uncultured species. Both total hemocyte count and hemocyte respiratory burst increased (P < 0.05) by incremental dietary supplementation of scFOS (0-0.8%). This study is the first to our knowledge to show that dietary scFOS can selectively support growth of certain bacterial species in the GI tract of shrimp and enhance immunity, which may facilitate development of alternative strategies, including novel probiotics and synbiotics, for shrimp growth and health management. PMID:18029496

  18. PACKAGING QUALITY ASSURANCE IN SUPPLY CHAIN

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka Cholewa-Wójcik; Agnieszka Kawecka

    2014-01-01

    Packaging is a very important element in products quality maintenance that is why quality of packaging has great influence and its quality assurance is necessary. Physical flow in supply chain may deteriorate some of packaging features, so their monitoring and proper conditions of storage, transport and suitable protection are important.The main goal of the paper was to present model of packaging supply chain with elements that are most influencing packaging quality. In the model are consider...

  19. New Nonlinear Multigrid Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Dexuan

    1996-01-01

    The nonlinear multigrid is an efficient algorithm for solving the system of nonlinear equations arising from the numerical discretization of nonlinear elliptic boundary problems. In this paper, we present a new nonlinear multigrid analysis as an extension of the linear multigrid theory presented by Bramble. In particular, we prove the convergence of the nonlinear V-cycle method for a class of mildly nonlinear second order elliptic boundary value problems which do not have full elliptic regularity.

  20. Assessing DSGE model nonlinearities

    OpenAIRE

    S. Borağan Aruoba; Luigi Bocola; Frank Schorfheide

    2013-01-01

    We develop a new class of nonlinear time-series models to identify nonlinearities in the data and to evaluate nonlinear DSGE models. U.S. output growth and the federal funds rate display nonlinear conditional mean dynamics, while inflation and nominal wage growth feature conditional heteroskedasticity. We estimate a DSGE model with asymmetric wage/price adjustment costs and use predictive checks to assess its ability to account for nonlinearities. While it is able to match the nonlinear infla...

  1. Sinusoidal nonlinearity in wavelength-sweeping interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the influence of the nonlinearities in the wavelength-sweeping speed on the resulting interferometric signals in an absolute distance interferometer. The sweeping signal is launched in the reference and target interferometers from an external cavity laser source. The experimental results demonstrate a good resolution in spite of the presence of nonlinearities in the wavelength sweep. These nonlinearities can be modeled by a sum of sinusoids. A simulation is then implemented to analyze the influence of their parameters. It shows that a sinusoidal nonlinearity is robust enough to give a good final measurement uncertainty through a Fourier transform technique. It can be concluded that an optimal value of frequency and amplitude exists in the case of a sinusoidal nonlinearity

  2. Sinusoidal nonlinearity in wavelength-sweeping interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perret, Luc; Pfeiffer, Pierre

    2007-11-20

    We report the influence of the nonlinearities in the wavelength-sweeping speed on the resulting interferometric signals in an absolute distance interferometer. The sweeping signal is launched in the reference and target interferometers from an external cavity laser source. The experimental results demonstrate a good resolution in spite of the presence of nonlinearities in the wavelength sweep. These nonlinearities can be modeled by a sum of sinusoids. A simulation is then implemented to analyze the influence of their parameters. It shows that a sinusoidal nonlinearity is robust enough to give a good final measurement uncertainty through a Fourier transform technique. It can be concluded that an optimal value of frequency and amplitude exists in the case of a sinusoidal nonlinearity. PMID:18026546

  3. Ejection of ferrofluid grains from a ferrofluid using nonlinear acoustic impulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manciu, Felicia S.; Manciu, Marian; Sen, Surajit

    2000-03-01

    We consider a model study of a dilute ferrofluid in a container with a flat base and an open top surface with monodisperse ferrofluid grains that form a stable colloid in water or oil. The grains are assumed to be under the influence of a strong, uniform, external magnetic field. It is well known that due to the influence of the field, such a system forms chains of ferrofluid grains between the base and the surface of the liquid. The phase-separated system is then subjected to non-linear acoustic impulses at its base. We show that for impulses of any magnitude, it is possible to generate non-dispersive bundles of energy through the chains. By carrying out detailed dynamical simulations of impulse propagation in the chains, we show that for appropriate impulse magnitudes, the ferrofluid grains in each of the chains, which are in the vicinity of the surface, will overcome the force due to surface tension and eject into air. Ferrofluid grains carry a coating of the host liquid, which can be colored for water-based ferrofluids and hence the system may potentially be used to design a nozzle-free inkjet printer. For ferrofluid grains of typical diameter of about 100 Angstroms, the proposed system could lead one to develop inkjet printers with dot sizes that are less than 200 Angstroms and hence to a printing system of unparalleled resolution. [1] S. Sen, M. Manciu and F.S. Manciu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1479 (1999).

  4. Distinct signal transduction processes by IL-4 and IL-13 and influences from the Q551R variant of the human IL-4 receptor alpha chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braun Sandra

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although IL-4 and IL-13 share the IL-13 receptor, IL-13 exhibits unique functions. To elicit the cellular basis of these differences, signal transduction processes have been compared. Additionally, the role of the IL-4 receptor alpha (IL-4Rα variant Q551R was investigated. Methods Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from donors were stimulated with IL-4 and IL-13. The phosphorylation status of effector substrates was detected by immunostaining. Binding of SHP-2 to IL-4Rα was investigated by using synthetic peptides. Results SHP-2 bound IL-4Rα synthetic peptide; this binding was reduced in the presence of the R551 variant. Stimulation with IL-4 increased SHP-1 phosphorylation, however, stimulation with IL-13 increased SHP-2 phosphorylation. PI3-kinase phosphorylation was elevated following stimulation with IL-13 in all individuals and with IL-4 only in R551 individuals. Jak1, Tyk2 and IRS-2 signals were reduced after IL-13 stimulation in Q551 individuals. STAT3 phosphorylation was markedly increased in R551 individuals, following stimulation with both IL-4 and IL-13. However, STAT3 was only detected immediately in nuclear extracts from variant individuals after stimulation with IL-13; in wildtype individuals STAT3 was only detected after IL-4 treatment. Conclusion IL-4 and IL-13 appear to promote distinct signal transduction cascades. SHP-1 seems to be predominately activated by IL-4 and to influence the PI3-kinase, in contrast, SHP-2 seems to be predominately activated by IL-13 and to influence Jak1, Tyk2 and IRS-2. Both phosphatases control STAT3. In the presence of the variant R551, SHP-1/2 activation is reduced and signal transduction is altered. STAT3 signaling appears be further regulated on the level of nuclear translocation.

  5. [Nonlinear magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resistive MHD equilibrium, even for small resistivity, differs greatly from ideal equilibrium, as do the dynamical consequences of its instabilities. The requirement, imposed by Faraday's law, that time independent magnetic fields imply curl-free electric fields, greatly restricts the electric fields allowed inside a finite-resistivity plasma. If there is no flow and the implications of the Ohm's law are taken into account (and they need not be, for ideal equilibria), the electric field must equal the resistivity times the current density. The vanishing of the divergence of the current density then provides a partial differential equation which, together with boundary conditions, uniquely determines the scalar potential, the electric field, and the current density, for any given resistivity profile. The situation parallels closely that of driven shear flows in hydrodynamics, in that while dissipative steady states are somewhat more complex than ideal ones, there are vastly fewer of them to consider. Seen in this light, the vast majority of ideal MHD equilibria are just irrelevant, incapable of being set up in the first place. The steady state whose stability thresholds and nonlinear behavior needs to be investigated ceases to be an arbitrary ad hoc exercise dependent upon the whim of the investigator, but is determined by boundary conditions and choice of resistivity profile

  6. Modelling proton transfer in water molecule chains

    CERN Document Server

    Korzhimanov, Artem; Shutova, Tatiana; Samuelsson, Goran

    2011-01-01

    The process of protons transport in molecular water chains is of fundamental interest for many biological systems. Although many features of such systems can be analyzed using large-scale computational modeling, other features are better understood in terms of simplified model problems. Here we have tested, analytically and numerically, a model describing the classical proton hopping process in molecular water chains. In order to capture the main features of the proton hopping process in such molecular chains, we use a simplified model for our analysis. In particular, our discrete model describes a 1D chain of water molecules situated in an external protein channel structure, and each water molecule is allowed to oscillate around its equilibrium point in this system, while the protons are allowed to move along the line of neighboring oxygen atoms. The occurrence and properties of nonlinear solitary transport structures, allowing for much faster proton transport, are discussed, and the possible implications of...

  7. Influence of material non-linearity on the thermo-mechanical response of polymer foam cored sandwich structures - FE modelling and preliminary experiemntal results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palleti, Hara Naga Krishna Teja; Thomsen, Ole Thybo; Fruehmann, Richard.K;

    the model. The full stress-strain curves up to failure will be considered for the polymer foams at different temperatures in order to study the plasticity influence of polymer foam on the sandwich structures in detail. Due to stiff face sheets resting on the soft polymer core and the ratio of the...

  8. Health supply chain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Rolf; Gallagher, Pat

    2010-01-01

    This chapter gives an educational overview of: * The actual application of supply chain practice and disciplines required for service delivery improvement within the current health environment. * A rationale for the application of Supply Chain Management (SCM) approaches to the Health sector. * The tools and methods available for supply chain analysis and benchmarking. * Key supply chain success factors. PMID:20407173

  9. Silicone chain extender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a silicone chain extender, more particularly a chain extender for silicone polymers and copolymers, to a chain extended silicone polymer or copolymer and to a functionalized chain extended silicone polymer or copolymer, to a method for the preparation thereof and...

  10. Nonlinear singular vectors and nonlinear singular values

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A novel concept of nonlinear singular vector and nonlinear singular value is introduced, which is a natural generalization of the classical linear singular vector and linear singular value to the nonlinear category. The optimization problem related to the determination of nonlinear singular vectors and singular values is formulated. The general idea of this approach is demonstrated by a simple two-dimensional quasigeostrophic model in the atmospheric and oceanic sciences. The advantage and its applications of the new method to the predictability, ensemble forecast and finite-time nonlinear instability are discussed. This paper makes a necessary preparation for further theoretical and numerical investigations.

  11. Influence of chain extender content on property of polyurethane cellular material%扩链剂含量对聚氨酯微孔材料性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜春毅; 薛晓金; 温文宪; 刘旭; 林剑; 章海飞; 章芬成

    2014-01-01

    采用聚酯多元醇、发泡剂、表面活性剂等混合而成的组合料与异氰酸酯-聚酯多元醇的预聚物,经反应注射成型,制备聚氨酯发泡材料,考察了扩链剂 EG 的添加量对聚氨酯微孔材料结构与性能的影响。研究结果表明,随着 EG的引入,经过水解,材料的力学性能影响最小;聚氨酯软硬段的最高热失重温度均呈现升高趋势,聚氨酯的耐热性有了提高。%The composite materials mixed with polyesterpolyol , foaming agent, surface active agent etc.and the prepolymer of isocya-nate -polyesterpolyol were made into polyurethane foaming materials through reaction injection moulding .The influence of additive a-mount of chain extender EG on the structure and property of polyurethane cellular material was investigated .The research result shows that with the introduction of EG, the mechanical property of materials has least influence through hydrolysis , that the highest heat tem-perature of the soft and hard segments of polyurethane tends to increase and that heat endurance of polyurethane increases .

  12. Nonlinear photoacoustic spectroscopy of hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As light intensity increases in photoacoustic imaging, the saturation of optical absorption and the temperature dependence of the thermal expansion coefficient result in a measurable nonlinear dependence of the photoacoustic (PA) signal on the excitation pulse fluence. Here, under controlled conditions, we investigate the intensity-dependent photoacoustic signals from oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin at varied optical wavelengths and molecular concentrations. The wavelength and concentration dependencies of the nonlinear PA spectrum are found to be significantly greater in oxygenated hemoglobin than in deoxygenated hemoglobin. These effects are further influenced by the hemoglobin concentration. These nonlinear phenomena provide insights into applications of photoacoustics, such as measurements of average inter-molecular distances on a nm scale or with a tuned selection of wavelengths, a more accurate quantitative PA tomography

  13. Nonlinear photoacoustic spectroscopy of hemoglobin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danielli, Amos; Maslov, Konstantin; Favazza, Christopher P.; Xia, Jun; Wang, Lihong V., E-mail: LHWANG@WUSTL.EDU [Optical Imaging Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Washington University in St. Louis, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, Missouri 63130 (United States)

    2015-05-18

    As light intensity increases in photoacoustic imaging, the saturation of optical absorption and the temperature dependence of the thermal expansion coefficient result in a measurable nonlinear dependence of the photoacoustic (PA) signal on the excitation pulse fluence. Here, under controlled conditions, we investigate the intensity-dependent photoacoustic signals from oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin at varied optical wavelengths and molecular concentrations. The wavelength and concentration dependencies of the nonlinear PA spectrum are found to be significantly greater in oxygenated hemoglobin than in deoxygenated hemoglobin. These effects are further influenced by the hemoglobin concentration. These nonlinear phenomena provide insights into applications of photoacoustics, such as measurements of average inter-molecular distances on a nm scale or with a tuned selection of wavelengths, a more accurate quantitative PA tomography.

  14. Nonlinear properties of a graded-index photonic heterostructure

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B Tavakkoly Moghaddam; S Roshan Entezar; H Pashei Adl

    2013-05-01

    The optical properties of a one-dimensional (1D) photonic heterostructure with gradedindex nonlinear materials are demonstrated theoretically. The influence of the gradation profile of the graded-index nonlinear layers on the linear and nonlinear responses of the structure are analysed. It is shown that the -factor of the defect mode and the threshold input intensity to achieve the optical bistability in the used photonic heterostructure depend on the gradation profile of the gradedindex nonlinear layers.

  15. Energy localization in weakly dissipative resonant chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovaleva, Agnessa

    2016-08-01

    Localization of energy in oscillator arrays has been of interest for a number of years, with special attention paid to the role of nonlinearity and discreteness in the formation of localized structures. This work examines a different type of energy localization arising due to the presence of dissipation in nonlinear resonance arrays. As a basic model, we consider a Klein-Gordon chain of finite length subjected to a harmonic excitation applied at an edge of the chain. It is shown that weak dissipation may be a key factor preventing the emergence of resonance in the entire chain, even if its nondissipative analog is entirely captured into resonance. The resulting process in the dissipative oscillator array represents large-amplitude resonant oscillations in a part of the chain adjacent to the actuator and small-amplitude oscillations in the distant part of the chain. The conditions of the emergence of resonance as well as the conditions of energy localization are derived. An agreement between the obtained analytical results and numerical simulations is demonstrated.

  16. Nonlinear systems with fast and slow motions. Changes in the probability distribution for fast motions under the influence of slower ones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of slow processes on the probability distribution of fast random processes is investigated. By reviewing four examples we show that such influence is apparently of a universal character and that, in some cases, this universality is of multifractal form. As our examples we consider theoretically stochastic resonance, turbulent jets with acoustic forcing, and two problems studied experimentally by Shnoll on the influence of the Earth’s slow rotation on the probability distribution for the velocities of model Brownian particles and on alpha decay. In the case of stochastic resonance, the slow process is a low frequency, harmonic, external force. In the case of turbulent jets, the slow process is acoustic forcing. In the models based on Shnoll’s experiments, the slow processes are inertial forces arising from the rotation of the Earth, both about its own axis and about the Sun. It is shown that all of these slow processes cause changes in the probability distributions for the velocities of fast processes interacting with them, and that these changes are similar in form

  17. Structure of polymer chains under confinement

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jyotsana Lal

    2008-11-01

    We observe by SANS the structure of neutral polystyrene and charged polystyrene sulphonate chains in semi-dilute solutions confined in a model nanoporous glass, Vycor. The size of the free chains in solution is always larger than the pore diameter, 70. The use of a suitable mixture of hydrogenated and deuterated solvents and polymers enables us to measure directly the form factor of one single chain among the others. Single chain form factor was observed both for bulk and confined chains using the condition of zero average contrast. Our measurements on neutral polymer chains are in agreement with the theoretical predictions established by Daoud and de Gennes for chains confined in a cylindrical pore when the chains are entangled and laterally squeezed but remain ideal at large scale along the cylinder axis because of the screening of the excluded volume interactions (so-called regime of ``semi-dilute cigars"). For confined charged polymers, a peak is observed whose intensity increases with molecular weight and the asymptotic 1/ scattering region is extended compared to the bulk. We infer that the chains are sufficiently extended, under the influence of confinement, to highlight the large scale disordered structure of Vycor even under contrast matched conditions. The asymptotic behaviour of the observed interchain structure factor is ≈ 1/2 and ≈ 1/ for free and confined chains respectively.

  18. MARKOV CHAIN PORTFOLIO LIQUIDITY OPTIMIZATION MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eder Oliveira Abensur

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The international financial crisis of September 2008 and May 2010 showed the importance of liquidity as an attribute to be considered in portfolio decisions. This study proposes an optimization model based on available public data, using Markov chain and Genetic Algorithms concepts as it considers the classic duality of risk versus return and incorporating liquidity costs. The work intends to propose a multi-criterion non-linear optimization model using liquidity based on a Markov chain. The non-linear model was tested using Genetic Algorithms with twenty five Brazilian stocks from 2007 to 2009. The results suggest that this is an innovative development methodology and useful for developing an efficient and realistic financial portfolio, as it considers many attributes such as risk, return and liquidity.

  19. Nonlinear structure tensors

    OpenAIRE

    Brox, Thomas; Weickert, Joachim; Burgeth, Bernhard; Mrázek, Pavel

    2004-01-01

    In this article we introduce nonlinear versions of the popular structure tensor, also known as second moment matrix. These nonlinear structure tensors replace the Gaussian smoothing of the classical structure tensor by discontinuity-preserving nonlinear diffusions. While nonlinear diffusion is a well-established tool for scalar and vector-valued data, it has not often been used for tensor images so far. Two types of nonlinear diffusion processes for tensor data are studied: an isotropic one w...

  20. Deformations and Nonlinear Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Man'ko, V. I.; Marmo, G.; F. Zaccaria

    1997-01-01

    The q-deformation of harmonic oscillators is shown to lead to q-nonlinear vibrations. The examples of q-nonlinearized wave equation and Schr\\"odinger equation are considered. The procedure is generalized to broader class of nonlinearities related to other types of deformations. The nonlinear noncanonical transforms used in the deformation procedure are shown to preserve in some cases the linear dynamical equations, for instance, for the harmonic oscillators. The nonlinear coherent states and ...

  1. The Milk Supply Chain Project.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Howard; Thanassoulis, John

    2008-01-01

    This report presents the results of an Oxford University research project into the UK liquid milk supply chain. Financial sponsorship was kindly provided by the Milk Development Council (MDC) and by DEFRA. The research reported here is independent academic research which is not designed to further any group‟s particular agenda. We have striven to be as objective as possible. The project's aim is to investigate the competitive forces which influence the buyerseller relationsh...

  2. Solitons in an isolated helix chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peter Leth; Zolotaryuk, Alexander; Savin, A.V.

    1997-01-01

    first-, second-, and third-nearest neighbors. The set of nonlinear field equations with respect to the longitudinal and transverse (torsional and radial) displacements of the chain molecules has been derived and treated. Stable nontopological soliton solutions which describe supersonic pulses of...... longitudinal compression propagating together with localized transverse thickening (bulge) and torsional stretching (untwisting) have been found. The stability properties of these (three-component) soliton solutions have been studied by using numerical techniques developed for seeking solitary-wave solutions...

  3. The geodynamical evolution of the Northern Apennines chain (Central Italy): an exploring numerical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauselli, Cristina; Federico, Costanzo; Braun, Jean

    2004-04-01

    In this paper, 2D thermo-mechanical models with crustal deformation, driven by subduction, are performed to test the geodynamical scenario of a slab-retreat for the Northern Apennines chain (Central Italy). In the models, the lithosphere is regarded as a non-linear Maxwell visco-elastic body capable of brittle failure at low pressure and temperature and of viscous creep at elevated temperature, in Lagrangian description of deformations. We focus particularly on the time variation of the thermal field across the chain in order to evaluate the influence of temperature on the final crustal-scale deformation. Bearing in mind the difficulty to "frame" the history of an orogen in a simple, unique model and the intrinsic limitations of numerical technique, the performed models were able to give a deeper insight into the evolution of this region. On the basis of the results, we suggest that the presence of roll-back retreat together with the intrusion of an asthenospheric rise on the retreating lithosphere justify particular geological and geophysical features observed today across the chain. The models predict that this geodynamical scenario determines both the collapse of the previously formed Alpine orogen and the observed progradation of the deformation front toward east. The models also predict that the regional uplift that has interested the western sector of the chain (Tuscany), is due to the increase of temperature connected with the asthenospheric rise.

  4. Nonlinear organic plasmonics

    CERN Document Server

    Fainberg, B D

    2015-01-01

    Purely organic materials with negative and near-zero dielectric permittivity can be easily fabricated. Here we develop a theory of nonlinear non-steady-state organic plasmonics with strong laser pulses. The bistability response of the electron-vibrational model of organic materials in the condensed phase has been demonstrated. Non-steady-state organic plasmonics enable us to obtain near-zero dielectric permittivity during a short time. We have proposed to use non-steady-state organic plasmonics for the enhancement of intersite dipolar energy-transfer interaction in the quantum dot wire that influences on electron transport through nanojunctions. Such interactions can compensate Coulomb repulsions for particular conditions. We propose the exciton control of Coulomb blocking in the quantum dot wire based on the non-steady-state near-zero dielectric permittivity of the organic host medium.

  5. Network science, nonlinear science and infrastructure systems

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    Network Science, Nonlinear Science and Infrastructure Systems has been written by leading scholars in these areas. Its express purpose is to develop common theoretical underpinnings to better solve modern infrastructural problems. It is felt by many who work in these fields that many modern communication problems, ranging from transportation networks to telecommunications, Internet, supply chains, etc., are fundamentally infrastructure problems. Moreover, these infrastructure problems would benefit greatly from a confluence of theoretical and methodological work done with the areas of Network Science, Dynamical Systems and Nonlinear Science. This book is dedicated to the formulation of infrastructural tools that will better solve these types of infrastructural problems. .

  6. Nonlinear phononics using atomically thin membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midtvedt, Daniel; Isacsson, Andreas; Croy, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Phononic crystals and acoustic metamaterials are used to tailor phonon and sound propagation properties by utilizing artificial, periodic structures. Analogous to photonic crystals, phononic band gaps can be created, which influence wave propagation and, more generally, allow engineering of the acoustic properties of a system. Beyond that, nonlinear phenomena in periodic structures have been extensively studied in photonic crystals and atomic Bose-Einstein condensates in optical lattices. However, creating nonlinear phononic crystals or nonlinear acoustic metamaterials remains challenging and only few examples have been demonstrated. Here, we show that atomically thin and periodically pinned membranes support coupled localized modes with nonlinear dynamics. The proposed system provides a platform for investigating nonlinear phononics. PMID:25204322

  7. The Global Value Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Olav Jull

    The conference paper aims to develop the global value chain concept by including corporate internal value adding activities and competition to the basic framework in order to turn the global value chain into a strategic management tool......The conference paper aims to develop the global value chain concept by including corporate internal value adding activities and competition to the basic framework in order to turn the global value chain into a strategic management tool...

  8. Third-order nonlinear optical properties of spin-coating films containing benzo[α]phenoxazinium: from reverse saturated to saturated absorptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Fei [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Material Science, Soochow University, 199 Ren' Ai Road, Suzhou 215123 (China); Fang, Yu [School of Physical Science and Technology, Soochow University, 1 Shizi Street, Suzhou 215006 (China); Sun, Ru; Guo, Xiao-Zhi [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Material Science, Soochow University, 199 Ren' Ai Road, Suzhou 215123 (China); Song, Ying-Lin [School of Physical Science and Technology, Soochow University, 1 Shizi Street, Suzhou 215006 (China); Ge, Jian-Feng, E-mail: ge_jianfeng@hotmail.com [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Material Science, Soochow University, 199 Ren' Ai Road, Suzhou 215123 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Medical Optics, Suzhou Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215163 (China)

    2015-08-31

    The optical films based on poly(4-vinylphenol) and benzo[α]phenoxazinium dye with a long alkyl chain were obtained by spin-coating, and their optical properties are reported in this paper. UV–vis absorptions of the optical films showed that the absorption maxima were shifted about 40 nm by the influence of dye aggregation with increasing dye ratio. The third-order nonlinear optical properties of films were tested by Z-scan technique with a picosecond laser beam at 532 nm. The third-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities and second hyperpolarizabilities were up to 10{sup −10} and 10{sup −32} esu respectively. Meanwhile, the third-order nonlinear absorptions transformed from reverse saturated absorptions to saturated absorptions with increasing ratios of dye in doped films. The result of aggregation induced adjustable third-order nonlinear absorption can be confirmed from their TEM images. - Highlights: • Benzo[α]phenoxazinium containing optical films with poly(4-vinylphenol). • Optical property was influenced by dye aggregation. • The third-order nonlinear absorptions transformed from reverse saturated absorptions to saturated absorptions with increasing ratios of dye.

  9. Third-order nonlinear optical properties of spin-coating films containing benzo[α]phenoxazinium: from reverse saturated to saturated absorptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The optical films based on poly(4-vinylphenol) and benzo[α]phenoxazinium dye with a long alkyl chain were obtained by spin-coating, and their optical properties are reported in this paper. UV–vis absorptions of the optical films showed that the absorption maxima were shifted about 40 nm by the influence of dye aggregation with increasing dye ratio. The third-order nonlinear optical properties of films were tested by Z-scan technique with a picosecond laser beam at 532 nm. The third-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities and second hyperpolarizabilities were up to 10−10 and 10−32 esu respectively. Meanwhile, the third-order nonlinear absorptions transformed from reverse saturated absorptions to saturated absorptions with increasing ratios of dye in doped films. The result of aggregation induced adjustable third-order nonlinear absorption can be confirmed from their TEM images. - Highlights: • Benzo[α]phenoxazinium containing optical films with poly(4-vinylphenol). • Optical property was influenced by dye aggregation. • The third-order nonlinear absorptions transformed from reverse saturated absorptions to saturated absorptions with increasing ratios of dye

  10. Endogenous Contracts Under Bargaining in Competing Vertical Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Milliou, Chrysovalantou; Petrakis, Emmanuel; Vettas, Nikolaos

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the endogenous determination of contracts in competing vertical chains where upstream and downstream firms bargain first over the type of contract and then over the contract terms. Upstream firms always opt for non-linear contracts, which specify the input quantity and its total price. Downstream firms also opt for non-linear contracts, unless their bargaining power is low, in which case they prefer wholesale price contracts. While welfare is maximized under two-part tariffs, t...

  11. Chain-Chain Based Routing Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia A Ali

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor network (WSN is an emerging technology for monitoring physical world. WSNs consist of large numbers of sensor nodes operated by battery mostly in harsh environment. Thus energy conservation is a primary issue for organization of these sensor nodes. Another crucial issue is the data delivery time by sensor nodes to the sink node, especially in Military, medical fields, and security monitoring systems where minimum delay is desirable. Number of protocols has been proposed in the literature for routing. One of such protocols is the cluster based routing protocol LEACH (low energy adaptive clustering hierarchy. LEACH protocol organizes WSN into a set of clusters and a periodic voting for cluster head is performed in order to be evenly distributed among all the sensors of the WSN. This periodical cluster head voting in LEACH, however, consumes an amount of non-negligible energy and other resources. For energy conservation, PEGASIS (power efficient gathering in sensor information systems a near optimal chain-based protocol has been proposed, however, it is faced with the challenge of long delay for the transmitted data. Another routing protocol called CCM (Chain-Cluster based Mixed routing, which is mainly a hybrid of LEACH and PEGASIS is proposed, the consumed energy increases as network size increases. In this paper, we propose an efficient routing protocol called CCBRP (Chain-Chain based routing protocol, it achieves both minimum energy consumption and minimum delay. The CCBRP protocol mainly divides a WSN into a number of chains (Greedy algorithm is used to form each chain as in PEGSIS protocol and runs in two phases. In the first phase, sensor nodes in each chain transmit data to their chain leader nodes in parallel. In the second phase, all chain leader nodes form a chain (also, using Greedy algorithm and choose randomly a leader node then all chain leader nodes send their data to this chosen leader node. This chosen leader node

  12. Polariton spectrum in nonlinear dielectric medium

    OpenAIRE

    Dzedolik, Igor V.; Karakchieva, O.

    2012-01-01

    We obtain theoretically the phonon-polariton spectrum in nonlinear dielectric medium with the third order Kerr-type nonlinearity. We investigate the dependence of number of the polariton spectrum branches on the intensity of electromagnetic field and demonstrate that the appearance of new branches located in the polariton spectrum gap is caused by the influence of dispersion of the third order dielectric susceptibility at intensity field in the medium. The modulation instability of new branch...

  13. Nonlinear optical studies of curcumin metal derivatives with cw laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henari, F. Z., E-mail: fzhenari@rcsi-mub.com; Cassidy, S. [Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Medical University of Bahrain (Bahrain)

    2015-03-30

    We report on measurements of the nonlinear refractive index and nonlinear absorption coefficients for curcumin and curcumin metal complexes of boron, copper, and iron at different wavelengths using the Z-scan technique. These materials are found to be novel nonlinear media. It was found that the addition of metals slightly influences its nonlinearity. These materials show a large negative nonlinear refractive index of the order of 10{sup −7} cm{sup 2}/W and negative nonlinear absorption of the order of 10{sup −6} cm/W. The origin of the nonlinearity was investigated by comparison of the formalism that is known as the Gaussian decomposition model with the thermal lens model. The optical limiting behavior based on the nonlinear refractive index was also investigated.

  14. Nonlinear optical studies of curcumin metal derivatives with cw laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henari, F. Z.; Cassidy, S.

    2015-03-01

    We report on measurements of the nonlinear refractive index and nonlinear absorption coefficients for curcumin and curcumin metal complexes of boron, copper, and iron at different wavelengths using the Z-scan technique. These materials are found to be novel nonlinear media. It was found that the addition of metals slightly influences its nonlinearity. These materials show a large negative nonlinear refractive index of the order of 10-7 cm2/W and negative nonlinear absorption of the order of 10-6 cm/W. The origin of the nonlinearity was investigated by comparison of the formalism that is known as the Gaussian decomposition model with the thermal lens model. The optical limiting behavior based on the nonlinear refractive index was also investigated.

  15. Nonlinear optical studies of curcumin metal derivatives with cw laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on measurements of the nonlinear refractive index and nonlinear absorption coefficients for curcumin and curcumin metal complexes of boron, copper, and iron at different wavelengths using the Z-scan technique. These materials are found to be novel nonlinear media. It was found that the addition of metals slightly influences its nonlinearity. These materials show a large negative nonlinear refractive index of the order of 10−7 cm2/W and negative nonlinear absorption of the order of 10−6 cm/W. The origin of the nonlinearity was investigated by comparison of the formalism that is known as the Gaussian decomposition model with the thermal lens model. The optical limiting behavior based on the nonlinear refractive index was also investigated

  16. SIMULATING THE SUPPLY DISRUPTION FOR THE COORDINATED SUPPLY CHAIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    There are many disruptive accidents in the supply chain operations system and achieving the coordination of supply chain is main objective for supply chain research. While disruptive accidents have increasingly influenced the coordinated operation of the supply chain, existing research literature on the supply chain coordination is setting in a stationary environment. The answer for how the disruptive accidents affect the coordinated supply chain is given in this paper. Based on the benchmark supply chain which is coordinated by the negative incentive mechanism, we study the impacts of supply disruption on the supply chain system by using simulation approach in which two different distribution function of random variable are used to express the supply disruption. Comparison between these two simulation results and possible coordination mechanism under the supply disruption are proposed. From the perspective of supply chain risk management, we provide the inspiration for the manager.

  17. Studies on Single Chain Structure of Konjac Glucomannan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANG Jie; SUN Yu-Jing; SUN Yuan-Ming

    2006-01-01

    The simulation is carried out by employing the method of molecular dynamics with the single chain of konjac glucomannan (KGM) in vacuum as the structural model to discuss the factors that affect the single chain structure, the dynamic structure of the chain and the acting forces that maintain the chain structure. The results show that the shape and stability of the chain are affected by the degree of polymerization. As for the KGM with high degree of polymerization, its chain presents random coiling state and its stability declines. Both before and after deacetylation in the process of dynamic motion, the chain of KGM presents random coiling state with periodic variation of extension and coil and demonstrates favorable flexibility, indicating acetyl is not the main factor that affects the shape of chain, whereas dihedral angle and static actions are respectively the key bonding and nonbonding acting forces that influence the single chain conformations in vacuum.

  18. Nonlinear Transaction Pricing in the Securities Trading Value Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Burghardt, Matthias

    2007-01-01

    Most of the research on transaction costs in the market microstructure literature focuses on implicit transaction costs. Research on the design of price schedules for explicit transaction fees is rare. This paper analyzes and classifies different price schedules and discusses their application to the market transaction business. The discussion highlights design issues and the need for a structured approach for price schedule design in the context of market engineering. In order to get some...

  19. Resonant motion of discrete breathers in curved nonlinear chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the study of discrete breathers moving resonantly in a two-dimensional polymeric hairpin-shaped model with perpendicular onsite potentials. Their motion adapts to the local dynamical environment and move more efficiently in the curve in several cases. This motion is locally governed by conservation of energy. Weak dissipation and thermal noise do not affect these phenomena qualitatively. (author)

  20. Ratchet behaviour of polarons in molecular chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brizhik, L S; Eremko, A A [Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, 03680 Kyiv (Ukraine); Piette, B M A G; Zakrzewski, W J [Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Durham, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)], E-mail: brizhik@bitp.kiev.ua, E-mail: eremko@bitp.kiev.ua, E-mail: B.M.A.G.Piette@durham.ac.uk, E-mail: W.J.Zakrzewski@durham.ac.uk

    2008-06-25

    We study the ratchet behaviour of polarons in diatomic molecular chains under the influence of an external electromagnetic field which is periodic in time. We show that in asymmetric chains a harmonic unbiased field causes a drift of polarons. This phenomenon has a threshold with respect to the intensity and the frequency of the field. In spatially symmetric chains a harmonic periodic electric field generates oscillations of polarons but does not result in their movement. The polaron drift current can be induced in symmetric chains by a time periodic asymmetric external field. This complex dynamics of polarons is generated by the interplay between the Peierls-Nabarro barrier and dissipative effects in the chains.

  1. Ratchet behaviour of polarons in molecular chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the ratchet behaviour of polarons in diatomic molecular chains under the influence of an external electromagnetic field which is periodic in time. We show that in asymmetric chains a harmonic unbiased field causes a drift of polarons. This phenomenon has a threshold with respect to the intensity and the frequency of the field. In spatially symmetric chains a harmonic periodic electric field generates oscillations of polarons but does not result in their movement. The polaron drift current can be induced in symmetric chains by a time periodic asymmetric external field. This complex dynamics of polarons is generated by the interplay between the Peierls-Nabarro barrier and dissipative effects in the chains

  2. Discrete Quantum Markov Chains

    CERN Document Server

    Faigle, Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    A framework for finite-dimensional quantum Markov chains on Hilbert spaces is introduced. Quantum Markov chains generalize both classical Markov chains with possibly hidden states and existing models of quantum walks on finite graphs. Quantum Markov chains are based on Markov operations that may be applied to quantum systems and include quantum measurements, for example. It is proved that quantum Markov chains are asymptotically stationary and hence possess ergodic and entropic properties. With a quantum Markov chain one may associate a quantum Markov process, which is a stochastic process in the classical sense. Generalized Markov chains allow a representation with respect to a generalized Markov source model with definite (but possibly hidden) states relative to which observables give rise to classical stochastic processes. It is demonstrated that this model allows for observables to violate Bell's inequality.

  3. Gushing metal chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, Alexander; Sukhanov, Alexander; Tsvetkov, Alexander

    2016-03-01

    This article addresses the problem in which a chain falls from a glass from some height. This phenomenon demonstrates a paradoxical rise of the chain over the glass. To explain this effect, an initial hypothesis and an appropriate theory are proposed for calculating the steady fall parameters of the chain. For this purpose, the modified Cayley's problem of falling chain given its rise due to the centrifugal force of upward inertia is solved. Results show that the lift caused by an increase in linear density at the part of chain where it is being bent (the upper part) is due to the convergence of the chain balls to one another. The experiments confirm the obtained estimates of the lifting chain.

  4. Promotion Of Supply Chain Managementthrough Clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Stevan Rapaic

    2010-01-01

    Supply chain management (SCM) as a new business philosophy is a source of numerous advantages for the companies that are included in such a unique business chain network. Logistic management, as a part of SCM, on the other hand, represents a field with best opportunities for cost savings. The article defines the concept of SCM and distinguishes it from the logistic management. The author also explains the concept of clusters and cluster policy by analyzing their influence on SCM. Clusters are...

  5. Supply chain management resources, capabilities and execution

    OpenAIRE

    Kotzab, Herbert; Teller, Christoph; Grant, David; Friis, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This paper identifies inter- and intra-organisational management resources that determine the level of execution of inter-firm alliance supply chain management (SCM). By drawing on network and resource-based view theories, a conceptual model proposes the effects of SCM resources and capabilities as influencing factors on SCM execution. The model was tested using survey data from studies conducted in two European supply chain environments. Variance-based structural equation modelling confirmed...

  6. Nonlinear noise cancellation

    OpenAIRE

    Strauch, Paul E

    1997-01-01

    Noise or interference is often assumed to be a random process. Conventional linear filtering, control or prediction techniques are used to cancel or reduce the noise. However, some noise processes have been shown to be nonlinear and deterministic. These nonlinear deterministic noise processes appear to be random when analysed with second order statistics. As nonlinear processes are widespread in nature it may be beneficial to exploit the coherence of the nonlinear deterministic no...

  7. Synchronization of nonlinear systems under information constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fradkov, Alexander L.; Andrievsky, Boris; Evans, Robin J.

    2008-09-01

    A brief survey of control and synchronization under information constraints (limited information capacity of the coupling channel) is given. Limit possibilities of nonlinear observer-based synchronization systems with first-order coders or full-order coders are considered in more detail. The existing and new theoretical results for multidimensional drive-response Lurie systems (linear part plus nonlinearity depending only on measurable outputs) are presented. It is shown that the upper bound of the limit synchronization error (LSE) is proportional to the upper bound of the transmission error. As a consequence, the upper and lower bounds of LSE are proportional to the maximum coupling signal rate and inversely proportional to the information transmission rate (channel capacity). The analysis is extended to networks having a "chain," "star," or "star-chain" topology. Adaptive chaotic synchronization under information constraints is analyzed. The results are illustrated by example: master-slave synchronization of two chaotic Chua systems coupled via a channel with limited capacity.

  8. Negative thermal conductivity of chains of rotors with mechanical forcing

    OpenAIRE

    IACOBUCCI, Alessandra; Legoll, Frederic; Olla, Stefano; Stoltz, Gabriel

    2011-01-01

    We consider chains of rotors subjected to both thermal and mechanical forcings,in a nonequilibrium steady-state. Unusual nonlinear profiles of temperature and velocities are observed in the system. In particular, the temperature is maximal in the center, which is an indication of the nonlocal behavior of the system. In spite of that, local equilibrium holds for long enough chains. Our numerical results also show that, when the mechanical forcing is strong enough, the energy current can be inc...

  9. The effect of chain flexibility and chain mobility on radiation crosslinking reactions of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flexibility of polymer chains is an important factor to effects of radiation crosslinking of the polymer. Polymers with flexible chains are easier to be crosslinked, with lower dose of gelation, than polymers with more rigid chains. And it is known that most polymers with abnormal rigidity can be radiation-crosslinked only at high temperatures when the molecular chains get enough mobility. The flexibility of polymer chains also influences the relationship between degree of degradation and radiation dose. A chain flexibility factor β has been introduced to modify the Charlesby-Pinner equation of sol-fraction and radiation dose. The new relationship equation applies to a wider range of polymers in radiation crosslinking. Studies also show that for flexible polymers with lower Tg and molecular internal rotating factor, mechanism of radiation crosslinking is mainly in H type, whereas for rigid polymers with higher Tg and molecular internal rotating factor, mechanism of radiation crosslinking is mainly in T type

  10. Advances in nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xianfeng; Zeng, Heping; Guo, Qi; She, Weilong

    2015-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the state of the art of nonlinear optics from weak light nonlinear optics, ultrafast nonlinear optics to electro-optical theory and applications. Topics range from the fundamental studies of the interaction between matter and radiation to the development of devices, components, and systems of tremendous commercial interest for widespread applications in optical telecommunications, medicine, and biotechnology.

  11. Fiber Nonlinearities: A Tutorial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Govind; P.; Agrawal

    2003-01-01

    Fiber nonlinearities have long been regarded as being mostly harmful for fiber-optic communication systems. Over the last few years, however, the nonlinear effects are increasingly being used for practical telecommunications applications, the Raman amplification being only one of the recent examples. In this tutorial I review the various nonlinear effects occurring in optical fibers from both standpoints..

  12. Fiber Nonlinearities: A Tutorial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Govind P. Agrawal

    2003-01-01

    Fiber nonlinearities have long been regarded as being mostly harmful for fiber-optic communication systems. Over the last few years, however, the nonlinear effects are increasingly being used for practical telecommunications applications,the Raman amplification being only one of the recent examples. In this tutorial I review the vario us nonlinear effects occurring in optical fibers from both standpoints..

  13. Orbiting chains and rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breakwell, J. V.

    1983-01-01

    Two very different, highly flexible, space structures proposed during the last decade which involve analytical solution of certain partial differential equations are discussed. The first structure is an array, or hanging chain of aluminum beads which would serve as a convenient communicator if, under the influence of the Earth's gravity gradient, it assumes a local vertical orientation as it circles the Earth. Two passive schemes have been proposed for damping the rigid modes: twist the wire at the ends to provide non-zero moment of inertia about the vertical, thereby inducing relative motion of the two tips during rigid pitch or roll, and thus exercising a damper; and introduce weak lossy springs between the end sections and the main section; thereby providing linear coupling between the springs and all the in-plane (pitch) modes. The second structure is a complete ring of satellites cabled together at synchronous altitude. By a slight increase in altitude, the cable is in tension. This configuration is, however, unstable, and an active feedback control scheme is required to stabilize it. A possible scheme involves local cable length adjustment based on measurement of local altitude and shape variations and their rates.

  14. Crater chains on Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, V.; Skobeleva, T.

    After discovery of disruption comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 into fragment train before it's collision with Jupiter there was proposed that linear crater chains on the large satellites of Jupiter and on the Moon are impact scars of past tidally disrupted comets.It's known that radar images have revealed the possible presence of water ice deposits in polar regions of Mercury. Impacts by a few large comets seem to provide the best explanation for both the amount and cleanliness of the ice deposits on Mercury because they have a larger volatile content that others external sources, for example, asteroid. A number of crater chains on the surface of Mercury are most likely the impact tracks of "fragment trains" of comets tidally disrupted by Sun or by Mercury and are not secondary craters. Mariner 10 image set (the three Mariner 10 flybys in 1974-1975) was used to recognize the crater chains these did not associate with secondary crater ejecta from observed impact structures. As example, it can be shown such crater chain located near crater Imhotep and crater Ibsen (The Kuiper Quadrangle of Mercury). Resolution of the Mariner 10 image is about 0.54 km/pixel. The crater chain is about 50 km long. It was found a similar crater chain inside large crater Sophocles (The Tolstoj Quadrangle of Mercury). The image resolution is about 1.46 km/pixel. The chain about 50 km long is located in northen part of the crater. Image resolution limits possibility to examine the form of craters strongly. It seems the craters in chains have roughly flat floor and smooth form. Most chain craters are approximately circular. It was examined many images from the Mariner 10 set and there were identified a total 15 crater chains and were unable to link any of these directly to any specific large crater associated with ejecta deposits. Chain craters are remarkably aligned. All distinguished crater chains are superposed on preexisting formations. A total of 127 craters were identified in the 15 recognized

  15. Asymmetric Wave Propagation Through Saturable Nonlinear Oligomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Law

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper we consider nonlinear dimers and trimers (more generally, oligomers embedded within a linear Schrödinger lattice where the nonlinear sites are of saturable type. We examine the stationary states of such chains in the form of plane waves, and analytically compute their reflection and transmission coefficients through the nonlinear oligomer, as well as the corresponding rectification factors which clearly illustrate the asymmetry between left and right propagation in such systems. We examine not only the existence but also the dynamical stability of the plane wave states. Lastly, we generalize our numerical considerations to the more physically relevant case of Gaussian initial wavepackets and confirm that the asymmetry in the transmission properties also persists in the case of such wavepackets.

  16. Nonlinear dynamics and complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Albert; Fu, Xilin

    2014-01-01

    This important collection presents recent advances in nonlinear dynamics including analytical solutions, chaos in Hamiltonian systems, time-delay, uncertainty, and bio-network dynamics. Nonlinear Dynamics and Complexity equips readers to appreciate this increasingly main-stream approach to understanding complex phenomena in nonlinear systems as they are examined in a broad array of disciplines. The book facilitates a better understanding of the mechanisms and phenomena in nonlinear dynamics and develops the corresponding mathematical theory to apply nonlinear design to practical engineering.

  17. Nonlinear Bessel beams

    CERN Document Server

    Johannisson, P; Lisak, M; Marklund, M; Johannisson, Pontus; Anderson, Dan; Lisak, Mietek; Marklund, Mattias

    2003-01-01

    The effect of the Kerr nonlinearity on linear non-diffractive Bessel beams is investigated analytically and numerically using the nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation. The nonlinearity is shown to primarily affect the central parts of the Bessel beam, giving rise to radial compression or decompression depending on whether the nonlinearity is focusing or defocusing, respectively. The dynamical properties of Gaussian-truncated Bessel beams are also analysed in the presence of a Kerr nonlinearity. It is found that although a condition for width balance in the root-mean-square sense exists, the beam profile becomes strongly deformed during propagation and may exhibit the phenomena of global and partial collapse.

  18. Supply Chain Management og Supply Chain costing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steen; Mortensen, Ole

    2002-01-01

    Formålet med denne artikel er at belyse de muligheder som ligger i at integrere virksomhedens økonomiske styring med begrebet Supply Chain Management (SCM). Dette søges belyst ved først at beskrive den teoretiske ramme, hvori SCM indgår. Herefter analyseres begrebet Supply Chain Costing (SCC) som...... Århus. Et resultat er, at via begrebet Supply Chain Costing skabes der mulighed for at måle logistikkædens aktiviteter i kr./øre. Anvendelsen af denne information har også strategisk betydning for at kunne vælge kunde og leverandør. Ved hjælp af integrationen skabes der også helt nye mulighed for at...

  19. Supply Chain Collaboration under Uncertainty in the Albanian Beer Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denisa MAMILLO

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Today supply chain uncertainty is higher due to the global crisis, the fast changing technology and the increasing vulnerability of supply chains. Companies use different strategies to reduce uncertainty, like building agile supply chains, increasing resilience, postponement, etc. All these strategies require strong supply chain collaboration. Although research interest in supply chain collaboration is growing, no research has been done in Albania. This paper is one of the first to investigate supply chain management practices and the extent of supply chain collaboration in the Albanian beer industry. The aim of this research is twofold: first, to investigate how supply chain uncertainty influences the extent of collaboration with the supply chain members, and second, to analyze how organizational culture facilitates the collaboration process. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the managers of the main beer companies. A guide questionnaire was prepared. It consisted of open and rate-scale questions about supply chain collaboration, supply chain uncertainty, supply chain management practices and organizational culture. The research will show that a high level of supply chain uncertainty does not always lead to a high degree of collaboration with the supply chain members. Organizational culture is the key driver of a successful collaboration. Not all types of culture can facilitate collaboration but only the ones with an external orientation.

  20. Effect of gain nonlinearity in semiconductor lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels H.; Christiansen, Peter Leth; Skovgaard, Ove

    1988-01-01

    Semiconductor lasers are modeled by single-mode rate equations with Langevin noise terms and the influence of nonlinear gain is investigated. For cw operation the probability distribution for the carrier number and the photon number in the laser cavity is obtained. The corresponding (2+1)-dimensi......Semiconductor lasers are modeled by single-mode rate equations with Langevin noise terms and the influence of nonlinear gain is investigated. For cw operation the probability distribution for the carrier number and the photon number in the laser cavity is obtained. The corresponding (2...

  1. Food supply chains

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Qian

    2011-01-01

    The dissertation analyses food waste in global supply chain. From the related managerial literature, the process of supply chain operation, from agriculture, manufacturing, warehouses, retailers to customers are explained clearly. Then the reasons and characteristics of food wastes in any point of food supply chain are analyzed. From some case studies and questionnaire investigation, some corresponding methods to reduce food waste are put forward in the following. Lastly, in terms of method s...

  2. Supply chain components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieraşu, T.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article I will go through three main logistics components, which are represented by: transportation, inventory and facilities, and the three secondary logistical components: information, production location, price and how they determine performance of any supply chain. I will discuss then how these components are used in the design, planning and operation of a supply chain. I will also talk about some obstacles a supply chain manager may encounter.

  3. Supply Chain Collaboration

    OpenAIRE

    Meca, Ana; Timmer, Judith

    2008-01-01

    In this chaper, we have reviewed and surveyed the literature on supply chain collaboration. As mentioned above, the game theory models that include cooperative behaviour among retailers seem to be a natural framework to model cooperation (collaboration) in supply chains that consist of a supplier and a finite number of retailers. Various researchers in this area have already adopted several cooperative models dealing with supply chain coordination, and it is expected to see many more in the n...

  4. Supply chain components

    OpenAIRE

    Vieraşu, T.; Bălăşescu, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this article I will go through three main logistics components, which are represented by: transportation, inventory and facilities, and the three secondary logistical components: information, production location, price and how they determine performance of any supply chain. I will discuss then how these components are used in the design, planning and operation of a supply chain. I will also talk about some obstacles a supply chain manager may encounter.

  5. Sustainable Supply Chain Management

    OpenAIRE

    Geentjens, Marlies

    2013-01-01

    This project investigates the phenomena Sustainable Supply Chain Management. The point of departure is Supply Chain Management, which we analyse in order to lock into an understanding of the development that occur when implementing sustainability. In the quest for higher understanding of the interlocking mechanisms of supply chain management, we combine a theoretical approach to the developmnent of sustainability with some relevant case-examples (mainly depicting IKEA). This focal point g...

  6. Economy, market and chain

    OpenAIRE

    Sukkel, W.; Hommes, M.

    2009-01-01

    In their pursuit of growth and professionalisation, the Dutch organic sector focuses primarily on market development. But how do you stimulate the market for organic foods? This is the subject of many research projects concerning market, consumer preferences and the supply chain. These projects focus specifically at consumer purchasing behaviour, product development, supply chain formation and minimising cost price. As a rule, this research takes place in close cooperation with chain actors

  7. Developing green supply chain management strategies: A taxonomic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Mutingi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The objective of this research is to explore the empirical green supply chain activities found in literature, and to develop a taxonomic framework that can be used for formulating appropriate strategies for green supply chains, based on characteristic dimensions for the green supply chain. Design/methodology/approach: The taxonomic framework is developed through (i analysis of green supply chain activities found in existing empirical work or case studies recorded in literature, (ii identification of key dimensions that influence green supply chain management strategies, and (iii development of a taxonomic scheme for selecting or developing green strategies. Findings: The paper finds that this study yielded: a set of three characteristic dimensions that influence strategic green supply chain management, and a guided structured approach selecting appropriate green strategies, providing managerial insights. Research limitations/implications: This paper shows that future work includes development of specific performance management indices according to the taxonomy of green strategies developed in this study. Practical implications: This research provided a practical guided approach that enhances appropriate formulation of green strategies for green supply chain management, while providing sound managerial insights for the supply chain decision maker. The choice of supply chain strategy directly impacts the overall environmental, economic and operations performance of the supply chain. Originality/value: This study presents to supply chain decision makers a new taxonomic framework that simplifies and enhances the formulation of green strategies, and to researchers a comparative understanding of various strategies applicable to green supply chains.

  8. Value Chain Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum; Slepniov, Dmitrij

    2015-01-01

    This workbook is recommended for the attention of students of and managers in Danish small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). Danish SMEs are currently facing a number of key challenges related to their position in global value chains. This book provides an insight into value chain management...... that may help these SMEs to occupy and sustain a competitive position in the value chain. It addresses this objective by introducing and discussing: • The concept of global value chains and its founding principles • The buyer-supplier relationships • Various SMEs operations configurations • Ideas for...

  9. Nonlinear Elliptic Differential Equations with Multivalued Nonlinearities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Antonella Fiacca; Nikolaos Matzakos; Nikolaos S Papageorgiou; Raffaella Servadei

    2001-11-01

    In this paper we study nonlinear elliptic boundary value problems with monotone and nonmonotone multivalued nonlinearities. First we consider the case of monotone nonlinearities. In the first result we assume that the multivalued nonlinearity is defined on all $\\mathbb{R}$. Assuming the existence of an upper and of a lower solution, we prove the existence of a solution between them. Also for a special version of the problem, we prove the existence of extremal solutions in the order interval formed by the upper and lower solutions. Then we drop the requirement that the monotone nonlinearity is defined on all of $\\mathbb{R}$. This case is important because it covers variational inequalities. Using the theory of operators of monotone type we show that the problem has a solution. Finally in the last part we consider an eigenvalue problem with a nonmonotone multivalued nonlinearity. Using the critical point theory for nonsmooth locally Lipschitz functionals we prove the existence of at least two nontrivial solutions (multiplicity theorem).

  10. Étude numérique du couplage thermohydromécanique dans les roches. Influence des termes de couplage non linéaires pour un matériau isotrope linéaire Numerical Analysis of a Thermohydromechanical Coupling in Rocks. Influence of Nonlinear Coupling Terms on a Linear Isotropic Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry J. P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Nous présentons dans ce travail une étude numérique basée sur la méthode des éléments finis, du comportement thermoporoélastique de certaines roches. Les trois effets de couplage : déformabilité de la roche, pression interstitielle et température sont pris en compte simultanément dans la résolution numérique. Une application simple sur un puits pétrolier en conditions axisymétriques est finalement présentée afin de dégager en particulier l'influence du terme de couplage convectif non linéaire, obtenu dans l'équation de diffusivité thermique, sur l'évolution de la température et de la pression interstitielle autour du forage. This article describes a finite-element method for solving the problem of nonlinear coupling between interstitial pressure and temperature during stress on a poroelastic rock. Such coupling phenomena occur during massive injection of cold water into a petroleum borehole for example. The implementation of such a numerical solution, used here with the assumption of small deformations, first requires a review of the behavior law of the material (Eq. 2. 2 and of the equations for hydraulic diffusivity (Eq. 2. 3 and thermal diffusivity (Eq. 2. 4. This last equation (2. 4 is the one containing the nonlinear coupling terms in Grad P Grad P and Grad T. Grad P. During simulation of flow at a high flow rate, these products can no longer be neglected as shown by the results in Fig. 2. The variational formulation of the problem is then determined in relation to the three equations for equilibrium, thermal diffusivity and hydraulic diffusivity. After geometric and temporal discretizations, this formulation leads to a finite-element calculating scheme resulting in the simultaneous solving of all three equations. This solution, based on the inversion of the system of equations (2. 15, requires the updating of the rigidity matrix at each time step to take nonlinear coupling into consideration. Calculations with an

  11. Algebraic decay in self-similar Markov chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A continuous-time Markov chain is used to model motion in the neighborhood of a critical invariant circle for a Hamiltonian map. States in the infinite chain represent successive rational approximants to the frequency of the invariant circle. For the case of a noble frequency, the chain is self-similar and the nonlinear integral equation for the first passage time distribution is solved exactly. The asymptotic distribution is a power law times a function periodic in the logarithm of the time. For parameters relevant to the critical noble circle, the decay proceeds as t/sup -4.05/

  12. Applying the means-end chain concept to product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Helle Alsted

    This paper proposes that the means-end chain (MEC) approach can influence the use of market information and inter-functional communication in new product development (NPD). The central question is whether market information represented by means-end chain data can be a vehicle for inter-functional......This paper proposes that the means-end chain (MEC) approach can influence the use of market information and inter-functional communication in new product development (NPD). The central question is whether market information represented by means-end chain data can be a vehicle for inter...

  13. Breathers in oscillator chains with Hertzian interactions

    CERN Document Server

    James, Guillaume; Cuevas, Jesus

    2011-01-01

    We prove nonexistence of breathers (spatially localized and time-periodic oscillations) for a class of Fermi-Pasta-Ulam lattices representing an uncompressed chain of beads interacting via Hertz's contact forces. We then consider the setting in which an additional on-site potential is present, motivated by the Newton's cradle under the effect of gravity. Using both direct numerical computations and a simplified asymptotic model of the oscillator chain, the so-called discrete p-Schr\\"odinger (DpS) equation, we show the existence of discrete breathers and study their spectral properties and mobility. Due to the fully nonlinear character of Hertzian interactions, breathers are found to be much more localized than in classical nonlinear lattices and their motion occurs with less dispersion. In addition, we study numerically the excitation of a traveling breather after an impact at one end of a semi-infinite chain. This case is well described by the DpS equation when local oscillations are faster than binary colli...

  14. Ratchet dynamics of large polarons in asymmetric diatomic molecular chains.

    OpenAIRE

    Brizhik, L.; Eremko, A.; Piette, B.; Zakrzewski, W. J.

    2010-01-01

    We study the dynamics of large polarons in diatomic molecular chains, at zero temperature, under the influence of an external, periodic in time, electric field of zero mean value. We show that in asymmetric chains, i.e. chains with two different atoms per unit cell, a harmonic unbiased field causes a drift of such polarons. Such a drift current, known as the ratchet phenomenon, depends strongly on the parameters of the chain; in particular, on the extent of the anisotropy of the chain and on ...

  15. Complex geometrical optics of nonlinear inhomogeneous fibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyses the Gaussian beam (GB) evolution in nonlinear fibres with special attention given to the influence of the initial curvature of the wavefront and to the fibres' permittivity profile. The analysis is performed in the framework of paraxial complex geometrical optics (PCGO). This method reduces the problem of GB evolution in nonlinear and inhomogeneous media to the solution of ordinary differential equations, which can be easily solved either analytically or numerically. It is shown that the PCGO approach radically simplifies modelling of nonlinear phenomena in fibres as compared with standard methods of nonlinear optics such as the variational method approach and the method of moments. It is shown that the PCGO method readily supplies the solution of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLS) for a self-focusing fibre with a focusing permittivity profile and provides a number of new results. The discussion on the interplay between the nonlinear (self-focusing and self-defocusing) and linear (focusing and defocusing) components of the total permittivity demonstrates the new possibilities to limit the collapse phenomenon in nonlinear fibres of Kerr type taking into account the effect of initial beam divergence

  16. Complex geometrical optics of nonlinear inhomogeneous fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berczynski, Pawel

    2011-03-01

    This paper analyses the Gaussian beam (GB) evolution in nonlinear fibres with special attention given to the influence of the initial curvature of the wavefront and to the fibres' permittivity profile. The analysis is performed in the framework of paraxial complex geometrical optics (PCGO). This method reduces the problem of GB evolution in nonlinear and inhomogeneous media to the solution of ordinary differential equations, which can be easily solved either analytically or numerically. It is shown that the PCGO approach radically simplifies modelling of nonlinear phenomena in fibres as compared with standard methods of nonlinear optics such as the variational method approach and the method of moments. It is shown that the PCGO method readily supplies the solution of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLS) for a self-focusing fibre with a focusing permittivity profile and provides a number of new results. The discussion on the interplay between the nonlinear (self-focusing and self-defocusing) and linear (focusing and defocusing) components of the total permittivity demonstrates the new possibilities to limit the collapse phenomenon in nonlinear fibres of Kerr type taking into account the effect of initial beam divergence.

  17. Independent sets in chain cacti

    CERN Document Server

    Sedlar, Jelena

    2011-01-01

    In this paper chain cacti are considered. First, for two specific classes of chain cacti (orto-chains and meta-chains of cycles with h vertices) the recurrence relation for independence polynomial is derived. That recurrence relation is then used in deriving explicit expressions for independence number and number of maximum independent sets for such chains. Also, the recurrence relation for total number of independent sets for such graphs is derived. Finaly, the proof is provided that orto-chains and meta-chains are the only extremal chain cacti with respect to total number of independent sets (orto-chains minimal and meta-chains maximal).

  18. Equilibrium distribution of the wave energy in a carbyne chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovriguine, D. A.; Nikitenkova, S. P.

    2016-03-01

    The steady-state energy distribution of thermal vibrations at a given ambient temperature has been investigated based on a simple mathematical model that takes into account central and noncentral interactions between carbon atoms in a one-dimensional carbyne chain. The investigation has been performed using standard asymptotic methods of nonlinear dynamics in terms of the classical mechanics. In the first-order nonlinear approximation, there have been revealed resonant wave triads that are formed at a typical nonlinearity of the system under phase matching conditions. Each resonant triad consists of one longitudinal and two transverse vibration modes. In the general case, the chain is characterized by a superposition of similar resonant triplets of different spectral scales. It has been found that the energy equipartition of nonlinear stationary waves in the carbyne chain at a given temperature completely obeys the standard Rayleigh-Jeans law due to the proportional amplitude dispersion. The possibility of spontaneous formation of three-frequency envelope solitons in carbyne has been demonstrated. Heat in the form of such solitons can propagate in a chain of carbon atoms without diffusion, like localized waves.

  19. Fields From Markov Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn

    2005-01-01

    A simple construction of two-dimensional (2-D) fields is presented. Rows and columns are outcomes of the same Markov chain. The entropy can be calculated explicitly.......A simple construction of two-dimensional (2-D) fields is presented. Rows and columns are outcomes of the same Markov chain. The entropy can be calculated explicitly....

  20. Sustainable Supply Chain Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bals, Lydia; Tate, Wendy

    design for TBL sustainability. These are located in catastrophe-ridden Haiti and supported by the Germany-based investor company Yunus Social Business. Three supply chain archetypes combining physical and support chains are presented that focus on TBL sustainable outputs and outcomes. For SSCM research...

  1. Chain Reaction Polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, James E.

    1981-01-01

    The salient features and importance of chain-reaction polymerization are discussed, including such topics as the thermodynamics of polymerization, free-radical polymerization kinetics, radical polymerization processes, copolymers, and free-radical chain, anionic, cationic, coordination, and ring-opening polymerizations. (JN)

  2. Influence of the dietary intake of medium chain triglycerides on body composition, energy expenditure and satiety: a systematic review Influencia de la ingesta dietética de los triglicéridos de cadena media sobre la composición corporal, el gasto energético y la saciedad: una revisión sistemática

    OpenAIRE

    A. C. Rego Costa; E. L. Rosado; M. Soares-Mota

    2012-01-01

    Increased prevalence of obesity is associated with the growth of chronic degenerative diseases. One of the main factors associated with this increase is the change in nutritional status of individuals. Medium chain triglycerides (MCT) are rapidly metabolized and less stored in the adipose tissue, being a possible tool for weight control. In order to analyze the influence of consumption of this lipid on satiety, body composition and energy expenditure (EE), a literature review was performed of...

  3. Analysis of nonlinear behavior of loudspeakers using the instantaneous frequency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Hai; Jacobsen, Finn

    2003-01-01

    It is well know that the weakest link in a sound reproduction chain is the loudspeaker. The most significant effect on the sound quality is nonlinear distortion of loudspeakers. Many methods are applied to analyze the nonlinear distortion of loudspeakers. Almost all of the methods are based on the...... loudspeakers. It will also be helpful for compensating for the nonlinearities and for improving the quality of sound reproduction. [Work supported by Sino-Danish International Co-operative Project, No. AM13: 66 and DANIDA (Denmark).]...

  4. Nonlinearity effect on 1D periodic and disordered lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Kronig-Penney model is used to study the effect of nonlinear interaction on the transmissive properties of both ordered and disordered chains. In the ordered case, the nonlinearity can either localize or delocalize the electronic states depending on both its sign and strength but there is a critical strength above which all states are localized. In the disordered case, however, we found that the transmission decays as T∼L-γ around the band edge of the corresponding periodic system. The exponent γ is independent of the strength of the nonlinearity in the case of disordered barrier potentials, while it varies with this strength for mixed potentials. (author)

  5. Nonlinear Dirac Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Khim Ng

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available We construct nonlinear extensions of Dirac's relativistic electron equation that preserve its other desirable properties such as locality, separability, conservation of probability and Poincaré invariance. We determine the constraints that the nonlinear term must obey and classify the resultant non-polynomial nonlinearities in a double expansion in the degree of nonlinearity and number of derivatives. We give explicit examples of such nonlinear equations, studying their discrete symmetries and other properties. Motivated by some previously suggested applications we then consider nonlinear terms that simultaneously violate Lorentz covariance and again study various explicit examples. We contrast our equations and construction procedure with others in the literature and also show that our equations are not gauge equivalent to the linear Dirac equation. Finally we outline various physical applications for these equations.

  6. Integrated supply chain risk management

    OpenAIRE

    Riaan Bredell; Jackie Walters

    2007-01-01

    Integrated supply chain risk management (ISCRM) has become indispensable to the theory and practice of supply chain management. The economic and political realities of the modern world require not only a different approach to supply chain management, but also bold steps to secure supply chain performance and sustainable wealth creation. Integrated supply chain risk management provides supply chain organisations with a level of insight into their supply chains yet to be achieved. If correctly ...

  7. Supersymmetric nonlinear sigma models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supersymmetric nonlinear sigma models are formulated as gauge theories. Auxiliary chiral superfields are introduced to impose supersymmetric constraints of F-type. Target manifolds defined by F-type constraints are always non-compact. In order to obtain nonlinear sigma models on compact manifolds, we have to introduce gauge symmetry to eliminate the degrees of freedom in non-compact directions. All supersymmetric nonlinear sigma models defined on the hermitian symmetric spaces are successfully formulated as gauge theories. (author)

  8. Nonlinear Integrated Microwave Photonics

    OpenAIRE

    Marpaung, David; Eggleton, Benjamin J.

    2013-01-01

    Harnessing nonlinear optical effects in a photonic chip scale has been proven useful for a number of key applications in optical communications. Microwave photonics can also benefit from the adoption of such a technology, creating a new concept of nonlinear integrated microwave photonics. Here, we discuss the potential of on-chip nonlinear processing towards the creation of robust and multifunctional microwave photonic (MWP) processors. We also highlight key recent results in the field, inclu...

  9. Nonlinear Quantum Cosmology

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Le-Huy; Parwani, Rajesh R.

    2008-01-01

    We study the effects of an information-theoretically motivated nonlinear correction to the Wheeler-deWitt equation in the minisuperspace scheme for flat, $k=0$, Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) universes. When the only matter is a cosmological constant, the nonlinearity can provide a barrier that screens the original Big Bang, leading to the quantum creation of a universe through tunneling just as in the $k=1$ case. When the matter is instead a free massless scalar field, the nonlinearity can...

  10. Nonlinear graphene metamaterial

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolaenko, Andrey E.; Papasimakis, Nikitas; Atmatzakis, Evangelos; Luo, Zhiqiang; Shen, Ze Xiang; De Angelis, Francesco; Boden, Stuart A.; Di Fabrizio, Enzo; Zheludev, Nikolay I.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate that the broadband nonlinear optical response of graphene can be resonantly enhanced by more than an order of magnitude through hybridization with a plasmonic metamaterial,while retaining an ultrafast nonlinear response time of ~1 ps. Transmission modulation close to ~1% is seen at a pump uence of ~0.03 mJ/cm^2 at the wavelength of ~1600 nm. This approach allows to engineer and enhance graphene's nonlinearity within a broad wavelength range enabling applications in optical swit...

  11. Nonlinear Electrodynamics and QED

    OpenAIRE

    Delphenich, David

    2003-01-01

    The limits of linear electrodynamics are reviewed, and possible directions of nonlinear extension are explored. The central theme is that the qualitative character of the empirical successes of quantum electrodynamics must be used as a guide for understanding the nature of the nonlinearity of electrodynamics at the subatomic level. Some established theories of nonlinear electrodynamics, namely, those of Mie, Born, and Infeld are presented in the language of the modern geometrical and topologi...

  12. Supply Chain Connectivity: Enhancing Participation in the Global Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Patalinghug, Epictetus E.

    2015-01-01

    Supply chain connectivity is vital for the efficient flow of trade among APEC economies. This paper reviews the literature and supply chain management, describes the barriers to enhancing participation in global supply chain, analyzes the various measures of supply chain performance, and suggests steps for the Philippines to fully reap the benefits of the global value chain.

  13. Nonlinear theory of dust lattice mode coupling in dust crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Kourakis, I; Kourakis, Ioannis; Shukla, Padma Kant

    2004-01-01

    Quasi-crystals formed by charged mesoscopic dust grains (dust lattices), observed since hardly a decade ago, are an exciting paradigm of a nonlinear chain. In laboratory discharge experiments, these quasi-lattices are formed spontaneously in the sheath region near a negative electrode, usually at a levitated horizontal equilibrium configuration where gravity is balanced by an electric field. It is long known (and experimentally confirmed) that dust-lattices support linear oscillations, in the longitudinal (acoustic mode) as well as in the transverse, in plane (acoustic-) or off-plane (optic-like mode) directions. Either due to the (typically Yukawa type) electrostatic inter-grain interaction forces or to the (intrinsically nonlinear) sheath environment, nonlinearity is expected to play an important role in the dynamics of these lattices. Furthermore, the coupling between the different modes may induce coupled nonlinear modes. Despite this evidence, the elucidation of the nonlinear mechanisms governing dust cr...

  14. The Nonlinear Field Space Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielczarek, Jakub; Trześniewski, Tomasz

    2016-08-01

    In recent years the idea that not only the configuration space of particles, i.e. spacetime, but also the corresponding momentum space may have nontrivial geometry has attracted significant attention, especially in the context of quantum gravity. The aim of this letter is to extend this concept to the domain of field theories, by introducing field spaces (i.e. phase spaces of field values) that are not affine spaces. After discussing the motivation and general aspects of our approach we present a detailed analysis of the prototype (quantum) Nonlinear Field Space Theory of a scalar field on the Minkowski background. We show that the nonlinear structure of a field space leads to numerous interesting predictions, including: non-locality, generalization of the uncertainty relations, algebra deformations, constraining of the maximal occupation number, shifting of the vacuum energy and renormalization of the charge and speed of propagation of field excitations. Furthermore, a compact field space is a natural way to implement the "Principle of finiteness" of physical theories, which once motivated the Born-Infeld theory. Thus the presented framework has a variety of potential applications in the theories of fundamental interactions (e.g. quantum gravity), as well as in condensed matter physics (e.g. continuous spin chains), and can shed new light on the issue of divergences in quantum field theories.

  15. Enhanced energy transport owing to nonlinear interface interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ruixia; Yuan, Zongqiang; Wang, Jun; Zheng, Zhigang

    2016-01-01

    It is generally expected that the interface coupling leads to the suppression of thermal transport through coupled nanostructures due to the additional interface phonon-phonon scattering. However, recent experiments demonstrated that the interface van der Waals interactions can significantly enhance the thermal transfer of bonding boron nanoribbons compared to a single freestanding nanoribbon. To obtain a more in-depth understanding on the important role of the nonlinear interface coupling in the heat transports, in the present paper, we explore the effect of nonlinearity in the interface interaction on the phonon transport by studying the coupled one-dimensional (1D) Frenkel-Kontorova lattices. It is found that the thermal conductivity increases with increasing interface nonlinear intensity for weak inter-chain nonlinearity. By developing the effective phonon theory of coupled systems, we calculate the dependence of heat conductivity on interfacial nonlinearity in weak inter-chain couplings regime which is qualitatively in good agreement with the result obtained from molecular dynamics simulations. Moreover, we demonstrate that, with increasing interface nonlinear intensity, the system dimensionless nonlinearity strength is reduced, which in turn gives rise to the enhancement of thermal conductivity. Our results pave the way for manipulating the energy transport through coupled nanostructures for future emerging applications. PMID:26787363

  16. Nonlinear optics at interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C.K.

    1980-12-01

    Two aspects of surface nonlinear optics are explored in this thesis. The first part is a theoretical and experimental study of nonlinear intraction of surface plasmons and bulk photons at metal-dielectric interfaces. The second part is a demonstration and study of surface enhanced second harmonic generation at rough metal surfaces. A general formulation for nonlinear interaction of surface plasmons at metal-dielectric interfaces is presented and applied to both second and third order nonlinear processes. Experimental results for coherent second and third harmonic generation by surface plasmons and surface coherent antiStokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) are shown to be in good agreement with the theory.

  17. Nonlinearity Induced Critical Coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Reddy, K Nireekshan; Gupta, S Dutta

    2013-01-01

    We study a critically coupled system (Opt. Lett., \\textbf{32}, 1483 (2007)) with a Kerr-nonlinear spacer layer. Nonlinearity is shown to inhibit null-scattering in a critically coupled system at low powers. However, a system detuned from critical coupling can exhibit near-complete suppression of scattering by means of nonlinearity-induced changes in refractive index. Our studies reveal clearly an important aspect of critical coupling as a delicate balance in both the amplitude and the phase relations, while a nonlinear resonance in dispersive bistability concerns only the phase.

  18. Distributed nonlinear optical response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolov, Nikola Ivanov

    2005-01-01

    . The research presented in Chapter 3 and papers B and C is concerned with the properties and the stable dark soliton propagation and their bound states in nonlocal nonlinear optical media. It is shown that nonlocality of the nonlinearity induces attractive forces between solitons, that leads to the...... formation of bound states of out of phase bright solitons and dark solitons. Also, the newly introduced analogy between the nonlocal cubic nonlinear and the quadratic nonlinear media, presented in paper B and Chapter 3 is discussed. In particular it supplies intuitive physical meaning of the formation of...

  19. Nonlinear Quantum Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, Le-Huy

    2008-01-01

    We study the effects of an information-theoretically motivated nonlinear correction to the Wheeler-deWitt equation in the minisuperspace scheme for flat, $k=0$, Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) universes. When the only matter is a cosmological constant, the nonlinearity can provide a barrier that screens the original singularity, leading to the quantum creation of a universe through tunneling just as in the $k=1$ case. When the matter is instead a free massless scalar field, the nonlinearity can again prevent a contracting classical universe from reaching zero size by creating a bounce. Our studies here are self-consistent to leading order in perturbation theory for the nonlinear effects.

  20. Nonlinear excitations in two-dimensional molecular structures with impurities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Rasmussen, Kim; Christiansen, Peter Leth

    1995-01-01

    We study the nonlinear dynamics of electronic excitations interacting with acoustic phonons in two-dimensional molecular structures with impurities. We show that the problem is reduced to the nonlinear Schrodinger equation with a varying coefficient. The latter represents the influence of the imp...

  1. SUMO chains: polymeric signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertegaal, Alfred C O

    2010-02-01

    Ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like proteins are conjugated to a wide variety of target proteins that play roles in all biological processes. Target proteins are conjugated to ubiquitin monomers or to ubiquitin polymers that form via all seven internal lysine residues of ubiquitin. The fate of these target proteins is controlled in a chain architecture-dependent manner. SUMO (small ubiquitin-related modifier) shares the ability of ubiquitin to form chains via internal SUMOylation sites. Interestingly, a SUMO-binding site in Ubc9 is important for SUMO chain synthesis. Similar to ubiquitin-polymer cleavage by USPs (ubiquitin-specific proteases), SUMO chain formation is reversible. SUMO polymers are cleaved by the SUMO proteases SENP6 [SUMO/sentrin/SMT3 (suppressor of mif two 3)-specific peptidase 6], SENP7 and Ulp2 (ubiquitin-like protease 2). SUMO chain-binding proteins including ZIP1, SLX5/8 (synthetic lethal of unknown function 5/8), RNF4 (RING finger protein 4) and CENP-E (centromere-associated protein E) have been identified that interact non-covalently with SUMO chains, thereby regulating target proteins that are conjugated to SUMO multimers. SUMO chains play roles in replication, in the turnover of SUMO targets by the proteasome and during mitosis and meiosis. Thus signalling via polymers is an exciting feature of the SUMO family. PMID:20074033

  2. Soil-structure interaction including nonlinear soil

    OpenAIRE

    Gicev, Vlado

    2008-01-01

    There are two types of models of soil-structure system depending upon the rigidity of foundation: models with rigid and models with flexible foundation. Main features of the soil-structure interaction phenomenon: -wave scattering, -radiation damping, -reduction of the system frequencies. In this presentation, the influence of interaction on the development of nonlinear zones in the soil is studied.

  3. Transport of nonlinearly biodegradable contaminants in aquifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijzer, H.

    2001-01-01

    This thesis deals with the transport behavior of nonlinearly biodegradable contaminants in aquifers. Such transport occurs during in situ bioremediation which is based on the injection of an electron acceptor or electron donor. The main interests in this thesis are the mutual influences of underlyin

  4. NONLINEAR DYNAMIC STABILITY OF COMPOSITE LAMINATED PLATES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏德敏; 杨桂通

    2004-01-01

    Catastrophe theory was applied to the investigation of nonlinear dynamic stability of composite laminated plates. The influence of large deflection, initial imperfection,support conditions and ply-angle of the fibers were considered. The catastrophic models and the critical conditions of dynamic buckling of composite laminated plates are obtained.

  5. Nonlinear Optical Studies of Bacteriorhodopsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, D. V. G. L. N.; Aranda, F. J.; Chen, Z.; Akkara, J. A.; Kaplan, D. L.; Nakashima, M.

    We report interesting results on nonlinear optics at low powers in bacteriorhodopsin films with applications in all-optical switching and modulation. Chemically stabilized films of bacteriorhodopsin in a polymer matrix for which the lifetime of the excited M state is 3 to 4 orders of magnitude longer than that of water solutions of wild-type bR were used in these experiments. Due to the sensitivity of the films, very small powers of order microwatts are required for optical phase conjugation. The influence of the fast photochemical M to B transition induced by blue light on the saturation intensity, phase conjugate intensity and switching time was established. We also report our measurements of the intensity dependence of the self-focusing and self-defocusing properties of wild-type bR in water solution using the Z-scan technique with low power cw lasers at two wavelengths on either side of the absorption band. Our measurements indicate that the sign of the nonlinearity depends on the wavelength and the magnitude depends on the fluence of the incident laser beam. The observed self-focusing and defocusing is not due to the intrinsic electronic nonlinearity. The observations can be explained in terms of the Kramers-Kronig dispersion relation that relates the real and imaginary parts of the complex index of refraction.

  6. Project Decision Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolstadås, Asbjørn; Pinto, Jeffrey K.; Falster, Peter;

    2015-01-01

    To add value to project performance and help obtain project success, a new framework for decision making in projects is defined. It introduces the project decision chain inspired by the supply chain thinking in the manufacturing sector and uses three types of decisions: authorization, selection......, and plan decision. A primitive decision element is defined where all the three decision types can be accommodated. Each task in the primitive element can in itself contain subtasks that in turn will comprise new primitive elements. The primitive elements are nested together in a project decision chain....

  7. International analysis of the countries where Brazilian franchise chains operate

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Lucas de Resende Melo; Felipe Mendes Borini; Moacir de Miranda Oliveira Junior; Ronaldo Couto Parente

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to demonstrate which external environment factors are involved in the international commitment of Brazilian franchise chains. Our objectives herein are to understand which external country characteristics lead to international franchising operations and to ascertain the influence of such characteristics in the commitment of franchise chains in each country they operate in. The database has 54 Brazilian franchise chains with international operations in 26 countries, which impli...

  8. Nonlinear Optics and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdeldayem, Hossin A. (Editor); Frazier, Donald O. (Editor)

    2007-01-01

    Nonlinear optics is the result of laser beam interaction with materials and started with the advent of lasers in the early 1960s. The field is growing daily and plays a major role in emerging photonic technology. Nonlinear optics play a major role in many of the optical applications such as optical signal processing, optical computers, ultrafast switches, ultra-short pulsed lasers, sensors, laser amplifiers, and many others. This special review volume on Nonlinear Optics and Applications is intended for those who want to be aware of the most recent technology. This book presents a survey of the recent advances of nonlinear optical applications. Emphasis will be on novel devices and materials, switching technology, optical computing, and important experimental results. Recent developments in topics which are of historical interest to researchers, and in the same time of potential use in the fields of all-optical communication and computing technologies, are also included. Additionally, a few new related topics which might provoke discussion are presented. The book includes chapters on nonlinear optics and applications; the nonlinear Schrodinger and associated equations that model spatio-temporal propagation; the supercontinuum light source; wideband ultrashort pulse fiber laser sources; lattice fabrication as well as their linear and nonlinear light guiding properties; the second-order EO effect (Pockels), the third-order (Kerr) and thermo-optical effects in optical waveguides and their applications in optical communication; and, the effect of magnetic field and its role in nonlinear optics, among other chapters.

  9. Friction and Nonlinear Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Manini, N.; Braun, O. M.; E. Tosatti; Guerra, R.; Vanossi, A.

    2016-01-01

    The nonlinear dynamics associated with sliding friction forms a broad interdisciplinary research field that involves complex dynamical processes and patterns covering a broad range of time and length scales. Progress in experimental techniques and computational resources has stimulated the development of more refined and accurate mathematical and numerical models, capable of capturing many of the essentially nonlinear phenomena involved in friction.

  10. Friction and nonlinear dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manini, N.; Braun, O. M.; Tosatti, E.; Guerra, R.; Vanossi, A.

    2016-07-01

    The nonlinear dynamics associated with sliding friction forms a broad interdisciplinary research field that involves complex dynamical processes and patterns covering a broad range of time and length scales. Progress in experimental techniques and computational resources has stimulated the development of more refined and accurate mathematical and numerical models, capable of capturing many of the essentially nonlinear phenomena involved in friction.

  11. Supply chain risk management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Hollstein

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Supply chain risk management increasingly gains prominence in many international industries. In order to strengthen supply chain structures, processes, and networks, adequate potentials for risk management need to be built (focus on effective logistics and to be utilized (focus on efficient logistics. Natural-based disasters, such as the case of Fukushima, illustrate how crucial risk management is. Method: By aligning a theoretical-conceptual framework with empirical-inductive findings, it may be hypothesized that logistical systems do have a positive effect on supply chain risk management activities.  Result/conclusion:  Flexibility and capacity, as well as redundancy and standardization, are often viewed as being conflictionary. It shows, however, that in the light of supply chain risk management, those factors may yield a common benefit if proper logistics systems are applied.  

  12. Editorial: Supply Chain Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidonis, D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This special issue has followed up the 2nd Olympus International Conference on Supply Chains held on October 5-6, 2012, in Katerini, Greece. The Conference was organized by the Department of Logistics of Alexander Technological Educational Institution (ATEI of Thessaloniki, in collaboration with the Laboratory of Quantitative Analysis, Logistics and Supply Chain Management of the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTH. During the 2-Days Conference more than 50 research papers were presented covering the following thematic areas: (i Business Logistics, (ii Transportation, Telematics and Distribution Networks, (iii Green Logistics, (iv Information and Communication Technologies in Supply Chain Management, and (v Services and Quality. Three keynote invited speakers addressed interesting issues for the Humanitarian Logistics, Green Supply Chains of the Agrifood Sector and the Opportunities and Prospects of Greek Ports chaired Round Tables with other Greek and Foreign Scientists and Specialists.

  13. Environmental Retail Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotzab, Herbert; Munch, Hilde; de Faultrier, Birgitte;

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop a scale that evaluates the environmental elements in retail supply chains and to examine the environmental supply chain management initiatives of the world's largest 100 retailing companies. Design/methodology/approach – The empirical evaluation has...... which were grouped into eight categories; they refer to “fundamental environmental attitude”, “use of energy”, “use of input material”, “product”, “packaging”, “transport”, “consumption” and “waste”. The level of environmental supply chain management can be characterised as very operational and very...... short-term oriented (green operations). Long-term oriented green design initiatives were hardly observed. Furthermore, the specific environmental activities of three retailers from Denmark, France and the UK were compared. Research limitations/implications – The empirical study investigates supply chain...

  14. Design of supply chain in fuzzy environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Kandukuri Narayana; Subbaiah, Kambagowni Venkata; Singh, Ganja Veera Pratap

    2013-05-01

    Nowadays, customer expectations are increasing and organizations are prone to operate in an uncertain environment. Under this uncertain environment, the ultimate success of the firm depends on its ability to integrate business processes among supply chain partners. Supply chain management emphasizes cross-functional links to improve the competitive strategy of organizations. Now, companies are moving from decoupled decision processes towards more integrated design and control of their components to achieve the strategic fit. In this paper, a new approach is developed to design a multi-echelon, multi-facility, and multi-product supply chain in fuzzy environment. In fuzzy environment, mixed integer programming problem is formulated through fuzzy goal programming in strategic level with supply chain cost and volume flexibility as fuzzy goals. These fuzzy goals are aggregated using minimum operator. In tactical level, continuous review policy for controlling raw material inventories in supplier echelon and controlling finished product inventories in plant as well as distribution center echelon is considered as fuzzy goals. A non-linear programming model is formulated through fuzzy goal programming using minimum operator in the tactical level. The proposed approach is illustrated with a numerical example.

  15. Numerical Analysis of Nonlinear Rotor-bearing-seal System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Mei; MENG Guang; JING Jian-ping

    2008-01-01

    The system state trajectory, Poincaré maps, largest Lyapunov exponents, frequency spectra and bifurcation diagrams were used to investigate the non-linear dynamic behaviors of a rotor-bearing-seal coupled system and to analyze the influence of the seal and bearing on the nonlinear characteristics of the rotor system. Various nonlinear phenomena in the rotor-bearing-seal system, such as periodic motion, double-periodicmotion, multi-periodic motion and quasi-periodic motion were investigated. The results may contribute to a further understanding of the non-linear dynamics of the rotor-bearing-seal coupled system.

  16. Supply Chain Collaboration

    OpenAIRE

    Guy Rodrigue Ghomsi 1982

    2015-01-01

    Companies are now progressively looking beyond themselves to come up with ways to improve revenue and profit margins. This has resulted in a heightened focus on the efficiency of the supply chains. Inefficient supply chains are being perceived as cavities that can deprive the firm from its cash flows when inventory is not required and sales revenue when product is not available at the point of sales. This has stimulated development of business models that intend to leverage and enhance the su...

  17. Variance bounding Markov chains

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Gareth O.; Jeffrey S. Rosenthal

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a new property of Markov chains, called variance bounding. We prove that, for reversible chains at least, variance bounding is weaker than, but closely related to, geometric ergodicity. Furthermore, variance bounding is equivalent to the existence of usual central limit theorems for all L2 functionals. Also, variance bounding (unlike geometric ergodicity) is preserved under the Peskun order. We close with some applications to Metropolis–Hastings algorithms.

  18. Supply chain risk management

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Hollstein; Frank Himpel

    2013-01-01

    Background: Supply chain risk management increasingly gains prominence in many international industries. In order to strengthen supply chain structures, processes, and networks, adequate potentials for risk management need to be built (focus on effective logistics) and to be utilized (focus on efficient logistics). Natural-based disasters, such as the case of Fukushima, illustrate how crucial risk management is. Method: By aligning a theoretical-conceptual framework with empirical-induct...

  19. Editorial: Supply Chain Management

    OpenAIRE

    Aidonis, D.; Folinas, D.; Triantafillou, D.

    2012-01-01

    This special issue has followed up the 2nd Olympus International Conference on Supply Chains held on October 5-6, 2012, in Katerini, Greece. The Conference was organized by the Department of Logistics of Alexander Technological Educational Institution (ATEI) of Thessaloniki, in collaboration with the Laboratory of Quantitative Analysis, Logistics and Supply Chain Management of the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTH). During the 2-Days Conference m...

  20. Role of power on supply chain performance: empirical evidence from the agribusiness sector

    OpenAIRE

    Dora, M

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This empirical study has examined an important research question “what consequence power has on supply chain performance (SCP)” in a triadic context. Previous studies demonstrate that power imbalance in supply chains is inevitable due to differences in chain actors’ expertise, size, dependence, and nature of contract (Gellynck and Molnár, 2009). Powerful supply chain members may assume a greater influence in the supply chain thereby creating some stability, or they may leverage the p...

  1. Macroscopic quantum tunneling of polarization in the hydrogenbonded chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomchuk, P. M.; Krasnoholovets, V. V.

    1997-10-01

    The probability of macroscopic quantum tunneling of polarization in a finite H-bonded chain is treated theoretically with regard to the influence of chain anisotropy. It is shown that the anisotropy stipulated by different microscopical effects plays a major role in the tunneling rate of polarization.

  2. Issues on Supply Chain Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Although supply chain is regarded as an integrated pr ocess, actually, researchers and practitioners have primarily investigated the v arious processes of the supply chain individually. The competitive field in most markets requires well-designed integrated supply chain instead of individual o perations. In this paper, some traditional thinking of supply chain is given fir st, then SCM (Supply Chain Management) is introduced, which views the entire sup ply chain as a whole rather than individual process a...

  3. Asymptotic study of pulsating evolution of overdriven and CJ detonation with a chain-branching kinetics model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pulsating dynamics of gaseous detonations with a model two-step chain-branching kinetic mechanism are studied both numerically and asymptotically. The model studied here was also used in [4], [3] and [2] and mimics the attributes of some chain-branching reaction mechanisms. Specifically, the model comprises a chain-initiationlbranching zone with an Arrhenius temperature-sensitive rate behind the detonation shock where fuel is converted into chain-radical with no heat release. This is followed by a chain-termination zone having a temperature insensitive rate where the exothermic heat of reaction is released. The lengths of these two zones depend on the relative rates of each stage. It was determined in [4] and [3] via asymptotic and numerical analysis that the ratio of the length of the chain-branching zone to that of the chain-initation zone relative to the size of the von Neumann state scaled activation energy in the chain initiation/branching zone has a primary influence of the stability of one-dimensional pulsating instability behavior for this model. In [2], the notion of a specific stability parameter related to this ratio was proposed that determines the boundary between stable and unstable waves. In [4], a slow-time varying asymptotic study was conducted of pulsating instability of Chapman-Jouguet (CJ) detonations with the above two-step rate model, assuming a large activation energy for the chain-initiation zone and a chain-termination zone longer than the chain-initiation zone. Deviations Dn(1) (τ) of the detonation velocity from Chapman-Jouguet were of the order of the non-dimensional activation energy. Solutions were sought for a pulsation timescale of the order of the non-dimensional activation energy times the particle transit time through the induction zone. On this time-scale, the evolution of the chain-initation zone is quasi-steady. In [4], a time-dependent non-linear evolution equation for Dn(1) (τ) was then constructed via a perturbation

  4. Asymptotic study of pulsating evolution of overdriven and CJ detonation with a chain-branching kinetics model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Short, Mark [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chliquete, Carlos [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-20

    The pulsating dynamics of gaseous detonations with a model two-step chain-branching kinetic mechanism are studied both numerically and asymptotically. The model studied here was also used in [4], [3] and [2] and mimics the attributes of some chain-branching reaction mechanisms. Specifically, the model comprises a chain-initiationlbranching zone with an Arrhenius temperature-sensitive rate behind the detonation shock where fuel is converted into chain-radical with no heat release. This is followed by a chain-termination zone having a temperature insensitive rate where the exothermic heat of reaction is released. The lengths of these two zones depend on the relative rates of each stage. It was determined in [4] and [3] via asymptotic and numerical analysis that the ratio of the length of the chain-branching zone to that of the chain-initation zone relative to the size of the von Neumann state scaled activation energy in the chain initiation/branching zone has a primary influence of the stability of one-dimensional pulsating instability behavior for this model. In [2], the notion of a specific stability parameter related to this ratio was proposed that determines the boundary between stable and unstable waves. In [4], a slow-time varying asymptotic study was conducted of pulsating instability of Chapman-Jouguet (CJ) detonations with the above two-step rate model, assuming a large activation energy for the chain-initiation zone and a chain-termination zone longer than the chain-initiation zone. Deviations D{sub n}{sup (1)} ({tau}) of the detonation velocity from Chapman-Jouguet were of the order of the non-dimensional activation energy. Solutions were sought for a pulsation timescale of the order of the non-dimensional activation energy times the particle transit time through the induction zone. On this time-scale, the evolution of the chain-initation zone is quasi-steady. In [4], a time-dependent non-linear evolution equation for D{sub n}{sup (1)} ({tau}) was then

  5. Energy transport in the three coupled α-polypeptide chains of collagen molecule with long-range interactions effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mvogo, Alain; Ben-Bolie, G H; Kofané, T C

    2015-06-01

    The dynamics of three coupled α-polypeptide chains of a collagen molecule is investigated with the influence of power-law long-range exciton-exciton interactions. The continuum limit of the discrete equations reveal that the collagen dynamics is governed by a set of three coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations, whose dispersive coefficient depends on the LRI parameter r. We construct the analytic symmetric and asymmetric (antisymmetric) soliton solutions, which match with the structural features of collagen related with the acupuncture channels. These solutions are used as initial conditions for the numerical simulations of the discrete equations, which reveal a coherent transport of energy in the molecule for r > 3. The results also indicate that the width of the solitons is a decreasing function of r, which help to stabilize the solitons propagating in the molecule. To confirm further the efficiency of energy transport in the molecule, the modulational instability of the system is performed and the numerical simulations show that the energy can flow from one polypeptide chain to another in the form of nonlinear waves. PMID:26117109

  6. Linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients of spherical dome shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Kangxian; Liu, Guanghui; Huang, Lu; Zheng, Xianyi

    2015-08-01

    Linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients of spherical dome shells are theoretically investigated within analytical wave functions and numerical quantized energy levels. Our results show that the inner radius, the outer radius and the cut-off angle of spherical dome shells have great influences on linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients as well as the total optical absorption coefficients. It is found that with the increase of the inner radius and the outer radius, linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients exhibit a blueshift and a redshift, respectively. However, with the increase of the cut-off angle, linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients do not shift. Besides, the resonant peaks of linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients climb up and then decrease with increasing the cut-off angle. The influences of the incident optical intensity on the total optical absorption coefficients are studied. It is found that the bleaching effect occurs at higher incident optical intensity.

  7. Nonlinear variation influence factors for induced airflow of bulk materials in transfer station%转运点落料诱导气流非线性变化影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小川; 李强; 张栋; 胡亚非; 熊建军; 罗会清; 贾彬彬; 胡海彬

    2014-01-01

    转运点诱导气流是散料输送过程扬尘的主要诱因,本文以半封闭转运点为研究对象,通过对落料质量流量mp、有效诱导气流量Q、落料高度h及密闭罩阻力系数ξ等的研究,探讨转运点落料诱导气流非线性变化影响因素。结果表明:诱导气流随物料质量流量增加而增加;受物料相互作用对气流流动的影响和落料管有效流动空间变化影响,有效诱导气流随质量流量增加而减小,在量值上与物料质量流量的-0.77次方近似成正比;转运点落差的有限性使落料过程处于加速阶段,物料曳力系数处于Allen区,诱导气流速度随落料高度的变化趋势基本相同;对平均阻力系数ξ=2.12的密闭罩系统,诱导气流速度与下落高度的0.86次方近似成正比;物料下落初期颗粒间相互碰撞、接触等作用较强,对3.6~11.1 mm的落料,诱导气流随粒度增大有减小趋势,但关联性较弱。%Induced airflow of free-falling particles process serving as the chief temptation of dust fugitive in transfer station of conveying process for bulk materials. The semi-closed transfer station was chosen as the study object in the present paper. Nonlinear variation influence factors for induced airflow were explored through the study of mass flow rate of bulk material mp, specific induced air flow Q, drop height h and resistance coefficient of suction hoodξ. The primary conclusions are as follows: With the mass flow increasing, the induced airflow increases, and the specific induced air flow decreases due to the influences of the interaction between the particles for airstream and the change of effective flow space of blanking tube. The specific induced air flow is found to be proportional to the mass flow raised to the power of approximately -0.77. Owing to the finiteness of the drop height of the transfer station the falling particles is in the acceleration phase all along. The drag

  8. Analysis of non-linearity in differential wavefront sensing technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Hui-Zong; Liang, Yu-Rong; Yeh, Hsien-Chi

    2016-03-01

    An analytical model of a differential wavefront sensing (DWS) technique based on Gaussian Beam propagation has been derived. Compared with the result of the interference signals detected by quadrant photodiode, which is calculated by using the numerical method, the analytical model has been verified. Both the analytical model and numerical simulation show milli-radians level non-linearity effect of DWS detection. In addition, the beam clipping has strong influence on the non-linearity of DWS. The larger the beam clipping is, the smaller the non-linearity is. However, the beam walking effect hardly has influence on DWS. Thus, it can be ignored in laser interferometer. PMID:26974079

  9. Breatherlike excitations in discrete lattices with noise and nonlinear damping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peter Leth; Gaididei, Yuri B.; Johansson, Magnus; Rasmussen, Kim

    1997-01-01

    We discuss the stability of highly localized, ''breatherlike,'' excitations in discrete nonlinear lattices under the influence of thermal fluctuations. The particular model considered is the discrete nonlinear Schrodinger equation in the regime of high nonlinearity, where temperature effects are...... included as multiplicative white noise and nonlinear damping. Numerical analysis shows that the lifetime of the breather is always finite and, in a large parameter regime, inversely proportional to the noise variance for fixed damping and nonlinearity. We also find that the decay rate of the breather...... decreases with increasing nonlinearity and with increasing damping. Using a collective-coordinate approximation, we show how the qualitative features of the numerical results can be analytically understood. Finally, in the dimer case we show that the multiplicative noise can be transformed into additive...

  10. Polariton spectrum in nonlinear dielectric medium

    CERN Document Server

    Dzedolik, Igor V

    2012-01-01

    We obtain theoretically the phonon-polariton spectrum in nonlinear dielectric medium with the third order Kerr-type nonlinearity. We investigate the dependence of number of the polariton spectrum branches on the intensity of electromagnetic field and demonstrate that the appearance of new branches located in the polariton spectrum gap is caused by the influence of dispersion of the third order dielectric susceptibility at intensity field in the medium. The modulation instability of new branch waves leading to appearance of cnoidal waves and solitons.

  11. Supply Chain Management Performance in Tourism. Continental Hotels Chain Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Ţigu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available With its origins in logistics, Supply Chain Management (SCM concept is covering all managerial aspects of the flow of materials and information from source to customer, across the entire range of materials handling and movement functions, and throughout an organization and its supply channels. In tourism, these issues relate to the whole process of providing tourism services from sourcing of raw materials, products or different services to supply and distribution, and SCM performance can ultimately be measured by customer satisfaction. Thus, an important component of tourism SCM is the demand management. Therefore, this study aims to highlight the features of the concept of SCM and demand management in tourism, with an emphasis on a hotel chain in Romania, based on research and analysis of tourist traffic indicators as well as assessment of customers satisfaction. The sources of information are the internal company statistics, as well as various hotels booking websites that offer customers’ feedback. The results of the study provide a snapshot of how the hotel demand management can influence SCM performance in tourism.

  12. Nonlinear graphene metamaterial

    CERN Document Server

    Nikolaenko, Andrey E; Atmatzakis, Evangelos; Luo, Zhiqiang; Shen, Ze Xiang; De Angelis, Francesco; Boden, Stuart A; Di Fabrizio, Enzo; Zheludev, Nikolay I

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate that the broadband nonlinear optical response of graphene can be resonantly enhanced by more than an order of magnitude through hybridization with a plasmonic metamaterial,while retaining an ultrafast nonlinear response time of ~1 ps. Transmission modulation close to ~1% is seen at a pump uence of ~0.03 mJ/cm^2 at the wavelength of ~1600 nm. This approach allows to engineer and enhance graphene's nonlinearity within a broad wavelength range enabling applications in optical switching, mode-locking and pulse shaping.

  13. Will Nonlinear Backcalculation Help?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullidtz, Per

    demonstrates, that treating the subgrade as a nonlinear elastic material, can result in more realistic moduli and a much better agreement between measured and calculated stresses and strains.The response of nonlinear elastic materials can be calculated using the Finite Element Method (FEM). A much simpler...... approach is to use the Method of Equivalent Thicknesses (MET), modified for a nonlinear subgrade. The paper includes an example where moduli backcalculated using FEM, linear elastic theory and MET are compared. Stresses and strains predicted by the three methods are also compared to measured values. For...

  14. Nonlinear Integrated Microwave Photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Marpaung, David

    2013-01-01

    Harnessing nonlinear optical effects in a photonic chip scale has been proven useful for a number of key applications in optical communications. Microwave photonics can also benefit from the adoption of such a technology, creating a new concept of nonlinear integrated microwave photonics. Here, we discuss the potential of on-chip nonlinear processing towards the creation of robust and multifunctional microwave photonic (MWP) processors. We also highlight key recent results in the field, including frequency agile MWP filters and ultra-wideband signal generators.

  15. Nonlinear dynamics in circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Carroll, TL

    1995-01-01

    This volume describes the use of simple analog circuits to study nonlinear dynamics, chaos and stochastic resonance. The circuit experiments that are described are mostly easy and inexpensive to reproduce, and yet these experiments come from the forefront of nonlinear dynamics research. The individual chapters describe why analog circuits are so useful for studying nonlinear dynamics, and include theoretical as well as experimental results from some of the leading researchers in the field. Most of the articles contain some tutorial sections for the less experienced readers.The audience for thi

  16. Metamaterials with conformational nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapine, Mikhail; Shadrivov, Ilya V.; Powell, David A.; Kivshar, Yuri S.

    2011-11-01

    Within a decade of fruitful development, metamaterials became a prominent area of research, bridging theoretical and applied electrodynamics, electrical engineering and material science. Being man-made structures, metamaterials offer a particularly useful playground to develop interdisciplinary concepts. Here we demonstrate a novel principle in metamaterial assembly which integrates electromagnetic, mechanical, and thermal responses within their elements. Through these mechanisms, the conformation of the meta-molecules changes, providing a dual mechanism for nonlinearity and offering nonlinear chirality. Our proposal opens a wide road towards further developments of nonlinear metamaterials and photonic structures, adding extra flexibility to their design and control.

  17. Phasic Triplet Markov Chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Yazid Boudaren, Mohamed; Monfrini, Emmanuel; Pieczynski, Wojciech; Aïssani, Amar

    2014-11-01

    Hidden Markov chains have been shown to be inadequate for data modeling under some complex conditions. In this work, we address the problem of statistical modeling of phenomena involving two heterogeneous system states. Such phenomena may arise in biology or communications, among other fields. Namely, we consider that a sequence of meaningful words is to be searched within a whole observation that also contains arbitrary one-by-one symbols. Moreover, a word may be interrupted at some site to be carried on later. Applying plain hidden Markov chains to such data, while ignoring their specificity, yields unsatisfactory results. The Phasic triplet Markov chain, proposed in this paper, overcomes this difficulty by means of an auxiliary underlying process in accordance with the triplet Markov chains theory. Related Bayesian restoration techniques and parameters estimation procedures according to the new model are then described. Finally, to assess the performance of the proposed model against the conventional hidden Markov chain model, experiments are conducted on synthetic and real data. PMID:26353069

  18. Internal friction and mode relaxation in a simple chain model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugmann, S; Sokolov, I M

    2009-12-21

    We consider the equilibrium relaxation properties of the end-to-end distance and of the principal components in a one-dimensional polymer chain model with nonlinear interaction between the beads. While for the single-well potentials these properties are similar to the ones of a Rouse chain, for the double-well interaction potentials, modeling internal friction, they differ vastly from the ones of the harmonic chain at intermediate times and intermediate temperatures. This minimal description within a one-dimensional model mimics the relaxation properties found in much more complex polymer systems. Thus, the relaxation time of the end-to-end distance may grow by orders of magnitude at intermediate temperatures. The principal components (whose directions are shown to coincide with the normal modes of the harmonic chain, whatever interaction potential is assumed) not only display larger relaxation times but also subdiffusive scaling. PMID:20025352

  19. Observation of Aubry transition in finite atom chains via friction

    CERN Document Server

    Bylinskii, Alexei; Counts, Ian; Vuletic, Vladan

    2015-01-01

    The highly nonlinear many-body physics of a chain of mutually interacting atoms in contact with a periodic substrate gives rise to complex static and dynamical phenomena, such as structural phase transitions and friction. In the limit of an infinite chain incommensurate with the substrate, Aubry predicted a structural transition with increasing substrate potential, from the chain's intrinsic arrangement free to slide on the substrate, to a pinned arrangement favoring the substrate pattern. To date, the Aubry transition has not been observed. Here, using a chain of cold ions subject to a periodic optical potential we qualitatively and quantitatively establish a close relation between Aubry's sliding-to-pinned transition and superlubricity breaking in stick-slip friction. Using friction measurements with high spatial resolution and individual ion detection, we experimentally observe the Aubry transition and the onset of its hallmark fractal atomic arrangement. Notably, the observed critical lattice depth for a ...

  20. Supply chain quality management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannan Amoozad Mahdiraji

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there are several methods introduced for the improvement of operational performances. Total quality management and supply chain management are two methods recommended for this purpose. These two approaches have been studied in most researches separately, while they have objectives in common, and this makes them a strategic means, which can be used, simultaneously. Total quality management and supply chain management play significant roles to increase the organizational competitiveness power. Moreover, they have only one purpose that is customer satisfaction, and they are different only on their approaches to reach their objectives. In this research, we aim to study both approaches of quality management and supply chain, their positive increasing effects that may be generated after their integration. For this purpose, the concept and definitions of each approach is studied, independently, their similarities and differences are recognized, and finally, the advantages of their integration are introduced.

  1. Approximation to Nonlinear Equations Using Nonlinear Rational Models

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Q.M.; Billings, S A

    1992-01-01

    The feasibility of approximating several nonlinear dynamic equations which dominate several engineering disciplines is investigated using a nonlinear rational model formulation. The studies are based on identification from input and output data rather than analytical transformation from a nonlinear equation to a nonlinear rational model.

  2. Ultrafast nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Leburn, Christopher; Reid, Derryck

    2013-01-01

    The field of ultrafast nonlinear optics is broad and multidisciplinary, and encompasses areas concerned with both the generation and measurement of ultrashort pulses of light, as well as those concerned with the applications of such pulses. Ultrashort pulses are extreme events – both in terms of their durations, and also the high peak powers which their short durations can facilitate. These extreme properties make them powerful experiment tools. On one hand, their ultrashort durations facilitate the probing and manipulation of matter on incredibly short timescales. On the other, their ultrashort durations can facilitate high peak powers which can drive highly nonlinear light-matter interaction processes. Ultrafast Nonlinear Optics covers a complete range of topics, both applied and fundamental in nature, within the area of ultrafast nonlinear optics. Chapters 1 to 4 are concerned with the generation and measurement of ultrashort pulses. Chapters 5 to 7 are concerned with fundamental applications of ultrasho...

  3. Nonlinear plasmonic antennas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeeb Bin Hasan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to traditional optical elements, plasmonic antennas made from nanostructured metals permit the localization of electromagnetic fields on length scales much smaller than the wavelength of light. This results in huge amplitudes for the electromagnetic field close to the antenna being conducive for the observation of nonlinear effects already at moderate pump powers. Thus, these antennas exhibit a promising potential to achieve optical frequency conversion and all-optical control of light at the nano-scale. This opens unprecedented opportunities for ultrafast nonlinear spectroscopy, sensing devices, on-chip optical frequency conversion, nonlinear optical metamaterials, and novel photon sources. Here, we review some of the recent advances in exploiting the potential of plasmonic antennas to realize robust nonlinear applications.

  4. Nonlinear magnetoinductive transmission lines

    CERN Document Server

    Lazarides, Nikos; Tsironis, G P

    2011-01-01

    Power transmission in one-dimensional nonlinear magnetic metamaterials driven at one end is investigated numerically and analytically in a wide frequency range. The nonlinear magnetic metamaterials are composed of varactor-loaded split-ring resonators which are coupled magnetically through their mutual inductances, forming thus a magnetoiductive transmission line. In the linear limit, significant power transmission along the array only appears for frequencies inside the linear magnetoinductive wave band. We present analytical, closed form solutions for the magnetoinductive waves transmitting the power in this regime, and their discrete frequency dispersion. When nonlinearity is important, more frequency bands with significant power transmission along the array may appear. In the equivalent circuit picture, the nonlinear magnetoiductive transmission line driven at one end by a relatively weak electromotive force, can be modeled by coupled resistive-inductive-capacitive (RLC) circuits with voltage-dependent cap...

  5. Nonlinear Markov processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, T.D. [Center for the Ecological Study of Perception and Action, Department of Psychology, University of Connecticut, 406 Babbidge Road, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States)], E-mail: till.frank@uconn.edu

    2008-06-16

    Some elementary properties and examples of Markov processes are reviewed. It is shown that the definition of the Markov property naturally leads to a classification of Markov processes into linear and nonlinear ones.

  6. Terahertz semiconductor nonlinear optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchinovich, Dmitry; Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Hoffmann, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    In this proceedings we describe our recent results on semiconductor nonlinear optics, investigated using single-cycle THz pulses. We demonstrate the nonlinear absorption and self-phase modulation of strong-field THz pulses in doped semiconductors, using n-GaAs as a model system. The THz...... nonlinearity in doped semiconductors originates from the near-instantaneous heating of free electrons in the ponderomotive potential created by electric field of the THz pulse, leading to ultrafast increase of electron effective mass by intervalley scattering. Modification of effective mass in turn leads to a...... decrease of plasma frequency in semiconductor and produces a substantial modification of THz-range material dielectric function, described by the Drude model. As a result, the nonlinearity of both absorption coefficient and refractive index of the semiconductor is observed. In particular we demonstrate the...

  7. Nonlinear Markov processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some elementary properties and examples of Markov processes are reviewed. It is shown that the definition of the Markov property naturally leads to a classification of Markov processes into linear and nonlinear ones

  8. Multipolar nonlinear nanophotonics

    CERN Document Server

    Smirnova, Daria

    2016-01-01

    Nonlinear nanophotonics is a rapidly developing field with many useful applications for a design of nonlinear nanoantennas, light sources, nanolasers, sensors, and ultrafast miniature metadevices. A tight confinement of the local electromagnetic fields in resonant photonic nanostructures can boost nonlinear optical effects, thus offering versatile opportunities for subwavelength control of light. To achieve the desired functionalities, it is essential to gain flexible control over the near- and far-field properties of nanostructures. Thus, both modal and multipolar analyses are widely exploited for engineering nonlinear scattering from resonant nanoscale elements, in particular for enhancing the near-field interaction, tailoring the far-field multipolar interference, and optimization of the radiation directionality. Here, we review the recent advances in this recently emerged research field ranging from metallic structures exhibiting localized plasmonic resonances to hybrid metal-dielectric and all-dielectric...

  9. Essentials of supply chain management

    CERN Document Server

    Hugos, Michael H

    2011-01-01

    The latest thinking, strategies, developments, and technologies to stay current in supply chain management Presenting the core concepts and techniques of supply chain management in a clear, concise and easily readable style, the Third Edition of Essentials of Supply Chain Management outlines the most crucial tenets and concepts of supply chain management.

  10. Building the resilient supply chain.

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher, Martin; Peck, Helen

    2004-01-01

    In today’s uncertain and turbulent markets, supply chain vulnerability has become an issue of significance for many companies. As supply chains become more complex as a result of global sourcing and the continued trend to ‘leaning-down’, supply chain risk increases. The challenge to business today is to manage and mitigate that risk through creating more resilient supply chains.

  11. Supply-Chain Optimization Template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiett, William F.; Sealing, Scott L.

    2009-01-01

    The Supply-Chain Optimization Template (SCOT) is an instructional guide for identifying, evaluating, and optimizing (including re-engineering) aerospace- oriented supply chains. The SCOT was derived from the Supply Chain Council s Supply-Chain Operations Reference (SCC SCOR) Model, which is more generic and more oriented toward achieving a competitive advantage in business.

  12. Fuzzy Markov chains: uncertain probabilities

    OpenAIRE

    James J. Buckley; Eslami, Esfandiar

    2002-01-01

    We consider finite Markov chains where there are uncertainties in some of the transition probabilities. These uncertainties are modeled by fuzzy numbers. Using a restricted fuzzy matrix multiplication we investigate the properties of regular, and absorbing, fuzzy Markov chains and show that the basic properties of these classical Markov chains generalize to fuzzy Markov chains.

  13. Nonlinearity without Superluminality

    OpenAIRE

    Kent, Adrian

    2002-01-01

    Quantum theory is compatible with special relativity. In particular, though measurements on entangled systems are correlated in a way that cannot be reproduced by local hidden variables, they cannot be used for superluminal signalling. As Czachor, Gisin and Polchinski pointed out, this is not true for general nonlinear modifications of the Schroedinger equation. Excluding superluminal signalling has thus been taken to rule out most nonlinear versions of quantum theory. The no superluminal sig...

  14. A new nonlinear filter

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, Robert J.; Haykin, Simon

    2006-01-01

    A discrete time filter is constructed where both the observation and signal process have non-linear dynamics with additive white Gaussian noise. Using the reference probably frame- work a convolution Zakai equation is obtained which updates the unnormalized conditional density. Our work obtains approximate solutions of this equation in terms of Gaussian sum when second order expansions are introduced for the non-linear terms.

  15. Nonlinear silicon photonics

    OpenAIRE

    Tsia, KK; Jalali, B.

    2010-01-01

    An intriguing optical property of silicon is that it exhibits a large third-order optical nonlinearity, with orders-ofmagnitude larger than that of silica glass in the telecommunication band. This allows efficient nonlinear optical interaction at relatively low power levels in a small footprint. Indeed, we have witnessed a stunning progress in harnessing the Raman and Kerr effects in silicon as the mechanisms for enabling chip-scale optical amplification, lasing, and wavelength conversion - f...

  16. Quantum manifestations of classical nonlinear resonances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniacki, Diego A; Schlagheck, Peter

    2015-12-01

    When an integrable classical system is perturbed, nonlinear resonances are born, grow, and eventually disappear due to chaos. In this paper the quantum manifestations of such a transition are studied in the standard map. We show that nonlinear resonances act as a perturbation that break eigenphase degeneracies for unperturbed states with quantum numbers that differ in a multiple of the order of the resonance. We show that the eigenphase splittings are well described by a semiclassical expression based on an integrable approximation of the Hamiltonian in the vicinity of the resonance. The morphology in phase space of these states is also studied. We show that the nonlinear resonance imprints a systematic influence in their localization properties. PMID:26764790

  17. Integrated supply chain risk management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riaan Bredell

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Integrated supply chain risk management (ISCRM has become indispensable to the theory and practice of supply chain management. The economic and political realities of the modern world require not only a different approach to supply chain management, but also bold steps to secure supply chain performance and sustainable wealth creation. Integrated supply chain risk management provides supply chain organisations with a level of insight into their supply chains yet to be achieved. If correctly applied, this process may optimise management decision-making and assist in the protection and enhancement of shareholder value.

  18. Nonlinear Multiantenna Detection Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Sheng

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonlinear detection technique designed for multiple-antenna assisted receivers employed in space-division multiple-access systems is investigated. We derive the optimal solution of the nonlinear spatial-processing assisted receiver for binary phase shift keying signalling, which we refer to as the Bayesian detector. It is shown that this optimal Bayesian receiver significantly outperforms the standard linear beamforming assisted receiver in terms of a reduced bit error rate, at the expense of an increased complexity, while the achievable system capacity is substantially enhanced with the advent of employing nonlinear detection. Specifically, when the spatial separation expressed in terms of the angle of arrival between the desired and interfering signals is below a certain threshold, a linear beamformer would fail to separate them, while a nonlinear detection assisted receiver is still capable of performing adequately. The adaptive implementation of the optimal Bayesian detector can be realized using a radial basis function network. Two techniques are presented for constructing block-data-based adaptive nonlinear multiple-antenna assisted receivers. One of them is based on the relevance vector machine invoked for classification, while the other on the orthogonal forward selection procedure combined with the Fisher ratio class-separability measure. A recursive sample-by-sample adaptation procedure is also proposed for training nonlinear detectors based on an amalgam of enhanced -means clustering techniques and the recursive least squares algorithm.

  19. Influence of multi-photon nonlinear Compton scattering on plasma planar reflect electromagnetic wave%多光子非线性 Compton 散射对等离子体平面反射电磁波的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝东山; 冯光辉

    2016-01-01

    By using the model of multi -photon nonlinear Compton scattering and the model of the effect between the electromagnetic wave and particle , the influence of Compton scattering on the characteristic of plasma planar reflect electromagnetic wave is studied , a mechanism of Compton scattering on the electromagnetic of plasma pla-nar reflect electromagnetic wave is produced , a revised equation of Compton scattering on the reflect rate of plas-ma planar reflect electromagnetic wave has been given out , and the equation is simulated by used the replica ex-perimentation.The results show that the plasma density in the low frequency part is quickly increased along with the increasing of the electric field intensity under the different frequencies , the time reached a parity is clearly cut, and the cause is that this field intensity is quickly increased by Compton scattering , the ionization probabili-ty of the particle in the plasma is increased.The reflect wave intensity is cut down at the most by the high fre-quency incident wave , the final intensity almost is 0, and the cause is that the high plasma frequency produced by Compton scattering than the incident light frequency.The reflect wave frequencies of the different frequencies incident waves are meagerly increased , the cause is that the gap of the time measure between the signal and the complex and diffusion of the plasma is decreased by Compton scattering , and the nonlinear effect of the reflect wave is progressively appeared.The density of the low density plasma is fastest increased along the collision fre-quency increasing , and the time to parity is the minimum , the cause is that the plasma collision frequency is in-creased by scattering , and the more particles are ionized.%应用多光子非线性Compton散射模型和电磁波与等离子体相互作用模型,研究了Compton散射对等离子体平面反射电磁波特性的影响,提出了将Compton散射作为影响等离子体

  20. 分销商联盟对供应链效益的影响研究%Analysis on the Influence of Retailers' Union on the Supply Chain Benefits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡玉凤; 杨功平; 张晟义

    2013-01-01

    Two-stage supply chain composed of a supplier and multiple retailers in the full information market with dynamic game, taking the transfer of priority in ordering decisions into consideration, analyzing how the Union impacts the supply chain benefits.%  由一个供应商和多个分销商组成的两级供应链,在完全信息市场下,进行动态博弈,考虑到因联盟产生的订货决策优先权的转移问题,分析联盟如何对供应链效益产生影响。

  1. Nonlinear Electromagnetic Forces in Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Labun, Lance; 10.5506/APhysPolB.43.2237

    2013-01-01

    Electromagnetism becomes a nonlinear theory having (effective) photon-photon interactions due at least to electron-positron fluctuations in the vacuum. We discuss the consequences of the nonlinearity for the force felt by a charge probe particle, and compare the impact of Euler-Kockel QED effective nonlinearity to the possibility of Born-Infeld-type nonlinearity.

  2. Wave-packet rectification in nonlinear electronic systems: A tunable Aharonov-Bohm diode

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yunyun; Marchesoni, Fabio; Li, Baowen

    2014-01-01

    Rectification of electron wave-packets propagating along a quasi-one dimensional chain is commonly achieved via the simultaneous action of nonlinearity and longitudinal asymmetry, both confined to a limited portion of the chain termed wave diode. However, it is conceivable that, in the presence of an external magnetic field, spatial asymmetry perpendicular to the direction of propagation suffices to ensure rectification. This is the case of a nonlinear ring-shaped lattice with different upper and lower halves (diode), which is attached to two elastic chains (leads). The resulting device is mirror symmetric with respect to the ring vertical axis, but mirror asymmetric with respect to the chain direction. Wave propagation along the two diode paths can be modeled for simplicity by a discrete Schr\\"odinger equation with cubic nonlinearities. Numerical simulations demonstrate that, thanks to the Aharonov-Bohm effect, such a diode can be operated by tuning the magnetic flux across the ring.

  3. Wave-packet rectification in nonlinear electronic systems: a tunable Aharonov-Bohm diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunyun; Zhou, Jun; Marchesoni, Fabio; Li, Baowen

    2014-01-01

    Rectification of electron wave-packets propagating along a quasi-one dimensional chain is commonly achieved via the simultaneous action of nonlinearity and longitudinal asymmetry, both confined to a limited portion of the chain termed wave diode. However, it is conceivable that, in the presence of an external magnetic field, spatial asymmetry perpendicular to the direction of propagation suffices to ensure rectification. This is the case of a nonlinear ring-shaped lattice with different upper and lower halves (diode), which is attached to two elastic chains (leads). The resulting device is mirror symmetric with respect to the ring vertical axis, but mirror asymmetric with respect to the chain direction. Wave propagation along the two diode paths can be modeled for simplicity by a discrete Schrödinger equation with cubic nonlinearities. Numerical simulations demonstrate that, thanks to the Aharonov-Bohm effect, such a diode can be operated by tuning the magnetic flux across the ring. PMID:24691462

  4. 2型糖尿病链式分层管理规范化的影响因素分析%Influencing factors of standardization in the hierarchical chain management of type 2 diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王奕; 高清歌; 孟祥英; 陆燕蓉; 史超; 陈榕; 梁长秀; 周勇

    2012-01-01

    理模式,使糖尿病患者早期参与规范化管理,延缓并发症的出现.%Objective To analysis the influence factors of standardization in the hierarchical chain management of type 2 diabetes and to enhance the hierarchical chain management of type 2 diabetes.Methods ( 1 ) Six hundred and ninty patients with type 2 diabetes completed 1 years management were divided into well-controlled glycosylated hemoglobin ( HbAlc ) group (<7.0% ) and bad-controlled glycosylated hemoglobin (HbAlc) group ( ≥ 7.0% ).The conditions of diet,physical activity,medication,self-blood sugar monitoring and participation in health seminars were investigated and analyzed.(2) The patients were divided into standardized management group and not standardized management group.Their age,sex,educational background,occupation,monthly income per person,medical security,the course,cognition for glycuresis,two-way transfer,and chronic complications were investigated and statistically analyzed.Results ( 1 ) The proportions of physical activity (70.1% vs 54.2%,x2=6.163,P=0.018),self-blood sugar monitoring(60.4% vs 43.8%,x2=6.268,P=0.016) and participation in health seminars (56.0% vs 41.7%,x2=4.577,P=0.045) in the well-controlled HbAlc group were significantly higher than those in the bad-controlled HbAlc group.(2) Their age [(61.08 ±10.04) years old vs ( 57.75 ± 9.89 ) years old,t=2.539,P=0.012],educational background ( ratio of low educational attainment:8.3 % vs 17.2%,x2=6.426,P=0.041 ),medical security (own expense ratios:4.6% vs 11.5%,x2=3.543,P=0.048 ),awareness of diabetes ( ratio of poor awareness of diabetes:19.4% vs 41.0%,x2=17.518,P=0.000 ),two-way transfer ( ratio of not transfer treatment:4.6% vs 14.8%,x2=7.662,P=0.022) and chronic complications ( ratio of chronic complication:41.7 % vs 26.2%,x2=6.130,P=0.017) were significantly different between the standardized management group and not standardized management group.(3) Logistic regression

  5. The Influence of U.S. Chain Restaurant Food Consumption and Obesity in China and South Korea: An Ecological Perspective of Food Consumption, Self-Efficacy in Weight Management, Willingness to Communicate About Weight/Diet, and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kevin B; Mazzone, Raphael; Oh, Hyun; Du, Joshua; Smithson, Anne-Bennett; Ryan, Diane; MacNeil, David; Tong, Xing; Stiller, Carol

    2016-11-01

    This study examined the impact of U.S. chain restaurant food consumption in China and South Korea from an ecological perspective. Specifically, it explored the relationships among several environmental and individual variables that have been found to affect obesity/weight management in previous research, including the prevalence/popularity of U.S. chain restaurants in these countries, frequency of U.S. chain restaurant food consumption, self-efficacy in weight management, willingness to communicate about weight/diet, self-perceptions of weight/obesity stigma, body mass index (BMI), and depression. The results indicated that willingness to communicate about weight/diet predicted increased self-efficacy in weight management. Higher BMI scores were found to predict increased weight/obesity stigma, and increased frequency of U.S. restaurant food consumption, weight/obesity stigma, and reduced self-efficacy in weight management were found to predict increased levels of depression. The theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed, along with limitations and directions for future research. PMID:27007254

  6. Suppression of chicken J chain production by in ovo bursectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, O; Ichikawa, Y

    1990-05-01

    The influence of in ovo bursectomy on the levels of J and mu chains in the sera of embryonic and hatched chicks was studied by the dot blotting immunoassay. The results indicated a decrease in the level of J chains during the embryonic stage after treatment with testosterone compared with normal chicks. Testosterone treatment caused a decrease in J-chain levels after hatching which was more marked in reduced-alkylated than in non-reduced sera. In contrast, testosterone caused no significant change in serum levels of mu chains, either in ovo or after hatching. Our findings further present the paradox that although removal of the bursa of Fabricius by testosterone treatment did not impair mu-chain synthesis, B-cell differentiation was suppressed. These observations indicate that in ovo bursectomy selectively inactivates B-cell differentiation as indicated by the induction of immunodeficiency, and results in the failure of J-chain production. PMID:2112285

  7. Plastic value chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baxter, John; Wahlstrom, Margareta; Zu Castell-Rüdenhausen, Malin;

    2014-01-01

    Optimizing plastic value chains is regarded as an important measure in order to increase recycling of plastics in an efficient way. This can also lead to improved awareness of the hazardous substances contained in plastic waste, and how to avoid that these substances are recycled. As an example...

  8. Innovation in Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maier, Maximilian; Korbel, Jakob; Brem, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    . Moreover, along with the fourth industrial revolution – industry 4.0 – new technologies such as cyber physical systems are fast gaining popularity. Hence, based on the analysis of relevant literature, we further develop the supply chain committee model, developed by Kaluza et al. (2003) to demonstrate how...

  9. Heavy chain only antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moghimi, Seyed Moein; Rahbarizadeh, Fatemeh; Ahmadvand, Davoud;

    2013-01-01

    Unlike conventional antibodies, heavy chain only antibodies derived from camel contain a single variable domain (VHH) and two constant domains (CH2 and CH3). Cloned and isolated VHHs possess unique properties that enable them to excel conventional therapeutic antibodies and their smaller antigen...

  10. METRODOS: Meteorological preprocessor chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, P.; Mikkelsen, T.; Deme, S.

    2001-01-01

    - heat flux related measurement, e.g. a temperature gradient, are used to give local values of friction velocity and Monin-Obukhov length plus an estimate of the mixing height. The METRODOS meteorological preprocessor chain is an integral part of the RODOS - Real Time On Line Decision Support - program...

  11. Supply chain reliability modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Zaitsev

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today it is virtually impossible to operate alone on the international level in the logistics business. This promotes the establishment and development of new integrated business entities - logistic operators. However, such cooperation within a supply chain creates also many problems related to the supply chain reliability as well as the optimization of the supplies planning. The aim of this paper was to develop and formulate the mathematical model and algorithms to find the optimum plan of supplies by using economic criterion and the model for the probability evaluating of non-failure operation of supply chain. Methods: The mathematical model and algorithms to find the optimum plan of supplies were developed and formulated by using economic criterion and the model for the probability evaluating of non-failure operation of supply chain. Results and conclusions: The problem of ensuring failure-free performance of goods supply channel analyzed in the paper is characteristic of distributed network systems that make active use of business process outsourcing technologies. The complex planning problem occurring in such systems that requires taking into account the consumer's requirements for failure-free performance in terms of supply volumes and correctness can be reduced to a relatively simple linear programming problem through logical analysis of the structures. The sequence of the operations, which should be taken into account during the process of the supply planning with the supplier's functional reliability, was presented.

  12. Shared Value Chain Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bals, Lydia; Tate, Wendy L.

    In Sustainable Supply Chain Management (SSCM) research still the classic economic perspective is the dominating perspective, although the triple bottom line (including economic, social and ecological) is well accepted. The theoretical foundation for the paper is Stakeholder Theory. Case studies o...

  13. Exploration Supply Chain Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Exploration Supply Chain Simulation project was chartered by the NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate to develop a software tool, with proper data, to quantitatively analyze supply chains for future program planning. This tool is a discrete-event simulation that uses the basic supply chain concepts of planning, sourcing, making, delivering, and returning. This supply chain perspective is combined with other discrete or continuous simulation factors. Discrete resource events (such as launch or delivery reviews) are represented as organizational functional units. Continuous resources (such as civil service or contractor program functions) are defined as enabling functional units. Concepts of fixed and variable costs are included in the model to allow the discrete events to interact with cost calculations. The definition file is intrinsic to the model, but a blank start can be initiated at any time. The current definition file is an Orion Ares I crew launch vehicle. Parameters stretch from Kennedy Space Center across and into other program entities (Michaud Assembly Facility, Aliant Techsystems, Stennis Space Center, Johnson Space Center, etc.) though these will only gain detail as the file continues to evolve. The Orion Ares I file definition in the tool continues to evolve, and analysis from this tool is expected in 2008. This is the first application of such business-driven modeling to a NASA/government-- aerospace contractor endeavor.

  14. CHAINE DES ROTISSEUR @ HILTON

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The annual gala dinner of Chaine des Rotisseurs was hosted by Hilton Beijing. The “Ballet Dinner” - a great creation for both art and fine dining lovers was taken place in varies places within the hotel, including hotel lobby, 3rd floor and lobby lounge.

  15. Nonlinear Approaches in Engineering Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Jazar, Reza

    2012-01-01

    Nonlinear Approaches in Engineering Applications focuses on nonlinear phenomena that are common in the engineering field. The nonlinear approaches described in this book provide a sound theoretical base and practical tools to design and analyze engineering systems with high efficiency and accuracy and with less energy and downtime. Presented here are nonlinear approaches in areas such as dynamic systems, optimal control and approaches in nonlinear dynamics and acoustics. Coverage encompasses a wide range of applications and fields including mathematical modeling and nonlinear behavior as applied to microresonators, nanotechnologies, nonlinear behavior in soil erosion,nonlinear population dynamics, and optimization in reducing vibration and noise as well as vibration in triple-walled carbon nanotubes. This book also: Provides a complete introduction to nonlinear behavior of systems and the advantages of nonlinearity as a tool for solving engineering problems Includes applications and examples drawn from the el...

  16. Quantum Thermal Transport through Extremely Cold Dielectric Chains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hui-Ping; YI Lin

    2006-01-01

    In the framework of Green's function theory out of equilibrium, a Landauer-Buttiker (LB) formula for thermal conductance is derived. A simplified model for describing extremely cold dielectric chains is proposed for the first time. Fhrther we apply the present LB formula for studying thermal conductance at low-lying modes, emerging in dielectric atom chains. We find that quantum thermal conductance undergoes an anomalous transition due to new quasiparticle excitations, resulting from nonlinear atom-atom interactions. This theoretical prediction is in excellent agreement with a high-accuracy measurement to thermal conductance quantum.

  17. Synchronous Generator Model with Nonlinear Magnetic Circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Spałek

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A synchronous generator with voltage controller is a system whose work describes the ordinary differential equation set for the equivalent circuits. For the nonlinear magnetic circuit of a synchronous generator (stator and rotor saturation the differential set is nonlinear. The solution of such a problem needs to develop the appropriate model for numerical simulations of the generator. First of all, the generator model type e.g. (1,1,(2,2, (3,3 or other should be chosen. Furthermore, the equivalent parameters for the model of synchronous generator should be chosen. The nonlinearity of magnetic circuit leads to changes of some equivalent parameters and additional numerical computations. There is a numerical program developed in C++ for simulations of transients in order to investigate their sensitivity to generator nonlinearity (saturation effect and equivalent parameters values. The described program (available at www.elektr.polsl.pl/dspalek/ enables to decide whether the nonlinearity for d/q axis should be taken into account and which equivalent parameter are of high importance. Subsequently, the presented model leads to conclusions on which parameters should influence significantly synchronous generator work in a power system.

  18. Composing Scalable Nonlinear Algebraic Solvers

    OpenAIRE

    Brune, Peter R.; Knepley, Matthew G.; Smith, Barry F.; Tu, Xuemin

    2016-01-01

    Most efficient linear solvers use composable algorithmic components, with the most common model being the combination of a Krylov accelerator and one or more preconditioners. A similar set of concepts may be used for nonlinear algebraic systems, where nonlinear composition of different nonlinear solvers may significantly improve the time to solution. We describe the basic concepts of nonlinear composition and preconditioning and present a number of solvers applicable to nonlinear partial diff...

  19. Precast Pearl-Chain concrete arch bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halding, Philip Skov; Hertz, Kristian Dahl; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup

    2015-01-01

    the technology was used. We also study other important components and details in the Pearl-Chain Bridge concept and review the effects of different types of loads. A theoretical case study of a circular 30 m span Pearl-Chain Bridge is presented showing the influence of a number of parameters: The......A Pearl-Chain Bridge is a closed-spandrel arch bridge consisting of a number of straight pre-fabricated so called Super-Light Deck elements put together in an arch shape by post-tensioning cables. Several Pearl-Chain arches can be positioned adjacent to each other by a crane to achieve a bridge of...... number of post-tensioning cables, the rise to span ratio, the height of the filling, and the height of the Super-Light Decks. We find that Pearl-Chain Bridges can be adjusted to resist specific moment loads by changing the normal force in the arch cross section by altering the above parameters. It is...

  20. Mathematical models of non-linear phenomena, processes and systems: from molecular scale to planetary atmosphere

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This book consists of twenty seven chapters, which can be divided into three large categories: articles with the focus on the mathematical treatment of non-linear problems, including the methodologies, algorithms and properties of analytical and numerical solutions to particular non-linear problems; theoretical and computational studies dedicated to the physics and chemistry of non-linear micro-and nano-scale systems, including molecular clusters, nano-particles and nano-composites; and, papers focused on non-linear processes in medico-biological systems, including mathematical models of ferments, amino acids, blood fluids and polynucleic chains.