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Sample records for chagas package insert

  1. [Institutional insertion of Chagas' disease control].

    Silveira, Antônio Carlos; Pimenta, Fabiano

    2011-01-01

    After the starting of the Center for studies and prophylaxis of Chagas disease in 1943, with the help of Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, in the city of Bambuí, state of Minas Gerais, technological and methodological basis for the extensive control of the disease were conceived. A main step to achieve success was the introduction of a new insecticide (gammexane, P 530) and the demonstration of its efficacy in the vector control. A consequence of these improvements was the official inauguration of the first prophylactic campaign for Chagas disease in Brazil, held in Uberaba in May, 1950. Even with the knowledge of how to control the vectorial transmission, financial resources were not available by this time, at a necessary degree to make it both regularly and in all the affected area. The institutional allocation of these activities is useful to understand the low priority given to them at that time. Several national services were created in 1941, for diseases as malaria, pest, smallpox, among others, but Chagas was included in a group of diseases with lower importance, inside a Division of Sanitary Organization. In 1956, the National Department of Rural endemies (DNERu) allocate all the major endemic diseases in a single institution, however this was not translated in an implementation program for the control of Chagas disease. After profound changes at the Ministry of Health, in 1970, the Superintendência de Campanhas de Saúde Pública (SUCAM) was in charge of all rural endemies including Chagas disease, which now could compete with other diseases transmitted by vectors, formerly priorities, included in the National Division. With this new status, more funds were available, as well as redistribution of personnel and expenses from the malaria program to the vectorial control of Chagas disease. In 1991 the Health National foundation was created to substitute SUCAM in the control of endemic diseases and it included all the units of the Ministry of Health related to

  2. Patients Comprehension of Pharmaceutical Package Inserts ...

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research December 2015; 14 (12): ... Available online at http://www.tjpr.org ... patients/consumers about PPI. ... the perception of outpatients of Karachi about ... Do you store the medication at the temperature specified in the package insert ... drugs available in local market of Pakistan was.

  3. Clinical information in drug package inserts in India

    Shivkar Y

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is widely recognized that accurate and reliable product information is essential for the safe and effective use of medications. Pharmaceutical companies are the primary source of most drug information, including package inserts. Package inserts are printed leaflets accompanying marketed drug products and contain information approved by the regulatory agencies. Studies on package inserts in India, in 1996, had shown that crucial information was often missing and they lacked uniformity. Aim: To assess the presentation and completeness of clinically important information provided in the currently available package inserts in India. Materials and Methods: Package inserts accompanying allopathic drug products marketed by pharmaceutical companies in India were collected. These package inserts were analyzed for the content of clinically important information in various sections. Statistical Analysis: The results were expressed as absolute numbers and percentages. Results: Preliminary analyses revealed that most package inserts did contain information under headings, such as, therapeutic indications, contraindications, undesirable effects, etc., listed in the Drugs and Cosmetics Rules 1945. The findings indicated considerable improvement in package inserts since 1996. However, on critical evaluation it was revealed that clinically important information was not well presented and was often incomplete. Information with regard to pediatric and geriatric use was present in only 44% and 13% of the package inserts, respectively. Only five of the inserts had information on the most frequent adverse drug reactions associated with the drug. Also, information on interactions and overdosage was often missing. Conclusion: Although the package inserts appear to have improved over the past decade there is still a definite need to further refine the clinical information contained, to minimize the risks to patients. This could be brought about by self

  4. Public judgments of information in a diazepam patient package insert.

    Fisher, S; Mansbridge, B; Lankford, D A

    1982-06-01

    As part of a larger study of the effects of giving patients written take-home information with prescription medications, a "patient package insert" (PPI) for diazepam was prepared based on content determined by "experts." This report compares the experts' judgments of what information should be included with judgments obtained from the public. Information judged to be most important for inclusion in a PPI was identified by having subjects sort cards containing facts about diazepam. Subjects who had previously used diazepam were no different in their judgments than inexperienced subjects. In general, there was a high degree of concordance between public and expert judgments and also a remarkably strong consensus across very different demographic samples. In those few instances of disagreement, the public attached even greater importance to warnings and "bad news" about diazepam than to information providing reassurances, benign general education, and "good news." To what extent patients would effectively use this information--whether conveyed by PPIs or alternative educational routes--must await empirical evaluation.

  5. Readability assessment of package inserts of biological medicinal products from the European medicines agency website.

    Piñero-López, Ma Ángeles; Modamio, Pilar; Lastra, Cecilia F; Mariño, Eduardo L

    2014-07-01

    Package inserts that accompany medicines are a common source of information aimed at patients and should match patient abilities in terms of readability. Our objective was to determine the degree of readability of the package inserts for biological medicinal products commercially available in 2007 and compare them with the readability of the same package inserts in 2010. A total of 33 package inserts were selected and classified into five groups according to the type of medicine: monoclonal antibody-based products, cytokines, therapeutic enzymes, recombinant blood factors and other blood-related products, and recombinant hormones. The package inserts were downloaded from the European Medicines Agency website in 2007 and 2010. Readability was evaluated for the entire text of five of the six sections of the package inserts and for the 'Annex' when there was one. Three readability formulas were used: SMOG (Simple Measure of Gobbledygook) grade, Flesh-Kincaid grade level, and Szigriszt's perspicuity index. No significant differences were found between the readability results for the 2007 package inserts and those from 2010 according to any of the three readability indices studied (p>0.05). However, there were significant differences (preadability scores of the sections of the package inserts in both 2007 and 2010. The readability of the package inserts was above the recommended sixth grade reading level (ages 11-12) and may lead to difficulties of understanding for people with limited literacy. All the sections should be easy to read and, therefore, the readability of the medicine package inserts studied should be improved.

  6. A proposal for a drug information database and text templates for generating package inserts

    Okuya R

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Ryo Okuya,1 Masaomi Kimura,2 Michiko Ohkura,2 Fumito Tsuchiya3 1Graduate School of Engineering and Science, 2Faculty of Engineering, Shibaura Institute of Technology, Tokyo, 3School of Pharmacy, International University of Health and Welfare, Tokyo, Japan Abstract: To prevent prescription errors caused by information systems, a database to store complete and accurate drug information in a user-friendly format is needed. In previous studies, the primary method for obtaining data stored in a database is to extract drug information from package inserts by employing pattern matching or more sophisticated methods such as text mining. However, it is difficult to obtain a complete database because there is no strict rule concerning expressions used to describe drug information in package inserts. The authors' strategy was to first build a database and then automatically generate package inserts by embedding data in the database using templates. To create this database, the support of pharmaceutical companies to input accurate data is required. It is expected that this system will work, because these companies can earn merit for newly developed drugs to decrease the effort to create package inserts from scratch. This study designed the table schemata for the database and text templates to generate the package inserts. To handle the variety of drug-specific information in the package inserts, this information in drug composition descriptions was replaced with labels and the replacement descriptions utilizing cluster analysis were analyzed. To improve the method by which frequently repeated ingredient information and/or supplementary information are stored, the method was modified by introducing repeat tags in the templates to indicate repetition and improving the insertion of data into the database. The validity of this method was confirmed by inputting the drug information described in existing package inserts and checking that the method could

  7. Analysis on descriptions of precautionary statements in package inserts of medicines

    Tsuchiya F

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Keita Nabeta1, Masaomi Kimura2, Michiko Ohkura2, Fumito Tsuchiya31Graduate School of Engineering and Science, Shibaura Institute of Technology, Toyosu 3-7-5, Koto-ku, Tokyo, 135-8548 Japan; 2Faculty of Engineering, Shibaura Institute of Technology, Toyosu 3-7-5, Koto-ku, Tokyo, 135-8548 Japan; 3School of Pharmacy, International University of Health and Welfare, Minami-Aoyama 1-24-1, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 107-0062 JapanBackground: To prevent medical accidents, users must be informed of the cautions written in medical package inserts. To realize countermeasures by utilizing information systems, we must also implement a drug information database. However, this is not easy to develop, since the descriptions in package inserts are too complex and their information poorly structured. It is necessary to analyze package insert information and propose a data structure.Methods: We analyzed the descriptions of 'precautions for application' in package inserts via text mining methods. In order to summarize statements, we applied dependency analysis to statements and visualized their relations between predicate words and other words. Furthermore, we extracted words representing timing to execute the order.Results: We found that there are four types of statements: direct orders such as "使用する" (use, causative orders such as "使用させる" (make someone use, direct interdictions such as "使用しない" (do not use, and causative interdictions such as "使用させない" (do not make user use. As for words representing timing, we extracted six groups: "at the time of delivery," "at the time of preparation," "in use," "after use," and "at the time of storage." From these results, we obtained points of consideration concerning the subjects of orders in the statements and timing of their execution.Conclusion: From the obtained knowledge, we can define the information structure used to describe the precautionary statement. It should contain information such

  8. Testing Cessation Messages for Cigarette Package Inserts: Findings from a Best/Worst Discrete Choice Experiment

    James F. Thrasher

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed smokers’ responses to different smoking cessation topics and imagery for cigarette package inserts. Adult smokers from Canada (n = 1000 participated in three discrete choice experiments (DCEs: DCE 1 assessed five cessation benefit topics and five imagery types; DCE 2 assessed five messages with tips to improve cessation success and five imagery types; DCE 3 assessed four reproductive health benefits of cessation topics and four imagery types. In each DCE, participants evaluated four or five sets of four inserts, selecting the most and least motivating (DCEs 1 & 3 or helpful (DCE 2 for quitting. Linear mixed models regressed choices on insert and smoker characteristics. For DCE 1, the most motivating messages involved novel disease topics and imagery of younger women. For DCE 2, topics of social support, stress reduction and nicotine replacement therapy were selected as most helpful, with no differences by imagery type. For DCE 3, imagery influenced choices more than topic, with imagery of a family or a mom and baby selected as most motivating. Statistically significant interactions for all three experiments indicated that the influence of imagery type on choices depended on the message topic. Messages to promote smoking cessation through cigarette pack inserts should consider specific combinations of message topic and imagery.

  9. Attitudes of consumers and healthcare professionals towards the patient package inserts - a study in Palestine

    Al-Ramahi R

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Reading the patient package inserts (PPIs is a key source of information about medications for patients. They should be clear and understandable to the general population. Objectives: The aims of this study were to obtain base-line data on the extent of reading PPIs by consumers and possible factors that might affect this; to explore the attitude of the Palestinian public and healthcare professionals towards the patient package inserts (PPIs; and to review a random sample of PPIs for the availability of different information.Methods: The first part of the study was a cross-sectional self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire for consumers included 15 items. The questionnaire for healthcare professionals included 10 items and it was very similar to that of consumers with some modifications. In the second part, a random sample of PPIs was reviewed. In our community pharmacies, where medications are arranged according to their producing company, a researcher was asked to choose randomly 10-15 medications for every company to check for the availability of pharmacological, pharmaceutical and clinical information. Results: A total of 304 healthcare professionals out of 320 (95.0% and 223 consumers out of 240 (92.9% accepted to answer the survey. Forty five percent consumers reported that they always read the PPIs, and 29.3% said that they read the PPIs most of the times. Increased rate of reading the leaflet was found among females (P = 0.047. The preferred language for the PPIs was Arabic for most of the consumers (89.6% while it was English for most of the healthcare professionals (80.8%. 35.9% of the consumers and 43.6% of the healthcare professionals found the font size suitable. 42.3% of the consumers and 25.5% of the healthcare professionals said that they found the information in the PPIs useful and enough. The PPIs of 135 randomly sampled medications were reviewed. Many important sections were not found in the PPIs' sample. Conclusion

  10. Evaluation of package inserts of Ayurveda drug formulations from Mumbai city.

    Shirolkar, Sudatta; Tripathi, Raakhi K; Potey, Anirudha V

    2015-01-01

    Package insert (PI) is a vital document accompanying a prescribed medication to provide information to the prescriber and end-user at a glance. Studies regarding PIs of Ayurvedic medicines in accordance with standard guidelines are lacking. Present study was undertaken to evaluate PI of Ayurveda drugs. PIs of Ayurveda drugs were obtained from five randomly selected Ayurveda medical shops located in three main zones of Mumbai. From each medical shop, a range of 15-20 PI was planned to be collected for different formulations. It was decided to collect a minimum fifty PIs/group for equitable distribution of various formulations in period of January-June2013. Checklist was prepared, and content validity was achieved. Final validated checklist contained a total of 13 items, and the presence or absence of information pertaining to these items on the PI was evaluated. Any other additional information present on PI was also noted. Each item was analyzed and expressed as percentages. The information on 258 PIs included: Name of ingredients (67%), quantity of ingredients (47.27%), route of administration (86.8%), dosage form (86.8%), indications (18%), dose (18%), contraindications (18%), side effects (9%), shelf life (5.81%), storage conditions (11%), and manufacturers name with contact details (34%). PIs accompanying Ayurveda medicinal products in India are deficient in information required to be furnished by them.

  11. Qualidade das bulas de fitoterápicos no Brasil | Quality of the package inserts of phytomedicines in Brazil

    Marcia Maria Barros dos Passos

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar se as bulas de medicamentos fitoterápicos industrializados estão de acordo com a legislação nacional vigente. Foram analisadas 41 bulas dos medicamentos fitoterápicos compostos por alcachofra, castanha da Índia, ginkgo e sene, adquiridas nos sites das empresas titulares dos registros. A análise foi feita quanto à presença de itens segundo a RDC nº 47 de 2009 e ao conteúdo de indicação de uso, posologia e reações adversas comparada às bulas padrão e à literatura científica. A análise quantitativa provou que as bulas têm cumprido o que é exigido pela legislação vigente. No entanto, quanto à análise qualitativa, todos os fitoterápicos analisados neste trabalho possuíam pelo menos uma bula com erro relacionado à posologia, indicações de uso e reações adversas. Houve uma melhora gradativa das bulas dos medicamentos fitoterápicos, porém mesmo com as bulas padrão ainda existem erros, que podem induzir o paciente ao uso incorreto do medicamento. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------The objective of this study was to assess whether the package inserts of industrialized phytomedicines are in line with current Brazilian legislation or not. Forty-one package inserts of phytomedicines containing artichoke, horse chestnut, ginkgo and senna were accessed in the respective proprietary websites and then analyzed. The analysis aimed to verify the presence of items required by the normative RDC 47/2009 and the usage indication, dosage and side effects compared to standard package inserts and to the scientific literature. Quantitative analysis proved that the package inserts are in accordance with the current legislation. However, in qualitative analysis, all phytomedicines analyzed in this study had at least one error related to dosage, posology or adverse reactions. A gradual improvement of the package inserts of phytomedicines has

  12. 21 CFR 310.501 - Patient package inserts for oral contraceptives.

    2010-04-01

    ... dispenser may provide the insert to the parent or legal guardian of a legally incompetent patient (or to the... the effectiveness of oral contraceptives in preventing pregnancy, the contraindications to the drug's... concerning the increased risks associated with cigarette smoking and oral contraceptive use. (5) A discussion...

  13. Evaluation of strategies to communicate harmful and potentially harmful constituent (HPHC) information through cigarette package inserts: a discrete choice experiment.

    Salloum, Ramzi G; Louviere, Jordan J; Getz, Kayla R; Islam, Farahnaz; Anshari, Dien; Cho, Yoojin; O'Connor, Richard J; Hammond, David; Thrasher, James F

    2017-07-13

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has regulatory authority to use inserts to communicate with consumers about harmful and potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs) in tobacco products; however, little is known about the most effective manner for presenting HPHC information. In a discrete choice experiment, participants evaluated eight choice sets, each of which showed two cigarette packages from four different brands and tar levels (high vs low), accompanied by an insert that included between-subject manipulations (ie, listing of HPHCs vs grouping by disease outcome and numeric values ascribed to HPHCs vs no numbers) and within-subject manipulations (ie, 1 of 4 warning topics; statement linking an HPHC with disease vs statement with no HPHC link). For each choice set, participants were asked: (1) which package is more harmful and (2) which motivates them to not smoke; each with a 'no difference' option. Alternative-specific logit models regressed choice on attribute levels. 1212 participants were recruited from an online consumer panel (725 18-29-year-old smokers and susceptible non-smokers and 487 30-64-year-old smokers). Participants were more likely to endorse high-tar products as more harmful than low-tar products, with a greater effect when numeric HPHC information was present. Compared with a simple warning statement, the statement linking HPHCs with disease encouraged quit motivation. Numeric HPHC information on inserts appears to produce misunderstandings that some cigarettes are less harmful than others. Furthermore, brief narratives that link HPHCs to smoking-related disease may promote cessation versus communications that do not explicitly link HPHCs to disease. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Comprehensive Die Shear Test of Silicon Packages Bonded by Thermocompression of Al Layers with Thin Sn Capping or Insertions

    Shiro Satoh

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Thermocompression bonding for wafer-level hermetic packaging was demonstrated at the lowest temperature of 370 to 390 °C ever reported using Al films with thin Sn capping or insertions as bonding layer. For shrinking the chip size of MEMS (micro electro mechanical systems, a smaller size of wafer-level packaging and MEMS–ASIC (application specific integrated circuit integration are of great importance. Metal-based bonding under the temperature of CMOS (complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor backend process is a key technology, and Al is one of the best candidates for bonding metal in terms of CMOS compatibility. In this study, after the thermocompression bonding of two substrates, the shear fracture strength of dies was measured by a bonding tester, and the shear-fractured surfaces were observed by SEM (scanning electron microscope, EDX (energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, and a surface profiler to clarify where the shear fracture took place. We confirmed two kinds of fracture mode. One mode is Si bulk fracture mode, where the die shear strength is 41.6 to 209 MPa, proportionally depending on the area of Si fracture. The other mode is bonding interface fracture mode, where the die shear strength is 32.8 to 97.4 MPa. Regardless of the fracture modes, the minimum die shear strength is practical for wafer-level MEMS packaging.

  15. Conformity of package inserts information to regulatory requirements among selected branded and generic medicinal products circulating on the East African market.

    Sillo, Hiiti B; Masota, Nelson E; Kisoma, Sunday; Rago, Lembit; Mgoyela, Veronica; Kaale, Eliangiringa A

    2018-01-01

    Availability of correct and adequate information about medicines is an important aspect in ensuring rational use of medicines and hence facilitating safety and expected efficacy of medicines during therapy. Package inserts have proven to be a good source of information to the prescribers and patients whereby they have been useful in highlighting important information pertaining proper use and handling of the medicines. The present study was aimed at establishing the extent to which package inserts of medicines circulating on the markets of the East African Community (EAC) Partner States conform to medicines information requirements as established in the harmonized guidelines as well as national guidelines. A total of 99 package inserts from six (6) types of medicines namely Albendazole, Artemether/Lumefantrine (ALu), Ciprofloxacin, Paracetamol, Amoxicillin and Metronidazole were purposefully collected from three EAC Partner States: Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. The medicines were selected based on their indications as first line treatments, high rates of utilization within the medicines supply system and their positions in treatment of diseases of public importance across EAC Partner States. The inserts were evaluated on the availability of information regarding fifteen (15) parameters as extracted from the EAC harmonized guidelines for registration of medicines. Moreover, comparisons were made between the percentage conformity of the branded versus generic products, markets from which the samples were collected, origin of the manufacturer and type of medicine. Majority (93.9-100%) of the medicines' package inserts highly conformed to the inclusion of the information regarding the description and composition of the medications, indications, dosage and methods of administration, warnings and precautions, contraindications and storage conditions. However, the information on handling and disposal, container package description, excipients used, clinical pharmacology of

  16. Package

    Arsić Zoran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is duty of the seller to pack the goods in a manner which assures their safe arrival and enables their handling in transit and at the place of destination. The problem of packing is relevant in two main respects. First of all the buyer is in certain circumstances entitled to refuse acceptance of the goods if they are not properly packed. Second, the package is relevant to calculation of price and freight based on weight. In the case of export trade, the package should conform to the legislation in the country of destination. The impact of package on environment is regulated by environment protection regulation of Republic if Serbia.

  17. Malaria rapid diagnostic kits: quality of packaging, design and labelling of boxes and components and readability and accuracy of information inserts

    Bruggeman Cathrien

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study assessed malaria RDT kits for adequate and correct packaging, design and labelling of boxes and components. Information inserts were studied for readability and accuracy of information. Methods Criteria for packaging, design, labelling and information were compiled from Directive 98/79 of the European Community (EC, relevant World Health Organization (WHO documents and studies on end-users' performance of RDTs. Typography and readability level (Flesch-Kincaid grade level were assessed. Results Forty-two RDT kits from 22 manufacturers were assessed, 35 of which had evidence of good manufacturing practice according to available information (i.e. CE-label affixed or inclusion in the WHO list of ISO13485:2003 certified manufacturers. Shortcomings in devices were (i insufficient place for writing sample identification (n = 40 and (ii ambiguous labelling of the reading window (n = 6. Buffer vial labels were lacking essential information (n = 24 or were of poor quality (n = 16. Information inserts had elevated readability levels (median Flesch Kincaid grade 8.9, range 7.1 - 12.9 and user-unfriendly typography (median font size 8, range 5 - 10. Inadequacies included (i no referral to biosafety (n = 18, (ii critical differences between depicted and real devices (n = 8, (iii figures with unrealistic colours (n = 4, (iv incomplete information about RDT line interpretations (n = 31 and no data on test characteristics (n = 8. Other problems included (i kit names that referred to Plasmodium vivax although targeting a pan-species Plasmodium antigen (n = 4, (ii not stating the identity of the pan-species antigen (n = 2 and (iii slight but numerous differences in names displayed on boxes, device packages and information inserts. Three CE labelled RDT kits produced outside the EC had no authorized representative affixed and the shape and relative dimensions of the CE symbol affixed did not comply with the Directive 98/79/EC

  18. Malaria rapid diagnostic kits: quality of packaging, design and labelling of boxes and components and readability and accuracy of information inserts.

    Gillet, Philippe; Maltha, Jessica; Hermans, Veerle; Ravinetto, Raffaella; Bruggeman, Cathrien; Jacobs, Jan

    2011-02-13

    The present study assessed malaria RDT kits for adequate and correct packaging, design and labelling of boxes and components. Information inserts were studied for readability and accuracy of information. Criteria for packaging, design, labelling and information were compiled from Directive 98/79 of the European Community (EC), relevant World Health Organization (WHO) documents and studies on end-users' performance of RDTs. Typography and readability level (Flesch-Kincaid grade level) were assessed. Forty-two RDT kits from 22 manufacturers were assessed, 35 of which had evidence of good manufacturing practice according to available information (i.e. CE-label affixed or inclusion in the WHO list of ISO13485:2003 certified manufacturers). Shortcomings in devices were (i) insufficient place for writing sample identification (n=40) and (ii) ambiguous labelling of the reading window (n=6). Buffer vial labels were lacking essential information (n=24) or were of poor quality (n=16). Information inserts had elevated readability levels (median Flesch Kincaid grade 8.9, range 7.1-12.9) and user-unfriendly typography (median font size 8, range 5-10). Inadequacies included (i) no referral to biosafety (n=18), (ii) critical differences between depicted and real devices (n=8), (iii) figures with unrealistic colours (n=4), (iv) incomplete information about RDT line interpretations (n=31) and no data on test characteristics (n=8). Other problems included (i) kit names that referred to Plasmodium vivax although targeting a pan-species Plasmodium antigen (n=4), (ii) not stating the identity of the pan-species antigen (n=2) and (iii) slight but numerous differences in names displayed on boxes, device packages and information inserts. Three CE labelled RDT kits produced outside the EC had no authorized representative affixed and the shape and relative dimensions of the CE symbol affixed did not comply with the Directive 98/79/EC. Overall, RDTs with evidence of GMP scored better

  19. Consumer and health literacy: The need to better design tobacco-cessation product packaging, labels, and inserts.

    Weiss, Stephanie M; Smith-Simone, Stephanie Y

    2010-03-01

    Tobacco-cessation product packaging and instruction materials may not be appropriate for some smokers and may contribute to the underuse and misuse of evidence-based treatments. The dual goals of this project are to analyze literacy levels of Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved and non-approved tobacco-cessation product packaging, directions, and claims, and to identify and categorize claims found on product packaging. The Campaign for Tobacco Free Kids (CTFK) maintains the Quitting and Reducing Tobacco Use Inventory of Products (QuiTIP) database, which catalogs products marketed and sold to consumers to reduce or quit use of tobacco products. It also includes all medications approved by the FDA for tobacco cessation as well as a sample of non-approved products such as homeopathic, herbal, nutritional, or dietary supplements commonly marketed as either cessation aids or alternative tobacco/nicotine products. This paper assesses the reading levels required to understand product packaging, labeling, and instructions using the Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG) and identifies claims on the product package labels using standard qualitative methods. Key findings show that the average reading levels needed to understand instructions for both FDA-approved and non-approved cessation products are above the reading levels recommended to ensure maximum comprehension. Improving the packaging and directions of evidence-based tobacco-cessation products so that they are preferably at or below a fifth-grade reading level, along with using consumer-based design principles to develop packaging, may help smokers take advantage of and correctly use products that will greatly increase their chances of successful quitting. 2010 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Do package inserts reflect symptoms experienced in practice?: assessment using an automated phone pharmacovigilance system with varenicline and zolpidem in a primary care setting.

    Haas, Jennifer S; Amato, Mary; Marinacci, Lucas; Orav, E John; Schiff, Gordon D; Bates, David W

    2012-08-01

    While the US FDA maintains a voluntary reporting system, postmarketing adverse drug events (ADEs) are underreported, and this case report-based system does not allow accurate determination of incidence. The aim of the study was to assess the usefulness of an automated phone pharmacovigilance system for ambulatory patients by comparing systematically collected, patient-reported symptoms to reflect possible ADEs with those reported on the package inserts of two drugs with postmarketing safety concerns, varenicline and zolpidem. English-speaking adults who received a prescription for zolpidem (n = 370) or varenicline (n = 107) from a primary care physician at one of 11 participating clinics, and who participated in the pharmacovigilance system during 2008-2010, were included in the study. Patients were called approximately 4 weeks following their visit and asked to complete a standard script that asked about adherence and pre-specified symptoms. The main outcome measures were elicited rates of pre-specified symptoms or possible ADEs. Compared with the package insert, patients taking zolpidem were significantly (p zolpidem were not detected. These data highlight the potential value of, and innovative ways of collecting, information about possible ADEs directly from patients.

  1. Chagas disease in prehistory.

    Ferreira, Luiz F; Jansen, Ana M; Araújo, Adauto

    2011-09-01

    The classical hypothesis proposes that Chagas disease has been originated in the Andean region among prehistoric people when they started domesticating animals, changing to sedentary habits, and adopting agriculture. These changes in their way of life happened nearly 6,000 years ago. However, paleoparasitological data based on molecular tools showed that Trypanosoma cruzi infection and Chagas disease were commonly found both in South and North American prehistoric populations long before that time, suggesting that Chagas disease may be as old as the human presence in the American continent. The study of the origin and dispersion of Trypanosoma cruzi infection among prehistoric human populations may help in the comprehension of the clinical and epidemiological questions on Chagas disease that still remain unanswered.

  2. Chagas Disease (American trypanosomiasis)

    ... sheets/detail/chagas-disease-(american-trypanosomiasis)","@context":"http://schema.org","@type":"Article"}; العربية 中文 français русский español ... capacities, focusing on: strengthening world epidemiological surveillance and information systems; preventing transmission by blood transfusion and organ ...

  3. Ventricular arrhythmias in Chagas disease

    Marco Paulo Tomaz Barbosa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sudden death is one of the most characteristic phenomena of Chagas disease, and approximately one-third of infected patients develop life-threatening heart disease, including malignant ventricular arrhythmias. Fibrotic lesions secondary to chronic cardiomyopathy produce arrhythmogenic substrates that lead to the appearance and maintenance of ventricular arrhythmias. The objective of this study is to discuss the main clinical and epidemiological aspects of ventricular arrhythmias in Chagas disease, the specific workups and treatments for these abnormalities, and the breakthroughs needed to determine a more effective approach to these arrhythmias. A literature review was performed via a search of the PubMed database from 1965 to May 31, 2014 for studies of patients with Chagas disease. Clinical management of patients with chronic Chagas disease begins with proper clinical stratification and the identification of individuals at a higher risk of sudden cardiac death. Once a patient develops malignant ventricular arrhythmia, the therapeutic approach aims to prevent the recurrence of arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death by the use of implantable cardioverter defibrillators, antiarrhythmic drugs, or both. In select cases, invasive ablation of the reentrant circuit causing tachycardia may be useful. Ventricular arrhythmias are important manifestations of Chagas cardiomyopathy. This review highlights the absence of high-quality evidence regarding the treatment of ventricular arrhythmias in Chagas disease. Recognizing high-risk patients who require specific therapies, especially invasive procedures such as the implantation of cardioverter defibrillators and ablative approaches, is a major challenge in clinical practice.

  4. Análise comparativa de embalagens secundárias e bulas de medicamentos contendo Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer A comparative analysis of inner wrapping and package inserts for medicines containing Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer

    Mariangela Tirico Auricchio

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available As informações contidas nas bulas e embalagem de medicamentos de diferentes fabricantes contendo Panax ginseng foram analisadas comparativamente com os dados encontrados na literatura científica. Observaram-se bulas longas, com várias informações em relação às indicações de uso, muitas das quais sem comprovação em humanos, e todas foram deficitárias em relação aos .efeitos adversos e interações medicamentosas. Foi observada falta de padronização quanto às posologias, em relação tanto ao extrato seco, quanto ao teor dos ginsenosídeos presentes. Constatou-se a falta de homogeneidade nas informações aos usuários sobre indicações de uso, efeitos adversos e interações medicamentosas entre as oito amostras estudadas.The information provided on package inserts and inner wrapping of eight products containing Panax ginseng from different manufacturers was compared internally and checked against data from the scientific literature. The inserts included extensive text, containing abundant information on indications for use, but no scientific evidence in humans. All the inserts lacked information on potential adverse effects and drug interaction. There was no standardization as to dose regimens, particularly in relation to the dried extract and ginsenoside concentration. The eight inserts thus showed no concern over standardization, indication for usage, or possible side effects and drug interactions.

  5. Chagas Disease: No Longer Exotic

    2008-04-03

    This podcast is designed to inform health care providers about Chagas disease, diagnosis, and treatment and to assist in identifying infected patients.  Created: 4/3/2008 by National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED).   Date Released: 4/8/2008.

  6. Experimental insertions

    Sandweiss, J.; Kycia, T.F.

    1975-01-01

    A discussion is given of the eight identical experimental insertions for the planned ISABELLE storage rings. Four sets of quadrupole doublets are used to match the β functions in the insertions to the values in the cells, and the total free space available at the crossing point is 40 meters. An asymmetric beam energy operation is planned, which will be useful in a number of experiments

  7. Experimental Chagas' disease in dogs

    Marta de Lana

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of experimental Chagas' disease in 64 out-bred young dogs. Twenty-nine animals were inoculated with the Be-62 and 35 with Be-78 Trypanosoma cruzi strains. Twenty-six were infected with blood trypomastigotes by different inoculation routes and 38 with metacyclic trypomastigotes from the vector via the conjunctival route. Twenty of the 26 dogs infected with blood trypomastigotes were autopsied during the acute phase. Eleven died spontaneously and nine were sacrificed. Six remained alive until they died suddenly (two or were autopsied (four. Twelve of the 38 dogs infected with metacyclic trypomastigotes evolved naturally to the chronic phase and remained alive for 24-48 months. The parasitemia, clinical aspects and serology (IgM and IgG as well as electrocardiogram, hemogram and heart anatomo-histopathologic patterns of acute and chronic cardiac forms of Chagas' disease as seen in human infections, were reproduced. The most important finding is the reproductibility of diffuse fibrosing chronic chagasic cardiopathy in all dogs infected with Be-78 T. cruzi strain autopsied between the 90th and 864th days of infection. Thus, the dog can be considered as a suitable experimental model to study Chagas' disease according to the requisites of the World Health Organization (1984. Futhermore the animal is easily obtained and easy to handle and maintain in experimental laboratory conditions.

  8. Enfermedad de Chagas en Nicaragua

    Carlos N. Talavera - López

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available LA ENFERMEDAD DE CHAGAS ES UN PROBLEMA DE SALUD pública en toda Latinoamérica; alrededor de 20 millones de personas están infectadas y 200 millones están en riesgo de contraer la enfermedad. En 2006, la prevalencia en Centroamérica era del 7%. Actualmente no existe vacuna contra el protozoo y el tratamiento disponible resulta, aparte de poco efectivo, muy tóxico para el paciente. Los programas de control de vectores han ayudado a reducir los índices de infestación en Latinoamérica, pero aún falta mucho por hacer. En Nicaragua, la enfermedad de Chagas está subvalorada y los trabajos publicados son muy pocos. Es necesario investigar sobre esta enfermedad en nuestro país con otro enfoque, uno que no subvalore la enfermedad y ayude a desarrollar métodos diagnósticos y posibles tratamientos. Este artículo recopila información sobre los trabajos realizados porlos grupos más importantes de investigación en Chagas de Nicaragua en cuanto a epidemiología, control vectorial, diagnóstico y caracterización molecular.

  9. Chagas disease risk in Texas.

    Sarkar, Sahotra; Strutz, Stavana E; Frank, David M; Rivaldi, Chissa-Louise; Sissel, Blake; Sánchez-Cordero, Victor

    2010-10-05

    Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, remains a serious public health concern in many areas of Latin America, including México. It is also endemic in Texas with an autochthonous canine cycle, abundant vectors (Triatoma species) in many counties, and established domestic and peridomestic cycles which make competent reservoirs available throughout the state. Yet, Chagas disease is not reportable in Texas, blood donor screening is not mandatory, and the serological profiles of human and canine populations remain unknown. The purpose of this analysis was to provide a formal risk assessment, including risk maps, which recommends the removal of these lacunae. The spatial relative risk of the establishment of autochthonous Chagas disease cycles in Texas was assessed using a five-stage analysis. 1. Ecological risk for Chagas disease was established at a fine spatial resolution using a maximum entropy algorithm that takes as input occurrence points of vectors and environmental layers. The analysis was restricted to triatomine vector species for which new data were generated through field collection and through collation of post-1960 museum records in both México and the United States with sufficiently low georeferenced error to be admissible given the spatial resolution of the analysis (1 arc-minute). The new data extended the distribution of vector species to 10 new Texas counties. The models predicted that Triatoma gerstaeckeri has a large region of contiguous suitable habitat in the southern United States and México, T. lecticularia has a diffuse suitable habitat distribution along both coasts of the same region, and T. sanguisuga has a disjoint suitable habitat distribution along the coasts of the United States. The ecological risk is highest in south Texas. 2. Incidence-based relative risk was computed at the county level using the Bayesian Besag-York-Mollié model and post-1960 T. cruzi incidence data. This risk is concentrated in south Texas. 3. The

  10. Chagas disease risk in Texas.

    Sahotra Sarkar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, remains a serious public health concern in many areas of Latin America, including México. It is also endemic in Texas with an autochthonous canine cycle, abundant vectors (Triatoma species in many counties, and established domestic and peridomestic cycles which make competent reservoirs available throughout the state. Yet, Chagas disease is not reportable in Texas, blood donor screening is not mandatory, and the serological profiles of human and canine populations remain unknown. The purpose of this analysis was to provide a formal risk assessment, including risk maps, which recommends the removal of these lacunae. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The spatial relative risk of the establishment of autochthonous Chagas disease cycles in Texas was assessed using a five-stage analysis. 1. Ecological risk for Chagas disease was established at a fine spatial resolution using a maximum entropy algorithm that takes as input occurrence points of vectors and environmental layers. The analysis was restricted to triatomine vector species for which new data were generated through field collection and through collation of post-1960 museum records in both México and the United States with sufficiently low georeferenced error to be admissible given the spatial resolution of the analysis (1 arc-minute. The new data extended the distribution of vector species to 10 new Texas counties. The models predicted that Triatoma gerstaeckeri has a large region of contiguous suitable habitat in the southern United States and México, T. lecticularia has a diffuse suitable habitat distribution along both coasts of the same region, and T. sanguisuga has a disjoint suitable habitat distribution along the coasts of the United States. The ecological risk is highest in south Texas. 2. Incidence-based relative risk was computed at the county level using the Bayesian Besag-York-Mollié model and post-1960 T. cruzi incidence data. This

  11. The chronic gastrointestinal manifestations of Chagas disease

    Nilce Mitiko Matsuda

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease is an infectious disease caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. The disease mainly affects the nervous system, digestive system and heart. The objective of this review is to revise the literature and summarize the main chronic gastrointestinal manifestations of Chagas disease. The chronic gastrointestinal manifestations of Chagas disease are mainly a result of enteric nervous system impairment caused by T. cruzi infection. The anatomical locations most commonly described to be affected by Chagas disease are salivary glands, esophagus, lower esophageal sphincter, stomach, small intestine, colon, gallbladder and biliary tree. Chagas disease has also been studied in association with Helicobacter pylori infection, interstitial cells of Cajal and the incidence of gastrointestinal cancer.

  12. Carlos Chagas Discoveries as a Drop Back to Scientific Construction of Chronic Chagas Heart Disease.

    Bestetti, Reinaldo B; Restini, Carolina Baraldi A; Couto, Lucélio B

    2016-07-01

    The scientific construction of chronic Chagas heart disease (CCHD) started in 1910 when Carlos Chagas highlighted the presence of cardiac arrhythmia during physical examination of patients with chronic Chagas disease, and described a case of heart failure associated with myocardial inflammation and nests of parasites at autopsy. He described sudden cardiac death associated with arrhythmias in 1911, and its association with complete AV block detected by Jacquet's polygraph as Chagas reported in 1912. Chagas showed the presence of myocardial fibrosis underlying the clinical picture of CCHD in 1916, he presented a full characterization of the clinical aspects of CCHD in 1922. In 1928, Chagas detected fibrosis of the conductive system, and pointed out the presence of marked cardiomegaly at the chest X-Ray associated with minimal symptomatology. The use of serological reaction to diagnose CCHD was put into clinical practice in 1936, after Chagas' death, which along with the 12-lead ECG, revealed the epidemiological importance of CCHD in 1945. In 1953, the long period between initial infection and appearance of CCHD was established, whereas the annual incidence of CCHD from patients with the indeterminate form of the disease was established in 1956. The use of heart catheterization in 1965, exercise stress testing in 1973, Holter monitoring in 1975, Electrophysiologic testing in 1973, echocardiography in 1975, endomyocardial biopsy in 1981, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging in 1995, added to the fundamental clinical aspects of CCHD as described by Carlos Chagas.

  13. Carlos Chagas Discoveries as a Drop Back to Scientific Construction of Chronic Chagas Heart Disease

    Bestetti, Reinaldo B., E-mail: rbestetti44@gmail.com; Restini, Carolina Baraldi A.; Couto, Lucélio B. [Universidade de Ribeirão Preto, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-15

    The scientific construction of chronic Chagas heart disease (CCHD) started in 1910 when Carlos Chagas highlighted the presence of cardiac arrhythmia during physical examination of patients with chronic Chagas disease, and described a case of heart failure associated with myocardial inflammation and nests of parasites at autopsy. He described sudden cardiac death associated with arrhythmias in 1911, and its association with complete AV block detected by Jacquet's polygraph as Chagas reported in 1912. Chagas showed the presence of myocardial fibrosis underlying the clinical picture of CCHD in 1916, he presented a full characterization of the clinical aspects of CCHD in 1922. In 1928, Chagas detected fibrosis of the conductive system, and pointed out the presence of marked cardiomegaly at the chest X-Ray associated with minimal symptomatology. The use of serological reaction to diagnose CCHD was put into clinical practice in 1936, after Chagas' death, which along with the 12-lead ECG, revealed the epidemiological importance of CCHD in 1945. In 1953, the long period between initial infection and appearance of CCHD was established, whereas the annual incidence of CCHD from patients with the indeterminate form of the disease was established in 1956. The use of heart catheterization in 1965, exercise stress testing in 1973, Holter monitoring in 1975, Electrophysiologic testing in 1973, echocardiography in 1975, endomyocardial biopsy in 1981, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging in 1995, added to the fundamental clinical aspects of CCHD as described by Carlos Chagas.

  14. Carlos Chagas Discoveries as a Drop Back to Scientific Construction of Chronic Chagas Heart Disease

    Reinaldo B. Bestetti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The scientific construction of chronic Chagas heart disease (CCHD started in 1910 when Carlos Chagas highlighted the presence of cardiac arrhythmia during physical examination of patients with chronic Chagas disease, and described a case of heart failure associated with myocardial inflammation and nests of parasites at autopsy. He described sudden cardiac death associated with arrhythmias in 1911, and its association with complete AV block detected by Jacquet's polygraph as Chagas reported in 1912. Chagas showed the presence of myocardial fibrosis underlying the clinical picture of CCHD in 1916, he presented a full characterization of the clinical aspects of CCHD in 1922. In 1928, Chagas detected fibrosis of the conductive system, and pointed out the presence of marked cardiomegaly at the chest X-Ray associated with minimal symptomatology. The use of serological reaction to diagnose CCHD was put into clinical practice in 1936, after Chagas' death, which along with the 12-lead ECG, revealed the epidemiological importance of CCHD in 1945. In 1953, the long period between initial infection and appearance of CCHD was established, whereas the annual incidence of CCHD from patients with the indeterminate form of the disease was established in 1956. The use of heart catheterization in 1965, exercise stress testing in 1973, Holter monitoring in 1975, Electrophysiologic testing in 1973, echocardiography in 1975, endomyocardial biopsy in 1981, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging in 1995, added to the fundamental clinical aspects of CCHD as described by Carlos Chagas.

  15. Honduras stands out in fight against chagas disease | IDRC ...

    2011-01-25

    Jan 25, 2011 ... The model is based on community involvement to both treat and prevent Chagas. ... treat children with Chagas and educate the population on how to control ... parents, children, and community leaders—monitored homes and ...

  16. American Trypanosomiasis (Also Known as Chagas Disease) Detailed FAQs

    ... I prevent infection? What is Chagas disease? Chagas disease is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi , which is transmitted to animals and people by insect vectors that are found only in the Americas (mainly, ...

  17. Enfermedad de Chagas en Colombia

    Fernando Serpa Florez

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Generalidades.

    La tripanosomiasis americana o enfermedad de Chagas se halla ampliamente distribuida en Centro y Sur América. La Organización Mundial de la Salud considera que pueden haber doce millones de casos de esta dolencia en el continente (1, estudiados principalmente en Argentina, Brasil y Venezuela. Se calcula que en Colombia tendríamos una incidencia muy alta de casos, (Marinkelle (2 estima que 7.140/0 de la población podría estar infectada o sea cerca de dos millones de personas, distribuidos en las zonas rurales del nordeste del país (cuenca del Catatumbo Magdalena Medio y Llanos Orientales (Piedemonte, Macarena y Meta cercano (3 (4 (5 Y que seis millones de nuestros compatriotas -22.30/0 de la población total- (2 corren el riesgo de adquirir la enfermedad pues habitan en regiones donde se dan las condiciones para que ésta se propague.


    RESEÑA HISTORICA DE LA ENFERMEDAD EN COLOMBIA
    La existencia de casos de tripanosomiasis americana y de sus vectores fue comprobada en Colombia desde 1929 cuando César Uribe Piedrahita (6 encontró en Prado, Tolima, vectores del mal infectados con T.

    cruzi e Ignacio Moreno Pérez observó dicho hemoflagelado en sangre de seres humanos en Cali (4. En los años siguientes Hernando Ucrós, Benjamín Otálora, Hernando Groot, Santiago Renjifo, Hernando Osorno, Carlos Duarte Rangel, C.J. Marinkelle, Augusto Corredor, Ernesto Suescún y varios otros investigadores colomb iano s describieron diversos focos de la enfermedad en Colombia y estudiaron la distribución de sus vectores y huéspedes intermediarios. En 1947 1. Caicedo y C. Hernández publicaron su informe sobre los primeros casos crónicos de enfermedad de Chagas comprobados en nuestro país, procedentes de la región de Fusagasugá, Cundinamarca (7 en tanto que, en 1961, Marcos Duque inicia los estudios sobre cardiopatía chagásica (8 y Hernando Rocha, en 1971, comunica

  18. A mathematical model of Chagas disease transmission

    Hidayat, Dayat; Nugraha, Edwin Setiawan; Nuraini, Nuning

    2018-03-01

    Chagas disease is a parasitic infection caused by protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi which is transmitted to human by insects of the subfamily Triatominae, including Rhodnius prolixus. This disease is a major problem in several countries of Latin America. A mathematical model of Chagas disease with separate vector reservoir and a neighboring human resident is constructed. The basic reproductive ratio is obtained and stability analysis of the equilibria is shown. We also performed sensitivity populations dynamics of infected humans and infected insects based on migration rate, carrying capacity, and infection rate parameters. Our findings showed that the dynamics of the infected human and insect is mostly affected by carrying capacity insect in the settlement.

  19. How universal is coverage and access to diagnosis and treatment for Chagas disease in Colombia? A health systems analysis.

    Cucunubá, Zulma M; Manne-Goehler, Jennifer M; Díaz, Diana; Nouvellet, Pierre; Bernal, Oscar; Marchiol, Andrea; Basáñez, María-Gloria; Conteh, Lesong

    2017-02-01

    Limited access to Chagas disease diagnosis and treatment is a major obstacle to reaching the 2020 World Health Organization milestones of delivering care to all infected and ill patients. Colombia has been identified as a health system in transition, reporting one of the highest levels of health insurance coverage in Latin America. We explore if and how this high level of coverage extends to those with Chagas disease, a traditionally marginalised population. Using a mixed methods approach, we calculate coverage for screening, diagnosis and treatment of Chagas. We then identify supply-side constraints both quantitatively and qualitatively. A review of official registries of tests and treatments for Chagas disease delivered between 2008 and 2014 is compared to estimates of infected people. Using the Flagship Framework, we explore barriers limiting access to care. Screening coverage is estimated at 1.2% of the population at risk. Aetiological treatment with either benznidazol or nifurtimox covered 0.3-0.4% of the infected population. Barriers to accessing screening, diagnosis and treatment are identified for each of the Flagship Framework's five dimensions of interest: financing, payment, regulation, organization and persuasion. The main challenges identified were: a lack of clarity in terms of financial responsibilities in a segmented health system, claims of limited resources for undertaking activities particularly in primary care, non-inclusion of confirmatory test(s) in the basic package of diagnosis and care, poor logistics in the distribution and supply chain of medicines, and lack of awareness of medical personnel. Very low screening coverage emerges as a key obstacle hindering access to care for Chagas disease. Findings suggest serious shortcomings in this health system for Chagas disease, despite the success of universal health insurance scale-up in Colombia. Whether these shortcomings exist in relation to other neglected tropical diseases needs investigating

  20. Chagas disease. A new pathophysiological assessment

    Redruello, M.; Masoli, O.; Hasson, I.; Cragnolino, D.; Traverso, S.; Perez Balino, N.; Sarmiento, R.; Lazzari, J.; Luluaga, E.

    2002-01-01

    Background: There is scarce information on myocardial perfusion abnormalities and on the coronary vasomotor condition in Chagas disease patients. Aims: To assess regional perfusion abnormalities and the coronary vasomotor response of patients in the chronic phase of Chagas disease. Methods: With the use of 99mTc-sestamibi SPECT imaging and cold pressor test and intracoronary acetylcoline (ACH) perfusion, we studied 9 patients aged 42,6±12 years, 4 males, in the chronic stage of Chagas disease (5 with the indeterminate form and 4 with heart lesion) with normal coronary arteries. Vasomotor responses to intracoronary increasing doses of ACH and to a single dose of nitroglycerine (NTG) were assessed with digital quantitative angiography. Regional myocardial perfusion was evaluated at rest and after cold pressor test by a semi quantitative score analysis in an 18-segment model with 99mTc-sestamibi SPECT images. Results were expressed as mean ± 2SD. Differences between continuous variables were measured by two tails Student's t test for paired variables and the significance level was set at 5 %. Results: All patients had regional perfusion defects and abnormal vasomotor response. The diameter of the left anterior descending artery decreased 34% from a basal diameter of 3.66∫0.95 mm down to 2.42±0.74 mm after maximal response to ACH (p<0.002). NTG infusion augmented its diameter to 3.86±0.77 mm (p<0.0002) that is a 60% increase from post ACH diameter. Myocardial perfusion score was 1∫2.66 at rest and 6.22±3.6 after cold pressor test (p<0.0001). Conclusions: This group of patients in the chronic phase of Chagas disease showed an abnormal vasoconstrictive response to intracoronary ACH and cold-induced perfusion defects suggesting that endothelial dysfunction plays a role in the pathophysiology of chronic Chagas heart disease

  1. Serodiagnosis of chronic Chagas infection by using EIE-Recombinant-Chagas-Biomanguinhos kit

    Gomes Yara M

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A kit based on an enzyme immunoassay, EIE-Recombinant-Chagas-Biomanguinhos, developed by the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, was evaluated for the serodiagnosis of chronic Chagas disease. Evaluation was performed with 368 serum samples collected from individuals living in an endemic area for Chagas disease: 131 patients in the chronic phase with confirmed clinical, epidemiological, and serological diagnosis (indirect immunofluorescence, indirect hemagglutination or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and 237 nonchagasic seronegative individuals were considered negative control. The EIE-Recombinant-Chagas-Biomanguinhos kit showed high sensitivity, 100% (CI 95%: 96.4-100% and high specificity, 100% (CI 95%: 98-100%. The data obtained were in full agreement with clinical and conventional serology data. In addition, no cross-reaction was observed with sera from patients with cutaneous (n=14 and visceral (n=3 leishmaniasis. However, when these sera were tested by conventional serological assays for Chagas disease, cross-reactions were detected in 14.3% and 33.3% of the patients with cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis, respectively. No cross-reactions were observed when sera from nonchagasic seronegative patients bearing other infectious disease (syphilis, n=8; HTLV, n=8; HCV, n=7 and HBV, n=12 were tested. In addition, sera of patients with inconclusive results for Chagas disease by conventional serology showed results in agreement with clinical evaluation, when tested by the kit. These results are relevant and indicate that the refered kit provides a safe immunodiagnosis of Chagas disease and could be used in blood bank screening.

  2. [Seroepidemiology of Chagas disease in Mexico].

    Velasco-Castrejón, O; Valdespino, J L; Tapia-Conyer, R; Salvatierra, B; Guzmán-Bracho, C; Magos, C; Llausás, A; Gutiérrez, G; Sepúlveda, J

    1992-01-01

    The lack of information about Chagas disease in Mexico, as well as the controversy concerning its importance, was the basis for the seroprevalence study of Trypanosoma cruzi in the National Seroepidemiology Survey (NSS). This information was representative of the national situation with regard to disease prevalences and other factors related to the nation's health. Unfortunately the NSS was not a very good information source for the study of trypanosomiasis americana, because its coverage in the disperse rural areas was poor. Nevertheless, the results of the NSS indicated that Chagas disease has an irregular distribution in Mexico with seroprevalences of 1.6, 0.5 and 0.2 for the different dilution levels used in the evaluation. The survey data showed Chagas disease to be less important than that mentioned by other authors. The NSS data confirmed the areas of disease transmission already reported and identified some new ones in Hidalgo, Chiapas and Veracruz. The survey also detected migratory workers with Chagas antibodies in Baja California border cities, a situation which indicates a risk for blood transfusion in areas of the country presumed to be free of the disease. Three quarters (74.5%) of the seropositive population were less than 39 years old. Moreover, the fact that children of less than four years were infected suggests that natural transmission is still very important in some areas. Although the seroprevalences were greater in the lower socio-economic groups, some persons of the higher socio-economic level were also affected. This situation may be explained by the fact that many of these persons own vacation homes in tropical areas.

  3. Packaging fluency

    Mocanu, Ana; Chrysochou, Polymeros; Bogomolova, Svetlana

    2011-01-01

    Research on packaging stresses the need for packaging design to read easily, presuming fast and accurate processing of product-related information. In this paper we define this property of packaging as “packaging fluency”. Based on the existing marketing and cognitive psychology literature on pac...

  4. Lattice insertions for POPAE

    Cho, Y.; Crosbie, E.A.; Diebold, R.; Johnson, D.E.; Ohnuma, S.; Ruggiero, A.G.; Teng, L.C.

    1977-01-01

    Four types of insertions are described for the six 200-m straight sections of POPAE. All have dispersion matched to zero. (1) Injection-ejection insertion--This has proper high-β values and phase advances for horizontal injection and vertical ejection. (2) Phase-adjust insertion--The phase advance in this insertion is adjustable over a range of approximately 100 0 . (3) General-purpose insertion--The β* is adjustable from 2.5. to 200 m and the crossing angle is adjustable from 0 to 11 mrad. (4) High-luminosity insertion--This gives an even lower β + of meter

  5. Microelectronic packaging

    Datta, M; Schultze, J Walter

    2004-01-01

    Microelectronic Packaging analyzes the massive impact of electrochemical technologies on various levels of microelectronic packaging. Traditionally, interconnections within a chip were considered outside the realm of packaging technologies, but this book emphasizes the importance of chip wiring as a key aspect of microelectronic packaging, and focuses on electrochemical processing as an enabler of advanced chip metallization.Divided into five parts, the book begins by outlining the basics of electrochemical processing, defining the microelectronic packaging hierarchy, and emphasizing the impac

  6. Molecular Epidemiologic Source Tracking of Orally Transmitted Chagas Disease, Venezuela

    Segovia, Maikell; Martínez, Clara E.; Messenger, Louisa A.; Nessi, Anaibeth; Londoño, Juan C.; Espinosa, Raul; Martínez, Cinda; Alfredo, Mijares; Bonfante-Cabarcas, Rafael; Lewis, Michael D.; de Noya, Belkisyolé A.; Miles, Michael A.; Llewellyn, Martin S.

    2013-01-01

    Oral outbreaks of Chagas disease are increasingly reported in Latin America. The transitory presence of Trypanosoma cruzi parasites within contaminated foods, and the rapid consumption of those foods, precludes precise identification of outbreak origin. We report source attribution for 2 peri-urban oral outbreaks of Chagas disease in Venezuela via high resolution microsatellite typing. PMID:23768982

  7. Feeding tube insertion - gastrostomy

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002937.htm Feeding tube insertion - gastrostomy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A gastrostomy feeding tube insertion is the placement of a feeding ...

  8. Chest tube insertion

    Chest drainage tube insertion; Insertion of tube into chest; Tube thoracostomy; Pericardial drain ... Be careful there are no kinks in your tube. The drainage system should always sit upright and be placed ...

  9. MEMS packaging

    Hsu , Tai-Ran

    2004-01-01

    MEMS Packaging discusses the prevalent practices and enabling techniques in assembly, packaging and testing of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). The entire spectrum of assembly, packaging and testing of MEMS and microsystems, from essential enabling technologies to applications in key industries of life sciences, telecommunications and aerospace engineering is covered. Other topics included are bonding and sealing of microcomponents, process flow of MEMS and microsystems packaging, automated microassembly, and testing and design for testing.The Institution of Engineering and Technology is

  10. Chagas disease, a risk factor for high blood pressure.

    Vicco, Miguel Hernán; Rodeles, Luz; Yódice, Agustina; Marcipar, Iván

    2014-12-01

    Chagas disease is a parasite infection caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. Its most common complications is chronic Chagas heart disease but impairments of the systemic vasculature also has been observed. Although the different mechanisms that regulate blood pressure are disrupted, to our knowledge data on the association of hypertension and chronic Chagas disease are scarce. In this regard we evaluate whether Chagas disease constitutes a high blood pressure risk factor. We recruited 200 individuals, half of them with positive serology for T. cruzi. They were subjected to a complete clinical examination. The mean age of sampled individuals was 46.7 ± 12.3, and the mean of systolic and diastolic blood pressure were 124 ± 12 mmHg and 82 ± 10 mmHg, respectively. There were no between-group differences regarding age, sex distribution or body mass index. Chagas disease contributed significantly to high blood pressure (OR = 4, 95% CI 1.8323-7.0864, p = 0.0002). Our results reveal an important association between Chagas disease and high blood pressure, which should be contemplated by physicians in order to promote preventive cardiovascular actions in patients with Chagas disease.

  11. Chagas disease in Switzerland: history and challenges.

    Jackson, Y; Chappuis, F

    2011-09-15

    Chagas disease, endemic in Latin America, is an emerging health problem in Europe affecting an estimated 80,000 persons. Around 60,000 Latin American migrants live in Switzerland, and cases of Chagas disease have been reported since 1979. As of June 2011, 258 cases have been diagnosed, mostly adults in the indeterminate phase of the chronic stage of the disease. Vertical transmission has been identified and there is a high potential for blood- and organ-borne transmission in the absence of systematic screening. Major challenges include (i) raising awareness among migrants and healthcare professionals, (ii) developing national protocols for screening and treatment targeting high-risk groups such as pregnant woman, newborns, migrants from highly endemic areas (e.g. Bolivia), and immunocompromised migrants, (iii) preventing blood- and organ-borne transmission by appropriate screening strategies, (iv) taking into account the social vulnerability of individuals at risk in the design and implementation of public health programmes, and (v) facilitating contacts with the communities at risk through outreach programmes, for example in churches and cultural groups.

  12. Enfermedad de Chagas o Tripanosomiasis Americana.

    Felipe Guhl

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Situación Actual de Colombia.

    La enfermedad de Chagas o tripanosomiasis americana es una enfermedad parasitaria crónica causada por un protozoario flagelado el Trypanosoma cruzi, descrito por primera vez por Carlos Chagas, médico brasileño, a comienzos de este siglo y en su honor se denominó la enfermedad que lleva su nombre.

    Este parásito normalmente se transmite al ser humano a través de insectos triatomíneos estrictamente hematófagos de la familia Reduviidae, en el momento en que perforan la piel para succionar la sangre que los alimenta.

    Sin embargo, no se inocula directamente por intermedio de las estructuras bucales del insecto en el momento de la picadura como en el caso de las tripanosomiasis africanas, si no que se deposita pasivamente en la piel a través de las heces del insecto, penetrando en el cuerpo por la herida que causa la picadura u otras abrasiones de la piel o de la mucosa. El T. cruzi, también puede transmitirse por infección congénita, por transfusión de sangre contaminada o por el transplante de órganos contaminados. El ciclo vital del parásito es largo y complejo y su desarrollo tiene varias etapas, tanto en el vector triatomineo como en el huésped vertebrado .

    La Enfermedad de Chagas constituye una amenaza permanente para casi la cuarta parte de toda la población de América Latina. Si bien la enfermedad se encuentra presente en toda América Central y del Sur, sus manifestaciones y características epidemiológicas son altamente variables entre una y otra zona endémica. Existe una gran diversidad en las tasas de prevalencia, formas de transmisión, características parasitarias, patología clínica, vectores y reservorios.

    Más que cualquier otra enfermedad parasitaria, la enfermedad de Chagas se relaciona con el desarrollo económico y social de la población: los insectos triatomineos y las enfermedades que ellos transmiten existirán mientras en

  13. Watermarking spot colors in packaging

    Reed, Alastair; Filler, TomáÅ.¡; Falkenstern, Kristyn; Bai, Yang

    2015-03-01

    In January 2014, Digimarc announced Digimarc® Barcode for the packaging industry to improve the check-out efficiency and customer experience for retailers. Digimarc Barcode is a machine readable code that carries the same information as a traditional Universal Product Code (UPC) and is introduced by adding a robust digital watermark to the package design. It is imperceptible to the human eye but can be read by a modern barcode scanner at the Point of Sale (POS) station. Compared to a traditional linear barcode, Digimarc Barcode covers the whole package with minimal impact on the graphic design. This significantly improves the Items per Minute (IPM) metric, which retailers use to track the checkout efficiency since it closely relates to their profitability. Increasing IPM by a few percent could lead to potential savings of millions of dollars for retailers, giving them a strong incentive to add the Digimarc Barcode to their packages. Testing performed by Digimarc showed increases in IPM of at least 33% using the Digimarc Barcode, compared to using a traditional barcode. A method of watermarking print ready image data used in the commercial packaging industry is described. A significant proportion of packages are printed using spot colors, therefore spot colors needs to be supported by an embedder for Digimarc Barcode. Digimarc Barcode supports the PANTONE spot color system, which is commonly used in the packaging industry. The Digimarc Barcode embedder allows a user to insert the UPC code in an image while minimizing perceptibility to the Human Visual System (HVS). The Digimarc Barcode is inserted in the printing ink domain, using an Adobe Photoshop plug-in as the last step before printing. Since Photoshop is an industry standard widely used by pre-press shops in the packaging industry, a Digimarc Barcode can be easily inserted and proofed.

  14. Barriers to treatment access for Chagas disease in Mexico.

    Manne, Jennifer M; Snively, Callae S; Ramsey, Janine M; Salgado, Marco Ocampo; Bärnighausen, Till; Reich, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    According to World Health Organization (WHO) prevalence estimates, 1.1 million people in Mexico are infected with Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease (CD). However, limited information is available about access to antitrypanosomal treatment. This study assesses the extent of access in Mexico, analyzes the barriers to access, and suggests strategies to overcome them. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 18 key informants and policymakers at the national level in Mexico. Data on CD cases, relevant policy documents and interview data were analyzed using the Flagship Framework for Pharmaceutical Policy Reform policy interventions: regulation, financing, payment, organization, and persuasion. Data showed that 3,013 cases were registered nationally from 2007-2011, representing 0.41% of total expected cases based on Mexico's national prevalence estimate. In four of five years, new registered cases were below national targets by 11-36%. Of 1,329 cases registered nationally in 2010-2011, 834 received treatment, 120 were pending treatment as of January 2012, and the treatment status of 375 was unknown. The analysis revealed that the national program mainly coordinated donation of nifurtimox and that important obstacles to access include the exclusion of antitrypanosomal medicines from the national formulary (regulation), historical exclusion of CD from the social insurance package (organization), absence of national clinical guidelines (organization), and limited provider awareness (persuasion). Efforts to treat CD in Mexico indicate an increased commitment to addressing this disease. Access to treatment could be advanced by improving the importation process for antitrypanosomal medicines and adding them to the national formulary, increasing education for healthcare providers, and strengthening clinical guidelines. These recommendations have important implications for other countries in the region with similar problems in access to

  15. A Multi-disciplinary Overview of Chagas in Periurban Peru

    Sarah McCune

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available There are between 8 and 11 million cases of America Human Trypanosomiasis, commonly known as Chagas disease, in Latin America. Chagas is endemic in southern Peru, especially the Arequipa region, where it has expanded from poor, rural areas to periurban communities. This paper summarizes the findings of four studies in periurban Arequipa: on determinants of disease-vector infestation; on prevalence, spatial patterns, and risk factors of Chagas; on links between migration, settlement patterns, and disease-vector infestation; and on the relationship between discordant test results and spatially clustered transmission hotspots. These studies identified two risk factors associated with the disease: population dynamics and the urbanization of poverty. Understanding the disease within this new urban context will allow for improved public health prevention efforts and policy initiatives. Discovered in 1909 by Brazilian physician Carlos Chagas, American Human Trypanosomiasis is a chronic and potentially life-threatening illness found throughout Latin America (Moncayo, 2003. Indeed, it is estimated that there are between 8 and 11 million cases in Mexico and Central and South America (Centers for Disease Control [CDC], 2009. Chagas disease, as it is most commonly known, is endemic in southern Peru, especially in the region of Arequipa. Once thought to be limited to poor, rural areas, the disease is now appearing in the periurban communities that surround Arequipa City, the capital of the region (Cornejo del Carpio, 2003. Understanding the urbanization of Chagas disease will allow public health and medical professionals to better combat the further transmission of the disease. After providing an overview of Chagas and introducing the scope of the disease in Latin America, this paper will summarize the findings of four recent studies conducted in periurban districts in Arequipa. Ultimately, this paper seeks to identify the risk factors associated with Chagas

  16. Packaging microservices

    Montesi, Fabrizio; Thrane, Dan Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    We describe a first proposal for a new packaging system for microservices based on the Jolie programming language, called the Jolie Package Manager (JPM). Its main features revolve around service interfaces, which make the functionalities that a service provides and depends on explicit. For the f......We describe a first proposal for a new packaging system for microservices based on the Jolie programming language, called the Jolie Package Manager (JPM). Its main features revolve around service interfaces, which make the functionalities that a service provides and depends on explicit...

  17. Insertion Modeling and Its Applications

    Alexander Letichevsky; Oleksandr Letychevskyi; Vladimir Peschanenko

    2016-01-01

    The paper relates to the theoretical and practical aspects of insertion modeling. Insertion modeling is a theory of agents and environments interaction where an environment is considered as agent with a special insertion function. The main notions of insertion modeling are presented. Insertion Modeling System is described as a tool for development of different kinds of insertion machines. The research and industrial applications of Insertion Modeling System are presented.

  18. Percutaneous Ureteral stent insertion

    Yoon, Yup; Sung, Dong Wook; Choi, Woo Suk; Lee, Dong Ho; Ko, Young Tae; Lee, Sun Wha; Lim, Jae Hoon [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-10-15

    Percutaneous ureteral stent insertion is a treatment of permanent or temporary urinary diversion to maintain continuity and function of the obstructed and injured ureter. We performed 31 cases of percutaneous double pig tall ureteral stent insertion in 21 patients, included 13 patients with malignant ureteral obstruction and eight patients with injured ureter as well as benign inflammatory stricture. Satisfactory resulted was obtained in all patients but one, who need percutaneous nephrostomy on week later for urinary diversion. No significant complication was encountered. The authors concluded that percutaneous ureteral stent insertion, an interventional procedure alternative to urologic retrograde method, is an effective method for urinary diversion.

  19. Acute Chagas disease in El Salvador 2000-2012 - Need for surveillance and control

    Emi Sasagawa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Several parasitological studies carried out in El Salvador between 2000-2012 showed a higher frequency of acute cases of Chagas disease than that in other Central American countries. There is an urgent need for improved Chagas disease surveillance and vector control programs in the provinces where acute Chagas disease occurs and throughout El Salvador as a whole.

  20. Cardiomiopatía de Chagas.

    Fernando Rosas A.

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available

    La cardiomiopatía de Chagas es la causa más frecuente de cardiomiopatía en América Latina. Se constituye en la cuarta enfermedad parasitaria del continente, y es uno de los mayores problemas de salud pública en Colombia estimándose que existen 1.200.000 personas infectadas y que de éstos proba-blemente 25% desarrollaran una miocardiopatia crónica.

    En nuestro país pocas series clínicas han sido descritas, generalmente asociadas a falla cardíaca secundaria a una cardiomiopatía dilatada. El propósito de este trabajo es presentar una reseña histórica de la enfermedad en la que se incluyen los primeros trabajos clínicos desarrollados en nuestro medio. Así mismo, algunos aspectos de la fisiopatología y de la evolución clínica. Finalmente presentaremos la reciente experiencia acumulada en nuestro país en este campo por diferentes investigadores.

    Reseña Histórica
    En el año 1909 fue publicado el artículo original del Dr. Carlos Chagas, titulado “Nueva Trypanosomiasis Humana: estudios sobre la morfología y el ciclo evolutivo del Schizotrypanum Cruzi, agente etiológico de una nueva entidad mórbida en el hombre” (1. En él se describe como el Dr. Chagas, fue encomendado en 1907, por el Dr. Oswaldo Cruz (Director del instituto que posteriormente llevó su nombre, para ejecutar una campaña antipalúdica en los servicios de construcción de ferrocarriles en el norte del estado de Minas Gerais.

    En esa zona conoció la existencia de una hematófago denominado por los campesinos como “Barbeiro”, llamado así por que su picadura se localizaba usualmente en el rostro y era poco sintomática. El insecto habitaba en domicilios humanos, atacaba al hombre en la noche (después de apagar las luces, se ocultaba durante el día en las paredes y en los techos de las casas construidas en bahareque y paja. El hematófago fue identificado como perteneciente a la familia Reduviidae. Algunos de los

  1. ALS insertion devices

    Hoyer, E.; Chin, J.; Halbach, K.; Hassenzahl, W.V.; Humphries, D.; Kincaid, B.; Lancaster, H.; Plate, D.

    1990-11-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS), the first US third generation synchrotron radiation source, is currently under construction at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The low-emittance, 1.5 GeV electron storage ring and the insertion devices are specifically designed to produce high brightness beams in the UV to soft X-Ray range. The planned initial complement of insertion devices includes four 4.6 m long undulators, with period lengths of 3.9 cm, 5.0 cm (2) and 8.0 cm, and a 2.9 m long wiggler of 16 cm period length. Undulator design is well advanced and fabrication has begun on the 5.0 cm and 8.0 cm period length undulators. This paper discusses ALS insertion device requirements; general design philosophy; and design of the magnetic structure, support structure/drive systems, control system and vacuum system. 18 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs

  2. Highly Effective Serodiagnosis for Chagas' Disease ▿

    Hernández, Pilar; Heimann, Michael; Riera, Cristina; Solano, Marco; Santalla, José; Luquetti, Alejandro O.; Beck, Ewald

    2010-01-01

    Many proteins of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas' disease, contain characteristic arrays of highly repetitive immunogenic amino acid motifs. Diagnostic tests using these motifs in monomeric or dimeric form have proven to provide markedly improved specificity compared to conventional tests based on crude parasite extracts. However, in many cases the available tests still suffer from limited sensitivity. In this study we produced stable synthetic genes with maximal codon variability for the four diagnostic antigens, B13, CRA, TcD, and TcE, each containing between three and nine identical amino acid repeats. These genes were combined by linker sequences encoding short proline-rich peptides, giving rise to a 24-kDa fusion protein which was used as a novel diagnostic antigen in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay setup. Validation of the assay with a large number of well-characterized patient sera from Bolivia and Brazil revealed excellent diagnostic performance. The high sensitivity of the new test may allow future studies to use blood collected by finger prick and dried on filter paper, thus dramatically reducing the costs and effort for the detection of T. cruzi infection. PMID:20668136

  3. Behavioural biology of Chagas disease vectors.

    Lazzari, Claudio Ricardo; Pereira, Marcos Horácio; Lorenzo, Marcelo Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    Many arthropod species have adopted vertebrate blood as their main food source. Blood is rich in nutrients and, except for the presence of parasites, sterile. However, this food source is not freely available, nor is obtaining it devoid of risk. It circulates inside vessels hidden underneath the skin of mobile hosts that are able to defend themselves and even predate the insects that try to feed on them. Thus, the haematophagous lifestyle is associated with major morphological, physiological and behavioural adaptations that have accumulated throughout the evolutionary history of the various lineages of blood-sucking arthropods. These adaptations have significant consequences for the evolution of parasites as well as for the epidemiology of vector-transmitted diseases. In this review article, we analyse various aspects of the behaviour of triatomine bugs to illustrate how each behavioural trait represents a particular adaptation to their close association with their hosts, which may easily turn into predators. Our aim is to offer to the reader an up-to-date integrative perspective on the behaviour of Chagas disease vectors and to propose new research avenues to encourage both young and experienced colleagues to explore this aspect of triatomine biology.

  4. Behavioural biology of Chagas disease vectors

    Claudio Ricardo Lazzari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Many arthropod species have adopted vertebrate blood as their main food source. Blood is rich in nutrients and, except for the presence of parasites, sterile. However, this food source is not freely available, nor is obtaining it devoid of risk. It circulates inside vessels hidden underneath the skin of mobile hosts that are able to defend themselves and even predate the insects that try to feed on them. Thus, the haematophagous lifestyle is associated with major morphological, physiological and behavioural adaptations that have accumulated throughout the evolutionary history of the various lineages of blood-sucking arthropods. These adaptations have significant consequences for the evolution of parasites as well as for the epidemiology of vector-transmitted diseases. In this review article, we analyse various aspects of the behaviour of triatomine bugs to illustrate how each behavioural trait represents a particular adaptation to their close association with their hosts, which may easily turn into predators. Our aim is to offer to the reader an up-to-date integrative perspective on the behaviour of Chagas disease vectors and to propose new research avenues to encourage both young and experienced colleagues to explore this aspect of triatomine biology.

  5. Reactivity insertion accident analysis

    Moreira, J.M.L.; Nakata, H.; Yorihaz, H.

    1990-04-01

    The correct prediction of postulated accidents is the fundamental requirement for the reactor licensing procedures. Accident sequences and severity of their consequences depend upon the analysis which rely on analytical tools which must be validated against known experimental results. Present work presents a systematic approach to analyse and estimate the reactivity insertion accident sequences. The methodology is based on the CINETHICA code which solves the point-kinetics/thermohydraulic coupled equations with weighted temperature feedback. Comparison against SPERT experimental results shows good agreement for the step insertion accidents. (author) [pt

  6. ISABELLE insertion quadrupoles

    Kaugerts, J.; Polk, I.; Sampson, W.; Dahl, P.F.

    1979-01-01

    Beam focussing and control at the beam intersection regions of ISABELLE is accomplished by a number of superconducting insertion quadrupoles. These magnets differ from the standard ISABELLE quadrupoles in various ways. In particular, the requirements of limited space near the intersections and aperture for beam extraction impose constraints on their configuration. To achieve optimum beam focussing and provide tuning flexibility calls for stronger quadrupole trim windings than those in the standard quadrupoles. The magnetic and mechanical design of the insertion quadrupoles and their associated correction and steering windings to accomplish the above tasks is presented

  7. Prevalence of Chagas' Disease in Mulungu do Morro Northeastern Brazil

    Roque Aras

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE - The aim of this paper is to describe the prevalence of T. Cruzi infection in patients of from Mulungu do Morro, a rural tropical region of Northeastern Brazil. METHODS - A cross-sectional study was performed. After randomly selecting samples of the population, and obtaining their consents , patients completed pretested epidemiological and clinical questionnaires. Serum samples from all patients were collected and screened for the presence of T. cruzi antibodies. RESULTS - Of 694 patients examined, 174 patients (25.1% tested had a positive serology for Chagas' disease. Of the study population, 341 patients were male with 27% Chagas' disease prevalence, without a statistical difference. Illiteracy was the only variable related to T. cruzi infection in our population. CONCLUSION - In conclusion, our study points to the high prevalence of Chagas' disease among patients in Mulungu do Morro, suggesting that this region has a high frequency of infection and probably active vectorial transmission.

  8. The costs of preventing and treating chagas disease in Colombia.

    Marianela Castillo-Riquelme

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to report the costs of Chagas disease in Colombia, in terms of vector disease control programmes and the costs of providing care to chronic Chagas disease patients with cardiomyopathy.Data were collected from Colombia in 2004. A retrospective review of costs for vector control programmes carried out in rural areas included 3,084 houses surveyed for infestation with triatomine bugs and 3,305 houses sprayed with insecticide. A total of 63 patient records from 3 different hospitals were selected for a retrospective review of resource use. Consensus methodology with local experts was used to estimate care seeking behaviour and to complement observed data on utilisation.The mean cost per house per entomological survey was $4.4 (in US$ of 2004, whereas the mean cost of spraying a house with insecticide was $27. The main cost driver of spraying was the price of the insecticide, which varied greatly. Treatment of a chronic Chagas disease patient costs between $46.4 and $7,981 per year in Colombia, depending on severity and the level of care used. Combining cost and utilisation estimates the expected cost of treatment per patient-year is $1,028, whereas lifetime costs averaged $11,619 per patient. Chronic Chagas disease patients have limited access to healthcare, with an estimated 22% of patients never seeking care.Chagas disease is a preventable condition that affects mostly poor populations living in rural areas. The mean costs of surveying houses for infestation and spraying infested houses were low in comparison to other studies and in line with treatment costs. Care seeking behaviour and the type of insurance affiliation seem to play a role in the facilities and type of care that patients use, thus raising concerns about equitable access to care. Preventing Chagas disease in Colombia would be cost-effective and could contribute to prevent inequalities in health and healthcare.

  9. Method of inserting fuel rod

    Kamimoto, Shuji; Imoo, Makoto; Tsuchida, Kenji.

    1991-01-01

    The present invention concerns a method of inserting a fuel rod upon automatic assembling, automatic dismantling and reassembling of a fuel assembly in a light water moderated reactor, as well as a device and components used therefor. That is, a fuel rod is inserted reliably to an aimed point of insertion by surrounding the periphery of the fuel rod to be inserted with guide rods, and thereby suppressing the movement of the fuel rod during insertion. Alternatively, a fuel rod is inserted reliably to a point of insertion by inserting guide rods at the periphery of the point of insertion for the fuel rod to be inserted thereby surrounding the point of insertion with the guide rods or fuel rods. By utilizing fuel rods already present in the fuel assembly as the guide rods described above, the fuel rod can be inserted reliably to the point of insertion with no additional devices. Dummy fuel rods are previously inserted in a fuel assembly which are then utilized as the above-mentioned guide rods to accurately insert the fuel rod to the point of insertion. (I.S.)

  10. Insertion in Persian

    Kambuziya, Aliyeh Kord-e Zafaranlu; Dehghan, Masoud

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates epenthesis process in Persian to catch some results in relating to vowel and consonant insertion in Persian lexicon. This survey has a close relationship to the description of epenthetic consonants and the conditions in which these consonants are used. Since no word in Persian may begin with a vowel, so that hiatus can't be…

  11. The Composite Insertion Electrode

    Atlung, Sven; Zachau-Christiansen, Birgit; West, Keld

    1984-01-01

    The specific energy obtainable by discharge of porous insertion electrodes is limited by electrolyte depletion in thepores. This can be overcome using a solid ion conductor as electrolyte. The term "composite" is used to distinguishthese electrodes from porous electrodes with liquid electrolyte...

  12. RASPLAV package

    1990-01-01

    The RASPLAV package for investigation of post-accident mass transport and heat transfer processes is presented. The package performs three dimensional thermal conduction calculations in space nonuniform and temperature dependent conductivities and variable heat sources, taking into account phase transformations. The processes of free-moving bulk material, mixing of melting fuel due to advection and dissolution, and also evaporation/adsorption are modelled. Two-dimensional hydrodynamics with self-consistent heat transfer are also performed. The paper briefly traces the ways the solution procedures are carried out in the program package and outlines the major results of the simulation of reactor vessel melting after a core meltdown. The theoretical analysis and the calculations in this case were carried out in order to define the possibility of localization of the zone reminders. The interactions between the reminders and the concrete are simulated and evaluation of the interaction parameters is carried out. 4 refs. (R.Ts)

  13. Aspectos neurológicos da moléstia de chagas Neurological aspects of Chagas disease

    Fritz Köberle

    1967-09-01

    Full Text Available Carlos Chagas related in more than two 200 cases, what he called "nervous forms" of trypanosomiasis, that is neurological manifestations from central origin (idiotism, infantilism, pseudo-bulbar paralysis, aphasia, cerebellar ataxia, atetosis, espostic or paralytic diplegia, disbasia. At that time Chagas expressed his concepts as follows: "In relation to the frequency of trypanosomiasis nervous forms we have performed many observations which allow us to state that this disease is the one which causes the largest number of organic affections of the central nervous system, in human pathology". We are plenty convinced by Chagas's statement. By experiments on animals of laboratory we have very often noticed a rather varied neurological symptomatology, being worth point out identical syndromes to those observed by Chagas. Our autopsy material non-rarely include chronic Chagas cases presenting a most varied symtomatology. Among them we have named only three cases of discerebral nanism, a rather rare affection in other parts of the world and relatively frequent in our material. The fact which we have demonstrated, i.e., a relatively great decreasing of number of nervous cells in the peripheral system could happen in the central nervous system as well. Provided that there are only two quantitative works on neuron number diminishing in the central nervous system in mice and rats we decline to go into further details about central neuropathies in man. We emphasized the necessity to perform researches on this field by means of intimate collaboration between clinicians and pathologists, as the only way to confirm on scientific basis all that was observed by the panoramic and genial vision of Carlos Chagas.

  14. Technical note: Computer-manufactured inserts for prosthetic sockets.

    Sanders, Joan E; McLean, Jake B; Cagle, John C; Gardner, David W; Allyn, Katheryn J

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this research was to use computer-aided design software and a tabletop 3-D additive manufacturing system to design and fabricate custom plastic inserts for trans-tibial prosthesis users. Shape quality of inserts was tested right after they were inserted into participant's test sockets and again after four weeks of wear. Inserts remained properly positioned and intact throughout testing. Right after insertion the inserts caused the socket to be slightly under-sized, by a mean of 0.11mm, approximately 55% of the thickness of a nylon sheath. After four weeks of wear the under-sizing was less, averaging 0.03mm, approximately 15% of the thickness of a nylon sheath. Thus the inserts settled into the sockets over time. If existing prosthetic design software packages were enhanced to conduct insert design and to automatically generate fabrication files for manufacturing, then computer manufactured inserts may offer advantages over traditional methods in terms of speed of fabrication, ease of design, modification, and record keeping. Copyright © 2016 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Doença de Chagas no Brasil Chagas disease in Brazil

    Márcio C. Vinhaes

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Sumariam-se os dados da Fundação Nacional de Saúde (FNS sobre o estado atual dos vetores da doença de Chagas no Brasil, verificando-se que após vinte anos de controle químico continuado houve franca redução dos índices triatomínico-tripanosômicos, particularmente para esp��cies como Triatoma infestans e Panstrongylus megistus. Em paralelo, dados de sorologia escolar, de internações e de mortalidade pela doença indicam descenso nas taxas de incidência e impacto médico social da protozoose, restando áreas mais preocupantes, como o Nordeste e resíduos de T. infestans. Impõe-se urgente uma vigilância epidemiológica efetiva, a ser realizada por estados e municípios ante o processo de descentralização da FNS.This article presents the current situation for Chagas disease vectors in Brazil, based on data from the Brazilian National Health Foundation (FNS. Over the course of the last 20 years, continuous chemical control has resulted in a clear reduction of triatomine densities and Trypanosoma cruzi in Brazilian dwellings. Results have been particularly promising in relation to Triatoma infestans and Panstrongylus megistus, considered the most important species in the past. In parallel, data from school serological surveys, hospitalized patients, and mortality records show an important decrease in the disease. Nevertheless, some areas of the Brazilian Northeast and some residual foci of Triatoma infestans and Panstrongylus megistus remain as major challenges for public health authorities, requiring effective epidemiological surveillance. States and municipalities are required to assume this task at present, as the traditional Brazilian National Health Foundation is undergoing decentralization.

  16. Chagas Parasite Detection in Blood Images Using AdaBoost

    Víctor Uc-Cetina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Chagas disease is a potentially life-threatening illness caused by the protozoan parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi. Visual detection of such parasite through microscopic inspection is a tedious and time-consuming task. In this paper, we provide an AdaBoost learning solution to the task of Chagas parasite detection in blood images. We give details of the algorithm and our experimental setup. With this method, we get 100% and 93.25% of sensitivity and specificity, respectively. A ROC comparison with the method most commonly used for the detection of malaria parasites based on support vector machines (SVM is also provided. Our experimental work shows mainly two things: (1 Chagas parasites can be detected automatically using machine learning methods with high accuracy and (2 AdaBoost + SVM provides better overall detection performance than AdaBoost or SVMs alone. Such results are the best ones known so far for the problem of automatic detection of Chagas parasites through the use of machine learning, computer vision, and image processing methods.

  17. Experimental Vaccines against Chagas Disease: A Journey through History.

    Rodríguez-Morales, Olivia; Monteón-Padilla, Víctor; Carrillo-Sánchez, Silvia C; Rios-Castro, Martha; Martínez-Cruz, Mariana; Carabarin-Lima, Alejandro; Arce-Fonseca, Minerva

    2015-01-01

    Chagas disease, or American trypanosomiasis, which is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, is primarily a vector disease endemic in 21 Latin American countries, including Mexico. Although many vector control programs have been implemented, T. cruzi has not been eradicated. The development of an anti-T. cruzi vaccine for prophylactic and therapeutic purposes may significantly contribute to the transmission control of Chagas disease. Immune protection against experimental infection with T. cruzi has been studied since the second decade of the last century, and many types of immunogens have been used subsequently, such as killed or attenuated parasites and new DNA vaccines. This primary prevention strategy appears feasible, effective, safe, and inexpensive, although problems remain. The objective of this review is to summarize the research efforts about the development of vaccines against Chagas disease worldwide. A thorough literature review was conducted by searching PubMed with the terms "Chagas disease" and "American trypanosomiasis" together with "vaccines" or "immunization". In addition, reports and journals not cited in PubMed were identified. Publications in English, Spanish, and Portuguese were reviewed.

  18. Chagas. From Exotic Tropical Disease to Pathology Globalized

    Beatriz BASSO

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease, whose aetiological agent is Trypanosoma cruzi, is one of the main endemic diseases in Latin America, ranking fourth regarding the number of lost life years due to death or disability in the area; nevertheless, it is among the so-called “neglected diseases”. Despite its rural origin, where it is transmitted through vector insects belonging to the Reduviidae family, it has nowadays also become a problem in urbanized areas and is becoming globalized through inter-human transmission, above all congenital, but also through transfusions and transplants. Chagas, a Hidden Affliction (Chagas, Un mal escondido, a documentary by Ricardo Preve, focuses on both aspects of the disease: the rural and the global one, including interviews with North American doctors and European researchers. A significant part of the film takes place in the USA, showing the worst consequence of the evolution of the disease, which is death by chagasic cardiopathy which, being a reality that takes place during filming, increases the sense of drama. In this paper we approach specific topics related to Chagas disease from a biomedical point of view, including comments related to the highlights of the film that are connected with such aspects. Towards the end, there is mention of the film Houses of Fire (Casas de fuego and of certain illustrative aspects concerning the life of Dr Salvador Mazza and the Argentine Mission of Regional Pathology Studies (MEPRA, topics that have already been dealt with in this. 

  19. Fuel insert shuffler

    Naser, J.; Colley, R.; Gaiser, J.; Brookmire, T.; Engle, S.

    1987-01-01

    The potential for the use of expert systems in the nuclear power industry is widely recognized. The benefits of such systems include consistency of reasoning during off-normal situations when humans are under great stress, the reduction of time required to perform certain functions and the retention of human expertise in performing specialized functions. As the potential benefits are more and more demonstrated and realized, the development of expert systems becomes a necessary part of the nuclear power industry. The development of the fuel insert shuffle expert system is used as a case study. In fact, it shows that the potential benefits are realizable. Currently, the development of the insert shuffle plan requires three to four man-weeks of effort. Further modifications to this plan are sometimes required dur to either changes in the desired core load pattern or damaged fuel assemblies or inserts. These changes generally require two to four man-days of effort and could be stressful if they are critical path items on the outage schedule

  20. Enfermedad de Chagas congenita en la Ciudad de Salta, Argentina Congenital Chagas' disease in Salta, Argentina

    Mario Zaidenberg

    1993-02-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la respuesta clínica y serológica a la infección chagásica de 937 embarazadas y sus 929 recién nacidos (RN vivos, grupo I; 4 RN de origen diverso, grupo II y 35 RN derivados de otros centros, grupo III. Las embarazadas se estudiaron con 3 reacciones serológicas; se definió infección cuando 2 o más reacciones eran positivas. En los RN el diagnóstico se confirmó por observación directa del T. cruzi en una muestra de sangre. Los RN con Chagas congénita (RN-ChC fueron tratados y seguidos con estudios clínicos y de laboratorio. Se detectaron 149 embarazadas chagásicas (15.9%, de las cuales se diagnosticaron 6 RN-ChC (4%. En el total de 968 RN estudiados se detectaron 12 RN infectados. El micro-hematócrito fue el método parasitológico de lectura rápida más efectivo para el diagnóstico de infección en nuestra serie. El par de reacciones serológicas específicas constituyó un criterio de mayor seguridad para el control y seguimiento de la infección congénita. Las expresiones clínicas más comunes de infección fueron hepatomegalia, esplenomegalia, ictericia, anemia y prematurez, con distintos grados de asociación. Se concluye que dadas las características clínicas de la enfermedad de Chagas congénita en nuestro medio, se impone como estrategia el diagnóstico serológico para la enfermedad de Chagas en todas las embarazadas y el control y seguimiento de sus RN hasta descartar o confirmar infección congénita.The immune response to Trypanosoma cruzi was studied in our hospital in 937 pregnant women (PW and their 929 newborns (NB, group I; 4 NB from this center not included in the first group, group II and 35 NB derived from other centers, group III. Two positive results among indirect hemagglutination (IHA, complement fixation (CF and indirect hemagglutination (IHA, complement fixation (CF and indirect immunofluorescence (IIF tests were considered as the criterion of previous infection with T. cruzi in PW. The

  1. Chagas disease: control, elimination and eradication. Is it possible?

    Jose Rodrigues Coura

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available From an epidemiological point of view, Chagas disease and its reservoirs and vectors can present the following characteristics: (i enzooty, maintained by wild animals and vectors, with broad occurrence from southern United States of America (USA to southern Argentina and Chile (42ºN 49ºS, (ii anthropozoonosis, when man invades the wild ecotope and becomes infected with Trypanosoma cruzi from wild animals or vectors or when the vectors and wild animals, especially marsupials, invade the human domicile and infect man, (iii zoonosis-amphixenosis and exchanged infection between animals and humans by domestic vectors in endemic areas and (iv zooanthroponosis, infection that is transmitted from man to animals, by means of domestic vectors, which is the rarest situation in areas endemic for Chagas disease. The characteristics of Chagas disease as an enzooty of wild animals and as an anthropozoonosis are seen most frequently in the Brazilian Amazon and in the Pan-Amazon region as a whole, where there are 33 species of six genera of wild animals: Marsupialia, Chiroptera, Rodentia, Edentata (Xenarthra, Carnivora and Primata and 27 species of triatomines, most of which infected with T. cruzi . These conditions place the resident populations of this area or its visitors - tourists, hunters, fishermen and especially the people whose livelihood involves plant extraction - at risk of being affected by Chagas disease. On the other hand, there has been an exponential increase in the acute cases of Chagas disease in that region through oral transmission of T. cruzi , causing outbreaks of the disease. In four seroepidemiological surveys that were carried out in areas of the microregion of the Negro River, state of Amazonas, in 1991, 1993, 1997 and 2010, we found large numbers of people who were serologically positive for T. cruzi infection. The majority of them and/or their relatives worked in piassava extraction and had come into contact with and were stung by

  2. Chagas disease: 100 years after its discovery. A systemic review.

    Coura, José Rodrigues; Borges-Pereira, José

    2010-01-01

    Although Chagas disease was only discovered in 1909, it began millions of years ago as an enzootic disease among wild animals. Its transmission to man began accidentally as an anthropozoonosis when mankind invaded wild ecotopes. Endemic Chagas disease became established as a zoonosis over the last 200-300 years through deforestation for agriculture and livestock rearing and adaptation of triatomines to dwellings and to humans and domestic animals as food sources. When T. cruzi is transmitted to man, it invades the bloodstream and lymphatic system and lodges in muscle and heart tissue, the digestive system and phagocytic cells. Through this, it causes inflammatory lesions and an immune response, particularly mediated by CD4(+), CD8(+), IL2 and IL4, with cell and neuron destruction and fibrosis. These processes lead to blockage of the heart's conductive system, arrhythmias, heart failure, aperistalsis and dilatation of hollow viscera, especially the esophagus and colons. Chagas disease is characterized by an acute phase with or without symptoms, with (or more often without) T. cruzi penetration signs (inoculation chagoma or Romaña's sign), fever, adenomegaly, hepatosplenomegaly and patent parasitemia; and a chronic phase: indeterminate (asymptomatic, with normal electrocardiogram and heart, esophagus and colon X-rays) or cardiac, digestive or cardiac/digestive forms. There is great regional variation in the morbidity caused by Chagas disease: severe cardiac or digestive forms may occur in 10-50%, and indeterminate forms in the remaining, asymptomatic cases. The epidemiological and control characteristics of Chagas disease vary according to each country's ecological conditions and health policies. 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Blasting agent package

    Fox, R.

    1971-03-17

    A protected preassembled package for blasting agents susceptible to desensitization by water consists of, in combination: (1) an inner rigid and self-supporting tube, the upper end of which is suited to be connected, or attached, to the discharge end of a loading hose for a blasting agent and the lower end of which is open; and (2) a flexible tubular liner made of water-resistant film, having a diameter greater than that of the inner tube and a length at least equal to the desired depth of its insertion into the borehole, the liner being sleeved over the length of the inner tube, the upper end of the liner being attached to the inner tube and the lower end of the liner being closed so as to prevent substantial discharge of the explosive mixture therefrom when the latter is pumped into it. (24 claims)

  4. Fuel assembly insertion system

    Barkhurst, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a nuclear reactor facility having fuel bundles: a system for the insertion of a fuel bundle into a position where vertically arranged fuel bundles surround and are adjacent the system comprising, in combination, separate and individual centering devices secured to and disposed on top of each fuel bundle adjacent the position. Each such centering device has a generally box-like cap configuration on the upper end of each fuel bundle and includes: a top wall; first and second side walls, each secured along and upper edge to the top wall; a rear plate attached along opposite vertical edges to the first and second side walls; a front inclined wall joined along an upper edge to the top to the wall and attached along opposite vertical edges first and second side walls; pad means secured to the lower edge of the first and second side walls, the front inclined wall and the rear plate for mounting each centering device on top of an associated fuel bundle; pin means carried by at least two of the pad means engageable with an associated aperature for locating and laterally fixing each centering device on top of its respective fuel bundle. Each front inclined wall of each of the centering devices is orientated on top of its respective fuel bundle to slope upwardly and away from the position where upon downward insertion of a fuel bundle any contact between the lower end of the fuel bundle inserted with a front inclined wall of a centering device will laterally deflect the fuel bundle. Each centering device further includes a central socket means secured to the top wall, and an elongated handling pole pivotally attached to the socket

  5. Fungi & Health: can polysaccharides from the fungus inonotus obliquus (CHAGA) inhibit tumor growth?

    Wold, C. W.; Corthay, A.; Kjeldsen, Christian

    Inonotus obliquus (Chaga) – a white rot fungus found on birch trees in the northern hemisphere –has been used in traditional medicine in Europe and Asia for centuries. Native peoples have made use of Chaga by brewing it as a tea to treat gastro-intestinal problems, to heal wounds and even to treat...... cancer. The last few decades, studies have found Chaga to contain biologically active substances such as polysaccharides, triterpenoids, polyphenols and melanin. In vivo effects such as tumor growth inhibition have been observed in mice receiving various Chaga extracts. The main hypothesis behind...... the tumor inhibiting effect is two-fold: i) fungal polysaccharides may inhibit tumor growth indirectly by activating certain immune cells such as macrophages and ii) triterpenoids and other steroids from Chaga may give a direct cytotoxic effect against cancer cells. While triterpenoids from Chaga have been...

  6. A Highly Sensitive Rapid Diagnostic Test for Chagas Disease That Utilizes a Recombinant Trypanosoma cruzi Antigen

    Barfield, C. A.; Barney, R. S.; Crudder, C. H.; Wilmoth, J. L.; Stevens, D. S.; Mora-Garcia, S.; Yanovsky, M. J.; Weigl, B. H.; Yanovsky, J.

    2011-01-01

    Improved diagnostic tests for Chagas disease are urgently needed. A new lateral flow rapid test for Chagas disease is under development at PATH, in collaboration with Laboratorio Lemos of Argentina, which utilizes a recombinant antigen for detection of antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi. To evaluate the performance of this test, 375 earlier characterized serum specimens from a region where Chagas is endemic were tested using a reference test (the Ortho T. cruzi ELISA, Johnson & Johnson), a commercially available rapid test (Chagas STAT-PAK, Chembio), and the PATH–Lemos rapid test. Compared to the composite reference tests, the PATH–Lemos rapid test demonstrated an optimal sensitivity of 99.5% and specificity of 96.8%, while the Chagas STAT-PAK demonstrated a sensitivity of 95.3% and specificity of 99.5%. These results indicate that the PATH–Lemos rapid test shows promise as an improved and reliable tool for screening and diagnosis of Chagas disease. PMID:21342808

  7. O gênero Schizotrypanum Chagas, 1909

    Emmanuel Dias

    1939-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho, em que foram analisados os caractéres de Schizotrypanum e consideradas suas relações com os de outros flagelados digenéticos, acreditamos ter ficado bem demonstrado que este gênero encontra sólidos fundamentos em que se baseie. Schizotrypanum possue caractéres morfológicos peculiares, que o aproximam de Leishmania no periodo de multiplicação e de Trypanosoma na fase sanguinea. Os flagelados pertencentes a esse gênero caracterisam-se não só pela morfologia da fórma de tripanosoma, como pela evolução no organismo do vertebrado. No S. cruzi, como no S. vespertilionis, a multiplicação se processa nos tecidos, constando da divisão binaria das formas intracelulares de leishmania; os tripanosomas sanguicolas não se multiplicam. Nenhum Trypanosoma apresenta no mamífero uma evolução morfológicamente e ecológicamente identica á de Schizotrypanum. S. cruzi aproxima-se dos tripanosomas patogenicos pela morfologia da fórma sanguicola e pela virulencia ás vezes mortal para o homem e diversos animais; deles se afasta entretanto pela evolução no inséto, modo de transmissão e facil cultivabilidade, caractéres biológicos estes que são comuns aos tripanosomas não patogenicos. Em nenhum dos grupos de tripanosomas póde o S. cruzi ser rigorosamente incluido, deles se distinguindo facilmente seja por sua morfologia, seja por sua biologia. O conjunto de caractéres próprios fundamenta perfeitamente a manutenção do gênero de Chagas, indicando-lhe como situação mais adequada, na classificação dos tripanosomídeos de mamíferos, o logar intermediario entre Leishmania e Trypanosoma. A separação do gênero Schizotrypanum é o melhor caso, quiça o unico justificado, dentre as numerosas tentativas para o desmembramento de Trypanosoma. Ela se impõe como medida compreensiva e util para a coordenação dos membros da complexa familia dos tripanosomideos e se justifica á luz dos mais exigentes crit

  8. Data Insertion in Bitcoin's Blockchain

    Andrew Sward

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides the first comprehensive survey of methods for inserting arbitrary data into Bitcoin’s blockchain. Historical methods of data insertion are described, along with lesser-known techniques that are optimized for efficiency. Insertion methods are compared on the basis of efficiency, cost, convenience of data reconstruction, permanence, and potentially negative impact on the Bitcoin ecosystem.

  9. Dobutamine Stress Echocardiography Safety in Chagas Disease Patients.

    Rassi, Daniela do Carmo; Vieira, Marcelo Luiz Campos; Furtado, Rogerio Gomes; Turco, Fabio de Paula; Melato, Luciano Henrique; Hotta, Viviane Tiemi; Nunes, Colandy Godoy de Oliveira; Rassi, Luiz; Rassi, Salvador

    2017-02-01

    A few decades ago, patients with Chagas disease were predominantly rural workers, with a low risk profile for obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). As urbanization has increased, they became exposed to the same risk factors for CAD of uninfected individuals. Dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) has proven to be an important tool in CAD diagnosis. Despite being a potentially arrhythmogenic method, it is safe for coronary patients without Chagas disease. For Chagas disease patients, however, the indication of DSE in clinical practice is uncertain, because of the arrhythmogenic potential of that heart disease. To assess DSE safety in Chagas disease patients with clinical suspicion of CAD, as well as the incidence of arrhythmias and adverse events during the exam. Retrospective analysis of a database of patients referred for DSE from May/2012 to February/2015. This study assessed 205 consecutive patients with Chagas disease suspected of having CAD. All of them had their serology for Chagas disease confirmed. Their mean age was 64±10 years and most patients were females (65.4%). No patient had significant adverse events, such as acute myocardial infarction, ventricular fibrillation, asystole, stroke, cardiac rupture and death. Regarding arrhythmias, ventricular extrasystoles occurred in 48% of patients, and non-sustained ventricular tachycardia in 7.3%. DSE proved to be safe in this population of Chagas disease patients, in which no potentially life-threatening outcome was found. Até poucas décadas atrás, os pacientes chagásicos eram predominantemente trabalhadores rurais, com baixo perfil de risco para doença obstrutiva coronária. Com a crescente urbanização, passaram a ter os mesmos fatores de risco para doença aterosclerótica que indivíduos não infectados. O ecocardiograma sob estresse com dobutamina (EED) é uma importante ferramenta no diagnóstico de coronariopatia. É referido, porém, como um método potencialmente arritmogênico, mas

  10. Chagas disease, migration and community settlement patterns in Arequipa, Peru.

    Angela M Bayer

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease is one of the most important neglected tropical diseases in the Americas. Vectorborne transmission of Chagas disease has been historically rare in urban settings. However, in marginal communities near the city of Arequipa, Peru, urban transmission cycles have become established. We examined the history of migration and settlement patterns in these communities, and their connections to Chagas disease transmission.This was a qualitative study that employed focus group discussions and in-depth interviews. Five focus groups and 50 in-depth interviews were carried out with 94 community members from three shantytowns and two traditional towns near Arequipa, Peru. Focus groups utilized participatory methodologies to explore the community's mobility patterns and the historical and current presence of triatomine vectors. In-depth interviews based on event history calendars explored participants' migration patterns and experience with Chagas disease and vectors. Focus group data were analyzed using participatory analysis methodologies, and interview data were coded and analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Entomologic data were provided by an ongoing vector control campaign. We found that migrants to shantytowns in Arequipa were unlikely to have brought triatomines to the city upon arrival. Frequent seasonal moves, however, took shantytown residents to valleys surrounding Arequipa where vectors are prevalent. In addition, the pattern of settlement of shantytowns and the practice of raising domestic animals by residents creates a favorable environment for vector proliferation and dispersal. Finally, we uncovered a phenomenon of population loss and replacement by low-income migrants in one traditional town, which created the human settlement pattern of a new shantytown within this traditional community.The pattern of human migration is therefore an important underlying determinant of Chagas disease risk in and around Arequipa. Frequent

  11. Lively package

    Jaremko, G.

    1997-01-01

    Progress on the Lloydminster Heavy Oil Interpretive Centre, sponsored by the Lloydminster Oilfield Technical Society and expected to open in late 1998, was discussed. Some $150,000 of the $750,000 budget is already in the bank, and another $150,000 is in the pipeline. The Centre will be added to an existing and well-established visitor's site. It is reported to contain a lively and imaginatively-designed exhibit package, and promises to become a combination of educational tool and tourist attraction for the town of Lloydminster, Saskatchewan, in the heart of heavy oil country

  12. Reflective Packaging

    1994-01-01

    The aluminized polymer film used in spacecraft as a radiation barrier to protect both astronauts and delicate instruments has led to a number of spinoff applications. Among them are aluminized shipping bags, food cart covers and medical bags. Radiant Technologies purchases component materials and assembles a barrier made of layers of aluminized foil. The packaging reflects outside heat away from the product inside the container. The company is developing new aluminized lines, express mailers, large shipping bags, gel packs and insulated panels for the building industry.

  13. A case of megacolon in Rio Grande Valley as a possible case of Chagas disease

    Karl Reinhard

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We have been searching for evidence of Chagas disease in mummified human remains. Specifically, we have looked for evidence of alteration of intestinal or fecal morphology consistent with megacolon, a condition associated with Chagas disease. One prehistoric individual recovered from the Chihuahuan Desert near the Rio Grande exhibits such pathology. We present documentation of this case. We are certain that this individual presents a profoundly altered large intestinal tract and we suggest that further research should focus on confirmation of a diagnosis of Chagas disease. We propose that the prehistoric activity and dietary patterns in Chihuahua Desert hunter/gatherers promoted the pathoecology of Chagas disease.

  14. 48 CFR 1852.211-70 - Packaging, handling, and transportation.

    2010-10-01

    ... transportation. 1852.211-70 Section 1852.211-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND... and Clauses 1852.211-70 Packaging, handling, and transportation. As prescribed in 1811.404-70, insert the following clause: Packaging, Handling, and Transportation (SEPT 2005) (a) The Contractor shall...

  15. Interactive Media on Chagas Disease: Development and Content

    Claudinei Caetano de Souza

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available An interactive media on Chagas disease was developed as an educational tool, on the context of the scientific research and dissemination actions of the National Institute of Structural Biotechnology and Medicinal Chemistry in Infectious Diseases (INBEQMeDI. Different computational resources were used either in terms of hardware and software. The media contains 13 videos that range from 30 seconds to 4 minutes, all with information about Chagas disease, showing the social and economic aspects; the research made by the INBEQMeDI group; different aspects of the disease illustrated by slides arranged in a mobile carousel, and radio programs, with funny skits. The target audience for use of this feature is students aged 10 to 17 years. Teachers of areas of science and biology, through a partnership with the Agency of Education of the State of São Paulo, will be invited to plan a strategy for media use with their students.

  16. Antioxidant effect of Morus nigra on Chagas disease progression.

    Montenote, Michelly Cristina; Wajsman, Vithor Zuccaro; Konno, Yoichi Takaki; Ferreira, Paulo César; Silva, Regildo Márcio Gonçalves; Therezo, Altino Luiz Silva; Silva, Luciana Pereira; Martins, Luciamáre Perinetti Alves

    2017-11-06

    Considering the widespread popular use of Morus nigra and the amount of scientific information on its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, the effectiveness of this phytotherapeutic compound in the parasitemia progression during the acute phase of Chagas disease and its role in the development of the inflammatory process as well as its effects on the oxidative damage in the chronic phase of infection were evaluated. Thus, 96 male Swiss mice were randomly divided into eight groups, four groups were uninfected controls, and four groups were intraperitoneally infected with 5.0 x 104 blood trypomastigotes forms of T. cruzi QM2 strain. Four batches composed of one uninfected and one infected group were respectively treated with 70% alcohol solution and 25 μL, 50 μL and 75 μL of the phytotherapeutic compound. Levels of antioxidant elements (TBARS, FRAP, GSH and Sulfhydryl groups) were measured in plasma samples. The phytotherapeutic compound's antioxidant activity was measured by polyphenol and total flavonoid quantification, DPPH, NO, and FRAP method. Our results showed that the vehicle influenced some of the results that may have physiological relevance in Chagas disease. However, an important action of M. nigra tincture was observed in the progression of Chagas disease, since our results demonstrated a reduction in parasitemia of treated groups when compared to controls, especially in the group receiving 25 µL. However, in the chronic phase, the 50-µL dosage presented a better activity on some antioxidant defenses and minimized the tissue inflammatory process. Results indicated an important action of M. nigra tincture on the Chagas disease progression.

  17. Scrutinizing the Biomarkers for the Neglected Chagas Disease: How Remarkable!

    Pinho, Rosa T; Waghabi, Mariana C; Cardillo, Fabíola; Mengel, José; Antas, Paulo R Z

    2016-01-01

    Biomarkers or biosignature profiles have become accessible over time in population-based studies for Chagas disease. Thus, the identification of consistent and reliable indicators of the diagnosis and prognosis of patients with heart failure might facilitate the prioritization of therapeutic management to those with the highest chance of contracting this disease. The purpose of this paper is to review the recent state and the upcoming trends in biomarkers for human Chagas disease. As an emerging concept, we propose a classification of biomarkers based on plasmatic-, phenotype-, antigenic-, genetic-, and management-related candidates. The available data revisited here reveal the lessons learned thus far and the existing challenges that still lie ahead to enable biomarkers to be employed consistently in risk evaluation for this disease. There is a strong need for biomarker validation, particularly for biomarkers that are specific to the clinical forms of Chagas disease. The current failure to achieve the eradication of the transmission of this disease has produced determination to solve this validation issue. Finally, it would be strategic to develop a wide variety of biomarkers and to test them in both preclinical and clinical trials.

  18. Opportunity cost for early treatment of Chagas disease in Mexico.

    Janine M Ramsey

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Given current neglect for Chagas disease in public health programs in Mexico, future healthcare and economic development policies will need a more robust model to analyze costs and impacts of timely clinical attention of infected populations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A Markov decision model was constructed to simulate the natural history of a Chagas disease cohort in Mexico and to project the associated short and long-term clinical outcomes and corresponding costs. The lifetime cost for a timely diagnosed and treated Chagas disease patient is US$ 10,160, while the cost for an undiagnosed individual is US$ 11,877. The cost of a diagnosed and treated case increases 24-fold from early acute to indeterminate stage. The major cost component for lifetime cost was working days lost, between 44% and 75%, depending on the program scenario for timely diagnosis and treatment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In the long term, it is cheaper to diagnose and treat chagasic patients early, instead of doing nothing. This finding by itself argues for the need to shift current policy, in order to prioritize and attend this neglected disease for the benefit of social and economic development, which implies including treatment drugs in the national formularies. Present results are even more relevant, if one considers that timely diagnosis and treatment can arrest clinical progression and enhance a chronic patient's quality of life.

  19. A Paratransgenic Strategy for the Control of Chagas Disease

    Ivy Hurwitz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease results from infection with the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. This disease remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in central and south America. Chagas disease now exists and is detected worldwide because of human migration. Control of Chagas disease has relied mainly on vector eradication however, the development of insect resistance to pesticides, coupled with cost and adverse health effects of insecticide treatments, has prompted our group to investigate novel methods of transmission control. Our laboratory has been instrumental in the development of the paratransgenic strategy to control vectorial transmission of T. cruzi. In this paper, we discuss various components of the paratransgenic approach. Specifically, we describe classes of molecules that can serve as effectors, including antimicrobial peptides, endoglucanases, and highly specific single chain antibodies that target surface glycoprotein tags on the surface of T. cruzi. Furthermore, we address evolving concepts related to field dispersal of engineered bacteria as part of the paratransgenic control strategy and attendant risk assessment evaluation.

  20. Opportunity cost for early treatment of Chagas disease in Mexico.

    Ramsey, Janine M; Elizondo-Cano, Miguel; Sanchez-González, Gilberto; Peña-Nieves, Adriana; Figueroa-Lara, Alejandro

    2014-04-01

    Given current neglect for Chagas disease in public health programs in Mexico, future healthcare and economic development policies will need a more robust model to analyze costs and impacts of timely clinical attention of infected populations. A Markov decision model was constructed to simulate the natural history of a Chagas disease cohort in Mexico and to project the associated short and long-term clinical outcomes and corresponding costs. The lifetime cost for a timely diagnosed and treated Chagas disease patient is US$ 10,160, while the cost for an undiagnosed individual is US$ 11,877. The cost of a diagnosed and treated case increases 24-fold from early acute to indeterminate stage. The major cost component for lifetime cost was working days lost, between 44% and 75%, depending on the program scenario for timely diagnosis and treatment. In the long term, it is cheaper to diagnose and treat chagasic patients early, instead of doing nothing. This finding by itself argues for the need to shift current policy, in order to prioritize and attend this neglected disease for the benefit of social and economic development, which implies including treatment drugs in the national formularies. Present results are even more relevant, if one considers that timely diagnosis and treatment can arrest clinical progression and enhance a chronic patient's quality of life.

  1. Total Artificial Heart as Bridge to Heart Transplantation in Chagas Cardiomyopathy: Case Report.

    Ruzza, A; Czer, L S C; De Robertis, M; Luthringer, D; Moriguchi, J; Kobashigawa, J; Trento, A; Arabia, F

    2016-01-01

    Chagas disease (CD) is becoming an increasingly recognized cause of dilated cardiomyopathy outside of Latin America, where it is endemic, due to population shifts and migration. Heart transplantation (HTx) is a therapeutic option for end-stage cardiomyopathy due to CD, but may be considered a relative contraindication due to potential reactivation of the causative organism with immunosuppression therapy. The total artificial heart (TAH) can provide mechanical circulatory support in decompensated patients with severe biventricular dysfunction until the time of HTx, while avoiding immunosuppressive therapy and removing the organ most affected by the causative organism. We report herein a patient with CD and severe biventricular dysfunction, who had mechanical circulatory support with a TAH for more than 6 months, followed by successful orthotopic HTx and treatment with benznidazole for 3 months. The patient had no evidence of recurrent disease in the transplanted heart based on endomyocardial biopsy up to 1 year post-transplantation, and remains alive more than 30 months after insertion of a TAH and 24 months after HTx. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Using PATIMDB to create bacterial transposon insertion mutant libraries.

    Urbach, Jonathan M; Wei, Tao; Liberati, Nicole; Grenfell-Lee, Daniel; Villanueva, Jacinto; Wu, Gang; Ausubel, Frederick M

    2009-04-01

    PATIMDB is a software package for facilitating the generation of transposon mutant insertion libraries. The software has two main functions: process tracking and automated sequence analysis. The process tracking function specifically includes recording the status and fates of multiwell plates and samples in various stages of library construction. Automated sequence analysis refers specifically to the pipeline of sequence analysis starting with ABI files from a sequencing facility and ending with insertion location identifications. The protocols in this unit describe installation and use of PATIMDB software.

  3. Facility target insert shielding assessment

    Mocko, Michal [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-10-06

    Main objective of this report is to assess the basic shielding requirements for the vertical target insert and retrieval port. We used the baseline design for the vertical target insert in our calculations. The insert sits in the 12”-diameter cylindrical shaft extending from the service alley in the top floor of the facility all the way down to the target location. The target retrieval mechanism is a long rod with the target assembly attached and running the entire length of the vertical shaft. The insert also houses the helium cooling supply and return lines each with 2” diameter. In the present study we focused on calculating the neutron and photon dose rate fields on top of the target insert/retrieval mechanism in the service alley. Additionally, we studied a few prototypical configurations of the shielding layers in the vertical insert as well as on the top.

  4. Insertion device and method for accurate and repeatable target insertion

    Gubeli, III, Joseph F.; Shinn, Michelle D.; Bevins, Michael E.; Dillon-Townes, Lawrence; Neil, George R.

    2017-07-04

    The present invention discloses a device and a method for inserting and positioning a target within a free electron laser, particle accelerator, or other such device that generates or utilizes a beam of energy or particles. The system includes a three-point registration mechanism that insures angular and translational accuracy and repeatability of positioning upon multiple insertions within the same structure.

  5. Survey of Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society Members About Congenital Chagas Disease.

    Edwards, Morven S; Abanyie, Francisca A; Montgomery, Susan P

    2018-01-01

    Participants in a survey about congenital Chagas disease, distributed electronically to Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society members, perceived having limited knowledge about congenital Trypanosoma cruzi infection. Most rarely or never consider the diagnosis in infants born to parents from Latin America. Improved awareness of congenital Chagas disease and assessment of at-risk infants is needed.

  6. Prevention of congenital Chagas disease by Benznidazole treatment in reproductive-age women. An observational study.

    Álvarez, María G; Vigliano, Carlos; Lococo, Bruno; Bertocchi, Graciela; Viotti, Rodolfo

    2017-10-01

    Since the decline in new cases of infection by insect/vector, congenital Chagas disease has become more relevant in the transmission of Chagas disease. Treatment with benznidazole significantly reduces the parasitemia, which constitutes an important factor linked to vertical transmission. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether treatment with benznidazole previously administered to women of childbearing age can prevent or reduce the incidence of new cases of congenital Chagas disease. An historical cohort study that included all women in reproductive age (15-45 years) assisted in our center was designed. We included 67 mothers with chronic Chagas disease; 35 women had not been treated prior to pregnancy, 15 had been treated prior to pregnancy and 17 gave birth prior and after treatment with benznidazole. Eight mothers gave birth to 16 children with congenital Chagas disease (8/67, 12%). The prevalence of congenital Chagas was 16/114 (14%) children born to untreated mothers and 0/42 (0%) children born to benznidazole- treated mothers, p=0.01. No significant differences were observed in clinical, serologic, epidemiological or socioeconomic baseline variables between mothers with and without children born with congenital Chagas. A 32% conversion rate to negative serology was observed in benznidazole-treated women after long-term follow up. Antiparasitic treatment administered to women in reproductive age can prevent the occurrence of congenital Chagas disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Science packages

    1997-01-01

    Primary science teachers in Scotland have a new updating method at their disposal with the launch of a package of CDi (Compact Discs Interactive) materials developed by the BBC and the Scottish Office. These were a response to the claim that many primary teachers felt they had been inadequately trained in science and lacked the confidence to teach it properly. Consequently they felt the need for more in-service training to equip them with the personal understanding required. The pack contains five disks and a printed user's guide divided up as follows: disk 1 Investigations; disk 2 Developing understanding; disks 3,4,5 Primary Science staff development videos. It was produced by the Scottish Interactive Technology Centre (Moray House Institute) and is available from BBC Education at £149.99 including VAT. Free Internet distribution of science education materials has also begun as part of the Global Schoolhouse (GSH) scheme. The US National Science Teachers' Association (NSTA) and Microsoft Corporation are making available field-tested comprehensive curriculum material including 'Micro-units' on more than 80 topics in biology, chemistry, earth and space science and physics. The latter are the work of the Scope, Sequence and Coordination of High School Science project, which can be found at http://www.gsh.org/NSTA_SSandC/. More information on NSTA can be obtained from its Web site at http://www.nsta.org.

  8. Lithium insertion in nanostructured titanates

    Borghols, W.J.H.

    2010-01-01

    Upon nano-sizing of insertion compounds several significant changes in Li-insertion behavior have been observed for sizes below approximately 50 nm. Although the origins of the phenomena are interrelated, the changes can be divided in three main observations. (1) The formation of new phases, leading

  9. Chest tube insertion - series (image)

    Chest tubes are inserted to drain blood, fluid, or air and allow full expansion of the lungs. The tube is placed in the pleural space. The area where the tube will be inserted is numbed (local anesthesia). The patient may also be sedated. The chest ...

  10. Challenges in the management of Chagas disease in Latin-American migrants in Europe.

    Monge-Maillo, B; López-Vélez, R

    2017-05-01

    Chagas disease is endemic in Latin America. Due to migration the infection has crossed borders and it is estimated that 68,000-120,000 people with Chagas disease are currently living in Europe and 30% of them may develop visceral involvement. However, up to 90% of Chagas disease cases in Europe remain undiagnosed. The challenges which have to be overcome in Chagas disease in non-endemic countries are focused on related downing barriers to health care access, and related to screening, diagnostic tools and therapeutic management. The aim of this review is to highlight how healthcare management for Latin American migrants with Chagas disease in Europe may be improved. Medical literature was searched using PubMed. No limits were placed with respect to the language or date of publication although most of the articles selected were articles published in the last five years. Chosen search terms were "Chagas disease" AND ("migrants" OR "screening" OR "transmission" OR "treatment"; OR "knowledge" OR "non-endemic countries"); migrants AND ("Public health" OR "Health Service Accessibility" OR "Delivery of Health care"); and "Congenital Chagas disease". Healthcare management of migrant populations with Chagas disease in Europe has to be improved: -Surveillance programmes are needed to measure the burden of the disease; -screening programmes are needed; -administrative and cultural barriers in the access to health care for migrants should be reduced; -education programmes on Chagas disease should be performed -research on new diagnostic tools and therapeutic options are required. This review highlights the needs of profound changes in the health care of Latin American migrants with Chagas disease in Europe. Copyright © 2017 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Chagas Disease: Challenges in Developing New Trypanocidal Lead Compounds [Doença de Chagas: Desafios no Desenvolvimento de Novas Substâncias Líderes Tripanomicidas

    Fernando de C. da Silva; Sabrina B. Ferreira; David R. da Rocha; Vitor F. Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    Chagas disease cycle was fully elucidated by Carlos Chagas in 1909, when he reported his discovery to the scientific community in two seminal papers. Today remains innumerous factors that limit its therapeutic treatment. One of them is the lack of new drugs in the market since is well known that the existing drugs are poorly active with low efficacy and considerable side effects. Nowadays, many efforts have been done in combinatorial chemistry and synthesis of new compounds searching for new ...

  12. Increased osmotic sensitivity for antidiuretic response in chronic chagas' disease

    Joel Paulo Russomano Veiga

    1985-06-01

    Full Text Available The osmotic threshold for attaining the antidiuretic response to hypertonic saline infusion and Progressive dehydration was studied in 31 patients with the chronic form of Chagas' disease and 16 control patients. The chagasic patients exhibited enhanced osmoticsensitivity to the antidiuretic response. This was demonstrated by lower values of the increments in plasma osmolarity sufficient to induce a significant fall in water clearance, without alterations in the osmolar clearance or creatinine excretion. The time needed to attain the antidiuretic response was shorterfor chagasics in relation to normal subjects. The results suggest the existence of a disturbance in the fine control of osmoregulation in the chagasic patients. They are interpreted to be a consequence of the denervation in hypothalamic or extrahypothalamic areas that regulate the secretion of vasopressin in chronic Chagas' disease.O limiar de sensibilidade osmótíca para obtenção de resposta antídiurética foi avaliado em 31 pacientes com a forma crônica da moléstia de Chagas, através de infusão de salina hipertônica ou desidratação. Os resultados, quando comparados com os obtidos em 16 pacientes-controle, mostram uma sensibilidade osmótíca aumentada para os chagásicos, dados os menores valores do incremento na osmolaridade plasmática, suficiente para induzir uma queda significativa na depuração de água livre, sem alterações na depuração osmolar ou na excreção de creatínina. Também, o tempo necessário para atingir a antídiurese foi mais curto para os chagásicos do que para os controles. Os resultados sugerem a existência de um distúrbio na osmorregulação, nos pacientes chagásicos, caracterizado por uma sensibilidade osmótíca aumentada dos osmorreceptores para liberação da vasopressina. Estes dados interpretam-se como conseqüente à desnervação em áreas hipotalâmicas ou extra-hipotalâmicas, relacionadas com a secreção do horm

  13. New Scenarios of Chagas Disease Transmission in Northern Colombia

    Catalina Tovar Acero

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease (CD is a systemic parasitic infection caused by the flagellated form of Trypanosoma cruzi. Córdoba department, located in the Colombian Caribbean Coast, was not considered as a region at risk of T. cruzi transmission. In this article, we describe the first acute CD case in Salitral village in Sahagún, Córdoba, confirmed by microscopy and serological tests. Our results draw attention to a new scenario of transmission of acute CD in nonendemic areas of Colombia and highlight the need to include CD in the differential diagnosis of febrile syndromes in this region.

  14. New evidence of spontaneous cure in human Chagas' disease Novas evidências da cura espontânea da doença de Chagas humana

    Sonia S. Francolino

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A new case of spontaneous cure of human Chagas' disease is described in Uruguay. An 87-year-old man who had a typical acute phase of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in 1947 and never received specific treatment against the disease, when examined in 1998 revealed several completely negative parasitological and serological tests, including traditional serology, PCR and flow cytometry. As a whole, such findings fulfill the current criteria to define the cure of Chagas' disease. Clinical data suggest the possibility of a benign evolution of Chagas' disease in this case, but the basic findings (slight cardiac and esophageal impairment could also be due to the advanced age of the patient.Um novo caso de cura espontânea da doença de Chagas humana é descrito no Uruguai. Um homem de 87 anos de idade que teve um quadro típico de doença de Chagas aguda em 1947 e nunca recebeu tratamento específico, revelou-se em 1998 completamente negativo para exames sorológicos e parasitológicos, inclusive por PCR e citometria de fluxo. Estes achados, no conjunto, preenchem os critérios correntes para a definição de cura da doença de Chagas. O quadro clínico atual sugere a possiblidade de uma evolução benigna da doença de Chagas, mas os achados principais (comprometimento leve do coração e do esôfago poderiam também dever-se à avançada idade do paciente.

  15. Chagas Disease in Dogs from Endemic Areas of Costa Rica

    Montenegro Victor M

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Dogs with the presumptive diagnosis of Chagas disease are commonly sent to our School of Veterinary Medicine by independent veterinarians. This prompted us to evaluate the prevalence of canine trypanosomiasis in some villages of the Central Valley of Costa Rica. A total of 54 dogs (21 males and 33 females from five rural villages, with ages between 3 months and 10 years old, were bled and submitted to three serological tests: indirect immunofluorescence, indirect hemagglutination and ELISA. Among all animals, 15 (27.7% revealed antibodies (6 pure bred and 9 mongrels and in 3 of them the parasite was also demonstrated by xenodiagnosis. All positive animals except 1, and 9 negative animals (control group were examined by X-rays and electrocardiography, revealing different degrees of cardiomegaly and ECG alteration, consistent with Chagas disease pathology in one dog (SA-11 of the infected ones. Examination of 50 inhabitants living in the houses where dogs and Triatoma dimidiata were found, yielded negative serological reactions. This was assumed to support the hypothesis that dogs are commonly infected by the oral route, a more effective means of infection compared with the vector transmission mechanism that occurs in humans.

  16. A Multi-species Bait for Chagas Disease Vectors

    Mota, Theo; Vitta, Ana C. R.; Lorenzo-Figueiras, Alicia N.; Barezani, Carla P.; Zani, Carlos L.; Lazzari, Claudio R.; Diotaiuti, Liléia; Jeffares, Lynne; Bohman, Björn; Lorenzo, Marcelo G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Triatomine bugs are the insect vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease. These insects are known to aggregate inside shelters during daylight hours and it has been demonstrated that within shelters, the aggregation is induced by volatiles emitted from bug feces. These signals promote inter-species aggregation among most species studied, but the chemical composition is unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present work, feces from larvae of the three species were obtained and volatile compounds were identified by solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS). We identified five compounds, all present in feces of all of the three species: Triatoma infestans, Panstrongylus megistus and Triatoma brasiliensis. These substances were tested for attractivity and ability to recruit insects into shelters. Behaviorally active doses of the five substances were obtained for all three triatomine species. The bugs were significantly attracted to shelters baited with blends of 160 ng or 1.6 µg of each substance. Conclusions/Significance Common compounds were found in the feces of vectors of Chagas disease that actively recruited insects into shelters, which suggests that this blend of compounds could be used for the development of baits for early detection of reinfestation with triatomine bugs. PMID:24587457

  17. Research priorities for Chagas disease, human African trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis.

    2012-01-01

    This report provides a review and analysis of the research landscape for three diseases - Chagas disease, human African trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis - that disproportionately afflict poor and remote populations with limited access to health services. It represents the work of the disease reference group on Chagas Disease, Human African Trypanosomiasis and Leishmaniasis (DRG3) which was established to identify key research priorities through review of research evidence and input from stakeholders' consultations. The diseases, which are caused by related protozoan parasites, are described in terms of their epidemiology and diseases burden, clinical forms and pathogenesis, HIV coinfection, diagnosis, drugs and drug resistance, vaccines, vector control, and health-care interventions. Priority areas for research are identified based on criteria such as public health relevance, benefit and impact on poor populations and equity, and feasibility. The priorities are found in the areas of diagnostics, drugs, vector control, asymptomatic infection, economic analysis of treatment and vector control methods, and in some specific issues such as surveillance methods or transmission-blocking vaccines for particular diseases. This report will be useful to researchers, policy and decision-makers, funding bodies, implementation organizations, and civil society. This is one of ten disease and thematic reference group reports that have come out of the TDR Think Tank, all of which have contributed to the development of the Global Report for Research on Infectious Diseases of Poverty, available at: www.who.int/tdr/stewardship/global_report/en/index.html.

  18. Chagas disease transmission by consumption of game meat: systematic review.

    Sangenis, Luiz Henrique Conde; Nielebock, Marco Antonio Prates; Santos, Ceumara da Silva; Silva, Mateus Curty Carriello da; Bento, Glauber Motta Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of game meat consumption in Chagas disease (CD) transmission, the conditions under which it occurs and the frequency of reports in the literature. Through systematic review, databases PubMed, LILACS, MEDLINE, and SciELO were consulted, and articles written in Portuguese, English, and Spanish were included, with no limitation over publication date. We used the following descriptors: oral, transmission, meat, wild animals, hunt, carnivory, and Chagas disease. Articles that mentioned consumption of animal meat as a form of human transmission of CD were included. We used epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory evidence criteria to confirm cases. Among the 298 articles identified, only six met the eligibility criteria. Only five episodes of oral transmission through wild animal meat or blood consumption were identified. However, in two of them, the possibility of vectorial transmission could not be ruled out. Most reports met the epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory evidence criteria established to support the transmission. Though CD transmission is uncommon, hunting and consumption of wild mammals that serve as Trypanosoma cruzi reservoirs should be discouraged in endemic countries in light of the risks inherent to these practices.

  19. Urban transmission of Chagas disease in Cochabamba, Bolivia

    N Medrano-Mercado

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease is a major public health problem in Bolivia. In the city of Cochabamba, 58% of the population lives in peripheral urban districts ("popular zones" where the infection prevalence is extremely high. From 1995 to 1999, we studied the demographics of Chagas infections in children from five to 13 years old (n = 2218 from the South zone (SZ and North zone (NZ districts, which differ in social, environmental, and agricultural conditions. Information gathered from these districts demonstrates qualitative and quantitative evidence for the active transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in urban Cochabamba. Seropositivity was high in both zones (25% in SZ and 19% in NZ. We observed a high risk of infection in children from five to nine years old in SZ, but in NZ, a higher risk occurred in children aged 10-13, with odds ratio for infection three times higher in NZ than in SZ. This difference was not due to triatomine density, since more than 1,000 Triatoma infestans were captured in both zones, but was possibly secondary to the vector infection rate (79% in SZ and 37% in NZ. Electrocardiogram abnormalities were found to be prevalent in children and pre-adolescents (SZ = 40%, NZ = 17%, indicating that under continuous exposure to infection and re-infection, a severe form of the disease may develop early in life. This work demonstrates that T. cruzi infection should also be considered an urban health problem and is not restricted to the rural areas and small villages of Bolivia.

  20. Epidemiology of Chagas disease in Ecuador. A brief review

    Aguilar V H Marcelo

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease is a complex public health problem that has been underestimated in Ecuador. Here we review the relevant published information, and present unpublished and new data that help to understand the current Chagas disease epidemiological situation and its evolution in the country. Three main characteristics have been identified: (i persistence of Trypanosoma cruzi transmission in already known foci; (ii a marked endemicity in some urban areas of Guayaquil; and (iii the transformation of new Amazon foci into truly endemic areas. The situation in other suspect areas remains uncertain. Five Triatominae species have been implicated in the transmission of T. cruzi to people in Ecuador (Triatoma dimidiata, Rhodnius ecuadoriensis, R. pictipes, R. robustus and Panstrongylus geniculatus, but some others may also play a role in some areas (P. rufotuberculatus, P. howardi, T. carrioni and P. chinai. Other Triatominae reported seem to have little or no epidemiological relevance (T. venosa, T. dispar, Eratyrus mucronatus, E. cuspidatus, P. lignarius and Cavernicola pilosa. High frequency of acute cases and severe chronic disease has been observed. Although cardiomyopathy is more frequent, serious digestive disease is also present. It is estimated that around 120,000-200,000 people may be infected. 2.2 to 3.8 million people are estimated to live under transmission risk conditions.

  1. Waste package performance assessment

    Lester, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes work undertaken to assess the life-expectancy and post-failure nuclide release behavior of high-level and waste packages in a geologic repository. The work involved integrating models of individual phenomena (such as heat transfer, corrosion, package deformation, and nuclide transport) and using existing data to make estimates of post-emplacement behavior of waste packages. A package performance assessment code was developed to predict time to package failure in a flooded repository and subsequent transport of nuclides out of the leaking package. The model has been used to evaluate preliminary package designs. The results indicate, that within the limitation of model assumptions and data base, packages lasting a few hundreds of years could be developed. Very long lived packages may be possible but more comprehensive data are needed to confirm this

  2. Development of packagings for 'MONJU' blanket fuel assemblies

    Shibata, Kan; Ouchi, Yuichiro; Matsuzaki, Masaaki; Okuda, Yoshihisa

    1995-01-01

    Blanket assemblies for prototype Fast Breeder Reactor 'MONJU' are made at commercial fuel fabrication plants capable of handling deplete Uranium in Japan. For the purpose of transport the assemblies are inserted into a packaging that is set horizontally at the fabrication plants because of compatibility with equipment installed at the plants. On the other hand, the assemblies must be taken out from the packaging set vertically at 'MONJU' due to compatibility. For this reason development of a new packaging, which makes it possible to take assemblies in and out both horizontally and vertically, is needed to carry out transport of assemblies for reload. The development and fabrication of the packagings, taking about two years, were completed in March 1995. The packagings were used in transport of assemblies in June 1995 for the first change. This report introduces the outline of the packaging and confirmation tests done in the process of development. (author)

  3. Packaging for Food Service

    Stilwell, E. J.

    1985-01-01

    Most of the key areas of concern in packaging the three principle food forms for the space station were covered. It can be generally concluded that there are no significant voids in packaging materials availability or in current packaging technology. However, it must also be concluded that the process by which packaging decisions are made for the space station feeding program will be very synergistic. Packaging selection will depend heavily on the preparation mechanics, the preferred presentation and the achievable disposal systems. It will be important that packaging be considered as an integral part of each decision as these systems are developed.

  4. Waste Package Lifting Calculation

    H. Marr

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this calculation is to evaluate the structural response of the waste package during the horizontal and vertical lifting operations in order to support the waste package lifting feature design. The scope of this calculation includes the evaluation of the 21 PWR UCF (pressurized water reactor uncanistered fuel) waste package, naval waste package, 5 DHLW/DOE SNF (defense high-level waste/Department of Energy spent nuclear fuel)--short waste package, and 44 BWR (boiling water reactor) UCF waste package. Procedure AP-3.12Q, Revision 0, ICN 0, calculations, is used to develop and document this calculation

  5. Inhibition of Autoimmune Chagas-Like Heart Disease by Bone Marrow Transplantation

    Guimaro, M.C.; Alves, R. J. V.; Rose, E.; Sousa, A.O.; Rosa, A.D.; Hecht, M.M.; Sousa, M.V.; Andrade, R.R.; Vital, T.; Plachý, Jiří; Nitz, N.; Hejnar, Jiří; Gomes, C.C.; Teixeira, A.R.L.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 12 (2014) ISSN 1935-2735 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Chagas disease * inbred chicken * adoptive transfer of immunity Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.446, year: 2014

  6. Mapping of Chagas disease research: analysis of publications in the period between 1940 and 2009

    José Manuel Ramos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Publications are often used as a measure of success in research work. Chagas disease occurs in Central and Southern America. However, during the past years, the disease has been occurring outside Latin America due to migration from endemic zones. This article describes a bibliometric review of the literature on Chagas disease research indexed in PubMed during a 70-year period. METHODS: Medline was used via the PubMed online service of the U.S. National Library of Medicine from 1940 to 2009. The search strategy was: Chagas disease [MeSH] OR Trypanosoma cruzi [MeSH]. RESULTS: A total of 13,989 references were retrieved. The number of publications increased steadily over time from 1,361 (1940-1969 to 5,430 (2000-2009 (coefficient of determination for linear fit, R²=0.910. Eight journals contained 25% of the Chagas disease literature. Of the publications, 64.2% came from endemic countries. Brazil was the predominant country (37%, followed by the United States (17.6% and Argentina (14%. The ranking in production changed when the number of publications was normalized by estimated cases of Chagas disease (Panama and Uruguay, population (Argentina and Uruguay, and gross domestic product (Bolivia and Brazil. CONCLUSIONS: Several Latin American countries, where the prevalence of T. cruzi infection was not very high, were the main producers of the Chagas disease literature, after adjusting for economic and population indexes. The countries with more estimated cases of Chagas disease produced less research on Chagas disease than some developed countries.

  7. Follow up Evaluation of Air Force Blood Donors Screening Positive for Chagas Disease

    2017-10-05

    59 MDW/SGVU SUBJECT: Professional Presentation Approval 31 JULY2017 Your paper, entitled Follow-up Evaluation of Air Force Blood Donors Screening...PUBLISHED OR PRESENTED: Follow-up Evaluation of Air Force Blood Donors Screening Positive for Chagas Disease 7. FUNDING RECEIVED FOR THIS STUDY? 0...PREVIOUS EDITIONS ARE OBSOLETE 50. DATE Page 3 of 3 Pages Follow-up Evaluation of Air Force Blood Donors Screening Positive for Chagas Disease

  8. LOFT voltage insertion calibaration program

    Tillitt, D.N.; Miyasaki, F.S.

    1975-08-01

    The Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) Facility is an experimental facility built around a ''scaled'' version of a large pressurized water reactor (LPWR). Part of this facility is the Data Acquisition and Visual Display System (DAVDS) as defined by the LOFT System Design Document SDD 1.4.2C. The DAVDS has a 702 data channel recording capability of which 548 are recorded digitally. The DAVDS also contains a Voltage Insertion Calibration Subsystem used to inject precise and known voltage steps into the recording systems. The computer program that controls the Voltage Insertion Calibration Subsystem is presented. 7 references. (auth)

  9. Chagas disease: What is known and what should be improved: a systemic review

    José Rodrigues Coura

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study consists of a broad review on what is known and what should be improved regarding knowledge of Chagas disease, not only through analysis on the main studies published on the topics discussed, but to a large extent based on experience of this subject, acquired over the past 50 years (1961-2011. Among the subjects covered, we highlight the pathogenesis and evolution of infection by Trypanosoma cruzi, drugs in use and new strategies for treating Chagas disease; the serological tests for the diagnosis and the controls of cure the infection; the regional variations in prevalence, morbidity and response to treatment of the disease; the importance of metacyclogenesis of T. cruzi in different species of triatomines and its capacity to transmit Chagas infection; the risks of adaptation of wild triatomines to human dwellings; the morbidity and need for a surveillance and control program for Chagas disease in the Amazon region and the need to prioritize initiatives for controlling Chagas disease in Latin America and Mexico and in non-endemic countries, which is today a major international dilemma. Finally, we raise the need for to create a new initiative for controlling Chagas disease in the Gran Chaco, which involves parts of Argentina, Bolivia and Paraguay.

  10. Risk factors for Chagas disease among pregnant women in El Salvador.

    Sasagawa, Emi; Aiga, Hirotsugu; Corado, Edith Y; Cuyuch, Blanca L; Hernández, Marta A; Guevara, Ana V; Romero, José E; Ramos, Hector M; Cedillos, Rafael A; Misago, Chizuru; Kita, Kiyoshi

    2015-03-01

    To determine the seroprevalence of Chagas disease among pregnant women and estimate the risk factors for Chagas disease during pregnancies. Community-based serological tests on Trypanosoma cruzi and structured interviews on socio-demographic and socio-economic status were conducted with pregnant women registered at three health centres in Sonsonate province, El Salvador. Of 797 pregnant women participating in the study, 29 (3.6%) were infected with Chagas disease. None had clinical symptoms. The results of bivariate analyses showed the significant association between seropositivity and maternal age ≥35 years, anaemia, illiteracy, having no formal school education and having knowledge on Chagas disease (P < 0.05). The results of multivariate analysis indicate that age ≥35 years and anaemia were significantly associated with being infected with Chagas disease among pregnant women (OR = 3.541 and 5.197, respectively). We recommend that the national Chagas disease control programme be better coordinated with the national maternal and child health programme to introduce blood screening for T. cruzi during antenatal visits. If financial constraint allows systematic blood screening to be only partially implemented, resources should be focused on pregnant women ≥35 years and women who have anaemia. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Merganser Download Package

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data download package contains an Esri 10.0 MXD, file geodatabase and copy of this FGDC metadata record. The data in this package are used in support of the...

  12. Creative Thinking Package

    Jones, Clive

    1972-01-01

    A look at the latest package from a British managment training organization, which explains and demonstrates creative thinking techniques, including brainstorming. The package, designed for groups of twelve or more, consists of tapes, visuals, and associated exercises. (Editor/JB)

  13. Packaging Printing Today

    Stanislav Bolanča; Igor Majnarić; Kristijan Golubović

    2015-01-01

    Printing packaging covers today about 50% of all the printing products. Among the printing products there are printing on labels, printing on flexible packaging, printing on folding boxes, printing on the boxes of corrugated board, printing on glass packaging, synthetic and metal ones. The mentioned packaging are printed in flexo printing technique, offset printing technique, intaglio halftone process, silk – screen printing, ink ball printing, digital printing and hybrid printing process. T...

  14. Genome packaging in viruses

    Sun, Siyang; Rao, Venigalla B.; Rossmann, Michael G.

    2010-01-01

    Genome packaging is a fundamental process in a viral life cycle. Many viruses assemble preformed capsids into which the genomic material is subsequently packaged. These viruses use a packaging motor protein that is driven by the hydrolysis of ATP to condense the nucleic acids into a confined space. How these motor proteins package viral genomes had been poorly understood until recently, when a few X-ray crystal structures and cryo-electron microscopy structures became available. Here we discu...

  15. Agrochemicals against malaria, sleeping sickness, leishmaniasis and Chagas disease.

    Witschel, Matthias; Rottmann, Matthias; Kaiser, Marcel; Brun, Reto

    2012-01-01

    In tropical regions, protozoan parasites can cause severe diseases with malaria, leishmaniasis, sleeping sickness, and Chagas disease standing in the forefront. Many of the drugs currently being used to treat these diseases have been developed more than 50 years ago and can cause severe adverse effects. Above all, resistance to existing drugs is widespread and has become a serious problem threatening the success of control measures. In order to identify new antiprotozoal agents, more than 600 commercial agrochemicals have been tested on the pathogens causing the above mentioned diseases. For all of the pathogens, compounds were identified with similar or even higher activities than the currently used drugs in applied in vitro assays. Furthermore, in vivo activity was observed for the fungicide/oomyceticide azoxystrobin, and the insecticide hydramethylnon in the Plasmodium berghei mouse model, and for the oomyceticide zoxamide in the Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense STIB900 mouse model, respectively.

  16. Helietta apiculata: a tropical weapon against Chagas disease.

    Elena Ferreira, Maria; Rojas de Arias, Antonieta; Yaluff, Gloria; Vera de Bilbao, Ninfa; Nakayama, Hector; Torres, Susana; Schinini, Alicia; Torres, Susana; Serna, Elva; Torrecilhas, Ana Claudia; Fournet, Alain; Cebrián-Torrejón, Gerardo

    2018-05-10

    The present study pretends to evaluate the in vivo efficacy of the crude chloroform bark extract of Helietta apiculata, then the activity will be compared with the reference drug, benznidazole, in acute Trypanosoma cruzi infected mice when administered by oral route. The chloroformic extract of Helieta apiculata was administered by oral route at 5, 10 and 50 mg/kg daily for two weeks. This study has shown a moderate efficacy of the H. apiculata bark extract in reducing T. cruzi parasitaemia in 42 to 54% after a monitoring of 60 days post-infection and when compared with control groups. Concerning mice mortality, only two only two mice died, one from the control group and the other one from the group threated with 10 mg of the chlorofom extract of H. apiculata, suggesting the potential of H. apiculta extracts as a safe and inexpensive treatment of Chagas disease.

  17. Trends in Food Packaging.

    Ott, Dana B.

    1988-01-01

    This article discusses developments in food packaging, processing, and preservation techniques in terms of packaging materials, technologies, consumer benefits, and current and potential food product applications. Covers implications due to consumer life-style changes, cost-effectiveness of packaging materials, and the ecological impact of…

  18. Chagas disease study using satellite image processing: A Bolivian case

    Vargas-Cuentas, Natalia I.; Roman-Gonzalez, Avid; Mantari, Alicia Alva; Muñoz, Luis AnthonyAucapuma

    2018-03-01

    Remote sensing is the technology that has enabled us to obtain information about the Earth's surface without directly contacting it. For this reason, currently, the Bolivian state has considered a list of interesting applications of remote sensing in the country, including the following: biodiversity and environment monitoring, mining and geology, epidemiology, agriculture, water resources and land use planning. The use of satellite images has become a great tool for epidemiology because with this technological advance we can determine the environment in which transmission occurs, the distribution of the disease and its evolution over time. In that context, one of the important diseases related to public health in Bolivia is Chagas disease, also known as South American Trypanosomiasis. Chagas is caused by a blood-sucking bug or Vinchuca, which causes serious intestinal and heart long term problems and affects 33.4% of the Bolivian population. This disease affects mostly humble people, so the Bolivian state invests millions of dollars to acquire medicine and distribute it for free. Due to the above reasons, the present research aims to analyze some areas of Bolivia using satellite images for developing an epidemiology study. The primary objective is to understand the environment in which the transmission of the disease happens, and the climatic conditions under which occurs, observe the behavior of the blood-sucking bug, identify in which months occur higher outbreaks, in which months the bug leaves its eggs, and under which weather conditions this happens. All this information would be contrasted with information extracted from the satellite images and data from the Ministry of Health, and the Institute of Meteorology in Bolivia. All this data will allow us to have a more integrated understanding of this disease and promote new possibilities to prevent and control it.

  19. Summary of experimental insertions workshop

    Sandweiss, J.; Month, M.

    1976-01-01

    An ISABELLE workshop of the summer 1976 series, which was held at Brookhaven August 16--20, focused on the design and utilization of the experimental insertions. The goals of the workshop are outlined, and a few general remarks about the results are presented

  20. Concepts for stereoselective acrylate insertion

    Neuwald, Boris

    2013-01-23

    Various phosphinesulfonato ligands and the corresponding palladium complexes [{((PaO)PdMeCl)-μ-M}n] ([{( X1-Cl)-μ-M}n], (PaO) = κ2- P,O-Ar2PC6H4SO2O) with symmetric (Ar = 2-MeOC6H4, 2-CF3C6H4, 2,6-(MeO)2C6H3, 2,6-(iPrO)2C 6H3, 2-(2′,6′-(MeO)2C 6H3)C6H4) and asymmetric substituted phosphorus atoms (Ar1 = 2,6-(MeO)2C6H 3, Ar2 = 2′-(2,6-(MeO)2C 6H3)C6H4; Ar1 = 2,6-(MeO)2C6H3, Ar2 = 2-cHexOC 6H4) were synthesized. Analyses of molecular motions and dynamics by variable temperature NMR studies and line shape analysis were performed for the free ligands and the complexes. The highest barriers of ΔGa = 44-64 kJ/mol were assigned to an aryl rotation process, and the flexibility of the ligand framework was found to be a key obstacle to a more effective stereocontrol. An increase of steric bulk at the aryl substituents raises the motional barriers but diminishes insertion rates and regioselectivity. The stereoselectivity of the first and the second methyl acrylate (MA) insertion into the Pd-Me bond of in situ generated complexes X1 was investigated by NMR and DFT methods. The substitution pattern of the ligand clearly affects the first MA insertion, resulting in a stereoselectivity of up to 6:1 for complexes with an asymmetric substituted phosphorus. In the consecutive insertion, the stereoselectivity is diminished in all cases. DFT analysis of the corresponding insertion transition states revealed that a selectivity for the first insertion with asymmetric (P aO) complexes is diminished in the consecutive insertions due to uncooperatively working enantiomorphic and chain end stereocontrol. From these observations, further concepts are developed. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  1. Active Packaging Coatings

    Luis J. Bastarrachea

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Active food packaging involves the packaging of foods with materials that provide an enhanced functionality, such as antimicrobial, antioxidant or biocatalytic functions. This can be achieved through the incorporation of active compounds into the matrix of the commonly used packaging materials, or by the application of coatings with the corresponding functionality through surface modification. The latter option offers the advantage of preserving the packaging materials’ bulk properties nearly intact. Herein, different coating technologies like embedding for controlled release, immobilization, layer-by-layer deposition, and photografting are explained and their potential application for active food packaging is explored and discussed.

  2. A doença de Chagas no Paraná Chagas disease in the state of Paraná

    H. C. de Souza-Araujo

    1954-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent speech in Curitiba (May 22nd, 1954, Dr. Mario Pinotti, Director, Serviço Nacional da Malaria, informed that his personnel started on February, 1953, a survey upon chagas Disease in 23 counties of the State of Paraná, South Brazil. out of 895 places surveyed, 678, or 75.7%, were infected by Triatoma infestans klug 1834 and in 234 out of those 678, or 34.5%, this vector was infected by Trypanosoma cruzi. The general natural infection of the insects examined reached 18.86%. The serological survey (Machado-Guerreiro test was positive in 10.7% of the persons examined in jacarezinho and in 28.3% of those living in Bôa Vista. These data suggested the author to actualise the subject. During his control of severe outbreack of malaria in the North part of Paraná, from march to June 1917 he worked in 8 counties. March 1917 he photographed in Boa Vista four girls, severe cases of chronic malaria, two of which showed bi-palpebral oedema, later on considered by Dr. Pinho Simões (1943 as Romanã syndrome (created in 1935 and Prof. Salvador Mazza (1946 classified as typical cases of Chagas' Disease. now, being elapsed 36 years, the National Service of Malaria confirmed the discovery. The region surveyed was populated, in the beginning of this century, by immigrants from the State of Minas Gerais, from where the author believes that were imported the disease and its vectors. In April 1917 the A. discovered that the old town Jatahy was a big focus of Triatoma megista (now Panstrongylus megistus0. All its 43 houses were strongly infested by such hematophagus and amongst the 200 inhabitants seen many were suspicious cases of chronic cases of Chagas's Disease. In the Indians town (three tribes of S. Pedro D' Alcantara, situated in front of Jatahy, in the left side of the river Tibagy, there were no Triatomas nor suspicious cases of trypanosomiasis. In 1919 the author started the control of the endemics by destroying the foci of Triatomas and reforming

  3. Chagas disease and globalization of the Amazon La enfermedad de Chagas y la globalización de la Amazonia

    Roberto Briceño-León

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number of autochthonous cases of Chagas disease in the Amazon since the 1970s has led to fear that the disease may become a new public health problem in the region. This transformation in the disease's epidemiological pattern in the Amazon can be explained by environmental and social changes in the last 30 years. The current article draws on the sociological theory of perverse effects to explain these changes as the unwanted result of the shift from the "inward" development model prevailing until the 1970s to the "outward" model that we know as globalization, oriented by industrial forces and international trade. The current article highlights the implementation of five new patterns in agriculture, cattle-raising, mining, lumbering, and urban occupation that have generated changes in the environment and the traditional indigenous habitat and have led to migratory flows, deforestation, sedentary living, the presence of domestic animals, and changes in the habitat that facilitate colonization of human dwellings by vectors and the domestic and work-related transmission of the disease. The expansion of Chagas disease is thus a perverse effect of the globalization process in the Amazon.El incremento de casos autóctonos de la enfermedad de Chagas en la Amazonia a partir de los años setenta hace temer que pueda convertirse en un novedoso problema de salud pública en la región. Este cambio del patrón epidemiológico de la enfermedad en la región amazónica debe ser explicado por las transformaciones ambientales y sociales que han ocurrido en los pasados treinta años. Este artículo utiliza la teoría sociológica de los efectos perversos para explicar esos cambios como el resultado indeseado del cambio de modelo de desarrollo "hacia adentro", que había existido hasta los años setenta, por otro "hacia fuera" que está orientado por las fuerzas de la producción y el comercio internacional que conocemos como globalización. El art

  4. Advancements in meat packaging.

    McMillin, Kenneth W

    2017-10-01

    Packaging of meat provides the same or similar benefits for raw chilled and processed meats as other types of food packaging. Although air-permeable packaging is most prevalent for raw chilled red meat, vacuum and modified atmosphere packaging offer longer shelf life. The major advancements in meat packaging have been in the widely used plastic polymers while biobased materials and their integration into composite packaging are receiving much attention for functionality and sustainability. At this time, active and intelligent packaging are not widely used for antioxidant, antimicrobial, and other functions to stabilize and enhance meat properties although many options are being developed and investigated. The advances being made in nanotechnology will be incorporated into food packaging and presumably into meat packaging when appropriate and useful. Intelligent packaging using sensors for transmission of desired information and prompting of subsequent changes in packaging materials, environments or the products to maintain safety and quality are still in developmental stages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Packaging of microwave integrated circuits operating beyond 100 GHz

    Samoska, L.; Daniel, E.; Sokolov, V.; Sommerfeldt, S.; Bublitz, J.; Olson, K.; Gilbert, B.; Chow, D.

    2002-01-01

    Several methods of packaging high speed (75-330 GHz) InP HEMT MMIC devices are discussed. Coplanar wirebonding is presented with measured insertion loss of less than 0.5dB and return loss better than -17 dB from DC to 110 GHz. A motherboard/daughterboard packaging scheme is presented which supports minimum loss chains of MMICs using this coplanar wirebonding method. Split waveguide block packaging approaches are presented in G-band (140-220 GHz) with two types of MMIC-waveguide transitions: E-plane probe andantipodal finline.

  6. Edible packaging materials.

    Janjarasskul, Theeranun; Krochta, John M

    2010-01-01

    Research groups and the food and pharmaceutical industries recognize edible packaging as a useful alternative or addition to conventional packaging to reduce waste and to create novel applications for improving product stability, quality, safety, variety, and convenience for consumers. Recent studies have explored the ability of biopolymer-based food packaging materials to carry and control-release active compounds. As diverse edible packaging materials derived from various by-products or waste from food industry are being developed, the dry thermoplastic process is advancing rapidly as a feasible commercial edible packaging manufacturing process. The employment of nanocomposite concepts to edible packaging materials promises to improve barrier and mechanical properties and facilitate effective incorporation of bioactive ingredients and other designed functions. In addition to the need for a more fundamental understanding to enable design to desired specifications, edible packaging has to overcome challenges such as regulatory requirements, consumer acceptance, and scaling-up research concepts to commercial applications.

  7. [Costs of Chagas' disease screening test in blood donors in two Colombian blood banks, 2015].

    Alvis, Nelson José; Díaz, Diana Patricia; Castillo, Liliana; Alvis, Nelson Rafael; Bermúdez, María Isabel; Berrío, Olga Maritza; Beltrán, Mauricio; Castañeda-Orjuela, Carlos Andrés

    2018-03-15

    Transfusion is a mechanism of transmission of Chagas' disease. There are no studies on the costs of the screening test in Colombian blood banks. To estimate the costs of the screening test for Chagas' disease among blood donors in two Colombian blood banks, 2015. We conducted a micro-costing study from the perspective of the health care provider to estimate the cost of Chagas' disease testing in two blood banks, Banco de Sangre de la Cruz Roja, Seccional Bolívar, and Banco de Sangre del Hospital de Yopal, Casanare, taking into account four cost categories: 1) Administrative costs: public services and insurance costs were calculated based on the blood bank area in square meters; 2) capital costs: building and equipment costs that were annualized using a 3% discount rate and a lifespan of 20 years for building and five for equipment; 3) costs of Chagas' disease test materials and reagents adjusted by blood bank production level, and 4) costs of staff in charge of Chagas' disease test processing. The costs of transfusion bagsand immunohematology tests are also reported. The cost of Chagas' disease test in the blood bank of Seccional Bolívar was COP$ 37,804 (USD$ 12), and the blood bag and immunohematology test costs were COP$ 25,941 (USD$ 8.2) and COP$ 6,800 (USD$ 2.2), respectively. In the blood bank of Yopal, Casanare, the costs were COP$ 77,384 (USD$ 24.6), COP$ 30,141 (USD$ 9.6) and COP$ 12,627 (USD$ 4), respectively. Personnel cost accounted for the highest percentage of the total cost for both blood banks (47.5% in Seccional Bolívar, and 55.7% in Yopal, Casanare). Our results are an important input for the planning of services and cost-effectiveness studies for screening tests for Chagas' disease in Colombian blood banks.

  8. The first LHC insertion quadrupole

    2004-01-01

    An important milestone was reached in December 2003 at the CERN Magnet Assembly Facility. The team from the Accelerator Technology - Magnet and Electrical Systems group, AT-MEL, completed the first special superconducting quadrupole for the LHC insertions which house the experiments and major collider systems. The magnet is 8 metres long and contains two matching quadrupole magnets and an orbit corrector, a dipole magnet, used to correct errors in quadrupole alignment. All were tested in liquid helium and reached the ultimate performance criteria required for the LHC. After insertion in the cryostat, the superconducting magnet will be installed as the Q9 quadrupole in sector 7-8, the first sector of the LHC to be put in place in 2004. Members of the quadrupole team, from the AT-MEL group, gathered around the Q9 quadrupole at its inauguration on 12 December 2003 in building 181.

  9. Insertion device calculations with mathematica

    Carr, R. [Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lab., CA (United States); Lidia, S. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    The design of accelerator insertion devices such as wigglers and undulators has usually been aided by numerical modeling on digital computers, using code in high level languages like Fortran. In the present era, there are higher level programming environments like IDL{reg_sign}, MatLab{reg_sign}, and Mathematica{reg_sign} in which these calculations may be performed by writing much less code, and in which standard mathematical techniques are very easily used. The authors present a suite of standard insertion device modeling routines in Mathematica to illustrate the new techniques. These routines include a simple way to generate magnetic fields using blocks of CSEM materials, trajectory solutions from the Lorentz force equations for given magnetic fields, Bessel function calculations of radiation for wigglers and undulators and general radiation calculations for undulators.

  10. Ring insertions as light sources

    Green, G.K.

    1975-01-01

    Bending magnets can be inserted in the long straight sections of electron storage rings to produce synchrotron radiation. If the design is carefully proportioned, the bending magnets create only a small perturbation of the properties of the ring. The resulting spectra have favorable optical properties as sources for spectroscopy and diffraction studies. The characteristics of the source are discussed, and the geometrical requirements of the magnets are presented

  11. Vacuum guidelines for ISA insertions

    Edwards, D. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Vacuum requirements place design restrictions on the ISA insertions. The vacuum tube diameter, given a distance L between pumps, is determined by the desorption of molecules from the wall under the impact of ions created by the beam, whereas the thickness of the tube must be sufficient to prevent collapse. In addition, the entire vacuum chamber must be able to be baked out at approximately 200 0 C

  12. Inserts for nuclear fuel elements

    Cragg, P.J.

    1982-01-01

    An insert for a nuclear fuel pin which comprises a strip. The strip carries notches, which enable a coding arrangement to be carried on the strip. The notches may be of differing sizes and the coding on the strip includes identification and identification checking data. Each notch on the strip may give rise to a signal pulse which is counted by a detector to avoid errors. (author)

  13. ATLAS insertable B-layer

    Marčišovský, Michal

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 633, č. 1 (2011), "S224"-"S225" ISSN 0168-9002. [International workshop on radiation imaging detectors /11./. Praha, 26.06.2009-02.07.2009] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA08015; GA MŠk LA08032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : ATLAS * pixel detector * insertable B-layer Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.207, year: 2011

  14. HTS Insert Magnet Design Study

    Devaux, M; Fleiter, J; Fazilleau, P; Lécrevisse, T; Pes, C; Rey, J-M; Rifflet, J-M; Sorbi, M; Stenvall, A; Tixador, P; Volpini, G

    2011-01-01

    Future accelerator magnets will need to reach higher field in the range of 20 T. This field level is very difficult to reach using only Low Temperature Superconductor materials whereas High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) provide interesting opportunities. High current densities and stress levels are needed to design such magnets. YBCO superconductor indeed carries large current densities under high magnetic field and provides good mechanical properties especially when produced using the IBAD approach. The HFM EUCARD program studies the design and the realization of an HTS insert of 6 T inside a Nb$_{3}$Sn dipole of 13T at 4.2 K. In the2HTS insert, engineering current densities higher than 250 MA/m under 19 T are required to fulfill the specifications. The stress level is also very severe. YBCO IBAD tapes theoretically meet these challenges from presented measurements. The insert protection is also a critical because HTS materials show low quench propagation velocities and the coupling with the Nb$_{3}$Sn m...

  15. Chagas' disease in the Amazon Basin: V. Periurban palms as habitats of Rhodnius robustus and Rhodnius pictipes - triatomine vectors of Chagas' disease

    M. A. Miles

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi infected Rhodnius robustus and/or Rhodnius pictipes were commonly found, in large numbers, in the Brazilian Amazonian palms Maximiliana regia ("inajá", Acrocomia sclerocarpa ("mucajá" and Orbignya speciosa ("babaçu". The common opossum, Didelphis marsupialis, was the animal most frequently associated with triatomine infested palms. R. pictipes, frequently light-attracted into houses from palm trees, was the probable source of an acute case of Chagas' disease in the vicinity of Belém. It is considered that triatomine infested palms are likely to cause some cases of acute Chagas' disease in the States of Amazonas and Rondônia. Possible control methods are suggested.Rhodnius robustus e/ou Rhodnius pictipes, infectados com Trypanosoma cruzi foram comumente encontrados, em grande numero, nas palmeiras Maximiliana regia (inaja, Acrocomia sclerocarpa (mucaja e Orbignya speciosa (babacu na Amazonia brasileira. O marsupial Didelphis marsupialis foi o animal encontrado mais frequentemente nas palmeiras associadas a alta prevalencia de triatomineos. R. pictipes que e atraido pela luz nas residencias de palmeiras vizinhas, provavelmente e a fonte de um caso agudo de doenca de Chagas nas vizinhancas de Belem. Sugere-se que as palmeiras albergando triatomineos poderiam ser relacionadas com infeccoes humanas de doenca de Chagas nos Estados de Amazonas e Rondonia. Sugere-se, tambem, possiveis metodos de controle.

  16. La enfermedad de Chagas en las Américas: una perspectiva de ecosalud Chagas disease in the Americas: an ecohealth perspective

    Roberto Briceño-León

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El proceso de transmisión de la enfermedad de Chagas ha estado históricamente relacionado con los patrones de ocupación territorial de los asentamientos humanos. En las áreas rurales puede ocurrir más fácilmente el encuentro del vector, los agentes patógenos y los seres humanos, por las condiciones de la vivienda y la pobreza existente en estas zonas. Los procesos migratorios permanentes o estacionales han jugado un papel igualmente importante en el transporte de los vectores y en la infección de la población en las zonas urbanas. Las nuevas fronteras agrícolas del Amazonas se han establecido nuevas áreas de transmisión de la enfermedad. La atención dada a los bancos de sangre ha permitido disminuir la transmisión transfusional, pero la inmigración internacional ha cambiado la situación epidemiológica, pues en Estados Unidos y España viven miles de enfermos que habían sido infectados décadas antes y no encuentran adecuada atención. Los avances en el conocimiento y el control de la enfermedad son mostrados en el artículo, señalando las limitaciones existentes en cuanto al mejoramiento de las condiciones ambientales y de vivienda de los pobres.The historical processes involved in Chagas disease transmission relate to the patterns and conditions of human settlements, especially in rural areas, due to proximity to forest areas, where both vectors and Trypanosoma cruzi can occur, combined with precarious housing conditions and underlying poverty. However, seasonal and permanent rural-urban migration has played a major role in re-mobilizing vectors, T. cruzi, and Chagas-infected individuals. A new agricultural frontier in the Amazon has led to a new transmission pattern, especially with palm trees located close to houses. Improved blood bank surveillance has decreased transmission by blood transfusions. International migration also plays a role in Chagas disease epidemiology. The United States and Spain, where specific health

  17. Lithium niobate packaging challenges

    Murphy, E.J.; Holmes, R.J.; Jander, R.B.; Schelling, A.W.

    1988-01-01

    The use of lithium niobate integrated optic devices outside of the research laboratory is predicated on the development of a sound packaging method. The authors present a discussion of the many issues that face the development of a viable, robust packaging technology. The authors emphasize the interaction of lithium niobate's physical properties with available packaging materials and technologies. The broad range of properties (i.e. electro-optic, piezo-electric, pyro-electric, photorefractive...) that make lithium niobate an interesting material in many device applications also make it a packaging challenge. The package design, materials and packaging technologies must isolate the device from the environment so that lithium niobate's properties do not adversely affect the device performance

  18. Packaged die heater

    Spielberger, Richard; Ohme, Bruce Walker; Jensen, Ronald J.

    2011-06-21

    A heater for heating packaged die for burn-in and heat testing is described. The heater may be a ceramic-type heater with a metal filament. The heater may be incorporated into the integrated circuit package as an additional ceramic layer of the package, or may be an external heater placed in contact with the package to heat the die. Many different types of integrated circuit packages may be accommodated. The method provides increased energy efficiency for heating the die while reducing temperature stresses on testing equipment. The method allows the use of multiple heaters to heat die to different temperatures. Faulty die may be heated to weaken die attach material to facilitate removal of the die. The heater filament or a separate temperature thermistor located in the package may be used to accurately measure die temperature.

  19. Packaging for Sustainability

    Lewis, Helen; Fitzpatrick, Leanne

    2012-01-01

    The packaging industry is under pressure from regulators, customers and other stakeholders to improve packaging’s sustainability by reducing its environmental and societal impacts. This is a considerable challenge because of the complex interactions between products and their packaging, and the many roles that packaging plays in the supply chain. Packaging for Sustainability is a concise and readable handbook for practitioners who are trying to implement sustainability strategies for packaging. Industry case studies are used throughout the book to illustrate possible applications and scenarios. Packaging for Sustainability draws on the expertise of researchers and industry practitioners to provide information on business benefits, environmental issues and priorities, environmental evaluation tools, design for environment, marketing strategies, and challenges for the future.

  20. Triatominae Biochemistry Goes to School: Evaluation of a Novel Tool for Teaching Basic Biochemical Concepts of Chagas Disease Vectors

    Cunha, Leonardo Rodrigues; de Oliveria Cudischevitch, Cecília; Carneiro, Alan Brito; Macedo, Gustavo Bartholomeu; Lannes, Denise; da Silva-Neto, Mário Alberto Cardoso

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate a new approach to teaching the basic biochemistry mechanisms that regulate the biology of Triatominae, major vectors of "Trypanosoma cruzi," the causative agent of Chagas disease. We have designed and used a comic book, "Carlos Chagas: 100 years after a hero's discovery" containing scientific information obtained by…

  1. Epilepsia e doença de chagas cronica

    Edymar Jardim

    1981-03-01

    Full Text Available A síndrome epiléptica em chagásicos crônicos, foi referida raramente na literatura especializazda, não tendo sido feito até o momento, um estudo detalhado das suas manifestações. Partindo-se da premissa de que a moléstia de Chagas tem por substrato anatômico uma destruição neuronal, procurou-se comparar dois grupos de epilépticos, um dos quais com moléstia de Chagas crônica. Foram estudados 167 pacientes epilépticos, dos quais 44 eram comprovadamente chagásicos. O estudo permitiu coletar dados referentes à procedência dos pacientes, resultado soro-lógico, sexo, idade, época de incidência das manifestações epilépticas, elementos dos exames neurológicos, do líquido cefalorraqueano, eletrencefalográfico e os resultados da terapêutica anticonvulsivante. Como resultados principais destacamos o início tardio da epilepsia nos chagásicos, e o predomínio acentuado das crises parciais com sintomatologia elementar de tipo autonômico. O exame neurológico e o do líquido cefalorraqueano, apesar de apresentarem percentualmente nos seus resultados, taxas moderadamente mais elevadas na incidência de alterações, não caracterizaram síndromes neurológicas bem definidas. O exame eletrencefalográfico, revelou alterações sugestivas de comprometimento orgânico cerebral difuso. A terapêutica anticonvulsivante, baseada na utilização de hidantoinatos, barbitúricos, primidona e benzodiazepínicos, mostrou que o controle das crises foi mais difícil nos chagásicos, exigindo maiores quantidades de medicação, com resultados menos satisfatórios.

  2. Scintigraphy for the detection of myocardial damage in the indeterminate form of Chagas disease

    Pedroso, Enio Roberto Pietra; Rezende, Nilton Alves de

    2010-01-01

    Background: non-invasive cardiological methods have been used for the identification of myocardial damage in Chagas disease. Objective: to verify whether the rest/stress myocardial perfusion scintigraphy is able to identify early myocardial damage in the indeterminate form of Chagas disease. Methods: eighteen patients with the indeterminate form of Chagas Disease and the same number of normal controls, paired by sex and age, underwent rest/stress myocardial scintigraphy using sestamibi-99mTc, aiming at detecting early cardiac damage. Results: the results did not show perfusion or ventricular function defects in patients at the indeterminate phase of Chagas disease and in the normal controls, except for a patient who presented signs of ventricular dysfunction in the myocardial perfusion scintigraphy with electrocardiographic gating. Conclusion: the results of this study, considering the small sample size, showed that the rest/stress myocardial scintigraphy using sestamibi-99mTc is not an effective method to detect early myocardial alterations in the indeterminate form of Chagas disease (author)

  3. Scintigraphy for the detection of myocardial damage in the indeterminate form of Chagas disease

    Pedroso, Enio Roberto Pietra; Rezende, Nilton Alves de, E-mail: narezende@terra.com.b [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; Abuhid, Ivana Moura [Instituto de Medicina Nuclear e Diagnostico Molecular, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2010-07-15

    Background: non-invasive cardiological methods have been used for the identification of myocardial damage in Chagas disease. Objective: to verify whether the rest/stress myocardial perfusion scintigraphy is able to identify early myocardial damage in the indeterminate form of Chagas disease. Methods: eighteen patients with the indeterminate form of Chagas Disease and the same number of normal controls, paired by sex and age, underwent rest/stress myocardial scintigraphy using sestamibi-99mTc, aiming at detecting early cardiac damage. Results: the results did not show perfusion or ventricular function defects in patients at the indeterminate phase of Chagas disease and in the normal controls, except for a patient who presented signs of ventricular dysfunction in the myocardial perfusion scintigraphy with electrocardiographic gating. Conclusion: the results of this study, considering the small sample size, showed that the rest/stress myocardial scintigraphy using sestamibi-99mTc is not an effective method to detect early myocardial alterations in the indeterminate form of Chagas disease (author)

  4. Association of caspase-1 polymorphisms with Chagas cardiomyopathy among individuals in Santa Cruz, Bolivia.

    Fu, Katherine Yih-Jia; Zamudio, Roxana; Henderson-Frost, Jo; Almuedo, Alex; Steinberg, Hannah; Clipman, Steven Joseph; Duran, Gustavo; Marcus, Rachel; Crawford, Thomas; Alyesh, Daniel; Colanzi, Rony; Flores, Jorge; Gilman, Robert Hugh; Bern, Caryn

    2017-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi (Tc) infection is usually acquired in childhood in endemic areas, leading to Chagas disease, which progresses to Chagas cardiomyopathy in 20-30% of infected individuals over decades. The pathogenesis of Chagas cardiomyopathy involves the host inflammatory response to T. cruzi, in which upstream caspase-1 activation prompts the cascade of inflammatory chemokines/cytokines, cardiac remodeling, and myocardial dysfunction. The aim of the present study was to examine the association of two caspase-1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with cardiomyopathy. We recruited infected (Tc+, n = 149) and uninfected (Tc-, n = 87) participants in a hospital in Santa Cruz, Bolivia. Cardiac status was classified (I, II, III, IV) based on Chagas cardiomyopathy-associated electrocardiogram findings and ejection fractions on echocardiogram. Genotypes were determined using Taqman probes via reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction of peripheral blood DNA. Genotype frequencies were analyzed according to three inheritance patterns (dominant, recessive, additive) using logistic regression adjusted for age and sex. The AA allele for the caspase-1 SNP rs501192 was more frequent in Tc+ cardiomyopathy (classes II, III, IV) patients compared to those with a normal cardiac status (class I) [odds ratio (OR) = -2.18, p = 0.117]. This trend approached statistical significant considering only Tc+ patients in class I and II (OR = -2.64, p = 0.064). Caspase-1 polymorphisms may play a role in Chagas cardiomyopathy development and could serve as markers to identify individuals at higher risk for priority treatment.

  5. Controlled but not cured: Structural processes and explanatory models of Chagas disease in tropical Bolivia.

    Forsyth, Colin

    2015-11-01

    Dressler (2001:456) characterizes medical anthropology as divided between two poles: the constructivist, which focuses on the "meaning and significance that events have for people," and the structuralist, which emphasizes socioeconomic processes and relationships. This study synthesizes structuralist and constructivist perspectives by investigating how structural processes impact explanatory models of Chagas disease in a highly endemic area. The research took place from March-June 2013 through the Centro Medico Humberto Parra, a non-profit clinic servicing low income populations in Palacios, Bolivia and surrounding communities. Semistructured interviews (n = 68) and consensus analysis questionnaires (n = 48) were administered to people dealing with Chagas disease. In the interview narratives, respondents link Chagas disease with experiences of marginalization and rural poverty, and describe multilayered impediments to accessing treatment. They often view the disease as incurable, but this reflects inconsistent messages from the biomedical system. The consensus analysis results show strong agreement on knowledge of the vector, ethnomedical treatment, and structural factors related to Chagas disease. In interpreting Chagas disease, respondents account for the structural factors which place them at risk and impede access to care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Chagas Disease Knowledge and Risk Behaviors of the Homeless Population in Houston, TX.

    Ingber, Alexandra; Garcia, Melissa N; Leon, Juan; Murray, Kristy O

    2018-04-01

    Chagas disease is a parasitic infection, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, endemic in Latin America. Sylvatic T. cruzi-infected triatomine vectors are present in rural and urban areas in the southern USA and may transmit T. cruzi infection to at-risk populations, such as homeless individuals. Our study aimed to evaluate Chagas disease knowledge and behaviors potentially associated with transmission risk of Chagas disease among Houston, Texas' homeless population by performing interviews with 212 homeless individuals. The majority of the 212 surveyed homeless individuals were male (79%), African-American (43%), American-born individuals (96%). About 30% of the individuals reported having seen triatomines in Houston, and 25% had evidence of blood-borne transmission risk (IV drug use and/or unregulated tattoos). The median total time homeless was significantly associated with recognition of the triatomine vector. Our survey responses indicate that the homeless populations may exhibit potential risks for Chagas disease, due to increased vector exposure, and participation in blood-borne pathogen risk behaviors. Our findings warrant additional research to quantify the prevalence of Chagas disease among homeless populations.

  7. MARS software package status

    Azhgirej, I.L.; Talanov, V.V.

    2000-01-01

    The MARS software package is intended for simulating the nuclear-electromagnetic cascades and the secondary neutrons and muons transport in the heterogeneous medium of arbitrary complexity in the magnetic fields presence. The inclusive approach to describing the particle production in the nuclear and electromagnetic interactions and by the unstable particles decay is realized in the package. The MARS software package was actively applied for solving various radiation physical problems [ru

  8. User friendly packaging

    Geert Jensen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    Most consumers have experienced occasional problems with opening packaging. Tomato sauce from the tinned mackerel splattered all over the kitchen counter, the unrelenting pickle jar lid, and the package of sliced ham that cannot be opened without a knife or a pair of scissors. The research project...... “User-friendly Packaging” aims to create a platform for developing more user-friendly packaging. One intended outcome of the project is a guideline that industry can use in development efforts. The project also points the way for more extended collaboration between companies and design researchers. How...... can design research help industry in packaging innovation?...

  9. The ZOOM minimization package

    Fischler, Mark S.; Sachs, D.

    2004-01-01

    A new object-oriented Minimization package is available for distribution in the same manner as CLHEP. This package, designed for use in HEP applications, has all the capabilities of Minuit, but is a re-write from scratch, adhering to modern C++ design principles. A primary goal of this package is extensibility in several directions, so that its capabilities can be kept fresh with as little maintenance effort as possible. This package is distinguished by the priority that was assigned to C++ design issues, and the focus on producing an extensible system that will resist becoming obsolete

  10. Plasma physics plotting package

    Hyman, D.H.

    1981-02-01

    We describe a package of plotting routines that do up to six two- or three-dimensional plots on a frame with minimal loss of resolution. The package now runs on a PDP-10 with PLOT-10 TCS primitives and on a Control Data Corporation-7600 and a Cray-1 with TV80LIB primitives on the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computer Center network. The package is portable to other graphics systems because only the primitive plot calls are used from the underlying system's graphics package

  11. Active food packaging technologies.

    Ozdemir, Murat; Floros, John D

    2004-01-01

    Active packaging technologies offer new opportunities for the food industry, in the preservation of foods. Important active packaging systems currently known to date, including oxygen scavengers, carbon dioxide emitters/absorbers, moisture absorbers, ethylene absorbers, ethanol emitters, flavor releasing/absorbing systems, time-temperature indicators, and antimicrobial containing films, are reviewed. The principle of operation of each active system is briefly explained. Recent technological advances in active packaging are discussed, and food related applications are presented. The effects of active packaging systems on food quality and safety are cited.

  12. Field errors in hybrid insertion devices

    Schlueter, R.D.

    1995-02-01

    Hybrid magnet theory as applied to the error analyses used in the design of Advanced Light Source (ALS) insertion devices is reviewed. Sources of field errors in hybrid insertion devices are discussed

  13. Field errors in hybrid insertion devices

    Schlueter, R.D. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    Hybrid magnet theory as applied to the error analyses used in the design of Advanced Light Source (ALS) insertion devices is reviewed. Sources of field errors in hybrid insertion devices are discussed.

  14. Regional insertion: an emergent approach

    Serra, M.T.F.; Nascimento Teixeira, P. do

    1989-01-01

    The Brazilian Electrical Sector incorporates new variables that expressing the extensive spectrum of environmental impacts in the take of decisions, referring to the viability of realizing a electrical undertaking, attends the several restrictions that are important by the sector and by the society in the environment area and promotes the adequate generation of liquid benefits, consequential of the electrical undertaking. Due to these factors, the Electrical Sector is improving the concept of regional insertion, with the sectorial expansion in long-dated and the created demand in the environmental and social area, focalizing the solution for these questions. (C.G.C.). 1 fig, 2 tabs

  15. Recent advances in insertion devices

    Gluskin, E.; Moog, E.R.

    1995-01-01

    Demand for more and better insertion devices (IDs) at new third-generation synchrotron radiation facilities has led to significant advances in ID technology at different laboratories around the world. In this overview of this progress, focus is on those results that apply to IDs in general rather than one specific ID or laboratory. The advances fall into two general categories: those that reduce the net effect that the ID has on the particle beam, and those that enhance the quality of the emitted light spectrum. The need for these advances, factors that are most important inaachieving them, and the current state of the art are discussed

  16. Summary of experimental insertions workshop

    Sandweiss, J.; Month, M.

    1976-01-01

    The last ISABELLE workshop of the summer 1976 series, which was held at Brookhaven, August 16-20, focused on the design and utilization of the experimental insertions. The goals of the workshop, which were somewhat more general than might be suggested by the title, are: (1) review the ISABELLE proposal from the point of view of experimental use; (2) contribute useful information on the ''open questions'' in the ISABELLE design; (3) develop data for experimental equipment and operating cost estimates; and (4) project a first approximation to ISABELLE operating modes

  17. An in-silico investigation of anti-Chagas phytochemicals.

    McCulley, Stephanie F; Setzer, William N

    2014-01-01

    Over 18 million people in tropical and subtropical America are afflicted by American trypanosomiasis or Chagas disease. In humans, symptoms of the disease include fever, swelling, and heart and brain damage, usually leading to death. There is currently no effective treatment for this disease. Plant products continue to be rich sources of clinically useful drugs, and the biodiversity of the Neotropics suggests great phytomedicinal potential. Screening programs have revealed numerous plant species and phytochemical agents that have shown in-vitro or in-vivo antitrypanosomal activity, but the biochemical targets of these phytochemicals are not known. In this work, we present a molecular docking analysis of Neotropical phytochemicals, which have already demonstrated antiparasitic activity against Trypanosoma cruzi, with potential druggable protein targets of the parasite. Several protein targets showed in-silico selectivity for trypanocidal phytochemicals, including trypanothione reductase, pteridine reductase 2, lipoamide dehydrogenase, glucokinase, dihydroorotate dehydrogenase, cruzain, dihydrofolate-reductase/thymidylate-synthase, and farnesyl diphosphate synthase. Some of the phytochemical ligands showed notable docking preference for trypanothione reductase, including flavonoids, fatty-acid-derived oxygenated hydrocarbons, geranylgeraniol and the lignans ganschisandrine and eupomatenoid-6.

  18. Chagas Cardiomyopathy in New Orleans and the Southeastern United States.

    Hsu, Robert C; Burak, Joshua; Tiwari, Sumit; Chakraborti, Chayan; Sander, Gary E

    2016-01-01

    Chagas disease (CD), caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, affects 6-7 million people worldwide annually, primarily in Central and South America, and >300,000 people in the United States. CD consists of acute and chronic stages. Hallmarks of acute CD include fever, myalgia, diaphoresis, hepatosplenomegaly, and myocarditis. Symptoms of chronic CD include pathologic involvement of the heart, esophagus, and colon. Myocardial involvement is identifiable by electrocardiogram and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging showing inflammation and left ventricular wall functional abnormalities. We present two cases of CD identified in a single hospital in the Southeastern United States. Case 1 presents a patient with symptoms of anginal chest pain and associated shortness of breath with myocardial involvement suggestive of ischemic infarction but normal coronary arteries. Case 2 describes a patient with no physical symptoms and echocardiogram with ejection fraction of 50% with posterolateral and anterolateral wall hypokinesis but normal coronary arteries. With a growing number of immigrants from Central and South America in the United States, it is imperative for clinicians to include CD as part of the differential diagnosis for patients presenting with heart disease who have a history of exposure to T. cruzi endemic areas.

  19. Biosensors to Diagnose Chagas Disease: A Brief Review.

    Rocha-Gaso, María-Isabel; Villarreal-Gómez, Luis-Jesús; Beyssen, Denis; Sarry, Frédéric; Reyna, Marco-Antonio; Ibarra-Cerdeña, Carlos-Napoleón

    2017-11-15

    Chagas disease (CD), which mostly affects those living in deprived areas, has become one of Latin America's main public health problems. Effective prevention of the disease requires early diagnosis, initiation of therapy, and regular blood monitoring of the infected individual. However, the majority of the Trypanosoma cruzi infections go undiagnosed because of mild symptoms, limited access to medical attention and to a high variability in the sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic tests. Consequently, more affordable and accessible detection technologies capable of providing early diagnosis and T. cruzi load measurements in settings where CD is most prevalent are needed to enable enhanced intervention strategies. This work analyzes the potential contribution of biosensing technologies, reviewing examples that have been tested and contrasted with traditional methods, both serological and parasitological (i.e., molecular detection by PCR), and discusses some emerging biosensing technologies that have been applied for this public health issue. Even if biosensing technologies still require further research efforts to develop portable systems, we arrive at the conclusion that biosensors could improve the accuracy of CD diagnosis and the follow-up of patients' treatments in terms of the rapidity of results, small sample volume, high integration, ease of use, real-time and low cost detection when compared with current conventional technologies.

  20. Chagas Disease Vector Control in Tupiza, Southern Bolivia

    G Guillen

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy domestic and peridomestic infestations of Triatoma infestans were controlled in two villages in southern Bolivia by the application of deltamethrin SC25 (2.5% suspension concentrate at a target dose of 25 mg a.i./m². Actual applied dose was monitored by HPLC analysis of filter papers placed at various heights on the house walls, and was shown to range from 0 to 59.6 about a mean of 28.5 mg a.i./m². Wall bioassays showed high mortality of T. infestans during the first month after the application of deltamethrin. Mortality declined to zero as summer temperatures increased, but reappeared with the onset of the following winter. In contrast, knockdown was apparent throughout the trial, showing no discernible temperature dependence. House infestation rates, measured by manual sampling and use of paper sheets to collect bug faeces, declined from 79% at the beginning of the trial to zero at the 6 month evaluation. All but one of the houses were still free of T. infestans at the final evaluation 12 months after spraying, although a small number of bugs were found at this time in 5 of 355 peridomestic dependencies. Comparative cost studies endorse the recommendation of large-scale application of deltamethrin, or pyrethroid of similar cost-effectiveness, as a means to eliminate domestic T. infestans populations in order to interrupt transmission of Chagas disease

  1. Urbanization, land tenure security and vector-borne Chagas disease

    Levy, Michael Z.; Barbu, Corentin M.; Castillo-Neyra, Ricardo; Quispe-Machaca, Victor R.; Ancca-Juarez, Jenny; Escalante-Mejia, Patricia; Borrini-Mayori, Katty; Niemierko, Malwina; Mabud, Tarub S.; Behrman, Jere R.; Naquira-Velarde, Cesar

    2014-01-01

    Modern cities represent one of the fastest growing ecosystems on the planet. Urbanization occurs in stages; each stage characterized by a distinct habitat that may be more or less susceptible to the establishment of disease vector populations and the transmission of vector-borne pathogens. We performed longitudinal entomological and epidemiological surveys in households along a 1900 × 125 m transect of Arequipa, Peru, a major city of nearly one million inhabitants, in which the transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi, the aetiological agent of Chagas disease, by the insect vector Triatoma infestans, is an ongoing problem. The transect spans a cline of urban development from established communities to land invasions. We find that the vector is tracking the development of the city, and the parasite, in turn, is tracking the dispersal of the vector. New urbanizations are free of vector infestation for decades. T. cruzi transmission is very recent and concentrated in more established communities. The increase in land tenure security during the course of urbanization, if not accompanied by reasonable and enforceable zoning codes, initiates an influx of construction materials, people and animals that creates fertile conditions for epidemics of some vector-borne diseases. PMID:24990681

  2. Study of the hypothalamic - hypophyseal - thyroid axis by the administration of TRH to Chagas' disease patients

    Abelin, N.M.A.

    1978-01-01

    The TSH and T 3 response to synthetic TRH was evaluated in two groups of patients: normal and with Chagas' disease, from the urban area of Sao Paulo (Brazil). Plasma T 4 , PBI and TSH values were within the normal range, when compared with those found in the controls: So were the thyroid uptakes of 2 and 24 hours; the basal levels of T 3 where within the normal range except in three subjects whose values were higher than normal. After TRH administration the amount of TSH secretion in patients with Chagas' disease was increased when compared to normal ones, while T 3 secretion was unaltered. It is suggested that in the Chagas' disease there is an increase in the pituitary TSH, while the thyroid reserve is preserved. This increase could be due to a difference in the regulation rate of TRH, which is determined by the neuronal degeneration caused by the disease itself. (author) [pt

  3. [What is not searched, it is difficult to find: Chagas' disease].

    Briceno, Luis; Mosca, Walter

    2016-05-01

    A conservative estimation indicates that more than 400 000 Latin American immigrants are living in Italy. Several studies have shown that among these, the prevalence of Chagas disease is between 3.9% and 17%, so it is not unlikely to find a patient with this disease during a cardiology visit. How many patients from Latin America are diagnosed with heart failure in Italy and no one has ever thought about a possible Chagas disease? This brief review describes the situation of the disease in Italy, its characteristics, the etiology of this disease and its treatment. The latter aspect will be discussed considering the recent published results of the BENEFIT study, where it was found that treatment with benznidazole in patients with Chagas' cardiomyopathy is able to reduce significantly the detection of parasites in the blood, but it is not able to prevent clinical deterioration during 5 years of follow-up. The possible implications of these results will be discussed.

  4. [Control of Chagas disease in pregnant Latin-American women and her children].

    Merino, Francisco J; Martínez-Ruiz, Rocío; Olabarrieta, Iciar; Merino, Paloma; García-Bujalance, Silvia; Gastañaga, Teresa; Flores-Chavez, María

    2013-09-01

    Chagas disease is a chronic and systemic infection caused by Trypanosoma cruzi. According to estimates from WHO, 10 million people are affected by this parasite. In the last years, birthrate among the immigrant women from Latin America settled in the Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid has been increasing, and as T. cruzi can be transmitted from mother to child, in fact 11 cases of congenital Chagas disease have been confirmed. Therefore, the aim of this paper is encouraging improvements in the coverage of the anti-T. cruzi antibodies detection in pregnant women from endemic areas. By this strategy, an active search for infected pregnant women and early detection of her infected newborns could be conducted, and then an early specific treatment could be administrated. Thus, there could be an important contribution to the control of Chagas disease in non-endemic area.

  5. CYPROS - Cybernetic Program Packages

    Arne Tyssø

    1980-10-01

    Full Text Available CYPROS is an interactive program system consisting of a number of special purpose packages for simulation, identification, parameter estimation and control system design. The programming language is standard FORTRAN IV and the system is implemented on a medium size computer system (Nord-10. The system is interactive and program control is obtained by the use of numeric terminals. Output is rapidly examined by extensive use of video colour graphics. The subroutines included in the packages are designed and documented according to standardization rules given by the SCL (Scandinavian Control Library organization. This simplifies the exchange of subroutines throughout the SCL system. Also, this makes the packages attractive for implementation by industrial users. In the simulation package, different integration methods are available and it can be easily used for off-line, as well as real time, simulation problems. The identification package consists of programs for single-input/single-output and multivariablc problems. Both transfer function models and state space models can be handled. Optimal test signals can be designed. The control package consists of programs based on multivariable time domain and frequency domain methods for analysis and design. In addition, there is a package for matrix and time series manipulation. CYPROS has been applied successfully to industrial problems of various kinds, and parts of the system have already been implemented on different computers in industry. This paper will, in some detail, describe the use and the contents of the packages and some examples of application will be discussed.

  6. User friendly packaging

    Geert Jensen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    Most consumers have experienced occasional problems with opening packaging. Tomato sauce from the tinned mackerel splattered all over the kitchen counter, the unrelenting pickle jar lid, and the package of sliced ham that cannot be opened without a knife or a pair of scissors. The research project...

  7. NRF TRIGA packaging

    Clements, M.D.

    1995-11-01

    Training Reactor Isotopes, General Atomics (TRIGA reg-sign) Reactors are in use at four US Department of Energy (DOE) complex facilities and at least 23 university, commercial, or government facilities. The development of the Neutron Radiography Facility (NRF) TRIGA packaging system began in October 1993. The Hanford Site NRF is being shut down and requires an operationally user-friendly transportation and storage packaging system for removal of the TRIGA fuel elements. The NRF TRIGA packaging system is designed to remotely remove the fuel from the reactor and transport the fuel to interim storage (up to 50 years) on the Hanford Site. The packaging system consists of a cask and an overpack. The overpack is used only for transport and is not necessary for storage. Based upon the cask's small size and light weight, small TRIGA reactors will find it versatile for numerous refueling and fuel storage needs. The NRF TRIGA packaging design also provides the basis for developing a certifiable and economical packaging system for other TRIGA reactor facilities. The small size of the NRF TRIGA cask also accommodates placing the cask into a larger certified packaging for offsite transport. The Westinghouse Hanford Company NRF TRIGA packaging, as described herein can serve other DOE sites for their onsite use, and the design can be adapted to serve university reactor facilities, handling a variety of fuel payloads

  8. WASTE PACKAGE TRANSPORTER DESIGN

    Weddle, D.C.; Novotny, R.; Cron, J.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this Design Analysis is to develop preliminary design of the waste package transporter used for waste package (WP) transport and related functions in the subsurface repository. This analysis refines the conceptual design that was started in Phase I of the Viability Assessment. This analysis supports the development of a reliable emplacement concept and a retrieval concept for license application design. The scope of this analysis includes the following activities: (1) Assess features of the transporter design and evaluate alternative design solutions for mechanical components. (2) Develop mechanical equipment details for the transporter. (3) Prepare a preliminary structural evaluation for the transporter. (4) Identify and recommend the equipment design for waste package transport and related functions. (5) Investigate transport equipment interface tolerances. This analysis supports the development of the waste package transporter for the transport, emplacement, and retrieval of packaged radioactive waste forms in the subsurface repository. Once the waste containers are closed and accepted, the packaged radioactive waste forms are termed waste packages (WP). This terminology was finalized as this analysis neared completion; therefore, the term disposal container is used in several references (i.e., the System Description Document (SDD)) (Ref. 5.6). In this analysis and the applicable reference documents, the term ''disposal container'' is synonymous with ''waste package''

  9. WASTE PACKAGE TRANSPORTER DESIGN

    D.C. Weddle; R. Novotny; J. Cron

    1998-09-23

    The purpose of this Design Analysis is to develop preliminary design of the waste package transporter used for waste package (WP) transport and related functions in the subsurface repository. This analysis refines the conceptual design that was started in Phase I of the Viability Assessment. This analysis supports the development of a reliable emplacement concept and a retrieval concept for license application design. The scope of this analysis includes the following activities: (1) Assess features of the transporter design and evaluate alternative design solutions for mechanical components. (2) Develop mechanical equipment details for the transporter. (3) Prepare a preliminary structural evaluation for the transporter. (4) Identify and recommend the equipment design for waste package transport and related functions. (5) Investigate transport equipment interface tolerances. This analysis supports the development of the waste package transporter for the transport, emplacement, and retrieval of packaged radioactive waste forms in the subsurface repository. Once the waste containers are closed and accepted, the packaged radioactive waste forms are termed waste packages (WP). This terminology was finalized as this analysis neared completion; therefore, the term disposal container is used in several references (i.e., the System Description Document (SDD)) (Ref. 5.6). In this analysis and the applicable reference documents, the term ''disposal container'' is synonymous with ''waste package''.

  10. The BINSYN Program Package

    Albert P. Linnell

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The BINSYN program package, recently expanded to calculate synthetic spectra of cataclysmic variables, is being further extended to include synthetic photometry of ordinary binary stars in addition to binary stars with optically thick accretion disks. The package includes a capability for differentials correction optimization of eclipsing binary systems using synthetic photometry.

  11. The LCDROOT Analysis Package

    Abe, Toshinori

    2001-01-01

    The North American Linear Collider Detector group has developed simulation and analysis program packages. LCDROOT is one of the packages, and is based on ROOT and the C++ programing language to maximally benefit from object oriented programming techniques. LCDROOT is constantly improved and now has a new topological vertex finder, ZVTOP3. In this proceeding, the features of the LCDROOT simulation are briefly described

  12. Grooming. Learning Activity Package.

    Stark, Pamela

    This learning activity package on grooming for health workers is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics are…

  13. Insertion and crossing region design

    Wienands, U.; Beloshitsky, P.

    2001-01-01

    This article is the summary of the 5-afternoon tutorial on insertions for circular machines. Roughly half the course (Part 1) was spent discussing interaction regions, We start by recapitulating basic beam optics including building blocks. This provides the tools to analyze the basic structure of interaction regions and explore the parameter space. This simple example is then successively refined and made more realistic. Examples of realized interaction regions for both hadron and electron machines are shown and their salient features and differences explained. A brief discussion of solenoid-decoupling brings Part 1 to a close. In Part 2 we discussed various utility sections. Dispersion suppressors are presented in detail discussing the principles as well as the practical implementation of flexible suppressors using LEP as an example. Injection schemes, both single-turn and multi-turn stacking, are presented in depth. The matching of wiggler and undulator insertions and a discussion of the impact of these devices on beam parameters closes out Part 2

  14. Aspectos neurológicos da moléstia de chagas

    Fritz Köberle

    1967-09-01

    Full Text Available Carlos Chagas related in more than two 200 cases, what he called "nervous forms" of trypanosomiasis, that is neurological manifestations from central origin (idiotism, infantilism, pseudo-bulbar paralysis, aphasia, cerebellar ataxia, atetosis, espostic or paralytic diplegia, disbasia. At that time Chagas expressed his concepts as follows: "In relation to the frequency of trypanosomiasis nervous forms we have performed many observations which allow us to state that this disease is the one which causes the largest number of organic affections of the central nervous system, in human pathology". We are plenty convinced by Chagas's statement. By experiments on animals of laboratory we have very often noticed a rather varied neurological symptomatology, being worth point out identical syndromes to those observed by Chagas. Our autopsy material non-rarely include chronic Chagas cases presenting a most varied symtomatology. Among them we have named only three cases of discerebral nanism, a rather rare affection in other parts of the world and relatively frequent in our material. The fact which we have demonstrated, i.e., a relatively great decreasing of number of nervous cells in the peripheral system could happen in the central nervous system as well. Provided that there are only two quantitative works on neuron number diminishing in the central nervous system in mice and rats we decline to go into further details about central neuropathies in man. We emphasized the necessity to perform researches on this field by means of intimate collaboration between clinicians and pathologists, as the only way to confirm on scientific basis all that was observed by the panoramic and genial vision of Carlos Chagas.

  15. Chagas Disease Infection among Migrants at the Mexico/Guatemala Border.

    Conners, Erin E; Ordoñez, Teresa López; Cordon-Rosales, Celia; Casanueva, Carmen Fernández; Miranda, Sonia Morales; Brouwer, Kimberly C

    2017-10-01

    Chagas disease results in the largest burden, in terms of disability-adjusted-life-years, of any parasitic disease in the Americas. Monitoring Chagas disease among migrants is critical to controlling its spread and to serving the needs of the migrant community. Therefore, we determined the prevalence and correlates of Chagas disease in regional and international migrant populations at the Mexico/Guatemala border. Data were collected as part of a larger study of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and migration. Participants were a sample of recent regional and international migrants who used an illicit substance or had recent problem drinking. Trypanosoma cruzi infection was classified as testing positive on two different enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Interviewer-administered surveys captured sociodemographics, migration history, Chagas disease knowledge, and access to care. We enrolled 389 recent migrants, and the prevalence of Chagas disease was 3.1%. Only 19% of the participants reported having ever heard of the disease and less than 1% had been previously tested. Trypanosoma cruzi -positive participants were more likely to have been born in a rural area or town than a city (92% yes versus 59% no, P = 0.02) and have recently lived in a house with a makeshift roof (33% yes versus 8% no, P < 0.01), walls (42% yes versus 13% no, P < 0.01), or floor (50% yes versus 21% no, P < 0.02), or cinderblock walls (92% yes versus 63% no, P = 0.04). With migration rapidly changing the distribution of Chagas disease, more work needs to be done to create targeted surveillance programs and provide access to affordable treatment among Latin American migrants.

  16. Evolution of the clinical and epidemiological knowledge about Chagas disease 90 years after its discovery

    Prata Aluízio

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Three different periods may be considered in the evolution of knowledge about the clinical and epidemiological aspects of Chagas disease since its discovery: (a early period concerning the studies carried out by Carlos Chagas in Lassance with the collaboration of other investigators of the Manguinhos School. At that time the disease was described and the parasite, transmitters and reservoirs were studied. The coexistence of endemic goiter in the same region generated some confusion about the clinical forms of the disease; (b second period involving uncertainty and the description of isolated cases, which lasted until the 1940 decade. Many acute cases were described during this period and the disease was recognized in many Latin American countries. Particularly important were the studies of the Argentine Mission of Regional Pathology Studies, which culminated with the description of the Romaña sign in the 1930 decade, facilitating the diagnosis of the early phase of the disease. However, the chronic phase, which was the most important, continued to be difficult to recognize; (c period of consolidation of knowledge and recognition of the importance of Chagas disease. Studies conducted by Laranja, Dias and Nóbrega in Bambuí updated the description of Chagas heart disease made by Carlos Chagas and Eurico Villela. From then on, the disease was more easily recognized, especially with the emphasis on the use of a serologic diagnosis; (d period of enlargement of knowledges on the disease. The studies on denervation conducted in Ribeirão Preto by Fritz Köberle starting in the 1950 decade led to a better understanding of the relations between Chagas disease and megaesophagus and other visceral megas detected in endemic areas.

  17. Waste package performance analysis

    Lester, D.H.; Stula, R.T.; Kirstein, B.E.

    1982-01-01

    A performance assessment model for multiple barrier packages containing unreprocessed spent fuel has been applied to several package designs. The resulting preliminary assessments were intended for use in making decisions about package development programs. A computer model called BARIER estimates the package life and subsequent rate of release of selected nuclides. The model accounts for temperature, pressure (and resulting stresses), bulk and localized corrosion, and nuclide retardation by the backfill after water intrusion into the waste form. The assessment model assumes a post-closure, flooded, geologic repository. Calculations indicated that, within the bounds of model assumptions, packages could last for several hundred years. Intact backfills of appropriate design may be capable of nuclide release delay times on the order of 10 7 yr for uranium, plutonium, and americium. 8 references, 6 figures, 9 tables

  18. RH Packaging Operations Manual

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2003-01-01

    This procedure provides operating instructions for the RH-TRU 72-B Road Cask, Waste Shipping Package. In this document, ''Packaging'' refers to the assembly of components necessary to ensure compliance with the packaging requirements (not loaded with a payload). ''Package'' refers to a Type B packaging that, with its radioactive contents, is designed to retain the integrity of its containment and shielding when subject to the normal conditions of transport and hypothetical accident test conditions set forth in 10 CFR Part 71. Loading of the RH 72-B cask can be done two ways, on the RH cask trailer in the vertical position or by removing the cask from the trailer and loading it in a facility designed for remote-handling (RH). Before loading the 72-B cask, loading procedures and changes to the loading procedures for the 72-B cask must be sent to CBFO at sitedocuments at wipp.ws for approval

  19. Advanced flip chip packaging

    Lai, Yi-Shao; Wong, CP

    2013-01-01

    Advanced Flip Chip Packaging presents past, present and future advances and trends in areas such as substrate technology, material development, and assembly processes. Flip chip packaging is now in widespread use in computing, communications, consumer and automotive electronics, and the demand for flip chip technology is continuing to grow in order to meet the need for products that offer better performance, are smaller, and are environmentally sustainable. This book also: Offers broad-ranging chapters with a focus on IC-package-system integration Provides viewpoints from leading industry executives and experts Details state-of-the-art achievements in process technologies and scientific research Presents a clear development history and touches on trends in the industry while also discussing up-to-date technology information Advanced Flip Chip Packaging is an ideal book for engineers, researchers, and graduate students interested in the field of flip chip packaging.

  20. Necroscopic study of a Chagas' disease chronic case with normal electrocardiograms

    Lopes, E.R.; Rocha, A.; Adad, S.J.; Fernandes, E.L.; Chapadeiro, E.

    1988-01-01

    The morphological changes in the postmortem study of a man probably with the indeterminate form of Chagas' disease are described. The heart exhibited lesions of the epicardium, myocardium and endocardium, as well as of the conduction system, primarily small inflammatory foci. There was mild fibrosis of the myocardium, atrioventricular node, and left bundle branch (at its origin). These alterations, although mild, were similar, in quality, to those described in the other chronic forms of Chagas' disease, and suggest active lesions, with a potential for further development. In the esophagus, among other features, a striking reduction of the number of neurons was observed. (author)

  1. Urban outbreak of acute orally acquired Chagas disease in Táchira, Venezuela

    Benítez, Jesús A.; Araujo, Benjamín; Contreras, Krisell; Rivas, Marianela; Ramírez, Pedro; Guerra, Watermo; Calderón, Noél; Terren, Carlo Ascaso; Barrera, Reggie; Rodríguez Morales, Alfonso Javier

    2013-01-01

    Aguda por vía oral adquirió la enfermedad de Chagas (AOACD) se ha convertido en una amenaza importante en algunos países de América del Sur [1,2]. Hasta marzo de 2013, al menos cuatro han reportado brotes de la enfermedad de Chagas aguda adquirida por vía oral, en concreto Brasil [3], Venezuela [4], Colombia [5] y Bolivia [6]. Los brotes también se están produciendo probablemente en Argentina y Ecuador, según algunos informes antiguos [2]. En Venezuela, ha habido por lo menos tres informes ep...

  2. Drug discovery for Chagas disease should consider Trypanosoma cruzi strain diversity

    Bianca Zingales

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This opinion piece presents an approach to standardisation of an important aspect of Chagas disease drug discovery and development: selecting Trypanosoma cruzi strains for in vitro screening. We discuss the rationale for strain selection representing T. cruzi diversity and provide recommendations on the preferred parasite stage for drug discovery, T. cruzi discrete typing units to include in the panel of strains and the number of strains/clones for primary screens and lead compounds. We also consider experimental approaches for in vitro drug assays. The Figure illustrates the current Chagas disease drug-discovery and development landscape.

  3. Histopathologic identification of Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas' encephalitis in an AIDS patient

    Dimath Alyemni

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas' encephalitis is an uncommon manifestation of T. cruzi infection, typically seen in immunocompromised patients. Encephalitis results from the reactivation of chronic infection predominately in individuals from endemic areas. Increased awareness of this complication is essential especially with increased migration of patients from endemic areas with concomitant HIV infection. Here we report a case of Chagas' encephalitis in an AIDS patient from Mexico in which there was no evidence of acute serologic, CSF, or blood infection by T. cruzi trypomastigotes.

  4. [Chagas's disease and deep ecology: the anti-vectorial fight in question].

    Siqueira-Batista, Rodrigo; Gomes, Andréia Patrícia; Rôças, Giselle; Cotta, Rosângela Minardi Mitre; Rubião, Eduardo Cárdenas Nogueira; Pissinatti, Alcides

    2011-02-01

    The inter-relations between man and the environment are among the main themes currently debated by the Brazilian public health. On such horizon, the questions concerning Chagas's disease are found to remain specially in the scope of the directed actions of control to the triatomine, the anti-vectorial fight , though already a century since its first description by Carlos Chagas, a major epidemiological problem in Latin America. Based on these considerations the present article will seek to discuss the main ecological aspects related to the American trypanosomiasis, emphasizing the control of the vectorial transmission in the context of the deep ecology.

  5. The kinetics of porous insertion electrodes

    Atlung, S; West, K [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver (Canada)

    1989-05-01

    The principles of porous electrodes are discussed as well as the discharge of the insertion compound, the working potential, transport in the electrolyte, the time dependence of the electrolyte concentration, and modeling of the porous electrode. The simulation of a TiS2 porous electrode and the composite insertion electrode are considered as well. The influence of electrode thickness and porosity in a typical porous TiS2 electrode is revealed. It is shown that the use of insertion compounds as battery electrodes is limited by the requirement that the inserted ion must be distributed in the interior of the insertion compound particle. 15 refs.

  6. Packaging development needs to support environmental restoration

    Hummer, J.H.; Kuklinski, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is bringing its facilities into compliance with present environmental protection regulations. At the Hanford Site, this includes cleanup of its vast nuclear and chemical wastes. Cleanup will involve extensive collecting, consolidating, and processing of radioactive and other hazardous wastes. The Hanford Site was established by the Federal government in 1943 to produce plutonium. Natural uranium was fabricated into fuel slugs, inserted into nuclear reactors, and converted into plutonium. The irradiated slugs were then sent through plutonium extraction facilities. Process waste was discharged to the ground, stored on-site, or shipped off-site for disposal. Activities grew to include nine production reactors, five coal-fired power plants, nuclear fuel fabrication, other support facilities including underground waste storage tanks, and numerous chemical and waste processing plants. Cleanup activities will require extensive transport of radioactive and other hazardous materials. Packaging developments and research are required in the following areas to enhance environmental cleanup; (1) Packaging for Large Contaminated and Activated Components. (2) Bulk Packaging for Contaminated Solids. (3) Bulk Packaging for Contaminated Liquids. (4) Environmental Samples. (J.P.N.)

  7. Packaging Printing Today

    Stanislav Bolanča

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Printing packaging covers today about 50% of all the printing products. Among the printing products there are printing on labels, printing on flexible packaging, printing on folding boxes, printing on the boxes of corrugated board, printing on glass packaging, synthetic and metal ones. The mentioned packaging are printed in flexo printing technique, offset printing technique, intaglio halftone process, silk – screen printing, ink ball printing, digital printing and hybrid printing process. The possibilities of particular printing techniques for optimal production of the determined packaging were studied in the paper. The problem was viewed from the technological and economical aspect. The possible printing quality and the time necessary for the printing realization were taken as key parameters. An important segment of the production and the way of life is alocation value and it had also found its place in this paper. The events in the field of packaging printing in the whole world were analyzed. The trends of technique developments and the printing technology for packaging printing in near future were also discussed.

  8. Consumer response to packaging design

    Steenis, Nigel D.; Herpen, van Erica; Lans, van der Ivo A.; Ligthart, Tom N.; Trijp, van Hans C.M.

    2017-01-01

    Building on theories of cue utilization, this paper investigates whether and how packaging sustainability influences consumer perceptions, inferences and attitudes towards packaged products. A framework is tested in an empirical study among 249 students using soup products varying in packaging

  9. White LED with High Package Extraction Efficiency

    Yi Zheng; Stough, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    in the package may cause a deterioration of encapsulant materials, affecting the performance of both the LED die and phosphor, leading to a decrease in the luminous efficacy over lifetime. Recent studies from research groups at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute found that, under the condition to obtain a white light, about 40% of the light is transmitted outward of the phosphor layer and 60% of the light is reflected inward.1,2 It is claimed that using scattered photon extraction (SPE) technique, luminous efficacy is increased by 60%. In this project, a transparent/translucent monolithic phosphor was used to replace the powdered phosphor layer. In the normal pcLED package, the powdered phosphor is mixed with silicone either to be deposited on the top of LED die forming a chip level conversion (CLC) white LED or to be casted in the package forming a volume conversion white LED. In the monolithic phosphors there are no phosphor powder/silicone interfaces so it can reduce the light scattering caused by phosphor particles. Additionally, a multi-layer thin film selectively reflecting filter is inserted in the white LED package between the blue LED die and phosphor layer. It will selectively transmit the blue light from the LED die and reflect the phosphor's yellow inward emission outward. The two technologies try to recover backward light to the outward direction in the pcLED package thereby improving the package extraction efficiency.

  10. Packaging Concerns/Techniques for Large Devices

    Sampson, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews packaging challenges and options for electronic parts. The presentation includes information about non-hermetic packages, space challenges for packaging and complex package variations.

  11. Comprehensive analysis of three TYK2 gene variants in the susceptibility to Chagas disease infection and cardiomyopathy

    Carmona, F. David; Dolade, Nuria; Vargas, Sofia; Echeverría, Luis Eduardo; González, Clara Isabel; Martin, Javier

    2018-01-01

    Tyrosine kinase 2 (TYK2) is a member of the Janus kinases family implicated in the signal transduction of type I interferons and several interleukins. It has been described that genetic mutations within TYK2 lead to multiple deleterious effects in the immune response. In this work, we have analyzed three functional independent variants from the frequency spectrum on the TYK2 gene (common and low-frequency variants) suggested to reduce the function of the gene in mediating cytokine signaling and the susceptibility to infections by Trypanosoma cruzi and/or the development of Chagas cardiomyopathy in the Colombian population. A total of 1,323 individuals from a Colombian endemic region for Chagas disease were enrolled in the study. They were classified as seronegative (n = 445), seropositive asymptomatic (n = 336), and chronic Chagas Cardiomyopathy subjects (n = 542). DNA samples were genotyped using TaqMan probes. Our results showed no statistically significant differences between the allelic frequencies of the three analyzed variants when seropositive and seronegative individuals were compared, therefore these variants were not associated with susceptibility to Chagas disease. Moreover, when Chagas cardiomyopathy patients were compared to asymptomatic patients, no significant associations were found. Previous reports highlighted the association of this gene in immune-related disorders under an autoimmunity context, but not predisposing patients to infectious diseases, which is consistent with our findings. Therefore, according to our results, TYK2 gene variants do not seem to play an important role in Chagas disease susceptibility and/or chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy. PMID:29304122

  12. Hermeticity of electronic packages

    Greenhouse, Hal; Romenesco, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    This is a book about the integrity of sealed packages to resist foreign gases and liquids penetrating the seal or an opening (crack) in the packageùespecially critical to the reliability and longevity of electronics. The author explains how to predict the reliability and the longevity of the packages based on leak rate measurements and the assumptions of impurities. Non-specialists in particular will benefit from the author's long involvement in the technology. Hermeticity is a subject that demands practical experience, and solving one problem does not necessarily give one the background to so

  13. Hermeticity of electronic packages

    Greenhouse, Hal

    2000-01-01

    This is a book about the integrity of sealed packages to resist foreign gases and liquids penetrating the seal or an opening (crack) in the package-especially critical to the reliability and longevity of electronics. The author explains how to predict the reliability and the longevity of the packages based on leak rate measurements and the assumptions of impurities. Non-specialists in particular will benefit from the author's long involvement in the technology. Hermeticity is a subject that demands practical experience, and solving one problem does not necessarily give one the background to so

  14. Técnica do xenodiagnostico na molestia de Chagas

    Emmanuel Dias

    1940-01-01

    Full Text Available O xenodiagnostico é um processo muito valioso para o diagnostico etiologico da moléstia de Chagas. Consiste em alimentar-se barbeiros normais em supótos portadores da infecção e determinar-se, depois, si eles adquirem ou não o parasitismo. Em cada região deve ser empregada, de preferência, o transmissor local mais importante. Três a seis ninfas famintas são geralmente empregadas em cada prova, devendo ficar em contacto com o doador até encherem-se completamente (15-30 minutos. Si o exame de fezes – espontaneamente eliminadas ou obtidas por punção anal – não revelar a presença de flagelados, os insetos devem ser dissecados 40 a 60 dias depois da sucção, para exame do conteúdo duodenal.Xenodiagnosis is a very valuable method for the etiological diagnosis of Chagas’s disease. It consists in allowing the clean insect transmitter to feed upon the suspected carrier, and in ascertaining whether the bugs become infected. The principal local vector is the most suitable species to be used in a given region. Three to six hungry nymphs are usually employed in each test and must feed until repletion (15-30 minutes. It flagellates are not detected in the faeces or in the rectal contents, obtained by anal puncture, insects are dissected 40-60 days after the and the duodenal contents is examined.

  15. Environmental Changes Can Produce Shifts in Chagas Disease Infection Risk

    Juan M. Cordovez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An epidemiological network contains all the organisms involved (types in the transmission of a parasite. The nodes of the network represent reservoirs, hosts, and vectors, while the links between the nodes represent the strength and direction of parasite movement. Networks that contain humans are of special interest because they are of concern to public health authorities. Under these circumstances, it is possible, in principle, to identify cycles (closed paths in the network that include humans and select the ones that carry the maximum probability of human infection. The basic reproduction number R 0 in such a network gives the average number of new infections of any type after the introduction of one individual infected by any type. To obtain R 0 for complex networks, one can use the next-generation matrix (NGM approach. Every entry in NGM will average the contribution of each link that connects two types. To tease the contribution of every cycle apart, we define the virulence as the geometric mean of the NGM entries corresponding to the links therein. This approach allows for the quantification of specific cycles of interest while it also makes the computation of the sensitivity and elasticity of the parameters easier. In this work, we compute the virulence for the transmission dynamics of Chagas disease for a typical rural area in Colombia incorporating the effect of environmental changes on the vector population size. We concluded that the highest contribution to human infection comes from humans themselves, which is a surprising and interesting result. In addition, sensitivity analysis revealed that increasing vector population size increases the risk of human infection.

  16. Molecular epidemiology of human oral Chagas disease outbreaks in Colombia.

    Juan David Ramírez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, displays significant genetic variability revealed by six Discrete Typing Units (TcI-TcVI. In this pathology, oral transmission represents an emerging epidemiological scenario where different outbreaks associated to food/beverages consumption have been reported in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador and Venezuela. In Colombia, six human oral outbreaks have been reported corroborating the importance of this transmission route. Molecular epidemiology of oral outbreaks is barely known observing the incrimination of TcI, TcII, TcIV and TcV genotypes. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: High-throughput molecular characterization was conducted performing MLMT (Multilocus Microsatellite Typing and mtMLST (mitochondrial Multilocus Sequence Typing strategies on 50 clones from ten isolates. Results allowed observing the occurrence of TcI, TcIV and mixed infection of distinct TcI genotypes. Thus, a majority of specific mitochondrial haplotypes and allelic multilocus genotypes associated to the sylvatic cycle of transmission were detected in the dataset with the foreseen presence of mitochondrial haplotypes and allelic multilocus genotypes associated to the domestic cycle of transmission. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest the incrimination of sylvatic genotypes in the oral outbreaks occurred in Colombia. We observed patterns of super-infection and/or co-infection with a tailored association with the severe forms of myocarditis in the acute phase of the disease. The transmission dynamics of this infection route based on molecular epidemiology evidence was unraveled and the clinical and biological implications are discussed.

  17. Insecticide resistance in vector Chagas disease: evolution, mechanisms and management.

    Mougabure-Cueto, Gastón; Picollo, María Inés

    2015-09-01

    Chagas disease is a chronic parasitic infection restricted to America. The disease is caused by the protozoa Trypanosoma cruzi, which is transmitted to human through the feces of infected triatomine insects. Because no treatment is available for the chronic forms of the disease, vector chemical control represents the best way to reduce the incidence of the disease. Chemical control has been based principally on spraying dwellings with insecticide formulations and led to the reduction of triatomine distribution and consequent interruption of disease transmission in several areas from endemic region. However, in the last decade it has been repeatedly reported the presence triatomnes, mainly Triatoma infestans, after spraying with pyrethroid insecticides, which was associated to evolution to insecticide resistance. In this paper the evolution of insecticide resistance in triatomines is reviewed. The insecticide resistance was detected in 1970s in Rhodnius prolixus and 1990s in R. prolixus and T. infestans, but not until the 2000s resistance to pyrthroids in T. infestans associated to control failures was described in Argentina and Bolivia. The main resistance mechanisms (i.e. enhanced metabolism, altered site of action and reduced penetration) were described in the T. infestans resistant to pyrethrods. Different resistant profiles were demonstrated suggesting independent origin of the different resistant foci of Argentina and Bolivia. The deltamethrin resistance in T. infestans was showed to be controlled by semi-dominant, autosomally inherited factors. Reproductive and developmental costs were also demonstrated for the resistant T. infestans. A discussion about resistance and tolerance concepts and the persistence of T. infestans in Gran Chaco region are presented. In addition, theoretical concepts related to toxicological, evolutionary and ecological aspects of insecticide resistance are discussed in order to understand the particular scenario of pyrethroid

  18. Microbial viability in preparations packaged for single use.

    Obayashi, Akiko; Oie, Shigeharu; Kamiya, Akira

    2003-05-01

    We evaluated microbial viability in preparations packaged for single use only which mandate that residual solution be discarded such as albumin and globulin preparations as blood products, preparations containing albumin (such as urokinase and interferon), fat emulsions, and a preparation containing fat emulsions (propofol). In most preparations, Serratia marcescens and Burkholderia cepacia proliferated rapidly at 30 degrees C. However, in globulin preparations containing 1-2.25% glycine to prevent protein degradation (Gamma-Venin P, Venilon-I, Globulin Injection, and Ahlbulin), no growth of S. marcescens and B. cepacia was detected over 24 h at 30 degrees C. For globulin preparations containing 1-2.25% glycine, the injunction to "Discard residual solution after the package has been used" in the package inserts can be revised to "It is possible to use residual solution within 24 h after the package has been used with storage in a cool place."

  19. A Wrapping Method for Inserting Titanium Micro-Mesh Implants in the Reconstruction of Blowout Fractures

    Tae Joon Choi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium micro-mesh implants are widely used in orbital wall reconstructions because they have several advantageous characteristics. However, the rough and irregular marginal spurs of the cut edges of the titanium mesh sheet impede the efficacious and minimally traumatic insertion of the implant, because these spurs may catch or hook the orbital soft tissue, skin, or conjunctiva during the insertion procedure. In order to prevent this problem, we developed an easy method of inserting a titanium micro-mesh, in which it is wrapped with the aseptic transparent plastic film that is used to pack surgical instruments or is attached to one side of the inner suture package. Fifty-four patients underwent orbital wall reconstruction using a transconjunctival or transcutaneous approach. The wrapped implant was easily inserted without catching or injuring the orbital soft tissue, skin, or conjunctiva. In most cases, the implant was inserted in one attempt. Postoperative computed tomographic scans showed excellent placement of the titanium micro-mesh and adequate anatomic reconstruction of the orbital walls. This wrapping insertion method may be useful for making the insertion of titanium micro-mesh implants in the reconstruction of orbital wall fractures easier and less traumatic.

  20. Safety Analysis Report - Packages, 9965, 9968, 9972-9975 Packages

    Blanton, P.

    2000-01-01

    This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) documents the analysis and testing performed on four type B Packages: the 9972, 9973, 9974, and 9975 packages. Because all four packages have similar designs with very similar performance characteristics, all of them are presented in a single SARP. The performance evaluation presented in this SARP documents the compliance of the 9975 package with the regulatory safety requirements. Evaluations of the 9972, 9973, and 9974 packages support that of the 9975. To avoid confusion arising from the inclusion of four packages in a single document, the text segregates the data for each package in such a way that the reader interested in only one package can progress from Chapter 1 through Chapter 9. The directory at the beginning of each chapter identifies each section that should be read for a given package. Sections marked ''all'' are generic to all packages

  1. Further genetic characterization of the two Trypanosoma cruzi Berenice strains (Be-62 and Be-78) isolated from the first human case of Chagas disease (Chagas, 1909).

    Cruz, R E; Macedo, A M; Barnabé, C; Freitas, J M; Chiari, E; Veloso, V M; Carneiro, C M; Bahia, M T; Tafuri, Washington L; Lana, M

    2006-03-01

    We describe here an extension of a previous genetic characterization of Trypanosoma cruzi strains (Be-62 and Be-78) isolated from the patient Berenice, the first human case of Chagas disease [Chagas, C., 1909. Nova Tripanomíase humana. Estudos sobre morfologia e o ciclo evolutivo do Schizotrypanum cruzi, n. gen., n. sp., agente etiolójico da nova entidade morbida do homem. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz 1, 159-218]. We wanted to verify the composition of T. cruzi populations originated from these two isolates. In the present work, 22 enzymatic loci (MLEE), nine RAPD primers and 7 microsatellite loci were analyzed. Clones from both strains were also characterized to verify whether these strains are mono or polyclonal. Be-62 and Be-78 strains were different in 3 out of 22 enzymatic systems, in 3 out of 9 RAPD primers tested and in all microsatellite loci investigated. However, our data suggests that both strains are phylogenetically closely related, belonging to genetic group 32 from Tibayrenc and Ayala [Tibayrenc, M., Ayala, F.J., 1988. Isoenzime variability in Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas' disease: genetical, taxonomical, and epidemiological significance. Evolution 42, 277-292], equivalent to zymodeme 2 and T. cruzi II major lineage which, in Brazil, comprises parasites from the domestic cycle of the disease. Microsatellite analyses showed differences between the parental strains but suggested that both populations are monoclonal since each strain and their respective clones showed the same amplification products.

  2. London 2012 packaging guidelines

    2013-01-01

    These guidelines are intended to provide supplemental advice to suppliers and licensees regarding the provisions of the LOCOG Sustainable Sourcing Code that relate to packaging design and materials selection.

  3. Type B Drum packages

    Edwards, W.S.

    1995-11-01

    The Type B Drum package is a container in which a single drum containing Type B quantities of radioactive material will be packaged for shipment. The Type B Drum containers are being developed to fill a void in the packaging and transportation capabilities of the US Department of Energy (DOE), as no double containment packaging for single drums of Type B radioactive material is currently available. Several multiple-drum containers and shielded casks presently exist. However, the size and weight of these containers present multiple operational challenges for single-drum shipments. The Type B Drum containers will offer one unshielded version and, if needed, two shielded versions, and will provide for the option of either single or double containment. The primary users of the Type B Drum container will be any organization with a need to ship single drums of Type B radioactive material. Those users include laboratories, waste retrieval facilities, emergency response teams, and small facilities

  4. Materials for advanced packaging

    Wong, CP

    2017-01-01

    This second edition continues to be the most comprehensive review on the developments in advanced electronic packaging technologies, with a focus on materials and processing. Recognized experts in the field contribute to 22 updated and new chapters that provide comprehensive coverage on various 3D package architectures, novel bonding and joining techniques, wire bonding, wafer thinning techniques, organic substrates, and novel approaches to make electrical interconnects between integrated circuit and substrates. Various chapters also address advances in several key packaging materials, including: Lead-free solders Flip chip underfills Epoxy molding compounds Conductive adhesives Die attach adhesives/films Thermal interface materials (TIMS) Materials for fabricating embedded passives including capacitors, inductors, and resistors Materials and processing aspects on wafer-level chip scale package (CSP) and MicroElectroMechanical system (MEMS) Contributors also review new and emerging technologies such as Light ...

  5. Food irradiation and packaging

    Kilcast, David

    1988-01-01

    This outline review was written for 'Food Manufacture'. It deals with the known effects of irradiation on current packaging materials (glass, cellulosics, organic polymers and metals), and their implications for the effective application of the process. (U.K.)

  6. FLEXIBLE FOOD PACKAGING LABORATORY

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory contains equipment to fabricate and test prototype packages of many types and sizes (e.g., bags, pouches, trays, cartons, etc.). This equipment can...

  7. BCRA R Package

    BCRA is an R package that projects absolute risk of invasive breast cancer according to NCI’s Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool (BCRAT) algorithm for specified race/ethnic groups and age intervals.

  8. Post-mortem diagnosis of chronic Chagas's disease comparative evaluation of three serological tests on pericardial fluid.

    Lopes, E R; Chapadeiro, E; Batista, S M; Cunha, J G; Rocha, A; Miziara, L; Ribeiro, J U; Patto, R J

    1978-01-01

    In an attempt to improve the post-mortem diagnosis of Chagas's disease the authors performed haemagglutination tests (HAT), fluorescent Trypanosoma cruzi antibody tests (FAT), and complement fixation tests (CFT) on the pericardial fluid obtained at autopsy of 50 individuals with Chagas's heart disease, and 93 patients in whom this disease was not thought to be present. The results demonstrate that all three tests are efficient for the post-mortem diagnosis of Chagas's disease but suggest that their combined use would detect more cases than would one isolated reaction only.

  9. Mode of death on Chagas heart disease: comparison with other etiologies. a subanalysis of the REMADHE prospective trial.

    Silvia M Ayub-Ferreira

    Full Text Available Sudden death has been considered the main cause of death in patients with Chagas heart disease. Nevertheless, this information comes from a period before the introduction of drugs that changed the natural history of heart failure. We sought to study the mode of death of patients with heart failure caused by Chagas heart disease, comparing with non-Chagas cardiomyopathy.We examined the REMADHE trial and grouped patients according to etiology (Chagas vs non-Chagas and mode of death. The primary end-point was all-cause, heart failure and sudden death mortality; 342 patients were analyzed and 185 (54.1% died. Death occurred in 56.4% Chagas patients and 53.7% non-Chagas patients. The cumulative incidence of all-cause mortality and heart failure mortality was significantly higher in Chagas patients compared to non-Chagas. There was no difference in the cumulative incidence of sudden death mortality between the two groups. In the Cox regression model, Chagas etiology (HR 2.76; CI 1.34-5.69; p = 0.006, LVEDD (left ventricular end diastolic diameter (HR 1.07; CI 1.04-1.10; p<0.001, creatinine clearance (HR 0.98; CI 0.97-0.99; p = 0.006 and use of amiodarone (HR 3.05; CI 1.47-6.34; p = 0.003 were independently associated with heart failure mortality. LVEDD (HR 1.04; CI 1.01-1.07; p = 0.005 and use of beta-blocker (HR 0.52; CI 0.34-0.94; p = 0.014 were independently associated with sudden death mortality.In severe Chagas heart disease, progressive heart failure is the most important mode of death. These data challenge the current understanding of Chagas heart disease and may have implications in the selection of treatment choices, considering the mode of death.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00505050 (REMADHE.

  10. The ENSDF Java Package

    Sonzogni, A.A.

    2005-01-01

    A package of computer codes has been developed to process and display nuclear structure and decay data stored in the ENSDF (Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File) library. The codes were written in an object-oriented fashion using the java language. This allows for an easy implementation across multiple platforms as well as deployment on web pages. The structure of the different java classes that make up the package is discussed as well as several different implementations

  11. Energy and packaging

    Boustead, I; Hancock, G F

    1981-01-01

    Information is given on the energy and raw materials required in the production and use of containers used to package beer, cider, and carbonated soft drinks in the United Kingdom. Topics covered include: methodology of energy analysis, primary and secondary fuels, transport, packaging materials, including glass, aluminum, iron, steel, and tinplate, container production, including plastic bottles, distribution of empty containers, filling and packing, distribution, and disposal. (LEW)

  12. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: ''each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.'' They further state: ''each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.'' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the WIPP management and operating (M and O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with 10 CFR 71.11. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. This document provides the instructions to be followed to operate, maintain, and test the TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT packaging. The intent of these instructions is to standardize operations. All users will follow these instructions or equivalent instructions that assure operations are safe and meet the requirements of the SARPs

  13. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT Shipping Package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event there is a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the SARP and/or C of C shall govern. C of Cs state: ''each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.'' They further state: ''each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.'' Chapter 9.0 of the SAR P charges the WIPP Management and Operation (M and O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with 10 CFR 71.11. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. This document details the instructions to be followed to operate, maintain, and test the TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT packaging. The intent of these instructions is to standardize these operations. All users will follow these instructions or equivalent instructions that assure operations are safe and meet the requirements of the SARPs

  14. Experimental Chagas disease-induced perturbations of the fecal microbiome and metabolome.

    McCall, Laura-Isobel; Tripathi, Anupriya; Vargas, Fernando; Knight, Rob; Dorrestein, Pieter C; Siqueira-Neto, Jair L

    2018-03-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi parasites are the causative agents of Chagas disease. These parasites infect cardiac and gastrointestinal tissues, leading to local inflammation and tissue damage. Digestive Chagas disease is associated with perturbations in food absorption, intestinal traffic and defecation. However, the impact of T. cruzi infection on the gut microbiota and metabolome have yet to be characterized. In this study, we applied mass spectrometry-based metabolomics and 16S rRNA sequencing to profile infection-associated alterations in fecal bacterial composition and fecal metabolome through the acute-stage and into the chronic stage of infection, in a murine model of Chagas disease. We observed joint microbial and chemical perturbations associated with T. cruzi infection. These included alterations in conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) derivatives and in specific members of families Ruminococcaceae and Lachnospiraceae, as well as alterations in secondary bile acids and members of order Clostridiales. These results highlight the importance of multi-'omics' and poly-microbial studies in understanding parasitic diseases in general, and Chagas disease in particular.

  15. Accelerating the development of a therapeutic vaccine for human Chagas disease: rationale and prospects.

    Dumonteil, Eric; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Zhan, Bin; Heffernan, Michael J; Jones, Kathryn; Valenzuela, Jesus G; Kamhawi, Shaden; Ortega, Jaime; de Leon Rosales, Samuel Ponce; Lee, Bruce Y; Bacon, Kristina M; Fleischer, Bernhard; Slingsby, B T; Cravioto, Miguel Betancourt; Tapia-Conyer, Roberto; Hotez, Peter J

    2012-09-01

    Chagas disease is a leading cause of heart disease affecting approximately 10 million people in Latin America and elsewhere worldwide. The two major drugs available for the treatment of Chagas disease have limited efficacy in Trypanosoma cruzi-infected adults with indeterminate (patients who have seroconverted but do not yet show signs or symptoms) and determinate (patients who have both seroconverted and have clinical disease) status; they require prolonged treatment courses and are poorly tolerated and expensive. As an alternative to chemotherapy, an injectable therapeutic Chagas disease vaccine is under development to prevent or delay Chagasic cardiomyopathy in patients with indeterminate or determinate status. The bivalent vaccine will be comprised of two recombinant T. cruzi antigens, Tc24 and TSA-1, formulated on alum together with the Toll-like receptor 4 agonist, E6020. Proof-of-concept for the efficacy of these antigens was obtained in preclinical testing at the Autonomous University of Yucatan. Here the authors discuss the potential for a therapeutic Chagas vaccine as well as the progress made towards such a vaccine, and the authors articulate a roadmap for the development of the vaccine as planned by the nonprofit Sabin Vaccine Institute Product Development Partnership and Texas Children's Hospital Center for Vaccine Development in collaboration with an international consortium of academic and industrial partners in Mexico, Germany, Japan, and the USA.

  16. Metallothionein-1 and nitric oxide expression are inversely correlated in a murine model of Chagas disease

    Martha Elba Gonzalez-Mejia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, represents an endemic among Latin America countries. The participation of free radicals, especially nitric oxide (NO, has been demonstrated in the pathophysiology of seropositive individuals with T. cruzi. In Chagas disease, increased NO contributes to the development of cardiomyopathy and megacolon. Metallothioneins (MTs are efficient free radicals scavengers of NO in vitro and in vivo. Here, we developed a murine model of the chronic phase of Chagas disease using endemic T. cruzi RyCH1 in BALB/c mice, which were divided into four groups: infected non-treated (Inf, infected N-monomethyl-L-arginine treated (Inf L-NAME, non-infected L-NAME treated and non-infected vehicle-treated. We determined blood parasitaemia and NO levels, the extent of parasite nests in tissues and liver MT-I expression levels. It was observed that NO levels were increasing in Inf mice in a time-dependent manner. Inf L-NAME mice had fewer T. cruzi nests in cardiac and skeletal muscle with decreased blood NO levels at day 135 post infection. This affect was negatively correlated with an increase of MT-I expression (r = -0.8462, p < 0.0001. In conclusion, we determined that in Chagas disease, an unknown inhibitory mechanism reduces MT-I expression, allowing augmented NO levels.

  17. ADENOSINE DEAMINASE ACTIVITY AND SERUM C-REACTIVE PROTEIN AS PROGNOSTIC MARKERS OF CHAGAS DISEASE SEVERITY

    Iván Darío BRAVO-TOBAR

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Chagas disease is a public health problem worldwide. The availability of diagnostic tools to predict the development of chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy is crucial to reduce morbidity and mortality. Here we analyze the prognostic value of adenosine deaminase serum activity (ADA and C-reactive protein serum levels (CRP in chagasic individuals. One hundred and ten individuals, 28 healthy and 82 chagasic patients were divided according to disease severity in phase I (n = 35, II (n = 29, and III (n = 18. A complete medical history, 12-lead electrocardiogram, chest X-ray, and M-mode echocardiogram were performed on each individual. Diagnosis of Chagas disease was confirmed by ELISA and MABA using recombinant antigens; ADA was determined spectrophotometrically and CRP by ELISA. The results have shown that CRP and ADA increased linearly in relation to disease phase, CRP being significantly higher in phase III and ADA at all phases. Also, CRP and ADA were positively correlated with echocardiographic parameters of cardiac remodeling and with electrocardiographic abnormalities, and negatively with ejection fraction. CRP and ADA were higher in patients with cardiothoracic index ≥ 50%, while ADA was higher in patients with ventricular repolarization disturbances. Finally, CRP was positively correlated with ADA. In conclusion, ADA and CRP are prognostic markers of cardiac dysfunction and remodeling in Chagas disease.

  18. Antagonistic Effect of Atorvastatin on High Fat Diet Induced Survival during Acute Chagas Disease

    Zhao, Dazhi; Lizardo, Kezia; Cui, Min Hui; Ambadipudi, Kamalakar; Lora, Jose; Jelicks, Linda A; Nagajyothi, Jyothi F

    2016-01-01

    Chagasic cardiomyopathy, which is seen in Chagas Disease, is the most severe and life-threatening manifestation of infection by the kinetoplastid Trypanosoma cruzi. Adipose tissue and diet play a major role in maintaining lipid homeostasis and regulating cardiac pathogenesis during the development of Chagas cardiomyopathy. We have previously reported that T. cruzi has a high affinity for lipoproteins and that the invasion rate of this parasite increases in the presence of cholesterol, suggesting that drugs that inhibit cholesterol synthesis, such as statins, could affect infection and the development of Chagasic cardiomyopathy. The dual epidemic of diabetes and obesity in Latin America, the endemic regions for Chagas Disease, has led to many patients in the endemic region of infection having hyperlipidemia that is being treated with statins such as atorvastatin. The current study was performed to examine using mice fed on either regular or high fat diet the effect of atorvastatin on T. cruzi infection-induced myocarditis and to evaluate the effect of this treatment during infection on adipose tissue physiology and cardiac pathology. Atorvastatin was found to regulate lipolysis and cardiac lipidopathy during acute T. cruzi infection in mice and to enhance tissue parasite load, cardiac LDL levels, inflammation, and mortality in during acute infection. Overall, these data suggest that statins, such as atorvastatin, have deleterious effects during acute Chagas disease. PMID:27416748

  19. A Deep Insight Into the Sialotranscriptome of the Chagas Disease Vector, Panstrongylus megistus (Hemiptera: Heteroptera)

    Ribeiro, J.M.C.; Schwarz, Alexandra; Francischetti, I.M.B.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 3 (2015), s. 351-358 ISSN 0022-2585 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12002; GA ČR GPP302/11/P798 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Chagas disease * vector biology * salivary gland * transcriptome * medical entomology Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 1.712, year: 2015

  20. Behavioural alterations are independent of sickness behaviour in chronic experimental Chagas disease.

    Vilar-Pereira, Glaucia; Ruivo, Leonardo Alexandre de Souza; Lannes-Vieira, Joseli

    2015-12-01

    The existence of the nervous form of Chagas disease is a matter of discussion since Carlos Chagas described neurological disorders, learning and behavioural alterations in Trypanosoma cruzi-infected individuals. In most patients, the clinical manifestations of the acute phase, including neurological abnormalities, resolve spontaneously without apparent consequence in the chronic phase of infection. However, chronic Chagas disease patients have behavioural changes such as psychomotor alterations, attention and memory deficits, and depression. In the present study, we tested whether or not behavioural alterations are reproducible in experimental models. We show that C57BL/6 mice chronically infected with the Colombian strain of T. cruzi (150 days post-infection) exhibit behavioural changes as (i) depression in the tail suspension and forced swim tests, (ii) anxiety analysed by elevated plus maze and open field test sand and (iii) motor coordination in the rotarod test. These alterations are neither associated with neuromuscular disorders assessed by the grip strength test nor with sickness behaviour analysed by temperature variation sand weight loss. Therefore, chronically T. cruzi-infected mice replicate behavioural alterations (depression and anxiety) detected in Chagas disease patients opening an opportunity to study the interconnection and the physiopathology of these two biological processes in an infectious scenario.

  1. Update on oral Chagas disease outbreaks in Venezuela: epidemiological, clinical and diagnostic approaches

    de Noya, Belkisyolé Alarcón; Díaz-Bello, Zoraida; Colmenares, Cecilia; Ruiz-Guevara, Raiza; Mauriello, Luciano; Muñoz-Calderón, Arturo; Noya, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    Orally transmitted Chagas disease has become a matter of concern due to outbreaks reported in four Latin American countries. Although several mechanisms for orally transmitted Chagas disease transmission have been proposed, food and beverages contaminated with whole infected triatomines or their faeces, which contain metacyclic trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi, seems to be the primary vehicle. In 2007, the first recognised outbreak of orally transmitted Chagas disease occurred in Venezuela and largest recorded outbreak at that time. Since then, 10 outbreaks (four in Caracas) with 249 cases (73.5% children) and 4% mortality have occurred. The absence of contact with the vector and of traditional cutaneous and Romana’s signs, together with a florid spectrum of clinical manifestations during the acute phase, confuse the diagnosis of orally transmitted Chagas disease with other infectious diseases. The simultaneous detection of IgG and IgM by ELISA and the search for parasites in all individuals at risk have been valuable diagnostic tools for detecting acute cases. Follow-up studies regarding the microepidemics primarily affecting children has resulted in 70% infection persistence six years after anti-parasitic treatment. Panstrongylus geniculatus has been the incriminating vector in most cases. As a food-borne disease, this entity requires epidemiological, clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic approaches that differ from those approaches used for traditional direct or cutaneous vector transmission. PMID:25946155

  2. Is endothelial microvascular function equally impaired among patients with chronic Chagas and ischemic cardiomyopathy?

    Borges, Juliana Pereira; Mendes, Fernanda de Souza Nogueira Sardinha; Lopes, Gabriella de Oliveira; Sousa, Andréa Silvestre de; Mediano, Mauro Felippe Felix; Tibiriçá, Eduardo

    2018-08-15

    Chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy (CCC) and cardiomyopathies due to other etiologies involve differences in pathophysiological pathways that are still unclear. Systemic microvascular abnormalities are associated with the pathogenesis of ischemic heart disease. However, systemic microvascular endothelial function in CCC remains to be elucidated. Thus, we compared the microvascular endothelial function of patients presenting with CCC to those with ischemic cardiomyopathy disease. Microvascular reactivity was assessed in 21 patients with cardiomyopathy secondary to Chagas disease, 21 patients with cardiomyopathy secondary to ischemic disease and 21 healthy controls. Microvascular blood flow was assessed in the skin of the forearm using laser speckle contrast imaging coupled with iontophoresis of acetylcholine (ACh). Peak increase in forearm blood flow with ACh iontophoresis in relation to baseline was greater in healthy controls than in patients with heart disease (controls: 162.7 ± 58.4% vs. ischemic heart disease: 74.1 ± 48.3% and Chagas: 85.1 ± 68.1%; p < 0.0001). Patients with Chagas and ischemic cardiomyopathy presented similar ACh-induced changes from baseline in skin blood flow (p = 0.55). Endothelial microvascular function was equally impaired among patients with CCC and ischemic cardiomyopathy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Integrated control of Chagas disease for its elimination as public health problem--a review.

    Sosa-Estani, Sergio; Segura, Elsa Leonor

    2015-05-01

    Chagas disease or American trypanosomiasis is, together with geohelminths, the neglected disease that causes more loss of years of healthy life due to disability in Latin America. Chagas disease, as determined by the factors and determinants, shows that different contexts require different actions, preventing new cases or reducing the burden of disease. Control strategies must combine two general courses of action including prevention of transmission to prevent the occurrence of new cases (these measures are cost effective), as well as opportune diagnosis and treatment of infected individuals in order to prevent the clinical evolution of the disease and to allow them to recuperate their health. All actions should be implemented as fully as possible and with an integrated way, to maximise the impact. Chagas disease cannot be eradicated due because of the demonstrated existence of infected wild triatomines in permanent contact with domestic cycles and it contributes to the occurrence of at least few new cases. However, it is possible to interrupt the transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in a large territory and to eliminate Chagas disease as a public health problem with a dramatic reduction of burden of the disease.

  4. Lutte contre la maladie de Chagas en Amérique centrale | CRDI ...

    Guatemala,. En Amérique centrale, les insectes qui transmettent la maladie de Chagas sont nombreux. Les équipes de chercheurs mettent la démarche écosanté à l'épreuve dans 15 emplacements différents se trouvant dans les ...

  5. Towards Chagas disease elimination: Neonatal screening for congenital transmission in rural communities.

    Pennington, Pamela Marie; Juárez, José Guillermo; Arrivillaga, Margarita Rivera; De Urioste-Stone, Sandra María; Doktor, Katherine; Bryan, Joe P; Escobar, Clara Yaseli; Cordón-Rosales, Celia

    2017-09-01

    Chagas disease is a neglected tropical disease that continues to affect populations living in extreme poverty in Latin America. After successful vector control programs, congenital transmission remains as a challenge to disease elimination. We used the PRECEDE-PROCEED planning model to develop strategies for neonatal screening of congenital Chagas disease in rural communities of Guatemala. These communities have persistent high triatomine infestations and low access to healthcare. We used mixed methods with multiple stakeholders to identify and address maternal-infant health behaviors through semi-structured interviews, participatory group meetings, archival reviews and a cross-sectional survey in high risk communities. From December 2015 to April 2016, we jointly developed a strategy to illustratively advertise newborn screening at the Health Center. The strategy included socioculturally appropriate promotional and educational material, in collaboration with midwives, nurses and nongovernmental organizations. By March 2016, eight of 228 (3.9%) pregnant women had been diagnosed with T. cruzi at the Health Center. Up to this date, no neonatal screening had been performed. By August 2016, seven of eight newborns born to Chagas seropositive women had been parasitologically screened at the Health Center, according to international standards. Thus, we implemented a successful community-based neonatal screening strategy to promote congenital Chagas disease healthcare in a rural setting. The success of the health promotion strategies developed will depend on local access to maternal-infant services, integration with detection of other congenital diseases and reliance on community participation in problem and solution definition.

  6. Towards Chagas disease elimination: Neonatal screening for congenital transmission in rural communities.

    Pamela Marie Pennington

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease is a neglected tropical disease that continues to affect populations living in extreme poverty in Latin America. After successful vector control programs, congenital transmission remains as a challenge to disease elimination. We used the PRECEDE-PROCEED planning model to develop strategies for neonatal screening of congenital Chagas disease in rural communities of Guatemala. These communities have persistent high triatomine infestations and low access to healthcare. We used mixed methods with multiple stakeholders to identify and address maternal-infant health behaviors through semi-structured interviews, participatory group meetings, archival reviews and a cross-sectional survey in high risk communities. From December 2015 to April 2016, we jointly developed a strategy to illustratively advertise newborn screening at the Health Center. The strategy included socioculturally appropriate promotional and educational material, in collaboration with midwives, nurses and nongovernmental organizations. By March 2016, eight of 228 (3.9% pregnant women had been diagnosed with T. cruzi at the Health Center. Up to this date, no neonatal screening had been performed. By August 2016, seven of eight newborns born to Chagas seropositive women had been parasitologically screened at the Health Center, according to international standards. Thus, we implemented a successful community-based neonatal screening strategy to promote congenital Chagas disease healthcare in a rural setting. The success of the health promotion strategies developed will depend on local access to maternal-infant services, integration with detection of other congenital diseases and reliance on community participation in problem and solution definition.

  7. Chronic phase of Chagas disease: why should it be treated? A comprehensive review

    José Rodrigues Coura

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis and evolutive pattern of Chagas disease suggests that the chronic phase should be more widely treated in order to (i eliminate Trypanosoma cruzi and prevent new inflammatory foci and the extension of tissue lesions, (ii promote tissue regeneration to prevent fibrosis, (iii reverse existing fibrosis, (iv prevent cardiomyopathy, megaoesophagus and megacolon and (v reduce or eliminate cardiac block and arrhythmia. All cases of the indeterminate chronic form of Chagas disease without contraindications due to other concomitant diseases or pregnancy should be treated and not only cases involving children or recently infected cases. Patients with chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy grade II of the New York Heart Association classification should be treated with specific chemotherapy and grade III can be treated according to medical-patient decisions. We are proposing the following new strategies for chemotherapeutic treatment of the chronic phase of Chagas disease: (i repeated short-term treatments for 30 consecutive days and interval of 30-60 days for six months to one year and (ii combinations of drugs with different mechanisms of action, such as benznidazole + nifurtimox, benznidazole or nifurtimox + allopurinol or triazole antifungal agents, inhibition of sterol synthesis.

  8. La enfermedad de Chagas ya no es tan exótica

    Este podcast tiene el propósito de informar a los profesionales de la salud sobre la enfermedad de Chagas, su diagnóstico y tratamiento, así como orientar en la identificación de pacientes infectados.

  9. Probable brote de transmisión oral de enfermedad de Chagas en Turbo, Antioquia

    Juan Fernando Ríos

    2011-03-01

    Conclusión. Se identificó un probable brote agudo de enfermedad de Chagas en Antioquia y se plantea como hipótesis la transmisión por vía oral, mediante la ingestión de T. cruzi en alimentos contaminados con restos de triatominos o excrementos de marsupiales.

  10. Challenges and opportunities for primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention of Chagas' disease.

    Rassi, A; Dias, J C P; Marin-Neto, J A; Rassi, A

    2009-04-01

    A century after its discovery, Chagas' disease still represents a major public health challenge in Latin America. Moreover, because of growing population movements, an increasing number of cases of imported Chagas' disease have now been detected in non-endemic areas, such as North America and some European countries. This parasitic zoonosis, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, is transmitted to humans by infected Triatominae insects, or occasionally by non-vectorial mechanisms, such as blood transfusion, mother to fetus, or oral ingestion of materials contaminated with parasites. Following the acute phase of the infection, untreated individuals enter a chronic phase that is initially asymptomatic or clinically unapparent. Usually, a few decades later, 40-50% of patients develop progressive cardiomyopathy and/or motility disturbances of the oesophagus and colon. In the last decades several interventions targeting primary, secondary and tertiary prevention of Chagas' disease have been attempted. While control of both vectorial and blood transfusion transmission of T cruzi (primary prevention) has been successful in many regions of Latin America, early detection and aetiological treatment of asymptomatic subjects with Chagas' disease (secondary prevention) have been largely underutilised. At the same time, in patients with established chronic disease, several pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions are currently available and have been increasingly used with the intention of preventing or delaying complications of the disease (tertiary prevention). In this review we discuss in detail each of these issues.

  11. Trypanosoma cruzi in the chicken model: Chagas-like heart disease in the absence of parasitism

    Teixeira, A.R.L.; Gomes, C.; Nitz, N.; Sousa, A.O.; Alvez, R.M.; Guimaro, M.C.; Cordeiro, C.; Bernal, F.M.; Rosa, A.C.; Hejnar, Jiří; Leonardecz, E.; Hecht, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 3 (2011), e1000 ISSN 1935-2735 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : Chagas disease * Trypanosoma cruzi * kDNA minicircles * inbred chicken Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.716, year: 2011

  12. Sequential cooling insert for turbine stator vane

    Jones, Russel B

    2017-04-04

    A sequential flow cooling insert for a turbine stator vane of a small gas turbine engine, where the impingement cooling insert is formed as a single piece from a metal additive manufacturing process such as 3D metal printing, and where the insert includes a plurality of rows of radial extending impingement cooling air holes alternating with rows of radial extending return air holes on a pressure side wall, and where the insert includes a plurality of rows of chordwise extending second impingement cooling air holes on a suction side wall. The insert includes alternating rows of radial extending cooling air supply channels and return air channels that form a series of impingement cooling on the pressure side followed by the suction side of the insert.

  13. Comparative Packaging Study

    Perchonok, Michele H.; Oziomek, Thomas V.

    2009-01-01

    Future long duration manned space flights beyond low earth orbit will require the food system to remain safe, acceptable and nutritious. Development of high barrier food packaging will enable this requirement by preventing the ingress and egress of gases and moisture. New high barrier food packaging materials have been identified through a trade study. Practical application of this packaging material within a shelf life test will allow for better determination of whether this material will allow the food system to meet given requirements after the package has undergone processing. The reason to conduct shelf life testing, using a variety of packaging materials, stems from the need to preserve food used for mission durations of several years. Chemical reactions that take place during longer durations may decrease food quality to a point where crew physical or psychological well-being is compromised. This can result in a reduction or loss of mission success. The rate of chemical reactions, including oxidative rancidity and staling, can be controlled by limiting the reactants, reducing the amount of energy available to drive the reaction, and minimizing the amount of water available. Water not only acts as a media for microbial growth, but also as a reactant and means by which two reactants may come into contact with each other. The objective of this study is to evaluate three packaging materials for potential use in long duration space exploration missions.

  14. Technological innovation strategies for the specific treatment of Chagas disease based on Benznidazole.

    Ferraz, Leslie Raphael de Moura; Alves, Alinne Élida Gonçalves; Nascimento, Débora Dolores Souza da Silva; Amariz, Isabela Araújo E; Ferreira, Aline Silva; Costa, Salvana Priscylla Manso; Rolim, Larissa Araújo; Lima, Ádley Antonini Neves de; Rolim Neto, Pedro José

    2018-02-13

    Caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, Chagas disease is responsible for public health problems greater in magnitude than those attributed to malaria, schistosomiasis, or leishmaniasis. A factor in the socioeconomic development of poor countries, Chagas disease can cause death due to a high parasitic burden during its acute phase due and irreversible damage in organs such as the heart, esophagus, and colon during its chronic phase, even when the number of parasites is minimal. For treating Chagas disease, benznidazole (BNZ) remains the drug of choice and, in Latin America, the only drug on the market for treating the disease. However, BNZ has exhibited insufficient activity in the chronic phase of Chagas disease, required administration in large doses, prolonged treatment, and shown a high incidence of adverse reactions (vomiting, rash, peripheral neuropathy, and spinal cord depression), toxicity, and low solubility in water. As an antidote, pharmaceutical technologies have been introduced that can improve BNZ's solubility and dissolution, as well as reduce side effects in light of its bioavailability, all of which can enhance therapy for Chagas disease. In response to that trend, by conducting a literature review, we sought to identify current pharmaceutical technologies used in tandem with BNZ to improve therapy for Chagas disease. Documented techniques include emulsion and microemulsion formation, solutions, parenteral formulas, micronization, and drug delivery systems supported by the development of nanoparticles and cyclodextrins, solid dispersions, and the use of metal-organic frameworks as innovative excipients. Such technologies increase the water solubility of BNZ by 4-25-fold on dissolution and an 85% release with efficacy in only a few minutes, as recorded during a viability experiment with nanoparticle suspensions. That experiment demonstrated the need for a lower concentration of BNZ to kill 50% of trypomastigote forms of T. cruzi, described in terms of the

  15. Insertion devices at the advanced photon source

    Moog, E.R.

    1996-01-01

    The insertion devices being installed at the Advanced Photon Source cause the stored particle beam to wiggle, emitting x-rays with each wiggle. These x-rays combine to make an intense beam of radiation. Both wiggler and undulator types of insertion devices are being installed; the characteristics of the radiation produced by these two types of insertion devices are discussed, along with the reasons for those characteristics

  16. Node insertion in Coalescence Fractal Interpolation Function

    Prasad, Srijanani Anurag

    2013-01-01

    The Iterated Function System (IFS) used in the construction of Coalescence Hidden-variable Fractal Interpolation Function (CHFIF) depends on the interpolation data. The insertion of a new point in a given set of interpolation data is called the problem of node insertion. In this paper, the effect of insertion of new point on the related IFS and the Coalescence Fractal Interpolation Function is studied. Smoothness and Fractal Dimension of a CHFIF obtained with a node are also discussed

  17. Dual Use of Packaging on the Moon: Logistics-2-Living

    Howe, A. Scott; Howard, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a modular packaging system for logistics that can be reconfigured into internal outfitting for a lunar outpost, including desks, chairs, partitions, cabinets, and radiation shielding. Logistics include clothes, equipment, food, and other consumables needed to sustain the crew for the duration of the mission. A significant mass penalty is required for the packaging and handling of logistics for re-supply of short to long-term space missions that must be brought out of the gravity well on a launch vehicle. Once the supplies have been exhausted, the packaging material is typically of no further use and is discarded. If a scheme can be developed that reuses the logistics packaging, the mass penalty can be reduced. In this research, a modular packaging system has been devised as a kit-of-parts that can be used for both handling logistics supplies, and then reconfigured into desks, chairs, partitions, cabinets, and radiation shielding. The system is derived from a standard International Space Station (ISS)-type Cargo Transfer Bag (CTB), using soft, unfoldable box-like containers with stiff metal inserts. The empty hydrogen-impregnated CTBs can be used as-is for cabinets, opened up for use as partitions, or draped over the habitat as layers of radiation shielding. Stiff metal inserts can be reconfigured into desks and other useful outfitting.

  18. Insertion material for controlling reactivity

    Baba, Iwao.

    1994-01-01

    Moderators and a group of suspended materials having substantially the same density as the moderator are sealed in a hollow rod vertically inserted to a fuel assembly. Specifically, the group of suspended materials is adapted to have a density changing stepwise from density of the moderator at the exit temperature of the reactor core to that at the inlet temperature of the reactor core. Reactivity is selectively controlled for a portion of high power and a portion of high reactivity by utilizing the density of the moderator and the distribution of the density. That is, if the power distribution is flat, the density of the moderators changes at a constant rate over the vertical direction of the reactor core and the suspended materials stay at a portion of the same density, to form a uniform distribution. Further, upon reactor shutdown, since the liquid temperature of the moderators is lowered and the density is increased, all of beads are collected at the upper portion to remove water at the upper portion of the reactor core of low burnup degree thereby selectively controlling the reactivity at a portion of high power and a portion of high reactivity. (N.H.)

  19. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: 'each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the pplication.' They further state: 'each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M and O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations

  20. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: 'each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.' They further state: 'each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M and O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations

  1. RH Packaging Program Guidance

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide the technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of C states: 'each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.' It further states: 'each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M and O) Contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 1.8, 'Deliberate Misconduct.' Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, 'Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material,' certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21, 'Reporting of Defects and Noncompliance,' regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these

  2. RH Packaging Program Guidance

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide the technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package (also known as the 'RH-TRU 72-B cask') and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of C states: 'each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.' It further states: 'each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M and O) Contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 71.8, 'Deliberate Misconduct.' Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, 'Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material,' certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21, 'Reporting of Defects and Noncompliance,' regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous

  3. Esophageal striated muscle contractions in patients with Chagas' disease and idiopathic achalasia

    R.O. Dantas

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Chagas' disease causes degeneration and reduction of the number of intrinsic neurons of the esophageal myenteric plexus, with consequent absent or partial lower esophageal sphincter relaxation and loss of peristalsis in the esophageal body. The impairment of esophageal motility is seen mainly in the distal smooth muscle region. There is no study about esophageal striated muscle contractions in the disease. In 81 patients with heartburn (44 with esophagitis taken as controls, 51 patients with Chagas' disease (21 with esophageal dilatation and 18 patients with idiopathic achalasia (11 with esophageal dilatation we studied the amplitude, duration and area under the curve of esophageal proximal contractions. Using the manometric method and a continuous perfusion system we measured the esophageal striated muscle contractions 2 to 3 cm below the upper esophageal sphincter after swallows of a 5-ml bolus of water. There was no significant difference in striated muscle contractions between patients with heartburn and esophagitis and patients with heartburn without esophagitis. There was also no significant difference between patients with heartburn younger or older than 50 years or between men and women or in esophageal striated muscle contractions between patients with heartburn and Chagas' disease. The esophageal proximal amplitude of contractions was lower in patients with idiopathic achalasia than in patients with heartburn. In patients with Chagas' disease there was no significant difference between patients with esophageal dilatation and patients with normal esophageal diameter. Esophageal striated muscle contractions in patients with Chagas' disease have the same amplitude and duration as seen in patients with heartburn. Patients with idiopathic achalasia have a lower amplitude of contraction than patients with heartburn.

  4. Morphologic and morphometric evaluation of pancreatic islets in chronic Chagas' disease

    Saldanha João Carlos

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Hyperglycemia and abnormal glucose tolerance tests observed in some patients with chronic Chagas' disease suggest the possibility of morphological changes in pancreatic islets and/or denervation. The purpose of this study was to describe the morphology and morphometry of pancreatic islets in chronic Chagas' disease. METHODS: Morphologic and computerized morphometric studies were performed in fragments of the head, body, and tail regions of the pancreas obtained at necropsies of 8 normal controls and 17 patients with chronic Chagas' disease: 8 with the digestive form (Megas and 9 with the congestive heart failure form. RESULTS: The Megas group had a larger (p < 0.05 pancreatic islet area in the tail of the pancreas (10649.3 ± 4408.8 µm² than the normal control (9481.8 ± 3242.4 µm² and congestive heart failure (9475.1 ± 2104.9 µm² groups; likewise, the density of the pancreatic islets (PI was greater (1.2 ± 0.7 vs. 0.9 ± 0.6 vs. 1.9 ± 1.0 PI/mm², respectively. In the tail region of the pancreas of patients with the Megas form, there was a significant and positive correlation (r = +0.73 between the area and density of pancreatic islets. Discrete fibrosis and leukocytic infiltrates were found in pancreatic ganglia and pancreatic islets of the patients with Chagas' disease. Trypanosoma cruzi nests were not observed in the examined sections. Individuals with the Megas form of Chagas' disease showed increased area and density of pancreatic islets in the tail of the pancreas. CONCLUSION: The observed morphometric and morphologic alterations are consistent with functional changes in the pancreas, including glycemia and insulin disturbances.

  5. Omega-3 supplementation on inflammatory markers in patients with chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy: a randomized clinical study.

    Silva, Paula Simplício da; Mediano, Mauro Felippe Felix; Silva, Gilberto Marcelo Sperandio da; Brito, Patricia Dias de; Cardoso, Claudia Santos de Aguiar; Almeida, Cristiane Fonseca de; Sangenis, Luiz Henrique Conde; Pinheiro, Roberta Olmo; Hasslocher-Moreno, Alejandro Marcel; Brasil, Pedro Emmanuel Alvarenga Americano do; Sousa, Andrea Silvestre de

    2017-06-09

    Several studies have been focusing on the effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on modulation of inflammatory markers in several cardiopathies. Although immunoregulatory dysfunction has been associated to the chronic cardiac involvement in Chagas disease, there is no study examining the effects of omega-3 supplementation in these patients. We investigated the effects of omega-3 PUFAs on markers of inflammation and lipid profile in chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy patients. The present study was a single-center double-blind clinical trial including patients with chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy. Patients were randomly assigned to receive omega-3 PUFAs capsules (1.8g EPA and 1.2g DHA) or placebo (corn oil) during an 8-week period. Cytokines, fasting glucose, lipid, and anthropometric profiles were evaluated. Forty-two patients (23 women and 19 men) were included in the study and there were only two losses to follow-up during the 8-week period. Most of sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were similar between the groups at baseline, except for the cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-17α, and IFNγ. The omega-3 PUFAs group demonstrated greater improvements in serum triglycerides (-21.1 vs. -4.1; p = 0.05) and IL-10 levels (-10.6 vs. -35.7; p = 0.01) in comparison to controls after 8 weeks of intervention. No further differences were observed between groups. Omega-3 PUFAs supplementation may favorably affect lipid and inflammatory profile in chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy patients, demonstrated by a decrease in triglycerides and improvements on IL-10 concentration. Further studies examining the clinical effects of omega-3 fatty acids supplementation in chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy are necessary. NCT01863576.

  6. Application of GA package in functional packaging

    Belousova, D. A.; Noskova, E. E.; Kapulin, D. V.

    2018-05-01

    The approach to application program for the task of configuration of the elements of the commutation circuit for design of the radio-electronic equipment on the basis of the genetic algorithm is offered. The efficiency of the used approach for commutation circuits with different characteristics for computer-aided design on radio-electronic manufacturing is shown. The prototype of the computer-aided design subsystem on the basis of a package GA for R with a set of the general functions for optimization of multivariate models is programmed.

  7. RECUERDO DEL DESCUBRIMIENTO DE LA ENFERMEDAD DE CHAGAS

    Hernando Groot Liévano

    2016-12-01

    momentos, al rememorar a Carlos Chagas, se haga un breve recuento de aquellas condiciones en las cuales se descubrió esta enfermedad y cómo se movieron los mecanismos de su prodigiosa inteligencia y de su instinto clínico para descubrir tal dolencia. Recordemos por un momento la verdadera ebullición científica que había a principios del siglo una vez se conocieron los descubrimientos de Pasteur, luego los de Koch sobre la tuberculosis, y los de Yersin sobre la peste, así como los de Ross y Grassi al descubrir el modo de transmisión del paludismo para no citar sino unos ejemplos de los formidables avances de la medicina entonces.

    Nuestros jóvenes en América, entusiasmados con tantos progresos ansiaban ir a Europa para beber en París la ciencia nueva que abría perspectivas magníficas para la solución de muchos problemas. Aquí, hace unos pocos días recordábamos como, por ejemplo, Luis Zea Uribe se desplaza a Europa y al tornar trae las ideas de establecer un sistema de diagnóstico adecuado para las enfermedades tropicales que se inicia con el de la fiebre tifoidea; y si pasamos a Venezuela, allá José Gregario Hernández y Luis Razetti, con ideas similares, abren en Caracas un laboratorio para tales fines, mucho más precozmente que nosotros, y Carlos Mabran, en Buenos Aires, hace otro tanto.

    El Brasil no se queda atrás, muchas gentes retornan de Europa con un entusiasmo extraordinario; entre ellas se destaca Oswaldo Goncalves Cruz, quien al llegar a Río recibe la noticia de que una enfermedad muy seria está matando la gente en Santos. El Gobierno le encarga el estudio de la situación y es precisamente hace hoy un siglo, el 23 de octubre de 1899, cuando se encuentra con el primer enfermo y le diagnostica clínica y bacteriológicamente peste bubónica. Esta enfermedad, que estaba cobrando muchas víctimas, hace que el Gobierno de Brasil decida establecer un laboratorio para producir suero y vacuna contra el terrible mal transmitido por las

  8. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: ''each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.'' They further state: ''each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.'' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M and O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.

  9. Food Packaging Materials

    1978-01-01

    The photos show a few of the food products packaged in Alure, a metallized plastic material developed and manufactured by St. Regis Paper Company's Flexible Packaging Division, Dallas, Texas. The material incorporates a metallized film originally developed for space applications. Among the suppliers of the film to St. Regis is King-Seeley Thermos Company, Winchester, Ma'ssachusetts. Initially used by NASA as a signal-bouncing reflective coating for the Echo 1 communications satellite, the film was developed by a company later absorbed by King-Seeley. The metallized film was also used as insulating material for components of a number of other spacecraft. St. Regis developed Alure to meet a multiple packaging material need: good eye appeal, product protection for long periods and the ability to be used successfully on a wide variety of food packaging equipment. When the cost of aluminum foil skyrocketed, packagers sought substitute metallized materials but experiments with a number of them uncovered problems; some were too expensive, some did not adequately protect the product, some were difficult for the machinery to handle. Alure offers a solution. St. Regis created Alure by sandwiching the metallized film between layers of plastics. The resulting laminated metallized material has the superior eye appeal of foil but is less expensive and more easily machined. Alure effectively blocks out light, moisture and oxygen and therefore gives the packaged food long shelf life. A major packaging firm conducted its own tests of the material and confirmed the advantages of machinability and shelf life, adding that it runs faster on machines than materials used in the past and it decreases product waste; the net effect is increased productivity.

  10. [Pancreatic neuronal loss in chronic Chagas' disease patients].

    Rocha, A; de Oliveira, L C; Alves, R S; Lopes, E R

    1998-01-01

    We have not found any anatomical studies about the intrapancreatic ganglia in the chronic Chagas' disease. The lesions in these structures could explain at least in part the functional disturbances in the exocrine and endocrine pancreas described in this form of the disease. Thus we decided to morphologically analyze these ganglia. For this analysis, we studied transversal segments of the head, body and tail of the pancreas of twelve chronic chagasics whose mean age were 46.5 +/- 9.1 years and fourteen controls, mean age 41.2 +/- 11.0 years. These segments were histologically processed and cut into sections in a serial form up to the end and one cut of each seven was analyzed. For statistical analysis we used the non-parametric test of Mann-Whitney. In the head of the pancreas, the mean count of neurons was 57.3 +/- 50.8 in the chagasic group and 117.5 +/- 99.0 for the control group (p < 0.05); in the body 25.9 +/- 19.4 for the chagasic group and 54.7 +/- 47.8 for the control group (p < 0.05); in the tail 23.4 +/- 16.3 for the chagasic group and 54.1 +/- 29.2 for the control group (p < 0.01), the total count being 106.6 +/- 71.1 for the chagasic group and 226.3 +/- 156.5 for the controls (p < 0.01). Our data permitted us to conclude that: a) there was a statistically significant neuronal depopulation in the chagasic group, as compared to the control group, in each pancreatic segment that was analyzed, as well as in the organ as a whole; b) 50% of the chagasics had the total number of neurons smaller than the lowest number observed in the controls (80); c) 75% and 91.6% of the chagasics had the number of neurons smaller than, respectively, the median (171) and the mean (226) of the control group; d) therefore, the pancreatic neuronal depopulation was common, but not constant; e) the variable age was apparently not responsible for the neuronal depopulation of the chagasics.

  11. A Review of Patents for the Smart Packaging of Meat and Muscle-based Food Products.

    Holman, Benjamin; Kerry, Joseph P; Hopkins, David L

    2017-10-31

    Meat packaging once acted primarily as an inert barrier to protect its contents against contamination and this function has shifted. Packaging now includes complementary functions that improve product quality, longevity and customer/retail appeal. The devices and methods applied to achieve these functions may be categorised as smart packaging, which includes intelligent packaging, devised to monitor and communicate packaged content status, and active packaging, to provide passive adjustment of in-pack conditions from its interactions with the packaged meat. Smart packaging examples already available from recent patents include antimicrobial and antioxidant packaging coatings and inserts; sensors or indicators that identify spoilage and freshness; functional engineering customisations; improvements to packaging integrity; leak or tamper detectors; and, environmentally sustainable options. Together, these inventions respond to industry and customer demands for meat packaging and are therefore the focus of this review, in which we discuss their applications and limitations in meat packaging. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  12. Food packages for Space Shuttle

    Fohey, M. F.; Sauer, R. L.; Westover, J. B.; Rockafeller, E. F.

    1978-01-01

    The paper reviews food packaging techniques used in space flight missions and describes the system developed for the Space Shuttle. Attention is directed to bite-size food cubes used in Gemini, Gemini rehydratable food packages, Apollo spoon-bowl rehydratable packages, thermostabilized flex pouch for Apollo, tear-top commercial food cans used in Skylab, polyethylene beverage containers, Skylab rehydratable food package, Space Shuttle food package configuration, duck-bill septum rehydration device, and a drinking/dispensing nozzle for Space Shuttle liquids. Constraints and testing of packaging is considered, a comparison of food package materials is presented, and typical Shuttle foods and beverages are listed.

  13. Brain Chagas'disease: increasing differential diagnosis of brain mass in immunosuppressed patients - a case report and literature revision

    Batista, Laercio Leitao; centola, Crescencio A.P.; Kakudate, Milton Y.

    1995-01-01

    The authors present a case of Chagas'disease as tumor-like lesion of the brain, in a patient with Aids, simulating the lesions most frequently found in these patients, as toxoplasmosis, lymphoma and cryptococcosis. Furthermore, the case reported have peculiarity to be the only with lesion documented in cerebellum, and unusual due to be secondary by reactivation of chronic Chagas disease. Moreover, emphasize analysis of cerebrospinal fluid with realization of sorologic tests to Chagas's disease, as simple as effective method, to make use of biopsy with stereotaxia in unfinished cases and bad evolution. Finally, after a wide world literature review about Chagas'disease as a tumor-like lesion of the brain, emphasizing this publication as the first written in a radiology journal of specialty. (author). 40 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  14. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: 'each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.' They further state: 'each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant| (WIPP) management and operating (M and O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations(CFR) 71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations

  15. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: 'each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.' They further state: 'each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M and O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations

  16. Welding robot package; Arc yosetsu robot package

    Nishikawa, S. [Yaskawa Electric Corp., Kitakyushu (Japan)

    1998-09-01

    For the conventional high-speed welding robot, the welding current was controlled mainly for reducing the spatters during short circuits and for stabilizing the beads by the periodic short circuits. However, an increase of deposition amount in response to the speed is required for the high-speed welding. Large-current low-spatter welding current region control was added. Units were integrated into a package by which the arc length is kept in short without dispersion of arc length for welding without defects such as undercut and unequal beads. In automobile industry, use of aluminum parts is extended for the light weight. The welding is very difficult, and automation is not so progressing in spite of the poor environment. Buckling of welding wire is easy to occur, and supply of wire is obstructed by the deposition of chipped powders on the torch cable, which stay within the contact chip resulting in the deposition. Dislocation of locus is easy to occur at the corner of rectangular pipe during the welding. By improving these troubles, an aluminum MIG welding robot package has been developed. 13 figs.

  17. Role of T. cruzi exposure in the pattern of T cell cytokines among chronically infected HIV and Chagas disease patients

    Tania Regina Tozetto-Mendoza

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The impact of Chagas disease (CD in HIV-infected patients is relevant throughout the world. In fact, the characterization of the adaptive immune response in the context of co-infection is important for predicting the need for interventions in areas in which HIV and Chagas disease co-exist. METHODS: We described and compared the frequency of cytokine-producing T cells stimulated with soluble antigen of Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi using a cytometric assay for the following groups: individuals with chronic Chagas disease (CHR, n=10, those with Chagas disease and HIV infection (CO, n=11, those with only HIV (HIV, n=14 and healthy individuals (C, n=15. RESULTS: We found 1 a constitutively lower frequency of IL-2+ and IFN-γ+ T cells in the CHR group compared with the HIV, CO and healthy groups; 2 a suppressive activity of soluble T. cruzi antigen, which down-regulated IL-2+CD4+ and IFN-γ+CD4+ phenotypes, notably in the healthy group; 3 a down-regulation of inflammatory cytokines on CD8+ T cells in the indeterminate form of Chagas disease; and 4 a significant increase in IL-10+CD8+ cells distinguishing the indeterminate form from the cardiac/digestive form of Chagas disease, even in the presence of HIV infection. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our data suggest the presence of an immunoregulatory response in chronic Chagas disease, which seems to be driven by T. cruzi antigens. Our findings provide new insights into immunotherapeutic strategies for people living with HIV/AIDS and Chagas disease.

  18. A Comparative study of early postpartum IUCD insertion to interval IUCD insertion at Tertiary Care Centre

    Roopal, Dr.; Bisht, Vandana

    2018-01-01

    Background: A Comparative study of early postpartum IUCD insertion to interval IUCD insertion at Tertiary Care Centre.Methods: This prospective study was conducted among 100 women at tertiary care centre, Haldwani, Nainital. Patients were divided in to two groups. Group A (n=50)-post placental insertion within 10 minutes of delivery of placenta. Group B (n=50)-Interval insertion after 6 weeks of delivery. Both groups were compared in terms of pain abdomen, bleeding, missing thread, expulsion,...

  19. Pacemaker Implants in Children and Adolescents with Chagas Disease in Brazil: 18-Year Incidence.

    Mizzaci, Carolina Christianini; Souza, Thiago Gonçalves Schroder E; Targueta, Gabriel Pelegrineti; Tótora, Ana Paula Frederico; Mateos, Juan Carlos Pachón; Mateos, José Carlos Pachon

    2017-06-01

    Chagas disease continues to be a serious public health problem, and accounts for 25-30% of the indications for cardiac stimulation in Brazil. To assess clinical and epidemiological characteristics of patients with Chagas disease, younger than 18 years, who had undergone pacemaker implantation in Brazil between 1994 and 2011, and its temporal trend. This was a cross-sectional analysis of data from the Brazilian Pacemaker Registry database. The following variables were analyzed: year when pacemaker was implanted, location, age, sex, ethnic group, functional class and the main electrocardiographic findings at baseline. In a total of 183,123 implants performed between 1994 and 2011, 214 implants of cardiac stimulation device in Chagas disease patients aged younger than 18 years were identified. Mean age at implantation was 5.6 ± 6.2 years. Second- and third-degree atrioventricular blocks corresponded to 71% of indications for pacemaker implantation. Fifty-six percent of the procedures were performed in the southeast region. Regarding the total number of pacemaker implants per year, there was a remarkable increase in the implants for all causes. However, time series analysis of the implants in Chagas disease patients younger than 18 years revealed a significant reduction in the annual number of implants. There has been an important reduction in the number of pacemaker implantations among children and adolescents with Chagas disease, suggesting a reduction in the vertical transmission of the parasite. A doença de Chagas mantém-se como sério problema de saúde pública e tem sido responsável por aproximadamente 25% a 30% das indicações de estimulação cardíaca no Brasil. Estudar as características clínicas e epidemiológicas dos pacientes menores de 18 anos portadores de doença de Chagas submetidos a implante de marca-passo no território brasileiro entre 1994 e 2011, e sua tendência temporal. Trata-se de um estudo retrospectivo que utilizou informa

  20. Waste package characterisation

    Sannen, L.; Bruggeman, M.; Wannijn, J.P

    1998-09-01

    Radioactive wastes originating from the hot labs of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN contain a wide variety of radiotoxic substances. The accurate characterisation of the short- and long-term radiotoxic components is extremely difficult but required in view of geological disposal. This paper describes the methodology which was developed and adopted to characterise the high- and medium-level waste packages at the SCK-CEN hot laboratories. The proposed method is based on the estimation of the fuel inventory evacuated in a particular waste package; a calculation of the relative fission product contribution on the fuel fabrication and irradiation footing; a comparison of the calculated, as expected, dose rate and the real measured dose rate of the waste package. To cope with the daily practice an appropriate fuel inventory estimation route, a user friendly computer programme for fission product and corresponding dose rate calculation, and a simple dose rate measurement method have been developed and implemented.

  1. Waste package characterisation

    Sannen, L.; Bruggeman, M.; Wannijn, J.P.

    1998-09-01

    Radioactive wastes originating from the hot labs of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN contain a wide variety of radiotoxic substances. The accurate characterisation of the short- and long-term radiotoxic components is extremely difficult but required in view of geological disposal. This paper describes the methodology which was developed and adopted to characterise the high- and medium-level waste packages at the SCK-CEN hot laboratories. The proposed method is based on the estimation of the fuel inventory evacuated in a particular waste package; a calculation of the relative fission product contribution on the fuel fabrication and irradiation footing; a comparison of the calculated, as expected, dose rate and the real measured dose rate of the waste package. To cope with the daily practice an appropriate fuel inventory estimation route, a user friendly computer programme for fission product and corresponding dose rate calculation, and a simple dose rate measurement method have been developed and implemented

  2. Waste package reliability analysis

    Pescatore, C.; Sastre, C.

    1983-01-01

    Proof of future performance of a complex system such as a high-level nuclear waste package over a period of hundreds to thousands of years cannot be had in the ordinary sense of the word. The general method of probabilistic reliability analysis could provide an acceptable framework to identify, organize, and convey the information necessary to satisfy the criterion of reasonable assurance of waste package performance according to the regulatory requirements set forth in 10 CFR 60. General principles which may be used to evaluate the qualitative and quantitative reliability of a waste package design are indicated and illustrated with a sample calculation of a repository concept in basalt. 8 references, 1 table

  3. Evaluation of the Chagas Stat-Paktm Assay for Detection of Trypanosoma cruzi Antibodies in Wildlife Reservoirs

    Yabsley, Michael J.; Brown, Emily L.; Roellig, Dawn M.

    2010-01-01

    An immunochromatographic assay (Chagas Stat-Pak™) was evaluated for the detection of Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies in 4 species of wildlife reservoirs. Antibodies to T. cruzi were detected in raccoons (Procyon lotor) (naturally and experimentally infected) and degus (Octodon degu) (experimentally-infected) using the Chagas Stat-Pak. In naturally exposed wild raccoons, the Chagas Stat-Pak had a sensitivity and specificity of 66.7–80.0% and 96.3%, respectively. Compared with indirect immunofluorescent antibody assay results, serocon-version as determined by Chagas Stat-Pak was delayed for experimentally infected raccoons, but occurred sooner in experimentally infected degus. The Chagas Stat-Pak did not detect antibodies in naturally or experimentally infected Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) or in experimentally infected short-tailed opossums (Monodelphis domestica). These data suggest that the Chagas Stat-Pak might be useful in field studies of raccoons and degus when samples would not be available for more-conventional serologic assays. Because this assay did not work on either species of marsupial, the applicability of the assay should be examined before it is used in other wild species. PMID:19016578

  4. SPHINX experimenters information package

    Zarick, T.A.

    1996-08-01

    This information package was prepared for both new and experienced users of the SPHINX (Short Pulse High Intensity Nanosecond X-radiator) flash X-Ray facility. It was compiled to help facilitate experiment design and preparation for both the experimenter(s) and the SPHINX operational staff. The major areas covered include: Recording Systems Capabilities,Recording System Cable Plant, Physical Dimensions of SPHINX and the SPHINX Test cell, SPHINX Operating Parameters and Modes, Dose Rate Map, Experiment Safety Approval Form, and a Feedback Questionnaire. This package will be updated as the SPHINX facilities and capabilities are enhanced

  5. Nirex - The complete package

    Carr, N.A.; Rarok, M.

    2002-01-01

    Through continuous interaction with its customers, Nirex had identified the need for a comprehensive range of waste containers, reflecting the variety of wastes and operational undertakings. The current range consists of five standard containers. Standardisation is introduced across all waste packages to enable the safe and efficient operation of future waste management facilities. The practical lessons learned during the development of standard containers are in turn reflected in the container design work that Nirex has undertaken. They are also fed into the advice given to customers during evaluation of waste packaging proposals. (author)

  6. Ada Namelist Package

    Klumpp, Allan R.

    1991-01-01

    Ada Namelist Package, developed for Ada programming language, enables calling program to read and write FORTRAN-style namelist files. Features are: handling of any combination of types defined by user; ability to read vectors, matrices, and slices of vectors and matrices; handling of mismatches between variables in namelist file and those in programmed list of namelist variables; and ability to avoid searching entire input file for each variable. Principle benefits derived by user: ability to read and write namelist-readable files, ability to detect most file errors in initialization phase, and organization keeping number of instantiated units to few packages rather than to many subprograms.

  7. Central Solenoid Insert Technical Specification

    Martovetsky, Nicolai N [ORNL; Smirnov, Alexandre [ORNL

    2011-09-01

    The US ITER Project Office (USIPO) is responsible for the ITER central solenoid (CS) contribution to the ITER project. The Central Solenoid Insert (CSI) project will allow ITER validation the appropriate lengths of the conductors to be used in the full-scale CS coils under relevant conditions. The ITER Program plans to build and test a CSI to verify the performance of the CS conductor. The CSI is a one-layer solenoid with an inner diameter of 1.48 m and a height of 4.45 m between electric terminal ends. The coil weight with the terminals is approximately 820 kg without insulation. The major goal of the CSI is to measure the temperature margin of the CS under the ITER direct current (DC) operating conditions, including determining sensitivity to load cycles. Performance of the joints, ramp rate sensitivity, and stability against thermal or electromagnetic disturbances, electrical insulation, losses, and instrumentation are addressed separately and therefore are not major goals in this project. However, losses and joint performance will be tested during the CSI testing campaign. The USIPO will build the CSI that will be tested at the Central Solenoid Model Coil (CSMC) Test Facility at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Naka, Japan. The industrial vendors (the Suppliers) will report to the USIPO (the Company). All approvals to proceed will be issued by the Company, which in some cases, as specified in this document, will also require the approval of the ITER Organization. Responsibilities and obligations will be covered by respective contracts between the USIPO, called Company interchangeably, and the industrial Prime Contractors, called Suppliers. Different stages of work may be performed by more than one Prime Contractor, as described in this specification. Technical requirements of the contract between the Company and the Prime Contractor will be covered by the Fabrication Specifications developed by the Prime Contractor based on this document and approved by

  8. Packaging Solutions : Delivering customer value through Logistical Packaging: A Case Study at Stora Enso Packaging

    Shan, Kun; Julius, Joezer

    2015-01-01

    AbstractBackground;Despite of the significant role of packaging within logistics and supply chain management, packaging is infrequently studied as focal point in supply chain. Most of the previous logistics research studies tend to explain the integration between packaging and logistics through logistical packaging. In very rare cases, the studies mentioned about customer value. Therefore the major disadvantage of these studies is that, they didn’t consider logistical packaging and customer v...

  9. Assessment and epidemiology of Chagas' disease in patients treated in Araguaina - Tocantins

    Correa, Valeria Rita

    2010-01-01

    Chagas disease (AD) was described by Carlos Chagas in 1909. It is caused by a parasite T. cruzi, transmitted by bugs, by blood transfusion, vertical and orally. The DC has two phases: acute and chronic. The evolution to the cardiac form occurs in about 30% of chronic cases and is the largest cause of mortality in chronic Chagas disease. The aim of this study was to Chagas' disease in patients of Tocantins, compared with other heart patients and asymptomatic from the standpoint of non-invasive exams using radiant energies such as echocardiography and ECG and RX. The descriptive study included 80 patients, 20 chronic form of Chagas disease, 20 indeterminate, 20 with other heart diseases, and 20 controls. There was a prevalence of 9.5% of chagasic patients treated in outpatient cardiology at Araguaina Tocantins, and 7.3% in chronic and 2.21% in the indeterminate. Of the chronic patients in the study 50% had mega esophagus and megacolon 4 (20%). Most patients had no family history of AD, nor was a smoker or drinker. Major electrocardiographic abnormalities found refer to driving. The evaluation of ICT, the chronic chagasic showed that increased by 40% of patients, 40% had esophageal changes and 20% of patients had megacolon s. The echocardiogram was abnormal in 42%). 27% of patients had EF below 55% changed. Changes in segmental contractility and Asynchrony septum were found in 80% of chronic Chagas disease. In 80% of the patients was observed diastolic dysfunction. The valvular changes occurred in 75%. Electrocardiographic abnormalities occurred in 80% of patients with CCC, while the other heart had ECG changes. Arterial hypertension had an incidence of 45% in patients with CCC and 40% in FCI. The systolic and diastolic ventricular dysfunction was more prevalent in groups that had an abnormal ECG and arrhythmia. Observed that the group of chagasic decreased ejection fraction is correlated to a higher incidence of arrhythmias besides diastolic dysfunction and related

  10. AN ADA NAMELIST PACKAGE

    Klumpp, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    The Ada Namelist Package, developed for the Ada programming language, enables a calling program to read and write FORTRAN-style namelist files. A namelist file consists of any number of assignment statements in any order. Features of the Ada Namelist Package are: the handling of any combination of user-defined types; the ability to read vectors, matrices, and slices of vectors and matrices; the handling of mismatches between variables in the namelist file and those in the programmed list of namelist variables; and the ability to avoid searching the entire input file for each variable. The principle user benefits of this software are the following: the ability to write namelist-readable files, the ability to detect most file errors in the initialization phase, a package organization that reduces the number of instantiated units to a few packages rather than to many subprograms, a reduced number of restrictions, and an increased execution speed. The Ada Namelist reads data from an input file into variables declared within a user program. It then writes data from the user program to an output file, printer, or display. The input file contains a sequence of assignment statements in arbitrary order. The output is in namelist-readable form. There is a one-to-one correspondence between namelist I/O statements executed in the user program and variables read or written. Nevertheless, in the input file, mismatches are allowed between assignment statements in the file and the namelist read procedure statements in the user program. The Ada Namelist Package itself is non-generic. However, it has a group of nested generic packages following the nongeneric opening portion. The opening portion declares a variety of useraccessible constants, variables and subprograms. The subprograms are procedures for initializing namelists for reading, reading and writing strings. The subprograms are also functions for analyzing the content of the current dataset and diagnosing errors. Two nested

  11. Assessment of the insertion of reprocessed fuel spiked with thorium in a PWR core

    Castro, Victor F.; Monteiro, Fabiana B.A.; Pereira, Claubia, E-mail: victorfc@fis.grad.ufmg.br, E-mail: claubia@nuclear.ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear

    2017-07-01

    Reprocessed fuel by UREX+ technique and spiked with thorium was inserted in a PWR core and neutronic parameters have been analyzed. Based on the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) of the Angra-2 reactor, the core was modeled and simulated with SCALE6.0 package. The neutronic data evaluation was carried out by the analysis of the effective and infinite multiplication factors, and the fuel evolution during the burnup. The conversion ratio (CR) was also evaluated. The results show that, when inserting reprocessed fuel spiked with thorium, the insertion of burnable poison rods is not necessary, due to the amount of absorber isotopes present in the fuel. Besides, the conversion ratio obtained was greater than the presented by standard UO{sub 2} fuel, indicating the possibility of extending the burnup. (author)

  12. Chagas disease as a cause of heart failure and ventricular arrhythmias in patients long removed from endemic areas: an emerging problem in Europe.

    Vannucchi, Vieri; Tomberli, Benedetta; Zammarchi, Lorenzo; Fornaro, Alessandra; Castelli, Gabriele; Pieralli, Filippo; Berni, Andrea; Yacoub, Sophie; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Olivotto, Iacopo

    2015-12-01

    Chagas disease is a parasitic disease caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. In endemic areas (South and Central America), Chagas disease represents a relevant public health issue, and is the most frequent cause of cardiomyopathy. In nonendemic areas, such as Europe, Chagas disease represents an emerging problem following the establishment of sizeable communities from Brazil and Bolivia. Chagas cardiomyopathy represents the most frequent and serious complication of chronic Chagas disease, affecting about 20-30% of patients, potentially leading to heart failure, arrhythmias, thromboembolism, stroke and sudden death. Because late complications of Chagas disease may develop several years or even decades after the acute infection, it may be extremely challenging to reach the correct diagnosis in patients long removed from the countries of origin. We report two examples of Chagas cardiomyopathy in South American women permanently residing in Italy for more than 20 years, presenting with cardiac manifestations ranging from left ventricular dysfunction and heart failure to isolated ventricular arrhythmias. The present review emphasizes that Chagas disease should be considered as a potential diagnosis in patients from endemic areas presenting with 'idiopathic' cardiac manifestations, even when long removed from their country of origin, with potential implications for treatment and control of Chagas disease transmission.

  13. Evolução tardia do transplante cardíaco na doença de Chagas: long-term evolution in cardiac transplantation Chagas' Disease

    Alfredo I Fiorelli

    1990-08-01

    Full Text Available Nas formas cardíacas da doença de Chagas que evoluem com insuficiência cardíaca refratária ao tratamento clínico, o transplante é a única alternativa, ao lado da cardiomioplastia. Os autores apresentam a evolução tardia de seis pacientes com miocardiopatia chagásica terminal submetidos a transplante cardíaco ortotópico. O período médio de observação foi de 25,2 meses. O diagnóstico de reativação da doença de Chagas apoiou-se na observação clínica, na investigação laboratorial do parasita, nas biópsias endomiocárdicas e dos nódulos de subcutâneo. A análise dos resultados demonstra que: 1 os testes laboratoriais mostraram-se ineficazes no diagnóstico da reativação da doença, sendo que as biópsias mostraram maior índice de positividade; 2 a pulsoterapia com corticóide predispõe à reativação; 3 a doença linfoproliferativa apresenta alta incidência na doença de Chagas, sendo a principal complicação tardia. Possivelmente, o benzonidazol apresente seu efeito oncogênico potencializado. Tendo em vista o caráter endêmico da doença e a falta de alternativa terapêutica, tornou-se obrigatória a analise do esquema imunossupressor, do tratamento da reativação e a maior experiência clínica, para posições mais definidas.In the cardiac forms of Chagas' Disease that develop with refractory cardiac failure under clinical treatment, the transplant is the only alternative along with the cardiomyoplasty. The authors present the six patient late evolution with terminal chagasic myocardiopathy submitted under on orthopic heart transplantation. The average period of observation was of 25.2 months. The diagnosis of Chagas' Disease reativation relies on the clinical observation, laboratory investigation of parasito, endomyocardial biopsy and subcutaneous nodules. The analyses of the results show that: 1 the laboratory exams were useless in the diagnosis of the disease reativation, but the biopsy presented hight

  14. Radioactive waste disposal package

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1986-11-04

    A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

  15. ROBATEL RS 24 packaging

    Robatel, M.; Bochard, C.

    1986-01-01

    The ROBATEL RS 24 packaging for light-water reactor fuel assemblies is discussed. The cask uses a strength frame of carbon steel sheets, lead gamma ray shielding, neutron shielding of aluminous concrete, a thermal protection system for the gamma shielding, and a natural convection thermal transfer system

  16. The Swarm Magnetometry Package

    Merayo, José M.G.; Jørgensen, John Leif; Friis-Christensen, Eigil

    2008-01-01

    The Swarm mission under the ESA's Living Planet Programme is planned for launch in 2010 and consists of a constellation of three satellites at LEO. The prime objective of Swarm is to measure the geomagnetic field with unprecedented accuracy in space and time. The magnetometry package consists...

  17. Learning Activity Package, Algebra.

    Evans, Diane

    A set of ten teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) in beginning algebra and nine in intermediate algebra, these units cover sets, properties of operations, number systems, open expressions, solution sets of equations and inequalities in one and two variables, exponents, factoring and polynomials, relations and functions, radicals,…

  18. Geothermal Greenhouse Information Package

    Rafferty, K. [P.E.; Boyd, T. [ed.

    1997-01-01

    This package of information is intended to provide a foundation of background information for developers of geothermal greenhouses. The material is divided into seven sections covering such issues as crop culture and prices, operating costs for greenhouses, heating system design, vendors and a list of other sources of information.

  19. Openability of tamperproof packaging

    Del Castillo C., A.; Wever, R.; Buijs, P.J.; Stevels, A.

    2007-01-01

    Communication, product protection and presentation are three key aspects in the world of packaging nowadays. Due to a retail landscape consisting of large stores, displaying packed products on the shelves in self-service environments, these aspects become increasingly important, not only for Fast

  20. Packaging LLW and ILW

    Flowers, R.H.; Owen, R.G.

    1991-01-01

    Low level waste (LLW) accounts for 70-80% by volume of all radioactive wastes produced by the nuclear industry. It has low specific activity, negligible actinide content and requires little, if any, shielding to protect workers. Volume reduction for LLW of high volume but low density may be achieved by incineration and compaction as appropriate, before packaging for disposal by near surface burial. Intermediate level waste (ILW) is treated and packed to convert it into a stable form to minimize any release of activity and make handling easier. The matrix chosen for immobilization, usually cement, polymers or bitumen, depends on the nature of the waste and the acceptance criteria of the disposal facility. The special case of LLW and ILW which will arise from reactor decommissioning is discussed. Packaging methods adopted by individual countries are reviewed. The range of costs involved for packaging ILW is indicated. There is no international consensus on the performance required from packaged waste to ensure its suitability both for interim storage and final disposal. (UK)

  1. Aquaculture Information Package

    Boyd, T.; Rafferty, K. [editors

    1998-01-01

    This package of information is intended to provide background to developers of geothermal aquaculture projects. The material is divided into eight sections and includes information on market and price information for typical species, aquaculture water quality issues, typical species culture information, pond heat loss calculations, an aquaculture glossary, regional and university aquaculture offices and state aquaculture permit requirements.

  2. CH Packaging Maintenance Manual

    Washington TRU Solutions

    2002-01-01

    This procedure provides instructions for performing inner containment vessel (ICV) and outer containment vessel (OCV) maintenance and periodic leakage rate testing on the following packaging seals and corresponding seal surfaces using a nondestructive helium (He) leak test. In addition, this procedure provides instructions for performing ICV and OCV structural pressure tests

  3. Printer Graphics Package

    Blanchard, D. C.

    1986-01-01

    Printer Graphics Package (PGP) is tool for making two-dimensional symbolic plots on line printer. PGP created to support development of Heads-Up Display (HUD) simulation. Standard symbols defined with HUD in mind. Available symbols include circle, triangle, quadrangle, window, line, numbers, and text. Additional symbols easily added or built up from available symbols.

  4. Type B drum packages

    McCoy, J.C.

    1994-08-01

    The Type B drum packages (TBD) are conceptualized as a family of containers in which a single 208 L or 114 L (55 gal or 30 gal) drum containing Type B quantities of radioactive material (RAM) can be packaged for shipment. The TBD containers are being developed to fill a void in the packaging and transportation capabilities of the U.S. Department of Energy as no container packaging single drums of Type B RAM exists offering double containment. Several multiple-drum containers currently exist, as well as a number of shielded casks, but the size and weight of these containers present many operational challenges for single-drum shipments. As an alternative, the TBD containers will offer up to three shielded versions (light, medium, and heavy) and one unshielded version, each offering single or optional double containment for a single drum. To reduce operational complexity, all versions will share similar design and operational features where possible. The primary users of the TBD containers are envisioned to be any organization desiring to ship single drums of Type B RAM, such as laboratories, waste retrieval activities, emergency response teams, etc. Currently, the TBD conceptual design is being developed with the final design and analysis to be completed in 1995 to 1996. Testing and certification of the unshielded version are planned to be completed in 1996 to 1997 with production to begin in 1997 to 1998

  5. Waste disposal package

    Smith, M.J.

    1985-06-19

    This is a claim for a waste disposal package including an inner or primary canister for containing hazardous and/or radioactive wastes. The primary canister is encapsulated by an outer or secondary barrier formed of a porous ceramic material to control ingress of water to the canister and the release rate of wastes upon breach on the canister. 4 figs.

  6. Usefulness of FC-TRIPLEX Chagas/Leish IgG1 as confirmatory assay for non-negative results in blood bank screening of Chagas disease.

    Campos, Fernanda Magalhães Freire; Repoles, Laura Cotta; de Araújo, Fernanda Fortes; Peruhype-Magalhães, Vanessa; Xavier, Marcelo Antônio Pascoal; Sabino, Ester Cerdeira; de Freitas Carneiro Proietti, Anna Bárbara; Andrade, Mariléia Chaves; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Gontijo, Célia Maria Ferreira

    2018-04-01

    A relevant issue in Chagas disease serological diagnosis regards the requirement of using several confirmatory methods to elucidate the status of non-negative results from blood bank screening. The development of a single reliable method may potentially contribute to distinguish true and false positive results. Our aim was to evaluate the performance of the multiplexed flow-cytometry anti-T. cruzi/Leishmania IgG1 serology/(FC-TRIPLEX Chagas/Leish IgG1) with three conventional confirmatory criteria (ELISA-EIA, Immunofluorescence assay-IIF and EIA/IIF consensus criterion) to define the final status of samples with actual/previous non-negative results during anti-T. cruzi ELISA-screening in blood banks. Apart from inconclusive results, the FC-TRIPLEX presented a weak agreement index with EIA, while a strong agreement was observed when either IIF or EIA/IIF consensus criteria were applied. Discriminant analysis and Spearman's correlation further corroborates the agreement scores. ROC curve analysis showed that FC-TRIPLEX performance indexes were higher when IIF and EIA/IIF consensus were used as a confirmatory criterion. Logistic regression analysis further demonstrated that the probability of FC-TRIPLEX to yield positive results was higher for inconclusive results from IIF and EIA/IIF consensus. Machine learning tools illustrated the high level of categorical agreement between FC-TRIPLEX versus IIF or EIA/IIF consensus. Together, these findings demonstrated the usefulness of FC-TRIPLEX as a tool to elucidate the status of non-negative results in blood bank screening of Chagas disease. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. An empirical study on the relationship of purchasing a chocolate based on its packaging

    Yasaman Giyahi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Chocolate is one of popular gifts among people in many societies. Packaging of such product plays an important role on marketing this item and the primary question of this survey is to determine the impact of packaging on better introducing a product. The inference statistical tests show that packaging is an important item in selection of chocolate as a gift. Percentage of chocolate is the most important information on packaging and color of packaging is of paramount significance when customers purchase chocolate for individuals with official relationship. In this paper, we present an empirical study to measure the effects of chocolates' packaging on purchasing them. The proposed study of this paper designs a questionnaire and distributes them among different people. The results are analyzed using some non-parametric tests and they are discussed. The preliminary results indicate that the number of purchased packages within a year, cost of purchasing chocolate within a year, type of relationship of recipients of chocolate as gift, gender of recipient of chocolate as gift, age group of recipient of gift, type of store, nationality of chocolate, significance of packaging in various price ranges, type of packaging, insertion of information on package and color of packaging, are important factors influencing people to buy more.

  8. Mortalidad por enfermedad de Chagas: A propósito de los brotes de Chagas agudo como enfermedad reemergente de transmisión alimentaria

    Rísquez, Alejandro

    2009-01-01

    Tras la ocurrencia de los primeros brotes de Chagas agudos en la capital (diciembre 2007) y Estado Vargas (marzo 2009) por trasmisión oral, se procedió a una revisión de la mortalidad por la enfermedad registrada entre 1997 y 2006, cuyos datos se analizaron de acuerdo a la edad, sexo y forma de presentación. El número absoluto de muertes sigue siendo elevado con promedio de 796 muertes anuales, de predominio en el sexo masculino, la mayoría en después de los 60 años de edad. Llama la atención...

  9. Insertion profiles of 4 headless compression screws.

    Hart, Adam; Harvey, Edward J; Lefebvre, Louis-Philippe; Barthelat, Francois; Rabiei, Reza; Martineau, Paul A

    2013-09-01

    In practice, the surgeon must rely on screw position (insertion depth) and tactile feedback from the screwdriver (insertion torque) to gauge compression. In this study, we identified the relationship between interfragmentary compression and these 2 factors. The Acutrak Standard, Acutrak Mini, Synthes 3.0, and Herbert-Whipple implants were tested using a polyurethane foam scaphoid model. A specialized testing jig simultaneously measured compression force, insertion torque, and insertion depth at half-screw-turn intervals until failure occurred. The peak compression occurs at an insertion depth of -3.1 mm, -2.8 mm, 0.9 mm, and 1.5 mm for the Acutrak Mini, Acutrak Standard, Herbert-Whipple, and Synthes screws respectively (insertion depth is positive when the screw is proud above the bone and negative when buried). The compression and insertion torque at a depth of -2 mm were found to be 113 ± 18 N and 0.348 ± 0.052 Nm for the Acutrak Standard, 104 ± 15 N and 0.175 ± 0.008 Nm for the Acutrak Mini, 78 ± 9 N and 0.245 ± 0.006 Nm for the Herbert-Whipple, and 67 ± 2N, 0.233 ± 0.010 Nm for the Synthes headless compression screws. All 4 screws generated a sizable amount of compression (> 60 N) over a wide range of insertion depths. The compression at the commonly recommended insertion depth of -2 mm was not significantly different between screws; thus, implant selection should not be based on compression profile alone. Conically shaped screws (Acutrak) generated their peak compression when they were fully buried in the foam whereas the shanked screws (Synthes and Herbert-Whipple) reached peak compression before they were fully inserted. Because insertion torque correlated poorly with compression, surgeons should avoid using tactile judgment of torque as a proxy for compression. Knowledge of the insertion profile may improve our understanding of the implants, provide a better basis for comparing screws, and enable the surgeon to optimize compression. Copyright

  10. Laparoscopic insertion of the Moss feeding tube.

    Albrink, M H; Hagan, K; Rosemurgy, A S

    1993-12-01

    Placement of enteral feeding tubes is an important part of a surgeon's skill base. Surgical insertion of feeding tubes has been performed safely for many years with very few modifications. With the recent surge in interest and applicability of other laparoscopic procedures, it is well within the skills of the average laparoscopic surgeon to insert feeding tubes. We describe herein a simple technique for the insertion of the Moss feeding tube. The procedure described has a minimum of invasion, along with simplicity, safety, and accuracy.

  11. Sperm Morphological Features Associated with Chronic Chagas Disease in the Semen of Experimentally Infected Dogs

    Rodríguez-Morales, Olivia; Pedro-Martínez, Elvia; Hernández-Pichardo, José Ernesto; Alejandre-Aguilar, Ricardo; Aranda-Fraustro, Alberto; Graullera-Rivera, Verónica; Arce-Fonseca, Minerva

    2014-01-01

    The presence of trypanosomatids in the reproductive systems of different mammals (causing genital lesions in the acute stage of the disease) may predispose the animals to low semen quality. However, there are no studies examining the alterations in the sperm morphological features in the chronic stage of Trypanosoma cruzi infection. Knowledge of these aspects is important to understand the other ways of transmission of the Chagas disease. Progressive motility, mass motility, concentration, and sperm morphology of 84 ejaculates of dogs that were chronically infected with T. cruzi were evaluated. Most of the findings were consistent with the reference values and with those obtained from healthy control dogs. The scrotal circumference was not correlated with spermatozoa concentration in the infected animals. In conclusion, the T. cruzi Ninoa (MHOM/MX/1994/Ninoa) strain does not cause significant alterations in the semen quality of dogs experiencing chronic Chagas disease (at concentrations of 5 × 104 to 1 × 106 parasites per animal). PMID:25114010

  12. Population differentiation of the Chagas disease vector Triatoma maculata (Erichson, 1848) from Colombia and Venezuela.

    Monsalve, Yoman; Panzera, Francisco; Herrera, Leidi; Triana-Chávez, Omar; Gómez-Palacio, Andrés

    2016-06-01

    The emerging vector of Chagas disease, Triatoma maculata (Hemiptera, Reduviidae), is one of the most widely distributed Triatoma species in northern South America. Despite its increasing relevance as a vector, no consistent picture of the magnitude of genetic and phenetic diversity has yet been developed. Here, several populations of T. maculata from eleven Colombia and Venezuela localities were analyzed based on the morphometry of wings and the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4) gene sequences. Our results showed clear morphometric and genetic differences among Colombian and Venezuelan populations, indicating high intraspecific diversity. Inter-population divergence is suggested related to East Cordillera in Colombia. Analyses of other populations from Colombia, Venezuela, and Brazil from distinct eco-geographic regions are still needed to understand its systematics and phylogeography as well as its actual role as a vector of Chagas disease. © 2016 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  13. Community resilience and Chagas disease in a rural region of Mexico.

    Rangel, José Antonio Santana; Monreal, Luz Arenas; Ramsey, Janine M

    2016-08-04

    To explore the pillars of community resilience in a region where Chagas disease is endemic, with the aim of promoting participatory processes to deal with this condition from the resilience of the population. Qualitative study using ethnographic record and six interviews of focus groups with young people, women and men. The research was carried out in a rural area of the state of Morelos, Mexico, between 2006 and 2007. We carried out educational sessions with the population in general, so that residents could identify the relationship between the vector Triatoma pallidipennis, the parasite (Trypanosoma cruzi), symptoms, and preventive actions for Chagas disease. The ethnographic record and groups were analyzed based on Taylor and Bogdan's modification, and the focus was to understand the socio-cultural meanings that guide the speeches and activities of residents in relation to the pillars of community resilience. The population felt proud of belonging to that location and three pillars of community resilience were clearly identified: collective self-esteem, cultural identity, and social honesty. Having these pillars as bases, we promoted the participation of the population concerning Chagas disease, and a Community Action Group was formed with young people, adult men and women, and social leaders. This Group initiated actions of epidemiological and entomological surveillance in the community to deal with this problem. It is necessary to create more experiences that deepen the understanding of the pillars of community resilience, and how they contribute to enhance participation in health to deal with Chagas disease. Explorar los pilares de la resiliencia comunitaria en una región en la que la enfermedad de Chagas es endémica, con la finalidad de partir de la resiliencia de la población para impulsar procesos participativos para enfrentar este padecimiento. Estudio cualitativo que utilizó registro etnográfico y seis entrevistas de grupos focales con j

  14. Prova do esforço na forma indeterminada da doença de Chagas

    Vanize Macedo

    1973-10-01

    Full Text Available Os autores realizaram a prova do esforço sub-máximo em 30 portadores da forma indeterminada da doença de Chagas e em 30 normais, a fim de avaliar a capacidade física e a função miocárdica. Os resultados não mostraram diferenciação do grupo positivo e do controle negativo, quanto a queixas, freqüência cardíaca ou respiratória, tensão arterial, consumo de oxigênio e alterações eletrocardiográficas.To evaluate the physical capacity and the myoeardial function in 30 patientes with latent Chagas' disease, the effort test was performed. 30 Controls mere used. According to complains, cardiac and respiratory rate, maximum oxigen consumption and eletrocardiographic changes there was no difference between both groups.

  15. [Management of Chagas disease in Europe. Experiences and challenges in Spain, Switzerland and Italy].

    Jackson, Y; Angheben, A; Carrilero Fernandez, B; Jansa i Lopez del Vallado, J M; Jannin, J G; Albajar-Viñas, P

    2009-12-01

    The intention of this article is not to describe the illness or evaluate the number of cases diagnosed in Spain, Switzerland and Italy, nor to analyse the protocols followed in various centres. The authors rather seek to examine the main technical, local and national challenges involved in the care of patients with Chagas disease. To this end, they review concisely a number of themes which are common to the three countries. These are: the detection of disease; confirmation of the diagnosis; treatment; response to treatment; follow-up; the risk of transmission by transfusion, by organ donation and from mother to child; the psychosocial and socio-economic aspects of Chagas disease outside endemic areas; and what progress needs to be made in improving information about the condition.

  16. [Carlos Chagas Filho: an articulator of the history of sciences in Brazil].

    Domingues, Heloisa Maria Bertol

    2012-06-01

    A letter sent in 1982 by a group of scientists to the president of Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico appealed for a policy of preservation of Brazilian scientific culture. The name of Carlos Chagas Filho topped the list of signatures thereby proving his commitment to that proposal, the ideological structure of which was part of his experience in scientific policy in Brazil and abroad. This document harks back to the practice of the history of the sciences in Brazil and the creation of places for the safeguard and organization of scientific memory, such as the Museu de Astronomia e Ciências Afins, Casa de Oswaldo Cruz and the Sociedade Brasileira de História da Ciência, of which Carlos Chagas Filho was an inaugural member of the board of directors.

  17. The impact of Chagas disease control in Latin America: a review.

    Dias, J C P; Silveira, A C; Schofield, C J

    2002-07-01

    Discovered in 1909, Chagas disease was progressively shown to be widespread throughout Latin America, affecting millions of rural people with a high impact on morbidity and mortality. With no vaccine or specific treatment available for large-scale public health interventions, the main control strategy relies on prevention of transmission, principally by eliminating the domestic insect vectors and control of transmission by blood transfusion. Vector control activities began in the 1940s, initially by means of housing improvement and then through insecticide spraying following successful field trials in Brazil (Bambui Research Centre), with similar results soon reproduced in São Paulo, Argentina, Venezuela and Chile. But national control programmes only began to be implemented after the 1970s, when technical questions were overcome and the scientific demonstration of the high social impact of Chagas disease was used to encourage political determination in favour of national campaigns (mainly in Brazil). Similarly, large-scale screening of infected blood donors in Latin America only began in the 1980s following the emergence of AIDS. By the end of the last century it became clear that continuous control in contiguous endemic areas could lead to the elimination of the most highly domestic vector populations - especially Triatoma infestans and Rhodnius prolixus - as well as substantial reductions of other widespread species such as T. brasiliensis, T. sordida, and T. dimidiata, leading in turn to interruption of disease transmission to rural people. The social impact of Chagas disease control can now be readily demonstrated by the disappearance of acute cases and of new infections in younger age groups, as well as progressive reductions of mortality and morbidity rates in controlled areas. In economic terms, the cost-benefit relationship between intervention (insecticide spraying, serology in blood banks) and the reduction of Chagas disease (in terms of medical and

  18. The impact of Chagas disease control in Latin America: a review

    JCP Dias

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Discovered in 1909, Chagas disease was progressively shown to be widespread throughout Latin America, affecting millions of rural people with a high impact on morbidity and mortality. With no vaccine or specific treatment available for large-scale public health interventions, the main control strategy relies on prevention of transmission, principally by eliminating the domestic insect vectors and control of transmission by blood transfusion. Vector control activities began in the 1940s, initially by means of housing improvement and then through insecticide spraying following successful field trials in Brazil (Bambui Research Centre, with similar results soon reproduced in São Paulo, Argentina, Venezuela and Chile. But national control programmes only began to be implemented after the 1970s, when technical questions were overcome and the scientific demonstration of the high social impact of Chagas disease was used to encourage political determination in favour of national campaigns (mainly in Brazil. Similarly, large-scale screening of infected blood donors in Latin America only began in the 1980s following the emergence of AIDS. By the end of the last century it became clear that continuous control in contiguous endemic areas could lead to the elimination of the most highly domestic vector populations - especially Triatoma infestans and Rhodnius prolixus - as well as substantial reductions of other widespread species such as T. brasiliensis, T. sordida, and T. dimidiata, leading in turn to interruption of disease transmission to rural people. The social impact of Chagas disease control can now be readily demonstrated by the disappearance of acute cases and of new infections in younger age groups, as well as progressive reductions of mortality and morbidity rates in controlled areas. In economic terms, the cost-benefit relationship between intervention (insecticide spraying, serology in blood banks and the reduction of Chagas disease (in terms

  19. [Urbanization of Chagas disease in Peru: experiences in prevention and control].

    Náquira, César

    2014-04-01

    In Peru, Chagas disease has an epidemiological significance in three macro-regions, one of them is the southern macro-region formed by the departments of Arequipa, Moquegua and Tacna. In 1965 a successful control was performed by house spraying insecticides, however, the persistence of the vector made it necessary for a second control plan that was implemented in 2000 and followed the guidelines of CONAL Plan, based on the elimination of Triatoma infestans and screening in blood banks.This plan was successful in Tacna and Moquegua, therefore these departments were considered free of vectorial transmission by the Pan American Health Organization. A ssimilar situation has not been achieved in the department of Arequipa because of the presence, among other factors, of rural migration to the city, in this way the urbanization of Chagas disease is a new epidemiological scenario of which we need to know more.

  20. Hazardous materials package performance regulations

    Russell, N.A.; Glass, R.E.; McClure, J.D.; Finley, N.C.

    1992-01-01

    The hazardous materials (hazmat) packaging development and certification process is currently defined by two different regulatory philosophies, one based on specification packagings and the other based on performance standards. With specification packagings, a packaging is constructed according to an agreed set of design specifications. In contrast, performance standards do not specify the packaging design; they specify performance standards that a packaging design must be able to pass before it can be certified for transport. The packaging can be designed according to individual needs as long as it meets these performance standards. Performance standards have been used nationally and internationally for about 40 years to certify radioactive materials (RAM) packagings. It is reasonable to state that for RAM transport, performance specifications have maintained transport safety. A committee of United Nation's experts recommended the performance standard philosophy as the preferred regulation method for hazmat packaging. Performance standards for hazmat packagings smaller than 118 gallons have been adopted in 49CFR178. Packagings for materials that are classified as toxic-by-inhalation must comply with the performance standards by October 1, 1993, and packagings for all other classes of hazardous materials covered must comply by October 1, 1996. For packages containing bulk (in excess of 188 gallons) quantities of materials that are extremely toxic by inhalation, there currently are no performance requirements. This paper discusses a Hazmat Packaging Performance Evaluation (HPPE) project to look at the subset of bulk packagings that are larger than 2000 gallons. The objectives of this project are the evaluate current hazmat specification packagings and develop supporting documentation for determining performance requirements for packagings in excess of 2000 gallons that transport hazardous materials that have been classified as extremely toxic by inhalation (METBI)

  1. In-Package Chemistry Abstraction

    P.S. Domski

    2003-07-21

    The work associated with the development of this model report was performed in accordance with the requirements established in ''Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Modeling, Testing, and Analyses in Support of SR and LA'' (BSC 2002a). The in-package chemistry model and in-package chemistry model abstraction are developed to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a failed waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry. The purpose of this work is to provide the abstraction model to the Performance Assessment Project and the Waste Form Department for development of geochemical models of the waste package interior. The scope of this model report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model and in-package chemistry model abstraction. The in-package chemistry model will consider chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) and codisposed high-level waste glass (HLWG) and N Reactor spent fuel (CDNR). The in-package chemistry model includes two sub-models, the first a water vapor condensation (WVC) model, where water enters a waste package as vapor and forms a film on the waste package components with subsequent film reactions with the waste package materials and waste form--this is a no-flow model, the reacted fluids do not exit the waste package via advection. The second sub-model of the in-package chemistry model is the seepage dripping model (SDM), where water, water that may have seeped into the repository from the surrounding rock, enters a failed waste package and reacts with the waste package components and waste form, and then exits the waste package with no accumulation of reacted water in the waste package. Both of the submodels of the in-package chemistry model are film models in contrast to past in-package chemistry models where all of the waste package pore space was filled with water. The

  2. In-Package Chemistry Abstraction

    P.S. Domski

    2003-01-01

    The work associated with the development of this model report was performed in accordance with the requirements established in ''Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Modeling, Testing, and Analyses in Support of SR and LA'' (BSC 2002a). The in-package chemistry model and in-package chemistry model abstraction are developed to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a failed waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry. The purpose of this work is to provide the abstraction model to the Performance Assessment Project and the Waste Form Department for development of geochemical models of the waste package interior. The scope of this model report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model and in-package chemistry model abstraction. The in-package chemistry model will consider chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) and codisposed high-level waste glass (HLWG) and N Reactor spent fuel (CDNR). The in-package chemistry model includes two sub-models, the first a water vapor condensation (WVC) model, where water enters a waste package as vapor and forms a film on the waste package components with subsequent film reactions with the waste package materials and waste form--this is a no-flow model, the reacted fluids do not exit the waste package via advection. The second sub-model of the in-package chemistry model is the seepage dripping model (SDM), where water, water that may have seeped into the repository from the surrounding rock, enters a failed waste package and reacts with the waste package components and waste form, and then exits the waste package with no accumulation of reacted water in the waste package. Both of the submodels of the in-package chemistry model are film models in contrast to past in-package chemistry models where all of the waste package pore space was filled with water. The current in-package

  3. Packaging design criteria for the Hanford Ecorok Packaging

    Mercado, M.S.

    1996-01-01

    The Hanford Ecorok Packaging (HEP) will be used to ship contaminated water purification filters from K Basins to the Central Waste Complex. This packaging design criteria documents the design of the HEP, its intended use, and the transportation safety criteria it is required to meet. This information will serve as a basis for the safety analysis report for packaging

  4. The Prevalence of Chagas Heart Disease in a Central Bolivian Community Endemic for Trypanosoma Cruzi

    Yager, Jessica E.; Lozano Beltran, Daniel F.; Torrico, Faustino; Gilman, Robert H.; Bern, Caryn

    2015-01-01

    Background Though the incidence of new Trypanosoma cruzi infections has decreased significantly in endemic regions in the Americas, medical professionals continue to encounter a high burden of resulting Chagas disease among infected adults. The current prevalence of Chagas heart disease in a community setting is not known; nor is it known how recent insecticide vector control measures may have impacted the progression of cardiac disease in an infected population. Objectives and Methods Nested within a community serosurvey in rural and periurban communities in central Bolivia, we performed a cross-sectional cardiac substudy to evaluate adults for historical, clinical, and electrocardiographic evidence of cardiac disease. All adults between the ages of 20 and 60 years old with T. cruzi infection and those with a clinical history, physical exam, or ECG consistent with cardiac abnormalities were also scheduled for echocardiography. Results and conclusions Of the 604 cardiac substudy participants with definitive serology results, 183 were seropositive for infection with T. cruzi (30.3%). Participants who were seropositive for T. cruzi infection were more likely to have conduction system defects (1.6% versus 0 for complete right bundle branch block and 10.4% versus 1.9% for any bundle branch block; p=0.008 and p<0.001, respectively). However, there was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of bradycardia among seropositive versus seronegative participants. Echocardiogram findings were not consistent with a high burden of Chagas cardiomyopathy: valvulopathies were the most common abnormality, and few participants were found to have low ejection fraction or left ventricular dilatation. No participants had significant heart failure. Though almost one third of adults in the community were seropositive for T. cruzi infection, few had evidence of Chagas heart disease. PMID:26407509

  5. A scientometric evaluation of the Chagas disease implementation research programme of the PAHO and TDR.

    Ana Laura Carbajal-de-la-Fuente

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR is an independent global programme of scientific collaboration cosponsored by the United Nations Children's Fund, the United Nations Development Program, the World Bank, and the World Health Organization. TDR's strategy is based on stewardship for research on infectious diseases of poverty, empowerment of endemic countries, research on neglected priority needs, and the promotion of scientific collaboration influencing global efforts to combat major tropical diseases. In 2001, in view of the achievements obtained in the reduction of transmission of Chagas disease through the Southern Cone Initiative and the improvement in Chagas disease control activities in some countries of the Andean and the Central American Initiatives, TDR transferred the Chagas Disease Implementation Research Programme (CIRP to the Communicable Diseases Unit of the Pan American Health Organization (CD/PAHO. This paper presents a scientometric evaluation of the 73 projects from 18 Latin American and European countries that were granted by CIRP/PAHO/TDR between 1997 and 2007. We analyzed all final reports of the funded projects and scientific publications, technical reports, and human resource training activities derived from them. Results about the number of projects funded, countries and institutions involved, gender analysis, number of published papers in indexed scientific journals, main topics funded, patents inscribed, and triatomine species studied are presented and discussed. The results indicate that CIRP/PAHO/TDR initiative has contributed significantly, over the 1997-2007 period, to Chagas disease knowledge as well as to the individual and institutional-building capacity.

  6. La enfermedad de Chagas ya no es tan exótica

    2008-04-03

    Este podcast tiene el propósito de informar a los profesionales de la salud sobre la enfermedad de Chagas, su diagnóstico y tratamiento, así como orientar en la identificación de pacientes infectados.  Created: 4/3/2008 by National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED).   Date Released: 4/9/2008.

  7. La migrazione del chagas: Costruzione bio-medica e socio-politica delle malattie tropicali dimenticate

    Ciannameo, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Questo studio propone un'esplorazione dei nessi tra processi migratori ed esperienze di salute e malattia a partire da un'indagine sulle migrazioni provenienti dall'America latina in Emilia-Romagna. Contemporaneamente indaga i termini del dibattito sulla diffusione della Malattia di Chagas, “infezione tropicale dimenticata” endemica in America centro-meridionale che, grazie all'incremento dei flussi migratori transnazionali, viene oggi riconfigurata come 'emergente' in alcuni contesti di imm...

  8. Population structure of the Chagas disease vector, Triatoma infestans, at the urban-rural interface

    Foley, Erica A.; Khatchikian, Camilo E.; Hwang, Josephine; Ancca-Juárez, Jenny; Borrini-Mayori, Katty; Quıspe-Machaca, Victor R.; Levy, Michael Z.; Brisson, Dustin

    2013-01-01

    The increasing rate of biological invasions resulting from human transport or human-mediated changes to the environment have had devastating ecologic and public health consequences. The kissing bug, Triatoma infestans, has dispersed through the Peruvian city of Arequipa. The biological invasion of this insect has resulted in a public health crisis, putting thousands of residents of this city at risk of infection by Trypanosoma cruzi and subsequent development of Chagas disease. Here we show t...

  9. Human Chagas Disease and Migration in the Context of Globalization: Some Particular Aspects

    João Carlos Pinto Dias

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Human Chagas disease originated in Latin America, being spread around the world in relation with multiple bioecological, sociocultural, and political factors. The process of the disease production and dispersion is discussed, emphasizing the human migration and correlated aspects, in the context of globalization. Positive and negative consequences concern the future of this trypanosomiasis, mainly in terms of the ecologic and sociopolitical characteristics of the endemic and nonendemic countries.

  10. High Resolution Esophageal Manometry in Patients with Chagas Disease: A Cross-Sectional Evaluation.

    Adrián Sánchez-Montalvá

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal involvement affects 30-40% of the patients with chronic Chagas disease. Esophageal symptoms appear once the structural damage is established. Little is known about the usefulness of high resolution manometry to early identification of esophageal involvement.We performed a cross-sectional study at the Vall d'Hebron University Hospital (Barcelona, Spain between May 2011 and April 2012. Consecutive patients diagnosed with Chagas disease in the chronic phase were offered to participate. All patients underwent a structured questionnaire about digestive symptoms, a barium esophagogram (Rezende classification and an esophageal high resolution manometry (HRM. A control group of patients with heartburn who underwent an esophageal HRM in our hospital was selected.62 out of 73 patients that were included in the study fulfilled the study protocol. The median age of the Chagas disease group (CG was 37 (IQR 32-45 years, and 42 (67.7% patients were female. Twenty-seven (43.5% patients had esophageal symptoms, heartburn being the most frequent. Esophagogram was abnormal in 5 (8.77%. The esophageal HRM in the CG showed a pathological motility pattern in 14 patients (22.6%. All of them had minor disorders of the peristalsis (13 with ineffective esophageal motility and 1 with fragmented peristalsis. Hypotonic lower esophageal sphincter was found more frequently in the CG than in the control group (21% vs 3.3%; p<0.01. Upper esophageal sphincter was hypertonic in 22 (35.5% and hypotonic in 1 patient. When comparing specific manometric parameters or patterns in the CG according to the presence of symptoms or esophagogram no statistically significant association were seen, except for distal latency.The esophageal involvement measured by HRM in patients with chronic Chagas disease in our cohort is 22.6%. All the patients with esophageal alterations had minor disorders of the peristalsis. Symptoms and esophagogram results did not correlate with the HRM

  11. Follow-up Evaluation of Air Force Blood Donors Screening Positive for Chagas Disease

    2017-08-27

    Blood Donors Screening Positive for Cbagas Disease presented at/published to Military Health System Research Symposium (Florida, 27-30 Aug 2017) in...disease upon blood donation at JBSA -Lackland 6. TITLE OF MATERIAL TO BE PUBLISHED OR PRESENTED: Follow-up evaluation of Air Force blood donors ...Designated Exempt Reviewer Follow-up evaluation of Air Force blood donors screening positive for Chagas disease Joseph Marcus1, Bryant Webber2, Leo Cropper2

  12. Evaluation of oral mucosal transudate for immunodiagnosis of Chagas´ disease

    BARROS Maria das Neves D. S.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Anticorpos anti-Trypanosoma cruzi (isotipo IgG foram detectados no transudato da mucosa oral (TMO através de um ensaio imunoenzimático. Foram estudados 21 indivíduos com doença de Chagas crônica comprovada através de diagnóstico clínico, eletrocardiográfico, epidemiológico e sorológico: 10 com forma cardíaca, 2 com forma digestiva, 6 com forma mista e 3 com forma assintomática. Sete indivíduos de área endêmica, com sorologia negativa, constituiram o grupo controle. O soro destes grupos foi armazenado a -20 oC. A coleta de TMO de ambos os grupos foi realizada com o dispositivo OraSureâ seguindo orientação do fabricante (OraSureâ , Epitope Inc., Beaverton, OR, USA. As amostras de TMO foram diluídas (1:2 e testadas em duplicata através de um ensaio imunoenzimático da Abbott Laboratories para detectar anticorpos IgG contra doença de Chagas. Vinte dos vinte e um pacientes chagásicos apresentaram densidade óptica acima do limiar de reatividade e foram considerados positivos para doença de Chagas. Nenhuma das amostras provenientes de indivíduos soronegativos foi positiva. A sensibilidade e especificidade foram de 95% e 100%, respectivamente. Estes resultados indicam que TMO poderá ser utilizado como um fluido biológico alternativo para o diagnóstico da doença de Chagas. Nós estamos aumentando o número de indivíduos para validar estes resultados incluindo a análise comparativa entre amostras de TMO e soro.

  13. [Possible oral transmission of Chagas disease among hydrocarbons sector workers in Casanare, Colombia, 2014].

    Zuleta-Dueñas, Liliana Patricia; López-Quiroga, Ángela Johana; Torres-Torres, Fernando; Castañeda-Porras, Oneida

    2017-06-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent for Chagas disease, can be transmitted by oral intake of contaminated food or drinks. During epidemiological week 14 of 2014, two cases of acute Chagas disease were notified among hydrocarbons sector workers in Paz de Ariporo, Casanare. To characterize the affected population, to establish control and prevention measures and to confirm the outbreak. We conducted an outbreak investigation that included the following components: a) Search for symptomatic people compatible with Chagas disease according to the case definition for their referral to medical services; b) entomological survey (192/197 houses); c) sanitary inspection and microbiological analysis of food samples; and d) study of reservoirs. Data management and analysis were done with Epi-Info 7.1.5 using descriptive statistics. We also calculated intradomicile and peridomicile triatomine infestation indexes. We detected 552 exposed people; 40 had the disease (7.2%), of whom seven were women (17,5%) and 33, men (82.5%), i.e., a male-female ratio of 5:1. The mean age was 39.1 ± 10.8 years; the attack rate was 7.2% and lethality, 5% (2/40). Symptoms included fever (100% of cases), headache (80%), myalgia and arthralgia (65%), facial edema (55%), and abdominal pain (37.5%). The mean incubation time was 17 days (range: 3-21). Rhodnius prolixus domiciliary infestation index was 3.3 % and 2.2% in the peridomicile. In the five restaurants inspected sanitary conditions were deficient and food samples were microbiologically non-conforming. We found a dog and two opossums positive for IgG antibodies by ELISA. Environmental, sanitary and epidemiological conditions at the place confirmed an outbreak of Chagas diseases related to occupational exposure, possibly by oral transmission, which may be the largest to date in Colombia.

  14. Community resilience and Chagas disease in a rural region of Mexico

    José Antonio Santana Rangel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To explore the pillars of community resilience in a region where Chagas disease is endemic, with the aim of promoting participatory processes to deal with this condition from the resilience of the population. METHODS Qualitative study using ethnographic record and six interviews of focus groups with young people, women and men. The research was carried out in a rural area of the state of Morelos, Mexico, between 2006 and 2007. We carried out educational sessions with the population in general, so that residents could identify the relationship between the vector Triatoma pallidipennis, the parasite (Trypanosoma cruzi, symptoms, and preventive actions for Chagas disease. The ethnographic record and groups were analyzed based on Taylor and Bogdan’s modification, and the focus was to understand the socio-cultural meanings that guide the speeches and activities of residents in relation to the pillars of community resilience. RESULTS The population felt proud of belonging to that location and three pillars of community resilience were clearly identified: collective self-esteem, cultural identity, and social honesty. Having these pillars as bases, we promoted the participation of the population concerning Chagas disease, and a Community Action Group was formed with young people, adult men and women, and social leaders. This Group initiated actions of epidemiological and entomological surveillance in the community to deal with this problem. CONCLUSIONS It is necessary to create more experiences that deepen the understanding of the pillars of community resilience, and how they contribute to enhance participation in health to deal with Chagas disease.

  15. Le Honduras se démarque dans la lutte contre la maladie de Chagas

    25 janv. 2011 ... ... en partenariat avec la fondation nationale du logement, ont grandement contribué à la lutte contre la transmission de la maladie de Chagas. À ce jour, 45 % des habitants du comté vivent dans de nouvelles maisons faites de matériaux − murs d'adobe, planchers de ciment, toits de zinc − qui n'attirent pas ...

  16. Insertable fluid flow passage bridgepiece and method

    Jones, Daniel O.

    2000-01-01

    A fluid flow passage bridgepiece for insertion into an open-face fluid flow channel of a fluid flow plate is provided. The bridgepiece provides a sealed passage from a columnar fluid flow manifold to the flow channel, thereby preventing undesirable leakage into and out of the columnar fluid flow manifold. When deployed in the various fluid flow plates that are used in a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell, bridgepieces of this invention prevent mixing of reactant gases, leakage of coolant or humidification water, and occlusion of the fluid flow channel by gasket material. The invention also provides a fluid flow plate assembly including an insertable bridgepiece, a fluid flow plate adapted for use with an insertable bridgepiece, and a method of manufacturing a fluid flow plate with an insertable fluid flow passage bridgepiece.

  17. Utility Bill Insert for Wastewater Services

    Intended for use by wastewater and water supply utilities, one side of the utility bill insert has information for customers that discharge to sanitary sewer systems; the other side is for customers with septic systems.

  18. HB+ inserted into the CMS Solenoid

    Tejinder S. Virdee, CERN

    2006-01-01

    The first half of the barrel hadron calorimeter (HB+) has been inserted into the superconducting solenoid of CMS, in preparation for the magnet test and cosmic challenge. The operation went smoothly, lasting a couple of days.

  19. Bulkhead insert for an internal combustion engine

    Maki, Clifford E.; Chottiner, Jeffrey Eliot; Williams, Rick L.; Thibault, Mark W.; Ervin, James Douglas; Boileau, James Maurice; McKeough, Bryan

    2017-08-01

    An engine includes a cylinder block defining at least one main bearing bulkhead adjacent to a cylinder, and a crankshaft rotatably housed within the block by a main bearing. A bulkhead insert has a cap portion, and an insert portion provided within the bulkhead. The insert portion has having first and second end regions connected by first and second straps. Each strap having a flanged beam cross section. The first and second ends of the insert portion are configured to connect a main bearing cap column to a cylinder head column. Each of the first and second end regions define at least one protrusion having a surface substantially normal to engine combustion and reactive loads. The cap portion is configured to mate with the first end region at the main bearing cap column and support the main bearing.

  20. Dual Use Packaging, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA seeks down-weighted packaging compatible with microwave preparation and perhaps high hydrostatic pressure processing. New packaging must satisfy NASA's 3-year...

  1. Food packaging history and innovations.

    Risch, Sara J

    2009-09-23

    Food packaging has evolved from simply a container to hold food to something today that can play an active role in food quality. Many packages are still simply containers, but they have properties that have been developed to protect the food. These include barriers to oxygen, moisture, and flavors. Active packaging, or that which plays an active role in food quality, includes some microwave packaging as well as packaging that has absorbers built in to remove oxygen from the atmosphere surrounding the product or to provide antimicrobials to the surface of the food. Packaging has allowed access to many foods year-round that otherwise could not be preserved. It is interesting to note that some packages have actually allowed the creation of new categories in the supermarket. Examples include microwave popcorn and fresh-cut produce, which owe their existence to the unique packaging that has been developed.

  2. [Knowledge of vector-borne diseases (dengue, rickettsiosis and Chagas disease) in physicians].

    Lugo-Caballero, César I; Dzul-Rosado, Karla; Dzul-Tut, Irving; Balam-May, Ángel; Zavala-Castro, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    The ecological conditions of Yucatan made it a suitable region for the acquisition of vector-borne diseases such as dengue, rickettsiosis, and Chagas disease. As the epidemiological burden of these diseases shows an alarming increase of severe cases, the early establishment of diagnosis and therapeutics by first-contact physicians is a critical step that is not being fulfilled due to several reasons, including poor knowledge. To determine the level of knowledge related to dengue, Chagas disease, and rickettsiosis among rural first-contact physicians of Yucatan. A survey was applied to 90 first-contact physicians from rural clinics of Yucatan, which included 32 items related to the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of dengue, rickettsiosis, and Chagas disease. Answers were analyzed by central tendency statistics. Differences were observed among every category, however; diagnosis and therapeutics showed the lower values. Globally, 62.5% of respondents showed moderate knowledge, 37.5% poor knowledge, and 0% adequate knowledge. Results suggest that a strong campaign for a continuous diffusion of knowledge regarding these diseases is needed. In regions with high prevalence of these kinds of diseases, like Yucatan, the impact of these results on the epidemiological burden of these diseases must be evaluated.

  3. Current and developing therapeutic agents in the treatment of Chagas disease

    Werner Apt

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Werner AptUniversity of Chile, Faculty of Medicine, Santiago, ChileAbstract: Chagas disease must be treated in all its stages: acute, indeterminate, chronic, and initial and middle determinant chronic, due to the fact that DNA of the parasite can be demonstrated by PCR in chronic cases, where optical microscopy does not detect parasites. Nifurtimox (NF and benznidazole (BNZ are the drugs accepted to treat humans based upon ethical considerations and efficiency. However, both the drugs produce secondary effects in 30% of the cases, and the treatment must be given for at least 30–60 days. Other useful drugs are itraconazole and posaconazole. The latter may be the drug to treat Chagas disease in the future when all the investigations related to it are finished. At present, there is no criterion of cure for chronic cases since in the majority, the serology remains positive, although it may decrease. In acute cases, 70% cure with NF and 75% with BNZ is achieved. In congenital cases, 100% cure is obtained if the treatment is performed during the first year of life. In chronic acquired cases, 20% cure and 50% improvement of the electrocardiographic changes are obtained with itraconazole.Keywords: Chagas disease, treatment, nifurtimox, benznidazole, allopurinol, itraconazole, posaconazole

  4. Access to benznidazole for Chagas disease in the United States-Cautious optimism?

    Jonathan D Alpern

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Drugs for neglected tropical diseases (NTD are being excessively priced in the United States. Benznidazole, the first-line drug for Chagas disease, may become approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA and manufactured by a private company in the US, thus placing it at risk of similar pricing. Chagas disease is an NTD caused by Trypanosoma cruzi; it is endemic to Latin America, infecting 8 million individuals. Human migration has changed the epidemiology causing nonendemic countries to face increased challenges in diagnosing and managing patients with Chagas disease. Only 2 drugs exist with proven efficacy: benznidazole and nifurtimox. Benznidazole has historically faced supply problems and drug shortages, limiting accessibility. In the US, it is currently only available under an investigational new drug (IND protocol from the CDC and is provided free of charge to patients. However, 2 companies have stated that they intend to submit a New Drug Application (NDA for FDA approval. Based on recent history of companies acquiring licensing rights for NTD drugs in the US with limited availability, it is likely that benznidazole will become excessively priced by the manufacturer-paradoxically making it less accessible. However, if the companies can be taken at their word, there may be reason for optimism.

  5. Access to benznidazole for Chagas disease in the United States-Cautious optimism?

    Alpern, Jonathan D; Lopez-Velez, Rogelio; Stauffer, William M

    2017-09-01

    Drugs for neglected tropical diseases (NTD) are being excessively priced in the United States. Benznidazole, the first-line drug for Chagas disease, may become approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and manufactured by a private company in the US, thus placing it at risk of similar pricing. Chagas disease is an NTD caused by Trypanosoma cruzi; it is endemic to Latin America, infecting 8 million individuals. Human migration has changed the epidemiology causing nonendemic countries to face increased challenges in diagnosing and managing patients with Chagas disease. Only 2 drugs exist with proven efficacy: benznidazole and nifurtimox. Benznidazole has historically faced supply problems and drug shortages, limiting accessibility. In the US, it is currently only available under an investigational new drug (IND) protocol from the CDC and is provided free of charge to patients. However, 2 companies have stated that they intend to submit a New Drug Application (NDA) for FDA approval. Based on recent history of companies acquiring licensing rights for NTD drugs in the US with limited availability, it is likely that benznidazole will become excessively priced by the manufacturer-paradoxically making it less accessible. However, if the companies can be taken at their word, there may be reason for optimism.

  6. Value of the radiological study of the thorax for diagnosing left ventricular dysfunction in Chagas' disease

    Perez Amanda Arantes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the value of the radiological study of the thorax for diagnosing left ventricular dilation and left ventricular systolic dysfunction in patients with Chagas' disease. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 166 consecutive patients with Chagas' disease and no other associated diseases. The patients underwent cardiac assessment with chest radiography and Doppler echocardiography. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of chest radiography were calculated to detect left ventricular dysfunction and the accuracy of the cardiothoracic ratio in the diagnosis of left ventricular dysfunction with the area below the ROC curve. The cardiothoracic ratio was correlated with the left ventricular ejection fraction and the left ventricular diastolic diameter. RESULTS: The abnormal chest radiogram had a sensitivity of 50%, specificity of 80.5%, and positive and negative predictive values of 51.2% and 79.8%, respectively, in the diagnosis of left ventricular dysfunction. The cardiothoracic ratio showed a weak correlation with left ventricular ejection fraction (r=-0.23 and left ventricular diastolic diameter (r=0.30. The area calculated under the ROC curve was 0.734. CONCLUSION: The radiological study of the thorax is not an accurate indicator of left ventricular dysfunction; its use as a screening method to initially approach the patient with Chagas' disease should be reevaluated.

  7. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Chagas Disease in Pregnant Women in Casanare, Colombia

    Cucunubá, Zulma M.; Flórez, Astrid C.; Cárdenas, Ángela; Pavía, Paula; Montilla, Marleny; Aldana, Rodrigo; Villamizar, Katherine; Ríos, Lyda C.; Nicholls, Rubén S.; Puerta, Concepción J.

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of the prevalence and risk factors associated with maternal infection is the first step to develop a surveillance system for congenital transmission of Chagas disease. We conducted a cross-sectional study in Casanare, a disease-endemic area in Colombia. A total of 982 patients were enrolled in the study. A global prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection of 4.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.8–5.3%) was found. Multivariate analysis showed that the most important risk-associated factors were age > 29 years (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.4, 95% CI = 0.9–12.4), rural residency (aOR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.0–4.6), low education level (aOR = 10.2, 95% CI = 1.6–82.7), and previous knowledge of the vector (aOR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.0–4.9). Relatives and siblings of infected mothers showed a prevalence of 9.3%. These findings may help physicians to investigate congenital cases, screen Chagas disease in siblings and relatives, and provide early treatment to prevent the chronic complications of Chagas disease. PMID:23033397

  8. Positive deviance study to inform a Chagas disease control program in southern Ecuador.

    Nieto-Sanchez, Claudia; Baus, Esteban G; Guerrero, Darwin; Grijalva, Mario J

    2015-05-01

    Chagas disease is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, which is mainly transmitted by the faeces of triatomine insects that find favourable environments in poorly constructed houses. Previous studies have documented persistent triatomine infestation in houses in the province of Loja in southern Ecuador despite repeated insecticide and educational interventions. We aim to develop a sustainable strategy for the interruption of Chagas disease transmission by promoting living environments that are designed to prevent colonisation of rural houses by triatomines. This study used positive deviance to inform the design of an anti-triatomine prototype house by identifying knowledge, attitudes and practices used by families that have remained triatomine-free (2010-2012). Positive deviants reported practices that included maintenance of structural elements of the house, fumigation of dwellings and animal shelters, sweeping with "insect repellent" plants and relocation of domestic animals away from the house, among others. Participants favoured construction materials that do not drastically differ from those currently used (adobe walls and tile roofs). They also expressed their belief in a clear connection between a clean house and health. The family's economic dynamics affect space use and must be considered in the prototype's design. Overall, the results indicate a positive climate for the introduction of housing improvements as a protective measure against Chagas disease in this region.

  9. Positive deviance study to inform a Chagas disease control program in southern Ecuador

    Claudia Nieto-Sanchez

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, which is mainly transmitted by the faeces of triatomine insects that find favourable environments in poorly constructed houses. Previous studies have documented persistent triatomine infestation in houses in the province of Loja in southern Ecuador despite repeated insecticide and educational interventions. We aim to develop a sustainable strategy for the interruption of Chagas disease transmission by promoting living environments that are designed to prevent colonisation of rural houses by triatomines. This study used positive deviance to inform the design of an anti-triatomine prototype house by identifying knowledge, attitudes and practices used by families that have remained triatomine-free (2010-2012. Positive deviants reported practices that included maintenance of structural elements of the house, fumigation of dwellings and animal shelters, sweeping with "insect repellent" plants and relocation of domestic animals away from the house, among others. Participants favoured construction materials that do not drastically differ from those currently used (adobe walls and tile roofs. They also expressed their belief in a clear connection between a clean house and health. The family's economic dynamics affect space use and must be considered in the prototype's design. Overall, the results indicate a positive climate for the introduction of housing improvements as a protective measure against Chagas disease in this region.

  10. The current screening programme for congenital transmission of Chagas disease in Catalonia, Spain.

    Basile, L; Oliveira, I; Ciruela, P; Plasencia, A

    2011-09-22

    Due to considerable numbers of migrants from Chagas disease-endemic countries living in Catalonia, the Catalonian Health Department has recently implemented a screening programme for preventing congenital transmission, targeting Latin American pregnant women who attend antenatal consultations. Diagnosis of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in women is based on two positive serological tests. Screening of newborns from mothers with positive serology is based on a parasitological test during the first 48 hours of life and/or conventional serological analysis at the age of nine months. If either of these tests is positive, treatment with benznidazole is started following the World Health Organization's recommendations. The epidemiological surveillance of the programme is based on the Microbiological Reporting System of Catalonia, a well established network of laboratories. Once a positive case is reported, the responsible physician is asked to complete a structured epidemiological questionnaire. Clinical and demographic data are registered in the Voluntary Case Registry of Chagas Disease, a database administered by the Catalonian Health Department. It is expected that this programme will improve the understanding of the real burden of Chagas disease in the region. Furthermore, this initiative could encourage the implementation of similar programmes in other regions of Spain and even in other European countries.

  11. Chronic insertional Achilles tendinopathy: surgical outcomes

    Oshri, Yael; Palmanovich, Ezequiel; Brin, Yaron Shagra; Karpf, Ronen; Massarwe, Sabri; Kish, Benny; Nyska, Meir

    2012-01-01

    Background and objective: insertional Achilles tendinopathy is a common condition among athletes and joggers. One fifth of the injuries involves the insertion of the tendon. The etiology is either due to mechanical overuse related to sports activity, or a systemic inflammatory disease. The clinical appearance includes pain and movement restriction. The primary treatment is conservative. The surgery referred to in this study (Calcaneal Osteotomy) is performed by decompression of the posterior ...

  12. Z-2 Threaded Insert Design and Testing

    Ross, Amy; Rhodes, Richard; Jones, Robert J.; Graziosi, David; Ferl, Jinny; Sweeny, Mitch; Scarborough, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Z-2 prototype space suit contains several components fabricated from an advanced hybrid composite laminate consisting of IM10 carbon fiber and fiber glass. One requirement was to have removable, replaceable helicoil inserts to which other suit components would be fastened. An approach utilizing bonded in inserts with helicoils inside of them was implemented. During initial assembly, cracking sounds were heard followed by the lifting of one of the blind inserts out of its hole when the screws were torqued. A failure investigation was initiated to understand the mechanism of the failure. Ultimately, it was determined that the pre-tension caused by torqueing the fasteners is a much larger force than induced from the pressure loads of the suit which was not considered in the insert design. Bolt tension is determined by dividing the torque on the screw by a k value multiplied by the thread diameter of the bolt. The k value is a factor that accounts for friction in the system. A common value used for k for a non-lubricated screw is 0.2. The k value can go down by as much as 0.1 if the screw is lubricated which means for the same torque, a much larger tension could be placed on the bolt and insert. This paper summarizes the failure investigation that was performed to identify the root cause of the suit failure and details how the insert design was modified to resist a higher pull out tension.

  13. Fair Package Assignment

    Lahaie, Sébastien; Parkes, David C.

    We consider the problem of fair allocation in the package assignment model, where a set of indivisible items, held by single seller, must be efficiently allocated to agents with quasi-linear utilities. A fair assignment is one that is efficient and envy-free. We consider a model where bidders have superadditive valuations, meaning that items are pure complements. Our central result is that core outcomes are fair and even coalition-fair over this domain, while fair distributions may not even exist for general valuations. Of relevance to auction design, we also establish that the core is equivalent to the set of anonymous-price competitive equilibria, and that superadditive valuations are a maximal domain that guarantees the existence of anonymous-price competitive equilibrium. Our results are analogs of core equivalence results for linear prices in the standard assignment model, and for nonlinear, non-anonymous prices in the package assignment model with general valuations.

  14. Anticounterfeit packaging technologies

    Ruchir Y Shah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Packaging is the coordinated system that encloses and protects the dosage form. Counterfeit drugs are the major cause of morbidity, mortality, and failure of public interest in the healthcare system. High price and well-known brands make the pharma market most vulnerable, which accounts for top priority cardiovascular, obesity, and antihyperlipidemic drugs and drugs like sildenafil. Packaging includes overt and covert technologies like barcodes, holograms, sealing tapes, and radio frequency identification devices to preserve the integrity of the pharmaceutical product. But till date all the available techniques are synthetic and although provide considerable protection against counterfeiting, have certain limitations which can be overcome by the application of natural approaches and utilization of the principles of nanotechnology.

  15. Package materials, waste form

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    The schedules for waste package development for the various host rocks were presented. The waste form subtask activities were reviewed, with the papers focusing on high-level waste, transuranic waste, and spent fuel. The following ten papers were presented: (1) Waste Package Development Approach; (2) Borosilicate Glass as a Matrix for Savannah River Plant Waste; (3) Development of Alternative High-Level Waste Forms; (4) Overview of the Transuranic Waste Management Program; (5) Assessment of the Impacts of Spent Fuel Disassembly - Alternatives on the Nuclear Waste Isolation System; (6) Reactions of Spent Fuel and Reprocessing Waste Forms with Water in the Presence of Basalt; (7) Spent Fuel Stabilizer Screening Studies; (8) Chemical Interactions of Shale Rock, Prototype Waste Forms, and Prototype Canister Metals in a Simulated Wet Repository Environment; (9) Impact of Fission Gas and Volatiles on Spent Fuel During Geologic Disposal; and (10) Spent Fuel Assembly Decay Heat Measurement and Analysis

  16. RH Packaging Program Guidance

    Washington TRU Solutions, LLC

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the SARP and/or C of C shall govern. The C of C states: ''...each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, ''Operating Procedures,'' of the application.'' It further states: ''...each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, ''Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.'' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M and O) contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC approved, users need to be familiar with 10 CFR (section) 71.11, ''Deliberate Misconduct.'' Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. This document details the instructions to be followed to operate, maintain, and test the RH-TRU 72-B packaging. This Program Guidance standardizes instructions for all users. Users shall follow these instructions. Following these instructions assures that operations are safe and meet the requirements of the SARP. This document is available on the Internet at: ttp://www.ws/library/t2omi/t2omi.htm. Users are responsible for ensuring they are using the current revision and change notices. Sites may prepare their own document using the word

  17. Irradiation of packaged food

    Kilcast, D.

    1990-01-01

    Food irradiation is used to improve the safety of food by killing insects and microorganisms, to inhibit sprouting in crops such as onions and potatoes and to control ripening in agricultural produce. In order to prevent re-infestation and re-contamination it is essential that the food is suitably packed. Consequently, the packaging material is irradiated whilst in contact with the food, and it is important that the material is resistant to radiation-induced changes. In this paper the nature of the irradiation process is reviewed briefly, together with the known effects of irradiation on packaging materials and their implications for the effective application of food irradiation. Recent research carried out at the Leatherhead Food RA on the possibility of taint transfer into food is described. (author)

  18. Technology transfer packages

    Mizon, G.A.; Bleasdale, P.A.

    1994-01-01

    Nuclear power is firmly established in many developed countries'energy policies and is being adopted by emerging nations as an attractive way of gaining energy self sufficiency. The early users of nuclear power had to develop the technology that they needed, which now, through increasing world wide experience, has been rationalised to meet demanding economic and environmental pressures. These justifiable pressures, can lead to existing suppliers of nuclear services to consider changing to more appropriate technologies and for new suppliers to consider licensing proven technology rather then incurring the cost of developing new alternatives. The transfer of technology, under license, is made more straight forward if the owner conveniently groups appropriate technology into packages. This paper gives examples of 'Technology Packages' and suggests criteria for the specification, selection and contractual requirements to ensure successful licensing

  19. Seroprevalencia de la enfermedad de Chagas en el cantón Aguarico, Amazonía ecuatoriana Seroprevalence of Chagas disease in Aguarico canton in the Ecuadorian Amazon

    Manuel Amunárriz

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar el estado actual de la seroprevalencia de la enfermedad de Chagas en la población del cantón Aguarico, y comparar los resultados obtenidos con datos provenientes de otros estudios epidemiológicos. MÉTODOS: Desde septiembre de 2008 hasta octubre de 2009 se recogieron 2 033 sueros correspondientes a 36,6% de la población total del cantón Aguarico. Se empleó la técnica CHAGATEST/ELISA recombinante v.3.0 para determinar positividad a la enfermedad de Chagas. Los casos positivos se confirmaron con pruebas de hemoaglutinación indirecta y ELISA. RESULTADOS: De las 2 033 muestras de suero obtenidas, 73 fueron positivas para Chagas (3,6%. El rango de variación de seroprevalencia en las comunidades con casos positivos osciló entre 1,4% y 13,3%. Un 60,3% de los casos positivos se encontraron en el sexo femenino. Estos hallazgos son similares a los de estudios previos de comparación realizados en 1990. CONCLUSIONES: Los datos obtenidos confirman la existencia de un foco autóctono de la enfermedad de Chagas en la Amazonía ecuatoriana, con un porcentaje superior a la media de la región amazónica. No se detectaron cuadros clínicos agudos ni patologías crónicas. Es perentorio implementar un programa de control de la enfermedad culturalmente adaptado a la región.OBJECTIVE: Determine the current seroprevalence of Chagas disease in the population of Aguarico canton, and compare the findings with data from other epidemiological studies. METHODS: From September 2008 to October 2009, 2 033 serum samples were collected from 36.6% of the total population in Aguarico canton. The Chagatest recombinant ELISA v.3.0 was used to determine positivity to Chagas disease. Cases that tested positive were confirmed by indirect hemagglutination and ELISA. RESULTS: Of the 2 033 serum samples obtained, 73 tested positive for Chagas disease (3.6%. Seroprevalence in communities with positive cases ranged from 1.4% to 13.3%, with 60.3% of the

  20. Amdahl 470 Chip Package

    1975-01-01

    In the late 70s the larger IBM computers were water cooled. Amdahl, an IBM competitor, invented an air cooling technology for it's computers. His company worked hard, developing a computer that was faster and less expensive than the IBM System/360 mainframe computer systems. This object contains an actual Amdahl series 470 computer logic chip with an air cooling device mounted on top. The package leads and cooling tower are gold-plated.

  1. Aquaculture information package

    Boyd, T.; Rafferty, K.

    1998-08-01

    This package of information is intended to provide background information to developers of geothermal aquaculture projects. The material is divided into eight sections and includes information on market and price information for typical species, aquaculture water quality issues, typical species culture information, pond heat loss calculations, an aquaculture glossary, regional and university aquaculture offices and state aquaculture permit requirements. A bibliography containing 68 references is also included.

  2. The CASA Software Package

    Petry, Dirk

    2018-03-01

    CASA is the standard science data analysis package for ALMA and VLA but it can also be used for the analysis of data from other observatories. In this talk, I will give an overview of the structure and features of CASA, who develops it, and the present status and plans, and then show typical analysis workflows for ALMA data with special emphasis on the handling of single dish data and its combination with interferometric data.

  3. The Ettention software package

    Dahmen, Tim; Marsalek, Lukas; Marniok, Nico; Turoňová, Beata; Bogachev, Sviatoslav; Trampert, Patrick; Nickels, Stefan; Slusallek, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel software package for the problem “reconstruction from projections” in electron microscopy. The Ettention framework consists of a set of modular building-blocks for tomographic reconstruction algorithms. The well-known block iterative reconstruction method based on Kaczmarz algorithm is implemented using these building-blocks, including adaptations specific to electron tomography. Ettention simultaneously features (1) a modular, object-oriented software design, (2) optimized access to high-performance computing (HPC) platforms such as graphic processing units (GPU) or many-core architectures like Xeon Phi, and (3) accessibility to microscopy end-users via integration in the IMOD package and eTomo user interface. We also provide developers with a clean and well-structured application programming interface (API) that allows for extending the software easily and thus makes it an ideal platform for algorithmic research while hiding most of the technical details of high-performance computing. - Highlights: • Novel software package for “reconstruction from projections” in electron microscopy. • Support for high-resolution reconstructions on iterative reconstruction algorithms. • Support for CPU, GPU and Xeon Phi. • Integration in the IMOD software. • Platform for algorithm researchers: object oriented, modular design.

  4. The Ettention software package

    Dahmen, Tim, E-mail: Tim.Dahmen@dfki.de [German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence GmbH (DFKI), 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Saarland University, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Marsalek, Lukas [Eyen SE, Na Nivách 1043/16, 141 00 Praha 4 (Czech Republic); Saarland University, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Marniok, Nico [Saarland University, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Turoňová, Beata [Saarland University, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); IMPRS-CS, Max-Planck Institute for Informatics, Campus E 1.4, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Bogachev, Sviatoslav [Saarland University, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Trampert, Patrick; Nickels, Stefan [German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence GmbH (DFKI), 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Slusallek, Philipp [German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence GmbH (DFKI), 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Saarland University, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    We present a novel software package for the problem “reconstruction from projections” in electron microscopy. The Ettention framework consists of a set of modular building-blocks for tomographic reconstruction algorithms. The well-known block iterative reconstruction method based on Kaczmarz algorithm is implemented using these building-blocks, including adaptations specific to electron tomography. Ettention simultaneously features (1) a modular, object-oriented software design, (2) optimized access to high-performance computing (HPC) platforms such as graphic processing units (GPU) or many-core architectures like Xeon Phi, and (3) accessibility to microscopy end-users via integration in the IMOD package and eTomo user interface. We also provide developers with a clean and well-structured application programming interface (API) that allows for extending the software easily and thus makes it an ideal platform for algorithmic research while hiding most of the technical details of high-performance computing. - Highlights: • Novel software package for “reconstruction from projections” in electron microscopy. • Support for high-resolution reconstructions on iterative reconstruction algorithms. • Support for CPU, GPU and Xeon Phi. • Integration in the IMOD software. • Platform for algorithm researchers: object oriented, modular design.

  5. "Doctor, are you trying to kill me?": ambivalence about the patient package insert for estrogen.

    Watkins, Elizabeth Siegel

    2002-01-01

    In 1976, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration proposed new requirements for patient labeling for estrogens prescribed for menopausal and postmenopausal women. This paper explores the variety of responses to this proposal from women and their husbands, feminist and consumer activists, physicians, pharmacists, and pharmaceutical manufacturers, as represented in letters written to the FDA. The drug industry and the medical profession opposed patient labeling on the grounds of cost and a resentment of governmental intrusion. Feminists and consumer advocates were in favor of the idea, but the response from current estrogen users was mixed: most women wished to be better informed, but many expressed concern that estrogen would be removed from the market. This ambivalence suggests unresolved tensions regarding conceptions of female aging, the medical management of menopause and aging, informed consent in medicine, and governmental regulation of medical practice. The debate thus represents an important moment in the history of women's health care.

  6. Design and ergonomics of package inserts of drugs in Brazil: a reality in construction.

    da Silva, Charles Ricardo Leite; Soares, Marcelo Marcio

    2012-01-01

    This research deals with the design of leaflets of medicines, evidencing the problems resulting from the lack of Brazilian normalization to promote the use of the graphical representation of instructional texts warnings. It approaches studies related to the effectiveness and efficiency of information systems, highlighting the semiotics and the cultural and informational ergonomics. The analysis of the context uses as method, an analytical study on selected warnings of thirty leaflets of medicines, followed by interviews lead with the public managers involved with the regulation of the pharmaceutical companies, and two experiments with users performed in city of Recife, in State of Pernambuco: one aiming at to identify how they interact with the leaflets of medicines, and the second one testing their understanding concerning standardized illustrations in the United States and the South Africa. The results show the need for improvements in presentation and graphic representation of leaflets of medicines, powering them to the role of communication, to ensure the consumption of medicine safely by its users. The conclusion congregates parameters and recommendations for the graphic representation of warnings in leaflets of medicines in Brazil.

  7. 21 CFR 357.152 - Package inserts for anthelmintic drug products.

    2010-04-01

    ... discussion of the symptoms suggestive of pinworm infestation, including a statement that pinworms must be... the pinworm. (c) A commentary on the life cycle of the pinworm. (d) A commentary on the ways in which pinworms may be spread from person to person and hygienic procedures to follow to avoid such spreading. (e...

  8. Mould Design and Material selection for Film Insert Moulding of Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Packaging

    Wöhner, Timo; Senkbeil, S.; Olesen, T. L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the mould design for an injection moulding (IM) process for the production of a methanol container for the use in small, passive Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC) systems, which are intended to be used in behind-the-ear hearing aid systems. One of the crucial properties...... for the production of containers with different venting area and location of the venting holes and the use of different membrane thicknesses by using the same mould. Mould design and material selection are presented....

  9. Enfermedad de Chagas en poblaciones prehistóricas del norte de Chile Chagas disease in prehistoric populations of northern Chile

    NANCY ORELLANA-HALKYER

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La enfermedad de Chagas es producida por el parásito Trypanosoma cruzi, el cual afecta tanto a seres humanos como a animales, en particular mamíferos marsupiales y placentarios. Las vías de transmisión son diversas, siendo una de las más importantes la vía vectorial, en la que participan insectos infectados con este parásito, animales y humanos. En este artículo de revisión discutimos los postulados sobre la vía de transmisión oral, los hallazgos de T. cruzi en momias de América y especialmente en las del norte de Chile. Presentamos además información que apunta a que la enfermedad de Chagas estuvo presente mucho antes de la conquista europea y de la construcción de viviendas de adobe. Comentamos las hipótesis sobre el vector domiciliado más importante de Sudamérica, Triatoma infestans, su antigüedad en la costa de Arica y los reportes más recientes de otros vectores silvestres. También se discute la información relacionada a la participación en el ciclo de T. cruzi de distintos mamíferos silvestres de Chile y asimismo proponemos el estudio paleoparasitológico en restos zooarqueológicos para conocer las especies de mamíferos reservónos de T. cruzi en la antigüedad.Chagas diseases is produced by a parasite named Trypanosoma cruzi, that affects humans and other marsupial and placental mammals. Transmission routes are diverse, but the most important transmission is the vector route, which involves the triatomine insects, wild and domestic infected animáis, and humans. Here we review the data about oral transmission route and the evidences of the etiological agent (Trypanosoma cruzi of Chagas disease in pre-Columbian American mummies, making a critical review of the infection in northern Chile. Moreover, we comment on the hypotheses suggested in relation to the most important vector of the infection in South América Triatoma infestans, its antiquity in the Arica coast, and the recent reports about other wild infected

  10. Estudo longitudinal do eletrocardiograma na doença de Chagas desde a fase aguda

    Roberto C. Pedrosa

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available Vários trabalhos com eletrocardiograma na doença de Chagas têm sido feitos. Alguns referindo-se a grupos selecionados de casos, outros a estudos longitudinais, relatam as características da mortalidade nas diversas fases da doença. Com o objetivo de avaliar o valor do eletrocardiograma como índice de avaliação terapêutica e de seu comportamento na doença de Chagas desde a fase aguda, no presente trabalho, analisou-se evolutivamente o eletrocardiograma de 42 pacientes (18 mulheres e 24 homens procedentes da zona rural do Norte de Minas Gerais; predomínio etário foi nas duas primeiras décadas; todos com comprometimento cardíaco; todos receberam tratamento específico. O acompanhamento dos 42 pacientes foi de 9 anos dos quais 3 pacientes tiveram seguimento de 20 anos. Foram analisados 270 eletrocardiogramas. Nós utilizamos os seguintes critérios para a análise do ECG: código de Minnesota modificado para doença de Chagas; WHO/I. S. F. C. TASK FORCE para condução intraventricular e critérios de Pieretti para área eletricamente inativa. Concluímos que as alterações eletrocardiográficas agravam com a evolução da doença e que o eletrocardiograma não serve de índice de avaliação terapêutica.Several studies have been done to analyse the relationship between the characteristics of the electrocardiogram (ECG and mortality in the several stages of the disease, using different methods like multiple case and longitudinal studies. We anatysed the ECGfrom the acute stage up to twenty years of follow-up (±9 years in 42 patients with Chagas ' disease to determine their evolution and it 's value like an indexfor therapeutic evaluation. The 42 patients (18 female, 24 males were originalty from the North of the State of Minas Gerais (Brazil and the initial stage was mainly in the first two decades of age. All bad cardiac involvementand received fiill specific treatment. We utilized the following criteria for the ECG analyses

  11. Chagas disease: what is known and what is needed - A background article

    José Rodrigues Coura

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease began millions of years ago as an enzootic disease of wild animals and started to be transmitted to man accidentally in the form of an anthropozoonosis when man invaded wild ecotopes. Endemic Chagas disease became established as a zoonosis over the last 200-300 years through forest clearance for agriculture and livestock rearing and adaptation of triatomines to domestic environments and to man and domestic animals as a food source. It is estimated that 15 to 16 million people are infected with Trypanosoma cruzi in Latin America and 75 to 90 million people are exposed to infection. When T. cruzi is transmitted to man through the feces of triatomines, at bite sites or in mucosa, through blood transfusion or orally through contaminated food, it invades the bloodstream and lymphatic system and becomes established in the muscle and cardiac tissue, the digestive system and phagocytic cells. This causes inflammatory lesions and immune responses, particularly mediated by CD4+, CD8+, interleukin-2 (IL and IL-4, with cell and neuron destruction and fibrosis, and leads to blockage of the cardiac conduction system, arrhythmia, cardiac insufficiency, aperistalsis, and dilatation of hollow viscera, particularly the esophagus and colon. T. cruzi may also be transmitted from mother to child across the placenta and through the birth canal, thus causing abortion, prematurity, and organic lesions in the fetus. In immunosuppressed individuals, T. cruzi infection may become reactivated such that it spreads as a severe disease causing diffuse myocarditis and lesions of the central nervous system. Chagas disease is characterized by an acute phase with or without symptoms, and with entry point signs (inoculation chagoma or Romaña's sign, fever, adenomegaly, hepatosplenomegaly, and evident parasitemia, and an indeterminate chronic phase (asymptomatic, with normal results from electrocardiogram and x-ray of the heart, esophagus, and colon or with a

  12. Chagas' disease: an algorithm for donor screening and positive donor counseling

    Nelson Hamerschlak

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Classical serological screening assays for Chagas' disease are time consuming and subjective. The objective of the present work is to evaluate the enzyme immuno-assay (ELISA methodology and to propose an algorithm for blood banks to be applied to Chagas' disease. Seven thousand, nine hundred and ninety nine blood donor samples were screened by both reverse passive hemagglutination (RPHA and indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA. Samples reactive on RPHA and/or IFA were submitted to supplementary RPHA, IFA and complement fixation (CFA tests. This strategy allowed us to create a panel of 60 samples to evaluate the ELISA methodology from 3 different manufacturers. The sensitivity of the screening by IFA and the 3 different ELISA's was 100%. The specificity was better on ELISA methodology. For Chagas disease, ELISA seems to be the best test for blood donor screening, because it showed high sensitivity and specificity, it is not subjective and can be automated. Therefore, it was possible to propose an algorithm to screen samples and confirm donor results at the blood bank.Os testes sorológicos clássicos utilizados na triagem de doadores de sangue são trabalhosos e subjetivos. O objetivo do presente trabalho é o de avaliar a metodologia imuno-enzimática (ELISA e propor um algorítmo para doença de Chagas em bancos de sangue. Foram estudados 7999 doadores de sangue e/ou componentes cujas amostras foram testadas com o objetivo de tria-las sorologicamente para doença de Chagas utilizando hemaglutinação passiva reversa (RPHA e imunofluorescência indireta (IFA. As amostras reativas em pelo menos uma destas metodologias, foram retestadas com reativos diferentes por RPHA, IFA e fixação de complemento (CFA. Esta estratégia nos permitiu criar um painel de 60 amostras com as quais tornou-se possível a avaliação do método imunoenzimático (ELISA. A sensibilidade da triagem dos doadores pelos métodos ELISA e IFA foi de 100%. A especificidade

  13. Chagas disease vector blood meal sources identified by protein mass spectrometry.

    Judith I Keller

    Full Text Available Chagas disease is a complex vector borne parasitic disease involving blood feeding Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae insects, also known as kissing bugs, and the vertebrates they feed on. This disease has tremendous impacts on millions of people and is a global health problem. The etiological agent of Chagas disease, Trypanosoma cruzi (Kinetoplastea: Trypanosomatida: Trypanosomatidae, is deposited on the mammalian host in the insect's feces during a blood meal, and enters the host's blood stream through mucous membranes or a break in the skin. Identifying the blood meal sources of triatomine vectors is critical in understanding Chagas disease transmission dynamics, can lead to identification of other vertebrates important in the transmission cycle, and aids management decisions. The latter is particularly important as there is little in the way of effective therapeutics for Chagas disease. Several techniques, mostly DNA-based, are available for blood meal identification. However, further methods are needed, particularly when sample conditions lead to low-quality DNA or to assess the risk of human cross-contamination. We demonstrate a proteomics-based approach, using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS to identify host-specific hemoglobin peptides for blood meal identification in mouse blood control samples and apply LC-MS/MS for the first time to Triatoma dimidiata insect vectors, tracing blood sources to species. In contrast to most proteins, hemoglobin, stabilized by iron, is incredibly stable even being preserved through geologic time. We compared blood stored with and without an anticoagulant and examined field-collected insect specimens stored in suboptimal conditions such as at room temperature for long periods of time. To our knowledge, this is the first study using LC-MS/MS on field-collected arthropod disease vectors to identify blood meal composition, and where blood meal identification was confirmed with more

  14. Recuerdo del descubrimiento de la enfermedad de Chagas.

    Hernando Groot Liévano

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available

    A través de mis largos años he vivido en el trópico y he visto el sufrimiento de nuestros campesinos por esta grave dolencia y, a la par que he sido testigo de tal situación, he presenciado también los esfuerzos extraordinarios realizados en Colombia para su estudio y para su control, que a todos nos deben enorgullecer; estos fueron hechos en épocas recientes por personas como Augusto Corredor, Felipe Guhl y muchos otros investigadores que sería muy dispendioso enumerar.

    Años atrás los nombres de Benjamín Otálora, Hernando Ucrós y especialmente Santiago Renjifo y César Uribe Piedrahíta, tienen que venir a nuestra mente. Santiago Renjifo, investigador infatiga-ble de la enfermedad, fue además creador del Instituto “Roberto Franco” de Villavicencio y uno de los artífices más importantes de la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad del Valle. A César Uribe Piedrahíta se debe, el haber iniciado el interés en Colombia por el estudio de esta parasitosis; fue él quien identificó por primera vez el agente causal en nuestro país. Así mismo formó un sinnúmero de investigadores que, con sus estudios, han dado luz sobre la dolencia y han sido lustre para la ciencia en América Latina.

    César Uribe Piedrahíta, mi profesor y luego mi amigo, es una de las personas de la medicina nacional que se debe exaltar con más vehemencia porque era el individuo que no solamente dominaba el campo médico sino que, como un Pico de la Mirán-dola del siglo XX, era experto en antropología, en arqueología, en botánica, habilísimo pintor y tallista, propulsor de las investigaciones sobre las bondades de las plantas, así como escritor de primera línea y dotado de excepcionales cualidades docentes para inculcar en sus estudiantes la disciplina por el estudio y la necesidad de trabajar cada vez más por este país.

    Parece oportuno que en estos momentos al rememorar a Carlos Chagas se haga un breve recuento de aquellas

  15. Ensuring socially responsible packaging design

    Geert Jensen, Birgitte

    Most consumers have experienced occasional problems with opening packaging. Tomato sauce from the tinned mackerel splattered all over the kitchen counter, the unrelenting pickle jar lid, and the package of sliced ham that cannot be opened without a knife or a pair of scissors. The research project...... "User‐friendly Packaging" aims to create a platform for developing more user‐friendly packaging. One intended outcome of the project is a guideline that industry can use in development efforts. The project also points the way for more extended collaboration between companies and design researchers. How...... can design research help industry in packaging innovation?...

  16. Packaging based on polymeric materials

    Jovanović Slobodan M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past two years the consumption of common in the developed countries world wide (high tonnage polymers for packaging has approached a value of 50 wt.%. In the same period more than 50% of the packaging units on the world market were made of polymeric materials despite the fact that polymeric materials present 17 wt.% of all packaging materials. The basic properties of polymeric materials and their environmental and economical advantages, providing them such a position among packaging materials, are presented in this article. Recycling methods, as well as the development trends of polymeric packaging materials are also presented.

  17. Plutonium stabilization and packaging system

    1996-01-01

    This document describes the functional design of the Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System (Pu SPS). The objective of this system is to stabilize and package plutonium metals and oxides of greater than 50% wt, as well as other selected isotopes, in accordance with the requirements of the DOE standard for safe storage of these materials for 50 years. This system will support completion of stabilization and packaging campaigns of the inventory at a number of affected sites before the year 2002. The package will be standard for all sites and will provide a minimum of two uncontaminated, organics free confinement barriers for the packaged material

  18. Power Electronics Packaging Reliability | Transportation Research | NREL

    Packaging Reliability Power Electronics Packaging Reliability A photo of a piece of power electronics laboratory equipment. NREL power electronics packaging reliability research investigates the electronics packaging around a semiconductor switching device determines the electrical, thermal, and

  19. Test manufacture of the canister insert 135

    Raiko, H.

    2005-10-01

    This report describes the insert-manufacturing test of a disposal canister for spent nuclear fuel that was made by Metso Foundries Jyvaeskylae Oy, in June 2004 on contract for Posiva Oy. The test manufacture was a part of the co-operation development programme of encapsulation technology between SKB AB and Posiva Oy. Insert casting was specified according to the current manufacturing specifications of SKB. The canister insert was of BWR-type with integral bottom. This was the second trial manufacture of this type of insert in Finland and, in total, the third test manufacture of insert by Metso Foundries Jyvaeskylae Oy. The result fulfilled all the requirements but the material mechanical properties of the cast material. The measured ultimate strength and elongation at rupture were lower than specified in the upper part of the cast. The reason for this was revealed in the metallurgical investigation of the cast material. The cast contained slag (dross). Avoiding the dross formation will be the most demanding challenge of the forthcoming development of the cast procedure. (orig.)

  20. Test manufacture of a canister insert

    Raiko, H.

    2004-11-01

    This report describes the insert-manufacturing test of a disposal canister for spent nuclear fuel that was made by Metso Paper Oy, Jyvaeskylae Foundry, in 2003 on contract for Posiva Oy. The test manufacture was a part of the co-operation development programme of encapsulation technology between SKB AB and Posiva Oy. Insert casting was specified according to the current manufacturing specifications of SKB. The canister insert was of BWR-type with integral bottom. This was the first trial manufacture of this type of insert in Finland and, in total, the second test manufacture of insert by Metso Paper. The result fulfilled all the requirements but the material mechanical properties and metallurgical structure of the cast material. The measured tensile strength, ultimate strength and elongation at rupture were lower than specified. The reason for this was revealed in the metallurgical investigation of the cast material. The nodulizing of the graphite was not occurred during the casting process according to the requirements. (orig.)

  1. Packaging - Materials review

    Herrmann, Matthias [Hoppecke Advanced Battery Technology GmbH, 08056 Zwickau (Germany)

    2014-06-16

    Nowadays, a large number of different electrochemical energy storage systems are known. In the last two decades the development was strongly driven by a continuously growing market of portable electronic devices (e.g. cellular phones, lap top computers, camcorders, cameras, tools). Current intensive efforts are under way to develop systems for automotive industry within the framework of electrically propelled mobility (e.g. hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, full electric vehicles) and also for the energy storage market (e.g. electrical grid stability, renewable energies). Besides the different systems (cell chemistries), electrochemical cells and batteries were developed and are offered in many shapes, sizes and designs, in order to meet performance and design requirements of the widespread applications. Proper packaging is thereby one important technological step for designing optimum, reliable and safe batteries for operation. In this contribution, current packaging approaches of cells and batteries together with the corresponding materials are discussed. The focus is laid on rechargeable systems for industrial applications (i.e. alkaline systems, lithium-ion, lead-acid). In principle, four different cell types (shapes) can be identified - button, cylindrical, prismatic and pouch. Cell size can be either in accordance with international (e.g. International Electrotechnical Commission, IEC) or other standards or can meet application-specific dimensions. Since cell housing or container, terminals and, if necessary, safety installations as inactive (non-reactive) materials reduce energy density of the battery, the development of low-weight packages is a challenging task. In addition to that, other requirements have to be fulfilled: mechanical stability and durability, sealing (e.g. high permeation barrier against humidity for lithium-ion technology), high packing efficiency, possible installation of safety devices (current interrupt device

  2. Packaging - Materials review

    Herrmann, Matthias

    2014-06-01

    Nowadays, a large number of different electrochemical energy storage systems are known. In the last two decades the development was strongly driven by a continuously growing market of portable electronic devices (e.g. cellular phones, lap top computers, camcorders, cameras, tools). Current intensive efforts are under way to develop systems for automotive industry within the framework of electrically propelled mobility (e.g. hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, full electric vehicles) and also for the energy storage market (e.g. electrical grid stability, renewable energies). Besides the different systems (cell chemistries), electrochemical cells and batteries were developed and are offered in many shapes, sizes and designs, in order to meet performance and design requirements of the widespread applications. Proper packaging is thereby one important technological step for designing optimum, reliable and safe batteries for operation. In this contribution, current packaging approaches of cells and batteries together with the corresponding materials are discussed. The focus is laid on rechargeable systems for industrial applications (i.e. alkaline systems, lithium-ion, lead-acid). In principle, four different cell types (shapes) can be identified - button, cylindrical, prismatic and pouch. Cell size can be either in accordance with international (e.g. International Electrotechnical Commission, IEC) or other standards or can meet application-specific dimensions. Since cell housing or container, terminals and, if necessary, safety installations as inactive (non-reactive) materials reduce energy density of the battery, the development of low-weight packages is a challenging task. In addition to that, other requirements have to be fulfilled: mechanical stability and durability, sealing (e.g. high permeation barrier against humidity for lithium-ion technology), high packing efficiency, possible installation of safety devices (current interrupt device

  3. Packaging - Materials review

    Herrmann, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, a large number of different electrochemical energy storage systems are known. In the last two decades the development was strongly driven by a continuously growing market of portable electronic devices (e.g. cellular phones, lap top computers, camcorders, cameras, tools). Current intensive efforts are under way to develop systems for automotive industry within the framework of electrically propelled mobility (e.g. hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, full electric vehicles) and also for the energy storage market (e.g. electrical grid stability, renewable energies). Besides the different systems (cell chemistries), electrochemical cells and batteries were developed and are offered in many shapes, sizes and designs, in order to meet performance and design requirements of the widespread applications. Proper packaging is thereby one important technological step for designing optimum, reliable and safe batteries for operation. In this contribution, current packaging approaches of cells and batteries together with the corresponding materials are discussed. The focus is laid on rechargeable systems for industrial applications (i.e. alkaline systems, lithium-ion, lead-acid). In principle, four different cell types (shapes) can be identified - button, cylindrical, prismatic and pouch. Cell size can be either in accordance with international (e.g. International Electrotechnical Commission, IEC) or other standards or can meet application-specific dimensions. Since cell housing or container, terminals and, if necessary, safety installations as inactive (non-reactive) materials reduce energy density of the battery, the development of low-weight packages is a challenging task. In addition to that, other requirements have to be fulfilled: mechanical stability and durability, sealing (e.g. high permeation barrier against humidity for lithium-ion technology), high packing efficiency, possible installation of safety devices (current interrupt device

  4. A ciência como profissão: entrevista com Carlos Chagas Filho Science as a profession: an interview with Carlos Chagas Filho

    Nara Azevedo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A edição desta entrevista privilegia aspectos da extensa trajetória profissional de Carlos Chagas Filho, fundador do Instituto de Biofísica da Universidade do Brasil, atual Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. Evidencia seu papel científico e político na ciência brasileira e no cenário internacional. As memórias de Chagas Filho abrangem a vivência no Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, onde iniciou seu treinamento científico; os esforços para estruturar o Laboratório de Física Biológica, sucedido pelo Instituto de Biofísica; a atuação no Conselho Nacional de Pesquisas e na Academia Brasileira de Ciências; a participação na Organização das Nações Unidas para a Educação, a Ciência e a Cultura; a presidência da Academia Pontifícia do Vaticano, que o leva a tecer considerações sobre a relação entre ciência e religião.The editing of this interview focuses on aspects of the extensive professional career of Carlos Chagas Filho, who was the founder of the Instituto de Biofísica of the Universidade do Brasil, currently the Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. It highlights the scientific and political role he played in Brazilian science and on the international scene. His memoirs include his experience at the Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, where he began his scientific training; the efforts to create the Laboratório de Física Biológica, succeeded by the Instituto de Biofísica; his work on the Conselho Nacional de Pesquisas and the Academia Brasileira de Ciências; the part he played at the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization; his time as president of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences of the Vatican, which led him to ponder questions about the relationship between science and religion.

  5. Area-wide control of Chagas disease vectors in Latin America

    Schofield, C.J.

    2000-01-01

    Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis) is now ranked by the World Bank as the most serious parasitic disease of the Americas, with a medical and economic impact far outranking even the combined effects of other parasitic diseases such as malaria and schistosomiasis (World Bank 1993). The infection is virtually impossible to cure and the disease is difficult and costly to treat. In contrast, transmission can be halted by eliminating the domestic insect vectors - large blood sucking reduviids of the subfamily Triatominae - and by improved screening of blood donors to minimise the risk of transfusional transmission (WHO 1991). Improved screening of blood banks requires appropriate legislation backed by a well-developed system of reference laboratories and standardised procedures, although to a large extent, this can be implemented in a progressive way from local to national levels (Schmunis 1991). By contrast, the key to success in Chagas disease vector control lies in the implementation of large-scale regional or international programmes coupled with long-term community-based vigilance. This is a classic intervention model beginning with a vertical intervention, the attack phase, in which all infested houses are sprayed by trained professionals, progressively backed by a more horizontal community-based system where householders themselves can report the presence of any residual infestations for retreatment where necessary. Elimination of domestic vectors of Chagas disease is facilitated by their slow reproductive rates and limited genetic variability, but is hampered by the ease of passive transport of the insects from one house to another, even across state and international boundaries (Schofield 1994). For this reason, international collaboration is particularly important in Chagas disease vector control. Since early trials in the 1940s, there have been many local and regional campaigns designed to control domestic populations of Triatominae, especially in

  6. Components of Adenovirus Genome Packaging

    Ahi, Yadvinder S.; Mittal, Suresh K.

    2016-01-01

    Adenoviruses (AdVs) are icosahedral viruses with double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) genomes. Genome packaging in AdV is thought to be similar to that seen in dsDNA containing icosahedral bacteriophages and herpesviruses. Specific recognition of the AdV genome is mediated by a packaging domain located close to the left end of the viral genome and is mediated by the viral packaging machinery. Our understanding of the role of various components of the viral packaging machinery in AdV genome packaging has greatly advanced in recent years. Characterization of empty capsids assembled in the absence of one or more components involved in packaging, identification of the unique vertex, and demonstration of the role of IVa2, the putative packaging ATPase, in genome packaging have provided compelling evidence that AdVs follow a sequential assembly pathway. This review provides a detailed discussion on the functions of the various viral and cellular factors involved in AdV genome packaging. We conclude by briefly discussing the roles of the empty capsids, assembly intermediates, scaffolding proteins, portal vertex and DNA encapsidating enzymes in AdV assembly and packaging. PMID:27721809

  7. Packaging-radiation disinfestation relationships

    Highland, H.A.

    1985-01-01

    Foods that are susceptible to insect infestation can be irradiated to destroy the infestation; however, the food must be kept essentially insect-free until consumed, or it must be disinfested again, perhaps repeatedly. Insect-resistant packages can be used to prevent reinfestation, but there are certain requirements that must be fulfilled before a package can be made insect resistant. These include the use of insect-light construction and packaging materials that resist boring insects. The relative insect resistance of various packages and packaging materials is discussed, as are behavior traits such as egressive boring that enables insects to escape from packages and the ability of insects to climb on various packaging materials. Some successful and unsuccessful attempts to make various types of packages insect resistant are discussed, as are factors that must be considered in the selection or development of insect-resistant packages for radiation disinfested foods. The latter factors include biological and physical environments, length of storage periods, stresses on packages during shipment, types of storage facilities, governmental regulations, health requirements, and others

  8. Radioactive material packaging performance testing

    Romano, T.; Cruse, J.M.

    1991-02-01

    To provide uniform packaging of hazardous materials on an international level, the United Nations has developed packaging recommendations that have been implemented worldwide. The United Nations packaging recommendations are performance oriented, allowing for a wide variety of package materials and systems. As a result of this international standard, efforts in the United States are being directed toward use of performance-oriented packaging and elimination of specification (designed) packaging. This presentation will focus on trends, design evaluation, and performance testing of radioactive material packaging. The impacts of US Department of Transportation Dockets HM-181 and HM-169A on specification and low-specific activity radioactive material packaging requirements are briefly discussed. The US Department of Energy's program for evaluating radioactive material packings per US Department of Transportation Specification 7A Type A requirements, is used as the basis for discussing low-activity packaging performance test requirements. High-activity package testing requirements are presented with examples of testing performed at the Hanford Site that is operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company for the US Department of Energy. 5 refs., 2 tabs

  9. Next-generation ELISA diagnostic assay for Chagas Disease based on the combination of short peptidic epitopes

    Mucci, Juan; Carmona, Santiago J.; Volcovich, Romina

    2017-01-01

    Chagas Disease, caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, is a major health and economic problem in Latin America for which no vaccine or appropriate drugs for large-scale public health interventions are yet available. Accurate diagnosis is essential for the early identification and follow up....... cruzi linear B-cell epitopes using high-density peptide chips, leading to the identification of several hundred novel sequence signatures associated to chronic Chagas Disease. Here, we performed a serological assessment of 27 selected epitopes and of their use in a novel multipeptide-based diagnostic...... method. A combination of 7 of these peptides were finally evaluated in ELISA format against a panel of 199 sera samples (Chagas-positive and negative, including sera from Leishmaniasis-positive subjects). The multipeptide formulation displayed a high diagnostic performance, with a sensitivity of 96...

  10. Seroprevalence and sociocultural conditionants of Chagas disease in school aged children of marginal zones of Asunción

    Vera Ninfa I.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease is becoming a public health problem in Latin America due to the wide distribution, the high prevalence, the magnitude of the damage caused and the difficulties to control it. In Paraguay, the disease is mainly distributed in the departments of Paraguari, Cordillera and Central. Prevalence in marginal zones, where migrations from rural populations and endemic areas make possible the urbanization of the disease, has no been studied yet. This is a descriptive study with a cross-sectional sampling and a probabilistic system recruitment carried out in school aged children from marginal zones of Asuncion to determine the prevalence of Chagas' disease. Serological methods, parasite isolation and questionnaires were used to achieve the goals. Nine hundred and fifty three children were studied to determine the prevalence of Chagas' disease in marginal zones which was 1.4%.

  11. Comparison of parasite loads in serum and blood samples from patients in acute and chronic phases of Chagas disease.

    Hernández, Carolina; Teherán, Aníbal; Flórez, Carolina; Ramírez, Juan David

    2018-04-17

    Molecular methods have been developed for the detection and quantification of Trypanosoma cruzi DNA in blood samples from patients with Chagas disease. However, aspects of sample processing necessary for quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), such as the addition of guanidine hydrochloride to whole blood samples, may limit timely access to molecular diagnosis. We analysed 169 samples from serum and guanidine-EDTA blood (GEB) obtained from patients in acute and chronic phases of Chagas disease. We applied qPCR targeted to the satellite DNA region. Finally, we compared the parasite loads and cycle of threshold values of the qPCR. The results confirmed the usefulness of serum samples for the detection and quantification of parasite DNA in patients with Chagas disease, especially in the acute phase. However, the parasite loads detected in serum samples from patients in the chronic phase were lower than those detected in GEB samples. The epidemiological implications of the findings are herein discussed.

  12. Safety Analysis Report for packaging (onsite) steel waste package

    BOEHNKE, W.M.

    2000-07-13

    The steel waste package is used primarily for the shipment of remote-handled radioactive waste from the 324 Building to the 200 Area for interim storage. The steel waste package is authorized for shipment of transuranic isotopes. The maximum allowable radioactive material that is authorized is 500,000 Ci. This exceeds the highway route controlled quantity (3,000 A{sub 2}s) and is a type B packaging.

  13. Safety Analysis Report for packaging (onsite) steel waste package

    BOEHNKE, W.M.

    2000-01-01

    The steel waste package is used primarily for the shipment of remote-handled radioactive waste from the 324 Building to the 200 Area for interim storage. The steel waste package is authorized for shipment of transuranic isotopes. The maximum allowable radioactive material that is authorized is 500,000 Ci. This exceeds the highway route controlled quantity (3,000 A 2 s) and is a type B packaging

  14. RERTR-12 Insertion 1 Irradiation Summary Report

    Perez, D.M.; Lillo, M.A.; Chang, G.S.; Woolstenhulme, N.E.; Roth, G.A.; Wachs, D.M.

    2012-01-01

    The Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) experiment RERTR-12 was designed to provide comprehensive information on the performance of uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) based monolithic fuels for research reactor applications. RERTR-12 insertion 1 includes the capsules irradiated during the first two irradiation cycles. These capsules include Z, X1, X2 and X3 capsules. The following report summarizes the life of the RERTR-12 insertion 1 experiment through end of irradiation, including as-run neutronic analysis results, thermal analysis results and hydraulic testing results.

  15. RERTR-12 Insertion 2 Irradiation Summary Report

    Perez, D.M.; Chang, G.S.; Wachs, D.M.; Roth, G.A.; Woolstenhulme, N.E.

    2012-01-01

    The Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) experiment RERTR-12 was designed to provide comprehensive information on the performance of uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) based monolithic fuels for research reactor applications.1 RERTR-12 insertion 2 includes the capsules irradiated during the last three irradiation cycles. These capsules include Z, Y1, Y2 and Y3 type capsules. The following report summarizes the life of the RERTR-12 insertion 2 experiment through end of irradiation, including as-run neutronic analysis results, thermal analysis results and hydraulic testing results.

  16. Installation of the LHC experimental insertions

    Bartolome-Jimenez, S

    2004-01-01

    The installation of the LHC experimental insertions, and particularly the installation of the low-beta quadrupoles, raises many technical challenges due to the stringent alignment specifications and to the difficulty of access in very confined areas. The compact layout with many lattice elements, vacuum components, beam control instrumentation and the presence of shielding does not allow for any improvisation in the installation procedure. This paper reviews all the constraints that need to be taken into account when installing the experimental insertions. It describes the chronological sequence of installation and discusses the technical solutions that have been adopted.

  17. INSTALLATION OF THE LHC EXPERIMENTAL INSERTIONS

    Bartolome-Jimenez, S

    2004-01-01

    The installation of the LHC experimental insertions, and particularly the installation of the Low-Beta quadrupoles, raises many technical challenges due to the stringent alignment specifications and to the difficulty of access in very confined areas. The compact layout with many lattice elements, vacuum components, beam control instrumentation and the presence of shielding does not allow for any improvisation in the installation procedure. This paper reviews all the constraints that need to be taken into account when installing the experimental insertions. It describes the chronological sequence of installation and discusses the technical solutions that have been adopted.

  18. Compact insert design for cryogenic pressure vessels

    Aceves, Salvador M.; Ledesma-Orozco, Elias Rigoberto; Espinosa-Loza, Francisco; Petitpas, Guillaume; Switzer, Vernon A.

    2017-06-14

    A pressure vessel apparatus for cryogenic capable storage of hydrogen or other cryogenic gases at high pressure includes an insert with a parallel inlet duct, a perpendicular inlet duct connected to the parallel inlet. The perpendicular inlet duct and the parallel inlet duct connect the interior cavity with the external components. The insert also includes a parallel outlet duct and a perpendicular outlet duct connected to the parallel outlet duct. The perpendicular outlet duct and the parallel outlet duct connect the interior cavity with the external components.

  19. ALS insertion device block measurement and inspection

    Marks, S.; Carrieri, J.; Cook, C.; Hassenzahl, W.V.; Hoyer, E.; Plate, D.

    1991-05-01

    The performance specifications for ALS insertion devices require detailed knowledge and strict control of the Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet blocks incorporated in these devices. This paper describes the measurement and inspection apparatus and the procedures designed to qualify and characterize these blocks. A detailed description of a new, automated Helmholtz coil facility for measurement of the three components of magnetic moment is included. Physical block inspection and magnetic moment measurement procedures are described. Together they provide a basis for qualifying blocks and for specifying placement of blocks within an insertion devices' magnetic structures. 1 ref., 4 figs

  20. HPLOT: the graphics interface package for the HBOOK histogramming package

    Watkins, H.

    1978-01-01

    The subroutine package HPLOT described in this report, enables the CERN histogramming package HBOOK to produce high-quality pictures by means of high-resolution devices such as plotters. HPLOT can be implemented on any scientific computing system with a Fortran IV compiler and can be interfaced with any graphics package; spectral routines in addition to the basic ones enable users to embellish their histograms. Examples are also given of the use of HPLOT as a graphics package for plotting simple pictures without histograms. (Auth.)

  1. The Ettention software package.

    Dahmen, Tim; Marsalek, Lukas; Marniok, Nico; Turoňová, Beata; Bogachev, Sviatoslav; Trampert, Patrick; Nickels, Stefan; Slusallek, Philipp

    2016-02-01

    We present a novel software package for the problem "reconstruction from projections" in electron microscopy. The Ettention framework consists of a set of modular building-blocks for tomographic reconstruction algorithms. The well-known block iterative reconstruction method based on Kaczmarz algorithm is implemented using these building-blocks, including adaptations specific to electron tomography. Ettention simultaneously features (1) a modular, object-oriented software design, (2) optimized access to high-performance computing (HPC) platforms such as graphic processing units (GPU) or many-core architectures like Xeon Phi, and (3) accessibility to microscopy end-users via integration in the IMOD package and eTomo user interface. We also provide developers with a clean and well-structured application programming interface (API) that allows for extending the software easily and thus makes it an ideal platform for algorithmic research while hiding most of the technical details of high-performance computing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. CH Packaging Operations Manual

    2008-01-01

    This document provides the user with instructions for assembling a payload. All the steps in Subsections 1.2, Preparing 55-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.3, Preparing 'Short' 85-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly (TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT); 1.4, Preparing 'Tall' 85-gallon Drum Payload Assembly (HalfPACT only); 1.5, Preparing 100-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.6, Preparing SWB Payload Assembly; and 1.7, Preparing TDOP Payload Assembly, must be completed, but may be performed in any order as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Transport trailer operations, package loading and unloading from transport trailers, hoisting and rigging activities such as ACGLF operations, equipment checkout and shutdown, and component inspection activities must be performed, but may be performed in any order and in parallel with other activities as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Steps involving OCA/ICV lid removal/installation and payload removal/loading may be performed in parallel if there are multiple operators working on the same packaging. Steps involving removal/installation of OCV/ICV upper and lower main O-rings must be performed in sequence.

  3. CH Packaging Operations Manual

    2009-01-01

    This document provides the user with instructions for assembling a payload. All the steps in Subsections 1.2, Preparing 55-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.3, Preparing 'Short' 85-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly (TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT); 1.4, Preparing 'Tall' 85-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly (HalfPACT only); 1.5, Preparing 100-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.6, Preparing Shielded Container Payload Assembly; 1.7, Preparing SWB Payload Assembly; and 1.8, Preparing TDOP Payload Assembly, must be completed, but may be performed in any order as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Transport trailer operations, package loading and unloading from transport trailers, hoisting and rigging activities such as ACGLF operations, equipment checkout and shutdown, and component inspection activities must be performed, but may be performed in any order and in parallel with other activities as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Steps involving OCA/ICV lid removal/installation and payload removal/loading may be performed in parallel if there are multiple operators working on the same packaging. Steps involving removal/installation of OCV/ICV upper and lower main O-rings must be performed in sequence, except as noted.

  4. CH Packaging Operations Manual

    None, None

    2009-05-27

    This document provides the user with instructions for assembling a payload. All the steps in Subsections 1.2, Preparing 55-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.3, Preparing "Short" 85-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly (TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT); 1.4, Preparing "Tall" 85-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly (HalfPACT only); 1.5, Preparing 100-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.6, Preparing Shielded Container Payload Assembly; 1.7, Preparing SWB Payload Assembly; and 1.8, Preparing TDOP Payload Assembly, must be completed, but may be performed in any order as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Transport trailer operations, package loading and unloading from transport trailers, hoisting and rigging activities such as ACGLF operations, equipment checkout and shutdown, and component inspection activities must be performed, but may be performed in any order and in parallel with other activities as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Steps involving OCA/ICV lid removal/installation and payload removal/loading may be performed in parallel if there are multiple operators working on the same packaging. Steps involving removal/installation of OCV/ICV upper and lower main O-rings must be performed in sequence, except as noted.

  5. Packaging supplier inspection guide

    Stromberg, H.M.; Gregg, R.E.; Kido, C.; Boyle, C.D.

    1991-05-01

    This is document is a guide for conducting quality assurance inspections of transportations packaging suppliers, where suppliers are defined as designers, fabricators, distributors, users, or owners of transportation packaging. This document can be used during an inspection to determine regulatory compliance within the requirements of 10 Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71, Subpart H (10 CFR 71.101--71.135). The guidance described in this document provides a framework for an inspection. It provides the inspector with the flexibility to adapt the methods and concepts presented here to meet the needs of the particular facility being inspected. The guide was developed to ensure a structured and consistent approach for inspections. The method treats each activity at a supplier facility as a separate entity (or functional element), and combines the activities within the framework of an ''inspection tree.'' The method separates each functional element into several areas of performance and then identifies guidelines, based on regulatory requirements, to be used to qualitatively rate each area. This document was developed to serve as a field manual to facilitate the work of inspectors. 1 ref., 1 fig., 5 tabs

  6. Tamper indicating packaging

    Baumann, M.J.; Bartberger, J.C.; Welch, T.D.

    1994-01-01

    Protecting sensitive items from undetected tampering in an unattended environment is crucial to the success of non-proliferation efforts relying on the verification of critical activities. Tamper Indicating Packaging (TIP) technologies are applied to containers, packages, and equipment that require an indication of a tamper attempt. Examples include: the transportation and storage of nuclear material, the operation and shipment of surveillance equipment and monitoring sensors, and the retail storage of medicine and food products. The spectrum of adversarial tampering ranges from attempted concealment of a pin-hole sized penetration to the complete container replacement, which would involve counterfeiting efforts of various degrees. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has developed a technology base for advanced TIP materials, sensors, designs, and processes which can be adapted to various future monitoring systems. The purpose of this technology base is to investigate potential new technologies, and to perform basic research of advanced technologies. This paper will describe the theory of TIP technologies and recent investigations of TIP technologies at SNL

  7. Japan's electronic packaging technologies

    Tummala, Rao R.; Pecht, Michael

    1995-02-01

    The JTEC panel found Japan to have significant leadership over the United States in the strategic area of electronic packaging. Many technologies and products once considered the 'heart and soul' of U.S. industry have been lost over the past decades to Japan and other Asian countries. The loss of consumer electronics technologies and products is the most notable of these losses, because electronics is the United States' largest employment sector and is critical for growth businesses in consumer products, computers, automobiles, aerospace, and telecommunications. In the past there was a distinction between consumer and industrial product technologies. While Japan concentrated on the consumer market, the United States dominated the industrial sector. No such distinction is anticipated in the future; the consumer-oriented technologies Japan has dominated are expected to characterize both domains. The future of U.S. competitiveness will, therefore, depend on the ability of the United States to rebuild its technological capabilities in the area of portable electronic packaging.

  8. Discrete typing units of Trypanosoma cruzi detected by real-time PCR in Chilean patients with chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy.

    Muñoz-San Martín, Catalina; Zulantay, Inés; Saavedra, Miguel; Fuentealba, Cristián; Muñoz, Gabriela; Apt, Werner

    2018-05-07

    Chagas disease is a major public health problem in Latin America and has spread to other countries due to immigration of infected persons. 10-30% of patients with chronic Chagas disease will develop cardiomyopathy. Chagas cardiomyopathy is the worst form of the disease, due to its high morbidity and mortality. Because of its prognostic value and adequate medical monitoring, it is very important to identify infected people who could develop Chagas cardiomyopathy. The aim of this study was to determine if discrete typing units (DTUs) of Trypanosoma cruzi are related to the presence of heart disease in patients with chronic Chagas disease. A total of 86 untreated patients, 41 with cardiomyopathy and 45 without heart involvement were submitted to clinical study. Electrocardiograms and echocardiograms were performed on the group of cardiopaths, in which all important known causes of cardiomyopathy were discarded. Sinus bradycardia and prolonged QTc interval were the most frequent electrocardiographic alterations and patients were classified in group I (46%) and group II (54%) of New York Hearth Association. In all cases real-time PCR genotyping assays were performed. In the group with cardiomyopathy, the most frequent DTU was TcI (56.1%), followed by TcII (19.5%). Mixed infections TcI + TcII were observed in 7.3% of the patients. In the group without cardiac pathologies, TcI and TcII were found at similar rates (28.9 and 31.1%, respectively) and mixed infections TcI + TcII in 17.8% of the cases. TcIII and TcIV were not detected in any sample. Taken together, our data indicate that chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy in Chile can be caused by strains belonging to TcI and TcII. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Protective human leucocyte antigen haplotype, HLA-DRB1*01-B*14, against chronic Chagas disease in Bolivia.

    Florencia del Puerto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chagas disease, caused by the flagellate parasite Trypanosoma cruzi affects 8-10 million people in Latin America. The mechanisms that underlie the development of complications of chronic Chagas disease, characterized primarily by pathology of the heart and digestive system, are not currently understood. To identify possible host genetic factors that may influence the clinical course of Chagas disease, Human Leucocyte Antigen (HLA regional gene polymorphism was analyzed in patients presenting with differing clinical symptoms. METHODOLOGY: Two hundred and twenty nine chronic Chagas disease patients in Santa Cruz, Bolivia, were examined by serological tests, electrocardiogram (ECG, and Barium enema colon X-ray. 31.4% of the examinees showed ECG alterations, 15.7% megacolon and 58.1% showed neither of them. A further 62 seropositive megacolon patients who had undergone colonectomy due to acute abdomen were recruited. We analyzed their HLA genetic polymorphisms (HLA-A, HLA-B, MICA, MICB, DRB1 and TNF-alpha promoter region mainly through Sequence based and LABType SSO typing test using LUMINEX Technology. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The frequencies of HLA-DRB1*01 and HLA-B*14:02 were significantly lower in patients suffering from megacolon as well as in those with ECG alteration and/or megacolon compared with a group of patients with indeterminate symptoms. The DRB1*0102, B*1402 and MICA*011 alleles were in strong Linkage Disequilibrium (LD, and the HLA-DRB1*01-B*14-MICA*011 haplotype was associated with resistance against chronic Chagas disease. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of HLA haplotype association with resistance to chronic Chagas disease.

  10. Impact of Helminth Infection on the Clinical and Microbiological Presentation of Chagas Diseases in Chronically Infected Patients.

    Fernando Salvador

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Helminth infections are highly prevalent in tropical and subtropical countries, coexisting in Chagas disease endemic areas. Helminth infections in humans may modulate the host immune system, changing the Th1/Th2 polarization. This immunological disturbance could modify the immune response to other infections. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between clinical, microbiological and epidemiological characteristics of Chagas disease patients, with the presence of helminth infection.A prospective observational study was conducted at Vall d'Hebron University Hospital (Barcelona, Spain. Inclusion criteria were: age over 18 years, diagnosis of Chagas disease, and not having received specific treatment for Chagas disease previously to the inclusion. The study protocol included Chagas disease assessment (cardiac and digestive evaluation, detection of T. cruzi DNA measured by PCR in peripheral blood, and helminth infection diagnosis (detection of IgG anti-Strongyloides stercoralis by ELISA, microscopic examination of stool samples from three different days, and specific faecal culture for S. stercoralis larvae.Overall, 65 patients were included, median age was 38 years, 75.4% were women and most of them came from Bolivia. Cardiac and digestive involvement was present in 18.5% and 27.7% of patients respectively. T. cruzi PCR was positive in 28 (43.1% patients. Helminth infection was diagnosed in 12 (18.5% patients. No differences were observed in clinical and epidemiological characteristics between patients with and without helminth infection. Nevertheless, the proportion of patients with positive T. cruzi PCR was higher among patients with helminth infection compared with patients without helminth infection (75% vs 35.8%, p = 0.021.We observed a high prevalence of S. stercoralis infection among chronic Chagas disease patients attended in our tropical medicine unit. Strongyloidiasis was associated with significantly higher proportion of

  11. Evaluation of the Chagas disease control program in Açucena Municipality, Rio Doce Valley, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Santos, Adriana dos; Letro, Rejane Balmant; Lemos do Bem, Vitor Antônio; Azeredo, Bernardino Vaz de Melo; Coelho, George Luiz Lins Machado; Diotaiuti, Liléia; Machado-de-Assis, Girley Francisco; de Lana, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Açucena Municipality, Rio Doce Valley, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil temporarily (2001-2005) interrupted epidemiological surveillance for Chagas disease. The objective of this work was to evaluate the Chagas Disease Control Program (CDCP) in Açucena and to offer suggestions for improving local epidemiological surveillance. This study was conducted in three phases: I) a serological investigation of schoolchildren aged 5 to 15 years using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test performed on blood collected on filter paper followed by ELISA, indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) and indirect hemaglutination (IHA) on venous blood for borderline cases and those in the gray zone of reactivity; II) vector evaluation using the data obtained by local health agents during 2006-2010; and III) examination by ELISA, IIF and IHA of serum samples from the inhabitants of houses where infected Triatoma vitticeps was found and evaluation of their knowledge about Chagas disease. Five individuals had inconclusive results in the ELISA screening but were seronegative for Chagas disease. The triatomine evaluation revealed the presence of three species: Triatoma vitticeps, Panstrongylus megistus and Panstrongylus diasi. Triatoma vitticeps was the most prevalent and widespread, with a higher (67%) index of Trypanosoma cruzi flagellates and evidence of colonization. Most of the inhabitants of the infested houses recognized triatomines and had basic knowledge about Chagas disease. Although T. vitticeps is not clearly associated with Chagas disease transmission, these results highlight the importance of maintaining CDCP in endemic areas and the need for greater emphasis on epidemiological surveillance, especially in areas with important vectorial changes or that have been modified by human intervention.

  12. Evaluation of the Chagas Disease Control Program in Açucena Municipality, Rio Doce Valley, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Adriana dos Santos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Açucena Municipality, Rio Doce Valley, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil temporarily (2001-2005 interrupted epidemiological surveillance for Chagas disease. The objective of this work was to evaluate the Chagas Disease Control Program (CDCP in Açucena and to offer suggestions for improving local epidemiological surveillance. Methods This study was conducted in three phases: I a serological investigation of schoolchildren aged 5 to 15 years using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA test performed on blood collected on filter paper followed by ELISA, indirect immunofluorescence (IIF and indirect hemaglutination (IHA on venous blood for borderline cases and those in the gray zone of reactivity; II vector evaluation using the data obtained by local health agents during 2006-2010; and III examination by ELISA, IIF and IHA of serum samples from the inhabitants of houses where infected Triatoma vitticeps was found and evaluation of their knowledge about Chagas disease. Results Five individuals had inconclusive results in the ELISA screening but were seronegative for Chagas disease. The triatomine evaluation revealed the presence of three species: Triatoma vitticeps, Panstrongylus megistus and Panstrongylus diasi. Triatoma vitticeps was the most prevalent and widespread, with a higher (67% index of Trypanosoma cruzi flagellates and evidence of colonization. Most of the inhabitants of the infested houses recognized triatomines and had basic knowledge about Chagas disease. Conclusions Although T. vitticeps is not clearly associated with Chagas disease transmission, these results highlight the importance of maintaining CDCP in endemic areas and the need for greater emphasis on epidemiological surveillance, especially in areas with important vectorial changes or that have been modified by human intervention.

  13. Neutron absorber inserts for 55-gal drums

    Wilson, R.E.; Kim, Y.S.; Toffer, H.

    2000-01-01

    Transport and temporary storage of more than 200 g of fissile material in 55-gal drums at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) have received significant attention during the cleanup mission. This paper discusses successful applications and results of extensive computer studies. Interim storage and movement of fissile material in excess of standard drum limits (200 g) in a safe configuration have been accomplished using special drum inserts. Such inserts have constrained the contents of a drum to two 4-ell bottles. The content of the bottles was limited to 600 g Pu or U in solution or a total of 1200 g for the entire drum. The inserts were a simple design constructed of stainless steel, forming a vertical cylindrical pipe into which two bottles, one on top of the other, could be centered in the drum. The remaining drum volume was configured to preclude any additional bottle placement external to the vertical cylinder. Such inserts in drums were successfully used in moving high-concentration solution from one building to another for chemical processing. Concern about the knowledge of fissile material concentration in bottles prompted another study for drum inserts. The past practice had been to load up to fourteen 4-ell bottles into 55-gal drums, provided the fissile material concentration was < 6 g fissile/ell, and the total drum contents of 200 g fissile was not exceeded. Only one determination of the solution concentration was needed. An extensive safety analysis concluded that a single measurement of bottle content could not ensure compliance with double-contingency-criterion requirements. A second determination of the bottle contents was required before bottles could be placed in a 55-gal drum. Al alternative to a dual-measurement protocol, which is for bolstering administrative control, was to develop an engineered safety feature that would eliminate expensive tests and administrative decisions. A drum insert design was evaluated that would

  14. Doença de Chagas: Desafios no Desenvolvimento de Novas Substâncias Líderes Tripanomicidas

    Fernando de C. da Silva; Universidade Federal Fluminense; Sabrina B. Ferreira; Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro; David R. da Rocha; Universidade Federal Fluminense; Vitor F. Ferreira; Universidade Federal Fluminense

    2012-01-01

    A doença de Chagas teve seu ciclo completamente elucidado em 1909 por Carlos Chagas, quando ele relatou sua descoberta para a comunidade científica em dois artigos seminais. Hoje ainda existem inúmeros fatores que limitam o seu tratamento terapêutico. Um deles é a falta de novas drogas no mercado, pois é bem conhecido que as drogas existentes são fracamente ativas e tem baixa eficácia e consideráveis efeitos colaterais. Atualmente muitos esforços têm sido feito em química combinatória e sínte...

  15. Synthetic Medicinal Chemistry in Chagas' Disease: Compounds at The Final Stage of "Hit-To-Lead" Phase.

    Cerecetto, Hugo; González, Mercedes

    2010-03-25

    Chagas' disease, or American trypanosomosiasis, has been the most relevant illness produced by protozoa in Latin America. Synthetic medicinal chemistry efforts have provided an extensive number of chemodiverse hits at the "active-to-hit" stage. However, only a more limited number of these have been studied in vivo in models of Chagas' disease. Herein, we survey some of the cantidates able to surpass the "hit-to-lead" stage discussing their limitations or merit to enter in clinical trials in the short term.

  16. Advanced megaesophagus (Group III secondary to vector-borne Chagas disease in a 20-month-old infant

    Anis Rassi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The authors report the case of a female infant with Group III (or Grade III megaesophagus secondary to vector-borne Chagas disease, resulting in severe malnutrition that reversed after surgery (Heller technique. The infant was then treated with the antiparasitic drug benznidazole, and the infection was cured, as demonstrated serologically and parasitologically. After follow-up of several years without evidence of disease, with satisfactory weight and height development, the patient had her first child at age 23, in whom serological tests for Chagas disease yielded negative results. Thirty years after the initial examination, the patient's electrocardiogram, echocardiogram, and chest radiography remained normal.

  17. K east encapsulation packager modifications

    Jensen, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    This Supporting Document analyzes a proposal for reducing the under-packager volume to decrease the amount of fissile material that could accumulate there. The analysis shows that restricting the under packager volume to no more than 4080 in 3 will assure that if accumulated fissile material beneath the packager is added to the worst-case mass of fissile material in the discharge chute, a k eff of 0.98 will not be exceeded

  18. System issues for multichip packaging

    Sage, Maurice G.; Hartley, Neil

    1991-04-01

    It is now generally recognised that the performance of an electronic system is governed by the choice of packaging technology. Never before have the technical and financial implications of a packaging technology choice been more critical and never before has technology interdependence or industry globalisation made the choice more difficult. This paper is aimed at examining the choices available and the system issues resulting from the move from single chip to multichip packaging.

  19. IN-PACKAGE CHEMISTRY ABSTRACTION

    E. Thomas

    2005-07-14

    This report was developed in accordance with the requirements in ''Technical Work Plan for Postclosure Waste Form Modeling'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173246]). The purpose of the in-package chemistry model is to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a breached waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry as a function of time after breach to Total Systems Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). The scope of this report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model. The in-package model is a combination of two models, a batch reactor model, which uses the EQ3/6 geochemistry-modeling tool, and a surface complexation model, which is applied to the results of the batch reactor model. The batch reactor model considers chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials, and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste packages and codisposed (CDSP) waste packages containing high-level waste glass (HLWG) and DOE spent fuel. The surface complexation model includes the impact of fluid-surface interactions (i.e., surface complexation) on the resulting fluid composition. The model examines two types of water influx: (1) the condensation of water vapor diffusing into the waste package, and (2) seepage water entering the waste package as a liquid from the drift. (1) Vapor-Influx Case: The condensation of vapor onto the waste package internals is simulated as pure H{sub 2}O and enters at a rate determined by the water vapor pressure for representative temperature and relative humidity conditions. (2) Liquid-Influx Case: The water entering a waste package from the drift is simulated as typical groundwater and enters at a rate determined by the amount of seepage available to flow through openings in a breached waste package.

  20. IN-PACKAGE CHEMISTRY ABSTRACTION

    E. Thomas

    2005-01-01

    This report was developed in accordance with the requirements in ''Technical Work Plan for Postclosure Waste Form Modeling'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173246]). The purpose of the in-package chemistry model is to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a breached waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry as a function of time after breach to Total Systems Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). The scope of this report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model. The in-package model is a combination of two models, a batch reactor model, which uses the EQ3/6 geochemistry-modeling tool, and a surface complexation model, which is applied to the results of the batch reactor model. The batch reactor model considers chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials, and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste packages and codisposed (CDSP) waste packages containing high-level waste glass (HLWG) and DOE spent fuel. The surface complexation model includes the impact of fluid-surface interactions (i.e., surface complexation) on the resulting fluid composition. The model examines two types of water influx: (1) the condensation of water vapor diffusing into the waste package, and (2) seepage water entering the waste package as a liquid from the drift. (1) Vapor-Influx Case: The condensation of vapor onto the waste package internals is simulated as pure H 2 O and enters at a rate determined by the water vapor pressure for representative temperature and relative humidity conditions. (2) Liquid-Influx Case: The water entering a waste package from the drift is simulated as typical groundwater and enters at a rate determined by the amount of seepage available to flow through openings in a breached waste package

  1. Direct random insertion mutagenesis of Helicobacter pylori.

    Jonge, de R.; Bakker, D.; Vliet, van AH; Kuipers, E.J.; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C.M.J.E.; Kusters, J.G.

    2003-01-01

    Random insertion mutagenesis is a widely used technique for the identification of bacterial virulence genes. Most strategies for random mutagenesis involve cloning in Escherichia coli for passage of plasmids or for phenotypic selection. This can result in biased selection due to restriction or

  2. Direct random insertion mutagenesis of Helicobacter pylori

    de Jonge, Ramon; Bakker, Dennis; van Vliet, Arnoud H. M.; Kuipers, Ernst J.; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M. J. E.; Kusters, Johannes G.

    2003-01-01

    Random insertion mutagenesis is a widely used technique for the identification of bacterial virulence genes. Most strategies for random mutagenesis involve cloning in Escherichia coli for passage of plasmids or for phenotypic selection. This can result in biased selection due to restriction or

  3. Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Insertion/Deletion Gene ...

    Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Insertion/Deletion Gene Polymorphism: An Observational Study among Diabetic Hypertensive Subjects in Malaysia. ... Methods: The pharmacological effect of ACE inhibition on mean arterial pressure (MAP) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were observed among a total of 62 subjects for ...

  4. Insertion Loss of Personal Protective Clothing

    Shull, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    The use of personal protective clothing that covers the head is a common practice in many industries. Such personal protective clothing will impact the sound pressure level and the frequency content of sounds to which the wearer will be exposed. The use of such clothing, then, may impact speech and alarm audibility. A measure of the impact of such clothing is its insertion loss. Insertion loss measurements were performed on four types of personal protective clothing in use by Westinghouse Savannah River Company personnel which utilize cloth and plastic hood configurations to protect the head. All clothing configurations tested at least partially cover the ears. The measurements revealed that insertion loss of the items tested was notable at frequencies above 1000 Hz only and was a function of material stiffness and acoustic flanking paths to the ear. Further, an estimate of the clothing's noise reduction rating reveals poor performance in that regard, even though the insertion loss of the test articles was significant at frequencies at and above 1000 Hz.'

  5. Aspects of insertion in random trees

    Bagchi, Arunabha; Reingold, E.M.

    1982-01-01

    A method formulated by Yao and used by Brown has yielded bounds on the fraction of nodes with specified properties in trees bult by a sequence of random internal nodes in a random tree built by binary search and insertion, and show that in such a tree about bounds better than those now known. We

  6. Cultivation-independent methods reveal differences among bacterial gut microbiota in triatomine vectors of Chagas disease.

    Fabio Faria da Mota

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chagas disease is a trypanosomiasis whose agent is the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which is transmitted to humans by hematophagous bugs known as triatomines. Even though insecticide treatments allow effective control of these bugs in most Latin American countries where Chagas disease is endemic, the disease still affects a large proportion of the population of South America. The features of the disease in humans have been extensively studied, and the genome of the parasite has been sequenced, but no effective drug is yet available to treat Chagas disease. The digestive tract of the insect vectors in which T. cruzi develops has been much less well investigated than blood from its human hosts and constitutes a dynamic environment with very different conditions. Thus, we investigated the composition of the predominant bacterial species of the microbiota in insect vectors from Rhodnius, Triatoma, Panstrongylus and Dipetalogaster genera. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Microbiota of triatomine guts were investigated using cultivation-independent methods, i.e., phylogenetic analysis of 16s rDNA using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE and cloned-based sequencing. The Chao index showed that the diversity of bacterial species in triatomine guts is low, comprising fewer than 20 predominant species, and that these species vary between insect species. The analyses showed that Serratia predominates in Rhodnius, Arsenophonus predominates in Triatoma and Panstrongylus, while Candidatus Rohrkolberia predominates in Dipetalogaster. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The microbiota of triatomine guts represents one of the factors that may interfere with T. cruzi transmission and virulence in humans. The knowledge of its composition according to insect species is important for designing measures of biological control for T. cruzi. We found that the predominant species of the bacterial microbiota in triatomines form a group of low

  7. Chagas disease: national survey of seroprevalence in children under five years of age conducted in 2008.

    Russomando, Graciela; Cousiño, Blanca; Sanchez, Zunilda; Franco, Laura X; Nara, Eva M; Chena, Lilian; Martínez, Magaly; Galeano, María E; Benitez, Lucio

    2017-05-01

    Since the early 1990s, programs to control Chagas disease in South America have focused on eradicating domiciliary Triatoma infestans, the main vector. Seroprevalence studies of the chagasic infection are included as part of the vector control programs; they are essential to assess the impact of vector control measures and to monitor the prevention of vector transmission. To assess the interruption of domiciliary vector transmission of Chagas disease by T. infestans in Paraguay by evaluating the current state of transmission in rural areas. A survey of seroprevalence of Chagas disease was carried out in a representative sample group of Paraguayans aged one to five years living in rural areas of Paraguay in 2008. Blood samples collected on filter paper from 12,776 children were tested using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Children whose serology was positive or undetermined (n = 41) were recalled to donate a whole blood sample for retesting. Their homes were inspected for current triatomine infestation. Blood samples from their respective mothers were also collected and tested to check possible transmission of the disease by a congenital route. A seroprevalence rate of 0.24% for Trypanosoma cruzi infection was detected in children under five years of age among the country's rural population. Our findings indicate that T. cruzi was transmitted to these children vertically. The total number of infected children, aged one to five years living in these departments, was estimated at 1,691 cases with an annual incidence of congenital transmission of 338 cases per year. We determined the impact of vector control in the transmission of T. cruzi, following uninterrupted vector control measures employed since 1999 in contiguous T. infestans-endemic areas of Paraguay, and this allowed us to estimate the degree of risk of congenital transmission in the country.

  8. Suicide risk and alcohol and drug abuse in outpatients with HIV infection and Chagas disease.

    Guimarães, Patrícia M; Passos, Sonia R; Calvet, Guilherme A; Hökerberg, Yara H; Lessa, José L; Andrade, Carlos A de

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate psychiatric comorbidities in outpatients receiving care for HIV and Chagas disease at Instituto de Pesquisa Clínica Evandro Chagas (IPEC), Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (Fiocruz), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Cross-sectional study with a consecutive sample of 125 patients referred to an outpatient psychiatric clinic from February to December 2010. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) was used. Factors associated with more frequent mental disorders were estimated by odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) by multiple logistic regression. Seventy-six (60.8%) patients with HIV, 40 (32%) patients with Chagas disease, and nine (7.2%) patients with human T-lymphotropic virus were interviewed. The majority were women (64%), with up to 8 years of formal education (56%), and unemployed (81.6%). The median age was 49 years. Suicide risk (n=71) (56%), agoraphobia (n=65) (52%), major depressive episode (n=56) (44.8%), and alcohol/drug abuse (n=43) (34.4%) predominated, the latter being directly associated with lower family income (OR = 2.64; 95%CI 1.03-6.75) and HIV infection (OR = 5.24; 95%CI 1.56-17.61). Suicide risk was associated with non-white skin color (OR = 2.21; 95%CI 1.03-4.75), unemployment (OR = 2.72; 95%CI 1.01-7.34), and diagnosis of major depression (OR = 3.34; 95%CI 1.54-7.44). Measures targeting adverse socioeconomic conditions and psychiatric and psychological monitoring and care should be encouraged in this population, considering the association with abuse of alcohol/other psychoactive drugs and suicide risk.

  9. Suicide risk and alcohol and drug abuse in outpatients with HIV infection and Chagas disease

    Patrícia M. Guimarães

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate psychiatric comorbidities in outpatients receiving care for HIV and Chagas disease at Instituto de Pesquisa Clínica Evandro Chagas (IPEC, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Methods: Cross-sectional study with a consecutive sample of 125 patients referred to an outpatient psychiatric clinic from February to December 2010. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI was used. Factors associated with more frequent mental disorders were estimated by odds ratios (OR with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI by multiple logistic regression. Results: Seventy-six (60.8% patients with HIV, 40 (32% patients with Chagas disease, and nine (7.2% patients with human T-lymphotropic virus were interviewed. The majority were women (64%, with up to 8 years of formal education (56%, and unemployed (81.6%. The median age was 49 years. Suicide risk (n=71 (56%, agoraphobia (n=65 (52%, major depressive episode (n=56 (44.8%, and alcohol/drug abuse (n=43 (34.4% predominated, the latter being directly associated with lower family income (OR = 2.64; 95%CI 1.03-6.75 and HIV infection (OR = 5.24; 95%CI 1.56-17.61. Suicide risk was associated with non-white skin color (OR = 2.21; 95%CI 1.03-4.75, unemployment (OR = 2.72; 95%CI 1.01-7.34, and diagnosis of major depression (OR = 3.34; 95%CI 1.54-7.44. Conclusion: Measures targeting adverse socioeconomic conditions and psychiatric and psychological monitoring and care should be encouraged in this population, considering the association with abuse of alcohol/other psychoactive drugs and suicide risk.

  10. II Consenso Brasileiro em Doença de Chagas, 2015

    João Carlos Pinto Dias

    Full Text Available RESUMO A doença de Chagas é uma condição crônica negligenciada com elevada carga de morbimortalidade e impacto dos pontos de vista psicológico, social e econômico. Representa um importante problema de saúde pública no Brasil, com diferentes cenários regionais. Este documento traduz a sistematização das evidências que compõe o Consenso Brasileiro de Doença de Chagas. O objetivo foi sistematizar estratégias de diagnóstico, tratamento, prevenção e controle da doença de Chagas no país, de modo a refletir as evidências científicas disponíveis. Sua construção fundamentou-se na articulação e contribuição estratégica de especialistas brasileiros com conhecimento, experiência e atualização sobre diferentes aspectos da doença. Representa o resultado da estreita colaboração entre a Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical e o Ministério da Saúde. Espera-se com este documento fortalecer o desenvolvimento de ações integradas para enfrentamento da doença no país com foco em epidemiologia, gestão, atenção integral (incluindo famílias e comunidades, comunicação, informação, educação e pesquisas.

  11. Relationship between Fibrosis and Ventricular Arrhythmias in Chagas Heart Disease Without Ventricular Dysfunction

    Tassi, Eduardo Marinho, E-mail: etassi@ibest.com.br [Instituto de Cardiologia Edson Saad - Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Continentino, Marcelo Abramoff [Hospital Frei Galvão, Guaratinguetá, SP (Brazil); Nascimento, Emília Matos do; Pereira, Basílio de Bragança [Instituto de Cardiologia Edson Saad - Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Coppe - Instituto Alberto Luiz Coimbra de Pós-Graduação e Pesquisa de Engenharia - UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pedrosa, Roberto Coury [Instituto de Cardiologia Edson Saad - Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-05-15

    Patients with Chagas disease and segmental wall motion abnormality (SWMA) have worse prognosis independent of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is currently the best method to detect SWMA and to assess fibrosis. To quantify fibrosis by using late gadolinium enhancement CMR in patients with Chagas disease and preserved or minimally impaired ventricular function (> 45%), and to detect patterns of dependence between fibrosis, SWMA and LVEF in the presence of ventricular arrhythmia. Electrocardiogram, treadmill exercise test, Holter and CMR were carried out in 61 patients, who were divided into three groups as follows: (1) normal electrocardiogram and CMR without SWMA; (2) abnormal electrocardiogram and CMR without SWMA; (3) CMR with SWMA independently of electrocardiogram. The number of patients with ventricular arrhythmia in relation to the total of patients, the percentage of fibrosis, and the LVEF were, respectively: Group 1, 4/26, 0.74% and 74.34%; Group 2, 4/16, 3.96% and 68.5%; and Group 3, 11/19, 14.07% and 55.59%. Ventricular arrhythmia was found in 31.1% of the patients. Those with and without ventricular arrhythmia had mean LVEF of 59.87% and 70.18%, respectively, and fibrosis percentage of 11.03% and 3.01%, respectively. Of the variables SWMA, groups, age, LVEF and fibrosis, only the latter was significant for the presence of ventricular arrhythmia, with a cutoff point of 11.78% for fibrosis mass (p < 0.001). Even in patients with Chagas disease and preserved or minimally impaired ventricular function, electrical instability can be present. Regarding the presence of ventricular arrhythmia, fibrosis is the most important variable, its amount being proportional to the complexity of the groups.

  12. Relationship between Fibrosis and Ventricular Arrhythmias in Chagas Heart Disease Without Ventricular Dysfunction

    Tassi, Eduardo Marinho; Continentino, Marcelo Abramoff; Nascimento, Emília Matos do; Pereira, Basílio de Bragança; Pedrosa, Roberto Coury

    2014-01-01

    Patients with Chagas disease and segmental wall motion abnormality (SWMA) have worse prognosis independent of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is currently the best method to detect SWMA and to assess fibrosis. To quantify fibrosis by using late gadolinium enhancement CMR in patients with Chagas disease and preserved or minimally impaired ventricular function (> 45%), and to detect patterns of dependence between fibrosis, SWMA and LVEF in the presence of ventricular arrhythmia. Electrocardiogram, treadmill exercise test, Holter and CMR were carried out in 61 patients, who were divided into three groups as follows: (1) normal electrocardiogram and CMR without SWMA; (2) abnormal electrocardiogram and CMR without SWMA; (3) CMR with SWMA independently of electrocardiogram. The number of patients with ventricular arrhythmia in relation to the total of patients, the percentage of fibrosis, and the LVEF were, respectively: Group 1, 4/26, 0.74% and 74.34%; Group 2, 4/16, 3.96% and 68.5%; and Group 3, 11/19, 14.07% and 55.59%. Ventricular arrhythmia was found in 31.1% of the patients. Those with and without ventricular arrhythmia had mean LVEF of 59.87% and 70.18%, respectively, and fibrosis percentage of 11.03% and 3.01%, respectively. Of the variables SWMA, groups, age, LVEF and fibrosis, only the latter was significant for the presence of ventricular arrhythmia, with a cutoff point of 11.78% for fibrosis mass (p < 0.001). Even in patients with Chagas disease and preserved or minimally impaired ventricular function, electrical instability can be present. Regarding the presence of ventricular arrhythmia, fibrosis is the most important variable, its amount being proportional to the complexity of the groups

  13. Utilizing Chemical Genomics to Identify Cytochrome b as a Novel Drug Target for Chagas Disease.

    Shilpi Khare

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Unbiased phenotypic screens enable identification of small molecules that inhibit pathogen growth by unanticipated mechanisms. These small molecules can be used as starting points for drug discovery programs that target such mechanisms. A major challenge of the approach is the identification of the cellular targets. Here we report GNF7686, a small molecule inhibitor of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, and identification of cytochrome b as its target. Following discovery of GNF7686 in a parasite growth inhibition high throughput screen, we were able to evolve a GNF7686-resistant culture of T. cruzi epimastigotes. Clones from this culture bore a mutation coding for a substitution of leucine by phenylalanine at amino acid position 197 in cytochrome b. Cytochrome b is a component of complex III (cytochrome bc1 in the mitochondrial electron transport chain and catalyzes the transfer of electrons from ubiquinol to cytochrome c by a mechanism that utilizes two distinct catalytic sites, QN and QP. The L197F mutation is located in the QN site and confers resistance to GNF7686 in both parasite cell growth and biochemical cytochrome b assays. Additionally, the mutant cytochrome b confers resistance to antimycin A, another QN site inhibitor, but not to strobilurin or myxothiazol, which target the QP site. GNF7686 represents a promising starting point for Chagas disease drug discovery as it potently inhibits growth of intracellular T. cruzi amastigotes with a half maximal effective concentration (EC50 of 0.15 µM, and is highly specific for T. cruzi cytochrome b. No effect on the mammalian respiratory chain or mammalian cell proliferation was observed with up to 25 µM of GNF7686. Our approach, which combines T. cruzi chemical genetics with biochemical target validation, can be broadly applied to the discovery of additional novel drug targets and drug leads for Chagas disease.

  14. Polymorphisms in the gene for lymphotoxin-alpha predispose to chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy.

    Ramasawmy, Rajendranath; Fae, Kellen C; Cunha-Neto, Edecio; Müller, Natalie G; Cavalcanti, Vanessa L; Ferreira, Renata C; Drigo, Sandra A; Ianni, Barbara; Mady, Charles; Goldberg, Anna C; Kalil, Jorge

    2007-12-15

    Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi infection, displays clinical heterogeneity and may be attributable to differential genetic susceptibility. Chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy (CCC) develops only in a subset of T. cruzi-infected individuals and may lead to heart failure that has a worse clinical course and that leads to reduced life expectancy, compared with heart failure of other etiologies. Proinflammatory cytokines play a key role in the development of CCC. Clinical, genetic, and epidemiological studies have linked lymphotoxin-alpha (LTA), a proinflammatory cytokine, to coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction. We used polymerase chain reaction to genotype the LTA +80A-->C and LTA +252A-->G variants in 169 patients with CCC and in 76 T. cruzi-infected asymptomatic (ASY) patients. Homozygosity with respect to the LTA +80C and LTA +252G alleles was significantly more frequent in the patients with CCC than in the ASY patients (homozygosity for LTA +80C, 47% vs. 33%; homozygosity for LTA +252G, 16% vs. 8%). Haplotype LTA +80A-252A was associated with protection against CCC, whereas haplotype LTA +80C-252G was associated with susceptibility to CCC. Furthermore, homozygosity for the LTA +80A allele correlated with the lowest levels of plasmatic tumor-necrosis factor-alpha. Our results suggest that the study of genetic variations in patients with Chagas disease may help in the identification of individuals at increased risk of progressing to CCC and, by providing early treatment, reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with this disease.

  15. Estudo longitudinal do eletrocardiograma na doença de Chagas desde a fase aguda

    Roberto C. Pedrosa

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available Vários trabalhos com eletrocardiograma na doença de Chagas têm sido feitos. Alguns referindo-se a grupos selecionados de casos, outros a estudos longitudinais, relatam as características da mortalidade nas diversas fases da doença. Com o objetivo de avaliar o valor do eletrocardiograma como índice de avaliação terapêutica e de seu comportamento na doença de Chagas desde a fase aguda, no presente trabalho, analisou-se evolutivamente o eletrocardiograma de 42 pacientes (18 mulheres e 24 homens procedentes da zona rural do Norte de Minas Gerais; predomínio etário foi nas duas primeiras décadas; todos com comprometimento cardíaco; todos receberam tratamento específico. O acompanhamento dos 42 pacientes foi de 9 anos dos quais 3 pacientes tiveram seguimento de 20 anos. Foram analisados 270 eletrocardiogramas. Nós utilizamos os seguintes critérios para a análise do ECG: código de Minnesota modificado para doença de Chagas; WHO/I. S. F. C. TASK FORCE para condução intraventricular e critérios de Pieretti para área eletricamente inativa. Concluímos que as alterações eletrocardiográficas agravam com a evolução da doença e que o eletrocardiograma não serve de índice de avaliação terapêutica.

  16. Cultivation-independent methods reveal differences among bacterial gut microbiota in triatomine vectors of Chagas disease.

    da Mota, Fabio Faria; Marinho, Lourena Pinheiro; Moreira, Carlos José de Carvalho; Lima, Marli Maria; Mello, Cícero Brasileiro; Garcia, Eloi Souza; Carels, Nicolas; Azambuja, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Chagas disease is a trypanosomiasis whose agent is the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which is transmitted to humans by hematophagous bugs known as triatomines. Even though insecticide treatments allow effective control of these bugs in most Latin American countries where Chagas disease is endemic, the disease still affects a large proportion of the population of South America. The features of the disease in humans have been extensively studied, and the genome of the parasite has been sequenced, but no effective drug is yet available to treat Chagas disease. The digestive tract of the insect vectors in which T. cruzi develops has been much less well investigated than blood from its human hosts and constitutes a dynamic environment with very different conditions. Thus, we investigated the composition of the predominant bacterial species of the microbiota in insect vectors from Rhodnius, Triatoma, Panstrongylus and Dipetalogaster genera. Microbiota of triatomine guts were investigated using cultivation-independent methods, i.e., phylogenetic analysis of 16s rDNA using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and cloned-based sequencing. The Chao index showed that the diversity of bacterial species in triatomine guts is low, comprising fewer than 20 predominant species, and that these species vary between insect species. The analyses showed that Serratia predominates in Rhodnius, Arsenophonus predominates in Triatoma and Panstrongylus, while Candidatus Rohrkolberia predominates in Dipetalogaster. The microbiota of triatomine guts represents one of the factors that may interfere with T. cruzi transmission and virulence in humans. The knowledge of its composition according to insect species is important for designing measures of biological control for T. cruzi. We found that the predominant species of the bacterial microbiota in triatomines form a group of low complexity whose structure differs according to the vector genus.

  17. Chagas disease: national survey of seroprevalence in children under five years of age conducted in 2008

    Graciela Russomando

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Since the early 1990s, programs to control Chagas disease in South America have focused on eradicating domiciliary Triatoma infestans, the main vector. Seroprevalence studies of the chagasic infection are included as part of the vector control programs; they are essential to assess the impact of vector control measures and to monitor the prevention of vector transmission. OBJECTIVE To assess the interruption of domiciliary vector transmission of Chagas disease by T. infestans in Paraguay by evaluating the current state of transmission in rural areas. METHODS A survey of seroprevalence of Chagas disease was carried out in a representative sample group of Paraguayans aged one to five years living in rural areas of Paraguay in 2008. Blood samples collected on filter paper from 12,776 children were tested using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Children whose serology was positive or undetermined (n = 41 were recalled to donate a whole blood sample for retesting. Their homes were inspected for current triatomine infestation. Blood samples from their respective mothers were also collected and tested to check possible transmission of the disease by a congenital route. FINDINGS A seroprevalence rate of 0.24% for Trypanosoma cruzi infection was detected in children under five years of age among the country’s rural population. Our findings indicate that T. cruzi was transmitted to these children vertically. The total number of infected children, aged one to five years living in these departments, was estimated at 1,691 cases with an annual incidence of congenital transmission of 338 cases per year. MAIN CONCLUSION We determined the impact of vector control in the transmission of T. cruzi, following uninterrupted vector control measures employed since 1999 in contiguous T. infestans-endemic areas of Paraguay, and this allowed us to estimate the degree of risk of congenital transmission in the country.

  18. Packaging of control system software

    Zagar, K.; Kobal, M.; Saje, N.; Zagar, A.; Sabjan, R.; Di Maio, F.; Stepanov, D.

    2012-01-01

    Control system software consists of several parts - the core of the control system, drivers for integration of devices, configuration for user interfaces, alarm system, etc. Once the software is developed and configured, it must be installed to computers where it runs. Usually, it is installed on an operating system whose services it needs, and also in some cases dynamically links with the libraries it provides. Operating system can be quite complex itself - for example, a typical Linux distribution consists of several thousand packages. To manage this complexity, we have decided to rely on Red Hat Package Management system (RPM) to package control system software, and also ensure it is properly installed (i.e., that dependencies are also installed, and that scripts are run after installation if any additional actions need to be performed). As dozens of RPM packages need to be prepared, we are reducing the amount of effort and improving consistency between packages through a Maven-based infrastructure that assists in packaging (e.g., automated generation of RPM SPEC files, including automated identification of dependencies). So far, we have used it to package EPICS, Control System Studio (CSS) and several device drivers. We perform extensive testing on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.5, but we have also verified that packaging works on CentOS and Scientific Linux. In this article, we describe in greater detail the systematic system of packaging we are using, and its particular application for the ITER CODAC Core System. (authors)

  19. Naval Waste Package Design Report

    M.M. Lewis

    2004-01-01

    A design methodology for the waste packages and ancillary components, viz., the emplacement pallets and drip shields, has been developed to provide designs that satisfy the safety and operational requirements of the Yucca Mountain Project. This methodology is described in the ''Waste Package Design Methodology Report'' Mecham 2004 [DIRS 166168]. To demonstrate the practicability of this design methodology, four waste package design configurations have been selected to illustrate the application of the methodology. These four design configurations are the 21-pressurized water reactor (PWR) Absorber Plate waste package, the 44-boiling water reactor (BWR) waste package, the 5-defense high-level waste (DHLW)/United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) Co-disposal Short waste package, and the Naval Canistered SNF Long waste package. Also included in this demonstration is the emplacement pallet and continuous drip shield. The purpose of this report is to document how that design methodology has been applied to the waste package design configurations intended to accommodate naval canistered SNF. This demonstrates that the design methodology can be applied successfully to this waste package design configuration and support the License Application for construction of the repository

  20. La enfermedad de Chagas en la zona central de Honduras: conocimientos, creencias y prácticas Knowledge, beliefs and practices about Chagas' disease in central Honduras

    Gustavo Ávila Montes

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available En el período de noviembre a diciembre de 1991 y en marzo de 1993 se realizó una encuesta en 17 comunidades rurales de la parte central de Honduras. Las comunidades correspondían a dos zonas en las que la enfermedad de Chagas es endémica. En una de las zonas habían tenido lugar actividades de control de la enfermedad. Fueron entrevistados 849 adultos, uno en cada uno de otros tantos hogares familiares. El objetivo de la encuesta fue investigar y comparar en ambas zonas los conocimientos sobre la enfermedad de Chagas y sus mecanismos de transmisión, las prácticas para evitar la presencia de triatómidos en las viviendas, las creencias acerca de los triatómidos y su control, y las fuentes a partir de las cuales la población obtiene información sobre la enfermedad. Se utilizó un cuestionario de 23 preguntas validado y precodificado. Casi 100% de los entrevistados pudieron reconocer el vector y conocían sus hábitos, pero solo 30,1% sabían que el Triatoma es vector transmisor de la enfermedad y apenas 6% pudieron mencionar su relación con una afección cardíaca crónica. El 47,9% de los entrevistados indicó que la responsabilidad de eliminar los triatómidos de la vivienda es personal, aunque 78% consideraron como medida de control la aplicación institucional de insecticidas. El contacto personal entre el funcionario institucional y los miembros de la comunidad fue la principal fuente de información entre los que mencionaron haber oído de la enfermedad de Chagas (41,0%. Los resultados sugieren que al planificar medidas de control se debe incluir el componente de educación sanitaria. Ha de ponerse énfasis en el papel que desempeñan los triatómidos en la transmisión, así como en la importancia de mejorar la vivienda como medida eficaz y sostenible mediante la participación de la comunidad. Este componente deberá ser desarrollado por canales de comunicación interpersonales para obtener un mayor impacto.From November to

  1. [The history of Chagas' disease in Argentina: conceptual, institutional, and political evolution].

    Zabala, Juan Pablo

    2009-07-01

    In the one hundred years since the identification of Chagas disease, major changes have occurred in its scientific conception, institutional recognition, and political weight. From a medical perspective, it was seen as the cause of goiter, next its acute effects were emphasized, and then its effects on cardiac health received greater attention. In similar fashion, sanitary policy first downplayed the disease's importance, then elevated it to the role of a national cause, and gradually relegated it to the bottom of the agenda. The article briefly presents the key points of this historical trajectory in Argentina, exploring the cognitive, political, and institutional underpinnings of the disease as both a social and biological fact.

  2. Training the Next Generation of Scientists: System Dynamics Modeling of Chagas Disease (American Trypanosomiasis) transmission.

    Goff, P.; Hulse, A.; Harder, H. R.; Pierce, L. A.; Rizzo, D.; Hanley, J.; Orantes, L.; Stevens, L.; Justi, S.; Monroy, C.

    2015-12-01

    A computational simulation has been designed as an investigative case study by high school students to introduce system dynamics modeling into high school curriculum. This case study approach leads users through the forensics necessary to diagnose an unknown disease in a Central American village. This disease, Chagas, is endemic to 21 Latin American countries. The CDC estimates that of the 110 million people living in areas with the disease, 8 million are infected, with as many as 300,000 US cases. Chagas is caused by the protozoan parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi, and is spread via blood feeding insect (vectors), that feed on vertebrates and live in crevasses in the walls and roofs of adobe homes. One-third of the infected people will develop chronic Chagas who are asymptomatic for years before their heart or GI tract become enlarged resulting in death. The case study has three parts. Students play the role of WHO field investigators and work collaboratively to: 1) use genetics to identify the host(s) and vector of the disease 2) use a STELLA™ SIR (Susceptible, Infected, Recovered) system dynamics model to study Chagas at the village scale and 3) develop management strategies. The simulations identify mitigation strategies known as Ecohealth Interventions (e.g., home improvements using local materials) to help stakeholders test and compare multiple optima. High school students collaborated with researchers from the University of Vermont, Loyola University and Universidad de San Carlos, Guatemala, working in labs, interviewing researchers, and incorporating mulitple field data as part of a NSF-funded multiyear grant. The model displays stable equilibria of hosts, vectors, and disease-states. Sensitivity analyses show measures of household condition and presence of vertebrates were significant leverage points, supporting other findings by the University research team. The village-scale model explores multiple solutions to disease mitigation for the purpose of producing

  3. PREVALENCE OF CHAGAS DISEASE IN A RURAL AREA IN THE STATE OF CEARA, BRAZIL

    Erlane Chaves FREITAS

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Chagas disease is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi and affects about two to three million people in Brazil, still figuring as an important public health problem. A study was conducted in a rural area of the municipality of Limoeiro do Norte - CE, northeastern Brazil, aiming to determine the prevalence of T. cruzi infection. Of the inhabitants, 52% were examined, among whom 2.6% (4/154 were seropositive in at least two serological tests. All seropositive individuals were older than 50 years, farmers, with a low education and a family income of less than three minimum wages. Active surveillance may be an alternative for early detection of this disease.

  4. Carvedilol Enhances the Antioxidant Effect of Vitamins E and C in Chronic Chagas Heart Disease

    Budni, Patrícia; Pedrosa, Roberto Coury; Dalmarco, Eduardo Monguilhott; Dalmarco, Juliana Bastos; Frode, Tânia Sílvia; Wilhelm, Danilo Filho

    2013-01-01

    Chagas disease is still an important endemic disease in Brazil, and the cardiac involvement is its more severe manifestation. To verify whether the concomitant use of carvedilol will enhance the antioxidant effect of vitamins E and C in reducing the systemic oxidative stress in chronic Chagas heart disease. A total of 42 patients with Chagas heart disease were studied. They were divided into four groups according to the modified Los Andes classification: 10 patients in group IA (normal electrocardiogram and echocardiogram; no cardiac involvement); 20 patients in group IB (normal electrocardiogram and abnormal echocardiogram; mild cardiac involvement); eight patients in group II (abnormal electrocardiogram and echocardiogram; no heart failure; moderate cardiac involvement); and four patients in group III (abnormal electrocardiogram and echocardiogram with heart failure; severe cardiac involvement). Blood levels of markers of oxidative stress were determined before and after a six-month period of treatment with carvedilol, and six months after combined therapy of carvedilol with vitamins E and C. The markers analyzed were as follows: activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase and reductase, myeloperoxidade and adenosine deaminase; and the levels of reduced glutathione, thiobarbituric-acid reactive substances, protein carbonyls, vitamin E, and nitric oxide. After treatment with carvedilol, all groups showed significant decrease in protein carbonyls and reduced glutathione levels, whereas nitric oxide levels and adenosine activity increased significantly only in the less severely affected group (IA). In addition, the activity of most of the antioxidant enzymes was decreased in the less severely affected groups (IA and IB). By combining the vitamins with carvedilol, a reduction in protein damage, in glutathione levels, and in the activity of most of the antioxidant enzymes were observed. The decrease in oxidative

  5. Description of an oral Chagas disease outbreak in Venezuela, including a vertically transmitted case.

    Noya, Belkisyolé Alarcón de; Pérez-Chacón, Gladymar; Díaz-Bello, Zoraida; Dickson, Sonia; Muñoz-Calderón, Arturo; Hernández, Carlos; Pérez, Yadira; Mauriello, Luciano; Moronta, Eyleen

    2017-08-01

    We describe the eleventh major outbreak of foodborne Trypanosoma cruzi transmission in urban Venezuela, including evidence for vertical transmission from the index case to her fetus. After confirming fetal death at 24 weeks of gestation, pregnancy interruption was performed. On direct examination of the amniotic fluid, trypomastigotes were detected. T. cruzi specific-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) also proved positive when examining autopsied fetal organs. Finally, microscopic fetal heart examination revealed amastigote nests. Acute orally transmitted Chagas disease can be life threatening or even fatal for pregnant women and unborn fetuses owing to vertical transmission. There is therefore an urgent need to improve national epidemiologic control measures.

  6. A inserção institucional do controle da doença de Chagas

    Antônio Carlos Silveira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Em 1943, a partir da criação do "Centro de Estudos e Profilaxia da Moléstia de Chagas" da Fundação Oswaldo Cruz de Bambuí em Minas Gerais, são concebidas as bases tecnológicas e metodológicas para o controle extensivo da enfermidade. Para isso foi decisivo o advento de um novo inseticida (o gammexane, P 530 e a demonstração de sua eficácia no controle dos vetores da doença de Chagas. Como resultado prático desses acontecimentos em "maio de 1950 foi oficialmente inaugurada, em Uberaba, a primeira campanha de profilaxia da doença de Chagas, no Brasil". Mesmo que se dispusesse desde então de meios para fazer o controle da transmissão vetorial da endemia chagásica, não se dispunha dos recursos financeiros exigidos para fazê-lo de forma abrangente e regular. O baixo nível de prioridade conferida a essa atividade se expressava em sua inserção institucional. Em 1941, foram criados os Serviços Nacionais, de malária, peste, varíola, entre outros, enquanto a doença de Chagas fazia parte da Divisão de Organização Sanitária (DOS, que reunia enfermidades consideradas de menor importância. Em 1956 o Departamento Nacional de Endemias Rurais (DNERu incorporou todas as chamadas grandes endemias em uma única instituição, mas na prática isso não significou a implementação das ações de controle da doença de Chagas. Com a reestruturação do Ministério da Saúde em 1970, a Superintendência de Campanhas de Saúde Pública (SUCAM abarcou todas as endemias rurais, e a doença de Chagas passou a ter o status de Divisão Nacional, na mesma posição hierárquica daquelas outras doenças transmitidas por vetores antes consideradas prioritárias. Essa condição determinou a possibilidade de uma repartição de recursos mais equilibrada, o que efetivamente ocorreu, com a realocação de pessoal e insumos do programa de malária para o controle vetorial da doença de Chagas. Em 1991, a Fundação Nacional de Saúde sucedeu a SUCAM

  7. Distantiae transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi: a new epidemiological feature of acute Chagas disease in Brazil.

    Samanta Cristina das Chagas Xavier

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The new epidemiological scenario of orally transmitted Chagas disease that has emerged in Brazil, and mainly in the Amazon region, needs to be addressed with a new and systematic focus. Belém, the capital of Pará state, reports the highest number of acute Chagas disease (ACD cases associated with the consumption of açaí juice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The wild and domestic enzootic transmission cycles of Trypanosoma cruzi were evaluated in the two locations (Jurunas and Val-de Cães that report the majority of the autochthonous cases of ACD in Belém city. Moreover, we evaluated the enzootic cycle on the three islands that provide most of the açaí fruit that is consumed in these localities. We employed parasitological and serological tests throughout to evaluate infectivity competence and exposure to T. cruzi. In Val-de-Cães, no wild mammal presented positive parasitological tests, and 56% seroprevalence was observed, with low serological titers. Three of 14 triatomines were found to be infected (TcI. This unexpected epidemiological picture does not explain the high number of autochthonous ACD cases. In Jurunas, the cases of ACD could not be autochthonous because of the absence of any enzootic cycle of T. cruzi. In contrast, in the 3 island areas from which the açaí fruit originates, 66.7% of wild mammals and two dogs displayed positive hemocultures, and 15.6% of triatomines were found to be infected by T. cruzi. Genotyping by mini-exon gene and PCR-RFLP (1f8/Akw21I targeting revealed that the mammals and triatomines from the islands harbored TcI and Trypanosoma rangeli in single and mixed infections. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings show that cases of Chagas disease in the urban area of Belém may be derived from infected triatomines coming together with the açaí fruits from distant islands. We term this new epidemiological feature of Chagas disease as "Distantiae transmission".

  8. Carvedilol Enhances the Antioxidant Effect of Vitamins E and C in Chronic Chagas Heart Disease

    Budni, Patrícia, E-mail: budnip@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Pedrosa, Roberto Coury [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Hospital Universitário Clementino Fraga Filho, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Dalmarco, Eduardo Monguilhott; Dalmarco, Juliana Bastos; Frode, Tânia Sílvia; Wilhelm, Danilo Filho [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, SC (Brazil)

    2013-10-15

    Chagas disease is still an important endemic disease in Brazil, and the cardiac involvement is its more severe manifestation. To verify whether the concomitant use of carvedilol will enhance the antioxidant effect of vitamins E and C in reducing the systemic oxidative stress in chronic Chagas heart disease. A total of 42 patients with Chagas heart disease were studied. They were divided into four groups according to the modified Los Andes classification: 10 patients in group IA (normal electrocardiogram and echocardiogram; no cardiac involvement); 20 patients in group IB (normal electrocardiogram and abnormal echocardiogram; mild cardiac involvement); eight patients in group II (abnormal electrocardiogram and echocardiogram; no heart failure; moderate cardiac involvement); and four patients in group III (abnormal electrocardiogram and echocardiogram with heart failure; severe cardiac involvement). Blood levels of markers of oxidative stress were determined before and after a six-month period of treatment with carvedilol, and six months after combined therapy of carvedilol with vitamins E and C. The markers analyzed were as follows: activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase and reductase, myeloperoxidade and adenosine deaminase; and the levels of reduced glutathione, thiobarbituric-acid reactive substances, protein carbonyls, vitamin E, and nitric oxide. After treatment with carvedilol, all groups showed significant decrease in protein carbonyls and reduced glutathione levels, whereas nitric oxide levels and adenosine activity increased significantly only in the less severely affected group (IA). In addition, the activity of most of the antioxidant enzymes was decreased in the less severely affected groups (IA and IB). By combining the vitamins with carvedilol, a reduction in protein damage, in glutathione levels, and in the activity of most of the antioxidant enzymes were observed. The decrease in oxidative

  9. Training Systems Modelers through the Development of a Multi-scale Chagas Disease Risk Model

    Hanley, J.; Stevens-Goodnight, S.; Kulkarni, S.; Bustamante, D.; Fytilis, N.; Goff, P.; Monroy, C.; Morrissey, L. A.; Orantes, L.; Stevens, L.; Dorn, P.; Lucero, D.; Rios, J.; Rizzo, D. M.

    2012-12-01

    The goal of our NSF-sponsored Division of Behavioral and Cognitive Sciences grant is to create a multidisciplinary approach to develop spatially explicit models of vector-borne disease risk using Chagas disease as our model. Chagas disease is a parasitic disease endemic to Latin America that afflicts an estimated 10 million people. The causative agent (Trypanosoma cruzi) is most commonly transmitted to humans by blood feeding triatomine insect vectors. Our objectives are: (1) advance knowledge on the multiple interacting factors affecting the transmission of Chagas disease, and (2) provide next generation genomic and spatial analysis tools applicable to the study of other vector-borne diseases worldwide. This funding is a collaborative effort between the RSENR (UVM), the School of Engineering (UVM), the Department of Biology (UVM), the Department of Biological Sciences (Loyola (New Orleans)) and the Laboratory of Applied Entomology and Parasitology (Universidad de San Carlos). Throughout this five-year study, multi-educational groups (i.e., high school, undergraduate, graduate, and postdoctoral) will be trained in systems modeling. This systems approach challenges students to incorporate environmental, social, and economic as well as technical aspects and enables modelers to simulate and visualize topics that would either be too expensive, complex or difficult to study directly (Yasar and Landau 2003). We launch this research by developing a set of multi-scale, epidemiological models of Chagas disease risk using STELLA® software v.9.1.3 (isee systems, inc., Lebanon, NH). We use this particular system dynamics software as a starting point because of its simple graphical user interface (e.g., behavior-over-time graphs, stock/flow diagrams, and causal loops). To date, high school and undergraduate students have created a set of multi-scale (i.e., homestead, village, and regional) disease models. Modeling the system at multiple spatial scales forces recognition that

  10. Inositol metabolism in Trypanosoma cruzi: potential target for chemotherapy against Chagas' disease

    MECIA M. OLIVEIRA

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Chagas' disease is a debilitating and often fatal disease caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. The great majority of surface molecules in trypanosomes are either inositol-containing phospholipids or glycoproteins that are anchored into the plasma membrane by glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchors. The polyalcohol myo-inositol is the precursor for the biosynthesis of these molecules. In this brief review, recent findings on some aspects of the molecular and cellular fate of inositol in T. cruzi life cycle are discussed and identified some points that could be targets for the development of parasite-specific therapeutic agents.

  11. [Why defer blood donor candidates because of an exposure risk to Chagas disease?].

    Garraud, O; Pelletier, B; Aznar, C

    2008-06-01

    Various infectious agents can be transmitted by blood exposure, which comprises of transfusion, of which hemoparasites that are commonly absent from European countries but that can have infected blood donor candidates born, raised or having been living in the Tropics. Among those hemoparasites is Trypanosoma cruzi, responsible for Chagas disease. T. cruzi is responsible for acute post-transfusion infections every year in endemic areas (South America) and also, more incidently, in North America. There are situations which expose European blood donors to this risk and the present essay discusses arguments which have now been taken into consideration by certain transfusion systems such as the French one.

  12. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF EARLY POSTPARTUM IUCD INSERTION TO INTERVAL IUCD INSERTION

    Shibani Devi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION According to National Family Health Survey-3, Indian women have 13% unmet need for contraception and according to District Level Household & Facility Survey-3, it is 21.3% in the postpartum period. Postpartum intrauterine contraceptive device insertion - both immediately post-placental delivery and somewhat later, but within 48 hours after delivery are options which merit consideration as the woman is likely to have a high motivation for accepting contraception and the healthcare centre provides a convenient setting for insertion of IUCD. AIM Comparison of efficacy and complications of IUCD insertions in post-placental with interval period: 6-month followup. METHOD This perspective study was conducted among 100 women: - 50 women had IUCD inserted within 10 minutes of placental delivery and 50 had insertion more than 6 weeks after delivery. They were followed till 6 months post insertion and were compared regarding early and late complications, continuation rates and expulsion rates. RESULT At the end of six months, we found higher occurrence of lower abdominal pain, heavy menstrual bleeding in case of interval insertion as compared to post-placental insertion which was statistically significant (p value-0.04 & 0.007 respectively. However, the expulsion rates of post-placental IUCD were somewhat elevated (14% compared to interval insertions (2%. Continuation rates at the end of 6 months in both the groups were 82% and 86% respectively which is comparable. CONCLUSION Post-placental IUCD is thus found to be an ideal method to meet the unmet need of postpartum women as it is easily accessible and convenient for both women and their health care providers, is associated with less discomfort and fewer side effects and allow women to obtain safe, long acting, highly effective contraception while still in the health care system.

  13. Anhydrous Ammonia Training Module. Trainer's Package. Participant's Package.

    Beaudin, Bart; And Others

    This document contains a trainer's and a participant's package for teaching employees on site safe handling procedures for working with anhydrous ammonia, especially on farms. The trainer's package includes the following: a description of the module; a competency; objectives; suggested instructional aids; a training outline (or lesson plan) for…

  14. The Packaging Handbook -- A guide to package design

    Shappert, L.B.

    1995-01-01

    The Packaging Handbook is a compilation of 14 technical chapters and five appendices that address the life cycle of a packaging which is intended to transport radioactive material by any transport mode in normal commerce. Although many topics are discussed in depth, this document focuses on the design aspects of a packaging. The Handbook, which is being prepared under the direction of the US Department of Energy, is intended to provide a wealth of technical guidance that will give designers a better understanding of the regulatory approval process, preferences of regulators in specific aspects of packaging design, and the types of analyses that should be seriously considered when developing the packaging design. Even though the Handbook is concerned with all packagings, most of the emphasis is placed on large packagings that are capable of transporting large radioactive sources that are also fissile (e.g., spent fuel). These are the types of packagings that must address the widest range of technical topics in order to meet domestic and international regulations. Most of the chapters in the Handbook have been drafted and submitted to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for editing; the majority of these have been edited. This report summarizes the contents

  15. Electronic equipment packaging technology

    Ginsberg, Gerald L

    1992-01-01

    The last twenty years have seen major advances in the electronics industry. Perhaps the most significant aspect of these advances has been the significant role that electronic equipment plays in almost all product markets. Even though electronic equipment is used in a broad base of applications, many future applications have yet to be conceived. This versatility of electron­ ics has been brought about primarily by the significant advances that have been made in integrated circuit technology. The electronic product user is rarely aware of the integrated circuits within the equipment. However, the user is often very aware of the size, weight, mod­ ularity, maintainability, aesthetics, and human interface features of the product. In fact, these are aspects of the products that often are instrumental in deter­ mining its success or failure in the marketplace. Optimizing these and other product features is the primary role of Electronic Equipment Packaging Technology. As the electronics industry continues to pr...

  16. ORNL's DCAL software package

    Eckerman, K.F.

    2007-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory has released its Dose and Risk Calculation software, DCAL. DCAL, developed with the support of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, consists of a series of computational modules, driven in either an interactive or a batch mode for computation of dose and risk coefficients from intakes of radionuclides or exposure to radionuclides in environmental media. The software package includes extensive libraries of biokinetic and dosimetric data that represent the current state of the art. The software has unique capability for addressing intakes of radionuclides by non-adults. DCAL runs as 32-bit extended DOS and console applications under Windows 98/NT/2000/XP. It is intended for users familiar with the basic elements of computational radiation dosimetry. Components of DCAL have been used to prepare U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Federal Guidance Reports 12 and 13 and several publications of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. (author)

  17. Tritium waste package

    Rossmassler, Rich; Ciebiera, Lloyd; Tulipano, Francis J.; Vinson, Sylvester; Walters, R. Thomas

    1995-01-01

    A containment and waste package system for processing and shipping tritium xide waste received from a process gas includes an outer drum and an inner drum containing a disposable molecular sieve bed (DMSB) seated within outer drum. The DMSB includes an inlet diffuser assembly, an outlet diffuser assembly, and a hydrogen catalytic recombiner. The DMSB absorbs tritium oxide from the process gas and converts it to a solid form so that the tritium is contained during shipment to a disposal site. The DMSB is filled with type 4A molecular sieve pellets capable of adsorbing up to 1000 curies of tritium. The recombiner contains a sufficient amount of catalyst to cause any hydrogen add oxygen present in the process gas to recombine to form water vapor, which is then adsorbed onto the DMSB.

  18. Packaging and transport of radioisotopes

    Taylor, C.B.G.

    1976-01-01

    The importance of radioisotope traffic is emphasized. More than a million packages are being transported each year, mostly for medical uses. The involvement of public transport services and the incidental dose to the public (which is very small) are appreciably greater than for movements connected with the nuclear fuel cycle. Modern isotope packages are described, and an outline given of the problems of a large radioisotope manufacturer who has to package many different types of product. Difficulties caused by recent uncoordinated restrictions on the use of passenger aircraft are mentioned. Some specific problems relating to radioisotope packaging are discussed. These include the crush resistance of Type A packages, the closure of steel drums, the design of secure closures for large containers, the Type A packaging of liquids, leak tightness criteria of Type B packages, and the use of 'unit load' overpacks to consign a group of individually approved packages together as a single shipment. Reference is made to recent studies of the impact of radioisotope shipments on the environment. Cost/benefit analysis is important in this field - an important public debate is only just beginning. (author)

  19. Ensuring socially responsible packaging design

    Geert Jensen, Birgitte

    Most consumers have experienced occasional problems with opening packaging. Tomato sauce from the tinned mackerel splattered all over the kitchen counter, the unrelenting pickle jar lid, and the package of sliced ham that cannot be opened without a knife or a pair of scissors. The research project...

  20. Oral Hygiene. Learning Activity Package.

    Hime, Kirsten

    This learning activity package on oral hygiene is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, a list of definitions, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics…

  1. Solar water heater design package

    1981-01-01

    Package describes commercial domestic-hot-water heater with roof or rack mounted solar collectors. System is adjustable to pre-existing gas or electric hot-water house units. Design package includes drawings, description of automatic control logic, evaluation measurements, possible design variations, list of materials and installation tools, and trouble-shooting guide and manual.

  2. Comparison of conventional Injection Mould Inserts to Additively Manufactured Inserts using Life Cycle Assessment

    Hofstätter, Thomas; Bey, Niki; Mischkot, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Polymer Additive Manufacturing can be used to produce soft tooling inserts for injection moulding. Compared to conventional tooling, the energy and time consumption during production are significantly lower. As the life time of such inserts is significantly shorter than the life time of traditional...... of their potential environmental impact and yield throughout the development and pilot phase. Insert geometry is particularly advantageous for pilot production and small production sizes. In this research, Life Cycle Assessment is used to compare the environmental impact of soft tooling by Additive Manufacturing...... (using Digital Light Processing) and three traditional methods for the manufacture of inserts (milling of brass, steel, and aluminium) for injection moulds during the pre-production phase....

  3. 19 CFR 191.13 - Packaging materials.

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Packaging materials. 191.13 Section 191.13 Customs... (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK General Provisions § 191.13 Packaging materials. (a) Imported packaging material... packaging material when used to package or repackage merchandise or articles exported or destroyed pursuant...

  4. 21 CFR 355.20 - Packaging conditions.

    2010-04-01

    ... conditions. (a) Package size limitation. Due to the toxicity associated with fluoride active ingredients, the... (toothpastes and tooth powders) packages shall not contain more than 276 milligrams (mg) total fluorine per... packages shall not contain more than 120 mg total fluorine per package. (3) Exception. Package size...

  5. A Pre- and Post-Evaluation of Integrating Sustainability Curriculum by Inserting Okala Modules into an Interior Design Materials and Methods Course

    Schneiderman, Deborah; Freihoefer, Kara

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the integration of Okala curriculum into Interior Design coursework. Okala, as a teaching package, is utilized extensively in industrial design education. However, this study examines the expansion and insertion of Okala modules in an existing interior design curriculum. The Okala modules included…

  6. Symplectic models for general insertion devices

    Wu, Y.; Forest, E.; Robin, D. S.; Nishimura, H.; Wolski, A.; Litvinenko, V. N.

    2001-01-01

    A variety of insertion devices (IDs), wigglers and undulators, linearly or elliptically polarized,are widely used as high brightness radiation sources at the modern light source rings. Long and high-field wigglers have also been proposed as the main source of radiation damping at next generation damping rings. As a result, it becomes increasingly important to understand the impact of IDs on the charged particle dynamics in the storage ring. In this paper, we report our recent development of a general explicit symplectic model for IDs with the paraxial ray approximation. High-order explicit symplectic integrators are developed to study real-world insertion devices with a number of wiggler harmonics and arbitrary polarizations

  7. A regional fight against Chagas disease: lessons learned from a successful collaborative partnership.

    Salerno, Rosina; Salvatella, Roberto; Issa, Julie; Anzola, Maria Carolina

    2015-01-01

    To identify the intangible elements that characterize the successful effort to fight Chagas disease in the Americas, determine how they contributed to the overall success of the partnership, and learn lessons from the experience that could be applied to other programs. This study was based on the Partnership Assessment Tool (PAT) developed by the Nuffield Institute for Health ("the Institute") at the University of Leeds (London). The PAT draws heavily on scientific literature and the extensive experience of sociologists and health experts working for the Institute. The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) modified the tool slightly to adapt it to its needs and provide a general structure for the study. The six key principles of the PAT framework were applied in the design of the research questionnaires. The findings show that a successful collaboration requires a clear objective; a good-quality pool of data; and comprehensive qualitative and quantitative knowledge of the problem, its dimensions, and its impact. The collaboration was elaborated from a common idea and a shared, quantified plan based on data gathered by independent scientists plus a strategy with explicit milestones. The clarity of purpose allowed for an improved synergy of efforts and made it possible to resolve differences in opinions and approaches. PAHO's experience with effective collaborations such as the joint initiative to fight Chagas disease provides a rich knowledge base for analysis of the advantages, limitations, and paradigms of community involvement, collaborative practices, and partnerships.

  8. Molecular diagnostics for Chagas disease: up to date and novel methodologies.

    Alonso-Padilla, Julio; Gallego, Montserrat; Schijman, Alejandro G; Gascon, Joaquim

    2017-07-01

    Chagas disease is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. It affects 7 million people, mainly in Latin America. Diagnosis is usually made serologically, but at some clinical scenarios serology cannot be used. Then, molecular detection is required for early detection of congenital transmission, treatment response follow up, and diagnosis of immune-suppression reactivation. However, present tests are technically demanding and require well-equipped laboratories which make them unfeasible in low-resources endemic regions. Areas covered: Available molecular tools for detection of T. cruzi DNA, paying particular attention to quantitative PCR protocols, and to the latest developments of user-friendly molecular diagnostic methodologies. Expert commentary: In the absence of appropriate biomarkers, molecular diagnosis is the only option for the assessment of treatment response. Besides, it is very useful for the early detection of acute infections, like congenital cases. Since current Chagas disease molecular tests are restricted to referential labs, research efforts must focus in the implementation of easy-to-use diagnostic tools in order to overcome the access to diagnosis gap.

  9. Chagas disease: modulation of the inflammatory response by acetylcholinesterase in hematological cells and brain tissue.

    Silva, Aniélen D; Bottari, Nathieli B; do Carmo, Guilherme M; Baldissera, Matheus D; Souza, Carine F; Machado, Vanessa S; Morsch, Vera M; Schetinger, Maria Rosa C; Mendes, Ricardo E; Monteiro, Silvia G; Da Silva, Aleksandro S

    2018-01-01

    Chagas disease is an acute or chronic illness that causes severe inflammatory response, and consequently, it may activate the inflammatory cholinergic pathway, which is regulated by cholinesterases, including the acetylcholinesterase. This enzyme is responsible for the regulation of acetylcholine levels, an anti-inflammatory molecule linked to the inflammatory response during parasitic diseases. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate whether Trypanosoma cruzi infection can alter the activity of acetylcholinesterase and acetylcholine levels in mice, and whether these alterations are linked to the inflammatory cholinergic signaling pathway. Twenty-four mice were divided into two groups: uninfected (control group, n = 12) and infected by T. cruzi, Y strain (n = 12). The animals developed acute disease with a peak of parasitemia on day 7 post-infection (PI). Blood, lymphocytes, and brain were analyzed on days 6 and 12 post-infection. In the brain, acetylcholine and nitric oxide levels, myeloperoxidase activity, and histopathology were analyzed. In total blood and brain, acetylcholinesterase activity decreased at both times. On the other hand, acetylcholinesterase activity in lymphocytes increased on day 6 PI compared with the control group. Infection by T. cruzi increased acetylcholine and nitric oxide levels and histopathological damage in the brain of mice associated to increased myeloperoxidase activity. Therefore, an intense inflammatory response in mice with acute Chagas disease in the central nervous system caused an anti-inflammatory response by the activation of the cholinergic inflammatory pathway.

  10. Influence of the HLA class II polymorphism in chronic Chagas' disease.

    Fernandez-Mestre, M T; Layrisse, Z; Montagnani, S; Acquatella, H; Catalioti, F; Matos, M; Balbas, O; Makhatadze, N; Dominguez, E; Herrera, F; Madrigal, A

    1998-04-01

    Chagas' disease or American trypanosomiasis due to Trypanosoma cruzi has existed at least since the time of the Inca empire and contributes significantly to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in several countries of this continent. Due to the fundamental role of human class II molecules polymorphic residues in the control of the immune response, a study was designed to define by DNA typing HLA class II alleles in a sample of 67 serologically positive individuals with and without cardiomyopathy and in 156 healthy controls of similar ethnic origin. Genomic DNA extraction, PCR amplification of the HLA-DRB1 and DQB1 second exon regions and hybridization to labelled specific probes were carried out following the 11th International Histocompatibility Workshop reference protocol. Comparison of DRB1 and DQB1 allele frequencies among the patients and control subjects showed a decreased frequency of DRB1*14 and DQB1*0303 in the patients, suggesting independent protective effects to the chronic infection in this population. Allele frequencies comparison between patients with and without cardiomyopathy showed a higher frequency of DRB1*01, DRB1*08 and DQB1*0501 and a decreased frequency of DRB1*1501 in the patients with arrhythmia and congestive heart failure. The results suggest that HLA Class II genes may be associated with the development of a chronic infection and with heart damage in Chagas' disease.

  11. Acute Chagas' cardiopathy in a polar bear (Ursus maritimus in Guadalajara, Mexico

    J. Jaime-Andrade G.

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available We report a 24 year old female polar bear (Ursus maritimus who contracted Chagas' infection at the Guadalajara Zoo, in Jalisco, México, and died of acute Chagas' carditis 15 days later. The histopathological findings are described, as well as the presence of triatomines (Triatoma longipennis Usinger infected with Trypanosoma cruzi collected within 5 meters from the place where the animal lived in the city of Guadalajara.Relatamos o caso de uma ursa polar (Ursus maritimus de 24 anos de idade, que contraiu a infecção chagásica no Zoológico de Guadalajara, em Jalisco, no México, e morreu de cardite chagásica aguda 15 dias após o início da sintomatologia. Os achados histopatológicos são descritos, bem como a presença de triatomíneos (Triatoma longipennis Usinger infectados por Trypanosoma cruzi coletados a 5 metros do local onde o animal vivia, na cidade de Guadalajara.

  12. Evolution of Chagas' disease in Brazil. Epidemiological perspective and challenges for the future: a critical review.

    Bello Corassa, Rafael; Aceijas, Carmen; Alves, Paula Aryane Brito; Garelick, Hemda

    2017-09-01

    This article aimed to provide a critical review of the evolution of Chagas' disease (ChD) in Brazil, its magnitude, historical development and management, and challenges for the future. A literature search was performed using PubMed, SciELO and Google Scholar and throughout collected articles' references. Narrative analysis was structured around five main themes identified: vector transmission, control programme, transfusion, oral and congenital transmission. In Brazil, the Chagas' Disease Control Programme was fully implemented in the 1980s, when it reached practically all the endemic areas, and in 1991, the Southern Cone Initiative was created, aiming to control the disease transmission through eliminating the Triatoma infestans and controlling blood banks. As a result, the prevalence of chagasic donors in blood banks reduced from 4.4% in the 1980s to 0.2% in 2005. In 2006, Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) certified the interruption of transmission of ChD through this vector in Brazil. However, there are still challenges, such as the domiciliation of new vector species, the need for medical care of the infected individuals, the prevention of alternative mechanisms of transmission, the loss of political concern regarding the disease and the weakening of the control programme. Despite the progress towards control, there are still many challenges ahead to maintain and expand such control and minimise the risk of re-emergence.

  13. Congenital Chagas's disease in an urban population: investigation of infected twins.

    Hoff, R; Mott, K E; Milanesi, M L; Bittencourt, A L; Barbosa, H S

    1978-01-01

    In the Nordeste de Amaralina suburb of Salvador Bahia, Brazil, 47 of 285 pregnant women surveyed had complement fixing antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi. At delivery T. cruzi was detected in one of 17 placentas from the sero-positive women. The offspring of this case were premature twins and T. cruzi was detected in the peripheral blood of each before death. At autopsy the gastro-intestinal tract and urinary bladder of both were severely affected. Immunofluorescence tests on cord sera, including the single case with T. cruzi in the placenta, were negative for IgM antibodies to T. cruzi. The mother of the infected twins and three of her living children, who were born and have resided in the city, were also infected with T. cruzi. Although the children had visited an area endemic for Chagas's disease for short periods, the mode of transmission in this family may have been transplacental. The value of the immunofluorescence test in the diagnosis of congenital Chagas's disease is discussed.

  14. Prevalence of Chagas disease in medical students from 16 Latin American countries attending

    Miguel A. Serra Valdés

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the infectious illnesses that have repercussion in Latin America are the Chagas illness. Objective: with the objective of identifying the students with positive serology for the illness of Chagas and describe the characteristics in the same thing with focussing epidemiological carried out to him the present study. Method: It become fulfilled a observational investigation, descriptive and prospectival. It decided the prevalencial in the Latin American students of medicine that resides in the school Salvador Allende in the period understanded between October of the 2009 to January of the 2010 by means of serology, other clinical studieses and examination. They took shelter the variables of the clinical records and of personal interview.. Results: Affected 50 of the Bolivian delegation. The prevalence went of 6.6% of this delegation. Have clinical symptoms. The detected alterations went the ventricular hypertrophy left and the disorders of transportation and of the rhythm for electrocardiogram. It predominated the masculine sex and the rural origin. It found variability in the results of laboratory, being positive in their country and negative in Cuba and vice versa. Single 56% fulfilled the treatment. The adverse reactions went minims. Conclusion: It constitutes a sanitary problem and demands a better diagnosis, control and follow-up.

  15. A revision of thirteen species of Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae vectors of Chagas disease in Mexico

    Salazar-Schettino Paz Maria

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, parasite responsible for Chagas disease, are divided in intradomestic, peridomestic and sylvatic. The intradomestic are Triatoma barberi and Triatoma dimidiata, two species that represent the highest health risk among the Mexican population. Triatoma dimidiata is a species found mainly inside human habitats, but in Yucatan, it corresponds to the peridomicile vectors. Also in the peridomicile most of Chagas disease vectors are found: Meccus bassolsae, M. longipennis, M. mazzottii, M pallidipennis, M. phyllosomus, M picturata, Triatoma gerstaeckeri, T mexicana, T rubida, Dipetalogaster máxima (the last two are in the process of becoming adapted to the domicile, Panstrongylus rufotuberculatus which occasionally enters the domicile in its adult stage, and Rhodnius prolixus, which is practically controlled in the country. Peridomestic vectors are of lower risk in the transmission dynamics, as compared to the intradomestic ones. For the control of the intradomestic vectors, health education programs, improvements of housing, and the use of pesticides are essential To control the peridomestic vectors, health education programs are required, as well as the use of mosquito nets on doors and windows and around beds, aside from cementing the stone wall fences.

  16. Diagnostic electrocardiography in epidemiological studies of Chagas' disease: multicenter evaluation of a standardized method

    Lázzari Julio O.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available An electrocardiographic recording method with an associated reading guide, designed for epidemiological studies on Chagas' disease, was tested to assess its diagnostic reproducibility. Six cardiologists from five countries each read 100 electrocardiographic (ECG tracings, including 30 from chronic chagasic patients, then reread them after an interval of 6 months. The readings were blind, with the tracings numbered randomly for the first reading and renumbered randomly for the second reading. The physicians, all experienced in interpreting ECGs from chagasic patients, followed printed instructions for reading the tracings. Reproducibility of the readings was evaluated using the kappa (k index for concordance. The results showed a high degree of interobserver concordance with respect to the diagnosis of normal vs. abnormal tracings (k = 0.66; SE 0.02. While the interpretations of some categories of ECG abnormalities were highly reproducible, others, especially those having a low prevalence, showed lower levels of concordance. Intraobserver concordance was uniformly higher than interobserver concordance. The findings of this study justify the use by specialists of the recording of readings method proposed for epidemiological studies on Chagas' disease, but warrant caution in the interpretation of some categories of electrocardiographic alterations.

  17. Diagnostic electrocardiography in epidemiological studies of Chagas' disease: multicenter evaluation of a standardized method

    Julio O. Lázzari

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available An electrocardiographic recording method with an associated reading guide, designed for epidemiological studies on Chagas' disease, was tested to assess its diagnostic reproducibility. Six cardiologists from five countries each read 100 electrocardiographic (ECG tracings, including 30 from chronic chagasic patients, then reread them after an interval of 6 months. The readings were blind, with the tracings numbered randomly for the first reading and renumbered randomly for the second reading. The physicians, all experienced in interpreting ECGs from chagasic patients, followed printed instructions for reading the tracings. Reproducibility of the readings was evaluated using the kappa (k index for concordance. The results showed a high degree of interobserver concordance with respect to the diagnosis of normal vs. abnormal tracings (k = 0.66; SE 0.02. While the interpretations of some categories of ECG abnormalities were highly reproducible, others, especially those having a low prevalence, showed lower levels of concordance. Intraobserver concordance was uniformly higher than interobserver concordance. The findings of this study justify the use by specialists of the recording of readings method proposed for epidemiological studies on Chagas' disease, but warrant caution in the interpretation of some categories of electrocardiographic alterations.

  18. Bibliometric assessment of the contributions of literature on Chagas disease in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Delgado-Osorio, Nathalia; Vera-Polania, Felipe; Lopez-Isaza, Andres F; Martinez-Pulgarin, Dayron F; Murillo-Abadia, Jonathan; Munoz-Urbano, Marcela; Cardona-Ospina, Jaime A; Bello, Ricardo; Lagos-Grisales, Guillermo J; Villegas-Rojas, Soraya; Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J

    2014-01-01

    Chagas disease, considered a parasitic neglected disease, is endemic in Latin America. Although, its mortality rate has decreased over time, it still represents a public health problem in the region. A bibliometric evaluation of the Latin American contributions on this disease was done. This study used SCI (1980-2013), MEDLINE/GOPUBMED (1802-2013), Scopus (1959-2013), SCIELO (2004-2013), and LILACS (1980-2013). Different study types have been characterized by years, origin city/country, journals and most productive authors, by country, cites and H-index. 2988 articles were retrieved from SCI (30.85% of total). Brazil was found to be the highest producer (31.22%), followed by Argentina (18.14%) and México (9.57%); the region received 47241 citations, 28.60% for Brazil (H-index=52), 18.26% of Argentina (Hindex= 43), 11.40% Bolivia (H-index=37). 4484 were retrieved from Scopus (30.20% of the total), 38.58% of which were from Brazil, 12.40% from Argentina and 8.90% from Mexico. From Medline, 6647 records were retrieved (45.58% Brazil). From SciELO, 917 articles (47.66% Brazil). From LILACS, 2165 articles (60.05% Brazil). Brazil has the highest output in the region. Despite advances in controlling Chagas disease, scientific production is low, particularly for regional bibliographic databases, which calls for more research on this disease.

  19. Cardiac Magnetic Resonance-Verified Myocardial Fibrosis in Chagas Disease: Clinical Correlates and Risk Stratification

    Marly Uellendahl

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Chagas disease (CD is an important cause of heart failure and mortality, mainly in Latin America. This study evaluated the morphological and functional characteristics of the heart as well the extent of myocardial fibrosis (MF in patients with CD by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR. The prognostic value of MF evaluated by myocardial-delayed enhancement (MDE was compared with that via Rassi score. Methods: This study assessed 39 patients divided into 2 groups: 28 asymptomatic patients as indeterminate form group (IND; and symptomatic patients as Chagas Heart Disease (CHD group. All patients underwent CMR using the techniques of cine-MRI and MDE, and the amount of MF was compared with the Rassi score. Results: Regarding the morphological and functional analysis, significant differences were observed between both groups (p < 0.001. Furthermore, there was a strong correlation between the extent of MF and the Rassi score (r = 0.76. Conclusions: CMR is an important technique for evaluating patients with CD, stressing morphological and functional differences in all clinical presentations. The strong correlation with the Rassi score and the extent of MF detected by CMR emphasizes its role in the prognostic stratification of patients with CD.

  20. Soro-epidemiologia da doença de Chagas em Santa Catarina

    BR Schlemper Jr

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Em Santa Catarina, o Inquérito Sorológico Nacional para doença de Chagas (CNPq-SUCAM revelou positividade de 1,3% em cerca de 74.000 amostras de soro processadas pela reação de imunofluorescência indireta em papel de filtro, com 15 municípios apresentando prevalências de 5,4% a 41,3%. Na presente investigação, em 9 dos municípios com alta prevalência, foram obtidas amostras de sangue, por punção venosa, de 222 indivíduos dos quais 140 haviam sido sorologicamente positivos e 58 negativos no Inquérito Nacional. Em 24 outros indivíduos a reação foi executada pela primeira vez. Os testes sorológicos (imunofluorescência indireta, hemaglutinação indireta, aglutinação direta com e sem 2-mercaptoetanol e fixação do complemento realizados em 3 diferentes laboratórios evidenciaram 220 soros negativos e apenas 2 positivos. Dados epidenúológicos obtidos nas áreas trabalhadas confirmaram estes resultados negativos. Os resultados discordam daqueles encontrados pelo Inquérito Sorológico Nacional e confirmam a inexistência de focos domiciliares de transmissão da doença de Chagas em Santa Catarina.

  1. Geographic Distribution of Chagas Disease Vectors in Brazil Based on Ecological Niche Modeling

    Rodrigo Gurgel-Gonçalves

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although Brazil was declared free from Chagas disease transmission by the domestic vector Triatoma infestans, human acute cases are still being registered based on transmission by native triatomine species. For a better understanding of transmission risk, the geographic distribution of Brazilian triatomines was analyzed. Sixteen out of 62 Brazilian species that both occur in >20 municipalities and present synanthropic tendencies were modeled based on their ecological niches. Panstrongylus geniculatus and P. megistus showed broad ecological ranges, but most of the species sort out by the biome in which they are distributed: Rhodnius pictipes and R. robustus in the Amazon; R. neglectus, Triatoma sordida, and T. costalimai in the Cerrado; R. nasutus, P. lutzi, T. brasiliensis, T. pseudomaculata, T. melanocephala, and T. petrocchiae in the Caatinga; T. rubrovaria in the southern pampas; T. tibiamaculata and T. vitticeps in the Atlantic Forest. Although most occurrences were recorded in open areas (Cerrado and Caatinga, our results show that all environmental conditions in the country are favorable to one or more of the species analyzed, such that almost nowhere is Chagas transmission risk negligible.

  2. Mannose-Binding Lectin and Toll-Like Receptor Polymorphisms and Chagas Disease in Chile

    Zulantay, Inés; Danquah, Ina; Hamann, Lutz; Schumann, Ralf R.; Apt, Werner; Mockenhaupt, Frank P.

    2012-01-01

    Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and Toll-like receptor (TLR) polymorphisms may influence susceptibility and manifestation of Trypanosoma cruzi infection. In northern Chile, we examined 61 asymptomatic patients with chronic Chagas disease (CD), 64 patients with chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy (CCC), and 45 healthy individuals. Low-producer MBL2*B genotypes were more common in CD patients (48%) than healthy individuals (31%; adjusted odds ratio = 2.3, 95% confidence interval = 1.01–5.4, P = 0.047) but did not differ with manifestation. In contrast, the heterozygous Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-deficiency genotype D299G/T399I occurred more frequently in asymptomatic (14.8%) than CCC patients (3.1%; P = 0.02). TLR1-I602S, TLR2-R753Q, TLR6-S249P, and MAL/TIRAP-S180L did not associate with CD or CCC. These findings support the complement system to be involved in defense against Trypanosoma cruzi infection and indicate that curbed TLR4 activation might be beneficial in preventing CCC. PMID:22302853

  3. Echocardiographic parameters and survival in Chagas heart disease with severe systolic dysfunction.

    Rassi, Daniela do Carmo; Vieira, Marcelo Luiz Campos; Arruda, Ana Lúcia Martins; Hotta, Viviane Tiemi; Furtado, Rogério Gomes; Rassi, Danilo Teixeira; Rassi, Salvador

    2014-03-01

    Echocardiography provides important information on the cardiac evaluation of patients with heart failure. The identification of echocardiographic parameters in severe Chagas heart disease would help implement treatment and assess prognosis. To correlate echocardiographic parameters with the endpoint cardiovascular mortality in patients with ejection fraction Celular em Cardiopatias) - Chagas heart disease arm. The following parameters were collected: left ventricular systolic and diastolic diameters and volumes; ejection fraction; left atrial diameter; left atrial volume; indexed left atrial volume; systolic pulmonary artery pressure; integral of the aortic flow velocity; myocardial performance index; rate of increase of left ventricular pressure; isovolumic relaxation time; E, A, Em, Am and Sm wave velocities; E wave deceleration time; E/A and E/Em ratios; and mitral regurgitation. In the mean 24.18-month follow-up, 27 patients died. The mean ejection fraction was 26.6 ± 5.34%. In the multivariate analysis, the parameters ejection fraction (HR = 1.114; p = 0.3704), indexed left atrial volume (HR = 1.033; p 70.71 mL/m2 were associated with a significant increase in mortality (log rank p < 0.0001). The indexed left atrial volume was the only independent predictor of mortality in this population of Chagasic patients with severe systolic dysfunction.

  4. Gas exchange during exercise in different evolutional stages of chronic Chagas' heart disease

    Fátima Palha de Oliveira

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare gas exchange at rest and during exercise in patients with chronic Chagas' heart disease grouped according to the Los Andes clinical/hemodynamic classification. METHODS: We studied 15 healthy volunteers and 52 patients grouped according to the Los Andes clinical/hemodynamic classification as follows: 17 patients in group IA (normal electrocardiogram/echocardiogram, 9 patients in group IB (normal electrocardiogram and abnormal echocardiogram, 14 patients in group II (abnormal electrocardiogram/echocardiogram, without congestive heart failure, and 12 patients in group III (abnormal electrocardiogram/echocardiogram with congestive heart failure. The following variables were analyzed: oxygen consumption (V O2, carbon dioxide production (V CO2, gas exchange rate (R, inspiratory current volume (V IC, expiratory current volume (V EC, respiratory frequency, minute volume (V E, heart rate (HR, maximum load, O2 pulse, and ventilatory anaerobic threshold (AT. RESULTS: When compared with the healthy group, patients in groups II and III showed significant changes in the following variables: V O2peak, V CO2peak, V ICpeak, V ECpeak, E, HR, and maximum load. Group IA showed significantly better results for these same variables as compared with group III. CONCLUSION: The functional capacity of patients in the initial phase of chronic Chagas' heart disease is higher than that of patients in an advanced phase and shows a decrease that follows the loss in cardiac-hemodynamic performance.

  5. Gas exchange during exercise in different evolutional stages of chronic Chagas' heart disease.

    Oliveira, F P; Pedrosa, R C; Giannella-Neto, A

    2000-12-01

    To compare gas exchange at rest and during exercise in patients with chronic Chagas' heart disease grouped according to the Los Andes clinical hemodynamic classification. We studied 15 healthy volunteers and 52 patients grouped according to the Los Andes clinical and hemodynamic classification as follows: 17 patients in group IA (normal electrocardiogram and echocardiogram), 9 patients in group IB (normal electrocardiogram and abnormal echocardiogram), 14 patients in group II (abnormal electrocardiogram and echocardiogram, without congestive heart failure), and 12 patients in group III (abnormal electrocardiogram and echocardiogram with congestive heart failure). The following variables were analyzed: oxygen consumption (V O2), carbon dioxide production (V CO2), gas exchange rate (R), inspiratory current volume (V IC), expiratory current volume (V EC), respiratory frequency, minute volume (V E), heart rate (HR), maximum load, O2 pulse, and ventilatory anaerobic threshold (AT). When compared with the healthy group, patients in groups II and III showed significant changes in the following variables: V O2 peak, V CO2 peak, V IC peak, V EC peak, E, HR, and maximum load. Group IA showed significantly better results for these same variables as compared with group III. The functional capacity of patients in the initial phase of chronic Chagas' heart disease is higher than that of patients in an advanced phase and shows a decrease that follows the loss in cardiac-hemodynamic performance.

  6. A regional fight against Chagas disease: lessons learned from a successful collaborative partnership

    Rosina Salerno

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To identify the intangible elements that characterize the successful effort to fight Chagas disease in the Americas, determine how they contributed to the overall success of the partnership, and learn lessons from the experience that could be applied to other programs. Methods. This study was based on the Partnership Assessment Tool (PAT developed by the Nuffield Institute for Health ("the Institute" at the University of Leeds (London. The PAT draws heavily on scientific literature and the extensive experience of sociologists and health experts working for the Institute. The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO modified the tool slightly to adapt it to its needs and provide a general structure for the study. The six key principles of the PAT framework were applied in the design of the research questionnaires. Results. The findings show that a successful collaboration requires a clear objective; a good-quality pool of data; and comprehensive qualitative and quantitative knowledge of the problem, its dimensions, and its impact. The collaboration was elaborated from a common idea and a shared, quantified plan based on data gathered by independent scientists plus a strategy with explicit milestones. The clarity of purpose allowed for an improved synergy of efforts and made it possible to resolve differences in opinions and approaches. Conclusions. PAHO's experience with effective collaborations such as the joint initiative to fight Chagas disease provides a rich knowledge base for analysis of the advantages, limitations, and paradigms of community involvement, collaborative practices, and partnerships.

  7. The effect of Ageratum fastigiatum extract on Rhodnius nasutus, vector of Chagas disease

    Bethânia A. Avelar-Freitas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Control of Chagas disease is based on insecticide spraying in domiciles in order to exterminate triatomine populations. However, since the vectors differ in susceptibility to currently used insecticides, the screening of the toxic potential of Brazilian flora may identify new molecules lethal to triatomines. This study evaluated the toxicity of ethanolic extract of Ageratum fastigiatum (Gardner R.M. King & H. Rob., Asteraceae, on Rhodnius nasutus, a known vector of Chagas disease. Ethanolic extracts of the aerial parts of A. fastigiatum were prepared at 25 and 50 mg/mL concentrations, and 5 µL was applied to fifth-instar nymphs of R. nasutus (n=30. Controls included nymphs that were treated with 5 µL ethanol (n=30 or left untreated (n=30. The percentage of dead insects in each group was observed at 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 h after application. The extracts of A. fastigiatum showed a mortality rate of about 37% and 77% after 120 h, at concentrations of 25 and 50 mg/mL, respectively. In control groups, the mortality rate remained under 7%. The extract of A. fastigiatum contains a coumarin, a molecule with recognized toxicity in insects, and which may be responsible for killing the triatomines.

  8. CDIAC catalog of numeric data packages and computer model packages

    Boden, T.A.; Stoss, F.W.

    1993-05-01

    The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center acquires, quality-assures, and distributes to the scientific community numeric data packages (NDPs) and computer model packages (CMPs) dealing with topics related to atmospheric trace-gas concentrations and global climate change. These packages include data on historic and present atmospheric CO 2 and CH 4 concentrations, historic and present oceanic CO 2 concentrations, historic weather and climate around the world, sea-level rise, storm occurrences, volcanic dust in the atmosphere, sources of atmospheric CO 2 , plants' response to elevated CO 2 levels, sunspot occurrences, and many other indicators of, contributors to, or components of climate change. This catalog describes the packages presently offered by CDIAC, reviews the processes used by CDIAC to assure the quality of the data contained in these packages, notes the media on which each package is available, describes the documentation that accompanies each package, and provides ordering information. Numeric data are available in the printed NDPs and CMPs, in CD-ROM format, and from an anonymous FTP area via Internet. All CDIAC information products are available at no cost

  9. Readability of medicinal package leaflets: a systematic review.

    Pires, Carla; Vigário, Marina; Cavaco, Afonso

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To review studies on the readability of package leaflets of medicinal products for human use. METHODS We conducted a systematic literature review between 2008 and 2013 using the keywords "Readability and Package Leaflet" and "Readability and Package Insert" in the academic search engine Biblioteca do Conhecimento Online, comprising different bibliographic resources/databases. The preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses criteria were applied to prepare the draft of the report. Quantitative and qualitative original studies were included. Opinion or review studies not written in English, Portuguese, Italian, French, or Spanish were excluded. RESULTS We identified 202 studies, of which 180 were excluded and 22 were enrolled [two enrolling healthcare professionals, 10 enrolling other type of participants (including patients), three focused on adverse reactions, and 7 descriptive studies]. The package leaflets presented various readability problems, such as complex and difficult to understand texts, small font size, or few illustrations. The main methods to assess the readability of the package leaflet were usability tests or legibility formulae. Limitations with these methods included reduced number of participants; lack of readability formulas specifically validated for specific languages (e.g., Portuguese); and absence of an assessment on patients literacy, health knowledge, cognitive skills, levels of satisfaction, and opinions. CONCLUSIONS Overall, the package leaflets presented various readability problems. In this review, some methodological limitations were identified, including the participation of a limited number of patients and healthcare professionals, the absence of prior assessments of participant literacy, humor or sense of satisfaction, or the predominance of studies not based on role-plays about the use of medicines. These limitations should be avoided in future studies and be considered when interpreting the results.

  10. Humidity data for 9975 shipping packages with cane fiberboard

    Daugherty, W. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The 9975 surveillance program is developing a technical basis to support extending the storage period of 9975 packages in K-Area Complex beyond the currently approved 15 years. A key element of this effort is developing a better understanding of degradation of the fiberboard assembly under storage conditions. This degradation is influenced greatly by the moisture content of the fiberboard, which is not well characterized on an individual package basis. Direct measurements of humidity and fiberboard moisture content have been made on two test packages with cane fiberboard and varying internal heat levels from 0 up to 19W. With an internal heat load, a temperature gradient in the fiberboard assembly leads to varying relative humidity in the air around the fiberboard. However, the absolute humidity tends to remain approximately constant throughout the package. The moisture content of fiberboard varies under the influence of several phenomena. Changes in local fiberboard temperature (from an internal heat load) can cause fiberboard moisture changes through absorption or evaporation. Fiberboard degradation at elevated temperature will produce water as a byproduct. And the moisture level within the package is constantly seeking equilibrium with that of the surrounding room air, which varies on a daily and seasonal basis. One indicator of the moisture condition within a 9975 package might be obtained by measuring the relative humidity in the upper air space, by inserting a humidity probe through a caplug hole. However, the data indicate that for the higher internal heat loads (15 and 19 watts), a large variation in internal moisture conditions produces little or no variation in the air space relative humidity. Therefore, this approach does not appear to be sensitive to fiberboard moisture variations at the higher heat loads which are of most interest to maintaining fiberboard integrity.

  11. Seroprevalencia de la enfermedad de Chagas y factores de riesgo asociados en una población de Morroa, Sucre

    Richard Hoyos

    2007-01-01

    Conclusiones. Nuestros resultados indican que la zona estudiada presenta elementos de riesgo para el establecimiento de un ciclo de transmisión activa, se hace necesario verificar la presencia de triatominos en la zona de estudio y establecer medidas para prevenir la presencia de la enfermedad de Chagas en el área de Morroa, Sucre.

  12. Análisis epidemiológico de pacientes coinfectados con enfermedad de Chagas y cisticercosis

    Ana Carolina Guimaraes

    2009-03-01

    Conclusión. En teoría, todos los pacientes tuvieron un riesgo similar de exposición para ambos parásitos. Sin embargo, este trabajo demuestra que, en la población estudiada, la enfermedad de Chagas fue, aproximadamente, 10 veces más frecuente en los casos coinfectados con cisticercosis.

  13. Case-control study of factors associated with chronic Chagas heart disease in patients over 50 years of age

    Silvana de Araújo Silva

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available A case-control study on chronic Chagas heart disease (CCHD was carried out between 1997 and 2005. Ninety patients over 50 years of age were examined for factors related to (CCHD. Fourty-six patients (51.1% with Chagas heart disease (anomalous ECG were assigned to the case group and 44 (48.9% were included in the control group as carriers of undetermined forms of chronic disease. Social, demographic (age, gender, skin color, area of origin, epidemiological (permanence within an endemic zone, family history of Chagas heart disease or sudden death, physical strain, alcoholism, and smoking, and clinical (systemic hypertension variables were analyzed. The data set was assessed through single-variable and multivariate analysis. The two factors independently associated with heart disease were age - presence of heart disease being three times higher in patients over 60 years of age (odds ratio, OR: 2.89; confidence interval of 95%: 1.09-7.61 - and family history of Chagas heart disease (OR: 2.833, CI 95%: 1.11-7.23. Systemic hypertension and gender did not prove to hold any association with heart disease, as neither did skin color, but this variable showed low statistical power due to reduced sample size.

  14. CHARITY: Chagas cardiomyopathy bisoprolol intervention study: a randomized double-blind placebo force-titration controlled study with Bisoprolol in patients with chronic heart failure secondary to Chagas cardiomyopathy [NCT00323973

    Casas Juan P

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chagas' disease is the major cause of disability secondary to tropical diseases in young adults from Latin America, and around 20 million people are currently infected by T. cruzi. Heart failure due to Chagas cardiomyopathy is the main clinical presenation in Colombia. Heart failure due to Chagas' disease may respond to digoxin, diuretics and vasodilator therapy. Beta-adrenoreceptor antagonism seems to protect against the increased risk of cardiac arrhythmia and sudden death due to chronic sympathetic stimulation. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of the selective beta-adrenergic receptor blocker Bisoprolol on cardiovascular mortality, hospital readmission due to progressive heart failure and functional status in patients with heart failure secondary to Chagas' cardiomyopathy. Methods/design A cohort of 500 T. cruzi seropositive patients (250 per arm will be selected from several institutions in Colombia. During the pretreatment period an initial evaluation visit will be scheduled in which participants will sign consent forms and baseline measurements and tests will be conducted including blood pressure measurements, twelve-lead ECG and left ventricular ejection fraction assessment by 2D echocardiography. Quality of life questionnaire will be performed two weeks apart during baseline examination using the "Minnesota living with heart failure" questionnaire. A minimum of two 6 minutes corridor walk test once a week over a two-week period will be performed to measure functional class. During the treatment period patients will be randomly assigned to receive Bisoprolol or placebo, initially taking a total daily dose of 2.5 mgrs qd. The dose will be increased every two weeks to 5, 7.5 and 10 mgrs qd (maximum maintenance dose. Follow-up assessment will include clinical check-up, and blood collection for future measurements of inflammatory reactants and markers. Quality of life measurements will be obtained at six

  15. Agitation within Mk-42 insert caused by air sparge

    Ramsey, C.J.

    1991-01-01

    Dissolution of Rocky Flats Pu alloys and Pu metal using a ''nested insert'' configuration (One Well Insert (S-3352) inside the Mk-42 Insert) will require a Nuclear Safety Study, a major assumption of which will be that the annular dissolver is well-mixed. The ''well-mixed'' assumption was theoretically and experimentally supported for alloy dissolution using the Three Well Insert, but the present situation differs significantly. In the former case, the insert was directly exposed to the agitation induced by air sparging; in the case under consideration, the One Well Insert would be shielded by the Mk-42 Insert. In an effort to determine if the ''nested insert'' approach should be pursued, the past studies and technical literature have been surveyed and an attempt made to predict the extent of mixing and bulk circulation for a ''nested insert'' configuration in the presence of air sparging

  16. Layered packaging: A synergistic method of transporting radioactive material

    Hohmann, G.L.

    1989-01-01

    The DOE certification for a transportation cask used to ship radioactive Krypton 85 from the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), was allowed to expire in 1987. The Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO) was charged by DOE with modifying this cask to meet all current NRC requirements and preparing an updated Safety Analysis Report for Packaging, which would be submitted by DOE to the NRC for certification. However, an urgent need arose for ORNL to receive Krypton 85 which was in storage at the ICPP, which would not allow time to obtain certification of the modified shipping cask. WINCO elected to use a layered shipping configuration in which the gaseous Krypton 85 was placed in the uncertified, modified shipping cask to make use of its shielding and thermal insulation properties. This cask was then inserted into the Model No. 6400 (Super Tiger) packaging using a specially constructed plywood box and polyurethane foam dunnage. Structural evaluations were completed to assure the Super Tiger would provide the necessary impact, puncture, and thermal protection during maximum credible accidents. Analyses were also completed to determine the uncertified Krypton shipping cask would provide the necessary containment and shielding for up to 3.7 E+14 Bq of Krypton 85 when packaged inside the Super Tiger. The resulting reports, based upon this layered packaging concept, were adequate to first obtain DOE certification for several restricted shipments of Krypton 85 and then NRC certification for unrestricted shipments

  17. Live insertion method used for main renewal

    Solkowitz, M.

    1992-01-01

    Baltimore Gas and Electric's pilot project using the live insertion method to replace a cast iron main provided excellent results. Its use on Eastern Avenue, a major state highway, was cost effective, provided gas service to customers during the work, required relatively short construction time and resulted in only minor traffic disruptions. Gas service transfers to the new main were done at customer convenience and resulted in outages of only a few hours per customer. This paper reports that the project involved inserting a 6-in. plastic line inside an existing 10-in. cast iron main. Miller Pipeline Corp., Indianapolis, supplier of the Insertec left-angle R right-angle live insertion method was contracted for the job. Miller technicians assisted BG and E forces by providing a load analysis of the main, a pushing machine and related supplies, foaming equipment and pipe cutting tools. Company forces were responsible for all preparatory work, including opening all excavations, installing bypasses, and fusing and testing the plastic pipe. Service transfers and renewals were also completed by company employees

  18. App-assisted external ventricular drain insertion.

    Eftekhar, Behzad

    2016-09-01

    The freehand technique for insertion of an external ventricular drain (EVD) is based on fixed anatomical landmarks and does not take individual variations into consideration. A patient-tailored approach based on augmented-reality techniques using devices such as smartphones can address this shortcoming. The Sina neurosurgical assist (Sina) is an Android mobile device application (app) that was designed and developed to be used as a simple intraoperative neurosurgical planning aid. It overlaps the patient's images from previously performed CT or MRI studies on the image seen through the device camera. The device is held by an assistant who aligns the images and provides information about the relative position of the target and EVD to the surgeon who is performing EVD insertion. This app can be used to provide guidance and continuous monitoring during EVD placement. The author describes the technique of Sina-assisted EVD insertion into the frontal horn of the lateral ventricle and reports on its clinical application in 5 cases as well as the results of ex vivo studies of ease of use and precision. The technique has potential for further development and use with other augmented-reality devices.

  19. Chagas disease: current epidemiological trends after the interruption of vectorial and transfusional transmission in the Southern Cone countries.

    Moncayo, Alvaro

    2003-07-01

    Chagas disease, named after Carlos Chagas who first described it in 1909, exists only on the American Continent. It is caused by a parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi, transmitted to humans by blood-sucking triatomine bugs and by blood transfusion. Chagas disease has two successive phases, acute and chronic. The acute phase lasts 6 to 8 weeks. After several years of starting the chronic phase, 20% to 35% of the infected individuals, depending on the geographical area will develop irreversible lesions of the autonomous nervous system in the heart, esophagus, colon and the peripheral nervous system. Data on the prevalence and distribution of Chagas disease improved in quality during the 1980's as a result of the demographically representative cross-sectional studies carried out in countries where accurate information was not available. A group of experts met in Bras lia in 1979 and devised standard protocols to carry out countrywide prevalence studies on human T. cruzi infection and triatomine house infestation. Thanks to a coordinated multi-country program in the Southern Cone countries the transmission of Chagas disease by vectors and by blood transfusion has been interrupted in Uruguay in1997, in Chile in 1999, and in 8 of the 12 endemic states of Brazil in 2000 and so the incidence of new infections by T. cruzi in the whole continent has decreased by 70%. Similar control multi-country initiatives have been launched in the Andean countries and in Central America and rapid progress has been recorded to ensure the interruption of the transmission of Chagas disease by 2005 as requested by a Resolution of the World Health Assembly approved in 1998. The cost-benefit analysis of the investments of the vector control program in Brazil indicate that there are savings of US$17 in medical care and disabilities for each dollar spent on prevention, showing that the program is a health investment with good return. Since the inception in 1979 of the Steering Committee on Chagas Disease

  20. Method of forming a package for MEMS-based fuel cell

    Morse, Jeffrey D; Jankowski, Alan F

    2013-05-21

    A MEMS-based fuel cell package and method thereof is disclosed. The fuel cell package comprises seven layers: (1) a sub-package fuel reservoir interface layer, (2) an anode manifold support layer, (3) a fuel/anode manifold and resistive heater layer, (4) a Thick Film Microporous Flow Host Structure layer containing a fuel cell, (5) an air manifold layer, (6) a cathode manifold support structure layer, and (7) a cap. Fuel cell packages with more than one fuel cell are formed by positioning stacks of these layers in series and/or parallel. The fuel cell package materials such as a molded plastic or a ceramic green tape material can be patterned, aligned and stacked to form three dimensional microfluidic channels that provide electrical feedthroughs from various layers which are bonded together and mechanically support a MEMS-based miniature fuel cell. The package incorporates resistive heating elements to control the temperature of the fuel cell stack. The package is fired to form a bond between the layers and one or more microporous flow host structures containing fuel cells are inserted within the Thick Film Microporous Flow Host Structure layer of the package.