WorldWideScience

Sample records for chaff

  1. Removal of Nitrate From Aqueous Solution Using Rice Chaff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehghani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Nitrate is largely dissolved in the surface and ground water, due to its high solubility. Continual uptake of nitrite through drinking water can lead to problems and diseases (such as blue baby for humans, especially children. Objectives The aim of this study was to develop a new and inexpensive method for the removal of nitrate from water. In this regard, the possibility of using chaff for removal of nitrate from aqueous solutions was studied and the optimum operating conditions of nitrate removal was determined. Materials and Methods This is a cross-sectional study conducted in laboratory scale. The UV spectrophotometer at a wavelength of maximum absorbance (220 nm was used to determine the nitrate concentration. The effect of pH, amount of chaff, temperature, and contact time were investigated. Results The result of this study revealed that chaff as an absorbent could remove nitrate from solutions, and the efficiency of adsorption increased as contact time increased from 5 to 30 minutes, amount of chaff increased from 1 to 3 g, temperature increased in a range of 300 - 400°C and the amount of pH decreased from 10 to 3. The maximum adsorption rate was around pH 3 (53.14%. Conclusions It was shown that the removal efficiency of nitrate was directly proportional to the amount of chaff, temperature, and contact time but inversely to the pH. This study showed that nitrate removal by chaff is a promising technique.

  2. Evaluation for Success Probability of Chaff Centroid Jamming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Dong-hua; SHI Xiu-hua

    2008-01-01

    As the chaff centroid jamming can introduce the guiding error of the anti-warship missile's seeker and decrease its hitting probability, a new quantitative analysis method and a mathematic model are proposed in this paper to evaluate the success jamming probability. By using this method, the optimal decision scheme of chaff centroid jamming in different threat situations can be found, and also the success probability of this scheme can be calculated quantitatively. Thus, the operation rules of the centroid jamming and the tactical approach for increasing the success probability can be determined.

  3. Simultaneous harvesting of straw and chaff for energy purposes : influence on bale density, yield, field drying process and combustion characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundin, G. [JTI Swedish Inst. of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, Uppsala (Sweden); Ronnback, M. [SP Technical Research Inst. of Sweden, Boras (Sweden)

    2010-07-01

    The potential to increase the productivity of fuel straw harvest and transportation was examined. When harvesting straw for energy purposes, only the long fraction is currently collected. However, technological improvements have now rendered it possible to harvest chaff, thus increasing the amount of harvest residues and bale density. The purpose of this study was to determine how harvest yield, bale density, field-drying behaviour and combustion characteristics are affected by the simultaneous harvest of straw and chaff. Field experiments were conducted in 2009 for long- and short-stalked winter wheat crops. Combine harvesting was carried out with 2 different types of combine harvesters. A high-density baler was used to bale the crop residues. Mixing chaff in with the straw swath by combine harvesting gave a lower initial moisture content compared with straw only. The density and the weight of each bale were not affected by the treatments. However, the added chaff increased the total yield of crop residues by 14 per cent, indicating that about half of the biologically available chaff was harvested. Although mixing in chaff increased the ash content by 1 percentage unit, there was no considerable change in net calorific value or ash melting behaviour.

  4. Improved mechanical properties of chitosan fibers with applications to degradable radar countermeasure chaff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaul, Jonathan Zvi

    The objective of this work has been to improve the mechanical properties of wet spun chitosan fibers for applications to a degradable form of radar countermeasure chaff. The first part of the study characterizes the chitosan used for spinning. Three methods for determining the degree of deacetylation (% DDA) were used and they include titration, elemental analysis, and first derivative ultraviolet (UV) spectrometry. The molecular weight of the chitosan was determined in a solvent system of 0.25 M CH3COOH/0.25 M CH3COONa, using viscometry and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). Several samples of chitosan were used with the % DDA varying from 64.3 to 96.0%. The Mark-Houwink-Sakurada constants used for the determination of viscosity average molecular weight and the universal calibration of the HPLC system were K = 1.40 x 10 -4 dL/g and a = 0.83, respectively. A literature review of molecular weight analysis of chitosan is included. Preliminary wet spinning experiments involved a coagulation rate study which demonstrated that 1 M KOH was an effective coagulant for wet spinning and that the rate of coagulation increases with decreasing solvent ratio in the spin dope. A drying study confirmed the effectiveness of a methanol drying bath followed by a heated roller at 50°C. Following these studies, a wet spinning system was constructed and used. A lack of published data exists concerning the subjects of chitosan fiber spinning and mechanical improvements to both wet and dry chitosan fibers. Several post-spinning modification experiments focused on the reaction of the dried as-spun chitosan fibers with aqueous agents including potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KH2PO4), potassium hydrogen phthalate (KHP), glutaraldehyde (GA), and glyoxal (GLY). For the aqueous buffering agents of KH2PO4, and KHP, the highest mechanical properties resulted from solutions containing phthalate ions at pH 5.00, and from solutions containing phosphate ions at pH 5.39. The best time and

  5. Modeling and Simulation of Chaff Cloud Diffusion Process%箔条云团扩散过程的建模仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李星; 赵宏钟

    2011-01-01

    Disturbing the enemy's missiles by launching chaff missiles is a familiar approach in passive radar rivalry. The character and moving principle of the chaff are analyzed, and a simulation algorithm of the chaff cloud diffusion process is put forward for the circumstances of the chaff missiles launched by a vessel when it is attacked. A preferable simulation effect was attained by the algorithm simulated with Matlab. The support for further analyzing the chaff cloud is provided.%在雷达无源对抗中,通过发射箔条弹是一种常见的对敌方导弹形成干扰的方式.为了更好地研究箔条干扰的各种特性,对海上舰船在受到攻击时施放箔条干扰的情况,分析了箔条的性质和运动原理,提出一种箔条云扩散过程的仿真算法,并采用Matlab仿真方法,获得较好的模拟效果,为进一步精确研究箔条云提供一定的基础支持.

  6. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON STRENGTH PROPERTIES OF WOOD PLASTIC BONDED BOARDS PRODUCED FROM COFFEE CHAFF AND CEIBA PENTANDRA SAWDUST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kehinde Sesan AINA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Strength properties of Wood Plastic-bonded Boards (WPBB of 10mm in thickness were produced in this study from two lignocellulosic materials coffee and recycled low density polyethylene (rLDPE as a binder. WPBB were produced from particles of coffee chaff and Ceiba pentandra, at three levels of mixing ratio (1:1, 2:1 and 3:1, and at three levels of board density (500, 600 and 700kgm-3 given the total treatment combinations of 18 respectively. Effects of lignocelluloses particles, mixing ratio (MR and board density (BD on flexural strength properties of the WPBB were investigated. The flexural strength of the WPBB range from 0.25 to 4.79N/mm2 and 891.00 to 16415.87N/mm2 for modulus of rupture (MOR and modulus of elasticity (MOE respectively. The statistically results shows that the main factor and interaction factors were significantly different at P≤0.05 level of probability. It was observed in this study that as the plastic content with density increased, flexural strength of the boards increases. The study showed that WPBB made from coffee chaff particles are stiffer and stronger than WPBBs made from Ceiba pentandra particles. Based on the outcome of the results in this study, coffee chaff could as well be used as filler in the polymer industry to produce stronger biopolymer composite for structural applications. This study would form a baseline strategy for further research efforts on production of composite from agro-residues wastes.

  7. On the Use of Radar Echo from Chaff to Study Entrainment in Stratocumulus Topped Marine Boundary Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghate, V. P.; Albrecht, B. A.; Jonsson, H.; PopStefanija, I.

    2015-12-01

    Marine stratocumulus clouds persist year-round and cover vast areas of the Eastern subtropical oceans. As these clouds have significantly higher albedo than the background sea surface and have warmer cloud top temperatures, they have a net cooling effect on the sea surface and the atmosphere. Hence, these clouds have a huge impact on the Earth's radiation budget and need to be accurately represented in Global Climate Models (GCM) aimed at predicting the future climate and energy needs. The entrainment occurring near the stratocumulus cloud top is one of the key factors influencing the stratocumulus cloud cover and lifetime. In this study, we have used the observations made during the Stratocumulus Entrainment and Precipitation Studies (SEPS) field campaign to quantify and characterize the entrainment in stratocumulus clouds. The data collected by the Compact Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (CFMCW) W-band Doppler radar, and the in-situ aerosol, cloud, and precipitation size distribution measuring instruments onboard the Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS)'s Twin Otter research aircraft formed the basis of this study. We have also used the data collected by the ground-based scanning X-band phased array radar (abbreviated as MWR-05XP) in this study. Finely cut radar chaff fibers corresponding to half the wavelength of the two radars were introduced ~300 m above a uniform stratocumulus cloud layer in a three-line formation on four separate days. The spatial and temporal evolution of the chaff as it dispersed in the free troposphere was tracked for more than two hours by the MWR-05XP that made sector scans every 20 seconds at a 75 m range resolution. The fine-scale evolution of the chaff needles and that of the cloud layer was observed and characterized by the CFMCW radar operating at a 5 m and 3 Hz resolution and by the other instruments onboard the aircraft. The relative dispersion rate of the chaff needles in the free

  8. Adaptive changes in the appetite, growth and feeding behaviour of pony mares offered ad libitum access to a complete diet in either a pelleted or chaff-based form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Argo, C.M.; Cox, J.E.; Lockyer, C.;

    2002-01-01

    Seven, 3-year-old pony mares (similar to230 kg) were used in a cross-over study to compare the appetite, energy and nutrient digestibilities, growth rate and feeding behaviour, when a complete diet was offered ad libitum in either the original loose-chaff mix (C), or as a more convenient, milled....... Following transfer from pellets to chaff, DEI decreased (P end of period 2. In contrast, DEI of animals which progressed from chaff to pellets remained relatively constant between periods. Oestrous behaviour caused no detectable change in the appetite...

  9. 稻壳连续式炭化工艺及其性能研究%Experiments on Continuous Carbonization Technology for Rice Chaff and Properties of Product

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄晓伟; 潘炘; 陈顺伟; 蒋应梯

    2015-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on carbonization of rice chaff by indigenous R & D continuous carbonization furnace, as well as on effect of different carbonization temperature on yield of carbonization and rice chaff vinegar, and on properties of rice chaff carbon. The result demonstrated that the optimal outlet speed increased with carbonization temperature, they had linear correlation with the equation as:y = 0.0125x-2.25, R2 = 1. Different carbonization technologies had little influence on properties of rice chaff carbon and vine vinegar, and quality of rice chaff carbon could meet the demand for substrate. The technology with carbonization temperature of 260±10℃ and outlet of 1.00 L/10 minutes had yield of rice chaff vinegar of 55%, evidently higher than the other three tested technologies, while that with carbonization temperature of 320±10℃ and outlet of 1.75 L/10 minutes had the most yield of rice chaff carbon.%采用自主研制的连续式炭化炉进行了稻壳炭化试验,对不同炭化温度和稻壳炭出料速度对炭化得率、稻壳醋液得率以及稻壳炭性能的影响进行分析,结果表明:最佳出料速度随炭化温度的升高呈上升趋势,且两者呈线性相关,其相关方程为y =0.0125x-2.25,R2=1;炭化优化工艺对稻壳炭的pH值(8.06~9.00)、热值(19350~20980 J/g)、固定碳含量(40.92%~45.15%)等性能指标以及稻壳醋液性能的影响较小,各处理稻壳炭能够符合栽培基质用途要求;炭化温度260±10℃、10min出料1.00 L时稻壳醋液得率55.28%,明显高于另外3个炭化工艺,适合以稻壳醋液为主要目标产品的生产;而炭化温度320±10℃、10 min出料1.75 L时,稻壳炭的生产效率最高,适合以稻壳炭为主要目标产品的生产。

  10. Computing study on holistic aerodynamics of chaff cloud covering various flow regimes%箔条云跨流域整体气动特性计算研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志辉; 梁杰; 李四新; 王鹿受

    2011-01-01

    The statistical simulation technique in random sample for the numerous chaffs and chaff- cloud released by the aerocraft is founded on the theory of stochastic dynamics and statistical diffusive sampling. Based on the aerodynamic theory and computing technique established in the recent years, the evaluating algorithm for the aerodynamic characteristic of chaff bodies with the high long and slender ratio has been developed for various altitudes, flying angles and Mach numbers from rarefied free - molecular flow to continuum flow regimes. The numerical method of trajectory flying mechanics is studied and applied to calculate the space situation and velocity of the flying chaff groups at any time. The holistic performance of the chaff cloud is analyzed and studied in mathematical modeling and simulation by developing the weighted technique of stochastic dynamics and statistical distribution theory. As a result, the statistical simulating method on the holistic aerodynamics and covering range of chaff cloud from various flow regimes has been founded. The holistic flying characteristic of the numerous chaffs and chaff clouds released by aerocraft is computed and analyzed as the primary application of the present method. The present simulating results are tallied with the theoretical forecast and experiment testing, which displays the engineering practicality and reliability of the present method in simulating the flying contrail, overcast range and holistic aerodynamics of the chaff cloud including space position, number density, flying gesture and velocity across the atmosphere inside and outside.%研究随机动力学理论与统计散布取样技术,提出对飞行器抛撤"海量"箔条及形成箔条云有限分组随机统计模拟方法;采用所建立空气动力学理论与计算技术,提出可有效模拟稀薄流到连续流不同高度、马赫数、攻角与侧滑角及极高长细比箔条气动特性计算方法;研制飞行力学数值方法,计算确

  11. Chaff Centroid Jamming and Ship to Air Missile Anti-missile Cooperation Conflict Prediction%箔条质心干扰与舰空弹反导冲突预测问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙翼; 韩龙

    2015-01-01

    现代海战中箔条弹与舰空导弹综合使用中存在的电磁干扰冲突严重制约了舰艇的防空反导能力。论文重点针对电磁干扰冲突问题,提出了冲突预测判断原则,构建了冲突预测理论模型,并基于模型采取遍历运算方法对箔条质心干扰与舰空导弹冲突预测进行模拟仿真,对冲突判断模型进行了验证,其结果与实际相吻合。论文的研究可为提升箔条弹与舰空导弹协同作战效能,提高防空反导能力提供重要思路。%In the modern sea warfare ,the electromagnetic conflicts of using the Centroid Jamming and Ship to Air Missile se‐verely restricted the ability of air defence and antimissile .This paper forcused on the electromagnetic interference conflict question , proposed conflict prediction judgment principle ,constructed the conflict prediction model .And based on the model ,this paper used the traversal algorithm to simulate conflict prediction of the chaff centroid jamming and ship to air missile .The results were consist‐ent with the actual situation .The research could enhance the cooperative operation effectiveness of the chaff centroid jamming and ship to air missile ,and improve the ability of air defence and antimissile ,and provide an important idea .

  12. 表面处理对PVC/稻壳复合材料吸湿性能影响研究%Effect of suface modification on water absorption of PVC/rice chaff composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡圣飞; 张冲; 赵敏

    2009-01-01

    The effects of surface treat agent including silane coupling agent (WD-20) and phenol formaldehyde (PF) on the water absorption, mechanical properties of PVC/rice chaff composites were studied. The results showed the values of water absorption and the liner expansion ratio absorbed water of PVC/rice husks composites which modified with com-pound agent including WD-20 and PF was lower than that of the composites with WD-20 and untreated rice husks. At the same time, the mechanical properties of the composites modified with compound agent were more excellent than that of other composites.%研究了硅烷偶联剂与酚醛树脂改性稻壳粉及填充PVC后对复合材料吸湿性能、力学性能影响.结果表明:用硅烷偶联剂与酚醛树脂复合改性的PVC/稻壳粉体系吸湿量、吸湿后的膨胀率低于单一的硅处理及未处理的复合材料,同时复合改性的PVC/稻壳粉体系力学性能明显优于其它复合材料.

  13. Atributos físicos e químicos de substratos compostos por biossólidos e casca de arroz carbonizada Physical and chemical attributes of substrates composed of biosolids and carbonized rice chaff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Guerrini

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar os atributos físicos e químicos de substratos com diferentes doses de biossólido (BIO e de casca de arroz carbonizada (CAC, com vistas em obter um meio de crescimento adequado para o desenvolvimento de mudas. Desta forma, utilizando biossólido proveniente da SABESP, estação de Franca (SP, estabeleceu-se um ensaio com os seguintes tratamentos (proporções BIO/CAC: 100/0, 90/10, 80/20, 70/30, 60/40, 50/50, 40/60, 30/70, 20/80, 10/90 e 0/100, os quais foram comparados ao substrato comercial Multiplant®. Foram realizadas análises para determinação dos atributos físicos, como: densidade aparente do substrato, macro e microporosidade, porosidade total, capacidade máxima de retenção de água, e dos atributos químicos dos substratos, como: teores totais de macro e micronutrientes, pH, relação C/N e condutividade elétrica. Com a elevação da dose de BIO no substrato houve aumento da densidade e do percentual de microporos e, conseqüentemente, da capacidade de retenção de água. O BIO apresentou teores razoáveis de nutrientes com destaque para N e P, mas baixos teores de K. Não foram detectados teores de metais pesados superiores aos limites estabelecidos pela Legislação Brasileira no biossólido usado. Comparando-se os valores considerados adequados para o desenvolvimento de mudas encontrados na literatura com os obtidos neste trabalho, encaixaram-se na faixa adequada os substratos cujas doses de biossólido variaram de 30 a 60 %. Nenhum substrato testado, incluindo o do tratamento com substrato comercial, apresentou valores ideais em todas as propriedades estudadas.The objective of this research was to study the physical and chemical properties of substrates with different mixtures of biosolids (BIO and carbonized rice chaff (CAC in order to get an appropriate medium for seedling development. The experiment was established in the nursery of the Department of Natural Resources

  14. The political chaff from the economic grain?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cockburn, Patrick Joseph

    2013-01-01

    , but also a problem faced by social actors as they try to understand the socio-economic order in which they live and act. By arguing for or against the claim that begging is simultaneously an economic action and the exercise of the right to freedom of expression the voices in this debate attempted to affect...

  15. BEAMS: separating the wheat from the chaff in supernova analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Kunz, Martin; Bassett, Bruce A; Smith, Mathew; Newling, James; Varughese, Melvin

    2012-01-01

    We introduce Bayesian Estimation Applied to Multiple Species (BEAMS), an algorithm designed to deal with parameter estimation when using contaminated data. We present the algorithm and demonstrate how it works with the help of a Gaussian simulation. We then apply it to supernova data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), showing how the resulting confidence contours of the cosmological parameters shrink significantly.

  16. Ectomycorrhizal fungal diversity: seperating the wheat from the chaff

    OpenAIRE

    Rinaldi, A.C.; Comandini, O.; Kuyper, T. W.

    2008-01-01

    Thousands of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal species exist, but estimates of global species richness of ECM fungi differ widely. Many genera have been proposed as being ECM, but ill a number of studies evidence for the hypothesized ECM habit is lacking. Progress in estimating ECM species richness is therefore slow. Ill this paper we have retrieved studies providing evidence for the ECM habit of fungal species and For the identification of the mycobiont(s) ill specific ECM associations, using pub...

  17. Ectomycorrhizal fungal diversity: seperating the wheat from the chaff

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rinaldi, A.C.; Comandini, O.; Kuyper, T.W.

    2008-01-01

    Thousands of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal species exist, but estimates of global species richness of ECM fungi differ widely. Many genera have been proposed as being ECM, but ill a number of studies evidence for the hypothesized ECM habit is lacking. Progress in estimating ECM species richness is th

  18. Mold and human health: separating the wheat from the chaff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, H David; Selmi, Carlo F; Teuber, Suzanne S; Gershwin, M Eric

    2010-04-01

    The term "mold" is utilized to define the ubiquitous fungal species commonly found in household dust and observed as visible multicellular filaments. Several well-defined human diseases are known to be caused or exacerbated by mold or by exposure to their byproducts. Among these, a solid connection has been established with infections, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, allergic fungal rhinosinusitis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and asthma. In the past decades, other less-defined and generally false conditions have also been ascribed to mold. We will herein review and critically discuss the available evidence on the influence of mold on human health. PMID:19714500

  19. Wheat, chaff and conflicting definitions in market transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The term Market Transformation developed from the concept that programs that concentrated on changing the way energy efficiency was received in markets would lead to larger, longer lasting, better accepted, or more cost-efficient efficiency improvements. Programs could alter the relationships between market actors--consumers, retailers, distributors, producers, suppliers, etc.--rather than just addressing consumer demand, and thus might have longer-lasting effects. Market transformation was seen as one way, but not necessarily as the only way to obtain energy efficiency improvements. Many policymakers agreed, and have directed energy efficiency funding toward market transformation. In order to make the concept useful as a means of deciding between competing projects--to operate it as a prioritization tool and to begin to develop programs from a basis in theory, this paper lists proposed definitions, describes multiple perspectives, and proposes operational criteria for market transformation. The descriptions, definitions and criteria are intended to contribute to greater mutual understanding, and thus to the accomplishment of the overall objectives of market transformation

  20. Separating the Wheat from the Chaff: Identifying Key Elements in the NLA .AU Domain Harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellows, Geoff; Harvey, Ross; Lloyd, Annemaree; Pymm, Bob; Wallis, Jake

    2008-01-01

    In 2005 and 2006 the National Library of Australia (NLA) carried out two whole-domain web harvests which complement the selective web archiving approach taken by PANDORA. Web harvests of this size pose significant challenges to their use. Despite these challenges, such harvests present fascinating research opportunities. The NLA has provided…

  1. 'Sorting the Wheat from the Chaff': Investigating Overload in Educational Discussion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kear, Karen; Heap, N.W.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on research to investigate design features of asynchronous discussion systems for higher education. The research aims to identify features that increase the benefits of discussion systems and reduce the problems. The paper focuses on a major theme that emerged from interviews with learners and teachers: information overload.…

  2. Multicollinearity in spatial genetics: separating the wheat from the chaff using commonality analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prunier, J G; Colyn, M; Legendre, X; Nimon, K F; Flamand, M C

    2015-01-01

    Direct gradient analyses in spatial genetics provide unique opportunities to describe the inherent complexity of genetic variation in wildlife species and are the object of many methodological developments. However, multicollinearity among explanatory variables is a systemic issue in multivariate regression analyses and is likely to cause serious difficulties in properly interpreting results of direct gradient analyses, with the risk of erroneous conclusions, misdirected research and inefficient or counterproductive conservation measures. Using simulated data sets along with linear and logistic regressions on distance matrices, we illustrate how commonality analysis (CA), a detailed variance-partitioning procedure that was recently introduced in the field of ecology, can be used to deal with nonindependence among spatial predictors. By decomposing model fit indices into unique and common (or shared) variance components, CA allows identifying the location and magnitude of multicollinearity, revealing spurious correlations and thus thoroughly improving the interpretation of multivariate regressions. Despite a few inherent limitations, especially in the case of resistance model optimization, this review highlights the great potential of CA to account for complex multicollinearity patterns in spatial genetics and identifies future applications and lines of research. We strongly urge spatial geneticists to systematically investigate commonalities when performing direct gradient analyses.

  3. Separating wheat from chaff: examining the obesity paradox in the critically ill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattan, Rishi; Nasraway, Stanley A

    2013-07-12

    Obesity is an increasing burden globally. In the general population, the obese have an increased mortality risk. Regarding the critically ill, a growing body of literature supports the obesity paradox, the notion that obesity confers a protective effect in certain disease states. However, the paucity of methodologically sound trials prevents definitive interpretation and may obscure risks.

  4. Separating the Wheat from the Chaff: Sensing Wireless Microphones in TVWS

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Huanhuan; Zhang, Wenyi

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes our attempts to establish a systematic approach that overcomes a key difficulty in sensing wireless microphone signals, namely, the inability for most existing detection methods to effectively distinguish between a wireless microphone signal and a sinusoidal continuous wave (CW). Such an inability has led to an excessively high false alarm rate and thus severely limited the utility of sensing-based cognitive transmission in the TV white space (TVWS) spectrum. Having recognized the root of the difficulty, we propose two potential solutions. The first solution focuses on the periodogram as an estimate of the power spectral density (PSD), utilizing the property that a CW has a line spectral component while a wireless microphone signal has a slightly dispersed PSD. In that approach, we formulate the resulting decision model as an one-sided test for Gaussian vectors, based on Kullback-Leibler distance type of decision statistics. The second solution goes beyond the PSD and looks into the spec...

  5. Sorting the Wheat from the Chaff: What Makes for Good Evidence of Effectiveness in the Literature in Gifted Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Carolyn M.; Moon, Tonya R.

    2007-01-01

    To provide an overview of the specific components that must be considered when making decisions about research in the field of gifted education, the authors describe and evaluate the three types of evidence--speculative or anecdotal, theoretical, and empirical--commonly offered in the literature of the field. Empirical, or evidence-based, research…

  6. Comparing solar collectors - where the wheat separates from the chaff; Kollektorvergleiche. Wo sich Spreu und Weizen trennen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrecht, S.; Griesshaber, W.; Kettner, C.; Meissner, R. [Paradigma GmbH, Karlsbad (Germany)

    2008-12-15

    Solar plants are an important option among climate-friendly energy technologies. However, a closer look at collector technologies available on the market reveals dramatic differences. At high operating temperatures the performance of solar collectors with vacuum insulation stands out clearly against collectors with conventional insulation. Under average or above-average solar radiation conditions with temperature differences relative to ambient levels of 25 K and more not even the best flat-panel collectors can compete technically with tube collectors. The following article shows that only high-performance vacuum tube collectors can cover the requirements of applications involving large-scale process heat. This should have consequences for the allocation of state funds to different collector technologies.

  7. Separating the Chaff from the Oats: Evidence for a Conceptual Distinction between Count Noun and Mass Noun Aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Erica L.; Wisniewski, Edward J.; Trindel, Kelly A.; Imai, Mutsumi

    2004-01-01

    The English language makes a grammatical distinction between count nouns and mass nouns. For example, count nouns but not mass nouns can be pluralized and can appear with the indefinite article. Some scholars dismiss the distinction as an arbitrary convention of language whereas others suggest that it is conceptually based. The present studies…

  8. Separating Wheat from Chaff: How Secondary School Principals' Core Values and Beliefs Influence Decision-Making Related to Mandates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Donald E.; Hunter, Joseph E.

    2014-01-01

    Research conducted by Larsen and Hunter (2013, February) identified a clear pattern in secondary school principals' decision-making related to mandated change: more than half of participants' decisions were based on core values and beliefs, requiring value judgments. Analysis of themes revealed that more than half of administrative…

  9. Cultivating Pleurisies ostreatus with Chaff of Flammulina velutiper(Fr.) sing from Factories%工厂化金针菇菌糠栽培平菇试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘振祥; 王志勇; 易曲; 刘秀娟

    2014-01-01

    试验以工厂化生产金针菇[Flammulina velutiper(Fr.) Sing]的菌渣为主要原料,采用5种不同的配方栽培平菇(Pleurisies ostreatus).结果表明,以配方4(金针菇菌糠24%,新鲜棉子壳74%,石灰粉1%,石膏粉1%)栽培平菇的效果最好,平均每袋比对照降低生产成本0.61元,提高经济效益1.21元.

  10. Separating the wheat from the chaff. Pt. 3. The value of solar heat; Wo sich Spreu und Weizen trennen. T. 3. Ueber den Wert von Solarwaerme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrecht, S.; Griesshaber, W.; Kettner, C.; Meissner, R. [Paradigma (Germany)

    2008-08-15

    The first part discussed a number of errors in collector engineering, e.g. the presentation of thermal characteristics in irrelevant conditions, the ignoring of the line loss resulting from the use of glycolas heat carrier fluid, the errors induced by massive state funding, i.e. overdimensioning of stores and funding of collectors by surface area instead of by efficiency. This second part explains why higher collector temperatures are better than lower ones and how the Carnot efficiency for given thermal collectors characterizes the practical value of solar heat and the potential of this heat for CO2 reduction. (orig.)

  11. Relationship of Deoxynivalenol Content in Grain, Chaff, and Straw with Fusarium Head Blight Severity in Wheat Varieties with Various Levels of Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Ji

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of 122 wheat varieties obtained from the Nordic Genetic Resource Center were infected artificially with an aggressive Fusariumasiaticum strain in a field experiment. We calculated the severity of Fusarium head blight (FHB and determined the deoxynivalenol (DON content of wheat grain, straw and glumes. We found DON contamination levels to be highest in the glumes, intermediate in the straw, and lowest in the grain in most samples. The DON contamination levels did not increase consistently with increased FHB incidence. The DON levels in the wheat varieties with high FHB resistance were not necessarily low, and those in the wheat varieties with high FHB sensitivity were not necessarily high. We selected 50 wheat genotypes with reduced DON content for future research. This study will be helpful in breeding new wheat varieties with low levels of DON accumulation.

  12. 7 CFR 319.69 - Notice of quarantine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... only in accordance with the regulations supplemental to this quarantine: (1) Cereal straw, hulls, and chaff (such as oats, barley, and rye) from all countries, except rice straw, hulls, and chaff, which...

  13. Effect of Cultivating Flammulina velutipes on Substrates Containing Rice Chaff on Mycelial Growth and Fruit Body Yields%谷壳作代用料对金针菇生长发育及产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林衍铨; 应正河; 江晓凌; 翁伯琦

    2010-01-01

    采用随机区组试验,研究了不同梯度的谷壳代替部分甘蔗渣、木屑等对金针菇(Flammulina velutipes) 生长发育和产量的影响.结果表明:不同配方培养料对金针菇的菌丝生长速度和生长势、生育期、子实体商品性状、产量及生物学效率等均有较大的影响.其中以占配方总量15%的谷壳代替常规配方中50%的甘蔗渣效果最佳,能显著提高金针菇产量,改善金针菇品质.

  14. Study on saccharification of cellulosic wastes with bench scale test plant, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanical pretreatment of irradiated chaff for saccharification was studied with the bench scale test plant. Chaff was pulverized by an impact type pulverizer which could treat a large amount of cellulosic wastes in short time. The effect of pulverizing on irradiated chaff was investigated from the point of view of particle size and saccharification. From untreated chaff the low accessibility of enzyme reduces the yield of glucose. Pulverized chaff, however, gave high glucose yield resulting from the increase of the enzyme accessibility because of decrease of particle size. The fine powder of chaff rendered the possibility of the saccharification at the high slurry concentration. The radiation pretreatment with electron beam introduced the decrease of electric energy to obtain the fine powder with pulverizer. This pretreatment also increased the fine powder yield. After irradiation dose increased to more than 70 Mrad in the pretreatment, high glucose concentration was obtained only by coarse pulverizing. (author)

  15. Cause of winter gravity wave spectrum saturation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU; Yongfu; XU; Jiyao

    2005-01-01

    This paper utilizes horizontal velocity measurements observed from 19 chaff rockets and nearly simultaneous temperature measurements collected from 19 falling sphere rockets to study the cause of winter gravity wave spectrum saturation. Results suggest that strong horizontal velocity shears larger than 0.04 s-1 are observed to be present at various heights near the winter mesopause. On one single chaff rocket flight, an extremely strong horizontal velocity shear as high as 0.33 s-1 is observed at 87.4 km and is believed to be the strongest value ever measured in the mesosphere. These strong horizontal velocity shears, together with Brunt-V(a)is(a)l(a) frequency squared obtained from the temperature profile, act collectively to yield two dynamical instability regions of Richardson number smaller than 1/4, suggesting that the saturated gravity wave spectrum observed by the chaff rockets in winter is a result of dynamical instability.

  16. Physical Separation of Straw Stem Components to Reduce Silica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, John Richard; Thompson, David Neal; Hoskinson, Reed Louis; Shaw, Peter Gordon; Grant, D.R.

    2002-04-01

    In this paper, we describe ongoing efforts to solve challenges to using straw for bioenergy and bioproducts. Among these, silica in straw forms a low-melting eutectic with potassium, causing slag deposits, and chlorides cause corrosion beneath the deposits. Straw consists principally of stems, leaves, sheaths, nodes, awns, and chaff. Leaves and sheaths are higher in silica, while chaff, leaves and nodes are the primary source of fines. Our approach to reducing silica is to selectively harvest the straw stems using an in-field physical separation, leaving the remaining components in the field to build soil organic matter and contribute soil nutrients.

  17. Data Mining Gets Traction in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2011-01-01

    The new and rapidly growing field of educational data mining is using the chaff from data collected through normal school activities to explore learning in more detail than ever, and researchers say the day when educators can make use of Amazon.com-like feedback on student learning behaviors may be closer than most people think. Educational data…

  18. New tools. A new breed of high-tech detectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, A

    2000-08-11

    Forensic scientists are equipping police investigators with powerful tools for collecting and analyzing evidence. But as detection techniques become increasingly sensitive, the problem of sifting the wheat from the chaff at a crime scene mushrooms, guaranteeing a role for the human investigator despite all the gadgetry. Moreover, some developments are also raising civil liberties concerns.

  19. Do plant traits predict the competitive abilities of closely related species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Lauren M; Gibson, David J; Young, Bryan G

    2015-01-01

    Invasive species are a threat to every ecosystem. There is a strong incentive to predict which species will become invasive before they become too widespread and unmanageable. Different approaches have been advocated to assess invasive species potential. These include examining plant functional traits, quantifying competitive ability and phylogenetic comparison. In this study, we conducted experiments based on the above approaches in a multi-year, temporally replicated, set of experiments to compare these assessment methods to determine the invasive potential of Japanese chaff flower (Achyranthes japonica). We compared plant traits and competitive ability of Japanese chaff flower with two agricultural invasive species, Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) and tall waterhemp (Amaranthus tuberculatus), and one endangered plant species, bloodleaf (Iresine rhizomatosa), in the Amaranthaceae. Additionally, we assessed the invasive potential based on each of these approaches and determined the degree of agreement between them. A relatively conservative assessment integrating all three approaches would be that the competitive ability of closely related individuals with similar functional traits would share invasive potential. In a greenhouse experiment, each of the study species and soya beans were grown as monocultures and were evaluated to assess the drawdown of an aboveground (light) and a belowground (nitrogen) resource. In a field experiment, each study species was grown at varying densities per 15-cm-diameter pot with or without one or two soya bean plants, to simulate relative densities for soya beans grown in 38- and 76-cm-wide row spacing, respectively. In addition, Japanese chaff flower seedlings were planted either as un-manipulated seedlings or as a seedling cut back to the soil surface at the four-node stage (cut Japanese chaff flower) at which point seedlings have reached a perennial growth stage. The greenhouse experiment showed that each species drew down

  20. Do plant traits predict the competitive abilities of closely related species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Lauren M; Gibson, David J; Young, Bryan G

    2015-12-31

    Invasive species are a threat to every ecosystem. There is a strong incentive to predict which species will become invasive before they become too widespread and unmanageable. Different approaches have been advocated to assess invasive species potential. These include examining plant functional traits, quantifying competitive ability and phylogenetic comparison. In this study, we conducted experiments based on the above approaches in a multi-year, temporally replicated, set of experiments to compare these assessment methods to determine the invasive potential of Japanese chaff flower (Achyranthes japonica). We compared plant traits and competitive ability of Japanese chaff flower with two agricultural invasive species, Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) and tall waterhemp (Amaranthus tuberculatus), and one endangered plant species, bloodleaf (Iresine rhizomatosa), in the Amaranthaceae. Additionally, we assessed the invasive potential based on each of these approaches and determined the degree of agreement between them. A relatively conservative assessment integrating all three approaches would be that the competitive ability of closely related individuals with similar functional traits would share invasive potential. In a greenhouse experiment, each of the study species and soya beans were grown as monocultures and were evaluated to assess the drawdown of an aboveground (light) and a belowground (nitrogen) resource. In a field experiment, each study species was grown at varying densities per 15-cm-diameter pot with or without one or two soya bean plants, to simulate relative densities for soya beans grown in 38- and 76-cm-wide row spacing, respectively. In addition, Japanese chaff flower seedlings were planted either as un-manipulated seedlings or as a seedling cut back to the soil surface at the four-node stage (cut Japanese chaff flower) at which point seedlings have reached a perennial growth stage. The greenhouse experiment showed that each species drew down

  1. Stop the botch. Quality in planning and installation; Schluss mit dem Pfusch. Qualitaet in Planung und Montage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullrich, Sven

    2013-10-01

    Almost half of the damage to solar power systems are the results of the installers fault. To separate the wheat from the chaff, the TUeV Rheinland and the Mannheimer Insurance launch an offensive. [German] Fast die Haelfte der Schaeden an Solarstromanlagen geht auf Fehler der Installateure zurueck. Um die Spreu vom Weizen zu trennen, starten der TUeV Rheinland und die Mannheimer Versicherungen eine Offensive.

  2. Substrates and controlled-release fertilizations on the quality of eucalyptus cuttings

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson B. G. da Silva; Magali R. da Silva; Danilo Simões

    2014-01-01

    To produce cuttings with quality, the most appropriate nutritional management strategies should be sought to reduce wastage of fertilizer, while accounting for the characteristics of each substrate. This study evaluated the effect of substrates and doses of controlled-release fertilizer on the quality of Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden x Eucalyptus urophylla S. T. Blake cuttings. The substrates consisted of several mixtures: vermiculite+carbonized rice chaff+coconut fibre (1:1:1); vermiculi...

  3. Plasmodium chabaudi limits early Nippostrongylus brasiliensis-induced pulmonary immune activation and Th2 polarization in co-infected mice

    OpenAIRE

    Hoeve, Marieke A.; Mylonas, Katie J; Fairlie-Clarke, Karen J; Mahajan, Simmi M; Allen, Judith E.; Graham, Andrea L

    2009-01-01

    Larvae of several common species of parasitic nematodes obligately migrate through, and often damage, host lungs. The larvae induce strong pulmonary Type 2 immune responses, including T-helper (Th)2 cells as well as alternatively activated macrophages (AAMphi) and associated chitinase and Fizz/resistin family members (ChaFFs), which are thought to promote tissue repair processes. Given the prevalence of systemic or lung-resident Type 1-inducing pathogens in geographical areas in which nematod...

  4. Material-mass Balance of Smallholder Oil Palm Processing in the Niger Delta, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Elijah I. Ohimain; Sylvester C. Izah; Francis A.U. Obieze

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluates the material-mass balance of smallholder oil palm processing in Niger Delta Nigeria. Ten smallholder oil palm processing mills were randomly sampled. Measuring scale was used to measure the weight of the Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB) and all the processing intermediates/products including Threshed Fresh Fruit (TFF), Palm Pressed Fibre (PPF), Palm Kernel Shell (PKS), Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB), Crude Palm Oil (CPO), chaff and nut. During the study period (13-22 April 2012), 8 of th...

  5. Substrates and controlled-release fertilizations on the quality of eucalyptus cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richardson B. G. da Silva

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available To produce cuttings with quality, the most appropriate nutritional management strategies should be sought to reduce wastage of fertilizer, while accounting for the characteristics of each substrate. This study evaluated the effect of substrates and doses of controlled-release fertilizer on the quality of Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden x Eucalyptus urophylla S. T. Blake cuttings. The substrates consisted of several mixtures: vermiculite+carbonized rice chaff+coconut fibre (1:1:1; vermiculite+coconut fibre (1:1; and vermiculite+carbonized rice chaff (1:1. These mixtures were added to 2, 4, 6 and 8 kg of controlled-release fertilizer per cubic meter of substrate. The substrates that do not support root development and have lower water retention, independently of the dose of controlled-release fertilizer, reduce the quality of the root system. For substrates with proper values of water retention, such as vermiculite+coconut fibre (1:1 and vermiculite+carbonised rice chaff+coconut fibre (1:1:1, the utilization of dose 2 kg of controlled-release fertilizer to each cubic meter is enough to promote cuttings with greater quality of the root systems and proper heights and stem diameters.

  6. 废菌棒复合基质对3种阔叶树容器苗生长的影响%Effect of Compound Substrates on Growth of Three Species of Container Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘荣松; 胡根长; 叶庭旺; 吕赟薇; 周志春

    2011-01-01

    Experiment were conducted on the effect of different substrates on growth and survival rate of container seedlings of Ormosia hosiei, Schima superba and Pistacia chinensis. Substrates had different ratio of waste compost from mushroom cultivation, hull chaff. The result showed that different tree species expressed significant differences on growth and survival rate. The growth and survival rate of container seedlings were better when the amount of compost less than 20% and that of hull chaff less than 40%, similar to the control, the common treatment in the production (60% peat+ 40% hull chaff). The best formula was 20% compost from black fungus cultivation + 40% peat + 40% hull chaff; then the ones of 20% compost from mushroom cultivation + 40% peat + 40% hull chaff and that of 40% compost from black fungus cultivation + 30% peat + 30% hull chaff, The seedling height, ground diameter and survi .a) ate of the tested container seedlings were significantly decreased with the increase of compost and decrease of hull chaff. The effect of compost from black fungus cultivation on the container seedling was better than that from mushroom cultivation, which could be explained by the small particles of the latter one with easy water uptake, poor water and air permeability.%利用经发酵消毒后的黑木耳和香菇菌棒废弃物,设计与泥炭、谷壳的不同配比基质处理,研究其对红豆树、木荷和黄连木3种容器苗生长和芽苗移栽成活率的影响.结果表明:不同树种对废菌棒复合基质的生长反应显著,其芽苗移栽成活差异也很大;当废菌棒量不超过20%、谷壳不低于40%时其容器苗生长量和芽苗移栽成活率较好,接近于生产上常用的60%泥炭+40%谷壳的对照配比基质处理,其中20%废黑木耳菌棒+40%泥炭+40%谷壳为最佳的基质配方,20%废香菇菌棒+40%泥炭+40%谷壳和40%废黑木耳菌棒+30%泥炭+30%谷壳次之;随着配比基质中废菌

  7. Risk perception & strategic decision making :general insights, a framework, and specific application to electricity generation using nuclear energy.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brewer, Jeffrey D.

    2005-11-01

    The objective of this report is to promote increased understanding of decision making processes and hopefully to enable improved decision making regarding high-consequence, highly sophisticated technological systems. This report brings together insights regarding risk perception and decision making across domains ranging from nuclear power technology safety, cognitive psychology, economics, science education, public policy, and neural science (to name a few). It forms them into a unique, coherent, concise framework, and list of strategies to aid in decision making. It is suggested that all decision makers, whether ordinary citizens, academics, or political leaders, ought to cultivate their abilities to separate the wheat from the chaff in these types of decision making instances. The wheat includes proper data sources and helpful human decision making heuristics; these should be sought. The chaff includes ''unhelpful biases'' that hinder proper interpretation of available data and lead people unwittingly toward inappropriate decision making ''strategies''; obviously, these should be avoided. It is further proposed that successfully accomplishing the wheat vs. chaff separation is very difficult, yet tenable. This report hopes to expose and facilitate navigation away from decision-making traps which often ensnare the unwary. Furthermore, it is emphasized that one's personal decision making biases can be examined, and tools can be provided allowing better means to generate, evaluate, and select among decision options. Many examples in this report are tailored to the energy domain (esp. nuclear power for electricity generation). The decision making framework and approach presented here are applicable to any high-consequence, highly sophisticated technological system.

  8. 膨胀石墨毫米波散射截面仿真与试验研究%Simulation and Test on Millimeter Wave Scattering Cross of Expanded Graphite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许兴春; 李天鹏; 张开创; 张迪

    2015-01-01

    Expanded graphite is an excellent millimeter wave-absorbent material, whose mechanism of wave-absorption is different from chaff.We have designed an expanded graphite board and a chaff board,and the scattering cross section of the two boards was calculated by CST.The scattering cross section of the two boards was also measured by a test.A comparative analysis of the result of the two methods shows that the simulation results agree with those of the experimental test.The scattering cross section of expanded graphite is less than the chaff,so it is proved that the expanded graphite plays the main part in absorbing the interfering millimeter wave.%膨胀石墨是一种优良的毫米波干扰材料,其干扰毫米波机理与箔条等传统干扰材料不同。为了研究膨胀石墨干扰毫米波机理,设计了膨胀石墨、箔条干扰面板,在CST中建模运算,得出膨胀石墨、箔条的毫米波散射截面,通过试验测得膨胀石墨、箔条的毫米波实际散射截面。分析比较仿真与试验结果可知,仿真结果与试验结果一致,膨胀石墨对毫米波的散射截面远小于箔条,从侧面证明了膨胀石墨对毫米波干扰以吸收为主。

  9. Mites (Acari Associated with the Desert Seed Harvester Ant, Messor pergandei (Mayr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaitlin A. Uppstrom

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mites (Acari associated with the seed harvester ant Messor pergandei were investigated in the Sonoran desert of Arizona. At least seven representatives of the mite genera Armacarus, Lemanniella, Petalomium, Forcellinia, Histiostoma, Unguidispus, and Cosmoglyphus are phoretically associated with M. pergandei. Most of these morphospecies show preference for specific phoretic attachment sites and primarily use female alates rather than male alates for dispersal. Five mite morphospecies were found in low numbers inhabiting the chaff piles: Tydeidae sp., Procaeculus sp., Anystidae sp., Bakerdania sp., and Tetranychidae sp. The phoretic Petalomium sp. was observed consuming fungus growing on a dead queen, but the roles of the other mite species remain mostly unresolved.

  10. PEMBUATAN MMC BERBASIS TEKNOLOGI METALURGI SERBUK DENGAN BAHAN BAKU ALUMINIUM DARI LIMBAH KALENG MINUMAN DAN ADITIF ABU SEKAM PADI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Akrom

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Komposit matriks logam (aluminium yang berasal dari limbah kaleng minuman dengan penguat partikel silikon karbida danpenguat tambahan abu sekam padi telah berhasil difabrikasi dengan metode teknologi metalurgi serbuk. Tujuan dari penelitian iniadalah merekayasa material baru yang murah akan tetapi memiliki mutu dan daya saing yang sangat baik. Penelitian ini terdiri daribeberapa tahap yakni, pembuatan bahan baku, pencampuran, pencetakan sampel, sintering dan pengujian. Dari hasil pengujianfisik diperoleh bahwa komposit matrik logam dengan penambahan abu sekam padi memiliki kerapatan lebih rendah dibandingkandengan komposit Al/SiC tanpa sekam padi, sedangkan sifat kekerasan dan kekuatannya jauh lebih besar dibandingkan Al/SiCtanpa penambahan abu sekam padi. Dari analisis XRD ditemukan bahwa terjadi penyebaran unsur utama Al, Si, senyawa SiC,serta timbul senyawa stabil MgAl O , Al O yang bersifat konstruktif yang dapat memberikan sifat mekanis yang baik bagi komposit,dan senyawa destruktif Al C yang bersifat korosif. Analisis SEM menunjukkan ukuran butiran partikel yang cenderung lebar danmemanjang, ikatan antar partikel penyusun bahan yang terbentuk cukup baik, sehingga memberikan sifat mekanis bahan yangbaik.Tidak tampaknya pori-pori bahan menunjukkan pula bahwa ikatan partikel antar bahan cukup baik. Metal (aluminium matrix composite originated from beverage can waste with carbide silicon particle reinforcement and additionalreinforcement of paddy chaff ash has been fabricated successfully by employing powder metallurgy technology method. Thepurpose of the research is to create a cheap new material, qualified and having high competitive value. This research wasconducted through several stages, those were making raw material, mixing, sample moulding, sintering, and testing. The result ofphysical test shows that metal matrix composite added by paddy chaff ash has lower density, stronger and bigger power comparedto Al/SiC composite without

  11. Behavioural ecology cannot turn its back on Lévy walk research. Comment on "Liberating Lévy walk research from the shackles of optimal foraging" by A.M. Reynolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartumeus, Frederic

    2015-09-01

    Interdisciplinary research on Lévy walks at the intersection between physics and biology is here to stay, albeit the scope of its role and utility in different areas of biology, including animal foraging, are still to be defined. After a decade, the field is still sorting out relevant questions from misleading interpretations, separating the wheat from the chaff. This task should be easy but it is not. Some reasons are the interdisciplinarity of the subject (maths, physics, biology), which multiplies semantic problems and the questions of interest, and the tight combination of theory and data that is needed to advance in the field.

  12. Fusarium head blight of winter rye (Secale cereale L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Kiecana

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigations on Fusarium head blight of rye were carried out in the years 2005-2007 on 10 production fields in the Lublin region. The percentage of heads showing the fusariosis symptoms in the years 2005-2007 ranged from 0 to 7%. Mycological analysis of kernels and chaff obtained from heads with Fusarium blight (scab symptoms showed that Fusarium avenaceum, Fusarium culmorum and Fusarium sporotrichioides were the largest threat to heads of this cereal. The species of Fusarium poae and Fusarium crookwellense were also isolated from infected rye heads. The dominance of particular species in infecting rye heads was determined by weather conditions.

  13. Mobile measurement facilities for the real-time interaction with the Radio Ecological Analysis Support System (RECASS NT) in anti terrorism actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presentation outlines a mobile radiological facility, designed for determining of the source term parameters and atmospheric transport and dispersion parameters in the near zone during an accident. Those parameters serve as input to the RECASS NT system for forecasting atmospheric dispersion of pollutants. Information is generated by means of field simulation of contaminant transport and dispersion through creating a cloud of super light tracers (chaff) at the simulated release height and tracking its transport and dispersion with the radar. Results of field experiments using the mobile radiological facility carried out in the vicinity of the Kola NPP and Kursk NPP are described

  14. Metabolic response to dietary fibre composition in horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøkner, C.; Austbø, D.; Næsset, J. A.;

    2016-01-01

    . The feed rations consisted of only timothy hay (H), hay plus molassed sugar beet pulp combined with either whole oats (OB) or barley (BB) and hay plus a loose chaff-based concentrate (M). Four horses were fitted with permanent caecal cannulas and liquid caecal content was withdrawn manually and blood...... was drawn from the jugular vein at 0, 3 and 9 h postprandial. The horses were exercised daily at medium level for about 1 h. Samples were analysed for short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and metabolic traits. Caecal SCFA and propionic acid concentrations increased with increased dietary starch and soluble fibre...... energy for horses at medium work level....

  15. Genetic variation of space flight carried rice and mutant analysis by AFLP molecular marker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice seeds were carried by 'Shenzhou No.3' space shuttle, a mutant with golden chaff, stem and leaf was selected and named Golden 1 after the seeds returned to the earth. Except the golden color, other traits of Golden 1 are no obviously different with its original material H9808. Genetic analysis identified that color variation was control by a pair of recessive gene. The DNA fragments of the mutant were compared with its parent by AFLP molecular markers. Five specific bands were found through a serial selection. (authors)

  16. Novel Complex Conjugate-Phase Transform Technique for Cancelable and Irrevocable Biometric Template Generation for Fingerprints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Kanagalakshmi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a novel method for cancellable and irrevocable biometric template generation. The proposed method named as complex conjugate phase transform takes the main components like bit shifted-phase, twin complex conjugate transpose and chaff point generation along with it. The strength of the proposed method is tested in different aspects such as cancelability, irrevocability and security. The performance of the same is also calculated in terms of time and space complexity; ROC analysis is also carried out. The proposed method achieves higher matching scores; and the experimental results show that the proposed complex conjugate phase transform is better in all the aspects of performance.

  17. Effect of the Use of Pycnanthus angolensis and Different Supplements on Yields and on the Proximate Composition of Pleurotus sajor-caju

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soji Fakoya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken with the aim of determining the growth, yield, and proximate composition of Pleurotus sajor-caju cultivated on Pycnanthus angolensis sawdust supplemented with 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20% palm kernel cake (PKC, oil palm fibre (OPF, rice bran (RB, wheat chaff (WC, and corn cobs (CC. P. sajor-caju harvested produced maximum yield of 31.22 g on P. angolensis sawdust supplemented with 15% wheat chaff. The biological efficiency of substrates used ranged from 6.09% to 37.39%. Results also showed a maximum crude protein of 26.33% of P. sajor-caju cultivated on P. angolensis sawdust without any supplement and fat content ranging from 0.25% to 2.21%. Fibre content of harvested mushrooms ranged from 5.05% to 9.29%. The study revealed that supplementing P. angolensis sawdust significantly influenced the growth, yield, and proximate compositions of P. sajor-caju.

  18. Effect of Source-Sink Manipulation on Photosynthetic Characteristics of Flag Leaf and the Remobilization of Dry Mass and Nitrogen in Vegetative Organs of Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ying-hua; SUN Na-na; HONG Jia-pei; ZHANG Qi; WANG Chao; XUE Qing-wu; ZHOU Shun-li; HUANG Qin; WANG Zhi-min

    2014-01-01

    The photosynthetic characteristics of lfag leaf and the accumulation and remobilization of pre-anthesis dry mass (DM) and nitrogen (N) in vegetable organs in nine wheat cultivars under different source-sink manipulation treatments including defoliation (DF), spike shading (SS) and half spikelets removal (SR) were investigated. Results showed that the SS treatment increased the photosynthetic rate (Pn) of lfag leaf in source limited cultivar, but had no signiifcant effect on sink limited cultivar. The SR treatment decreased the Pn of lfag leaf. Grain DM accumulation was limited by source in some cultivars, in other cultivars, it was limited by sink. Grain N accumulation was mainly limited by source supply. The contribution of pre-anthesis dry mass to grain yield from high to low was stem, leaf and chaff, while the contribution of pre-anthesis N to grain N from high to low was leaf, stem and chaff. Cultivars S7221 and TA9818 can increase the contribution of remobilization of DM and N to grain at the maximum ratio under reducing source treatments, which may be the major reason for these cultivars having lower decrease in grain yield and N content under reducing source treatments.

  19. Reseach on kinematics Chatacteristic of Airborne Passive jamming Decoy%机载无源干扰诱饵的运动特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲长文; 李亚南

    2012-01-01

    It is found that the passive jamming decoy is mainly affected by the air force and gravity force on the consideration of the decoy' s self-attribute and the atmospheric environment in which it is located. Based on the analysis, the dynamics model and kinematics model of the passive jamming decoy are built. And its movement is got from simulation. The concept of equivalent sphere is given based on the chaff could and single chaff' s force analysis and the visualized scattering process can be seen from simulation.%考虑机载无源干扰诱饵自身的属性和其所处的大气环境,对其进行受力分析,发现无源干扰诱饵受空气动力和自身重力的影响较大.据此建立了无源干扰诱饵的动力学模型和运动学模型,仿真得出无源干扰诱饵的运动情况.在对箔条云受力和单根箔条受力分析的基础上,给出等效球的概念,在仿真中直观地得到了箔条云的散开过程.

  20. Effect of different growing substrates on the plant water relations and marketable fruit yield greenhouse-grown tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Borowski

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the period 2009-2011, a study was conducted in a greenhouse, using fertigation, to determine water relations and fruit yield of tomato grown in different substrates. Tomato plants were grown on rockwool slabs, 15 dm3  in volume, and on slabs of the same volume made of the following straw chaff: rape straw; rape straw + peat (3:1; rape straw + pine bark (3:1; triticale straw; triticale straw + peat (3:1; triticale straw + pine bark (3:1. 2 tomato plants were grown on each slab, leaving 22 fruit clusters on each plant during the period from February to October. The obtained results showed that water potential, stomatal conductance, transpiration, water saturation deficit, and leaf free proline content in tomato grown on rockwool and on rape or triticale straw chaff substrates did not differ statistically significantly. Also, no significant differences were found in marketable tomato fruit yield and dry matter content in tomato fruits. Peat or pine bark addition to rape or triticale straw substrates had no significant effect on the change in their commercially useful traits. In the opinion of the present authors, substrates made of rape or triticale straw alone, and even more so with the addition of peat or bark, are not inferior in any way to commonly used rockwool.

  1. Material-mass Balance of Smallholder Oil Palm Processing in the Niger Delta, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elijah I. Ohimain

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the material-mass balance of smallholder oil palm processing in Niger Delta Nigeria. Ten smallholder oil palm processing mills were randomly sampled. Measuring scale was used to measure the weight of the Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB and all the processing intermediates/products including Threshed Fresh Fruit (TFF, Palm Pressed Fibre (PPF, Palm Kernel Shell (PKS, Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB, Crude Palm Oil (CPO, chaff and nut. During the study period (13-22 April 2012, 8 of the mills processed 90-400 bunches of Dura variety, while the remaining 2 mills processed 65-200 bunches of Tenera variety. During the batch processing of Dura variety, the proportion of the intermediate products computed in relation to the weight of the FFB (100% are as follows; TFF (66.0-75.0%, mesocarp (44.8-51.1%, nuts (19.0-27.5%, kernel (5.7-7.2%, water in mesocarp (9.0-12.1% and water in nut (2.4-3.4%, EFB (23.7-32.4%, chaff (0.8-2.4%, Palm Kernel Shell (PKS (10.0-18.8%, Palm Press Fibre (PPF (23.2-28.1% and Crude Palm Oil (CPO (9.4-12.8%. For the Tenera varieties, the compositions are as follows; TFF (70.9-72.9%, mesocarp (56.4-58.0%, nuts (14.5-14.9%, kernel (5.5-5.6%, water in mesocarp (10.1-10.4% and water in the nut (1.9-2.1%, EFB (25.7-28.2%, chaff (0.9-1.4%, PKS (6.8-7.5%, (19.1-20.3% and CPO (26.0-28.2%. This result shows that Tenera produces more oil and less wastes compared to the Dura variety. The solid wastes fractions are used as energy sources during the processing of oil palm and as filling materials for upgrading access roads to palm plantations. Except the huge volume of wastes (71.8-90.6% generated by smallholder oil palm processors is effectively utilized, the process will be unsustainable.

  2. 番茄工厂化育苗基质配方试验研究%Effects of Industrial Seedling Substrates on Germination and Growth of Tomato

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢红霞; 王光锋; 孙利利; 孙志伟; 甘良; 陈新娟; 徐志豪

    2016-01-01

    [目的]为番茄工厂化育苗筛选出育苗效果好、成本低的专用育苗基质。[方法]以椰糠、泥炭、珍珠岩为原料,将3种原料按照不同比例( V/V)混合复配成8种育苗基质,选取康成基质为对照,研究不同配方的基质对番茄幼苗生长的影响。[结果]以椰糠∶泥炭∶珍珠岩分别为4∶5∶1、3∶6∶1、2∶7∶1及泥炭∶珍珠岩为9∶1的基质配方所培育的番茄幼苗各生理状况较为理想。[结论]以椰糠∶泥炭∶珍珠岩为4∶5∶1、3∶6∶1、2∶7∶1及泥炭∶珍珠岩为9∶1的基质配方育苗效果较好,结合成本,可推荐为番茄育苗的专用有机营养基质。%Objective] To screen out special tomato seedling substrates with high effect and low cost .[ Methods] Taking coconut chaff, peat and perlite as raw materials, three kinds of raw materials were mixed in different proportion into seven kinds of substrate .Kangcheng substrate was taken as the control group (CK), and the influence of different formula of substrate on tomato seedling growth was studied.[Results] The physiological conditions of tomatoes cultivated by substrate formula 4∶5∶1, 3∶6, 2∶7∶1 for coconut chaff, peat and perlite, and the formula 9∶1 for peat and perlite respectively were excellent.[ Conclusion] Effects of substrate formula 4∶5∶1, 3∶6, 2∶7∶1 for coconut chaff, peat and perlite, and the formula 9∶1 for peat and perlite are better, and they are preferred in tomato seedling for cultivating special organic substrate of tomato.

  3. Nutritional Components of Uvaria grandiflora Fruit and Breeding Methods%山椒子果实营养成分分析及其种子育苗试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀丽; 韩维栋; 陈杰; 莫定鸣

    2013-01-01

    分析山椒子果实营养成分,并将山椒子种子播种于6种基质[红土、椰糠、河沙、红土+椰糠(1∶1)、红土+河沙(1∶1)、河沙+椰糠(1∶1)]中进行育苗实验.结果表明:山椒子果实所含营养成分丰富,其中果肉和果皮总糖含量分别为14.30%和9.04%,粗纤维含量分别为2.92%和7.12%;检测到17种氨基酸,果肉和果皮中氨基酸总含量分别达1.05%和1.37%;山椒子的最佳育苗基质为红土+椰糠1∶1基质.山椒子是一种优质野生果树资源,具有重要的引种栽培和开发利用前景.%Analyses the nutritional components of the fruits of Uvaria grandiflora, and the seeds of the U. grandiflora were seeded in the 6 kinds of media (the latosol, coconut peat, river sand, red soil and coconut chaff 1 : 1 medium, red soil and river sand 1 : 1 medium, coconut chaff and river sand 1:1 medium) for sprouting seedlings. The results showed that the fruits of U. grandiflora have a complete nutritional components, the contents of total sugar in fruit flesh and fruit peel are respectively of 14.30% and 9.04%, the contents of crude fibre in fruit flesh and fruit peel are respectively of 2.92% and 7.12%; Detected 17 kinds of amino acid, the contents of total amino acid in fruit flesh and fruit peel are respectively of 1.05% and 1.37%; The best seedling-raising way was the red soil and coconut chaff 1 : 1 medium. By this token, the high-quality of wild fruit tree resources of U. grandiflora has an important introduction cultivation and a wide range of application and development prospects.

  4. Modification of tropospheric propagation conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeske, H.

    1990-10-01

    The propagation mechanisms of ultra-short radio waves and microwaves are governed by the composition of the troposphere and their space-time structure of the refractive index field. Useful effects are obtained by chaff clouds concerning communication channels, masking of targets or meteorological research. A wide field of posiibilities seems to be within the scope of weather modification experiments. But due to the huge variability of cloud and rain parameters only minor propagation changes are to be expected. A successful application of remotely determining atmospheric temperature profiles is the modulation of the atmospheric refractive index field by sound waves and tracking the acoustic wave fronts by a Doppler radar (Radio Acoustic Sounding System). Oil and alga slicks on water surfaces may change the reflection/scattering and emission properties for radar waves. They also suppress evaporation which may influence the development of tropical storms but just so evaporation duct propagation of microwaves.

  5. Characterization of residual biomass from the Arequipa region for the production of biofuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Laura Stronguiló Leturia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to select residual biomass from the Arequipa Region for the production of biofuels (biodiesel, bioethanol and biogas. In each case, the initial point is a matrix based on products with residual biomass available in the region, from the agricultural and livestock sectors, information that was obtained from the regional Management of Agriculture web site. Specific factors of the resudue that will be used as raw material for each biofuel production would be considered for the selection process. For the production of biodiesel it is necessary to start from the oil extracted from oilseeds. Regarding obtaining bioethanol, it requires that the residual biomass has high percent of cellulose. With regard to the generation of biogas, we will use animal droppings. Finally, the raw materials selected are: squash and avocado seeds for biodiesel, rice chaff and deseeded corncob for bioethanol and cow and sheep droppings for biogas

  6. Traditional Underground Grain Storage in Clay Soils in Sudan Improved by Recent Innovations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalla, AT.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In the central clay plain of the Sudan, traditional subsistence farmers and small farmers that also produce for local markets want to keep the region near food self-sufficiency. They combine annual production of sorghum with underground pit storage of part of the harvest. With increasing climate variability this food security is coming more and more under pressure. Farmers recently experimented with pit innovations that would allow storage for more than one season. These innovations were quantified and further improvements were suggested. It was found that in the most abundantly occurring cracking clay soils, wide shallow pits, using thick chaff linings, with wider above ground soil caps, are most suitable for longer term storage.

  7. Consequences of heavy machining vis à vis the machine structure – typical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    StarragHeckert has built 5 axis machines since the middle of the 80s for heavy duty milling. The STC-Centres are predominantly utilised in the aerospace industry, especially for milling structural workpieces, casings or Impellers made out of titanium and steel. StarragHeckert has a history of building machines for high performance milling. The machining of these components includes high forces thus spreading the wheat from the chaff. Although FEM calculations and multi-body simulations are carried out in the early stages of development, this paper will illustrate how the real process stability with modal analysis and cutting trials is determined. The experiment observes chatter stability to identify if the machine devices are adequate for the application or if the design has to be improved. Machining parameters of industrial applications are demonstrating the process stability for five axis heavy duties milling of StarragHeckert machine.

  8. 吸附法去除低温水体中的磺胺类抗生素%Removal of Sulfa Antibiotics in Low Temperature Water by Adsorption Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王佳丽; 张玉玲; 钱红; 赵志阳; 司超群; 陈志宇; 李静

    2016-01-01

    针对畜禽养殖过程中使用磺胺类抗生素产生的水环境污染问题,考察天然矿物材料(火山渣)与资源转化材料(骨炭和菌糠)对4种磺胺类抗生素磺胺噻唑(ST)、磺胺甲基嘧啶(SM)、磺胺二甲嘧啶(SM2)和磺胺甲恶唑(SMX)的去除效果及影响因素.结果表明:3种材料对磺胺类抗生素的吸附效果为:菌糠>火山渣>骨炭;当水体中4种抗生素的质量浓度均为5 mg/L 时,菌糠对其吸附率>80%,吸附量为1.60 mg/g;采用质量分数为10%的Al2(SO 4)3改性火山渣和骨炭后,二者对4种抗生素的吸附率>60%,吸附量>0.24 mg/g;最佳吸附 pH 值为4~6;Fe3+,Mn2+,NH +4,Cl-,硬度和碱度等对菌糠吸附磺胺类抗生素的吸附效果影响较大.%In view of the water environment pollution caused by the use of the antibiotics in livestock and poultry breeding,we studied the removal effects and influencing factors of natural mineral materials (volcanic cinder)and resources transformation materials (bone black and fungus chaff)to the adsorption of four kinds of sulfa antibiotics: sulfathiazole (ST ), sulfamethyldiazine (SM), sulfamethazine (SM2)and sulfamethoxazole (SMX).The results show that the adsorption effect of three kinds of materials is in the order of fungus chaff>volcanic cinder>bone black.When the mass concentration of four kinds of antibiotics is 5 mg/L in the water,the adsorption rate of fungus chaff is more than 80%,and the adsorption capacity is 1.60 mg/g.The adsorption rates of volcanic cinder and bone black which modified by the mass fraction of 10% Al2 (SO 4 )3 are more than 60%,and the adsorption capacity is more than 0.24 mg/g.The best adsorption pH value is 4—6,Fe3 + ,Mn2 + , NH 4 + ,Cl- ,solidity and alkalinity have a great influence on the adsorption of sulfa antibiotics by fungus chaff.

  9. Comparison of steam and ammonia pretreatment for enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mes-Hartree, M.; Dale, B.E.; Craig, W.K.

    1988-11-01

    Aspenwood, wheat straw, wheat chaff and alfalfa stems were treated under pressure with either steam or ammonia. The material was then water or methanol/water extracted. The extent of enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulose portion of the treated substrates was compared using two different cellulases, a commercial preparation, Celluclast, and those from the fungus Trichoderma harzianum. Both steam and ammonia treatment enhanced the accessibility of the cellulose as measured by hydrolysis. Methanol extraction of steamed material generally reduced the access of the enzyme to the cellulose, whereas methanol extraction of ammonia-treated material increased accessibility. The optimum combinations of pretreatment and extraction method depended on the substrate and on the enzyme system; no treatment suitable for all situations could be selected.

  10. Consequences of heavy machining vis à vis the machine structure - typical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuch, M.

    2011-12-01

    StarragHeckert has built 5 axis machines since the middle of the 80s for heavy duty milling. The STC-Centres are predominantly utilised in the aerospace industry, especially for milling structural workpieces, casings or Impellers made out of titanium and steel. StarragHeckert has a history of building machines for high performance milling. The machining of these components includes high forces thus spreading the wheat from the chaff. Although FEM calculations and multi-body simulations are carried out in the early stages of development, this paper will illustrate how the real process stability with modal analysis and cutting trials is determined. The experiment observes chatter stability to identify if the machine devices are adequate for the application or if the design has to be improved. Machining parameters of industrial applications are demonstrating the process stability for five axis heavy duties milling of StarragHeckert machine.

  11. Aging, cancer, and longevity: the uncertain road.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, Novera H; Jovanova-Nesic, Katica; Gertz, Alida M

    2013-02-01

    First, the latest scientific and clinical reports will be evaluated to separate the wheat from the chaff, that is, good data versus merely anecdotal evidence. Thus, the famous (infamous) Stromboli Cocktail will be brought up to date. Second, longevity statistics will be reviewed: Why do the most scientifically advanced countries have such low (comparatively) life expectancies? Scientific knowledge expands exponentially each decade, whereas there have been no significant advances in our knowledge, government, economics, politics, anti-corruption, and so forth since the dawn of history. What can we expect in the future? Will the human species outlive the cockroach? Can we expect to get closer to that theoretical asymptote of 120 years of human life? Will this ceiling ever be lifted? Finally, we offer two vital challenges to scientists of today.

  12. Structure Design of Large-scale Sow House with Fermentation Bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo LlU; Zhaolong Ll; Jianglin LAN; Qinlou HUANG; Jianyang TANG; Wenquan YU; Huai SHl

    2014-01-01

    ln this research, the whole contact-type large-scale sow house with fer-mentation bed was designed. The planning area of the entire piggery was 5 700 m2 with workplace and green belts. The sow house was 93 m long and 33 m wide, a total of 3 069 m2, including office area of 60 m2 and aisle area of 107 m2. The fer-mentation bed had an area of 2 902 m2 with length of 88.7 m and width of 27.7 m. lts area accounted for 95% of the total area of sow house. The fermentation mattress had a depth of 80 cm, and had a volume of 2 321 m3, equivalent to 733 t of coconut chaff and rice chaff. On a large fermentation bed, the areas for boars, replacement gilts, pregnant sows, obstetric tables, nursery pigs, etc. were designed. The large-scale sow house with fermentation bed was equipped with the automatic feeding system, automatic sprinkler system, automatic positioning column for preg-nant sows, sows’ obstetric table system, fanning wet curtain cooling system, video monitoring system, environmental monitoring (light, temperature, water, humidity, CO2, NH3) and automatic control system. Every farming area was equipped with feeding trough and water trough. The water though was fixed with overflow pipe for removing the extra water. The house could hold 500-head sows. Each sow occu-pied 4.9 m2 of the fermentation bed in average. The designed sow house had a maximum annual output of 10 000 piglets.

  13. 不同基质配比对佛甲草生长的影响%Effects of Different Substrates Mixture Ratio on Growth of Sedum Lineare

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许诺; 张翼维; 陈善湘; 刘波

    2016-01-01

    Use the rice chaff ash, coarse wood sawdust, ifne sawdust as the main material, vermiculite, peat, coconut hask as auxiliary materials, are mixed according to a certain proportion, carry outSedum lineare planting experiment, take grass stem height, the quantity of the new-born tissue, the color, the degree of the coverage as indexes to observe the effect of different substrates on growth ofSedum lineare. The results show that the chaff ash is not suitable forSedum lineare planting as the main material; the ifne sawdust can improve the survival rate, suitable for planting in non-growing season; coarse sawdust can make new leaves grow more, suitable for planting in growing season, both have low fertilizer efifciency and need to add some high nutrient content as auxiliary materials such as peat.%以砻糠灰、细锯木屑、粗锯木屑为主要材料,蛭石、草炭、椰糠为辅助材料,按照一定比例混合,进行佛甲草种植试验,以草茎高度、新生组织数量、颜色、覆盖度为指标考察不同基质对佛甲草生长的影响。结果表明:砻糠灰不适合作为佛甲草种植的主要材料;而细锯木屑能够提高成活率,适合用于非生长季种植使用;粗锯木屑能使新叶生长更多,适合生长季使用,两者肥效供给能力较差,需要添加草炭一类养分含量高的辅助材料。

  14. Sustainability assessment of bioethanol and petroleum fuel production in Japan based on emergy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To promote the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, research and development of bioethanol technologies are encouraged in Japan and a plan to utilize untilled fields to develop rice for bioethanol production as a substitute for petroleum fuel is being devised. This study applies emergy methods to compare the sustainability of petroleum fuel production and two Japanese rice-to-ethanol production scenarios: (a) ethanol from rice grain, while straw and chaff are burned as energy and (b) ethanol from rice+straw+chaff. The major emergy indices, Emergy Yield Ratio (EYR), Environmental Loading Ratio (ELR), Emergy Investment Ratio (EIR), Emergy Sustainability Index (ESI), Environmental Impacts Ratio (EVR) and system transformity (Tr), are analyzed to assess the production processes. The results show that (1) petroleum fuel production presents higher ELR, EIR, EVR and lower EYR, ESI, Tr than rice-to-ethanol production, indicating rice-to-ethanol production makes sense for reduction of greenhouse gases (GHG); (2) scenario (a) performs similarly on major indicators (EYR, ESI, ELR, EIR and EVR) to scenario (b), yet the system efficiency indicator (Tr) of scenario (a, 7.572×105 semj/J) is much higher than (b, 4.573×105 semj/J), and therefore (b) is a better alternative for policy decisions; (3) both petroleum fuel production and rice-to-ethanol processes are mainly driven by purchased resources and are unsustainable and nonrenewable in the long run. - Highlights: ► We compare petrol fuel and rice-to-ethanol production using emergy indices. ► Rice-to-ethanol reduces green house gas emissions as a substitute for petrol fuel. ► Rice-to-ethanol production has better sustainability than that of petrol fuel. ► Neither petrol fuel nor biofuel production are sustainable in the long term. ► Bioethanol is not a renewable fuel.

  15. Molecular detection of rickettsias DNA in ticks around northeast region of China%东北部分地区蜱携带几种病原立克次体的分子检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴琼; 冯立; 王洪军; 吴益民; 付学奇; 王卓; 张志强

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the prevalence of tick-borne rickettsias around northeast region of China. Methods Wild ticks were captured and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to amplify the rickettsias DNA of spotted fever group, human granulocytic ehrlichia and Ehrlichia chaff eensis carried by ticks. Results Ehrlichia chaff eensis DNA was found in I. Persulcatus and D. silvarum with the positive rates of 3.29% and 1.88% respectively. Meanwhile, human granulocytic ehrlichia DNA was amplified from I. Persulcatus with the positive rate of 2. 95%. However spotted fever group Rickettsiae was mainly found in H. concinna, with as high as 6.67% ticks carrying this rickettsiae, higher than that in I. Persulcatus and D. silvarum which were only 1. 69% and 2. 36%. Conclusions 7. Persulcatus and D. silvarum are possibly the main hosts of human granulocytic ehrlichia and Ehrlichia chaff eensis , while H. concinna mainly carries spotted fever group Rickettsiae in northeast region of China, indicating that it might be the natural foci of spotted feve, human granulocytic anaplasma and Ehrlichiosis.%目的 为了解东北地区蜱中携带立克次体的情况.方法 应用人工小时布旗法采集东北部分地区不同生境的游离蜱,采用PCR作斑点热立克次体、查菲埃立克体、人粒细胞无形体DNA检测.结果 从东北地区全沟硬蜱和森林革蜱检出查菲埃立克体DNA,全沟硬蜱平均阳性率为3.29%,森林革蜱为1.88%;从全沟硬蜱检出人粒细胞无形体DNA,平均阳性率为2.98%;从嗜群血蜱检出斑点热立克次体DNA,其平均阳性率(6.67%)明显高于全沟硬蜱(1.69%)和森林革蜱(2.36%).结论 东北地区全沟硬蜱和森林革蜱可能是查菲埃立克体、人粒细胞无形体的主要携带媒介,嗜群血蜱主要携带斑点热立克次体,提示东北地区存在三种蜱媒立克次体病的自然疫源地.

  16. A influência da cobertura morta sobre características físicas e químicas de frutos da pinha (Annona squamosa L. The influence of mulching in relation to physical and chemical characteristics of the sugar apple (Annona squamosa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlson Gusmão da Silva

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available De forma geral a aplicação de resíduos vegetais ao solo tem efeitos benéficos sobre os nutrientes do solo, sob as suas condições físicas, sob a atividade biológica e sobre a performance das culturas. O objetivo principal deste trabalho foi avaliar, durante um ciclo produtivo, o efeito da cobertura de bagaço de cana, casca de café e palha de Buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris, L., quanto ao seu efeito sobre características físicas e químicas do fruto da pinheira (Annona squamosa L.. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, constando de cinco repetições, contendo duas plantas por parcela. Foram analisados: massa do fruto, massa da casca, massa das sementes e o número de sementes por fruto, o teor de sólidos solúveis e o pH da polpa. De modo geral, a presença da cobertura morta proporcionou incremento de massa aos frutos, o que promove aumento de receita, uma vez que, quanto maior for o fruto, melhor será seu preço. Não ocorreu aumento do pH da polpa, e o tratamento com casca de café proporcionou o maior teor de sólidos solúveis totais. Quanto às demais características, não foram encontradas diferenças.The application of vegetal wastes to soil have a beneficial effects on soil nutrient, physical conditions, biological activities and on the culture performance, the main objective of this study was to evaluate three kinds of vegetable byproducts: sugar cane bagasse, coffee chaff, and Buffel straw, regarding to the effect on the physical and chemical characteristics of custard apple (Annona squamosa L..The experimental design used completely randomid plots with five repplications, and two plants per plot. The total fruit mass, the peel mass, the seed mass per fruit were evaluated. The pulp level of soluble solids was measured, as well as its pH. The presence of this mulching provided an increase in the fruit mass, thereby, increasing the commercial profit, as larger the fruit is, the greater the value per weight

  17. First mesospheric turbulence study using coordinated rocket and MST radar measurements over Indian low latitude region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandra, H.; Sinha, H.S.S.; Das, U.; Misra, R.N.; Das, S.R. [Physical Research Lab., Ahmedabad (India); Datta, J.; Chakravarty, S.C. [ISRO Headquarters, Bangalore (India); Patra, A.K.; Vekateswara Rao, N.; Narayana Rao, D. [National Atmospheric Research Lab., Tirupati (India)

    2008-07-01

    A campaign to study turbulence in the mesosphere, over low latitudes in India, using rocket-borne measurements and Indian MST radar, was conducted during July 2004. A rocket-borne Langmuir probe detected a spectrum of electron density irregularities, with scale sizes in the range of about 1 m to 1 km, in 67.5-78.0 km and 84-89 km altitude regions over a low latitude station Sriharikota (13.6 N, 80.2 E). A rocket-borne chaff experiment measured zonal and meridional winds about 30 min after the Langmuir probe flight. The MST radar located at Gadanki (13.5 N, 79.2 E), which is about 100 km west of Sriharikota, also detected the presence of a strong scattering layer in 73.5-77.5 km region from which radar echoes corresponding to 3 m irregularities were received. Based on the region of occurrence of irregularities, which was highly collisional, presence of significant shears in zonal and meridional components of wind measured by the chaff experiment, 10 min periodicity in zonal and meridional winds obtained by the MST radar and the nature of wave number spectra of the irregularities, it is suggested that the observed irregularities were produced through the neutral turbulence mechanism. The percentage amplitude of fluctuations across the entire scale size range showed that the strength of turbulence was stronger in the lower altitude regions and decreased with increasing altitude. It was also found that the amplitude of fluctuations was large in regions of steeper electron density gradients. MST radar observations showed that at smaller scales of turbulence such as 3 m, (a) the thickness of the turbulent layer was between 2 and 3 km and (b) and fine structures, with layer thicknesses of about a km or less were also embedded in these layers. Rocket also detected 3-m fluctuations, which were very strong (a few percent) in lower altitudes (67.5 to 71.0 km) and small but clearly well above the noise floor at higher altitudes. Rocket and radar results also point to the

  18. First mesospheric turbulence study using coordinated rocket and MST radar measurements over Indian low latitude region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Chandra

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A campaign to study turbulence in the mesosphere, over low latitudes in India, using rocket-borne measurements and Indian MST radar, was conducted during July 2004. A rocket-borne Langmuir probe detected a spectrum of electron density irregularities, with scale sizes in the range of about 1 m to 1 km, in 67.5–78.0 km and 84–89 km altitude regions over a low latitude station Sriharikota (13.6° N, 80.2° E. A rocket-borne chaff experiment measured zonal and meridional winds about 30 min after the Langmuir probe flight. The MST radar located at Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E, which is about 100 km west of Sriharikota, also detected the presence of a strong scattering layer in 73.5–77.5 km region from which radar echoes corresponding to 3 m irregularities were received. Based on the region of occurrence of irregularities, which was highly collisional, presence of significant shears in zonal and meridional components of wind measured by the chaff experiment, 10 min periodicity in zonal and meridional winds obtained by the MST radar and the nature of wave number spectra of the irregularities, it is suggested that the observed irregularities were produced through the neutral turbulence mechanism. The percentage amplitude of fluctuations across the entire scale size range showed that the strength of turbulence was stronger in the lower altitude regions and decreased with increasing altitude. It was also found that the amplitude of fluctuations was large in regions of steeper electron density gradients. MST radar observations showed that at smaller scales of turbulence such as 3 m, (a the thickness of the turbulent layer was between 2 and 3 km and (b and fine structures, with layer thicknesses of about a km or less were also embedded in these layers. Rocket also detected 3-m fluctuations, which were very strong (a few percent in lower altitudes (67.5 to 71.0 km and small but clearly well above the noise floor at higher altitudes. Rocket and radar

  19. Short-term effects of different organic amendments on soil chemical, biochemical and biological indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondelli, Donato; Aly, Adel; Yirga Dagnachew, Ababu; Piscitelli, Lea; Dumontet, Stefano; Miano, Teodoro

    2014-05-01

    The limited availability of animal manure and the high cost of good quality compost lead to difficult soil quality management under organic agriculture. Therefore, it is important to find out alternative organic soil amendments and more flexible strategies that are able to sustain crop productivity and maintain and enhance soil quality. A three years study was carried out in the experimental fields of the Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari located in Valenzano, Italy. The main objective of this research is to investigate the effects of different fertility management strategies on soil quality in order to estimate the role of innovative matrices for their use in organic farming. The experiment consists of seven treatments applied to a common crop rotation. The treatments include alternative organic amendments (1- olive mill wastewater OMW, 2- residues of mushroom cultivation MUS, 3- coffee chaff COF), common soil amendments (4- compost COM, 5- faba bean intercropping LEG, 6- cow manure - MAN) and as a reference treatment (7- mineral fertilizer COV). The soil quality was assessed before and after the application of the treatments, through biological (microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen, soil respiration and metabolic quotient), biochemical (soil enzymatic activities: β-glucosidase, alkaline phospatase, urease, fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolysis), and chemical (pH, soil organic carbon, soil organic matter, total nitrogen, available phosphorous, exchangeable potassium, dissolved organic carbon and total dissolved nitrogen) indicators. Based on the results obtained after the second year, all treatments were able to improve various soil chemical parameters as compared to mineral fertilizer. The incorporation of COF and OMW seemed to be more effective in improving soil total N and exchangeable K, while MAN significantly increased available P. All the amendments enhance dissolved organic C, soil respiration, microbial biomass and metabolic quotient as

  20. Thirty Years after the Editing of Medical Psychology Textbooks%医学心理学教材编写30年

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小龙

    2012-01-01

    Since 1979 when the Medical Psychology course was offered,a lot of textbooks on this subject have been published on different levels. The development process of medical psychology textbook was divided into three stages. By analyzing the feature and problems of mainstream textbooks on different period, commenting on representatively textbooks, summarizing the author's historical contributions,to separate the wheat from the chaff and guide teachers and students to choose proper textbook. The experience and lessons learned on the development process can benefit the writing of new textbook.%我国自1979年开设医学心理学课程以来;出版了大量不同层次的教材.将我国医学心理学教材发展分为3个阶段;分析各个时期主流教材特点、存在问题;点评代表性教材;总结作者历史贡献;期望去芜存菁;有利于教师与学生选择.总结该学科教材发展的经验和教训;希望有助于今后教材的编写.

  1. Synthesis of some calcium phosphate crystals using the useful biomass for immobilization of microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohiruimaki, T.

    2011-10-01

    Three sources of biomass generated by primary industry were used as the raw material for the synthesis of calcium phosphate crystals. Phosphoric acid was extracted from burned rice chaff using a 30% nitric acid solution, while scallop shells and gypsum of plasterboard were used as calcium sources. The calcium phosphate crystals were synthesized by a method involving homogeneous precipitation, and the relationship between the composition and shape of the crystals and the pH at the time of the precipitation was investigated. Monetite crystals in a petal form with a diameter ranging from 0.1 to 2 μm were precipitated at pH 2.0, while granular apatite crystals with a mean diameter of 1 μm were precipitated at pH 6.0. We also investigated the ability of the synthesized calcium phosphate crystals to immobilize lactic acid bacteria for practical use in industrial bioreactor. It was determined that monetite crystals with a diameter of 2 μm had the highest ability to fix lactic acid bacteria. The population of lactic acid bacteria was estimated to exceed 1,300 bacteria per crystal surface of 50 μm2 suggesting that these crystals may be of practical use in industrial fermenters.

  2. Synthesis of some calcium phosphate crystals using the useful biomass for immobilization of microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohiruimaki, T, E-mail: kohi@hi-tech.ac.jp [Department of Technology, Hachinohe Institute of Technology, 88-1 Myo-oobiraki, Hachinohe-shi 031-8501 (Japan)

    2011-10-29

    Three sources of biomass generated by primary industry were used as the raw material for the synthesis of calcium phosphate crystals. Phosphoric acid was extracted from burned rice chaff using a 30% nitric acid solution, while scallop shells and gypsum of plasterboard were used as calcium sources. The calcium phosphate crystals were synthesized by a method involving homogeneous precipitation, and the relationship between the composition and shape of the crystals and the pH at the time of the precipitation was investigated. Monetite crystals in a petal form with a diameter ranging from 0.1 to 2 {mu}m were precipitated at pH 2.0, while granular apatite crystals with a mean diameter of 1 {mu}m were precipitated at pH 6.0. We also investigated the ability of the synthesized calcium phosphate crystals to immobilize lactic acid bacteria for practical use in industrial bioreactor. It was determined that monetite crystals with a diameter of 2 {mu}m had the highest ability to fix lactic acid bacteria. The population of lactic acid bacteria was estimated to exceed 1,300 bacteria per crystal surface of 50 {mu}m{sup 2} suggesting that these crystals may be of practical use in industrial fermenters.

  3. Some effects of feeding Tribulus terrestris, Ipomoea lonchophylla and the seed of Abelmoschus ficulneus on fetal development and the outcome of pregnancy in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D; Bird, A; Flora, T; O'Sullivan, B

    1992-01-01

    Pregnant ewes and their fetuses were chronically catheterized using aseptic procedures under general anaesthesia, and the ewes were then fed either lucerne chaff alone, or lucerne mixed with dried plant material obtained from one of three forb species, Tribulus terrestris (caltrop), Abelmoschus ficulneus (native rosella) or Ipomoea lonchophylla (cowvine), from 103-112 days gestation until term. Ingestion of the forb material was not associated with changes in maternal blood gases, plasma glucose concentrations, or the length of gestation. However, ingestion of rosella seed was associated with a significantly greater fall of fetal arterial pO2 with advancing gestation, and ingestion of either rosella or cowvine was associated with significantly lower fetal mean arterial pressure at 127-131 days, compared with the Tribulus and lucerne groups. Also, the incidence of fetal breathing movements was significantly lower, and did not show a normal day-night variation, in each of the forb-fed groups compared with the lucerne-fed group. The results indicate that these forb plants may contain substances that affect the functional development of the fetal brain. Although ingestion of these plants did not appear to affect the outcome of pregnancy in this study, the possibility that these forbs have a greater impact in sheep populations with poor nutrition and in more extreme environmental conditions is discussed. PMID:1438942

  4. Learning from Other's Mistakes - One Approach to teaching Information Literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewen MacDonald

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Everyone in the academic community is today confronted with an unprecedented problem. One click of the mouse can provide a student with enough source material to construct a doctoral thesis. Thus, the problem is no longer to locate the relevant material; today the difficulty is in separating the wheat from the chaff, or a more apt analogy, finding the few gold nuggets in the mountains of dross. The information literate student has to be able to evaluate web-based material which may be opinion disguised as fact. In this article we describe a short course entitled ‘Critical Journal Club’ and how after participating in this course, students become more critical, more sceptical and more information literate. The number of journals has increased and the standard of refereeing is now more inconsistent than ever. In particular, one critical change has been the move from print to electronic formatting. This means that few journals employ sub-editors with a scientific background - instead articles are transmitted in pdf-format directly to the publisher. It is important that students are made aware that even material in eminent journals can occasionally contain substantial errors as well as numerous grammatical mistakes. We aim to stimulate discussion on the current level of peer reviewing as well as stressing the importance of integrating critical information literature skills into the curriculum.

  5. Gaseous emissions, growth performance and pork quality of pigs housed in deep-litter system compared to concrete-floor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chuanshe; Hu, Jinjie; Zhang, Bin; Tan, Zhiliang

    2015-04-01

    This study measured gaseous emissions, growth performance and pork quality in a deep-litter system and concrete-floor system. Three hundred and twenty weaned piglets with an average body weight (BW) of 6.0 ± 0.3 kg were assigned randomly into three treatments. Treatments 1 and 2 included four pens with 20 pigs for each pen respectively in the deep-litter system, and the ratio of sawdust to chaff was 5:5 and 3:7 for treatments 1 and 2 respectively, the probiotics inoculated into the fermentation bedding for both treatments were composed of Saccharomycetes, Bacillus subtilis and Actinomycetes; treatment 3 was the conventional concrete-floor system including eight pens with 20 pigs for each pen. The concentration of NH3 and CO2 in the deep-litter system was significantly (P concrete-floor system. The ratio of feed to gain for pigs raised in the deep-litter system was significantly (P concrete-floor system. The carcass weight and length, color score and rate of cooking meat for pork from the deep-litter system were significantly (P concrete-floor system. Results indicate that pigs raised in the deep-litter system had some animal welfare improvements and an odor nuisance reduction; in the meantime, pork quality also improved from the deep-litter system compared to the pigs housed in the concrete-floor system. PMID:25491590

  6. Design, Fabrication and Testing of A Fonio Dehusking Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokan A.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design, fabrication and testing of a Fonio dehusking machine. Though fonio is a staple food in many countries in West Africa due to its high nutrient content, it is not cultivated on a large scale because of difficulty in processing. The machine has the following units – feeding, rolling, dehusking and separating unit. the fonio passes through the rolling unit where it is abraded by two knurled shafts and is dehusked by the rotation of the dehusking drum in the dehusking unit. The fonio grain is separated from the chaff by passing the mixture through a current of air supplied by a fan. The materials used for the fabrication of the machine where selected based on the design considerations and analyses of its components. The components of the machine were selected locally and machined to specifications using machines such as the lathe, grinding machine, etc. The parts of the machine were assembled at the welding and fabrication workshop of the Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi. When tested, the machine dehusked 5kg of Fonio in 15minutes. It has an efficiency of 69%.

  7. Pelletizing of rice straws: A potential solid fuel from agricultural residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Rice straw is the dry stalks of rice plants, after the grain and chaff have been removed. More than 1 million tonnes of rice straw are produced in MADA in the northern region of Peninsular Malaysia annually. Burning in the open air is the common technique of disposal that contribute to air pollution. In this paper, a technique to convert these residues into solid fuel through pelletizing is presented. The pellets are manufactured from rice straw and sawdust in a disc pelletizer. The pellet properties are quite good with good resistance to mechanical disintegration. The pellets have densities between 1000 and 1200 kg/ m3. Overall, converting rice straw into pellets has increased its energy and reduced moisture content to a minimum of 8 % and 30 % respectively. The gross calorific value is about 15.6 MJ/ kg which is lower to sawdust pellet. The garnering of knowledge in the pelletization process provides a path to increase the use of this resource. Rice straw pellets can become an important renewable energy source in the future. (author)

  8. Identification and removal of non-meteorological echoes in dual-polarization radar data based on a fuzzy logic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Bo-Young; Lee, GyuWon; Park, Hong-Mok

    2015-09-01

    A major issue in radar quantitative precipitation estimation is the contamination of radar echoes by non-meteorological targets such as ground clutter, chaff, clear air echoes etc. In this study, a fuzzy logic algorithm for the identification of non-meteorological echoes is developed using optimized membership functions and weights for the dual-polarization radar located at Mount Sobaek. For selected precipitation and non-meteorological events, the characteristics of the precipitation and non-meteorological echo are derived by the probability density functions of five fuzzy parameters as functions of reflectivity values. The membership functions and weights are then determined by these density functions. Finally, the nonmeteorological echoes are identified by combining the membership functions and weights. The performance is qualitatively evaluated by long-term rain accumulation. The detection accuracy of the fuzzy logic algorithm is calculated using the probability of detection (POD), false alarm rate (FAR), and clutter-signal ratio (CSR). In addition, the issues in using filtered dual-polarization data are alleviated.

  9. Results of development and field tests of a radar-tracer system providing meteorological support to modeling hazardous technological releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Radar support to systems of automated radiation monitoring requires dealing with determination of geometric characteristics of air release of radionuclides. For doing this, an air release can be labeled by chaff propagating in the air similarly to particles of radioactive substance. Then, a chaff suspension can be treated as a spatially distributed radar target and thus be detected by a radar. For a number of years the Science and Production Association 'Typhoon' of Roshydromet, Obninsk has been developing a radar tracer system (RTS) for meteorological support of modeling hazardous technological releases. In September -December 2002 experiments were conducted to test the RTS in field. This presentation contains preliminary results of testing this system. A total of 9 experiments pursuing different goals were carried out. Of them 6 experiments were conducted approximately 6 km south-west of Obninsk in the vicinity of the village of Potresovo. The first three experiments were aimed at working out interaction between the MR and LDU and assessing the chaff cloud observation distance. In doing this, radar information was not transmitted from the MR to the CCS. In the last three experiments radar information was transmitted to the CCS by cell communication lines using telephones Siemens S35 with in-built modems. The CCS was deployed in building 4/25 of SPA 'Typhoon'. All information received in the CCS was put an a map. Three experiments were conducted in the area of the Kursk NPP as part of preparations for training exercises near the village of Makarovka about 7 km north-west of the city of Kurchatov. In the first two experiments radar information from the MR was passed by cell communication channels to the CCS deployed in the laboratory of external radiation monitoring of the Kursk nuclear power plant. Experiment 3 was a demonstration and arranged during the emergency response exercises at the Kursk NPP. The MR was based on the site of the external

  10. Rocket measurements of positive ions during polar mesosphere winter echo conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Brattli

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available On 18 January 2005, two small, instrumented rockets were launched from Andøya Rocket Range (69.3° N, 16° E during conditions with Polar Mesosphere Winter Echoes (PMWE. Each of the rockets was equipped with a Positive Ion Probe (PIP and a Faraday rotation/differential absorption experiment, and was launched as part of a salvo of meteorological rockets measuring temperature and wind using falling spheres and chaff. Layers of PMWE were detected between 55 and 77 km by the 53.5 MHz ALWIN radar. The rockets were launched during a solar proton event, and measured extremely high ion densities, of order 1010 m−3, in the region where PMWE were observed. The density measurements were analyzed with the wavelet transform technique. At large length scales, ~103 m, the power spectral density can be fitted with a k−3 wave number dependence, consistent with saturated gravity waves. Outside the PMWE layers the k−3 spectrum extends down to approximately 102 m where the fluctuations are quickly damped and disappear into the instrumental noise. Inside the PMWE layers the spectrum at smaller length scales is well fitted with a k−5/3 dependence over two decades of scales. The PMWE are therefore clearly indicative of turbulence, and the data are consistent with the turbulent dissipation of breaking gravity waves. We estimate a lower limit for the turbulent energy dissipation rate of about 10−2 W/kg in the upper (72 km layer.

  11. Sailing the Information Ocean with Awareness of Currents: Discovery and Application of Source Dependence

    CERN Document Server

    Berti-Equille, Laure; Xin,; Dong,; Marian, Amelie; Srivastava, Divesh

    2009-01-01

    The Web has enabled the availability of a huge amount of useful information, but has also eased the ability to spread false information and rumors across multiple sources, making it hard to distinguish between what is true and what is not. Recent examples include the premature Steve Jobs obituary, the second bankruptcy of United airlines, the creation of Black Holes by the operation of the Large Hadron Collider, etc. Since it is important to permit the expression of dissenting and conflicting opinions, it would be a fallacy to try to ensure that the Web provides only consistent information. However, to help in separating the wheat from the chaff, it is essential to be able to determine dependence between sources. Given the huge number of data sources and the vast volume of conflicting data available on the Web, doing so in a scalable manner is extremely challenging and has not been addressed by existing work yet. In this paper, we present a set of research problems and propose some preliminary solutions on th...

  12. Wind structure and variability in the middle atmosphere during the November 1980 energy budget campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidlin, F. J.; Carlson, M.; Rees, D.; Offermann, D.; Philbrick, C. R.; Widdel, H. U.

    1985-01-01

    Between November 6 and December 1, 1980 series of rocket observations were obtained from two sites in northern Scandinavia (68 deg N) as part of the Energy Budget Campaign, revealing the presence of significant vertical and temporal changes in the wind structure. These changes coincided with different geomagnetic conditions, i.e. quiet and enhanced. Large amounts of rocket data were gathered from high latitudes over such a short interval of time. Prior to November 16 the meridional wind component above 60 km was found to be positive (southerly), while the magnitude of the zonal wind component incresed with altitude. After November 16 the meridional component became negative (northerly) and the magnitude of the zonal wind component was noted to decrease with altitude. Time-sections of the perturbations of the zonal wind show the presence of vertically propagating waves, which suggest gravity wave activity. These waves increase in length from 1 km near 30 km to over 12 km near 80 km. The observational techniques employed Andoya (69 deg N), Norway, and Esrange (67.9 deg N), Sweden, consisted of chaff foil, instrumented rigid spheres, chemical trails, inflatable spheres and parachutes.

  13. Gaseous emissions, growth performance and pork quality of pigs housed in deep-litter system compared to concrete-floor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chuanshe; Hu, Jinjie; Zhang, Bin; Tan, Zhiliang

    2015-04-01

    This study measured gaseous emissions, growth performance and pork quality in a deep-litter system and concrete-floor system. Three hundred and twenty weaned piglets with an average body weight (BW) of 6.0 ± 0.3 kg were assigned randomly into three treatments. Treatments 1 and 2 included four pens with 20 pigs for each pen respectively in the deep-litter system, and the ratio of sawdust to chaff was 5:5 and 3:7 for treatments 1 and 2 respectively, the probiotics inoculated into the fermentation bedding for both treatments were composed of Saccharomycetes, Bacillus subtilis and Actinomycetes; treatment 3 was the conventional concrete-floor system including eight pens with 20 pigs for each pen. The concentration of NH3 and CO2 in the deep-litter system was significantly (P concrete-floor system. The ratio of feed to gain for pigs raised in the deep-litter system was significantly (P concrete-floor system. The carcass weight and length, color score and rate of cooking meat for pork from the deep-litter system were significantly (P concrete-floor system. Results indicate that pigs raised in the deep-litter system had some animal welfare improvements and an odor nuisance reduction; in the meantime, pork quality also improved from the deep-litter system compared to the pigs housed in the concrete-floor system.

  14. 利用农业废弃物处理重金属污染水体的试验%Experiment of Utilizing Agricultural Wastes to Treat Water Polluted by Heavy Metals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃勇荣; 盘芳丽; 韦丽凤; 罗志勇; 严海杰

    2016-01-01

    利用香蕉皮、菌糠、桑杆、甘蔗渣等当地常见的农业废弃物,通过振荡吸附的方法,研究其在吸附时间、pH、吸附材料投入量、粒径以及重金属离子起始浓度不同的人工模拟废水中,处理Cu2+、Pb2+污染水体的可行性及最佳吸附条件。结果表明:①香蕉皮、菌糠、桑杆、甘蔗渣对Cu2+、Pb2+污染的水体均具有一定的吸附作用。②不同吸附材料对Cu2+吸附的最佳时间、pH、吸附材料投入量、重金属离子起始浓度以及粒径分别为:香蕉皮,2.5 h、2、6 g/L、5μg/mL、60目;桑杆,2.5 h、3、2 g/L、20μg/mL、40目;菌糠,2 h、2~5、2 g/L、30μg/mL、100目;甘蔗渣,2 h、2~3、8 g/L、10μg/mL、100目。③对Pb2+的最佳吸附条件为依次为:香蕉皮,1.5 h、3~6、10 g/L、20μg/mL、60目;桑杆,3 h、3、10 g/L、5μg/mL、60~100目;菌糠,3 h、3~5、4 g/L、10μg/mL、80目;甘蔗渣,1.5 h、4~6、4 g/L、10μg/mL、20目。选用香蕉皮、菌糠、桑杆、甘蔗渣等农业废弃物处理重金属污染水体,既可实现环境治理,又可实现资源的合理利用。%By the method of oscillation adsorption, common agricultural wastes such as banana peel, fungus chaff, mulberry branches and sugarcane bagasses were used as adsorbent materials to probe the feasibility and effects of the treatment of water polluted by heavy metal. The impacts of adsorption time, pH value, dosage of adsorbent, particle size of the material and the initial concentration of heavy metal ions in different artificial wastewater on Cu2+and Pb2+adsorption and its optimum adsorption conditions were studied. It was shown that four kinds of agricultural wastes had some ability for Cu2+ and Pb2+ adsorption in the polluted water. Under the same conditions, the effects of Cu2+ and Pb2+ adsorption by different materials had significant differences. The best adsorption conditions ( including adsorption time, pH value, inputs of adsorbent

  15. Regression toward the mean – a detection method for unknown population mean based on Mee and Chua's algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lüdtke Rainer

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regression to the mean (RTM occurs in situations of repeated measurements when extreme values are followed by measurements in the same subjects that are closer to the mean of the basic population. In uncontrolled studies such changes are likely to be interpreted as a real treatment effect. Methods Several statistical approaches have been developed to analyse such situations, including the algorithm of Mee and Chua which assumes a known population mean μ. We extend this approach to a situation where μ is unknown and suggest to vary it systematically over a range of reasonable values. Using differential calculus we provide formulas to estimate the range of μ where treatment effects are likely to occur when RTM is present. Results We successfully applied our method to three real world examples denoting situations when (a no treatment effect can be confirmed regardless which μ is true, (b when a treatment effect must be assumed independent from the true μ and (c in the appraisal of results of uncontrolled studies. Conclusion Our method can be used to separate the wheat from the chaff in situations, when one has to interpret the results of uncontrolled studies. In meta-analysis, health-technology reports or systematic reviews this approach may be helpful to clarify the evidence given from uncontrolled observational studies.

  16. Structure Design of Large-scale Fattening Pig House with Fermentation Bed%微生物发酵床菜猪大栏养殖猪舍结构设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘波; 蓝江林; 唐建阳; 史怀

    2014-01-01

    微生物发酵床菜猪大栏养殖猪舍占地面积2100 m2,养猪发酵床面积1900 m2,利用率91.4%,比传统猪舍包括隔离带的建设占地面积利用率46%提高45个百分点。猪舍四周设有喂食槽,饮水槽设置在发酵床的中央分割线上和短边喂食槽的中部,实现料水的干湿分离。猪舍长边的两侧设置有电动铝合金卷帘,用于控制通气、降温和保温。短边的两侧分别设置有风机和湿帘,屋顶外安装有喷雾降温装置,用于猪舍内的降温。猪舍的环境控制,包括光、温、水、湿、二氧化碳、氨气实现自动化。利用椰糠和谷壳配置的发酵床垫料养猪,实现无臭味、零排放、肉质优、省人工、控猪病、无药残、产肥料、智能化、机械化。%The fattening pig house with fermentation bed had an area of 2 100 m2, and the area of fermentation bed was 1 900 m2 with a utilization rate of 91.4%, which was 45% higher than that of conventional pig house with surrounding barrier. There was feeding trough around the house. The water troughs were set in the middle of the fermentation bed and of the feeding trough on the short sides of the house, separating feed and water. There were electric aluminum al oy shutters in both long sides of the house for ventilation, cooling and heat preservation. On both short sides, there were fans and wet curtains. The spray cooling devices were in-stal ed outside the roof for cooling. The environmental control in the piggery, includ-ing light, temperature, water, humidity, carbon dioxide and ammonia, was realized to run by computer automatical y. The coconut chaff and chaff configuration were used as mattress material, realizing the advantages of fermentation bed, such as no smel , zero emission, high-quality meat, saving labor, control ing disease, no drug residue, producing fertilizer, intel igent control, mechanized operation, etc.

  17. Final Report: DOE/ID/14215

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth Bryden; J. Richard Hess; Thomas Ulrich; Robert Zemetra

    2008-08-18

    The proposed straw separation system developed in the research project harvests the large internode sections of the straw which has the greater potential as a feedstock for lignocellulosic ethanol production while leaving the chaff and nodes in the field. This strategy ensures sustainable agriculture by preventing the depletion of soil minerals, and it restores organic matter to the soil in amounts and particle sizes that accommodate farmers’ needs to keep tillage and fertilizer costs low. A ton of these nutrient-rich plant tissues contains as much as $10.55 worth of fertilizer (economic and energy benefits), in terms of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and other nutrients provided to the soil when incorporated by tillage instead of being burned. Biomass conversion to fermentable sugars for the purpose of producing fuels, chemicals, and other industrial products is well understood. Most bioenergy strategies rely on low-cost fermentable sugars for sustainability and economic viability in the marketplace. Exploitation of the “whole crop”—specifically, wheat straw or other plant material currently regarded as residue or waste—is a practical approach for obtaining a reliable and low-cost source of sugars. However, industrial-scale production of sugars from wheat straw, while technically feasible, is plagued by obstacles related to capital costs, energy consumption, waste streams, production logistics, and the quality of the biomass feedstock. Currently available separation options with combine harvesters are not able to achieve sufficient separation of the straw/stover and chaff streams to realize the full potential of selective harvest. Since ethanol yield is a function of feedstock structural carbohydrate content, biomass anatomical fractions of higher product yield can have a significant beneficial impact on minimum ethanol selling price. To address this advanced biomass separation computation engineering models were developed to more effectively and

  18. Li Meixiang leads women to become well-off. Integrated approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, M

    1996-02-01

    This article describes the experiences of a family planning worker in Meihekou City, Jilin Province, in implementing the integrated approach to family planning. Madam Li Meixiang is credited with being an outstanding example in improving program implementation. The new approach has helped people accept a smaller family size norm. Madam Li in 1981 married and shared in the responsibility of supporting a six-member family and raising her own daughter. Their success in eliminating debt and improving their standard of living is attributed to their efforts to grow rice on 1.3 hectares of land, running a small grain-processing factory in the village, and raising pigs who were fed the chaff produced from processed rice. Li invested in a truck and the family moved into a larger house with modern conveniences. The Li family was the first to rise from poverty to a well-off position in the community. Li became interested in family planning issues after an IEC presentation in the village. In 1990 Madam Li was elected head of the women's association of the village and assumed leadership of family planning activities. Her objective was to teach other women about the advantages of a small family and to offer advice in solving economic problems. During the off-farming season Madam Li worked to establish income generation activities for other women and acceptors. Li organized an village effort to shell walnuts for a local export and import company. About 30% of the village women were involved the first year, and almost 80% were involved in the past two years. The project showed villagers how ingenuity without any cash outlay could yield profits. Over 200 families join the project in the winter and receive an average income of over 2500 yuan. Madam Li has helped villagers obtain bank loans for small scale projects and given advice on how to increase profits.

  19. [The clinic and the general physician].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinich, Horacio

    2004-01-01

    The clinician's activity consists of in the simple words of Dr. Gonzalo Castañeda "knowledge, good deeds and bread winning ". The respective value that clinicians grant to each of these, is variable, but even those whose priority is the latter of the three are obliged to accomplish the other two. Knowledge requires continuous medical education. Effective education requires the ability to separate the "wheat from the chaff". It is important to know how to study. Knowing the patient requires careful collection of symptoms, signs, and paraclinical data, as well as awareness of the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive value of the data, but acknowledgment of the important discrepancies that occur among different observers as well as in the same observer at different times should not be disregarded. Clinical medicine is a scientific art that challenges the reasoning and decision-making abilities of the practitioner, who must apply various diagnostic strategies, the hypothetic-deductive strategy usually being the most important of all. Knowing the disease that the patient bears is not enough: it is equally important to know the patient who bears the disease. In clinical medicine there are no diseases, only diseased people. The biological approach to the patient must be substituted by a biopsycho-social one. The clinician's main objective--to heal, has become enormously fiacilitated by the dramatic progress of modern scientific medicine, which has provided the physician with powerful but dangerous tools. The old Hippocratic aphorism, primum non nocere, should never beforgotten. Equally essential for the clinician is application of evidence-based knowledge applied to diagnostic and therapeutic measures; there should be no room for past attitudes that were supported by empires and the advice of "authorities". A solid and warm patient-physician relationship is a tremendously important aspect of the healer's behavior.

  20. Distributed Physical and Molecular Separations for Selective Harvest of Higher Value Wheat Straw Components Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    2004-09-30

    Wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.) is an abundant source of plant fiber. It is regenerated, in large quantities, every year. At present, this potentially valuable resource is greatly under-exploited. Most of the excess straw biomass (i.e., tonnage above that required for agronomic cropping system sustainability) is managed through expensive chopping/tillage operations and/or burnt in the field following harvest, resulting in air pollution and associated health problems. Potential applications for wheat straw investigated within this project include energy and composites manufacture. Other methods of straw utilization that will potentially benefit from the findings of this research project include housing and building, pulp and paper, thermal insulation, fuels, and chemicals. This project focused on components of the feedstock assembly system for supplying a higher value small grains straw residue for (1) gasification/combustion and (2) straw-thermoplastic composites. This project was an integrated effort to solve the technological, infrastructural, and economic challenges associated with using straw residue for these bioenergy and bioproducts applications. The objective of the research is to contribute to the development of a low-capital distributed harvesting and engineered storage system for upgrading wheat straw to more desirable feedstocks for combustion and for straw-plastic composites. They investigated two processes for upgrading wheat straw to a more desirable feedstock: (1) an efficient combine-based threshing system for separating the intermodal stems from the leaves, sheaths, nodes, and chaff. (2) An inexpensive biological process using white-rot fungi to improve the composition of the mechanically processed straw stems.

  1. Postprandial glucose, insulin, and glucagon-like peptide-1 responses of different equine breeds adapted to meals containing micronized maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamford, N J; Baskerville, C L; Harris, P A; Bailey, S R

    2015-07-01

    The enteroinsular axis is a complex system that includes the release of incretin hormones from the gut to promote the absorption and utilization of glucose after a meal. The insulinogenic effect of incretin hormones such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) remains poorly characterized in the horse. The aim of this study was to compare postprandial glucose, insulin, and GLP-1 responses of different equine breeds adapted to twice-daily meals containing micronized maize. Four Standardbred horses, 4 mixed-breed ponies, and 4 Andalusian cross horses in moderate BCS (5.5 ± 0.2 out of 9) were fed meals at 0800 and 1600 h each day. The meals contained micronized maize (mixed with soaked soybean hulls and lucerne chaff), with the amount of maize gradually increased over 12 wk to reach a final quantity of 1.7 g/kg BW (1.1 g/kg BW starch) in each meal. Animals had ad libitum access to the same hay throughout. After 12 wk of acclimation, serial blood samples were collected from all animals over a 14-h period to measure concentrations of glucose, insulin, and GLP-1, with meals fed immediately after the 0 and 8 h samples. Glucose area under the curve (AUC) values were similar between breed groups (P = 0.41); however, ponies and Andalusian horses exhibited significantly higher insulin AUC values after both meals compared with Standardbred horses (both P laminitis in domestic equids, this study provides evidence that the enteroinsular axis warrants further investigation. PMID:26440006

  2. A data base of crop nutrient use, water use, and carbon dioxide exchange in a 2O square meter growth chamber: I. Wheat as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, R M; Berry, W L; Mackowiak, C; Corey, K A; Sager, J C; Heeb, M M; Knott, W M

    1993-01-01

    A data set is given describing the daily nutrient uptake, gas exchange, environmental conditions, and carbon (C), and nutrient partitioning at harvest for the entire canopy and root system of a wheat crop (Triticum aestivum, cv. Yecora Rojo). The data were obtained from a 20 m2 stand of wheat plants grown from planting to maturity in a closed, controlled environment, and include daily nutrient uptake [macronutrients, nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and sulfur (S); and micronutrients, iron (Fe), boron (B), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and molybdenum (Mo)], canopy carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange rates, and transpiration. Environmental factors such as relative humidity, air temperature, nutrient solution temperature, pH and electrical conductivity, and photoperiod were controlled in the chamber to specific set points. A detailed description of biomass yield for each of the 64 plant growth trays comprising the 20 m2 of growth area is also provided, and includes dry weights of grain, straw, chaff, and roots, along with the concentration of nutrients in different plant tissues and the percent carbohydrate, fat, and protein. To our knowledge, this information represents one of the most extensive data sets available for a canopy of wheat grown from seed to maturity under controlled environmental and nutritional conditions, and thus may provide useful information for model development and validation. A methods section is included to qualify any assumptions that might be required for the use of the data in plant growth models, along with a daily event calendar indicating when adjustments in set points and occasional equipment or sensor failures occurred.

  3. 基于随机微分的质心干扰模型%Studies on centroid jamming model using stochastic differential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡生亮; 杨庆; 贺静波; 刘忠

    2012-01-01

    反舰导弹末制导雷达普遍采用单脉冲跟踪体制.尽管质心干扰最终效能受多方面影响,但舰艇和干扰源的目标散射特性是影响质心干扰效能的最基本方面.因此,从目标散射特性和单脉冲末制导雷达对目标信号处理过程人手,是研究质心干扰效能一条可思考的途径.本文从信号级人手,利用随机微分方程,研究了质心干扰条件下反舰导弹末制导雷达的跟踪方位概率密度函数,并通过不同信噪比条件下跟踪方位概率密度函数曲线对比,验证了本研究思路的有效性.%The anti-ship cruise missiles use a monopulse tracking mechanism to home-in on ship targets. In the so-called seduction decoy ECM technique, an alternative or false target in deliberately introduced by the ship during the missiles track mode to compromise the tracker' s intended purpose. It shows a chaff cloud in competition with the ship for the attention of the tracker' s cell. According to the scattering quality of target, the stochastic differential equations are given for the tracking capability of monopulse anti-ship missile terminal guidance radar. The probability density function of azimuth is represented, which enables identification of their stochastic volatilities with certain free functions. At last the simulation experiments were made by Matlab and the effectiveness of the model was tested and verified.

  4. The science, technology, and politics of ballistic missile defense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    America's missile defense systems are deployed at home and abroad. This includes the Groundbased Missile Defense (GMD) system in Alaska and California, the Phased Adaptive Approach in Europe (EPAA), and regional systems in the Middle East and Asia. Unfortunately these systems lack workable architectures, and many of the required elements either don't work or are missing. Major review and reconsideration is needed of all elements of these systems. GMD performance in tests has gotten worse with time, when it ought to be getting better. A lack of political support is not to blame as the DoD spends about $10 billion per year, and proposes to add about $5 billion over the next five years. Russia objects to the EPAA as a threat to its ICBM forces, and to the extensive deployment of U.S. military forces in countries such as Poland, the Czech Republic and Romania, once part of the Soviet Union. Going forward the U.S. should keep working with Russia whose cooperation will be key to diplomatic gains in the Middle East and elsewhere. Meanwhile, America's missile defenses face an enduring set of issues, especially target discrimination in the face of attacks designed to overwhelm the defenses, stage separation debris, chaff, decoys, and stealth. Dealing with target discrimination while also replacing, upgrading, or adding to the many elements of U.S. missiles defenses presents daunting budget priorities. A new look at the threat is warranted, and whether the U.S. needs to consider every nation that possesses even short-range missiles a threat to America. The proliferation of missiles of all sizes around the world is a growing problem, but expecting U.S. missile defenses to deal with all those missiles everywhere is unrealistic, and U.S. missile defenses, effective or not, are justifying more and more offensive missiles

  5. Metabolic response to dietary fibre composition in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brøkner, C; Austbø, D; Næsset, J A; Blache, D; Bach Knudsen, K E; Tauson, A H

    2016-07-01

    The hypothesis for this study was that a higher dietary proportion of soluble fibre would result in stable and constant plasma metabolite and regulatory hormone concentrations. The study was a 4×4 Latin Square design with a sequence of 17 days adaptation to the ration followed by 8 sampling days. The feed rations consisted of only timothy hay (H), hay plus molassed sugar beet pulp combined with either whole oats (OB) or barley (BB) and hay plus a loose chaff-based concentrate (M). Four horses were fitted with permanent caecal cannulas and liquid caecal content was withdrawn manually and blood was drawn from the jugular vein at 0, 3 and 9 h postprandial. The horses were exercised daily at medium level for about 1 h. Samples were analysed for short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and metabolic traits. Caecal SCFA and propionic acid concentrations increased with increased dietary starch and soluble fibre. The diet highest in soluble fibre (M) resulted in the highest plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in the morning, which then remained stable and constant throughout the day. A strong interaction (P<0.01) between time and diet was measured for plasma urea, glucose, insulin and leptin. The greatest variations in plasma glycaemic and insulinaemic responses were associated with the cereal grain diets (OB and BB). There were indications of a negative energy balance, which was reflected in a significantly higher plasma β-hydroxybutyrate concentration and a numerically higher non-esterified fatty acid concentration. In conclusion, this study found that inclusion of soluble fibre resulted in increased total caecal SCFA and propionic acid concentrations. This consequently resulted in stable and constant plasma glycaemic and insulinaemic responses. Diets with a high content of soluble fibre provided enough energy for horses at medium work level. PMID:26755337

  6. A data base of crop nutrient use, water use, and carbon dioxide exchange in a 2O square meter growth chamber: I. Wheat as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, R. M.; Berry, W. L.; Mackowiak, C.; Corey, K. A.; Sager, J. C.; Heeb, M. M.; Knott, W. M.

    1993-01-01

    A data set is given describing the daily nutrient uptake, gas exchange, environmental conditions, and carbon (C), and nutrient partitioning at harvest for the entire canopy and root system of a wheat crop (Triticum aestivum, cv. Yecora Rojo). The data were obtained from a 20 m2 stand of wheat plants grown from planting to maturity in a closed, controlled environment, and include daily nutrient uptake [macronutrients, nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and sulfur (S); and micronutrients, iron (Fe), boron (B), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and molybdenum (Mo)], canopy carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange rates, and transpiration. Environmental factors such as relative humidity, air temperature, nutrient solution temperature, pH and electrical conductivity, and photoperiod were controlled in the chamber to specific set points. A detailed description of biomass yield for each of the 64 plant growth trays comprising the 20 m2 of growth area is also provided, and includes dry weights of grain, straw, chaff, and roots, along with the concentration of nutrients in different plant tissues and the percent carbohydrate, fat, and protein. To our knowledge, this information represents one of the most extensive data sets available for a canopy of wheat grown from seed to maturity under controlled environmental and nutritional conditions, and thus may provide useful information for model development and validation. A methods section is included to qualify any assumptions that might be required for the use of the data in plant growth models, along with a daily event calendar indicating when adjustments in set points and occasional equipment or sensor failures occurred.

  7. Communicating Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Nicholas

    2009-10-01

    Introduction: what this book is about and why you might want to read it; Prologue: three orphans share a common paternity: professional science communication, popular journalism, and literary fiction are not as separate as they seem; Part I. Professional Science Communication: 1. Spreading the word: the endless struggle to publish professional science; 2. Walk like an Egyptian: the alien feeling of professional science writing; 3. The future's bright? Professional science communication in the age of the internet; 4. Counting the horse's teeth: professional standards in science's barter economy; 5. Separating the wheat from the chaff: peer review on trial; Part II. Science for the Public: What Science Do People Need and How Might They Get It?: 6. The Public Understanding of Science (PUS) movement and its problems; 7. Public engagement with science and technology (PEST): fine principle, difficult practice; 8. Citizen scientists? Democratic input into science policy; 9. Teaching and learning science in schools: implications for popular science communication; Part III. Popular Science Communication: The Press and Broadcasting: 10. What every scientist should know about mass media; 11. What every scientist should know about journalists; 12. The influence of new media; 13. How the media represents science; 14. How should science journalists behave?; Part IV. The Origins of Science in Cultural Context: Five Historic Dramas: 15. A terrible storm in Wittenberg: natural knowledge through sorcery and evil; 16. A terrible storm in the Mediterranean: controlling nature with white magic and religion; 17. Thieving magpies: the subtle art of false projecting; 18. Foolish virtuosi: natural philosophy emerges as a distinct discipline but many cannot take it seriously; 19. Is scientific knowledge 'true' or should it just be 'truthfully' deployed?; Part V. Science in Literature: 20. Science and the Gothic: the three big nineteenth-century monster stories; 21. Science fiction: serious

  8. Distributed Physical and Molecular Separations for Selective Harvest of Higher Value Wheat Straw Components Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, J.R

    2005-01-31

    Wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.) is an abundant source of plant fiber. It is regenerated, in large quantities, every year. At present, this potentially valuable resource is greatly under-exploited. Most of the excess straw biomass (i.e., tonnage above that required for agronomic cropping system sustainability) is managed through expensive chopping/tillage operations and/or burnt in the field following harvest, resulting in air pollution and associated health problems. Potential applications for wheat straw investigated within this project include energy and composites manufacture. Other methods of straw utilization that will potentially benefit from the findings of this research project include housing and building, pulp and paper, thermal insulation, fuels, and chemicals. This project focused on components of the feedstock assembly system for supplying a higher value small grains straw residue for (1) gasification/combustion and (2) straw-thermoplastic composites. This project was an integrated effort to solve the technological, infrastructural, and economic challenges associated with using straw residue for these bioenergy and bioproducts applications. The objective of the research is to contribute to the development of a low-capital distributed harvesting and engineered storage system for upgrading wheat straw to more desirable feedstocks for combustion and for straw-plastic composites. We investigated two processes for upgrading wheat straw to a more desirable feedstock: (1) An efficient combine-based threshing system for separating the internodal stems from the leaves, sheaths, nodes, and chaff. (2) An inexpensive biological process using white-rot fungi to improve the composition of the mechanically processed straw stems.

  9. Equine pre-caecal and total tract digestibility of individual carbohydrate fractions and their effect on caecal pH response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brøkner, Christine; Austbø, Dag; Næsset, Jon Anders; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Tauson, Anne-Helene

    2012-12-01

    The working hypothesis was that a minor postprandial caecal pH decline would affect apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of the fibre fraction in horses and, hence, that soluble fibre would amplify fermentation and consequently increase ATTD of fibre. This study was a 4 × 4 Latin Square design with a sequence of 17 days adaptation to the ration followed by 8 sampling days. The feed rations consisted of only timothy hay (Group H), hay plus molassed sugar beet pulp combined with either whole oats (Group OB) or barley (Group BB) and hay plus loose chaff based concentrate (Group M). Four horses fitted with permanent caecal cannulas and collection harnesses were used. A pH electrode with logger was inserted through the cannula and caecal pH was recorded at 1 min intervals for 8 h. The mobile nylon bag technique was used to quantify pre-caecal loss (PCL) of individual feedstuffs. Fibre was analysed as dietary fibre (DF), non-starch polysaccharides, soluble non-cellulosic polysaccharides (S-NCP), insoluble non-cellulosic polysaccharide (I-NCP) and neutral detergent fibre. The ATTD of the S-NCP fraction was above 0.8, which was 60% higher than for the I-NCP fraction. The PCL of starch were 0.98 (oats) and 0.75 (barley). The BB diet lowered (p NCP (r = -0.66; p = 0.005). In conclusion, this study successfully measured the in vivo digestibility of individual fibre fractions and found that S-NCP was more digestible than the I-NCP, and that a single meal of unprocessed barley was sufficient to decrease caecal pH to such an extent that the fibre digestibility of the whole diet was negatively affected.

  10. Endpoints for therapeutic interventions in faecal incontinence: small step or game changer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, S S C

    2016-08-01

    Faecal incontinence (FI) is common and its pathophysiology and treatments continue to evolve. However, a standard measure(s) for assessing its clinical outcome has been elusive. Consequently, over 100 measures and scoring systems, each with intrinsic biases have been reported. These include adequate relief or global satisfaction, ≥50% reduction in episodes or days without FI, quality of life (QOL), FI severity scales and composite indices. Earlier scales relied on the frequency and type of solid, liquid or flatus incontinence and effects on life style whereas newer scales have incorporated urgency, use of pads, antidiarrhoeals and amount of leakage, using prospective daily stool diaries or retrospective weekly or single point assessments. Such a plethora of measures have negatively impacted the assessment and outcome of clinical trials, and have made comparisons difficult. So, how does one sort out the grain from the chaff? In a provocative, post-hoc analysis published in this issue, the minimal clinically important difference, i.e. the smallest change detected by an instrument that is associated with a clinically meaningful change was used to assess FI endpoint. Based on this a ≥50% reduction in FI episodes is recommended as a clinically meaningful outcome measure when assessed by prospective stool diary, and it correlates with symptoms and severity. However, this requires further validation in multi-centre, longer duration and therapeutically effective clinical trial(s). Simultaneous assessment of coping strategies, QOL and psychosocial domains can provide further insights regarding the overall impact of treatments. This mini-review discusses the advances and controversies in defining meaningful FI endpoints.

  11. 复合污染下Cu、Cr、Ni和Cd在水稻植株中的富集特征%Enrichment of Heavy Metals in Rice under Combined Pollution of Cu, Cr, Ni and Cd

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林华; 张学洪; 梁延鹏; 刘杰; 黄海涛

    2014-01-01

    was Cd > Cu > Ni > Cr, and Cu, Cr, Ni and Cd enrichment coefficients of roots was 2~100 times than that of aerial parts. The distribution of Cu, Cr, Ni and Cd in paddy plant was significantly different.Cu concentration in different parts of the rice plant at mature period was root > stem≥ leaf > grain > chaff, the distribution order of Ni was root > leaf > stem > grain > chaff, the distribution order of Cr was root > leaf > chaff≥ stem > grain, and the distribution order of Cd was root > stem > leaf > grain > chaff. With the heavy metal pollution intensity increasing, the concentration of Cu, Cr, Ni and Cd in different part of rice increased obviously. The concentration of Cu, Ni, Cr and Cd in the grains under maturity stage were 4.50~6.19 mg·kg-1, 1.86~4.63 mg·kg-1, 0.72~0.76 mg·kg-1and 0.08~0.39 mg·kg-1, respectively. Cu and Cr concentration in grain of rice at mature period did not exceed the standard (10 mg·kg-1 and 1.0 mg·kg-1, GB15199-94), while Ni and Cd concentration in grain exceeded the unpolluted food standard (0.4 mg·kg-1 and 0.20 mg·kg-1, GBT2762-2005), Ni and Cd ingestion from this rice may pose a health risk to human. The variation of accumulation of Cu, Cr, Ni and Cd in different part of rice along with growing time was similar. The concentration of heavy metal in root, stem and leaf were all increased first, then decreased as rice growing, and reached the highest levels at filling stage, but decreased sharply at maturing stage. The accumulation and distribution of different heavy metals by rice was significant difference, the concentration of heavy metals in rice in different growth period was significant different but the variation of heavy metal content was obvious.

  12. Mutiscale Modeling of Segregation in Granular Flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Jin [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Modeling and simulation of segregation phenomena in granular flows are investigated. Computational models at different scales ranging from particle level (microscale) to continuum level (macroscale) are employed in order to determine the important microscale physics relevant to macroscale modeling. The capability of a multi-fluid model to capture segregation caused by density difference is demonstrated by simulating grain-chaff biomass flows in a laboratory-scale air column and in a combine harvester. The multi-fluid model treats gas and solid phases as interpenetrating continua in an Eulerian frame. This model is further improved by incorporating particle rotation using kinetic theory for rapid granular flow of slightly frictional spheres. A simplified model is implemented without changing the current kinetic theory framework by introducing an effective coefficient of restitution to account for additional energy dissipation due to frictional collisions. The accuracy of predicting segregation rate in a gas-fluidized bed is improved by the implementation. This result indicates that particle rotation is important microscopic physics to be incorporated into the hydrodynamic model. Segregation of a large particle in a dense granular bed of small particles under vertical. vibration is studied using molecular dynamics simulations. Wall friction is identified as a necessary condition for the segregation. Large-scale force networks bearing larger-than-average forces are found with the presence of wall friction. The role of force networks in assisting rising of the large particle is analyzed. Single-point force distribution and two-point spatial force correlation are computed. The results show the heterogeneity of forces and a short-range correlation. The short correlation length implies that even dense granular flows may admit local constitutive relations. A modified minimum spanning tree (MST) algorithm is developed to asymptotically recover the force statistics in the

  13. Stealth export of hydrogen and methane from a low temperature serpentinization system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, B. I.; Lang, S. Q.; Lilley, M. D.; Olson, E. J.; Lupton, J. E.; Nakamura, K.; Buck, N. J.

    2015-11-01

    originating from the area dubbed Chaff Beach, in which somewhat more than 10% of the original H2 remains, indicating that this otherwise unremarkable plume, and others like it, may represent a significant source of H2 to the deep sea.

  14. The semi-hardwood tender branch cutting technique of Alnus trabeculosa Hand. -Mazz. in the growth period%江南桤木半木质化嫩枝扦插技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巫建新; 史云光; 郑凯; 李文骅; 张荣根; 黄源; 蒋鹏

    2011-01-01

    The experiment on the growth regulators, substrates and roughness of cuttings which affect the rooting of the semi - hardwood tender branch cutting of Alnus trabeculosa Hand. - Mazz. in the growth period showed that there were obvious difference of rooting rate and root growth with different IBA densities, types and proportions of substrates, and roughness of cuttings. The survival rate of 45 d could reach above 92. 3% , when the 0. 7 -0. 8 cm roughness cutting woods were treated by 800 mg/L IBA for one minute and then cut into the composite base material which was comprised of sand, rice chaff ash, pearlite at the ratio of 1: 1: 1 (V: V: V) from June to August.%对影响江南桤木半木质化嫩枝扦插生根效果的植物生长调节剂、扦插基质、插穗粗度等凶子进行了试验研究。结果表明,在全光照自动间歇喷雾条件下,江南桤木插条生根率及根系生长等指标因植物生长调节剂IBA的质量浓度、基质的种类及配比组合和插穗的粗度的不同有明显差异。在生长旺盛夏季的6月至8月,选择0.7~0.8em粗度插条,使用800mg/LIBA浸泡处理1min后,扦插于泥炭土:砻糠灰:珍珠岩体积比为1:1:1的混合基质中,45d成活率可达92.3%。

  15. Data Prospecting Framework - a new approach to explore "big data" in Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, R.; Rushing, J.; Lin, A.; Kuo, K.

    2012-12-01

    Due to advances in sensors, computation and storage, cost and effort required to produce large datasets have been significantly reduced. As a result, we are seeing a proliferation of large-scale data sets being assembled in almost every science field, especially in geosciences. Opportunities to exploit the "big data" are enormous as new hypotheses can be generated by combining and analyzing large amounts of data. However, such a data-driven approach to science discovery assumes that scientists can find and isolate relevant subsets from vast amounts of available data. Current Earth Science data systems only provide data discovery through simple metadata and keyword-based searches and are not designed to support data exploration capabilities based on the actual content. Consequently, scientists often find themselves downloading large volumes of data, struggling with large amounts of storage and learning new analysis technologies that will help them separate the wheat from the chaff. New mechanisms of data exploration are needed to help scientists discover the relevant subsets We present data prospecting, a new content-based data analysis paradigm to support data-intensive science. Data prospecting allows the researchers to explore big data in determining and isolating data subsets for further analysis. This is akin to geo-prospecting in which mineral sites of interest are determined over the landscape through screening methods. The resulting "data prospects" only provide an interaction with and feel for the data through first-look analytics; the researchers would still have to download the relevant datasets and analyze them deeply using their favorite analytical tools to determine if the datasets will yield new hypotheses. Data prospecting combines two traditional categories of data analysis, data exploration and data mining within the discovery step. Data exploration utilizes manual/interactive methods for data analysis such as standard statistical analysis and

  16. 中国部分地区粮食和蔬菜的碘含量及其环境健康意义%The Iodine Contents in Chinese Grains and Vegetables and Its Environmental and Healthy Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宇丽; 刘丽贞; 杜俊逸; 李萍; 吴代赦

    2011-01-01

    The iodine contents in grains and vegetables collected from some Chinese areas were determined by pyrohydrolysis-catalytic spectrophotometry method. The average iodine content in main grains ( rice, wheat, corn),soybean and chili was 0.012,0.012,0.011,0.023 and 0.035 μg/g,respectively. The geographic location has some influence on the iodine distribution in grains and vegetables. Iodine content in corn and chili from coastal areas were significantly higher than that from the inland areas. There was no significant difference in the iodine content between coastal and inland rice. However, the iodine content in soybean from coastal areas was lower than that from inland areas. The iodine content in Chinese grains and vegetables was lower than the previous reported values. The contribution of the iodine intake in plant foods for Chinese residents should be re-examined. The iodine content in chaff was higher than that in rice,which had steering effects for the iodine-rich feed processing.%采用高温热水解-砷铈催化分光光度法测定了我国部分地区粮食(大米、玉米及小麦)和蔬菜(辣椒及大豆)的含碘量.谷类主粮(大米、小麦、玉米)含碘均值为O.012,0.012,0.011μg/g,大豆和辣椒的含碘均值分别为0.023μg/g和0.035 μg/g.地理分布对粮食和蔬菜的碘含量有一定的影响,玉米和辣椒碘含量沿海地区显著高于内地,但大米碘含量在沿海和内地的差异并不显著,而内陆大豆的碘含量甚至高于沿海地区的.蔬菜和谷物的碘含量较此前的报道值更低,其对我国居民摄入碘的贡献有待重新审视.谷壳中的碘含量大于稻米中的碘含量,这对富碘饲料的加工有一定的指导作用.

  17. Cultivation of Black Fungus under Forest in Middle-high Altitude Areas%中高海拔林下培育木耳初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁长波; 王艳芹; 姚利; 付龙云; 迟明峰; 王广来; 曹德宾

    2016-01-01

    [目的]解决木耳生产中的“菌林争地、菌粮争地”矛盾,获得较高的经济效益和生态效益。[方法]在500~1600 m的中高海拔林区培育木耳,调查木耳菌棒发菌需时、耳芽发生天数、子实体生长天数、商品外观、市场效果以及生物学效率等指标。[结果]较传统栽培,林下培育产出的木耳产品具有野生木耳的口感和风味;菌糠废料直接被林地中树根就地分解利用,改善了林地土壤结构,且由于保湿的需要以及出菇管理人员的频繁出入降低了森林火险的发生概率。[结论]林下培育木耳可节省出菇棚等固定资产投资70%以上,生物学效率达12.2%。%Objective] To solve the contradiction between fungus and forest during the production of black fungus, to obtain relatively high eco-nomic benefits and ecological benefits.[Method] Black fungus were cultivated in forest with middle-high altitude of 500-1 600 m.we investiga-ted the germination time of fungus stick, germination days of buds, growth days of fruiting body, commodity exterior, marketing effect and biolog-ical efficiency of black fungus.[Result] Compared with traditional cultivation, black fungus products cultivated under forest had the taste and flavor of wild black fungus.Fungus chaff wastage was directly decomposed by the roots in forest land , improved the soil structure of forest land. Due to the need of moisture retention and the frequent access of administrative staff , probability of occurrence of forest fire insurance was re-duced.[Conclusion] Cultivation of black fungus under forest saves more than 70%fixed-asset investment on fungus shed;the biological efficien-cy reaches 12.2%.

  18. 用咖啡壳在咖啡园复合栽培彩云菇研究与综合效益分析%Composite Cultivation of Coffee-Stropharia Rugoso-annulata with Coffee Shell and Its Comprehensive Benefits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张传利; 李学俊; 杨发军; 李梦杰; 桂雪梅; 黄艳丽

    2014-01-01

    To make full use of by-products and improved the comprehensive benefit of coffee, used a by-product of coffee production-coffee shell other raw material composite cultivation of Stropharia Rugoso-annulata in the mixture, and the comprehensive benefits and the influence of yield and quality of the coffee is analyzed. Results show that the plant row spacing 1 m×2 m, age 4 to 6 in a bed was a small grain of kinds of coffee grounds double ridge cultivation pattern, a shallow pit type clouds mushroom biological efficiency can reach 36.5%, the yield of 5.84 kg/m2, fresh after compound cultivation, each 667 m2 average 3 180 RMB/a, is simply grow coffee 1.6~2.1 times more net benefits;cultivation of fungus chaff and provide high quality organic fertilizer for coffee, can remarkably stable production of coffee, and for the promotion of the quality of the coffee has a good effect. In order to further carry out coffee-edible fungus composite cultivation model for reference.%为充分利用咖啡副产品和提高咖啡园的综合效益,2011~2013年在咖啡园利用咖啡生产的副产品---咖啡壳混合其它原料进行复合栽培彩云菇的试验,并对其综合效益及咖啡的产量和品质的影响进行了分析。结果表明:在株行距1 m×2 m、树龄4~6 a的小粒种咖啡园内采用一床双垄浅坑式栽培模式,彩云菇的生物学效率可达到36.5%,鲜菇产量为5.84 kg/m2,复合栽培后,每667 m2平均收益3180元/a,是单纯种植咖啡纯收益的1.6~2.1倍;栽培后的菌糠又为咖啡提供优质有机肥料,能显著稳定咖啡的产量,并且对咖啡的品质有良好的促进作用。

  19. ON THE ETYMOLOGY OF 20 WORDS. ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS TO «BULGARIAN ETYMOLOGICAL DICTIONARY»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Selimski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper concerns the origin, word formation patterns and primeval semantics of 20 Bulgarian  words in their alphabetical order. All these words have already been studied in «Bulgarian etymological dictionary». However, 6 of them were left as obscure (3. пекя / pekia ‘very good’; 4. пелдиса / peldissa  ‘pacify’;  12. рокмàк  / rokmak ‘rope (?’, 15. Соанàк / soanak ‘little time’; 18. сънда / synda ‘sit’; 20. сюмьòсан  / siumiosan  ‘maimed’,  and the other 7 have received explanations which  are not acceptable (2. митище / mitishte  ‘straw, chaff (?’; 6. плакна  / plakna ‘rinse’; 7. платник  / platnik ‘sickly’;  10. потирек / potirek  ‘belt’; 13. сетка / setka ‘net’; 14. сий / sii ‘this’; 17. сънàк / synak ‘moment’. The remaining 7 words are under consideration because they need certain additional explanations relating to their phonetic peculiarities (19. синор  /  sinor, сънър /  synyr ‘baulk, headland’, or concerning some word-formation and/or semantic particularities  (1. костàнски /  kostanski  ‘adjective from name of vil. Костанденец / Kostandenets’; 11. разтварям /  raztvariam ‘dissolve’;  16. суичмез  /  suich mez  ‘drunkard’. Some  of the discussed  words  can  be considered as calques from other languages: Russian  (5. изписвам /  izpisvam ‘discharge’, Croatian (9. покора/pokora ‘penance’ and Turkish (8. плява / pliava ‘galaxy’.

  20. Methane emissions, feed intake, performance, digestibility, and rumen fermentation of finishing beef cattle offered whole-crop wheat silages differing in grain content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Geough, E J; O'Kiely, P; Hart, K J; Moloney, A P; Boland, T M; Kenny, D A

    2010-08-01

    This study aimed to quantify the methane emissions and feed intake, performance, carcass traits, digestibility, and rumen fermentation characteristics of finishing beef cattle offered diets based on whole-crop wheat (WCW) silages differing in grain content and to rank these relative to diets based on grass silage (GS) and ad libitum concentrates (ALC). In Exp. 1, a total of 90 continental crossbred steers [538 +/- 27.6 kg of BW (mean +/- SD)] were blocked by BW and assigned in a randomized complete block design to 1 of 6 treatments based on 4 WCW silages [grain-to-straw plus chaff ratios of 11:89 (WCW I), 21:79 (WCW II), 31:69 (WCW III), and 47:53 (WCW IV)], GS, and ALC. Increasing grain content in WCW silage resulted in a quadratic (P = 0.01) response in DMI, with a linear (P methane emissions than cattle in any other treatment when expressed relative to DMI. Cattle offered ALC exhibited greater (P methane emissions, irrespective of the unit of expression, compared with cattle in any of the silage-based treatments. In Exp. 2, rumen fermentation parameters were determined using 4 ruminally cannulated Rotbunde-Holstein steers (413 +/- 30.1 kg of BW) randomly allocated among WCW I, the average of WCW II and III (WCW II/III), WCW IV, and GS in a 4 x 4 Latin square design. Ruminal pH and total VFA concentration did not differ across dietary treatments. Molar proportion of acetic acid decreased (P = 0.01), with propionic acid tending to increase (P = 0.06) with increasing grain content. It was concluded that increasing the grain content of WCW silage reduced methane emissions relative to DMI and CG and improved animal performance. However, the relativity of GS to WCW in terms of methane emissions was dependent on the unit of expression used. Cattle offered ALC exhibited decreased methane emissions and greater performance than those offered any of the silage-based treatments. PMID:20382872

  1. The thermal and dynamical state of the atmosphere during polar mesosphere winter echoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.-J. Lübken

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In January 2005, a total of 18 rockets were launched from the Andøya Rocket Range in Northern Norway (69° N into strong VHF radar echoes called 'Polar Mesosphere Winter Echoes' (PMWE. The echoes were observed in the lower and middle mesosphere during large solar proton fluxes. In general, PMWE occur much more seldom compared to their summer counterparts PMSE (typical occurrence rates at 69° N are 1–3% vs. 80%, respectively. Our in-situ measurements by falling sphere, chaff, and instrumented payloads provide detailed information about the thermal and dynamical state of the atmosphere and therefore allow an unprecedented study of the background atmosphere during PMWE. There are a number of independent observations indicating that neutral air turbulence has caused PMWE. Ion density fluctuations show a turbulence spectrum within PMWE and no fluctuations outside. Temperature lapse rates close to the adiabatic gradient are observed in the vicinity of PMWE indicating persistent turbulent mixing. The spectral broadening of radar echoes is consistent with turbulent velocity fluctuations. Turbulence also explains the mean occurrence height of PMWE (~68–75 km: viscosity increases rapidly with altitude and destroys any small scale fluctuations in the upper mesosphere, whereas electron densities are usually too low in the lower mesosphere to cause significant backscatter. The seasonal variation of echoes in the lower mesosphere is in agreement with a turbulence climatology derived from earlier sounding rocket flights. We have performed model calculations to study the radar backscatter from plasma fluctuations caused by neutral air turbulence. We find that volume reflectivities observed during PMWE are in quantitative agreement with theory. Apart from turbulence the most crucial requirement for PMWE is a sufficiently large number of electrons, for example produced by solar proton events. We have studied the sensitivity of the radar echo strength on

  2. Final Report: DOE/ID/14215

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth Bryden; J. Richard Hess; Thomas Ulrich; Robert Zemetra

    2008-08-18

    The proposed straw separation system developed in the research project harvests the large internode sections of the straw which has the greater potential as a feedstock for lignocellulosic ethanol production while leaving the chaff and nodes in the field. This strategy ensures sustainable agriculture by preventing the depletion of soil minerals, and it restores organic matter to the soil in amounts and particle sizes that accommodate farmers’ needs to keep tillage and fertilizer costs low. A ton of these nutrient-rich plant tissues contains as much as $10.55 worth of fertilizer (economic and energy benefits), in terms of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and other nutrients provided to the soil when incorporated by tillage instead of being burned. Biomass conversion to fermentable sugars for the purpose of producing fuels, chemicals, and other industrial products is well understood. Most bioenergy strategies rely on low-cost fermentable sugars for sustainability and economic viability in the marketplace. Exploitation of the “whole crop”—specifically, wheat straw or other plant material currently regarded as residue or waste—is a practical approach for obtaining a reliable and low-cost source of sugars. However, industrial-scale production of sugars from wheat straw, while technically feasible, is plagued by obstacles related to capital costs, energy consumption, waste streams, production logistics, and the quality of the biomass feedstock. Currently available separation options with combine harvesters are not able to achieve sufficient separation of the straw/stover and chaff streams to realize the full potential of selective harvest. Since ethanol yield is a function of feedstock structural carbohydrate content, biomass anatomical fractions of higher product yield can have a significant beneficial impact on minimum ethanol selling price. To address this advanced biomass separation computation engineering models were developed to more effectively and

  3. Lignocelluloses degradation and related biological characteristics during thermophilic composting of cow dung%牛粪高温堆肥过程中木质纤维素降解及相关生物学特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田伟; 张振华; 汪贞; 王霞; 李妍; 刘振华

    2014-01-01

    In order to improve the understanding of lignocelluloses degradation during composting , a small-scale composting for 112 d was carried out with cow dung and rice chaff as raw materials .The contents of lignocelluloses and the enzyme activities of cellulase , xylanase and β-glucosidase were determined, and microorganisms related to cellulose degradation were isolated during the composting process .It was shown that the degradation rates of cellulose and hemicellulose after composting were 56.26%and 61.47%, respectively, but the content of lignin increased at last.Activities of cellulase and xylanase both increased firstly and reached the maximum value (85.75μg glucose・g-1 DW・h-1 and 165.65 μg reducing sugar・g-1 DW・h-1 , respectively) at the 42nd day, and then decreased till the end of composting.However, the activity of β-glucosidase stayed at a relatively high level (2.79-3.30 μmol pNPG・g-1 DW・h-1 ) from day 22 to 42.Microorganisms including Pseudoxanthomonas, Bacillus, Paenibacillus, Ureibacillus and Geobacillus were isolated and identified related to the thermopilic cellulose-decomposing process.%为探明木质纤维素在堆肥过程中的降解情况,以牛粪和砻糠为原料,进行为期112 d的小型堆肥试验,在不同堆肥阶段测定物料的木质纤维素含量及相关降解酶活性,并在高温和降温阶段从物料中分离鉴定纤维素降解菌。结果表明,堆肥过程中物料的纤维素与半纤维素含量逐步降低,总降解率分别为56.26%和61.47%;而木质素的相对含量略有增加;与木质纤维素降解相关的纤维素酶和木聚糖酶的活性均呈现先增高后降低的趋势,其酶活均在第42天达到峰值,分别为85.75μg glucose・g-1・DW・h-1和165.65μg・reducing sugar・g-1・DW・h-1,而β-葡聚糖苷酶的活性在22~42 d之间维持在较高水平(2.79~3.30μmol pNPG・g-1・DW・h-1);此外,在堆肥的高温和降温腐熟阶段均

  4. How do you select the right security features for your company's products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, Gordon E.

    1998-04-01

    If your company manufacturers, supplies, or distributes products of almost any type, style, shape, or for any usage, they may become the objective of fraudulent activities from one or more sources. Therefore, someone at your company should be concerned about how these activities may affect the company's future. This paper/presentation will provide information about where these 'threats' may come from, what products have been compromised in the past, and what steps might be taken to deter these threats. During product security conferences, conversations, and other sources of information, you'll hear about many different types of security features that can be incorporated into monetary and identification documents, packaging, labeling, and other products/systems to help protect against counterfeiting, unauthorized tampering, or to identify 'genuine' products. Many of these features have been around for some time (which means that they may have lost at least some of their effectiveness) while others, or improved versions of some of the more mature features, have been or are being developed. This area is a 'moving target' and re-examination of the threats and counterthreats needs to be an ongoing activity. The 'value' and the capabilities of these features can sometimes be overstated, i.e. that a feature/system can solve all of the security-related problems that you may (or may not) have with your products. A couple of things to always keep in mind is that no feature(s) is universally effective and none of the features, or even combinations of features, is totally 'tamperproof' or counterfeitproof, irrespective of what may be said or claimed. So how do you go about determining if you have a product security problem and what, if any, security features might be used to reduce the threat(s) to your products? This paper will attempt to provide information to help you separate the 'wheat from the chaff' in these considerations. Specifically, information to be discussed in

  5. Imaginário coletivo de professores sobre o adolescente contemporâneo Imaginario colectivo de profesores sobre el adolescente contemporáneo Teacher’s collective imaginary on contemporary adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Vilarinho Montezi

    2011-06-01

    .Understanding that teachers may perform a very important role in the personnel maturing process of their students, we have established to investigate the teacher’s collective imaginary on contemporary adolescents as subject of research. We performed a group interview with six Secondary Education teachers, utilizing the Thematic Story-Drawing Procedure, which as conceived as a dialogical-mediator resource. After the interview, psychoanalytic narratives were written down by us, with the purpose to relate the clinical practice happenings. And those, along with the story-drawings, were psychoanalytically analyzed allowing the interpretative capturing of the following affective-emotional sense fields: “vegetative world”, “separating the chaff of the wheat” and “happy children, unfortunate adolescent”. We conclude that, in the group approached, the adolescent is conceived as passive, unfortunate and unable to make choices, demanding to be guided in his life.

  6. Study and application of smoke agent controlling stored grain pests%烟剂对储粮害虫控制的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新府; 郑妙; 李文辉; 林亚珍; 蒋社才; 李志权

    2013-01-01

    Aiming at the problem of upper pest of the warehouse to eliminate difficultly,four kinds of propoxur or metolcarb or cypermethrin and trichlorfon pesticide smoke agents are developed about the project team,smoked agents on the insecticidal activity of stored grain insect Rhyzopertha dominica,Sitophilus zeamais prepared were determined.The results show that:the fumigant ignited to produce a large number of white clouds,the effective material is evenly dispersed.The test results show that the smoke agent storage stability,ignition temperature higher than 180 ℃,when the auxiliary fuel (chaff) and oxidant (ammonium nitrate) with mass ratio of 3:1,preparation of the smoke agent combustion stability without fire,The mortality was above 90% applying 5% MTMC-trichlorfon and 2.5% propoxur -cypermethrin in dosage 5 g/m3 of Maize weevil and resistant strain (phosphine resistance,hereinafter the same) or Rhizopertha dominica and resistant strain min was 30.The barn 5% MTMC-trichtorfon and 2.5% propoxur-cypermethrin smoke agent at 6.0 g/m3 closed 72 h to the maize weevil and resistant strain,Rhizopertha dominica and resistant strain effect is the mortality was above 90%,dosage of 4.5 g/m3 positive rate of maize weevil and resistant strain effect was more than 90%,the product is safe and reliable,and has a good application prospect.%针对仓库上部害虫难于消灭的问题,本项目组研制了速灭威、残杀威、氯氰菊酯和敌百虫农药的烟剂,测定了4种烟剂对储粮害虫谷蠹、玉米象的杀虫活性.结果表明:烟剂点燃后产生大量白色烟云,均匀分散.烟剂的燃点大于180℃,当助剂中燃料(统糠)和氧化剂(硝酸铵)的质量比为3:1时,配制的烟剂燃烧稳定无明火.5%速灭威-敌百虫、2.5%残杀威-氯氰菊酯在用量为5 g/m3时对玉米象及其抗性品系(磷化氢抗性,下同)、谷蠹及其抗性品系30 min的校正死亡率均在90%以上;粮仓应用5%速灭威-敌百虫、2.5

  7. The Multiple Doppler Radar Workshop, November 1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, R. E.; Harris, F. I.; Hildebrand, P. H.; Kropfli, R. A.; Miller, L. J.; Moninger, W.; Strauch, R. G.; Doviak, R. J.; Johnson, K. W.; Nelson, S. P.; Ray, P. S.; Gilet, M.

    1980-10-01

    the dual Doppler and multiple Doppler cases. Various filters and techniques, including statistical and variational approaches, are mentioned. Emphasis is placed on the importance of experiment design and procedures, technological improvements, incorporation of all information from supporting sensors, and analysis priority for physically simple cases. Integrated reliability is proposed as an objective tool for radar siting.Verification of multiple Doppler-derived vertical velocity is discussed in Part V. Three categories of verification are defined as direct, deductive, and theoretical/numerical. Direct verification consists of zenith-pointing radar measurements (from either airborne or ground-based systems), air motion sensing aircraft, instrumented towers, and tracking of radar chaff. Deductive sources include mesonetworks, aircraft (thermodynamic and microphysical) measurements, satellite observations, radar reflectivity, multiple Doppler consistency, and atmospheric soundings. Theoretical/numerical sources of verification include proxy data simulation, momentum checking, and numerical cloud models. New technology, principally in the form of wide bandwidth radars, is seen as a development that may reduce the need for extensive verification of multiple Doppler-derived vertical air motions. Airborne Doppler radar is perceived as the single most important source of verification within the bounds of existing technology.Nine stages of data processing and display are identified in Part VI. The stages are identified as field checks, archival, selection, editing, coordinate transformation, synthesis of Cartesian fields, filtering, display, and physical analysis. Display of data is considered to be a problem critical to assimilation of data at all stages. Interactive computing systems and software are concluded to be very important, particularly for the editing stage. Three- and 4-dimensional displays are considered essential for data assimilation, particularly at the

  8. 阿魏酸酯酶酶化发酵饲料制备及其对肉鸡养分利用率的影响%Preparation of Ferulic Acid Esterase Enzymatic Fermented Feed and Its Effect on the Nutrient Utilization of Broilers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王林林; 陈云华; 陈培钦; 李夏兰

    2014-01-01

    为了降低饲料中抗营养因子,提高饲料转化率,研究阿魏酸酯酶酶化发酵饲料的制备及其对肉鸡养分利用率的影响.通过正交实验得到发酵饲料较优配方(质量分数):菌柄干物质为12%,玉米蛋白饲料为26%,棕榈仁粕为11%,谷壳粉为16%,瓜尔豆粕为5%,玉米粉为5%,糖蜜为0.3%,益生剂为0.1%,发酵饲料中粗蛋白为22.48%.相对于基础日粮,酶化发酵饲料对肉鸡的干物质、粗灰分、粗蛋白、中性洗涤纤维、酸性洗涤纤维及酸性洗涤木质素的利用率分别提高5.59%,38.31%,10.36%,16.52%,29.25%,18.99%,且肉鸡对酶化发酵饲料养分利用率比普通发酵饲料高.%In order to reduce the antinutritional factors existed in feed,and to promote feed conversion ratio,ferulic acid esterase enzymatic fermented feed was studied and its effect on nutrient utilization of broilers was researched at the same time.The optimum feed formula was obtained by orthogonal experiments:12% stipe dry matter,26% corn gluten feed, 11% palm kernel meal,16% chaff powder,5% guar soybean meal,5% corn flour,0.3% molasses,0.1% prebiotic a-gent,and the content of crude protein in this fermented feed was 22.48% under this condition.Compared with basal diet, enzymatic fermented feed increased feed nutrient such as dry matter,crude ash,crude protein,neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber,and acid detergent lignin utilization by 5.59%,38.31%,10.36%,16.52%,29.25%,and 18.99%, respectively.And the feed nutrient utilization of broilers raised by enzymatic fermented feed was higher than those raised by common fermented feed.

  9. 枫香轻基质容器育苗试验%Container Seedlings Techniques with Light Substrate for Liquidambar formosana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范辉华; 汤行昊; 陈柳英

    2014-01-01

    Container nursery trials of Liquidambar formosana of different light matrix group ,different planting densities and different seedling size grading were performed .The results shows that compareing with the peat-perlite light matrix and the peat-perlite light matrix,the peat-chaff main components matrix had higher survival rate ,gradeⅠseedling rate and qualified rate,and also had the highest seedling growth and qualified seedling amount per square meter of Liquidambar formosana container seedlings .143 plants・m-2 density cultivation,compared with the 195、238 plants・ m-2 density cultivation,had higher survival rate,gradeⅠseedling rate and qualified rate ,and higher average seedling height and average basal diameter ,and better uniformity too .After the seedling classi-fication,average seedling height , average basal diameter , gradeⅠseedling rate , qualified rate and qualified seedling amount per square meter of Liquidambar formosana all had the highest index in seedling group , then the no-grade group, then the young group.The survival rate and the grade Ⅱseedling rate shows the index of seedlings group

  10. The Accumulation Pattern of Zn, Cu, Ni, Cd in Wheat Grown in Heavy-metal Enriched Substrate%重金属复合处理对小麦锌铜镍镉积累和分布的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王云霞; 杨连新; Walter.J.Horst

    2011-01-01

    micronutrients and toxic heavy metals in the wheat grain were examined by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry(LA-lCP-MS). The metals were added jointly to the peat substrate as sulfates. Combined heavy metals added to peat substrate did not affect grain yield, single grain dry weight, straw dry weight and harvest index of wheat at maturity. However, great changes on metals distribution in plants or grains as affected by heavy metal treatments were observed. Zn, Cu, Ni and Cd concentrations in the grain, chaff, leaf, leaf sheath and stem were significantly enhanced by heavy metal addition but the enhancement varied with different elements or plant organs. Elevated heavy metal supply increased the concentrations of Zn, Cu, Ni and Cd in wheat grains by factors of 1.8, 0.5, 48.1 and 45.3, respectively. The distribution pattern of Cu and Cd in different organs of wheat were not affected by heavy metal treatments, but the distribution pattern of Zn and Ni were significantly changed by heavy metal treatments. High percentages of Zn were translocated in grains at normal Zn supply conditions, but more Zn was retained in vegetative organs by heavy metal treatments. The changes in distribution pattern of Ni showed different trends compared to Zn. LA-ICP-MS analysis of wheat grains revealed that Cu, Zn, Ni, and Cd were distributed in a similar way with the high concentrations in the aleurone layer and low concentrations in the starchy endosperm.Elevated heavy metal supply increased the concentrations of beneficial elements Zn and Cu by 78% and 86%, toxic heavy metals Ni and Cd by 30 and 121 folds in aleurone layer, respectively. Elevated heavy metal supply increased the concentrations of Zn and Cu in starchy endosperm by 49% and 48%, respectively. The concentrations of Ni and Cd in starchy endosperm were not detectable under control conditions, but elevated heavy metal supply increased Ni and Cd concentrations to levels far over the maximum permitted levels set by

  11. 平菇在12种秸秆主料基质中生长情况的初步研究%Preliminary study on oyster mushroom growth situation in 12 kinds of straw substrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范可章; 陈灵; 蔡健; 刘生杰; 李焰焰; 沈益新

    2011-01-01

    为了解不同作物秸杆主料基质在栽培平菇时所表现出的结果,特配制12种不同秸杆材料基质来栽培平菇.结果表明:平菇菌丝在各基质中的长速、长势及头茬子实体产量都表现出明显差异.平菇菌丝在油菜秸秆基质中长速最快,长势为优,结菇最早;在以黄豆秸秆、棉花秸秆和棉籽壳为主料的基质中,长速稍慢,结菇稍晚,头茬菇产量最好;在以高粱糠和高粱秸秆为主料的基质中,长速波动大,长势为良,头茬菇产量低,且出现死菇:在以玉米芯为主料的基质中,长速慢,长势良,头茬菇产量中等;在花生秧主料基质中,长速最慢,但长势为优,试验结束时未形成产量;在甘薯藤、小麦秸秆、玉米秸秆和白杨树叶为主料的基质中,长速最慢,且长势最差,实验结束未形成产量.根据各基质成分特点分析,只有当C/N在20~50之间,且基质中可溶性糖与粗纤维质量比在1附近时,菌丝才能生长最好,产量最高.因此,用不同秸杆主料栽培平菇时,必须根据其成分特点配制基质.%In order to know the effects of straw substrates on the growth situation of oyster mushroom,twelve kinds of straw substrates were used respectively. The results indicate that the growth speed, growth vigour and the yield of the mycelia for the first harvest present remarkable difference in different substrates. The growth speed of mycelia in cole straw substrate is the quickest, the growth vigour is excellent, and the fructification is the earliest; in pulse, cotton straw and the shell of cotton seed substrates, the mycelial growth speed is quicker, the mycelial fructification is earlier, but the yield for the first harvest is the best; in broomcorn straw and the chaff of broomcorn substrates, the mycelial growth speed is very undulatory in different periods, the growth vigour of the mycelia is fine, and the yield for the first harvest is lower, moreover, small mushrooms are easy to

  12. Effects of Cadmium Stress on Uptake and Distribution of Cadmium in Different Rice Varieties%Cd胁迫对水稻亲本材料Cd吸收分配的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张路; 张锡洲; 李廷轩; 余海英; 戢林

    2014-01-01

    pollu-tion-safe rice variety was D62B, and common variety Luhui17 as the control. Cadmium concentrations used were 1 mg·kg-1, 4 mg·kg-1, and 16 mg·kg-1. Compared with Luhui 17, D62B growth was inhibited to some extent at all Cd levels. The biomass of D62B significantly de-creased with increasing Cd concentrations. The Cd concentrations in shoot and translation coefficient of D62B were significantly lower than those of Luhui17 during the growth periods. At mature stage, the Cd concentrations in brown rice and chaff were also significantly lower than those of Luhui17. At 1 mg Cd·kg-1 and 4 mg Cd·kg-1, the Cd concentrations in brown rice of D62B were lower than the National Food Safe-ty Standards(0.2 mg·kg-1). The rates of Cd uptake by D62B were the greatest at tillering stage, and increased as Cd concentrations in-creased. The Cd translocation rate of D62B was significantly lower than that of Luhui17 at 4 mg·kg-1 and 16 mg·kg-1. At mature stage, the Cd translocation of D62B was only 46.52%and 66.68%of that of Luhui17 at 4 mg·kg-1 and 16 mg·kg-1. Cadmium absorbed by D62B accu-mulated about 44%~49%in cell walls and about 37%in soluble fraction, and the lowest in cellular organelles, while more than 48%of Cd in Luhui17 was localized in soluble fraction. In roots, majority of Cd was located in soluble fraction and cell walls, but percentages of Cd in cell wall was significantly lower in Luhui 17 than D62B at 16 mg·Cd kg-1. In conclusion, Cd pollution-safe rice variety D62B has low accu-mulation of Cd in brown rice, and could be considered as Cd safety rice germplasm resources for Cd-polluted farmlands.

  13. Obituary: Fred Lawrence Whipple, 1906-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeomans, Donald Keith

    2004-12-01

    1986 Giotto spacecraft images, revealing a solid cometary nucleus (albeit far blacker than most had predicted), were a dramatic confirmation of Whipple's model -- though in truth few really expected otherwise at the time. In 1942-1946, he led an effort to develop and implement strips of reflective aluminum (i.e., chaff) to confuse enemy radars in World War II. In 1948, he received a certificate of merit for this work from President Harry S. Truman. Eleven years before the launch of the first artificial satellite in 1957, he developed what is now generally termed the Whipple Shield; a thin outer metallic layer stands out from a spacecraft and protects it from high-speed interplanetary dust particles. While particles hitting this outside thin layer would penetrate, they would also vaporize, and in so doing, the resultant debris would disperse and lack the energy to penetrate the main spacecraft skin. This design was used to successfully protect the Stardust spacecraft from cometary dust particles when the spacecraft flew rapidly past comet Tempel 1 in January 2004. He also made significant contributions to fields as diverse as meteor astronomy, satellite tracking, variable stars, supernovae, stellar evolution, astronomical instrumentation and radio astronomy. Along with his colleagues Willy Ley, Wernher von Braun and others, Fred wrote and consulted for a series of very popular articles in Collier's magazine in the early 1950's and these articles, along with earlier lectures at New York's Hayden Planetarium, helped spark the U.S. involvement in space exploration. Of these early beginnings of space exploration, Fred wrote in 1972 "it was no easy task to convince people that man could really go into empty space beyond the Earth's atmosphere, and even beyond the Earth's tenacious gravitational grasp. On looking back over these years, I am still surprised that we succeeded in convincing them." Fred was responsible for initiating the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory