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Sample records for chain kinases roles

  1. Role of p38 protein kinase in the ligand-independent ubiquitination and down-regulation of the IFNAR1 chain of type I interferon receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Sabyasachi; Qian, Juan; Tzimas, Christos; Baker, Darren P; Koumenis, Constantinos; Diehl, J Alan; Fuchs, Serge Y

    2011-06-24

    Phosphorylation-dependent ubiquitination and degradation of the IFNAR1 chain of type I interferon (IFN) receptor is a robust and specific mechanism that limits the magnitude and duration of IFNα/β signaling. Besides the ligand-inducible IFNAR1 degradation, the existence of an "inside-out" signaling that accelerates IFNAR1 turnover in the cells undergoing the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and activated unfolded protein responses has been recently described. The latter pathway does not require either presence of ligands (IFNα/β) or catalytic activity of Janus kinases (JAK). Instead, this pathway relies on activation of the PKR-like ER kinase (PERK) and ensuing specific priming phosphorylation of IFNAR1. Here, we describe studies that identify the stress activated p38 protein kinase as an important regulator of IFNAR1 that acts downstream of PERK. Results of the experiments using pharmacologic p38 kinase inhibitors, RNA interference approach, and cells from p38α knock-out mice suggest that p38 kinase activity is required for priming phosphorylation of IFNAR1 in cells undergoing unfolded protein response. We further demonstrate an important role of p38 kinase in the ligand-independent stimulation of IFNAR1 ubiquitination and degradation and ensuing attenuation of IFNα/β signaling and anti-viral defenses. We discuss the distinct importance of p38 kinase in regulating the overall responses to type I IFN in cells that have been already exposed to IFNα/β versus those cells that are yet to encounter these cytokines.

  2. Role of p38 Protein Kinase in the Ligand-independent Ubiquitination and Down-regulation of the IFNAR1 Chain of Type I Interferon Receptor*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Sabyasachi; Qian, Juan; Tzimas, Christos; Baker, Darren P.; Koumenis, Constantinos; Diehl, J. Alan; Fuchs, Serge Y.

    2011-01-01

    Phosphorylation-dependent ubiquitination and degradation of the IFNAR1 chain of type I interferon (IFN) receptor is a robust and specific mechanism that limits the magnitude and duration of IFNα/β signaling. Besides the ligand-inducible IFNAR1 degradation, the existence of an “inside-out” signaling that accelerates IFNAR1 turnover in the cells undergoing the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and activated unfolded protein responses has been recently described. The latter pathway does not require either presence of ligands (IFNα/β) or catalytic activity of Janus kinases (JAK). Instead, this pathway relies on activation of the PKR-like ER kinase (PERK) and ensuing specific priming phosphorylation of IFNAR1. Here, we describe studies that identify the stress activated p38 protein kinase as an important regulator of IFNAR1 that acts downstream of PERK. Results of the experiments using pharmacologic p38 kinase inhibitors, RNA interference approach, and cells from p38α knock-out mice suggest that p38 kinase activity is required for priming phosphorylation of IFNAR1 in cells undergoing unfolded protein response. We further demonstrate an important role of p38 kinase in the ligand-independent stimulation of IFNAR1 ubiquitination and degradation and ensuing attenuation of IFNα/β signaling and anti-viral defenses. We discuss the distinct importance of p38 kinase in regulating the overall responses to type I IFN in cells that have been already exposed to IFNα/β versus those cells that are yet to encounter these cytokines. PMID:21540188

  3. Critical Role of Non-Muscle Myosin Light Chain Kinase in Thrombin-Induced Endothelial Cell Inflammation and Lung PMN Infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazal, Fabeha; Bijli, Kaiser M.; Murrill, Matthew; Leonard, Antony; Minhajuddin, Mohammad; Anwar, Khandaker N.; Finkelstein, Jacob N.; Watterson, D. Martin; Rahman, Arshad

    2013-01-01

    The pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALI) involves bidirectional cooperation and close interaction between inflammatory and coagulation pathways. A key molecule linking coagulation and inflammation is the procoagulant thrombin, a serine protease whose concentration is elevated in plasma and lavage fluids of patients with ALI and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, little is known about the mechanism by which thrombin contributes to lung inflammatory response. In this study, we developed a new mouse model that permits investigation of lung inflammation associated with intravascular coagulation. Using this mouse model and in vitro approaches, we addressed the role of non-muscle myosin light chain kinase (nmMLCK) in thrombin-induced endothelial cell (EC) inflammation and lung neutrophil (PMN) infiltration. Our in vitro experiments revealed a key role of nmMLCK in ICAM-1 expression by its ability to control nuclear translocation and transcriptional capacity of RelA/p65 in EC. When subjected to intraperitoneal thrombin challenge, wild type mice showed a marked increase in lung PMN infiltration via expression of ICAM-1. However, these responses were markedly attenuated in mice deficient in nmMLCK. These results provide mechanistic insight into lung inflammatory response associated with intravascular coagulation and identify nmMLCK as a critical target for modulation of lung inflammation. PMID:23555849

  4. The role of ZAP70 kinase in acute lymphoblastic leukemia infiltration into the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsadeq, Ameera; Fedders, Henning; Vokuhl, Christian; Belau, Nele M; Zimmermann, Martin; Wirbelauer, Tim; Spielberg, Steffi; Vossen-Gajcy, Michaela; Cario, Gunnar; Schrappe, Martin; Schewe, Denis M

    2017-02-01

    Central nervous system infiltration and relapse are poorly understood in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. We examined the role of zeta-chain-associated protein kinase 70 in preclinical models of central nervous system leukemia and performed correlative studies in patients. Zeta-chain-associated protein kinase 70 expression in acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells was modulated using short hairpin ribonucleic acid-mediated knockdown or ectopic expression. We show that zeta-chain-associated protein kinase 70 regulates CCR7/CXCR4 via activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases. High expression of zeta-chain-associated protein kinase 70 in acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells resulted in a higher proportion of central nervous system leukemia in xenografts as compared to zeta-chain-associated protein kinase 70 low expressing counterparts. High zeta-chain-associated protein kinase 70 also enhanced the migration potential towards CCL19/CXCL12 gradients in vitro CCR7 blockade almost abrogated homing of acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells to the central nervous system in xenografts. In 130 B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia and 117 T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients, zeta-chain-associated protein kinase 70 and CCR7/CXCR4 expression levels were significantly correlated. Zeta-chain-associated protein kinase 70 expression correlated with central nervous system disease in B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and CCR7/CXCR4 correlated with central nervous system involvement in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients. In multivariate analysis, zeta-chain-associated protein kinase 70 expression levels in the upper third and fourth quartiles were associated with central nervous system involvement in B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (odds ratio=7.48, 95% confidence interval, 2.06-27.17; odds ratio=6.86, 95% confidence interval, 1.86-25.26, respectively). CCR7 expression in the upper fourth quartile correlated with central

  5. Slit and Netrin-1 guide cranial motor axon pathfinding via Rho-kinase, myosin light chain kinase and myosin II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drescher Uwe

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the developing hindbrain, cranial motor axon guidance depends on diffusible repellent factors produced by the floor plate. Our previous studies have suggested that candidate molecules for mediating this effect are Slits, Netrin-1 and Semaphorin3A (Sema3A. It is unknown to what extent these factors contribute to floor plate-derived chemorepulsion of motor axons, and the downstream signalling pathways are largely unclear. Results In this study, we have used a combination of in vitro and in vivo approaches to identify the components of floor plate chemorepulsion and their downstream signalling pathways. Using in vitro motor axon deflection assays, we demonstrate that Slits and Netrin-1, but not Sema3A, contribute to floor plate repulsion. We also find that the axon pathways of dorsally projecting branchiomotor neurons are disrupted in Netrin-1 mutant mice and in chick embryos expressing dominant-negative Unc5a receptors, indicating an in vivo role for Netrin-1. We further demonstrate that Slit and Netrin-1 signalling are mediated by Rho-kinase (ROCK and myosin light chain kinase (MLCK, which regulate myosin II activity, controlling actin retrograde flow in the growth cone. We show that MLCK, ROCK and myosin II are required for Slit and Netrin-1-mediated growth cone collapse of cranial motor axons. Inhibition of these molecules in explant cultures, or genetic manipulation of RhoA or myosin II function in vivo causes characteristic cranial motor axon pathfinding errors, including the inability to exit the midline, and loss of turning towards exit points. Conclusions Our findings suggest that both Slits and Netrin-1 contribute to floor plate-derived chemorepulsion of cranial motor axons. They further indicate that RhoA/ROCK, MLCK and myosin II are components of Slit and Netrin-1 signalling pathways, and suggest that these pathways are of key importance in cranial motor axon navigation.

  6. Role of adiponectin/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The adiponectin/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (ADP/PI3k/Akt) signal transduction pathway has an important role in promoting cell survival. This study was designed to determine if the ADP/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway has a role in the mechanism of ischemia–reperfusion injury in vivo. Sprague–Dawley rats ...

  7. Global supply chain: The consolidators’ role

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    Rosa Caiazza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Challenges and opportunities of the global market lead agro-food small and medium firms (SMEs to focus their source of value on production of high quality goods and implementation of flexible and robust supply chains. Despite the relevance of consolidators in the supply chain, few articles demonstrate their role in internationalization strategies of SMEs. In order to fill this literature gap, this article shows factors that affect global success of SMEs and offers some advice to decision makers.

  8. Myosin light chain kinase mediates intestinal barrier dysfunction via occludin endocytosis during anoxia/reoxygenation injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Younggeon; Blikslager, Anthony T

    2016-12-01

    Intestinal anoxia/reoxygenation (A/R) injury induces loss of barrier function followed by epithelial repair. Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) has been shown to alter barrier function via regulation of interepithelial tight junctions, but has not been studied in intestinal A/R injury. We hypothesized that A/R injury would disrupt tight junction barrier function via MLCK activation and myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation. Caco-2BBe1 monolayers were subjected to anoxia for 2 h followed by reoxygenation in 21% O 2 , after which barrier function was determined by measuring transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and FITC-dextran flux. Tight junction proteins and MLCK signaling were assessed by Western blotting, real-time PCR, or immunofluorescence microscopy. The role of MLCK was further investigated with select inhibitors (ML-7 and peptide 18) by using in vitro and ex vivo models. Following A/R injury, there was a significant increase in paracellular permeability compared with control cells, as determined by TER and dextran fluxes (P endocytosis caused by A/R injury. Application of MLCK inhibitors to ischemia-injured porcine ileal mucosa induced significant increases in TER and reduced mucosal-to-serosal fluxes of 3 H-labeled mannitol. These data suggest that MLCK-induced occludin endocytosis mediates intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction during A/R injury. Our results also indicate that MLCK-dependent occludin regulation may be a target for the therapeutic treatment of ischemia/reperfusion injury. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  9. MAP kinase meets mitosis: A role for Raf Kinase Inhibitory Protein in spindle checkpoint regulation

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    Rosner Marsha

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Raf Kinase Inhibitory Protein (RKIP is an evolutionarily conserved protein that functions as a modulator of signaling by the MAP kinase cascade. Implicated as a metastasis suppressor, Raf Kinase Inhibitory Protein depletion correlates with poor prognosis for breast, prostate and melanoma tumors but the mechanism is unknown. Recent evidence indicates that Raf Kinase Inhibitory Protein regulates the mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint by controlling Aurora B Kinase activity, and the mechanism involves Raf/MEK/ERK signaling. In contrast to elevated MAP kinase signaling during the G1, S or G2 phases of the cell cycle that activates checkpoints and induces arrest or senescence, loss of RKIP during M phase leads to bypass of the spindle assembly checkpoint and the generation of chromosomal abnormalities. These results reveal a role for Raf Kinase Inhibitory Protein and the MAP kinase cascade in ensuring the fidelity of chromosome segregation prior to cell division. Furthermore, these data highlight the need for precise titration of the MAP kinase signal to ensure the integrity of the spindle assembly process and provide a mechanism for generating genomic instability in tumors. Finally, these results raise the possibility that RKIP status in tumors could influence the efficacy of treatments such as poisons that stimulate the Aurora B-dependent spindle assembly checkpoint.

  10. Expression of calmodulin and myosin light chain kinase during larval settlement of the Barnacle Balanus amphitrite.

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    Zhang-Fan Chen

    Full Text Available Barnacles are one of the most common organisms in intertidal areas. Their life cycle includes seven free-swimming larval stages and sessile juvenile and adult stages. The transition from the swimming to the sessile stages, referred to as larval settlement, is crucial for their survivor success and subsequent population distribution. In this study, we focused on the involvement of calmodulin (CaM and its binding proteins in the larval settlement of the barnacle, Balanus ( = Amphibalanus amphitrite. The full length of CaM gene was cloned from stage II nauplii of B. amphitrite (referred to as Ba-CaM, encoding 149 amino acid residues that share a high similarity with published CaMs in other organisms. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that Ba-CaM was highly expressed in cyprids, the stage at which swimming larvae are competent to attach and undergo metamorphosis. In situ hybridization revealed that the expressed Ba-CaM gene was localized in compound eyes, posterior ganglion and cement glands, all of which may have essential functions during larval settlement. Larval settlement assays showed that both the CaM inhibitor compound 48/80 and the CaM-dependent myosin light chain kinase (MLCK inhibitor ML-7 effectively blocked barnacle larval settlement, whereas Ca(2+/CaM-dependent kinase II (CaMKII inhibitors did not show any clear effects. The subsequent real-time PCR assay showed a higher expression level of Ba-MLCK gene in larval stages than in adults, suggesting an important role of Ba-MLCK gene in larval development and competency. Overall, the results suggest that CaM and CaM-dependent MLCK function during larval settlement of B. amphitrite.

  11. Expression of Calmodulin and Myosin Light Chain Kinase during Larval Settlement of the Barnacle Balanus amphitrite

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Zhang-Fan

    2012-02-13

    Barnacles are one of the most common organisms in intertidal areas. Their life cycle includes seven free-swimming larval stages and sessile juvenile and adult stages. The transition from the swimming to the sessile stages, referred to as larval settlement, is crucial for their survivor success and subsequent population distribution. In this study, we focused on the involvement of calmodulin (CaM) and its binding proteins in the larval settlement of the barnacle, Balanus (= Amphibalanus) amphitrite. The full length of CaM gene was cloned from stage II nauplii of B. amphitrite (referred to as Ba-CaM), encoding 149 amino acid residues that share a high similarity with published CaMs in other organisms. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that Ba-CaM was highly expressed in cyprids, the stage at which swimming larvae are competent to attach and undergo metamorphosis. In situ hybridization revealed that the expressed Ba-CaM gene was localized in compound eyes, posterior ganglion and cement glands, all of which may have essential functions during larval settlement. Larval settlement assays showed that both the CaM inhibitor compound 48/80 and the CaM-dependent myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) inhibitor ML-7 effectively blocked barnacle larval settlement, whereas Ca 2+/CaM-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) inhibitors did not show any clear effects. The subsequent real-time PCR assay showed a higher expression level of Ba-MLCK gene in larval stages than in adults, suggesting an important role of Ba-MLCK gene in larval development and competency. Overall, the results suggest that CaM and CaM-dependent MLCK function during larval settlement of B. amphitrite. © 2012 Chen et al.

  12. DMPD: Role of phosphoinositide 3-kinase in innate immunity. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17827709 Role of phosphoinositide 3-kinase in innate immunity. Hazeki K, Nigorikawa...sitide 3-kinase in innate immunity. PubmedID 17827709 Title Role of phosphoinositide 3-kinase in innate immuni

  13. Early alterations of bile canaliculi dynamics and the rho kinase/myosin light chain kinase pathway are characteristics of drug-induced intrahepatic cholestasis

    OpenAIRE

    Burbank, M.G.; Burban, Audrey; Sharanek, Ahmad; Weaver, R J; Guguen-Guillouzo, Christiane; Guillouzo, André

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Intrahepatic cholestasis represents 20%-40%of drug-induced injuries from which a large proportion remains unpredictable. We aimed to investigate mechanisms underlying drug-induced cholestasis and improve its early detection using human HepaRG cells and a set of 12 cholestatic drugs and six noncholestatic drugs. In this study, we analyzed bile canaliculi dynamics, Rho kinase (ROCK)/myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) pathway implication, efflux inhibition of taurocholate [...

  14. Myosin light chain kinase facilitates endocytosis of synaptic vesicles at hippocampal boutons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Wu, Xiaomei; Yue, Hai-Yuan; Zhu, Yong-Chuan; Xu, Jianhua

    2016-07-01

    At nerve terminals, endocytosis efficiently recycles vesicle membrane to maintain synaptic transmission under different levels of neuronal activity. Ca(2+) and its downstream signal pathways are critical for the activity-dependent regulation of endocytosis. An activity- and Ca(2+) -dependent kinase, myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) has been reported to regulate vesicle mobilization, vesicle cycling, and motility in different synapses, but whether it has a general contribution to regulation of endocytosis at nerve terminals remains unknown. We investigated this issue at rat hippocampal boutons by imaging vesicle endocytosis as the real-time retrieval of vesicular synaptophysin tagged with a pH-sensitive green fluorescence protein. We found that endocytosis induced by 200 action potentials (5-40 Hz) was slowed by acute inhibition of MLCK and down-regulation of MLCK with RNA interference, while the total amount of vesicle exocytosis and somatic Ca(2+) channel current did not change with MLCK down-regulation. Acute inhibition of myosin II similarly impaired endocytosis. Furthermore, down-regulation of MLCK prevented depolarization-induced phosphorylation of myosin light chain, an effect shared by blockers of Ca(2+) channels and calmodulin. These results suggest that MLCK facilitates vesicle endocytosis through activity-dependent phosphorylation of myosin downstream of Ca(2+) /calmodulin, probably as a widely existing mechanism among synapses. Our study suggests that MLCK is an important activity-dependent regulator of vesicle recycling in hippocampal neurons, which are critical for learning and memory. The kinetics of vesicle membrane endocytosis at nerve terminals has long been known to depend on activity and Ca(2+) . This study provides evidence suggesting that myosin light chain kinase increases endocytosis efficiency at hippocampal neurons by mediating Ca(2+) /calmodulin-dependent phosphorylation of myosin. The authors propose that this signal cascade may serve as

  15. Diverse role of CBL-interacting protein kinases in plant

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    admin

    Debasis Chattopadhyay, NIPGR, New Delhi. Diverse role of CBL-interacting protein kinases in plant. Most of the extracellular and intrinsic signals elicit changes in cellular calcium ion. (Ca2+) in plants and animals. Ca2+ sensor proteins transmit signals in Ca2+-dependent manner. In addition to several such Ca2+ sensors, ...

  16. Myosin Light Chain Kinase: A Potential Target for Treatment of Inflammatory Diseases

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    Yongjian Xiong

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK induces contraction of the perijunctional apical actomyosin ring in response to phosphorylation of the myosin light chain. Abnormal expression of MLCK has been observed in respiratory diseases, pancreatitis, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and inflammatory bowel disease. The signaling pathways involved in MLCK activation and triggering of endothelial barrier dysfunction are discussed in this review. The pharmacological effects of regulating MLCK expression by inhibitors such as ML-9, ML-7, microbial products, naturally occurring products, and microRNAs are also discussed. The influence of MLCK in inflammatory diseases starts with endothelial barrier dysfunction. The effectiveness of anti-MLCK treatment may depend on alleviation of that primary pathological mechanism. This review summarizes evidence for the potential benefits of anti-MLCK agents in the treatment of inflammatory disease and the importance of avoiding treatment-related side effects, as MLCK is widely expressed in many different tissues.

  17. Angiotensin II Facilitates Matrix Metalloproteinase-9-Mediated Myosin Light Chain Kinase Degradation in Pressure Overload-Induced Cardiac Hypertrophy

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    Shun Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Angiotensin II (Ang II has been shown to promote cardiac remodeling during the process of hypertrophy. Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK, a specific kinase for the phosphorylation of myosin light chain 2 (MLC2, plays an important role in regulating cardiac muscle contraction and hypertrophy. However, whether Ang II could facilitate cardiac hypertrophy by altering the expression of MLCK remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate this effect and the underlying mechanisms. Methods: Cardiac hypertrophy was induced via pressure overload in rats, which were then evaluated via histological and biochemical measurements and echocardiography. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI was used to inhibit Ang II. Neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were stimulated with Ang II to induce hypertrophy and were treated with a matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9 inhibitor. Myocyte hypertrophy was evaluated using immunofluorescence and qRT-PCR. Degradation of recombinant human MLCK by recombinant human MMP9 was tested using a cleavage assay. The expression levels of MLCK, MLC2, phospho-myosin light chain 2 (p-MLC2, myosin phosphatase 2 (MYPT2, and calmodulin (CaM were measured using western blotting. Results: ACEI improved cardiac function and remodeling and increased the levels of MLCK and p-MLC2 as well as reduced the expression of MMP9 in pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Moreover, the MMP9 inhibitor alleviated myocyte hypertrophy and upregulated the levels of MLCK and p-MLC2 in Ang II-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Recombinant human MLCK was concentration- and time-dependently degraded by recombinant human MMP9 in vitro, and this process was prevented by the MMP9 inhibitor. Conclusion: Our results suggest that Ang II is involved in the degradation of MLCK in pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy and that this process was mediated by MMP9.

  18. Role of calcium in the expression of MAP kinase kinases (MKKs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is an important intracellular signaling module that functions as a convergent point for crosstalk during stress signaling. In this study, we constructed a phylogenetic tree for MAP kinase kinases (MKKs) and MAP kinases (MPKs) in Arabidopsis and Lycopersicon ...

  19. Long-chain base kinase1 affects freezing tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaozhen; Zhang, Yao; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Shi, Yiting

    2017-06-01

    Long-chain base kinases (LCBKs) phosphorylate sphingolipid-derived long-chain base lipids and participate in the regulation of stress responses in plants. Here, we isolated a novel Arabidopsis thaliana mutant, lcbk1-2, which was extremely sensitive to freezing temperatures with or without cold acclimation. Physiological assays revealed that concentrations of osmolytes (proline and soluble sugars) and the activity of superoxide dismutase were significantly decreased in the lcbk1-2 mutant, compared with wild type. Also, the balance of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was disrupted in the lcbk1-2 mutant with or without cold treatment and, consistent with this, gene expression profiling analysis showed that the expression of cold-responsive ROS-scavenging genes was substantially decreased in the lcbk1-2 mutant. The expression of membrane lipid-related genes, which are linked to freezing tolerance in plants, was also impaired in the lcbk1-2 mutant. Furthermore, transgenic lines overexpressing LCBK1 showed enhanced freezing tolerance with over-accumulation of osmolytes. Collectively, our results suggested that LCBK1 functions as a novel positive regulator of freezing tolerance in Arabidopsis and may participate in the accumulation of osmolytes, the regulation of ROS homeostasis and lipid metabolism. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Roles of supply chain management in construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrijhoef, R.; Koskela, L.

    1999-01-01

    Supply chain management (SCM) is a concept that has flourished in manufacturing, originating from Just-In-Time (JIT) production and logistics. Today, SCM represents an autonomous managerial concept, although still largely dominated by logistics. SCM endeavors to observe the entire scope of the

  1. Giardia duodenalis Surface Cysteine Proteases Induce Cleavage of the Intestinal Epithelial Cytoskeletal Protein Villin via Myosin Light Chain Kinase.

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    Amol Bhargava

    Full Text Available Giardia duodenalis infections are among the most common causes of waterborne diarrhoeal disease worldwide. At the height of infection, G. duodenalis trophozoites induce multiple pathophysiological processes within intestinal epithelial cells that contribute to the development of diarrhoeal disease. To date, our understanding of pathophysiological processes in giardiasis remains incompletely understood. The present study reveals a previously unappreciated role for G. duodenalis cathepsin cysteine proteases in intestinal epithelial pathophysiological processes that occur during giardiasis. Experiments first established that Giardia trophozoites indeed produce cathepsin B and L in strain-dependent fashion. Co-incubation of G. duodenalis with human enterocytes enhanced cathepsin production by Assemblage A (NF and S2 isolates trophozoites, but not when epithelial cells were exposed to Assemblage B (GSM isolate trophozoites. Direct contact between G. duodenalis parasites and human intestinal epithelial monolayers resulted in the degradation and redistribution of the intestinal epithelial cytoskeletal protein villin; these effects were abolished when parasite cathepsin cysteine proteases were inhibited. Interestingly, inhibition of parasite proteases did not prevent degradation of the intestinal tight junction-associated protein zonula occludens 1 (ZO-1, suggesting that G. duodenalis induces multiple pathophysiological processes within intestinal epithelial cells. Finally, this study demonstrates that G. duodenalis-mediated disruption of villin is, at least, in part dependent on activation of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK. Taken together, this study indicates a novel role for parasite cathepsin cysteine proteases in the pathophysiology of G. duodenalis infections.

  2. Design of peptidase-resistant peptide inhibitors of myosin light chain kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khapchaev, Asker Y; Kazakova, Olga A; Samsonov, Mikhail V; Sidorova, Maria V; Bushuev, Valery N; Vilitkevich, Elena L; Az'muko, Andrey A; Molokoedov, Alexander S; Bespalova, Zhanna D; Shirinsky, Vladimir P

    2016-11-01

    Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) is a key regulator of various forms of cell motility including smooth muscle contraction, cell migration, cytokinesis, receptor capping, secretion, etc. Inhibition of MLCK activity in endothelial and epithelial monolayers using cell-permeant peptide Arg-Lys-Lys-Tyr-Lys-Tyr-Arg-Arg-Lys (PIK, Peptide Inhibitor of Kinase) allows protecting the barrier capacity, suggesting a potential medical use of PIK. However, low stability of L-PIK in a biological milieu prompts for development of more stable L-PIK analogues for use as experimental tools in basic and drug-oriented biomedical research. Previously, we designed PIK1, H-(N(α) Me)Arg-Lys-Lys-Tyr-Lys-Tyr-Arg-Arg-Lys-NH2 , that was 2.5-fold more resistant to peptidases in human plasma in vitro than L-PIK and equal to it as MLCK inhibitor. In order to further enhance proteolytic stability of PIK inhibitor, we designed the set of six site-protected peptides based on L-PIK and PIK1 degradation patterns in human plasma as revealed by (1) H-NMR analysis. Implemented modifications increased half-live of the PIK-related peptides in plasma about 10-fold, and these compounds retained 25-100% of L-PIK inhibitory activity toward MLCK in vitro. Based on stability and functional activity ranking, PIK2, H-(N(α) Me)Arg-Lys-Lys-Tyr-Lys-Tyr-Arg-D-Arg-Lys-NH2 , was identified as the most stable and effective L-PIK analogue. PIK2 was able to decrease myosin light chain phosphorylation in endothelial cells stimulated with thrombin, and this effect correlated with the inhibition by PIK2 of thrombin-induced endothelial hyperpermeability in vitro. Therefore, PIK2 could be used as novel alternative to other cell-permeant inhibitors of MLCK in cell culture-based and in vivo studies where MLCK catalytic activity inhibition is required. Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Myosin Light Chain Kinase (MLCK) Gene Influences Exercise Induced Muscle Damage during a Competitive Marathon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Coso, Juan; Valero, Marjorie; Lara, Beatriz; Salinero, Juan José; Gallo-Salazar, César; Areces, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) phosphorylates the regulatory light chain (RLC) of myosin producing increases in force development during skeletal muscle contraction. It has been suggested that MLCK gene polymorphisms might alter RLC phosphorylation thereby decreasing the ability to produce force and to resist strain during voluntary muscle contractions. Thus, the genetic variations in the MLCK gene might predispose some individuals to higher values of muscle damage during exercise, especially during endurance competitions. The aim of this investigation was to determine the influence of MLCK genetic variants on exercise-induced muscle damage produced during a marathon. Sixty-seven experienced runners competed in a marathon race. The MLCK genotype (C37885A) of these marathoners was determined. Before and after the race, a sample of venous blood was obtained to assess changes in serum myoglobin concentrations and leg muscle power changes were measured during a countermovement jump. Self-reported leg muscle pain and fatigue were determined by questionnaires. A total of 59 marathoners (88.1%) were CC homozygotes and 8 marathoners (11.9%) were CA heterozygotes. The two groups of participants completed the race with a similar time (228 ± 33 vs 234 ± 39 min; P = 0.30) and similar self-reported values for fatigue (15 ± 2 vs 16 ± 2 A.U.; P = 0.21) and lower-limb muscle pain (6.2 ± 1.7 vs 6.6 ± 1.8 cm; P = 0.29). However, CC marathoners presented higher serum myoglobin concentrations (739 ± 792 vs 348 ± 144 μg·mL-1; P = 0.03) and greater pre-to-post- race leg muscle power reduction (-32.7 ± 15.7 vs -21.2 ± 21.6%; P = 0.05) than CA marathoners. CA heterozygotes for MLCK C37885A might present higher exercise-induced muscle damage after a marathon competition than CC counterparts.

  4. The role of PAS kinase in PASsing the glucose signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grose, Julianne H; Rutter, Jared

    2010-01-01

    PAS kinase is an evolutionarily conserved nutrient responsive protein kinase that regulates glucose homeostasis. Mammalian PAS kinase is activated by glucose in pancreatic beta cells, and knockout mice are protected from obesity, liver triglyceride accumulation, and insulin resistance when fed a high-fat diet. Yeast PAS kinase is regulated by both carbon source and cell integrity stress and stimulates the partitioning of glucose toward structural carbohydrate biosynthesis. In our current model for PAS kinase regulation, a small molecule metabolite binds the sensory PAS domain and activates the enzyme. Although bona fide PAS kinase substrates are scarce, in vitro substrate searches provide putative targets for exploration.

  5. Cellular response to low dose radiation: Role of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase like kinases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balajee, A.S.; Meador, J.A.; Su, Y.

    2011-03-24

    It is increasingly realized that human exposure either to an acute low dose or multiple chronic low doses of low LET radiation has the potential to cause different types of cancer. Therefore, the central theme of research for DOE and NASA is focused on understanding the molecular mechanisms and pathways responsible for the cellular response to low dose radiation which would not only improve the accuracy of estimating health risks but also help in the development of predictive assays for low dose radiation risks associated with tissue degeneration and cancer. The working hypothesis for this proposal is that the cellular mechanisms in terms of DNA damage signaling, repair and cell cycle checkpoint regulation are different for low and high doses of low LET radiation and that the mode of action of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase like kinases (PIKK: ATM, ATR and DNA-PK) determines the dose dependent cellular responses. The hypothesis will be tested at two levels: (I) Evaluation of the role of ATM, ATR and DNA-PK in cellular response to low and high doses of low LET radiation in simple in vitro human cell systems and (II) Determination of radiation responses in complex cell microenvironments such as human EpiDerm tissue constructs. Cellular responses to low and high doses of low LET radiation will be assessed from the view points of DNA damage signaling, DNA double strand break repair and cell cycle checkpoint regulation by analyzing the activities (i.e. post-translational modifications and kinetics of protein-protein interactions) of the key target proteins for PI-3 kinase like kinases both at the intra-cellular and molecular levels. The proteins chosen for this proposal are placed under three categories: (I) sensors/initiators include ATM ser1981, ATR, 53BP1, gamma-H2AX, MDC1, MRE11, Rad50 and Nbs1; (II) signal transducers include Chk1, Chk2, FANCD2 and SMC1; and (III) effectors include p53, CDC25A and CDC25C. The primary goal of this proposal is to elucidate the

  6. Phosphorylation of Cytochrome c Threonine 28 Regulates Electron Transport Chain Activity in Kidney: IMPLICATIONS FOR AMP KINASE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahapatra, Gargi; Varughese, Ashwathy; Ji, Qinqin; Lee, Icksoo; Liu, Jenney; Vaishnav, Asmita; Sinkler, Christopher; Kapralov, Alexandr A.; Moraes, Carlos T.; Sanderson, Thomas H.; Stemmler, Timothy L.; Grossman, Lawrence I.; Kagan, Valerian E.; Brunzelle, Joseph S.; Salomon, Arthur R.; Edwards, Brian F. P.; Hüttemann, Maik

    2016-10-07

    Mammalian cytochrome c (Cytc) plays a key role in cellular life and death decisions, functioning as an electron carrier in the electron transport chain and as a trigger of apoptosis when released from the mitochondria. However, its regulation is not well understood. We show that the major fraction of Cytc isolated from kidneys is phosphorylated on Thr28, leading to a partial inhibition of respiration in the reaction with cytochrome c oxidase. To further study the effect of Cytc phosphorylation in vitro, we generated T28E phosphomimetic Cytc, revealing superior behavior regarding protein stability and its ability to degrade reactive oxygen species compared with wild-type unphosphorylated Cytc. Introduction of T28E phosphomimetic Cytc into Cytc knock-out cells shows that intact cell respiration, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), and ROS levels are reduced compared with wild type. As we show by high resolution crystallography of wild-type and T28E Cytc in combination with molecular dynamics simulations, Thr28 is located at a central position near the heme crevice, the most flexible epitope of the protein apart from the N and C termini. Finally, in silico prediction and our experimental data suggest that AMP kinase, which phosphorylates Cytc on Thr28 in vitro and colocalizes with Cytc to the mitochondrial intermembrane space in the kidney, is the most likely candidate to phosphorylate Thr28 in vivo. We conclude that Cytc phosphorylation is mediated in a tissue-specific manner and leads to regulation of electron transport chain flux via “controlled respiration,” preventing ΔΨm hyperpolarization, a known cause of ROS and trigger of apoptosis.

  7. Independent regulation of Rap1 and mitogen-activated protein kinase by the alpha chain of Go.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernasconi, Francesca; Malgaroli, Antonio; Vallar, Lucia

    Receptors coupled to G(i/o) proteins stimulate the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade. The intracellular pathways linking the alpha chains of these G proteins to MAPK activation are not completely understood. One of the signaling molecules which has been suggested to act downstream of Galpha(i/o) is the small G protein Rap1. We investigated the role of Rap1 in MAPK stimulation by Galpha(o) in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Our previous results have shown that in this cell system activated Galpha(o) strongly potentiates the MAPK response to the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor. Rap1 regulation was examined in cells transfected with Rap1 and wild-type Galpha(o) or the activated mutant Galpha(o)-Q205L. Immunocytochemical analysis detected both Rap1 and the Galpha(o) subunit at the plasma membrane as well as on perinuclear cytoplasmic vesicles. Expression of wild-type Galpha(o) had no significant effect on the levels of activated Rap1. In contrast, Galpha(o)-Q205L virtually abolished the activation of Rap1 induced by EGF. Further experiments showed that MAPK stimulation by EGF was greatly inhibited by expression of activated Rap1, suggesting that Rap1 inhibition could mediate the effect of Galpha(o) on the MAPK cascade. However, Galpha(o)-Q205L efficiently inhibited the activation of Rap1 induced by fibroblast growth factor (FGF). We have previously found that the ability of FGF to activate MAPK is not modified by Galpha(o). In addition, expression of the GAP protein RAP1GAPII blocked Rap1 activation without affecting EGF- or FGF-dependent MAPK stimulation. These findings provide evidence for independent regulation of Rap1 and MAPK by the G(o )alpha chain.

  8. The Roles of Protein Kinases in Learning and Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giese, Karl Peter; Mizuno, Keiko

    2013-01-01

    In the adult mammalian brain, more than 250 protein kinases are expressed, but only a few of these kinases are currently known to enable learning and memory. Based on this information it appears that learning and memory-related kinases either impact on synaptic transmission by altering ion channel properties or ion channel density, or regulate…

  9. Emerging Roles of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritzen, Andreas Mæchel

    or has focused on specific physiological situations and tissues. The present PhD thesis has addressed the role of AMPK in regulation of: 1) substrate utilisation during and in recovery from exercise, 2) adipose tissue metabolism during weight loss, and 3) autophagy in skeletal muscle during exercise......The cellular energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is activated, when the energy balance of the cell decreases. AMPK has been proposed to regulate multiple metabolic processes. However, much of the evidence for these general effects of AMPK relies on investigations in cell systems...... be of importance for prioritising energy dissipation, inhibition of lipid storage pathways and regulation of mitochondrial and metabolic proteins, but this needs further investigations. In addition, we provide evidence that AMPK is regulating autophagic signalling in skeletal muscle. Thus, in skeletal muscle AMPK...

  10. Role of adiponectin/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-06-19

    Jun 19, 2012 ... Key words: Limb ischemic preconditioning, ischemia–reperfusion injury, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3k), protein kinase (p-Akt), signal ... signaling pathways and certain cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, erythropoietin ... involved in the protecting cardiac muscle via the. ADP/PI3k/Akt signaling ...

  11. Myosin Light Chain Kinase (MLCK Gene Influences Exercise Induced Muscle Damage during a Competitive Marathon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Del Coso

    Full Text Available Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK phosphorylates the regulatory light chain (RLC of myosin producing increases in force development during skeletal muscle contraction. It has been suggested that MLCK gene polymorphisms might alter RLC phosphorylation thereby decreasing the ability to produce force and to resist strain during voluntary muscle contractions. Thus, the genetic variations in the MLCK gene might predispose some individuals to higher values of muscle damage during exercise, especially during endurance competitions. The aim of this investigation was to determine the influence of MLCK genetic variants on exercise-induced muscle damage produced during a marathon. Sixty-seven experienced runners competed in a marathon race. The MLCK genotype (C37885A of these marathoners was determined. Before and after the race, a sample of venous blood was obtained to assess changes in serum myoglobin concentrations and leg muscle power changes were measured during a countermovement jump. Self-reported leg muscle pain and fatigue were determined by questionnaires. A total of 59 marathoners (88.1% were CC homozygotes and 8 marathoners (11.9% were CA heterozygotes. The two groups of participants completed the race with a similar time (228 ± 33 vs 234 ± 39 min; P = 0.30 and similar self-reported values for fatigue (15 ± 2 vs 16 ± 2 A.U.; P = 0.21 and lower-limb muscle pain (6.2 ± 1.7 vs 6.6 ± 1.8 cm; P = 0.29. However, CC marathoners presented higher serum myoglobin concentrations (739 ± 792 vs 348 ± 144 μg·mL-1; P = 0.03 and greater pre-to-post- race leg muscle power reduction (-32.7 ± 15.7 vs -21.2 ± 21.6%; P = 0.05 than CA marathoners. CA heterozygotes for MLCK C37885A might present higher exercise-induced muscle damage after a marathon competition than CC counterparts.

  12. Myosin light chain kinase mediates intestinal barrier disruption following burn injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanli Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Severe burn injury results in the loss of intestinal barrier function, however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Myosin light chain (MLC phosphorylation mediated by MLC kinase (MLCK is critical to the pathophysiological regulation of intestinal barrier function. We hypothesized that the MLCK-dependent MLC phosphorylation mediates the regulation of intestinal barrier function following burn injury, and that MLCK inhibition attenuates the burn-induced intestinal barrier disfunction. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Male balb/c mice were assigned randomly to either sham burn (control or 30% total body surface area (TBSA full thickness burn without or with intraperitoneal injection of ML-9 (2 mg/kg, an MLCK inhibitor. In vivo intestinal permeability to fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC-dextran was measured. Intestinal mucosa injury was assessed histologically. Tight junction proteins ZO-1, occludin and claudin-1 was analyzed by immunofluorescent assay. Expression of MLCK and phosphorylated MLC in ileal mucosa was assessed by Western blot. Intestinal permeability was increased significantly after burn injury, which was accompanied by mucosa injury, tight junction protein alterations, and increase of both MLCK and MLC phosphorylation. Treatment with ML-9 attenuated the burn-caused increase of intestinal permeability, mucosa injury, tight junction protein alterations, and decreased MLC phosphorylation, but not MLCK expression. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The MLCK-dependent MLC phosphorylation mediates intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction after severe burn injury. It is suggested that MLCK-dependent MLC phosphorylation may be a critical target for the therapeutic treatment of intestinal epithelial barrier disruption after severe burn injury.

  13. Polyphosphate kinase: demonstration that short chain polyphosphate serves as a primer for the enzymatic synthesis of polyphosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, N.A.; Wood, H.G.

    1986-05-01

    Polyphosphate (poly(P)) kinase, isolated from Propionibacterium shermanii, catalyzes the following reaction: poly(P/sub n/) + ATPin equilibriumpoly(P/sub n+1/) + ADP. The authors have purified this enzyme to 90% homogeneity and have shown it to be composed of 2-3 identical subunits of M/sub r/ 80,000. Investigation of the reaction mechanism by product analysis has revealed that the elongation phase is processive whereby successive elongation occurs without release of intermediate sizes until very long chains are formed. The initiation phase of synthesis has been investigated using (/sup 32/P) poly(P) primer of chain length 11-60. It is incorporated into long chain poly(P) and the /sup 32/P has been shown, by use of poly(P) glucokinase, to be localized at the end of the molecule. Calculation of average chain length based upon the incorporation of /sup 32/P, however, yields a value approx.3 fold higher than the value calculated by another method using poly(P) glucokinase. This result indicates that initiation of poly(P) synthesis occurs by at least one other route which does not involve short chain poly(P) primers. The effect of temperature and concentration of poly(P) primer upon the average chain length of poly(P) synthesized was also investigated. A general trend was observed in which the chain length of the synthesized poly(P) decreased as either temperature or concentration or primer was increased.

  14. The DNA-dependent protein kinase: a multifunctional protein kinase with roles in DNA double strand break repair and mitosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jette, Nicholas; Lees-Miller, Susan P.

    2015-01-01

    The DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) is a serine/threonine protein kinase composed of a large catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) and the Ku70/80 heterodimer. Over the past two decades, significant progress has been made in elucidating the role of DNA-PK in non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), the major pathway for repair of ionizing radiation-induced DNA double strand breaks in human cells and recently, additional roles for DNA-PK have been reported. In this review, we will describe the biochemistry, structure and function of DNA-PK, its roles in DNA double strand break repair and its newly described roles in mitosis and other cellular processes. PMID:25550082

  15. Heart failure induced by perinatal ablation of cardiac myosin light chain kinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmin F. K. Islam

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Germline knockout mice are invaluable in understanding the function of the targeted genes. Sometimes, however, unexpected phenotypes are encountered, due in part to the activation of compensatory mechanisms. Germline ablation of cardiac myosin light chain kinase (cMLCK causes mild cardiac dysfunction with cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, whereas ablation in adult hearts results in acute heart failure with cardiomyocyte atrophy. We hypothesized that compensation after ablation of cMLCK is dependent on developmental staging and perinatal-onset of cMLCK ablation will result in more evident heart failure than germline ablation, but less profound when compared to adult-onset ablation.Methods and Results: The floxed-Mylk3 gene was ablated at the beginning of the perinatal stage using a single intra-peritoneal tamoxifen injection of 50 mg/kg into pregnant mice on the 19th day of gestation, this being the final day of gestation. The level of cMLCK protein level could no longer be detected 3 days after the injection, with these mice hereafter denoted as the perinatal Mylk3-KO. At postnatal day 19, shortly before weaning age, these mice showed reduced cardiac contractility with a fractional shortening 22.8 ± 1.0% (n = 7 as opposed to 31.4 ± 1.0% (n = 11 in controls. The ratio of the heart weight relative to body weight was significantly increased at 6.68 ± 0.28 mg/g (n = 12 relative to the two control groups, 5.90 ± 0.16 (flox/flox, n = 11 and 5.81 ± 0.33 (wild/wild/Cre, n = 5, accompanied by reduced body weight. Furthermore, their cardiomyocytes were elongated without thickening, with a long-axis of 101.8 ± 2.4 μm (n = 320 as opposed to 87.1 ± 1.6 μm (n = 360 in the controls. Conclusion: Perinatal ablation of cMLCK produces an increase of heart weight/body weight ratio, a reduction of contractility, and an increase in the expression of fetal genes. The perinatal Mylk3-KO cardiomyocytes were elongated in the absence of thickening, differing

  16. Integrating SMMEs into Value Chains: The Role of South Africa's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International experience shows that a key challenge for the development; enhanced market access; and potential competitiveness of small, medium and micro enterprises (SMMEs) is to deepen their integration into industry value chains. The goal of this article is to analyse the role and changing activities of one South ...

  17. The role of PAK-1 in activation of MAP kinase cascade and oncogenic transformation by Akt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somanath, PR; Vijai, J; Kichina, JV; Byzova, T; Kandel, ES

    2010-01-01

    The activity of protein kinase B, also known as Akt, is commonly elevated in human malignancies and plays a crucial role in oncogenic transformation. The relationship between Akt and the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade, which is also frequently associated with oncogenesis, remains controversial. We report here examples of cooperation between Akt and cRaf in oncogenic transformation, which was accompanied by elevated activity of extracellular signal-regulated mitogen-activated protein kinases. The effect of Akt on extracellular signal-regulated kinases depended on the status of p21-activated kinase (PAK). Importantly, disruption of the function of PAK not only uncoupled the activation of Akt from that of extracellular signal-regulated kinases, but also greatly reduced the capacity of Akt to act as a transforming oncogene. For the malignancies with hyperactive Akt, our observations support the role for PAK-1 as a potential target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:19421139

  18. Functional role of Rho-kinase in ameloblast differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsu, Keishi; Kishigami, Ryota; Fujiwara, Naoki; Ishizeki, Kiyoto; Harada, Hidemitsu

    2011-10-01

    During tooth development, inner enamel epithelial (IEE) cells differentiate into enamel-secreting ameloblasts, a polarized and elongated cellular population. The molecular underpinnings of this morphogenesis and cytodifferentiation, however, are not well understood. Here, we show that Rho-associated coiled-coil-containing protein kinase (ROCK) regulates ameloblast differentiation and enamel formation. In mouse incisor organ cultures, inhibition of ROCK, hindered IEE cell elongation and disrupted polarization of differentiated ameloblasts. Expression of enamel matrix proteins, such as amelogenin and ameloblastin, and formation of the terminal band structure of actin and E-cadherin were also perturbed. Cultures of dental epithelial cells revealed that ROCK regulates cell morphology and cell adhesion through localization of actin bundles, E-cadherin, and β-catenin to cell membranes. Moreover, inhibition of ROCK promoted cell proliferation. Small interfering RNA specific for ROCK1 and ROCK2 demonstrated that the ROCK isoforms performed complementary functions in the regulation of actin organization and E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion. Thus, our results have uncovered a novel role for ROCK in amelogenesis. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Regulation of myosin light chain kinase during insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, Shelly; Stall, Richard; Ramos, Joseph; Patel, Yashomati M

    2013-01-01

    Myosin II (MyoII) is required for insulin-responsive glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4)-mediated glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Our previous studies have shown that insulin signaling stimulates phosphorylation of the regulatory light chain (RLC) of MyoIIA via myosin light chain kinase (MLCK). The experiments described here delineate upstream regulators of MLCK during insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Since 3T3-L1 adipocytes express two MyoII isoforms, we wanted to determine which isoform was required for insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Using a siRNA approach, we demonstrate that a 60% decrease in MyoIIA protein expression resulted in a 40% inhibition of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. We also show that insulin signaling stimulates the phosphorylation of MLCK. We further show that MLCK can be activated by calcium as well as signaling pathways. We demonstrate that adipocytes treated with the calcium chelating agent, 1,2-b (iso-aminophenoxy) ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetra acetic acid, (BAPTA) (in the presence of insulin) impaired the insulin-induced phosphorylation of MLCK by 52% and the RLC of MyoIIA by 45% as well as impairing the recruitment of MyoIIA to the plasma membrane when compared to cells treated with insulin alone. We further show that the calcium ionophore, A23187 alone stimulated the phosphorylation of MLCK and the RLC associated with MyoIIA to the same extent as insulin. To identify signaling pathways that might regulate MLCK, we examined ERK and CaMKII. Inhibition of ERK2 impaired phosphorylation of MLCK and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. In contrast, while inhibition of CaMKII did inhibit phosphorylation of the RLC associated with MyoIIA, inhibition of CAMKIIδ did not impair MLCK phosphorylation or translocation to the plasma membrane or glucose uptake. Collectively, our results are the first to delineate a role for calcium and ERK in the activation of MLCK and thus MyoIIA during insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

  20. Regulation of myosin light chain kinase during insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelly Woody

    Full Text Available Myosin II (MyoII is required for insulin-responsive glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4-mediated glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Our previous studies have shown that insulin signaling stimulates phosphorylation of the regulatory light chain (RLC of MyoIIA via myosin light chain kinase (MLCK. The experiments described here delineate upstream regulators of MLCK during insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Since 3T3-L1 adipocytes express two MyoII isoforms, we wanted to determine which isoform was required for insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Using a siRNA approach, we demonstrate that a 60% decrease in MyoIIA protein expression resulted in a 40% inhibition of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. We also show that insulin signaling stimulates the phosphorylation of MLCK. We further show that MLCK can be activated by calcium as well as signaling pathways. We demonstrate that adipocytes treated with the calcium chelating agent, 1,2-b (iso-aminophenoxy ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetra acetic acid, (BAPTA (in the presence of insulin impaired the insulin-induced phosphorylation of MLCK by 52% and the RLC of MyoIIA by 45% as well as impairing the recruitment of MyoIIA to the plasma membrane when compared to cells treated with insulin alone. We further show that the calcium ionophore, A23187 alone stimulated the phosphorylation of MLCK and the RLC associated with MyoIIA to the same extent as insulin. To identify signaling pathways that might regulate MLCK, we examined ERK and CaMKII. Inhibition of ERK2 impaired phosphorylation of MLCK and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. In contrast, while inhibition of CaMKII did inhibit phosphorylation of the RLC associated with MyoIIA, inhibition of CAMKIIδ did not impair MLCK phosphorylation or translocation to the plasma membrane or glucose uptake. Collectively, our results are the first to delineate a role for calcium and ERK in the activation of MLCK and thus MyoIIA during insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

  1. Role of Janus-Kinases in Major Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Gulbins

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Major depressive disorder is a severe, common and often chronic disease with a significant mortality due to suicide. The pathogenesis of major depression is still unknown. It is assumed that a reduction of neurogenesis in the hippocampus plays an important role in the development of major depressive disorder. However, the mechanisms that control proliferation of neuronal stem cells in the hippocampus require definition. Here, we investigated the role of Janus-Kinase 3 (Jak-3 for stress-induced inhibition of neurogenesis and the induction of major depression symptoms in mice. Methods: Stress was induced by the application of glucocorticosterone. Brain sections were stained with phospho-specific antibodies and analysed by confocal microscopy to measure phosphorylation of Jak-3 specifically in the hippocampus. Jak-3 inhibitors and the antidepressant amitriptyline were applied to counteract stress. The effects of the inhibitors were determined by a set of behavioural tests and analysis of Jak-3 phosphorylation in brain sections. Acid sphingomyelinase-deficient mice were employed to test whether Jak3 is downstream of ceramide. Results: The data show that stress reduces neurogenesis, which is restored by simultaneous application of Jak-3 inhibitors. Inhibition of neurogenesis correlated with an anxious-depressive behaviour that was also normalized upon application of a Jak-3-inhibitor. Confocal microscopy data revealed that stress triggers a phosphorylation and thereby activation of Jak-3 in the hippocampus. Amitriptyline, a commonly used antidepressant that blocks the acid sphingomyelinase, or acid sphingomyelinase-deficiency reduced stress-induced phosphorylation of Jak-3. Conclusion: Our data show that Jak-3 is activated by stress at least partially via the acid sphingomyelinase and is involved in the mediation of stress-induced major depression.

  2. Emerging roles of protein kinases in microglia-mediated neuroinflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun-Hwa; Suk, Kyoungho

    2017-12-15

    Neuroinflammation is mediated by resident central nervous system glia, neurons, peripherally derived immune cells, blood-brain barrier, and inflammatory mediators secreted from these cells. Neuroinflammation has been implicated in stroke and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Protein kinases have been one of the most exploited therapeutic targets in the current pharmacological research, especially in studies on cancer and inflammation. To date, 32 small-molecule protein kinase inhibitors have been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of cancer and inflammation. However, there is no drug effectively targeting neuroinflammation and/or neurodegenerative diseases. Recent studies have advanced several protein kinases as important drug targets in neuroinflammation and/or neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we review emerging protein kinases potentially involved in neuroinflammation and subsequent neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. An emerging role for p21-activated kinases (Paks) in viral infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van den Broeke, Celine; Radu, Maria; Chernoff, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    p21-activated protein kinases (Paks) are cytosolic serine/threonine protein kinases that act as effectors for small (p21) GTPases of the Cdc42 and Rac families. It has long been established that Paks play a major role in a host of vital cellular functions such as proliferation, survival...

  4. The role of DNA dependent protein kinase in synapsis of DNA ends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.P.W.C. Weterings (Eric); N.S. Verkaik (Nicole); H.T. Brüggenwirth (Hennie); D.C. van Gent (Dik); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractDNA dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) plays a central role in the non-homologous end-joining pathway of DNA double strand break repair. Its catalytic subunit (DNA-PK(CS)) functions as a serine/threonine protein kinase. We show that DNA-PK forms a stable complex at DNA termini that blocks

  5. Tyrosine kinases in rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobayashi Akiko

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is an inflammatory, polyarticular joint disease. A number of cellular responses are involved in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis, including activation of inflammatory cells and cytokine expression. The cellular responses involved in each of these processes depends on the specific signaling pathways that are activated; many of which include protein tyrosine kinases. These pathways include the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, Janus kinases/signal transducers and activators transcription pathway, spleen tyrosine kinase signaling, and the nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells pathway. Many drugs are in development to target tyrosine kinases for the treatment of RA. Based on the number of recently published studies, this manuscript reviews the role of tyrosine kinases in the pathogenesis of RA and the potential role of kinase inhibitors as new therapeutic strategies of RA.

  6. The Role of Phosphatidylinositol 3' -OH Kinase Signaling in Mammary Tumorigenesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hutchinson, John

    2001-01-01

    ...) and its downstream targets such as the Akt kinase in the induction of mammary tumors. To assess the role of Akt in mammary development and tumorigenesis, we have generated transgenic mice that express an activated Akt (Akt-DD...

  7. The Role of Phosphatidylinositol 3' -OH Kinase Signaling in Mammary Tumorigenesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hutchinson, John

    2002-01-01

    ...) and its downstream target Akt kinase in the induction of mammary tumors. To assess the role of Akt in mammary development and tumorigenesis, we generated transgenic mice that express an activated Akt (Akt-DD...

  8. Administration of Harmine and Imipramine Alters Creatine Kinase and Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain Activities in the Rat Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gislaine Z. Réus

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated mitochondrial respiratory chain and creatine kinase activities after administration of harmine (5, 10, and 15 mg/kg and imipramine (10, 20, and 30 mg/kg in rat brain. After acute treatment occurred an increase of creatine kinase in the prefrontal with imipramine (20 and 30 mg/kg and harmine in all doses, in the striatum with imipramine (20 and 30 mg/kg and harmine (5 and 10 mg/kg; harmine (15 mg/kg decreased creatine kinase. In the chronic treatment occurred an increase of creatine kinase with imipramine (20 mg/kg, harmine (5 mg/kg in the prefrontal with imipramine (20 and 30 mg/kg and harmine (5 and 10 mg/kg in the striatum. In the acute treatment, the complex I increased in the prefrontal with harmine (15 mg/kg and in the striatum with harmine (10 mg/kg; the complex II decreased with imipramine (20 and 30 mg/kg in the striatum; the complex IV increased with imipramine (30 mg/kg in the striatum. In the chronic treatment, the complex I increased with harmine (5 mg/kg in the prefrontal; the complex II increased with imipramine (20 mg/kg in the prefrontal; the complex IV increased with harmine (5 mg/kg in the striatum. Finally, these findings further support the hypothesis that harmine and imipramine could be involved in mitochondrial function.

  9. Supply chain performance: the role of regional markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ghasemi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the role of exports in the regional markets on the performance of supply chain. The study first determines critical variables affecting exports for entering into the regional markets and then measures the effects of these variables on the effectiveness of supply chain performance. The study uses two questionnaires, one for measuring the effects of various factors on export development and the other for measuring supply chain performance in Likert scale. Cronbach alpha for the mentioned questionnaires were calculated as 0.84 and 0.78, respectively. The population of the survey includes all small and medium enterprises active in city of Tehran, Iran and the study selects a sample of 250 people as a sample size. Using factor analysis, the study has determined seven factors including product development, government support, strategic orientation, customer satisfaction, competitive pressures, organizational capability and distribution strategies for entry into regional markets. In addition, the implementation of structural equation modeling has disclosed that product development and distribution strategies maintained the highest impact on export activities.

  10. SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGERS: PROFESSIONAL PROFILE AND THE ROLE IN THE CROSS-FUNCTIONAL INTEGRATION OF SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Andréia de Abreu; Rosane Lúcia Chicarelli Alcântara

    2015-01-01

    Supply Chain Management can be seen as a way to achieve integration of all corporate functions. In practice, Supply Chain Management is complex and characterized by numerous activities spread over multiple functions and organizations, which pose challenges to reach effective implementation. Based on literature review, the objective of this paper is to present the theoretical indications regarding professional profile recommended for the Supply Chain Management and discuss the role of these pr...

  11. Lemur tyrosine kinase-2 signalling regulates kinesin-1 light chain-2 phosphorylation and binding of Smad2 cargo.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Manser, C

    2012-05-31

    A recent genome-wide association study identified the gene encoding lemur tyrosine kinase-2 (LMTK2) as a susceptibility gene for prostate cancer. The identified genetic alteration is within intron 9, but the mechanisms by which LMTK2 may impact upon prostate cancer are not clear because the functions of LMTK2 are poorly understood. Here, we show that LMTK2 regulates a known pathway that controls phosphorylation of kinesin-1 light chain-2 (KLC2) by glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β). KLC2 phosphorylation by GSK3β induces the release of cargo from KLC2. LMTK2 signals via protein phosphatase-1C (PP1C) to increase inhibitory phosphorylation of GSK3β on serine-9 that reduces KLC2 phosphorylation and promotes binding of the known KLC2 cargo Smad2. Smad2 signals to the nucleus in response to transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) receptor stimulation and transport of Smad2 by kinesin-1 is required for this signalling. We show that small interfering RNA loss of LMTK2 not only reduces binding of Smad2 to KLC2, but also inhibits TGFβ-induced Smad2 signalling. Thus, LMTK2 may regulate the activity of kinesin-1 motor function and Smad2 signalling.

  12. Three lysine residues in the common β chain of the interleukin-5 receptor are required for Janus kinase (JAK)-dependent receptor ubiquitination, endocytosis, and signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jonathan T; Mazumdar, Tuhina; Martinez-Moczygemba, Margarita

    2011-11-18

    Eosinophils are multifunctional leukocytes implicated in the pathogenesis of numerous inflammatory diseases including allergic asthma and hypereosinophilic syndrome. Eosinophil physiology is critically dependent on IL-5 and the IL-5 receptor (IL-5R), composed of a ligand binding α chain (IL-5Rα), and a common β chain, βc. Previously, we demonstrated that the βc cytoplasmic tail is ubiquitinated and degraded by proteasomes following IL-5 stimulation. However, a complete understanding of the role of βc ubiquitination in IL-5R biology is currently lacking. By using a well established, stably transduced HEK293 cell model system, we show here that in the absence of ubiquitination, βc subcellular localization, IL-5-induced endocytosis, turnover, and IL-5R signaling were significantly impaired. Whereas ubiquitinated IL-5Rs internalized into trafficking endosomes for their degradation, ubiquitination-deficient IL-5Rs accumulated on the cell surface and displayed blunted signaling even after IL-5 stimulation. Importantly, we identified a cluster of three membrane-proximal βc lysine residues (Lys(457), Lys(461), and Lys(467)) whose presence was required for both JAK1/2 binding to βc and receptor ubiquitination. These findings establish that JAK kinase binding to βc requires the presence of three critical βc lysine residues, and this binding event is essential for receptor ubiquitination, endocytosis, and signaling.

  13. The Role of BPM in the IT Value-Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Systems. This is studied through an analysis of the emerging architectures in four recent cases of BPM adoption in large enterprises. The cases are analyzed using an IT value chain framework. The cross case analysis suggest that a stable pattern emerges and the new role of BPM in managing the IT value......Business agility and innovation is a challenge that traditionally has been hindered by the Enterprise Information Systems. In the recent years the technologies and the architecture of the Enterprise Information Systems have undergone a drastic change. Vendors like SAP, Oracle and Microsoft have...... spent considerable resources on reorganizing their systems and offerings towards more being flexible platforms. Simultaneously companies have embarked on various Business Process Management initiatives. This paper analyzes the role of Business Process Management in the managing Enterprise Information...

  14. The role of enterprise systems in supply chain networks: a taxonomy of supply chain strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Charles

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes a taxonomy for supply chain integration strategies. The taxonomy is based on the contingencies of supply chain network coupling and the Extended Enterprise Systems (EES) architecture in the supply chain. The purpose of this model is to map the portfolio of relations...... in the supply chain and to choose the right supply chain strategy. The work is based on a comprehensive study of the Supply Chain Management (SCM) and Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) literature and the study suggests that there is an emerging new research potential for Enterprise Systems (ES) in the supply...

  15. Measuring performance at the supply chain level: the role of the chain director

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Job A.C. De Haan

    2016-05-01

    The findings show when an attempt to implement a PMS at the supply chain level might be appropriate and effective (if a chain exists and has a director, and how the system’s content should be focused on what is needed to improve chain performance (with end customers’ demands as a starting point. The paper highlights the benefits obtained by the other partners if they comply with the best informed supply chain member in the development of the chain’s PMS, as well as how a PMS cannot be developed when none of the partners can be labelled as chain director.

  16. Sphingosine kinase 1 dependent protein kinase C-δ activation plays an important role in acute liver failure in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yan-Chang; Yang, Ling-Ling; Li, Wen; Luo, Pan

    2015-12-28

    To investigate the role of protein kinase C (PKC)-δ activation in the pathogenesis of acute liver failure (ALF) in a well-characterized mouse model of D-galactosamine (D-GalN)/lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALF. BALB/c mice were randomly assigned to five groups, and ALF was induced in mice by intraperitoneal injection of D-GaIN (600 mg/kg) and LPS (10 μg/kg). Kaplan-Meier method was used for survival analysis. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels at different time points within one week were determined using a multiparameteric analyzer. Serum levels of high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and IL-10 as well as nuclear factor (NF)-κB activity were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Hepatic morphological changes at 36 h after ALF induction were assessed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Expression of PKC-δ in liver tissue and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was analyzed by Western blot. The expression and activation of PKC-δ were up-regulated in liver tissue and PBMCs of mice with D-GalN/LPS-induced ALF. Inhibition of PKC-δ activation with rottlerin significantly increased the survival rates and decreased serum ALT/AST levels at 6, 12 and 24 h compared with the control group (P liver tissue were also decreased in the rottlerin treatment group. Furthermore, sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) dependent PKC-δ activation played an important role in promoting NF-κB activation and inflammatory cytokine production in ALF. SphK1 dependent PKC-δ activation plays an important role in promoting NF-κB activation and inflammatory response in ALF, and inhibition of PKC-δ activation might be a potential therapeutic strategy for this disease.

  17. Regulation of MDCK cell-substratum adhesion by RhoA and myosin light chain kinase after ATP depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prahalad, Priya; Calvo, Ignacio; Waechter, Holly; Matthews, Jeffrey B; Zuk, Anna; Matlin, Karl S

    2004-03-01

    The attachment of epithelial cells to the extracellular matrix substratum is essential for their differentiation and polarization. Despite this, the precise adhesion mechanism and its regulation are poorly understood. In the kidney, an ischemic insult causes renal tubular epithelial cells to detach from the basement membrane, even though they remain viable. To understand this phenomenon, and to probe the regulation of epithelial cell attachment, we used a model system consisting of newly adherent Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells subjected to ATP depletion to mimic ischemic injury. We found that MDCK cells detach from collagen I after 60 min of ATP depletion but reattach when resupplied with glucose. Detachment is not caused by degradation or endocytosis of beta(1)-integrins, which mediate attachment to collagen I. Basal actin filaments and paxillin-containing adhesion complexes are disrupted by ATP depletion and quickly reform on glucose repletion. However, partial preservation of basal actin by overexpression of constitutively active RhoA does not significantly affect cell detachment. Furthermore, Y-27632, an inhibitor of the RhoA effector Rho-kinase, does not prevent reattachment of cells on glucose addition, even though reformation of central stress fibers and large adhesion complexes is blocked. In contrast, reattachment of ATP-depleted cells and detachment of cells not previously subjected to ATP depletion are prevented by ML-7, an inhibitor of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK). We conclude that initial adherence of MDCK cells to a collagen I substratum is mediated by peripheral actin filaments and adhesion complexes regulated by MLCK but not by stress fibers and adhesion complexes controlled by RhoA.

  18. Role of Atypical Protein Kinases in Maintenance of Long-Term Memory and Synaptic Plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodinova, A A; Zuzina, A B; Balaban, P M

    2017-03-01

    Investigation of biochemical mechanisms underlying the long-term storage of information in nervous system is one of main problems of modern neurobiology. As a molecular basis of long-term memory, long-term changes in kinase activities, increase in the level and changes in the subunit composition of receptors in synaptic membranes, local activity of prion-like proteins, and epigenetic modifications of chromatin have been proposed. Perhaps a combination of all or of some of these factors underlies the storage of long-term memory in the brain. Many recent studies have shown an exclusively important role of atypical protein kinases (PKCζ, PKMζ, and PKCι/λ) in processes of learning, consolidation and maintenance of memory. The present review is devoted to consideration of mechanisms of transcriptional and translational control of atypical protein kinases and their roles in induction and maintenance of long-term synaptic plasticity and memory in vertebrates and invertebrates.

  19. Ligand-stimulated downregulation of the alpha interferon receptor: role of protein kinase D2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hui; Qian, Juan; Varghese, Bentley; Baker, Darren P; Fuchs, Serge

    2011-02-01

    Alpha interferon (IFN-α) controls homeostasis of hematopoietic stem cells, regulates antiviral resistance, inhibits angiogenesis, and suppresses tumor growth. This cytokine is often used to treat cancers and chronic viral infections. The extent of cellular responses to IFN-α is limited by the IFN-induced ubiquitination and degradation of the IFN-α/β receptor chain 1 (IFNAR1) chain of the cognate receptor. IFNAR1 ubiquitination is facilitated by the βTrcp E3 ubiquitin ligase that is recruited to IFNAR1 upon its degron phosphorylation, which is induced by the ligand. Here we report identification of protein kinase D2 (PKD2) as a kinase that mediates the ligand-inducible phosphorylation of IFNAR1 degron and enables binding of βTrcp to the receptor. Treatment of cells with IFN-α induces catalytic activity of PKD2 and stimulates its interaction with IFNAR1. Expression and kinase activity of PKD2 are required for the ligand-inducible stimulation of IFNAR1 ubiquitination and endocytosis and for accelerated proteolytic turnover of IFNAR1. Furthermore, inhibition or knockdown of PKD2 robustly augments intracellular signaling induced by IFN-α and increases the efficacy of its antiviral effects. The mechanisms of the ligand-inducible elimination of IFNAR1 are discussed, along with the potential medical significance of this regulation.

  20. SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGERS: PROFESSIONAL PROFILE AND THE ROLE IN THE CROSS-FUNCTIONAL INTEGRATION OF SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia de Abreu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Supply Chain Management can be seen as a way to achieve integration of all corporate functions. In practice, Supply Chain Management is complex and characterized by numerous activities spread over multiple functions and organizations, which pose challenges to reach effective implementation. Based on literature review, the objective of this paper is to present the theoretical indications regarding professional profile recommended for the Supply Chain Management and discuss the role of these professionals in cross-functional business processes. The literature review demonstrated a growing interest in the thematic, especially because the “soft” aspects (human and behavioral to achieve supply chain internal and external integration. All functions must be involved in Supply Chain Management and supply chain managers have a critical role to play: challenge the supremacy of functions in the organizational structure, implementing the practice of "horizontal work" through cross-functional teams. Overall, this research contributes to academic and practical professionals by the description of the job profile of the supply chain managers and presentation of forms to achieve internal integration.

  1. Cellular and Developmental Biology of TRPM7 Channel-Kinase: Implicated Roles in Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson S. Yee

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The transient receptor potential melastatin-subfamily member 7 (TRPM7 is a ubiquitously expressed cation-permeable ion channel with intrinsic kinase activity that plays important roles in various physiological functions. Biochemical and electrophysiological studies, in combination with molecular analyses of TRPM7, have generated insights into its functions as a cellular sensor and transducer of physicochemical stimuli. Accumulating evidence indicates that TRPM7 channel-kinase is essential for cellular processes, such as proliferation, survival, differentiation, growth, and migration. Experimental studies in model organisms, such as zebrafish, mouse, and frog, have begun to elucidate the pleiotropic roles of TRPM7 during embryonic development from gastrulation to organogenesis. Aberrant expression and/or activity of the TRPM7 channel-kinase have been implicated in human diseases including a variety of cancer. Studying the functional roles of TRPM7 and the underlying mechanisms in normal cells and developmental processes is expected to help understand how TRPM7 channel-kinase contributes to pathogenesis, such as malignant neoplasia. On the other hand, studies of TRPM7 in diseases, particularly cancer, will help shed new light in the normal functions of TRPM7 under physiological conditions. In this article, we will provide an updated review of the structural features and biological functions of TRPM7, present a summary of current knowledge of its roles in development and cancer, and discuss the potential of TRPM7 as a clinical biomarker and therapeutic target in malignant diseases.

  2. SNPs within the beta myosin heavy chain (MYH7 and the pyruvate kinase muscle (PKM2 genes in horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Russo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Two highly expressed skeletal muscle genes (the MYH7 gene encoding the myosin heavy chain slow/β-cardiac isoform and the PKM2 gene encoding the pyruvate kinase muscle isoforms were investigated with the objective to identify DNA markers in horses. A panel of DNA samples from different horse breeds was analysed using a PCR-single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP approach. Four and two alleles were identified for the MYH7 and PKM2 loci, respectively. Mendelian inheritance of alleles of the two investigated genes was confirmed analysing horse families. Sequencing of PCR products obtained from the MYH7 and PKM2 genes made it possible to characterise two SSCP alleles for each gene. The polymorphisms found in the MYH7 and PKM2 genes were further studied in 61 and 68 horses of three (Italian Heavy Draught Horse, Italian Saddler and Murgese and five (Franches-Montagnes, Haflinger, Italian Heavy Draught Horse, Murgese and Standardbred breeds, respectively. Allele frequencies of the two loci varied among the considered breeds. The SNPs discovery in MYH7 and PKM2 genes makes it possible to locate new molecular markers to ECA1. The identified markers could be used in association analysis with performance traits in horses.

  3. Activation of endothelial pro-resolving anti-inflammatory pathways by circulating microvesicles from non-muscular myosin light chain kinase-deficient mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abderahim Gaceb

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Microvesicles, small membrane vesicles released from cells, have beneficial and/or deleterious effects in sepsis. We previously reported that non-muscle myosin light chain kinase (nmMLCK deletion protects mice against endotoxic shock by reducing inflammation. Here, we have evaluated the consequences of nmMLCK deletion on microvesicles phenotypes and their effects on mouse aortic endothelial cells in association with vascular inflammation and endothelial dysfunction during endotoxic shock induced by lipopolysaccharide in mice. Treatment with lipopolysaccharide induced an increase in levels of circulating microvesicles in wild type but not in nmMLCK-deficient mice. Microvesicles from nmMLCK-deficient mice (MVsnmMLCK-/- prevented the inflammatory effects of lipopolysaccharide with concomitant increase of anti- inflammatory and reduction of pro-inflammatory secretome in mouse aortic endothelial cells. In addition, MVsnmMLCK-/- reduced the efficacy of lipopolysaccharide to increase aortic oxidative and nitrosative stresses as well as macrophage infiltration in the aorta. Moreover, MVsnmMLCK-/- prevented ex vivo endothelial dysfunction, vascular hyporeactivity and in vivo overproduction of nitric oxide in heart and liver in response to lipopolysaccharide. Altogether, these findings provide evidence that nmMLCK deletion generates circulating microvesicles displaying protective effects by activating endothelial pro-resolving anti-inflammatory pathways allowing the effective down-regulation of oxidative and nitrative stresses associated with endotoxic shock. Thus, nmMLCK plays a pivotal role in susceptibility to sepsis via the control of cellular activation and release of circulating microvesicles.

  4. Vasoactivity of rucaparib, a PARP-1 inhibitor, is a complex process that involves myosin light chain kinase, P2 receptors, and PARP itself.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cian M McCrudden

    Full Text Available Therapeutic inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP, as monotherapy or to supplement the potencies of other agents, is a promising strategy in cancer treatment. We previously reported that the first PARP inhibitor to enter clinical trial, rucaparib (AG014699, induced vasodilation in vivo in xenografts, potentiating response to temozolomide. We now report that rucaparib inhibits the activity of the muscle contraction mediator myosin light chain kinase (MLCK 10-fold more potently than its commercially available inhibitor ML-9. Moreover, rucaparib produces additive relaxation above the maximal degree achievable with ML-9, suggesting that MLCK inhibition is not solely responsible for dilation. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis using L-NMMA also failed to impact rucaparib's activity. Rucaparib contains the nicotinamide pharmacophore, suggesting it may inhibit other NAD+-dependent processes. NAD+ exerts P2 purinergic receptor-dependent inhibition of smooth muscle contraction. Indiscriminate blockade of the P2 purinergic receptors with suramin abrogated rucaparib-induced vasodilation in rat arterial tissue without affecting ML-9-evoked dilation, although the specific receptor subtypes responsible have not been unequivocally identified. Furthermore, dorsal window chamber and real time tumor vessel perfusion analyses in PARP-1-/- mice indicate a potential role for PARP in dilation of tumor-recruited vessels. Finally, rucaparib provoked relaxation in 70% of patient-derived tumor-associated vessels. These data provide tantalising evidence of the complexity of the mechanism underlying rucaparib-mediated vasodilation.

  5. Role of multiplex polymerase chain reaction in diagnosing tubercular meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupam Berwal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculous meningitis (TBM is one of the most serious manifestations of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Timely and accurate diagnosis provides a favorable prognosis in patients with TBM. The study evaluated the use of multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR in the diagnosis of TBM. A study was conducted on 74 patients clinically suspected with TBM. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF specimens were processed for smear microscopy, middle brook 7H9 culture, and multiplex PCR using primers directed against IS6110 gene and 38 kD protein for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The results were analyzed to assess the role of multiplex PCR in the diagnosis of TBM. A total of 26 (35.1% patients were diagnosed with TBM. Microscopy was negative in all while culture was positive in two cases only. Comparing with clinical diagnosis and CSF adenosine deaminase levels of ≥10 U/L, multiplex PCR showed sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 71.4%, 89.6%, 83.3%, and 81.2%, respectively, in the diagnosis of TBM.

  6. Redundant role of protein kinase C delta and epsilon during mouse embryonic development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Carracedo

    Full Text Available Protein Kinase C delta and epsilon are mediators of important cellular events, such as cell proliferation, migration or apoptosis. The formation of blood vessels, i.e., vasculo- and angiogenesis, is a process where these isoforms have also been shown to participate. However, mice deficient in either Protein Kinase C delta or epsilon are viable and therefore their individual contribution to the formation of the vasculature appeared so far dispensable. In this study, we show that double null mutation of Protein Kinase C delta and epsilon causes embryonic lethality at approximately E9.5. At this stage, whole mount staining of the endothelial marker CD31 in double null embryos revealed defective blood vessel formation. Moreover, culture of double deficient mouse allantois showed impaired endothelial cell organization, and analyses of double deficient embryo sections showed dilated vessels, decreased endothelial-specific adherent junctions, and decreased contact of endothelial cells with mural cells. Protein kinase C delta and epsilon also appeared essential for vascular smooth muscle cell differentiation, since α-smooth muscle actin, a classical marker for vascular smooth muscle cells, was almost undetectable in double deficient embryonic aorta at E9.5. Subsequent qPCR analyses showed decreased VE-cadherin, Vegfr2, Cd31, Cdh2, Ets1, and Fli-1, among other angiogenesis related transcripts in double deficient embryos. Taken together, these data suggest for the first time an in vivo redundant role between members of the novel Protein Kinase C subfamily that allows for mutual compensation during mouse embryonic development, with vasculogenesis/angiogenesis as an obvious common function of these two Protein Kinase Cs. Protein Kinase C delta and epsilon might therefore be useful targets for inhibiting vasculo- and/or angiogenesis.

  7. Involvement of atypical protein kinase C in the regulation of cardiac glucose and long-chain fatty acid uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habets, Daphna D J; Luiken, Joost J F P; Ouwens, Margriet

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The signaling pathways involved in the regulation of cardiac GLUT4 translocation/glucose uptake and CD36 translocation/long-chain fatty acid uptake are not fully understood. We compared in heart/muscle-specific PKC-¿ knockout mice the roles of atypical PKCs (PKC-¿ and PKC-¿) in regulating...... to allow optimal stimulation of glucose and fatty acid uptake, indicating that atypical PKCs are necessary but not rate-limiting in the regulation of cardiac substrate uptake and that PKC-¿ and PKC-¿ have interchangeable functions in these processes....

  8. The role of phosphoinositide-3 kinase and PTEN in cardiovascular physiology and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudit, Gavin Y; Sun, Hui; Kerfant, Benoit-Gilles; Crackower, Michael A; Penninger, Josef M; Backx, Peter H

    2004-08-01

    Phosphoinositide-3 kinases (PI3Ks) are a family of evolutionary conserved lipid kinases that mediate many cellular responses in both physiologic and pathophysiologic states. Class I PI3K can be activated by either receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)/cytokine receptor activation (class I(A)) or G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) (class I(B)). Once activated PI3Ks generate phosphatidylinositols (PtdIns) (3,4,5)P(3) leading to the recruitment and activation of Akt/protein kinase B (PKB), PDK1 and monomeric G-proteins (e.g. Rac-GTPases), which then activate a range of downstream targets including glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), p70S6 kinase, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and several anti-apoptotic effectors. Class I(A) (PI3Kalpha, beta and delta) and class I(B) (PI3Kgamma) PI3Ks mediate distinct phenotypes in the heart and under negative control by the 3'-lipid phosphatase, phosphatase and tensin homolog on chromosome ten (PTEN) which dephosphorylate PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) into PtdIns(4,5)P(2). PI3Kalpha, gamma and PTEN are expressed in cardiomyocytes, fibroblasts, endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells where they modulate cell survival/apoptosis, hypertrophy, contractility, metabolism and mechanotransduction. Several transgenic and knockout models support a fundamental role of PI3K/PTEN signaling in the regulation of myocardial contractility and hypertrophy. Consequently the PI3K/PTEN signaling pathways are involved in a wide variety of diseases including cardiac hypertrophy, heart failure, preconditioning and hypertension. In this review, we discuss the biochemistry and molecular biology of PI3K (class I isoforms) and PTEN and their critical role in cardiovascular physiology and diseases.

  9. APPROACHES TO DISTRIBUTION CENTRE'S LOCATION PROBLEM AND ITS ROLE IN GREEN SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Masa Slabinac

    2013-01-01

    Location represents one of the five integrative areas of a supply chain management that refers to situating of facilit ies within a given space. Facilit ies of each supply chain member differ in the role one plays in supply chain and their objective function. As such, facility location problem solving accounts for different indices included into a model. Distribution centres are facilities of key importance for supply chain management. Proper location decision might add value and create value...

  10. A systematic investigation of the protein kinases involved in NMDA receptor-dependent LTD: evidence for a role of GSK-3 but not other serine/threonine kinases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peineau Stéphane

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The signalling mechanisms involved in the induction of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor-dependent long-term depression (LTD in the hippocampus are poorly understood. Numerous studies have presented evidence both for and against a variety of second messengers systems being involved in LTD induction. Here we provide the first systematic investigation of the involvement of serine/threonine (ser/thr protein kinases in NMDAR-LTD, using whole-cell recordings from CA1 pyramidal neurons. Results Using a panel of 23 inhibitors individually loaded into the recorded neurons, we can discount the involvement of at least 57 kinases, including PKA, PKC, CaMKII, p38 MAPK and DYRK1A. However, we have been able to confirm a role for the ser/thr protein kinase, glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3. Conclusion The present study is the first to investigate the role of 58 ser/thr protein kinases in LTD in the same study. Of these 58 protein kinases, we have found evidence for the involvement of only one, GSK-3, in LTD.

  11. The Supply Chain's Role in Improving Animal Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, David; Hubbard, Carmen

    2013-08-14

    Supply chains are already incorporating citizen/consumer demands for improved animal welfare, especially through product differentiation and the associated segmentation of markets. Nonetheless, the ability of the chain to deliver high(er) levels and standards of animal welfare is subject to two critical conditions: (a) the innovative and adaptive capacity of the chain to respond to society's demands; (b) the extent to which consumers actually purchase animal-friendly products. Despite a substantial literature reporting estimates of willingness to pay (WTP) for animal welfare, there is a belief that in practice people vote for substantially more and better animal welfare as citizens than they are willing to pay for as consumers. This citizen-consumer gap has significant consequences on the supply chain, although there is limited literature on the capacity and willingness of supply chains to deliver what the consumer wants and is willing to pay for. This paper outlines an economic analysis of supply chain delivery of improved standards for farm animal welfare in the EU and illustrates the possible consequences of improving animal welfare standards for the supply chain using a prototype belief network analysis.

  12. The role of stress-activated protein kinase signaling in renal pathophysiology

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    F.Y. Ma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Two major stress-activated protein kinases are the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK and the c-Jun amino terminal kinase (JNK. p38 and JNK are widely expressed in different cell types in various tissues and can be activated by a diverse range of stimuli. Signaling through p38 and JNK is critical for embryonic development. In adult kidney, p38 and JNK signaling is evident in a restricted pattern suggesting a normal physiological role. Marked activation of both p38 and JNK pathways occurs in human renal disease, including glomerulonephritis, diabetic nephropathy and acute renal failure. Administration of small molecule inhibitors of p38 and JNK has been shown to provide protection from renal injury in different types of experimental kidney disease through inhibition of renal inflammation, fibrosis, and apoptosis. In particular, a role for JNK signaling has been identified in macrophage activation resulting in up-regulation of pro-inflammatory mediators and the induction of renal injury. The ability to provide renal protection by blocking either p38 or JNK indicates a lack of redundancy for these two signaling pathways despite their activation by common stimuli. Therefore, the stress-activated protein kinases, p38 and JNK, are promising candidates for therapeutic intervention in human renal diseases.

  13. Drosophila Protein Kinase CK2: Genetics, Regulatory Complexity and Emerging Roles during Development

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    Mohna Bandyopadhyay

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available CK2 is a Ser/Thr protein kinase that is highly conserved amongst all eukaryotes. It is a well-known oncogenic kinase that regulates vital cell autonomous functions and animal development. Genetic studies in the fruit fly Drosophila are providing unique insights into the roles of CK2 in cell signaling, embryogenesis, organogenesis, neurogenesis, and the circadian clock, and are revealing hitherto unknown complexities in CK2 functions and regulation. Here, we review Drosophila CK2 with respect to its structure, subunit diversity, potential mechanisms of regulation, developmental abnormalities linked to mutations in the gene encoding CK2 subunits, and emerging roles in multiple aspects of eye development. We examine the Drosophila CK2 “interaction map” and the eye-specific “transcriptome” databases, which raise the prospect that this protein kinase has many additional targets in the developing eye. We discuss the possibility that CK2 functions during early retinal neurogenesis in Drosophila and mammals bear greater similarity than has been recognized, and that this conservation may extend to other developmental programs. Together, these studies underscore the immense power of the Drosophila model organism to provide new insights and avenues to further investigate developmentally relevant targets of this protein kinase.

  14. EFFECTS OF AMANTADINE ON BEHAVIOR, RESPIRATORY CHAIN ENZYMES AND CREATINE KINASE IN AN ANIMAL MODEL OF SCHIZOPHRENIA

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    David de Lucena

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Glutamate dysregulation may be involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, and NMDA antagonists seem to be effective in its treatment. We evaluated the efficacy of amantadine (AMA in preventing ketamine (KET-induced effects in an animal model of schizophrenia. Methods: Adult Wistar rats received 10 mg/kg AMA for 10 days, followed by 7 days of 25 mg/kg KET ip. Thirty minutes after the last injection, rats were placed in an open-field apparatus for 60 minutes and killed by decapitation afterwards. Amygdala, hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and striatum were isolated and analyzed for creatine kinase (CK and respiratory chain enzyme activities. Results: KET increased crossings and reduced grooming, which was not prevented by AMA. KET also increased stereotypic movements, which was partially prevented by AMA. As for CK activity, KET increased it in the prefrontal cortex, striatum and amygdala, and AMA prevented it only in prefrontal cortex and striatum. The activity of complex I was not altered by KET, however, AMA+KET increased it in the striatum and amygdala. KET increased the activity of complex II in the striatum as well, whereas AMA+KET increased it in hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, and striatum. KET did not alter complex I-III activity, whereas AMA+KET increased it in hippocampus and amygdala. AMA+KET also increased complex IV activity in hippocampus and striatum, whereas KET had no effect on this activity. Conclusion: AMA did not prevent most of KET-induced alterations. New animal models should be employed in the study of AMA as a potential novel drug for schizophrenia.

  15. Genes influenced by the non-muscle isoform of Myosin light chain kinase impact human cancer prognosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Zhou

    Full Text Available The multifunctional non-muscle isoform of myosin light chain kinase (nmMLCK is critical to the rapid dynamic coordination of the cytoskeleton involved in cancer cell proliferation and migration. We identified 45 nmMLCK-influenced genes by bioinformatic filtering of genome-wide expression in wild type and nmMLCK knockout (KO mice exposed to preclinical models of murine acute inflammatory lung injury, pathologies that are well established to include nmMLCK as an essential participant. To determine whether these nmMLCK-influenced genes were relevant to human cancers, the 45 mouse genes were matched to 38 distinct human orthologs (M38 signature (GeneCards definition and underwent Kaplan-Meier survival analysis in training and validation cohorts. These studies revealed that in training cohorts, the M38 signature successfully identified cancer patients with poor overall survival in breast cancer (P<0.001, colon cancer (P<0.001, glioma (P<0.001, and lung cancer (P<0.001. In validation cohorts, the M38 signature demonstrated significantly reduced overall survival for high-score patients of breast cancer (P = 0.002, colon cancer (P = 0.035, glioma (P = 0.023, and lung cancer (P = 0.023. The association between M38 risk score and overall survival was confirmed by univariate Cox proportional hazard analysis of overall survival in the both training and validation cohorts. This study, providing a novel prognostic cancer gene signature derived from a murine model of nmMLCK-associated lung inflammation, strongly supports nmMLCK-involved pathways in tumor growth and progression in human cancers and nmMLCK as an attractive candidate molecular target in both inflammatory and neoplastic processes.

  16. Agri-Business Development and the Role of Value Chain Business Associations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Olav Jull; Ndyetabula, Daniel; Temu, Anna A.

    The aim of the paper is to investigate the role and formation of a business association having calue chain partners as its members.......The aim of the paper is to investigate the role and formation of a business association having calue chain partners as its members....

  17. The role of phosphoinositide 3-kinases in neutrophil migration in 3D collagen gels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayleigh J S Martin

    Full Text Available The entry of neutrophils into tissue has been well characterised; however the fate of these cells once inside the tissue microenvironment is not fully understood. A variety of signal transduction pathways including those involving class I PI3 Kinases have been suggested to be involved in neutrophil migration. This study aims to determine the involvement of PI3 Kinases in chemokinetic and chemotactic neutrophil migration in response to CXCL8 and GM-CSF in a three-dimensional collagen gel, as a model of tissue. Using a three-dimensional collagen assay chemokinetic and chemotactic migration induced by CXCL8 was inhibited with the pan PI3 Kinase inhibitor wortmannin. Analysis of the specific Class I PI3 Kinase catalytic isoforms alpha, delta and gamma using the inhibitors PIK-75, PIK-294 and AS-605240 respectively indicated differential roles in CXCL8-induced neutrophil migration. PIK-294 inhibited both chemokinetic and chemotactic CXCL8-induced migration. AS-605240 markedly reduced CXCL8 induced chemokinetic migration but had no effect on CXCL8 induced chemotactic migration. In contrast PIK-75 inhibited chemotactic migration but not chemokinetic migration. At optimal concentrations of GM-CSF the inhibitors had no effect on the percentage of neutrophil migration in comparison to the control however at suboptimal concentrations wortmannin, AS-605240 and PIK-294 inhibited chemokinesis. This study suggests that PI3 Kinase is necessary for CXCL8 induced migration in a 3D tissue environment but that chemokinetic and chemotactic migration may be controlled by different isoforms with gamma shown to be important in chemokinesis and alpha important in chemotaxis. Neutrophil migration in response to suboptimal concentrations of GM-CSF is dependent on PI3 Kinase, particularly the gamma and delta catalytic isoforms.

  18. THE ROLE OF CONTEMPORARY WEB TECHNOLOGIES IN SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goran Milovanovic; Slavoljub Milovanovic; Tanja Spasic

    2016-01-01

    ..., or companies and public administration. Supply chain is thus considered a unique and continuous business process, supported with goods and information flows throughout the entire distribution channel, where each company is part...

  19. Trend in tea trade and the role of supply chain

    OpenAIRE

    Nabeshima, Kaoru; Michida, Etsuyo

    2017-01-01

    This paper first shows the trend of tea trade in major exporting countries. Although tea trade has been expanding, stricter regulation and tighter food safety requirements lead to a decline of trade and a consolidation of tea supply chains into a handful of multinationals is observed. Challenges that exporters face stemming from supply chain management as well as regulatory compliances are reviewed from the literature. Commoditization has been progressed with consumers' willingness to pay for...

  20. The role of inventory in the supply chain

    OpenAIRE

    Mihai Felea

    2008-01-01

    The supply chain is a system coordinated by organizations, humans, activities, information and resources involved in the movement of a product in a physical and virtual manner from the supplier to the client. The activities from the supply chain transform raw materials and components in a product that is delivered to the consumer or to the user. The inventory, together with the transport, the location of the production spaces and of the storage represent an important factor that influences th...

  1. How manufacturers can use their reverse supply chain: a typology of reverse supply chain roles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Samuel; Jacobsen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    ; Kocabasoglu et al., 2007; Huscroft et al., 2013). In supply chain and operations management (OM) literature a RSC is usually seen as a straightforward one‐dimensional process, e.g. as the process described in the previous paragraph. However, a RSC can perform a variety of different functions for the firm...

  2. Role of nonreceptor protein tyrosine kinases during phospholipase C-gamma 1-related uterine contractions in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillippe, Mark; Sweet, Leigh M; Bradley, Diana F; Engle, Daniel

    2009-03-01

    Activated phospholipase C1, produced in response to tyrosine phosphorylation, appears to play an important role during uterine contractions. These studies sought to determine which non-receptor protein tyrosine kinases are involved in the activation of phospholipase C1 in rat uterine tissue. In vitro contraction studies were performed utilizing isoform specific protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Western blots were performed utilizing antibodies to phosphotyrosine-phospholipase C1, total phospholipase C1, c-Src kinase and Lck kinase. Spontaneous, stretch-stimulated, and bpV(phen) (tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor) enhanced uterine contractions were significantly suppressed in response to Damnacanthal (Lck kinase inhibitor) and PP1 (c-Src kinase inhibitor). Damnacanthal and PP1 also significantly suppressed bpV(phen)-enhanced tyrosine phosphorylation of phospholipase C1. Western blots confirmed expression of Lck kinase and c-Src kinase in uterine tissue. In conclusion, the Lck and c-Src kinases appear to play an important role in regulating tyrosine phosphorylation of phospholipase C1 and contractile activity in the rat uterus.

  3. The role of promotion in supply-chain management

    OpenAIRE

    Laric, Michael V.; Lynagh, Peter M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper begins with a look at marketing and how it evolved over the years. Today marketing managers strive to create lifetime customer value. A vital aspect of creating value is the synergistic blending together of the four P’s of marketing. An important part of the mix is Supply-Chain Management (SCM). SCM will be looked at with an emphasis on promotion and especially how online promotion is used by those carriers specializing in the movement of small shipments throughout the supply-chain...

  4. The evolving role of supply chain management technology in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langabeer, Jim

    2005-01-01

    The healthcare supply chain is a vast, disintegrated network of products and players, loosely held together by manual and people-intensive processes. Managing the flow of information, supplies, equipment, and services from manufacturers to distributors to providers of care is especially difficult in clinical supply chains, compared with more technology-intense industries like consumer goods or industrial manufacturing. As supplies move downstream towards hospitals and clinics, the quality and robustness of accompanying management and information systems used to manage these products deteriorates significantly. Technology that provides advanced planning, synchronization, and collaboration upstream at the large supply manufacturers and distributors rarely is used at even the world's larger and more sophisticated hospitals. This article outlines the current state of healthcare supply chain management technologies, addresses potential reasons for the lack of adoption of technologies and provides a roadmap for the evolution of technology for the future. This piece is based on both quantitative and qualitative research assessments of the healthcare supply chain conducted during the last two years.

  5. Role of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) in the detection of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Staphylococcus aureus is mainly acquired from hospital infections and demonstrated the ability of developing resistance to many antibiotics. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was used to identify antibiotic-resistant isolates. This study was conducted in Al-Mujtahed, Al-Mouwasat and the Children Hospitals in ...

  6. Role of Protein Kinase C (PKC in Podocytes and Development of Glomerular Damage in Diabetic Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beina eTeng

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The early glomerular changes in diabetes include a podocyte phenotype with loss of slit diaphragm proteins, changes in the actin cytoskeleton and foot process architecture. This review focusses on the role of the Protein Kinase C family in podocytes and points out the differential roles of classical, novel and atypical PKCs in podocytes. Some PKC-isoforms are indispensable for proper glomerular development and slit diaphragm maintenance whereas others might be harmful when activated in the diabetic milieu. Therefore some might be interesting treatment targets in the early phase of diabetes.

  7. Supply Chain Collaboration Roles of Interorganizational Systems, Trust, and Collaborative Culture

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Mei

    2013-01-01

    To survive and thrive in the competition, firms have strived to achieve greater supply chain collaboration to leverage the resources and knowledge of suppliers and customers.  Internet based technologies, particularly interorganizational systems, further extend the firms’ opportunities to strengthen their supply chain partnerships and share real-time information to optimize their operations.  Supply Chain Collaboration: Roles of Interorganizational Systems, Trust, and Collaborative Culture explores the nature and characteristics, antecedents, and consequences of supply chain collaboration from multiple theoretical perspectives.  Supply Chain Collaboration: Roles of Interorganizational Systems, Trust, and Collaborative Culture conceptualizes supply chain collaboration as seven interconnecting elements including information sharing, incentive alignment, goal congruence, decision synchronization, resource sharing, as well as communication and joint knowledge creation. These seven components define the occur...

  8. Respiration control of multicellularity in Bacillus subtilis by a complex of the cytochrome chain with a membrane-embedded histidine kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodkin-Gal, Ilana; Elsholz, Alexander K W; Muth, Christine; Girguis, Peter R; Kolter, Roberto; Losick, Richard

    2013-04-15

    Bacillus subtilis forms organized multicellular communities known as biofilms wherein the individual cells are held together by a self-produced extracellular matrix. The environmental signals that promote matrix synthesis remain largely unknown. We discovered that one such signal is impaired respiration. Specifically, high oxygen levels suppressed synthesis of the extracellular matrix. In contrast, low oxygen levels, in the absence of an alternative electron acceptor, led to increased matrix production. The response to impaired respiration was blocked in a mutant lacking cytochromes caa3 and bc and markedly reduced in a mutant lacking kinase KinB. Mass spectrometry of proteins associated with KinB showed that the kinase was in a complex with multiple components of the aerobic respiratory chain. We propose that KinB is activated via a redox switch involving interaction of its second transmembrane segment with one or more cytochromes under conditions of reduced electron transport. In addition, a second kinase (KinA) contributes to the response to impaired respiration. Evidence suggests that KinA is activated by a decrease in the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+))/NADH ratio via binding of NAD(+) to the kinase in a PAS domain A-dependent manner. Thus, B. subtilis switches from a unicellular to a multicellular state by two pathways that independently respond to conditions of impaired respiration.

  9. Respiration control of multicellularity in Bacillus subtilis by a complex of the cytochrome chain with a membrane-embedded histidine kinase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolodkin-Gal, I; Elsholz, AKW; Muth, C; Girguis, PR; Kolter, R; Losick, R

    2013-04-29

    Bacillus subtilis forms organized multicellular communities known as biofilms wherein the individual cells are held together by a self-produced extracellular matrix. The environmental signals that promote matrix synthesis remain largely unknown. We discovered that one such signal is impaired respiration. Specifically, high oxygen levels suppressed synthesis of the extracellular matrix. In contrast, low oxygen levels, in the absence of an alternative electron acceptor, led to increased matrix production. The response to impaired respiration was blocked in a mutant lacking cytochromes caa(3) and bc and markedly reduced in a mutant lacking kinase KinB. Mass spectrometry of proteins associated with KinB showed that the kinase was in a complex with multiple components of the aerobic respiratory chain. We propose that KinB is activated via a redox switch involving interaction of its second transmembrane segment with one or more cytochromes under conditions of reduced electron transport. In addition, a second kinase (KinA) contributes to the response to impaired respiration. Evidence suggests that KinA is activated by a decrease in the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+))/NADH ratio via binding of NAD(+) to the kinase in a PAS domain A-dependent manner. Thus, B. subtilis switches from a unicellular to a multicellular state by two pathways that independently respond to conditions of impaired respiration.

  10. Functional role and therapeutic targeting of p21-activated kinase 4 in multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulciniti, Mariateresa; Martinez-Lopez, Joaquin; Senapedis, William; Oliva, Stefania; Lakshmi Bandi, Rajya; Amodio, Nicola; Xu, Yan; Szalat, Raphael; Gulla, Annamaria; Samur, Mehmet K; Roccaro, Aldo; Linares, Maria; Cea, Michele; Baloglu, Erkan; Argueta, Christian; Landesman, Yosef; Shacham, Sharon; Liu, Siyuan; Schenone, Monica; Wu, Shiaw-Lin; Karger, Barry; Prabhala, Rao; Anderson, Kenneth C; Munshi, Nikhil C

    2017-04-20

    Dysregulated oncogenic serine/threonine kinases play a pathological role in diverse forms of malignancies, including multiple myeloma (MM), and thus represent potential therapeutic targets. Here, we evaluated the biological and functional role of p21-activated kinase 4 (PAK4) and its potential as a new target in MM for clinical applications. PAK4 promoted MM cell growth and survival via activation of MM survival signaling pathways, including the MEK-extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway. Furthermore, treatment with orally bioavailable PAK4 allosteric modulator (KPT-9274) significantly impacted MM cell growth and survival in a large panel of MM cell lines and primary MM cells alone and in the presence of bone marrow microenvironment. Intriguingly, we have identified FGFR3 as a novel binding partner of PAK4 and observed significant activity of KPT-9274 against t(4;14)-positive MM cells. This set of data supports PAK4 as an oncogene in myeloma and provide the rationale for the clinical evaluation of PAK4 modulator in myeloma.

  11. Evolutionary conserved role of c-Jun-N-terminal kinase in CO2-induced epithelial dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    István Vadász

    Full Text Available Elevated CO(2 levels (hypercapnia occur in patients with respiratory diseases and impair alveolar epithelial integrity, in part, by inhibiting Na,K-ATPase function. Here, we examined the role of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK in CO(2 signaling in mammalian alveolar epithelial cells as well as in diptera, nematodes and rodent lungs. In alveolar epithelial cells, elevated CO(2 levels rapidly induced activation of JNK leading to downregulation of Na,K-ATPase and alveolar epithelial dysfunction. Hypercapnia-induced activation of JNK required AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK and protein kinase C-ζ leading to subsequent phosphorylation of JNK at Ser-129. Importantly, elevated CO(2 levels also caused a rapid and prominent activation of JNK in Drosophila S2 cells and in C. elegans. Paralleling the results with mammalian epithelial cells, RNAi against Drosophila JNK fully prevented CO(2-induced downregulation of Na,K-ATPase in Drosophila S2 cells. The importance and specificity of JNK CO(2 signaling was additionally demonstrated by the ability of mutations in the C. elegans JNK homologs, jnk-1 and kgb-2 to partially rescue the hypercapnia-induced fertility defects but not the pharyngeal pumping defects. Together, these data provide evidence that deleterious effects of hypercapnia are mediated by JNK which plays an evolutionary conserved, specific role in CO(2 signaling in mammals, diptera and nematodes.

  12. Functional Roles of p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase in Macrophage-Mediated Inflammatory Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyan Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is a natural host defensive process that is largely regulated by macrophages during the innate immune response. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs are proline-directed serine and threonine protein kinases that regulate many physiological and pathophysiological cell responses. p38 MAPKs are key MAPKs involved in the production of inflammatory mediators, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2. p38 MAPK signaling plays an essential role in regulating cellular processes, especially inflammation. In this paper, we summarize the characteristics of p38 signaling in macrophage-mediated inflammation. In addition, we discuss the potential of using inhibitors targeting p38 expression in macrophages to treat inflammatory diseases.

  13. The Role and Regulation of Receptor-Like Kinases in Plant Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry E. Goff

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Receptor-like kinases (RLKs in plants are a large superfamily of proteins that are structurally similar. RLKs are involved in a diverse array of plant responses including development, growth, hormone perception and the response to pathogens. Current studies have focused attention on plant receptor-like kinases as an important class of sentinels acting in plant defense responses. RLKs have been identifi ed that act in both broad-spectrum, elicitor-initiated defense responses and as dominant resistance (R genes in race-specifi c pathogen defense. Most defense-related RLKs are of the leucine-rich repeat (LRR subclass although new data are highlighting other classes of RLKs as important players in defense responses. As our understanding of RLK structure, activation and signaling has expanded, the role of the ubiquitin/proteasome system in the regulation of these receptors has emerged as a central theme.

  14. Differential virulence of Candida albicans and C. dubliniensis: A role for Tor1 kinase?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sullivan, Derek J

    2011-01-01

    Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis are two very closely related species of pathogenic yeast. C. albicans is the most prevalent species in the human gastrointestinal tract and is responsible for far more opportunistic infections in comparison with C. dubliniensis. This disparity is likely to be due to the reduced ability of C. dubliniensis to undergo the yeast to hypha transition, a change in morphology that plays an important role in C. albicans virulence. We have recently shown that hypha formation by C. dubliniensis is specifically repressed by nutrients at alkaline pH. In this article, we present new data showing that this can be partly reversed by treatment with rapamycin, an inhibitor of the nutrient sensing kinase Tor1 (Target Of Rapamycin). We also provide a speculative model to describe why C. albicans filaments more efficiently in nutrient rich environments, citing recently described data on Mds3, a pH responsive regulator of Tor1 kinase activity.

  15. Oxidative Stress in Cardiovascular Diseases and Obesity: Role of p66Shc and Protein Kinase C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldassari, Federica; Wieckowski, Mariusz R.

    2013-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are a byproduct of the normal metabolism of oxygen and have important roles in cell signalling and homeostasis. An imbalance between ROS production and the cellular antioxidant defence system leads to oxidative stress. Environmental factors and genetic interactions play key roles in oxidative stress mediated pathologies. In this paper, we focus on cardiovascular diseases and obesity, disorders strongly related to each other; in which oxidative stress plays a fundamental role. We provide evidence of the key role played by p66Shc protein and protein kinase C (PKC) in these pathologies by their intracellular regulation of redox balance and oxidative stress levels. Additionally, we discuss possible therapeutic strategies aimed at attenuating the oxidative damage in these diseases. PMID:23606925

  16. Extrarenal roles of the with-no-lysine[K] kinases (WNKs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siew, Keith; O'Shaughnessy, Kevin M

    2013-12-01

    Identified over a decade ago, the with-no-lysine[K] kinases (WNKs) have been the subsequent focus of intense research into the renal handling of Na(+) , Cl(-) and K(+) and several rare monogenetic diseases. However, the potential extrarenal roles for WNKs have been less well explored. Thiazides and Gordon syndrome are known to have effects on bone mineral density, Ca(2+) and PO4 (3-) homeostasis, which were originally assumed to be an indirect effect through the kidney. However, current data suggest a complex and direct role for WNKs in the physiology of bone. The WNKs also modulate systemic blood pressure at several levels, including the vascular resistance vessels, where they cause vasoconstriction by altering the abundance of the transient receptor potential canonical channel 3 and/or phosphorylation of the Na(+) -K(+) -2Cl(-) cotransporter 1 in vascular smooth muscle cells. The WNKs and many of the cation-coupled Cl(-) cotransporters they regulate are highly expressed in the central nervous system and recent work suggests that WNK dysfunction may have a role in the development of autism, schizophrenia and hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy Type 2. Finally, the WNK-sterile 20 kinase signalling axis represents an evolutionarily ancient mechanism for maintaining osmotic homeostasis, but a rapidly expanding body of evidence also shows a role in immunity and cellular regulation. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  17. A kinase-dependent role for Haspin in antagonizing Wapl and protecting mitotic centromere cohesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Cai; Chen, Qinfu; Yi, Qi; Zhang, Miao; Yan, Haiyan; Zhang, Bo; Zhou, Linli; Zhang, Zhenlei; Qi, Feifei; Ye, Sheng; Wang, Fangwei

    2017-11-14

    Sister-chromatid cohesion mediated by the cohesin complex is fundamental for precise chromosome segregation in mitosis. Through binding the cohesin subunit Pds5, Wapl releases the bulk of cohesin from chromosome arms in prophase, whereas centromeric cohesin is protected from Wapl until anaphase onset. Strong centromere cohesion requires centromeric localization of the mitotic histone kinase Haspin, which is dependent on the interaction of its non-catalytic N-terminus with Pds5B. It remains unclear how Haspin fully blocks the Wapl-Pds5B interaction at centromeres. Here, we show that the C-terminal kinase domain of Haspin (Haspin-KD) binds and phosphorylates the YSR motif of Wapl (Wapl-YSR), thereby directly inhibiting the YSR motif-dependent interaction of Wapl with Pds5B. Cells expressing a Wapl-binding-deficient mutant of Haspin or treated with Haspin inhibitors show centromeric cohesion defects. Phospho-mimetic mutation in Wapl-YSR prevents Wapl from binding Pds5B and releasing cohesin. Forced targeting Haspin-KD to centromeres partly bypasses the need for Haspin-Pds5B interaction in cohesion protection. Taken together, these results indicate a kinase-dependent role for Haspin in antagonizing Wapl and protecting centromeric cohesion in mitosis. © 2017 The Authors.

  18. The Role of Collaborative Advantage for Analyzing the Effect of Supply Chain Collaboration on Firm Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huriye Yılmaz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Collaboration plays a critical role in a globalized, rapidly changing and competitive world, as the resources of an individual company are limited to compete with the challenges of the era. Supply chain collaboration is defined as a partnership process where two or more autonomous firms work closely to plan and execute supply chain operations towards common goals and mutual benefits. Supply chain collaboration results in collaborative advantage, the strategic benefits gained over competitors through supply chain partnering, and these both increase firm performance of the partners. In this research, the effect of supply chain collaboration on firm performance has been investigated by distributing a survey to Turkish companies which have been responded by 150. The role of collaborative advantage in this relation has also been measured. The results of the research suggest that there is a positive correlation between supply chain collaboration and collaborative advantage. The results also prove that supply chain collaboration positively affects firm performance. It is also proven that the mediator role of collaborative advantage on the effect of supply chain collaboration on firm performance is statistically significant.

  19. Strain hardening in bidisperse polymer glasses: separating the roles of chain orientation and interchain entanglement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Robert S; Robbins, Mark O

    2009-12-28

    The effects of entanglement and chain orientation on strain hardening in glassy polymers are separated by examining mixtures of chains with different lengths. Simulations show that the orientation of a molecule of a given chain length is the same in monodisperse systems and bidisperse mixtures, even when entangled and unentangled chains are mixed. In addition, the stress in mixtures is equal to the weighted average of the stresses in monodisperse systems. These results indicate that chains contribute independently to strain hardening, that chain orientation is determined by local interactions with the surrounding glass, and that entanglements play at most an indirect role in strain hardening in the range of strains typically studied. We discuss these results in the context of recent theories.

  20. Mitotic Checkpoint Kinase Mps1 Has a Role in Normal Physiology which Impacts Clinical Utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Ricardo; Blasina, Alessandra; Hallin, Jill F; Hu, Wenyue; Rymer, Isha; Fan, Jeffery; Hoffman, Robert L; Murphy, Sean; Marx, Matthew; Yanochko, Gina; Trajkovic, Dusko; Dinh, Dac; Timofeevski, Sergei; Zhu, Zhou; Sun, Peiquing; Lappin, Patrick B; Murray, Brion W

    2015-01-01

    Cell cycle checkpoint intervention is an effective therapeutic strategy for cancer when applied to patients predisposed to respond and the treatment is well-tolerated. A critical cell cycle process that could be targeted is the mitotic checkpoint (spindle assembly checkpoint) which governs the metaphase-to-anaphase transition and insures proper chromosomal segregation. The mitotic checkpoint kinase Mps1 was selected to explore whether enhancement in genomic instability is a viable therapeutic strategy. The basal-a subset of triple-negative breast cancer was chosen as a model system because it has a higher incidence of chromosomal instability and Mps1 expression is up-regulated. Depletion of Mps1 reduces tumor cell viability relative to normal cells. Highly selective, extremely potent Mps1 kinase inhibitors were created to investigate the roles of Mps1 catalytic activity in tumor cells and normal physiology (PF-7006, PF-3837; Kiweight loss, gastrointestinal toxicities, and neutropenia. Mps1 inhibitor toxicities may be mitigated by inducing G1 cell cycle arrest in Rb1-competent cells with the cyclin-dependent kinase-4/6 inhibitor palbociclib. Using an isogenic cellular model system, PF-7006 is shown to be selectively cytotoxic to Rb1-deficient cells relative to Rb1-competent cells (also a measure of kinase selectivity). Human bone marrow cells pretreated with palbociclib have decreased PF-7006-dependent apoptosis relative to cells without palbociclib pretreatment. Collectively, this study raises a concern that single agent therapies inhibiting Mps1 will not be well-tolerated clinically but may be when combined with a selective CDK4/6 drug.

  1. The role of uncertainty in supply chains under dynamic modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fera

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The uncertainty in the supply chains (SCs for manufacturing and services firms is going to be, over the coming decades, more important for the companies that are called to compete in a new globalized economy. Risky situations for manufacturing are considered in trying to individuate the optimal positioning of the order penetration point (OPP. It aims at defining the best level of information of the client’s order going back through the several supply chain (SC phases, i.e. engineering, procurement, production and distribution. This work aims at defining a system dynamics model to assess competitiveness coming from the positioning of the order in different SC locations. A Taguchi analysis has been implemented to create a decision map for identifying possible strategic decisions under different scenarios and with alternatives for order location in the SC levels. Centralized and decentralized strategies for SC integration are discussed. In the model proposed, the location of OPP is influenced by the demand variation, production time, stock-outs and stock amount. Results of this research are as follows: (i customer-oriented strategies are preferable under high volatility of demand, (ii production-focused strategies are suggested when the probability of stock-outs is high, (iii no specific location is preferable if a centralized control architecture is implemented, (iv centralization requires cooperation among partners to achieve the SC optimum point, (v the producer must not prefer the OPP location at the Retailer level when the general strategy is focused on a decentralized approach.

  2. [The key role of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in aging process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalik, Anna; Jarzyna, Robert

    Aging is one of the most extensively studied biological process and yet still some of its aspects remain elusive. It appears that AMP - activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays an important role in many processes of aging, but this fact is often neglected in the studies on aging. This work summarizes the information about AMPK participation in the aging process. AMPK participation in the regulation of aging was indicated in the mechanisms dependent on: caloric restriction, mTOR, p53, sirtuins, autophagy, inflammation and the effects caused by polyphenols.

  3. Role of Non-receptor Protein Tyrosine Kinases During Phospholipase C-γ1 Related Uterine Contractions in the Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillippe, Mark; Sweet, Leigh M.; Bradley, Diana F.; Engle, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Activated phospholipase Cγ1 (PLC-γ1), produced in response to tyrosine phosphorylation, appears to play an important role during uterine contractions. These studies sought to determine which non-receptor protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) are involved in the tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of PLC-γ1 in uterine tissue from the rat. In vitro uterine contraction studies were performed utilizing isoform specific PTK inhibitors. Western blots were performed utilizing antibodies to phosphotyrosine-PLC-γ1, total PLC-γ1, c-Src kinase and Lck kinase. Spontaneous, stretch-stimulated, and bpV(phen) (a tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor) enhanced uterine contractions were significantly suppressed in response to Damnacanthal (a Lck kinase inhibitor) and PP1 (a c-Src kinase inhibitor); whereas, several other PTK isoform inhibitors had no significant effect. Damnacanthal and PP1 also significantly suppressed bpV(phen)-enhanced tyrosine phosphorylation of PLC-γ1 compared to other PTK isoform inhibitors. Western blots confirmed expression of the Lck and c-Src kinases in uterine tissue. In conclusion, the Lck and c-Src kinases appear to play an important role in regulating tyrosine phosphorylation of PLC-γ1 and contractile activity in the rat uterus. PMID:19208792

  4. Carbachol ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced intestinal epithelial tight junction damage by down-regulating NF-{kappa}{beta} and myosin light-chain kinase pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ying [Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care Medicine and Emergency Medicine Center, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071, Hubei Province, People' s Republic of China (China); Li, Jianguo, E-mail: 2010lijianguo@sina.cn [Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care Medicine and Emergency Medicine Center, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071, Hubei Province, People' s Republic of China (China)

    2012-11-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbachol reduced the lipopolysaccharide-induced intestinal barrier breakdown. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbachol ameliorated the lipopolysaccharide-induced ileal tight junction damage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbachol prevented the LPS-induced NF-{kappa}{beta} and myosin light-chain kinase activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbachol exerted its beneficial effects in an {alpha}7 nicotinic receptor-dependent manner. -- Abstract: Carbachol is a cholinergic agonist that protects the intestines after trauma or burn injury. The present study determines the beneficial effects of carbachol and the mechanisms by which it ameliorates the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced intestinal barrier breakdown. Rats were injected intraperitoneally with 10 mg/kg LPS. Results showed that the gut barrier permeability was reduced, the ultrastructural disruption of tight junctions (TJs) was prevented, the redistribution of zonula occludens-1 and claudin-2 proteins was partially reversed, and the nuclear factor-kappa beta (NF-{kappa}{beta}) and myosin light-chain kinase (MLCK) activation in the intestinal epithelium were suppressed after carbachol administration in LPS-exposed rats. Pretreatment with the {alpha}7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ({alpha}7nAchR) antagonist {alpha}-bungarotoxin blocked the protective action of carbachol. These results suggested that carbachol treatment can protect LPS-induced intestinal barrier dysfunction. Carbachol exerts its beneficial effect on the amelioration of the TJ damage by inhibiting the NF-{kappa}{beta} and MLCK pathways in an {alpha}7nAchR-dependent manner.

  5. The roles of productivity and ecosystem size in determining food chain length in tropical terrestrial ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Hillary S; McCauley, Douglas J; Dunbar, Robert B; Hutson, Michael S; Ter-Kuile, Ana Miller; Dirzo, Rodolfo

    2013-03-01

    Many different drivers, including productivity, ecosystem size, and disturbance, have been considered to explain natural variation in the length of food chains. Much remains unknown about the role of these various drivers in determining food chain length, and particularly about the mechanisms by which they may operate in terrestrial ecosystems, which have quite different ecological constraints than aquatic environments, where most food chain length studies have been thus far conducted. In this study, we tested the relative importance of ecosystem size and productivity in influencing food chain length in a terrestrial setting. We determined that (1) there is no effect of ecosystem size or productive space on food chain length; (2) rather, food chain length increases strongly and linearly with productivity; and (3) the observed changes in food chain length are likely achieved through a combination of changes in predator size, predator behavior, and consumer diversity along gradients in productivity. These results lend new insight into the mechanisms by which productivity can drive changes in food chain length, point to potential for systematic differences in the drivers of food web structure between terrestrial and aquatic systems, and challenge us to consider how ecological context may control the drivers that shape food chain length.

  6. Involvement of atypical protein kinase C in the regulation of cardiac glucose and long-chain fatty acid uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daphna D.J. Habets

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The signaling pathways involved in the regulation of cardiac GLUT4 translocation/glucose uptake and CD36 translocation/ long-chain fatty acid uptake are not fully understood. We compared in heart/muscle-specific PKC-λ knockout mice the roles of atypical PKCs (PKC-ζ and PKC-λ in regulating cardiac glucose and fatty acid uptake. Results: Neither insulin-stimulated nor AMPK-mediated glucose and fatty acid uptake were inhibited upon genetic PKC-λ ablation in cardiomyocytes. In contrast, myristoylated PKC-ζ pseudosubstrate inhibited both insulin-stimulated and AMPK-mediated glucose and fatty acid uptake by >80% in both wild-type and PKC-λ-knockout cardiomyocytes. In PKC-λ knockout cardiomyocytes, PKC-ζ is the sole remaining atypical PKC isoform, and its expression level is not different from wild-type cardiomyocytes, in which it contributes to 29% and 17% of total atypical PKC expression and phosphorylation, respectively. Conclusion: Taken together, atypical PKCs are necessary for insulin-stimulated and AMPK-mediated glucose uptake into the heart, as well as for insulin-stimulated and AMPK-mediated fatty acid uptake. However, the residual PKC-ζ activity in PKC-λ-knockout cardiomyocytes is sufficient to allow optimal stimulation of glucose and fatty acid uptake, indicating that atypical PKCs are necessary but not rate-limiting in the regulation of cardiac substrate uptake and that PKC-λ and PKC-ζ have interchangeable functions in these processes.

  7. Homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 plays an important role in normal terminal erythroid differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattangadi, Shilpa M; Burke, Karly A; Lodish, Harvey F

    2010-06-10

    Gene-targeting experiments report that the homeodomain-interacting protein kinases 1 and 2, Hipk1 and Hipk2, are essential but redundant in hematopoietic development because Hipk1/Hipk2 double-deficient animals exhibit severe defects in hematopoiesis and vasculogenesis, whereas the single knockouts do not. These serine-threonine kinases phosphorylate and consequently modify the functions of several important hematopoietic transcription factors and cofactors. Here we show that Hipk2 knockdown alone plays a significant role in terminal fetal liver erythroid differentiation. Hipk1 and Hipk2 are highly induced during primary mouse fetal liver erythropoiesis. Specific knockdown of Hipk2 inhibits terminal erythroid cell proliferation (explained in part by impaired cell-cycle progression as well as increased apoptosis) and terminal enucleation as well as the accumulation of hemoglobin. Hipk2 knockdown also reduces the transcription of many genes involved in proliferation and apoptosis as well as important, erythroid-specific genes involved in hemoglobin biosynthesis, such as alpha-globin and mitoferrin 1, demonstrating that Hipk2 plays an important role in some but not all aspects of normal terminal erythroid differentiation.

  8. Death-associated protein kinase: A molecule with functional antagonistic duality and a potential role in inflammatory bowel disease (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmann, Sara; Scheibe, Kristina; Erlenbach-Wuensch, Katharina; Neufert, Clemens; Schneider-Stock, Regine

    2015-07-01

    The cytoskeleton-associated serine/threonine kinase death-associated protein kinase (DAPK) has been described as a cancer gene chameleon with functional antagonistic duality in a cell type and context specific manner. The broad range of interaction partners and substrates link DAPK to inflammatory processes especially in the gut. Herein we summarize our knowledge on the role of DAPK in different cell types that play a role under inflammatory conditions in the gut. Besides some promising experimental data suggesting DAPK as an interesting drug target in inflammatory bowel disease there are many open questions regarding direct evidence for a role of DAPK in intestinal inflammation.

  9. AMP-Activated Protein Kinase: An Ubiquitous Signaling Pathway With Key Roles in the Cardiovascular System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salt, Ian P; Hardie, D Grahame

    2017-05-26

    The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key regulator of cellular and whole-body energy homeostasis, which acts to restore energy homoeostasis whenever cellular energy charge is depleted. Over the last 2 decades, it has become apparent that AMPK regulates several other cellular functions and has specific roles in cardiovascular tissues, acting to regulate cardiac metabolism and contractile function, as well as promoting anticontractile, anti-inflammatory, and antiatherogenic actions in blood vessels. In this review, we discuss the role of AMPK in the cardiovascular system, including the molecular basis of mutations in AMPK that alter cardiac physiology and the proposed mechanisms by which AMPK regulates vascular function under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Role of glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta in the inflammatory response caused by bacterial pathogens

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    Cortés-Vieyra Ricarda

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β plays a fundamental role during the inflammatory response induced by bacteria. Depending on the pathogen and its virulence factors, the type of cell and probably the context in which the interaction between host cells and bacteria takes place, GSK3β may promote or inhibit inflammation. The goal of this review is to discuss recent findings on the role of the inhibition or activation of GSK3β and its modulation of the inflammatory signaling in monocytes/macrophages and epithelial cells at the transcriptional level, mainly through the regulation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB activity. Also included is a brief overview on the importance of GSK3 in non-inflammatory processes during bacterial infection.

  11. Dissecting the role of AMP-activated protein kinase in human diseases

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    Jin Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, known as a sensor and a master of cellular energy balance, integrates various regulatory signals including anabolic and catabolic metabolic processes. Accompanying the application of genetic methods and a plethora of AMPK agonists, rapid progress has identified AMPK as an attractive therapeutic target for several human diseases, such as cancer, type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury and neurodegenerative disease. The role of AMPK in metabolic and energetic modulation both at the intracellular and whole body levels has been reviewed elsewhere. In the present review, we summarize and update the paradoxical role of AMPK implicated in the diseases mentioned above and put forward the challenge encountered. Thus it will be expected to provide important clues for exploring rational methods of intervention in human diseases.

  12. Role of parking in the hotel supply chain management

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    Robert Maršanić

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Supply chain management in tourism has only recently become the topic of the scientific research. The hotel product as a tourist product presents a specific mix of services and products The focus of this study has been placed on the hotel company, that, in order to create such a product, builds its own network of partners (companies, co-workers, to bring together and coordinate activities intended to result in the desired features of the hotel product. This study was evaluated as a scientifically relevant because until now the position of parking services in the hotel product has not been analyzed from the perspective of the hotel efforts and abilities to provide parking places for their guests by analyzing to which extent a good and available parking space really affects the quality of the hotel product. The aim of the study was to define the framework in which the supply chain management acts with reference to the parking service and stakeholders in the network. Methods: The method of interviewing hotel managers was used to obtain necessary data. Through the simple numerical calculations including the number of parking spaces and the capacity of the hotel accommodation we tried to identify the interrelationship, i.e. the degree of alignment of the respective sizes. Results: It turned out that towns of Rijeka and Opatija are faced with a shortage of parking spaces, especially during the tourist season. The trend of providing parking services for guests in hotel-owned garages or car parks is typical for the everyday hotel operation and the shortage of such an option, is resolved through the lease of a certain number of parking spaces in public garages and car parks. These parking spaces are away from the hotel, the guests' dissatisfaction is a normal consequence of such a decision and it is mitigated through the commercial measures. Hotel management considers a provided parking space an important element of the hotel product quality

  13. The Impact of Institutional Pressures on Green Supply Chain Management and Firm Performance: Top Management Roles and Social Capital

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Soh Hyun Chu; Hongsuk Yang; Mansokku Lee; Sangwook Park

    2017-01-01

    .... These three institutional pressures are examined by implementing green supply chain management, considering the role of top management and studying social capital between buyers and suppliers in the supply chain...

  14. Role of the PAS sensor domains in the Bacillus subtilis sporulation kinase KinA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winnen, Brit; Anderson, Eric; Cole, James L; King, Glenn F; Rowland, Susan L

    2013-05-01

    Histidine kinases are sophisticated molecular sensors that are used by bacteria to detect and respond to a multitude of environmental signals. KinA is the major histidine kinase required for initiation of sporulation upon nutrient deprivation in Bacillus subtilis. KinA has a large N-terminal region (residues 1 to 382) that is uniquely composed of three tandem Per-ARNT-Sim (PAS) domains that have been proposed to constitute a sensor module. To further enhance our understanding of this "sensor" region, we defined the boundaries that give rise to the minimal autonomously folded PAS domains and analyzed their homo- and heteroassociation properties using analytical ultracentrifugation, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and multiangle laser light scattering. We show that PAS(A) self-associates very weakly, while PAS(C) is primarily a monomer. In contrast, PAS(B) forms a stable dimer (K(d) [dissociation constant] of PAS domains revealed a critical role for PAS(B), but not PAS(A), in autophosphorylation of KinA. Our findings suggest that dimerization of PAS(B) is important for keeping the catalytic domain of KinA in a functional conformation. We use this information to propose a model for the structure of the N-terminal sensor module of KinA.

  15. An evolutionary conserved role for anaplastic lymphoma kinase in behavioral responses to ethanol.

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    Amy W Lasek

    Full Text Available Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (Alk is a gene expressed in the nervous system that encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase commonly known for its oncogenic function in various human cancers. We have determined that Alk is associated with altered behavioral responses to ethanol in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, in mice, and in humans. Mutant flies containing transposon insertions in dAlk demonstrate increased resistance to the sedating effect of ethanol. Database analyses revealed that Alk expression levels in the brains of recombinant inbred mice are negatively correlated with ethanol-induced ataxia and ethanol consumption. We therefore tested Alk gene knockout mice and found that they sedate longer in response to high doses of ethanol and consume more ethanol than wild-type mice. Finally, sequencing of human ALK led to the discovery of four polymorphisms associated with a low level of response to ethanol, an intermediate phenotype that is predictive of future alcohol use disorders (AUDs. These results suggest that Alk plays an evolutionary conserved role in ethanol-related behaviors. Moreover, ALK may be a novel candidate gene conferring risk for AUDs as well as a potential target for pharmacological intervention.

  16. The role of protein kinase C alpha translocation in radiation-induced bystander effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zihui; Xu, An; Wu, Lijun; Hei, Tom K; Hong, Mei

    2016-05-11

    Ionizing radiation is a well known human carcinogen. Evidence accumulated over the past decade suggested that extranuclear/extracellular targets and events may also play a critical role in modulating biological responses to ionizing radiation. However, the underlying mechanism(s) of radiation-induced bystander effect is still unclear. In the current study, AL cells were irradiated with alpha particles and responses of bystander cells were investigated. We found out that in bystander AL cells, protein kinase C alpha (PKCα) translocated from cytosol to membrane fraction. Pre-treatment of cells with PKC translocation inhibitor chelerythrine chloride suppressed the induced extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) activity and the increased cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) expression as well as the mutagenic effect in bystander cells. Furthermore, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) was elevated in directly irradiated but not bystander cells; while TNFα receptor 1 (TNFR1) increased in the membrane fraction of bystander cells. Further analysis revealed that PKC activation caused accelerated internalization and recycling of TNFR1. Our data suggested that PKCα translocation may occur as an early event in radiation-induced bystander responses and mediate TNFα-induced signaling pathways that lead to the activation of ERK and up-regulation of COX-2.

  17. Mitotic Checkpoint Kinase Mps1 Has a Role in Normal Physiology which Impacts Clinical Utility.

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    Ricardo Martinez

    Full Text Available Cell cycle checkpoint intervention is an effective therapeutic strategy for cancer when applied to patients predisposed to respond and the treatment is well-tolerated. A critical cell cycle process that could be targeted is the mitotic checkpoint (spindle assembly checkpoint which governs the metaphase-to-anaphase transition and insures proper chromosomal segregation. The mitotic checkpoint kinase Mps1 was selected to explore whether enhancement in genomic instability is a viable therapeutic strategy. The basal-a subset of triple-negative breast cancer was chosen as a model system because it has a higher incidence of chromosomal instability and Mps1 expression is up-regulated. Depletion of Mps1 reduces tumor cell viability relative to normal cells. Highly selective, extremely potent Mps1 kinase inhibitors were created to investigate the roles of Mps1 catalytic activity in tumor cells and normal physiology (PF-7006, PF-3837; Ki<0.5 nM; cellular IC50 2-6 nM. Treatment of tumor cells in vitro with PF-7006 modulates expected Mps1-dependent biology as demonstrated by molecular and phenotypic measures (reduced pHH3-Ser10 levels, shorter duration of mitosis, micro-nucleation, and apoptosis. Tumor-bearing mice treated with PF-7006 exhibit tumor growth inhibition concomitant with pharmacodynamic modulation of a downstream biomarker (pHH3-Ser10. Unfortunately, efficacy only occurs at drug exposures that cause dose-limiting body weight loss, gastrointestinal toxicities, and neutropenia. Mps1 inhibitor toxicities may be mitigated by inducing G1 cell cycle arrest in Rb1-competent cells with the cyclin-dependent kinase-4/6 inhibitor palbociclib. Using an isogenic cellular model system, PF-7006 is shown to be selectively cytotoxic to Rb1-deficient cells relative to Rb1-competent cells (also a measure of kinase selectivity. Human bone marrow cells pretreated with palbociclib have decreased PF-7006-dependent apoptosis relative to cells without palbociclib

  18. Role of verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli in the swine production chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Ercoli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC can cause severe clinical diseases in humans, such as haemorrhagic colitis (HC and haemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS. Although ruminants, primarily cattle, have been suggested as typical reservoirs of STEC, many food products of other origins, including pork products, have been confirmed as vehicles for STEC transmission. Only in rare cases, pork consumption is associated with severe clinical symptoms caused by high pathogenic STEC strains. However, in these outbreaks, it is unknown whether the contamination of food products occurs during swine processing or via cross-contamination from foodstuffs of different sources. In swine, STEC plays an important role in the pathogenesis of oedema disease. In particular a Shiga toxin subtype, named stx2e, it is considered as a key factor involved in the damage of swine endothelial cells. On the contrary, stx2e-producing Escherichia coli has rarely been isolated in humans, and usually only from asymptomatic carriers or from patients with mild symptoms, such as uncomplicated diarrhoea. In fact, the presence of gene stx2e, encoding for stx2e, has rarely been reported in STEC strains that cause HUS. Moreover, stx2e-producing STEC isolated from humans and pigs were found to differ in serogroup, their virulence profile and interaction with intestinal epithelial cells. Because of the limited epidemiologic data of STEC in swine and the increasing role of non-O157 STEC in human illnesses, the relationship between swine STEC and human disease needs to be further investigated.

  19. Role of calmodulin-calmodulin kinase II, cAMP/protein kinase A and ERK 1/2 on Aeromonas hydrophila-induced apoptosis of head kidney macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaitali Banerjee

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The role of calcium (Ca2+ and its dependent protease calpain in Aeromonas hydrophila-induced head kidney macrophage (HKM apoptosis has been reported. Here, we report the pro-apoptotic involvement of calmodulin (CaM and calmodulin kinase II gamma (CaMKIIg in the process. We observed significant increase in CaM levels in A. hydrophila-infected HKM and the inhibitory role of BAPTA/AM, EGTA, nifedipine and verapamil suggested CaM elevation to be Ca2+-dependent. Our studies with CaM-specific siRNA and the CaM inhibitor calmidazolium chloride demonstrated CaM to be pro-apoptotic that initiated the downstream expression of CaMKIIg. Using the CaMKIIg-targeted siRNA, specific inhibitor KN-93 and its inactive structural analogue KN-92 we report CaM-CaMKIIg signalling to be critical for apoptosis of A. hydrophila-infected HKM. Inhibitor studies further suggested the role of calpain-2 in CaMKIIg expression. CaMK Kinase (CaMKK, the other CaM dependent kinase exhibited no role in A. hydrophila-induced HKM apoptosis. We report increased production of intracellular cAMP in infected HKM and our results with KN-93 or KN-92 implicate the role of CaMKIIg in cAMP production. Using siRNA to PKACA, the catalytic subunit of PKA, anti-PKACA antibody and H-89, the specific inhibitor for PKA we prove the pro-apoptotic involvement of cAMP/PKA pathway in the pathogenicity of A. hydrophila. Our inhibitor studies coupled with siRNA approach further implicated the role of cAMP/PKA in activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK 1/2. We conclude that the alteration in intracellular Ca2+ levels initiated by A. hydrophila activates CaM and calpain-2; both pathways converge on CaMKIIg which in turn induces cAMP/PKA mediated ERK 1/2 phosphorylation leading to caspase-3 mediated apoptosis of infected HKM.

  20. Role of carboxylate side chains in the cation Hofmeister series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kherb, Jaibir; Flores, Sarah C; Cremer, Paul S

    2012-06-28

    Thermodynamic and surface-specific spectroscopic investigations were carried with an elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) containing 16 aspartic acid residues. The goal was to explore the role of the carboxylate moieties in hydrophobic collapse and related Hofmeister effects. Experiments were conducted with a series of monovalent and divalent metal chloride salts. Both phase transition temperature and spectroscopic data demonstrated that the divalent cations showed relatively strong association to the carboxylate sites on the biopolymer with K(d) values in the range of 1 to 10 mM. The ordering of the divalent series was: Zn(2+) > Ca(2+) > Ba(2+) > Sr(2+) > Mg(2+). Monovalent cations displayed weaker binding which ranged from 78 mM for NH(4)(+) to 345 mM for Cs(+). The order for this series was: NH(4)(+) > Li(+) > Na(+) > NMe(4)(+) > K(+) > Rb(+) ≥ Cs(+). These results are in general agreement with the notion that strongly hydrated cations bind more tightly to carboxylate groups than do weakly hydrated cations. Moreover, the data for the monovalent series was partially consistent with the law of matching water affinity, although Li(+) and NH(4)(+) did not follow the model. The series for the divalent cations did not appear to obey the law of matching water affinity at all.

  1. Neurodegeneration in ataxia-telangiectasia: Multiple roles of ATM kinase in cellular homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Kay Rui; Watters, Dianne J

    2017-05-22

    Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is characterized by neuronal degeneration, cancer, diabetes, immune deficiency, and increased sensitivity to ionizing radiation. A-T is attributed to the deficiency of the protein kinase coded by the ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated) gene. ATM is a sensor of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and signals to cell cycle checkpoints and the DNA repair machinery. ATM phosphorylates numerous substrates and activates many cell-signaling pathways. There has been considerable debate about whether a defective DNA damage response is causative of the neurological aspects of the disease. In proliferating cells, ATM is localized mainly in the nucleus; however, in postmitotic cells such as neurons, ATM is mostly cytoplasmic. Recent studies reveal an increasing number of roles for ATM in the cytoplasm, including activation by oxidative stress. ATM associates with organelles including mitochondria and peroxisomes, both sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which have been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases and aging. ATM is also associated with synaptic vesicles and has a role in regulating cellular homeostasis and autophagy. The cytoplasmic roles of ATM provide a new perspective on the neurodegenerative process in A-T. This review will examine the expanding roles of ATM in cellular homeostasis and relate these functions to the complex A-T phenotype. Developmental Dynamics, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Synaptic roles of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 & its implications in epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparna Banerjee Dixit

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying epilepsy to find novel prognostic/diagnostic biomarkers to prevent epilepsy patients at risk. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5 is involved in multiple neuronal functions and plays a crucial role in maintaining homeostatic synaptic plasticity by regulating intracellular signalling cascades at synapses. CDK5 deregulation is shown to be associated with various neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. The association between chronic loss of CDK5 and seizures has been reported in animal models of epilepsy. Genetic expression of CDK5 at transcriptome level has been shown to be abnormal in intractable epilepsy. In this review various possible mechanisms by which deregulated CDK5 may alter synaptic transmission and possibly lead to epileptogenesis have been discussed. Further, CDK5 has been proposed as a potential biomarker as well as a pharmacological target for developing treatments for epilepsy.

  3. G Protein–Coupled Receptor Kinase 2 Plays a Relevant Role in Insulin Resistance and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Guerra, Lucia; Nieto-Vazquez, Iria; Vila-Bedmar, Rocio; Jurado-Pueyo, María; Zalba, Guillermo; Díez, Javier; Murga, Cristina; Fernández-Veledo, Sonia; Mayor, Federico; Lorenzo, Margarita

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Insulin resistance is associated with the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders as type 2 diabetes and obesity. Given the emerging role of signal transduction in these syndromes, we set out to explore the possible role that G protein–coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2), first identified as a G protein–coupled receptor regulator, could have as a modulator of insulin responses. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We analyzed the influence of GRK2 levels in insulin signaling in myoblasts and adipocytes with experimentally increased or silenced levels of GRK2, as well as in GRK2 hemizygous animals expressing 50% lower levels of this kinase in three different models of insulin resistance: tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) infusion, aging, and high-fat diet (HFD). Glucose transport, whole-body glucose and insulin tolerance, the activation status of insulin pathway components, and the circulating levels of important mediators were measured. The development of obesity and adipocyte size with age and HFD was analyzed. RESULTS Altering GRK2 levels markedly modifies insulin-mediated signaling in cultured adipocytes and myocytes. GRK2 levels are increased by ∼2-fold in muscle and adipose tissue in the animal models tested, as well as in lymphocytes from metabolic syndrome patients. In contrast, hemizygous GRK2 mice show enhanced insulin sensitivity and do not develop insulin resistance by TNF-α, aging, or HFD. Furthermore, reduced GRK2 levels induce a lean phenotype and decrease age-related adiposity. CONCLUSIONS Overall, our data identify GRK2 as an important negative regulator of insulin effects, key to the etiopathogenesis of insulin resistance and obesity, which uncovers this protein as a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of these disorders. PMID:20627936

  4. Functional Role and Therapeutic Potential of the Pim-1 Kinase in Colon Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Weirauch

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The provirus integration site for Moloney murine leukemia virus 1 (Pim-1 kinase is overexpressed in various tumors and has been linked to poor prognosis. Its role as proto-oncogene is based on several Pim-1 target proteins involved in pivotal cellular processes. Here, we explore the functional relevance of Pim-1 in colon carcinoma. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: RNAi-based knockdown approaches, as well as a specific small molecule inhibitor, were used to inhibit Pim-1 in colon carcinoma cells. The effects were analyzed regarding proliferation, apoptosis, sensitization toward cytostatic treatment, and overall antitumor effect in vitro and in mouse tumor models in vivo. RESULTS: We demonstrate antiproliferative, proapoptotic, and overall antitumor effects of Pim-1 inhibition. The sensitization to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU treatment upon Pim-1 knockdown offers new possibilities for combinatorial treatment approaches. Importantly, this also antagonizes a 5-FU-triggered Pim-1 up-regulation, which is mediated by decreased levels of miR-15b, a microRNA we newly identify to regulate Pim-1. The analysis of the molecular effects of Pim-1 inhibition reveals a complex regulatory network, with therapeutic Pim-1 repression leading to major changes in oncogenic signal transduction with regard to p21Cip1/WAF1, STAT3, c-jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK, c-Myc, and survivin and in the levels of apoptosis-related proteins Puma, Bax, and Bcl-xL. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that Pim-1 plays a pivotal role in several tumor-relevant signaling pathways and establish the functional relevance of Pim-1 in colon carcinoma. Our results also substantiate the RNAi-mediated Pim-1 knockdown based on polymeric polyethylenimine/ small interfering RNA nanoparticles as a promising therapeutic approach.

  5. A pivotal role for endogenous TGF-β-activated kinase-1 in the LKB1/AMP-activated protein kinase energy-sensor pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Min; Zhang, Dou; Dyck, Jason R. B.; Li, Yi; Zhang, Hui; Morishima, Masae; Mann, Douglas L.; Taffet, George E.; Baldini, Antonio; Khoury, Dirar S.; Schneider, Michael D.

    2006-01-01

    TGF-β-activated kinase-1 (TAK1), also known as MAPKK kinase-7 (MAP3K7), is a candidate effector of multiple circuits in cardiac biology and disease. Here, we show that inhibition of TAK1 in mice by a cardiac-specific dominant-negative mutation evokes electrophysiological and biochemical properties reminiscent of human Wolff–Parkinson–White syndrome, arising from mutations in AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), most notably, accelerated atrioventricular conduction and impaired AMPK activation. To test conclusively the biochemical connection from TAK1 to AMPK suggested by this phenotype, we disrupted TAK1 in mouse embryos and embryonic fibroblasts by Cre-mediated recombination. In TAK1-null embryos, the activating phosphorylation of AMPK at T172 was blocked, accompanied by defective AMPK activity. However, loss of endogenous TAK1 causes midgestation lethality, with defective yolk sac and intraembryonic vasculature. To preclude confounding lethal defects, we acutely ablated floxed TAK1 in culture by viral delivery of Cre. In culture, endogenous TAK1 was activated by oligomycin, the antidiabetic drug metformin, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside (AICAR), and ischemia, well established triggers of AMPK activity. Loss of TAK1 in culture blocked T172 phosphorylation induced by all three agents, interfered with AMPK activation, impaired phosphorylation of the endogenous AMPK substrate acetyl CoA carboxylase, and also interfered with activation of the AMPK kinase LKB1. Thus, by disrupting the endogenous TAK1 locus, we prove a pivotal role for TAK1 in the LKB1/AMPK signaling axis, an essential governor of cell metabolism. PMID:17085580

  6. A pivotal role for endogenous TGF-beta-activated kinase-1 in the LKB1/AMP-activated protein kinase energy-sensor pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Min; Zhang, Dou; Dyck, Jason R B; Li, Yi; Zhang, Hui; Morishima, Masae; Mann, Douglas L; Taffet, George E; Baldini, Antonio; Khoury, Dirar S; Schneider, Michael D

    2006-11-14

    TGF-beta-activated kinase-1 (TAK1), also known as MAPKK kinase-7 (MAP3K7), is a candidate effector of multiple circuits in cardiac biology and disease. Here, we show that inhibition of TAK1 in mice by a cardiac-specific dominant-negative mutation evokes electrophysiological and biochemical properties reminiscent of human Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, arising from mutations in AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), most notably, accelerated atrioventricular conduction and impaired AMPK activation. To test conclusively the biochemical connection from TAK1 to AMPK suggested by this phenotype, we disrupted TAK1 in mouse embryos and embryonic fibroblasts by Cre-mediated recombination. In TAK1-null embryos, the activating phosphorylation of AMPK at T172 was blocked, accompanied by defective AMPK activity. However, loss of endogenous TAK1 causes midgestation lethality, with defective yolk sac and intraembryonic vasculature. To preclude confounding lethal defects, we acutely ablated floxed TAK1 in culture by viral delivery of Cre. In culture, endogenous TAK1 was activated by oligomycin, the antidiabetic drug metformin, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside (AICAR), and ischemia, well established triggers of AMPK activity. Loss of TAK1 in culture blocked T172 phosphorylation induced by all three agents, interfered with AMPK activation, impaired phosphorylation of the endogenous AMPK substrate acetyl CoA carboxylase, and also interfered with activation of the AMPK kinase LKB1. Thus, by disrupting the endogenous TAK1 locus, we prove a pivotal role for TAK1 in the LKB1/AMPK signaling axis, an essential governor of cell metabolism.

  7. Structure-function study of deinococcal serine/threonine protein kinase implicates its kinase activity and DNA repair protein phosphorylation roles in radioresistance of Deinococcus radiodurans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajpurohit, Yogendra S; Misra, Hari S

    2013-11-01

    The DR2518 (RqkA) a eukaryotic type serine/threonine protein kinase in Deinococcus radiodurans was characterized for its role in bacterial response to oxidative stress and DNA damage. The K42A, S162A, T169A and S171A mutation in RqkA differentially affected its kinase activity and functional complementation for γ radiation resistance in Δdr2518 mutant. For example, K42A mutant was completely inactive and showed no complementation while S171A, T169A and T169A/S171A mutants were less active and complemented proportionally to different levels as compared to wild type. Amongst, different DNA binding proteins that purified RqkA could phosphorylate, PprA a DNA repair protein, phosphorylation had improved its affinity to DNA by 4 fold and could enhance its supportive role in intermolecular ligation by T4 DNA ligase. RqkA phosphorylates PprA at threonine 72 (T72), serine 112 (S112) and threonine 144 (T144) in vitro with the majority of it goes to T72 site. Unlike wild type PprA and single mutants of T72, S112 and T144 residues, the T72AS112A double and T72AS112AT144A triple mutant derivatives of PprA did not phosphorylate in vivo and also failed to complement PprA loss in D. radiodurans. Deletion of rqkA in pprA::cat background enhanced radiosensitivity of pprA mutant, which became nearly similar to ΔrqkA resistance to γ radiation. These results suggested that K42 of RqkA is essential for catalytic functions and the kinase activity of RqkA as well as phosphorylation of PprA have roles in γ radiation resistance of D. radiodurans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A Spontaneous Missense Mutation in Branched Chain Keto Acid Dehydrogenase Kinase in the Rat Affects Both the Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Samuel Zigler

    Full Text Available A novel mutation, causing a phenotype we named frogleg because its most obvious characteristic is a severe splaying of the hind limbs, arose spontaneously in a colony of Sprague-Dawley rats. Frogleg is a complex phenotype that includes abnormalities in hind limb function, reduced brain weight with dilated ventricles and infertility. Using micro-satellite markers spanning the entire rat genome, the mutation was mapped to a region of rat chromosome 1 between D1Rat131 and D1Rat287. Analysis of whole genome sequencing data within the linkage interval, identified a missense mutation in the branched-chain alpha-keto dehydrogenase kinase (Bckdk gene. The protein encoded by Bckdk is an integral part of an enzyme complex located in the mitochondrial matrix of many tissues which regulates the levels of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs, leucine, isoleucine and valine. BCAAs are essential amino acids (not synthesized by the body, and circulating levels must be tightly regulated; levels that are too high or too low are both deleterious. BCKDK phosphorylates Ser293 of the E1α subunit of the BCKDH protein, which catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the catabolism of the BCAAs, inhibiting BCKDH and thereby, limiting breakdown of the BCAAs. In contrast, when Ser293 is not phosphorylated, BCKDH activity is unchecked and the levels of the BCAAs will decrease dramatically. The mutation is located within the kinase domain of Bckdk and is predicted to be damaging. Consistent with this, we show that in rats homozygous for the mutation, phosphorylation of BCKDH in the brain is markedly decreased relative to wild type or heterozygous littermates. Further, circulating levels of the BCAAs are reduced by 70-80% in animals homozygous for the mutation. The frogleg phenotype shares important characteristics with a previously described Bckdk knockout mouse and with human subjects with Bckdk mutations. In addition, we report novel data regarding peripheral neuropathy of

  9. Dual Roles of Fer Kinase Are Required for Proper Hematopoiesis and Vascular Endothelium Organization during Zebrafish Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily M. Dunn

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Fer kinase, a protein involved in the regulation of cell-cell adhesion and proliferation, has been shown to be required during invertebrate development and has been implicated in leukemia, gastric cancer, and liver cancer. However, in vivo roles for Fer during vertebrate development have remained elusive. In this study, we bridge the gap between the invertebrate and vertebrate realms by showing that Fer kinase is required during zebrafish embryogenesis for normal hematopoiesis and vascular organization with distinct kinase dependent and independent functions. In situ hybridization, quantitative PCR and fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS analyses revealed an increase in both erythrocyte numbers and gene expression patterns as well as a decrease in the organization of vasculature endothelial cells. Furthermore, rescue experiments have shown that the regulation of hematopoietic proliferation is dependent on Fer kinase activity, while vascular organizing events only require Fer in a kinase-independent manner. Our data suggest a model in which separate kinase dependent and independent functions of Fer act in conjunction with Notch activity in a divergent manner for hematopoietic determination and vascular tissue organization.

  10. The key role of supply chain actors in groundwater irrigation development in North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejars, Caroline; Daoudi, Ali; Amichi, Hichem

    2017-09-01

    The role played by supply chain actors in the rapid development of groundwater-based irrigated agriculture is analyzed. Agricultural groundwater use has increased tremendously in the past 50 years, leading to the decline of water tables. Groundwater use has enabled intensification of existing farming systems and ensured economic growth. This "groundwater economy" has been growing rapidly due to the initiative of farmers and the involvement of a wide range of supply chain actors, including suppliers of equipment, inputs retailers, and distributors of irrigated agricultural products. In North Africa, the actors in irrigated production chains often operate at the margin of public policies and are usually described as "informal", "unstructured", and as participating in "groundwater anarchy". This paper underlines the crucial role of supply chain actors in the development of groundwater irrigation, a role largely ignored by public policies and rarely studied. The analysis is based on three case studies in Morocco, Tunisia and Algeria, and focuses on the horticultural sub-sector, in particular on onions and tomatoes, which are irrigated high value crops. The study demonstrates that although supply chain actors are catalyzers of the expansion of groundwater irrigation, they could also become actors in adaptation to the declining water tables. Through their informal activities, they help reduce market risks, facilitate credit and access to subsidies, and disseminate innovation. The interest associated with making these actors visible to agricultural institutions is discussed, along with methods of getting them involved in the management of the resource on which they depend.

  11. Differential Roles of Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 Subtypes Alpha and Beta in Cortical Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-xia Ma

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Glycogen synthase kinases 3 (GSK3 α and β are expressed in the nervous system, and disruption of GSK3 signaling has been implicated in a wide range of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. Although several studies have established a role of GSK3 signaling in the nervous system, much less is known about isoform-specific functions. Here, we have examined the role of GSK3α and GSK3β in the developing neocortex by performing in utero electroporation with specific small interfering RNAs targeting each isoform. We found that depletion of either GSK3α or GSK3β commonly promoted the proliferation of neural progenitor cells in the ventricular zone, but at later stages, knocking down of each isoform resulted in distinct outcomes. In particular, the transformation of radial progenitors to intermediate progenitor cells was promoted in GSK3α-depleted cells, but markedly prevented in GSK3β-depleted cells. Moreover, knocking down of GSK3β but not GSK3α prevented the generation of upper-layer Cux1+ neurons. Consistent with the distinct outcomes, protein levels of c-Myc and β-catenin, well-known substrates of GSK3, were differentially affected by depletion of GSK3α and GSK3β. Together, these results suggest that GSK3α and GSK3β might play distinct roles in the genesis and differentiation of neuronal lineage cells during neocortex development by differential regulation of downstream signaling pathways.

  12. Adaptation Mechanism of the Aspartate Receptor: Electrostatics of the Adaptation Subdomain Play a Key Role in Modulating Kinase Activity†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starrett, Diane J.; Falke, Joseph J.

    2010-01-01

    The aspartate receptor of the Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium chemotaxis pathway generates a transmembrane signal that regulates the activity of the cytoplasmic kinase CheA. Previous studies have identified a region of the cytoplasmic domain that is critical to receptor adaptation and kinase regulation. This region, termed the adaptation subdomain, contains a high density of acidic residues, including specific glutamate residues that serve as receptor adaptation sites. However, the mechanism of signal propagation through this region remains poorly understood. This study uses site-directed mutagenesis to neutralize each acidic residue within the subdomain to probe the hypothesis that electrostatics in this region play a significant role in the mechanism of kinase activation and modulation. Each point mutant was tested for its ability to regulate chemotaxis in vivo and kinase activity in vitro. Four point mutants (D273N, E281Q, D288N, and E477Q) were found to superactivate the kinase relative to the wild-type receptor, and all four of these kinase-activating substitutions are located along the same intersubunit interface as the adaptation sites. These activating substitutions retained the wild-type ability of the attractant-occupied receptor to inhibit kinase activity. When combined in a quadruple mutant (D273N/E281Q/D288N/E477Q), the four charge-neutralizing substitutions locked the receptor in a kinase-superactivating state that could not be fully inactivated by the attractant. Similar lock-on character was observed for a charge reversal substitution, D273R. Together, these results implicate the electrostatic interactions at the intersubunit interface as a major player in signal transduction and kinase regulation. The negative charge in this region destabilizes the local structure in a way that enhances conformational dynamics, as detected by disulfide trapping, and this effect is reversed by charge neutralization of the adaptation sites. Finally, two

  13. A role for mitogen-activated protein kinase in the spindle assembly checkpoint in XTC cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X M; Zhai, Y; Ferrell, J E

    1997-04-21

    The spindle assembly checkpoint prevents cells whose spindles are defective or chromosomes are misaligned from initiating anaphase and leaving mitosis. Studies of Xenopus egg extracts have implicated the Erk2 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase) in this checkpoint. Other studies have suggested that MAP kinases might be important for normal mitotic progression. Here we have investigated whether MAP kinase function is required for mitotic progression or the spindle assembly checkpoint in vivo in Xenopus tadpole cells (XTC). We determined that Erk1 and/or Erk2 are present in the mitotic spindle during prometaphase and metaphase, consistent with the idea that MAP kinase might regulate or monitor the status of the spindle. Next, we microinjected purified recombinant XCL100, a Xenopus MAP kinase phosphatase, into XTC cells in various stages of mitosis to interfere with MAP kinase activation. We found that mitotic progression was unaffected by the phosphatase. However, XCL100 rendered the cells unable to remain arrested in mitosis after treatment with nocodazole. Cells injected with phosphatase at prometaphase or metaphase exited mitosis in the presence of nocodazole-the chromosomes decondensed and the nuclear envelope re-formed-whereas cells injected with buffer or a catalytically inactive XCL100 mutant protein remained arrested in mitosis. Coinjection of constitutively active MAP kinase kinase-1, which opposes XCL100's effects on MAP kinase, antagonized the effects of XCL100. Since the only known targets of MAP kinase kinase-1 are Erk1 and Erk2, these findings argue that MAP kinase function is required for the spindle assembly checkpoint in XTC cells.

  14. Investigation of the Role of Protein Kinase D in Human Rhinovirus Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedán, Anabel; Swieboda, Dawid; Charles, Mark; Toussaint, Marie; Johnston, Sebastian L; Asfor, Amin; Panjwani, Anusha; Tuthill, Tobias J; Danahay, Henry; Raynham, Tony; Mousnier, Aurelie; Solari, Roberto

    2017-05-01

    Picornavirus replication is known to cause extensive remodeling of Golgi and endoplasmic reticulum membranes, and a number of the host proteins involved in the viral replication complex have been identified, including oxysterol binding protein (OSBP) and phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase III beta (PI4KB). Since both OSBP and PI4KB are substrates for protein kinase D (PKD) and PKD is known to be involved in the control of Golgi membrane vesicular and lipid transport, we hypothesized that PKD played a role in viral replication. We present multiple lines of evidence in support of this hypothesis. First, infection of HeLa cells with human rhinovirus (HRV) induced the phosphorylation of PKD. Second, PKD inhibitors reduced HRV genome replication, protein expression, and titers in a concentration-dependent fashion and also blocked the replication of poliovirus (PV) and foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in a variety of cells. Third, HRV replication was significantly reduced in HeLa cells overexpressing wild-type and mutant forms of PKD1. Fourth, HRV genome replication was reduced in HAP1 cells in which the PKD1 gene was knocked out by clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9. Although we have not identified the molecular mechanism through which PKD regulates viral replication, our data suggest that this is not due to enhanced interferon signaling or an inhibition of clathrin-mediated endocytosis, and PKD inhibitors do not need to be present during viral uptake. Our data show for the first time that targeting PKD with small molecules can inhibit the replication of HRV, PV, and FMDV, and therefore, PKD may represent a novel antiviral target for drug discovery.IMPORTANCE Picornaviruses remain an important family of human and animal pathogens for which we have a very limited arsenal of antiviral agents. HRV is the causative agent of the common cold, which in itself is a relatively trivial infection; however, in asthma and chronic obstructive

  15. β3-Adrenoceptor-mediated relaxation of rat and human urinary bladder : roles of BKCa channels and Rho kinase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cernecka, Hana; Kersten, Kim; Maarsingh, Harm; Elzinga, Carolina R.; de Jong, Igle Jan; Korstanje, Cees; Michel, Martin C.; Schmidt, Martina

    Previous studies suggest that the large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (BKCa) channel and Rho-kinase play major roles in the control of urinary bladder tone. Here, we investigated their involvement in beta-adrenoceptor (AR)-mediated relaxation of rat and human bladder. Concentration-response curves

  16. Localization of Protein Kinase NDR2 to Peroxisomes and Its Role in Ciliogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Shoko; Nagai, Tomoaki; Masukawa, Moe; Okumoto, Kanji; Homma, Yuta; Fujiki, Yukio; Mizuno, Kensaku

    2017-03-10

    Nuclear Dbf2-related (NDR) kinases, comprising NDR1 and NDR2, are serine/threonine kinases that play crucial roles in the control of cell proliferation, apoptosis, and morphogenesis. We recently showed that NDR2, but not NDR1, is involved in primary cilium formation; however, the mechanism underlying their functional difference in ciliogenesis is unknown. To address this issue, we examined their subcellular localization. Despite their close sequence similarity, NDR2 exhibited punctate localization in the cytoplasm, whereas NDR1 was diffusely distributed within the cell. Notably, NDR2 puncta mostly co-localized with the peroxisome marker proteins, catalase and CFP-SKL (cyan fluorescent protein carrying the C-terminal typical peroxisome-targeting signal type-1 (PTS1) sequence, Ser-Lys-Leu). NDR2 contains the PTS1-like sequence, Gly-Lys-Leu, at the C-terminal end, whereas the C-terminal end of NDR1 is Ala-Lys. An NDR2 mutant lacking the C-terminal Leu, NDR2(ΔL), exhibited almost diffuse distribution in cells. Additionally, NDR2, but neither NDR1 nor NDR2(ΔL), bound to the PTS1 receptor Pex5p. Together, these findings indicate that NDR2 localizes to the peroxisome by using the C-terminal GKL sequence. Intriguingly, topology analysis of NDR2 suggests that NDR2 is exposed to the cytosolic surface of the peroxisome. The expression of wild-type NDR2, but not NDR2(ΔL), recovered the suppressive effect of NDR2 knockdown on ciliogenesis. Furthermore, knockdown of peroxisome biogenesis factor genes (PEX1 or PEX3) partially suppressed ciliogenesis. These results suggest that the peroxisomal localization of NDR2 is implicated in its function to promote primary cilium formation. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Role and regulation of 90 kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) in signal transduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frödin, M; Gammeltoft, S

    1999-01-01

    Extracellular signals activate mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades to execute complex cellular programs, like proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. In mammalian cells, three MAPK families have been characterized: extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), which is activated...... by growth factors, peptide hormones and neurotransmitters, and Jun kinase (JNK) and p38 MAPK, which are activated by cellular stress stimulus as well as growth factors. This review describes the family of 90 kDa ribosomal S6 kinases (RSK; also known as p90rsk or MAPK-activated protein kinase-1, MAPKAP-K1......), which were among the first substrates of ERK to be discovered and which has proven to be a ubiquitous and versatile mediator of ERK signal transduction. RSK is composed of two functional kinase domains that are activated in a sequential manner by a series of phosphorylations. Recently, a family of RSK...

  18. AMP-activated protein kinase has diet-dependent and -independent roles in Drosophila oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, Kaitlin M; Drummond-Barbosa, Daniela

    2016-12-01

    Multiple aspects of organismal physiology influence the number and activity of stem cells and their progeny, including nutritional status. Previous studies demonstrated that Drosophila germline stem cells (GSCs), follicle stem cells (FSCs), and their progeny sense and respond to diet via complex mechanisms involving many systemic and local signals. AMP-activated protein kinase, or AMPK, is a highly conserved regulator of energy homeostasis known to be activated under low cellular energy conditions; however, its role in the ovarian response to diet has not been investigated. Here, we describe nutrient-dependent and -independent requirements for AMPK in Drosophila oogenesis. We found that AMPK is cell autonomously required for the slow down in GSC and follicle cell proliferation that occurs on a poor diet. Similarly, AMPK activity is necessary in the germline for the degeneration of vitellogenic stages in response to nutrient deprivation. In contrast, AMPK activity is not required within the germline to modulate its growth. Instead, AMPK acts in follicle cells to negatively regulate their growth and proliferation, thereby indirectly limiting the size of the underlying germline cyst within developing follicles. Paradoxically, AMPK is required for GSC maintenance in well-fed flies (when AMPK activity is presumably at its lowest), suggesting potentially important roles for basal AMPK activity in specific cell types. Finally, we identified a nutrient-independent, developmental role for AMPK in cyst encapsulation by follicle cells. These results uncover specific AMPK requirements in multiple cell types in the ovary and suggest that AMPK can function outside of its canonical nutrient-sensing role in specific developmental contexts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Bullwhip Effect in the Information Flow of a Supply Chain: A Role of Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lampret Tadeja

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of our research is to analyze and display causes of a bullwhip effect formation within a supply chain, as well as to provide the appropriate solutions to limit the occurrence of the bullwhip effect by using the proper information flow and partners’ cooperation within the supply chain. The bullwhip effect is one of the most important issues in the supply chain management and it is present in many companies. It preserves a character of invisibility because there are lots of causes for its formation and they are usually difficult to discern. The bullwhip effect is a phenomenon of an increase in the order variability within a supply chain. The higher we are within the supply chain, the higher is the order variability. The company encountered with the whip effect can successfully reduce its impact by improving the information flow, as well as improving partners’ cooperation within the supply chain. In this way the company can limit its negative repercussions and increase the profit. The article focuses on the overview of the bullwhip effect within a distribution chain, from its causes to suggestions and measures how to ease its negative repercussions on the organisation. Part of the causes could be found in the market demand variability and in the lack of communication about the actual marked demand within the supply chain. The rest of the causes are related to obstacles that emerge among different partners within the supply chain (role of culture. A qualitative analysis is applied on the basis of the selected cognitions from the supply chain management. The quantitative analysis is based on the theoretical research of the effective flow of information among the participants and its contribution to the reduction of the bullwhip impact. The article discusses two research questions: 1 The correct information flow within the supply chain and the improvement of the communication among partners can lead to the bullwhip effect reduction

  20. The flagellum-mitogen-activated protein kinase connection in Trypanosomatids: a key sensory role in parasite signalling and development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotureau, Brice; Morales, Miguel A; Bastin, Philippe; Späth, Gerald F

    2009-05-01

    Trypanosomatid parasites are the causative agents of severe human diseases such as sleeping sickness, Chagas disease and leishmaniases. These microorganisms are transmitted via different insect vectors and hence are confronted to changing environments during their infectious cycle in which they activate specific and complex patterns of differentiation. Several studies in Trypanosoma brucei and in different subspecies of Leishmania have shed light on the role of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases in these processes. Surprisingly, several MAP kinases turned out to be involved in the control of flagellum length in the promastigote stage of Leishmania. Recently, a sensory function has been recognized for cilia and flagella in unicellular and multicellular eukaryotes. This review aims to stimulate discussions on the possibility that the Trypanosomatid flagellum could act as a sensory organ through the MAP kinase pathway, with the objective to encourage investigation of this new hypothesis through a series of proposed experimental approaches. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. The role of the Drosophila LAMMER protein kinase DOA in somatic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    DOA kinase, the Drosophila member of the LAMMER/Clk protein kinase family, phosphorylates SR and SR-like proteins, including TRA, TRA2 and RBP1, which are responsible for the alternative splicing of transcripts encoding the key regulator of sex-specific expression in somatic cells of the fly, DOUBLESEX. Specific Doa ...

  2. Tetrel Bonds in Infinite Molecular Chains by Electronic Structure Theory and Their Role for Crystal Stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Janine; Dronskowski, Richard

    2017-02-16

    Intermolecular bonds play a crucial role in the rational design of crystal structures, dubbed crystal engineering. The relatively new term tetrel bonds (TBs) describes a long-known type of such interactions presently in the focus of quantum chemical cluster calculations. Here, we energetically explore the strengths and cooperativity of these interactions in infinite chains, a possible arrangement of such tetrel bonds in extended crystals, by periodic density functional theory. In the chains, the TBs are amplified due to cooperativity by up to 60%. Moreover, we computationally take apart crystals stabilized by infinite tetrel-bonded chains and assess the importance of the TBs for the crystal stabilization. Tetrel bonds can amount to 70% of the overall interaction energy within some crystals, and they can also be energetically decisive for the taken crystal structure; their individual strengths also compete with the collective packing within the crystal structures.

  3. Compressive stress induces dephosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chain via RhoA phosphorylation by the adenylyl cyclase/protein kinase A signaling pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Takemoto

    Full Text Available Mechanical stress that arises due to deformation of the extracellular matrix (ECM either stretches or compresses cells. The cellular response to stretching has been actively studied. For example, stretching induces phosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chain (MRLC via the RhoA/RhoA-associated protein kinase (ROCK pathway, resulting in increased cellular tension. In contrast, the effects of compressive stress on cellular functions are not fully resolved. The mechanisms for sensing and differentially responding to stretching and compressive stress are not known. To address these questions, we investigated whether phosphorylation levels of MRLC were affected by compressive stress. Contrary to the response in stretching cells, MRLC was dephosphorylated 5 min after cells were subjected to compressive stress. Compressive loading induced activation of myosin phosphatase mediated via the dephosphorylation of myosin phosphatase targeting subunit 1 (Thr853. Because myosin phosphatase targeting subunit 1 (Thr853 is phosphorylated only by ROCK, compressive loading may have induced inactivation of ROCK. However, GTP-bound RhoA (active form increased in response to compressive stress. The compression-induced activation of RhoA and inactivation of its effector ROCK are contradictory. This inconsistency was due to phosphorylation of RhoA (Ser188 that reduced affinity of RhoA to ROCK. Treatment with the inhibitor of protein kinase A that phosphorylates RhoA (Ser188 induced suppression of compression-stimulated MRLC dephosphorylation. Incidentally, stretching induced phosphorylation of MRLC, but did not affect phosphorylation levels of RhoA (Ser188. Together, our results suggest that RhoA phosphorylation is an important process for MRLC dephosphorylation by compressive loading, and for distinguishing between stretching and compressing cells.

  4. The Emerging Role of Polo-Like Kinase 1 in Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Tumor Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Fu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1 is a serine/threonine kinase that plays a key role in the regulation of the cell cycle. PLK1 is overexpressed in a variety of human tumors, and its expression level often correlates with increased cellular proliferation and poor prognosis in cancer patients. It has been suggested that PLK1 controls cancer development through multiple mechanisms that include canonical regulation of mitosis and cytokinesis, modulation of DNA replication, and cell survival. However, emerging evidence suggests novel and previously unanticipated roles for PLK1 during tumor development. In this review, we will summarize the recent advancements in our understanding of the oncogenic functions of PLK1, with a focus on its role in epithelial-mesenchymal transition and tumor invasion. We will further discuss the therapeutic potential of these functions.

  5. PI3-kinase activation by GM-CSF in endothelium is upstream of Jak/Stat pathway: role of alphaGMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar-Mascareno, Manya; Pedraza, Alicia; Golde, David W

    2005-11-18

    GM-CSF has been identified as a growth factor for endothelial cells. In this study, we investigated the role of PI3-kinase pathway in mediating GM-CSF induced angiogenesis. GM-CSF induced tube formation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells, as examined using Matrigel assay, was inhibited by specific inhibitors of PI3-kinase, wortmannin, and LY294002. The regulatory subunit of PI3-kinase (p85) interacted with alphaGMR via its C-SH2 domain in a GM-CSF-dependent fashion with concomitant phosphorylation of p85 and activation of PI3-kinase pathway. p85 binding site on the alphaGMR was essential to induce GM-CSF receptor-dependent Stat activation. Furthermore, inhibition of PI3-kinase activity also abrogated GM-CSF induced Stat activation. These studies underscore the significance of the GM-CSF mediated PI3-kinase activation and its role in angiogenesis.

  6. Promotion of Tumor Invasion by Tumor-Associated Macrophages: The Role of CSF-1-Activated Phosphatidylinositol 3 Kinase and Src Family Kinase Motility Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy R. Dwyer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Macrophages interact with cells in every organ to facilitate tissue development, function and repair. However, the close interaction between macrophages and parenchymal cells can be subverted in disease, particularly cancer. Motility is an essential capacity for macrophages to be able to carry out their various roles. In cancers, the macrophage’s interstitial migratory ability is frequently co-opted by tumor cells to enable escape from the primary tumor and metastatic spread. Macrophage accumulation within and movement through a tumor is often stimulated by tumor cell production of the mononuclear phagocytic growth factor, colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1. CSF-1 also regulates macrophage survival, proliferation and differentiation, and its many effects are transduced by its receptor, the CSF-1R, via phosphotyrosine motif-activated signals. Mutational analysis of CSF-1R signaling indicates that the major mediators of CSF-1-induced motility are phosphatidyl-inositol-3 kinase (PI3K and one or more Src family kinase (SFK, which activate signals to adhesion, actin polymerization, polarization and, ultimately, migration and invasion in macrophages. The macrophage transcriptome, including that of the motility machinery, is very complex and highly responsive to the environment, with selective expression of proteins and splice variants rarely found in other cell types. Thus, their unique motility machinery can be specifically targeted to block macrophage migration, and thereby, inhibit tumor invasion and metastasis.

  7. Promotion of Tumor Invasion by Tumor-Associated Macrophages: The Role of CSF-1-Activated Phosphatidylinositol 3 Kinase and Src Family Kinase Motility Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Amy R.; Greenland, Eloise L.; Pixley, Fiona J.

    2017-01-01

    Macrophages interact with cells in every organ to facilitate tissue development, function and repair. However, the close interaction between macrophages and parenchymal cells can be subverted in disease, particularly cancer. Motility is an essential capacity for macrophages to be able to carry out their various roles. In cancers, the macrophage’s interstitial migratory ability is frequently co-opted by tumor cells to enable escape from the primary tumor and metastatic spread. Macrophage accumulation within and movement through a tumor is often stimulated by tumor cell production of the mononuclear phagocytic growth factor, colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1). CSF-1 also regulates macrophage survival, proliferation and differentiation, and its many effects are transduced by its receptor, the CSF-1R, via phosphotyrosine motif-activated signals. Mutational analysis of CSF-1R signaling indicates that the major mediators of CSF-1-induced motility are phosphatidyl-inositol-3 kinase (PI3K) and one or more Src family kinase (SFK), which activate signals to adhesion, actin polymerization, polarization and, ultimately, migration and invasion in macrophages. The macrophage transcriptome, including that of the motility machinery, is very complex and highly responsive to the environment, with selective expression of proteins and splice variants rarely found in other cell types. Thus, their unique motility machinery can be specifically targeted to block macrophage migration, and thereby, inhibit tumor invasion and metastasis. PMID:28629162

  8. LAMMER Kinase LkhA plays multiple roles in the vegetative growth and asexual and sexual development of Aspergillus nidulans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Hye Kang

    Full Text Available LAMMER kinase plays pivotal roles in various physiological processes in eukaryotes; however, its function in filamentous fungi is not known. We performed molecular studies on the function of the Aspergillus nidulans LAMMER kinase, LkhA, and report its involvement in multiple developmental processes. The gene for LkhA was highly expressed during reproductive organ development, such as that of conidiophores and cleistothecia. During vegetative growth, the patterns of germ tube emergence and hyphal polarity were changed and septation was increased by lkhA deletion. Northern analyses showed that lkhA regulated the transcription of brlA, csnD, and ppoA, which supported the detrimental effect of lkhA-deletion on asexual and sexual differentiation. LkhA also affected expression of cyclin-dependent kinase NimX(cdc2, a multiple cell cycle regulator, and StuA, an APSES family of fungal transcription factors that play pivotal roles in multiple differentiation processes. Here, for the first time, we present molecular evidence showing that LAMMER kinase is involved in A. nidulans development by modulating the expression of key regulators of developmental processes.

  9. A novel role of protein tyrosine kinase2 in mediating chloride secretion in human airway epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihua Liang

    Full Text Available Ca(2+ activated Cl(- channels (CaCC are up-regulated in cystic fibrosis (CF airway surface epithelia. The presence and functional properties of CaCC make it a possible therapeutic target to compensate for the deficiency of Cl(- secretion in CF epithelia. CaCC is activated by an increase in cytosolic Ca(2+, which not only activates epithelial CaCCs, but also inhibits epithelial Na(+ hyperabsorption, which may also be beneficial in CF. Our previous study has shown that spiperone, a known antipsychotic drug, activates CaCCs and stimulates Cl(- secretion in polarized human non-CF and CF airway epithelial cell monolayers in vitro, and in Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR knockout mice in vivo. Spiperone activates CaCC not by acting in its well-known role as an antagonist of either 5-HT2 or D2 receptors, but through a protein tyrosine kinase-coupled phospholipase C-dependent pathway. Moreover, spiperone independently activates CFTR through a novel mechanism. Herein, we performed a mass spectrometry analysis and identified the signaling molecule that mediates the spiperone effect in activating chloride secretion through CaCC and CFTR. Proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (PYK2 is a non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase, which belongs to the focal adhesion kinase family. The inhibition of PYK2 notably reduced the ability of spiperone to increase intracellular Ca(2+ and Cl(- secretion. In conclusion, we have identified the tyrosine kinase, PYK2, as the modulator, which plays a crucial role in the activation of CaCC and CFTR by spiperone. The identification of this novel role of PYK2 reveals a new signaling pathway in human airway epithelial cells.

  10. Role of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Factors in the Regulation of the Mitotic Checkpoint Kinase Bub1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Breit

    Full Text Available The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC monitors microtubule attachment to kinetochores to ensure accurate sister chromatid segregation during mitosis. The SAC members Bub1 and BubR1 are paralogs that underwent significant functional specializations during evolution. We report an in-depth characterization of the kinase domains of Bub1 and BubR1. BubR1 kinase domain binds nucleotides but is unable to deliver catalytic activity in vitro. Conversely, Bub1 is an active kinase regulated by intra-molecular phosphorylation at the P+1 loop. The crystal structure of the phosphorylated Bub1 kinase domain illustrates a hitherto unknown conformation of the P+1 loop docked into the active site of the Bub1 kinase. Both Bub1 and BubR1 bind Bub3 constitutively. A hydrodynamic characterization of Bub1:Bub3 and BubR1:Bub3 demonstrates both complexes to have 1:1 stoichiometry, with no additional oligomerization. Conversely, Bub1:Bub3 and BubR1:Bub3 combine to form a heterotetramer. Neither BubR1:Bub3 nor Knl1, the kinetochore receptor of Bub1:Bub3, modulate the kinase activity of Bub1 in vitro, suggesting autonomous regulation of the Bub1 kinase domain. We complement our study with an analysis of the Bub1 substrates. Our results contribute to the mechanistic characterization of a crucial cell cycle checkpoint.

  11. The fundamental role of the packaging system along the supply chain

    OpenAIRE

    Santarelli, Giulia

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, packaging assumes a fundamental role along the entire supply chain and will continue to do so to an even greater extent in years to come. After establishing legitimacy in the 1950s, packaging today has entered a mature phase and it is at the centre of complex distributional and communicational issues. Packaging systems have also become considerably more important for the minimisation of environmental impact. The present thesis focuses on the aforementioned issues, elaborating on ...

  12. The Role of Sphingosine Kinase 2 in Apoptosis of Human Breast Cancer Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sankala, Heidi; Spiegel, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    .... However, whether it also has an intracellular action is still a matter of debate. S1P is formed by the ATP-dependent phosphorylation of sphingosine catalyzed by types 1 and 2 sphingosine kinase (SphK...

  13. The Role of Sphingosine Kinase 2 in Apoptosis of Human Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sankala, Heidi; Spiegel, Sarah

    2005-01-01

    .... However, whether it also has an intracellular action is still a matter of debate. S1P is formed by the ATP-dependent phosphorylation of sphingosine catalyzed by types 1 and 2 sphingosine kinase (SphK...

  14. Cajaninstilbene acid relaxes rat renal arteries: roles of Ca2+ antagonism and protein kinase C-dependent mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Mei Zhang

    Full Text Available Cajaninstilbene acid (CSA is a major active component present in the leaves of Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp. The present study explores the underlying cellular mechanisms for CSA-induced relaxation in rat renal arteries. Vascular reactivity was examined in arterial rings that were suspended in a Multi Myograph System and the expression of signaling proteins was assessed by Western blotting method. CSA (0.1-10 µM produced relaxations in rings pre-contracted by phenylephrine, serotonin, 9, 11-dideoxy-9α, 11α-epoxymethanoprostaglandin F(2α (U46619, and 60 mM KCl. CSA-induced relaxations did not show difference between genders and were unaffected by endothelium denudation, nor by treatment with N(G-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, indomethacin, ICI-182780, tetraethylammonium ion, BaCl(2, glibenclamide, 4-aminopyridine or propranolol. CSA reduced contraction induced by CaCl(2 (0.01-5 mM in Ca(2+-free 60 mM KCl solution and by 30 nM (--Bay K8644 in 15 mM KCl solution. CSA inhibited 60 mM KCl-induced Ca(2+ influx in smooth muscle of renal arteries. In addition, CSA inhibited contraction evoked by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, protein kinase C agonist in Ca(2+-free Krebs solution. Moreover, CSA reduced the U46619- and PMA-induced phosphorylation of myosin light chain (MLC at Ser19 and myosin phosphatase target subunit 1 (MYPT1 at Thr853 which was associated with vasoconstriction. CSA also lowered the phosphorylation of protein kinase C (PKCδ at Thr505. In summary, the present results suggest that CSA relaxes renal arteries in vitro via multiple cellular mechanisms involving partial inhibition of calcium entry via nifedipine-sensitive calcium channels, protein kinase C and Rho kinase.

  15. The role of the C8 proton of ATP in the regulation of phosphoryl transfer within kinases and synthetases

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    Nkosi Thokozani C

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The kinome comprises functionally diverse enzymes, with the current classification indicating very little about the extent of conserved regulatory mechanisms associated with phosphoryl transfer. The apparent Km of the kinases ranges from less than 0.4 μM to in excess of 1000 μM for ATP. It is not known how this diverse range of enzymes mechanistically achieves the regulation of catalysis via an affinity range for ATP varying by three-orders of magnitude. Results We have demonstrated a previously undiscovered mechanism in kinase and synthetase enzymes where the overall rate of reaction is regulated via the C8-H of ATP. Using ATP deuterated at the C8 position (C8D-ATP as a molecular probe it was shown that the C8-H plays a direct role in the regulation of the overall rate of reaction in a range of kinase and synthetase enzymes. Using comparative studies on the effect of the concentration of ATP and C8D-ATP on the activity of the enzymes we demonstrated that not only did C8D-ATP give a kinetic isotope effect (KIE but the KIE's obtained are clearly not secondary KIE effects as the magnitude of the KIE in all cases was at least 2 fold and in most cases in excess of 7 fold. Conclusions Kinase and synthetase enzymes utilise C8D-ATP in preference to non-deuterated ATP. The KIE obtained at low ATP concentrations is clearly a primary KIE demonstrating strong evidence that the bond to the isotopically substituted hydrogen is being broken. The effect of the ATP concentration profile on the KIE was used to develop a model whereby the C8H of ATP plays a role in the overall regulation of phosphoryl transfer. This role of the C8H of ATP in the regulation of substrate binding appears to have been conserved in all kinase and synthetase enzymes as one of the mechanisms associated with binding of ATP. The induction of the C8H to be labile by active site residues coordinated to the ATP purine ring may play a significant role in explaining the

  16. Role of Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β in APP Hyperphosphorylation Induced by NMDA Stimulation in Cortical Neurons

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    Xanthi Antoniou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The phosphorylation of Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP at Thr668 plays a key role in APP metabolism that is highly relevant to AD. The c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK, glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β and cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5 can all be responsible for this phosphorylation. These kinases are activated by excitotoxic stimuli fundamental hallmarks of AD. The exposure of cortical neurons to a high dose of NMDA (100 μM for 30’-45’ led to an increase of P-APP Thr668. During NMDA stimulation APP hyperphosphorylation has to be assigned to GSK-3β activity, since addition of L803-mts, a substrate competitive inhibitor of GSK-3β reduced APP phosphorylation induced by NMDA. On the contrary, inhibition of JNK and Cdk5 with D-JNKI1 and Roscovitine respectively did not prevent NMDA-induced P-APP increase. These data show a tight connection, in excitotoxic conditions, between APP metabolism and the GSK-3β signaling pathway.

  17. Role of tau kinases (CDK5R1 and GSK3B) in Parkinson's disease: a study from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Gautami; Misra, Amar K; Das, Shyamal K; Ray, Kunal; Ray, Jharna

    2012-07-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3B) and cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) are the 2 major protein kinases involved in abnormal phosphorylation of tau. To determine their potential role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) we analyzed 2 functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of GSK3B (rs334558 and rs6438552) and rs735555 of CDK5 regulatory subunit 1 (CDK5R1) in 373 PD cases and 346 healthy controls of eastern India. The C,C and T,C haplotypes of GSK3B were respectively moderately associated with increased risk and protection for late onset PD (LOPD) (odds ratio [OR], 1.399; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.069-1.829; p = 0.015, and OR, 0.436; 95% CI, 0.222-0.853; p = 0.016, respectively). Moreover, moderate to significant interaction between different loci were observed for the entire PD cohort or late onset PD only. However, among these interactions, individuals carrying the (C/C) genotype at both loci (rs6438552 and rs735555) had almost twice the risk of developing PD than those without this genotypic combination (OR, 1.871; 95% CI, 1.181-2.964; p = 0.009). Thus, synergistic effect between the 2 major tau kinases, through these SNPs, appears to determine the risk profile for PD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The role of endosomal escape and mitogen-activated protein kinases in adenoviral activation of the innate immune response.

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    Jeffrey S Smith

    Full Text Available Adenoviral vectors (AdV activate multiple signaling pathways associated with innate immune responses, including mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs. In this study, we investigated how systemically-injected AdVs activate two MAPK pathways (p38 and ERK and the contribution of these kinases to AdV-induced cytokine and chemokine responses in mice. Mice were injected intravenously either with a helper-dependent Ad2 vector that does not express viral genes or transgenes, or with the Ad2 mutant ts1, which is defective in endosomal escape. We found that AdV induced rapid phosphorylation of p38 and ERK as well as a significant cytokine response, but ts1 failed to activate p38 or ERK and induced only a limited cytokine response. These results demonstrate that endosomal escape of virions is a critical step in the induction of these innate pathways and responses. We then examined the roles of p38 and ERK pathways in the innate cytokine response by administering specific kinase inhibitors to mice prior to AdV. The cytokine and chemokine response to AdV was only modestly suppressed by a p38 inhibitor, while an ERK inhibitor has mixed effects, lowering some cytokines and elevating others. Thus, even though p38 and ERK are rapidly activated after i.v. injection of AdV, cytokine and chemokine responses are mostly independent of these kinases.

  19. Roles of Rho-Associated Kinase and Oxidative Stress in the Pathogenesis of Aortic Stiffness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noma, Kensuke; Goto, Chikara; Nishioka, Kenji; Jitsuiki, Daisuke; Umemura, Takashi; Ueda, Keiko; Kimura, Masashi; Nakagawa, Keigo; Oshima, Tetsuya; Chayama, Kazuaki; Yoshizumi, Masao; Liao, James K.; Higashi, Yukihito

    2008-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) activity and aortic stiffness in humans. Background Epidemiologic studies have shown that there is a relationship between aortic stiffness and cardiovascular complications. Recent evidence suggests that ROCK plays an important role in the process of atherosclerosis. Methods We evaluated the forearm blood flow (FBF) response to sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a nitric oxide donor, acetylcholine (ACh), an endothelium-dependent vasodilator, and fasudil, a specific ROCK inhibitor, in 51 healthy male subjects (mean age 45.6 ± 3.0 years). The FBF was measured by using a strain-gauge plethysmograph. Carotidfemoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV) was measured to assess the aortic stiffness using a pulse wave velocimeter. Results Intra-arterial infusion of SNP alone, ACh alone, or fasudil alone and after coinfusion of NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA), a nitric-oxide synthase inhibitor, significantly increased FBF in a dose-dependent manner (p < 0.01). Multivariate analysis showed that age and number of pack-years smoked were independent predictors of ROCK activity before or after co-infusion of L-NMMA (p < 0.01) and that age and ROCK activity before or after co-infusion of L-NMMA were independent predictors of cf-PWV (p < 0.01). The concentration of serum malondialdehyde-modified low-density lipoprotein, an index of oxidative stress, was significantly correlated with ROCK activity before and after co-infusion of L-NMMA and cf-PWV (p < 0.01). Conclusions These findings suggest that aging and accumulating smoking habit, which might induce excessive oxidative stress, are involved in ROCK activity in the vasculature, leading to an increase in aortic stiffness in humans. PMID:17291936

  20. The role of Ctk1 kinase in termination of small non-coding RNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenstra, Tineke L; Tudek, Agnieszka; Clauder, Sandra; Xu, Zhenyu; Pachis, Spyridon T; van Leenen, Dik; Kemmeren, Patrick; Steinmetz, Lars M; Libri, Domenico; Holstege, Frank C P

    2013-01-01

    Transcription termination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae can be performed by at least two distinct pathways and is influenced by the phosphorylation status of the carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II (Pol II). Late termination of mRNAs is performed by the CPF/CF complex, the recruitment of which is dependent on CTD-Ser2 phosphorylation (Ser2P). Early termination of shorter cryptic unstable transcripts (CUTs) and small nucleolar/nuclear RNAs (sno/snRNAs) is performed by the Nrd1-Nab3-Sen1 (NNS) complex that binds phosphorylated CTD-Ser5 (Ser5P) via the CTD-interacting domain (CID) of Nrd1p. In this study, mutants of the different termination pathways were compared by genome-wide expression analysis. Surprisingly, the expression changes observed upon loss of the CTD-Ser2 kinase Ctk1p are more similar to those derived from alterations in the Ser5P-dependent NNS pathway, than from loss of CTD-Ser2P binding factors. Tiling array analysis of ctk1Δ cells reveals readthrough at snoRNAs, at many cryptic unstable transcripts (CUTs) and stable uncharacterized transcripts (SUTs), but only at some mRNAs. Despite the suggested predominant role in termination of mRNAs, we observed that a CTK1 deletion or a Pol II CTD mutant lacking all Ser2 positions does not result in a global mRNA termination defect. Rather, termination defects in these strains are widely observed at NNS-dependent genes. These results indicate that Ctk1p and Ser2 CTD phosphorylation have a wide impact in termination of small non-coding RNAs but only affect a subset of mRNA coding genes.

  1. The role of Ctk1 kinase in termination of small non-coding RNAs.

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    Tineke L Lenstra

    Full Text Available Transcription termination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae can be performed by at least two distinct pathways and is influenced by the phosphorylation status of the carboxy-terminal domain (CTD of RNA polymerase II (Pol II. Late termination of mRNAs is performed by the CPF/CF complex, the recruitment of which is dependent on CTD-Ser2 phosphorylation (Ser2P. Early termination of shorter cryptic unstable transcripts (CUTs and small nucleolar/nuclear RNAs (sno/snRNAs is performed by the Nrd1-Nab3-Sen1 (NNS complex that binds phosphorylated CTD-Ser5 (Ser5P via the CTD-interacting domain (CID of Nrd1p. In this study, mutants of the different termination pathways were compared by genome-wide expression analysis. Surprisingly, the expression changes observed upon loss of the CTD-Ser2 kinase Ctk1p are more similar to those derived from alterations in the Ser5P-dependent NNS pathway, than from loss of CTD-Ser2P binding factors. Tiling array analysis of ctk1Δ cells reveals readthrough at snoRNAs, at many cryptic unstable transcripts (CUTs and stable uncharacterized transcripts (SUTs, but only at some mRNAs. Despite the suggested predominant role in termination of mRNAs, we observed that a CTK1 deletion or a Pol II CTD mutant lacking all Ser2 positions does not result in a global mRNA termination defect. Rather, termination defects in these strains are widely observed at NNS-dependent genes. These results indicate that Ctk1p and Ser2 CTD phosphorylation have a wide impact in termination of small non-coding RNAs but only affect a subset of mRNA coding genes.

  2. Expression and functional role of Rho-kinase in rat urinary bladder smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibberley, Alexandra; Chen, Zunxuan; Hu, Erding; Hieble, J Paul; Westfall, Timothy D

    2003-03-01

    (1) The involvement of Rho-kinase (ROCK) in the contractile mechanisms mediating smooth muscle contraction of the rat urinary bladder was investigated using expression studies and the ROCK inhibitor Y-27632. (2) Both isoforms of ROCK (ROCK I and ROCK II) were detected in high levels in rat urinary bladder. (3) Y-27632 (10 micro M) significantly attenuated contractions of rat urinary bladder strips evoked by the G-protein coupled receptor agonists carbachol (58.1+/-10.5% at 0.3 micro M) and neurokinin A (68.6+/-12.7% at 1 micro M) without affecting contractions to potassium chloride (10-100 mM). In addition, basal tone was reduced by 47.8+/-2.0% by 10 micro M Y-27632 in the absence of stimulation. (4) Contractions of urinary bladder strips evoked by the P2X receptor agonist alpha,beta-methylene ATP (alpha,beta-mATP; 10 micro M) were also attenuated by Y-27632 (30.0+/-7.2% at 10 micro M). (5) Y-27632 (10 micro M) significantly attenuated contractions evoked by electrical field stimulation (2-16 Hz). The effect of Y-27632 on the tonic portion of the neurogenic response (4-16 Hz) was not significantly different from the effect of atropine (1 micro M) alone. (6) While the mechanism underlying the ability of Y-27632 to inhibit alpha,beta-mATP-evoked contractions remains undetermined, the results of the present study clearly demonstrate a role for ROCK in the regulation of rat urinary bladder smooth muscle contraction and tone.

  3. Casein kinases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issinger, O G

    1993-01-01

    The present review on casein kinases focuses mainly on the possible metabolic role of CK-2, with special emphasis on its behavior in pathological tissues. From these data at least three ways to regulate CK-2 activity emerge: (i) CK-2 activity changes during embryogenesis, being high at certain...

  4. Roles of calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II in long-term memory formation in crickets.

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    Makoto Mizunami

    Full Text Available Ca(2+/calmodulin (CaM-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII is a key molecule in many systems of learning and memory in vertebrates, but roles of CaMKII in invertebrates have not been characterized in detail. We have suggested that serial activation of NO/cGMP signaling, cyclic nucleotide-gated channel, Ca(2+/CaM and cAMP signaling participates in long-term memory (LTM formation in olfactory conditioning in crickets, and here we show participation of CaMKII in LTM formation and propose its site of action in the biochemical cascades. Crickets subjected to 3-trial conditioning to associate an odor with reward exhibited memory that lasts for a few days, which is characterized as protein synthesis-dependent LTM. In contrast, animals subjected to 1-trial conditioning exhibited memory that lasts for only several hours (mid-term memory, MTM. Injection of a CaMKII inhibitor prior to 3-trial conditioning impaired 1-day memory retention but not 1-hour memory retention, suggesting that CaMKII participates in LTM formation but not in MTM formation. Animals injected with a cGMP analogue, calcium ionophore or cAMP analogue prior to 1-trial conditioning exhibited 1-day retention, and co-injection of a CaMKII inhibitor impaired induction of LTM by the cGMP analogue or that by the calcium ionophore but not that by the cAMP analogue, suggesting that CaMKII is downstream of cGMP production and Ca(2+ influx and upstream of cAMP production in biochemical cascades for LTM formation. Animals injected with an adenylyl cyclase (AC activator prior to 1-trial conditioning exhibited 1-day retention. Interestingly, a CaMKII inhibitor impaired LTM induction by the AC activator, although AC is expected to be a downstream target of CaMKII. The results suggest that CaMKII interacts with AC to facilitate cAMP production for LTM formation. We propose that CaMKII serves as a key molecule for interplay between Ca(2+ signaling and cAMP signaling for LTM formation, a new role of Ca

  5. Roles of the DYRK kinase Pom2 in cytokinesis, mitochondrial morphology, and sporulation in fission yeast.

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    Pengcheng Wu

    Full Text Available Pom2 is predicted to be a dual-specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation regulated kinase (DYRK related to Pom1 in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. DYRKs share a kinase domain capable of catalyzing autophosphorylation on tyrosine and exogenous phosphorylation on serine/threonine residues. Here we show that Pom2 is functionally different from the well-characterized Pom1, although they share 55% identity in the kinase domain and the Pom2 kinase domain functionally complements that of Pom1. Pom2 localizes to mitochondria throughout the cell cycle and to the contractile ring during late stages of cytokinesis. Overexpression but not deletion of pom2 results in severe defects in cytokinesis, indicating that Pom2 might share an overlapping function with other proteins in regulating cytokinesis. Gain and loss of function analyses reveal that Pom2 is required for maintaining mitochondrial morphology independently of microtubules. Intriguingly, most meiotic pom2Δ cells form aberrant asci with meiotic and/or forespore membrane formation defects. Taken together, Pom2 is a novel DYRK kinase involved in regulating cytokinesis, mitochondrial morphology, meiosis, and sporulation in fission yeast.

  6. Flow-dependent regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase: role of protein kinases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boo, Yong Chool; Jo, Hanjoong

    2003-01-01

    Vascular endothelial cells are directly and continuously exposed to fluid shear stress generated by blood flow. Shear stress regulates endothelial structure and function by controlling expression of mechanosensitive genes and production of vasoactive factors such as nitric oxide (NO). Though it is well known that shear stress stimulates NO production from endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear and controversial. Shear-induced production of NO involves Ca2+/calmodulin-independent mechanisms, including phosphorylation of eNOS at several sites and its interaction with other proteins, including caveolin and heat shock protein-90. There have been conflicting results as to which protein kinases-protein kinase A, protein kinase B (Akt), other Ser/Thr protein kinases, or tyrosine kinases-are responsible for shear-dependent eNOS regulation. The functional significance of each phosphorylation site is still unclear. We have attempted to summarize the current status of understanding in shear-dependent eNOS regulation.

  7. [Cytoplasmic kinase inhibitors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mano, Hiroyuki

    2010-10-01

    Protein kinases play essential roles in the regulation of cell proliferation. Point mutations or/and fusions of protein kinases are frequently identified in human cancers, and targeting such activated kinases provides us with a chance to eradicate tumor cells. This was first proved by imatinib mesylate that inhibits ABL tyrosine kinase and, thereby, efficiently kills malignant cells in chronic myeloid leukemia. In addition, other clinical trials are ongoing for kinase inhibitors against EML4--ALK in lung cancer, JAK2 in myeloproliferative disorders and BRAF in malignant melanoma. Early reports indeed reveal that such targeting compounds are promising drugs for human cancers with activated kinases.

  8. Identification of Toxoplasma gondii cAMP dependent protein kinase and its role in the tachyzoite growth.

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    Hitomi Kurokawa

    Full Text Available cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA has been implicated in the asexual stage of the Toxoplasma gondii life cycle through assaying the effect of a PKA-specific inhibitor on its growth rate. Since inhibition of the host cell PKA cannot be ruled out, a more precise evaluation of the role of PKA, as well as characterization of the kinase itself, is necessary.The inhibitory effects of two PKA inhibitors, H89, an ATP-competitive chemical inhibitor, and PKI, a substrate-competitive mammalian natural peptide inhibitor, were estimated. In the in vitro kinase assay, the inhibitory effect of PKI on a recombinant T. gondii PKA catalytic subunit (TgPKA-C was weaker compared to that on mammalian PKA-C. In a tachyzoite growth assay, PKI had little effect on the growth of tachyzoites, whereas H89 strongly inhibited it. Moreover, T. gondii PKA regulatory subunit (TgPKA-R-overexpressing tachyzoites showed a significant growth defect.Our data suggest that PKA plays an important role in the growth of tachyzoites, and the inhibitory effect of substrate-competitive inhibitor PKI on T. gondii PKA was low compared to that of the ATP competitive inhibitor H89.

  9. Role of the venus kinase receptor in the female reproductive physiology of the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenaerts, Cynthia; Palmans, Jolien; Marchal, Elisabeth; Verdonck, Rik; Vanden Broeck, Jozef

    2017-09-15

    Venus kinase receptors (VKR) are a subfamily of invertebrate receptor tyrosine kinases, which have only recently been discovered. They contain an intracellular tyrosine kinase domain and an extracellular Venus FlyTrap domain. VKRs have been functionally and pharmacologically characterized in only two invertebrate species, namely the human parasite Schistosoma mansoni and the mosquito Aedes aegypti, where they play a crucial role in oogenesis. Here, we report the characterization of a VKR in the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria. We performed an in-depth profiling study of the SgVKR transcript levels in different tissues throughout the female adult stage. Using the RNA interference technique, the possible role of SgVKR was investigated. SgVKR knockdown had significant effects on ovarian ecdysteroid levels and on the size of oocytes during the vitellogenic stage. SgVKR is probably involved in the complex cross-talk between several important pathways regulating female reproductive physiology. Contrary to A. aegypti and S. mansoni, we cannot conclude that this receptor is essential for reproduction, since silencing SgVKR did not affect fecundity or fertility. Considering the evolutionary distance between A. aegypti and S. gregaria, as well as the differences in regulation of their female reproductive physiology, this article constitutes a valuable asset in better understanding VKRs.

  10. The role of cytochrome P450 1B1 and its associated mid-chain hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid metabolites in the development of cardiac hypertrophy induced by isoproterenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maayah, Zaid H; Althurwi, Hassan N; El-Sherbeni, Ahmed A; Abdelhamid, Ghada; Siraki, Arno G; El-Kadi, Ayman O S

    2017-05-01

    Numerous experimental studies have demonstrated the role of cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) and its associated mid-chain hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (mid-chain HETEs) metabolite in the pathogenesis of cardiac hypertrophy. However, the ability of isoproterenol (ISO) to induce cardiac hypertrophy through mid-chain HETEs has not been investigated yet. Therefore, we hypothesized that ISO induces cardiac hypertrophy through the induction of CYP1B1 and its associated mid-chain HETE metabolites. To test our hypothesis, Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with ISO (5 mg/kg i.p.) for 12 and 72 h whereas, human ventricular cardiomyocytes RL-14 cells were exposed to 100 μM ISO in the presence and absence of 0.5 μM tetramethoxystilbene (TMS) a selective CYP1B1 inhibitor, or 25 nM CYP1B1-siRNA. Moreover, RL-14 cells were transiently transfected with the CRISPR-CYP1B1 plasmid. Thereafter, real-time PCR, western blot analysis, and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy were used to determine the level of gene expression, protein expression, and mid-chain HETEs, respectively. Our results showed that ISO induced CYP1B1 protein expression and the level of cardiac mid-chain HETEs in vivo at pre-hypertrophic and hypertrophic stage. In vitro, inhibition of CYP1B1 using TMS or CYP1B1-siRNA significantly attenuates ISO-induced hypertrophy. Furthermore, overexpression of CYP1B1 significantly induced cellular hypertrophy and mid-chain HETEs metabolite. Mechanistically, the protective effect of TMS against cardiac hypertrophy was mediated through the modulation of superoxide anion, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). In conclusion, our study provides the first evidence that CYP1B1 and its associated mid-chain HETE metabolites are directly involved in the ISO-induced cardiac hypertrophy.

  11. Crucial Role for Mst1 and Mst2 Kinases in Early Embryonic Development of the Mouse▿

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, Sangphil; Lee, Dongjun; Kim, Tackhoon; Kim, Tae-Shin; Oh, Hyun Jung; Hwang, Chae Young; Kong, Young-Yun; Kwon, Ki-Sun; Lim, Dae-Sik

    2009-01-01

    Mammalian sterile 20-like kinases 1 and 2 (Mst1 and Mst2, respectively) are potent serine/threonine kinases that are involved in cell proliferation and cell death. To investigate the physiological functions of Mst1 and Mst2, we generated Mst1 and Mst2 mutant mice. Mst1−/− and Mst2−/− mice were viable and fertile and developed normally, suggesting possible functional overlaps between the two genes. A characterization of heterozygous and homozygous combinations of Mst1 and Mst2 mutant mice show...

  12. Role of AMP-activated protein kinase for regulating post-exercise insulin sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjøbsted, Rasmus; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen; Treebak, Jonas Thue

    2016-01-01

    to increase glucose disposal in skeletal muscle in response to physiological insulin concentrations. While this effect is identified to be restricted to the previously exercised muscle, the molecular basis for an apparent convergence between exercise- and insulin-induced signaling pathways is incompletely...... known. In recent years, we and others have identified the Rab GTPase-activating protein, TBC1 domain family member 4 (TBC1D4) as a target of key protein kinases in the insulin- and exercise-activated signaling pathways. Our working hypothesis is that the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is important...

  13. A chemical tool box defines mitotic and interphase roles for Mps1 kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Weijie; Cleveland, Don W

    2010-07-12

    In this issue, three groups (Hewitt et al. 2010. J. Cell Biol. doi:10.1083/jcb.201002133; Maciejowski et al. 2010. J. Cell Biol. doi:10.1083/jcb.201001050; Santaguida et al. 2010. J. Cell Biol. doi:10.1083/jcb.201001036) use chemical inhibitors to analyze the function of the mitotic checkpoint kinase Mps1. These studies demonstrate that Mps1 kinase activity ensures accurate chromosome segregation through its recruitment to kinetochores of mitotic checkpoint proteins, formation of interphase and mitotic inhibitors of Cdc20, and correction of faulty microtubule attachments.

  14. Role of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathways in Multifactorial Adverse Cardiac Remodeling Associated with Metabolic Syndrome

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    Mohamed Asrih

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome has been widely associated with an increased risk for acute cardiovascular events. Emerging evidence supports metabolic syndrome as a condition favoring an adverse cardiac remodeling, which might evolve towards heart dysfunction and failure. This pathological remodeling has been described to result from the cardiac adaptive response to clinical mechanical conditions (such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia, soluble inflammatory molecules (such as cytokines and chemokines, as well as hormones (such as insulin, characterizing the pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome. Moreover, these cardiac processes (resulting in cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis are also associated with the modulation of intracellular signalling pathways within cardiomyocytes. Amongst the different intracellular kinases, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs were shown to be involved in heart damage in metabolic syndrome. However, their role remains controversial. In this paper, we will discuss and update evidence on MAPK-mediated mechanisms underlying cardiac adverse remodeling associated with metabolic syndrome.

  15. A Dual Role for the Nonreceptor Tyrosine Kinase Pyk2 during the Intracellular Trafficking of Human Papillomavirus 16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschalk, Elinor Y; Meneses, Patricio I

    2015-09-01

    The infectious process of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) has been studied considerably, and many cellular components required for viral entry and trafficking continue to be revealed. In this study, we investigated the role of the nonreceptor tyrosine kinase Pyk2 during HPV16 pseudovirion infection of human keratinocytes. We found that Pyk2 is necessary for infection and appears to be involved in the intracellular trafficking of the virus. Small interfering RNA-mediated reduction of Pyk2 resulted in a significant decrease in infection but did not prevent viral entry at the plasma membrane. Pyk2 depletion resulted in altered endolysosomal trafficking of HPV16 and accelerated unfolding of the viral capsid. Furthermore, we observed retention of the HPV16 pseudogenome in the trans-Golgi network (TGN) in Pyk2-depleted cells, suggesting that the kinase could be required for the viral DNA to exit the TGN. While Pyk2 has previously been shown to function during the entry of enveloped viruses at the plasma membrane, the kinase has not yet been implicated in the intracellular trafficking of a nonenveloped virus such as HPV. Additionally, these data enrich the current literature on Pyk2's function in human keratinocytes. In this study, we investigated the role of the nonreceptor tyrosine kinase Pyk2 during human papillomavirus (HPV) infection of human skin cells. Infections with high-risk types of HPV such as HPV16 are the leading cause of cervical cancer and a major cause of genital and oropharyngeal cancer. As a nonenveloped virus, HPV enters cells by interacting with cellular receptors and established cellular trafficking routes to ensure that the viral DNA reaches the nucleus for productive infection. This study identified Pyk2 as a cellular component required for the intracellular trafficking of HPV16 during infection. Understanding the infectious pathways of HPVs is critical for developing additional preventive therapies. Furthermore, this study advances our knowledge of

  16. Narrowing the gap between climate science and adaptation action: The role of boundary chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine J. Kirchhoff

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Boundary organizations play a critical role at the interface between science and decision making. They create, protect and sustain an interactive space for co-production of science and decision-making while simultaneously bridging the two domains. In this special issue we advance the concept of boundary chains, whereby two or more boundary organizations link together synergistically to influence one another and to leverage each other’s resources and strengths to achieve shared goals. In this process both the level of complementary and embeddedness between these organizations is critical for achieving these goals. Through a series of case studies focusing primarily but not exclusively on climate information use in the United States, we aim to advance scholarship in the field by examining innovation among boundary organizations and testing the boundary chain concept. In doing so, we focus on boundary chains both as a theoretical construct to re-think the structure, function, and adaptability of boundary organizations and as a practical strategy to further increase the usability of climate knowledge for adaptation action across a wider range of users.

  17. The role of Ryk and Ror receptor tyrosine kinases in Wnt signal transduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Green, J.; Nusse, R.; van Amerongen, R.

    2014-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases of the Ryk and Ror families were initially classified as orphan receptors because their ligands were unknown. They are now known to contain functional extracellular Wnt-binding domains and are implicated in Wnt-signal transduction in multiple species. Although their

  18. Essential role of PI3-kinase and phospholipase A2 in Dictyostelium discoideum chemotaxis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Haastert, Peter J. M.; Keizer-Gunnink, Ineke; Kortholt, Arjan

    2007-01-01

    Chemotaxis toward different cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) concentrations was tested in Dictyostelium discoideum cell lines with deletion of specific genes together with drugs to inhibit one or all combinations of the second-messenger systems PI3-kinase, phospholipase C (PLC), phospholipase

  19. Role of MAP Kinase Phosphatase-1 in health and disease | Lawan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mitogen-activated signaling pathways (MAPK) are one of the major and evolutionary conserved signaling pathways involved in protein phosphorylation. Inactivation of MAPK activity is attained by dephosphorylation of either the tyrosine or threonine residues, or both by the actions of MAP kinase phosphatase (MKPs).

  20. Differential role of human choline kinase alpha and beta enzymes in lipid metabolism: implications in cancer onset and treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Gallego-Ortega

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Kennedy pathway generates phosphocoline and phosphoethanolamine through its two branches. Choline Kinase (ChoK is the first enzyme of the Kennedy branch of synthesis of phosphocholine, the major component of the plasma membrane. ChoK family of proteins is composed by ChoKalpha and ChoKbeta isoforms, the first one with two different variants of splicing. Recently ChoKalpha has been implicated in the carcinogenic process, since it is over-expressed in a variety of human cancers. However, no evidence for a role of ChoKbeta in carcinogenesis has been reported. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we compare the in vitro and in vivo properties of ChoKalpha1 and ChoKbeta in lipid metabolism, and their potential role in carcinogenesis. Both ChoKalpha1 and ChoKbeta showed choline and ethanolamine kinase activities when assayed in cell extracts, though with different affinity for their substrates. However, they behave differentially when overexpressed in whole cells. Whereas ChoKbeta display an ethanolamine kinase role, ChoKalpha1 present a dual choline/ethanolamine kinase role, suggesting the involvement of each ChoK isoform in distinct biochemical pathways under in vivo conditions. In addition, while overexpression of ChoKalpha1 is oncogenic when overexpressed in HEK293T or MDCK cells, ChoKbeta overexpression is not sufficient to induce in vitro cell transformation nor in vivo tumor growth. Furthermore, a significant upregulation of ChoKalpha1 mRNA levels in a panel of breast and lung cancer cell lines was found, but no changes in ChoKbeta mRNA levels were observed. Finally, MN58b, a previously described potent inhibitor of ChoK with in vivo antitumoral activity, shows more than 20-fold higher efficiency towards ChoKalpha1 than ChoKbeta. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This study represents the first evidence of the distinct metabolic role of ChoKalpha and ChoKbeta isoforms, suggesting different physiological roles and implications in human

  1. Role of Acyl Chain Composition of Phosphatidylcholine in Tafazzin-Mediated Remodeling of Cardiolipin in Liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Masato; Sawada, Yoshiki; Uno, Shinpei; Chigasaki, Shuhei; Oku, Masahide; Sakai, Yasuyoshi; Miyoshi, Hideto

    2017-11-28

    Remodeling of the acyl chain compositions of cardiolipin (CL) species by the transacylase tafazzin is an important process for maintaining optimal mitochondrial functions. The results of mechanistic studies on the tafazzin-mediated transacylation from phosphatidylcholine (PC) to monolyso-CL (MLCL) in artificial lipid membranes are controversial. The present study investigated the role of the acyl chain composition of PC in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae tafazzin-mediated remodeling of CL by examining the structural factors responsible for the superior acyl donor ability of dipalmitoleoyl (16:1) PC over dipalmitoyl (16:0) PC. To this end, we synthesized systematic derivatives of dipalmitoleoyl PC; for example, the location of the cis double bond was migrated from the Δ9-position toward either end of the acyl chains (the Δ5- or Δ13-position), the cis double bond in the sn-1 or sn-2 position or both, was changed to a trans form, and palmitoleoyl and palmitoyl groups were exchanged in the sn-1 and sn-2 positions, maintaining similar PC fluidities. Analyses of the tafazzin-mediated transacylation from these PCs to sn-2'-MLCL(18:1-18:1/18:1-OH) in the liposomal membrane revealed that tafazzin strictly discriminates the molecular configuration of the acyl chains of PCs, including their glycerol positions (sn-1 or sn-2); however, the effects of PC fluidity on the reaction may not be neglected. On the basis of the findings described herein, we discuss the relevance of the so-called thermodynamic remodeling hypothesis that presumes no acyl selectivity of tafazzin.

  2. Natural Loss of Mps1 Kinase in Nematodes Uncovers a Role for Polo-like Kinase 1 in Spindle Checkpoint Initiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Espeut

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The spindle checkpoint safeguards against chromosome loss during cell division by preventing anaphase onset until all chromosomes are attached to spindle microtubules. Checkpoint signal is generated at kinetochores, the primary attachment site on chromosomes for spindle microtubules. Mps1 kinase initiates checkpoint signaling by phosphorylating the kinetochore-localized scaffold protein Knl1 to create phospho-docking sites for Bub1/Bub3. Mps1 is widely conserved but is surprisingly absent in many nematode species. Here, we show that PLK-1, which targets a substrate motif similar to that of Mps1, functionally substitutes for Mps1 in C. elegans by phosphorylating KNL-1 to direct BUB-1/BUB-3 kinetochore recruitment. This finding led us to re-examine checkpoint initiation in human cells, where we found that Plk1 co-inhibition significantly reduced Knl1 phosphorylation and Bub1 kinetochore recruitment relative to Mps1 inhibition alone. Thus, the finding that PLK-1 functionally substitutes for Mps1 in checkpoint initiation in C. elegans uncovered a role for Plk1 in species that have Mps1.

  3. Venus Kinase Receptors at the crossroads of insulin signaling: their role in reproduction for helminths and insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colette eDissous

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Venus kinase receptors (VKRs are invertebrate receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs first discovered in the human parasite Schistosoma. They contain an extracellular Venus FlyTrap (VFT module similar to the ligand-binding domain of G protein-coupled receptors of class C and an intracellular tyrosine kinase domain similar to that of insulin receptors. VKRs are present from cnidarians to echinoderms. They were shown to be activated by amino-acids, to induce insulin-like intracellular pathways and to be highly expressed in larvae and in gonads of helminths and insects. The function of VKR in gametogenesis was demonstrated in schistosomes by VKR silencing and recent studies in Aedes aegypti have confirmed the importance of VKR in mosquito egg formation. AaeVKR was shown to bind to ovary ecdysteroidogenic hormone (OEH and to activate the production of ecdysteroids by the ovary, independently of signaling mediated by insulin-like peptides. These new data confirm and specify the function of VKRs in the reproduction of helminths and insects and they open interesting perspectives for elucidating the role of VKRs in other models. VKR targeting would also provide opportunities for the control of parasites and various vector-borne diseases.

  4. Purinergic inhibition of Na+,K+,Cl− cotransport in C11-MDCK cells: Role of stress-activated protein kinases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimova, Olga A.; Taurin, Sebastien; Dulin, Nickolai O.

    2007-01-01

    Previously, we observed that sustained activation of P2Y1 leads to inhibition of Na+,K+,Cl− cotransport (NKCC) in C11 cells resembling intercalated cells from collecting ducts of the Madin-Darby canine kidney. This study examined the role of stress-activated protein kinases (SAPK) in NKCC inhibition triggered by purinergic receptors. Treatment of C11 cells with ATP led to sustained phosphorylation of SAPK such as JNK and p38. Activation of these kinases also occurred in anisomycin-treated cells. Surprisingly, we observed that compounds SP600125 and SB202190, known as potent inhibitors of JNK and p38 in cell-free systems, activated rather than inhibited phosphorylation of the kinases in C11 cells. Importantly, similarly to ATP, all the above-listed activators of JNK and p38 phosphorylation inhibited NKCC. Thus, our results suggest that activation of JNK and/or p38 contributes to NKCC suppression detected in intercalated-like cells from distal tubules after their exposure to P2Y1 agonists. PMID:18368525

  5. Characterization of Cdc2 kinase in the red claw crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus): evidence for its role in regulating oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lan-Mei; Zuo, Di; Lv, Wei-Wei; Wang, Dan-Li; Liu, A-Jing; Zhao, Yunlong

    2013-02-25

    Cdc2 kinase is a catalytic subunit of the maturation-promoting factor (MPF), a central factor for inducing the meiotic maturation of oocytes. MPF has been studied in a wide variety of animal species; however, its expression in crustaceans is poorly characterized. In this study, a complete cDNA sequence of Cdc2 kinase was cloned from the red claw crayfish, Cherax quadricarinatus, and its spatiotemporal expression profiles were analyzed. The Cdc2 cDNA (1,769 bp) encodes for a 299 amino acid protein with a calculated molecular weight of 34.7 kDa. Quantitative real-time PCR demonstrated that Cdc2 mRNA was expressed mainly in the ovary tissue and the expression decreased as the ovaries developed. Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed that the Cdc2 protein relocated from the cytoplasm to the nucleus during oogenesis. These findings suggest that Cdc2 kinase may play an important role in the gametogenesis and gonad development in C. quadricarinatus. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. DMPD: A pervasive role of ubiquitin conjugation in activation and termination ofIkappaB kinase pathways. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 15809659 A pervasive role of ubiquitin conjugation in activation and termination of...csml) Show A pervasive role of ubiquitin conjugation in activation and termination ofIkappaB kinase pathways.... PubmedID 15809659 Title A pervasive role of ubiquitin conjugation in activation and termina

  7. PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF POLYMYXINE B AND NIFEDIPINE ON DIABETIC COMPLICATIONS IN RAT: ROLE OF PROTEIN KINASE C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mehrani

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM, experience significant morbidity and mortality from microvascular retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy. Hyperglycemia can induce diabetic complications through multiple pathways. Activation of protein kinase C (PKC by hyperglycemia is one of the pathways which causes diabetic complications. Effect of nifedipine (a calcium channel blocker, and polymyxine B sulphate (a Protein kinase C inhibitor was studied in adult male Sprague- dawley rats, who was made diabetic with streptozotocin. PKC activity was determined in tissues and serum enzymes and metabolite level was measured in all controls, diabetic and drug treated animals. The results showed that, levels of the, urea (two –fold, creatinine (60%, triglyceride (two-fold and liver alanine transaminase (ALT activity (two-fold, were significantly increased in diabetic group. In nifedipine, treated diabetic group, although urea and creatinine level was increased, but liver enzymes were not significantly different from those of control group. In diabetic group which was treated with polymyxine, all the measured metabolites and enzyme levels were the same as the control group, except glucose level which was increased and liver glycogen was decreased significantly. Protein kinase C activity in the cytoplasm of diabetic liver was increased comparing to its control group (5.73 ± 0.56 Vs, 4.00 ± 0.62. The enzyme activity in the plasma membranes of untreated and nifedipine treated diabetic groups was significantly increased (6.2 ± 0.42 and 3.66 ± 0.31 Vs 2.38 ± 0.36. These results show that polymyxine is more effective than nifedipine against protein kinase C activity in diabetic complications. In conclusion our results show that, liver and kidney damage in DM are related to PKC activation. The fact that polymyxine prevents diabetic related increase in PKC activity more than nifedipine, support the hypothesis that different PKC isozymes may play different roles

  8. Crucial roles of the protein kinases MK2 and MK3 in a mouse model of glomerulonephritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J Guess

    Full Text Available Elevated mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 (p38 MAPK signaling has been implicated in various experimental and human glomerulopathies, and its inhibition has proven beneficial in animal models of these diseases. p38 MAPK signaling is partially mediated through MK2 and MK3, two phylogenetically related protein kinases that are its direct substrates. The current study was designed to determine the specific roles of MK2 and MK3 in a mouse model of acute proliferative glomerulonephritis, using mice with disrupted MK2 and/or MK3 genes. We found that the absence of MK3 alone worsened the disease course and increased mortality slightly compared to wild-type mice, whereas the absence of MK2 alone exhibited no significant effect. However, in an MK3-free background, the disease course depended on the presence of MK2 in a gene dosage-dependent manner, with double knock-out mice being most susceptible to disease induction. Histological and renal functional analyses confirmed kidney damage following disease induction. Because the renal stress response plays a crucial role in kidney physiology and disease, we analyzed the stress response pattern in this disease model. We found that renal cortices of diseased mice exhibited a pronounced and specific pattern of expression and/or phosphorylation of stress proteins and other indicators of the stress response (HSPB1, HSPB6, HSPB8, CHOP, eIF2α, partially in a MK2/MK3 genotype-specific manner, and without induction of a general stress response. Similarly, the expression and activation patterns of other protein kinases downstream of p38 MAPK (MNK1, MSK1 depended partially on the MK2/MK3 genotype in this disease model. In conclusion, MK2 and MK3 together play crucial roles in the regulation of the renal stress response and in the development of glomerulonephritis, which can potentially be exploited to develop novel therapeutic approaches to treat glomerular disease.

  9. ASPECTS REGARDING THE ROLE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE ASSURANCE OF SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilies Radu Ovidiu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is intended to outline the importance of e-logistics programs, based on the new information technologies and successful e-business applications in the case of Romanian companies that activate in the production and services field, namely producers, suppliers or distributors. The redesigning of the logistic system and the reconfiguration of the supply chain management (SCM challenge the firms, especially the small ones, to explore new e-business applications, on the basis of feasibility studies before getting implemented. For a long time, firms considered that commercial changes are the last solution to resolve SCM problems, however many supply chains have been a failure. The explanation resides in the fact that a number of companies that had integrated their supply chains noticed that there was little or no response to the existing requests in this field. Although commercial changes represent an important part of Business to Business programs, actually very few managers understand the way to deal with them, which is integrating them in e-business programs. This paper outlines the companies’ need to develop e-business programs and the importance of these programs for the whole supply chain to obtain performances, taking into account that many firms that get integrated in the supply chain lack the technological capacity to implement electronic means for processing, transmitting and receiving data. One remedy might be their initiative to use Business to Business programs, with the purpose to offer easily configurable optimized networks and interactive solutions based on Web, at competitive prices. This system should have different assisting functions to help the partners of a supply chain, especially the small firms, to easily integrate up-to-date management and informational system refinement methods, in an efficient and effective way. As it has been pointed out in the paper, a major role for the enhancement of SCM performances is

  10. A role for mixed lineage kinases in granule cell apoptosis induced by cytoskeletal disruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Georg Johannes; Geist, Marie Aavang; Veng, Lone Merete

    2006-01-01

    Microtubule disruption by colchicine induces apoptosis in selected neuronal populations. However, little is known about the upstream death signalling events mediating the neurotoxicity. We investigated first whether colchicine-induced granule cell apoptosis activates the c-Jun N-terminal kinase...... (JNK) pathway. Cultured murine cerebellar granule cells were exposed to 1 microm colchicine for 24 h. Activation of the JNK pathway was detected by western blotting as well as immunocytochemistry using antibodies against phospho-c-Jun (p-c-Jun). Next, adult male rats were injected...... intracerebroventricularly with colchicine (10 microg), and JNK pathway activation in dentate granule cells (DGCs) was detected by antibodies against p-c-Jun. The second part of the study tested the involvement of mixed lineage kinases (MLK) as upstream activators of the JNK pathway in colchicine toxicity, using CEP-1347...

  11. cJun NH2-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1): roles in metabolic regulation of insulin resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Sabio, Guadalupe; Davis, Roger J

    2010-01-01

    The cJun NH2-terminal kinase isoform JNK1 is implicated in the mechanism of obesity-induced insulin resistance. Feeding a high fat diet causes activation of the JNK1 signaling pathway, insulin resistance, and obesity in mice. Germ-line ablation of Jnk1 prevents both diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. Genetic analysis indicates that the effects of JNK1 on insulin resistance can be separated from effects of JNK1 on obesity. Emerging research indicates that JNK1 plays multiple roles in...

  12. Reconstruction of the yeast Snf1 kinase regulatory network reveals its role as a global energy regulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Usaite, Renata; Jewett, Michael Christopher; Soberano de Oliveira, Ana Paula

    2009-01-01

    Highly conserved among eukaryotic cells, the AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) is a central regulator of carbon metabolism. To map the complete network of interactions around AMPK in yeast (Snf1) and to evaluate the role of its regulatory subunit Snf4, we measured global mRNA, protein and metabolite le...... findings showed that Snf1 is a low-energy checkpoint and that yeast can be used more extensively as a model system for studying the molecular mechanisms underlying the global regulation of AMPK in mammals, failure of which leads to metabolic diseases.......Highly conserved among eukaryotic cells, the AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) is a central regulator of carbon metabolism. To map the complete network of interactions around AMPK in yeast (Snf1) and to evaluate the role of its regulatory subunit Snf4, we measured global mRNA, protein and metabolite...... identified Snf1's global regulation on gene and protein expression levels, and showed that yeast Snf1 has a far more extensive function in controlling energy metabolism than reported earlier. Additionally, we identified complementary roles of Snf1 and Snf4. Similar to the function of AMPK in humans, our...

  13. Reconstruction of the yeast Snf1 kinase regulatory network reveals its role as a global energy regulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usaite, Renata; Jewett, Michael C; Oliveira, Ana Paula; Yates, John R; Olsson, Lisbeth; Nielsen, Jens

    2009-01-01

    Highly conserved among eukaryotic cells, the AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) is a central regulator of carbon metabolism. To map the complete network of interactions around AMPK in yeast (Snf1) and to evaluate the role of its regulatory subunit Snf4, we measured global mRNA, protein and metabolite levels in wild type, Δsnf1, Δsnf4, and Δsnf1Δsnf4 knockout strains. Using four newly developed computational tools, including novel DOGMA sub-network analysis, we showed the benefits of three-level ome-data integration to uncover the global Snf1 kinase role in yeast. We for the first time identified Snf1's global regulation on gene and protein expression levels, and showed that yeast Snf1 has a far more extensive function in controlling energy metabolism than reported earlier. Additionally, we identified complementary roles of Snf1 and Snf4. Similar to the function of AMPK in humans, our findings showed that Snf1 is a low-energy checkpoint and that yeast can be used more extensively as a model system for studying the molecular mechanisms underlying the global regulation of AMPK in mammals, failure of which leads to metabolic diseases. PMID:19888214

  14. An essential regulatory role of downstream of kinase-1 in the ovalbumin-induced murine model of asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Min Lee

    Full Text Available The downstream of kinase (DOK-1 is involved in the protein tyrosine kinase (PTK pathway in mast cells, but the role of DOK-1 in the pathogenesis of asthma has not been defined. In this study, we have demonstrated a novel regulatory role of DOK-1 in airway inflammation and physiologic responses in a murine model of asthma using lentiviral vector containing DOK-1 cDNA or DOK-1-specific ShRNA. The OVA-induced inflammatory cells, airway hyperresponsiveness, Th2 cytokine expression, and mucus response were significantly reduced in DOK-1 overexpressing mice compared to OVA-challenged control mice. The transgenic introduction of DOK-1 significantly stimulated the activation and expression of STAT-4 and T-bet, while impressively inhibiting the activation and expression of STAT-6 and GATA-3 in airway epithelial cells. On the other hand, DOK-1 knockdown mice enhanced STAT-6 expression and its nuclear translocation compared to OVA-challenged control mice. When viewed in combination, our studies demonstrate DOK-1 regulates allergen-induced Th2 immune responses by selective stimulation and inhibition of STAT-4 and STAT-6 signaling pathways, respectively. These studies provide a novel insight on the regulatory role of DOK-1 in allergen-induced Th2 inflammation and airway responses, which has therapeutic potential for asthma and other allergic diseases.

  15. Mitotic Checkpoint Kinase Mps1 Has a Role in Normal Physiology which Impacts Clinical Utility

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, Ricardo; Blasina, Alessandra; Hallin, Jill F.; Hu, Wenyue; Rymer, Isha; Fan, Jeffery; Hoffman, Robert L.; Murphy, Sean; Marx, Matthew; Yanochko, Gina; Trajkovic, Dusko; Dinh, Dac; Timofeevski, Sergei; Zhu, Zhou; Sun, Peiquing

    2015-01-01

    Cell cycle checkpoint intervention is an effective therapeutic strategy for cancer when applied to patients predisposed to respond and the treatment is well-tolerated. A critical cell cycle process that could be targeted is the mitotic checkpoint (spindle assembly checkpoint) which governs the metaphase-to-anaphase transition and insures proper chromosomal segregation. The mitotic checkpoint kinase Mps1 was selected to explore whether enhancement in genomic instability is a viable therapeutic...

  16. The role of the Drosophila LAMMER protein kinase DOA in somatic sex determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinow, Leonard; Samson, Marie-Laure

    2010-09-01

    DOA kinase, the Drosophila member of the LAMMER/Clk protein kinase family, phosphorylates SR and SR-like proteins, including TRA, TRA2 and RBP1, which are responsible for the alternative splicing of transcripts encoding the key regulator of sex-specific expression in somatic cells of the fly, DOUBLESEX. Specific Doa alleles induce somatic female-to-male sex transformations, which can be enhanced when combined with mutations in loci encoding SR and SR-like proteins. The Doa locus encodes six different kinases, of which a 69-kDa isoform is expressed solely in females. Expression of this isoform is itself under the regulation of the somatic sex determination regulatory network, thus forming a putative positive autoregulatory loop which would reinforce the choice of the female cell-fate. We speculate that this loop is part of the evolutionary ancestral sex-determination machinery, based upon evidence demonstrating the existence of an autoregulatory loop involving TRA and TRA2 in several other insect species.

  17. Myosin light chain kinase is necessary for post-shock mesenteric lymph drainage enhancement of vascular reactivity and calcium sensitivity in hemorrhagic-shocked rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y.P.; Niu, C.Y.; Zhao, Z.G.; Zhang, L.M.; Si, Y.H. [Institute of Microcirculation, Hebei North University, Hebei (China)

    2013-08-10

    Vascular hyporeactivity is an important factor in irreversible shock, and post-shock mesenteric lymph (PSML) blockade improves vascular reactivity after hemorrhagic shock. This study explored the possible involvement of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) in PSML-mediated vascular hyporeactivity and calcium desensitization. Rats were divided into sham (n=12), shock (n=18), and shock+drainage (n=18) groups. A hemorrhagic shock model (40±2 mmHg, 3 h) was established in the shock and shock+drainage groups. PSML drainage was performed from 1 to 3 h from start of hypotension in shock+drainage rats. Levels of phospho-MLCK (p-MLCK) were determined in superior mesenteric artery (SMA) tissue, and the vascular reactivity to norepinephrine (NE) and sensitivity to Ca{sup 2+} were observed in SMA rings in an isolated organ perfusion system. p-MLCK was significantly decreased in the shock group compared with the sham group, but increased in the shock+drainage group compared with the shock group. Substance P (1 nM), an agonist of MLCK, significantly elevated the decreased contractile response of SMA rings to both NE and Ca{sup 2+} at various concentrations. Maximum contractility (E{sub max}) in the shock group increased with NE (from 0.179±0.038 to 0.440±0.177 g/mg, P<0.05) and Ca{sup 2+} (from 0.515±0.043 to 0.646±0.096 g/mg, P<0.05). ML-7 (0.1 nM), an inhibitor of MLCK, reduced the increased vascular response to NE and Ca{sup 2+} at various concentrations in the shock+drainage group (from 0.744±0.187 to 0.570±0.143 g/mg in E{sub max} for NE and from 0.729±0.037 to 0.645±0.056 g/mg in E{sub max} for Ca{sup 2+}, P<0.05). We conclude that MLCK is an important contributor to PSML drainage, enhancing vascular reactivity and calcium sensitivity in rats with hemorrhagic shock.

  18. The role of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in health and disease of the retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SanGiovanni, John Paul; Chew, Emily Y

    2005-01-01

    in some cases. What evidence exists to suggest that LCPUFAs modulate factors and processes implicated in diseases of the vascular and neural retina? Tissue status of LCPUFAs is modifiable by and dependent upon dietary intake. Certain LCPUFAs are selectively accreted and efficiently conserved within the neural retina. On the most basic level, omega-3 LCPUFAs influence retinal cell gene expression, cellular differentiation, and cellular survival. DHA activates a number of nuclear hormone receptors that operate as transcription factors for molecules that modulate reduction-oxidation-sensitive and proinflammatory genes; these include the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-alpha) and the retinoid X receptor. In the case of PPAR-alpha, this action is thought to prevent endothelial cell dysfunction and vascular remodeling through inhibition of: vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, inducible nitric oxide synthase production, interleukin-1 induced cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 production, and thrombin-induced endothelin 1 production. Research on model systems demonstrates that omega-3 LCPUFAs also have the capacity to affect production and activation of angiogenic growth factors, arachidonic acid (AA)-based vasoregulatory eicosanoids, and MMPs. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), a substrate for DHA, is the parent fatty acid for a family of eicosanoids that have the potential to affect AA-derived eicosanoids implicated in abnormal retinal neovascularization, vascular permeability, and inflammation. EPA depresses vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-specific tyrosine kinase receptor activation and expression. VEGF plays an essential role in induction of: endothelial cell migration and proliferation, microvascular permeability, endothelial cell release of metalloproteinases and interstitial collagenases, and endothelial cell tube formation. The mechanism of VEGF receptor down-regulation is believed to occur at the tyrosine kinase nuclear factor-kappa B (NFkappa

  19. The role of cooperatives in food safety management of fresh produce chains: Case studies in four strawberry cooperatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirezieva, K.K.; Bijman, J.; Jacxsens, L.; Luning, P.A.

    2016-01-01

    Recent outbreaks with fresh produce have raised questions regarding management of quality and safety in the complex supply chains, where cooperatives play a central role. The overall objective of this article was to investigate the role of cooperatives in food quality and safety management in the

  20. Role of Hydrogen Bonding in the Formation of Adenine Chains on Cu(110 Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanxia Cheng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the adsorption properties of DNA bases on metal surfaces is fundamental for the rational control of surface functionalization leading to the realisation of biocompatible devices for biosensing applications, such as monitoring of particular parameters within bio-organic environments and drug delivery. In this study, the effects of deposition rate and substrate temperature on the adsorption behavior of adenine on Cu(110 surfaces have been investigated using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM and density functional theory (DFT modeling, with a focus on the characterization of the morphology of the adsorbed layers. STM results revealed the formation of one-dimensional linear chains and ladder-like chains parallel to the [110] direction, when dosing at a low deposition rate at room temperature, followed by annealing to 490 K. Two mirror related, well-ordered chiral domains oriented at ±55° with respect to the [110] direction are formed upon deposition on a substrate kept at 490 K. The molecular structures observed via STM are rationalized and qualitatively described on the basis of the DFT modeling. The observation of a variety of ad-layer structures influenced by deposition rate and substrate temperature indicates that dynamic processes and hydrogen bonding play an important role in the self-assembly of adenine on the Cu(110 surface.

  1. The Role of National Clusters in the Development of Global Value Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostrovskaya Elena, Y.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In modern economic literature there are many publications concerning innovative development of clusters and global value chains (GVCs. But still the interaction between these two structures is not studied completely. What are the main features and mechanisms of their interaction? Can clusters stimulate companies’ involvement in GVCs? Do they facilitate competition between participating companies and countries? These are just a few of those issues that are covered in the article. The efficiency of incorporation to GVCs depends both on the type of embedded cluster, and the management of particular links within the chain. In order to explain the cooperation between companies, the institutional approach is used, paying much attention to the issues of moral risks in the context of multiply goals, the effect of gauge, and the development of long-term relational contracts among agents. Thus, the recommendations concerning the role of clusters and GVCs for the raise of competitiveness of countries are provided with regard to the integrated research of global suppliers and customers’ motives.

  2. The Complex Role of Branched Chain Amino Acids in Diabetes and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M. O'Connell

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The obesity and diabetes epidemics are continuing to spread across the globe. There is increasing evidence that diabetes leads to a significantly higher risk for certain types of cancer. Both diabetes and cancer are characterized by severe metabolic perturbations and the branched chain amino acids (BCAAs appear to play a significant role in both of these diseases. These essential amino acids participate in a wide variety of metabolic pathways, but it is now recognized that they are also critical regulators of a number of cell signaling pathways. An elevation in branched chain amino acids has recently been shown to be significantly correlated with insulin resistance and the future development of diabetes. In cancer, the normal demands for BCAAs are complicated by the conflicting needs of the tumor and the host. The severe muscle wasting syndrome experience by many cancer patients, known as cachexia, has motivated the use of BCAA supplementation. The desired improvement in muscle mass must be balanced by the need to avoid providing materials for tumor proliferation. A better understanding of the complex functions of BCAAs could lead to their use as biomarkers of the progression of certain cancers in diabetic patients.

  3. The role of relational capital (RC in green supply chain management (GSCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Viviane Viegas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM is an emergent issue in operations management. It is addressed to intra and inter-organizational practices adoption in order to promote sustainability in supply chains. Relational Capital (RC, also an emergent issue, plays a relevant role to resize views based solely in transactions costs and resources to a relationship view leaned on governance for information, trust and longevity in relationships, looking for positive results for all the chain’s participants. This article reviews and criticizes seminal literature on intangible assets in order to rescue RC features and link them to GSCM development. Through exploratory and descriptive methods, recent studies on RC and GSCM are identified with respect their descriptors – ways in which RC is understood and employed in GSCM; focus – goals and main use of RC; and directionality – if developments of RC in GSCM are addressed from producers to their suppliers and respective clients, or if suppliers and clients also address results of RC. It is concluded that, usually, there is unidirectionality in the application of such efforts: improvement initiatives go from the producer to the supplier or client development, but processes through which environmental practices of suppliers and clients influence the performance of GSCM are poor explored.

  4. When genome integrity and cell cycle decisions collide: roles of polo kinases in cellular adaptation to DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Diego; D'Amours, Damien

    2014-09-01

    The drive to proliferate and the need to maintain genome integrity are two of the most powerful forces acting on biological systems. When these forces enter in conflict, such as in the case of cells experiencing DNA damage, feedback mechanisms are activated to ensure that cellular proliferation is stopped and no further damage is introduced while cells repair their chromosomal lesions. In this circumstance, the DNA damage response dominates over the biological drive to proliferate, and may even result in programmed cell death if the damage cannot be repaired efficiently. Interestingly, the drive to proliferate can under specific conditions overcome the DNA damage response and lead to a reactivation of the proliferative program in checkpoint-arrested cells. This phenomenon is known as adaptation to DNA damage and is observed in all eukaryotic species where the process has been studied, including normal and cancer cells in humans. Polo-like kinases (PLKs) are critical regulators of the adaptation response to DNA damage and they play key roles at the interface of cell cycle and checkpoint-related decisions in cells. Here, we review recent progress in defining the specific roles of PLKs in the adaptation process and how this conserved family of eukaryotic kinases can integrate the fundamental need to preserve genomic integrity with effective cellular proliferation.

  5. The Role of Magnetic Vortex Formation in Chains of Spherical FeNi Nanoparticles: A Micromagnetics Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barpandal, Prabeer; Scheinfein, Michael R.; Kasama, Takeshi

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic remanent states and magnetization reversal mechanisms in linear chains of three closely-spaced Fe1-xNix nanoparticles are studied using micromagnetic simulations, for particle sizes of between 10 and 150 nm. The role of the formation and switching of magnetic vortices in the particles is...... is demonstrated for external fields applied parallel to the chain axes. Variations in vortex core diameter, coercivity and vortex rotation plane with applied field are discussed....

  6. The role of short-chain fatty acids in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jian; McKenzie, Craig; Potamitis, Maria; Thorburn, Alison N; Mackay, Charles R; Macia, Laurence

    2014-01-01

    There is now an abundance of evidence to show that short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) play an important role in the maintenance of health and the development of disease. SCFAs are a subset of fatty acids that are produced by the gut microbiota during the fermentation of partially and nondigestible polysaccharides. The highest levels of SCFAs are found in the proximal colon, where they are used locally by enterocytes or transported across the gut epithelium into the bloodstream. Two major SCFA signaling mechanisms have been identified, inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDACs) and activation of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Since HDACs regulate gene expression, inhibition of HDACs has a vast array of downstream consequences. Our understanding of SCFA-mediated inhibition of HDACs is still in its infancy. GPCRs, particularly GPR43, GPR41, and GPR109A, have been identified as receptors for SCFAs. Studies have implicated a major role for these GPCRs in the regulation of metabolism, inflammation, and disease. SCFAs have been shown to alter chemotaxis and phagocytosis; induce reactive oxygen species (ROS); change cell proliferation and function; have anti-inflammatory, antitumorigenic, and antimicrobial effects; and alter gut integrity. These findings highlight the role of SCFAs as a major player in maintenance of gut and immune homeostasis. Given the vast effects of SCFAs, and that their levels are regulated by diet, they provide a new basis to explain the increased prevalence of inflammatory disease in Westernized countries, as highlighted in this chapter. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Focal Adhesion Kinase: Insight into Molecular Roles and Functions in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Panera

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is the third leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Due to the high incidence of post-operative recurrence after current treatments, the identification of new and more effective drugs is required. In previous years, new targetable genes/pathways involved in HCC pathogenesis have been discovered through the help of high-throughput sequencing technologies. Mutations in TP53 and β-catenin genes are the most frequent aberrations in HCC. However, approaches able to reverse the effect of these mutations might be unpredictable. In fact, if the reactivation of proteins, such as p53 in tumours, holds great promise as anticancer therapy, there are studies arguing that chronic activation of these types of molecules may be deleterious. Thus, recently the efforts on potential targets have focused on actionable mutations, such as those occurring in the gene encoding for focal adhesion kinase (FAK. This tyrosine kinase, localized to cellular focal contacts, is over-expressed in a variety of human tumours, including HCC. Moreover, several lines of evidence demonstrated that FAK depletion or inhibition impair in vitro and in vivo HCC growth and metastasis. Here, we provide an overview of FAK expression and activity in the context of tumour biology, discussing the current evidence of its connection with HCC development and progression.

  8. Role of focal adhesion tyrosine kinases in GPVI-dependent platelet activation and reactive oxygen species formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naadiya Carrim

    Full Text Available We have previously shown the presence of a TRAF4/p47phox/Hic5/Pyk2 complex associated with the platelet collagen receptor, GPVI, consistent with a potential role of this complex in GPVI-dependent ROS formation. In other cell systems, NOX-dependent ROS formation is facilitated by Pyk2, which along with its closely related homologue FAK are known to be activated and phosphorylated downstream of ligand binding to GPVI.To evaluate the relative roles of Pyk2 and FAK in GPVI-dependent ROS formation and to determine their location within the GPVI signaling pathway.Human and mouse washed platelets (from WT or Pyk2 KO mice were pre-treated with pharmacological inhibitors targeting FAK or Pyk2 (PF-228 and Tyrphostin A9, respectively and stimulated with the GPVI-specific agonist, CRP. FAK, but not Pyk2, was found to be essential for GPVI-dependent ROS production and aggregation. Subsequent human platelet studies with PF-228 confirmed FAK is essential for GPVI-mediated phosphatidylserine exposure, α-granule secretion (P-selectin (CD62P surface expression and integrin αIIbβ3 activation. To determine the precise location of FAK within the GPVI pathway, we analyzed the effect of PF-228 inhibition in CRP-stimulated platelets in conjunction with immunoprecipitation and pulldown analysis to show that FAK is downstream of Lyn, Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk, PI3-K and Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk and upstream of Rac1, PLCγ2, Ca2+ release, PKC, Hic-5, NOX1 and αIIbβ3 activation.Overall, these data suggest a novel role for FAK in GPVI-dependent ROS formation and platelet activation and elucidate a proximal signaling role for FAK within the GPVI pathway.

  9. Crucial role for LKB1 to AMPKalpha2 axis in the regulation of CD36-mediated long-chain fatty acid uptake into cardiomyocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habets, Daphna D. J.; Coumans, Will A.; El Hasnaoui, Mohammed

    2009-01-01

    Enhanced contractile activity increases cardiac long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) uptake via translocation of CD36 to the sarcolemma, similarly to increase in glucose uptake via GLUT4 translocation. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is assumed to mediate contraction-induced LCFA utilization. However...

  10. The role of knowledge management in supply chain management: A literature review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    María del Rosario; Alberto Alfonso Aguilar; Miguel Gastón Cedillo-Campos; José Carlos Hernández

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to examine the state of knowledge management research in supply chain management from three standpoints, methodological approach, supply chain management area, and knowledge...

  11. The role of Dbf4-dependent protein kinase in DNA polymerase ζ-dependent mutagenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Luis N; Ferguson, Rebecca; Santoro, Irma; Jinks-Robertson, Sue; Sclafani, Robert A

    2014-08-01

    The yeast Dbf4-dependent kinase (DDK) (composed of Dbf4 and Cdc7 subunits) is an essential, conserved Ser/Thr protein kinase that regulates multiple processes in the cell, including DNA replication, recombination and induced mutagenesis. Only DDK substrates important for replication and recombination have been identified. Consequently, the mechanism by which DDK regulates mutagenesis is unknown. The yeast mcm5-bob1 mutation that bypasses DDK's essential role in DNA replication was used here to examine whether loss of DDK affects spontaneous as well as induced mutagenesis. Using the sensitive lys2ΔA746 frameshift reversion assay, we show DDK is required to generate "complex" spontaneous mutations, which are a hallmark of the Polζ translesion synthesis DNA polymerase. DDK co-immunoprecipitated with the Rev7 regulatory, but not with the Rev3 polymerase subunit of Polζ. Conversely, Rev7 bound mainly to the Cdc7 kinase subunit and not to Dbf4. The Rev7 subunit of Polζ may be regulated by DDK phosphorylation as immunoprecipitates of yeast Cdc7 and also recombinant Xenopus DDK phosphorylated GST-Rev7 in vitro. In addition to promoting Polζ-dependent mutagenesis, DDK was also important for generating Polζ-independent large deletions that revert the lys2ΔA746 allele. The decrease in large deletions observed in the absence of DDK likely results from an increase in the rate of replication fork restart after an encounter with spontaneous DNA damage. Finally, nonepistatic, additive/synergistic UV sensitivity was observed in cdc7Δ pol32Δ and cdc7Δ pol30-K127R,K164R double mutants, suggesting that DDK may regulate Rev7 protein during postreplication "gap filling" rather than during "polymerase switching" by ubiquitinated and sumoylated modified Pol30 (PCNA) and Pol32. Copyright © 2014 by the Genetics Society of America.

  12. Signal Integration at Elongation Factor 2 Kinase: THE ROLES OF CALCIUM, CALMODULIN, AND SER-500 PHOSPHORYLATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Clint D J; Giles, David H; Stancu, Gabriel; Chitjian, Catrina A; Ferguson, Scarlett B; Wellmann, Rebecca M; Kaoud, Tamer S; Ghose, Ranajeet; Dalby, Kevin N

    2017-02-03

    Eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase (eEF-2K), the only calmodulin (CaM)-dependent member of the unique α-kinase family, impedes protein synthesis by phosphorylating eEF-2. We recently identified Thr-348 and Ser-500 as two key autophosphorylation sites within eEF-2K that regulate its activity. eEF-2K is regulated by Ca2+ ions and multiple upstream signaling pathways, but how it integrates these signals into a coherent output, i.e. phosphorylation of eEF-2, is unclear. This study focuses on understanding how the post-translational phosphorylation of Ser-500 integrates with Ca2+ and CaM to regulate eEF-2K. CaM is shown to be absolutely necessary for efficient activity of eEF-2K, and Ca2+ is shown to enhance the affinity of CaM toward eEF-2K. Ser-500 is found to undergo autophosphorylation in cells treated with ionomycin and is likely also targeted by PKA. In vitro, autophosphorylation of Ser-500 is found to require Ca2+ and CaM and is inhibited by mutations that compromise binding of phosphorylated Thr-348 to an allosteric binding pocket on the kinase domain. A phosphomimetic Ser-500 to aspartic acid mutation (eEF-2K S500D) enhances the rate of activation (Thr-348 autophosphorylation) by 6-fold and lowers the EC50 for Ca2+/CaM binding to activated eEF-2K (Thr-348 phosphorylated) by 20-fold. This is predicted to result in an elevation of the cellular fraction of active eEF-2K. In support of this mechanism, eEF-2K knock-out MCF10A cells reconstituted with eEF-2K S500D display relatively high levels of phospho-eEF-2 under basal conditions. This study reports how phosphorylation of a regulatory site (Ser-500) integrates with Ca2+ and CaM to influence eEF-2K activity. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. The role of Ryk and Ror receptor tyrosine kinases in Wnt signal transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jennifer; Nusse, Roel; van Amerongen, Renée

    2014-02-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases of the Ryk and Ror families were initially classified as orphan receptors because their ligands were unknown. They are now known to contain functional extracellular Wnt-binding domains and are implicated in Wnt-signal transduction in multiple species. Although their signaling mechanisms still remain to be resolved in detail, both Ryk and Ror control important developmental processes in different tissues. However, whereas many other Wnt-signaling responses affect cell proliferation and differentiation, Ryk and Ror are mostly associated with controlling processes that rely on the polarized migration of cells. Here we discuss what is currently known about the involvement of this exciting class of receptors in development and disease.

  14. Nuclear localization of lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase (Lck) and its role in regulating LIM domain only 2 (Lmo2) gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkitachalam, Srividya; Chueh, Fu-Yu [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, H. M. Bligh Cancer Research Laboratories, Chicago Medical School, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, North Chicago, IL 60064 (United States); Yu, Chao-Lan, E-mail: chaolan.yu@rosalindfranklin.edu [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, H. M. Bligh Cancer Research Laboratories, Chicago Medical School, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, North Chicago, IL 60064 (United States)

    2012-01-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lmo2 expression is elevated in Lck-transformed cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both endogenous and exogenous Lck localize in the nucleus. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nuclear Lck is active in Lck-transformed cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lck binds to the promoter region of Lmo2 gene in vivo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In contrast to JAK2, Lck does not increase histone H3 phosphorylation on Tyr 41. -- Abstract: LIM domain only protein 2 (Lmo2) is a transcription factor that plays a critical role in the development of T-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). A previous report established a link between Lmo2 expression and the nuclear presence of oncogenic Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), a non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase. The oncogenic JAK2 kinase phosphorylates histone H3 on Tyr 41 that leads to the relief of Lmo2 promoter repression and subsequent gene expression. Similar to JAK2, constitutive activation of lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase (Lck) has been implicated in lymphoid malignancies. However, it is not known whether oncogenic Lck regulates Lmo2 expression through a similar mechanism. We show here that Lmo2 expression is significantly elevated in T cell leukemia LSTRA overexpressing active Lck kinase and in HEK 293 cells expressing oncogenic Y505FLck kinase. Nuclear localization of active Lck kinase was confirmed in both Lck-transformed cells by subcellular fractionation and immunofluorescence microscopy. More importantly, in contrast to oncogenic JAK2, oncogenic Lck kinase does not result in significant increase in histone H3 phosphorylation on Tyr 41. Instead, chromatin immunoprecipitation experiment shows that oncogenic Y505FLck kinase binds to the Lmo2 promoter in vivo. This result raises the possibility that oncogenic Lck may activate Lmo2 promoter through direct interaction.

  15. Role of salt inducible kinase 1 in high glucose-induced lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells and metformin intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Takemori, Hiroshi; Wang, Chang; Fu, JiaHui; Xu, MingWang; Xiong, Liang; Li, NingXu; Wen, XiuYing

    2017-03-15

    To investigate the roles of salt inducible kinase (SIK1) in high glucose-induced triglyceride accumulation in human hepatoma HepG2 cells as well as in the molecular mechanism by which metformin, a drug to treat diabetes, suppresses high glucose-induced lipogenesis. A cell model for high glucose-induced hepatic steatosis was prepared by exposing HepG2 cells to high glucose (25mmol) in the absence or presence of metformin (0.5mmol). Intracellular triglycerides were visualized by Oil Red O and measured using a triglyceride assay kit. Cell viability was evaluated using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide method. SIK1 overexpression in HepG2 cells was achieved by transient transfection, and the mRNA and protein levels of SIK1 and lipogenic factors were measured using a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively. Lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells was obvious after treatment with high glucose for 24h. In response to high glucose, SIK1 expression was negatively correlated with that of lipogenic factors and lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells. We observed that overexpression of SIK1, or treatment with metformin, suppressed lipogenesis, even in high glucose conditions. Furthermore, treatment with metformin upregulated SIK1 mRNA and protein levels, as well as the active form of SIK1. SIK1 plays a vital role in high glucose-induced lipid accumulation, and metformin suppresses lipogenesis via the induction and activation of SIK1. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 inhibitor, UCN-01, induces fragmentation: possible role of metalloproteinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcántara-Hernández, Rocío; Hernández-Méndez, Aurelio; García-Sáinz, J Adolfo

    2014-10-05

    Phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1) is a key enzyme, master regulator of cellular proliferation and metabolism; it is considered a key target for pharmacological intervention. Using membranes obtained from DDT1 MF-2 cells, phospho-PDK1 was identified by Western blotting, as two major protein bands of Mr 58-68 kDa. Cell incubation with the PDK1 inhibitor, UCN-01, induced a time- and concentration-dependent decrease in the amount of phospho-PDK1 with a concomitant appearance of a ≈42 kDa phosphorylated fragment. Knocking down PDK1 diminished the amount of phospho-PDK1 detected in membranes, accompanied by similarly decreased fragment generation. UCN-01-induced fragment generation was also observed in membranes from cells stably expressing a myc-tagged PDK1 construct. Other PDK1 inhibitors were also tested: OSU-03012 induced a clear decrease in phospho-PDK1 and increased the presence of the phosphorylated fragment in membrane preparations; in contrast, GSK2334470 and staurosporine induced only marginal increases in the amount of PDK1 fragment. Galardin and batimastat, two metalloproteinase inhibitors, markedly attenuated inhibitor-induced PDK1 fragment generation. Metalloproteinases 2, 3, and 9 co-immunoprecipitated with myc-PDK1 under baseline conditions and this interaction was stimulated by UCN-01; batimastat also markedly diminished this effect of the PDK1 inhibitor. Our results indicate that a series of protein kinase inhibitors, namely UCN-01 and OSU-03012 and to a lesser extent GSK2334470 and staurosporine induce PDK1 fragmentation and suggest that metalloproteinases could participate in this effect. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The role of the biarticular hamstrings and gastrocnemius muscles in closed chain lower limb extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleather, Daniel J; Southgate, Dominic F L; Bull, Anthony M J

    2015-01-21

    The role of the biarticular muscles is a topic that has received considerable attention however their function is not well understood. In this paper, we argue that an analysis that is based upon considering the effect of the biarticular muscles on the segments that they span (rather than their effect on joint rotations) can be illuminating. We demonstrate that this understanding is predicated on a consideration of the relative sizes of the moment arms of a biarticular muscle about the two joints that it crosses. The weight of the previous literature suggests that the moment arms of both the biarticular hamstrings and gastrocnemius are smaller at the knee than at the hip or ankle, (respectively). This in turn leads to the conclusion that both biarticular hamstrings and gastrocnemius are extensors of the lower limb. We show that the existence of these biarticular structures lends a degree of flexibility to the motor control strategies available for lower limb extension. In particular, the role of the gastrocnemius and biarticular hamstrings in permitting a large involvement of the quadriceps musculature in closed chain lower limb extension may be more important than is typically portrayed. Finally, the analysis presented in this paper demonstrates the importance of considering the effects of muscles on the body as a whole, not just on the joints they span. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Role of Dietary Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Infant Allergies and Respiratory Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynette P. Shek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Maternal nutrition has critical effects on the developing structures and functions of the fetus. Malnutrition during pregnancy can result in low birth weight and small for gestational age babies, increase risk for infection, and impact the immune system. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs have been reported to have immunomodulatory effects. Decreased consumption of omega-6 PUFAs, in favor of more anti-inflammatory omega-3 PUFAs in modern diets, has demonstrated the potential protective role of omega-3 PUFAs in allergic and respiratory diseases. In this paper, we examine the role of PUFAs consumption during pregnancy and early childhood and its influence on allergy and respiratory diseases. PUFAs act via several mechanisms to modulate immune function. Omega-3 PUFAs may alter the T helper (Th cell balance by inhibiting cytokine production which in turn inhibits immunoglobulin E synthesis and Th type 2 cell differentiation. PUFAs may further modify cellular membrane, induce eicosanoid metabolism, and alter gene expression. These studies indicate the benefits of omega-3 PUFAs supplementation. Nevertheless, further investigations are warranted to assess the long-term effects of omega-3 PUFAs in preventing other immune-mediated diseases, as well as its effects on the later immunodefense and health status during early growth and development.

  19. Venus Kinase Receptors at the Crossroads of Insulin Signaling: Their Role in Reproduction for Helminths and Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissous, Colette

    2015-01-01

    Venus kinase receptors (VKRs) are invertebrate receptor tyrosine kinases (TKs) first discovered in the human parasite Schistosoma. They contain an extracellular Venus FlyTrap module similar to the ligand-binding domain of G protein-coupled receptors of class C and an intracellular TK domain similar to that of insulin receptors. VKRs are present from cnidarians to echinoderms. They were shown to be activated by amino-acids, to induce insulin-like intracellular pathways, and to be highly expressed in larvae and in gonads of helminths and insects. The function of VKR in gametogenesis was demonstrated in schistosomes by VKR silencing and recent studies in Aedes aegypti have confirmed the importance of VKR in mosquito egg formation. AaeVKR was shown to bind to ovary ecdysteroidogenic hormone and to activate the production of ecdysteroids by the ovary, independently of signaling mediated by insulin-like peptides. These new data confirm and specify the function of VKRs in the reproduction of helminths and insects and they open interesting perspectives for elucidating the role of VKRs in other models. VKR targeting would also provide opportunities for the control of parasites and various vector-borne infectious diseases.

  20. Tyrosine-610 in the Receptor Kinase BAK1 Does Not Play a Major Role in Brassinosteroid Signaling or Innate Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayata Singh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The plasma membrane-localized BRI1-ASSOCIATED KINASE1 (BAK1 functions as a co-receptor with several receptor kinases including the brassinosteroid (BR receptor BRASSINOSTEROID-INSENSITIVE 1 (BRI1, which is involved in growth, and the receptors for bacterial flagellin and EF-Tu, FLAGELLIN-SENSING 2 (FLS2 and EF-TU RECEPTOR (EFR, respectively, which are involved in immunity. BAK1 is a dual specificity protein kinase that can autophosphorylate on serine, threonine and tyrosine residues. It was previously reported that phosphorylation of Tyr-610 in the carboxy-terminal domain of BAK1 is required for its function in BR signaling and immunity. However, the functional role of Tyr-610 in vivo has recently come under scrutiny. Therefore, we have generated new BAK1 (Y610F transgenic plants for functional studies. We first produced transgenic Arabidopsis lines expressing BAK1 (Y610F-Flag in the homozygous bak1-4 bkk1-1 double null background. In a complementary approach, we expressed untagged BAK1 and BAK1 (Y610F in the bak1-4 null mutant. Neither BAK1 (Y610F transgenic line had any obvious growth phenotype when compared to wild-type BAK1 expressed in the same background. In addition, the BAK1 (Y610F-Flag plants responded similarly to plants expressing BAK1-Flag in terms of brassinolide (BL inhibition of root elongation, and there were only minor changes in gene expression between the two transgenic lines as monitored by microarray analysis and quantitative real-time PCR. In terms of plant immunity, there were no significant differences between plants expressing BAK1 (Y610F-Flag and BAK1-Flag in the growth of the non-pathogenic hrpA- mutant of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. Furthermore, untagged BAK1 (Y610F transgenic plants were as responsive as plants expressing BAK1 (in the bak1-4 background and wild-type Col-0 plants toward treatment with the EF-Tu- and flagellin-derived peptide epitopes elf18- and flg22, respectively, as measured by reactive

  1. Staurosporine increases toxicity of gemcitabine in non-small cell lung cancer cells: role of protein kinase C, deoxycytidine kinase and ribonucleotide reductase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sigmond, Jennifer; Bergman, Andries M.; Leon, Leticia G.; Loves, Willem J. P.; Hoebe, Eveline K.; Peters, Godefridus J.

    2010-01-01

    Gemcitabine, a deoxycytidine analog, active against non-small cell lung cancer, is phosphorylated by deoxycytidine kinase (dCK) to active nucleotides. Earlier, we found increased sensitivity to gemcitabine in P-glycoprotein (SW-2R160) and multidrug resistance-associated protein (SW-2R120),

  2. The role of remote engagement in supporting boundary chain networks across Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan P. Kettle

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Boundary organizations serve multiple roles in linking science and decision making, including brokering knowledge, supporting local- and cross-level networks, facilitating the co-production of knowledge, and negotiating conflict. Yet they face several challenges in providing services for an ever-increasing number of actors and institutions interested in climate information and adaptation. This study evaluates how the Alaska Center for Climate Assessment and Policy (ACCAP innovated its boundary spanning role to improve outcomes by partnering with other boundary organizations through its ongoing climate webinar series. We utilize the concept of boundary chains to investigate outcomes associated with different extended network connections. Our evaluation is based on the analysis three datasets, including interviews (2013 and two web-based questionnaires (2010 and 2013–2015. Findings from the evaluation reveal several ways that remote engagement via the ACCAP webinar series facilitates learning, decision application, and cross-level network building, and overcomes barriers associated with large geographic distances between communities. In an organic evolution and innovation of the climate webinar series, ACCAP partnered with other boundary organizations to establish satellite hub sites to facilitate in-person gatherings at remote locations, thereby increasing the number and diversity of participants served and supporting local networking within organizations, agencies, and communities. Leveraging complementary resources through the satellite hub sites provided mutual benefits for ACCAP and partnering boundary organizations. These findings advance our understanding of the value of remote engagement in supporting boundary spanning processes and how boundary organizations innovate their roles to build capacity and increase the usability of climate information.

  3. The alpha-kinase family: an exceptional branch on the protein kinase tree.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelbeek, J.A.J.; Clark, K.; Venselaar, H.; Huynen, M.A.; Leeuwen, F.N. van

    2010-01-01

    The alpha-kinase family represents a class of atypical protein kinases that display little sequence similarity to conventional protein kinases. Early studies on myosin heavy chain kinases in Dictyostelium discoideum revealed their unusual propensity to phosphorylate serine and threonine residues in

  4. An essential role of intestinal cell kinase in lung development is linked to the perinatal lethality of human ECO syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Yixin; Park, So Hyun; Wu, Di; Xu, Wenhao; Guillot, Stacey J; Jin, Li; Li, Xudong; Wang, Yalin; Lin, Chyuan-Sheng; Fu, Zheng

    2017-05-01

    Human endocrine-cerebro-osteodysplasia (ECO) syndrome, caused by the loss-of-function mutation R272Q in the intestinal cell kinase (ICK) gene, is a neonatal-lethal developmental disorder. To elucidate the molecular basis of ECO syndrome, we constructed an Ick R272Q knock-in mouse model that recapitulates ECO pathological phenotypes. Newborns bearing Ick R272Q homozygous mutations die at birth due to respiratory distress. Ick mutant lungs exhibit not only impaired branching morphogenesis associated with reduced mesenchymal proliferation but also significant airspace deficiency in primitive alveoli concomitant with abnormal interstitial mesenchymal differentiation. ICK dysfunction induces elongated primary cilia and perturbs ciliary Hedgehog signaling and autophagy during lung sacculation. Our study identifies an essential role for ICK in lung development and advances the mechanistic understanding of ECO syndrome. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  5. Role of the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors, Adenosine Monophosphate-Activated Kinase, and Adiponectin in the Ovary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joëlle Dupont

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms controlling the interaction between energy balance and reproduction are the subject of intensive investigations. The integrated control of these systems is probably a multifaceted phenomenon involving an array of signals governing energy homeostasis, metabolism, and fertility. Two fuel sensors, PPARs, a superfamily of nuclear receptors and the kinase AMPK, integrate energy control and lipid and glucose homeostasis. Adiponectin, one of the adipocyte-derived factors mediate its actions through the AMPK or PPARs pathway. These three molecules are expressed in the ovary, raising questions about the biological actions of fuel sensors in fertility and the use of these molecules to treat fertility problems. This review will highlight the expression and putative role of PPARs, AMPK, and adiponectin in the ovary, particularly during folliculogenesis, steroidogenesis, and oocyte maturation.

  6. Performance analysis of supply chains under customer demand information sharing using role play game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Chinna Pamulety

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Supply chain is a network of organizations that work together and performs various business functions such as procurement of raw materials, converting the raw material into semi-finished or finished goods and distributing the same to their ultimate customers. Presence of bullwhip effect in a supply chain is costly and degrades the performance of the supply chain. Reduction in bullwhip effect can improve the efficiency or profitability of a supply chain. The objective of this paper is to know the impact of imperfect Advance Demand Information (ADI sharing on bullwhip effect in a four-stage serial supply chain and to evaluate the supply chain performance by conducting an experiment similar to the beer distribution game. The performance measures used are variance of orders placed by each stage, fill rate, total inventory at each stage and total holding cost of the supply chain. Results show that imperfect ADI improves the performance of the supply chain. The performance of the supply chain is also evaluated under order up to level (R, S policy with safety stock and it is found that the performance of supply chain is better when inventory policy used.

  7. The role of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in neural cell adhesion molecule-mediated neuronal differentiation and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Dorte K; Køhler, Lene B; Pedersen, Martin V

    2003-01-01

    that phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) is required for NCAM-mediated neurite outgrowth from PC12-E2 cells and from cerebellar and dopaminergic neurones in primary culture, and that the thr/ser kinase Akt/protein kinase B (PKB) is phosphorylated downstream of PI3K after stimulation with C3. Moreover, we present data...... to be dependent on PI3K.......The neural cell adhesion molecule, NCAM, is known to stimulate neurite outgrowth from primary neurones and PC12 cells presumably through signalling pathways involving the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR), protein kinase A (PKA), protein kinase C (PKC), the Ras-mitogen activated protein...

  8. An emerging role for p21-activated kinases (Paks) in viral infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van den Broeke, Celine; Radu, Maria; Chernoff, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    and motility, and abnormal Pak function is associated with a number of human diseases. Here, we discuss emerging evidence that these enzymes also play a major role in the entry, replication and spread of many important pathogenic human viruses, including HIV. Careful assessment of the potential role of Paks...

  9. The Atypical Guanylate Kinase MoGuk2 Plays Important Roles in Asexual/Sexual Development, Conidial Septation, and Pathogenicity in the Rice Blast Fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingjia Cai

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Guanylate kinases (GKs, which convert guanosine monophosphate into guanosine diphosphate (GDP, are important for growth and mannose outer chain elongation of cell wall N-linked glycoproteins in yeast. Here, we identified the ortholog of Saccharomyces cerevisiae GK Guk1, named MoGuk1 and a novel family of fungal GKs MoGuk2 in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. MoGuk1 contains 242 aa with an C-terminal GuKc domain that very similar to yeast Guk1. MoGuk2 contains 810 amino acids with a C-terminal GuKc domain and an additional N-terminal efThoc1 domain. Expression of either MoGuk1 or MoGuk2 in heterozygote yeast guk1 mutant could increase its GDP level. To investigate the biological role of MoGuk1 and MoGuk2 in M. oryzae, the gene replacement vectors were constructed. We obtained the ΔMoguk2 but not ΔMoguk1 mutant by screening over 1,000 transformants, indicating MoGuk1 might be essential for M. oryzae. The ΔMoguk2 mutant showed weak reductions in vegetative growth, conidial germination, appressorial formation, and appressorial turgor, and showed significant reductions in sporulation and pathogenicity. Moreover, the ΔMoguk2 mutant failed to produce perithecia and was sensitive to neomycin and a mixture of neomycin-tunicamycin. Exogenous GDP and ATP partially rescued the defects in conidial germination, appressorial formation, and infectious growth of the mutant. Further analysis revealed that intracellular GDP and GTP level was decreased, and GMP level was increased in the mutant, suggesting that MoGuk2 exhibits enzymatic activity. Structural analysis proved that the efThoc1, GuKc, and P-loop domains are essential for the full function of MoGuk2. Taken together, our data suggest that the guanylate kinase MoGuk2 is involved in the de novo GTP biosynthesis pathway and is important for infection-related morphogenesis in the rice blast fungus.

  10. A PEF/Y substrate recognition and signature motif plays a critical role in DAPK-related kinase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temmerman, Koen; de Diego, Iñaki; Pogenberg, Vivian; Simon, Bertrand; Jonko, Weronika; Li, Xun; Wilmanns, Matthias

    2014-02-20

    Knowledge about protein kinase substrate preferences is biased toward residues immediately adjacent to the site of phosphorylation. By a combined structural, biochemical, and cellular approach, we have discovered an unexpected substrate recognition element with the consensus sequence PEF/Y in the tumor suppressor death-associated protein kinase 1. This motif can be effectively blocked by a specific pseudosubstrate-type interaction with an autoregulatory domain of this kinase. In this arrangement, the central PEF/Y glutamate interacts with a conserved arginine distant to the phosphorylation site in sequence and structure. We also demonstrate that the element is crucial for kinase activity regulation and substrate recognition. The PEF/Y motif distinguishes close death-associated protein kinase relatives from canonical calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases. Insight into this signature and mode of action offers new opportunities to identify specific small molecule inhibitors in PEF/Y-containing protein kinases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Rosmarinic acid plays a protective role in the embryogenesis of zebrafish exposed to food colours through its influence on aurora kinase A level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarnalatha, Y; Jerrine Joseph, I S; Jayakrishna, Tippabathani

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the protective nature of the rosmarinic acid from Sphaeranthus amaranthoides during zebra fish embryogenesis. Rosmarinic acid was isolated from the S. amaranthoides. An accurate, sensitive and simple LC-MS analysis was performed to determine the rosmarinic acid from S. amaranthoides. In the present study, zebrafish embryos were exposed to crimson red and sunset yellow at a concentration of 0.1 and 0.5mg/l and the effect of these food colours on the levels of aurora kinase A was studied individually. Aurora kinase A levels are crucial for embryogenesis in zebrafish which is used as model in this study. The decrease of aurora kinase A levels in food colour treated embryos influences the embryogenesis, resulting in short and bent trunk leading to cell death and growth retardation. Elevated levels of aurora kinase A in rosmarinic acid treated groups can be attributed to the restoration of normal growth in zebra fish embryos with well developed brain and eyes. Further insilico docking studies were carried out and target was identified as rosmarinic acid. From the docking studies the docking poses and binding energy confirms that aurora kinase A is the target for rosmarinic acid. Rosmarinic acid was found to play a protective role in the embryogenesis of zebra fish exposed to food colours (crimson red and sunset yellow) through its influence on aurora kinase A levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. The Role of Information Security Management Systems in Supply Chain Performance Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Taghva

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the researchers have emphasized on positive effect of information system on supply chain performance such as organizational processes integration, information sharing, information technology, etc. In other hand, information security management system is one of the subjects that researches considered its effects on increase accuracy and effective information exchange, access to accurate and timely information and reduce errors of information system. Since, any research has not been done on this ground (the importance of ISMS on supply chain performance. Therefore, it was felt that a research should have done on these approaches on supply chain. In this respect, current research was seeking that how ISMS had impact on supply chain performance in automotive industry and this was the innovative aspect of this paper. So first of all, after the review of the information security management system literature, supply chain performance was considered by the balanced scorecard approach then the most important factors of these two subjects was extracted by correlation analysis. In this way, it was considered that how ISMS had impact on supply chain performance by correlation analysis. The results showed that different dimensions of ISMS (information uniformity, prevent the human and machine mistake, information be accuracy, and rectitude and instruction for users had impact on four dimensions of supply chain performance (customers, financial, internal processes and learning and growth in three levels (strategic, technical, and operational in supply chain. At the end, it was showed that ISMS lays the ground for increase supply chain performance.

  13. The dual role of short fatty acid chains in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disease models.

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    Miho Mizuno

    Full Text Available Autoimmune diseases are influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. The gut environment has attracted much attention as an essential component that modulates immune responses, and therefore immune-mediated disorders, such as autoimmune diseases. Growing evidence suggests that microbiota and their metabolites are critical factors for immune modulation. Recently, we reported that the microbiome in patients with multiple sclerosis, an autoimmune disease targeting the myelin sheath of the central nervous system, is characterized by a reduction of bacteria belonging to Clostridia clusters IV and XIVa, which are potent producers of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs by fermentation of indigestible carbohydrates. In the present study, we investigated the role of SCFAs in the regulation of inflammation. We demonstrated that oral administration of SCFAs ameliorated the disease severity of systemic autoimmune inflammatory conditions mediated by lymphocytes such as experimental autoimmune encephalitis and collagen-induced arthritis. Amelioration of disease was associated with a reduction of Th1 cells and an increase in regulatory T cells. In contrast, SCFAs contributed to the exaggeration of K/BxN serum transfer arthritis, representing the effector phase of inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis. An increased understanding of the effect of microbiota metabolites will lead to the effective treatment and prevention of systemic inflammatory disorders.

  14. Role of kinesin heavy chain in Crumbs localization along the rhabdomere elongation in Drosophila photoreceptor.

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    Garrett P League

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Crumbs (Crb, a cell polarity gene, has been shown to provide a positional cue for the extension of the apical membrane domain, adherens junction (AJ, and rhabdomere along the growing proximal-distal axis during Drosophila photoreceptor morphogenesis. In developing Drosophila photoreceptors, a stabilized microtubule structure was discovered and its presence was linked to polarity protein localization. It was therefore hypothesized that the microtubules may provide trafficking routes for the polarity proteins during photoreceptor morphogenesis. This study has examined whether Kinesin heavy chain (Khc, a subunit of the microtubule-based motor Kinesin-1, is essential in polarity protein localization in developing photoreceptors. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Because a genetic interaction was found between crb and khc, Crb localization was examined in the developing photoreceptors of khc mutants. khc was dispensable during early eye differentiation and development. However, khc mutant photoreceptors showed a range of abnormalities in the apical membrane domain depending on the position along the proximal-distal axis in pupal photoreceptors. The khc mutant showed a progressive mislocalization in the apical domain along the distal-proximal axis during rhabdomere elongation. The khc mutation also led to a similar progressive defect in the stabilized microtubule structures, strongly suggesting that Khc is essential for microtubule structure and Crb localization during distal to proximal rhabdomere elongation in pupal morphogenesis. This role of Khc in apical domain control was further supported by khc's gain-of-function phenotype. Khc overexpression in photoreceptors caused disruption of the apical membrane domain and the stabilized microtubules in the developing photoreceptors. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In summary, we examined the role of khc in the regulation of the apical Crb domain in developing photoreceptors. Since the rhabdomeres in

  15. Knockdown of embryonic myosin heavy chain reveals an essential role in the morphology and function of the developing heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutland, Catrin Sian; Polo-Parada, Luis; Ehler, Elisabeth; Alibhai, Aziza; Thorpe, Aaran; Suren, Suganthi; Emes, Richard D.; Patel, Bhakti; Loughna, Siobhan

    2011-01-01

    The expression and function of embryonic myosin heavy chain (eMYH) has not been investigated within the early developing heart. This is despite the knowledge that other structural proteins, such as alpha and beta myosin heavy chains and cardiac alpha actin, play crucial roles in atrial septal development and cardiac function. Most cases of atrial septal defects and cardiomyopathy are not associated with a known causative gene, suggesting that further analysis into candidate genes is required. Expression studies localised eMYH in the developing chick heart. eMYH knockdown was achieved using morpholinos in a temporal manner and functional studies were carried out using electrical and calcium signalling methodologies. Knockdown in the early embryo led to abnormal atrial septal development and heart enlargement. Intriguingly, action potentials of the eMYH knockdown hearts were abnormal in comparison with the alpha and beta myosin heavy chain knockdowns and controls. Although myofibrillogenesis appeared normal, in knockdown hearts the tissue integrity was affected owing to apparent focal points of myocyte loss and an increase in cell death. An expression profile of human skeletal myosin heavy chain genes suggests that human myosin heavy chain 3 is the functional homologue of the chick eMYH gene. These data provide compelling evidence that eMYH plays a crucial role in important processes in the early developing heart and, hence, is a candidate causative gene for atrial septal defects and cardiomyopathy. PMID:21862559

  16. Niacin decreases leukocyte myeloperoxidase: mechanistic role of redox agents and Src/p38MAP kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganji, Shobha H; Kamanna, Vaijinath S; Kashyap, Moti L

    2014-08-01

    Leukocyte myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a major player in the pathogenesis of various chronic diseases including atherosclerosis. This study proposes the novel concept that niacin, through reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated signaling, decreases neutrophil MPO release and its activity, protects apolipoprotein-AI (apo-AI) modification and improves HDL function. Human blood leukocytes and leukocytic cell line HL-60 cells were treated with niacin, and stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). Cellular and released MPO activity in the medium was measured by assessing chlorination of MPO-specific substrate. MPO protein release in the medium and apo-AI degradation was measured by Western blot analysis. Monocyte adhesion to human aortic primary endothelial cells was measured to assess biological function of HDL/apo-AI. PMA significantly increased leukocyte MPO activity in both intracellular extract and medium. Niacin (0.25-0.5 mM) decreased PMA-induced MPO activity (cellular and released in the media). Niacin also decreased MPO protein mass in the medium without affecting its mRNA expression. Increased NADPH oxidase and ROS production by PMA were also significantly inhibited by niacin. Studies with specific inhibitors suggest that ROS-dependent Src and p38MAP kinase mediate decreased MPO activity by niacin. Niacin blocked apo-AI degradation, and apo-AI from niacin treated cells decreased monocyte adhesion to aortic endothelial cells. These findings identify niacin as a potent inhibitor of leukocyte MPO release and MPO-mediated formation of dysfunctional HDL. Niacin and niacin-related chemical entities may form important therapeutic agents for MPO-mediated inflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The role of p21-activated kinase in the initiation of atherosclerosis

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    Jhaveri K A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background p21-activated kinase (PAK has been implicated in the inflammatory activation of endothelial cells by disturbed fluid shear stress, which is the initiating stimulus in atherosclerosis. The study addresses whether PAK1 contributes to inflammatory marker expression in endothelial cells at atherosclerosis-susceptible regions of arteries in vivo. Method Aortas from WT and PAK1-/- C57BL/6J mice on a normal chow diet were fixed, dissected and processed for immunohistochemistry using a panel of inflammatory markers. We visualized and quantified staining in the endothelium at the greater and lesser curvatures of the arch of aorta, as atherosclerosis-resistant and susceptible regions, respectively. Results Fibronectin, VCAM-1 and the activated RelA NF-κB subunit were localized to the lesser curvature and decreased in PAK1-/- mice. The activated RelB NF-κB subunit was also localized to the lesser curvature but was increased in PAK1-/- mice. Low levels of staining for ICAM-1 and the monocyte/macrophage marker Mac2 indicated that overall inflammation in this tissue was minimal. Conclusion These data show that PAK1 has a significant pro-inflammatory function at atherosclerosis-prone sites in vivo. These effects are seen in young mice with very low levels of inflammation, suggesting that inflammatory activation of the endothelium is primarily biomechanical. Activation involves NF-κB, expression of leukocyte recruitment receptors and fibronectin deposition. These results support and extend in vitro studies demonstrating that PAK contributes to activation of inflammatory pathways in endothelial cells by fluid shear stress.

  18. The role of protein kinase C activity in the proliferation of peritoneal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, C; Nihei, H

    1999-01-01

    To clarify the effect of glucose on peritoneal sclerosis, we performed several experiments to determine how glucose influences the proliferation of, and the production of extracellular matrix proteins by, peritoneal fibroblasts. The effect of heparin on these phenomena was also studied. Using rat peritoneal fibroblasts, cells were cultured in four separate media: M199 with 5% fetal bovine serum (FBS) (control medium), control medium with 4% glucose (glucose medium), glucose medium with H7 [an inhibitor of protein kinase C (PKC)] 50 micromol, and glucose medium with heparin 50 microg/mL. Cell proliferation and concentrations of procollagen 3 peptide (P3P) and hyaluronic acid (HA) in the supernatants were evaluated at 24 hours, 72 hours, and 120 hours after culture. PKC activity in cytosolic and cell membrane fractions were measured 30 minutes after incubation in control medium and in glucose medium with and without heparin. Glucose accelerated cell proliferation 24 hours after culture, but inhibited it 120 hours after culture. Glucose stimulated the production of HA from these cells 72 hours and 120 hours after culture, but it did not stimulate the production of P3P at any time. Heparin and H7 inhibited cell proliferation by glucose 24 hours after culture. Heparin and H7 also inhibited the production of HA in the peritoneal fibroblasts after culture, but did not affect the production of P3P. Glucose accelerated PKC activity in cell membrane, but not in cytosol. Heparin inhibited the elevated PKC activity of the membrane fraction by glucose. Glucose may accelerate the proliferation of, and HA production in, peritoneal fibroblasts by stimulation of cellular PKC activity. Heparin suppresses these phenomena by inhibiting PKC activity.

  19. Increased Innate Lymphoid Cells in Periodontal Tissue of the Murine Model of Periodontitis: The Role of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase and Relevance for the Human Condition

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    Xu Qin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs are master regulators of immune and inflammatory responses, but their own regulatory mechanisms and functional roles of their subtypes (i.e., ILC1s–ILC3s remain largely unresolved. Interestingly, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, influences inflammatory responses, but its role in modulation of ILCs is not known. Periodontitis is a prevalent disorder with impairment of immune and inflammatory responses contributing importantly to its pathogenesis; however, neither the role of ILCs nor AMPK has been explored in this condition. We tested the hypotheses that (a periodontitis increases ILCs and expression of relevant cytokines thereby contributing to inflammation and (b knockdown of AMPK worsens indices of periodontitis in association with further increases in subtypes of ILCs and cytokine expression. The studies utilized wild-type (WT and AMPK knockout (KO mice, subjected to ligature-induced periodontitis or sham operation, in association with the use of micro-CT for assessment of bone loss, immunogold electron microscopy to show presence of ILCs in periodontal tissues, flow cytometry for quantitative assessment of subtypes of ILCs and RT-polymerase chain reaction analyses to measure mRNA expression of several relevant cytokines. The results for the first time show (a presence of each subtype of ILCs in periodontal tissues of sham control and periodontitis animals, (b that periodontitis is associated with increased frequencies of ILC1s–ILC3s with the effect more marked for ILC2s and differential phenotypic marker expression for ILC3s, (c that AMPK KO mice display exacerbation of indices of periodontitis in association with further increases in the frequency of subtypes of ILCs with persistence of ILC2s effect, and (d that periodontitis increased mRNA for interleukin (IL-33, but not IL-5 or IL-13, in WT mice but expression of these cytokines was markedly increased in AMPK KO mice with periodontitis. Subsequently, we

  20. Alteration in expressions of RhoA and Rho-kinases during pregnancy in rats: their roles in uterine contractions and onset of labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domokos, D; Ducza, E; Falkay, G; Gaspar, R

    2017-06-01

    Activation of RhoA and Rho-associated kinases (ROCKs) is known to play a pivotal role in the regulation of smooth muscle contraction via phosphorylation of myosin-light chain and myosin phosphatase. There are few data on the RhoA and ROCKs expression levels in rat uteri. Therefore, our aim was to investigate the mRNA and protein concentration of RhoA and ROCKs in rat uterus during pregnancy, during parturition and post-partum using real time PCR and Western blot analysis. The other purpose was to evaluate the effects of the ROCK (Y-27632, fasudil and RKI 1441) and RhoA inhibitors (simvastatin) on uterine contractility in isolated organ bath experiments. The mRNA and protein levels of RhoA decreased on the 5th day of pregnancy to day 22, then a sharp increase was detected at term. The mRNA and protein concentration of ROCKs was down-regulated in the early stage of pregnancy, while it sharply increased during parturition. The RhoA-inhibitor simvastatin relaxed the uterus contractions, although its inhibitory effects were not followed by the alteration of RhoA. The strongest inhibitory effect of non-selective ROCK inhibitor fasudil was found on non-pregnant uterus, while it elicited milder relaxation on day 22, during parturition and postpartum day 1. The maximum relaxing effects of Y-27632 and RKI 1441 were altered in a proportional way with the target protein expressions. The RhoA/ROCK signalling pathway might be a potential target for the development of new tocolytic agents; however, high specificity to RhoA, ROCK I or ROCK II seems to be fundamental to the high efficacy of uterine relaxation.

  1. A Functional Approach towards Understanding the Role of the Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain in an Endomycorrhizal Symbiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercy, Louis; Lucic-Mercy, Eva; Nogales, Amaia; Poghosyan, Areg; Schneider, Carolin; Arnholdt-Schmitt, Birgit

    2017-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are crucial components of fertile soils, able to provide several ecosystem services for crop production. Current economic, social and legislative contexts should drive the so-called “second green revolution” by better exploiting these beneficial microorganisms. Many challenges still need to be overcome to better understand the mycorrhizal symbiosis, among which (i) the biotrophic nature of AMF, constraining their production, while (ii) phosphate acts as a limiting factor for the optimal mycorrhizal inoculum application and effectiveness. Organism fitness and adaptation to the changing environment can be driven by the modulation of mitochondrial respiratory chain, strongly connected to the phosphorus processing. Nevertheless, the role of the respiratory function in mycorrhiza remains largely unexplored. We hypothesized that the two mitochondrial respiratory chain components, alternative oxidase (AOX) and cytochrome oxidase (COX), are involved in specific mycorrhizal behavior. For this, a complex approach was developed. At the pre-symbiotic phase (axenic conditions), we studied phenotypic responses of Rhizoglomus irregulare spores with two AOX and COX inhibitors [respectively, salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) and potassium cyanide (KCN)] and two growth regulators (abscisic acid – ABA and gibberellic acid – Ga3). At the symbiotic phase, we analyzed phenotypic and transcriptomic (genes involved in respiration, transport, and fermentation) responses in Solanum tuberosum/Rhizoglomus irregulare biosystem (glasshouse conditions): we monitored the effects driven by ABA, and explored the modulations induced by SHAM and KCN under five phosphorus concentrations. KCN and SHAM inhibited in vitro spore germination while ABA and Ga3 induced differential spore germination and hyphal patterns. ABA promoted mycorrhizal colonization, strong arbuscule intensity and positive mycorrhizal growth dependency (MGD). In ABA treated plants, R. irregulare

  2. Spermine stimulation of a nuclear NII kinase from pea plumules and its role in the phosphorylation of a nuclear polypeptide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, N.; Schell, M. B.; Roux, S. J.

    1987-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that spermine stimulates the phosphorylation of a 47 kilodalton nuclear polypeptide from pea plumules (N Datta, LK Hardison, SJ Roux 1986 Plant Physiol 82: 681-684). In this paper we report that spermine stimulates the activity of a cyclic AMP independent casein kinase, partially purified from a chromatin fraction of pea plumule nuclei. This effect of spermine was substrate specific; i.e. with casein as substrate, spermine stimulated the kinase activity, and with phosvitin as substrate, spermine completely inhibited the activity. The stimulation by spermine of the casein kinase was, in part, due to the lowering of the Mg2+ requirement of the kinase. Heparin could partially inhibit this casein kinase activity and spermine completely overcame this inhibition. By further purification of the casein kinase extract on high performance liquid chromatography, we fractionated it into an NI and an NII kinase. Spermine stimulated the NII kinase by 5- to 6-fold but had no effect on the NI kinase. Using [gamma-32P]GTP, we have shown that spermine promotes the phosphorylation of the 47 kilodalton polypeptide(s) in isolated nuclei, at least in part by stimulating an NII kinase.

  3. The role of supply chain action programs in achieving operational performance excellence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Sami; Dukovska-Popovska, Iskra; Boer, Harry

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of five individual supply chain action programs on cost and speed aspects of procurement and manufacturing performance. The study is based on the IMSS-IV database. As should be expected, supply chain action programs have stronger effects on externally oriented ...

  4. How Can Students Generalize the Chain Rule? The Roles of Abduction in Mathematical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Hyeong; Lee, Kyeong-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to design a modeling task to facilitate students' inquiries into the chain rule in calculus and to analyze the results after implementation of the task. In this study, we take a modeling approach to the teaching and learning of the chain rule by facilitating the generalization of students' models and modeling…

  5. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 has a limited role in cell cycle regulation of cyclin D1 levels

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    Hitomi Masahiro

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The expression level of cyclin D1 plays a vital role in the control of proliferation. This protein is reported to be degraded following phosphorylation by glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3 on Thr-286. We recently showed that phosphorylation of Thr-286 is responsible for a decline in cyclin D1 levels during S phase, an event required for efficient DNA synthesis. These studies were undertaken to test the possibility that phosphorylation by GSK3 is responsible for the S phase specific decline in cyclin D1 levels, and that this event is regulated by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K/AKT signaling pathway which controls GSK3. Results We found, however, that neither PI3K, AKT, GSK3, nor proliferative signaling activity in general is responsible for the S phase decline in cyclin D1 levels. In fact, the activity of these signaling kinases does not vary through the cell cycle of proliferating cells. Moreover, we found that GSK3 activity has little influence over cyclin D1 expression levels during any cell cycle phase. Inhibition of GSK3 activity by siRNA, LiCl, or other chemical inhibitors failed to influence cyclin D1 phosphorylation on Thr-286, even though LiCl efficiently blocked phosphorylation of β-catenin, a known substrate of GSK3. Likewise, the expression of a constitutively active GSK3 mutant protein failed to influence cyclin D1 phosphorylation or total protein expression level. Conclusion Because we were unable to identify any proliferative signaling molecule or pathway which is regulated through the cell cycle, or which is able to influence cyclin D1 levels, we conclude that the suppression of cyclin D1 levels during S phase is regulated by cell cycle position rather than signaling activity. We propose that this mechanism guarantees the decline in cyclin D1 levels during each S phase; and that in so doing it reduces the likelihood that simple over expression of cyclin D1 can lead to uncontrolled cell growth.

  6. The role of atypical protein kinase C in CSF-1-dependent Erk activation and proliferation in myeloid progenitors and macrophages.

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    Angel W Lee

    Full Text Available Colony stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1 or M-CSF is the major physiological regulator of the proliferation, differentiation and survival of cells of the mononuclear phagocyte lineage. CSF-1 binds to a receptor tyrosine kinase, the CSF-1 receptor (CSF-1R. Multiple pathways are activated downstream of the CSF-1R; however, it is not clear which pathways regulate proliferation and survival. Here, we investigated the role of atypical protein kinase Cs (PKCζ in a myeloid progenitor cell line that expressed CSF-1R (32D.R and in primary murine bone marrow derived macrophages (BMMs. In 32D.R cells, CSF-1 induced the phosphorylation of PKCζ and increased its kinase activity. PKC inhibitors and transfections with mutant PKCs showed that optimal CSF-1-dependent Erk activation and proliferation depended on the activity of PKCζ. We previously reported that CSF-1 activated the Erk pathway through an A-Raf-dependent and an A-Raf independent pathway (Lee and States, Mol. Cell. Biol.18, 6779. PKC inhibitors did not affect CSF-1 induced Ras and A-Raf activity but markedly reduced MEK and Erk activity, implying that PKCζ regulated the CSF-1-Erk pathway at the level of MEK. PKCζ has been implicated in activating the NF-κB pathway. However, CSF-1 promoted proliferation in an NF-κB independent manner. We established stable 32D.R cell lines that overexpressed PKCζ. Overexpression of PKCζ increased the intensity and duration of CSF-1 induced Erk activity and rendered cells more responsive to CSF-1 mediated proliferation. In contrast to 32D.R cells, PKCζ inhibition in BMMs had only a modest effect on proliferation. Moreover, PKCζ -specific and pan-PKC inhibitors induced a paradoxical increase in MEK-Erk phosphorylation suggesting that PKCs targeted a common negative regulatory step upstream of MEK. Our results demonstrated that CSF-1 dependent Erk activation and proliferation are regulated differentially in progenitors and differentiated cells.

  7. PI[subscript 3]-Kinase Cascade Has a Differential Role in Acquisition and Extinction of Conditioned Fear Memory in Juvenile and Adult Rats

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    Slouzkey, Ilana; Maroun, Mouna

    2016-01-01

    The basolateral amygdala (BLA), medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) circuit, plays a crucial role in acquisition and extinction of fear memory. Extinction of aversive memories is mediated, at least in part, by the phosphoinositide-3 kinase (P[subscript 3]K)/Akt pathway in adult rats. There is recent interest in the neural mechanisms that mediate fear…

  8. A new in vivo model of pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration reveals a surprising role for transcriptional regulation in pathogenesis.

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    Varun ePandey

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Pantothenate Kinase-Associated Neurodegeneration (PKAN is a neurodegenerative disorder with a poorly understood molecular mechanism. It is caused by mutations in Pantothenate Kinase, the first enzyme in the Coenzyme A (CoA biosynthetic pathway. Here, we developed a Drosophila model of PKAN (tim-fbl flies that allows us to continuously monitor the modeled disease in the brain. In tim-fbl flies, downregulation of fumble, the Drosophila PanK homologue in the cells containing a circadian clock results in characteristic features of PKAN such as developmental lethality, hypersensitivity to oxidative stress, and diminished life span. Despite quasi-normal circadian transcriptional rhythms, tim-fbl flies display brain-specific aberrant circadian locomotor rhythms, and a unique transcriptional signature. Comparison with expression data from flies exposed to paraquat demonstrates that, as previously suggested, pathways others than oxidative stress are affected by PANK downregulation. Surprisingly we found a significant decrease in the expression of key components of the photoreceptor recycling pathways, which could lead to retinal degeneration, a hallmark of PKAN. Importantly, these defects are not accompanied by changes in structural components in eye genes suggesting that changes in gene expression in the eye precede and may cause the retinal degeneration. Indeed tim-fbl flies have diminished response to light transitions, and their altered day/night patterns of activity demonstrates defects in light perception. This suggest that retinal lesions are not solely due to oxidative stress and demonstrates a role for the transcriptional response to CoA deficiency underlying the defects observed in dPanK deficient flies. Moreover, in the present study we developed a new fly model that can be applied to other diseases and that allows the assessment of neurodegeneration in the brains of living flies.

  9. Role of protein tyrosine kinase in the effect of IP6 on IL-8 secretion in intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawszczyk, Joanna; Orchel, Arkadiusz; Kapral, Małgorzata; Wéglarz, Ludmiła

    2013-01-01

    Phytic acid (IP6) is a major fiber-associated component of a diet physiologically present in human intestines. Studies showed that this phytochemical can modulate immune functions of intestinal epithelium through regulation of proinflammatory cytokines secretion but mechanisms underlying these cellular response to IP6 have weakly been examined, as yet. The aim of this study was to determine the role of protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) in secretion of IL-8, a central proinflammatory cytokine, by unstimulated and IL-1beta-stimulated intestinal epithelial cells Caco-2 treated with IP6 (1 and 2.5 mM). To study the involvement of PTK signal pathway in IL-8 secretion, inhibitors of phosphotyrosine phosphatase (sodium orthovanadate, OV) and tyrosine kinase (genistein, GEN) were incubated with Caco-2 cells prior to IP6 treatment. IP6 had suppressive effect on basal and IL-1beta-stimulated IL-8 secretion by cells. The effect of OV on IL-8 release by cells treated with IP6 was different under constitutive and stimulated conditions. Secretion of IL-8 was significantly down-regulated in cells with GEN and GEN plus IP6 treatment. In addition, total PTK activity in both unstimulated and IL-1beta stimulated cells was determined in the presence of IP6. The results suggest that physiological intestinal concentrations of IP6 may have an inhibitory effect on IL-8 secretion by Caco-2 cells and one of the mechanisms of its action is the inhibition of PTK signaling cascade. The study revealed for the first time that PTKs could be one of the molecular targets for IP6 effects in the intestinal epithelial cells.

  10. Role of EGFR transactivation in angiotensin II signaling to extracellular regulated kinase in preglomerular smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, Bradley T; Linnoila, Jenny J; Jackson, Edwin K; Romero, Guillermo G

    2003-03-01

    Angiotensin (Ang) II promotes the phosphorylation of extracellular regulated kinase (ERK); however, the mechanisms leading to Ang II-induced ERK phosphorylation are debated. The currently accepted theory involves transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). We have shown that generation of phosphatidic acid (PA) is required for the recruitment of Raf to membranes and the activation of ERK by multiple agonists, including Ang II. In the present report, we confirm that phospholipase D-dependent generation of PA is required for Ang II-mediated phosphorylation of ERK in Wistar-Kyoto and spontaneously hypertensive rat preglomerular smooth muscle cells (PGSMCs). However, EGF stimulation does not activate phospholipase D or generate PA. These observations indicate that EGF recruits Raf to membranes via a mechanism that does not involve PA, and thus, Ang II-mediated phosphorylation of ERK is partially independent of EGFR-mediated signaling cascades. We hypothesized that phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) can also act to recruit Raf to membranes; therefore, inhibition of PI3K should inhibit EGF signaling to ERK. Wortmannin, a PI3K inhibitor, inhibited EGF-mediated phosphorylation of ERK (IC50, approximately 14 nmol/L). To examine the role of the EGFR in Ang II-mediated phosphorylation of ERK we utilized 100 nmol/L wortmannin to inhibit EGFR signaling to ERK and T19N RhoA to block Ang II-mediated ERK phosphorylation. Wortmannin treatment inhibited EGF-mediated but not Ang II-mediated phosphorylation of ERK. Furthermore, T19N RhoA inhibited Ang II-mediated ERK phosphorylation, whereas T19N RhoA had significantly less effect on EGF-mediated ERK phosphorylation. We conclude that transactivation of the EGFR is not primarily responsible for Ang II-mediated activation of ERK in PGSMCs.

  11. The possible role of ribosomal protein S6 kinase 4 in the senescence of endothelial progenitor cells in diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Zhiyong

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The decrease and dysfunction of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs has been assumed as an important cause/consequence of diabetes mellitus (DM and its complications, in which the senescence of EPCs induced by hyperglycemia may play an immensurable role. However, the mechanisms of EPCs senescence has not been fully investigated. Recently, ribosomal protein S6 kinase 4 (RSK4, a member of serine/threomine (Ser/Thr kinase family and p53-related gene, is reported to regulate the replicative and stress-induced senescence of different cells. Presentation of the hypothesis These above lead to consideration of an evidence-based hypothesis that RSK4 may serve as a mediator of EPCs senescence in DM. Testing the hypothesis EPCs of healthy subjects and DM patients are isolated from peripheral blood and incubated with high glucose (HG. Then, the EPCs senescence would be detected by senescence associated β-galactosides (SA-β-gal staining. Meanwhile, the RSK4 expression is assessed by RT-PCR and western blot. Moreover, overexpressing or RNA interfering of RSK4 in EPCs to investigate the relationship between RSK4 expression and the senescence of EPCs are necessary to substantiate this hypothesis. Also, studies on possible upstream and downstream factors of RSK4 would be explored to reveal the RSK4-mediated senescence pathway in EPCs. Implications of the hypothesis If proved, this hypothesis will provide another mediator of EPCs senescence, and may establish a novel pathogenesis for DM and further benefit to the management of DM.

  12. Biliverdin amides reveal roles for propionate side chains in bilin reductase recognition and in holophytochrome assembly and photoconversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Lixia; Rockwell, Nathan C; Martin, Shelley S; Lagarias, J Clark

    2010-07-27

    Linear tetrapyrroles (bilins) perform important antioxidant and light-harvesting functions in cells from bacteria to humans. To explore the role of the propionate moieties in bilin metabolism, we report the semisynthesis of mono- and diamides of biliverdin IXalpha and those of its non-natural XIIIalpha isomer. Initially, these were examined as substrates of two types of NADPH-dependent biliverdin reductase, BVR and BvdR, and of the representative ferredoxin-dependent bilin reductase, phycocyanobilin:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PcyA). Our studies indicate that the NADPH-dependent biliverdin reductases are less accommodating to amidation of the propionic acid side chains of biliverdin IXalpha than PcyA, which does not require free carboxylic acid side chains to yield its phytobilin product, phycocyanobilin. Bilin amides were also assembled with BV-type and phytobilin-type apophytochromes, demonstrating a role for the 8-propionate in the formation of the spectroscopically native P(r) dark states of these biliprotein photosensors. Neither ionizable propionate side chain proved to be essential to primary photoisomerization for both classes of phytochromes, but an unsubstituted 12-propionate was required for full photointerconversion of phytobilin-type phytochrome Cph1. Taken together, these studies provide insight into the roles of the ionizable propionate side chains in substrate discrimination by two bilin reductase families while further underscoring the mechanistic differences between the photoconversions of BV-type and phytobilin-type phytochromes.

  13. Differential roles of regulatory light chain and myosin binding protein-C phosphorylations in the modulation of cardiac force development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colson, Brett A.; Locher, Matthew R.; Bekyarova, Tanya; Patel, Jitandrakumar R.; Fitzsimons, Daniel P.; Irving, Thomas C.; Moss, Richard L. (IIT); (UW-MED)

    2010-05-25

    Phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) by myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) and myosin binding protein-C (cMyBP-C) by protein kinase A (PKA) independently accelerate the kinetics of force development in ventricular myocardium. However, while MLCK treatment has been shown to increase the Ca{sup 2+} sensitivity of force (pCa{sub 50}), PKA treatment has been shown to decrease pCa{sub 50}, presumably due to cardiac troponin I phosphorylation. Further, MLCK treatment increases Ca{sup 2+}-independent force and maximum Ca{sup 2+}-activated force, whereas PKA treatment has no effect on either force. To investigate the structural basis underlying the kinase-specific differential effects on steady-state force, we used synchrotron low-angle X-ray diffraction to compare equatorial intensity ratios (I{sub 1,1}/I{sub 1,0}) to assess the proximity of myosin cross-bridge mass relative to actin and to compare lattice spacings (d{sub 1,0}) to assess the inter-thick filament spacing in skinned myocardium following treatment with either MLCK or PKA. As we showed previously, PKA phosphorylation of cMyBP-C increases I{sub 1,1}/I{sub 1,0} and, as hypothesized, treatment with MLCK also increased I{sub 1,1}/I{sub 1,0}, which can explain the accelerated rates of force development during activation. Importantly, interfilament spacing was reduced by {approx}2 nm ({Delta} 3.5%) with MLCK treatment, but did not change with PKA treatment. Thus, RLC or cMyBP-C phosphorylation increases the proximity of cross-bridges to actin, but only RLC phosphorylation affects lattice spacing, which suggests that RLC and cMyBP-C modulate the kinetics of force development by similar structural mechanisms; however, the effect of RLC phosphorylation to increase the Ca{sup 2+} sensitivity of force is mediated by a distinct mechanism, most probably involving changes in interfilament spacing.

  14. Role of 5'AMP-activated protein kinase in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Treebak, Jonas Thue; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen F. P.

    2008-01-01

    shown to regulate fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis, but is now hypothesized to take part in the regulation of energy/fuel balance not only at the cellular level but also at the level of the whole organism. In this brief review we will discuss some of the roles of AMPK in skeletal muscle....

  15. Venus Kinase Receptors at the Crossroads of Insulin Signaling: Their Role in Reproduction for Helminths and Insects

    OpenAIRE

    Colette eDissous

    2015-01-01

    Venus kinase receptors (VKRs) are invertebrate receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) first discovered in the human parasite Schistosoma. They contain an extracellular Venus FlyTrap (VFT) module similar to the ligand-binding domain of G protein-coupled receptors of class C and an intracellular tyrosine kinase domain similar to that of insulin receptors. VKRs are present from cnidarians to echinoderms. They were shown to be activated by amino-acids, to induce insulin-like intracellular pathways and ...

  16. Mitogen-activated protein kinase signal pathways play an important role in right ventricular hypertrophy of tetralogy of Fallot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Shan; Wu, Qing-Yu; Xu, Ming; Zhou, Yu-Xiang; Shui, Chao-Xiang

    2012-07-01

    Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is the most common malformation of children with an incidence of approximately 10% of congenital heart disease patients. There can be a wide spectrum to the severity of the anatomic defects, which include ventricular septal defect, aortic override, right ventricular outflow tract obstruction, and right ventricular hypertrophy. We examined the relationship between right ventricular hypertrophy in patients with TOF and the gene expression of factors in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal pathway. To gain insight into the characteristic gene(s) involved in molecular mechanisms of right ventricular hypertrophy in TOF, differential mRNA and micro RNA expression profiles were assessed using expression-based micro array technology on right ventricular biopsies from young TOF patients who underwent primary correction and on normal heart tissue. We then analyzed the gene expression of the MAPK signal pathway using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in normals and TOF patients. Using the micro RNA chip V3.0 and human whole genome oligonucleotide microarray V1.0 to detect the gene expression, we found 1068 genes showing altered expression of at least two-fold in TOF patients compared to the normal hearts, and 47 micro RNAs that showed a significant difference of at least two-fold in TOF patients. We then analyzed these mRNAs and micro RNAs by target gene predicting software Microcosm Targets version 5.0, and determined those mRNA highly relevant to the right ventricular hypertrophy by RT-PCR method. There were obvious differences in the gene expression of factors in the MAPK signal pathway when using RT-PCR, which was consistent to the results of the cDNA microarray. The upregulation of genes in the MAPK signal pathway may be the key events that contribute to right ventricular hypertrophy and stunted angiogenesis in patients with TOF.

  17. Casein kinase 2 associates with initiation-competent RNA polymerase I and has multiple roles in ribosomal DNA transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panova, Tatiana B; Panov, Kostya I; Russell, Jackie; Zomerdijk, Joost C B M

    2006-08-01

    Mammalian RNA polymerase I (Pol I) complexes contain a number of associated factors, some with undefined regulatory roles in transcription. We demonstrate that casein kinase 2 (CK2) in human cells is associated specifically only with the initiation-competent Pol Ibeta isoform and not with Pol Ialpha. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis places CK2 at the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) promoter in vivo. Pol Ibeta-associated CK2 can phosphorylate topoisomerase IIalpha in Pol Ibeta, activator upstream binding factor (UBF), and selectivity factor 1 (SL1) subunit TAFI110. A potent and selective CK2 inhibitor, 3,8-dibromo-7-hydroxy-4-methylchromen-2-one, limits in vitro transcription to a single round, suggesting a role for CK2 in reinitiation. Phosphorylation of UBF by CK2 increases SL1-dependent stabilization of UBF at the rDNA promoter, providing a molecular mechanism for the stimulatory effect of CK2 on UBF activation of transcription. These positive effects of CK2 in Pol I transcription contrast to that wrought by CK2 phosphorylation of TAFI110, which prevents SL1 binding to rDNA, thereby abrogating the ability of SL1 to nucleate preinitiation complex (PIC) formation. Thus, CK2 has the potential to regulate Pol I transcription at multiple levels, in PIC formation, activation, and reinitiation of transcription.

  18. Theoretical studies of the role of C-terminal cysteines in the process of S-nitrosylation of human Src kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, Fernanda R; dos Santos, Paloma Freire; Rando, Daniela G

    2016-01-01

    Src tyrosine kinases are a family of non-receptor proteins that are responsible for the growth process, cellular proliferation, differentiation and survival. Lack of Src kinase control has been associated with the development of certain human cancers. This family of proteins is constituted of four domains, with SH1 being the kinase or catalytic domain. SH1 also presents three important regulatory sites. Two residues, Tyr416 and Tyr527, are responsible for important phosphorylation processes that lead to, respectively, activation and deactivation of these kinases. More recently, however, a set of four cysteine residues located near the C-terminus-Cys483, Cys487, Cys496 and Cys498-has been associated with the activation of the Src kinases through S-nitrosylation reactions. Particularly, the Cys498 has been specified as a fundamental residue when considering this regulatory mechanism. Aiming to understand the role of these four cysteines in S-nitrosylation, theoretical studies of electrostatic, steric and hydrophobic properties were performed with a sequence of 20 amino acids, enclosing the four cysteine residues under study, extracted from the PDB coordinates of the crystal obtained from the inactive state of Src kinase. Results indicate that Cys498 is buried deeply in the protein, in hydrophobic surroundings in which NO is more likely to suffer decomposition into the electrophilic intermediates known to be responsible for S-nitrosylation reactions. Electronic calculated properties, such as punctual atomic charges, electrostatic potentials and molecular orbital energy, also demonstrated the good nucleophilic potential of Cys498. Graphical Abstract Structure of Src kinase with zoomed area representing the 20 amino acids comprising the CC motif extracted from the whole protein structure. Right upper panel Electrostatic potential map, right lower panel hydrophilic map in anterior view.

  19. Role of regulatory subunits and protein kinase inhibitor (PKI) in determining nuclear localization and activity of the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, J C; Wailes, L A; Idzerda, R L; McKnight, G S

    1999-03-05

    Regulation of protein kinase A by subcellular localization may be critical to target catalytic subunits to specific substrates. We employed epitope-tagged catalytic subunit to correlate subcellular localization and gene-inducing activity in the presence of regulatory subunit or protein kinase inhibitor (PKI). Transiently expressed catalytic subunit distributed throughout the cell and induced gene expression. Co-expression of regulatory subunit or PKI blocked gene induction and prevented nuclear accumulation. A mutant PKI lacking the nuclear export signal blocked gene induction but not nuclear accumulation, demonstrating that nuclear export is not essential to inhibit gene induction. When the catalytic subunit was targeted to the nucleus with a nuclear localization signal, it was not sequestered in the cytoplasm by regulatory subunit, although its activity was completely inhibited. PKI redistributed the nuclear catalytic subunit to the cytoplasm and blocked gene induction, demonstrating that the nuclear export signal of PKI can override a strong nuclear localization signal. With increasing PKI, the export process appeared to saturate, resulting in the return of catalytic subunit to the nucleus. These results demonstrate that both the regulatory subunit and PKI are able to completely inhibit the gene-inducing activity of the catalytic subunit even when the catalytic subunit is forced to concentrate in the nuclear compartment.

  20. Inhibition of Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3ß Enhances Cognitive Recovery after Stroke: The Role of TAK1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venna, Venugopal Reddy; Benashski, Sharon E.; Chauhan, Anjali; McCullough, Louise D.

    2015-01-01

    Memory deficits are common among stroke survivors. Identifying neuroprotective agents that can prevent memory impairment or improve memory recovery is a vital area of research. Glycogen synthase kinase-3ß (GSK-3ß) is involved in several essential intracellular signaling pathways. Unlike many other kinases, GSK-3ß is active only when…

  1. Role of adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase subunits in skeletal muscle mammalian target of rapamycin signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deshmukh, Atul S.; Treebak, Jonas Thue; Long, Yun Chau

    2008-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an important energy-sensing protein in skeletal muscle. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) mediates translation initiation and protein synthesis through ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1). AMPK activ...

  2. Tyrosine-610 in the receptor kinase BAK1 does not play a major role in brassinosteroid signaling or innate immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The plasma membrane-localized BRI1-ASSOCIATED KINASE1 (BAK1) functions as a co-receptor with several receptor kinases including the brassinosteroid (BR) receptor BRASSINOSTEROID-INSENSITIVE 1 (BRI1), which is involved in growth, and the receptors for bacterial flagellin and EF-Tu, FLAGELLIN-SENSING ...

  3. Identification of an indispensable role for tyrosine kinase 2 in CTL-mediated tumor surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simma, Olivia; Zebedin, Eva; Neugebauer, Nina; Schellack, Carola; Pilz, Andreas; Chang-Rodriguez, Souyet; Lingnau, Karen; Weisz, Eva; Putz, Eva Maria; Pickl, Winfried F; Felzmann, Thomas; Müller, Mathias; Decker, Thomas; Sexl, Veronika; Stoiber, Dagmar

    2009-01-01

    We showed previously that Tyk2(-/-) natural killer cells lack the ability to lyse leukemic cells. As a consequence, the animals are leukemia prone. Here, we show that the impaired tumor surveillance extends to T cells. Challenging Tyk2(-/-) mice with EL4 thymoma significantly decreased disease latency. The crucial role of Tyk2 for CTL function was further characterized using the ovalbumin-expressing EG7 cells. Tyk2(-/-) OT-1 mice developed EG7-induced tumors significantly faster compared with wild-type (wt) controls. In vivo assays confirmed the defect in CD8(+) cytotoxicity on Tyk2 deficiency and clearly linked it to type I IFN signaling. An impaired CTL activity was only observed in IFNAR1(-/-) animals but not on IFNgamma or IL12p35 deficiency. Accordingly, EG7-induced tumors grew faster in IFNAR1(-/-) and Tyk2(-/-) but not in IFNgamma(-/-) or IL12p35(-/-) mice. Adoptive transfer experiments defined a key role of Tyk2 in CTL-mediated tumor surveillance. In contrast to wt OT-1 cells, Tyk2(-/-) OT-1 T cells were incapable of controlling EG7-induced tumor growth.

  4. The role of knowledge management in supply chain management: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Rosario Pérez-Salazar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this paper is to examine the state of knowledge management research in supply chain management from three standpoints, methodological approach, supply chain management area, and knowledge management processes. Design/methodology/approach: To achieve this, a systematic review is conducted over the period 2000-2014 on the basis of a qualitative content analysis. Findings: Major results showed that knowledge management can be viewed as a leverage mechanism for: (i supply chain integration; (ii the enhancement of intra and inter-relations across the supply chain; (iii supply chain strategy alignment; and (iv the reinforcement of knowledge transfer in product development. Some supply chain management areas such as reverse logistics, inventory management, forecasting/demand planning, outsourcing, and risk management have been explored only to some extent. Furthermore, knowledge transfer is being studied in the majority of the articles, mainly by both case study and survey approach; mathematical models and simulation techniques are used in very limited articles. Findings concerning theoretical perspectives and managerial issues are also described. Research limitations/implications: The limitation of our study encompasses the aspects of search period (2000-2014, selection of search databases (Web of Science and SCOPUS and language selection (English. Practical implications: The exhibition of the KM processes within the SC context may help practitioners and managers interested in implementing KM initiatives to replicate the methodologies in order to increase the possibilities of a successful KM adoption. Originality/value: The systematic review will contribute to the understanding of the present state of research in the knowledge management theory, with focus on the supply chain, as there are no state-of-knowledge studies that report a systematic literature review approach.

  5. Tumor-intrinsic and -extrinsic roles of c-Kit: mast cells as the primary off-target of tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittoni, P; Piconese, S; Tripodo, C; Colombo, M P

    2011-02-17

    c-Kit tyrosine kinase receptor and its ligand stem cell factor have multiple functions during development, whereas in adulthood they are mostly needed for stem cell (SC) maintenance and mast cell (MC) biology. c-Kit plays an essential tumor-cell-intrinsic role in many types of cancer, either providing the tumorigenic force when aberrantly activated or conferring stem-like features characterizing the most aggressive variants. A tumor-cell-extrinsic role occurs through c-Kit-dependent accessory cells (such as MCs) that infiltrate tumors and deeply influence their progression. c-Kit-targeted therapy with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) may ideally work against both tumor and stromal cells. Here, we summarize the tumor-intrinsic and -extrinsic roles of c-Kit in cancer and discuss TKIs with their on- and off-targets, with a special emphasis on MCs as paradigmatic c-Kit-dependent accomplices for tumor progression.

  6. Identifying the role of typhoons as drought busters in South Korea based on hidden Markov chain models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jiyoung; Kwon, Hyun-Han; So, Byung-Jin; Rajagopalan, Balaji; Kim, Tae-Woong

    2015-04-01

    This study proposed a hidden Markov chain model-based drought analysis (HMM-DA) tool to understand the beginning and ending of meteorological drought and to further characterize typhoon-induced drought busters (TDB) by exploring spatiotemporal drought patterns in South Korea. It was found that typhoons have played a dominant role in ending drought events (EDE) during the typhoon season (July-September) over the last four decades (1974-2013). The percentage of EDEs terminated by TDBs was about 43-90% mainly along coastal regions in South Korea. Furthermore, the TDBs, mainly during summer, have a positive role in managing extreme droughts during the subsequent autumn and spring seasons. The HMM-DA models the temporal dependencies between drought states using Markov chain, consequently capturing the dependencies between droughts and typhoons well, thus, enabling a better performance in modeling spatiotemporal drought attributes compared to traditional methods.

  7. Novel Role for p21-activated Kinase 2 in Thrombin-induced Monocyte Migration*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadepalli, Ravisekhar; Kotla, Sivareddy; Heckle, Mark R.; Verma, Shailendra K.; Singh, Nikhlesh K.; Rao, Gadiparthi N.

    2013-01-01

    To understand the role of thrombin in inflammation, we tested its effects on migration of THP-1 cells, a human monocytic cell line. Thrombin induced THP-1 cell migration in a dose-dependent manner. Thrombin induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Pyk2, Gab1, and p115 RhoGEF, leading to Rac1- and RhoA-dependent Pak2 activation. Downstream to Pyk2, Gab1 formed a complex with p115 RhoGEF involving their pleckstrin homology domains. Furthermore, inhibition or depletion of Pyk2, Gab1, p115 RhoGEF, Rac1, RhoA, or Pak2 levels substantially attenuated thrombin-induced THP-1 cell F-actin cytoskeletal remodeling and migration. Inhibition or depletion of PAR1 also blocked thrombin-induced activation of Pyk2, Gab1, p115 RhoGEF, Rac1, RhoA, and Pak2, resulting in diminished THP-1 cell F-actin cytoskeletal remodeling and migration. Similarly, depletion of Gα12 negated thrombin-induced Pyk2, Gab1, p115 RhoGEF, Rac1, RhoA, and Pak2 activation, leading to attenuation of THP-1 cell F-actin cytoskeletal remodeling and migration. These novel observations reveal that thrombin induces monocyte/macrophage migration via PAR1-Gα12-dependent Pyk2-mediated Gab1 and p115 RhoGEF interactions, leading to Rac1- and RhoA-targeted Pak2 activation. Thus, these findings provide mechanistic evidence for the role of thrombin and its receptor PAR1 in inflammation. PMID:24025335

  8. MHC class I ligation of human T cells activates the ZAP70 and p56lck tyrosine kinases, leads to an alternative phenotype of the TCR/CD3 zeta-chain, and induces apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, S; Bregenholt, S; Claesson, Mogens Helweg

    1997-01-01

    after TCR/CD3 stimulation. The phosphorylation of ZAP70 after MHC-I ligation was dependent on TCR/CD3 surface expression. One of the natural substrates for ZAP70 is the zeta-chain dimer of the TCR/CD3 complex. MHC-I cross-linking induces a phosphorylated zeta-protein that migrates as a dimer at 42 k......Da in SDS-PAGE and differs from the 38-kDa phosphorylated zeta-protein dimer induced by TCR/CD3 cross-linking. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the p56lck tyrosine kinase is tyrosine phosphorylated following MHC-I ligation, and that a p56lck-negative Jurkat T cell mutant does not induce phosphorylation...

  9. Innovation in vegetable seed production and the role of consumers in the organic and conventional babyleaf chains: The case of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise Christina

    2011-01-01

    , aspects of preference for local vegetable products were investigated. The methodological approach has been in the form of two questionnaires presented to consumers in two different chain structures, an industrialized chain (linking actors from ‘farm to fork’) and an alternative chain where organic produce...... step in the babyleaf chain. Dialog among the actors in the chain is essential to meet the consumer demands from both a conventional and an organic perspective. The role of organic seed in organic vegetable productions is discussed....

  10. A Murine Model for Human ECO Syndrome Reveals a Critical Role of Intestinal Cell Kinase in Skeletal Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Mengmeng; Jin, Li; Xie, Lin; Park, So Hyun; Tong, Yixin; Wu, Di; Chhabra, A Bobby; Fu, Zheng; Li, Xudong

    2017-11-02

    An autosomal-recessive inactivating mutation R272Q in the human intestinal cell kinase (ICK) gene caused profound multiplex developmental defects in human endocrine-cerebro-osteodysplasia (ECO) syndrome. ECO patients exhibited a wide variety of skeletal abnormalities, yet the underlying mechanisms by which ICK regulates skeletal development remained largely unknown. The goal of this study was to understand the structural and mechanistic basis underlying skeletal anomalies caused by ICK dysfunction. Ick R272Q knock-in transgenic mouse model not only recapitulated major ECO skeletal defects such as short limbs and polydactyly but also revealed a deformed spine with defective intervertebral disk. Loss of ICK function markedly reduced mineralization in the spinal column, ribs, and long bones. Ick mutants showed a significant decrease in the proliferation zone of long bones and the number of type X collagen-expressing hypertrophic chondrocytes in the spinal column and the growth plate of long bones. These results implicate that ICK plays an important role in bone and cartilage development by promoting chondrocyte proliferation and maturation. Our findings provided new mechanistic insights into the skeletal phenotype of human ECO and ECO-like syndromes.

  11. Beyond Oncogenesis: The Role of S-Phase Kinase-Associated Protein-2 (SKP2 In Vascular Restenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yih-Jer Wu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The clinical benefits of percutaneous coronary intervention, the most prevalent procedure nowadays for the treatment of symptomatic coronary artery disease, are frequently offset by the occurrence of vascular restenosis. Although the introduction of drug-eluting stents has significantly reduced restenotic rates, the rare, but potentially fatal, delayed thrombosis remains a clinical threat. Further refinement of the drug-eluting stent based on a better understanding of cell cycle regulation between the vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC and endothelial cell (EC is required. In this review, we discuss the role of S-phase kinase-associated protein-2 (Skp2, previously known as an oncoprotein, in the regulation of VSMC proliferation and its signaling axis. The currently available evidence suggests that the Rac1-Skp2-p27Kip1 signaling axis acts as a common final pathway for many factors that regulate VSMC proliferation, such as growth factors, extracellular matrices and cyclic nucleotides. Importantly, although EC proliferation is also shown to be regulated by the same axis, cAMP seems to regulate this axis differentially between VSMC and EC, rendering the underlying mechanism of this differential regulation a promising target for the development of a new generation of drug-eluting stent.

  12. Evidence for a role of mitogen-activated protein kinases in the treatment of experimental acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irrera, Natasha; Bitto, Alessandra; Interdonato, Monica; Squadrito, Francesco; Altavilla, Domenica

    2014-11-28

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is an inflammatory disease characterized by acute inflammation and necrosis of the pancreatic parenchyma. AP is often associated with organ failure, sepsis, and high mortality. The pathogenesis of AP is still not well understood. In recent years several papers have highlighted the cellular and molecular events of acute pancreatitis. Pancreatitis is initiated by activation of digestive enzymes within the acinar cells that are involved in autodigestion of the gland, followed by a massive infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages and release of inflammatory mediators, responsible for the local and systemic inflammatory response. The hallmark of AP is parenchymal cell necrosis that represents the cause of the high morbidity and mortality, so that new potential therapeutic approaches are indispensable for the treatment of patients at high risk of complications. However, not all factors that determine the onset and course of the disease have been explained. Aim of this article is to review the role of mitogen-activated protein kinases in pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis.

  13. Role of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK) in excitation-contraction coupling in the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Lars S; Bers, Donald M

    2007-03-01

    Calcium (Ca(2+)) is the central second messenger in the translation of electrical signals into mechanical activity of the heart. This highly coordinated process, termed excitation-contraction coupling or ECC, is based on Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). In recent years it has become increasingly clear that several Ca(2+)-dependent proteins contribute to the fine tuning of ECC. One of these is the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK) of which CaMKII is the predominant cardiac isoform. During ECC CaMKII phosphorylates several Ca(2+) handling proteins with multiple functional consequences. CaMKII may also be co-localized to distinct target proteins. CaMKII expression as well as activity are reported to be increased in heart failure and CaMKII overexpression can exert distinct and novel effects on ECC in the heart and in isolated myocytes of animals. In the present review we summarize important aspects of the role of CaMKII in ECC with an emphasis on recent novel findings.

  14. Evalution of oxidative stress in diabetic animals by in vivo electron spin resonance measurement--role of protein kinase C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonta, Toshiyo; Inoguchi, Toyoshi; Tsubouchi, Hirotaka; Sekiguchi, Naotaka; Kobayashi, Kunihisa; Matsumoto, Shingo; Utsumi, Hideo; Nawata, Hajime

    2004-12-01

    Enhanced oxidative stress may be an important contributor to the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular complication. Although hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress in diabetes has been well documented, exact source in vivo remains to be elucidated. Here we report a role of protein kinase C (PKC) in oxidative stress in diabetic animals using a technique of in vivo electron spin resonance (ESR) measurement that has been developed for direct and non-invasive analysis of free radical generation in living animals. First, using this measurement, we confirmed that streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats which showed a significant increase in free radical generation, which was restored by alpha-tocopherol treatment. Treatment of PKC inhibitor CGP41251 (50 mg/kg) or NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitor apocynin (5 mg/kg) restored the increased free radical generation in those diabetic animals. In conclusion, the present study provided the evidence that PKC-dependent activation of vascular NAD(P)H oxidase may be a major source in enhanced oxidative stress in diabetes in vivo. This may contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular complications.

  15. Monosodium glutamate neurotoxicity increases beta amyloid in the rat hippocampus: a potential role for cyclic AMP protein kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dief, Abeer E; Kamha, Eman S; Baraka, Azza M; Elshorbagy, Amany K

    2014-05-01

    Glutamate excitotoxicity and cyclic AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) are both recognized as important mediators in neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD). To investigate whether oral or subcutaneous monosodium glutamate (MSG) neurotoxicity mimics some features of AD and whether these can be reversed by the AMPK activator Pioglitazone. Male Wistar rats aged 5 weeks were administered oral or subcutaneous MSG for 10 days with or without daily oral Pioglitazone. Two additional groups given only saline orally or subcutaneously acted as controls. At age 10 weeks the rats were subjected to neurobehavioral testing, then sacrificed for measurement of AMPK, β-amyloid and Fas ligand in the hippocampus. Oral and subcutaneous MSG both induced a lowering of hippocampal AMPK by 43% and 31% respectively (P2-fold increase in hippocampal Fas ligand, a mediator of apoptosis (P4-fold and >5-fold in the oral and subcutaneous groups. This was associated with increased latency before crossing to the white half in the black-white alley and before the first rear in the holeboard test, suggesting increased anxiety. Pioglitazone decreased hippocampal β-amyloid accumulation and Fas ligand, but did not ameliorate the neurobehavioural deficits induced by MSG. MSG treatment enhances β-amyloid accumulation in the rat hippocampus. Our results suggest a role for AMPK reduction in mediating the neurotoxic effects of glutamate, including β-amyloid accumulation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Genome-wide survey indicates diverse physiological roles of the barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) calcium-dependent protein kinase genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yunqiang; Wang, Qiuli; Chen, Qian; Yin, Xin; Qian, Min; Sun, Xudong; Yang, Yongping

    2017-07-13

    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) are crucial calcium sensors that play important roles in the regulation of plant growth and developmental processes, as well as protective responses to environmental stress. Here, we identified 28 CDPK genes from barley and cloned 5 new, full-length CDPK genes, MLOC_58648a, MLOC_19618a, MLOC_71733a, AK249361a and MLOC_4965a, using their expressed sequence tags. Phylogenetic and gene structural analyses revealed that the CDPK could be divided into four subgroups. Significant site-specific altered constraints and a high evolutionary rate may have contributed to the functional divergences among CDPK gene subfamilies. Expression profiles of different tissues and developmental stages suggested that several CDPK genes are involved in the functional development of plants. Different expression levels under a variety of abiotic stresses also indicated that the CDPK family underwent functional divergence during long-term evolution. Furthermore, several CDPK genes responded to single treatments and individual CDPK genes responded to multiple treatments, suggesting that barley CDPKs may be involved in mediating cross-talk among different signalling pathways. Our data provide an important foundation for the functional and evolutionary analyses of this important gene family in barley.

  17. Serum- and Glucocorticoid-Inducible Kinase-1 (SGK-1 Plays a Role in Membrane Trafficking in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Zhu

    Full Text Available The mammalian serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase SGK1 regulates the endocytosis of ion channels. Here we report that in C. elegans sgk-1 null mutants, GFP-tagged MIG-14/Wntless, the sorting receptor of Wnt, failed to localize to the basolateral membrane of intestinal cells; instead, it was mis-sorted to lysosomes. This effect can be explained in part by altered sphingolipid levels, because reducing glucosylceramide biosynthesis restored the localization of MIG-14::GFP. Membrane traffic was not perturbed in general, as no obvious morphological defects were detected for early endosomes, the Golgi apparatus, and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER in sgk-1 null animals. The recycling of MIG-14/Wntless through the Golgi might be partially responsible for the observed phenotype because the subcellular distribution of two plasma membrane cargoes that do not recycle through the trans-Golgi network (TGN was affected to a lesser degree. Consistently, knockdown of the ArfGEF gbf-1 altered the distribution of SGK-1 at the basolateral membrane of intestinal cells. In addition, we found that sgk-1(RNAi induced unfolded protein response in the ER, suggesting at least an indirect role of SGK-1 early in the secretory pathway. We propose that SGK-1 function is required for lipid homeostasis and that it acts at different intracellular trafficking steps.

  18. The role of food standards on international trade: assessing the Brazilian beef chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Marques Vieira

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to identify how Brazilian beef managers have responded to a rapid expansion and intensification of standards for beef exports. This issue relates to how some Brazilian beef exporters are strategically repositioning themselves in the supply chains. The literature of this study reviews global chain governance and international standards. The method uses case studies consisting of six medium and large scale beef exporters who export fresh beef to the European Union. The main findings describe the kinds of governance that stimulate upgrading and transferral of the best practices and, consequently, full compliance with mandatory standards. This study suggests that standards do matter for companies trying to increase international competitiveness. These results contribute an understanding of the Brazilian beef chain, and also of other supply chains coping with demanding and changing international markets. Managerial implications show the challengesfacing Brazilian beef exporters in their efforts to sustain exports to the European Union and how they are using chain governance to improve their compliance with international standards and increase competitiveness.

  19. Role of the Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase-Akt-Mammalian Target of the Rapamycin Signaling Pathway in Long-Term Potentiation and Trace Fear Conditioning Memory in Rat Medial Prefrontal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Li; Wang, Jing; Li, Bao-Ming

    2008-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and its downstream targets, including Akt (also known as protein kinase B, PKB), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), the 70-kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6k), and the eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E)-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1), may play important roles in long-term synaptic plasticity and memory in many…

  20. Roles of syndecan-4 and relative kinases in dorsal root ganglion neuron adhesion and mechanotransduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Jou; Lu, Kung-Wen; Chen, Wei-Hsin; Cheng, Chao-Min; Lin, Yi-Wen

    2015-04-10

    Mechanical stimuli elicit a biological response and initiate complex physiological processes, including neural feedback schemes associated with senses such as pain, vibration, touch, and hearing. The syndecans (SDCs), a group of adhesion receptors, can modulate adhesion and organize the extracellular matrix (ECM). In this study, we cultured dorsal root ganglia (DRG) on controlled polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates coated with poly-l-lysine (poly) or fibronectin (FN) to investigate cell adhesion and mechanotransduction mechanisms by mechanical stretching on PDMS using DRG neurons. Our results demonstrated that neuronal density, neurite length, and neurite branching were lower in the PDMS group and could be further reversed through activating SDC-4 by FN. The expression of the SDC-4 pathway decreased but with increased pPKCα in the PDMS-poly group. After mechanical stretching, pPKCα-FAKpTyr397-pERK1/2 expression was increased in both poly- and FN-coated PDMS. These results indicate that SDC4-pPKCα-FAKpTyr397-pERK1/2 may play a crucial role in DRG adhesion and mechanotransduction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Critical role of glycogen synthase kinase-3β in regulating the avian heterophil response to Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eKogut

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A microarray-assisted gene expression screen of chicken heterophils revealed glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β, a multifunctional Ser/Thr kinase, to be consistently up-regulated 30-180 min following stimulation with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis. The present study was designed to delineate the role of GSK-3β in regulating the innate function of chicken heterophils in response to S. Enteritidis exposure. Using a specific GSK-3β ELISA assay, 30 min after infection with S. Enteritidis, heterophils had a significant decrease in total GSK-3β, but a significant increase in phosphorylated GSK-3 (Ser9. By 60 min post-infection, there was no difference in the amount of phosphorylated GSK-3β (Ser9 in either the uninfected and infected heterophils. S. Enteritidis interaction with heterophils alters GSK-3 activity by stimulating phosphorylation at Ser9 and that peaks by 30 min post-infection. Further, inhibition of GSK3β with lithium chloride resulted in a significant decrease in NF-κB activation and expression of IL-6, but induces a significant increase in the expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10. Using a phospho-specific antibody array confirmed the phosphorylation of GSK-3β (Ser9 as well as the phosphorylation of the downstream cytokine-activated intracellular signaling pathway involved in stimulating immune responses, IκB, the IκB subunit IKK-β, and the NF-κB subunits p105, p65, and c-Rel. Our data revealed that the phosphorylation of GSK-3β (Ser9 is responsible for inducing and controlling an innate response to the bacteria. Our findings suggest that the repression of GSK-3 activity is beneficial to the host cell and may act as a target for treatment in controlling intestinal colonization in chickens. Further experiments will define the in vivo modulation of GSK-3 as a potential alternative to antibiotics in salmonella and other intestinal bacterial infections.

  2. Dynamic changes in neurexins' alternative splicing: role of Rho-associated protein kinases and relevance to memory formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Rozic

    Full Text Available The three neurexins genes (NRXN1/2/3 encode polymorphic synaptic membrane proteins that are involved in cognitive functioning. Neurexins' selectivity of function is presumably conferred through differential use of 2 promoters and 5 alternative splicing sites (SS#1/2/3/4/5. In day-old rat brain neurons grown in culture, activation (depolarization induces reversible, calcium dependent, repression of NRXN2α SS#3 insert. The effects of depolarization on NRXN1/2/3α splicing and biochemical pathways mediating them were further studied in these neurons. NRXN1/2/3α splicing in the course of memory formation in vivo was also explored, using fear conditioning paradigm in rats in which the animals were trained to associate an aversive stimulus (electrical shock with a neutral context (a tone, resulting in the expression of fear responses to the neutral context.In the cultured neurons depolarization induced, beside NRXN2α SS#3, repression of SS#3 and SS#4 exons in NRXN3α but not NRXN1α. The repressions were mediated by the calcium/protein kinase C/Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK pathway. Fear conditioning induced significant and transient repressions of the NRXN1/2/3α SS#4 exons in the rat hippocampus. ROCK inhibition prior to training attenuated the behavioral fear response, the NRXN1/2/3α splicing repressions and subsequent recovery and the levels of excitatory (PSD95 and inhibitory (gephyrin synaptic proteins in the hippocampus. No such effects were observed in the prefrontal cortex. Significant correlations existed between the fear response and hippocampal NRXN3α and NRXN2α SS#4 inserts as well as PSD95 protein levels. Hippocampal NRXN1α SS#4 insert and gephyrin levels did not correlate with the behavioral response but were negatively correlated with each other.These results show for the first time dynamic, experience related changes in NRXN1/2/3α alternative splicing in the rat brain and a role for ROCK in them. Specific neurexins

  3. The central role of AMP-kinase and energy homeostasis impairment in Alzheimer's disease: a multifactor network analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Caberlotto

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia worldwide, affecting the elderly population. It is characterized by the hallmark pathology of amyloid-β deposition, neurofibrillary tangle formation, and extensive neuronal degeneration in the brain. Wealth of data related to Alzheimer's disease has been generated to date, nevertheless, the molecular mechanism underlying the etiology and pathophysiology of the disease is still unknown. Here we described a method for the combined analysis of multiple types of genome-wide data aimed at revealing convergent evidence interest that would not be captured by a standard molecular approach. Lists of Alzheimer-related genes (seed genes were obtained from different sets of data on gene expression, SNPs, and molecular targets of drugs. Network analysis was applied for identifying the regions of the human protein-protein interaction network showing a significant enrichment in seed genes, and ultimately, in genes associated to Alzheimer's disease, due to the cumulative effect of different combinations of the starting data sets. The functional properties of these enriched modules were characterized, effectively considering the role of both Alzheimer-related seed genes and genes that closely interact with them. This approach allowed us to present evidence in favor of one of the competing theories about AD underlying processes, specifically evidence supporting a predominant role of metabolism-associated biological process terms, including autophagy, insulin and fatty acid metabolic processes in Alzheimer, with a focus on AMP-activated protein kinase. This central regulator of cellular energy homeostasis regulates a series of brain functions altered in Alzheimer's disease and could link genetic perturbation with neuronal transmission and energy regulation, representing a potential candidate to be targeted by therapy.

  4. Regulation of energy metabolism during social interactions in rainbow trout: a role for AMP-activated protein kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmour, K M; Craig, P M; Dhillon, R S; Lau, G Y; Richards, J G

    2017-11-01

    Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) confined in pairs form social hierarchies in which subordinate fish typically experience fasting and high circulating cortisol levels, resulting in low growth rates. The present study investigated the role of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in mediating metabolic adjustments associated with social status in rainbow trout. After 3 days of social interaction, liver AMPK activity was significantly higher in subordinate than dominant or sham (fish handled in the same fashion as paired fish but held individually) trout. Elevated liver AMPK activity in subordinate fish likely reflected a significantly higher ratio of phosphorylated AMPK (phospho-AMPK) to total AMPK protein, which was accompanied by significantly higher AMPKα1 relative mRNA abundance. Liver ATP and creatine phosphate concentrations in subordinate fish also were elevated, perhaps as a result of AMPK activity. Sham fish that were fasted for 3 days exhibited effects parallel to those of subordinate fish, suggesting that low food intake was an important trigger of elevated AMPK activity in subordinate fish. Effects on white muscle appeared to be influenced by the physical activity associated with social interaction. Overall, muscle AMPK activity was significantly higher in dominant and subordinate than sham fish. The ratio of phospho-AMPK to total AMPK protein in muscle was highest in subordinate fish, while muscle AMPKα1 relative mRNA abundance was elevated by social dominance. Muscle ATP and creatine phosphate concentrations were high in dominant and subordinate fish at 6 h of interaction and decreased significantly thereafter. Collectively, the findings of the present study support a role for AMPK in mediating liver and white muscle metabolic adjustments associated with social hierarchy formation in rainbow trout. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Role of mitogen-activated protein kinases in tauroursodeoxycholic acid-induced bile formation in cholestatic rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denk, Gerald Ulrich; Hohenester, Simon; Wimmer, Ralf; Böhland, Claudia; Rust, Christian; Beuers, Ulrich

    2008-07-01

    Ursodeoxycholic acid exerts anticholestatic effects in various cholestatic disorders and experimental models of cholestasis. Its taurine conjugate (TUDCA) stimulates bile salt secretion in isolated perfused rat livers (IPRL) under physiological, non-cholestatic conditions, in part by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-dependent mechanisms. The role of MAPK in the anticholestatic effect of TUDCA, however, is unclear. Therefore, we studied the role of MAPK in the anticholestatic effect of TUDCA in IPRL and isolated rat hepatocytes (IRH) in taurolithocholic acid (TLCA)-induced cholestasis. Bile flow, biliary levels of 2,4-dinitrophenyl-S-glutathione (GS-DNP) as a marker of hepatobiliary organic anion secretion and activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in hepatovenous effluate as a marker of hepatocellular damage in IPRL perfused with TUDCA and/or TLCA were determined in the presence or absence of MAPK inhibitors. In addition, phosphorylation of Erk 1/2 and p38(MAPK) induced by TUDCA and/or TLCA was studied by Western immunoblot in IPRL and IRH. TUDCA-induced bile flow was impaired by the Erk 1/2 inhibitor PD98059 in normal livers (-28%), but not in livers made cholestatic by TLCA. GS-DNP secretion was unaffected by PD98059 under both conditions. TUDCA-induced bile formation and organic anion secretion both in the presence and absence of TLCA were unaffected by the p38(MAPK) inhibitor SB202190. Erk 1/2 phosphorylation in liver tissue was unchanged after bile salt exposure for 70 min, but was transiently enhanced by TUDCA in IRH. MAPK do not mediate the anticholestatic effects of TUDCA in TLCA-induced cholestasis.

  6. Dipeptidyl peptidase 9 subcellular localization and a role in cell adhesion involving focal adhesion kinase and paxillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Chen, Yiqian; Wadham, Carol; McCaughan, Geoffrey W; Keane, Fiona M; Gorrell, Mark D

    2015-02-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase 9 (DPP9) is a ubiquitously expressed member of the DPP4 gene and protease family. Deciphering the biological functions of DPP9 and its roles in pathogenesis has implicated DPP9 in tumor biology, the immune response, apoptosis, intracellular epidermal growth factor-dependent signaling and cell adhesion and migration. We investigated the intracellular distribution of DPP9 chimeric fluorescent proteins and consequent functions of DPP9. We showed that while some DPP9 is associated with mitochondria, the strongest co-localization was with microtubules. Under steady state conditions, DPP9 was not seen at the plasma membrane, but upon stimulation with either phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate or epidermal growth factor, some DPP9 re-distributed towards the ruffling membrane. DPP9 was seen at the leading edge of the migrating cell and co-localized with the focal adhesion proteins, integrin-β1 and talin. DPP9 gene silencing and treatment with a DPP8/DPP9 specific inhibitor both reduced cell adhesion and migration. Expression of integrin-β1 and talin was decreased in DPP9-deficient and DPP9-enzyme-inactive cells. There was a concomitant decrease in the phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase and paxillin, indicating that DPP9 knockdown or enzyme inhibition suppressed the associated adhesion signaling pathway, causing impaired cell movement. These novel findings provide mechanistic insights into the regulatory role of DPP9 in cell movement, and may thus implicate DPP9 in tissue and tumor growth and metastasis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Identification of the glycerol kinase gene and its role in diapause embryo restart and early embryo development of Artemia sinica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Cheng; Yao, Feng; Chu, Bing; Li, Xuejie; Liu, Yan; Wu, Yang; Mei, Yanli; Wang, Peisheng; Hou, Lin; Zou, Xiangyang

    2014-03-01

    Glycerol kinase (GK) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in glycerol utilization by transferring a phosphate from ATP to glycerol, yielding glycerol 3-phosphate, which is an important intermediate for both energy metabolism and glycerolipid production. Artemia sinica has an unusual diapause process under stress conditions of high salinity, low temperature and lack of food. In the process, diapause embryos of A. sinica (brine shrimp) accumulate high concentrations of glycerol as a cryoprotectant to prevent low temperature damage to embryos. Upon embryo restart, glycerol is converted into glucose and other carbohydrates. Therefore, GK plays an important role in the diapause embryo restart process. However, the role of GK in diapause termination of embryo development in A. sinica remains unknown. In the present study, a 2096 bp full-length cDNA of gk from A. sinica (As-gk) was obtained, encoding putative 551 amino acids, 60.6 kDa protein. As a crucial enzyme in glycerol uptake and metabolism, GK has been conserved structurally and functionally during evolution. The expression pattern of As-gk was investigated by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting. Expression locations of As-gk were analyzed using in situ hybridization. As-gk was widely distributed in the early embryo and several main parts of Artemia after differentiation. The expression of As-GK was also induced by stresses such as cold exposure and high salinity. This initial research into the expression pattern and stress response of GK in Artemia provides a sound basis for further understanding of the function and regulation of genes in early embryonic development in A. sinica and the stress response. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Role of mitogen activated protein kinases in skin tumorigenicity of Patulin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxena, Neha; Ansari, Kausar M.; Kumar, Rahul; Chaudhari, Bhushan P.; Dwivedi, Premendra D.; Das, Mukul, E-mail: mditrc@rediffmail.com

    2011-12-15

    WHO has highlighted the need to evaluate dermal toxicity of mycotoxins including Patulin (PAT), detected in several fruits. In this study the skin carcinogenic potential of topically applied PAT was investigated. Single topical application of PAT (400 nmol) showed enhanced cell proliferation ({approx} 2 fold), along with increased generation of ROS and activation of ERK, p38 and JNK MAPKs, in mouse skin. PAT exposure also showed activation of downstream target proteins, c-fos, c-Jun and NF-{kappa}B transcription factors. Further, single topical application of PAT (400 nmol) followed by twice weekly application of TPA resulted in tumor formation after 14 weeks, indicating the tumor initiating activity of PAT. However no tumors were observed when PAT was used either as a complete carcinogen (80 nmol) or as a tumor promoter (20 nmol and 40 nmol) for 25 weeks. Histopathological findings of tumors found in PAT/TPA treated mice showed that these tumors were of squamous cell carcinoma type and similar to those found in the positive control group (DMBA/TPA) along with significant increase of lipid peroxidation and decrease in free sulfydryls, catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase activities. The results suggest the possible role of free radicals in PAT mediated dermal tumorigenicity involving MAPKs. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Single topical application of Patulin showed enhanced cell proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Patulin activate MAPKs, c-fos, c-Jun and NF-{kappa}B transcription factors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Patulin showed skin tumor initiating potential. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We could not detect skin tumor promoting potential of Patulin at the tested dose. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer However prolonged exposure of Patulin at a higher dose may promote tumor.

  9. Exploring single chain amphiphile self-assembly and their possible roles in light transduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monnard, Pierre-Alain

    2011-01-01

    source studied to date can supply one single type of amphiphile at concentrations conducive to self-assembly. Mixtures of single-chain amphiphiles were therefore proposed to better model primitive membranes and potentially enhance their structural integrity1-3. Recently, we have established that complex...

  10. The Role of Multi-Institutional Partnerships in Supply Chain Management Course Design and Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Suzanna; Moos, J. Chris; Radic, Anne Bartel

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the skills achieved through a multicultural, virtual student project environment among 3 supply chain management courses. The partnership included 2 universities in the United States and 1 in France and created virtual teams of students across university lines and is presented as a case study. The case includes detailed…

  11. Proactive environmental strategy in a supply chain context: The mediating role of investments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Ateş (Melek); J.M. Bloemhof-Ruwaard (Jacqueline); E.M. van Raaij (Erik); J.Y.F. Wynstra (Finn)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAbstract: There is a growing body of knowledge on the link between environmental management and supply chain management, but there is contradicting evidence on the impact of a proactive environmental strategy on environmental performance. Therefore, this paper investigates the impact of

  12. Hardwood supply chain and the role of log brokers in 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iris Montague; Adrienn Andersch; Jan Wiedenbeck; Urs. Buehlmann

    2013-01-01

    The recent economic crisis has greatly affected how companies conduct business. To be competitive, companies had to make changes to their product lines, distribution channels, marketing, and overall business strategies. This study was conducted to describe and analyze the log supply component of the hardwood forest products distribution chain and to investigate changes...

  13. Role of supply chain management in the wise use of wood resources

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the cornerstones of sustainable forestry is the wise use of wood resources to achieve maximum value or benefit for society, while not jeopardizing the future. At the same time forest companies must compete on an international scale, otherwise they themselves risk becoming non-sustainable. Supply chain ...

  14. Diabetes Mellitus and Increased Tuberculosis Susceptibility: The Role of Short-Chain Fatty Acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lachmandas, E.L.; Heuvel, C.N.A.M. van den; Damen, M.S.M.A.; Cleophas, M.C.P.; Netea, M.G.; Crevel, R. van

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus confers a threefold increased risk for tuberculosis, but the underlying immunological mechanisms are still largely unknown. Possible mediators of this increased susceptibility are short-chain fatty acids, levels of which have been shown to be altered in individuals with

  15. Reverse and closed loop supply chain coordination by considering government role

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydari, Jafar; Govindan, Kannan; Jafari, Amin

    2017-01-01

    Due to the increasing number of end-of-life (EOL) products and their related environmental concerns, much attention has been paid to reverse logistics. In this paper, we consider a two-echelon reverse supply chain (RSC) with one manufacturer and one retailer who try to improve sustainable...

  16. Understanding Alternative Food Networks: Exploring the Role of Food Supply Chains in Rural Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renting, H.; Marsden, T.; Banks, J.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we explore the development and incidence of alternative food networks within a European-wide context. By developing a consistent definition of short food supply chains, we address both the morphology and the dynamics of these, and then examine empirical evidence concerning their

  17. The role of food chain traceability in food risk mitigation: expert and consumer outlook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frewer, L.J.; Kher, S.V.

    2009-01-01

    The European Union has enforced mandatory traceability for food business operators for effective monitoring and management of risks associated with food and feed chains. The implementation of such a system needs to take account of stakeholder priorities and expectations. Expert stakeholders (such as

  18. Human pre-B cell receptor signal transduction: evidence for distinct roles of PI3kinase and MAP-kinase signalling pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbazhagan, Kolandaswamy; Rabbind Singh, Amrathlal; Isabelle, Piec; Stella, Ibata; Céline, Alleaume-De Martel; Bissac, Eliane; Bertrand, Brassart; Rémy, Nyga; Naomi, Taylor; Vincent, Fuentes; Rochette, Jacques; Lassoued, Kaïss

    2013-01-01

    Pre-BCR acts as a critical checkpoint in B cell development. However, its signalling cascade still remains indistinctly characterised in human. We investigated pre-BCR signalling pathway to examine its regulation in normal primary pre-B lymphocytes and pre-B cell lines. In cell lines, early signalling events occurring after pre-BCR stimulation include phosphorylation of Lyn, Blk and Syk together with ZAP70, Btk, Vav, PLC-γ2 and various adaptor proteins, such as BLNK, LAB, LAT and SLP-76. Further downstream, these molecules induced activation of the PI3K/AKT and MAP-kinase resulting in an augmentation of canonical NF-κB pathways and cFos/AP1 activation. PI3K and MAPK exerted opposing effects on the pre-BCR-induced activation of the canonical NF-κB and c-Fos/AP1 pathways. Immediate nuclear export of FoxO3A and delayed import of IRF4 were additional events observed after pre-BCR crosslinking in primary cells. Pre-BCR-induced down-regulation of Rag1, Rag2, E2A and Pax5 transcripts occurred in a PI3K-dependent manner. Finally we bring evidence that pre-BCR stimulation or co stimulation with CD19 enhances cell cycle signal. PMID:25400915

  19. Role of Src Kinases in Mobilization of Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-Anchored Decay-Accelerating Factor by Dr Fimbria-Positive Adhering Bacteria ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queval, Christophe J.; Nicolas, Valérie; Beau, Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    Afa/Dr fimbriae constitute the major virulence factor of diffusely adhering Escherichia coli (Afa/Dr DAEC). After recognizing membrane-bound signaling receptors, they trigger cell responses. One of these receptors is the human decay-accelerating factor (hDAF). It has previously been reported that the binding of Afa/Dr fimbriae to hDAF quickly induces recruitment of hDAF around adhering bacteria. The aim of our study is to analyze the role of Src kinases in the Dr fimbria-induced recruitment of hDAF. Using biochemical methods and confocal microscopy followed by 3-dimensional (3D) analysis, we have shown that the activation and cell membrane targeting of Src kinases are necessary for the recruitment and organization of hDAF around adhering bacteria. We identified c-Src to be the specific kinase involved in this process. Using a set of Src-green fluorescent protein mutants, we showed that the catalytic activity and the Src homology 2 (SH2) and SH3 domains of the Src kinases are necessary for Dr fimbria-induced hDAF mobilization to occur. In addition, using mutated Dr fimbriae and a set of mutated hDAFs in which each of the complement control protein (CCP) domains had successively been deleted, we found that the aspartic acids at position 54 in the Dr fimbriae and in CCP domain 4 of hDAF played pivotal roles in the mobilization of the Src kinases and hDAF, respectively. PMID:21518786

  20. Role of guanosine kinase in the utilization of guanosine for nucleotide synthesis in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hove-Jensen, Bjarne; Nygaard, Per

    1989-01-01

    Using purine auxotrophic strains of Escherichia coli with additional genetic lesions in the pathways of interconversion and salvage of purine compounds, we demonstrated the in vivo function of guanosine kinase and inosine kinase. Mutants with increased ability to utilize guanosine were isolated b...... a purF, a purL or a purM mutation. A revised map location of the gsk gene is presented and the gene order established as proC-acrA-apt-adk-gsk-purE....

  1. PI3-kinase cascade has a differential role in acquisition and extinction of conditioned fear memory in juvenile and adult rats

    OpenAIRE

    Slouzkey, Ilana; Maroun, Mouna

    2016-01-01

    The basolateral amygdala (BLA), medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) circuit, plays a crucial role in acquisition and extinction of fear memory. Extinction of aversive memories is mediated, at least in part, by the phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway in adult rats. There is recent interest in the neural mechanisms that mediate fear and extinction in juvenile animals and whether these mechanisms are distinctive from those in adult animals. In the present study, we examined (1) changes in p...

  2. Evidence of a New Role for the High-Osmolarity Glycerol Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathway in Yeast: Regulating Adaptation to Citric Acid Stress†

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence, Clare L.; Botting, Catherine H.; Antrobus, Robin; Coote, Peter J.

    2004-01-01

    Screening the Saccharomyces cerevisiae disruptome, profiling transcripts, and determining changes in protein expression have identified an important new role for the high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG) mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in the regulation of adaptation to citric acid stress. Deletion of HOG1, SSK1, PBS2, PTC2, PTP2, and PTP3 resulted in sensitivity to citric acid. Furthermore, citric acid resulted in the dual phosphorylation, and thus activation, of Hog1p. Despite mino...

  3. Colletotrichum higginsianum Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase ChMK1: Role in Growth, Cell Wall Integrity, Colony Melanization, and Pathogenicity

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Wei; Ying Xiong; Wenjun Zhu; Nancong Wang; Guogen Yang; Fang Peng

    2016-01-01

    Colletotrichum higginsianum is an economically important pathogen that causes anthracnose disease in a wide range of cruciferous crops. To facilitate the efficient control of anthracnose disease, it will be important to understand the mechanism by which the cruciferous crops and C. higginsianum interact. A key step in understanding this interaction is characterizing the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signaling pathway of C. higginsianum. MAPK plays important roles in diverse physiol...

  4. Role of the carbohydrate chain and two phosphate moieties in the heat-induced aggregation of hen ovalbumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Fumito; Shirai, Nobuaki; Nakanishi, Yukiko; Yasumoto, Kyoden; Kitabatake, Naofumi

    2004-12-01

    We investigated the effect of the carbohydrate chain and two phosphate moieties on heat-induced aggregation of hen ovalbumin. The dephosphorylated form of ovalbumin was obtained by treating the original protein with acid phosphatase. The single carbohydrate chain was removed by digestion of heat-denatured ovalbumin with glycopeptidase F, and the resulting polypeptide without this carbohydrate chain was correctly refolded to acquire protease-resistance. Thermal unfolding can be approximated by a mechanism involving a two-state transition between the folded and unfolded states with a midpoint temperature of 76 degrees C for the original form, of 74 degrees C for the dephosphorylated form, and of 71 degrees C for the carbohydrate-free form. The conformational stability of the original form was higher than that of the carbohydrate-free form. When the three forms of ovalbumin were heated to 80 degrees C and then cooled rapidly in an ice bath, the polypeptide chains were compactly collapsed to metastable intermediates with secondary structures whose properties were indistinguishable. Upon incubation at 60 degrees C, renaturation was possible for a large portion of the intermediates of the original form, but for only a small portion of those of the carbohydrate-free form. Light scattering experiments showed that in the presence of sulfate anions, the intermediates of the carbohydrate-free form aggregated to a greater extent than did those of the original form. The intermediates of the carbohydrate-free form bound to the chaperonin GroEL with about 10-fold higher affinity than those of the original form. It follows that the carbohydrate chain and the two phosphate moieties do not affect hydrophobic collapse in the kinetic refolding of hen ovalbumin but play an important role in the slow rearrangement. They block the off-pathway reaction that competes with correct refolding by effectively decreasing surface hydrophobicity.

  5. Ca2+ is required for phosphorylation of clam p82/CPEB in vitro: implications for dual and independent roles of MAP and Cdc2 kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsu, Y; Minshall, N; Nagahama, Y; Standart, N

    1999-05-01

    During early development gene expression is controlled principally at the translational level. Oocytes of the surf clam Spisula solidissima contain large stockpiles of maternal mRNAs which are translationally dormant or masked until meiotic maturation. Fertilisation of the oocyte leads to rapid polysomal recruitment of the abundant cyclin and ribonucleotide reductase mRNAs at about the time they undergo cytoplasmic polyadenylation. Clam p82, a 3' UTR RNA-binding protein, and a member of the CPEB (cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein) family, functions as a translational masking factor in oocytes and as a polyadenylation factor in fertilised eggs. In meiotically maturing clam oocytes, p82/CPEB is rapidly phosphorylated on multiple residues to a 92-kDa apparent size, prior to its degradation during the first cell cleavage. Here we examine the protein kinase(s) that phosphorylates clam p82/CPEB using a clam oocyte activation cell-free system that responds to elevated pH, mirroring the pH rise that accompanies fertilisation. We show that p82/CPEB phosphorylation requires Ca2+ (model of clam p82/CPEB phosphorylation in which MAP kinase initially phosphorylates clam p82/CPEB, at a minor subset of sites that does not alter its migration, and cdc2 kinase is necessary for the second wave of phosphorylation that results in the large mobility size shift of clam p82/CPEB. The possible roles of phosphorylation for the function and regulation of p82/CPEB are discussed. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  6. The Role of Short-Chain Conjugated Poly-(R-3-Hydroxybutyrate (cPHB in Protein Folding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosetta N. Reusch

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Poly-(R-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB, a linear polymer of R-3-hydroxybutyrate (R-3HB, is a fundamental constituent of biological cells. Certain prokaryotes accumulate PHB of very high molecular weight (10,000 to >1,000,000 residues, which is segregated within granular deposits in the cytoplasm; however, all prokaryotes and all eukaryotes synthesize PHB of medium-chain length (~100–200 residues which resides within lipid bilayers or lipid vesicles, and PHB of short-chain length (<12 residues which is conjugated to proteins (cPHB, primarily proteins in membranes and organelles. The physical properties of cPHB indicate it plays important roles in the targeting and folding of cPHB-proteins. Here we review the occurrence, physical properties and molecular characteristics of cPHB, and discuss its influence on the folding and structure of outer membrane protein A (OmpA of Escherichia coli.

  7. The Role of Short-Chain Conjugated Poly-(R)-3-Hydroxybutyrate (cPHB) in Protein Folding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reusch, Rosetta N.

    2013-01-01

    Poly-(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB), a linear polymer of R-3-hydroxybutyrate (R-3HB), is a fundamental constituent of biological cells. Certain prokaryotes accumulate PHB of very high molecular weight (10,000 to >1,000,000 residues), which is segregated within granular deposits in the cytoplasm; however, all prokaryotes and all eukaryotes synthesize PHB of medium-chain length (~100–200 residues) which resides within lipid bilayers or lipid vesicles, and PHB of short-chain length (<12 residues) which is conjugated to proteins (cPHB), primarily proteins in membranes and organelles. The physical properties of cPHB indicate it plays important roles in the targeting and folding of cPHB-proteins. Here we review the occurrence, physical properties and molecular characteristics of cPHB, and discuss its influence on the folding and structure of outer membrane protein A (OmpA) of Escherichia coli. PMID:23702844

  8. Conserved roles of CrRLK1L receptor-like kinases in cell expansion and reproduction from algae to angiosperms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Galindo Trigo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Receptor-like kinases (RLKs are regulators of plant development through allowing cells to sense their extracellular environment. They facilitate detection of local endogenous signals, in addition to external biotic and abiotic stimuli. The Catharanthus roseus RLK1-like (CrRLK1L protein kinase subfamily, which contains FERONIA, plays a central role in regulating fertilization and in cell expansion mechanisms such as cell elongation and tip growth, as well as having indirect links to plant-pathogen interactions. Several components of CrRLK1L signaling pathways have been identified, including an extracellular ligand, coreceptors and downstream signaling elements. The presence and abundance of the CrRLK1L proteins in the plant kingdom suggest an origin within the Streptophyta lineage, with a notable increase in prevalence in the seeded land plants. Given the function of the sole CrRLK1L protein in a charophycean alga, the possibility of a conserved role in detection and/or regulation of cell wall integrity throughout the Strephtophytes is discussed. Orthologs of signaling pathway components are also present in extant representatives of non-vascular land plants and early vascular land plants including the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha, the moss Physcomitrella patens and the lycophyte Selaginella moellendorffii. Deciphering the roles in development of the CrRLK1L protein kinases in early diverging land plants will provide insights into their ancestral function, furthering our understanding of this diversified subfamily of receptors in higher plants.

  9. Role of phospholemman phosphorylation sites in mediating kinase-dependent regulation of the Na+-K+-ATPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Fei; Bossuyt, Julie; Martin, Jody L; Despa, Sanda; Bers, Donald M

    2010-12-01

    Phospholemman (PLM) is a major target for phosphorylation mediated by both PKA (at Ser68) and PKC (at both Ser63 and Ser68) in the heart. In intact cardiac myocytes, PLM associates with and inhibits Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase (NKA), mainly by reducing its affinity for internal Na(+). The inhibition is relieved upon PLM phosphorylation by PKA or PKC. The aim here was to distinguish the role of the Ser63 and Ser68 PLM phosphorylation sites in mediating kinase-induced modulation of NKA function. We expressed wild-type (WT) PLM and S63A, S68A, and AA (Ser63 and Ser68 to alanine double mutant) PLM mutants in HeLa cells that stably express rat NKA-α(1) and we measured the effect of PKA and PKC activation on NKA-mediated intracellular Na(+) concentration decline. PLM expression (WT or mutant) significantly decreased the apparent NKA affinity for internal Na(+) and had no significant effect on the maximum pump rate (V(max)). PKA activation with forskolin (20 μM) restored NKA Na(+) affinity in cells expressing WT but not AA PLM and did not affect V(max) in either case. Similarly, PKC activation with 300 nM phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate increased NKA Na(+) affinity in cells expressing WT, S63A, and S68A PLM and had no effect in cells expressing AA PLM. Neither forskolin nor phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate affected NKA function in the absence of PLM. We conclude that PLM phosphorylation at either Ser63 or Ser68 is both necessary and sufficient for completely relieving the PLM-induced NKA inhibition.

  10. Induction of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 in the hippocampus by chronic electroconvulsive seizures: role of [Delta]FosB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J; Zhang, Y; Kelz, M B; Steffen, C; Ang, E S; Zeng, L; Nestler, E J

    2000-12-15

    The transcription factor DeltaFosB is induced in the hippocampus and other brain regions by repeated electroconvulsive seizures (ECS), an effective antidepressant treatment. The unusually high stability of this protein makes it an attractive candidate to mediate some of the long-lasting changes in the brain caused by ECS treatment. To understand how DeltaFosB might alter brain function, we examined the gene expression profiles in the hippocampus of inducible transgenic mice that express DeltaFosB in this brain region by the use of cDNA expression arrays that contain 588 genes. Of the 430 genes detected, 20 genes were consistently upregulated, and 14 genes were downregulated, by >50%. One of the upregulated genes is cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (cdk5). On the basis of its purported role in regulating neuronal structure, we studied directly whether cdk5 is a true target for DeltaFosB. Upregulation of cdk5 immunoreactivity in the hippocampus was confirmed by Western blotting in the DeltaFosB-expressing transgenic mice as well as in rats treated chronically with ECS. Chronic ECS treatment also increased, in the hippocampus, the phosphorylation state of tau, a microtubule-associated protein that is a known substrate for cdk5. A 1.6 kb fragment of the cdk5 promoter was cloned, and activity of the promoter was found to be increased after overexpression of DeltaFosB in cell culture. Moreover, mutation of the single consensus activator protein-1 site contained within the cdk5 promoter fragment completely abolished activation of the promoter by DeltaFosB. Together, these results suggest that cdk5 is one target by which DeltaFosB produces some of its physiological effects in the hippocampus and thereby mediates certain long-term consequences of chronic ECS treatment.

  11. Prostacyclin production in rat aortic smooth muscle cells: role of protein kinase C, phospholipase D and cyclooxygenase-2 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frias, Miguel A; Dubouloz, Frédérique; Rebsamen, Michela C; Lang, Ursula

    2003-11-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the role of protein kinase C (PKC) and phospholipase D (PLD) in angiotensin II (AngII)- and phorbol ester (PMA)-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression and prostacyclin (PGI(2)) production in rat aortic smooth muscle cells (VSMC). Prostacyclin production in cultured VSMC was determined by radioimmunoassay. PKC activity was examined by measuring the transfer of 32P from (gamma-32P)ATP to histone III-S. COX-2 expression was determined by Western blotting. To measure PLD activity, thin layer chromatography was used. AngII (50 nM) and PMA (100 nM) promoted the translocation of PKC activity from the cytosol to the membranes within 30 min, followed by a strong increase in PLD activity as well as COX-2 expression and PGI(2) production. After 48 h exposure to PMA, PKC was downregulated resulting in a complete suppression of its activity. PKC-downregulation and the PKC inhibitor CGP41251 abolished PMA- and AngII-induced PLD activation, suppressed the stimulatory effect of PMA on COX-2 expression and PGI(2) production and strongly inhibited that of AngII. Furthermore, AngII- and PMA-induced PGI(2) production depended on protein synthesis and COX-2 but not COX-1 activity. Inhibition of PLD-mediated phosphatidic acid (PA) formation by 1% 1-butanol abolished AngII-induced COX-2 expression and PGI(2) secretion, while dioctanoyl PA increased COX-2 expression and PGI(2) production in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Our results indicate that in VSMC, AngII promotes PGI(2) production to a large extent through a rise in COX-2 expression which is mediated by PA generated from increased PKC-dependent PLD activity.

  12. The role of discharge variation in scaling of drainage area and food chain length in rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabo, John L.; Finlay, Jacques C.; Kennedy, Theodore A.; Post, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Food chain length (FCL) is a fundamental component of food web structure. Studies in a variety of ecosystems suggest that FCL is determined by energy supply, environmental stability, and/or ecosystem size, but the nature of the relationship between environmental stability and FCL, and the mechanism linking ecosystem size to FCL, remain unclear. Here we show that FCL increases with drainage area and decreases with hydrologic variability and intermittency across 36 North American rivers. Our analysis further suggests that hydrologic variability is the mechanism underlying the correlation between ecosystem size and FCL in rivers. Ecosystem size lengthens river food chains by integrating and attenuating discharge variation through stream networks, thereby enhancing environmental stability in larger river systems.

  13. The role of bond tangency and bond gap in hard sphere crystallization of chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karayiannis, Nikos Ch; Foteinopoulou, Katerina; Laso, Manuel

    2015-03-07

    We report results from Monte Carlo simulations on dense packings of linear, freely-jointed chains of hard spheres of uniform size. In contrast to our past studies where bonded spheres along the chain backbone were tangent, in the present work a finite tolerance in the bond is allowed. Bond lengths are allowed to fluctuate in the interval [σ, σ + dl], where σ is the sphere diameter. We find that bond tolerance affects the phase behaviour of hard-sphere chains, especially in the close vicinity of the melting transition. First, a critical dl(crit) exists marking the threshold for crystallization, whose value decreases with increasing volume fraction. Second, bond gaps enhance the onset of phase transition by accelerating crystal nucleation and growth. Finally, bond tolerance has an effect on crystal morphologies: in the tangent limit the majority of structures correspond to stack-faulted random hexagonal close packing (rhcp). However, as bond tolerance increases a wealth of diverse structures can be observed: from single fcc (or hcp) crystallites to random hcp/fcc stackings with multiple directions. By extending the simulations over trillions of MC steps (10(12)) we are able to observe crystal-crystal transitions and perfection even for entangled polymer chains in accordance to the Ostwald's rule of stages in crystal polymorphism. Through simple geometric arguments we explain how the presence of rigid or flexible constraints affects crystallization in general atomic and particulate systems. Based on the present results, it can be concluded that proper tuning of bond gaps and of the connectivity network can be a controlling factor for the phase behaviour of model, polymer-based colloidal and granular systems.

  14. Therapeutic role and ligands of medium- to long-chain fatty acid receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takafumi eHara

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Medium- and long-chain free fatty acids (FFAs are energy source for whole body and biological metabolites and components. In these decades, some research groups have reported that the biological functions of medium- to long-chain FFAs are exerted through G-protein coupled receptor designated free fatty acid receptor (FFAR. As the medium- to long-chain FFAs-activated FFARs, FFA1 and FFA4 are reported to be expressed widely in whole body and regulate various physiological processes. FFA1 expressed in pancreatic β-cells has been shown to be involved in insulin secretion. FFA4 expressed in intestine, adipocytes and macrophages has been shown to be involved in incretin secretion, differentiation and anti-inflammatory effect, respectively. These physiological functions have been focused on the treatment of metabolic disorders. In addition, these receptors have been also reported to be expressed in several other tissues such as intestine for FFA1, and tongue and stomach for FFA4. The recent functional studies indicated that they also contributed to energy homeostasis. Further, the number of synthetic compounds of FFA1 and FFA4 strongly promoted the physiological characterization of the receptors and their own therapeutic utility. In this article, we will discuss the recent progress regarding the therapeutic potential of these receptors and its ligands.

  15. MicroRNA-223 Displays a Protective Role Against Cardiomyocyte Hypertrophy by Targeting Cardiac Troponin I-Interacting Kinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Sheng Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: MicroRNAs play regulatory role in cardiovascular disease. MicroRNA-223 (miR-223 was found to be expressed abundantly in myocardium. TNNI3K, a novel cardiac troponin I (cTnI-interacting and cardiac hypertrophy related kinase, is computationally predicted as a potential target of miR-223. This study was designed to investigate the cellular and molecular effects of miR-223 on cardiomyoctye hypertrophy, focusing on the role of TNNI3K. Methods: Neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (CMs were cultured, and CMs hypertrophy was induced by endothelin-1 (ET-1. In vivo cardiac hypertrophy was induced by transverse aorta constriction (TAC in rats. Expression of miR-223 in CMs and myocardium was detected by real-time PCR (RT-PCR. MiR-223 and TNNI3K were overexpressed in CMs via chemically modifed sense RNA (miR-223 mimic transfection or recombinant adenovirus infection, respectively. Cell size was measured by surface area calculation using fluorescence microscopy after anti-α-actinin staining. Expression of hypertrophy-related genes was detected by RT-PCR. The protein expression of TNNI3K and cTnI was determined by Western blots. Luciferase assay was employed to confirm the direct binding of miR-223 to the 3'UTR of TNNI3K mRNA. Intracellular calcium was measured by sensitive fluorescent indicator (Furo-2. Video-based edge detection system was employed to measure cardiomyocyte contractility. Results: MiR-223 was downregulated in ET-1 induced hypertrophic CMs and in hypertrophic myocardium compared with respective controls. MiR-223 overexpression in CMs alleviated ET-1 induced hypertrophy, evidenced by smaller cell surface area and downregulated ANP, α-actinin, Myh6 and Myh7 expression. Luciferase reporter gene assay showed that TNNI3K serves as a direct target gene of miR-223. In miR-223-overexpressed CMs, the protein expression of TNNI3K was significantly downregulated. MiR-223 overexpression also rescued the upregulated TNNI3K expression in

  16. The Role of Biotechnology in Sustainable Agriculture: Views and Perceptions among Key Actors in the Swedish Food Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Edvardsson Björnberg

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have put forward agricultural biotechnology as one possible tool for increasing food production and making agriculture more sustainable. In this paper, it is investigated how key actors in the Swedish food supply chain perceive the concept of agricultural sustainability and the role of biotechnology in creating more sustainable agricultural production systems. Based on policy documents and semi-structured interviews with representatives of five organizations active in producing, processing and retailing food in Sweden, an attempt is made to answer the following three questions: How do key actors in the Swedish food supply chain define and operationalize the concept of agricultural sustainability? Who/what influences these organizations’ sustainability policies and their respective positions on agricultural biotechnology? What are the organizations’ views and perceptions of biotechnology and its possible role in creating agricultural sustainability? Based on collected data, it is concluded that, although there is a shared view of the core constituents of agricultural sustainability among the organizations, there is less explicit consensus on how the concept should be put into practice or what role biotechnology can play in furthering agricultural sustainability.

  17. How major restaurant chains plan their menus: the role of profit, demand, and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanz, Karen; Resnicow, Ken; Seymour, Jennifer; Hoy, Kathy; Stewart, Hayden; Lyons, Mark; Goldberg, Jeanne

    2007-05-01

    Increased away-from-home eating is associated with lower diet quality, and may contribute to the increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity. Healthier food choices in restaurants may help mitigate the rise in obesity and improve diet quality. This study sought to understand the views of executives at major U.S. restaurant chains regarding the process, motivation for, and challenges of offering healthier options on their menus. The Healthy Menu Study used in-depth structured telephone interviews with 41 senior menu development and marketing executives at leading casual dining and fast-food restaurant chains. The interview guide covered menu trends, influences on introduction and continuation of new menu items, and barriers to adding healthy foods. Data analysis included tabulation of responses, identification of themes, and examination of subgroup differences. Growing sales and increasing profits are the most important considerations, mentioned by 61% of respondents; health and nutrition were noted as important by 21%. Restaurants may try to avoid losing groups with a "health seeker" by offering healthier foods (low in fat and calories, more fruits and vegetables) (27% of chains), but operators believe demand for healthier foods is not widespread. Additional obstacles to including healthier menu items are short shelf life of produce (46%), increased preparation time, low sales, and high labor costs. Not surprisingly, profit margins are the primary determinants of why restaurants do or do not add and continue to serve healthier food options. Without an increase in consumer demand, it is unlikely the restaurant industry will increase their offering of healthy food choices. Insight into the restaurant industry perspective is important for developing promising strategies to encourage healthier eating patterns.

  18. A major role for side-chain polyglutamine hydrogen bonding in irreversible ataxin-3 aggregation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Natalello

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The protein ataxin-3 consists of an N-terminal globular Josephin domain (JD and an unstructured C-terminal region containing a stretch of consecutive glutamines that triggers the neurodegenerative disorder spinocerebellar ataxia type 3, when it is expanded beyond a critical threshold. The disease results from misfolding and aggregation, although the pathway and structure of the aggregation intermediates are not fully understood. In order to provide insight into the mechanism of the process, we monitored the aggregation of a normal (AT3Q24 ataxin-3, an expanded (AT3Q55 ataxin-3, and the JD in isolation. We observed that all of them aggregated, although the latter did so at a much slower rate. Furthermore, the expanded AT3Q55 displayed a substantially different behavior with respect to the two other variants in that at the latest stages of the process it was the only one that did the following: i lost its reactivity towards an anti-oligomer antibody, ii generated SDS-insoluble aggregates, iii gave rise to bundles of elongated fibrils, and iv displayed two additional bands at 1604 and 1656 cm(-1 in FTIR spectroscopy. Although these were previously observed in other aggregated polyglutamine proteins, no one has assigned them unambiguously, yet. By H/D exchange experiments we show for the first time that they can be ascribed to glutamine side-chain hydrogen bonding, which is therefore the hallmark of irreversibly SDS-insoluble aggregated protein. FTIR spectra also showed that main-chain intermolecular hydrogen bonding preceded that of glutamine side-chains, which suggests that the former favors the latter by reorganizing backbone geometry.

  19. A Major Role for Side-Chain Polyglutamine Hydrogen Bonding in Irreversible Ataxin-3 Aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relini, Annalisa; Apicella, Alessandra; Invernizzi, Gaetano; Casari, Carlo; Gliozzi, Alessandra; Doglia, Silvia Maria; Tortora, Paolo; Regonesi, Maria Elena

    2011-01-01

    The protein ataxin-3 consists of an N-terminal globular Josephin domain (JD) and an unstructured C-terminal region containing a stretch of consecutive glutamines that triggers the neurodegenerative disorder spinocerebellar ataxia type 3, when it is expanded beyond a critical threshold. The disease results from misfolding and aggregation, although the pathway and structure of the aggregation intermediates are not fully understood. In order to provide insight into the mechanism of the process, we monitored the aggregation of a normal (AT3Q24) ataxin-3, an expanded (AT3Q55) ataxin-3, and the JD in isolation. We observed that all of them aggregated, although the latter did so at a much slower rate. Furthermore, the expanded AT3Q55 displayed a substantially different behavior with respect to the two other variants in that at the latest stages of the process it was the only one that did the following: i) lost its reactivity towards an anti-oligomer antibody, ii) generated SDS-insoluble aggregates, iii) gave rise to bundles of elongated fibrils, and iv) displayed two additional bands at 1604 and 1656 cm−1 in FTIR spectroscopy. Although these were previously observed in other aggregated polyglutamine proteins, no one has assigned them unambiguously, yet. By H/D exchange experiments we show for the first time that they can be ascribed to glutamine side-chain hydrogen bonding, which is therefore the hallmark of irreversibly SDS-insoluble aggregated protein. FTIR spectra also showed that main-chain intermolecular hydrogen bonding preceded that of glutamine side-chains, which suggests that the former favors the latter by reorganizing backbone geometry. PMID:21533208

  20. Role of Electronic Data Interchange On Supply Chain Performance in Cargo Distribution Management in Kenya: A Case of Mombasa Port

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Wachira Kiggira; Fred Mugambi Mwirigi; Noor Ismail Shale

    2015-01-01

    The research project is an investigation into the role of E.D.I on supply chain performance in the cargo distribution management in Kenya. The Port of Mombasa is the major gateway to Kenya’s international trade by sea handling 22 million tons of goods in 2013 (KPA, 2014). This represents double the volume of Dar es Salaam Port and only 4% of the volume 557.5 million tons that was handled through the port of Singapore. Over the last decade, the Government and the private sector have invested h...

  1. Role of behavioural factors in green supply chain management implementation in Indian mining industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muduli, Kamalakanta; Govindan, Kannan; Barve, Akhilesh

    2013-01-01

    factors which are influenced by human behaviours. Human behaviour is dynamic in nature and the relationships between them continuously evolve and change. In this ever-changing context, therefore, identifying and ranking the behavioural factors that affect GSCM implementation becomes essential. This can...... be taken as a reference by the decision makers while deciding the hierarchy of action necessary for effective implementation of green practices in mining supply chains. The present research attempts to explore various behavioural factors affecting GCSM practices and their interactions which help to attain...... green-enabled needs. Interpretive structural modelling (ISM) is employed in this research to extract the interrelationships among the identified behavioural factors....

  2. The role of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in neural cell adhesion molecule-mediated neuronal differentiation and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Dorte K; Køhler, Lene B; Pedersen, Martin Volmer

    2003-01-01

    The neural cell adhesion molecule, NCAM, is known to stimulate neurite outgrowth from primary neurones and PC12 cells presumably through signalling pathways involving the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR), protein kinase A (PKA), protein kinase C (PKC), the Ras-mitogen activated protein...... kinase (MAPK) pathway and an increase in intracellular Ca2+ levels. Stimulation of neurones with the synthetic NCAM-ligand, C3, induces neurite outgrowth through signalling pathways similar to the pathways activated through physiological, homophilic NCAM-stimulation. We present here data indicating...... indicating a survival-promoting effect of NCAM-stimulation by C3 on cerebellar and dopaminergic neurones induced to undergo apoptosis. This protective effect of C3 included an inhibition of both DNA-fragmentation and caspase-3 activation. The survival-promoting effect of NCAM-stimulation was also shown...

  3. Membrane Receptor-Induced Changes of the Protein Kinases A and C Activity May Play a Leading Role in Promoting Developmental Synapse Elimination at the Neuromuscular Junction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep M. Tomàs

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Synapses that are overproduced during histogenesis in the nervous system are eventually lost and connectivity is refined. Membrane receptor signaling leads to activity-dependent mutual influence and competition between axons directly or with the involvement of the postsynaptic cell and the associated glial cell/s. Presynaptic muscarinic acetylcholine (ACh receptors (subtypes mAChR; M1, M2 and M4, adenosine receptors (AR; A1 and A2A and the tropomyosin-related kinase B receptor (TrkB, among others, all cooperate in synapse elimination. Between these receptors there are several synergistic, antagonic and modulatory relations that clearly affect synapse elimination. Metabotropic receptors converge in a limited repertoire of intracellular effector kinases, particularly serine protein kinases A and C (PKA and PKC, to phosphorylate protein targets and bring about structural and functional changes leading to axon loss. In most cells A1, M1 and TrkB operate mainly by stimulating PKC whereas A2A, M2 and M4 inhibit PKA. We hypothesize that a membrane receptor-induced shifting in the protein kinases A and C activity (inhibition of PKA and/or stimulation of PKC in some nerve endings may play an important role in promoting developmental synapse elimination at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ. This hypothesis is supported by: (i the tonic effect (shown by using selective inhibitors of several membrane receptors that accelerates axon loss between postnatal days P5–P9; (ii the synergistic, antagonic and modulatory effects (shown by paired inhibition of the receptors on axonal loss; (iii the fact that the coupling of these receptors activates/inhibits the intracellular serine kinases; and (iv the increase of the PKA activity, the reduction of the PKC activity or, in most cases, both situations simultaneously that presumably occurs in all the situations of singly and paired inhibition of the mAChR, AR and TrkB receptors. The use of transgenic animals and various

  4. Role of the photosynthetic electron transfer chain in electrogenic activity of cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisciotta, John M; Zou, Yongjin; Baskakov, Ilia V

    2011-07-01

    Certain anaerobic bacteria, termed electrogens, produce an electric current when electrons from oxidized organic molecules are deposited to extracellular metal oxide acceptors. In these heterotrophic "metal breathers", the respiratory electron transport chain (R-ETC) works in concert with membrane-bound cytochrome oxidases to transfer electrons to the extracellular acceptors. The diversity of bacteria able to generate an electric current appears more widespread than previously thought, and aerobic phototrophs, including cyanobacteria, possess electrogenic activity. However, unlike heterotrophs, cyanobacteria electrogenic activity is light dependent, which suggests that a novel pathway could exist. To elucidate the electrogenic mechanism of cyanobacteria, the current studies used site-specific inhibitors to target components of the photosynthetic electron transport chain (P-ETC) and cytochrome oxidases. Here, we show that (1) P-ETC and, particularly, water photolysed by photosystem II (PSII) is the source of electrons discharged to the environment by illuminated cyanobacteria, and (2) water-derived electrons are transmitted from PSII to extracellular electron acceptors via plastoquinone and cytochrome bd quinol oxidase. Two cyanobacterial genera (Lyngbya and Nostoc) displayed very similar electrogenic responses when treated with P-ETC site-specific inhibitors, suggesting a conserved electrogenic pathway. We propose that in cyanobacteria, electrogenic activity may represent a form of overflow metabolism to protect cells under high-intensity light. This study offers insight into electron transfer between phototrophic microorganisms and the environment and expands our knowledge into biologically based mechanisms for harnessing solar energy.

  5. Role of p38alpha/beta MAP Kinase in Cell Susceptibility to Clostridium sordellii Lethal Toxin and Clostridium difficile Toxin B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Schelle

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Lethal Toxin from Clostridium sordellii (TcsL, which is casually involved in the toxic shock syndrome and in gas gangrene, enters its target cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis. Inside the cell, TcsL mono-O-glucosylates and thereby inactivates Rac/Cdc42 and Ras subtype GTPases, resulting in actin reorganization and an activation of p38 MAP kinase. While a role of p38 MAP kinase in TcsL-induced cell death is well established, data on a role of p38 MAP kinase in TcsL-induced actin reorganization are not available. In this study, TcsL-induced Rac/Cdc42 glucosylation and actin reorganization are differentially analyzed in p38alpha−/− MSCV empty vector MEFs and the corresponding cell line with reconstituted p38alpha expression (p38alpha−/− MSCV p38alpha MEFs. Genetic deletion of p38alpha results in reduced susceptibility of cells to TcsL-induced Rac/Cdc42 glucosylation and actin reorganization. Furthermore, SB203580, a pyridinyl imidazole inhibitor of p38alpha/beta MAP kinase, also protects cells from TcsL-induced effects in both p38−/− MSCV empty vector MEFs and in p38alpha−/− MSCV p38alpha MEFs, suggesting that inhibition of p38beta contributes to the protective effect of SB203580. In contrast, the effects of the related C. difficile Toxin B are responsive neither to SB203580 treatment nor to p38alpha deletion. In conclusion, the protective effects of SB203580 and of p38alpha deletion are likely not based on inhibition of the toxins’ glucosyltransferase activity rather than on inhibited endocytic uptake of specifically TcsL into target cells.

  6. The roles of Ca2+, downstream protein kinases, and oscillatory signaling in regulating fertilization and the activation of development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducibella, Tom; Fissore, Rafael

    2008-03-15

    Reviews in Developmental Biology have covered the pathways that generate the all-important intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) signal at fertilization [Miyazaki, S., Shirakawa, H., Nakada, K., Honda, Y., 1993a. Essential role of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor/Ca(2+) release channel in Ca(2+) waves and Ca(2+) oscillations at fertilization of mammalian eggs. Dev. Biol. 158, 62-78; Runft, L., Jaffe, L., Mehlmann, L., 2002. Egg activation at fertilization: where it all begins. Dev. Biol. 245, 237-254] and the different temporal responses of Ca(2+) in many organisms [Stricker, S., 1999. Comparative biology of calcium signaling during fertilization and egg activation in animals. Dev. Biol. 211, 157-176]. Those reviews raise the importance of identifying how Ca(2+) causes the events of egg activation (EEA) and to what extent these temporal Ca(2+) responses encode developmental information. This review covers recent studies that have analyzed how these Ca(2+) signals are interpreted by specific proteins, and how these proteins regulate various EEA responsible for the onset of development. Many of these proteins are protein kinases (CaMKII, PKC, MPF, MAPK, MLCK) whose activity is directly or indirectly regulated by Ca(2+), and whose amount increases during late oocyte maturation. We cover biochemical progress in defining the signaling pathways between Ca(2+) and the EEA, as well as discuss how oscillatory or multiple Ca(2+) signals are likely to have specific advantages biochemically and/or developmentally. These emerging concepts are put into historical context, emphasizing that key contributions have come from many organisms. The intricate interdependence of Ca(2+), Ca(2+)-dependent proteins, and the EEA raise many new questions for future investigations that will provide insight into the extent to which fertilization-associated signaling has long-range implications for development. In addition, answers to these questions should be beneficial to establishing

  7. Tracking protons from respiratory chain complexes to ATP synthase c-subunit: The critical role of serine and threonine residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panfoli, Isabella; Ponassi, Marco; Ravera, Silvia; Calzia, Daniela; Beitia, Maider; Morelli, Alessandro; Rosano, Camillo

    2017-01-22

    F1Fo-ATP synthase is a multisubunit enzyme responsible for the synthesis of ATP. Among its multiple subunits (8 in E. coli, 17 in yeast S. cerevisiae, 16 in vertebrates), two subunits a and c are known to play a central role controlling the H(+) flow through the inner mitochondrial membrane which allows the subsequent synthesis of ATP, but the pathway followed by H(+) within the two proteins is still a matter of debate. In fact, even though the structure of ATP synthase is now well defined, the molecular mechanisms determining the function of both F1 and FO domains are still largely unknown. In this study, we propose a pathway for proton migration along the ATP synthase by hydrogen-bonded chain mechanism, with a key role of serine and threonine residues, by X-ray diffraction data on the subunit a of E. coli Fo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. ERG transcriptional networks in primary acute leukemia cells implicate a role for ERG in deregulated kinase signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Bock

    Full Text Available High expression of the E26 transforming sequence related gene (ERG is associated with poor prognosis in a subgroup of leukemia patients with acute myeloid (AML and acute T-lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL. In a previous study we proposed that ERG overexpression may deregulate several signaling cascades in acute leukemia. Herein, we further expand those studies by identifying a consensus of biological targets in primary blasts of newly diagnosed acute leukemia patients. Our findings of chromatin immunoprecipitation-on-chip of primary samples revealed 48 significantly enriched single genes including DAAM1 and NUMB. Significantly enriched signaling pathways included WNT/β-catenin, p53, and PI3K/AKT with ERG overexpression inducing dephosphorylation of AKT(Ser473 relative to non ERG expressing K562 cells. Cell based ERG overexpression studies also revealed drug resistance to multi-kinase inhibitor, BAY 43-9006 (Sorafenib and to the tyrosine kinase inhibitor TKI258. Thus in primary leukemic cells, ERG may contribute to the dysregulation of kinase signaling, which results in resistance to kinase inhibitors.

  9. The role of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A in bile canalicular plasma membrane biogenesis in hepatocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wojtal, Kacper Andrze

    2007-01-01

    cAMP-dependent protein kinase A is one of the most important enzymes in the eukaryotic cell. The function of this protein is strictly in a close relation to the signaling pathways, which trigger the production of intracellular secondary messenger –cAMP. As a consequence of PKA activation numerous

  10. Roles of mitochondrial Src tyrosine kinase and zinc in nitric oxide-induced cardioprotection against ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Xing, F; Zheng, H; Xi, J; Cui, X; Xu, Z

    2013-07-01

    While nitric oxide (NO) induces cardioprotection by targeting the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP), the precise mitochondrial signaling events that mediate the action of NO remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to test whether NO induces cardioprotection against ischemia/reperfusion by inhibiting oxidative stress through mitochondrial zinc and Src tyrosine kinase. The NO donor S-nitroso-N-acetyl penicillamine (SNAP) given before the onset of ischemia reduced cell death in rat cardiomyocytes subjected to simulated ischemia/reperfusion, and this was abolished by the zinc chelator N,N,N',N'-tetrakis-(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN) and the Src tyrosine kinase inhibitor PP2. SNAP also prevented loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) at reperfusion, an effect that was blocked by TPEN and PP2. SNAP increased mitochondrion-free zinc upon reperfusion and enhanced mitochondrial Src phosphorylation in a zinc-dependent manner. SNAP inhibited both mitochondrial complex I activity and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation at reperfusion through zinc and Src tyrosine kinase. Finally, the anti-infarct effect of SNAP was abrogated by TPEN and PP2 applied at reperfusion in isolated rat hearts. In conclusion, NO induces cardioprotection at reperfusion by targeting mitochondria through attenuation of oxidative stress resulted from the inhibition of complex I at reperfusion. Activation of mitochondrial Src tyrosine kinase by zinc may account for the inhibition of complex I.

  11. Role of adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase in interleukin-6 release from isolated mouse skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glund, Stephan; Treebak, Jonas Thue; Long, Yun Chau

    2009-01-01

    IL-6 is released from skeletal muscle during exercise and has consequently been implicated to mediate beneficial effects on whole-body metabolism. Using 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-4-ribofuranoside (AICAR), a pharmacological activator of 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), we tested...

  12. Prostaglandin E2 stimulates the expression of cumulus expansion-related genes in pigs: the role of protein kinase B

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blaha, Milan; Procházka, Radek; Adámková, K.; Nevoral, J.; Němcová, Lucie

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 130, č. 2 (2017), s. 38-46 ISSN 1098-8823 R&D Projects: GA MZe(CZ) QJ1510138; GA MŠk EF15_003/0000460 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : cumulus * oocyte * prostaglandin E2 * protein kinase B Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.640, year: 2016

  13. Role of Chain Microstructure and Branching on Solution and Thin Film Phase Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-30

    Cryogenic transmission  electron   microscopy  ( cryo ‐TEM)  images of aggregates of  PSnPIn stars in vitrified n‐hexane, using liq. N2 as the cryogen. Top...transmission  electron   microscopy  (TEM) imaging, we proved how the chain repeat unit design, which is a  nanoscale structural element, impacts...worked incredibly hard to develop the ability to image  the  native  structures  in  solution  using  transmission  electron   microscopy   (TEM).  To

  14. Diabetes Mellitus and Increased Tuberculosis Susceptibility: The Role of Short-Chain Fatty Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachmandas, Ekta; van den Heuvel, Corina N A M; Damen, Michelle S M A; Cleophas, Maartje C P; Netea, Mihai G; van Crevel, Reinout

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus confers a threefold increased risk for tuberculosis, but the underlying immunological mechanisms are still largely unknown. Possible mediators of this increased susceptibility are short-chain fatty acids, levels of which have been shown to be altered in individuals with diabetes. We examined the influence of physiological concentrations of butyrate on cytokine responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Butyrate decreased Mtb-induced proinflammatory cytokine responses, while it increased production of IL-10. This anti-inflammatory effect was independent of butyrate's well-characterised inhibition of HDAC activity and was not accompanied by changes in Toll-like receptor signalling pathways, the eicosanoid pathway, or cellular metabolism. In contrast blocking IL-10 activity reversed the effects of butyrate on Mtb-induced inflammation. Alteration of the gut microbiota, thereby increasing butyrate concentrations, can reduce insulin resistance and obesity, but further studies are needed to determine how this affects susceptibility to tuberculosis.

  15. The Role of Chain Length in Nonergodicity Factor and Fragility of Polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalle-Ferrie, Cecile; Niss, Kristine; Sokolov, Alexei

    2010-01-01

    between the fragility of glass-formers and their nonergodicity factor, determined by inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) in the glass. We extend this molecular liquid study to two model polymers— polystyrene (PS) and polyisobutylene (PIB)—for which we change the molecular weight. Polymers offer......The mechanism that leads to different fragility values upon approaching the glass transition remains a topic of active discussion. Many researchers are trying to find an answer in the properties of the frozen glassy state. Following this approach, we focus here on a previously proposed relationship...... the opportunity to change the fragility without altering the chemical structure, just by changing the chain length. Thus, we specifically chose PS and PIB because they exhibit opposite dependences of fragility with molecular weight. Our analysis for these two polymers reveals no unique correlation between...

  16. Role of Lanthanides in the Traceability of the Milk Production Chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceto, Maurizio; Musso, Davide; Calà, Elisa; Arieri, Fabio; Oddone, Matteo

    2017-05-24

    The traceability and authentication of milk were studied using trace and ultratrace elements as chemical markers. Among these variables, the group of lanthanides resulted in being particularly useful for this purpose as a result of their homogeneous distribution inside milk, which showed on the contrary to be intrinsically inhomogeneous from the elemental point of view. Using in this pilot study milk samples from a factory in Piedmont (Italy), we demonstrated that the distribution of lanthanides can be used as a fingerprint to put into relation the soil of the pasture land on which cows graze and the bottled milk produced in the factory. In fact, the distribution is maintained nearly unaltered along the production chain of milk, apart from the passage into the stomachs of the cows. Using the same variables, it was possible to discriminate between milk produced in the factory and milk samples taken from the large-scale retail trade.

  17. Magnetism of CuX2 frustrated chains (X = F, Cl, Br): Role of covalency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebernegg, S.; Schmitt, M.; Tsirlin, A. A.; Janson, O.; Rosner, H.

    2013-04-01

    Periodic and cluster density functional theory (DFT) calculations, including DFT+U and hybrid functionals, are applied to study magnetostructural correlations in spin-(1)/(2) frustrated chain compounds CuX2: CuCl2, CuBr2, and a fictitious chain structure of CuF2. The nearest-neighbor and second-neighbor exchange integrals J1 and J2 are evaluated as a function of the Cu-X-Cu bridging angle θ in the physically relevant range 80∘-110∘. In the ionic CuF2, J1 is ferromagnetic for θ≤100∘. For larger angles, the antiferromagnetic superexchange contribution becomes dominant, in accord with the Goodenough-Kanamori-Anderson rules. However, both CuCl2 and CuBr2 feature ferromagnetic J1 in the whole angular range studied. This surprising behavior is ascribed to the increased covalency in the Cl and Br compounds, which amplifies the contribution from Hund's exchange on the ligand atoms and renders J1 ferromagnetic. At the same time, the larger spatial extent of X orbitals enhances the antiferromagnetic J2, which is realized via the long-range Cu-X-X-Cu paths. Both periodic and cluster approaches supply a consistent description of the magnetic behavior which is in good agreement with the experimental data for CuCl2 and CuBr2. Thus, owing to their simplicity, cluster calculations have excellent potential to study magnetic correlations in more involved spin lattices, and facilitate application of quantum-chemical methods.

  18. Regulation of alpha1-adrenoceptor-mediated contractions of the uterine artery by protein kinase C: role of the thick- and thin-filament regulatory pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongying; Zhang, Lubo

    2007-09-01

    Previously we demonstrated that activation of protein kinase C (PKC) enhanced alpha(1)-adrenoceptor-induced contractions in nonpregnant uterine arteries (NPUA) by increasing the Ca(2+) sensitivity but that it inhibited the contractions in pregnant uterine arteries (PUA) by decreasing intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization. The present study tested the hypothesis that PKC activation differentially regulated the thick- and thin-filament regulatory pathways in alpha(1)-adrenoceptor-induced contractions of NPUA and PUA in sheep. Simultaneous measurements of contractions and phosphorylation levels of 20-kDa regulatory myosin light chain (LC(20)) in the same tissue revealed that the PKC activator phorbol-12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu) inhibited phenylephrine-induced phosphorylation of LC(20) and contractions in PUA. In NPUA, PDBu significantly potentiated phenylephrine-induced contractions without significantly changing phosphorylation levels of LC(20). Further studies in NPUA demonstrated that PDBu-mediated potentiation of phenylephrine-induced contractions was associated with a significant increase in phosphorylation levels of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK(42/44)) and caldesmon-Ser(789), measured simultaneously with the tension in the same tissue. In addition, the ERK(42/44) inhibitor PD98059 [2-(2-amino-3-methoxyphenyl)-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one] and the actin polymerization inhibitor cytochalasin B produced a concentration-dependent inhibition of PDBu-mediated potentiation of phenylephrine-induced contractions in NPUA. The results suggest that activation of PKC inhibits alpha(1)-adrenoceptor-mediated contractions in PUA through down-regulation of the thick-filament pathway and decreased myosin light chain phosphorylation, but that it enhances the contractions in NPUA through its effect on the thin-filament regulatory pathway and activation of ERK/caldesmon and actin polymerization.

  19. Purinergic inhibition of Na⁺,K⁺,Cl⁻ cotransport in C11-MDCK cells: Role of stress-activated protein kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimova, Olga A; Taurin, Sebastien; Dulin, Nickolai O; Orlov, Sergei N

    2008-06-01

    Previously, we observed that sustained activation of P2Y₁ leads to inhibition of Na⁺,K⁺,Cl⁻ cotransport (NKCC) in C11 cells resembling intercalated cells from collecting ducts of the Madin-Darby canine kidney. This study examined the role of stress-activated protein kinases (SAPK) in NKCC inhibition triggered by purinergic receptors. Treatment of C11 cells with ATP led to sustained phosphorylation of SAPK such as JNK and p38. Activation of these kinases also occurred in anisomycin-treated cells. Surprisingly, we observed that compounds SP600125 and SB202190, known as potent inhibitors of JNK and p38 in cell-free systems, activated rather than inhibited phosphorylation of the kinases in C11 cells. Importantly, similarly to ATP, all the above-listed activators of JNK and p38 phosphorylation inhibited NKCC. Thus, our results suggest that activation of JNK and/or p38 contributes to NKCC suppression detected in intercalated-like cells from distal tubules after their exposure to P2Y₁ agonists.

  20. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Cascade MKK7-MPK6 Plays Important Roles in Plant Development and Regulates Shoot Branching by Phosphorylating PIN1 in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiyan Jia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Emerging evidences exhibit that mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK/MPK signaling pathways are connected with many aspects of plant development. The complexity of MAPK cascades raises challenges not only to identify the MAPK module in planta but also to define the specific role of an individual module. So far, our knowledge of MAPK signaling has been largely restricted to a small subset of MAPK cascades. Our previous study has characterized an Arabidopsis bushy and dwarf1 (bud1 mutant, in which the MAP Kinase Kinase 7 (MKK7 was constitutively activated, resulting in multiple phenotypic alterations. In this study, we found that MPK3 and MPK6 are the substrates for phosphorylation by MKK7 in planta. Genetic analysis showed that MKK7-MPK6 cascade is specifically responsible for the regulation of shoot branching, hypocotyl gravitropism, filament elongation, and lateral root formation, while MKK7-MPK3 cascade is mainly involved in leaf morphology. We further demonstrated that the MKK7-MPK6 cascade controls shoot branching by phosphorylating Ser 337 on PIN1, which affects the basal localization of PIN1 in xylem parenchyma cells and polar auxin transport in the primary stem. Our results not only specify the functions of the MKK7-MPK6 cascade but also reveal a novel mechanism for PIN1 phosphorylation, establishing a molecular link between the MAPK cascade and auxin-regulated plant development.

  1. Fluoride increases tyrosine kinase activity in osteoblast-like cells: regulatory role for the stimulation of cell proliferation and Pi transport across the plasma membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgener, D; Bonjour, J P; Caverzasio, J

    1995-01-01

    Fluoride is one of the most effective agents for the treatment of vertebral osteoporosis because of its ability to increase osteoblast proliferation. The present study further investigates the role of protein tyrosine phosphorylation previously suggested to mediate the mitogenic effect of fluoride on bone-forming cells. The activity of the plasma membrane Na-coupled Pi transport system was monitored to assess the relationship between alterations in tyrosine phosphorylation and osteoblast activity induced by fluoride. The results indicate that vanadate, a selective inhibitor of tyrosine phosphatase, mimicked the stimulatory effect of fluoride on Pi transport. The change in Pi transport induced by fluoride was dose dependently inhibited by genistein, a potent inhibitor of tyrosine kinase. Genistein also inhibited the change in cell proliferation induced by fluoride. Associated with these observations, tyrosine phosphorylation activity was significantly increased in subcellular fractions isolated from UMR-106 cells treated with fluoride as compared with those isolated from vehicle-treated cells. This change in tyrosine phosphorylation activity was markedly blunted when genistein was added to the kinase assay buffer. It was not associated with any alteration in specific tyrosine phosphatase activity. There was also no evidence of a direct effect of fluoride on tyrosine phosphatase activity in isolated plasma membrane of UMR-106 cells. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest that fluoride enhances protein tyrosine phosphorylation in osteoblast-like cells by enhancing tyrosine kinase activity. The results further support the hypothesis that this signal transduction mechanism is involved in the osteogenic effects of fluoride.

  2. A novel role for the yeast protein kinase Dbf2p in vacuolar H+-ATPase function and sorbic acid stress tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makrantoni, Vasso; Dennison, Paul; Stark, Michael J R; Coote, Peter J

    2007-12-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the serine-threonine protein kinase activity of Dbf2p is required for tolerance to the weak organic acid sorbic acid. Here we show that Dbf2p is required for normal phosphorylation of the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) A and B subunits Vma1p and Vma2p. Loss of V-ATPase activity due to bafilomycin treatment or deletion of either VMA1 or VMA2 resulted in sorbic acid hypersensitivity and impaired vacuolar acidification, phenotypes also observed in both a kinase-inactive dbf2 mutant and cells completely lacking DBF2 (dbf2Delta). Crucially, VMA2 is a multicopy suppressor of both the sorbic acid-sensitive phenotype and the impaired vacuolar-acidification defect of dbf2Delta cells, confirming a functional interaction between Dbf2p and Vma2p. The yeast V-ATPase is therefore involved in mediating sorbic acid stress tolerance, and we have shown a novel and unexpected role for the cell cycle-regulated protein kinase Dbf2p in promoting V-ATPase function.

  3. The role of CTCF binding sites in the 3’ immunoglobulin heavy chain regulatory region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara K Birshtein

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The immunoglobulin heavy chain locus undergoes a series of DNA rearrangements and modifications to achieve the construction and expression of individual antibody heavy chain genes in B cells. These events affect variable regions, through VDJ joining and subsequent somatic hypermutation, and constant regions through class switch recombination. Levels of IgH expression are also regulated during B cell development, resulting in high levels of secreted antibodies from fully-differentiated plasma cells. Regulation of these events has been attributed primarily to two cis-elements that work from long distances on their target sequences, i.e., an ~1 kb intronic enhancer, Eμ, located between the V region segments and the most 5′ constant region gene, Cμ; and an ~40 kb 3′ regulatory region (3′ RR that is located downstream of the most 3′ CH gene, Cα. The 3′ RR is a candidate for an end of B cell-specific regulation of the Igh locus. The 3′ RR contains several B cell-specific enhancers associated with DNase I hypersensitive sites (hs1-4, which are essential for class switch recombination and for high levels of IgH expression in plasma cells. Downstream of this enhancer-containing region is a region of high-density CTCF binding sites, which extends through hs5, 6, and 7 and further downstream. CTCF, with its enhancer-blocking activities, has been associated with all mammalian insulators and implicated in multiple chromosomal interactions. Here we address the 3′ RR CTCF-binding region as a potential insulator of the Igh locus, an independent regulatory element and a predicted modulator of the activity of 3’ RR enhancers. Using chromosome conformation capture technology, chromatin immunoprecipitation and genetic approaches, we have found that the 3’ RR with its CTCF binding region interacts with target sequences in the VH, Eμ and CH regions through DNA looping as regulated by protein binding. This region impacts on B cell-specific Igh

  4. Inhibition of doxorubicin-induced autophagy in hepatocellular carcinoma Hep3B cells by sorafenib--the role of extracellular signal-regulated kinase counteraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manov, Irena; Pollak, Yulia; Broneshter, Rinata; Iancu, Theodore C

    2011-09-01

    A multikinase inhibitor of the Raf/mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway, sorafenib, is increasingly being used in the management of hepatocellular carcinoma, and its combination with conventional chemotherapeutics has stimulated particular interest. Although the combination of sorafenib with doxorubicin (DOX) is presently being investigated in a phase III randomized trial, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of their interaction. Because DOX causes cell death through upregulation of the MEK/ERK pathway, and sorafenib has an opposite influence on the same cascade, we hypothesized that co-treatment with these drugs may lead to an antagonistic effect. DOX treatment arrested proliferation and induced autophagic cell death in Hep3B cells, whereas apoptotic changes were not conspicuous. Sorafenib alone affected viability and caused massive mitochondrial degradation. However, when added together with DOX, sorafenib facilitated cell cycle progression, increased survival, and reduced autophagy. To evaluate the molecular mechanisms of this phenomenon, we examined the expression of ERK1/2, protein kinase B (Akt), and cyclin D1, as well as the members of Bcl-2 family. ERK1/2 activation induced by DOX was suppressed by sorafenib. Similarly, ERK targeting with the selective inhibitor U0126 impaired DOX-induced toxicity. Treatment with sorafenib, either alone or in combination with DOX, resulted in Akt activation. The role of sorafenib-induced degradation of cyclin D1 in the suppression of DOX efficiency is discussed. In conclusion, MEK/ERK counteraction, stimulation of survival via Akt and dysregulation of cyclin D1 could contribute to the escape from DOX-induced autophagy and thus promote cancer cell survival. The use of MEK/ERK inhibitors in combination with chemotherapeutics, intended to enhance anticancer efficacy, requires the consideration of possible antagonistic effects. © 2011 The Authors Journal

  5. Molecular and biochemical characterization of a Vigna mungo MAP kinase associated with Mungbean Yellow Mosaic India Virus infection and deciphering its role in restricting the virus multiplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Anju; Dey, Nrisingha; Chaudhuri, Shubho; Pal, Amita

    2017-09-01

    Yellow Mosaic Disease caused by the begomovirus Mungbean Yellow Mosaic India Virus (MYMIV) severely affects many economically important legumes. Recent investigations in Vigna mungo - MYMIV incompatible interaction identified a MAPK homolog in the defense signaling pathway. An important branch of immunity involves phosphorylation by evolutionary conserved Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) that transduce signals of pathogen invasion to downstream molecules leading to diverse immune responses. However, most of the knowledge of MAPKs is derived from model crops, and functions of these versatile kinases are little explored in legumes. Here we report characterization of a MAP kinase (VmMAPK1), which was induced upon MYMIV-inoculation in resistant V. mungo. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that VmMAPK1 is closely related to other plant-stress-responsive MAPKs. Both mRNA and protein of VmMAPK1 were accumulated upon MYMIV infection. The VmMAPK1 protein localized in the nucleus as well as cytoplasm and possessed phosphorylation activity in vitro. A detailed biochemical characterization of purified recombinant VmMAPK1 demonstrated an intramolecular mechanism of autophosphorylation and self-catalyzed phosphate incorporation on both threonine and tyrosine residues. The V max and K m values of recombinant VmMAPK1 for ATP were 6.292nmol/mg/min and 0.7978μM, respectively. Furthermore, the ability of VmMAPK1 to restrict MYMIV multiplication was validated by its ectopic expression in transgenic tobacco. Importantly, overexpression of VmMAPK1 resulted in the considerable upregulation of defense-responsive marker PR genes. Thus, the present data suggests the critical role of VmMAPK1 in suppressing MYMIV multiplication presumably through SA-mediated signaling pathway and inducing PR genes establishing the significant implications in understanding MAP kinase gene function during Vigna-MYMIV interaction; and hence paves the way for introgression of resistance in leguminous crops

  6. The role of mitogen-activated protein kinases in crystalline silica-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression in A549 human lung epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaru, Makoto; Matsuoka, Masato

    2011-09-01

    We examined the role of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways in crystalline silica-induced expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, an important mediator of airway inflammation, in A549 human lung epithelial cells. The levels of COX-2 mRNA increased after a 30-min exposure, and COX-2 protein increased after a 2-h exposure to crystalline silica. Both remained elevated at 8 h; however, no change was observed in the expression of the constitutive COX-1 isoform. The level of prostaglandin E(2), a major product of COX enzymes, increased in response to crystalline silica exposure. Phosphorylated forms of MAPKs including extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase, and p38 were also increased after crystalline silica exposure. COX-2 expression was markedly suppressed by treatment with the p38 inhibitor, SB203580, and mildly suppressed by the MAPK/ERK kinase inhibitor, U0126. Treatment with the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) inhibitor, BAY11-7082, markedly suppressed silica-induced COX-2 expression. These results show that crystalline silica exposure induces COX-2 expression in A549 cells in a manner that is dependent on the MAPK and NF-κB pathways. Although a marked induction of MAPK phosphatase (MKP)-1 expression was observed in A549 cells exposed to crystalline silica, the silencing of MKP-1 expression using short interference RNA did not affect silica-induced COX-2 expression, suggesting that the down-regulation of COX-2 expression by MKP-1 is unlikely.

  7. The Emerging Role of Branched-Chain Amino Acids in Insulin Resistance and Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Mee-Sup

    2016-07-01

    Insulin is required for maintenance of glucose homeostasis. Despite the importance of insulin sensitivity to metabolic health, the mechanisms that induce insulin resistance remain unclear. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) belong to the essential amino acids, which are both direct and indirect nutrient signals. Even though BCAAs have been reported to improve metabolic health, an increased BCAA plasma level is associated with a high risk of metabolic disorder and future insulin resistance, or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The activation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) by BCAAs has been suggested to cause insulin resistance. In addition, defective BCAA oxidative metabolism might occur in obesity, leading to a further accumulation of BCAAs and toxic intermediates. This review provides the current understanding of the mechanism of BCAA-induced mTORC1 activation, as well as the effect of mTOR activation on metabolic health in terms of insulin sensitivity. Furthermore, the effects of impaired BCAA metabolism will be discussed in detail.

  8. The role of the continuous improvement tools of procesess in building relationships in supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Urbaniak

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this paper is to determine the importance of the quality management and environmental management systems as well as operational improvement tools (such as TPS, Six Sigma, and Lean Management in building partnerships in supply chain. Methods: This paper contains the results of survey in companies operating in Poland and an analysis of the requirements for suppliers in the implementation of the quality and environmental management systems elements as well as recommendation for them to implement process improvement tools (such as elements of the TPS, the concept of Lean Management and Six Sigma methodologies. Results: The results of the survey and the analysis of the examples show that companies that are buyers in the B2B market often define the very individualized to suppliers needs through detailed specifications defining the requirements for quality assurance, performance increases, (for example, shortening implementation cycles, efficiency (cost reduction, safety, reducing the negative impact on the environment. Conclusions: The effectiveness of the action on improving the quality of processes and products by building relationships with suppliers depends largely on the support provided to them. To achieve these objectives many companies introduce special development programs for suppliers.

  9. The Emerging Role of Branched-Chain Amino Acids in Insulin Resistance and Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mee-Sup Yoon

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Insulin is required for maintenance of glucose homeostasis. Despite the importance of insulin sensitivity to metabolic health, the mechanisms that induce insulin resistance remain unclear. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs belong to the essential amino acids, which are both direct and indirect nutrient signals. Even though BCAAs have been reported to improve metabolic health, an increased BCAA plasma level is associated with a high risk of metabolic disorder and future insulin resistance, or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. The activation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1 by BCAAs has been suggested to cause insulin resistance. In addition, defective BCAA oxidative metabolism might occur in obesity, leading to a further accumulation of BCAAs and toxic intermediates. This review provides the current understanding of the mechanism of BCAA-induced mTORC1 activation, as well as the effect of mTOR activation on metabolic health in terms of insulin sensitivity. Furthermore, the effects of impaired BCAA metabolism will be discussed in detail.

  10. The Role of Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in the Nutrition of Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.O. Dobrianskyi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPSFA are the main functional fats of mother’s milk. The predominant and functionally most important LCPSFA are arachidonic acid (AA and docosahexanoic acid (DHA. In addition to imitation of breast milk, there are two important reasons to add LCPSFA in infant formula for babies. Firstly, infants can not synthesize sufficient number of LCPSFA to compensate for the lack of these substances in food. Secondly, the brain tissue, the retina of the eyes and immune system require a large number of LCPSFA as a building material and functional components to support intensive growth and development in early childhood. This period is critical for the formation and development of organs, therefore, optimal supply of substrates is necessary for their optimal functioning. These ideas, combined with the results of over 20 randomized controlled clinical trials and numerous other studies that show the positive impact of food LCPSFA on the health and development of infants, indicate the need for enrichment of baby food with DHA and AK. The most studied positive effects of this enrichment are the improvement of visual function and cognitive development of young children. According to new data, increased consumption of LCPSFA is associated with beneficial effects on immune functions and cardiovascular system of infants.

  11. The role of side chain conformational flexibility in surface recognition by Tenebrio molitor antifreeze protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Margaret E.; Sykes, Brian D.

    2003-01-01

    Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to investigate the flexibility of the threonine side chains in the β-helical Tenebrio molitor antifreeze protein (TmAFP) at low temperatures. From measurement of the 3Jαβ 1H-1H scalar coupling constants, the χ1 angles and preferred rotamer populations can be calculated. It was determined that the threonines on the ice-binding face of the protein adopt a preferred rotameric conformation at near freezing temperatures, whereas the threonines not on the ice-binding face sample many rotameric states. This suggests that TmAFP maintains a preformed ice-binding conformation in solution, wherein the rigid array of threonines that form the AFP-ice interface matches the ice crystal lattice. A key factor in binding to the ice surface and inhibition of ice crystal growth appears to be the close surface-to-surface complementarity between the AFP and crystalline ice, and the lack of an entropic penalty associated with freezing out motions in a flexible ligand. PMID:12824479

  12. Investigating the role of c-Jun N-terminal kinases in the proliferation of Werner syndrome fibroblasts using diaminopyridine inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis Terence

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fibroblasts derived from the progeroid Werner syndrome show reduced replicative lifespan and a "stressed" morphology, both alleviated using the MAP kinase inhibitor SB203580. However, interpretation of these data is problematical because although SB203580 has the stress-activated kinases p38 and JNK1/2 as its preferred targets, it does show relatively low overall kinase selectivity. Several lines of data support a role for both p38 and JNK1/2 activation in the control of cellular proliferation and also the pathology of diseases of ageing, including type II diabetes, diseases to which Werner Syndrome individuals are prone, thus making the use of JNK inhibitors attractive as possible therapeutics. We have thus tested the effects of the widely used JNK inhibitor SP600125 on the proliferation and morphology of WS cells. In addition we synthesised and tested two recently described aminopyridine based inhibitors. SP600125 treatment resulted in the cessation of proliferation of WS cells and resulted in a senescent-like cellular phenotype that does not appear to be related to the inhibition of JNK1/2. In contrast, use of the more selective aminopyridine CMPD 6o at concentrations that fully inhibit JNK1/2 had a positive effect on cellular proliferation of immortalised WS cells, but no effect on the replicative lifespan of primary WS fibroblasts. In addition, CMPD 6o corrected the stressed WS cellular morphology. The aminopyridine CMPD 6r, however, had little effect on WS cells. CMDP 6o was also found to be a weak inhibitor of MK2, which may partially explain its effects on WS cells, since MK2 is known to be involved in regulating cellular morphology via HSP27 phosphorylation, and is thought to play a role in cell cycle arrest. These data suggest that total JNK1/2 activity does not play a substantial role in the proliferation control in WS cells.

  13. SmSak, the second Polo-like kinase of the helminth parasite Schistosoma mansoni: conserved and unexpected roles in meiosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thavy Long

    Full Text Available Polo-like kinases (Plks are a family of conserved regulators of a variety of events throughout the cell cycle, expanded from one Plk in yeast to five Plks in mammals (Plk1-5. Plk1 is the best characterized member of the Plk family, homolog to the founding member Polo of Drosophila, and plays a major role in cell cycle progression by triggering G2/M transition. Plk4/Sak (for Snk (Serum-inducible kinase akin kinase is a unique member of the family, structurally distinct from other Plk members, with essential functions in centriole duplication. The genome of the trematode parasite Schistosoma mansoni contains only two Plk genes encoding SmPlk1 and SmSak. SmPlk1 has been shown already to be required for gametogenesis and parasite reproduction. In this work, in situ hybridization indicated that the structurally conserved Plk4 protein, SmSak, was largely expressed in schistosome female ovary and vitellarium. Expression of SmSak in Xenopus oocytes confirmed its Plk4 conserved function in centriole amplification. Moreover, analysis of the function of SmSak in meiosis progression of G2-blocked Xenopus oocytes indicated that, in contrast to SmPlk1, SmSak cannot induce G2/M transition in the absence of endogenous Plk1 (Plx1. Unexpectedly, meiosis progression was spontaneously observed in Plx1-depleted oocytes co-expressing SmSak and SmPlk1. Molecular interaction between SmSak and SmPlk1 was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation of both proteins. These data indicate that Plk1 and Plk4 proteins have the potential to interact and cross-activate in cells, thus attributing for the first time a potential role of Plk4 proteins in meiosis/mitosis entry. This unexpected role of SmSak in meiosis could be relevant to further consider the function of this novel Plk in schistosome reproduction.

  14. Role of the beta subunit of casein kinase-2 on the stability and specificity of the recombinant reconstituted holoenzyme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meggio, F; Boldyreff, B; Marin, O

    1992-01-01

    Recombinant human alpha subunit from casein kinase-2 (CK-2) was subjected, either alone or in combination with recombinant human beta subunit, to high temperature, tryptic digestion and urea treatment. In all three cases, it was shown that the presence of the beta subunit could drastically reduce...... the loss of kinase activity, strongly suggesting a protective function for the beta subunit. Assaying different peptides for specificity toward the recombinant alpha subunit and the recombinant reconstituted enzyme, showed that the presence of the beta subunit could modify the specificity of the catalytic...... alpha subunit. Therefore, a dual function for the beta subunit is proposed which confers both specificity and stability to the catalytic alpha subunit within the CK-2 holoenzyme complex. The peptide DLEPDEELEDNPNQSDL, reproducing the highly acidic amino acid 55-71 segment of the human beta subunit...

  15. Characterization of a poplar NIMA-related kinase PNek1 and its potential role in meristematic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloutier, Monikca; Vigneault, Frédéric; Lachance, Denis; Séguin, Armand

    2005-08-29

    Meristems are sites of undifferentiated cell division, which carry on developing into functional organs. Using the two-hybrid system with a poplar 14-3-3, we uncovered poplar NIMA-related kinase 1 (PNek1) as an interacting protein. PNek1 shows high homology to the mammalian NIMA-related kinases, which are thought to be involved in cell cycle progression. Using a synchronized poplar cell suspension, we observed an accumulation of PNek1 mRNA at the G1/S transition and throughout the G2-to-M progression. Moreover, PNek1-GFP fusion protein localized in the cytoplasm and in both the nuclear and nucleolar regions. Overexpression of PNek1-GFP in Arabidopsis caused morphological abnormalities in flower and siliques. Overall, these results suggest that PNek1 is involved in plant development.

  16. Molecular Simulations Reveal an Unresolved Conformation of the Type IA Protein Kinase A Regulatory Subunit and Suggest Its Role in the cAMP Regulatory Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirakis, Sophia P; Malmstrom, Robert D; Amaro, Rommie E

    2017-08-01

    We identify a previously unresolved, unrecognized, and highly stable conformation of the protein kinase A (PKA) regulatory subunit RIα. This conformation, which we term the "Flipback" structure, bridges conflicting characteristics in crystallographic structures and solution experiments of the PKA RIα heterotetramer. Our simulations reveal a hinge residue, G235, in the B/C helix that is conserved through all isoforms of RI. Brownian dynamics simulations suggest that the Flipback conformation plays a role in cAMP association to the A domain of the R subunit.

  17. Interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase-1 plays an essential role for Toll-like receptor (TLR)7- and TLR9-mediated interferon-α induction

    OpenAIRE

    Uematsu, Satoshi; Sato, Shintaro; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Hirotani, Tomonori; Kato, Hiroki; Takeshita, Fumihiko; Matsuda, Michiyuki; Coban, Cevayir; Ishii, Ken J.; Kawai, Taro; Takeuchi, Osamu; Akira, Shizuo

    2005-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize microbial pathogens and trigger innate immune responses. Among TLR family members, TLR7, TLR8, and TLR9 induce interferon (IFN)-α in plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs). This induction requires the formation of a complex consisting of the adaptor MyD88, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) and IFN regulatory factor (IRF) 7. Here we show an essential role of IL-1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK)-1 in TLR7- and TLR9-mediated IRF7...

  18. Dichotomous role of protein kinase A type I (PKAI) in the tumor microenvironment: a potential target for 'two-in-one' cancer chemoimmunotherapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Muzammal; Tang, Fei; Liu, Jinsong; Zhang, Jiancun; Javeed, Aqeel

    2015-12-01

    An emerging trend in cancer chemoimmunotherapeutics is to develop 'two-in-one' therapies, which directly inhibit tumor growth and progression, as well as enhance anti-tumor immune surveillance. Protein kinase A (PKA) is a cAMP-dependent protein kinase that mediates signal transduction of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). The regulatory subunit of PKA exists in two isoforms, RI and RII, which distinguish the PKA isozymes, PKA type I (PKAI) and PKA type II (PKAII). The differential expression of both PKA isozymes has long been linked to growth regulation and differentiation. RI/PKAI is particularly implicated in cellular proliferation and neoplastic transformation. Emerging experimental and pre-clinical data also indicate that RI/PKAI plays a key role in tumor-induced immune suppression. More briefly, RI/PKAI possesses a dichotomous role in the tumor microenvironment: not only contributes to tumor growth and progression, but also takes part in tumor-induced suppression of the innate and adaptive arms of anti-tumor immunosurveillance. This review specifically discusses this dichotomous role of RI/PKAI with respect to 'two-in-one' chemoimmunotherapeutic manipulation. The reviewed experimental and pre-clinical data provide the proof of concept validation that RI/PKAI may be regarded as an attractive target for a new, single-targeted, 'two hit' chemoimmunotherapeutic approach against cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Studies on the role of protein kinases in the TNF-mediated enhancement of murine tumor cell-endothelial cell interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereta, J; Bereta, M; Cohen, S; Cohen, M C

    1991-09-01

    We have previously demonstrated that the exposure of mouse microvascular endothelium (MME) to tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) led to the increased binding of mouse mastocytoma cells (P815) to endothelial monolayers (Bereta et al., in press). In the current study we examined the possible involvement of protein kinases in TNF signal transduction in the endothelial cells. PKA does not appear to play a role in the potentiation of binding by TNF. We found that the TNF-generated signal is inhibited by H-7 and sangivamycin, but not by staurosporine. TNF did not cause translocation of PKC to the cell membrane and its effect could not be completely mimicked by PMA nor by PMA in the presence of calcium-raising agents. Thus, we concluded that the "classical" PKC pathway is not completely responsible for TNF signalling in this system. We also found that staurosporine itself strongly enhanced adhesion of tumor cells to endothelium, utilizing a mechanism distinct from that of TNF. Although the data provide evidence for the role of kinases in the effect of TNF on binding of tumor cells to MME, this role appears to be a complex one.

  20. Role of a novel PH-kinase domain interface in PKB/Akt regulation: structural mechanism for allosteric inhibition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Calleja

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein kinase B (PKB/Akt belongs to the AGC superfamily of related serine/threonine protein kinases. It is a key regulator downstream of various growth factors and hormones and is involved in malignant transformation and chemo-resistance. Full-length PKB protein has not been crystallised, thus studying the molecular mechanisms that are involved in its regulation in relation to its structure have not been simple. Recently, the dynamics between the inactive and active conformer at the molecular level have been described. The maintenance of PKB's inactive state via the interaction of the PH and kinase domains prevents its activation loop to be phosphorylated by its upstream activator, phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1. By using a multidisciplinary approach including molecular modelling, classical biochemical assays, and Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET/two-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM, a detailed model depicting the interaction between the different domains of PKB in its inactive conformation was demonstrated. These findings in turn clarified the molecular mechanism of PKB inhibition by AKT inhibitor VIII (a specific allosteric inhibitor and illustrated at the molecular level its selectivity towards different PKB isoforms. Furthermore, these findings allude to the possible function of the C-terminus in sustaining the inactive conformer of PKB. This study presents essential insights into the quaternary structure of PKB in its inactive conformation. An understanding of PKB structure in relation to its function is critical for elucidating its mode of activation and discovering how to modulate its activity. The molecular mechanism of inhibition of PKB activation by the specific drug AKT inhibitor VIII has critical implications for determining the mechanism of inhibition of other allosteric inhibitors and for opening up opportunities for the design of new generations of modulator drugs.

  1. Characterization of the PAS domain in the sensor-kinase BvgS: mechanical role in signal transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupré, Elian; Wohlkonig, Alexandre; Herrou, Julien; Locht, Camille; Jacob-Dubuisson, Françoise; Antoine, Rudy

    2013-07-24

    In bacteria, signal-transduction two-component systems are major players for adaptation to environmental stimuli. The perception of a chemical or physical signal by a sensor-kinase triggers its autophosphorylation. The phosphoryl group is then transferred to the cognate response regulator, which mediates the appropriate adaptive response. Virulence of the whooping cough agent Bordetella pertussis is controlled by the two-component system BvgAS. Atypically, the sensor-kinase BvgS is active without specific stimuli at 37°C in laboratory conditions and is inactivated by the addition of negative chemical modulators. The structure of BvgS is complex, with two tandem periplasmic Venus flytrap domains and a cytoplasmic PAS domain that precedes the kinase domain, which is followed by additional phosphotransfer domains. PAS domains are small, ubiquitous sensing or regulatory domains. The function of the PAS domain in BvgS remains unknown. We showed that recombinant BvgS PAS proteins form dimers that are stabilized by α helical regions flanking the PAS core. A structural model of the PAS domain dimer was built and probed by site-directed mutagenesis and by biochemical and functional analyses. Although we found no ligands for the PAS domain cavity, its integrity is required for signaling. We also showed that the structural stability of the PAS core and its proper coupling to its flanking N- and C-terminal α helices are crucial for BvgS activity. We propose that a major function of the BvgS PAS domain is to maintain conformational signals arising from mechanical strain generated by the periplasmic domain. The tight structure of the PAS core and its connections with the upstream and downstream helices ensure signaling to the kinase domain, which determines BvgS activity. Many mild substitutions that map to the PAS domain keep BvgS active but make it unresponsive to negative modulators, supporting that modulation increases conformational strain in the protein.

  2. Protein kinase C-mediated pulmonary vasoconstriction in rabbit: role of Ca2+, AA metabolites, and vasodilators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, J R; Yang, J; Farrukh, I S; Gurtner, G H

    1993-03-01

    We studied the effects of three chemically distinct protein kinase C activators on pulmonary vascular tone in the buffer-perfused isolated rabbit lung. The three activators, 12-deoxyphorbol 13-isobutyrate (12,13-phorbol), mezerein, and 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol, produce concentration-dependent increases in pulmonary arterial pressure, whereas the inactive compound 4 alpha-phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate does not affect pulmonary arterial pressure. Reducing calcium availability with verapamil, a calcium-free buffer, or a chelator of intracellular calcium significantly decreases the response to 12,13-phorbol or mezerein. Pretreatment with phloretin, an inhibitor of protein kinase C, has no affect on the vasoconstriction caused by infusion of a KCl bolus, but it does inhibit in a dose-dependent manner the response to 12,13-phorbol and mezerein. 12,13-Phorbol at a concentration of 2.5 microM, but not of 1 microM, stimulates prostacyclin and thromboxane synthesis by the isolated lung. Because inhibitors of thromboxane synthesis significantly decrease the response, thromboxane likely contributes to the vasoconstriction produced by higher concentrations of 12,13-phorbol and mezerein. Pretreatment with isoproterenol or nitroprusside reduces the increase in pulmonary arterial pressure caused by the protein kinase C activators but does not reverse vasoconstriction, even though subsequent treatment with verapamil does. In summary, activating protein kinase C in the isolated rabbit lung causes long-lasting pulmonary vasoconstriction, reducing calcium availability decreases the response, part of the increase in pulmonary arterial pressure appears secondary to thromboxane generation, and pretreatment with isoproterenol or nitroprusside prevents the vasoconstriction, but posttreatment with these vasodilators is ineffective.

  3. Inflammatory and catabolic signalling in intervertebral discs: The roles of NF-B and MAP Kinases

    OpenAIRE

    K Wuertz; N Vo; D Kletsas; N Boos

    2012-01-01

    Painful intervertebral disc disease is characterised not only by an imbalance between anabolic (i.e., matrix synthesis) and catabolic (i.e., matrix degradation) processes, but also by inflammatory mechanisms. The increased expression and synthesis of matrix metalloproteinases and inflammatory factors is mediated by specific signal transduction, in particular the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-mediated pathways. NF-kB and MAPK have been identified as ...

  4. Protein phosphorylation associated with epipodophyllotoxin-induced apoptosis of lymphoid cells: role of a serine/threonine protein kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, X; Mody, N S; Hingley, S T; Coffman, F D; Cohen, S; Fresa, K L

    1998-11-01

    We have previously shown that apoptosis induced in thymocytes by dexamethasone or teniposide (VM-26) could be inhibited by 1-(5-isoquinolinylsulfonyl)-2-methylpiperazine (H7) and sangivamycin, both relatively specific inhibitors for protein kinase C, but not by N-(2-guanidinoethyl)-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide (HA1004), a more specific inhibitor for cAMP-dependent protein kinases. Apoptosis in this model system was not blocked by EGTA and no increase in cytosolic Ca2+ was observed during apoptosis induced by either dexamethasone or VM-26, suggesting that this kinase was Ca2+-independent. In the present study, we demonstrate that addition of 10 microM sangivamycin to thymocyte cultures up to 2 h after addition of either inducer resulted in virtually complete inhibition of apoptosis. Addition of 10 microM sangivamycin at 3 or 4 h after addition of inducer resulted in partial inhibition of apoptosis. Computerized image analysis of two-dimensional PAGE analyses of whole-cell lysates demonstrated that treatment of mouse thymocytes with VM-26 resulted in a limited number of de novo phosphorylation events within 1 h of treatment. The most prominent phosphorylation events associated with VM-26-induced apoptosis were that two intracellular protein species (Protein 1: m.w. = 22.9 kDa, pI, 5.11; and Protein 2: m.w. = 22.9 kDa, pI, 4.98). Similar phosphorylation events were seen in cells treated with dexamethasone. Finally, Western blot analysis suggests that de novo protein phosphorylation induced by VM-26 is on serine/threonine residues. These results provide further evidence that the mechanism of VM-26-induced apoptosis of murine thymocytes involves the action of one or more serine/threonine kinases. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  5. Epidemiological significance of Salmonella enterica serovar Montevideo and the potential role of feed for their entry into the food chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanov Dubravka S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal feed is the first link in the food chain and one of the possible source of Salmonella for food producing animals and consequently, humans consuming products of animal origin. The assessment of the importance and role of Salmonella organisms commonly detected in animal feed in epidemic outbreaks of salmonellosis is highly intricate. This is mainly due to the fact that isolates are rarely identified (typed to the serovar level, thus, the relevant data on both animal feed and food of animal origin are lacking. In the framework of the 2-year project granted by the Ministry of Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia, all Salmonella isolates originating from animal feed were typed to the serovar level in the National Reference Laboratory for Salmonella. Eighteen different serovars have been identified, whereas 15% of all isolates included serovar Montevideo. Frequent isolation of S. ser. Montevideo from animal feed originating from feed mills in our epizootic area (South Bačka and Srem district, encouraged our attempt to summarize and present the available data on the importance of Montevideo serovar in the outbreaks of clinical salmonellosis in humans and to review the reports on individual epidemiological studies aimed at detecting infection sources and establishing relevant facts on emerging antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella. Moreover, this article emphasizes the need and importance of an extensive Salmonella monitoring program at national level, which would encompass all links of the food chain including animal feed and feed processing plants as well.

  6. Evidence for a critical role for the cytoplasmic region of the interleukin 2 (IL-2) receptor gamma chain in IL-2, IL-4, and IL-7 signalling.

    OpenAIRE

    Kawahara, A; Minami, Y; Taniguchi, T

    1994-01-01

    The high-affinity interleukin 2 receptor (IL-2R) consists of at least three distinct subunits: the IL-2R alpha chain (IL-2R alpha), beta chain (IL-2R beta), and gamma chain (IL-2R gamma). It has been shown that the cytoplasmic region of IL-2R beta, but not of IL-2R alpha, is essential for IL-2 signalling to the cell interior. In the present study, we examined the functional role of the IL-2R gamma cytoplasmic region in the IL-3-dependent mouse hematopoietic cell line BAF-B03, which expresses ...

  7. The transcription factor Ste12 mediates the regulatory role of the Tmk1 MAP kinase in mycoparasitism and vegetative hyphal fusion in the filamentous fungus Trichoderma atroviride.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Gruber

    Full Text Available Mycoparasitic species of the fungal genus Trichoderma are potent antagonists able to combat plant pathogenic fungi by direct parasitism. An essential step in this mycoparasitic fungus-fungus interaction is the detection of the fungal host followed by activation of molecular weapons in the mycoparasite by host-derived signals. The Trichoderma atroviride MAP kinase Tmk1, a homolog of yeast Fus3/Kss1, plays an essential role in regulating the mycoparasitic host attack, aerial hyphae formation and conidiation. However, the transcription factors acting downstream of Tmk1 are hitherto unknown. Here we analyzed the functions of the T. atroviride Ste12 transcription factor whose orthologue in yeast is targeted by the Fus3 and Kss1 MAP kinases. Deletion of the ste12 gene in T. atroviride not only resulted in reduced mycoparasitic overgrowth and lysis of host fungi but also led to loss of hyphal avoidance in the colony periphery and a severe reduction in conidial anastomosis tube formation and vegetative hyphal fusion events. The transcription of several orthologues of Neurospora crassa hyphal fusion genes was reduced upon ste12 deletion; however, the Δste12 mutant showed enhanced expression of mycoparasitism-relevant chitinolytic and proteolytic enzymes and of the cell wall integrity MAP kinase Tmk2. Based on the comparative analyses of Δste12 and Δtmk1 mutants, an essential role of the Ste12 transcriptional regulator in mediating outcomes of the Tmk1 MAPK pathway such as regulation of the mycoparasitic activity, hyphal fusion and carbon source-dependent vegetative growth is suggested. Aerial hyphae formation and conidiation, in contrast, were found to be independent of Ste12.

  8. Bacterial Protein-Tyrosine Kinases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Lei; Kobir, Ahasanul; Jers, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    enzymes that are unique in exploiting the ATP/GTP-binding Walker motif to catalyze phosphorylation of protein tyrosine residues. Characterized for the first time only a decade ago, BY-kinases have now come to the fore. Important regulatory roles have been linked with these enzymes, via their involvement......Bacteria and Eukarya share essentially the same family of protein-serine/threonine kinases, also known as the Hanks-type kinases. However, when it comes to protein-tyrosine phosphorylation, bacteria seem to have gone their own way. Bacterial protein-tyrosine kinases (BY-kinases) are bacterial...... in exopolysaccharide production, virulence, DNA metabolism, stress response and other key functions of the bacterial cell. BY-kinases act through autophosphorylation (mainly in exopolysaccharide production) and phosphorylation of other proteins, which have in most cases been shown to be activated by tyrosine...

  9. Ligand-Stimulated Downregulation of the Alpha Interferon Receptor: Role of Protein Kinase D2▿ §

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Hui; Qian, Juan; Varghese, Bentley; Baker, Darren P.; Fuchs, Serge

    2010-01-01

    Alpha interferon (IFN-α) controls homeostasis of hematopoietic stem cells, regulates antiviral resistance, inhibits angiogenesis, and suppresses tumor growth. This cytokine is often used to treat cancers and chronic viral infections. The extent of cellular responses to IFN-α is limited by the IFN-induced ubiquitination and degradation of the IFN-α/β receptor chain 1 (IFNAR1) chain of the cognate receptor. IFNAR1 ubiquitination is facilitated by the βTrcp E3 ubiquitin ligase that is recruited ...

  10. The Role of Unfolded Protein Response and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling in Neurodegenerative Diseases with Special Focus on Prion Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifeng Yang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Prion diseases are neurodegenerative pathologies characterized by the accumulation of a protease-resistant form of the cellular prion protein named prion protein scrapie (PrPSc in the brain. PrPSc accumulation in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER result in a dysregulated calcium (Ca2+ homeostasis and subsequent initiation of unfolded protein response (UPR leading to neuronal dysfunction and apoptosis. The molecular mechanisms for the transition between adaptation to ER stress and ER stress-induced apoptosis are still unclear. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs are serine/threonine protein kinases that rule the signaling of many extracellular stimuli from plasma membrane to the nucleus. However the identification of numerous points of cross talk between the UPR and MAPK signaling pathways may contribute to our understanding of the consequences of ER stress in prion diseases. Indeed the MAPK signaling network is known to regulate cell cycle progression and cell survival or death responses following a variety of stresses including misfolded protein response stress. In this article, we review the UPR signaling in prion diseases and discuss the triad of MAPK signaling pathways. We also describe the role played by MAPK signaling cascades in Alzheimer’s (AD and Parkinson’s disease (PD. We will also overview the mechanisms of cell death and the role of MAPK signaling in prion disease progression and highlight potential avenues for therapeutic intervention.

  11. Dynamic Allostery Mediated by a Conserved Tryptophan in the Tec Family Kinases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita Chopra

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk is a Tec family non-receptor tyrosine kinase that plays a critical role in immune signaling and is associated with the immunological disorder X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA. Our previous findings showed that the Tec kinases are allosterically activated by the adjacent N-terminal linker. A single tryptophan residue in the N-terminal 17-residue linker mediates allosteric activation, and its mutation to alanine leads to the complete loss of activity. Guided by hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry results, we have employed Molecular Dynamics simulations, Principal Component Analysis, Community Analysis and measures of node centrality to understand the details of how a single tryptophan mediates allostery in Btk. A specific tryptophan side chain rotamer promotes the functional dynamic allostery by inducing coordinated motions that spread across the kinase domain. Either a shift in the rotamer population, or a loss of the tryptophan side chain by mutation, drastically changes the coordinated motions and dynamically isolates catalytically important regions of the kinase domain. This work also identifies a new set of residues in the Btk kinase domain with high node centrality values indicating their importance in transmission of dynamics essential for kinase activation. Structurally, these node residues appear in both lobes of the kinase domain. In the N-lobe, high centrality residues wrap around the ATP binding pocket connecting previously described Catalytic-spine residues. In the C-lobe, two high centrality node residues connect the base of the R- and C-spines on the αF-helix. We suggest that the bridging residues that connect the catalytic and regulatory architecture within the kinase domain may be a crucial element in transmitting information about regulatory spine assembly to the catalytic machinery of the catalytic spine and active site.

  12. Synthetic polyubiquitinated α-Synuclein reveals important insights into the roles of the ubiquitin chain in regulating its pathophysiology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mahmood Haj-Yahya; Bruno Fauvet; Yifat Herman-Bachinsky; Mirva Hejjaoui; Sudhir N. Bavikar; Subramanian Vedhanarayanan Karthikeyan; Aaron Ciechanover; Hilal A. Lashuel; Ashraf Brik

    2013-01-01

    ...) chains to a specific substrate. Here, we describe chemical and semisynthetic strategies for site-specific incorporation of K48-linked di- or tetra-Ub chains onto the side chain of Lys12 of α-Synuclein (α-Syn...

  13. Interactions between the Leucine-zipper Motif of cGMP-Dependent Protein Kinase and the C-terminal Region of the Targeting Subunit of Myosin Light Chain Phosphatase*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunhee; Hayes, David B.; Langsetmo, Knut; Sundberg, Eric J.; Tao, Terence C.

    2007-01-01

    Summary Nitric oxide induces vasodilation by elevating the production of cGMP, an activator of cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG). PKG subsequently causes smooth muscle relaxation in part via activation of myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP). To date, the interaction between PKG and the targeting subunit of MLCP (MYPT1) is not fully understood. Earlier studies by one group of workers showed that the binding of PKG to MYPT1 is mediated by the leucine-zipper motifs at the N- and C-termini, respectively, of the two proteins. Another group, however, reported that binding of PKG to MYPT1 did not require the leucine-zipper motif of MYPT1. In this work we fully characterized the interaction between PKG and MYPT1 using biophysical techniques. For this purpose we constructed a recombinant PKG peptide corresponding to a predicted coiled coil region that contains the leucine-zipper motif. We further constructed various C-terminal MYPT1 peptides bearing various combinations of a predicted coiled coil region, extensions preceding this coiled coil region, and the leucine-zipper motif. Our results show, firstly, that while the leucine-zipper motif at the N-terminus of PKG forms a homodimeric coiled coil, the one at the C-terminus of MYPT1 is monomeric and non-helical. Secondly, the leucine-zipper motif of PKG binds to that of MYPT1 to form a heterodimer. Thirdly, when the leucine-zipper motif of MYPT1 is absent, the PKG leucine-zipper motif binds to the coiled coil region and upstream segments of MYPT1 via formation of a heterotetramer. These results provide rationalization of some of the findings by others using alternative binding analyses. PMID:17904578

  14. Detection of Echinoderm Microtubule Associated Protein Like 4-Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase Fusion Genes in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Clinical Samples by a Real-time Quantitative Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Zhao, Jin-Yin; Chen, Zhi-Xia; Zhong, Wei; Li, Long-Yun; Liu, Li-Cheng; Hu, Xiao-Xu; Chen, Wei-Jun; Wang, Meng-Zhao

    2016-12-20

    Objective To establish a real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay (qRT-PCR) for the rapid, sensitive, and specific detection of echinoderm microtubule associated protein like 4-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (EML4-ALK) fusion genes in non-small cell lung cancer. Methods The specific primers for the four variants of EML4-ALK fusion genes (V1, V2, V3a, and V3b) and Taqman fluorescence probes for the detection of the target sequences were carefully designed by the Primer Premier 5.0 software. Then, using pseudovirus containing EML4-ALK fusion genes variants (V1, V2, V3a, and V3b) as the study objects, we further analyzed the lower limit, sensitivity, and specificity of this method. Finally, 50 clinical samples, including 3 ALK-fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) positive specimens, were collected and used to detect EML4-ALK fusion genes using this method. Results The lower limit of this method for the detection of EML4-ALK fusion genes was 10 copies/μl if no interference of background RNA existed. Regarding the method's sensitivity, the detection resolution was as high as 1% and 0.5% in the background of 500 and 5000 copies/μl wild-type ALK gene, respectively. Regarding the method's specificity, no non-specific amplification was found when it was used to detect EML4-ALK fusion genes in leukocyte and plasma RNA samples from healthy volunteers. Among the 50 clinical samples, 47 ALK-FISH negative samples were also negative. Among 3 ALK-FISH positive samples, 2 cases were detected positive using this method, but another was not detected because of the failure of RNA extraction. Conclusion The proposed qRT-PCR assay for the detection of EML4-ALK fusion genes is rapid, simple, sensitive, and specific, which is deserved to be validated and widely used in clinical settings.

  15. From Phosphosites to Kinases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Stephanie; Refsgaard, Jan C; Olsen, Jesper V

    2016-01-01

    Kinases play a pivotal role in propagating the phosphorylation-mediated signaling networks in living cells. With the overwhelming quantities of phosphoproteomics data being generated, the number of identified phosphorylation sites (phosphosites) is ever increasing. Often, proteomics investigations...... sequence motifs, mostly based on large scale in vivo and in vitro experiments. The context of the kinase and the phosphorylated proteins in a biological system is equally important for predicting association between the enzymes and substrates, an aspect that is also being tackled with available...

  16. Alpha7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors affect growth regulation of human mesothelioma cells: role of mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombino, Sonya; Cesario, Alfredo; Margaritora, Stefano; Granone, PierLuigi; Motta, Giovanni; Falugi, Carla; Russo, Patrizia

    2004-01-01

    This study presents data suggesting that both human mesothelioma (cell lines and human mesothelioma biopsies) and human normal mesothelial cells express receptors for acetylcholine and that stimulation of these receptors by nicotine prompted cell growth via activation of nicotinic cholinergic receptors. Thus, these data demonstrate that: (a) human mesothelioma cells and human biopsies of mesothelioma as well as of normal pleural mesothelial cells express functionally alpha-7 nicotinic acethlycholine receptors, evaluated by alpha-bungarotoxin-FITC binding, receptor binding assay, Western blot, and reverse transcription-PCR; (b) choline acetyltransferase immunostaining is present in mesothelioma cells; (c) mesothelioma cell growth is modulated by the cholinergic system in which agonists (i.e., nicotine) has a proliferative effect, and antagonists (i.e., curare) has an inhibitory effect, evaluated by cell cloning, DNA synthesis and cell cycle; (d) nicotine induces Ca(+2) influx, evaluated by [(45)Ca(2+)] uptake, and consequently activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway (extracellular signal-regulated kinase and p90(RSK) phosphorylation), evaluated by Western blot; and (e) apoptosis mechanisms in mesothelioma cells are under the control of the cholinergic system (nicotine antiapoptotic via induction of nuclear factor-kappaB complexes and phosphorylation of Bad at Ser(112); curare proapoptotic via G(0)-G(1) arrest p21(waf-1) dependent but p53 independent). The involvement of the nonneuronal cholinergic system in mesothelioma appears reasonable and open up new therapeutic strategies.

  17. The role of the atypical kinases ABC1K7 and ABC1K8 in abscisic acid responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eManara

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The ABC1K family of atypical kinases (activity of bc1 complex kinase is represented in bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes. In plants they regulate diverse physiological processes in the chloroplasts and mitochondria, but their precise functions are poorly defined. ABC1K7 and ABC1K8 are probably involved in oxidative stress responses, isoprenyl lipid synthesis and distribution of iron within chloroplasts. Because reactive oxygen species take part in abscisic acid (ABA-mediated processes, we investigated the functions of ABC1K7 and ABC1K8 during germination, stomatal movement and leaf senescence. Both genes were upregulated by ABA treatment and some ABA-responsive physiological processes were affected in abc1k7 and abc1k8 mutants. Germination was more severely affected by ABA, osmotic stress and salt stress in the single and double mutants; the stomatal aperture was smaller in the mutants under standard growth conditions and was not further reduced by exogenous ABA application; ABA-induced senescence symptoms were more severe in the leaves of the single and double mutants compared to wild type leaves. Taken together, our results suggest that ABC1K7 and ABC1K8 might be involved in the cross-talk between ABA and ROS signaling.

  18. Differential roles of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinases in posttetanic potentiation at input selective glutamatergic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D; Maler, L

    1998-06-09

    The electrosensory lateral line lobe (ELL) of the electric fish Apteronotus leptorhynchus is a layered medullary region receiving electroreceptor input that terminates on basal dendrites of interneurons and projection (pyramidal) cells. The molecular layer of the ELL contains two distinct glutamatergic feedback pathways that terminate on the proximal (ventral molecular layer, VML) and distal (dorsal molecular layer) apical dendrites of pyramidal cells. Western blot analysis with an antibody directed against mammalian Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase 2, alpha subunit (CaMK2alpha) recognized a protein of identical size in the brain of A. leptorhynchus. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that CaMK2 alpha expression in the ELL was restricted to fibers and terminals in the VML. Posttetanic potentiation (PTP) could be readily elicited in pyramidal cells by stimulation of either VML or DML in brain slices of the ELL. PTP in the VML was blocked by extracellular application of a CaMK2 antagonist (KN62) while intracellular application of KN62 or a CaMK2 inhibitory peptide had no effect, consistent with the presynaptic localization of CaMK2 alpha in VML. PTP in the dorsal molecular layer was not affected by extracellular application of KN62. Anti-Hebbian plasticity has also been demonstrated in the VML, but was not affected by KN62. These results demonstrate that, while PTP can occur independent of CaMK2, it is, in some synapses, dependent on this kinase.

  19. An essential role for the Plasmodium Nek-2 Nima-related protein kinase in the sexual development of malaria parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reininger, Luc; Tewari, Rita; Fennell, Clare; Holland, Zoe; Goldring, Dean; Ranford-Cartwright, Lisa; Billker, Oliver; Doerig, Christian

    2009-07-31

    The molecular control of cell division and development in malaria parasites is far from understood. We previously showed that a Plasmodium gametocyte-specific NIMA-related protein kinase, nek-4, is required for completion of meiosis in the ookinete, the motile form that develops from the zygote in the mosquito vector. Here, we show that another NIMA-related kinase, Pfnek-2, is also predominantly expressed in gametocytes, and that Pfnek-2 is an active enzyme displaying an in vitro substrate preference distinct from that of Pfnek-4. A functional nek-2 gene is required for transmission of both Plasmodium falciparum and the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei to the mosquito vector, which is explained by the observation that disruption of the nek-2 gene in P. berghei causes dysregulation of DNA replication during meiosis and blocks ookinete development. This has implications (i) in our understanding of sexual development of malaria parasites and (ii) in the context of control strategies aimed at interfering with malaria transmission.

  20. The role of short-chain fatty acids in kidney injury induced by gut-derived inflammatory response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Zhou, Luping; Guo, Hengli; Xu, Youhua; Xu, Yong

    2017-03-01

    It has been found that several circulating metabolites derived from gut microbiota fermentation associate with a systemic immuno-inflammatory response and kidney injury, which has been coined the gut-kidney axis. Recent evidence has suggested that short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), which are primarily originated from fermentation of dietary fiber in the gut, play an important role in regulation of immunity, blood pressure, glucose and lipid metabolism, and seem to be the link between microbiota and host homeostasis. In addition to their important role as fuel for colonic epithelial cells, SCFAs also modulate different cell signal transduction processes via G-protein coupled receptors, and act as epigenetic regulators by the inhibition of histone deacetylase and as potential mediators involved in the autophagy pathway. Though controversial, an intimate connection between SCFAs and kidney injury has been revealed, suggesting that SCFAs may act as new therapeutic targets of kidney injury. This review is intended to provide an overview of the impact of SCFAs and the potential link to kidney injury induced by gut-derived inflammatory response. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Role of perinatal long-chain omega-3 fatty acids in cortical circuit maturation: Mechanisms and implications for psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Robert K; Vannest, Jennifer J; Valentine, Christina J

    2015-03-22

    Accumulating translational evidence suggests that the long-chain omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) plays a role in the maturation and stability of cortical circuits that are impaired in different recurrent psychiatric disorders. Specifically, rodent and cell culture studies find that DHA preferentially accumulates in synaptic and growth cone membranes and promotes neurite outgrowth, dendritic spine stability, and synaptogenesis. Additional evidence suggests that DHA may play a role in microglia-mediated synaptic pruning, as well as myelin development and resilience. In non-human primates n-3 fatty acid insufficiency during perinatal development leads to widespread deficits in functional connectivity in adult frontal cortical networks compared to primates raised on DHA-fortified diet. Preterm delivery in non-human primates and humans is associated with early deficits in cortical DHA accrual. Human preterm birth is associated with long-standing deficits in myelin integrity and cortical circuit connectivity and increased risk for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), mood, and psychotic disorders. In general, ADHD and mood and psychotic disorders initially emerge during rapid periods of cortical circuit maturation and are characterized by DHA deficits, myelin pathology, and impaired cortical circuit connectivity. Together these associations suggest that early and uncorrected deficits in fetal brain DHA accrual may represent a modifiable risk factor for cortical circuit maturation deficits in psychiatric disorders, and could therefore have significant implications for informing early intervention and prevention strategies.

  2. The Role of Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction in Detecting Etiological Causes of Bacterial Prostatitis Associated Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bramastha Rosadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH has been correlated with chronic prostatitis according recent study. Chronic pelvic pain is the chief complain of BPH followed by prostatitis. The gold standard of the etiological diagnosis is urine culture, but the negativity rate is still high. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR as a diagnostic tool in search of etiological causes could identify microorganism on DNA level. This research aims to find out the role of multiplex polymerase chain reaction as diagnostic tools on prostatitis patients. Material and Method: A total of 12 samples collected during the TURP procedure in Sanglah General Hospital Denpasar – Bali from February until May 2015. All of the samples has been diagnosed prostatitis clinically and perform urine culture test. The prostate specimen taken was sent to the Pathological anatomy for histopathology diagnostic and underwent multiplex PCR for etiologic diagnostic. Result: 12 samples have been declared as prostatitis based on histopathology examination, and then were analyzed using multiplex PCR. 10 samples were positive (6 were E. coli, 2 were C. trachomatis, the rest were N. gonorrhea and P. aeruginosa. The urine culture revealed 9 positive, within the result 6 were E. coli, and the others were P. aeruginosa, M. morganii and A. haemolyticus. Conclusion: In prostatitis patient, the etiological diagnostic was important. Multiplex PCR as diagnostic tools could detect the microorganism on a negative urine culture. The combination of the urine culture test and multiplex PCR revealed a better result on etiologic diagnosis which leads to a better management of the disease. 

  3. The mechanism of epipodophyllotoxin-induced thymocyte apoptosis: possible role of a novel Ca(2+)-independent protein kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, X; Georgoff, I; Fleisher, S; Coffman, F D; Cohen, S; Fresa, K L

    1993-10-15

    The epipodophyllotoxins, etoposide (VP-16) and teniposide (VM-26), inhibit topoisomerase II activity by stabilization of the cleavable complex between the enzyme and DNA and formation of protein-bound double-stranded DNA breaks. While it is thought that these agents are cytotoxic by preventing cells from completing the S phase or undergoing mitosis, recent evidence suggests that these agents are also potent inducers of programmed cell death or apoptosis in both normal and malignant cells. We have examined the intracellular pathway leading to epipodophyllotoxin-induced apoptosis in normal mouse thymocytes. Epipodophyllotoxin-induced apoptosis may proceed via a mechanism that is independent of inhibition of topoisomerase activity per se because novobiocin and coumermycin, which inhibit the ATPase subunit of topoisomerase II, were relatively inefficient inducers of apoptosis in these cells, under conditions where strong apoptosis by the epipodophyllotoxins and dexamethasone could be observed. In addition, camptothecin, which inhibits topoisomerase I by stabilization of the cleavable complex between that enzyme and DNA, was also a poor inducer of apoptosis in these cells. Our data suggest that epipodophyllotoxin-induced mouse thymocyte apoptosis, like that induced by dexamethasone, proceeds via a mechanism that involves protein kinase C (PKC) or a similar enzyme. Apoptosis induced by VM-26 or by dexamethasone was inhibited by 1-(5-isoquinolinylsulfonyl)-2- methylpiperazine dihydrochloride (H7), an inhibitor of both PKC and cAMP-dependent protein kinases, but was relatively unaffected by N-(2-guanidinoethyl)-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide (HA1004), a more specific inhibitor of cAMP-dependent protein kinases. A more specific inhibitor of PKC, sangivamycin, also inhibited both VM-26-induced and dexamethasone-induced apoptosis. Both VM-26- and dexamethasone-induced apoptosis were unaffected by EGTA, a calcium (Ca2+) chelator, under conditions that inhibited apoptosis induced by

  4. A shrimp pacifastin light chain-like inhibitor: molecular identification and role in the control of the prophenoloxidase system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangsuriya, Pakkakul; Charoensapsri, Walaiporn; Chomwong, Sudarat; Senapin, Saengchan; Tassanakajon, Anchalee; Amparyup, Piti

    2016-01-01

    Pacifastin is a recently classified family of serine proteinase inhibitors that play essential roles in various biological processes, including in the regulation of the melanization cascade. Here, a novel pacifastin-related gene, termed PmPacifastin-like, was identified from a reverse suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA library created from hemocytes of the prophenoloxidase PmproPO1/2 co-silenced black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon. The full-length sequences of PmPacifastin-like and its homologue LvPacifastin-like from the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei were determined. Sequence analysis revealed that both sequences contained thirteen conserved pacifastin light chain domains (PLDs), followed by two putative kunitz domains. Expression analysis demonstrated that the PmPacifastin-like transcript was expressed in all tested shrimp tissues and larval developmental stages, and its expression responded to Vibrio harveyi challenge. To gain insight into the functional roles of PmPacifastin-like protein, the in vivo RNA interference experiment was employed; the results showed that PmPacifastin-like depletion strongly increased PO activity. Interestingly, suppression of PmPacifastin-like also down-regulated the expression of the proPO-activating enzyme PmPPAE2 transcript; the PmPacifastin-like transcript was down-regulated after the PmproPO1/2 transcripts were silenced. Taken together, these results suggest that PmPacifastin-like is important in the shrimp proPO system and may play an essential role in shrimp immune defense against bacterial infection. These results also expand the knowledge of how pacifastin-related protein participates in the negative regulation of the proPO system in shrimp. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparative roles of p p chain reactions as a trigger for suprathermal processes in the solar core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronchev, Victor T.; Nakao, Yasuyuki; Watanabe, Yukinobu

    2017-11-01

    Continuing the study of suprathermal effects in the solar core [Phys. Rev. C 91, 028801 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevC.91.028801; J. Phys. G 44, 045202 (2017), 10.1088/1361-6471/aa5f30], we examine the roles of different p p chain processes generating fast α particles as trigger for suprathermal B (α ,p )A reactions neglected in standard solar model simulations. The suprathermal impact on the balance of the p +17O ⇄α +14N reactions involved in the solar CNO cycle is determined. It is obtained that MeV α particles born in the 7Li(p ,α ) α and 3He(3He ,2 p ) α reactions are the main agents that are able to crucially change the reaction balance through an appreciable enhancement of the reverse (α ,p ) reaction. The comparative role of the p +7Li and 3He+3He α particles is clarified. It is found that the former particles control the reverse 14N(α,p ) 17O reaction in the inner core, while the latter ones play a dominant role in the outer core, additionally increasing the (α ,p ) reaction rate by several times and providing favorable conditions for synthesis of some elements. In particular, we show that the total suprathermal enhancement of 17O and 18O mass fractions in the outer core can reach ˜80 or 50, depending on a model for α -particle energy loss used in the simulation. In this context, we note that the p +7Li α particles alone provide the mass fraction enhancement by a factor of 20 or less.

  6. The continuing role of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors in advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wan Ling; Ng, Quan-Sing

    2016-02-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the lung represents about 20-30% of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) and is associated with a poorer prognosis with limited treatment options. Erlotinib is an approved, standard second-line therapy in this setting, besides docetaxel. The LUX-Lung 8 study has shown superior overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), as well as disease control rates for treatment with afatinib compared to erlotinib in this head-to-head trial in patients with previously treated advanced SCC of the lung, with manageable side effect profile. This is the first and largest prospective phase III trial comparing two different tyrosine kinase inhibitors in patients with advanced SCC of the lung. Whether the results would be practice-changing remains to be seen, especially with the advent of novel immunotherapeutic agents such as nivolumab, which is recently approved for advanced lung SCC.

  7. The role of small adaptor proteins in the control of oncogenic signaling driven by tyrosine kinases in human cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naudin, Cécile; Chevalier, Clément; Roche, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation on tyrosine (Tyr) residues has evolved as an important mechanism to coordinate cell communication in multicellular organisms. The importance of this process has been revealed by the discovery of the prominent oncogenic properties of tyrosine kinases (TK) upon deregulation of their physiological activities, often due to protein overexpression and/or somatic mutation. Recent reports suggest that TK oncogenic signaling is also under the control of small adaptor proteins. These cytosolic proteins lack intrinsic catalytic activity and signal by linking two functional members of a catalytic pathway. While most adaptors display positive regulatory functions, a small group of this family exerts negative regulatory functions by targeting several components of the TK signaling cascade. Here, we review how these less studied adaptor proteins negatively control TK activities and how their loss of function induces abnormal TK signaling, promoting tumor formation. We also discuss the therapeutic consequences of this novel regulatory mechanism in human oncology. PMID:26788993

  8. The role of small adaptor proteins in the control of oncogenic signalingr driven by tyrosine kinases in human cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naudin, Cécile; Chevalier, Clément; Roche, Serge

    2016-03-08

    Protein phosphorylation on tyrosine (Tyr) residues has evolved as an important mechanism to coordinate cell communication in multicellular organisms. The importance of this process has been revealed by the discovery of the prominent oncogenic properties of tyrosine kinases (TK) upon deregulation of their physiological activities, often due to protein overexpression and/or somatic mutation. Recent reports suggest that TK oncogenic signaling is also under the control of small adaptor proteins. These cytosolic proteins lack intrinsic catalytic activity and signal by linking two functional members of a catalytic pathway. While most adaptors display positive regulatory functions, a small group of this family exerts negative regulatory functions by targeting several components of the TK signaling cascade. Here, we review how these less studied adaptor proteins negatively control TK activities and how their loss of function induces abnormal TK signaling, promoting tumor formation. We also discuss the therapeutic consequences of this novel regulatory mechanism in human oncology.

  9. A role for the non-receptor tyrosine kinase ACK1 in TNF-alpha-mediated apoptosis and proliferation in human intestinal epithelial caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xinmei; Lv, Chaolan; Chen, Shengbo; Zhi, Fachao

    2017-09-16

    The roles of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and its mediators in cellular processes related to intestinal diseases remain elusive. In this study, we aimed to determine the biological role of activated Cdc42-associated kinase 1 (ACK1) in TNF-alpha-mediated apoptosis and proliferation in Caco-2 cells. ACK1 expression was knocked down using ACK1-specific siRNAs, and ACK1 activity was disrupted using a small molecule ACK1 inhibitor. The Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase biotin-dUTP Nick End Labeling (TUNEL) and the BrdU incorporation assays were used to measure apoptosis and cell proliferation, respectively. ACK1-specific siRNA and the pharmacological ACK1 inhibitor significantly abrogated the TNF-alpha-mediated anti-apoptotic effects and proliferation of Caco-2 cells. Interestingly, TNF-alpha activated ACK1 at tyrosine 284 (Tyr284), and the ErbB family of proteins was implicated in ACK1 activation in Caco-2 cells. ACK1-Tyr284 was required for protein kinase B (AKT) activation, and ACK1 signaling was mediated through recruiting and phosphorylating the down-stream adaptor protein AKT, which likely promoted cell proliferation in response to TNF-alpha. Moreover, ACK1 activated AKT and Src enhanced nuclear factor-кB (NF-кB) activity, suggesting a correlation between NF-кB signaling and TNF-alpha-mediated apoptosis in Caco-2 cells. Our results demonstrate that ACK1 plays an important role in modulating TNF-alpha-induced aberrant cell proliferation and apoptosis, mediated in part by ACK1 activation. ACK1 and its down-stream effectors may hold promise as therapeutic targets in the prevention and treatment of gastrointestinal cancers, in particular, those induced by chronic intestinal inflammation. © 2017 The Authors. Cell Biology International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Federation of Cell Biology.

  10. The role of the mammalian DNA end-processing enzyme polynucleotide kinase 3'-phosphatase in spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpita Chatterjee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA strand-breaks (SBs with non-ligatable ends are generated by ionizing radiation, oxidative stress, various chemotherapeutic agents, and also as base excision repair (BER intermediates. Several neurological diseases have already been identified as being due to a deficiency in DNA end-processing activities. Two common dirty ends, 3'-P and 5'-OH, are processed by mammalian polynucleotide kinase 3'-phosphatase (PNKP, a bifunctional enzyme with 3'-phosphatase and 5'-kinase activities. We have made the unexpected observation that PNKP stably associates with Ataxin-3 (ATXN3, a polyglutamine repeat-containing protein mutated in spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3, also known as Machado-Joseph Disease (MJD. This disease is one of the most common dominantly inherited ataxias worldwide; the defect in SCA3 is due to CAG repeat expansion (from the normal 14-41 to 55-82 repeats in the ATXN3 coding region. However, how the expanded form gains its toxic function is still not clearly understood. Here we report that purified wild-type (WT ATXN3 stimulates, and by contrast the mutant form specifically inhibits, PNKP's 3' phosphatase activity in vitro. ATXN3-deficient cells also show decreased PNKP activity. Furthermore, transgenic mice conditionally expressing the pathological form of human ATXN3 also showed decreased 3'-phosphatase activity of PNKP, mostly in the deep cerebellar nuclei, one of the most affected regions in MJD patients' brain. Finally, long amplicon quantitative PCR analysis of human MJD patients' brain samples showed a significant accumulation of DNA strand breaks. Our results thus indicate that the accumulation of DNA strand breaks due to functional deficiency of PNKP is etiologically linked to the pathogenesis of SCA3/MJD.

  11. Central Role of Protein Kinase A in Promoting Trigeminal Nociception in an In Vivo Model of Temporomandibular Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koop, Lindsey K; Hawkins, Jordan L; Cornelison, Lauren E; Durham, Paul L

    2017-01-01

    To investigate cellular changes in the spinal trigeminal nucleus (STN) and trigeminal ganglion (TG) associated with trigeminal nociception mediated by inflammation in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 86) were utilized to investigate cellular and behavioral responses to prolonged TMJ inflammation caused by bilateral injection of Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA) in the TMJ capsules. To investigate the cellular effects of protein kinase A (PKA) in the STN, rats were injected intrathecally with the selective PKA inhibitor KT5720 prior to injection of CFA into both TMJ capsules. Levels of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), active PKA, and ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba1) in the STN and expression of phosphorylated extracellular regulated kinases (p-ERK) in the TG were determined with immunohistochemistry (n ≥ 3 experiments per test condition). Nocifensive head withdrawal responses to mechanical stimulation of the cutaneous tissue over the TMJ were monitored following CFA injection in the absence or presence of KT5720 (n = 7). Statistical analysis was performed using parametric analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests. Intrathecal injection of KT5720 significantly inhibited the stimulatory effect of CFA on levels of CGRP, PKA, and Iba1 in the STN. In addition, administration of KT5720 decreased the average number of CFA-induced nocifensive withdrawal responses to mechanical stimulation and the CFA-mediated increase in p-ERK expression in the ganglion. These findings provide evidence that elevated PKA activity in the STN promotes cellular events temporally associated with trigeminal nociception caused by prolonged TMJ inflammation.

  12. The Role of the UNC-82 Protein Kinase in Organizing Myosin Filaments in Striated Muscle of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, NaTasha R; Duchesneau, Christopher D; Lane, Latrisha S; Reedy, April R; Manzon, Emily R; Hoppe, Pamela E

    2017-03-01

    We study the mechanisms that guide the formation and maintenance of the highly ordered actin-myosin cytoskeleton in striated muscle. The UNC-82 kinase of Caenorhabditis elegans is orthologous to mammalian kinases ARK5/NUAK1 and SNARK/NUAK2. UNC-82 localizes to the M-line, and is required for proper organization of thick filaments, but its substrate and mechanism of action are unknown. Antibody staining of three mutants with missense mutations in the UNC-82 catalytic domain revealed muscle structure that is less disorganized than in the null unc-82(0), but contained distinctive ectopic accumulations not found in unc-82(0) These accumulations contain paramyosin and myosin B, but lack myosin A and myosin A-associated proteins, as well as proteins of the integrin-associated complex. Fluorescently tagged missense mutant protein UNC-82 E424K localized normally in wild type; however, in unc-82(0), the tagged protein was found in the ectopic accumulations, which we also show to label with recently synthesized paramyosin. Recruitment of wild-type UNC-82::GFP to aggregates of differing protein composition in five muscle-affecting mutants revealed that colocalization of UNC-82 and paramyosin does not require UNC-96, UNC-98/ZnF, UNC-89/obscurin, CSN-5, myosin A, or myosin B individually. Dosage effects in paramyosin mutants suggest that UNC-82 acts as part of a complex, in which its stoichiometric relationship with paramyosin is critical. UNC-82 dosage affects muscle organization in the absence of paramyosin, perhaps through myosin B. We present evidence that the interaction of UNC-98/ZnF with myosin A is independent of UNC-82, and that UNC-82 acts upstream of UNC-98/ZnF in a pathway that organizes paramyosin during thick filament assembly. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  13. The role of phosphoinositide 3-kinase and phosphatidic acid in the regulation of mammalian target of rapamycin following eccentric contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, T K; Duffy, L R; Frey, J W; Hornberger, T A

    2009-07-15

    Resistance exercise induces a hypertrophic response in skeletal muscle and recent studies have begun to shed light on the molecular mechanisms involved in this process. For example, several studies indicate that signalling by the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is necessary for a hypertrophic response. Furthermore, resistance exercise has been proposed to activate mTOR signalling through an upstream pathway involving the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and protein kinase B (PKB); however, this hypothesis has not been thoroughly tested. To test this hypothesis, we first evaluated the temporal pattern of signalling through PI3K-PKB and mTOR following a bout of resistance exercise with eccentric contractions (EC). Our results indicated that the activation of signalling through PI3K-PKB is a transient event (12 h). Furthermore, inhibition of PI3K-PKB activity did not prevent the activation of mTOR signalling by ECs, indicating that PI3K-PKB is not part of the upstream regulatory pathway. These observations led us to investigate an alternative pathway for the activation of mTOR signalling involving the synthesis of phosphatidic acid (PA) by phospholipase D (PLD). Our results demonstrate that ECs induce a sustained elevation in [PA] and inhibiting the synthesis of PA by PLD prevented the activation of mTOR. Furthermore, we determined that similar to ECs, PA activates mTOR signalling through a PI3K-PKB-independent mechanism. Combined, the results of this study indicate that the activation of mTOR following eccentric contractions occurs through a PI3K-PKB-independent mechanism that requires PLD and PA.

  14. Effects of ketamine on glucose uptake by glucose transporter type 3 expressed in Xenopus oocytes: The role of protein kinase C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomioka, Shigemasa, E-mail: tomioka@dent.tokushima-u.ac.jp [Department of Dental Anesthesiology, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Kuramoto-cho 18-15, Tokushima City, Tokushima 770-8504 (Japan); Kaneko, Miyuki [Department of Dental Anesthesiology, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Kuramoto-cho 18-15, Tokushima City, Tokushima 770-8504 (Japan); Satomura, Kazuhito [First Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Kuramoto-cho 18-15, Tokushima City, Tokushima 770-8504 (Japan); Mikyu, Tomiko; Nakajo, Nobuyoshi [Department of Dental Anesthesiology, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Kuramoto-cho 18-15, Tokushima City, Tokushima 770-8504 (Japan)

    2009-10-09

    We investigated the effects of ketamine on the type 3 facilitative glucose transporter (GLUT3), which plays a major role in glucose transport across the plasma membrane of neurons. Human-cloned GLUT3 was expressed in Xenopus oocytes by injection of GLUT3 mRNA. GLUT3-mediated glucose uptake was examined by measuring oocyte radioactivity following incubation with 2-deoxy-D-[1,2-{sup 3}H]glucose. While ketamine and S(+)-ketamine significantly increased GLUT3-mediated glucose uptake, this effect was biphasic such that higher concentrations of ketamine inhibited glucose uptake. Ketamine (10 {mu}M) significantly increased V{sub max} but not K{sub m} of GLUT3 for 2-deoxy-D-glucose. Although staurosporine (a protein kinase C inhibitor) increased glucose uptake, no additive or synergistic interactions were observed between staurosporine and racemic ketamine or S(+)-ketamine. Treatment with ketamine or S(+)-ketamine partially prevented GLUT3 inhibition by the protein kinase C activator phorbol-12-myrisate-13-acetate. Our results indicate that ketamine increases GLUT3 activity at clinically relevant doses through a mechanism involving PKC inhibition.

  15. The PAS domains of the major sporulation kinase in Bacillus subtilis play a role in tetramer formation that is essential for the autokinase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiehler, Brittany; Haggett, Lindsey; Fujita, Masaya

    2017-08-01

    Sporulation in Bacillus subtilis is induced upon starvation. In a widely accepted model, an N-terminal "sensor" domain of the major sporulation kinase KinA recognizes a hypothetical starvation signal(s) and autophosphorylates a histidine residue to activate the master regulator Spo0A via a multicomponent phosphorelay. However, to date no confirmed signal has been found. Here, we demonstrated that PAS-A, the most N-terminal of the three PAS domains (PAS-ABC), is dispensable for the activity, contrary to a previous report. Our data indicated that the autokinase activity is dependent on the formation of a functional tetramer, which is mediated by, at least, PAS-B and PAS-C. Additionally, we ruled out the previously proposed notion that NAD(+) /NADH ratio controls KinA activity through the PAS-A domain by demonstrating that the cofactors show no effects on the kinase activity in vitro. In support of these data, we found that the cofactors exist in approximately 1000-fold excess of KinA in the cell and the cofactors' ratio does not change significantly during growth and sporulation, suggesting that changes in the cofactor ratio might not play a role in controlling KinA activity. These data may refute the widely-held belief that the activity of KinA is regulated in response to an unknown starvation signal(s). © 2017 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. CrMPK3, a mitogen activated protein kinase from Catharanthus roseus and its possible role in stress induced biosynthesis of monoterpenoid indole alkaloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raina Susheel

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK cascade is an important signaling cascade that operates in stress signal transduction in plants. The biologically active monoterpenoid indole alkaloids (MIA produced in Catharanthus roseus are known to be induced under several abiotic stress conditions such as wounding, UV-B etc. However involvement of any signaling component in the accumulation of MIAs remains poorly investigated so far. Here we report isolation of a novel abiotic stress inducible Catharanthus roseus MAPK, CrMPK3 that may have role in accumulation of MIAs in response to abiotic stress. Results CrMPK3 expressed in bacterial system is an active kinase as it showed auto-phosphorylation and phosphorylation of Myelin Basic Protein. CrMPK3 though localized in cytoplasm, moves to nucleus upon wounding. Wounding, UV treatment and MeJA application on C. roseus leaves resulted in the transcript accumulation of CrMPK3 as well as activation of MAPK in C. roseus leaves. Immuno-precipitation followed by immunoblot analysis revealed that wounding, UV treatment and methyl jasmonate (MeJA activate CrMPK3. Transient over-expression of CrMPK3 in C. roseus leaf tissue showed enhanced expression of key MIA biosynthesis pathway genes and also accumulation of specific MIAs. Conclusion Results from our study suggest a possible involvement of CrMPK3 in abiotic stress signal transduction towards regulation of transcripts of key MIA biosynthetic pathway genes, regulators and accumulation of major MIAs.

  17. CrMPK3, a mitogen activated protein kinase from Catharanthus roseus and its possible role in stress induced biosynthesis of monoterpenoid indole alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raina, Susheel Kumar; Wankhede, Dhammaprakash Pandhari; Jaggi, Monika; Singh, Pallavi; Jalmi, Siddhi Kashinath; Raghuram, Badmi; Sheikh, Arsheed Hussain; Sinha, Alok Krishna

    2012-08-07

    Mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is an important signaling cascade that operates in stress signal transduction in plants. The biologically active monoterpenoid indole alkaloids (MIA) produced in Catharanthus roseus are known to be induced under several abiotic stress conditions such as wounding, UV-B etc. However involvement of any signaling component in the accumulation of MIAs remains poorly investigated so far. Here we report isolation of a novel abiotic stress inducible Catharanthus roseus MAPK, CrMPK3 that may have role in accumulation of MIAs in response to abiotic stress. CrMPK3 expressed in bacterial system is an active kinase as it showed auto-phosphorylation and phosphorylation of Myelin Basic Protein. CrMPK3 though localized in cytoplasm, moves to nucleus upon wounding. Wounding, UV treatment and MeJA application on C. roseus leaves resulted in the transcript accumulation of CrMPK3 as well as activation of MAPK in C. roseus leaves. Immuno-precipitation followed by immunoblot analysis revealed that wounding, UV treatment and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) activate CrMPK3. Transient over-expression of CrMPK3 in C. roseus leaf tissue showed enhanced expression of key MIA biosynthesis pathway genes and also accumulation of specific MIAs. Results from our study suggest a possible involvement of CrMPK3 in abiotic stress signal transduction towards regulation of transcripts of key MIA biosynthetic pathway genes, regulators and accumulation of major MIAs.

  18. Expression of Rho-kinase (ROCK-1 and ROCK-2) and its substantial role in the contractile activity of the sheep ureter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levent, Adnan; Büyükafşar, Kansu

    2004-01-01

    Expression of two isoforms of Rho-kinase (ROCK) and its functional role in the physiological control of smooth muscle contraction in the sheep ureter were investigated. Helical strips of the ureteric smooth muscle were stimulated by electrical field stimulation (EFS, 60 V, 1 mS, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 Hz, for 20 S), KCl (80 mM), carbachol (CCh, 10−8–10−4 M) or phenylephrine (Phe, 10−8–10−4 M). EFS produced a reproducible contractile activity, which was abolished by tetrodotoxin (3 × 10−6 M), a Na+ channel blocker. A muscarinic receptor antagonist, atropine (2 × 10−6 M), and an adrenergic neuron blocker, guanethidine (10−5 M), significantly suppressed the contraction induced by EFS. However, this contraction was augmented in the presence of NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NA, 10−4 M), a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor. Two Rho-kinase inhibitors, Y-27632 (5 × 10−5 M) and fasudil (5 × 10−5 M), markedly attenuated the EFS-elicited contraction. CCh and Phe produced concentration-dependent contraction in the sheep ureter. pD2 values for Phe and CCh were 5.04±0.11 and 5.00±0.22, respectively. Y-27632 (5 × 10−5 M) and fasudil (5 × 10−5 M) also significantly inhibited CCh- and Phe-induced contractions. Moreover, these ROCK inhibitors produced relaxations in the KCl-elicited contraction in a concentration-dependent manner. pD2 values for Y-27632 and fasudil were, respectively, 5.17±0.07 and 4.58±0.08 (Pureter. Densitometric analysis has indicated that these enzymes are less expressed in the sheep ureter than are in the sheep aorta in a significant manner. These results show that a contractile enzyme, Rho-kinase, is expressed, and it mediates agonist- and EFS-induced contractions as well as spontaneous contractile activity of the isolated sheep ureter. Since Y-27632 and fasudil depressed the contractions, it seems plausible to postulate that Rho-kinase inhibitors may be beneficial in the treatment of renal colic. PMID:15351780

  19. Lung injury after simulated cardiopulmonary bypass in an isolated perfused rat lung preparation: Role of mitogen-activated protein kinase/Akt signaling and the effects of theophylline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markou, Thomais; Chambers, David J

    2014-11-01

    Lung deflation and inflation during cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass contributes to pulmonary dysfunction postoperatively. Theophylline treatment for lung diseases has traditionally been thought to act by phosphodiesterase inhibition; however, increasing evidence has suggested other plausible mechanisms. We investigated the effects of deflation and reinflation on signaling pathways (p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase [MAPK], extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 [ERK1/2], and Akt) and whether theophylline influences the deflation-induced lung injury and associated signaling. Isolated rat lungs were perfused (15 mL/min) with deoxygenated rat blood in bicarbonate buffer and ventilated. After 20 minutes' equilibration, the lungs were deflated (60 minutes, aerobic perfusion 1.5 mL/min), followed by reinflation (60 minutes, anaerobic reperfusion 15 mL/min). Compliance, vascular resistance, and kinase phosphorylation were assessed during deflation and reinflation. The effects of SB203580 (50 μM), a p38-MAPK inhibitor, and theophylline (0.083 mM [therapeutic] or 3 mM [supratherapeutic]) on physiology and signaling were studied. Deflation reduced compliance by 44% compared with continuously ventilated lungs. p38-MAPK and Akt phosphorylation increased (three to fivefold) during deflation and reinflation, and ERK1/2 phosphorylation increased (approximately twofold) during reinflation. SB203580 had no effect on lung physiology or ERK1/2 and Akt activation. Both theophylline doses increased cyclic adenosine monophosphate, but only 3 mM theophylline improved compliance. p38-MAPK phosphorylation was not affected by theophylline; 0.083 mM theophylline inhibited reinflation-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation (72%±3%); and 3 mM theophylline inhibited Akt phosphorylation during deflation (75%±5%) and reinflation (87%±4%). Lung deflation and reinflation stimulates differential p38-MAPK, ERK1/2, and Akt activation, suggesting a role in lung injury during

  20. An Essential Role of the Mitochondrial Electron Transport Chain in Cell Proliferation Is to Enable Aspartate Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birsoy, Kıvanç; Wang, Tim; Chen, Walter W; Freinkman, Elizaveta; Abu-Remaileh, Monther; Sabatini, David M

    2015-07-30

    The mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) enables many metabolic processes, but why its inhibition suppresses cell proliferation is unclear. It is also not well understood why pyruvate supplementation allows cells lacking ETC function to proliferate. We used a CRISPR-based genetic screen to identify genes whose loss sensitizes human cells to phenformin, a complex I inhibitor. The screen yielded GOT1, the cytosolic aspartate aminotransferase, loss of which kills cells upon ETC inhibition. GOT1 normally consumes aspartate to transfer electrons into mitochondria, but, upon ETC inhibition, it reverses to generate aspartate in the cytosol, which partially compensates for the loss of mitochondrial aspartate synthesis. Pyruvate stimulates aspartate synthesis in a GOT1-dependent fashion, which is required for pyruvate to rescue proliferation of cells with ETC dysfunction. Aspartate supplementation or overexpression of an aspartate transporter allows cells without ETC activity to proliferate. Thus, enabling aspartate synthesis is an essential role of the ETC in cell proliferation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Hypoxia increases tumor cell shedding of MHC class I chain-related molecule: role of nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemens, D Robert; Hu, Nianping; Sheikhi, Abdol Karim; Chung, Eugene; Frederiksen, Lisa J; Pross, Hugh; Graham, Charles H

    2008-06-15

    The MHC class I chain-related (MIC) molecules play important roles in tumor immune surveillance through their interaction with the NKG2D receptor on natural killer and cytotoxic T cells. Thus, shedding of the MIC molecules from the tumor cell membrane represents a potential mechanism of escape from NKG2D-mediated immune surveillance. Tumor hypoxia is associated with a poor clinical outcome for cancer patients. We show that hypoxia contributes to tumor cell shedding of MIC through a mechanism involving impaired nitric oxide (NO) signaling. Whereas hypoxia increased MIC shedding in human prostate cancer cells, activation of NO signaling inhibited hypoxia-mediated MIC shedding. Similar to incubation in hypoxia, pharmacologic inhibition of endogenous NO signaling increased MIC shedding. Parallel studies showed hypoxia-mediated tumor cell resistance to lysis by interleukin 2-activated peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) and NO-mediated attenuation of this resistance to lysis. Inhibition of NO production also led to resistance to PBL-mediated lysis. Interference of MIC-NKG2D interaction with a blocking anti-MIC antibody abrogated the effect of hypoxia and NO signaling on tumor cell sensitivity to PBL-mediated lysis. Finally, continuous transdermal delivery of the NO mimetic glyceryl trinitrate (7.3 mug/h) attenuated the growth of xenografted MIC-expressing human prostate tumors. These findings suggest that the hypoxic tumor microenvironment contributes to resistance to immune surveillance and that activation of NO signaling is of potential use in cancer immunotherapy.

  2. Probing the role of long-range interactions in the dynamics of a long-range Kitaev chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Anirban; Dutta, Amit

    2017-09-01

    We study the role of long-range interactions (more precisely, the long-range superconducting gap term) on the nonequilibrium dynamics considering a long-range p -wave superconducting chain in which the superconducting term decays with distance between two sites in a power-law fashion characterized by an exponent α . We show that the Kibble-Zurek scaling exponent, dictating the power-law decay of the defect density in the final state reached following a slow (in comparison to the time scale associated with the minimum gap in the spectrum of the Hamiltonian) quenching of the chemical potential μ across a quantum critical point, depends nontrivially on the exponent α as long as α 2 , we find that the exponent saturates to the corresponding well-known value of 1 /2 expected for the short-range model. Furthermore, studying the dynamical quantum phase transitions manifested in the nonanalyticities in the rate function of the return possibility I (t ) in subsequent temporal evolution following a sudden change in μ , we show the existence of a new region; in this region, we find three instants of cusp singularities in I (t ) associated with a single sector of Fisher zeros. Notably, the width of this region shrinks as α increases and vanishes in the limit α →2 , indicating that this special region is an artifact of the long-range nature of the Hamiltonian.

  3. Role of Medium Chain Triglycerides (Axona®) in the Treatment of Mild to Moderate Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Alok; Bemis, Marc; Desilets, Alicia R

    2014-08-01

    Treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors or N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists provides symptomatic relief but do not prevent its progression. Thus, additional approaches aimed at slowing the progression of the disease have been investigated. Reports detailing reduced brain glucose metabolism in the early stages of AD led to the hypothesis that alternate energy sources aimed at increasing neuronal metabolism may protect neurons and thus benefit patients with AD. Medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) are metabolized to ketone bodies that serve as an alternative source of energy for neurons. Data from clinical trials suggest that MCTs improve cognition in patients with mild to moderate AD in apolipoprotein E4-negative patients. Adverse events observed were mild and included minor gastrointestinal problems such as diarrhea, dyspepsia, and flatulence. However, since genomic profiles are not routinely conducted in patients with AD in a clinical setting, the role of MCTs in clinical practice seems to be minimal. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Managing and governing commodity chains: the role of producer service firms in the secondary global city of Hamburg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parnreiter, Christof

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is motivated by the observation that our understanding of global cities in Germany and beyond is limited because the practices through which producer service firms (PSFs are involved in managing and governing their clients’ global commodity chains (GCCs have barely been studied. Based on interviews with representatives of PSFs in the secondary global city of Hamburg, the paper scrutinises whether and how service professionals contribute to the functioning and the control of their clients’ cross-border operations. It also analyses why clients choose global PSFs located in Hamburg, and it discusses which place Hamburg occupies in the network of German global cities. The paper concludes that because PSFs fulfil management functions for their clients’ global operations Hamburg is, beyond the role of its port, a critical node in many GCCs. Secondly, PSFs influence their clients’ decision-making processes. They are part of economic governance processes, though this impact cannot be straightforwardly equated with ‘command and control’. The paper also confirms that (and explains why the world city network is the spatial correlate of a globalising economy. Finally, there is no such a thing as a ‘global city hierarchy’ because the division of labour between the offices of PSFs is functional. As regards further research, a first task is to verify this paper’s findings through interviews with clients of PSFs to consolidate our knowledge on the role of PSFs in GCCs. Secondly, the contention that the world city network is flat has to be re-examined against the backdrop of an evident clustering of PSFs in specific cities. Finally, the discussion of whether and how PSFs are involved in the governance of their clients‘ GCCs needs to be continued and deepened.

  5. In vivo FRET imaging revealed a regulatory role of RanGTP in kinetochore-microtubule attachments via Aurora B kinase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoke-Peng Lee

    Full Text Available Under the fluctuating circumstances provided by the innate dynamics of microtubules and opposing tensions resulted from microtubule-associated motors, it is vital to ensure stable kinetochore-microtubule attachments for accurate segregation. However, a comprehensive understanding of how this regulation is mechanistically achieved remains elusive. Using our newly designed live cell FRET time-lapse imaging, we found that post-metaphase RanGTP is crucial in the maintenance of stable kinetochore-microtubule attachments by regulating Aurora B kinase via the NES-bearing Mst1. More importantly, our study demonstrates that by ensuring stable alignment of metaphase chromosomes prior to segregation, RanGTP is indispensible in governing the genomic integrity and the fidelity of cell cycle progression. Our findings suggest an additional role of RanGTP beyond its known function in mitotic spindle assembly during the prometaphase-metaphase transition.

  6. Integrin-linked kinase has a critical role in ErbB2 mammary tumor progression: implications for human breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontier, S M; Huck, L; White, D E; Rayment, J; Sanguin-Gendreau, V; Hennessy, B; Zuo, D; St-Arnaud, R; Mills, G B; Dedhar, S; Marshall, C J; Muller, W J

    2010-06-10

    Elevated expression of the integrin-linked kinase (ILK) has been observed in a variety of cancers and has been further correlated with poor clinical outcome. Here, we show that mammary epithelial disruption of ILK results in a profound block in mammary tumor induction. Consistent with these observations, inhibition of ILK function in ErbB2-expressing cells with small molecule inhibitor or RNA interference resulted in profound block in their in vitro invasive properties due to the induction of apoptotic cell death. The rare ILK-deficient tumors that eventually arose overcame this block in tumor induction by an upregulation of ErB3 phosphorylation. These observations provide direct evidence that ILK has a critical role in the initiation phase of ErbB2 tumor induction.

  7. Role of adult neurogenesis in hippocampus-dependent memory, contextual fear extinction and remote contextual memory: new insights from ERK5 MAP kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yung-Wei; Storm, Daniel R; Xia, Zhengui

    2013-10-01

    Adult neurogenesis occurs in two discrete regions of the adult mammalian brain, the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the dentate gyrus (DG) and the subventricular zone (SVZ) along the lateral ventricles. Signaling mechanisms regulating adult neurogenesis in the SGZ are currently an active area of investigation. Adult-born neurons in the DG functionally integrate into the hippocampal circuitry and form functional synapses, suggesting a role for these neurons in hippocampus-dependent memory formation. Although results from earlier behavioral studies addressing this issue were inconsistent, recent advances in conditional gene targeting technology, viral injection and optogenetic approaches have provided convincing evidence supporting a role for adult-born neurons in the more challenging forms of hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. Here, we briefly summarize these recent studies with a focus on extra signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 5, a MAP kinase whose expression in the adult brain is restricted to the neurogenic regions including the SGZ and SVZ. We review evidence identifying ERK5 as a novel endogenous signaling pathway that regulates the pro-neural transcription factor Neurogenin 2, is activated by neurotrophins and is critical for adult neurogenesis. We discuss studies demonstrating that specific deletion of ERK5 in the adult neurogenic regions impairs several forms of hippocampus-dependent memory formation in mice. These include contextual fear memory extinction, the establishment and maintenance of remote contextual fear memory, and several other challenging forms of hippocampus-dependent memory formation including 48h memory for novel object recognition, contextual fear memory established by a weak foot shock, pattern separation, and reversal of spatial learning and memory. We also briefly discuss current evidence that increasing adult neurogenesis, by small molecules or genetic manipulation, improves memory formation and long-term memory. Copyright © 2013

  8. Sphingosine kinase 1 deficiency confers protection against hyperoxia-induced bronchopulmonary dysplasia in a murine model: role of S1P signaling and Nox proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harijith, Anantha; Pendyala, Srikanth; Reddy, Narsa M; Bai, Tao; Usatyuk, Peter V; Berdyshev, Evgeny; Gorshkova, Irina; Huang, Long Shuang; Mohan, Vijay; Garzon, Steve; Kanteti, Prasad; Reddy, Sekhar P; Raj, J Usha; Natarajan, Viswanathan

    2013-10-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia of the premature newborn is characterized by lung injury, resulting in alveolar simplification and reduced pulmonary function. Exposure of neonatal mice to hyperoxia enhanced sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) levels in lung tissues; however, the role of increased S1P in the pathobiological characteristics of bronchopulmonary dysplasia has not been investigated. We hypothesized that an altered S1P signaling axis, in part, is responsible for neonatal lung injury leading to bronchopulmonary dysplasia. To validate this hypothesis, newborn wild-type, sphingosine kinase1(-/-) (Sphk1(-/-)), sphingosine kinase 2(-/-) (Sphk2(-/-)), and S1P lyase(+/-) (Sgpl1(+/-)) mice were exposed to hyperoxia (75%) from postnatal day 1 to 7. Sphk1(-/-), but not Sphk2(-/-) or Sgpl1(+/-), mice offered protection against hyperoxia-induced lung injury, with improved alveolarization and alveolar integrity compared with wild type. Furthermore, SphK1 deficiency attenuated hyperoxia-induced accumulation of IL-6 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids and NADPH oxidase (NOX) 2 and NOX4 protein expression in lung tissue. In vitro experiments using human lung microvascular endothelial cells showed that exogenous S1P stimulated intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, whereas SphK1 siRNA, or inhibitor against SphK1, attenuated hyperoxia-induced S1P generation. Knockdown of NOX2 and NOX4, using specific siRNA, reduced both basal and S1P-induced ROS formation. These results suggest an important role for SphK1-mediated S1P signaling-regulated ROS in the development of hyperoxia-induced lung injury in a murine neonatal model of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The role of oestrogen receptor {alpha} in human thyroid cancer: contributions from coregulatory proteins and the tyrosine kinase receptor HER2.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kavanagh, Dara O

    2012-02-01

    Epidemiological, clinical, and molecular studies suggest a role for oestrogen in thyroid cancer. How oestrogen mediates its effects and the consequence of it on clinical outcome has not been fully elucidated. The participation of coregulatory proteins in modulating oestrogen receptor (ER) function and input of crosstalk with the tyrosine kinase receptor HER2 was investigated. Oestrogen induced cell proliferation in the follicular thyroid cancer (FTC)-133 cells, but not in the anaplastic 8305C cell line. Knockdown of the coactivator steroid receptor coactivator (SRC)-1 inhibited FTC-133 basal, but not oestrogen induced, cell proliferation. Oestrogen also increased protein expression of SRC-1 and the ER target gene cyclin D1 in the FTC-133 cell line. ERalpha, ERbeta, the coregulatory proteins SRC-1 and nuclear corepressor (NCoR), and the tyrosine kinase receptor HER2 were localised by immunohistochemistry and immnofluorescence in paraffin-embedded tissue from thyroid tumour patients (n=111). ERalpha was colocalised with both SRC-1 and NCoR to the nuclei of the tumour epithelial cells. Expression of ERalpha and NCoR was found predominantly in non-anaplastic tumours and was significantly associated with well-differentiated tumours and reduced incidence of disease recurrence. In non-anaplastic tumours, HER2 was significantly associated with SRC-1, and these proteins were associated with poorly differentiated tumours, capsular invasion and disease recurrence. Totally, 87% of anaplastic tumours were positive for SRC-1. Kaplan-Meier estimates of disease-free survival indicated that in thyroid cancer, SRC-1 strongly correlates with reduced disease-free survival (P<0.001), whereas NCoR predicted increased survival (P<0.001). These data suggest opposing roles for the coregulators SRC-1 and NCoR in thyroid tumour progression.

  10. Roles of Phosphate Recognition in Inositol 1,3,4,5,6-Pentakisphosphate 2-Kinase (IPK1) Substrate Binding and Activation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosein, Varin; Miller, Gregory J.

    2013-01-01

    Inositol phosphate kinases (IPKs) sequentially phosphorylate inositol phosphates (IPs) to yield a group of small signaling molecules involved in diverse cellular processes. IPK1 (inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate 2-kinase) phosphorylates inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate to inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate; however, the mechanism of IP recognition employed by IPK1 is currently unresolved. We demonstrated previously that IPK1 possesses an unstable N-terminal lobe in the absence of IP, which led us to propose that the phosphate profile of the IP was linked to stabilization of IPK1. Here, we describe a systematic study to determine the roles of the 1-, 3-, 5-, and 6-phosphate groups of inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate in IP binding and IPK1 activation. The 5- and 6-phosphate groups were the most important for IP binding to IPK1, and the 1- and 3-phosphate groups were more important for IPK1 activation than the others. Moreover, we demonstrate that there are three critical residues (Arg-130, Lys-170, and Lys-411) necessary for IPK1 activity. Arg-130 is the only substrate-binding N-terminal lobe residue that can render IPK1 inactive; its 1-phosphate is critical for full IPK1 activity and for stabilization of the active conformation of IPK1. Taken together, our results support the model for recognition of the IP substrate by IPK1 in which (i) the 4-, 5-, and 6-phosphates are initially recognized by the C-terminal lobe, and subsequently, (ii) the interaction between the 1-phosphate and Arg-130 stabilizes the N-terminal lobe and activates IPK1. This model of IP recognition, believed to be unique among IPKs, could be exploited for selective inhibition of IPK1 in future studies that investigate the role of higher IPs. PMID:23884422

  11. Roles of phosphate recognition in inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate 2-kinase (IPK1) substrate binding and activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosein, Varin; Miller, Gregory J

    2013-09-13

    Inositol phosphate kinases (IPKs) sequentially phosphorylate inositol phosphates (IPs) to yield a group of small signaling molecules involved in diverse cellular processes. IPK1 (inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate 2-kinase) phosphorylates inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate to inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate; however, the mechanism of IP recognition employed by IPK1 is currently unresolved. We demonstrated previously that IPK1 possesses an unstable N-terminal lobe in the absence of IP, which led us to propose that the phosphate profile of the IP was linked to stabilization of IPK1. Here, we describe a systematic study to determine the roles of the 1-, 3-, 5-, and 6-phosphate groups of inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate in IP binding and IPK1 activation. The 5- and 6-phosphate groups were the most important for IP binding to IPK1, and the 1- and 3-phosphate groups were more important for IPK1 activation than the others. Moreover, we demonstrate that there are three critical residues (Arg-130, Lys-170, and Lys-411) necessary for IPK1 activity. Arg-130 is the only substrate-binding N-terminal lobe residue that can render IPK1 inactive; its 1-phosphate is critical for full IPK1 activity and for stabilization of the active conformation of IPK1. Taken together, our results support the model for recognition of the IP substrate by IPK1 in which (i) the 4-, 5-, and 6-phosphates are initially recognized by the C-terminal lobe, and subsequently, (ii) the interaction between the 1-phosphate and Arg-130 stabilizes the N-terminal lobe and activates IPK1. This model of IP recognition, believed to be unique among IPKs, could be exploited for selective inhibition of IPK1 in future studies that investigate the role of higher IPs.

  12. The signaling pathway of Campylobacter jejuni-induced Cdc42 activation: Role of fibronectin, integrin beta1, tyrosine kinases and guanine exchange factor Vav2

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Krause-Gruszczynska, Malgorzata

    2011-12-28

    Abstract Background Host cell invasion by the foodborne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is considered as one of the primary reasons of gut tissue damage, however, mechanisms and key factors involved in this process are widely unclear. It was reported that small Rho GTPases, including Cdc42, are activated and play a role during invasion, but the involved signaling cascades remained unknown. Here we utilised knockout cell lines derived from fibronectin-\\/-, integrin-beta1-\\/-, focal adhesion kinase (FAK)-\\/- and Src\\/Yes\\/Fyn-\\/- deficient mice, and wild-type control cells, to investigate C. jejuni-induced mechanisms leading to Cdc42 activation and bacterial uptake. Results Using high-resolution scanning electron microscopy, GTPase pulldowns, G-Lisa and gentamicin protection assays we found that each studied host factor is necessary for induction of Cdc42-GTP and efficient invasion. Interestingly, filopodia formation and associated membrane dynamics linked to invasion were only seen during infection of wild-type but not in knockout cells. Infection of cells stably expressing integrin-beta1 variants with well-known defects in fibronectin fibril formation or FAK signaling also exhibited severe deficiencies in Cdc42 activation and bacterial invasion. We further demonstrated that infection of wild-type cells induces increasing amounts of phosphorylated FAK and growth factor receptors (EGFR and PDGFR) during the course of infection, correlating with accumulating Cdc42-GTP levels and C. jejuni invasion over time. In studies using pharmacological inhibitors, silencing RNA (siRNA) and dominant-negative expression constructs, EGFR, PDGFR and PI3-kinase appeared to represent other crucial components upstream of Cdc42 and invasion. siRNA and the use of Vav1\\/2-\\/- knockout cells further showed that the guanine exchange factor Vav2 is required for Cdc42 activation and maximal bacterial invasion. Overexpression of certain mutant constructs indicated that Vav2 is a linker

  13. Conserved phosphoryl transfer mechanisms within kinase families and the role of the C8 proton of ATP in the activation of phosphoryl transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenyon Colin P

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The kinome is made up of a large number of functionally diverse enzymes, with the classification indicating very little about the extent of the conserved kinetic mechanisms associated with phosphoryl transfer. It has been demonstrated that C8-H of ATP plays a critical role in the activity of a range of kinase and synthetase enzymes. Results A number of conserved mechanisms within the prescribed kinase fold families have been identified directly utilizing the C8-H of ATP in the initiation of phosphoryl transfer. These mechanisms are based on structurally conserved amino acid residues that are within hydrogen bonding distance of a co-crystallized nucleotide. On the basis of these conserved mechanisms, the role of the nucleotide C8-H in initiating the formation of a pentavalent intermediate between the γ-phosphate of the ATP and the substrate nucleophile is defined. All reactions can be clustered into two mechanisms by which the C8-H is induced to be labile via the coordination of a backbone carbonyl to C6-NH2 of the adenyl moiety, namely a "push" mechanism, and a "pull" mechanism, based on the protonation of N7. Associated with the "push" mechanism and "pull" mechanisms are a series of proton transfer cascades, initiated from C8-H, via the tri-phosphate backbone, culminating in the formation of the pentavalent transition state between the γ-phosphate of the ATP and the substrate nucleophile. Conclusions The "push" mechanism and a "pull" mechanism are responsible for inducing the C8-H of adenyl moiety to become more labile. These mechanisms and the associated proton transfer cascades achieve the proton transfer via different family-specific conserved sets of amino acids. Each of these mechanisms would allow for the regulation of the rate of formation of the pentavalent intermediate between the ATP and the substrate nucleophile. Phosphoryl transfer within kinases is therefore a specific event mediated and regulated via the

  14. The role of fairness in governing supply chain collaborations. A case-study in the Dutch floriculture industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, G.R.; Man, A.P. de; Quak, H.J.

    2015-01-01

    Supply chain collaboration, in which two or more autonomous firms work together to plan and execute supply chain operations, is becoming ever more important to remain competitive in business. Yet, through collaboration concerns arise about whether the benefits and risks of collaboration are split in

  15. A role for protein kinase PKR in the mediation of Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein-1-induced IL-6 and IL-10 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, San San; Lee, Davy C W; Law, Anna H Y; Fang, Jun Wei; Chua, Daniel T T; Lau, Allan S Y

    2010-05-01

    Expression of Epstein-Barr virus-encoded oncogenic latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) has been substantially associated with tumorigenic transformation in the virus-infected cells. The pathogenic complexity of LMP1 is partly due to the cytokine dysregulation including IL-6 and IL-10 in perturbing the host immune responses. Here we have identified an important signaling event mediated by a dsRNA-dependent serine/threonine protein kinase, PKR, in regulating LMP1-induced IL-6 and IL-10 expression. We first demonstrated that PKR plays a significant role in mediating LMP1-induced cytokine expression by using a PKR inhibitor 2-aminopurine, and the specific role of PKR involved was confirmed by the use of siRNA oligos targeting PKR and/or a dominant-negative PKR mutant. We next revealed that PKR activity mediates LMP1-enhanced NF-kappaB nuclear translocation resulting in cytokine induction. We further demonstrated at the chromatin level that LMP1 can significantly elevate the phosphorylation of histone H3 on serine 10 (Ser 10), and the process was dependent on PKR activity. Our findings thus suggest that PKR plays an important role in mediating the cytokine gene expression induced by LMP1 through NF-kappaB activation and histone H3 Ser 10 phosphorylation. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Roles of protein kinase C in regulation of P2X7 receptor-mediated calcium signalling of cultured type-2 astrocyte cell line, RBA-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Amos C; Chu, You-Jing; Lin, Ya-Hui; Weng, Ju-Yun; Chen, Hammer B; Au, Yin-Chung; Sun, Synthia H

    2005-11-01

    The role of protein kinase C (PKC) on regulation of P2X(7) receptor-mediated Ca(2+) signalling was examined on RBA-2 astrocytes. Activation of PKC decreased the receptor-mediated Ca(2+) signalling and the decrease was restored by PKC inhibitors. Down regulation of PKC also caused a decrease in the Ca(2+) signalling. Thus PKC might play a dual role on the P2X(7) receptor signalling. Successive stimulation of the P2X(7) receptor induced a gradual decline of Ca(2+) signalling but PKC inhibitors failed to restore the decline. Nevertheless, PMA stimulated translocation of PKC-alpha, -betaI, -betaII, and -gamma, but only anti-PKC-gamma co-immunoprecipitated the receptors. To examine the role of PKC-gamma, Ca(2+) signalling was measured by Ca(2+) imaging. Our results revealed that the agonist-stimulated Ca(2+) signalling were reduced in the cells that the transfection of either P2X(7) receptor or PKC-gamma morpholino antisense oligo was identified. Thus, we concluded that PKC-gamma interacted with P2X(7) receptor complex and positively regulated the receptor-mediated Ca(2+) signalling.

  17. Diverse roles for the ror-family receptor tyrosine kinases in neurons and glial cells during development and repair of the nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Mitsuharu; Minami, Yasuhiro

    2017-05-03

    The Ror-family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are involved critically in tissue genesis and organogenesis during development. In mammals, Ror1 and Ror2, members of the Ror-family RTKs, have been shown to mediate cell polarity, migration, proliferation, and differentiation through the activation of noncanonical Wnt signaling by acting as receptors or co-receptors for Wnt5a. Nematodes bearing mutations within the cam-1 gene, encoding a Ror2 ortholog, exhibit defects in various developmental processes of the nervous system, including neuronal cell migration, polarization, axonal extension, and synaptic transmission. In mice, Ror2 and/or Ror1 are also shown to play roles in regulating neurite extension, synapse formation, and synaptic transmission of hippocampal neurons, indicating that the Ror-family RTKs have evolutionarily conserved functions at least in part in neurons during development. Furthermore, Ror2 and/or Ror1 are expressed in neural stem/progenitor cells of the developing brain and in astrocytes of the adult brain after injury, and they play important roles in regulating cell proliferation under these different contexts. In this article, we overview recent advances in our understanding of the roles of the Ror-family RTKs in the development and repair of the nervous system and discuss their potential for therapeutic targets to neurodegenerative diseases. Developmental Dynamics, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. G protein-mediated signaling in the myogenic response – role of Rho-kinase and aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björling, Karl; Joseph, Philomeena Daphne; Egebjerg, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    M) suppressed MT development. The Phosholipase C inhibitors U73122 (0.5 µM) and ET18-OCH3 (10 µM) robustly inhibited MT, and the TRPC channel blocker SKF 96365 (10 µM) slightly reduced MT. There was a significant effect of age (Padult mice and reduced in old mice....... Aim: 1) to investigate the signaling events from Gq/11 and/or G12 activation to MT development; 2) to elucidate the impact of aging. We used pressure myography, calcium imaging, Q-PCR and immunofluorescence to study small (lumen D ... compared to young mice. The ROCK2 inhibitor KD025 (5 µM) robustly inhibited MT in all mice, but this effect was significantly larger in mature adult mice. Our data suggest that MT development in SMAs is initiated by phosphorylation of Myosin Light Chain through a Gq/11/PLC/TRPC-dependent pathway...

  19. G protein-mediated signaling in the myogenic response – role of Rho-kinase and aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björling, Karl; Joseph, Philomeena Daphne; Egebjerg, Kristian

    M) suppressed MT development. The Phosholipase C inhibitors U73122 (0.5 µM) and ET18-OCH3 (10 µM) robustly inhibited MT, and the TRPC channel blocker SKF 96365 (10 µM) slightly reduced MT. There was a significant effect of age (Padult mice and reduced in old mice....... Aim: 1) to investigate the signaling events from Gq/11 and/or G12 activation to MT development; 2) to elucidate the impact of aging. We used pressure myography, calcium imaging, Q-PCR and immunofluorescence to study small (lumen D ... compared to young mice. The ROCK2 inhibitor KD025 (5 µM) robustly inhibited MT in all mice, but this effect was significantly larger in mature adult mice. Our data suggest that MT development in SMAs is initiated by phosphorylation of Myosin Light Chain through a Gq/11/PLC/TRPC-dependent pathway...

  20. Role of Map Kinase in Mediating the Effects of Vitamin D3 Metabolites on Growth Plate Chondrocytes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Haris, Ehland

    2003-01-01

    .... The process is required for normal long bone growth and in certain kinds of bone repair. Vitamin D3 plays an important regulatory role in chondrocyte differentiation and maturation and therefore is essential for proper endochondral ossification...

  1. Role of protein kinase A in the inhibition of human mast cell histamine release by β-adrenergic receptor agonists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshinobu Kato

    2002-01-01

    Conclusions: The present results suggest that PKA activation induced by β-adrenergic receptor agonists plays a crucial role in inhibiting IgE-mediated histamine release from human cultured mast cells through suppressing PKC translocation.

  2. Role of activation of 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase in gastric ulcer healing in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraka, Azza M; Deif, Maha M

    2011-01-01

    The potential utility of 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-activating agents, such as metformin, in inducing angiogenesis, could be a promising approach to promote healing of gastric ulcers complicated by diabetes mellitus. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of a drug that activates AMPK, namely metformin, in gastric ulcer healing in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Forty male Wistar albino rats were made diabetic by intraperitoneal (i.p.) streptozotocin injection and 10 rats were injected i.p. by a single dose of physiological saline. Six weeks following streptozotocin or saline injection, gastric ulcers were induced by serosal application of acetic acid. Three days after acetic acid application, rats were divided into group 1 (nondiabetic control), group 2 (streptozotocin-injected rats), groups 3-5 (streptozotocin-injected rats treated with metformin or metformin and an inhibitor of AMPK, namely compound C or pioglitazone) for 7 days following acetic acid application. Administration of metformin, but not pioglitazone, resulted in a significant decrease in the gastric ulcer area, a significant increase in epithelial regeneration assessed histologically, a significant increase in the number of microvessels in the ulcer margin, a significant increase in gastric vascular endothelial growth factor concentration and gastric von Willebrand factor as well as a significant increase in gastric phospho-AMPK. Compound C, an inhibitor of AMPK, blocked metformin-induced changes in assessed parameters suggesting that the effect of metformin was mediated mainly through activation of AMPK. Our results suggest the feasibility of a novel treatment strategy, namely drugs activating AMPK, for patients in whom impairment of ulcer healing constitutes a secondary complication of diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Role of hepatic transporters in the disposition and hepatotoxicity of a HER2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor CP-724,714.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Bo; Xu, Jinghai J; Bi, Yi-An; Mireles, Rouchelle; Davidson, Ralph; Duignan, David B; Campbell, Scott; Kostrubsky, Vsevolod E; Dunn, Margaret C; Smith, Arthur R; Wang, Huifen F

    2009-04-01

    CP-724,714, a potent and selective orally active HER2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor, was discontinued from clinical development due to unexpected hepatotoxicity in cancer patients. Based on the clinical manifestation of the toxicity, CP-724,714 likely exerted its hepatotoxicity via both hepatocellular injury and hepatobiliary cholestatic mechanisms. The direct cytotoxic effect, hepatobiliary disposition of CP-724,714, and its inhibition of active canalicular transport of bile constituents were evaluated in established human hepatocyte models and in vitro transporter systems. CP-724,714 exhibited direct cytotoxicity using human hepatocyte imaging assay technology with mitochondria identified as a candidate organelle for its off-target toxicity. Additionally, CP-724,714 was rapidly taken up into human hepatocytes, partially via an active transport process, with an uptake clearance approximately fourfold higher than efflux clearance. The major human hepatic uptake transporter, OATP1B1, and efflux transporters, multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1) and breast cancer resistance protein, were involved in hepatobiliary clearance of CP-724,714. Furthermore, CP-724,714 displayed a concentration-dependent inhibition of cholyl-lysyl fluorescein and taurocholate (TC) efflux into canaliculi in cryopreserved and fresh cultured human hepatocytes, respectively. Likewise, CP-724,714 inhibited TC transport in membrane vesicles expressing human bile salt export pump with an IC(50) of 16 microM. Finally, CP-724,714 inhibited the major efflux transporter in bile canaliculi, MDR1, with an IC(50) of approximately 28 microM. These results suggest that inhibition of hepatic efflux transporters contributed to hepatic accumulation of drug and bile constituents leading to hepatocellular injury and hepatobiliary cholestasis. This study provides likely explanations for clinically observed adverse liver effects of CP-724,714.

  4. Casein kinase 1α has a non-redundant and dominant role within the CK1 family in melanoma progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnberg, Tobias; Wang, Jun; Sauer, Birgit; Schittek, Birgit

    2016-08-03

    We previously identified CK1α as a novel tumor suppressor in melanoma and reported that the loss of CK1α leads to increased proliferation and invasive growth of melanoma cells by strong activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. In this study we analyzed expression and the functional effects of the dominantly expressed CK1- isoforms α, δ and ε in melanoma cells by quantitative real-time PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry. We down-regulated CK1 kinase activity with isoform specific siRNAs and small molecule inhibitors. Vice versa we overexpressed the CK1 isoforms α, δ and ε using viral vectors and tested the biological effects on melanoma cell proliferation, migration and invasion. We show that protein expression of all three CK1-isoforms is downregulated in metastatic melanoma cells compared to benign melanocytic cells. Furthermore, the CK1δ and ε isoforms are able to negatively regulate expression of each other, whereas CK1α expression is independently regulated in melanoma cells. Inhibition of the expression and activity of CK1δ or CK1ε by specific inhibitors or siRNAs had no significant effect on the growth and survival of metastatic melanoma cells. Moreover, the over-expression of CK1δ or CK1ε in melanoma cells failed to induce cell death and cell cycle arrest although p53 signaling was activated. This is in contrast to the effects of CK1α where up-regulated expression induces cell death and apoptosis in metastatic melanoma cells. These data indicate that CK1α has a dominant and non-redundant function in melanoma cells and that the CK1δ and ε isoforms are not substantially involved in melanoma progression.

  5. Roles for the Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) Phosphatase, DUSP1, in Feedback Control of Inflammatory Gene Expression and Repression by Dexamethasone*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Suharsh; King, Elizabeth M.; Chandrasekhar, Ambika; Newton, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Glucocorticoids act on the glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1) to repress inflammatory gene expression. This is central to their anti-inflammatory effectiveness and rational improvements in therapeutic index depend on understanding the mechanism. Human pulmonary epithelial A549 cells were used to study the role of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphatase, dual-specificity phosphatase 1 (DUSP1), in the dexamethasone repression of 11 inflammatory genes induced, in a MAPK-dependent manner, by interleukin-1β (IL1B). Adenoviral over-expression of DUSP1 inactivated MAPK pathways and reduced expression of all 11 inflammatory genes. IL1B rapidly induced DUSP1 expression and RNA silencing revealed a transient role in feedback inhibition of MAPKs and inflammatory gene expression. With dexamethasone, which induced DUSP1 expression, plus IL1B (co-treatment), DUSP1 expression was further enhanced. At 1 h, this was responsible for the dexamethasone inhibition of IL1B-induced MAPK activation and CXCL1 and CXCL2 mRNA expression, with a similar trend for CSF2. Whereas, CCL20 mRNA was not repressed by dexamethasone at 1 h, repression of CCL2, CXCL3, IL6, and IL8 was unaffected, and PTGS2 repression was partially affected by DUSP1 knockdown. At later times, dexamethasone repression of MAPKs was unaffected by DUSP1 silencing. Likewise, 6 h post-IL1B, dexamethasone repression of all 11 mRNAs was essentially unaffected by DUSP1 knockdown. Qualitatively similar data were obtained for CSF2, CXCL1, IL6, and IL8 release. Thus, despite general roles in feedback inhibition, DUSP1 plays a transient, often partial, role in the dexamethasone-dependent repression of certain inflammatory genes. Therefore this also illustrates key roles for DUSP1-independent effectors in mediating glucocorticoid-dependent repression. PMID:24692548

  6. Possible role of mtDNA depletion and respiratory chain defects in aristolochic acid I-induced acute nephrotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Zhenzhou, E-mail: jiangcpu@yahoo.com.cn; Bao, Qingli, E-mail: bao_ql@126.com; Sun, Lixin, E-mail: slxcpu@126.com; Huang, Xin, E-mail: huangxinhx66@sohu.com; Wang, Tao, E-mail: wangtao1331@126.com; Zhang, Shuang, E-mail: cat921@sina.com; Li, Han, E-mail: hapo1101@163.com; Zhang, Luyong, E-mail: lyzhang@cpu.edu.cn

    2013-01-15

    This report describes an investigation of the pathological mechanism of acute renal failure caused by toxic tubular necrosis after treatment with aristolochic acid I (AAI) in Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats. The rats were gavaged with AAI at 0, 5, 20, or 80 mg/kg/day for 7 days. The pathologic examination of the kidneys showed severe acute tubular degenerative changes primarily affecting the proximal tubules. Supporting these results, we detected significantly increased concentrations of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (Cr) in the rats treated with AAI, indicating damage to the kidneys. Ultrastructural examination showed that proximal tubular mitochondria were extremely enlarged and dysmorphic with loss and disorientation of their cristae. Mitochondrial function analysis revealed that the two indicators for mitochondrial energy metabolism, the respiratory control ratio (RCR) and ATP content, were reduced in a dose-dependent manner after AAI treatment. The RCR in the presence of substrates for complex I was reduced more significantly than in the presence of substrates for complex II. In additional experiments, the activity of respiratory complex I, which is partly encoded by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), was more significantly impaired than that of respiratory complex II, which is completely encoded by nuclear DNA (nDNA). A real-time PCR assay revealed a marked reduction of mtDNA in the kidneys treated with AAI. Taken together, these results suggested that mtDNA depletion and respiratory chain defects play critical roles in the pathogenesis of kidney injury induced by AAI, and that the same processes might contribute to aristolochic acid-induced nephrotoxicity in humans. -- Highlights: ► AAI-induced acute renal failure in rats and the proximal tubule was the target. ► Tubular mitochondria were morphologically aberrant in ultrastructural examination. ► AAI impair mitochondrial bioenergetic function and mtDNA replication.

  7. The Role of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR in Diagnosis of Spine Tuberculosis after Pre-operative Anti-tuberculosis Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AH Rasit

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of polymerase chain reaction (PCR in the diagnosis of spinal tuberculosis after 2 weeks of preoperative anti-tuberculosis treatment and to compare PCR to the Löwenstein - Jensen Culture (LJC and histopathological examination (HPE methods. METHODS: Twenty-five patients were included in this study. Sixteen patients were diagnosed and treated for spinal tuberculosis based on clinical and radiological evidence. Nine patients were controls. The LJC method and HPE of the specimen were performed according to hospital protocol. PCR was performed using primer encoding insertion of sequences IS6110 for mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Clinical findings and radiological features were the gold standard for comparison. RESULTS: PCR results were 15 positive and one negative. The sensitivity and specificity of PCR was 94% and 100% respectively (with 95% confidence interval [CI] 67% to 99% and 63% to 100%, respectively. HPE results showed 13 were positive and 3 negative in the spinal tuberculosis group; for the control group, all were negative. Sensitivity and specificity value of HPE was 82 % and 100% respectively (with 95% confidence interval [CI] 54% to 95% and 63% to 100%, respectively. Use of LJC showed only one was positive and 15 were negative in the spinal tuberculosis group whole all nine in the control group were negative. Sensitivity and specificity value of LJC was 6% and 100% respectively (with 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.3% to 32% and 63% to 100%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Our findings showed that the PCR for Mycobacterium tuberculosis is reliable as a method for diagnosis of spinal tuberculosis, even after of 2 weeks of anti-TB treatment, with an overall sensitivity of 94% and specificity of 100%.

  8. Role of dopamine D1 receptors in the activation of nucleus accumbens extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) by cocaine-paired contextual cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricks-Gleason, Ashley N; Marshall, John F

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to drug-paired cues can trigger addicts to relapse into drug seeking. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying cue-elicited cocaine seeking are incompletely understood, the protein kinase extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) is known to have an important role. Psychostimulants and their associated cues can activate ERK in medium spiny neurons of the nucleus accumbens core (AcbC). These medium spiny neurons can be classified according to their projections (to ventral pallidum and/or substantia nigra) and by their mRNA expression. The present experiments were designed to determine which distinct set of AcbC projection neurons expresses phosphorylated ERK (pERK) in response to cocaine-paired contextual cues. Combined use of the retrograde label Flurogold with immunohistochemical staining of pERK was used to show that the AcbC pERK accompanying preference for cocaine-paired contexts occurs in both the accumbens (Acb)-nigral and Acb-pallidal projections. The gene expression characteristics of the neurons expressing pERK in response to cocaine-paired cues was further investigated using combined in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry to show that AcbC pERK+ cells correspond to D1, but not preproenkephalin, mRNA+ cells. Furthermore, intra-AcbC infusion of the D1-antagonist SCH23390 attenuated cue-induced AcbC pERK expression. In aggregate, these results indicate that (i) the D1-expressing AcbC neurons evidence long-term plasticity related to drug-cue memories and (ii) local dopamine D1 receptors are necessary for the expression of cocaine-paired cue-induced pERK in these AcbC neurons.

  9. Kinome wide functional screen identifies role of Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) in hormone-independent, ER-positive breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhola, Neil; Jansen, Valerie M.; Bafna, Sangeeta; Giltnane, Jennifer M.; Balko, Justin M.; Estrada, Mónica V.; Meszoely, Ingrid; Mayer, Ingrid; Abramson, Vandana; Ye, Fei; Sanders, Melinda; Dugger, Teresa C.; Van Allen, Eliezer; Arteaga, Carlos L.

    2014-01-01

    Estrogen receptor α (ER)-positive breast cancers initially respond to antiestrogens but eventually become estrogen-independent and recur. ER+ breast cancer cells resistant to long-term estrogen deprivation (LTED) exhibit hormone-independent ER transcriptional activity and growth. A kinome-wide siRNA screen using a library targeting 720 kinases identified Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) as one of the top genes whose downregulation resulted in inhibition of estrogen-independent ER transcriptional activity and growth of LTED cells. High PLK1 mRNA and protein correlated with a high Ki67 score in primary ER+ breast cancers after treatment with the aromatase inhibitor letrozole. RNAi-mediated knockdown of PLK1 inhibited ER expression, estrogen-independent growth and ER transcription in MCF7 and HCC1428 LTED cells. Pharmacological inhibition of PLK1 with volasertib, a small molecule ATP-competitive PLK1 inhibitor, decreased LTED cell growth, ER transcriptional activity and ER expression. Volasertib in combination with the ER antagonist, fulvestrant, decreased MCF7 xenograft growth in ovariectomized mice more potently than each drug alone. JUNB, a component of the AP-1 complex, was expressed 16-fold higher in MCF7/LTED compared to parental MCF7 cells. Further, JUNB and BCL2L1 (which encodes anti-apoptotic BCL-xL) mRNA levels were markedly reduced upon volasertib treatment in MCF7/LTED cells while they were increased in parental MCF7 cells. Finally, JUNB knockdown decreased ER expression and transcriptional activity in MCF7/LTED cells, suggesting that PLK1 drives ER expression and estrogen-independent growth via JUNB. These data support a critical role of PLK1 in acquired hormone-independent growth of ER+ human breast cancer and is therefore a promising target in tumors that have escaped estrogen deprivation therapy. PMID:25480943

  10. The role of diacylglycerol kinase ζ and phosphatidic acid in the mechanical activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling and skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jae-Sung; Lincoln, Hannah C; Kim, Chan-Ran; Frey, John W; Goodman, Craig A; Zhong, Xiao-Ping; Hornberger, Troy A

    2014-01-17

    The activation of mTOR signaling is essential for mechanically induced changes in skeletal muscle mass, and previous studies have suggested that mechanical stimuli activate mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) signaling through a phospholipase D (PLD)-dependent increase in the concentration of phosphatidic acid (PA). Consistent with this conclusion, we obtained evidence which further suggests that mechanical stimuli utilize PA as a direct upstream activator of mTOR signaling. Unexpectedly though, we found that the activation of PLD is not necessary for the mechanically induced increases in PA or mTOR signaling. Motivated by this observation, we performed experiments that were aimed at identifying the enzyme(s) that promotes the increase in PA. These experiments revealed that mechanical stimulation increases the concentration of diacylglycerol (DAG) and the activity of DAG kinases (DGKs) in membranous structures. Furthermore, using knock-out mice, we determined that the ζ isoform of DGK (DGKζ) is necessary for the mechanically induced increase in PA. We also determined that DGKζ significantly contributes to the mechanical activation of mTOR signaling, and this is likely driven by an enhanced binding of PA to mTOR. Last, we found that the overexpression of DGKζ is sufficient to induce muscle fiber hypertrophy through an mTOR-dependent mechanism, and this event requires DGKζ kinase activity (i.e. the synthesis of PA). Combined, these results indicate that DGKζ, but not PLD, plays an important role in mechanically induced increases in PA and mTOR signaling. Furthermore, this study suggests that DGKζ could be a fundamental component of the mechanism(s) through which mechanical stimuli regulate skeletal muscle mass.

  11. The Role of Diacylglycerol Kinase ζ and Phosphatidic Acid in the Mechanical Activation of Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) Signaling and Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy*

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jae-Sung; Lincoln, Hannah C.; Kim, Chan-Ran; Frey, John W.; Goodman, Craig A.; Zhong, Xiao-Ping; Hornberger, Troy A.

    2014-01-01

    The activation of mTOR signaling is essential for mechanically induced changes in skeletal muscle mass, and previous studies have suggested that mechanical stimuli activate mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) signaling through a phospholipase D (PLD)-dependent increase in the concentration of phosphatidic acid (PA). Consistent with this conclusion, we obtained evidence which further suggests that mechanical stimuli utilize PA as a direct upstream activator of mTOR signaling. Unexpectedly though, we found that the activation of PLD is not necessary for the mechanically induced increases in PA or mTOR signaling. Motivated by this observation, we performed experiments that were aimed at identifying the enzyme(s) that promotes the increase in PA. These experiments revealed that mechanical stimulation increases the concentration of diacylglycerol (DAG) and the activity of DAG kinases (DGKs) in membranous structures. Furthermore, using knock-out mice, we determined that the ζ isoform of DGK (DGKζ) is necessary for the mechanically induced increase in PA. We also determined that DGKζ significantly contributes to the mechanical activation of mTOR signaling, and this is likely driven by an enhanced binding of PA to mTOR. Last, we found that the overexpression of DGKζ is sufficient to induce muscle fiber hypertrophy through an mTOR-dependent mechanism, and this event requires DGKζ kinase activity (i.e. the synthesis of PA). Combined, these results indicate that DGKζ, but not PLD, plays an important role in mechanically induced increases in PA and mTOR signaling. Furthermore, this study suggests that DGKζ could be a fundamental component of the mechanism(s) through which mechanical stimuli regulate skeletal muscle mass. PMID:24302719

  12. Role of protein kinase C β and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor in malignant pleural mesothelioma: Therapeutic implications and the usefulness of Caenorhabditis elegans model organism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivakumar Loganathan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To examine the role of both protein kinase C (PKC-β and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR-2 in malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM using respective inhibitors, enzastaurin and KRN633. Materials and Methods: MPM cell lines, control cells, and a variety of archived MPM tumor samples were used to determine the protein expression levels of PKC-β, VEGFR-2, VEGF, and p-AKT. Effects of enzastaurin and KRN633 on phosphorylation status of key signaling molecules and viability of the mesothelioma cells were determined. The common soil nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, was treated with enzastaurin to determine its suitability to screen for highly potent kinase inhibitors. Results: PKC-β1, PKC-β2 and VEGFR-2/KDR were overexpressed in MPM cell lines and MPM tumor tissues. Enzastaurin treatment resulted in significant loss in viability of VEGF induced cell proliferation; however, the effect of KRN633 was much less. Enzastaurin also dramatically decreased the phosphorylation of PKC-β, its downstream target p-AKT, and surprisingly, the upstream VEGFR-2. The combination of the two drugs at best was additive and similar results were obtained with respect to cell viability. Treatment of C. elegans with enzastaurin resulted in clear phenotypic changes and the worms were hypermotile with abnormal pattern and shape of eggs, suggesting altered fecundity. Conclusions: PKC-β1 and VEGFR-2 are both excellent therapeutic targets in MPM. Enzastaurin was better at killing MPM cells than KRN633 and the combination lacked synergy. In addition, we show here that C. elegans can be used to screen for the next generation inhibitors as treatment with enzastaurin resulted in clear phenotypic changes that could be assayed.

  13. An novel role of sphingosine kinase-1 (SPHK1 in the invasion and metastasis of esophageal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yan-Lan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Treatment failure for esophageal carcinoma is frequently due to lymph node metastasis and invasion to neighboring organs. The aim of the present study was to investigate invasion- and metastasis-related genes in esophageal carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo. Methods A metastasis model using a Matrigel invasion clonal selection approach was employed to establish a highly invasive subline EC9706-P4 from the esophageal carcinoma cell (ESCC line EC9706. The differentially expressed genes of the subline and the parental cells determined by gene microarrays were further analyzed by RT-PCR and Western blotting. Results We identified sphingosine kinase 1 (SPHK1 as an invasion and metastasis-related gene of esophageal cancer. SPHK1 was overexpressed in the EC9706-P4 subline with high invasive capacity. Among six ESCC lines tested, KYSE2 and KYSE30 cells showed the highest SPHK1 mRNA and protein expressions as well as the most invasive phenotype. By Western blotting, in 7/12 cases (58%, SPHK1 expression was higher in esophageal carcinomas than in the companion normal tissue. In 23/30 cases (76%, SPHK1 protein expression was upregulated in the tumors compared to matched normal tissue by immunohistochemistry (IHC. Esophageal carcinoma tissue microarray analysis indicated that SPHK1 expression correlated with the depth of tumor invasion (P P = 0.016. By Kaplan-Meier analysis, strong SPHK1 expression was significantly associated with clinical failure (P SPHK1 overexpression significantly increased the invasiveness of EC9706 cells in vitro and also increased EC9706 cell growth and spontaneous metastasis in vivo, promoting significant increases in tumor growth, tumor burden and spontaneous lung metastasis in nude mice. SPHK1 expression significantly correlated with the expression of many EGFR pathway genes associated with invasion of cancer cells. SPHK1 protein expression also significantly correlated with the phosphorylation of EGFR

  14. Roles of receptor for activated protein kinase C1 for modulating immune responses in white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zhong-Wen; Chang, Chin-Chyuan

    2015-10-01

    Complementary (c)DNA encoding a receptor for activated protein kinase C1 (RACK1) messenger (m)RNA of the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, designated LvRACK1, consisted a 1136-bp cDNA containing an open reading frame (ORF) of 954 bp, a 111-bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), and a 71-bp 3'-UTR, which is a 36 kDa cytosolic protein, belonging to the Trp-Asp40 (WD40) family of proteins, characterized by containing seven highly conserved Trp-Asp40 (WD40) internal repeats, and a poly A tail. The WD repeat of LvRACK1 can be predicted to form a seven-bladed propeller structure with each WD repeat composed of four antiparallel β-sheets. The WD40 domains have been implicated in protein-protein interactions. A comparison of amino acid sequences showed that LvRACK1 was closely related to arthropods RACK1. LvRACK1 cDNA was synthesized in all tested tissues detected with real-time PCR including haemocytes, hepatopancreas, gills, muscles, subcuticular epithelium, intestines, abdominal nervous ganglia, thoracic nervous ganglia, lymphoid organ, stomach, heart, and antennal gland, especially in subcuticular epithelium and gill. LvRACK1 mRNA transcription in haemocytes of L. vannamei injected with Vibrio alginolyticus decreased. The depletion of LvRACK1 of haemocytes in L. vannamei received its dsRNA revealed the increased respiratory bursts per haemocyte, superoxide dismutase (SOD), activity, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, and clotting time, but showed the decreased total haemocyte count (THC), hyaline cells (HCs), phagocytic activity, and transglutaminase (TG) activity. LvRACK1 silenced shrimp showed the upregulated gene expressions of cyMnSOD, mtMnSOD, peroxinectin (PE), and TGI, and showed the downregulated α2-macroglobulin (α2-M), clottable protein (CP), lysozyme, and crustin gene expressions. It is therefore concluded that LvRACK1 is involved in immune defense and signaling transduction in haemocytes of L. vannamei infected with V. alginolyticus. Copyright © 2015

  15. Expression of the MAST family of serine/threonine kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Patrick; Quraishe, Shmma; French, Pim; O'Connor, Vincent

    2008-02-21

    The Microtubule-Associated Serine/Threonine Kinase family (MAST1-4, and MAST-like) is characterised by the presence of a serine/threonine kinase domain and a postsynaptic density protein-95/discs large/zona occludens-1 domain (PDZ). This latter domain gives the MAST family the capacity to scaffold its own kinase activity. In the present study we have profiled the mRNA for each member of the MAST family transcripts across various tissues, with particular focus on rodent brain. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) has shown equivalent patterns of expression for MAST1 and 2 in multiple tissues. Both MAST3 and 4 show more distinct expression in several tissues, and MAST-like appears to be predominantly expressed in heart and testis. In situ hybridisation reveals overlapping expression of MAST1 and 2 in specific brain regions. In contrast, MAST3 shows selective expression in the striatum and cerebral cortex. MAST4 also exhibits distinct expression in oligodendrocytes of white matter containing brain regions. In keeping with previous results, this family member also shows increased expression in the hippocampus following seizure-like activity. Our analysis of MAST family expression provides support for the role of these kinases in a broad range of neural functions.

  16. Innovation brokers and their roles in value chain-network innovation: preliminary findings and a research agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perez Perdomo, S.A.; Klerkx, L.W.A.; Leeuwis, C.

    2010-01-01

    Intervention approaches have been implemented in developing countries to enhance farmer's livelihoods through improving their linkages to markets and inclusiveness in agricultural value chains. Such interventions are aimed at facilitating the inclusion of small farmers not just in the vertical

  17. The Critical Role of Supply Chains in Preventing Human Immunodeficiency Virus Drug Resistance in Low- and Middle-Income Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minior, Thomas; Douglas, Meaghan; Edgil, Dianna; Srivastava, Meena; Crowley, John; Firth, Jacqueline; Lapidos-Salaiz, Ilana; Williams, Jason; Lee, Lana

    2017-12-01

    The functioning of the supply chain may be a driving factor behind the development of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance (HIVDR) in many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Additionally, the effectiveness of supply chains will likely impact the scale-up of both viral-load monitoring and HIVDR testing. This article describes the complexities of global supply chains relevant for LMICs and presents early data on stock-outs and drug substitutions in several countries supported by the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief. Supply chain systems will need to be strengthened to minimize interruptions as new antiretroviral therapy regimens are introduced and to facilitate adoption of new laboratory technologies. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  18. The role of the altruistic unbalanced chain in exchange living donor renal transplantation: single-center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, B K; Kwon, O J; Kang, C M

    2012-01-01

    The exchange donor program in renal transplantation is an efficient solution for recipients with a blood type or crossmatch-incompatible donor. However, this program has some difficulties to define unacceptable human leukocyte antigen matches, deteriorating clinical potential recipient condition, and withdrawal of donor consent. We analyzed the outcomes of exchange donor renal transplantation through the altruistic unbalanced chain. Among 152 cases of exchange donor renal transplantation from 1991 to 2010 in our hospital, we performed 58 procedures through altruistic unbalanced chains. We compared their outcomes with the direct and balanced chain group. We analyzed retrospectively whether this program expanded the donor pool, seeking better immunologic, size, and age matching. The graft survival and acute rejection rates did not differ significantly in the two groups. Of 152 cases, 58 (38.2%) renal transplantations were performed through an unbalanced chain. Seventeen waiting list recipients were transplanted through an altruistic unbalanced chain. In blood type O recipients (n = 32), the causes of registration in the exchange program were ABO incompatibility (93.3%), and positive crossmatch (6.7%). Nine altruistic blood type O donors and 9 (28.1%) type O recipients underwent transplantations through this chain. We suggest the altruistic unbalanced chain may expand the donor pool with advantages for difficult-to-match pairs. The disadvantages of type O recipients may be overcome through the use of an unbalanced chain. The altruistic unbalanced exchange transplantation program can help easy-to-match subjects, shortening the waiting periods. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Colletotrichum higginsianum Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase ChMK1: Role in Growth, Cell Wall Integrity, Colony Melanization, and Pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Xiong, Ying; Zhu, Wenjun; Wang, Nancong; Yang, Guogen; Peng, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Colletotrichum higginsianum is an economically important pathogen that causes anthracnose disease in a wide range of cruciferous crops. To facilitate the efficient control of anthracnose disease, it will be important to understand the mechanism by which the cruciferous crops and C. higginsianum interact. A key step in understanding this interaction is characterizing the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signaling pathway of C. higginsianum. MAPK plays important roles in diverse physiological processes of multiple pathogens. In this study, a Fus3/Kss1-related MAPK gene, ChMK1, from C. higginsianum was analyzed. The results showed that the Fus3/Kss1-related MAPK ChMK1 plays a significant role in cell wall integrity. Targeted deletion of ChMK1 resulted in a hypersensitivity to cell wall inhibitors, reduced conidiation and albinistic colonies. Further, the deletion mutant was also unable to form melanized appressorium, a specialized infection structure that is necessary for successful infection. Therefore, the deletion mutant loses pathogenicity on A. thaliana leaves, demonstrating that ChMK1 plays an essential role in the early infection step. In addition, the ChMK1 deletion mutant showed an attenuated growth rate that is different from that of its homolog in Colletotrichum lagenarium, indicating the diverse roles that Fus3/Kss1-related MAPKs plays in phytopathogenic fungi. Furthermore, the expression level of three melanin synthesis associated genes were clearly decreased in the albinistic ChMK1 mutant compared to that of the wild type strain, suggesting that ChMK1 is also required for colony melanization in C. higginsianum.

  20. Colletotrichum higginsianum Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase ChMK1: Role in Growth, Cell Wall Integrity, Colony Melanization and Pathogenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wei

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Colletotrichum higginsianum is an economically important pathogen that causes anthracnose disease in a wide range of cruciferous crops. To facilitate the efficient control of anthracnose disease, it will be important to understand the mechanism by which the cruciferous crops and C. higginsianum interact. A key step in understanding this interaction is characterizing the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK signaling pathway of C. higginsianum. MAPK plays important roles in diverse physiological processes of multiple pathogens. In this study, a Fus3/Kss1-related MAPK gene, ChMK1, from C. higginsianum was analyzed. The results showed that the Fus3/Kss1-related MAPK ChMK1 plays a significant role in cell wall integrity. Targeted deletion of ChMK1 resulted in a hypersensitivity to cell wall inhibitors, reduced conidiation and albinistic colonies. Further, the deletion mutant was also unable to form melanized appressorium, a specialized infection structure that is necessary for successful infection. Therefore, the deletion mutant loses pathogenicity on A. thaliana leaves, demonstrating that ChMK1 plays an essential role in the early infection step. In addition, the ChMK1 deletion mutant showed an attenuated growth rate that is different from that of its homologue in C. lagenarium, indicating the diverse roles that Fus3/Kss1-related MAPKs plays in phytopathogenic fungi. Furthermore, the expression level of three melanin synthesis associated genes were clearly decreased in the albinistic ChMK1 mutant compared to that of the wild type strain, suggesting that ChMK1 is also required for colony melanization in C. higginsianum.

  1. The Role of Morphology and Electronic Chain Aggregation on the Optical Gain Properties of Semiconducting Conjugated Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, Zachary Evan

    Conjugated polymers (CPs) are a novel class of materials that exhibit the optical and electrical properties of semiconductors while still retaining the durability and processability of plastics. CPs are also intrinsically 4-level systems with high luminescence quantum efficiencies making them particularly attractive as organic gain media for solid-state laser applications. However, before CPs can emerge as a commercially available laser technology, a more comprehensive understanding of the morphological dependence of the photophysics is required. In this thesis, the morphology and chain conformation dependence of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) and optical gain in thin films of poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy)-p-phenylene vinylene] (MEH-PPV) was investigated. By changing the chemical nature of the solvent from which films were cast, as well as the temperature at which films were annealed, CP films with different morphologies, and hence different degrees of interchain interactions were achieved. Contrary to the common perception that polymer morphology plays a decisive role in determining the ASE behavior of thin CP films, we found that chromophore aggregation and degree of conformational order have minimal impact on optical gain. In fact, experimental results indicated that an extremely large fraction of interchain aggregate species and/or exciton dissociating defects are required to significantly alter the optical properties and suppress stimulated emission. These results are pertinent to the fabrication and optimization of an electrically pumped laser device, as improvements in charge carrier mobility through controlled increases in chain aggregation may provide a viable means of optimizing injection efficiency without significantly degrading optical gain. To offset charge-induced absorption losses under electrical pumping, and to enable the use of more compact and economical sources under optical pumping, conjugated polymers exhibiting low lasing

  2. Modulatory role of phospholipase D in the activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT-3 by thyroid oncogenic kinase RET/PTC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Dong Wook

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RET/PTC (rearranged in transformation/papillary thyroid carcinomas gene rearrangements are the most frequent genetic alterations identified in papillary thyroid carcinoma. Although it has been established that RET/PTC kinase plays a crucial role in intracellular signaling pathways that regulate cellular transformation, growth, and proliferation in thyroid epithelial cells, the upstream signaling that leads to the activation of RET/PTC is largely unknown. Based on the observation of high levels of PLD expression in human papillary thyroid cancer tissues, we investigated whether PLD plays a role in the regulating the RET/PTC-induced STAT3 activation. Methods Cancer tissue samples were obtained from papillary thyroid cancer patients (n = 6. The expression level of PLD was examined using immunohistochemistry and western blotting. Direct interaction between RET/PTC and PLD was analyzed by co-immunoprecipitation assay. PLD activity was assessed by measuring the formation of [3H]phosphatidylbutanol, the product of PLD-mediated transphosphatidylation, in the presence of n-butanol. The transcriptional activity of STAT3 was assessed by m67 luciferase reporter assay. Results In human papillary thyroid cancer, the expression levels of PLD2 protein were higher than those in the corresponding paired normal tissues. PLD and RET/PTC could be co-immunoprecipitated from cells where each protein was over-expressed. In addition, the activation of PLD by pervanadate triggered phosphorylation of tyrosine 705 residue on STAT-3, and its phosphorylation was dramatically higher in TPC-1 cells (from papillary carcinoma that have an endogenous RET/PTC1 than in ARO cells (from anaplastic carcinoma without alteration of total STAT-3 expression. Moreover, the RET/PTC-mediated transcriptional activation of STAT-3 was synergistically increased by over-expression of PLD, whereas the PLD activity as a lipid hydrolyzing enzyme was not affected by RET

  3. Roles of PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 and dynamin-related protein 1 in transient global ischemia-induced hippocampal neuronal injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Shang-Der, E-mail: chensd@adm.cgmh.org.tw [Department of Neurology, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taiwan (China); Center for Translational Research in Biomedical Sciences, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taiwan (China); Lin, Tsu-Kung [Department of Neurology, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taiwan (China); Yang, Ding-I. [Institute of Brain Science and Brain Research Center, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lee, Su-Ying [Department of Neurology, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taiwan (China); Shaw, Fu-Zen [Department of Psychology, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Liou, Chia-Wei [Department of Neurology, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taiwan (China); Chuang, Yao-Chung, E-mail: ycchuang@adm.cgmh.org.tw [Department of Neurology, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taiwan (China); Center for Translational Research in Biomedical Sciences, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taiwan (China)

    2015-05-01

    Recent studies showed that increased mitochondrial fission is an early event of cell death during cerebral ischemia and dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) plays an important role in mitochondrial fission, which may be regulated by PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1), a mitochondrial serine/threonine-protein kinase thought to protect cells from stress-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and regulate mitochondrial fission. However, the roles of PINK1 and Drp1 in hippocampal injury caused by transient global ischemia (TGI) remain unknown. We therefore tested the hypothesis that TGI may induce PINK1 causing downregulation of Drp1 phosphorylation to enhance hippocampal neuronal survival, thus functioning as an endogenous neuroprotective mechanism. We found progressively increased PINK1 expression in the hippocampal CA1 subfield1-48 h following TGI, reaching the maximal level at 4 h. Despite lack of changes in the expression level of total Drp1 and phosphor-Drp1 at Ser637, TGI induced a time-dependent increase of Drp1 phosphorlation at Ser616 that peaked after 24 h. Notably, PINK1-siRNA increased p-Drp1(Ser616) protein level in hippocampal CA1 subfield 24 h after TGI. The PINK1 siRNA also aggravated the TGI-induced oxidative DNA damage with an increased 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) content in hippocampal CA1 subfield. Furthermore, PINK1 siRNA also augmented TGI-induced apoptosis as evidenced by the increased numbers of TUNEL-positive staining and enhanced DNA fragmentation. These findings indicated that PINK1 is an endogenous protective mediator vital for neuronal survival under ischemic insult through regulating Drp1 phosphorylation at Ser616. - Highlights: • Transient global ischemia increases expression of PINK1 and p-Drp1 at Ser616 in hippocampal CA1 subfield. • PINK1-siRNA decreases PINK1 expression but increases p-Drp1 at Ser616 in hippocampal CA1 subfield. • PINK1-siRNA augments oxidative stress and neuronal damage in hippocampal CA1 subfield.

  4. MAP kinase phosphatase-2 plays a key role in the control of infection with Toxoplasma gondii by modulating iNOS and arginase-1 activities in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Woods

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The dual specific phosphatase, MAP kinase phosphatase-2 (MKP-2 has recently been demonstrated to negatively regulate macrophage arginase-1 expression, while at the same time to positively regulate iNOS expression. Consequently, MKP-2 is likely to play a significant role in the host interplay with intracellular pathogens. Here we demonstrate that MKP-2(-/- mice on the C57BL/6 background have enhanced susceptibility compared with wild-type counterparts following infection with type-2 strains of Toxoplasma gondii as measured by increased parasite multiplication during acute infection, increased mortality from day 12 post-infection onwards and increased parasite burdens in the brain, day 30 post-infection. MKP-2(-/- mice did not, however, demonstrate defective type-1 responses compared with MKP-2(+/+ mice following infection although they did display significantly reduced serum nitrite levels and enhanced tissue arginase-1 expression. Early resistance to T. gondii in MKP-2(+/+, but not MKP-2(-/-, mice was nitric oxide (NO dependent as infected MKP-2(+/+, but not MKP-2(-/- mice succumbed within 10 days post-infection with increased parasite burdens following treatment with the iNOS inhibitor L-NAME. Conversely, treatment of infected MKP-2(-/- but not MKP-2(+/+ mice with nor-NOHA increased parasite burdens indicating a protective role for arginase-1 in MKP-2(-/- mice. In vitro studies using tachyzoite-infected bone marrow derived macrophages and selective inhibition of arginase-1 and iNOS activities confirmed that both iNOS and arginase-1 contributed to inhibiting parasite replication. However, the effects of arginase-1 were transient and ultimately the role of iNOS was paramount in facilitating long-term inhibition of parasite multiplication within macrophages.

  5. The role of the PI(3,5)P2 kinase TbFab1 in endo/lysosomal trafficking in Trypanosoma brucei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilden, Julia K; Umaer, Khan; Kruzel, Emilia K; Hecht, Oliver; Correa, Renan O; Mansfield, John M; Bangs, James D

    2017-06-01

    Protein trafficking through endo/lysosomal compartments is critically important to the biology of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei, but the routes material may take to the lysosome, as well as the molecular factors regulating those routes, remain incompletely understood. Phosphoinositides are signaling phospholipids that regulate many trafficking events by recruiting specific effector proteins to discrete membrane subdomains. In this study, we investigate the role of one phosphoinositide, PI(3,5)P2 in T. brucei. We find a low steady state level of PI(3,5)P2 in bloodstream form parasites comparable to that of other organisms. RNAi knockdown of the putative PI(3)P-5 kinase TbFab1 decreases the PI(3,5)P2 pool leading to rapid cell death. TbFab1 and PI(3,5)P2 both localize strongly to late endo/lysosomes. While most trafficking functions were intact in TbFab1 deficient cells, including both endocytic and biosynthetic trafficking to the lysosome, lysosomal turnover of an endogenous ubiquitinylated membrane protein, ISG65, was completely blocked suggesting that TbFab1 plays a role in the ESCRT-mediated late endosomal/multivesicular body degradative pathways. Knockdown of a second component of PI(3,5)P2 metabolism, the PI(3,5)P2 phosphatase TbFig4, also resulted in delayed turnover of ISG65. Together, these results demonstrate an essential role for PI(3,5)P2 in the turnover of ubiquitinylated membrane proteins and in trypanosome endomembrane biology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The Role of Partnership in Value Chain of Sweet Potato in Regency of West Java (Case Study of PT Galih Estetika Indonesia Partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Farichatul Aeni

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The partnership between the farmers and PT Galih Estetika Indonesia as the exporter company in the field of sweet potato processing is expected to support the development of sweet potato agribusiness in Kuningan Regency and become one of the solutions for farmers’ problems. Termination of partnership contracts undertaken by the farmers will have an impact on the implementation of partnerships, company operations as well as the value chain. This study aims to analyze the pattern of partnership, degree of partnership, value chain structure, value chain governance, farmers’ income (partner and non-partner and margin. The method of data processing and data analysis used the descriptive analysis qualitative and quantitative descriptive analysis. The results showed that the pattern of partnership that is formed is a centralized pattern with the degree value of partnership of 716 (madya pattern. The structure of the value chain by mapping the actors and their activities result in relationships and coordination between the parties. Farmers with companies belong to the modular type in VCG. Economic benefits indicate that net income of partner farmers is Rp22,157,828/Ha, while non-partner farmers obtain Rp12,306,789/Ha and the smallest margin is obtained by the coordinator. The analysis shows that farmers' incomes are larger, but partnership planning has not been ideal. Therefore, the roles of farmers, companies and related agencies are required in the running of the ideal sweet potato partnership program.Keywords: sweet potato partnership, partnership pattern, value chain, value chain governance, revenue

  7. Nonclassical Mechanisms of Progesterone Action in the Brain: II. Role of Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II in Progesterone-Mediated Signaling in the Hypothalamus of Female Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Bhuvana; Portillo, Wendy; Reyna, Andrea; Chen, Jian Zhong; Moore, Anthony N.; Dash, Pramod K.; Mani, Shaila K.

    2008-01-01

    In addition to the activation of classical progestin receptor-dependent genomic pathway, progesterone (P) can activate nonclassical, membrane-initiated signaling pathways in the brain. We recently demonstrated rapid P activation of second-messenger kinases, protein kinase A, and protein kinase C in the ventromedial nucleus (VMN) and preoptic area (POA) of rat brain. To determine whether P can activate yet another Ca+2dependent kinase, we examined the rapid P modulation of calcium and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) in the VMN and POA in female rats. A rapid P-initiated activation of CaMKII basal activity was observed in the VMN but not the POA at 30 min. Estradiol benzoate (EB) priming enhanced this CaMKII basal activity in both the VMN and POA. CaMKII protein levels and phosphorylation of Thr-286 moiety on CaMKII, however, remained unchanged with EB and/or P treatments, suggesting that the changes in the CaMKII kinase activity are due to rapid P modulation of the kinase activity and not its synthesis or autoactivation. Furthermore, intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of a CaMKII-specific inhibitor, KN-93, 30 min prior to the P infusion, in EB-primed, ovariectomized female rats inhibited CaMKII activation but not protein kinase A and protein kinase C activities. Interestingly, icv administration of KN-93 30 min prior to P infusion (icv) resulted in a reduction but not total inhibition of P-facilitated lordosis response in EB-primed female rats. These observations suggest a redundancy or, alternately, a hierarchy in the P-regulated activation of kinase signaling cascades in female reproductive behavior. PMID:18617607

  8. A negative modulatory role for rho and rho-associated kinase signaling in delamination of neural crest cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groysman, Maya; Shoval, Irit; Kalcheim, Chaya

    2008-01-01

    Background Neural crest progenitors arise as epithelial cells and then undergo a process of epithelial to mesenchymal transition that precedes the generation of cellular motility and subsequent migration. We aim at understanding the underlying molecular network. Along this line, possible roles of Rho GTPases that act as molecular switches to control a variety of signal transduction pathways remain virtually unexplored, as are putative interactions between Rho proteins and additional known components of this cascade. Results We investigated the role of Rho/Rock signaling in neural crest delamination. Active RhoA and RhoB are expressed in the membrane of epithelial progenitors and are downregulated upon delamination. In vivo loss-of-function of RhoA or RhoB or of overall Rho signaling by C3 transferase enhanced and/or triggered premature crest delamination yet had no effect on cell specification. Consistently, treatment of explanted neural primordia with membrane-permeable C3 or with the Rock inhibitor Y27632 both accelerated and enhanced crest emigration without affecting cell proliferation. These treatments altered neural crest morphology by reducing stress fibers, focal adhesions and downregulating membrane-bound N-cadherin. Reciprocally, activation of endogenous Rho by lysophosphatidic acid inhibited emigration while enhancing the above. Since delamination is triggered by BMP and requires G1/S transition, we examined their relationship with Rho. Blocking Rho/Rock function rescued crest emigration upon treatment with noggin or with the G1/S inhibitor mimosine. In the latter condition, cells emigrated while arrested at G1. Conversely, BMP4 was unable to rescue cell emigration when endogenous Rho activity was enhanced by lysophosphatidic acid. Conclusion Rho-GTPases, through Rock, act downstream of BMP and of G1/S transition to negatively regulate crest delamination by modifying cytoskeleton assembly and intercellular adhesion. PMID:18945340

  9. REVERSE SUPPLY CHAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz DOMAGAŁA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the presentation of the reverse supply chain, of which the role in the modern business grows along with the increasing number of environmental regulations and possibilities of reducing an operating cost. The paper also describes main problems in developing the profitable chain and possibilities to take an action in order to overcome them.

  10. Mechanism of polyphosphate kinase from Propionibacterium shermanii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, N.A.

    1986-01-01

    Polyphosphate kinase, which catalyzes the reaction shown below, is one of two enzymes which have been reported to catalyze the synthesis of polyphosphate. Purification performed by ammonium sulfate precipitation (0-40% fraction) was followed by chromatography. The enzyme represents 70% of the protein in the hydroxylapatite pool and is stable at this level of purity. The subunit molecular weight was determined by SDS polyacrylamide gel analysis, (83,000 +/- 3000), nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, (80,000 and 86,000 daltons), gel filtration (Biogel A 0.5m column was 85,000 +/- 4000.) Polyphosphate kinase appears to be a monomeric enzyme of approx.83,000 daltons. Four assays were developed for polyphosphate kinase. Basic proteins such as polylysine stimulate the synthesis of polyphosphate, these proteins cause precipitation of polyphosphate kinase from relatively impure enzyme extracts: Synthesized polyphosphate interacts noncovalently with the basic protein-enzyme precipitate. Efficient synthesis of polyphosphate requires the addition of either phosphate or short chain polyphosphate. Synthesis did occur at 1/10 the rate when neither of these two compounds were included. Initiation, elongation, and termination events of polyphosphate synthesis were examined. Short chain polyphosphate acts as a primer, with (/sup 32/P) short-chain polyphosphate incorporation into long chain polyphosphate by the kinase.

  11. Receptor Tyrosine Kinases in Drosophila Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopko, Richelle; Perrimon, Norbert

    2013-01-01

    Tyrosine phosphorylation plays a significant role in a wide range of cellular processes. The Drosophila genome encodes more than 20 receptor tyrosine kinases and extensive studies in the past 20 years have illustrated their diverse roles and complex signaling mechanisms. Although some receptor tyrosine kinases have highly specific functions, others strikingly are used in rather ubiquitous manners. Receptor tyrosine kinases regulate a broad expanse of processes, ranging from cell survival and proliferation to differentiation and patterning. Remarkably, different receptor tyrosine kinases share many of the same effectors and their hierarchical organization is retained in disparate biological contexts. In this comprehensive review, we summarize what is known regarding each receptor tyrosine kinase during Drosophila development. Astonishingly, very little is known for approximately half of all Drosophila receptor tyrosine kinases. PMID:23732470

  12. MHC class I ligation of human T cells activates the ZAP70 and p56lck tyrosine kinases, leads to an alternative phenotype of the TCR/CD3 zeta-chain, and induces apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, S; Bregenholt, S; Claesson, Mogens Helweg

    1997-01-01

    Cross-linking of MHC class I (MHC-I) molecules on human T cells induces signal-transduction events, including activation of tyrosine kinases, tyrosine phosphorylation of phospholipase C-gamma 1, and elevation of the intracellular free calcium concentration. In this study, we demonstrate that the ...

  13. Protein kinase a dependent phosphorylation of apical membrane antigen 1 plays an important role in erythrocyte invasion by the malaria parasite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Leykauf

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Apicomplexan parasites are obligate intracellular parasites that infect a variety of hosts, causing significant diseases in livestock and humans. The invasive forms of the parasites invade their host cells by gliding motility, an active process driven by parasite adhesion proteins and molecular motors. A crucial point during host cell invasion is the formation of a ring-shaped area of intimate contact between the parasite and the host known as a tight junction. As the invasive zoite propels itself into the host-cell, the junction moves down the length of the parasite. This process must be tightly regulated and signalling is likely to play a role in this event. One crucial protein for tight-junction formation is the apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1. Here we have investigated the phosphorylation status of this key player in the invasion process in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. We show that the cytoplasmic tail of P. falciparum AMA1 is phosphorylated at serine 610. We provide evidence that the enzyme responsible for serine 610 phosphorylation is the cAMP regulated protein kinase A (PfPKA. Importantly, mutation of AMA1 serine 610 to alanine abrogates phosphorylation of AMA1 in vivo and dramatically impedes invasion. In addition to shedding unexpected new light on AMA1 function, this work represents the first time PKA has been implicated in merozoite invasion.

  14. Role of Nitric Oxide, Nitric Oxide Synthase, Soluble Guanylyl Cyclase, and cGMP-Dependent Protein Kinase I in Mouse Stem Cell Cardiac Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Spinelli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Aim. Nitric oxide (NO can trigger cardiac differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs, indicating a cardiogenic function of the NO synthetizing enzyme(s (NOS. However, the involvement of the NO/NOS downstream effectors soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC and cGMP activated protein kinase I (PKG-I is less defined. Therefore, we assess the involvement of the entire NO/NOS/sGC/PKG-I pathway during cardiac differentiation process. Methods. Mouse ESCs were differentiated toward cardiac lineages by hanging drop methodology for 21 days. NOS/sGC/PKG-I pathway was studied quantifying genes, proteins, enzymatic activities, and effects of inhibition during differentiation. Percentages of beating embryoid bodies (mEBs were evaluated as an index of cardiogenesis. Results and Discussion. Genes and protein expression of enzymes were increased during differentiation with distinctive kinetics and proteins possessed their enzymatic functions. Exogenous administered NO accelerated whereas the blockade of PKG-I strongly slowed cardiogenesis. sGC inhibition was effective only at early stages and NOS blockade ineffective. Of NOS/sGC/PKG-I pathway, PKG-I seems to play the prominent role in cardiac maturation. Conclusion. We concluded that exogenous administered NO and other pharmacological strategies able to increase the activity of PKG-I provide new tools to investigate and promote differentiation of cardiogenic precursors.

  15. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase accelerates postoperative tumor growth by inhibiting apoptosis and enhancing resistance to chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. Novel role for an old enemy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Coffey, J Calvin

    2012-02-03

    Tumor removal remains the principal treatment modality in the management of solid tumors. The process of tumor removal may potentiate the resurgent growth of residual neoplastic tissue. Herein, we describe a novel murine model in which flank tumor cytoreduction is followed by accelerated local tumor recurrence. This model held for primary and recurrent tumors generated using a panel of human and murine (LS174T, DU145, SW480, SW640, and 3LL) cell lines and replicated accelerated tumor growth following excisional surgery. In investigating this further, epithelial cells were purified from LS174T primary and corresponding recurrent tumors for comparison. Baseline as well as tumor necrosis factor apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced apoptosis were significantly reduced in recurrent tumor epithelia. Primary and recurrent tumor gene expression profiles were then compared. This identified an increase and reduction in the expression of p110gamma and p85alpha class Ia phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) subunits in recurrent tumor epithelia. These changes were further confirmed at the protein level. The targeting of PI3K ex vivo, using LY294002, restored sensitivity to TRAIL in recurrent tumor epithelia. In vivo, adjuvant LY294002 prolonged survival and significantly attenuated recurrent tumor growth by greatly enhancing apoptosis levels. Hence, PI3K plays a role in generating the antiapoptotic and chemoresistant phenotype associated with accelerated local tumor recurrence.

  16. Role of exercise-induced calmodulin protein kinase (CAMK)II activation in the regulation of omega-6 fatty acids and lipid metabolism genes in rat skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, J S; Ayeleso, A O; Mukwevho, E

    2017-09-22

    Activation of calmodulin dependent protein kinase (CaMK)II by exercise is beneficial in controlling membrane lipids associated with type 2 diabetes and obesity. Regulation of lipid metabolism is crucial in the improvement of type 2 diabetes and obesity associated symptoms. The role of CaMKII in membrane associated lipid metabolism was the focus of this study. Five to six weeks old male Wistar rats were used in this study. GC×GC-TOFMS technique was used to determine the levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (linoleic acid, arachidonic acid and 11,14-eicosadienoic acid). Carnitine palmitoyltransferase (Cpt-1) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (Acc-1) genes expression were assessed using quantitative real time PCR (qPCR). From the results, CaMKII activation by exercise increased the levels of arachidonic acid and 11, 14-eicosadienoic acid while a decrease in the level of linolenic acid was observed in the skeletal muscle. The results indicated that exercise-induced CaMKII activation increased CPT-1 expression and decreased ACC-1 expression in rat skeletal muscle. All the observed increases with activation of CaMKII by exercise were aborted when KN93, an inhibitor of CaMKII was injected in exercising rats. This study demonstrated that CaMKII activation by exercise regulated lipid metabolism. This study suggests that CaMKII can be a vital target of therapeutic approach in the management of diseases such as type 2 diabetes and obesity that have increased to epidemic proportions recently.

  17. Torso, a Drosophila receptor tyrosine kinase, plays a novel role in the larval fat body in regulating insulin signaling and body growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Jong Woo; Han, Gangsik; Yun, Hyun Myoung; Lee, Gang Jun; Hyun, Seogang

    2016-08-01

    Torso is a receptor tyrosine kinase whose localized activation at the termini of the Drosophila embryo is mediated by its ligand, Trunk. Recent studies have unveiled a second function of Torso in the larval prothoracic gland (PG) as the receptor for the prothoracicotropic hormone, which triggers pupariation. As such, inhibition of Torso in the PG prolongs the larval growth period, thereby increasing the final pupa size. Here, we report that Torso also acts in the larval fat body, regulating body size in a manner opposite from that of Torso in PG. We confirmed the expression of torso mRNA in the larval fat body and its reduction by RNA interference (RNAi). Fat body-specific knockdown of torso, by either of the two independent RNAi transgenes, significantly decreased the final pupal size. We found that torso knockdown suppresses insulin/target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling in the fat body, as confirmed by repression of Akt and S6K. Notably, the decrease in insulin/TOR signaling and decrease of pupal size induced by the knockdown of torso were rescued by the expression of a constitutively active form of the insulin receptor or by the knockdown of FOXO. Our study revealed a novel role for Torso in the fat body with respect to regulation of insulin/TOR signaling and body size. This finding exemplifies the contrasting effects of the same gene expressed in two different organs on organismal physiology.

  18. The role of 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase (PFK-2/fructose 2,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase-2 in metabolic reprogramming of cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinga A. Kocemba

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The high rate of glucose breakdown is the fingerprint of cancer. Increased glycolysis allows tumour cells to fulfil their high energetic and biosynthetic demands. Interestingly, however, rather than metabolizing glucose in the oxidative phosphorylation pathway, cancer cells generally use glucose for aerobic glycolysis. This phenomenon is known as the Warburg effect and is considered as one of the most fundamental forms of metabolic reprogramming during cancerogenesis. Changes in the rate of glycolytic activity of cancer cells are caused mainly by the increased expression of glycolytic enzymes as a consequence of activation of oncogenes or loss of tumour suppressors. In addition, the hypoxic tumour environment also triggers upregulation of a series of genes involved in glucose metabolism. Among the metabolic enzymes that are modulated by these factors in cancer cells are the 6-phosphofructo 2-kinase/fructose 2,6-bisphosphatases (PFKFBs, a family of bifunctional enzymes that control the levels of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate (Fru-2,6-P2, an essential activator of the glycolytic flux. Fru-2,6-P2 strongly activates glucose breakdown in glycolysis through allosteric modulation of the rate-limiting enzyme of glycolysis, phosphofructokinase-1 (PFK-1. Thus far, many studies have reported a correlation between aberrant PFKFB expression level and the grade of tumour aggressiveness, which directly indicates that these enzymes may play a crucial role in cancerogenesis. The objective of this review is to highlight the recent studies on aberrant expression of PFKFBs and its influence on cancer progression.

  19. The role of guanxi in buyer-seller relationships in China : a survey of vegetable supply chains in Jiangsu Province

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu Hualiang,

    2007-01-01

    Keywords:Social capital,guanxinetworks, vegetable supply chains, buyer-seller relationships, channel performance,

  20. On the role of long-chain aldehydes in the light reaction in Photobacterium phosphoreum enzyme preparations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terpstra, Willemke

    1960-01-01

    1. (1) Active luciferase-DPNH-oxidase preparations from Photobacterium phosphoreum generally contain some aldehyde-attacking enzyme, probably ADH. Under the experimental conditions applied this enzyme appears to attack decanal, but not palmital. 2. (2) The presence of long-chain aldehydes in the

  1. The role of cellular structure on increasing the detonability limits of three-step chain-branching detonations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Short, Mark [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kiyanda, Charles B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Quirk, James J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sharpe, Gary J [UNIV OF LEEDS, UK

    2011-01-27

    In [1], the dynamics of a pulsating three-step chain-branching detonation were studied. The reaction model consists of, sequentially, chain-initiation, chain-branching and chain-termination steps. The chain-initiation and chain-branching steps are taken to be thermally neutral, with chemical energy release occuring in the chain-termination stage. The purpose of the present study is to examine whether cellular detonation structure can increase the value of the chain-branching cross-over temperature T{sub b} at which fully coupled detonation solutions are observed over those in 1 D. The basic concept is straightforward and has been discussed in [1] and [3]; if T{sub s} drops below T{sub b} at the lead shock, the passage of a transverse shock can increase both the lead shock temperature and the temperature behind the transverse wave back above T{sub b}, thus sustaining an unstable cellular detonation for values of T{sub b} for which a one-dimensional pulsating detonation will fail. Experiments potentially supporting this hypothesis with irregular detonations have been shown in [3] in a shock tube with acoustically absorbing walls. Removal of the transverse waves results in detonation failure, giving way to a decoupled shock-flame complex. A number of questions remain to be addressed regarding the possibility of such a mechanism, and, if so, about the precise mechanisms driving the cellular structure for large T{sub b}. For instance, one might ask what sets the cell size in a chain-branching detonation, particularly could the characteristic cell size be set by the chain-branching cross-over temperature T{sub b}: after a transverse wave shock collision, the strength of the transverse wave weakens as it propagates along the front. If the spacing between shock collisions is too large (cell size), then the transverse shocks may weaken to the extent that the lead shock temperature or that behind the transverse waves is not raised above T{sub b}, losing chemical energy to

  2. Pseudomonas pyocyanin inhibits wound repair by inducing premature cellular senescence: role for p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Michael; Li, Zhe; Maitz, Peter K M

    2009-06-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important nosocomial pathogen of burn wounds. Pyocyanin, a virulence factor produced by the bacterium, induces persistent intracellular oxidative stress and premature senescence in mammalian cells. Our aims were to evaluate pyocyanin levels in infected wound dressings and the potential of the toxin to influence wound repair. Surgical dressings from infected burn patients were examined for pyocyanin and normal primary human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs) were treated with comparable concentrations and their replicative ability examined. Pyocyanin was detected in the exudate of infected wound dressings in amounts up to 5.3 microg/g (mean: 2.0+/-2.3 microg/g). HDFs exposed to pyocyanin (1-50 microM; 0.2-10.5 microg/ml) underwent growth arrest at all concentrations and developed morphological characteristics associated with cellular senescence, including expression of senescence-associated beta-galactosidase. Using an in vitro wound repair model, a single exposure to pyocyanin inhibited wound repair in a concentration-dependent manner. Prior treatment with a specific p38(MAPK) inhibitor allowed cells to maintain their replicative ability and pre-senescent morphology indicating pyocyanin operates through the Erk/p38(MAPK) senescence pathway. These data support the hypothesis that bacterial virulence factors capable of inducing persistent low-level oxidative stress play a pivotal role in modulating the tissue repair response to infection by inducing premature cellular senescence.

  3. PAS kinase: a nutrient sensing regulator of glucose homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMille, Desiree; Grose, Julianne H

    2013-11-01

    Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS) kinase (PASK, PASKIN, and PSK) is a member of the group of nutrient sensing protein kinases. These protein kinases sense the energy or nutrient status of the cell and regulate cellular metabolism appropriately. PAS kinase responds to glucose availability and regulates glucose homeostasis in yeast, mice, and man. Despite this pivotal role, the molecular mechanisms of PAS kinase regulation and function are largely unknown. This review focuses on what is known about PAS kinase, including its conservation from yeast to man, identified substrates, associated phenotypes and role in metabolic disease. © 2013 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  4. Evidence against a role for the JIL-1 kinase in H3S28 phosphorylation and 14-3-3 recruitment to active genes in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Wang

    Full Text Available JIL-1 is the major kinase controlling phosphorylation of histone H3S10 and has been demonstrated to function to counteract heterochromatization and gene silencing. However, an alternative model has been proposed in which JIL-1 is required for transcription to occur, additionally phosphorylates H3S28, and recruits 14-3-3 to active genes. Since these findings are incompatible with our previous demonstration that there are robust levels of transcription in the complete absence of JIL-1 and that JIL-1 is not present at developmental or heat shock-induced polytene chromosome puffs, we have reexamined JIL-1's possible role in H3S28 phosphorylation and 14-3-3 recruitment. Using two different H3S28ph antibodies we show by immunocytochemistry and immunoblotting that in Drosophila the H3S28ph mark is not present at detectable levels above background on polytene chromosomes at interphase but only on chromosomes at pro-, meta-, and anaphase during cell division in S2 cells and third instar larval neuroblasts. Moreover, this mitotic H3S28ph signal is also present in a JIL-1 null mutant background at undiminished levels suggesting that JIL-1 is not the mitotic H3S28ph kinase. We also demonstrate that H3S28ph is not enriched at heat shock puffs. Using two different pan-specific 14-3-3 antibodies as well as an enhancer trap 14-3-3ε-GFP line we show that 14-3-3, while present in salivary gland nuclei, does not localize to chromosomes but only to the nuclear matrix surrounding the chromosomes. In our hands 14-3-3 is not recruited to developmental or heat shock puffs. Furthermore, using a lacO repeat tethering system to target LacI-JIL-1 to ectopic sites on polytene chromosomes we show that only H3S10ph is present and upregulated at such sites, not H3S28ph or 14-3-3. Thus, our results argue strongly against a model where JIL-1 is required for H3S28 phosphorylation and 14-3-3 recruitment at active genes.

  5. Roles of the kinase TAK1 in TRAF6-dependent signaling by CD40 and its oncogenic viral mimic, LMP1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly M Arcipowski

    Full Text Available The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV-encoded protein latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1 is essential for EBV-mediated B cell transformation and plays a critical role in the development of post-transplant B cell lymphomas. LMP1 also contributes to the exacerbation of autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. LMP1 is a functional mimic of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR superfamily member CD40, and relies on TNFR-associated factor (TRAF adaptor proteins to mediate signaling. However, LMP1 activation signals to the B cell are amplified and sustained compared to CD40 signals. We previously demonstrated that LMP1 and CD40 use TRAF molecules differently. Although associating with CD40 and LMP1 via separate mechanisms, TRAF6 plays a significant role in signal transduction by both. It is unknown whether TRAF6 mediates CD40 versus LMP1 functions via distinct or shared pathways. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that TRAF6 uses the kinase TAK1 to trigger important signaling pathways following both CD40 and LMP1 stimulation. We determined that TAK1 was required for JNK activation and interleukin-6 (IL-6 production mediated by CD40 and LMP1, in both mouse and human B cells. Additionally, TRAF3 negatively regulated TRAF6-dependent, CD40-mediated TAK1 activation by limiting TRAF6 recruitment. This mode of regulation was not observed for LMP1 and may contribute to the dysregulation of LMP1 compared to CD40 signals.

  6. AMP-activated protein kinase plays an important evolutionary conserved role in the regulation of glucose metabolism in fish skeletal muscle cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo J Magnoni

    Full Text Available AMPK, a master metabolic switch, mediates the observed increase of glucose uptake in locomotory muscle of mammals during exercise. AMPK is activated by changes in the intracellular AMP:ATP ratio when ATP consumption is stimulated by contractile activity but also by AICAR and metformin, compounds that increase glucose transport in mammalian muscle cells. However, the possible role of AMPK in the regulation of glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle has not been investigated in other vertebrates, including fish. In this study, we investigated the effects of AMPK activators on glucose uptake, AMPK activity, cell surface levels of trout GLUT4 and expression of GLUT1 and GLUT4 as well as the expression of enzymes regulating glucose disposal and PGC1α in trout myotubes derived from a primary muscle cell culture. We show that AICAR and metformin significantly stimulated glucose uptake (1.6 and 1.3 fold, respectively and that Compound C completely abrogated the stimulatory effects of the AMPK activators on glucose uptake. The combination of insulin and AMPK activators did not result in additive nor synergistic effects on glucose uptake. Moreover, exposure of trout myotubes to AICAR and metformin resulted in an increase in AMPK activity (3.8 and 3 fold, respectively. We also provide evidence suggesting that stimulation of glucose uptake by AMPK activators in trout myotubes may take place, at least in part, by increasing the cell surface and mRNA levels of trout GLUT4. Finally, AICAR increased the mRNA levels of genes involved in glucose disposal (hexokinase, 6-phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase and citrate synthase and mitochondrial biogenesis (PGC-1α and did not affect glycogen content or glycogen synthase mRNA levels in trout myotubes. Therefore, we provide evidence, for the first time in non-mammalian vertebrates, suggesting a potentially important role of AMPK in stimulating glucose uptake and utilization in the skeletal muscle of fish.

  7. PI3-kinase cascade has a differential role in acquisition and extinction of conditioned fear memory in juvenile and adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slouzkey, Ilana; Maroun, Mouna

    2016-12-01

    The basolateral amygdala (BLA), medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) circuit, plays a crucial role in acquisition and extinction of fear memory. Extinction of aversive memories is mediated, at least in part, by the phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway in adult rats. There is recent interest in the neural mechanisms that mediate fear and extinction in juvenile animals and whether these mechanisms are distinctive from those in adult animals. In the present study, we examined (1) changes in phosphorylation of Akt in the BLA and mPFC after fear conditioning and extinction in juvenile and adult rats and (2) the effect of BLA and mPFC localized inhibition of the PI3K following acquisition and extinction of contextual fear memory. Our results show that Akt phosphorylation is increased following acquisition of contextual fear learning in the BLA but not in the mPFC in adult and juvenile rats. Extinction learning was not associated with changes in Akt phosphorylation. Although there were no differences in the pattern of phosphorylation of Akt either in adult or juvenile rats, microinjection of the PI3K inhibitor, LY294002, into the BLA or mPFC elicited differential effects on fear memory acquisition and extinction, depending on the site and timing of the microinjection, as well as on the age of the animal. These results suggest that PI3K/Akt has a differential role in formation, retrieval, and extinction of contextual fear memory in juvenile and adult animals, and point to developmental differences between adult and juvenile rats in mechanisms of extinction. © 2016 Slouzkey and Maroun; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  8. AMP-activated protein kinase plays an important evolutionary conserved role in the regulation of glucose metabolism in fish skeletal muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnoni, Leonardo J; Vraskou, Yoryia; Palstra, Arjan P; Planas, Josep V

    2012-01-01

    AMPK, a master metabolic switch, mediates the observed increase of glucose uptake in locomotory muscle of mammals during exercise. AMPK is activated by changes in the intracellular AMP:ATP ratio when ATP consumption is stimulated by contractile activity but also by AICAR and metformin, compounds that increase glucose transport in mammalian muscle cells. However, the possible role of AMPK in the regulation of glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle has not been investigated in other vertebrates, including fish. In this study, we investigated the effects of AMPK activators on glucose uptake, AMPK activity, cell surface levels of trout GLUT4 and expression of GLUT1 and GLUT4 as well as the expression of enzymes regulating glucose disposal and PGC1α in trout myotubes derived from a primary muscle cell culture. We show that AICAR and metformin significantly stimulated glucose uptake (1.6 and 1.3 fold, respectively) and that Compound C completely abrogated the stimulatory effects of the AMPK activators on glucose uptake. The combination of insulin and AMPK activators did not result in additive nor synergistic effects on glucose uptake. Moreover, exposure of trout myotubes to AICAR and metformin resulted in an increase in AMPK activity (3.8 and 3 fold, respectively). We also provide evidence suggesting that stimulation of glucose uptake by AMPK activators in trout myotubes may take place, at least in part, by increasing the cell surface and mRNA levels of trout GLUT4. Finally, AICAR increased the mRNA levels of genes involved in glucose disposal (hexokinase, 6-phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase and citrate synthase) and mitochondrial biogenesis (PGC-1α) and did not affect glycogen content or glycogen synthase mRNA levels in trout myotubes. Therefore, we provide evidence, for the first time in non-mammalian vertebrates, suggesting a potentially important role of AMPK in stimulating glucose uptake and utilization in the skeletal muscle of fish.

  9. Complementary roles of Fas-associated death domain (FADD) and receptor interacting protein kinase-3 (RIPK3) in T-cell homeostasis and antiviral immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jennifer V.; Weist, Brian M.; van Raam, Bram J.; Marro, Brett S.; Nguyen, Long V.; Srinivas, Prathna; Bell, Bryan D.; Luhrs, Keith A.; Lane, Thomas E.; Salvesen, Guy S.; Walsh, Craig M.

    2011-01-01

    Caspase-8 (casp8) is required for extrinsic apoptosis, and mice deficient in casp8 fail to develop and die in utero while ultimately failing to maintain the proliferation of T cells, B cells, and a host of other cell types. Paradoxically, these failures are not caused by a defect in apoptosis, but by a presumed proliferative function of this protease. Indeed, following mitogenic stimulation, T cells lacking casp8 or its adaptor protein FADD (Fas-associated death domain protein) develop a hyperautophagic morphology, and die a programmed necrosis-like death process termed necroptosis. Recent studies have demonstrated that receptor-interacting protein kinases (RIPKs) RIPK1 and RIPK3 together facilitate TNF-induced necroptosis, but the precise role of RIPKs in the demise of T cells lacking FADD or casp8 activity is unknown. Here we demonstrate that RIPK3 and FADD have opposing and complementary roles in promoting T-cell clonal expansion and homeostasis. We show that the defective proliferation of T cells bearing an interfering form of FADD (FADDdd) is rescued by crossing with RIPK3−/− mice, although such rescue ultimately leads to lymphadenopathy. Enhanced recovery of these double-mutant T cells following stimulation demonstrates that FADD, casp8, and RIPK3 are all essential for clonal expansion, contraction, and antiviral responses. Finally, we demonstrate that caspase-mediated cleavage of RIPK1-containing necrosis inducing complexes (necrosomes) is sufficient to prevent necroptosis in the face of death receptor signaling. These studies highlight the “two-faced” nature of casp8 activity, promoting clonal expansion in some situations and apoptotic demise in others. PMID:21876153

  10. The relevance of the food production chain with regard to the population exposure to chemical substances and its role in contaminated sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Francesca Romana; Busani, Luca; Tait, Sabrina; La Rocca, Cinzia

    2016-01-01

    Food may be contaminated with many chemical substances at any level along the production chain. Chemicals that may be found in food items can simultaneously be present in other matrices, as air, water, soil and dust; therefore, human exposure to chemicals via food has to be summed to the exposure through all the other possible routes. The role played by the food production chain with regard to the population exposure to chemicals assumes amplified proportions when considering contaminated sites. Indeed the link between environment and food production is undeniable and consequently, when population chemical exposure is considered, an integrated approach assessing the contribution of the different routes of exposure, including dietary exposure, is needed. Such integrated approach allows a realistic and comprehensive risk assessment of chemical substances in order to identify and deploy effective prevention and intervention measures to protect human health.

  11. “Packaging Logistics” for improving performance in supply chains: the role of meta-standards implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús García-Arca

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Integrated packaging design process arises as one key factor that could contribute to increasing the efficiency and sustainability of supply chains. This approach is called “packaging logistics”. Another managerial approach that is related to efficiency and sustainability is the implementation of “meta-standards” (ISO 9000 and ISO 14000. As both “packaging logistics” and “meta-standards” can contribute positively towards supply chain efficiency and sustainability, it becomes relevant to examine the relationship between them. In this study, we explore the potential relation between “meta-standards” (ISO 9000 and ISO 14000 and the implementation of the key aspects of “packaging logistics”. In addition, we explore the relation between “packaging logistics” and aspects of performance. This is accomplished through an exploratory study of the packaging design process of Spanish manufacturers in the food industry.

  12. The role of the concept of corporate social responsibility in building relationships and in the supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Urbaniak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available   Background: The aim of this article is to determine the importance of the concept of corporate social responsibility in building partnerships in the supply chain. In the recent period, one could notice that more and more international companies implementing their strategies based on the concept of sustainable development are evaluating and qualifying their suppliers basing on standards of ethics in business. Methods: This paper analyzed the requirements of the multinationals companies towards their suppliers in implementing elements of the concept of corporate social responsibility. Results: The results of the analyzes which were presented on practical examples show that buyers define to suppliers, very often detailed, standards for ethical conduct for suppliers (Supplier Conduct Principles, Principles and Standards of Ethical Supply Management Conduct and guides for their implementation (Supply Chain CSR Deployment guidebook, Purchasing Way, Supplier Sustainability program Manual, organizing programs (Supply Chain Social Responsibility programs, implementing the Supplier Responsibility projects and developing a checklist (Supply Chain CSR Checklist for self-evaluation of providers. Conclusions: When observing global trends one could notice that recently more and more suppliers are evaluated in terms of the fulfillment of the principles of sustainable development, guided by the economic aspects (requiring high technical quality, reliability of supply, competitive price, stable financial position, compliance with legal requirements, environmental aspects, as well as social aspects (principles based on the idea of the Global Compact. One could also perceive that many international companies signing contracts with suppliers require them to sign a declaration, obligating them to introduce the concept of corporate social responsibility by applying the principles contained in Statement on Business Practices and in compliance with the requirements

  13. An Essential Role of the Mitochondrial Electron Transport Chain in Cell Proliferation Is to Enable Aspartate Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Freinkman, Elizaveta; Wang, Tim; Chen, Walter W.; Abu-Remaileh, Monther; Sabatini, David; Birsoy, Kivanc

    2015-01-01

    The mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) enables many metabolic processes, but why its inhibition suppresses cell proliferation is unclear. It is also not well understood why pyruvate supplementation allows cells lacking ETC function to proliferate. We used a CRISPR-based genetic screen to identify genes whose loss sensitizes human cells to phenformin, a complex I inhibitor. The screen yielded GOT1, the cytosolic aspartate aminotransferase, loss of which kills cells upon ETC inhibitio...

  14. Characterization of the Role of Breast Tumor Kinase (BRK) in Breast Cancer Cells Non-responsive to EGFR-targeted Agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nimnual, Anjaruwee

    2006-01-01

    .... PI-3 kinase/AKT pathway mediates EGF-induced cell growth and survival and is involved in cellular resistance to anti-cancer drugs/AKT pathway is regulated by multiple activators downregulation...

  15. Apelin increases cardiac contractility via protein kinase Cε- and extracellular signal-regulated kinase-dependent mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ábel Perjés

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Apelin, the endogenous ligand for the G protein-coupled apelin receptor, is an important regulator of the cardiovascular homoeostasis. We previously demonstrated that apelin is one of the most potent endogenous stimulators of cardiac contractility; however, its underlying signaling mechanisms remain largely elusive. In this study we characterized the contribution of protein kinase C (PKC, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2 and myosin light chain kinase (MLCK to the positive inotropic effect of apelin. METHODS AND RESULTS: In isolated perfused rat hearts, apelin increased contractility in association with activation of prosurvival kinases PKC and ERK1/2. Apelin induced a transient increase in the translocation of PKCε, but not PKCα, from the cytosol to the particulate fraction, and a sustained increase in the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in the left ventricle. Suppression of ERK1/2 activation diminished the apelin-induced increase in contractility. Although pharmacological inhibition of PKC attenuated the inotropic response to apelin, it had no effect on ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Moreover, the apelin-induced positive inotropic effect was significantly decreased by inhibition of MLCK, a kinase that increases myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity. CONCLUSIONS: Apelin increases cardiac contractility through parallel and independent activation of PKCε and ERK1/2 signaling in the adult rat heart. Additionally MLCK activation represents a downstream mechanism in apelin signaling. Our data suggest that, in addition to their role in cytoprotection, modest activation of PKCε and ERK1/2 signaling improve contractile function, therefore these pathways represent attractive possible targets in the treatment of heart failure.

  16. Port supply chain integration : analyzing biofuel supply