WorldWideScience

Sample records for chaff

  1. Removal of Nitrate From Aqueous Solution Using Rice Chaff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehghani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Nitrate is largely dissolved in the surface and ground water, due to its high solubility. Continual uptake of nitrite through drinking water can lead to problems and diseases (such as blue baby for humans, especially children. Objectives The aim of this study was to develop a new and inexpensive method for the removal of nitrate from water. In this regard, the possibility of using chaff for removal of nitrate from aqueous solutions was studied and the optimum operating conditions of nitrate removal was determined. Materials and Methods This is a cross-sectional study conducted in laboratory scale. The UV spectrophotometer at a wavelength of maximum absorbance (220 nm was used to determine the nitrate concentration. The effect of pH, amount of chaff, temperature, and contact time were investigated. Results The result of this study revealed that chaff as an absorbent could remove nitrate from solutions, and the efficiency of adsorption increased as contact time increased from 5 to 30 minutes, amount of chaff increased from 1 to 3 g, temperature increased in a range of 300 - 400°C and the amount of pH decreased from 10 to 3. The maximum adsorption rate was around pH 3 (53.14%. Conclusions It was shown that the removal efficiency of nitrate was directly proportional to the amount of chaff, temperature, and contact time but inversely to the pH. This study showed that nitrate removal by chaff is a promising technique.

  2. Evaluation for Success Probability of Chaff Centroid Jamming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Dong-hua; SHI Xiu-hua

    2008-01-01

    As the chaff centroid jamming can introduce the guiding error of the anti-warship missile's seeker and decrease its hitting probability, a new quantitative analysis method and a mathematic model are proposed in this paper to evaluate the success jamming probability. By using this method, the optimal decision scheme of chaff centroid jamming in different threat situations can be found, and also the success probability of this scheme can be calculated quantitatively. Thus, the operation rules of the centroid jamming and the tactical approach for increasing the success probability can be determined.

  3. 五种菇类菌糠营养成分的比较研究%Comparison on Nutritional Ingredients of Five Kinds of Fungus Chaff

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙召伟; 邢力; 王宇; 邓冲; 周开伟

    2014-01-01

    In order to provide the experimental basis for differentiated applications of different fungus chaff ,taking dif-ferent kinds of fungus chaff as raw materials ,the differences of nutritional ingredients of different fungus chaff were studied .The results showed that crude fiber content of five kinds of fungus chaff was more than 20% ,phosphorus and calcium content of five kinds of fungus chaff was not significantly different ,the crude protein content of A uricularia aurlcula was the highest ,the crude fat content of Leurotus ostreatus fungus chaff was the highest ,which was signifi-cantly higher than the other four kinds of fungus chaff .The crude ash content of Flammulina velutiper was the high-est ,significantly higher than the other four kinds of fungus chaff .%为有效再利用菌糠,以5种菇类菌糠为原料,研究了不同菇类菌糠各种营养成分的差异。结果表明:5种菌糠粗纤维含量均在20%以上,磷、钙含量差异不明显,黑木耳菌糠的粗蛋白含量最高,平菇菌糠粗脂肪含量最高,且显著高于其余4种菌糠,金针菇菌糠粗灰分含量最高,且显著高于其余4种菌糠。

  4. Improved mechanical properties of chitosan fibers with applications to degradable radar countermeasure chaff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaul, Jonathan Zvi

    The objective of this work has been to improve the mechanical properties of wet spun chitosan fibers for applications to a degradable form of radar countermeasure chaff. The first part of the study characterizes the chitosan used for spinning. Three methods for determining the degree of deacetylation (% DDA) were used and they include titration, elemental analysis, and first derivative ultraviolet (UV) spectrometry. The molecular weight of the chitosan was determined in a solvent system of 0.25 M CH3COOH/0.25 M CH3COONa, using viscometry and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). Several samples of chitosan were used with the % DDA varying from 64.3 to 96.0%. The Mark-Houwink-Sakurada constants used for the determination of viscosity average molecular weight and the universal calibration of the HPLC system were K = 1.40 x 10 -4 dL/g and a = 0.83, respectively. A literature review of molecular weight analysis of chitosan is included. Preliminary wet spinning experiments involved a coagulation rate study which demonstrated that 1 M KOH was an effective coagulant for wet spinning and that the rate of coagulation increases with decreasing solvent ratio in the spin dope. A drying study confirmed the effectiveness of a methanol drying bath followed by a heated roller at 50°C. Following these studies, a wet spinning system was constructed and used. A lack of published data exists concerning the subjects of chitosan fiber spinning and mechanical improvements to both wet and dry chitosan fibers. Several post-spinning modification experiments focused on the reaction of the dried as-spun chitosan fibers with aqueous agents including potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KH2PO4), potassium hydrogen phthalate (KHP), glutaraldehyde (GA), and glyoxal (GLY). For the aqueous buffering agents of KH2PO4, and KHP, the highest mechanical properties resulted from solutions containing phthalate ions at pH 5.00, and from solutions containing phosphate ions at pH 5.39. The best time and

  5. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON STRENGTH PROPERTIES OF WOOD PLASTIC BONDED BOARDS PRODUCED FROM COFFEE CHAFF AND CEIBA PENTANDRA SAWDUST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kehinde Sesan AINA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Strength properties of Wood Plastic-bonded Boards (WPBB of 10mm in thickness were produced in this study from two lignocellulosic materials coffee and recycled low density polyethylene (rLDPE as a binder. WPBB were produced from particles of coffee chaff and Ceiba pentandra, at three levels of mixing ratio (1:1, 2:1 and 3:1, and at three levels of board density (500, 600 and 700kgm-3 given the total treatment combinations of 18 respectively. Effects of lignocelluloses particles, mixing ratio (MR and board density (BD on flexural strength properties of the WPBB were investigated. The flexural strength of the WPBB range from 0.25 to 4.79N/mm2 and 891.00 to 16415.87N/mm2 for modulus of rupture (MOR and modulus of elasticity (MOE respectively. The statistically results shows that the main factor and interaction factors were significantly different at P≤0.05 level of probability. It was observed in this study that as the plastic content with density increased, flexural strength of the boards increases. The study showed that WPBB made from coffee chaff particles are stiffer and stronger than WPBBs made from Ceiba pentandra particles. Based on the outcome of the results in this study, coffee chaff could as well be used as filler in the polymer industry to produce stronger biopolymer composite for structural applications. This study would form a baseline strategy for further research efforts on production of composite from agro-residues wastes.

  6. Research into Radar Multi-station Joint Movement Against Chaff Cartridge Jamming%雷达多站联动抗箔条弹干扰研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹志宏; 张新星; 刁华伟

    2012-01-01

    Though analyzing the jamming area of single chaff cartridge,this paper educes that the is definite blind zone when aircrafts launch chaff cartridges backwards,analyzes the feasibility th deploying the fire control radar in the blind zone to raise the anti-chaff cartridge jamming capabili re at ty of radar,demonstrates the rationality of using multi-station joint movement to confront the chaff catridge jamming,which has much help for advancing the combat efficiency of fire control radars.%通过对单枚箔条弹的干扰区进行分析,得出飞机后向发射箔条弹时存在一定的盲区,分析了在此盲区中部署火控雷达对提高雷达的反箔条弹干扰能力的可行性,验证了在此种情况下依靠多站联动抗箔条弹干扰的合理性,对提高火控雷达的作战效能有很大的帮助。

  7. 稻壳连续式炭化工艺及其性能研究%Experiments on Continuous Carbonization Technology for Rice Chaff and Properties of Product

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄晓伟; 潘炘; 陈顺伟; 蒋应梯

    2015-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on carbonization of rice chaff by indigenous R & D continuous carbonization furnace, as well as on effect of different carbonization temperature on yield of carbonization and rice chaff vinegar, and on properties of rice chaff carbon. The result demonstrated that the optimal outlet speed increased with carbonization temperature, they had linear correlation with the equation as:y = 0.0125x-2.25, R2 = 1. Different carbonization technologies had little influence on properties of rice chaff carbon and vine vinegar, and quality of rice chaff carbon could meet the demand for substrate. The technology with carbonization temperature of 260±10℃ and outlet of 1.00 L/10 minutes had yield of rice chaff vinegar of 55%, evidently higher than the other three tested technologies, while that with carbonization temperature of 320±10℃ and outlet of 1.75 L/10 minutes had the most yield of rice chaff carbon.%采用自主研制的连续式炭化炉进行了稻壳炭化试验,对不同炭化温度和稻壳炭出料速度对炭化得率、稻壳醋液得率以及稻壳炭性能的影响进行分析,结果表明:最佳出料速度随炭化温度的升高呈上升趋势,且两者呈线性相关,其相关方程为y =0.0125x-2.25,R2=1;炭化优化工艺对稻壳炭的pH值(8.06~9.00)、热值(19350~20980 J/g)、固定碳含量(40.92%~45.15%)等性能指标以及稻壳醋液性能的影响较小,各处理稻壳炭能够符合栽培基质用途要求;炭化温度260±10℃、10min出料1.00 L时稻壳醋液得率55.28%,明显高于另外3个炭化工艺,适合以稻壳醋液为主要目标产品的生产;而炭化温度320±10℃、10 min出料1.75 L时,稻壳炭的生产效率最高,适合以稻壳炭为主要目标产品的生产。

  8. 导弹攻防对抗仿真中偶极子云建模和仿真%Modeling and Simulation of Chaff Cloud in Missile Attack-Defense Confrontation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜如祥; 宦国杨; 方冰

    2012-01-01

    Principles of chaff clouds thrown by missiles are analyzed in the simulation of missile attack-defense confrontation. The flight path model of chaff clouds is built and effects of chaff clouds are researched. The modeling and simulation technologies give a guidance for building simulation system of the missile attack-defense confrontation.%从导弹攻防对抗仿真角度分析了弹道导弹抛撒偶极子云的工作原理,继而建立了偶极子云飞行轨迹模型。同时研究了偶极子云的作用效果。该建模和仿真技术对建立导弹攻防对抗仿真系统具有指导意义。

  9. Adaptive changes in the appetite, growth and feeding behaviour of pony mares offered ad libitum access to a complete diet in either a pelleted or chaff-based form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Argo, C.M.; Cox, J.E.; Lockyer, C.

    2002-01-01

    Seven, 3-year-old pony mares (similar to230 kg) were used in a cross-over study to compare the appetite, energy and nutrient digestibilities, growth rate and feeding behaviour, when a complete diet was offered ad libitum in either the original loose-chaff mix (C), or as a more convenient, milled...... stabled ponies to re-establish natural feeding patterns and offers a viable alternative to meal and forage feeding. The more slowly ingested chaff form maximized time spent feeding and limited changes in DEI during the introductory period. Although CS and ADG increased over the first 4 weeks, growth...

  10. The AMS {sup 14}C dating of Iron Age rice chaff ceramic temper from Ban Non Wat, Thailand: First results and its interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higham, Charles F.W., E-mail: charles.higham@otago.ac.n [Department of Anthropology, Otago University, Dunedin (New Zealand); Kuzmin, Yaroslav V. [Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Koptuyg Ave. 3, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Burr, G.S. [Arizona AMS Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 0081 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    Pottery tempered with rice chaff from the early Iron Age cemetery of Ban Non Wat site, northeast Thailand, has been subjected to direct AMS {sup 14}C dating, using low temperature combustion with oxygen as originally developed by authors. The carbon yield (0.2-0.5%) testifies the suitability of this pottery for dating. However, not all the results are in agreement with expected archaeological ages and other {sup 14}C dates from the studied site and neighboring site of Noen U-Loke. This calls for a thorough analysis and interpretation of pottery temper dates from the region.

  11. Computing study on holistic aerodynamics of chaff cloud covering various flow regimes%箔条云跨流域整体气动特性计算研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志辉; 梁杰; 李四新; 王鹿受

    2011-01-01

    The statistical simulation technique in random sample for the numerous chaffs and chaff- cloud released by the aerocraft is founded on the theory of stochastic dynamics and statistical diffusive sampling. Based on the aerodynamic theory and computing technique established in the recent years, the evaluating algorithm for the aerodynamic characteristic of chaff bodies with the high long and slender ratio has been developed for various altitudes, flying angles and Mach numbers from rarefied free - molecular flow to continuum flow regimes. The numerical method of trajectory flying mechanics is studied and applied to calculate the space situation and velocity of the flying chaff groups at any time. The holistic performance of the chaff cloud is analyzed and studied in mathematical modeling and simulation by developing the weighted technique of stochastic dynamics and statistical distribution theory. As a result, the statistical simulating method on the holistic aerodynamics and covering range of chaff cloud from various flow regimes has been founded. The holistic flying characteristic of the numerous chaffs and chaff clouds released by aerocraft is computed and analyzed as the primary application of the present method. The present simulating results are tallied with the theoretical forecast and experiment testing, which displays the engineering practicality and reliability of the present method in simulating the flying contrail, overcast range and holistic aerodynamics of the chaff cloud including space position, number density, flying gesture and velocity across the atmosphere inside and outside.%研究随机动力学理论与统计散布取样技术,提出对飞行器抛撤"海量"箔条及形成箔条云有限分组随机统计模拟方法;采用所建立空气动力学理论与计算技术,提出可有效模拟稀薄流到连续流不同高度、马赫数、攻角与侧滑角及极高长细比箔条气动特性计算方法;研制飞行力学数值方法,计算确

  12. Improved Chaff Solution Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    Programme de démonstration de technologies (PDT) sur l’intégration de capteurs et de systèmes d’armes embarqués (SISWS), un algorithme a été élaboré...technologies (PDT) sur l’intégration de capteurs et de systèmes d’armes embarqués (SISWS), un algorithme a été élaboré pour déterminer automatiquement...0Z4 2. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION (Overall security classification of the document including special warning terms if applicable .) UNCLASSIFIED

  13. Effect of fungus chaff on soil microbe population and enzyme activity of three crop soils%醋糟菌糠对3种作物土壤微生物及酶活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董卿; 程红艳; 张建国; 王效举; 孟丽君; 王腾; 王强; 田野

    2016-01-01

    为研究醋糟菌糠作为一种生物肥料对土壤肥力的影响,为解决食用菌菌糠对环境污染及其有效利用提供科学依据,本文通过田间试验,对玉米、高粱、糯玉米3种作物基施醋糟菌糠后不同生育期的土壤脲酶、蔗糖酶和过氧化氢酶活性,细菌、放线菌和真菌数量,及微生物量碳、氮含量进行测试。研究结果表明:1)醋糟菌糠显著提高了作物根际土壤细菌、放线菌和真菌的数量。在作物整个生育期,加入醋糟菌糠的土壤细菌数量比对照提高32%~54%;放线菌数量在成熟期提高明显,玉米田土壤放线菌数量增幅最大,为101%;真菌数量变化总体趋势呈现先升高后下降的趋势。2)醋糟菌糠的施入增加了作物根际土壤脲酶、过氧化氢酶、蔗糖酶的活性。种植高粱、玉米和糯玉米土壤的脲酶活性增长率分别为239%、189%和185%;3种作物的土壤过氧化氢酶活性在抽穗期最高,最大增长率为40%;3种作物的土壤蔗糖酶活性在不同生育期变化趋势不同,玉米各生育期土壤蔗糖酶活性变化较为稳定,其增长率分别为38%、28%、48%。3)醋糟菌糠的施入增加了作物根际土壤微生物碳氮的含量,不同生育期3种作物的土壤微生物碳含量增幅为58.10~407.67 mg·kg-1,微生物氮含量增幅为11.98~27.55 mg·kg-1。由此可见,醋糟菌糠的施用可以增强土壤生产力的可持续性,从而达到保护和改善土壤环境的效果。同时该研究也为醋糟菌糠的有效利用提供了一定的科学依据。%Application of fungus chaff is an important measure improving soil healthy and plant growth. A filed experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of fungus chaff of vinegar residue incorporation on the population of soil microorganism, soil microbial biomass carbon, soil microbial biomass nitrogen and enzyme activity in three crops (maize, sorghum and waxy maize) soil at different growth stages

  14. Chaff Centroid Jamming and Ship to Air Missile Anti-missile Cooperation Conflict Prediction%箔条质心干扰与舰空弹反导冲突预测问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙翼; 韩龙

    2015-01-01

    现代海战中箔条弹与舰空导弹综合使用中存在的电磁干扰冲突严重制约了舰艇的防空反导能力。论文重点针对电磁干扰冲突问题,提出了冲突预测判断原则,构建了冲突预测理论模型,并基于模型采取遍历运算方法对箔条质心干扰与舰空导弹冲突预测进行模拟仿真,对冲突判断模型进行了验证,其结果与实际相吻合。论文的研究可为提升箔条弹与舰空导弹协同作战效能,提高防空反导能力提供重要思路。%In the modern sea warfare ,the electromagnetic conflicts of using the Centroid Jamming and Ship to Air Missile se‐verely restricted the ability of air defence and antimissile .This paper forcused on the electromagnetic interference conflict question , proposed conflict prediction judgment principle ,constructed the conflict prediction model .And based on the model ,this paper used the traversal algorithm to simulate conflict prediction of the chaff centroid jamming and ship to air missile .The results were consist‐ent with the actual situation .The research could enhance the cooperative operation effectiveness of the chaff centroid jamming and ship to air missile ,and improve the ability of air defence and antimissile ,and provide an important idea .

  15. 表面处理对PVC/稻壳复合材料吸湿性能影响研究%Effect of suface modification on water absorption of PVC/rice chaff composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡圣飞; 张冲; 赵敏

    2009-01-01

    The effects of surface treat agent including silane coupling agent (WD-20) and phenol formaldehyde (PF) on the water absorption, mechanical properties of PVC/rice chaff composites were studied. The results showed the values of water absorption and the liner expansion ratio absorbed water of PVC/rice husks composites which modified with com-pound agent including WD-20 and PF was lower than that of the composites with WD-20 and untreated rice husks. At the same time, the mechanical properties of the composites modified with compound agent were more excellent than that of other composites.%研究了硅烷偶联剂与酚醛树脂改性稻壳粉及填充PVC后对复合材料吸湿性能、力学性能影响.结果表明:用硅烷偶联剂与酚醛树脂复合改性的PVC/稻壳粉体系吸湿量、吸湿后的膨胀率低于单一的硅处理及未处理的复合材料,同时复合改性的PVC/稻壳粉体系力学性能明显优于其它复合材料.

  16. The political chaff from the economic grain?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cockburn, Patrick Joseph

    2013-01-01

    , but also a problem faced by social actors as they try to understand the socio-economic order in which they live and act. By arguing for or against the claim that begging is simultaneously an economic action and the exercise of the right to freedom of expression the voices in this debate attempted to affect...

  17. Ectomycorrhizal fungal diversity: seperating the wheat from the chaff

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rinaldi, A.C.; Comandini, O.; Kuyper, T.W.

    2008-01-01

    Thousands of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal species exist, but estimates of global species richness of ECM fungi differ widely. Many genera have been proposed as being ECM, but ill a number of studies evidence for the hypothesized ECM habit is lacking. Progress in estimating ECM species richness is th

  18. BEAMS: separating the wheat from the chaff in supernova analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Kunz, Martin; Bassett, Bruce A; Smith, Mathew; Newling, James; Varughese, Melvin

    2012-01-01

    We introduce Bayesian Estimation Applied to Multiple Species (BEAMS), an algorithm designed to deal with parameter estimation when using contaminated data. We present the algorithm and demonstrate how it works with the help of a Gaussian simulation. We then apply it to supernova data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), showing how the resulting confidence contours of the cosmological parameters shrink significantly.

  19. Wheat, chaff and conflicting definitions in market transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keating, K.M.; Goldstein, D.B.; Eckman, T.; Miller, P.

    1998-07-01

    The term Market Transformation developed from the concept that programs that concentrated on changing the way energy efficiency was received in markets would lead to larger, longer lasting, better accepted, or more cost-efficient efficiency improvements. Programs could alter the relationships between market actors--consumers, retailers, distributors, producers, suppliers, etc.--rather than just addressing consumer demand, and thus might have longer-lasting effects. Market transformation was seen as one way, but not necessarily as the only way to obtain energy efficiency improvements. Many policymakers agreed, and have directed energy efficiency funding toward market transformation. In order to make the concept useful as a means of deciding between competing projects--to operate it as a prioritization tool and to begin to develop programs from a basis in theory, this paper lists proposed definitions, describes multiple perspectives, and proposes operational criteria for market transformation. The descriptions, definitions and criteria are intended to contribute to greater mutual understanding, and thus to the accomplishment of the overall objectives of market transformation.

  20. The Use of Chaff in Space as a Jamming Device between Ground Stations and Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    of Fi•Yu es Figure Page 1. Rasic Orbital Parameters . . . . . . . .... 2. Satellite Orientation for Cases I, II, III, and IV...Moti r on Spin Direction PCe of sot on c.SSO..!Path of notion Case.X AngLe of Tk~t Case-III Cast IV Figure 2. SatelLite Orientation for Cases I, II

  1. Separating the Wheat from the Chaff: Sensing Wireless Microphones in TVWS

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Huanhuan; Zhang, Wenyi

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes our attempts to establish a systematic approach that overcomes a key difficulty in sensing wireless microphone signals, namely, the inability for most existing detection methods to effectively distinguish between a wireless microphone signal and a sinusoidal continuous wave (CW). Such an inability has led to an excessively high false alarm rate and thus severely limited the utility of sensing-based cognitive transmission in the TV white space (TVWS) spectrum. Having recognized the root of the difficulty, we propose two potential solutions. The first solution focuses on the periodogram as an estimate of the power spectral density (PSD), utilizing the property that a CW has a line spectral component while a wireless microphone signal has a slightly dispersed PSD. In that approach, we formulate the resulting decision model as an one-sided test for Gaussian vectors, based on Kullback-Leibler distance type of decision statistics. The second solution goes beyond the PSD and looks into the spec...

  2. Separating the Wheat from the Chaff: Identifying Key Elements in the NLA .AU Domain Harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellows, Geoff; Harvey, Ross; Lloyd, Annemaree; Pymm, Bob; Wallis, Jake

    2008-01-01

    In 2005 and 2006 the National Library of Australia (NLA) carried out two whole-domain web harvests which complement the selective web archiving approach taken by PANDORA. Web harvests of this size pose significant challenges to their use. Despite these challenges, such harvests present fascinating research opportunities. The NLA has provided…

  3. Multicollinearity in spatial genetics: separating the wheat from the chaff using commonality analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prunier, J G; Colyn, M; Legendre, X; Nimon, K F; Flamand, M C

    2015-01-01

    Direct gradient analyses in spatial genetics provide unique opportunities to describe the inherent complexity of genetic variation in wildlife species and are the object of many methodological developments. However, multicollinearity among explanatory variables is a systemic issue in multivariate regression analyses and is likely to cause serious difficulties in properly interpreting results of direct gradient analyses, with the risk of erroneous conclusions, misdirected research and inefficient or counterproductive conservation measures. Using simulated data sets along with linear and logistic regressions on distance matrices, we illustrate how commonality analysis (CA), a detailed variance-partitioning procedure that was recently introduced in the field of ecology, can be used to deal with nonindependence among spatial predictors. By decomposing model fit indices into unique and common (or shared) variance components, CA allows identifying the location and magnitude of multicollinearity, revealing spurious correlations and thus thoroughly improving the interpretation of multivariate regressions. Despite a few inherent limitations, especially in the case of resistance model optimization, this review highlights the great potential of CA to account for complex multicollinearity patterns in spatial genetics and identifies future applications and lines of research. We strongly urge spatial geneticists to systematically investigate commonalities when performing direct gradient analyses.

  4. Separating wheat from chaff: examining the obesity paradox in the critically ill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattan, Rishi; Nasraway, Stanley A

    2013-07-12

    Obesity is an increasing burden globally. In the general population, the obese have an increased mortality risk. Regarding the critically ill, a growing body of literature supports the obesity paradox, the notion that obesity confers a protective effect in certain disease states. However, the paucity of methodologically sound trials prevents definitive interpretation and may obscure risks.

  5. A multi-isotope approach to characterize acid mine drainage in a hardrock alpine mine, Chaffe Co,Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordalis, D.; Williams, M. W.; Wireman, M.; Michel, R. L.; Manning, A.

    2004-12-01

    Here we present information from an innovative suite of stable, radiogenic, and cosmogenic isotopes to better understand groundwater flowpaths and groundwater-surface water interactions in an applied acid mine drainage system. Stable water isotopes, tritium, helium-tritium, sulfur-35, and uranium 234/238 ratios were analyzed from precipitation, groundwater wells, interior mine drainages, and surface waters at the Mary Murphy Mine in Colorado to determine hydrologic transport mechanisms responsible for contaminated zinc releases. Hydrometric measurements suggested a snowmelt-driven pulse of elevated zinc in adit outflow. However, mixing models using stable water isotopes showed a regional groundwater signal in the adit outflow. Tritium values of 11 to 13 TU showed a slight enrichment of bomb spike water compared to snow values of about 9 TU, suggesting an older water source as well. Helium/tritium ratios on a subset of groundwater wells suggested that average residence times of alluvial wells ranged from 2.5 to 8 years. The combination of stable water isotopes and sulfur-35 (half-life of 87 days), showed that zinc-rich waters within the mine derived from infiltrating snowmelt more than a year old. However, measurement of sulfur-35 using low-level scintillation counts was compromised at times by the presence of uranium. We were able to remove the uranium through wet chemistry procedures, improving the accuracy of S-35 measurements. The U234/U238 ratio shows promise in discriminating between acid mine drainage and acid rock drainage. Acid rock drainage shows an unaltered ratio of 1:1, while acid mine drainage is enriched relative to the 1:1 equilibrium ratio. The combination of cosmogenic and stable isotopes within and near the Mary Murphy Mine may provide a useful tool for studying interactions between groundwater and surfacewater in a fractured rock setting. Remediation techniques can be directed more appropriately, and cost effectively, by the characterization of flowpaths within the mine as well.

  6. Sample selection algorithm to improve quality of genotyping from plasma-derived DNA: to separate the wheat from the chaff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenborn, Veit; Gohlke, Henning; Heid, Iris M; Illig, Thomas; Utermann, Gerd; Kronenberg, Florian

    2007-11-01

    Plasma and serum samples were often the only biological material collected for earlier epidemiological studies. These studies have a huge informative content, especially due to their long follow-up and would be an invaluable treasure for genetic investigations. However, often no banked DNA is available. To use the small amounts of DNA present in plasma, in a first step, we applied magnetic bead technology to extract this DNA, followed by a whole-genome amplification (WGA) using phi29-polymerase. We assembled 88 sample pairs, each consisting of WGA plasma DNA and the corresponding whole-blood DNA. We genotyped nine highly polymorphic short tandem repeats (STRs) and 23 SNPs in both DNA sources. The average within-pair discordance was 3.8% for SNPs and 15.9% for STR genotypes, respectively. We developed an algorithm based on one-half of the sample pairs and validated on the other one-half to identify the samples with high WGA plasma DNA quality to assure low genotyping error and to exclude plasma DNA samples with insufficient quality: excluding samples showing homozygosity at five or more of the nine STR loci yielded exclusion of 22.7% of all samples and decreased average discordance for STR and SNP markers to 3.92% and 0.63%, respectively. For SNPs, this is very close to the error observed for genomic DNA in many laboratories. Our workflow and sample selection algorithm offers new opportunities to recover reliable DNA from stored plasma material. This algorithm is superior to testing the amount of input DNA.

  7. Separating Wheat from Chaff: How Secondary School Principals' Core Values and Beliefs Influence Decision-Making Related to Mandates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Donald E.; Hunter, Joseph E.

    2014-01-01

    Research conducted by Larsen and Hunter (2013, February) identified a clear pattern in secondary school principals' decision-making related to mandated change: more than half of participants' decisions were based on core values and beliefs, requiring value judgments. Analysis of themes revealed that more than half of administrative decisions…

  8. Separating the wheat from the chaff: mitigating the effects of noise in a plastome phylogenomic data set from Pinus L. (Pinaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parks Matthew

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Through next-generation sequencing, the amount of sequence data potentially available for phylogenetic analyses has increased exponentially in recent years. Simultaneously, the risk of incorporating ‘noisy’ data with misleading phylogenetic signal has also increased, and may disproportionately influence the topology of weakly supported nodes and lineages featuring rapid radiations and/or elevated rates of evolution. Results We investigated the influence of phylogenetic noise in large data sets by applying two fundamental strategies, variable site removal and long-branch exclusion, to the phylogenetic analysis of a full plastome alignment of 107 species of Pinus and six Pinaceae outgroups. While high overall phylogenetic resolution resulted from inclusion of all data, three historically recalcitrant nodes remained conflicted with previous analyses. Close investigation of these nodes revealed dramatically different responses to data removal. Whereas topological resolution and bootstrap support for two clades peaked with removal of highly variable sites, the third clade resolved most strongly when all sites were included. Similar trends were observed using long-branch exclusion, but patterns were neither as strong nor as clear. When compared to previous phylogenetic analyses of nuclear loci and morphological data, the most highly supported topologies seen in Pinus plastome analysis are congruent for the two clades gaining support from variable site removal and long-branch exclusion, but in conflict for the clade with highest support from the full data set. Conclusions These results suggest that removal of misleading signal in phylogenomic datasets can result not only in increased resolution for poorly supported nodes, but may serve as a tool for identifying erroneous yet highly supported topologies. For Pinus chloroplast genomes, removal of variable sites appears to be more effective than long-branch exclusion for clarifying phylogenetic hypotheses.

  9. Separar el gra de la palla a la web Separating the Wheat from the Chaff on the Web Separar el grano de la paja en la web

    OpenAIRE

    Francina Martí Cartes

    2008-01-01

    L'article exposa diverses teories d'experts sobre l'avaluació de la informació a Internet. Aquestes teories es comparen amb el comportament d'uns estudiants d'ESO a l'hora de buscar informació a Internet, a partir de dades extretes d'observacions i entrevistes. Finalment, es fan algunes propostes d'estratègies que es poden ensenyar als estudiants perquè siguin capaços de valorar la credibilitat dels webs que visiten, tot analitzan-ne l'autoria, l'objectivitat i els propòsits. ________________...

  10. Separar el gra de la palla a la web Separating the Wheat from the Chaff on the Web Separar el grano de la paja en la web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francina Martí Cartes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available L'article exposa diverses teories d'experts sobre l'avaluació de la informació a Internet. Aquestes teories es comparen amb el comportament d'uns estudiants d'ESO a l'hora de buscar informació a Internet, a partir de dades extretes d'observacions i entrevistes. Finalment, es fan algunes propostes d'estratègies que es poden ensenyar als estudiants perquè siguin capaços de valorar la credibilitat dels webs que visiten, tot analitzan-ne l'autoria, l'objectivitat i els propòsits. ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Cet article explore diverses théories sur l'evaluation de l'information sur Internet. Ces théories sont comparées avec le comportement de certains élèves de l'enseignement secondaire (ESO à la recherche d'information sur Internet, à partir de données extraites d'observations et d'entrevues. Enfin, l'article fait quelques propositions de stratégies qui peuvent être enseignées aux élèves afin qu'ils soient capables d'evaluer la crédibilité des sites web visités, en analysant leurs auteurs, leur objectivité et leurs propos.This article explores various theories about evaluating information on the Internet. The theories are tested against data taken from observations and interviews concerning the behaviour of secondary school (ESO students searching for information on the Internet. Lastly, a number of strategies are proposed to equip students to be better able to assess the credibility of the websites they browse, analysing their authorship, objectivity and purpose.El artículo explora diversas teorías sobre la evaluación de la información en Internet. Estas teorías se comparan con el comportamiento de unos estudiantes de ESO en la búsqueda de información en Internet, a partir de datos extraídos de observaciones y entrevistas. Finalmente, se hacen algunas propuestas de estrategias que se pueden enseñar a los estudiantes para que sean capaces de valorar la credibilidad de las webs que visitan, analizando su autoría, objetividad y propósitos.

  11. 7 CFR 319.69 - Notice of quarantine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... chaff; from all countries. (2) Corn and allied plants (maize, sorghum, broomcorn, Sudan grass, napier grass, jobs-tears, teosinte, Polytoca, Sclerachne, Chionachne); all parts, from all countries except... chaff (such as oats, barley, and rye) from all countries, except rice straw, hulls, and chaff, which...

  12. Replantation surgery of multiple amputated digital and phalanges by chaff cutter%铡草机致多指、多节段指体离断的再植

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈美华; 张伟; 祈多宝; 袁重玺

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨铡草机所致不同类型断指的手术方法 和疗效.方法 单手指再植,应用传统方法 再植;多指、多节段再植应根据伤情、人员组成、再植的顺序等方面进行合理的规划后有序的进行再植;无再植条件的指体则进行残修、皮瓣修复或足趾再造.结果 36例患者离断79指、再植69指、成活63指,成活率91.3%.术后随访3月~2年,按中华医学会手外科分会断指再植功能评定试用标准评定:优44,良10,可6,差3,优良率85.7%.结论 铡草机所致的不同断指经严格掌握再植适应症、周密的手术计划与术中精细操作、术后精心护理和早期功能锻炼,再植指体存活率高,外观及功能良好.

  13. Preliminary Discussion on Using of Lentinus edodes Substrate Chaff Into the Cultivation of Ocimum basilicum L.%利用香菇菌糠栽培罗勒初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王谦; 胡卫静; 刘敏; 李媛

    2016-01-01

    以香菇菌糠为试材,采用不同比例的香菇菌糠和花园土、砂土的混合基质种植罗勒,测定其发芽率、形态指标以及生理指标,研究了香菇菌糠对罗勒幼苗生长的影响.结果表明:适宜种植罗勒的菌糠配方为花园土、菌糠、砂子=6∶1∶1;不同比例的菌糠配方对罗勒的发芽率有一定影响,随着菌糠比例的不断增加,罗勒的发芽率也不断提高,发芽时间也随菌糠的增加有一定缩短;该试验为菌糠的循环利用开辟了一条新的途径.

  14. Electronic Attack and Sensor Fusion Techniques for Boost-phase Defense Against Multiple Ballistic Threat Missiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    ferrite, iron, and cobalt -nickel alloys, are used to alter the permeability of the materials. High dielectric materials, such as carbon, graphite...chaff cloud can be found from [19] c kW f σ = (2.2.7) where 217000 m -GHz/lbk = for aluminized glass chaff, which has a density of 2550 3kg m

  15. Environmental Assessment Addressing the 301st Fighter Wing Managed Airspace, Naval Air Station Joint Reserve Base, Fort Worth, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    impacts on wildlife resulting from ingestion of materials would be expected. The release of chaff and flares results in chaff filaments, plastic ...revoking EO 13148]) sets a goal for all Federal agencies that promotes environmental practices, including acquisition of biobased , environmentally

  16. Effect of additives on mycelial growth and fructification of Pleurotus squarrosulus (Polyporales: Polyporaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Kadiri, Mukaila

    2016-01-01

    The effects of dungs (cow, horse. poultry), yam peels, rice bran, chaff (Sorghum, maize) and several sugars on mycelial growth and fructification of Pleurolus squarrosulus (Mant.). Singer were investigated. The concentrations were 5%, 10% and 15% (for sugars: 1%,3% and 5%). The substrate raw materials were maize and rice straw and cotton waste (substrates without the additives used as controls). Optirnum mycelial growth was obtained with 10% rice bran, or Sorghum or maize chaff, 5% dung (any)...

  17. A Discrete-Event Simulation Model for Evaluating Air Force Reusable Military Launch Vehicle Post-Landing Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    safety pin prevents inadvertent firing of the gun on the aircraft. The chaff-flare safety pin prevents the accidental dispensing of chaff and...flares. All of these actions protect the ground crew and other personnel that may be in the area. 16 Following the safety pin installation, the...link allows the ground crew to confirm with the aircrew the condition of the EPU prior to installing the EPU ground safety pin . The EPU ground

  18. 相容剂对稻糠/聚丙烯复合材料加工性能和尺寸稳定性的影响%Effect of Compatibilizers on Processing Properties and Dimensional Stability of Rice Chaff/Polypropylene Composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岑兰; 陈福林; 雷芳

    2009-01-01

    通过反应挤出法制备了马来酸酐接枝乙烯-辛烯共聚物(POE-g-MAH)相容剂,研究了POE-g-MAH对稻糠/聚丙烯(PP)复合材料力学性能、加工性能和尺寸稳定性的影响.结果表明:POE-g-MAH增容效果优于马来酸酐接技三元乙丙橡胶(EPDM-g-MAH)和马来酸酐接技聚丙烯(PP-g-MAH),能显著提高复合材料的拉伸强度、冲击强度、弯曲强度和尺寸稳定性;EPDM-g-MAH和PP-g-MAH对复合材料加工性能影响不大,而POE-g-MAH使稻糠/PP复合材料的最大转矩和平衡转矩明显降低,加工性能得到改善.

  19. 跖肌腱扇形膜片和腓肠肌腱瓣V-Y成形术治疗陈旧性跟腱断裂%Plantar Flabellate Chaff and V-Y Tendinous Flap for Treatment of Old Achilles Tendon Rupture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘哲尔; 顾湘杰; 黄加张; 王旭

    2004-01-01

    目的研究跖肌腱扇形膜片和腓肠肌腱瓣V-Y成形术治疗陈旧性跟腱断裂的术式及结果.方法对14例平均89 d陈旧性跟腱断裂患者采用跖肌腱扇形膜片和腓肠肌腱瓣V-Y成形术治疗,跟腱缺损范围为3.6~7.3 cm,平均为5.2 cm,跟腱缺损范围较大时(大于6.5 cm),可加用跖肌腱加固术.结果平均随访2年4个月,按Arner-Lindholm疗效评定标准评估,优11例(78.6%),良2例(14.3%),优良率为93%.结论跖肌腱扇形膜片和腓肠肌腱瓣V-Y成形术治疗陈旧性跟腱断裂,临床疗效满意,值得推广.

  20. Cause of winter gravity wave spectrum saturation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU; Yongfu; XU; Jiyao

    2005-01-01

    This paper utilizes horizontal velocity measurements observed from 19 chaff rockets and nearly simultaneous temperature measurements collected from 19 falling sphere rockets to study the cause of winter gravity wave spectrum saturation. Results suggest that strong horizontal velocity shears larger than 0.04 s-1 are observed to be present at various heights near the winter mesopause. On one single chaff rocket flight, an extremely strong horizontal velocity shear as high as 0.33 s-1 is observed at 87.4 km and is believed to be the strongest value ever measured in the mesosphere. These strong horizontal velocity shears, together with Brunt-V(a)is(a)l(a) frequency squared obtained from the temperature profile, act collectively to yield two dynamical instability regions of Richardson number smaller than 1/4, suggesting that the saturated gravity wave spectrum observed by the chaff rockets in winter is a result of dynamical instability.

  1. Eating Rice—A Hani folk story

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    ONCE upon a time the people at court lived on chaff because they believed that rice was the bone of the grain and that chaff was its meat. Miniya was a maid of the cruel Empress. One day, Miniya walked a little slower than usual when preparing water for the Empress to wash her feet. This irritated the Empress. After that Miniya was forbidden to eat. Because Miniya couldn’t bear long-term hunger, she picked up the bone of the grain to keep from starving. She was surprised to find out the bone of the grain was more

  2. Physical Separation of Straw Stem Components to Reduce Silica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, John Richard; Thompson, David Neal; Hoskinson, Reed Louis; Shaw, Peter Gordon; Grant, D.R.

    2002-04-01

    In this paper, we describe ongoing efforts to solve challenges to using straw for bioenergy and bioproducts. Among these, silica in straw forms a low-melting eutectic with potassium, causing slag deposits, and chlorides cause corrosion beneath the deposits. Straw consists principally of stems, leaves, sheaths, nodes, awns, and chaff. Leaves and sheaths are higher in silica, while chaff, leaves and nodes are the primary source of fines. Our approach to reducing silica is to selectively harvest the straw stems using an in-field physical separation, leaving the remaining components in the field to build soil organic matter and contribute soil nutrients.

  3. New tools. A new breed of high-tech detectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, A

    2000-08-11

    Forensic scientists are equipping police investigators with powerful tools for collecting and analyzing evidence. But as detection techniques become increasingly sensitive, the problem of sifting the wheat from the chaff at a crime scene mushrooms, guaranteeing a role for the human investigator despite all the gadgetry. Moreover, some developments are also raising civil liberties concerns.

  4. Data Mining Gets Traction in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2011-01-01

    The new and rapidly growing field of educational data mining is using the chaff from data collected through normal school activities to explore learning in more detail than ever, and researchers say the day when educators can make use of Amazon.com-like feedback on student learning behaviors may be closer than most people think. Educational data…

  5. Near East/South Asia Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    we ate only a few kernals of grain or chaff. Here we eat bread, we drink milk, and we have dates and dough ." Reports by doctors from the area...the present balance of power in the sub-continent. Bid to influence Nepal: Another sour note has been struck by the persistent Chinese attempts to

  6. Japan Report - Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    cafe - teria, distribution of printed matter necessary for factory operation; maintenance & repair of Plant equipment & facilities NK Shlmizu...International Trade Policy Bureau) 490 ( 349) 1) research cooperation for production of physiologically active material ( Malaysia ) general...building material production using chaff ash ( Malaysia ) general account 80 ( 15) (3) Basic investigation of research cooperation project for

  7. Defense Acquisitions. Assessments of Selected Weapon Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    countermeasure dispenser capable of loading and employing expendables, such as flares, chaff, and smoke . S Page 39ource: BAE Systems.System development...not collecting statistical data for them. As reported in our last assesment , we expect that the prime contract could overrun its target cost by

  8. Do plant traits predict the competitive abilities of closely related species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Lauren M; Gibson, David J; Young, Bryan G

    2015-12-31

    Invasive species are a threat to every ecosystem. There is a strong incentive to predict which species will become invasive before they become too widespread and unmanageable. Different approaches have been advocated to assess invasive species potential. These include examining plant functional traits, quantifying competitive ability and phylogenetic comparison. In this study, we conducted experiments based on the above approaches in a multi-year, temporally replicated, set of experiments to compare these assessment methods to determine the invasive potential of Japanese chaff flower (Achyranthes japonica). We compared plant traits and competitive ability of Japanese chaff flower with two agricultural invasive species, Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) and tall waterhemp (Amaranthus tuberculatus), and one endangered plant species, bloodleaf (Iresine rhizomatosa), in the Amaranthaceae. Additionally, we assessed the invasive potential based on each of these approaches and determined the degree of agreement between them. A relatively conservative assessment integrating all three approaches would be that the competitive ability of closely related individuals with similar functional traits would share invasive potential. In a greenhouse experiment, each of the study species and soya beans were grown as monocultures and were evaluated to assess the drawdown of an aboveground (light) and a belowground (nitrogen) resource. In a field experiment, each study species was grown at varying densities per 15-cm-diameter pot with or without one or two soya bean plants, to simulate relative densities for soya beans grown in 38- and 76-cm-wide row spacing, respectively. In addition, Japanese chaff flower seedlings were planted either as un-manipulated seedlings or as a seedling cut back to the soil surface at the four-node stage (cut Japanese chaff flower) at which point seedlings have reached a perennial growth stage. The greenhouse experiment showed that each species drew down

  9. Evaluation of various agro-wastes for traditional black soap production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taiwo, O E; Osinowo, F A

    2001-08-01

    The agricultural wastes, cocoa-pod husks, palm-bunch waste, sorghum chaff and groundnut shells, which are normally thrown away have been used in the production of black soap. Unlike other soaps which are made from oils and chemicals, black soap is made from oils and agro-wastes ashes. Chemical analysis indicated that the liquid extract from the ashes of the different agro-wastes used contained various amounts of potassium and sodium compounds. The most common ingredient in the agro-wastes was potassium carbonate. The amount of potassium carbonate was 56.73 +/- 0.16% in cocoa-pod ash, 43.15 +/- 0.13% in palm-bunch ash, 16.65 +/- 0.05% in groundnut shell ash and 12.40 +/- 0.08% in sorghum chaff ash. Soaps made from the agro-wastes ashes had excellent solubility, consistency, cleansing and lathering abilities.

  10. USSR Report, Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    the basis of utilizing standard shredders or chaff-collectors (20-25 percent of the harvesting area). Whereas at the present time the main zone... shredders and tractor wagons. 49 With the appearance in the fields of the Don-1500 and Rotor-10-12 combines there will be increased swathe...for the needs of livestock raising. Flow technology with the use of shredders on combines is preferred in enterprises with developed livestock

  11. Substrates and controlled-release fertilizations on the quality of eucalyptus cuttings

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson B. G. da Silva; Magali R. da Silva; Danilo Simões

    2014-01-01

    To produce cuttings with quality, the most appropriate nutritional management strategies should be sought to reduce wastage of fertilizer, while accounting for the characteristics of each substrate. This study evaluated the effect of substrates and doses of controlled-release fertilizer on the quality of Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden x Eucalyptus urophylla S. T. Blake cuttings. The substrates consisted of several mixtures: vermiculite+carbonized rice chaff+coconut fibre (1:1:1); vermiculi...

  12. The Evolution of the Combined Allied Headquarters in the North African Theater of Operations from 1942 to 1943

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    15 Dwight Salmon and Paul Birdsall, Part 2 - Period of the Tunisian, Sicilian , and South Italian Campaigns (December 1942 to...North African Invasion (August to December 1942) and Part 2 - Period of the Tunisian, Sicilian , and South Italian Campaigns (December 1942 to December...1943, Observer Report (Washington, DC: Headquarters Army Ground Forces, March 29, 1943). 8 wheat from the chaff, so to speak, separating

  13. Stop the botch. Quality in planning and installation; Schluss mit dem Pfusch. Qualitaet in Planung und Montage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullrich, Sven

    2013-10-01

    Almost half of the damage to solar power systems are the results of the installers fault. To separate the wheat from the chaff, the TUeV Rheinland and the Mannheimer Insurance launch an offensive. [German] Fast die Haelfte der Schaeden an Solarstromanlagen geht auf Fehler der Installateure zurueck. Um die Spreu vom Weizen zu trennen, starten der TUeV Rheinland und die Mannheimer Versicherungen eine Offensive.

  14. Warship Combat System Selection Methodology Based on Discrete Event Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    7P 2x4 Harpoon 6 Mk 46 Mod 2 Barbaros (Meko 200) Turkey 3100 Ton AWS 9; AWS 6 Dolphin SQS-56 Racal Cutlass, Racal Scorpion Mk 36 1 - 5 in/54 3...Ball; 2 Half Hat; 4 Half Cup laser intercept 8 PK 10 and 2 PK 16 chaff launchers 1 - 3.9 in/59 A 190E 2 CADS- N-1 32 SA-N- 9 16 SS-N-25 6 SS-N

  15. [Research on sorption and transport characteristics of ligninolytic enzymes in different compost substances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mei-Hua; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Huang, Dan-Lian; Feng, Chong-Ling; Huang, Chao; Hu, Shuang; Su, Feng-Feng; Lai, Cui; Wei, Zhen

    2010-06-01

    To understand the characteristics of ligninolytic enzymes sorption and transport in different compost substances, ligninolytic enzymes adsorption on soil, vegetable leaf, rice straw and chaff was comparatively studied through batch jar tests and relevant kinetics and isotherm equilibrium were discussed as well as a column experiment was performed to study the process of transport. The results showed that the sorption efficiency was depended on the sorts of substances. The adsorptive capacities of soil, vegetable leaf, rice straw and chaff to lignin peroxidase (LiP) were 1.22 U x g(-1), 1.27 U x g(-1), 1.13 U x g(-1), 1.22 U x g(-1) and to manganese peroxidase (MnP) were 5.09 U x g(-1), 4.88 U x g(-1), 4.43 U x g(-1), 3.95 U x g(-1), respectively. Comparing the kinetic models of LiP and MnP adsorption, the pseudo-second-order reaction model (R2 0.973-0.999 7) was the best of the models. Elovich equation was a bit better than pseudo-first-order kinetic which was the worst. The equilibrium data could be fitted well with Langmuir model while it could not satisfied with Freundlich model. The adsorptive saturation of soil, vegetable leaf, rice straw and chaff to LiP were 1.23 U x g(-1), 1.30 U x g(-1), 1.17 U x g(-1), 1.14 U x g(-1) and to MnP were 5.70 U x g(-1), 5.19 U x g(-1), 4.73 U x g(-1), 4.14 U x g(-1). LiP and MnP had good transport capability in straw and chaff to move to the deepest layer of 10 mL while remained in the superficial layers in soil and vegetable leaf.

  16. Preparation and radar absorptive properties of BaFe12O19 -coated glass fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, F.; Xu, M.; Bao, H. Q.; Cui, K.; Zhang, F.

    2016-07-01

    Traditional passive jamming materials such as chaff and foil showed some limitations in use because they can only reflect the electromagnetic wave. Therefore, to develop a kind of absorptive passive jamming material to make up for deficiencies of traditional passive jamming materials and improve the jamming efficiency is of great significance. In this paper, the BaFe12O19-coated glass fiber, used as a kind of radar absorptive chaff, was prepared by sol-gel dip-coating method. The effects of heat treatment temperature, heat treatment time and coating times on film quality, tensile strength and attenuation efficiency of the samples were discussed. The study shows that an increase of the heat treatment temperature and an extension of the heat treatment time is conducive to the growth of barium ferrite grain, while they would introduce the loss of chaff strength at the same time. In addition, multi-coating process can improve the film quality and attenuation efficiency of the sample. Data show that the 10 times coated samples have a best reflectivity of (15GHz, -6.65dB) and the bandwidth of reflectivity lower than -5dB is11.8 GHz. According to the test results, the prepared material has certain attenuation efficiency in the range of 2GHz-18GHz, having a high practical value.

  17. Paddy-field contamination with 134Cs and 137Cs due to Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident and soil-to-rice transfer coefficients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Satoru; Kajimoto, Tsuyoshi; Shizuma, Kiyoshi

    2013-02-01

    The transfer coefficient (TF) from soil to rice plants of (134)Cs and (137)Cs in the form of radioactive deposition from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident in March 2011 was investigated in three rice paddy fields in Minami-Soma City. Rice crops were planted in the following May and harvested at the end of September. Soil cores of 30-cm depth were sampled from rice-planted paddy fields to measure (134)Cs and (137)Cs radioactivity at 5-cm intervals. (134)Cs and (137)Cs radioactivity was also measured in rice ears (rice with chaff), straws and roots. The rice ears were subdivided into chaff, brown rice, polished rice and rice bran, and the (134)Cs and (137)Cs radioactivity concentration of each plant part was measured to calculate the respective TF from the soil. The TF of roots was highest at 0.48 ± 0.10 in the field where the (40)K concentration in the soil core was relatively low, in comparison with TF values of 0.31 and 0.38 in other fields. Similar trends could be found for the TF of whole rice plants, excluding roots. The TF of rice ears was relatively low at 0.019-0.026. The TF of chaff, rice bran, brown rice and polished rice was estimated to be 0.049, 0.10-0.16, 0.013-0.017 and 0.005-0.013, respectively.

  18. Substrates and controlled-release fertilizations on the quality of eucalyptus cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richardson B. G. da Silva

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available To produce cuttings with quality, the most appropriate nutritional management strategies should be sought to reduce wastage of fertilizer, while accounting for the characteristics of each substrate. This study evaluated the effect of substrates and doses of controlled-release fertilizer on the quality of Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden x Eucalyptus urophylla S. T. Blake cuttings. The substrates consisted of several mixtures: vermiculite+carbonized rice chaff+coconut fibre (1:1:1; vermiculite+coconut fibre (1:1; and vermiculite+carbonized rice chaff (1:1. These mixtures were added to 2, 4, 6 and 8 kg of controlled-release fertilizer per cubic meter of substrate. The substrates that do not support root development and have lower water retention, independently of the dose of controlled-release fertilizer, reduce the quality of the root system. For substrates with proper values of water retention, such as vermiculite+coconut fibre (1:1 and vermiculite+carbonised rice chaff+coconut fibre (1:1:1, the utilization of dose 2 kg of controlled-release fertilizer to each cubic meter is enough to promote cuttings with greater quality of the root systems and proper heights and stem diameters.

  19. 废菌棒复合基质对3种阔叶树容器苗生长的影响%Effect of Compound Substrates on Growth of Three Species of Container Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘荣松; 胡根长; 叶庭旺; 吕赟薇; 周志春

    2011-01-01

    Experiment were conducted on the effect of different substrates on growth and survival rate of container seedlings of Ormosia hosiei, Schima superba and Pistacia chinensis. Substrates had different ratio of waste compost from mushroom cultivation, hull chaff. The result showed that different tree species expressed significant differences on growth and survival rate. The growth and survival rate of container seedlings were better when the amount of compost less than 20% and that of hull chaff less than 40%, similar to the control, the common treatment in the production (60% peat+ 40% hull chaff). The best formula was 20% compost from black fungus cultivation + 40% peat + 40% hull chaff; then the ones of 20% compost from mushroom cultivation + 40% peat + 40% hull chaff and that of 40% compost from black fungus cultivation + 30% peat + 30% hull chaff, The seedling height, ground diameter and survi .a) ate of the tested container seedlings were significantly decreased with the increase of compost and decrease of hull chaff. The effect of compost from black fungus cultivation on the container seedling was better than that from mushroom cultivation, which could be explained by the small particles of the latter one with easy water uptake, poor water and air permeability.%利用经发酵消毒后的黑木耳和香菇菌棒废弃物,设计与泥炭、谷壳的不同配比基质处理,研究其对红豆树、木荷和黄连木3种容器苗生长和芽苗移栽成活率的影响.结果表明:不同树种对废菌棒复合基质的生长反应显著,其芽苗移栽成活差异也很大;当废菌棒量不超过20%、谷壳不低于40%时其容器苗生长量和芽苗移栽成活率较好,接近于生产上常用的60%泥炭+40%谷壳的对照配比基质处理,其中20%废黑木耳菌棒+40%泥炭+40%谷壳为最佳的基质配方,20%废香菇菌棒+40%泥炭+40%谷壳和40%废黑木耳菌棒+30%泥炭+30%谷壳次之;随着配比基质中废菌

  20. 日本小青瓜温室无土栽培基质筛选试验%Selection of Medium Formula of Soilless Cultivation for Japan's Small Cucumber in Greenhouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛钟警; 李坤灼; 张妍; 蒋利和

    2011-01-01

    为获得适宜日本小青瓜温室生产的经济、高效无土栽培基质,以椰糠、木糠、食用菌菇渣、粗河沙、消毒鸡粪为材料,配成6种不同比例的混合基质进行温室无土栽培试验.结果表明,用椰糠∶食用菌菇渣∶粗河沙按体积比2∶1∶1加上鸡粪4 kg/m3的无土基质栽培时,小青瓜营养生长最佳,叶片数最多,生殖生长发育最快,产量最高;其次为椰糠∶食用菌菇渣∶粗河沙为1∶2∶1加鸡粪4kg/m3的无土栽培基质.%In order to obtain economic, efficient and the best soilless medium formula for greenhouse production of Japans small cucumber, we used coconut chaff, sawdust, mushroom residue, coarse river sand and sterilized chicken manure as substrate materials to mix 6 different ration media. The results showed that the best medium formula was V( coconut chaff ) : V( mushroom residue) : V( coarse river sand) = 2 : 1 : 1, added with sterilized chicken manure 4 kg/m3 , For this medium formula, Japan's small cucumber showed the best vegetative growth, the largest number of leaves, the fastest reproductive growth, the highest yield. The suboptimal medium formula was V(coconut chaff ) : V (mushroom residue):V(coarse river sand) =1:2:1, with sterilized chicken manure 4 kg/m3 added.

  1. Risk perception & strategic decision making :general insights, a framework, and specific application to electricity generation using nuclear energy.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brewer, Jeffrey D.

    2005-11-01

    The objective of this report is to promote increased understanding of decision making processes and hopefully to enable improved decision making regarding high-consequence, highly sophisticated technological systems. This report brings together insights regarding risk perception and decision making across domains ranging from nuclear power technology safety, cognitive psychology, economics, science education, public policy, and neural science (to name a few). It forms them into a unique, coherent, concise framework, and list of strategies to aid in decision making. It is suggested that all decision makers, whether ordinary citizens, academics, or political leaders, ought to cultivate their abilities to separate the wheat from the chaff in these types of decision making instances. The wheat includes proper data sources and helpful human decision making heuristics; these should be sought. The chaff includes ''unhelpful biases'' that hinder proper interpretation of available data and lead people unwittingly toward inappropriate decision making ''strategies''; obviously, these should be avoided. It is further proposed that successfully accomplishing the wheat vs. chaff separation is very difficult, yet tenable. This report hopes to expose and facilitate navigation away from decision-making traps which often ensnare the unwary. Furthermore, it is emphasized that one's personal decision making biases can be examined, and tools can be provided allowing better means to generate, evaluate, and select among decision options. Many examples in this report are tailored to the energy domain (esp. nuclear power for electricity generation). The decision making framework and approach presented here are applicable to any high-consequence, highly sophisticated technological system.

  2. 膨胀石墨毫米波散射截面仿真与试验研究%Simulation and Test on Millimeter Wave Scattering Cross of Expanded Graphite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许兴春; 李天鹏; 张开创; 张迪

    2015-01-01

    Expanded graphite is an excellent millimeter wave-absorbent material, whose mechanism of wave-absorption is different from chaff.We have designed an expanded graphite board and a chaff board,and the scattering cross section of the two boards was calculated by CST.The scattering cross section of the two boards was also measured by a test.A comparative analysis of the result of the two methods shows that the simulation results agree with those of the experimental test.The scattering cross section of expanded graphite is less than the chaff,so it is proved that the expanded graphite plays the main part in absorbing the interfering millimeter wave.%膨胀石墨是一种优良的毫米波干扰材料,其干扰毫米波机理与箔条等传统干扰材料不同。为了研究膨胀石墨干扰毫米波机理,设计了膨胀石墨、箔条干扰面板,在CST中建模运算,得出膨胀石墨、箔条的毫米波散射截面,通过试验测得膨胀石墨、箔条的毫米波实际散射截面。分析比较仿真与试验结果可知,仿真结果与试验结果一致,膨胀石墨对毫米波的散射截面远小于箔条,从侧面证明了膨胀石墨对毫米波干扰以吸收为主。

  3. PEMBUATAN MMC BERBASIS TEKNOLOGI METALURGI SERBUK DENGAN BAHAN BAKU ALUMINIUM DARI LIMBAH KALENG MINUMAN DAN ADITIF ABU SEKAM PADI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Akrom

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Komposit matriks logam (aluminium yang berasal dari limbah kaleng minuman dengan penguat partikel silikon karbida danpenguat tambahan abu sekam padi telah berhasil difabrikasi dengan metode teknologi metalurgi serbuk. Tujuan dari penelitian iniadalah merekayasa material baru yang murah akan tetapi memiliki mutu dan daya saing yang sangat baik. Penelitian ini terdiri daribeberapa tahap yakni, pembuatan bahan baku, pencampuran, pencetakan sampel, sintering dan pengujian. Dari hasil pengujianfisik diperoleh bahwa komposit matrik logam dengan penambahan abu sekam padi memiliki kerapatan lebih rendah dibandingkandengan komposit Al/SiC tanpa sekam padi, sedangkan sifat kekerasan dan kekuatannya jauh lebih besar dibandingkan Al/SiCtanpa penambahan abu sekam padi. Dari analisis XRD ditemukan bahwa terjadi penyebaran unsur utama Al, Si, senyawa SiC,serta timbul senyawa stabil MgAl O , Al O yang bersifat konstruktif yang dapat memberikan sifat mekanis yang baik bagi komposit,dan senyawa destruktif Al C yang bersifat korosif. Analisis SEM menunjukkan ukuran butiran partikel yang cenderung lebar danmemanjang, ikatan antar partikel penyusun bahan yang terbentuk cukup baik, sehingga memberikan sifat mekanis bahan yangbaik.Tidak tampaknya pori-pori bahan menunjukkan pula bahwa ikatan partikel antar bahan cukup baik. Metal (aluminium matrix composite originated from beverage can waste with carbide silicon particle reinforcement and additionalreinforcement of paddy chaff ash has been fabricated successfully by employing powder metallurgy technology method. Thepurpose of the research is to create a cheap new material, qualified and having high competitive value. This research wasconducted through several stages, those were making raw material, mixing, sample moulding, sintering, and testing. The result ofphysical test shows that metal matrix composite added by paddy chaff ash has lower density, stronger and bigger power comparedto Al/SiC composite without

  4. Mites (Acari Associated with the Desert Seed Harvester Ant, Messor pergandei (Mayr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaitlin A. Uppstrom

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mites (Acari associated with the seed harvester ant Messor pergandei were investigated in the Sonoran desert of Arizona. At least seven representatives of the mite genera Armacarus, Lemanniella, Petalomium, Forcellinia, Histiostoma, Unguidispus, and Cosmoglyphus are phoretically associated with M. pergandei. Most of these morphospecies show preference for specific phoretic attachment sites and primarily use female alates rather than male alates for dispersal. Five mite morphospecies were found in low numbers inhabiting the chaff piles: Tydeidae sp., Procaeculus sp., Anystidae sp., Bakerdania sp., and Tetranychidae sp. The phoretic Petalomium sp. was observed consuming fungus growing on a dead queen, but the roles of the other mite species remain mostly unresolved.

  5. Fusarium head blight of winter rye (Secale cereale L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Kiecana

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigations on Fusarium head blight of rye were carried out in the years 2005-2007 on 10 production fields in the Lublin region. The percentage of heads showing the fusariosis symptoms in the years 2005-2007 ranged from 0 to 7%. Mycological analysis of kernels and chaff obtained from heads with Fusarium blight (scab symptoms showed that Fusarium avenaceum, Fusarium culmorum and Fusarium sporotrichioides were the largest threat to heads of this cereal. The species of Fusarium poae and Fusarium crookwellense were also isolated from infected rye heads. The dominance of particular species in infecting rye heads was determined by weather conditions.

  6. Bombing the European Axis Powers. A Historical Digest of the Combined Bomber Offensive 1939-1945

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-01

    warships Scharnhorst, Gneisenau, and Prinz Eugen leave Brest and pass through the Strait of Dover to Germany. Bomber Command’s first use of Boston...unrestricted strafing on French railroads begins (such missions soon dubbed “Chat- tanooga Choo Choos ,” after hit song of period). 27 May: Eighth Air Force—three...Cassino, 274, 277–78, 298, 311, 316, 457 chaff, 133, 156 Chamberlain, Neville, 4, 7, 9 Channel Islands, 81, 137, 448 “Chattanooga Choo Choos ,” 342

  7. Metabolic response to dietary fibre composition in horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøkner, Christine; Austbø, D; Næsset, Jon Anders

    2016-01-01

    . The feed rations consisted of only timothy hay (H), hay plus molassed sugar beet pulp combined with either whole oats (OB) or barley (BB) and hay plus a loose chaff-based concentrate (M). Four horses were fitted with permanent caecal cannulas and liquid caecal content was withdrawn manually and blood...... was drawn from the jugular vein at 0, 3 and 9 h postprandial. The horses were exercised daily at medium level for about 1 h. Samples were analysed for short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and metabolic traits. Caecal SCFA and propionic acid concentrations increased with increased dietary starch and soluble fibre...... energy for horses at medium work level....

  8. Effect of Source-Sink Manipulation on Photosynthetic Characteristics of Flag Leaf and the Remobilization of Dry Mass and Nitrogen in Vegetative Organs of Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ying-hua; SUN Na-na; HONG Jia-pei; ZHANG Qi; WANG Chao; XUE Qing-wu; ZHOU Shun-li; HUANG Qin; WANG Zhi-min

    2014-01-01

    The photosynthetic characteristics of lfag leaf and the accumulation and remobilization of pre-anthesis dry mass (DM) and nitrogen (N) in vegetable organs in nine wheat cultivars under different source-sink manipulation treatments including defoliation (DF), spike shading (SS) and half spikelets removal (SR) were investigated. Results showed that the SS treatment increased the photosynthetic rate (Pn) of lfag leaf in source limited cultivar, but had no signiifcant effect on sink limited cultivar. The SR treatment decreased the Pn of lfag leaf. Grain DM accumulation was limited by source in some cultivars, in other cultivars, it was limited by sink. Grain N accumulation was mainly limited by source supply. The contribution of pre-anthesis dry mass to grain yield from high to low was stem, leaf and chaff, while the contribution of pre-anthesis N to grain N from high to low was leaf, stem and chaff. Cultivars S7221 and TA9818 can increase the contribution of remobilization of DM and N to grain at the maximum ratio under reducing source treatments, which may be the major reason for these cultivars having lower decrease in grain yield and N content under reducing source treatments.

  9. 一种针对反舰导弹对抗的箔条布放优化仿真方法%Optimum decision making model for radar countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡蒨; 张为华

    2011-01-01

    建立了主动式雷达制导对抗仿真系统,在仿真的基础上,对影响决策的各种对抗条件的物理意义和影响过程进行了分析;建立了基于统计的箔条对抗平均成功概率模型,提出了一种干扰布放决策寻求方法,有效地实现了雷达对抗最优化策略的求解.最后在仿真平台上进行大量的测试,对预估结果进行了分析,验证了仿真模型和决策分析方法的正确性.%The simulation platform of active radar confrontation is estahlished. A statistic function of average successful probability in chaff defense is proposed, and a computing model is estahlished to solve the optimum laying apace according to the confrontation factors for tactics of chaff homb effectively. Then the validity of simulation model and optimum method has been proved by lots of testing on the simulation platform.

  10. Rumen microbial protein supply as estimated from purine derivative excretion on sheep receiving faba beans (vicia faba as supplement delivered at different feeding frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmuddin Natsir

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Rapid and extensive degradation of faba beans (Vicia faba by ruminal microbes can result in substantial and undesirable N loss from the rumen. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that offering faba beans as a supplement more than once a day to sheep receiving a combination of oaten chaff and lucerne chaff as a basal diet will increase microbial protein supply to the intestines. The experiment was conducted in a Latin square design (4 x 4 using four mature merino sheep. The treatments were: T0 = basal diet ad libitum + nil supplements, T1 = T0 + faba beans (FB fed once daily, T2 = T0 + FB fed twice daily, T3 = T0 + FB fed 8 times daily. The basal diet was given once per day at 09:00 in the morning while FB were given at the rate of approximately 0.5% of live body weight and delivered according to the treatment protocol. Urinary excretion of purine derivative (PD was used to estimate microbial protein supply. The results indicated that even though treatment statistically had no effects on total urine output, PD excretion in the urine, PD absorbed, estimated microbial N supply, and the efficiency of rumen microbial protein synthesis, provision of supplement to sheep numerically improved microbial N supply by 92% compared to that of control group. However, there were no differences within the supplemented group. Therefore, it is concluded that feeding faba beans more than once a day was unnecessary.

  11. Effect of different growing substrates on the plant water relations and marketable fruit yield greenhouse-grown tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Borowski

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the period 2009-2011, a study was conducted in a greenhouse, using fertigation, to determine water relations and fruit yield of tomato grown in different substrates. Tomato plants were grown on rockwool slabs, 15 dm3  in volume, and on slabs of the same volume made of the following straw chaff: rape straw; rape straw + peat (3:1; rape straw + pine bark (3:1; triticale straw; triticale straw + peat (3:1; triticale straw + pine bark (3:1. 2 tomato plants were grown on each slab, leaving 22 fruit clusters on each plant during the period from February to October. The obtained results showed that water potential, stomatal conductance, transpiration, water saturation deficit, and leaf free proline content in tomato grown on rockwool and on rape or triticale straw chaff substrates did not differ statistically significantly. Also, no significant differences were found in marketable tomato fruit yield and dry matter content in tomato fruits. Peat or pine bark addition to rape or triticale straw substrates had no significant effect on the change in their commercially useful traits. In the opinion of the present authors, substrates made of rape or triticale straw alone, and even more so with the addition of peat or bark, are not inferior in any way to commonly used rockwool.

  12. 红哺鸡竹笋早出覆盖的研究%Study on Mulching for Early Shooting of Phyllostachys iridescens Plantations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张卉

    2016-01-01

    在红哺鸡竹林中用稻草加谷壳的覆盖方式,并采取4种不同的覆盖处理,寻找最适红哺鸡竹竹笋早出的覆盖模式。经综合分析对比得知,模式4为最优模式(20 cm稻草+20 cm谷壳),可提前48 d出笋,并在3月3日进入盛笋期,基本满足红哺鸡竹早出覆盖的要求。%In this study straw and chaff were used as the mulching method with 4 different mulching treatments in the Phyllostachys iridescens plantations to find the most suitable mulching mode for early shooting of Phyllostachys iridescens plantations. Comprehensive analysis and comparison showed that Mode 4(20 cm straw+20 cm chaff) had the best mulching effects for earlier shooting by 48d, with the beginning of the full shooting period on 3 March, which could meet the basic mulching requirements for early shooting of phyllostachys iridescens plantations.

  13. Study on Screening the High Yield Cultivating Formula for Agaricus bisporus using Spent Pleurotus Substrate%利用平菇菌糠栽培双孢蘑菇高产配方筛选研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭学文; 解文强; 周廷斌; 吴志会; 忻龙怍; 蔡海燕

    2015-01-01

    为筛选以平菇菌糠和牛粪为主要原料栽培双孢蘑菇的最佳配方,设主料菌糠与牛粪质量比〔m (菌糠)∶m(牛粪)〕5∶5(处理Ⅰ)、6∶4(处理Ⅱ)、7∶3(处理Ⅲ)、8∶2(处理Ⅳ)和9∶1(处理Ⅴ)5个处理,以尿素、过磷酸钙和石膏为辅料,研究了菌糠与牛粪不同质量配比对培养料发酵情况、菌丝生长情况以及鲜菇产量的影响。结果表明:以平菇菌糠和牛粪为主要原料栽培双孢蘑菇时,菌糠与牛粪的最佳质量比为6∶4。该配比下,培养料发酵温度上升较快,发菌速度和菌丝生长速度快,菌丝长势最好,现蕾密度最大,产量最高,达到了11.80 kg/hm2。%In order to screen the optimal formula for cultivation of Agaricus bisporus using spent pleurotus substrate and dry cow dung as the main materials, the mass ratios of fungus chaff and cow dung were conducted by 5∶5, 6∶4, 7∶3, 8∶2, 9∶1, respectively, and the urea, superphosphate and gypsum were taked as accessories, then the effects of different mass ratios of fungus chaff and cow dung on fermentation, growth of mycelium and fresh mushroom yield were studied.The results showed that when Agaricus bisporus cultivated with spent pleurotus substrate and dry cow dung as the main materials, the optimum mass ratio of fungus chaff and cow dung was 6∶4.In the condition, fermentation temperature of culture rose faster, the fungus sped and mycelium grew rapidly, the density was maximum, the yield of fresh mushroom was highest, it reached 11.80 kg/hm2.

  14. 番茄工厂化育苗基质配方试验研究%Effects of Industrial Seedling Substrates on Germination and Growth of Tomato

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢红霞; 王光锋; 孙利利; 孙志伟; 甘良; 陈新娟; 徐志豪

    2016-01-01

    [目的]为番茄工厂化育苗筛选出育苗效果好、成本低的专用育苗基质。[方法]以椰糠、泥炭、珍珠岩为原料,将3种原料按照不同比例( V/V)混合复配成8种育苗基质,选取康成基质为对照,研究不同配方的基质对番茄幼苗生长的影响。[结果]以椰糠∶泥炭∶珍珠岩分别为4∶5∶1、3∶6∶1、2∶7∶1及泥炭∶珍珠岩为9∶1的基质配方所培育的番茄幼苗各生理状况较为理想。[结论]以椰糠∶泥炭∶珍珠岩为4∶5∶1、3∶6∶1、2∶7∶1及泥炭∶珍珠岩为9∶1的基质配方育苗效果较好,结合成本,可推荐为番茄育苗的专用有机营养基质。%Objective] To screen out special tomato seedling substrates with high effect and low cost .[ Methods] Taking coconut chaff, peat and perlite as raw materials, three kinds of raw materials were mixed in different proportion into seven kinds of substrate .Kangcheng substrate was taken as the control group (CK), and the influence of different formula of substrate on tomato seedling growth was studied.[Results] The physiological conditions of tomatoes cultivated by substrate formula 4∶5∶1, 3∶6, 2∶7∶1 for coconut chaff, peat and perlite, and the formula 9∶1 for peat and perlite respectively were excellent.[ Conclusion] Effects of substrate formula 4∶5∶1, 3∶6, 2∶7∶1 for coconut chaff, peat and perlite, and the formula 9∶1 for peat and perlite are better, and they are preferred in tomato seedling for cultivating special organic substrate of tomato.

  15. Material-mass Balance of Smallholder Oil Palm Processing in the Niger Delta, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elijah I. Ohimain

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the material-mass balance of smallholder oil palm processing in Niger Delta Nigeria. Ten smallholder oil palm processing mills were randomly sampled. Measuring scale was used to measure the weight of the Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB and all the processing intermediates/products including Threshed Fresh Fruit (TFF, Palm Pressed Fibre (PPF, Palm Kernel Shell (PKS, Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB, Crude Palm Oil (CPO, chaff and nut. During the study period (13-22 April 2012, 8 of the mills processed 90-400 bunches of Dura variety, while the remaining 2 mills processed 65-200 bunches of Tenera variety. During the batch processing of Dura variety, the proportion of the intermediate products computed in relation to the weight of the FFB (100% are as follows; TFF (66.0-75.0%, mesocarp (44.8-51.1%, nuts (19.0-27.5%, kernel (5.7-7.2%, water in mesocarp (9.0-12.1% and water in nut (2.4-3.4%, EFB (23.7-32.4%, chaff (0.8-2.4%, Palm Kernel Shell (PKS (10.0-18.8%, Palm Press Fibre (PPF (23.2-28.1% and Crude Palm Oil (CPO (9.4-12.8%. For the Tenera varieties, the compositions are as follows; TFF (70.9-72.9%, mesocarp (56.4-58.0%, nuts (14.5-14.9%, kernel (5.5-5.6%, water in mesocarp (10.1-10.4% and water in the nut (1.9-2.1%, EFB (25.7-28.2%, chaff (0.9-1.4%, PKS (6.8-7.5%, (19.1-20.3% and CPO (26.0-28.2%. This result shows that Tenera produces more oil and less wastes compared to the Dura variety. The solid wastes fractions are used as energy sources during the processing of oil palm and as filling materials for upgrading access roads to palm plantations. Except the huge volume of wastes (71.8-90.6% generated by smallholder oil palm processors is effectively utilized, the process will be unsustainable.

  16. Growing Season Distribution of Tissue Fructan in Wheat%小麦生育期组织果糖分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯有良; Br.,LO

    2000-01-01

    Tissue fructan content of vegetative parts was examined in four wheat genotypes to determine genotypic differences and distribution and accumulation patterns throughout growing season. Effects indicated that significant genotypic differences were established for tissue fructan content of stem, chaff, leaf, peduncle and total plant throughout growing season and grain protein content and grain yield. Total plant fructan content accumulated to a peak at about milk stage, and then rapidly declined until maturity, coinciding with the period of rapid grain filling.The two high protein genotypes, Cunningham and PST90-19, had lower tissue fructan content in the stem and the total plant than their low protein lower case counterparts,SUN109A and TM56, at most sampling dates. Among plant parts,stem was the most important tissue for fructan reserve and the greatest contributor to grain filling.Tissue fructan content was negatively correlated with grain protein content between heading and maturity, but not correlated with grain yield.

  17. 吸附法去除低温水体中的磺胺类抗生素%Removal of Sulfa Antibiotics in Low Temperature Water by Adsorption Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王佳丽; 张玉玲; 钱红; 赵志阳; 司超群; 陈志宇; 李静

    2016-01-01

    针对畜禽养殖过程中使用磺胺类抗生素产生的水环境污染问题,考察天然矿物材料(火山渣)与资源转化材料(骨炭和菌糠)对4种磺胺类抗生素磺胺噻唑(ST)、磺胺甲基嘧啶(SM)、磺胺二甲嘧啶(SM2)和磺胺甲恶唑(SMX)的去除效果及影响因素.结果表明:3种材料对磺胺类抗生素的吸附效果为:菌糠>火山渣>骨炭;当水体中4种抗生素的质量浓度均为5 mg/L 时,菌糠对其吸附率>80%,吸附量为1.60 mg/g;采用质量分数为10%的Al2(SO 4)3改性火山渣和骨炭后,二者对4种抗生素的吸附率>60%,吸附量>0.24 mg/g;最佳吸附 pH 值为4~6;Fe3+,Mn2+,NH +4,Cl-,硬度和碱度等对菌糠吸附磺胺类抗生素的吸附效果影响较大.%In view of the water environment pollution caused by the use of the antibiotics in livestock and poultry breeding,we studied the removal effects and influencing factors of natural mineral materials (volcanic cinder)and resources transformation materials (bone black and fungus chaff)to the adsorption of four kinds of sulfa antibiotics: sulfathiazole (ST ), sulfamethyldiazine (SM), sulfamethazine (SM2)and sulfamethoxazole (SMX).The results show that the adsorption effect of three kinds of materials is in the order of fungus chaff>volcanic cinder>bone black.When the mass concentration of four kinds of antibiotics is 5 mg/L in the water,the adsorption rate of fungus chaff is more than 80%,and the adsorption capacity is 1.60 mg/g.The adsorption rates of volcanic cinder and bone black which modified by the mass fraction of 10% Al2 (SO 4 )3 are more than 60%,and the adsorption capacity is more than 0.24 mg/g.The best adsorption pH value is 4—6,Fe3 + ,Mn2 + , NH 4 + ,Cl- ,solidity and alkalinity have a great influence on the adsorption of sulfa antibiotics by fungus chaff.

  18. Production and some characteristics of beta-glucosidase in Diaporthe (Phomopsis) helianthi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pericin, D; Jarak, M

    1995-01-01

    Diaporthe (Phomopsis) helianthi Munt.-Cvet. et al. is an important phytopathogenic fungus which causes stem canker of sunflower. When grown in submerged cultures in the presence of milled wheat chaff as a carbon source this phytopathogen produced extracellular and intracellular beta-glucosidases. The optimum pH of these enzymes was 4.8. The temperature of crude intracellular beta-glucosidase activity was at 60 degrees C, whereas the optimum activity of crude extracellular beta-glucosidase was observed in a wide range of temperature between 40 and 70 degrees C. Although, extracellular and intracellular beta-glucosidase activities had identical pH and similar temperature optima, the thermal stability of the intracellular enzyme was significantly higher.

  19. Characterization of residual biomass from the Arequipa region for the production of biofuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Laura Stronguiló Leturia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to select residual biomass from the Arequipa Region for the production of biofuels (biodiesel, bioethanol and biogas. In each case, the initial point is a matrix based on products with residual biomass available in the region, from the agricultural and livestock sectors, information that was obtained from the regional Management of Agriculture web site. Specific factors of the resudue that will be used as raw material for each biofuel production would be considered for the selection process. For the production of biodiesel it is necessary to start from the oil extracted from oilseeds. Regarding obtaining bioethanol, it requires that the residual biomass has high percent of cellulose. With regard to the generation of biogas, we will use animal droppings. Finally, the raw materials selected are: squash and avocado seeds for biodiesel, rice chaff and deseeded corncob for bioethanol and cow and sheep droppings for biogas

  20. Aging, cancer, and longevity: the uncertain road.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, Novera H; Jovanova-Nesic, Katica; Gertz, Alida M

    2013-02-01

    First, the latest scientific and clinical reports will be evaluated to separate the wheat from the chaff, that is, good data versus merely anecdotal evidence. Thus, the famous (infamous) Stromboli Cocktail will be brought up to date. Second, longevity statistics will be reviewed: Why do the most scientifically advanced countries have such low (comparatively) life expectancies? Scientific knowledge expands exponentially each decade, whereas there have been no significant advances in our knowledge, government, economics, politics, anti-corruption, and so forth since the dawn of history. What can we expect in the future? Will the human species outlive the cockroach? Can we expect to get closer to that theoretical asymptote of 120 years of human life? Will this ceiling ever be lifted? Finally, we offer two vital challenges to scientists of today.

  1. Structure Design of Large-scale Sow House with Fermentation Bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo LlU; Zhaolong Ll; Jianglin LAN; Qinlou HUANG; Jianyang TANG; Wenquan YU; Huai SHl

    2014-01-01

    ln this research, the whole contact-type large-scale sow house with fer-mentation bed was designed. The planning area of the entire piggery was 5 700 m2 with workplace and green belts. The sow house was 93 m long and 33 m wide, a total of 3 069 m2, including office area of 60 m2 and aisle area of 107 m2. The fer-mentation bed had an area of 2 902 m2 with length of 88.7 m and width of 27.7 m. lts area accounted for 95% of the total area of sow house. The fermentation mattress had a depth of 80 cm, and had a volume of 2 321 m3, equivalent to 733 t of coconut chaff and rice chaff. On a large fermentation bed, the areas for boars, replacement gilts, pregnant sows, obstetric tables, nursery pigs, etc. were designed. The large-scale sow house with fermentation bed was equipped with the automatic feeding system, automatic sprinkler system, automatic positioning column for preg-nant sows, sows’ obstetric table system, fanning wet curtain cooling system, video monitoring system, environmental monitoring (light, temperature, water, humidity, CO2, NH3) and automatic control system. Every farming area was equipped with feeding trough and water trough. The water though was fixed with overflow pipe for removing the extra water. The house could hold 500-head sows. Each sow occu-pied 4.9 m2 of the fermentation bed in average. The designed sow house had a maximum annual output of 10 000 piglets.

  2. Gravity wave reflection: Case study based on rocket data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüst, Sabine; Bittner, Michael

    2008-03-01

    Since gravity waves significantly influence the atmosphere by transporting energy and momentum, it is important to study their wave spectrum and their energy dissipation rates. Besides that, knowledge about gravity wave sources and the propagation of the generated waves is essential. Originating in the lower atmosphere, gravity waves can move upwards; when the background wind field is equal to their phase speed a so-called critical layer is reached. Their breakdown and deposition of energy and momentum is possible. Another mechanism which can take place at critical layers is gravity wave reflection. In this paper, gravity waves which were observed by foil chaff measurements during the DYANA (DYnamics Adapted Network for the Atmosphere) campaign in 1990 in Biscarrosse (44°N, 1°W)--as reported by Wüst and Bittner [2006. Non-linear wave-wave interaction: case studies based on rocket data and first application to satellite data. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 68, 959-976]--are investigated to look for gravity wave reflection processes. Following nonlinear theory, energy dissipation rates according to Weinstock [1980. Energy dissipation rates of turbulence in the stable free atmosphere. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 38, 880-883] are calculated from foil chaff cloud and falling sphere data and compared with the critical layer heights. Enhanced energy dissipation rates are found at those altitudes where the waves' phase speed matches the zonal background wind speeds. Indication of gravity wave trapping is found between two altitudes of around 95 and 86 km.

  3. Subspecific Characteristics and Classification of Rice Varieties Developed Through Indica and Japonica Crossing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Zheng-jin; LI Jin-quan; HUANG Rui-dong; JIANG Jian; CHEN Wen-fu; ZHANG Long-bu

    2005-01-01

    Six characteristics, i.e., hull color, chaff and leaf pubescences, length of 1st and 2nd rachis, grain length/width ratio and phenol reaction, of rice progenies from indica and japonica crossing were studied using the Cheng's index classification method. The results indicated that F1 generations performed more like indica, while F2 generations were approximately in a normal distribution. Both of the rice progenies were more affected by indica and female parents than by japonica and male parents. Among the six Cheng's index traits of the parents and F1 generations, and between the traits and Cheng's indexes, significant correlations (both at α=0.05 and α=0.01) were found in most cases. No significant correlations were found among the 6 Cheng's index traits of F2 generations in most cases, but significant correlations (α=0.01) existed between these traits and Cheng's indexes. The six Cheng's index traits of F2 ranged successively, and many individuals showed over-parent genetics, with the same trends in both direct cross and reciprocal cross. Among the 6 index traits,chaff and leaf pubescences almost presented in a two-peak value, while the others in a mono-peak value. The hull color,phenol reaction and length of 1 st and 2nd rachis were distributed in deviation, with the first two traits presented more in japonica individuals and the last trait more in indica. The grain length/width ratios were nearly in a normal distribution.

  4. Molecular detection of rickettsias DNA in ticks around northeast region of China%东北部分地区蜱携带几种病原立克次体的分子检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴琼; 冯立; 王洪军; 吴益民; 付学奇; 王卓; 张志强

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the prevalence of tick-borne rickettsias around northeast region of China. Methods Wild ticks were captured and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to amplify the rickettsias DNA of spotted fever group, human granulocytic ehrlichia and Ehrlichia chaff eensis carried by ticks. Results Ehrlichia chaff eensis DNA was found in I. Persulcatus and D. silvarum with the positive rates of 3.29% and 1.88% respectively. Meanwhile, human granulocytic ehrlichia DNA was amplified from I. Persulcatus with the positive rate of 2. 95%. However spotted fever group Rickettsiae was mainly found in H. concinna, with as high as 6.67% ticks carrying this rickettsiae, higher than that in I. Persulcatus and D. silvarum which were only 1. 69% and 2. 36%. Conclusions 7. Persulcatus and D. silvarum are possibly the main hosts of human granulocytic ehrlichia and Ehrlichia chaff eensis , while H. concinna mainly carries spotted fever group Rickettsiae in northeast region of China, indicating that it might be the natural foci of spotted feve, human granulocytic anaplasma and Ehrlichiosis.%目的 为了解东北地区蜱中携带立克次体的情况.方法 应用人工小时布旗法采集东北部分地区不同生境的游离蜱,采用PCR作斑点热立克次体、查菲埃立克体、人粒细胞无形体DNA检测.结果 从东北地区全沟硬蜱和森林革蜱检出查菲埃立克体DNA,全沟硬蜱平均阳性率为3.29%,森林革蜱为1.88%;从全沟硬蜱检出人粒细胞无形体DNA,平均阳性率为2.98%;从嗜群血蜱检出斑点热立克次体DNA,其平均阳性率(6.67%)明显高于全沟硬蜱(1.69%)和森林革蜱(2.36%).结论 东北地区全沟硬蜱和森林革蜱可能是查菲埃立克体、人粒细胞无形体的主要携带媒介,嗜群血蜱主要携带斑点热立克次体,提示东北地区存在三种蜱媒立克次体病的自然疫源地.

  5. First mesospheric turbulence study using coordinated rocket and MST radar measurements over Indian low latitude region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandra, H.; Sinha, H.S.S.; Das, U.; Misra, R.N.; Das, S.R. [Physical Research Lab., Ahmedabad (India); Datta, J.; Chakravarty, S.C. [ISRO Headquarters, Bangalore (India); Patra, A.K.; Vekateswara Rao, N.; Narayana Rao, D. [National Atmospheric Research Lab., Tirupati (India)

    2008-07-01

    A campaign to study turbulence in the mesosphere, over low latitudes in India, using rocket-borne measurements and Indian MST radar, was conducted during July 2004. A rocket-borne Langmuir probe detected a spectrum of electron density irregularities, with scale sizes in the range of about 1 m to 1 km, in 67.5-78.0 km and 84-89 km altitude regions over a low latitude station Sriharikota (13.6 N, 80.2 E). A rocket-borne chaff experiment measured zonal and meridional winds about 30 min after the Langmuir probe flight. The MST radar located at Gadanki (13.5 N, 79.2 E), which is about 100 km west of Sriharikota, also detected the presence of a strong scattering layer in 73.5-77.5 km region from which radar echoes corresponding to 3 m irregularities were received. Based on the region of occurrence of irregularities, which was highly collisional, presence of significant shears in zonal and meridional components of wind measured by the chaff experiment, 10 min periodicity in zonal and meridional winds obtained by the MST radar and the nature of wave number spectra of the irregularities, it is suggested that the observed irregularities were produced through the neutral turbulence mechanism. The percentage amplitude of fluctuations across the entire scale size range showed that the strength of turbulence was stronger in the lower altitude regions and decreased with increasing altitude. It was also found that the amplitude of fluctuations was large in regions of steeper electron density gradients. MST radar observations showed that at smaller scales of turbulence such as 3 m, (a) the thickness of the turbulent layer was between 2 and 3 km and (b) and fine structures, with layer thicknesses of about a km or less were also embedded in these layers. Rocket also detected 3-m fluctuations, which were very strong (a few percent) in lower altitudes (67.5 to 71.0 km) and small but clearly well above the noise floor at higher altitudes. Rocket and radar results also point to the

  6. Short-term effects of different organic amendments on soil chemical, biochemical and biological indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondelli, Donato; Aly, Adel; Yirga Dagnachew, Ababu; Piscitelli, Lea; Dumontet, Stefano; Miano, Teodoro

    2014-05-01

    The limited availability of animal manure and the high cost of good quality compost lead to difficult soil quality management under organic agriculture. Therefore, it is important to find out alternative organic soil amendments and more flexible strategies that are able to sustain crop productivity and maintain and enhance soil quality. A three years study was carried out in the experimental fields of the Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari located in Valenzano, Italy. The main objective of this research is to investigate the effects of different fertility management strategies on soil quality in order to estimate the role of innovative matrices for their use in organic farming. The experiment consists of seven treatments applied to a common crop rotation. The treatments include alternative organic amendments (1- olive mill wastewater OMW, 2- residues of mushroom cultivation MUS, 3- coffee chaff COF), common soil amendments (4- compost COM, 5- faba bean intercropping LEG, 6- cow manure - MAN) and as a reference treatment (7- mineral fertilizer COV). The soil quality was assessed before and after the application of the treatments, through biological (microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen, soil respiration and metabolic quotient), biochemical (soil enzymatic activities: β-glucosidase, alkaline phospatase, urease, fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolysis), and chemical (pH, soil organic carbon, soil organic matter, total nitrogen, available phosphorous, exchangeable potassium, dissolved organic carbon and total dissolved nitrogen) indicators. Based on the results obtained after the second year, all treatments were able to improve various soil chemical parameters as compared to mineral fertilizer. The incorporation of COF and OMW seemed to be more effective in improving soil total N and exchangeable K, while MAN significantly increased available P. All the amendments enhance dissolved organic C, soil respiration, microbial biomass and metabolic quotient as

  7. First mesospheric turbulence study using coordinated rocket and MST radar measurements over Indian low latitude region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Chandra

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A campaign to study turbulence in the mesosphere, over low latitudes in India, using rocket-borne measurements and Indian MST radar, was conducted during July 2004. A rocket-borne Langmuir probe detected a spectrum of electron density irregularities, with scale sizes in the range of about 1 m to 1 km, in 67.5–78.0 km and 84–89 km altitude regions over a low latitude station Sriharikota (13.6° N, 80.2° E. A rocket-borne chaff experiment measured zonal and meridional winds about 30 min after the Langmuir probe flight. The MST radar located at Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E, which is about 100 km west of Sriharikota, also detected the presence of a strong scattering layer in 73.5–77.5 km region from which radar echoes corresponding to 3 m irregularities were received. Based on the region of occurrence of irregularities, which was highly collisional, presence of significant shears in zonal and meridional components of wind measured by the chaff experiment, 10 min periodicity in zonal and meridional winds obtained by the MST radar and the nature of wave number spectra of the irregularities, it is suggested that the observed irregularities were produced through the neutral turbulence mechanism. The percentage amplitude of fluctuations across the entire scale size range showed that the strength of turbulence was stronger in the lower altitude regions and decreased with increasing altitude. It was also found that the amplitude of fluctuations was large in regions of steeper electron density gradients. MST radar observations showed that at smaller scales of turbulence such as 3 m, (a the thickness of the turbulent layer was between 2 and 3 km and (b and fine structures, with layer thicknesses of about a km or less were also embedded in these layers. Rocket also detected 3-m fluctuations, which were very strong (a few percent in lower altitudes (67.5 to 71.0 km and small but clearly well above the noise floor at higher altitudes. Rocket and radar

  8. A influência da cobertura morta sobre características físicas e químicas de frutos da pinha (Annona squamosa L. The influence of mulching in relation to physical and chemical characteristics of the sugar apple (Annona squamosa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlson Gusmão da Silva

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available De forma geral a aplicação de resíduos vegetais ao solo tem efeitos benéficos sobre os nutrientes do solo, sob as suas condições físicas, sob a atividade biológica e sobre a performance das culturas. O objetivo principal deste trabalho foi avaliar, durante um ciclo produtivo, o efeito da cobertura de bagaço de cana, casca de café e palha de Buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris, L., quanto ao seu efeito sobre características físicas e químicas do fruto da pinheira (Annona squamosa L.. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, constando de cinco repetições, contendo duas plantas por parcela. Foram analisados: massa do fruto, massa da casca, massa das sementes e o número de sementes por fruto, o teor de sólidos solúveis e o pH da polpa. De modo geral, a presença da cobertura morta proporcionou incremento de massa aos frutos, o que promove aumento de receita, uma vez que, quanto maior for o fruto, melhor será seu preço. Não ocorreu aumento do pH da polpa, e o tratamento com casca de café proporcionou o maior teor de sólidos solúveis totais. Quanto às demais características, não foram encontradas diferenças.The application of vegetal wastes to soil have a beneficial effects on soil nutrient, physical conditions, biological activities and on the culture performance, the main objective of this study was to evaluate three kinds of vegetable byproducts: sugar cane bagasse, coffee chaff, and Buffel straw, regarding to the effect on the physical and chemical characteristics of custard apple (Annona squamosa L..The experimental design used completely randomid plots with five repplications, and two plants per plot. The total fruit mass, the peel mass, the seed mass per fruit were evaluated. The pulp level of soluble solids was measured, as well as its pH. The presence of this mulching provided an increase in the fruit mass, thereby, increasing the commercial profit, as larger the fruit is, the greater the value per weight

  9. Effects of different mulching modes on bamboo shoots height and ground diameter%不同地表覆盖对毛竹笋高及地径的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建华; 佘婷婷; 谷战英; 吴柯豫; 唐光武; 唐云鹏

    2014-01-01

    通过对毛竹林地采用不同覆盖处理(稻草覆盖、稻草谷壳覆盖、竹叶覆盖),研究其对笋高及地径的影响,为毛竹高质高产提供科学依据。春季对样地竹笋进行连续观测,结果表明:地表覆盖能明显促进笋高、地径的生长,但是,不同的覆盖物产生的作用大小不同。3种覆盖物中稻草覆盖产生的作用最大,稻草谷壳覆盖次之,竹叶覆盖最小。分析结果表明,采用地表覆盖的管理措施对毛竹的生长有重要意义。因此,可以采用稻草覆盖作为改善毛竹低产的有效措施。%Through treating the bamboo forests with different mulching modes (straw mulching, straw and chaff mulching, bamboo leaves mulching) on the bamboo forestlands, the effects of the different treatment modes on the bamboo shoots height and diameter were investigated in order to provide a scientific theory basis for breeding high quality and yield bamboo. In spring, the observations and records on the bamboo shoots were conducted for seven consecutive days. The results show that these mulching modes obviously promoted the growth of bamboo shoots and ground diameter, but the effects of these mulching modes were different;among the modes, the straw mulching played the most obvious role, the straw and chaff mulching took the second place, the bamboo leaves mulching’ role was minimal; the action of the soil surface mulching on the growth of bamboo is significant. Therefore, it is suggested that the straw mulching mode should be used as an effective measure to improve the low yield of bamboo forests.

  10. Gorilla mothers also matter! New insights on social transmission in gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luef, Eva Maria; Pika, Simone

    2013-01-01

    The present paper describes two distinct behaviors relating to food processing and communication that were observed in a community of five separately housed groups of lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) in captivity during two study periods one decade apart: (1) a food processing technique to separate wheat from chaff, the so-called puff-blowing technique; and (2) a male display used to attract the attention of visitors, the so-called throw-kiss-display. We investigated (a) whether the behaviors were transmitted within the respective groups; and if yes, (b) their possible mode of transmission. Our results showed that only the food processing technique spread from three to twenty-one individuals during the ten-year period, whereas the communicative display died out completely. The main transmission mode of the puff-blowing technique was the mother-offspring dyad: offspring of puff-blowing mothers showed the behavior, while the offspring of non- puff-blowing mothers did not. These results strongly support the role mothers play in the acquisition of novel skills and vertical social transmission. Furthermore, they suggest that behaviors, which provide a direct benefit to individuals, have a high chance of social transmission while the loss of benefits can result in the extinction of behaviors.

  11. Grain Yield Response Of Rice Cultivars Under Upland Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananda Priya A

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available With a view to understand the differences in yield among rice cultivars under drought, a comparative study was done using53 rice genotypes including three local land races in both controlled and upland conditions. Ten yield components wererecorded in both the conditions. The correlation, path analysis and drought indices viz., relative yield (RY and susceptibilityindex (S were worked out. The correlation studies revealed that the single plant yield (SPY was significantly positivelycorrelated with number of leaves, number of tillers, number of productive tillers, number of primary branches per panicle,number of secondary branches per panicle, number of grains per panicle, number of chaffs per panicle and boot leaf breadthwhen evaluated under controlled irrigation condition. But none of the above traits had significant positive correlation withSPY in upland condition. In the path analysis, it was found out that number of productive tillers per plant has a high positivedirect effect and most of other traits showed negligible or low direct effect in lowland condition, but in upland conditionnone of the factors are having high direct effects towards SPY. From the S and RY, it was found that the local land racesand drought tolerant varieties MDU 5, TKM11 etc., performed well under upland condition

  12. Learning from Other's Mistakes - One Approach to teaching Information Literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewen MacDonald

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Everyone in the academic community is today confronted with an unprecedented problem. One click of the mouse can provide a student with enough source material to construct a doctoral thesis. Thus, the problem is no longer to locate the relevant material; today the difficulty is in separating the wheat from the chaff, or a more apt analogy, finding the few gold nuggets in the mountains of dross. The information literate student has to be able to evaluate web-based material which may be opinion disguised as fact. In this article we describe a short course entitled ‘Critical Journal Club’ and how after participating in this course, students become more critical, more sceptical and more information literate. The number of journals has increased and the standard of refereeing is now more inconsistent than ever. In particular, one critical change has been the move from print to electronic formatting. This means that few journals employ sub-editors with a scientific background - instead articles are transmitted in pdf-format directly to the publisher. It is important that students are made aware that even material in eminent journals can occasionally contain substantial errors as well as numerous grammatical mistakes. We aim to stimulate discussion on the current level of peer reviewing as well as stressing the importance of integrating critical information literature skills into the curriculum.

  13. 3D flare particle model for ShipIR/NTCS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswamy, Srinivasan; Vaitekunas, David A.

    2016-05-01

    A key component in any soft-kill response to an incoming guided missile is the flare /chaff decoy used to distract or seduce the seeker homing system away from the naval platform. This paper describes a new 3D flare particle model in the naval threat countermeasure simulator (NTCS) of the NATO-standard ship signature model (ShipIR), which provides independent control over the size and radial distribution of its signature. The 3D particles of each flare sub-munition are modelled stochastically and rendered using OpenGL z-buffering, 2D projection, and alpha-blending to produce a unique and time varying signature. A sensitivity analysis on each input parameter provides the data and methods needed to synthesize a model from an IR measurement of a decoy. The new model also eliminated artifacts and deficiencies in our previous model which prevented reliable tracks from the adaptive track gate algorithm already presented by Ramaswamy and Vaitekunas (2015). A sequence of scenarios are used to test and demonstrate the new flare model during a missile engagement.

  14. Infrared decoy and obscurant modelling and simulation for ship protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butters, Brian; Nicholls, Edgar; Walmsley, Roy; Ayling, Richard

    2011-11-01

    Imaging seekers used in modern Anti Ship Missiles (ASMs) use a variety of counter countermeasure (CCM) techniques including guard gates and aspect ratio assessment in order to counter the use of IR decoys. In order to improve the performance of EO/IR countermeasures it is necessary to accurately configure and place the decoys using a launcher that is trainable in azimuth and elevation. Control of the launcher, decoy firing times and burst sequences requires the development of algorithms based on multi-dimensional solvers. The modelling and simulation used to derive the launcher algorithms is described including the countermeasure, threat, launcher and ship models. The launcher model incorporates realistic azimuth and elevation rates with limits on azimuth and elevation arcs of fire. A Navier Stokes based model of the IR decoy includes thermal buoyancy, cooling of the IR smoke and its extinction properties. All of these factors affect the developing size, shape and radiance of the decoy. The hot smoke also influences the performance of any co-located chaff or other obscurant material. Typical simulations are described against generic imaging ASM seekers using shape discrimination or a guard gate.

  15. Immobilization of microbial cell and yeast cell and its application to biomass conversion using radiation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaetsu, Isao; Kumakura, Minoru; Fujimura, Takashi; Kasai, Noboru; Tamada, Masao

    The recent results of immobilization of cellulase-producing cells and ethanol-fermentation yeast by radiation were reported. The enzyme of cellulase produced by immobilized cells was used for saccharification of lignocellulosic wastes and immobilized yeast cells were used for fermentation reaction from glucose to ethanol. The wastes such as chaff and bagasse were treated by γ-ray or electron-beam irradiation in the presence of alkali and subsequent mechanical crushing, to form a fine powder less than 50 μm in diameter. On the other hand, Trichoderma reesei as a cellulase-producing microbial cell was immobilized on a fibrous carrier having a specific porous structure and cultured to produce cellulase. The enzymatic saccharification of the pretreated waste was carried out using the produced cellulase. The enhanced fermentation process to produce ethanol from glucose with the immobilized yeast by radiation was also studied. The ethanol productivity of immobilized growing yeast cells thus obtained was thirteen times that of free yeast cells in a 1:1 volume of liquid medium to immobilized yeast cells.

  16. Nonceliac gluten sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasano, Alessio; Sapone, Anna; Zevallos, Victor; Schuppan, Detlef

    2015-05-01

    During the past decade there has been an impressive increase in popularity of the gluten-free diet (GFD)-now the most trendy alimentary habit in the United States and other countries. According to recent surveys, as many as 100 million Americans will consume gluten-free products within a year. Operating under the concept that the GFD benefits only individuals with celiac disease, health care professionals have struggled to separate the wheat from the chaff; there are claims that eliminating gluten from the diet increases health and helps with weight loss, or even that gluten can be harmful to every human being. However, apart from unfounded trends, a disorder related to ingestion of gluten or gluten-containing cereals, namely nonceliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS), has resurfaced in the literature, fueling a debate on the appropriateness of the GFD for people without celiac disease. Although there is clearly a fad component to the popularity of the GFD, there is also undisputable and increasing evidence for NCGS. However, we require a better understanding of the clinical presentation of NCGS, as well as its pathogenesis, epidemiology, management, and role in conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome, chronic fatigue, and autoimmunity. Before we can begin to identify and manage NCGS, there must be agreement on the nomenclature and definition of the disorder based on proper peer-reviewed scientific information. We review the most recent findings on NCGS and outline directions to dissipate some of the confusion related to this disorder.

  17. Synthesis of some calcium phosphate crystals using the useful biomass for immobilization of microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohiruimaki, T.

    2011-10-01

    Three sources of biomass generated by primary industry were used as the raw material for the synthesis of calcium phosphate crystals. Phosphoric acid was extracted from burned rice chaff using a 30% nitric acid solution, while scallop shells and gypsum of plasterboard were used as calcium sources. The calcium phosphate crystals were synthesized by a method involving homogeneous precipitation, and the relationship between the composition and shape of the crystals and the pH at the time of the precipitation was investigated. Monetite crystals in a petal form with a diameter ranging from 0.1 to 2 μm were precipitated at pH 2.0, while granular apatite crystals with a mean diameter of 1 μm were precipitated at pH 6.0. We also investigated the ability of the synthesized calcium phosphate crystals to immobilize lactic acid bacteria for practical use in industrial bioreactor. It was determined that monetite crystals with a diameter of 2 μm had the highest ability to fix lactic acid bacteria. The population of lactic acid bacteria was estimated to exceed 1,300 bacteria per crystal surface of 50 μm2 suggesting that these crystals may be of practical use in industrial fermenters.

  18. Production Technology Improvement of Shanxi Mature Vinegar%山西老陈醋生产工艺改良的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王家东; 王荣荣; 陈秀萍; 侯红萍

    2014-01-01

    以高粱为原料、大曲作糖化发酵剂、谷糠和麸皮作辅料,采用前液后固发酵的方法,以山西老陈醋传统生产工艺为对照,在总发酵周期不变的情况下,采取缩短酒精发酵时间和延长醋酸发酵时间的措施,制得醋的总酸含量提高了24.5%、总酯含量提高了19.8%。%Take sorghum as raw material,Daqu as saccharifying ferment,chaff and wheat bran as auxiliary materials,the traditional production technology for comparison,under the condition of the total fermentation period unchanged,the liquid and solid fermentation method is used,take the meas-ures of shortening the fermentation time and prolonging the acetic acid fermentation time,then the to-tal acid content of vinegar is increased by 24.5% and the total ester content is increased by 19.8%.

  19. Synthesis of some calcium phosphate crystals using the useful biomass for immobilization of microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohiruimaki, T, E-mail: kohi@hi-tech.ac.jp [Department of Technology, Hachinohe Institute of Technology, 88-1 Myo-oobiraki, Hachinohe-shi 031-8501 (Japan)

    2011-10-29

    Three sources of biomass generated by primary industry were used as the raw material for the synthesis of calcium phosphate crystals. Phosphoric acid was extracted from burned rice chaff using a 30% nitric acid solution, while scallop shells and gypsum of plasterboard were used as calcium sources. The calcium phosphate crystals were synthesized by a method involving homogeneous precipitation, and the relationship between the composition and shape of the crystals and the pH at the time of the precipitation was investigated. Monetite crystals in a petal form with a diameter ranging from 0.1 to 2 {mu}m were precipitated at pH 2.0, while granular apatite crystals with a mean diameter of 1 {mu}m were precipitated at pH 6.0. We also investigated the ability of the synthesized calcium phosphate crystals to immobilize lactic acid bacteria for practical use in industrial bioreactor. It was determined that monetite crystals with a diameter of 2 {mu}m had the highest ability to fix lactic acid bacteria. The population of lactic acid bacteria was estimated to exceed 1,300 bacteria per crystal surface of 50 {mu}m{sup 2} suggesting that these crystals may be of practical use in industrial fermenters.

  20. Gaseous emissions, growth performance and pork quality of pigs housed in deep-litter system compared to concrete-floor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chuanshe; Hu, Jinjie; Zhang, Bin; Tan, Zhiliang

    2015-04-01

    This study measured gaseous emissions, growth performance and pork quality in a deep-litter system and concrete-floor system. Three hundred and twenty weaned piglets with an average body weight (BW) of 6.0 ± 0.3 kg were assigned randomly into three treatments. Treatments 1 and 2 included four pens with 20 pigs for each pen respectively in the deep-litter system, and the ratio of sawdust to chaff was 5:5 and 3:7 for treatments 1 and 2 respectively, the probiotics inoculated into the fermentation bedding for both treatments were composed of Saccharomycetes, Bacillus subtilis and Actinomycetes; treatment 3 was the conventional concrete-floor system including eight pens with 20 pigs for each pen. The concentration of NH3 and CO2 in the deep-litter system was significantly (P litter system was significantly (P litter system were significantly (P litter system had some animal welfare improvements and an odor nuisance reduction; in the meantime, pork quality also improved from the deep-litter system compared to the pigs housed in the concrete-floor system.

  1. Pemanfaatan limbah fleshing kulit kambing untuk pembuatan kompos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Sutyasmi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to create method for managing the environmental pollution caused by fleshing from leather tanning industry. Compos production was carried out by using the cooked fleshing and uncooked fleshing with variation of fleshing 85,60,45, and 30 % respectively mixed with 13.8% of chaff, 0.2% of brand, and 1% of lime and the rest was soil to gain 100% of compound. Protein bio-city as much as 50 ml/kg was used as a starter and it was added after having diluted and fermented for 48 hours. The compound was filled in the 10 I of plastic bucket and cured by lid on it. Every two days they were agitated and sprayed with water regarding to keep the humidity to be constant. The C/N ratio of the compos was analyzed chemically. The compos had been nature for about one month, and they were characterized by the change of the natural color into dark brown with soil smell, and the volume decreased would be 30% of the initial volume. The mean C/N ratio of compos from cooked fleshing was 14 which varied between 12.46-15.50. That value has a smaller range compared with the compos from uncooked fleshing, the mean value of which was 11, with the variation of C/N ratio of that was bigger 7.07-16.24.

  2. Regression toward the mean – a detection method for unknown population mean based on Mee and Chua's algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lüdtke Rainer

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regression to the mean (RTM occurs in situations of repeated measurements when extreme values are followed by measurements in the same subjects that are closer to the mean of the basic population. In uncontrolled studies such changes are likely to be interpreted as a real treatment effect. Methods Several statistical approaches have been developed to analyse such situations, including the algorithm of Mee and Chua which assumes a known population mean μ. We extend this approach to a situation where μ is unknown and suggest to vary it systematically over a range of reasonable values. Using differential calculus we provide formulas to estimate the range of μ where treatment effects are likely to occur when RTM is present. Results We successfully applied our method to three real world examples denoting situations when (a no treatment effect can be confirmed regardless which μ is true, (b when a treatment effect must be assumed independent from the true μ and (c in the appraisal of results of uncontrolled studies. Conclusion Our method can be used to separate the wheat from the chaff in situations, when one has to interpret the results of uncontrolled studies. In meta-analysis, health-technology reports or systematic reviews this approach may be helpful to clarify the evidence given from uncontrolled observational studies.

  3. Sailing the Information Ocean with Awareness of Currents: Discovery and Application of Source Dependence

    CERN Document Server

    Berti-Equille, Laure; Xin,; Dong,; Marian, Amelie; Srivastava, Divesh

    2009-01-01

    The Web has enabled the availability of a huge amount of useful information, but has also eased the ability to spread false information and rumors across multiple sources, making it hard to distinguish between what is true and what is not. Recent examples include the premature Steve Jobs obituary, the second bankruptcy of United airlines, the creation of Black Holes by the operation of the Large Hadron Collider, etc. Since it is important to permit the expression of dissenting and conflicting opinions, it would be a fallacy to try to ensure that the Web provides only consistent information. However, to help in separating the wheat from the chaff, it is essential to be able to determine dependence between sources. Given the huge number of data sources and the vast volume of conflicting data available on the Web, doing so in a scalable manner is extremely challenging and has not been addressed by existing work yet. In this paper, we present a set of research problems and propose some preliminary solutions on th...

  4. Gorilla mothers also matter! New insights on social transmission in gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla in captivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Maria Luef

    Full Text Available The present paper describes two distinct behaviors relating to food processing and communication that were observed in a community of five separately housed groups of lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla in captivity during two study periods one decade apart: (1 a food processing technique to separate wheat from chaff, the so-called puff-blowing technique; and (2 a male display used to attract the attention of visitors, the so-called throw-kiss-display. We investigated (a whether the behaviors were transmitted within the respective groups; and if yes, (b their possible mode of transmission. Our results showed that only the food processing technique spread from three to twenty-one individuals during the ten-year period, whereas the communicative display died out completely. The main transmission mode of the puff-blowing technique was the mother-offspring dyad: offspring of puff-blowing mothers showed the behavior, while the offspring of non- puff-blowing mothers did not. These results strongly support the role mothers play in the acquisition of novel skills and vertical social transmission. Furthermore, they suggest that behaviors, which provide a direct benefit to individuals, have a high chance of social transmission while the loss of benefits can result in the extinction of behaviors.

  5. Evaluation of two composts for the improvement of crop yield using tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum as test crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawole Oluyemisi B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In search of a more environmentally friendly alternative to the use of chemical fertilizers, a study was conducted to evaluate the use of compost for improved crop productivity. We compared the succession of microorganisms in the compost heaps using hot bed method of composting. They contained grass clippings, sawdust, NPK fertilizer, ashes, corn cobs, bean chaff, vegetable stalks, newspaper shreds and soil arranged in layers in a round structure. Poultry dropping was the organic nitrogen source of one heap while pig waste was used for the other heap. Samples were taken weekly and analyzed using soil dilution method for isolation of moulds on potato dextrose agar medium. The qualities of composts after eight weeks were evaluated by performance and yield of tomato crops. Eleven fungal isolates were obtained in compost containing poultry dropping and nine fungal isolates were obtained from compost containing pig manure. The predominant mycoflora of poultry dropping compost at 3 weeks of composting was Fusarium pallidoroseum (23.08% while Aspergillus fumigatus (38.96% dominated compost containing pig waste. Fungi isolated from the composts included cellulolytic fungi like Chaetomium sp. and Phoma sp. Soil amended with both composts improved the growth and yield of tomato crop significantly. It was concluded that compost containing poultry droppings was richer and therefore encouraged higher microbial activity than compost containing pig waste. Knowledge of the microbial succession during composting and conditions required could further be employed to enhance composting.

  6. 利用农业废弃物处理重金属污染水体的试验%Experiment of Utilizing Agricultural Wastes to Treat Water Polluted by Heavy Metals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃勇荣; 盘芳丽; 韦丽凤; 罗志勇; 严海杰

    2016-01-01

    利用香蕉皮、菌糠、桑杆、甘蔗渣等当地常见的农业废弃物,通过振荡吸附的方法,研究其在吸附时间、pH、吸附材料投入量、粒径以及重金属离子起始浓度不同的人工模拟废水中,处理Cu2+、Pb2+污染水体的可行性及最佳吸附条件。结果表明:①香蕉皮、菌糠、桑杆、甘蔗渣对Cu2+、Pb2+污染的水体均具有一定的吸附作用。②不同吸附材料对Cu2+吸附的最佳时间、pH、吸附材料投入量、重金属离子起始浓度以及粒径分别为:香蕉皮,2.5 h、2、6 g/L、5μg/mL、60目;桑杆,2.5 h、3、2 g/L、20μg/mL、40目;菌糠,2 h、2~5、2 g/L、30μg/mL、100目;甘蔗渣,2 h、2~3、8 g/L、10μg/mL、100目。③对Pb2+的最佳吸附条件为依次为:香蕉皮,1.5 h、3~6、10 g/L、20μg/mL、60目;桑杆,3 h、3、10 g/L、5μg/mL、60~100目;菌糠,3 h、3~5、4 g/L、10μg/mL、80目;甘蔗渣,1.5 h、4~6、4 g/L、10μg/mL、20目。选用香蕉皮、菌糠、桑杆、甘蔗渣等农业废弃物处理重金属污染水体,既可实现环境治理,又可实现资源的合理利用。%By the method of oscillation adsorption, common agricultural wastes such as banana peel, fungus chaff, mulberry branches and sugarcane bagasses were used as adsorbent materials to probe the feasibility and effects of the treatment of water polluted by heavy metal. The impacts of adsorption time, pH value, dosage of adsorbent, particle size of the material and the initial concentration of heavy metal ions in different artificial wastewater on Cu2+and Pb2+adsorption and its optimum adsorption conditions were studied. It was shown that four kinds of agricultural wastes had some ability for Cu2+ and Pb2+ adsorption in the polluted water. Under the same conditions, the effects of Cu2+ and Pb2+ adsorption by different materials had significant differences. The best adsorption conditions ( including adsorption time, pH value, inputs of adsorbent

  7. Development and Performance Evaluation of Maize Threshing and Grinding Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugwu K. C.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Maize threshing and grinding machine was designed, fabricated and its performance was evaluated. The machine consists of two compartments which include the threshing and grinding chamber. Threshing chamber is where the maize grain is been separated from the cob, and the cob will be collected through the outlet chute. Therefore, before the maize grain enters into the grinding chamber, blower will separate the grain from the chaff. The separated grain enters the grinding chamber and is being grounded by compressive means through the stationary disc and the grinding plate. A 2 hp electric motor provides drive through belt connections to drive the pulley on threshing chamber and another 2 hp electric motor provide drive for the grinding chamber. The actual test was conducted using three different moisture contents and feed rates. It was observed that the efficiency of the machine was hindered by high moisture content. The results obtained showed that the machine performed well at low moisture content. The efficiency of the machine was 99.01% on the moisture content of 10%. The analysis of variance (ANOVA of the results obtained at 5% percent probability confirmed that the moisture content of the maize was an important parameter that affects the performance of the machine

  8. Final Report: DOE/ID/14215

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth Bryden; J. Richard Hess; Thomas Ulrich; Robert Zemetra

    2008-08-18

    The proposed straw separation system developed in the research project harvests the large internode sections of the straw which has the greater potential as a feedstock for lignocellulosic ethanol production while leaving the chaff and nodes in the field. This strategy ensures sustainable agriculture by preventing the depletion of soil minerals, and it restores organic matter to the soil in amounts and particle sizes that accommodate farmers’ needs to keep tillage and fertilizer costs low. A ton of these nutrient-rich plant tissues contains as much as $10.55 worth of fertilizer (economic and energy benefits), in terms of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and other nutrients provided to the soil when incorporated by tillage instead of being burned. Biomass conversion to fermentable sugars for the purpose of producing fuels, chemicals, and other industrial products is well understood. Most bioenergy strategies rely on low-cost fermentable sugars for sustainability and economic viability in the marketplace. Exploitation of the “whole crop”—specifically, wheat straw or other plant material currently regarded as residue or waste—is a practical approach for obtaining a reliable and low-cost source of sugars. However, industrial-scale production of sugars from wheat straw, while technically feasible, is plagued by obstacles related to capital costs, energy consumption, waste streams, production logistics, and the quality of the biomass feedstock. Currently available separation options with combine harvesters are not able to achieve sufficient separation of the straw/stover and chaff streams to realize the full potential of selective harvest. Since ethanol yield is a function of feedstock structural carbohydrate content, biomass anatomical fractions of higher product yield can have a significant beneficial impact on minimum ethanol selling price. To address this advanced biomass separation computation engineering models were developed to more effectively and

  9. 基于随机微分的质心干扰模型%Studies on centroid jamming model using stochastic differential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡生亮; 杨庆; 贺静波; 刘忠

    2012-01-01

    反舰导弹末制导雷达普遍采用单脉冲跟踪体制.尽管质心干扰最终效能受多方面影响,但舰艇和干扰源的目标散射特性是影响质心干扰效能的最基本方面.因此,从目标散射特性和单脉冲末制导雷达对目标信号处理过程人手,是研究质心干扰效能一条可思考的途径.本文从信号级人手,利用随机微分方程,研究了质心干扰条件下反舰导弹末制导雷达的跟踪方位概率密度函数,并通过不同信噪比条件下跟踪方位概率密度函数曲线对比,验证了本研究思路的有效性.%The anti-ship cruise missiles use a monopulse tracking mechanism to home-in on ship targets. In the so-called seduction decoy ECM technique, an alternative or false target in deliberately introduced by the ship during the missiles track mode to compromise the tracker' s intended purpose. It shows a chaff cloud in competition with the ship for the attention of the tracker' s cell. According to the scattering quality of target, the stochastic differential equations are given for the tracking capability of monopulse anti-ship missile terminal guidance radar. The probability density function of azimuth is represented, which enables identification of their stochastic volatilities with certain free functions. At last the simulation experiments were made by Matlab and the effectiveness of the model was tested and verified.

  10. A data base of crop nutrient use, water use, and carbon dioxide exchange in a 2O square meter growth chamber: I. Wheat as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, R M; Berry, W L; Mackowiak, C; Corey, K A; Sager, J C; Heeb, M M; Knott, W M

    1993-01-01

    A data set is given describing the daily nutrient uptake, gas exchange, environmental conditions, and carbon (C), and nutrient partitioning at harvest for the entire canopy and root system of a wheat crop (Triticum aestivum, cv. Yecora Rojo). The data were obtained from a 20 m2 stand of wheat plants grown from planting to maturity in a closed, controlled environment, and include daily nutrient uptake [macronutrients, nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and sulfur (S); and micronutrients, iron (Fe), boron (B), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and molybdenum (Mo)], canopy carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange rates, and transpiration. Environmental factors such as relative humidity, air temperature, nutrient solution temperature, pH and electrical conductivity, and photoperiod were controlled in the chamber to specific set points. A detailed description of biomass yield for each of the 64 plant growth trays comprising the 20 m2 of growth area is also provided, and includes dry weights of grain, straw, chaff, and roots, along with the concentration of nutrients in different plant tissues and the percent carbohydrate, fat, and protein. To our knowledge, this information represents one of the most extensive data sets available for a canopy of wheat grown from seed to maturity under controlled environmental and nutritional conditions, and thus may provide useful information for model development and validation. A methods section is included to qualify any assumptions that might be required for the use of the data in plant growth models, along with a daily event calendar indicating when adjustments in set points and occasional equipment or sensor failures occurred.

  11. Distributed Physical and Molecular Separations for Selective Harvest of Higher Value Wheat Straw Components Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, J.R

    2005-01-31

    Wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.) is an abundant source of plant fiber. It is regenerated, in large quantities, every year. At present, this potentially valuable resource is greatly under-exploited. Most of the excess straw biomass (i.e., tonnage above that required for agronomic cropping system sustainability) is managed through expensive chopping/tillage operations and/or burnt in the field following harvest, resulting in air pollution and associated health problems. Potential applications for wheat straw investigated within this project include energy and composites manufacture. Other methods of straw utilization that will potentially benefit from the findings of this research project include housing and building, pulp and paper, thermal insulation, fuels, and chemicals. This project focused on components of the feedstock assembly system for supplying a higher value small grains straw residue for (1) gasification/combustion and (2) straw-thermoplastic composites. This project was an integrated effort to solve the technological, infrastructural, and economic challenges associated with using straw residue for these bioenergy and bioproducts applications. The objective of the research is to contribute to the development of a low-capital distributed harvesting and engineered storage system for upgrading wheat straw to more desirable feedstocks for combustion and for straw-plastic composites. We investigated two processes for upgrading wheat straw to a more desirable feedstock: (1) An efficient combine-based threshing system for separating the internodal stems from the leaves, sheaths, nodes, and chaff. (2) An inexpensive biological process using white-rot fungi to improve the composition of the mechanically processed straw stems.

  12. Distributed Physical and Molecular Separations for Selective Harvest of Higher Value Wheat Straw Components Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    2004-09-30

    Wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.) is an abundant source of plant fiber. It is regenerated, in large quantities, every year. At present, this potentially valuable resource is greatly under-exploited. Most of the excess straw biomass (i.e., tonnage above that required for agronomic cropping system sustainability) is managed through expensive chopping/tillage operations and/or burnt in the field following harvest, resulting in air pollution and associated health problems. Potential applications for wheat straw investigated within this project include energy and composites manufacture. Other methods of straw utilization that will potentially benefit from the findings of this research project include housing and building, pulp and paper, thermal insulation, fuels, and chemicals. This project focused on components of the feedstock assembly system for supplying a higher value small grains straw residue for (1) gasification/combustion and (2) straw-thermoplastic composites. This project was an integrated effort to solve the technological, infrastructural, and economic challenges associated with using straw residue for these bioenergy and bioproducts applications. The objective of the research is to contribute to the development of a low-capital distributed harvesting and engineered storage system for upgrading wheat straw to more desirable feedstocks for combustion and for straw-plastic composites. They investigated two processes for upgrading wheat straw to a more desirable feedstock: (1) an efficient combine-based threshing system for separating the intermodal stems from the leaves, sheaths, nodes, and chaff. (2) An inexpensive biological process using white-rot fungi to improve the composition of the mechanically processed straw stems.

  13. The science, technology, and politics of ballistic missile defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Philip E.

    2014-05-01

    America's missile defense systems are deployed at home and abroad. This includes the Groundbased Missile Defense (GMD) system in Alaska and California, the Phased Adaptive Approach in Europe (EPAA), and regional systems in the Middle East and Asia. Unfortunately these systems lack workable architectures, and many of the required elements either don't work or are missing. Major review and reconsideration is needed of all elements of these systems. GMD performance in tests has gotten worse with time, when it ought to be getting better. A lack of political support is not to blame as the DoD spends about 10 billion per year, and proposes to add about 5 billion over the next five years. Russia objects to the EPAA as a threat to its ICBM forces, and to the extensive deployment of U.S. military forces in countries such as Poland, the Czech Republic and Romania, once part of the Soviet Union. Going forward the U.S. should keep working with Russia whose cooperation will be key to diplomatic gains in the Middle East and elsewhere. Meanwhile, America's missile defenses face an enduring set of issues, especially target discrimination in the face of attacks designed to overwhelm the defenses, stage separation debris, chaff, decoys, and stealth. Dealing with target discrimination while also replacing, upgrading, or adding to the many elements of U.S. missiles defenses presents daunting budget priorities. A new look at the threat is warranted, and whether the U.S. needs to consider every nation that possesses even short-range missiles a threat to America. The proliferation of missiles of all sizes around the world is a growing problem, but expecting U.S. missile defenses to deal with all those missiles everywhere is unrealistic, and U.S. missile defenses, effective or not, are justifying more and more offensive missiles.

  14. Communicating Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Nicholas

    2009-10-01

    Introduction: what this book is about and why you might want to read it; Prologue: three orphans share a common paternity: professional science communication, popular journalism, and literary fiction are not as separate as they seem; Part I. Professional Science Communication: 1. Spreading the word: the endless struggle to publish professional science; 2. Walk like an Egyptian: the alien feeling of professional science writing; 3. The future's bright? Professional science communication in the age of the internet; 4. Counting the horse's teeth: professional standards in science's barter economy; 5. Separating the wheat from the chaff: peer review on trial; Part II. Science for the Public: What Science Do People Need and How Might They Get It?: 6. The Public Understanding of Science (PUS) movement and its problems; 7. Public engagement with science and technology (PEST): fine principle, difficult practice; 8. Citizen scientists? Democratic input into science policy; 9. Teaching and learning science in schools: implications for popular science communication; Part III. Popular Science Communication: The Press and Broadcasting: 10. What every scientist should know about mass media; 11. What every scientist should know about journalists; 12. The influence of new media; 13. How the media represents science; 14. How should science journalists behave?; Part IV. The Origins of Science in Cultural Context: Five Historic Dramas: 15. A terrible storm in Wittenberg: natural knowledge through sorcery and evil; 16. A terrible storm in the Mediterranean: controlling nature with white magic and religion; 17. Thieving magpies: the subtle art of false projecting; 18. Foolish virtuosi: natural philosophy emerges as a distinct discipline but many cannot take it seriously; 19. Is scientific knowledge 'true' or should it just be 'truthfully' deployed?; Part V. Science in Literature: 20. Science and the Gothic: the three big nineteenth-century monster stories; 21. Science fiction: serious

  15. Influence of crop rotation and tillage intensity on soil physical properties and functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krümmelbein, Julia

    2013-04-01

    Soil tillage intensity can vary concerning tillage depth, frequency, power input into the soil and degree of soil turn-over. Conventional tillage systems where a plough is regularly used to turn over the soil can be differentiated from reduced tillage systems without ploughing but with loosening the upper soil and no tillage systems. Between conventional tillage and no tillage is a wide range of more or less reduced tillage systems. In our case the different tillage intensities are not induced by different agricultural machinery or techniques, but result from varying crop rotations with more or less perennial crops and therefore lower or higher tillage frequency. Our experimental area constitutes of quite unstructured substrates, partly heavily compacted. The development of a functioning soil structure and accumulation of nutrients and organic matter are of high importance. Three different crop rotations induce varying tillage intensities and frequencies. The first crop rotation (Alfalfa monoculture) has only experienced seed bed preparation once and subsequently is wheeled once a year to cut and chaff the biomass. The second crop rotation contains perennial and annual crops and has therefore been tilled more often, while the third crop rotation consists only of annual crops with annual seedbed preparation. Our results show that reduced tillage intensity/frequency combined with the intense root growth of Alfalfa creates the most favourable soil physical state of the substrate compared to increased tillage and lower root growth intensity of the other crop rotations. Soil tillage disturbs soil structure development, especially when the substrate is mechanically unstable as in our case. For such problematic locations it is recommendable to reduce tillage intensity and/or frequency to allow the development of soil structure enhanced by root growth and thereby the accumulation of organic matter and nutrients within the rooting zone.

  16. Methane emissions, feed intake, performance, digestibility, and rumen fermentation of finishing beef cattle offered whole-crop wheat silages differing in grain content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Geough, E J; O'Kiely, P; Hart, K J; Moloney, A P; Boland, T M; Kenny, D A

    2010-08-01

    This study aimed to quantify the methane emissions and feed intake, performance, carcass traits, digestibility, and rumen fermentation characteristics of finishing beef cattle offered diets based on whole-crop wheat (WCW) silages differing in grain content and to rank these relative to diets based on grass silage (GS) and ad libitum concentrates (ALC). In Exp. 1, a total of 90 continental crossbred steers [538 +/- 27.6 kg of BW (mean +/- SD)] were blocked by BW and assigned in a randomized complete block design to 1 of 6 treatments based on 4 WCW silages [grain-to-straw plus chaff ratios of 11:89 (WCW I), 21:79 (WCW II), 31:69 (WCW III), and 47:53 (WCW IV)], GS, and ALC. Increasing grain content in WCW silage resulted in a quadratic (P = 0.01) response in DMI, with a linear (P silage. A quadratic (P silage diets and had greater methane emissions than cattle in any other treatment when expressed relative to DMI. Cattle offered ALC exhibited greater (P silage-based treatments. In Exp. 2, rumen fermentation parameters were determined using 4 ruminally cannulated Rotbunde-Holstein steers (413 +/- 30.1 kg of BW) randomly allocated among WCW I, the average of WCW II and III (WCW II/III), WCW IV, and GS in a 4 x 4 Latin square design. Ruminal pH and total VFA concentration did not differ across dietary treatments. Molar proportion of acetic acid decreased (P = 0.01), with propionic acid tending to increase (P = 0.06) with increasing grain content. It was concluded that increasing the grain content of WCW silage reduced methane emissions relative to DMI and CG and improved animal performance. However, the relativity of GS to WCW in terms of methane emissions was dependent on the unit of expression used. Cattle offered ALC exhibited decreased methane emissions and greater performance than those offered any of the silage-based treatments.

  17. Li Meixiang leads women to become well-off. Integrated approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, M

    1996-02-01

    This article describes the experiences of a family planning worker in Meihekou City, Jilin Province, in implementing the integrated approach to family planning. Madam Li Meixiang is credited with being an outstanding example in improving program implementation. The new approach has helped people accept a smaller family size norm. Madam Li in 1981 married and shared in the responsibility of supporting a six-member family and raising her own daughter. Their success in eliminating debt and improving their standard of living is attributed to their efforts to grow rice on 1.3 hectares of land, running a small grain-processing factory in the village, and raising pigs who were fed the chaff produced from processed rice. Li invested in a truck and the family moved into a larger house with modern conveniences. The Li family was the first to rise from poverty to a well-off position in the community. Li became interested in family planning issues after an IEC presentation in the village. In 1990 Madam Li was elected head of the women's association of the village and assumed leadership of family planning activities. Her objective was to teach other women about the advantages of a small family and to offer advice in solving economic problems. During the off-farming season Madam Li worked to establish income generation activities for other women and acceptors. Li organized an village effort to shell walnuts for a local export and import company. About 30% of the village women were involved the first year, and almost 80% were involved in the past two years. The project showed villagers how ingenuity without any cash outlay could yield profits. Over 200 families join the project in the winter and receive an average income of over 2500 yuan. Madam Li has helped villagers obtain bank loans for small scale projects and given advice on how to increase profits.

  18. Equine pre-caecal and total tract digestibility of individual carbohydrate fractions and their effect on caecal pH response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brøkner, Christine; Austbø, Dag; Næsset, Jon Anders; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Tauson, Anne-Helene

    2012-12-01

    The working hypothesis was that a minor postprandial caecal pH decline would affect apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of the fibre fraction in horses and, hence, that soluble fibre would amplify fermentation and consequently increase ATTD of fibre. This study was a 4 × 4 Latin Square design with a sequence of 17 days adaptation to the ration followed by 8 sampling days. The feed rations consisted of only timothy hay (Group H), hay plus molassed sugar beet pulp combined with either whole oats (Group OB) or barley (Group BB) and hay plus loose chaff based concentrate (Group M). Four horses fitted with permanent caecal cannulas and collection harnesses were used. A pH electrode with logger was inserted through the cannula and caecal pH was recorded at 1 min intervals for 8 h. The mobile nylon bag technique was used to quantify pre-caecal loss (PCL) of individual feedstuffs. Fibre was analysed as dietary fibre (DF), non-starch polysaccharides, soluble non-cellulosic polysaccharides (S-NCP), insoluble non-cellulosic polysaccharide (I-NCP) and neutral detergent fibre. The ATTD of the S-NCP fraction was above 0.8, which was 60% higher than for the I-NCP fraction. The PCL of starch were 0.98 (oats) and 0.75 (barley). The BB diet lowered (p NCP (r = -0.66; p = 0.005). In conclusion, this study successfully measured the in vivo digestibility of individual fibre fractions and found that S-NCP was more digestible than the I-NCP, and that a single meal of unprocessed barley was sufficient to decrease caecal pH to such an extent that the fibre digestibility of the whole diet was negatively affected.

  19. [The clinic and the general physician].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinich, Horacio

    2004-01-01

    The clinician's activity consists of in the simple words of Dr. Gonzalo Castañeda "knowledge, good deeds and bread winning ". The respective value that clinicians grant to each of these, is variable, but even those whose priority is the latter of the three are obliged to accomplish the other two. Knowledge requires continuous medical education. Effective education requires the ability to separate the "wheat from the chaff". It is important to know how to study. Knowing the patient requires careful collection of symptoms, signs, and paraclinical data, as well as awareness of the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive value of the data, but acknowledgment of the important discrepancies that occur among different observers as well as in the same observer at different times should not be disregarded. Clinical medicine is a scientific art that challenges the reasoning and decision-making abilities of the practitioner, who must apply various diagnostic strategies, the hypothetic-deductive strategy usually being the most important of all. Knowing the disease that the patient bears is not enough: it is equally important to know the patient who bears the disease. In clinical medicine there are no diseases, only diseased people. The biological approach to the patient must be substituted by a biopsycho-social one. The clinician's main objective--to heal, has become enormously fiacilitated by the dramatic progress of modern scientific medicine, which has provided the physician with powerful but dangerous tools. The old Hippocratic aphorism, primum non nocere, should never beforgotten. Equally essential for the clinician is application of evidence-based knowledge applied to diagnostic and therapeutic measures; there should be no room for past attitudes that were supported by empires and the advice of "authorities". A solid and warm patient-physician relationship is a tremendously important aspect of the healer's behavior.

  20. Intake and performance of steers fed with soybean dreg in confinement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álisson Marian Callegaro

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the feasibility of using soybean dreg in finishing of confined steers, with age and initial body weight of 20 months and 328.3 kg, respectively. Each treatment consisted of six experimental animals, which were fed with forage: concentrate ratio, 40:60 (dry matter basis, being bulky corn silage and concentrate based of bark, chaff and soybean dreg, corn, sodium chloride and calcium limestone. The steers were distributed in the treatments: 00, 30, 60, 90 and 120 g of soybean dreg per kg of dry matter in the diet, which contained 29.0, 47.3, 66.7, 86.8 and 106.8 g of ether extract, respectively. The dry matter intake was similar (P> 0.05 among the studied treatments with an average of 9.71 kg day-1. Similarly, no differences were observed (P> 0.05 in crude protein intake with anaverage of 1.36 kg day-1. However, there were differences in the consumption of ether extract and neutral and acid detergent fibre, which decreased linearly with the increase in the inclusion of dreg in the diet (CEE=0,305+0,0061SD; CFDN=5.71–0,011SD; CFDA=3.89–0.008SD kg day-1, respectively. The performance of steers was similar (P>0.05 between treatments, being the average daily gain of 1.542 kg, the fed conversion of 6.35 kg DM kg-1 weight gain and slaughter weight of 457.95 kg. The use of soybean dreg until the limit of 120 g kg-1 in the diet of confined cattle is feasible.

  1. 沿海围垦河道生态建设树种筛选及种植辅助措施初步研究%Selection of Tree Species for Canal in Coastal Reclaimed Area and Planting Measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳春雷; 韩玉玲; 李贺鹏; 陈友吾

    2012-01-01

    为筛选出适用于浙江沿海围垦河道种植的树种和提出提高苗木成活率的辅助技术措施,在椒江区九条河建立了试验区,开展植物种植试验研究.结果表明,侧柏(Biota orientalis)、海桐(Pittosporum tobira)、石榴(Punica granatum)、美国红梣(Fraxinus pennsylvanica)和女贞(Ligustrum lucidum)适宜种植在新围垦河道的岸顶,侧柏、珊瑚树(Vibumum odoratissinum)、蜡杨梅(Myrica cerifera)、海桐、桑(Morus alba)和女贞适宜于种植围垦河道常水位以上至坡顶区域;苗木种植穴底部放入10cm厚的砻糠隔盐层能有效提高苗木的成活率.%Test was conducted in Jiutiao Canal in Jiaojiang District, Zhejiang province, in order to select tree species for canals in reclaimed coastal area and to increase survival rate of plantings. The result indicated that Biota orientalis, Pittosporum tobira. Punica granatum, Fraxinus pennsylva-nica and Ligustrum lucidum were suitable for the top of the banks, B. orientalis Viburnum odoratissimum, Myrica cerifera, P. tobira, Morus alba and L lucidum were suitable from constant level to the top of the banks. A layer consisted of 10 cm rice chaff in the bottom of the tree could effectively enhance survival rate of tree.

  2. ENFOQUES DA REVOLUÇÃO FRANCESA, NAZISMO E DITADURA MILITAR NO BRASIL: REPRESSÃO E CENSURA À INFORMAÇÃO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Nunes de Oliveira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Trata da censura à informação a partir de três acontecimentos históricos mundiais como a Revolução Francesa da qual remete as ‘atitudes dos iluministas’, ‘Bücherverbrennung’ no Nazismo e a ‘opressão na literatura’ na Ditadura Militar no Brasil. O objetivo do trabalho é enfocar as variadas formas de censura aplicadas aos documentos que foram censurados nesses períodos. O percurso metodológico adotado foi realizado através de uma pesquisa exploratória, de caráter bibliográfico fundamentada em ideias de autores como Chaffe, (2009, Cornelsen (2009, Fioratti (2012 e Darnton (1992, em que abordam os registros históricos, evidenciando a influência da censura no que tange a fatos históricos. O texto é finalizado integrando os períodos históricos à informação, evidenciando a importância da informação nos referidos períodos históricos, uma vez que abrem um novo o caminho para a democracia. Desse modo, enfoca o direito intelectual de acesso ao conhecimento, através da liberdade de busca e uso de informações para a constituição da história, bem como enfoca a contribuição da Ciência da Informação como campo interdisciplinar de conhecimento para a compreensão de acontecimentos históricos.

  3. Effects of Mo, Zn, Sr and Ba loads on these elements' uptake and oil content and fatty acid composition of rapeseed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kastori Rudolf R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Studied in the present paper were the long-term effects of the application of high Mo, Zn, Sr and Ba rates (0, 90, 270, and 810 kg ha-1 on rapeseed oil content and oil fatty acid composition. The trace elements were applied in the spring of 1991, while the rapeseed was sown on a calcareous сhernozem soil in 2001. The trace elements differed significantly in their rates of accumulation in rapeseed plants. Relative to the control, the Mo content of the stem increased up to 1,000 times, that of the chaff over 100 times, and that of the seed around 60 times. The levels of the other trace elements increased considerably less relative to the control. The increases were typically twofold to threefold, depending on the plant part involved. The trace elements accumulated the most in the vegetative plant parts, except for Zn, a major quantity of which was found in the seed as well. The application of the high rates of Sr, Zn and, to an extent. Mo reduced the seed oil content of rapeseed. However, the differences were not statistically significant. The application of the trace elements had no significant effect on the fatty acid composition of the rapeseed oil, either. The increased levels of the trace elements found in the rapeseed plants indicate that 11 years after application significant amounts of the applied elements are still present in the soil in a form available to plants. However, the rates were not high enough to affect the synthesis of oil and its fatty acid composition.

  4. 六价铬还原菌剂载体研究及初步应用实验%Research on the Carriers of Chromium(Ⅵ) Reduction Agent and Its Initial Application Experiments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵光辉

    2011-01-01

    利用污染土壤中筛选出的六价铬还原土著微生物,筛选不同的载体制成固态菌剂,结果表明:稻壳、麦麸、稻糠配比为5∶2∶2时具有实用性,将该配比的菌剂施用到六价铬浸出液浓度从25.3~342.1 mg/L的3组污染土壤中,120d后六价铬还原率均达到95%以上,且浸出液中六价铬浓度全部符合危险废物鉴别标准,说明该载体制成的还原菌剂可有效应用于铬污染土壤的生物修复工程.%Using indigenous microorganism screened out from Chromium (Ⅵ) contaminated soil, different carriers are chosen to make solid-state microbial agent. The experiment results show that the agent is practical when the proportion of rice hull, wheat bran and rice chaff is 5:2:2. The certain agent is applied to treat the contaminated soil that the Cr( Ⅵ ) concentration of leachate is from 25.3 to 342.1 mg/L. The results indicate that the Ct(Ⅵ ) reduction rate can attain 95% after 120 days and the Cr(Ⅵ ) concentration in the leachate can reach the identification standards for hazardous wastes. The experiments prove that the reduction agent made by the chose carriers is efficient for biological remediation project of Cr(Ⅵ ) contaminated soil.

  5. The science, technology, and politics of ballistic missile defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coyle, Philip E. [Center for Arms Control and Non-Proliferation, Washington, DC (United States)

    2014-05-09

    America's missile defense systems are deployed at home and abroad. This includes the Groundbased Missile Defense (GMD) system in Alaska and California, the Phased Adaptive Approach in Europe (EPAA), and regional systems in the Middle East and Asia. Unfortunately these systems lack workable architectures, and many of the required elements either don't work or are missing. Major review and reconsideration is needed of all elements of these systems. GMD performance in tests has gotten worse with time, when it ought to be getting better. A lack of political support is not to blame as the DoD spends about $10 billion per year, and proposes to add about $5 billion over the next five years. Russia objects to the EPAA as a threat to its ICBM forces, and to the extensive deployment of U.S. military forces in countries such as Poland, the Czech Republic and Romania, once part of the Soviet Union. Going forward the U.S. should keep working with Russia whose cooperation will be key to diplomatic gains in the Middle East and elsewhere. Meanwhile, America's missile defenses face an enduring set of issues, especially target discrimination in the face of attacks designed to overwhelm the defenses, stage separation debris, chaff, decoys, and stealth. Dealing with target discrimination while also replacing, upgrading, or adding to the many elements of U.S. missiles defenses presents daunting budget priorities. A new look at the threat is warranted, and whether the U.S. needs to consider every nation that possesses even short-range missiles a threat to America. The proliferation of missiles of all sizes around the world is a growing problem, but expecting U.S. missile defenses to deal with all those missiles everywhere is unrealistic, and U.S. missile defenses, effective or not, are justifying more and more offensive missiles.

  6. A data base of crop nutrient use, water use, and carbon dioxide exchange in a 2O square meter growth chamber: I. Wheat as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, R. M.; Berry, W. L.; Mackowiak, C.; Corey, K. A.; Sager, J. C.; Heeb, M. M.; Knott, W. M.

    1993-01-01

    A data set is given describing the daily nutrient uptake, gas exchange, environmental conditions, and carbon (C), and nutrient partitioning at harvest for the entire canopy and root system of a wheat crop (Triticum aestivum, cv. Yecora Rojo). The data were obtained from a 20 m2 stand of wheat plants grown from planting to maturity in a closed, controlled environment, and include daily nutrient uptake [macronutrients, nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and sulfur (S); and micronutrients, iron (Fe), boron (B), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and molybdenum (Mo)], canopy carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange rates, and transpiration. Environmental factors such as relative humidity, air temperature, nutrient solution temperature, pH and electrical conductivity, and photoperiod were controlled in the chamber to specific set points. A detailed description of biomass yield for each of the 64 plant growth trays comprising the 20 m2 of growth area is also provided, and includes dry weights of grain, straw, chaff, and roots, along with the concentration of nutrients in different plant tissues and the percent carbohydrate, fat, and protein. To our knowledge, this information represents one of the most extensive data sets available for a canopy of wheat grown from seed to maturity under controlled environmental and nutritional conditions, and thus may provide useful information for model development and validation. A methods section is included to qualify any assumptions that might be required for the use of the data in plant growth models, along with a daily event calendar indicating when adjustments in set points and occasional equipment or sensor failures occurred.

  7. A Data Base of Crop Nutrient Use, Water Use, and Carbon Dioxide Exchange in a 20 Square Meter Growth Chamber. Part 1; Wheat as a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.; Berry, Wade L.; Mackowiak, Cheryl; Corey, Kenneth A.; Sager, John C.; Heeb, Margaret M.; Knott, William M.

    1993-01-01

    A data set is given describing the daily nutrient uptake, gas exchange, environmental conditions, and carbon (C), and nutrient partitioning at harvest for the entire canopy and root system of a wheat crop (Triticum aestivum, cv. Yecora Rojo). The data were obtained from a 20 sq m stand of wheat plants grown from planting to maturity in a closed, controlled environment, and include daily nutrient uptake [macronutrients, nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and sulfur (S); and micronutrients, iron (Fe), boron (B), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and molybdenum (Mo)], canopy carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange rates, and transpiration. Environmental factors such as relative humidity, air temperature, nutrient solution temperature, pH and electrical conductivity, and photoperiod were controlled in the chamber to specific set points. A detailed description of biomass yield for each of the 64 plant growth trays comprising the 20 sq m of growth area is also provided, and includes dry weights of grain, straw, chaff, and roots, along with the concentration of nutrients in different plant tissues and the percent carbohydrate, fat, and protein. To our knowledge, this information represents one of the most extensive data sets available for a canopy of wheat grown from seed to maturity under controlled environmental and nutritional conditions, and thus may provide useful information for model development and validation. A methods section is included to qualify any assumptions that might he required for the use of the data in plant growth models, along with a daily event calendar indicating when adjustments in set points and occasional equipment or sensor failures occurred.

  8. 复合污染下Cu、Cr、Ni和Cd在水稻植株中的富集特征%Enrichment of Heavy Metals in Rice under Combined Pollution of Cu, Cr, Ni and Cd

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林华; 张学洪; 梁延鹏; 刘杰; 黄海涛

    2014-01-01

    was Cd > Cu > Ni > Cr, and Cu, Cr, Ni and Cd enrichment coefficients of roots was 2~100 times than that of aerial parts. The distribution of Cu, Cr, Ni and Cd in paddy plant was significantly different.Cu concentration in different parts of the rice plant at mature period was root > stem≥ leaf > grain > chaff, the distribution order of Ni was root > leaf > stem > grain > chaff, the distribution order of Cr was root > leaf > chaff≥ stem > grain, and the distribution order of Cd was root > stem > leaf > grain > chaff. With the heavy metal pollution intensity increasing, the concentration of Cu, Cr, Ni and Cd in different part of rice increased obviously. The concentration of Cu, Ni, Cr and Cd in the grains under maturity stage were 4.50~6.19 mg·kg-1, 1.86~4.63 mg·kg-1, 0.72~0.76 mg·kg-1and 0.08~0.39 mg·kg-1, respectively. Cu and Cr concentration in grain of rice at mature period did not exceed the standard (10 mg·kg-1 and 1.0 mg·kg-1, GB15199-94), while Ni and Cd concentration in grain exceeded the unpolluted food standard (0.4 mg·kg-1 and 0.20 mg·kg-1, GBT2762-2005), Ni and Cd ingestion from this rice may pose a health risk to human. The variation of accumulation of Cu, Cr, Ni and Cd in different part of rice along with growing time was similar. The concentration of heavy metal in root, stem and leaf were all increased first, then decreased as rice growing, and reached the highest levels at filling stage, but decreased sharply at maturing stage. The accumulation and distribution of different heavy metals by rice was significant difference, the concentration of heavy metals in rice in different growth period was significant different but the variation of heavy metal content was obvious.

  9. Data Prospecting Framework - a new approach to explore "big data" in Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, R.; Rushing, J.; Lin, A.; Kuo, K.

    2012-12-01

    Due to advances in sensors, computation and storage, cost and effort required to produce large datasets have been significantly reduced. As a result, we are seeing a proliferation of large-scale data sets being assembled in almost every science field, especially in geosciences. Opportunities to exploit the "big data" are enormous as new hypotheses can be generated by combining and analyzing large amounts of data. However, such a data-driven approach to science discovery assumes that scientists can find and isolate relevant subsets from vast amounts of available data. Current Earth Science data systems only provide data discovery through simple metadata and keyword-based searches and are not designed to support data exploration capabilities based on the actual content. Consequently, scientists often find themselves downloading large volumes of data, struggling with large amounts of storage and learning new analysis technologies that will help them separate the wheat from the chaff. New mechanisms of data exploration are needed to help scientists discover the relevant subsets We present data prospecting, a new content-based data analysis paradigm to support data-intensive science. Data prospecting allows the researchers to explore big data in determining and isolating data subsets for further analysis. This is akin to geo-prospecting in which mineral sites of interest are determined over the landscape through screening methods. The resulting "data prospects" only provide an interaction with and feel for the data through first-look analytics; the researchers would still have to download the relevant datasets and analyze them deeply using their favorite analytical tools to determine if the datasets will yield new hypotheses. Data prospecting combines two traditional categories of data analysis, data exploration and data mining within the discovery step. Data exploration utilizes manual/interactive methods for data analysis such as standard statistical analysis and

  10. ON THE ETYMOLOGY OF 20 WORDS. ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS TO «BULGARIAN ETYMOLOGICAL DICTIONARY»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Selimski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper concerns the origin, word formation patterns and primeval semantics of 20 Bulgarian  words in their alphabetical order. All these words have already been studied in «Bulgarian etymological dictionary». However, 6 of them were left as obscure (3. пекя / pekia ‘very good’; 4. пелдиса / peldissa  ‘pacify’;  12. рокмàк  / rokmak ‘rope (?’, 15. Соанàк / soanak ‘little time’; 18. сънда / synda ‘sit’; 20. сюмьòсан  / siumiosan  ‘maimed’,  and the other 7 have received explanations which  are not acceptable (2. митище / mitishte  ‘straw, chaff (?’; 6. плакна  / plakna ‘rinse’; 7. платник  / platnik ‘sickly’;  10. потирек / potirek  ‘belt’; 13. сетка / setka ‘net’; 14. сий / sii ‘this’; 17. сънàк / synak ‘moment’. The remaining 7 words are under consideration because they need certain additional explanations relating to their phonetic peculiarities (19. синор  /  sinor, сънър /  synyr ‘baulk, headland’, or concerning some word-formation and/or semantic particularities  (1. костàнски /  kostanski  ‘adjective from name of vil. Костанденец / Kostandenets’; 11. разтварям /  raztvariam ‘dissolve’;  16. суичмез  /  suich mez  ‘drunkard’. Some  of the discussed  words  can  be considered as calques from other languages: Russian  (5. изписвам /  izpisvam ‘discharge’, Croatian (9. покора/pokora ‘penance’ and Turkish (8. плява / pliava ‘galaxy’.

  11. The thermal and dynamical state of the atmosphere during polar mesosphere winter echoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.-J. Lübken

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In January 2005, a total of 18 rockets were launched from the Andøya Rocket Range in Northern Norway (69° N into strong VHF radar echoes called 'Polar Mesosphere Winter Echoes' (PMWE. The echoes were observed in the lower and middle mesosphere during large solar proton fluxes. In general, PMWE occur much more seldom compared to their summer counterparts PMSE (typical occurrence rates at 69° N are 1–3% vs. 80%, respectively. Our in-situ measurements by falling sphere, chaff, and instrumented payloads provide detailed information about the thermal and dynamical state of the atmosphere and therefore allow an unprecedented study of the background atmosphere during PMWE. There are a number of independent observations indicating that neutral air turbulence has caused PMWE. Ion density fluctuations show a turbulence spectrum within PMWE and no fluctuations outside. Temperature lapse rates close to the adiabatic gradient are observed in the vicinity of PMWE indicating persistent turbulent mixing. The spectral broadening of radar echoes is consistent with turbulent velocity fluctuations. Turbulence also explains the mean occurrence height of PMWE (~68–75 km: viscosity increases rapidly with altitude and destroys any small scale fluctuations in the upper mesosphere, whereas electron densities are usually too low in the lower mesosphere to cause significant backscatter. The seasonal variation of echoes in the lower mesosphere is in agreement with a turbulence climatology derived from earlier sounding rocket flights. We have performed model calculations to study the radar backscatter from plasma fluctuations caused by neutral air turbulence. We find that volume reflectivities observed during PMWE are in quantitative agreement with theory. Apart from turbulence the most crucial requirement for PMWE is a sufficiently large number of electrons, for example produced by solar proton events. We have studied the sensitivity of the radar echo strength on

  12. 用咖啡壳在咖啡园复合栽培彩云菇研究与综合效益分析%Composite Cultivation of Coffee-Stropharia Rugoso-annulata with Coffee Shell and Its Comprehensive Benefits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张传利; 李学俊; 杨发军; 李梦杰; 桂雪梅; 黄艳丽

    2014-01-01

    To make full use of by-products and improved the comprehensive benefit of coffee, used a by-product of coffee production-coffee shell other raw material composite cultivation of Stropharia Rugoso-annulata in the mixture, and the comprehensive benefits and the influence of yield and quality of the coffee is analyzed. Results show that the plant row spacing 1 m×2 m, age 4 to 6 in a bed was a small grain of kinds of coffee grounds double ridge cultivation pattern, a shallow pit type clouds mushroom biological efficiency can reach 36.5%, the yield of 5.84 kg/m2, fresh after compound cultivation, each 667 m2 average 3 180 RMB/a, is simply grow coffee 1.6~2.1 times more net benefits;cultivation of fungus chaff and provide high quality organic fertilizer for coffee, can remarkably stable production of coffee, and for the promotion of the quality of the coffee has a good effect. In order to further carry out coffee-edible fungus composite cultivation model for reference.%为充分利用咖啡副产品和提高咖啡园的综合效益,2011~2013年在咖啡园利用咖啡生产的副产品---咖啡壳混合其它原料进行复合栽培彩云菇的试验,并对其综合效益及咖啡的产量和品质的影响进行了分析。结果表明:在株行距1 m×2 m、树龄4~6 a的小粒种咖啡园内采用一床双垄浅坑式栽培模式,彩云菇的生物学效率可达到36.5%,鲜菇产量为5.84 kg/m2,复合栽培后,每667 m2平均收益3180元/a,是单纯种植咖啡纯收益的1.6~2.1倍;栽培后的菌糠又为咖啡提供优质有机肥料,能显著稳定咖啡的产量,并且对咖啡的品质有良好的促进作用。

  13. Mutiscale Modeling of Segregation in Granular Flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Jin [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Modeling and simulation of segregation phenomena in granular flows are investigated. Computational models at different scales ranging from particle level (microscale) to continuum level (macroscale) are employed in order to determine the important microscale physics relevant to macroscale modeling. The capability of a multi-fluid model to capture segregation caused by density difference is demonstrated by simulating grain-chaff biomass flows in a laboratory-scale air column and in a combine harvester. The multi-fluid model treats gas and solid phases as interpenetrating continua in an Eulerian frame. This model is further improved by incorporating particle rotation using kinetic theory for rapid granular flow of slightly frictional spheres. A simplified model is implemented without changing the current kinetic theory framework by introducing an effective coefficient of restitution to account for additional energy dissipation due to frictional collisions. The accuracy of predicting segregation rate in a gas-fluidized bed is improved by the implementation. This result indicates that particle rotation is important microscopic physics to be incorporated into the hydrodynamic model. Segregation of a large particle in a dense granular bed of small particles under vertical. vibration is studied using molecular dynamics simulations. Wall friction is identified as a necessary condition for the segregation. Large-scale force networks bearing larger-than-average forces are found with the presence of wall friction. The role of force networks in assisting rising of the large particle is analyzed. Single-point force distribution and two-point spatial force correlation are computed. The results show the heterogeneity of forces and a short-range correlation. The short correlation length implies that even dense granular flows may admit local constitutive relations. A modified minimum spanning tree (MST) algorithm is developed to asymptotically recover the force statistics in the

  14. Repeated Utilization Rate of Pit-Sealing Mud in Jiangxiang Baijiu Production in Maotai Town%茅台镇酱香型白酒生产工艺中封窖泥循环使用率的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭宏; 刘盛; 何小龙; 袁进

    2016-01-01

    Pit-sealing mud in the production of Jiangxiang Baijiu is taken from local and surrounding areas and its main component is purple red mud featuring strong adhesion and good sealing performance. It is repeatedly utilized in sorghum-grinding and sorghum-feeding process. Purple red mud around Maotai town is the only suitable pit-sealing mud for the production of Jiangxiang Baijiu, and it is non-renewable re-source. The incorrect preparation of pit mud and the inadequate management of pit mud would result in bad mud adhesion and poor mud sealing performance. The excessive level of chaff in pit mud and moldy pit mud would result in low repeated utilization rate and high abandon quantity. In consideration of the non-renewable property of purple red mud, we must reduce pit-sealing mud waste, and improve the repeated utilization rate of pit-sealing mud, so as to reduce the exploitation of purple red mud and protect the ecological environment of Chishui River basin.%酱香型白酒基酒生产工艺中,用于密封窖内糟醅的设备是封窖泥,取自当地周边地域,其主要成分是紫红泥.紫红泥具有粘连性强、密封性好等特点.在基酒生产的下沙、造沙轮次投入,经下沙至7次酒的多轮次循环使用.茅台镇方圆几公里的紫红泥是唯一符合酿酒生产过程中封窖泥使用标准的封窖泥.但由于紫红泥资源有限,属不可再生资源.窖泥的制作方式不正确以及管理过程中管理不到位导致封窖泥粘连性不强、密封性下降.窖泥内谷壳含量超标、封窖泥霉变废弃导致循环使用率低,产生废弃量大;考虑其不可再生性,在酿酒生产过程中必须减少封窖泥的废弃,提高其循环使用率,既减少对紫红泥的开采,也保护了赤水河流域的生态环境.

  15. Cultivation of Black Fungus under Forest in Middle-high Altitude Areas%中高海拔林下培育木耳初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁长波; 王艳芹; 姚利; 付龙云; 迟明峰; 王广来; 曹德宾

    2016-01-01

    [目的]解决木耳生产中的“菌林争地、菌粮争地”矛盾,获得较高的经济效益和生态效益。[方法]在500~1600 m的中高海拔林区培育木耳,调查木耳菌棒发菌需时、耳芽发生天数、子实体生长天数、商品外观、市场效果以及生物学效率等指标。[结果]较传统栽培,林下培育产出的木耳产品具有野生木耳的口感和风味;菌糠废料直接被林地中树根就地分解利用,改善了林地土壤结构,且由于保湿的需要以及出菇管理人员的频繁出入降低了森林火险的发生概率。[结论]林下培育木耳可节省出菇棚等固定资产投资70%以上,生物学效率达12.2%。%Objective] To solve the contradiction between fungus and forest during the production of black fungus, to obtain relatively high eco-nomic benefits and ecological benefits.[Method] Black fungus were cultivated in forest with middle-high altitude of 500-1 600 m.we investiga-ted the germination time of fungus stick, germination days of buds, growth days of fruiting body, commodity exterior, marketing effect and biolog-ical efficiency of black fungus.[Result] Compared with traditional cultivation, black fungus products cultivated under forest had the taste and flavor of wild black fungus.Fungus chaff wastage was directly decomposed by the roots in forest land , improved the soil structure of forest land. Due to the need of moisture retention and the frequent access of administrative staff , probability of occurrence of forest fire insurance was re-duced.[Conclusion] Cultivation of black fungus under forest saves more than 70%fixed-asset investment on fungus shed;the biological efficien-cy reaches 12.2%.

  16. Final Report: DOE/ID/14215

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth Bryden; J. Richard Hess; Thomas Ulrich; Robert Zemetra

    2008-08-18

    The proposed straw separation system developed in the research project harvests the large internode sections of the straw which has the greater potential as a feedstock for lignocellulosic ethanol production while leaving the chaff and nodes in the field. This strategy ensures sustainable agriculture by preventing the depletion of soil minerals, and it restores organic matter to the soil in amounts and particle sizes that accommodate farmers’ needs to keep tillage and fertilizer costs low. A ton of these nutrient-rich plant tissues contains as much as $10.55 worth of fertilizer (economic and energy benefits), in terms of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and other nutrients provided to the soil when incorporated by tillage instead of being burned. Biomass conversion to fermentable sugars for the purpose of producing fuels, chemicals, and other industrial products is well understood. Most bioenergy strategies rely on low-cost fermentable sugars for sustainability and economic viability in the marketplace. Exploitation of the “whole crop”—specifically, wheat straw or other plant material currently regarded as residue or waste—is a practical approach for obtaining a reliable and low-cost source of sugars. However, industrial-scale production of sugars from wheat straw, while technically feasible, is plagued by obstacles related to capital costs, energy consumption, waste streams, production logistics, and the quality of the biomass feedstock. Currently available separation options with combine harvesters are not able to achieve sufficient separation of the straw/stover and chaff streams to realize the full potential of selective harvest. Since ethanol yield is a function of feedstock structural carbohydrate content, biomass anatomical fractions of higher product yield can have a significant beneficial impact on minimum ethanol selling price. To address this advanced biomass separation computation engineering models were developed to more effectively and

  17. 航空兵突防作战中无源干扰走廊的运用%Application of Passive Jamming Corridor to Penetration Combat of Aviation Force

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈群德; 于夫

    2012-01-01

    以航空兵突防作战中无源干扰走廊的运用研究为背景,通过对各国防空体系防御层次的研究,论证了布设无源干扰走廊的必要性。以研究无源干扰走廊的战术应用为切入点,给出削弱和扰乱敌防空火力网和防空警戒网的战术运用方法,提出了电子战飞机布散箔条云以形成干扰走廊战术活动中,干扰范围、干扰物型号、一次投放干扰物数量、干扰物投放间隔、干扰物总消耗量以及干扰飞机出动量等战术要素的确定方法,并通过对干扰飞机的间隔、前出编队时间以及高出编队的高度差等要素的研究,提出了干扰飞机在实施无源干扰走廊掩护航空兵突防作战行动中的配置方法,对现阶段航空兵突防作战研究有一定借鉴意义。%Taking the application study of passive jamming corridor to penetration combat of aviation force as the background,this paper demonstrates the necessity of arranging the passive jamming corridor through studying the defence levels of air defence in various country. Taking the study of tactics application of passive jamming corridor as the cutting-in point, this paper presents the tactics application method to weaken and disturb the enemy air defence fire net and air defence warning net, brings forward that in the tactics operation of electronic warfare aircrafts scattering chaff cloud for forming the jamming corridor,the methods to determine tactics elements such as the jamming scope, jamming matter type, quantity of throwing jamming matter once, interval of trowing jamming matter, total wastage of jamming matter and the dispatch quantity of jamming airplanes,etc. ,and through studying the interval of jamming airplanes,time before formation and height difference higher than formation, etc. elements, presents the configuration method of jamming aircrafts in performing the passive jamming corridor covering the penetration combat of airdefence force

  18. 生物质资源减碳化利用需求及影响机理实证研究——基于SEM模型分析方法和TAM理论分析框架%Farmer Demand for the Low-Carbon Utilization of Biomass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何可; 张俊飚; 蒋磊

    2013-01-01

    Global climate warming has become the most serious environmental problem globally.The improper disposal of animal manure,crop straw,chaff and other biomass has become a source of greenhouse gases of interest.This study is based on field research conducted in Wuhan and Suizhou in Hubei province.A SEM model is used to analyze the demand for the low-carbon utilization of biomass from the perspective of micro-farmers and four factors (perceived usefulness,perceived ease of use,social influence and facilitating conditions).We found that perceived usefulness,perceived ease of use and facilitating conditions impact farmer demand for the low-carbon utilization of biomass.Perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use belong to inner psychological factors promoting farmer demand,while social influence and facilitating conditions are the key external factors driving demand.Our findings indicate a need for joint effort between government and farmers to break exiting restrictions and take advantage of the benefits of biomass.From the point of view of government,constructing technical synthesis and integration matching low-carbon utilization of biomass is a key.Leveraging the incentive role of government subsidies and the exemplary role of opinion leaders and acquaintances in rural areas is also recommended.%与先前主要研究生物质资源文献不同的是,本文首先提出了“生物质资源减碳化利用”这一概念,并引入TAM理论分析框架,应用SEM模型分析方法,从微观农户视角探讨其对生物质资源减碳化利用需求及影响机理.本文证实了感知有用性、感知易用性和便利条件对农户生物质资源减碳化利用需求具有经济意义上的显著影响,其标准化路径系数分别为0.060、0.213、0.141,社会影响则通过感知易用性的中介作用而对农户生物质资源减碳化利用需求产生间接的正向影响.本文同时还发现,便利条件、感知易用性对感知有用性具有显著正

  19. Study and application of smoke agent controlling stored grain pests%烟剂对储粮害虫控制的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新府; 郑妙; 李文辉; 林亚珍; 蒋社才; 李志权

    2013-01-01

    Aiming at the problem of upper pest of the warehouse to eliminate difficultly,four kinds of propoxur or metolcarb or cypermethrin and trichlorfon pesticide smoke agents are developed about the project team,smoked agents on the insecticidal activity of stored grain insect Rhyzopertha dominica,Sitophilus zeamais prepared were determined.The results show that:the fumigant ignited to produce a large number of white clouds,the effective material is evenly dispersed.The test results show that the smoke agent storage stability,ignition temperature higher than 180 ℃,when the auxiliary fuel (chaff) and oxidant (ammonium nitrate) with mass ratio of 3:1,preparation of the smoke agent combustion stability without fire,The mortality was above 90% applying 5% MTMC-trichlorfon and 2.5% propoxur -cypermethrin in dosage 5 g/m3 of Maize weevil and resistant strain (phosphine resistance,hereinafter the same) or Rhizopertha dominica and resistant strain min was 30.The barn 5% MTMC-trichtorfon and 2.5% propoxur-cypermethrin smoke agent at 6.0 g/m3 closed 72 h to the maize weevil and resistant strain,Rhizopertha dominica and resistant strain effect is the mortality was above 90%,dosage of 4.5 g/m3 positive rate of maize weevil and resistant strain effect was more than 90%,the product is safe and reliable,and has a good application prospect.%针对仓库上部害虫难于消灭的问题,本项目组研制了速灭威、残杀威、氯氰菊酯和敌百虫农药的烟剂,测定了4种烟剂对储粮害虫谷蠹、玉米象的杀虫活性.结果表明:烟剂点燃后产生大量白色烟云,均匀分散.烟剂的燃点大于180℃,当助剂中燃料(统糠)和氧化剂(硝酸铵)的质量比为3:1时,配制的烟剂燃烧稳定无明火.5%速灭威-敌百虫、2.5%残杀威-氯氰菊酯在用量为5 g/m3时对玉米象及其抗性品系(磷化氢抗性,下同)、谷蠹及其抗性品系30 min的校正死亡率均在90%以上;粮仓应用5%速灭威-敌百虫、2.5

  20. Lignocelluloses degradation and related biological characteristics during thermophilic composting of cow dung%牛粪高温堆肥过程中木质纤维素降解及相关生物学特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田伟; 张振华; 汪贞; 王霞; 李妍; 刘振华

    2014-01-01

    In order to improve the understanding of lignocelluloses degradation during composting , a small-scale composting for 112 d was carried out with cow dung and rice chaff as raw materials .The contents of lignocelluloses and the enzyme activities of cellulase , xylanase and β-glucosidase were determined, and microorganisms related to cellulose degradation were isolated during the composting process .It was shown that the degradation rates of cellulose and hemicellulose after composting were 56.26%and 61.47%, respectively, but the content of lignin increased at last.Activities of cellulase and xylanase both increased firstly and reached the maximum value (85.75μg glucose・g-1 DW・h-1 and 165.65 μg reducing sugar・g-1 DW・h-1 , respectively) at the 42nd day, and then decreased till the end of composting.However, the activity of β-glucosidase stayed at a relatively high level (2.79-3.30 μmol pNPG・g-1 DW・h-1 ) from day 22 to 42.Microorganisms including Pseudoxanthomonas, Bacillus, Paenibacillus, Ureibacillus and Geobacillus were isolated and identified related to the thermopilic cellulose-decomposing process.%为探明木质纤维素在堆肥过程中的降解情况,以牛粪和砻糠为原料,进行为期112 d的小型堆肥试验,在不同堆肥阶段测定物料的木质纤维素含量及相关降解酶活性,并在高温和降温阶段从物料中分离鉴定纤维素降解菌。结果表明,堆肥过程中物料的纤维素与半纤维素含量逐步降低,总降解率分别为56.26%和61.47%;而木质素的相对含量略有增加;与木质纤维素降解相关的纤维素酶和木聚糖酶的活性均呈现先增高后降低的趋势,其酶活均在第42天达到峰值,分别为85.75μg glucose・g-1・DW・h-1和165.65μg・reducing sugar・g-1・DW・h-1,而β-葡聚糖苷酶的活性在22~42 d之间维持在较高水平(2.79~3.30μmol pNPG・g-1・DW・h-1);此外,在堆肥的高温和降温腐熟阶段均

  1. Imaginário coletivo de professores sobre o adolescente contemporâneo Imaginario colectivo de profesores sobre el adolescente contemporáneo Teacher’s collective imaginary on contemporary adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Vilarinho Montezi

    2011-06-01

    .Understanding that teachers may perform a very important role in the personnel maturing process of their students, we have established to investigate the teacher’s collective imaginary on contemporary adolescents as subject of research. We performed a group interview with six Secondary Education teachers, utilizing the Thematic Story-Drawing Procedure, which as conceived as a dialogical-mediator resource. After the interview, psychoanalytic narratives were written down by us, with the purpose to relate the clinical practice happenings. And those, along with the story-drawings, were psychoanalytically analyzed allowing the interpretative capturing of the following affective-emotional sense fields: “vegetative world”, “separating the chaff of the wheat” and “happy children, unfortunate adolescent”. We conclude that, in the group approached, the adolescent is conceived as passive, unfortunate and unable to make choices, demanding to be guided in his life.

  2. How do you select the right security features for your company's products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, Gordon E.

    1998-04-01

    If your company manufacturers, supplies, or distributes products of almost any type, style, shape, or for any usage, they may become the objective of fraudulent activities from one or more sources. Therefore, someone at your company should be concerned about how these activities may affect the company's future. This paper/presentation will provide information about where these 'threats' may come from, what products have been compromised in the past, and what steps might be taken to deter these threats. During product security conferences, conversations, and other sources of information, you'll hear about many different types of security features that can be incorporated into monetary and identification documents, packaging, labeling, and other products/systems to help protect against counterfeiting, unauthorized tampering, or to identify 'genuine' products. Many of these features have been around for some time (which means that they may have lost at least some of their effectiveness) while others, or improved versions of some of the more mature features, have been or are being developed. This area is a 'moving target' and re-examination of the threats and counterthreats needs to be an ongoing activity. The 'value' and the capabilities of these features can sometimes be overstated, i.e. that a feature/system can solve all of the security-related problems that you may (or may not) have with your products. A couple of things to always keep in mind is that no feature(s) is universally effective and none of the features, or even combinations of features, is totally 'tamperproof' or counterfeitproof, irrespective of what may be said or claimed. So how do you go about determining if you have a product security problem and what, if any, security features might be used to reduce the threat(s) to your products? This paper will attempt to provide information to help you separate the 'wheat from the chaff' in these considerations. Specifically, information to be discussed in

  3. The Accumulation Pattern of Zn, Cu, Ni, Cd in Wheat Grown in Heavy-metal Enriched Substrate%重金属复合处理对小麦锌铜镍镉积累和分布的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王云霞; 杨连新; Walter.J.Horst

    2011-01-01

    micronutrients and toxic heavy metals in the wheat grain were examined by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry(LA-lCP-MS). The metals were added jointly to the peat substrate as sulfates. Combined heavy metals added to peat substrate did not affect grain yield, single grain dry weight, straw dry weight and harvest index of wheat at maturity. However, great changes on metals distribution in plants or grains as affected by heavy metal treatments were observed. Zn, Cu, Ni and Cd concentrations in the grain, chaff, leaf, leaf sheath and stem were significantly enhanced by heavy metal addition but the enhancement varied with different elements or plant organs. Elevated heavy metal supply increased the concentrations of Zn, Cu, Ni and Cd in wheat grains by factors of 1.8, 0.5, 48.1 and 45.3, respectively. The distribution pattern of Cu and Cd in different organs of wheat were not affected by heavy metal treatments, but the distribution pattern of Zn and Ni were significantly changed by heavy metal treatments. High percentages of Zn were translocated in grains at normal Zn supply conditions, but more Zn was retained in vegetative organs by heavy metal treatments. The changes in distribution pattern of Ni showed different trends compared to Zn. LA-ICP-MS analysis of wheat grains revealed that Cu, Zn, Ni, and Cd were distributed in a similar way with the high concentrations in the aleurone layer and low concentrations in the starchy endosperm.Elevated heavy metal supply increased the concentrations of beneficial elements Zn and Cu by 78% and 86%, toxic heavy metals Ni and Cd by 30 and 121 folds in aleurone layer, respectively. Elevated heavy metal supply increased the concentrations of Zn and Cu in starchy endosperm by 49% and 48%, respectively. The concentrations of Ni and Cd in starchy endosperm were not detectable under control conditions, but elevated heavy metal supply increased Ni and Cd concentrations to levels far over the maximum permitted levels set by

  4. 平菇在12种秸秆主料基质中生长情况的初步研究%Preliminary study on oyster mushroom growth situation in 12 kinds of straw substrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范可章; 陈灵; 蔡健; 刘生杰; 李焰焰; 沈益新

    2011-01-01

    为了解不同作物秸杆主料基质在栽培平菇时所表现出的结果,特配制12种不同秸杆材料基质来栽培平菇.结果表明:平菇菌丝在各基质中的长速、长势及头茬子实体产量都表现出明显差异.平菇菌丝在油菜秸秆基质中长速最快,长势为优,结菇最早;在以黄豆秸秆、棉花秸秆和棉籽壳为主料的基质中,长速稍慢,结菇稍晚,头茬菇产量最好;在以高粱糠和高粱秸秆为主料的基质中,长速波动大,长势为良,头茬菇产量低,且出现死菇:在以玉米芯为主料的基质中,长速慢,长势良,头茬菇产量中等;在花生秧主料基质中,长速最慢,但长势为优,试验结束时未形成产量;在甘薯藤、小麦秸秆、玉米秸秆和白杨树叶为主料的基质中,长速最慢,且长势最差,实验结束未形成产量.根据各基质成分特点分析,只有当C/N在20~50之间,且基质中可溶性糖与粗纤维质量比在1附近时,菌丝才能生长最好,产量最高.因此,用不同秸杆主料栽培平菇时,必须根据其成分特点配制基质.%In order to know the effects of straw substrates on the growth situation of oyster mushroom,twelve kinds of straw substrates were used respectively. The results indicate that the growth speed, growth vigour and the yield of the mycelia for the first harvest present remarkable difference in different substrates. The growth speed of mycelia in cole straw substrate is the quickest, the growth vigour is excellent, and the fructification is the earliest; in pulse, cotton straw and the shell of cotton seed substrates, the mycelial growth speed is quicker, the mycelial fructification is earlier, but the yield for the first harvest is the best; in broomcorn straw and the chaff of broomcorn substrates, the mycelial growth speed is very undulatory in different periods, the growth vigour of the mycelia is fine, and the yield for the first harvest is lower, moreover, small mushrooms are easy to

  5. Effects of Cadmium Stress on Uptake and Distribution of Cadmium in Different Rice Varieties%Cd胁迫对水稻亲本材料Cd吸收分配的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张路; 张锡洲; 李廷轩; 余海英; 戢林

    2014-01-01

    pollu-tion-safe rice variety was D62B, and common variety Luhui17 as the control. Cadmium concentrations used were 1 mg·kg-1, 4 mg·kg-1, and 16 mg·kg-1. Compared with Luhui 17, D62B growth was inhibited to some extent at all Cd levels. The biomass of D62B significantly de-creased with increasing Cd concentrations. The Cd concentrations in shoot and translation coefficient of D62B were significantly lower than those of Luhui17 during the growth periods. At mature stage, the Cd concentrations in brown rice and chaff were also significantly lower than those of Luhui17. At 1 mg Cd·kg-1 and 4 mg Cd·kg-1, the Cd concentrations in brown rice of D62B were lower than the National Food Safe-ty Standards(0.2 mg·kg-1). The rates of Cd uptake by D62B were the greatest at tillering stage, and increased as Cd concentrations in-creased. The Cd translocation rate of D62B was significantly lower than that of Luhui17 at 4 mg·kg-1 and 16 mg·kg-1. At mature stage, the Cd translocation of D62B was only 46.52%and 66.68%of that of Luhui17 at 4 mg·kg-1 and 16 mg·kg-1. Cadmium absorbed by D62B accu-mulated about 44%~49%in cell walls and about 37%in soluble fraction, and the lowest in cellular organelles, while more than 48%of Cd in Luhui17 was localized in soluble fraction. In roots, majority of Cd was located in soluble fraction and cell walls, but percentages of Cd in cell wall was significantly lower in Luhui 17 than D62B at 16 mg·Cd kg-1. In conclusion, Cd pollution-safe rice variety D62B has low accu-mulation of Cd in brown rice, and could be considered as Cd safety rice germplasm resources for Cd-polluted farmlands.

  6. Obituary: Fred Lawrence Whipple, 1906-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeomans, Donald Keith

    2004-12-01

    1986 Giotto spacecraft images, revealing a solid cometary nucleus (albeit far blacker than most had predicted), were a dramatic confirmation of Whipple's model -- though in truth few really expected otherwise at the time. In 1942-1946, he led an effort to develop and implement strips of reflective aluminum (i.e., chaff) to confuse enemy radars in World War II. In 1948, he received a certificate of merit for this work from President Harry S. Truman. Eleven years before the launch of the first artificial satellite in 1957, he developed what is now generally termed the Whipple Shield; a thin outer metallic layer stands out from a spacecraft and protects it from high-speed interplanetary dust particles. While particles hitting this outside thin layer would penetrate, they would also vaporize, and in so doing, the resultant debris would disperse and lack the energy to penetrate the main spacecraft skin. This design was used to successfully protect the Stardust spacecraft from cometary dust particles when the spacecraft flew rapidly past comet Tempel 1 in January 2004. He also made significant contributions to fields as diverse as meteor astronomy, satellite tracking, variable stars, supernovae, stellar evolution, astronomical instrumentation and radio astronomy. Along with his colleagues Willy Ley, Wernher von Braun and others, Fred wrote and consulted for a series of very popular articles in Collier's magazine in the early 1950's and these articles, along with earlier lectures at New York's Hayden Planetarium, helped spark the U.S. involvement in space exploration. Of these early beginnings of space exploration, Fred wrote in 1972 "it was no easy task to convince people that man could really go into empty space beyond the Earth's atmosphere, and even beyond the Earth's tenacious gravitational grasp. On looking back over these years, I am still surprised that we succeeded in convincing them." Fred was responsible for initiating the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory