WorldWideScience

Sample records for chaff

  1. Removal of Nitrate From Aqueous Solution Using Rice Chaff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehghani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Nitrate is largely dissolved in the surface and ground water, due to its high solubility. Continual uptake of nitrite through drinking water can lead to problems and diseases (such as blue baby for humans, especially children. Objectives The aim of this study was to develop a new and inexpensive method for the removal of nitrate from water. In this regard, the possibility of using chaff for removal of nitrate from aqueous solutions was studied and the optimum operating conditions of nitrate removal was determined. Materials and Methods This is a cross-sectional study conducted in laboratory scale. The UV spectrophotometer at a wavelength of maximum absorbance (220 nm was used to determine the nitrate concentration. The effect of pH, amount of chaff, temperature, and contact time were investigated. Results The result of this study revealed that chaff as an absorbent could remove nitrate from solutions, and the efficiency of adsorption increased as contact time increased from 5 to 30 minutes, amount of chaff increased from 1 to 3 g, temperature increased in a range of 300 - 400°C and the amount of pH decreased from 10 to 3. The maximum adsorption rate was around pH 3 (53.14%. Conclusions It was shown that the removal efficiency of nitrate was directly proportional to the amount of chaff, temperature, and contact time but inversely to the pH. This study showed that nitrate removal by chaff is a promising technique.

  2. Entrainment of radio frequency chaff by wind as a function of surface aerodynamic roughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, John A; Nickling, William G

    2003-02-01

    Radio frequency (RF) chaff (approximately 2-cm x 25-microm diameter aluminum-coated glass silicate cylinders) released by military aircraft during testing and training activities has the potential to become entrained by wind upon settling to the Earth's surface. Once entrained from the surface there is the potential for RF chaff to be abraded and produce PM10 and PM2.5, which are regulated pollutants and pose health concerns. A series of portable wind tunnel tests were carried out to examine the propensity of RF chaff to become entrained by wind by defining the relationship between the threshold friction velocity of RF chaff (u(*t RF chaff)) and aerodynamic roughness (z(o)) of surfaces onto which it may deposit. The test surfaces were of varying roughness including types near the Naval Air Station (NAS), Fallon, NV, where RF chaff is released. The u(*t) of this fibrous material ranged from 0.14 m/sec for a smooth playa to 0.82 m/sec for a rough crusted playa surface with larger cobble-sized (approximately 6-26-cm diameter) rocks rising above the surface. The u(*t RF chaff) is dependent on the z(o) of the surface onto which it falls as well as the physical characteristics of the roughness. The wind regime of Fallon would allow for chaff suspension events to occur should it settle on typical surfaces in the area. However, the wind climatology of this area makes the probability of such events relatively low. PMID:12617294

  3. Foil chaff ejection systems for rocket-borne measurement of neutral winds in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Yoshiko; Shimoyama, Manabu; Oyama, Koh-Ichiro; Murayama, Yasuhiro; Tsuda, Toshitaka; Nakamura, Takuji

    2004-07-01

    The foil chaff technique has been used on microrockets such as "Viper" for a long time to measure neutral winds with high altitude resolution in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. We have developed two new foil chaff storage and ejection systems for muti-instrumented sounding rockets. The first system uses a spring loaded split cylinder which holds the foil chaff, housed in an outer cylinder. The shaft of the split cylinder is kept in place by a lock plate and a stainless steel wire. The split cylinder is ejected by cutting the wire. The second system is of differential pressure type. The cap of an airtight cylinder has a shaft and a sponge piece for sweeping out the foil chaff. The cylinder is sealed at ground level and at the desired height of release, the cap comes out due to differential pressure and brings out the foil chaff. Both these systems were successfully tested on a Japanese sounding rocket in January 2000, releasing about 20 000 pieces of foil chaff during the rocket's descent. Neutral winds were measured in the height range of 85.5-95.0 km with a height resolution of 300 m.

  4. Simultaneous harvesting of straw and chaff for energy purposes : influence on bale density, yield, field drying process and combustion characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundin, G. [JTI Swedish Inst. of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, Uppsala (Sweden); Ronnback, M. [SP Technical Research Inst. of Sweden, Boras (Sweden)

    2010-07-01

    The potential to increase the productivity of fuel straw harvest and transportation was examined. When harvesting straw for energy purposes, only the long fraction is currently collected. However, technological improvements have now rendered it possible to harvest chaff, thus increasing the amount of harvest residues and bale density. The purpose of this study was to determine how harvest yield, bale density, field-drying behaviour and combustion characteristics are affected by the simultaneous harvest of straw and chaff. Field experiments were conducted in 2009 for long- and short-stalked winter wheat crops. Combine harvesting was carried out with 2 different types of combine harvesters. A high-density baler was used to bale the crop residues. Mixing chaff in with the straw swath by combine harvesting gave a lower initial moisture content compared with straw only. The density and the weight of each bale were not affected by the treatments. However, the added chaff increased the total yield of crop residues by 14 per cent, indicating that about half of the biologically available chaff was harvested. Although mixing in chaff increased the ash content by 1 percentage unit, there was no considerable change in net calorific value or ash melting behaviour.

  5. Modeling and Simulation of Chaff Cloud Diffusion Process%箔条云团扩散过程的建模仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李星; 赵宏钟

    2011-01-01

    Disturbing the enemy's missiles by launching chaff missiles is a familiar approach in passive radar rivalry. The character and moving principle of the chaff are analyzed, and a simulation algorithm of the chaff cloud diffusion process is put forward for the circumstances of the chaff missiles launched by a vessel when it is attacked. A preferable simulation effect was attained by the algorithm simulated with Matlab. The support for further analyzing the chaff cloud is provided.%在雷达无源对抗中,通过发射箔条弹是一种常见的对敌方导弹形成干扰的方式.为了更好地研究箔条干扰的各种特性,对海上舰船在受到攻击时施放箔条干扰的情况,分析了箔条的性质和运动原理,提出一种箔条云扩散过程的仿真算法,并采用Matlab仿真方法,获得较好的模拟效果,为进一步精确研究箔条云提供一定的基础支持.

  6. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON STRENGTH PROPERTIES OF WOOD PLASTIC BONDED BOARDS PRODUCED FROM COFFEE CHAFF AND CEIBA PENTANDRA SAWDUST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kehinde Sesan AINA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Strength properties of Wood Plastic-bonded Boards (WPBB of 10mm in thickness were produced in this study from two lignocellulosic materials coffee and recycled low density polyethylene (rLDPE as a binder. WPBB were produced from particles of coffee chaff and Ceiba pentandra, at three levels of mixing ratio (1:1, 2:1 and 3:1, and at three levels of board density (500, 600 and 700kgm-3 given the total treatment combinations of 18 respectively. Effects of lignocelluloses particles, mixing ratio (MR and board density (BD on flexural strength properties of the WPBB were investigated. The flexural strength of the WPBB range from 0.25 to 4.79N/mm2 and 891.00 to 16415.87N/mm2 for modulus of rupture (MOR and modulus of elasticity (MOE respectively. The statistically results shows that the main factor and interaction factors were significantly different at P≤0.05 level of probability. It was observed in this study that as the plastic content with density increased, flexural strength of the boards increases. The study showed that WPBB made from coffee chaff particles are stiffer and stronger than WPBBs made from Ceiba pentandra particles. Based on the outcome of the results in this study, coffee chaff could as well be used as filler in the polymer industry to produce stronger biopolymer composite for structural applications. This study would form a baseline strategy for further research efforts on production of composite from agro-residues wastes.

  7. The AMS 14C dating of Iron Age rice chaff ceramic temper from Ban Non Wat, Thailand: First results and its interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higham, Charles F. W.; Kuzmin, Yaroslav V.; Burr, G. S.

    2010-04-01

    Pottery tempered with rice chaff from the early Iron Age cemetery of Ban Non Wat site, northeast Thailand, has been subjected to direct AMS 14C dating, using low temperature combustion with oxygen as originally developed by authors. The carbon yield (0.2-0.5%) testifies the suitability of this pottery for dating. However, not all the results are in agreement with expected archaeological ages and other 14C dates from the studied site and neighboring site of Noen U-Loke. This calls for a thorough analysis and interpretation of pottery temper dates from the region.

  8. The AMS 14C dating of Iron Age rice chaff ceramic temper from Ban Non Wat, Thailand: First results and its interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pottery tempered with rice chaff from the early Iron Age cemetery of Ban Non Wat site, northeast Thailand, has been subjected to direct AMS 14C dating, using low temperature combustion with oxygen as originally developed by authors. The carbon yield (0.2-0.5%) testifies the suitability of this pottery for dating. However, not all the results are in agreement with expected archaeological ages and other 14C dates from the studied site and neighboring site of Noen U-Loke. This calls for a thorough analysis and interpretation of pottery temper dates from the region.

  9. Adaptive changes in the appetite, growth and feeding behaviour of pony mares offered ad libitum access to a complete diet in either a pelleted or chaff-based form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Argo, C.M.; Cox, J.E.; Lockyer, C.;

    2002-01-01

    Seven, 3-year-old pony mares (similar to230 kg) were used in a cross-over study to compare the appetite, energy and nutrient digestibilities, growth rate and feeding behaviour, when a complete diet was offered ad libitum in either the original loose-chaff mix (C), or as a more convenient, milled ...

  10. Computing study on holistic aerodynamics of chaff cloud covering various flow regimes%箔条云跨流域整体气动特性计算研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志辉; 梁杰; 李四新; 王鹿受

    2011-01-01

    The statistical simulation technique in random sample for the numerous chaffs and chaff- cloud released by the aerocraft is founded on the theory of stochastic dynamics and statistical diffusive sampling. Based on the aerodynamic theory and computing technique established in the recent years, the evaluating algorithm for the aerodynamic characteristic of chaff bodies with the high long and slender ratio has been developed for various altitudes, flying angles and Mach numbers from rarefied free - molecular flow to continuum flow regimes. The numerical method of trajectory flying mechanics is studied and applied to calculate the space situation and velocity of the flying chaff groups at any time. The holistic performance of the chaff cloud is analyzed and studied in mathematical modeling and simulation by developing the weighted technique of stochastic dynamics and statistical distribution theory. As a result, the statistical simulating method on the holistic aerodynamics and covering range of chaff cloud from various flow regimes has been founded. The holistic flying characteristic of the numerous chaffs and chaff clouds released by aerocraft is computed and analyzed as the primary application of the present method. The present simulating results are tallied with the theoretical forecast and experiment testing, which displays the engineering practicality and reliability of the present method in simulating the flying contrail, overcast range and holistic aerodynamics of the chaff cloud including space position, number density, flying gesture and velocity across the atmosphere inside and outside.%研究随机动力学理论与统计散布取样技术,提出对飞行器抛撤"海量"箔条及形成箔条云有限分组随机统计模拟方法;采用所建立空气动力学理论与计算技术,提出可有效模拟稀薄流到连续流不同高度、马赫数、攻角与侧滑角及极高长细比箔条气动特性计算方法;研制飞行力学数值方法,计算确

  11. Atributos físicos e químicos de substratos compostos por biossólidos e casca de arroz carbonizada Physical and chemical attributes of substrates composed of biosolids and carbonized rice chaff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Guerrini

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar os atributos físicos e químicos de substratos com diferentes doses de biossólido (BIO e de casca de arroz carbonizada (CAC, com vistas em obter um meio de crescimento adequado para o desenvolvimento de mudas. Desta forma, utilizando biossólido proveniente da SABESP, estação de Franca (SP, estabeleceu-se um ensaio com os seguintes tratamentos (proporções BIO/CAC: 100/0, 90/10, 80/20, 70/30, 60/40, 50/50, 40/60, 30/70, 20/80, 10/90 e 0/100, os quais foram comparados ao substrato comercial Multiplant®. Foram realizadas análises para determinação dos atributos físicos, como: densidade aparente do substrato, macro e microporosidade, porosidade total, capacidade máxima de retenção de água, e dos atributos químicos dos substratos, como: teores totais de macro e micronutrientes, pH, relação C/N e condutividade elétrica. Com a elevação da dose de BIO no substrato houve aumento da densidade e do percentual de microporos e, conseqüentemente, da capacidade de retenção de água. O BIO apresentou teores razoáveis de nutrientes com destaque para N e P, mas baixos teores de K. Não foram detectados teores de metais pesados superiores aos limites estabelecidos pela Legislação Brasileira no biossólido usado. Comparando-se os valores considerados adequados para o desenvolvimento de mudas encontrados na literatura com os obtidos neste trabalho, encaixaram-se na faixa adequada os substratos cujas doses de biossólido variaram de 30 a 60 %. Nenhum substrato testado, incluindo o do tratamento com substrato comercial, apresentou valores ideais em todas as propriedades estudadas.The objective of this research was to study the physical and chemical properties of substrates with different mixtures of biosolids (BIO and carbonized rice chaff (CAC in order to get an appropriate medium for seedling development. The experiment was established in the nursery of the Department of Natural Resources

  12. The political chaff from the economic grain?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cockburn, Patrick Joseph

    2013-01-01

    The idea that economic activities may be described and studied as ‘embedded’ in social relations has been central to much debate in recent economic sociology. The present study analyses legal struggles over the status of begging in Unites States law, and argues that conflicting rhetorical accounts...... of begging illustrate social actors’ efforts articulate the interconnectedness of their social world, including the ways in which economic practices are embedded in their social and institutional contexts. The essay thus suggests that embeddedness is not just something identified by social...... researchers, but also a problem faced by social actors as they try to understand the socio-economic order in which they live and act. By arguing for or against the claim that begging is simultaneously an economic action and the exercise of the right to freedom of expression the voices in this debate attempted...

  13. BEAMS: separating the wheat from the chaff in supernova analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Kunz, Martin; Bassett, Bruce A; Smith, Mathew; Newling, James; Varughese, Melvin

    2012-01-01

    We introduce Bayesian Estimation Applied to Multiple Species (BEAMS), an algorithm designed to deal with parameter estimation when using contaminated data. We present the algorithm and demonstrate how it works with the help of a Gaussian simulation. We then apply it to supernova data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), showing how the resulting confidence contours of the cosmological parameters shrink significantly.

  14. Ectomycorrhizal fungal diversity: seperating the wheat from the chaff

    OpenAIRE

    Rinaldi, A.C.; Comandini, O.; Kuyper, T. W.

    2008-01-01

    Thousands of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal species exist, but estimates of global species richness of ECM fungi differ widely. Many genera have been proposed as being ECM, but ill a number of studies evidence for the hypothesized ECM habit is lacking. Progress in estimating ECM species richness is therefore slow. Ill this paper we have retrieved studies providing evidence for the ECM habit of fungal species and For the identification of the mycobiont(s) ill specific ECM associations, using pub...

  15. Ectomycorrhizal fungal diversity: seperating the wheat from the chaff

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rinaldi, A.C.; Comandini, O.; Kuyper, T.W.

    2008-01-01

    Thousands of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal species exist, but estimates of global species richness of ECM fungi differ widely. Many genera have been proposed as being ECM, but ill a number of studies evidence for the hypothesized ECM habit is lacking. Progress in estimating ECM species richness is th

  16. Mold and human health: separating the wheat from the chaff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, H David; Selmi, Carlo F; Teuber, Suzanne S; Gershwin, M Eric

    2010-04-01

    The term "mold" is utilized to define the ubiquitous fungal species commonly found in household dust and observed as visible multicellular filaments. Several well-defined human diseases are known to be caused or exacerbated by mold or by exposure to their byproducts. Among these, a solid connection has been established with infections, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, allergic fungal rhinosinusitis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and asthma. In the past decades, other less-defined and generally false conditions have also been ascribed to mold. We will herein review and critically discuss the available evidence on the influence of mold on human health. PMID:19714500

  17. Wheat, chaff and conflicting definitions in market transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The term Market Transformation developed from the concept that programs that concentrated on changing the way energy efficiency was received in markets would lead to larger, longer lasting, better accepted, or more cost-efficient efficiency improvements. Programs could alter the relationships between market actors--consumers, retailers, distributors, producers, suppliers, etc.--rather than just addressing consumer demand, and thus might have longer-lasting effects. Market transformation was seen as one way, but not necessarily as the only way to obtain energy efficiency improvements. Many policymakers agreed, and have directed energy efficiency funding toward market transformation. In order to make the concept useful as a means of deciding between competing projects--to operate it as a prioritization tool and to begin to develop programs from a basis in theory, this paper lists proposed definitions, describes multiple perspectives, and proposes operational criteria for market transformation. The descriptions, definitions and criteria are intended to contribute to greater mutual understanding, and thus to the accomplishment of the overall objectives of market transformation

  18. Separating the Wheat from the Chaff: Identifying Key Elements in the NLA .AU Domain Harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellows, Geoff; Harvey, Ross; Lloyd, Annemaree; Pymm, Bob; Wallis, Jake

    2008-01-01

    In 2005 and 2006 the National Library of Australia (NLA) carried out two whole-domain web harvests which complement the selective web archiving approach taken by PANDORA. Web harvests of this size pose significant challenges to their use. Despite these challenges, such harvests present fascinating research opportunities. The NLA has provided…

  19. 'Sorting the Wheat from the Chaff': Investigating Overload in Educational Discussion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kear, Karen; Heap, N.W.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on research to investigate design features of asynchronous discussion systems for higher education. The research aims to identify features that increase the benefits of discussion systems and reduce the problems. The paper focuses on a major theme that emerged from interviews with learners and teachers: information overload.…

  20. Separating the Wheat from the Chaff: Sensing Wireless Microphones in TVWS

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Huanhuan; Zhang, Wenyi

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes our attempts to establish a systematic approach that overcomes a key difficulty in sensing wireless microphone signals, namely, the inability for most existing detection methods to effectively distinguish between a wireless microphone signal and a sinusoidal continuous wave (CW). Such an inability has led to an excessively high false alarm rate and thus severely limited the utility of sensing-based cognitive transmission in the TV white space (TVWS) spectrum. Having recognized the root of the difficulty, we propose two potential solutions. The first solution focuses on the periodogram as an estimate of the power spectral density (PSD), utilizing the property that a CW has a line spectral component while a wireless microphone signal has a slightly dispersed PSD. In that approach, we formulate the resulting decision model as an one-sided test for Gaussian vectors, based on Kullback-Leibler distance type of decision statistics. The second solution goes beyond the PSD and looks into the spec...

  1. Separating the wheat from the chaff - a taxonomy of open innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte, Vanessa; Sarkar, Sarkar

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The main objective of this paper is to shed light on the confusion of terminologies related to open innovation through the development of an open innovation taxonomy. By analyzing published case studies using numerical taxonomy methods, it proposes a taxonomic classification of open innovation. Design/methodology/approach – Earlier work on firm collaboration and concepts related to open innovation in order to understand the main motivations, and conditions behind open innovation...

  2. Separating the wheat from the chaff – towards a taxonomy of open innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte, Vanessa; Sarkar, Soumodip

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The main objective of our work is to shed light on the confusion of terminologies related to open innovation through the development of an open innovation taxonomy. By analyzing published case studies using numerical taxonomy methods, we propose a taxonomic classification of open innovation. Design/methodology/approach – We first review earlier work on firm collaboration and concepts related to open innovation in order to understand the main motivations and conditions behind open in...

  3. Sorting the Wheat from the Chaff: What Makes for Good Evidence of Effectiveness in the Literature in Gifted Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Carolyn M.; Moon, Tonya R.

    2007-01-01

    To provide an overview of the specific components that must be considered when making decisions about research in the field of gifted education, the authors describe and evaluate the three types of evidence--speculative or anecdotal, theoretical, and empirical--commonly offered in the literature of the field. Empirical, or evidence-based, research…

  4. Separating the wheat from the chaff; ''Die Spreu vom Weizen trennen''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koepke, R.

    2001-10-01

    Investors in wind power projects should take a critical attitude. The same goes for those who intend to invest in shares of wind power, bioenergy and solar power systems. [German] Wer sich an einem Windkraft-Projekt beteiligt, sollte das Angebot genau pruefen. Und auch wer Aktien von Unternehmen aus dem Wind-, Bio- und Solarbereich kauft, sollte nicht zu euphorisch sein. (orig.)

  5. Separating Wheat from Chaff: How Secondary School Principals' Core Values and Beliefs Influence Decision-Making Related to Mandates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Donald E.; Hunter, Joseph E.

    2014-01-01

    Research conducted by Larsen and Hunter (2013, February) identified a clear pattern in secondary school principals' decision-making related to mandated change: more than half of participants' decisions were based on core values and beliefs, requiring value judgments. Analysis of themes revealed that more than half of administrative…

  6. Relationship of Deoxynivalenol Content in Grain, Chaff, and Straw with Fusarium Head Blight Severity in Wheat Varieties with Various Levels of Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Ji

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of 122 wheat varieties obtained from the Nordic Genetic Resource Center were infected artificially with an aggressive Fusariumasiaticum strain in a field experiment. We calculated the severity of Fusarium head blight (FHB and determined the deoxynivalenol (DON content of wheat grain, straw and glumes. We found DON contamination levels to be highest in the glumes, intermediate in the straw, and lowest in the grain in most samples. The DON contamination levels did not increase consistently with increased FHB incidence. The DON levels in the wheat varieties with high FHB resistance were not necessarily low, and those in the wheat varieties with high FHB sensitivity were not necessarily high. We selected 50 wheat genotypes with reduced DON content for future research. This study will be helpful in breeding new wheat varieties with low levels of DON accumulation.

  7. Separating the wheat from the chaff: mitigating the effects of noise in a plastome phylogenomic data set from Pinus L. (Pinaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parks Matthew

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Through next-generation sequencing, the amount of sequence data potentially available for phylogenetic analyses has increased exponentially in recent years. Simultaneously, the risk of incorporating ‘noisy’ data with misleading phylogenetic signal has also increased, and may disproportionately influence the topology of weakly supported nodes and lineages featuring rapid radiations and/or elevated rates of evolution. Results We investigated the influence of phylogenetic noise in large data sets by applying two fundamental strategies, variable site removal and long-branch exclusion, to the phylogenetic analysis of a full plastome alignment of 107 species of Pinus and six Pinaceae outgroups. While high overall phylogenetic resolution resulted from inclusion of all data, three historically recalcitrant nodes remained conflicted with previous analyses. Close investigation of these nodes revealed dramatically different responses to data removal. Whereas topological resolution and bootstrap support for two clades peaked with removal of highly variable sites, the third clade resolved most strongly when all sites were included. Similar trends were observed using long-branch exclusion, but patterns were neither as strong nor as clear. When compared to previous phylogenetic analyses of nuclear loci and morphological data, the most highly supported topologies seen in Pinus plastome analysis are congruent for the two clades gaining support from variable site removal and long-branch exclusion, but in conflict for the clade with highest support from the full data set. Conclusions These results suggest that removal of misleading signal in phylogenomic datasets can result not only in increased resolution for poorly supported nodes, but may serve as a tool for identifying erroneous yet highly supported topologies. For Pinus chloroplast genomes, removal of variable sites appears to be more effective than long-branch exclusion for clarifying phylogenetic hypotheses.

  8. Separar el gra de la palla a la web Separating the Wheat from the Chaff on the Web Separar el grano de la paja en la web

    OpenAIRE

    Francina Martí Cartes

    2008-01-01

    L'article exposa diverses teories d'experts sobre l'avaluació de la informació a Internet. Aquestes teories es comparen amb el comportament d'uns estudiants d'ESO a l'hora de buscar informació a Internet, a partir de dades extretes d'observacions i entrevistes. Finalment, es fan algunes propostes d'estratègies que es poden ensenyar als estudiants perquè siguin capaços de valorar la credibilitat dels webs que visiten, tot analitzan-ne l'autoria, l'objectivitat i els propòsits. ________________...

  9. Separar el gra de la palla a la web Separating the Wheat from the Chaff on the Web Separar el grano de la paja en la web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francina Martí Cartes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available L'article exposa diverses teories d'experts sobre l'avaluació de la informació a Internet. Aquestes teories es comparen amb el comportament d'uns estudiants d'ESO a l'hora de buscar informació a Internet, a partir de dades extretes d'observacions i entrevistes. Finalment, es fan algunes propostes d'estratègies que es poden ensenyar als estudiants perquè siguin capaços de valorar la credibilitat dels webs que visiten, tot analitzan-ne l'autoria, l'objectivitat i els propòsits. ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Cet article explore diverses théories sur l'evaluation de l'information sur Internet. Ces théories sont comparées avec le comportement de certains élèves de l'enseignement secondaire (ESO à la recherche d'information sur Internet, à partir de données extraites d'observations et d'entrevues. Enfin, l'article fait quelques propositions de stratégies qui peuvent être enseignées aux élèves afin qu'ils soient capables d'evaluer la crédibilité des sites web visités, en analysant leurs auteurs, leur objectivité et leurs propos.This article explores various theories about evaluating information on the Internet. The theories are tested against data taken from observations and interviews concerning the behaviour of secondary school (ESO students searching for information on the Internet. Lastly, a number of strategies are proposed to equip students to be better able to assess the credibility of the websites they browse, analysing their authorship, objectivity and purpose.El artículo explora diversas teorías sobre la evaluación de la información en Internet. Estas teorías se comparan con el comportamiento de unos estudiantes de ESO en la búsqueda de información en Internet, a partir de datos extraídos de observaciones y entrevistas. Finalmente, se hacen algunas propuestas de estrategias que se pueden enseñar a los estudiantes para que sean capaces de valorar la credibilidad de las webs que visitan, analizando su autoría, objetividad y propósitos.

  10. Study on saccharification of cellulosic wastes with bench scale test plant, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanical pretreatment of irradiated chaff for saccharification was studied with the bench scale test plant. Chaff was pulverized by an impact type pulverizer which could treat a large amount of cellulosic wastes in short time. The effect of pulverizing on irradiated chaff was investigated from the point of view of particle size and saccharification. From untreated chaff the low accessibility of enzyme reduces the yield of glucose. Pulverized chaff, however, gave high glucose yield resulting from the increase of the enzyme accessibility because of decrease of particle size. The fine powder of chaff rendered the possibility of the saccharification at the high slurry concentration. The radiation pretreatment with electron beam introduced the decrease of electric energy to obtain the fine powder with pulverizer. This pretreatment also increased the fine powder yield. After irradiation dose increased to more than 70 Mrad in the pretreatment, high glucose concentration was obtained only by coarse pulverizing. (author)

  11. Usage of Vegetal Wastes for Energy Production

    OpenAIRE

    I. I. Karpunin; V. V. Kuzmich; T. F. Balabanova

    2014-01-01

    An analysis on usage of vegetal wastes for energy production is presented in the paper.The paper reveals that logging debris and linen chaffs are considered as a prospective raw material for energy production in theRepublicofBelarus.

  12. Bursting Smoke as an Infrared Countermeasure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarjit Singh

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the experimental setup for the evaluation of bursting smoke for anti-infrared role using SR-5000 spectroradiometer and a source of IR radiation (8-13 micrometer using cadmium-mercury-telluride (CMI detector cooled by liquid nitrogen. The particle size and shape of the powders used in the bursting smokes were determined microscopically using Carl Zeiss Jena Neophot- 21. Highest attenuation of 97 -lOO percent was produced for about 12 s using a mixture of bronze flakes and chaff, and for about 8 s using a mixture of bronze copper lined flakes, bronze flakes and chaff.

  13. Data Mining Gets Traction in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2011-01-01

    The new and rapidly growing field of educational data mining is using the chaff from data collected through normal school activities to explore learning in more detail than ever, and researchers say the day when educators can make use of Amazon.com-like feedback on student learning behaviors may be closer than most people think. Educational data…

  14. Equine pre-caecal and total tract digestibility of individual carbohydrate fractions and their effect on caecal pH response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøkner, Christine; Austbø, Dag; Næsset, Jon Anders;

    2012-01-01

    with a sequence of 17 days adaptation to the ration followed by 8 sampling days. The feed rations consisted of only timothy hay (Group H), hay plus molassed sugar beet pulp combined with either whole oats (Group OB) or barley (Group BB) and hay plus loose chaff based concentrate (Group M). Four horses...

  15. 77 FR 77040 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... Laser Guided Bombs, 162 FMU-152 bomb fuzes, 150 BLU-111B/B 500-lb Conical Fin General Purpose Bombs... (AGTS-36), training munitions, flares, chaff, containers, impulse cartridges, weapon support ] equipment... December 2012. Policy Justification Oman--F-16 A/C Weapon Systems The Sultanate of Oman has requested...

  16. Do plant traits predict the competitive abilities of closely related species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Lauren M; Gibson, David J; Young, Bryan G

    2015-01-01

    Invasive species are a threat to every ecosystem. There is a strong incentive to predict which species will become invasive before they become too widespread and unmanageable. Different approaches have been advocated to assess invasive species potential. These include examining plant functional traits, quantifying competitive ability and phylogenetic comparison. In this study, we conducted experiments based on the above approaches in a multi-year, temporally replicated, set of experiments to compare these assessment methods to determine the invasive potential of Japanese chaff flower (Achyranthes japonica). We compared plant traits and competitive ability of Japanese chaff flower with two agricultural invasive species, Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) and tall waterhemp (Amaranthus tuberculatus), and one endangered plant species, bloodleaf (Iresine rhizomatosa), in the Amaranthaceae. Additionally, we assessed the invasive potential based on each of these approaches and determined the degree of agreement between them. A relatively conservative assessment integrating all three approaches would be that the competitive ability of closely related individuals with similar functional traits would share invasive potential. In a greenhouse experiment, each of the study species and soya beans were grown as monocultures and were evaluated to assess the drawdown of an aboveground (light) and a belowground (nitrogen) resource. In a field experiment, each study species was grown at varying densities per 15-cm-diameter pot with or without one or two soya bean plants, to simulate relative densities for soya beans grown in 38- and 76-cm-wide row spacing, respectively. In addition, Japanese chaff flower seedlings were planted either as un-manipulated seedlings or as a seedling cut back to the soil surface at the four-node stage (cut Japanese chaff flower) at which point seedlings have reached a perennial growth stage. The greenhouse experiment showed that each species drew down

  17. Quantitation of phosphorus excretion in sheep by compartmental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The control of phosphorus excretion in sheep has been examined by constructing a kinetic model that contains a mechanistic set of connections between blood and gastrointestinal tract. The model was developed using experimental data from chaff-fed sheep and gives an accurate description of the absorption and excretion of 32P phosphorus in feces and urine of the ruminating sheep. These results indicated the main control site for phosphorus excretion in the ruminating sheep was the gastrointestinal tract, whereas for the non-ruminating sheep fed the liquid diet, control was exerted by the kidney. A critical factor in the induction of adaptation of phosphorus reabsorption by the kidney was the reduction in salivation, and since this response occurred independently of marked changes in the delivery of phosphorus to the kidney, a humoral factor may be involved in this communication between salivary gland and kidney

  18. Production and oil-emulsion formulation of Cadophora malorum and Alternaria jacinthicola, two biocontrol agents against Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes)

    OpenAIRE

    Dagno, Karim; Lahlali, Rachid; Diourté, Mamourou; Jijakli, Haissam

    2011-01-01

    Cadophora malorum isolate Mln715 and Alternaria jacinthicola strain MUCL 53159 are under development as biocontrol agents against Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) in Mali. Production of spores of these agents on locally available substrates (Water Hyacinth, powdered paddy rice chaff, wheat semolina) was assessed with a view to mass production. The C. malorum isolate sporulated best on Water Hyacinth (4.08 × 107 spores ml-1), followed by wheat (1.06 ×107 spores ml-1), whereas A. jacint...

  19. Induced Mutations for Improving Production on Bread and Durum Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamo, Ilirjana; Ylli, Ariana; Dodbiba, Andon

    2007-04-01

    Wheat is a very important crop and has been bred for food and its improvement is continuous from cross-breeding. Radiation and chemically induced mutations have provided variability in selection for novel varieties. Four bread and one durum wheat cultivars were exposed to gamma rays, Cs 137 with doses 10, 15 and 20 krad (2000 seeds of each dose and cultivars). We have isolated mutant plants with height reduced and on cv Progress spike without chaff.

  20. Induced Mutations for Improving Production on Bread and Durum Wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheat is a very important crop and has been bred for food and its improvement is continuous from cross-breeding. Radiation and chemically induced mutations have provided variability in selection for novel varieties. Four bread and one durum wheat cultivars were exposed to gamma rays, Cs 137 with doses 10, 15 and 20 krad (2000 seeds of each dose and cultivars). We have isolated mutant plants with height reduced and on cv Progress spike without chaff

  1. Plasmodium chabaudi limits early Nippostrongylus brasiliensis-induced pulmonary immune activation and Th2 polarization in co-infected mice

    OpenAIRE

    Hoeve, Marieke A.; Mylonas, Katie J; Fairlie-Clarke, Karen J; Mahajan, Simmi M; Allen, Judith E.; Graham, Andrea L

    2009-01-01

    Larvae of several common species of parasitic nematodes obligately migrate through, and often damage, host lungs. The larvae induce strong pulmonary Type 2 immune responses, including T-helper (Th)2 cells as well as alternatively activated macrophages (AAMphi) and associated chitinase and Fizz/resistin family members (ChaFFs), which are thought to promote tissue repair processes. Given the prevalence of systemic or lung-resident Type 1-inducing pathogens in geographical areas in which nematod...

  2. Substrates and controlled-release fertilizations on the quality of eucalyptus cuttings

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson B. G. da Silva; Magali R. da Silva; Danilo Simões

    2014-01-01

    To produce cuttings with quality, the most appropriate nutritional management strategies should be sought to reduce wastage of fertilizer, while accounting for the characteristics of each substrate. This study evaluated the effect of substrates and doses of controlled-release fertilizer on the quality of Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden x Eucalyptus urophylla S. T. Blake cuttings. The substrates consisted of several mixtures: vermiculite+carbonized rice chaff+coconut fibre (1:1:1); vermiculi...

  3. Stop the botch. Quality in planning and installation; Schluss mit dem Pfusch. Qualitaet in Planung und Montage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullrich, Sven

    2013-10-01

    Almost half of the damage to solar power systems are the results of the installers fault. To separate the wheat from the chaff, the TUeV Rheinland and the Mannheimer Insurance launch an offensive. [German] Fast die Haelfte der Schaeden an Solarstromanlagen geht auf Fehler der Installateure zurueck. Um die Spreu vom Weizen zu trennen, starten der TUeV Rheinland und die Mannheimer Versicherungen eine Offensive.

  4. Material-mass Balance of Smallholder Oil Palm Processing in the Niger Delta, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Elijah I. Ohimain; Sylvester C. Izah; Francis A.U. Obieze

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluates the material-mass balance of smallholder oil palm processing in Niger Delta Nigeria. Ten smallholder oil palm processing mills were randomly sampled. Measuring scale was used to measure the weight of the Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB) and all the processing intermediates/products including Threshed Fresh Fruit (TFF), Palm Pressed Fibre (PPF), Palm Kernel Shell (PKS), Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB), Crude Palm Oil (CPO), chaff and nut. During the study period (13-22 April 2012), 8 of th...

  5. Risk perception and strategic decision making :general insights, a framework, and specific application to electricity generation using nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this report is to promote increased understanding of decision making processes and hopefully to enable improved decision making regarding high-consequence, highly sophisticated technological systems. This report brings together insights regarding risk perception and decision making across domains ranging from nuclear power technology safety, cognitive psychology, economics, science education, public policy, and neural science (to name a few). It forms them into a unique, coherent, concise framework, and list of strategies to aid in decision making. It is suggested that all decision makers, whether ordinary citizens, academics, or political leaders, ought to cultivate their abilities to separate the wheat from the chaff in these types of decision making instances. The wheat includes proper data sources and helpful human decision making heuristics; these should be sought. The chaff includes ''unhelpful biases'' that hinder proper interpretation of available data and lead people unwittingly toward inappropriate decision making ''strategies''; obviously, these should be avoided. It is further proposed that successfully accomplishing the wheat vs. chaff separation is very difficult, yet tenable. This report hopes to expose and facilitate navigation away from decision-making traps which often ensnare the unwary. Furthermore, it is emphasized that one's personal decision making biases can be examined, and tools can be provided allowing better means to generate, evaluate, and select among decision options. Many examples in this report are tailored to the energy domain (esp. nuclear power for electricity generation). The decision making framework and approach presented here are applicable to any high-consequence, highly sophisticated technological system

  6. Substrates and controlled-release fertilizations on the quality of eucalyptus cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richardson B. G. da Silva

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available To produce cuttings with quality, the most appropriate nutritional management strategies should be sought to reduce wastage of fertilizer, while accounting for the characteristics of each substrate. This study evaluated the effect of substrates and doses of controlled-release fertilizer on the quality of Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden x Eucalyptus urophylla S. T. Blake cuttings. The substrates consisted of several mixtures: vermiculite+carbonized rice chaff+coconut fibre (1:1:1; vermiculite+coconut fibre (1:1; and vermiculite+carbonized rice chaff (1:1. These mixtures were added to 2, 4, 6 and 8 kg of controlled-release fertilizer per cubic meter of substrate. The substrates that do not support root development and have lower water retention, independently of the dose of controlled-release fertilizer, reduce the quality of the root system. For substrates with proper values of water retention, such as vermiculite+coconut fibre (1:1 and vermiculite+carbonised rice chaff+coconut fibre (1:1:1, the utilization of dose 2 kg of controlled-release fertilizer to each cubic meter is enough to promote cuttings with greater quality of the root systems and proper heights and stem diameters.

  7. Study on the influence of acid rain on the intake of trace elements into rice plant from soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice plant samples were grown in 14 cultivative pots by irrigation using the six conditions of artificial acid rain waters (pH : 6.5, 6.0, 4.5, 3.5, 3.0 and 2.5) and tap water (pH : 7.5). The artificial acid rain waters were prepared by adding a mix solution of 1N H2SO4 and 1N HNO3 (1:1) to tap water. The rice grain yielded were separated into three parts, i.e., polished rice, bran and chaff, and they were reduced to powder one by one. Twenty six element contents in the three parts of grain (each 14 samples) were determined by a neutron activation analysis. It was clarified that the contents of Cr, Fe, Ni, Zn, Cu, Rb, Mo in the polished rice increased with decreasing of pH of the irrigation waters. The contents of Se and Br, on the contrary, decreased with decreasing of pH of the irrigation waters. Significant changes of the contents were not observed for the elements Na, Al, Cl, Sc, Mn, Co, V. The relationships between the trace element contents in the bran or chaff and pH of the irrigation waters were not so clear as the case of polished rice. The enrichment factor of trace elements to soils were calculated for the polished rice, bran and chaff. The high enrichments of Cl, Mo, Zn, Se, Cu and Ni were observed in the polished rice. The elements K, Rb, Mn, Mg and Cr were highly concentrated in the bran. (author)

  8. Risk perception & strategic decision making :general insights, a framework, and specific application to electricity generation using nuclear energy.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brewer, Jeffrey D.

    2005-11-01

    The objective of this report is to promote increased understanding of decision making processes and hopefully to enable improved decision making regarding high-consequence, highly sophisticated technological systems. This report brings together insights regarding risk perception and decision making across domains ranging from nuclear power technology safety, cognitive psychology, economics, science education, public policy, and neural science (to name a few). It forms them into a unique, coherent, concise framework, and list of strategies to aid in decision making. It is suggested that all decision makers, whether ordinary citizens, academics, or political leaders, ought to cultivate their abilities to separate the wheat from the chaff in these types of decision making instances. The wheat includes proper data sources and helpful human decision making heuristics; these should be sought. The chaff includes ''unhelpful biases'' that hinder proper interpretation of available data and lead people unwittingly toward inappropriate decision making ''strategies''; obviously, these should be avoided. It is further proposed that successfully accomplishing the wheat vs. chaff separation is very difficult, yet tenable. This report hopes to expose and facilitate navigation away from decision-making traps which often ensnare the unwary. Furthermore, it is emphasized that one's personal decision making biases can be examined, and tools can be provided allowing better means to generate, evaluate, and select among decision options. Many examples in this report are tailored to the energy domain (esp. nuclear power for electricity generation). The decision making framework and approach presented here are applicable to any high-consequence, highly sophisticated technological system.

  9. Harnessing the biosphere to mitigate global climate change and sea level rise

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Smetacek, V.

    to the responsible media and educated public to separate the wheat from the chaff and, in the interests of future generations of humans, as also the plants and animals with which we share the planet, to take the steps necessary to avert impending calamity... that can be lethal for humans and animals. Forecasting the effect of cleaning the notorious ‘Asian brown haze’ on local temperatures and ultimately on the global climate machinery in the coming decades is a challenge facing climate modellers...

  10. Genetic variation of space flight carried rice and mutant analysis by AFLP molecular marker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice seeds were carried by 'Shenzhou No.3' space shuttle, a mutant with golden chaff, stem and leaf was selected and named Golden 1 after the seeds returned to the earth. Except the golden color, other traits of Golden 1 are no obviously different with its original material H9808. Genetic analysis identified that color variation was control by a pair of recessive gene. The DNA fragments of the mutant were compared with its parent by AFLP molecular markers. Five specific bands were found through a serial selection. (authors)

  11. Novel Complex Conjugate-Phase Transform Technique for Cancelable and Irrevocable Biometric Template Generation for Fingerprints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Kanagalakshmi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a novel method for cancellable and irrevocable biometric template generation. The proposed method named as complex conjugate phase transform takes the main components like bit shifted-phase, twin complex conjugate transpose and chaff point generation along with it. The strength of the proposed method is tested in different aspects such as cancelability, irrevocability and security. The performance of the same is also calculated in terms of time and space complexity; ROC analysis is also carried out. The proposed method achieves higher matching scores; and the experimental results show that the proposed complex conjugate phase transform is better in all the aspects of performance.

  12. PEMBUATAN MMC BERBASIS TEKNOLOGI METALURGI SERBUK DENGAN BAHAN BAKU ALUMINIUM DARI LIMBAH KALENG MINUMAN DAN ADITIF ABU SEKAM PADI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Akrom

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Komposit matriks logam (aluminium yang berasal dari limbah kaleng minuman dengan penguat partikel silikon karbida danpenguat tambahan abu sekam padi telah berhasil difabrikasi dengan metode teknologi metalurgi serbuk. Tujuan dari penelitian iniadalah merekayasa material baru yang murah akan tetapi memiliki mutu dan daya saing yang sangat baik. Penelitian ini terdiri daribeberapa tahap yakni, pembuatan bahan baku, pencampuran, pencetakan sampel, sintering dan pengujian. Dari hasil pengujianfisik diperoleh bahwa komposit matrik logam dengan penambahan abu sekam padi memiliki kerapatan lebih rendah dibandingkandengan komposit Al/SiC tanpa sekam padi, sedangkan sifat kekerasan dan kekuatannya jauh lebih besar dibandingkan Al/SiCtanpa penambahan abu sekam padi. Dari analisis XRD ditemukan bahwa terjadi penyebaran unsur utama Al, Si, senyawa SiC,serta timbul senyawa stabil MgAl O , Al O yang bersifat konstruktif yang dapat memberikan sifat mekanis yang baik bagi komposit,dan senyawa destruktif Al C yang bersifat korosif. Analisis SEM menunjukkan ukuran butiran partikel yang cenderung lebar danmemanjang, ikatan antar partikel penyusun bahan yang terbentuk cukup baik, sehingga memberikan sifat mekanis bahan yangbaik.Tidak tampaknya pori-pori bahan menunjukkan pula bahwa ikatan partikel antar bahan cukup baik. Metal (aluminium matrix composite originated from beverage can waste with carbide silicon particle reinforcement and additionalreinforcement of paddy chaff ash has been fabricated successfully by employing powder metallurgy technology method. Thepurpose of the research is to create a cheap new material, qualified and having high competitive value. This research wasconducted through several stages, those were making raw material, mixing, sample moulding, sintering, and testing. The result ofphysical test shows that metal matrix composite added by paddy chaff ash has lower density, stronger and bigger power comparedto Al/SiC composite without

  13. Behavioural ecology cannot turn its back on Lévy walk research. Comment on "Liberating Lévy walk research from the shackles of optimal foraging" by A.M. Reynolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartumeus, Frederic

    2015-09-01

    Interdisciplinary research on Lévy walks at the intersection between physics and biology is here to stay, albeit the scope of its role and utility in different areas of biology, including animal foraging, are still to be defined. After a decade, the field is still sorting out relevant questions from misleading interpretations, separating the wheat from the chaff. This task should be easy but it is not. Some reasons are the interdisciplinarity of the subject (maths, physics, biology), which multiplies semantic problems and the questions of interest, and the tight combination of theory and data that is needed to advance in the field.

  14. Investigations into the toxicity of Echium plantagineum in sheep. 2. Pen feeding experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, J T; Dixon, R J

    1989-09-01

    In a pen feeding trial fresh Echium plantagineum was fed as the sole diet to crossbred sheep with or without a history of previous access to the plant. Control groups received a diet of lucerne chaff and oats. During the trial, sheep on the Echium diet lost weight and deaths occurred with histological evidence of excessive copper accumulation, usually accompanied by pyrrolizidine alkaloid damage, in the liver and biochemical evidence of liver toxicity. It is concluded that E. plantagineum alone is not a suitable fodder for sheep and can be toxic due to its pyrrolizidine alkaloid content and high copper to molybdenum ratio. PMID:2573334

  15. Mobile measurement facilities for the real-time interaction with the Radio Ecological Analysis Support System (RECASS NT) in anti terrorism actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presentation outlines a mobile radiological facility, designed for determining of the source term parameters and atmospheric transport and dispersion parameters in the near zone during an accident. Those parameters serve as input to the RECASS NT system for forecasting atmospheric dispersion of pollutants. Information is generated by means of field simulation of contaminant transport and dispersion through creating a cloud of super light tracers (chaff) at the simulated release height and tracking its transport and dispersion with the radar. Results of field experiments using the mobile radiological facility carried out in the vicinity of the Kola NPP and Kursk NPP are described

  16. The future seen from Erice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A few specialists have been finding time to think beyond the LEP electron- positron Collider now being built at CERN and the SSC Superconducting Super Collider proposed for the US to the physics needs and accelerator possibilities of the future. Despite the modest effort, a lot of progress has been made in sorting the wheat from the chaff amongst proposed accelerator schemes and in defining crucial features of future machines. Some of this thinking came together at a seminar on 'New Techniques for Future Accelerators' held in Erice, Sicily, from 12-17 May

  17. Effect of the Use of Pycnanthus angolensis and Different Supplements on Yields and on the Proximate Composition of Pleurotus sajor-caju

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soji Fakoya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken with the aim of determining the growth, yield, and proximate composition of Pleurotus sajor-caju cultivated on Pycnanthus angolensis sawdust supplemented with 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20% palm kernel cake (PKC, oil palm fibre (OPF, rice bran (RB, wheat chaff (WC, and corn cobs (CC. P. sajor-caju harvested produced maximum yield of 31.22 g on P. angolensis sawdust supplemented with 15% wheat chaff. The biological efficiency of substrates used ranged from 6.09% to 37.39%. Results also showed a maximum crude protein of 26.33% of P. sajor-caju cultivated on P. angolensis sawdust without any supplement and fat content ranging from 0.25% to 2.21%. Fibre content of harvested mushrooms ranged from 5.05% to 9.29%. The study revealed that supplementing P. angolensis sawdust significantly influenced the growth, yield, and proximate compositions of P. sajor-caju.

  18. Effect of Source-Sink Manipulation on Photosynthetic Characteristics of Flag Leaf and the Remobilization of Dry Mass and Nitrogen in Vegetative Organs of Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ying-hua; SUN Na-na; HONG Jia-pei; ZHANG Qi; WANG Chao; XUE Qing-wu; ZHOU Shun-li; HUANG Qin; WANG Zhi-min

    2014-01-01

    The photosynthetic characteristics of lfag leaf and the accumulation and remobilization of pre-anthesis dry mass (DM) and nitrogen (N) in vegetable organs in nine wheat cultivars under different source-sink manipulation treatments including defoliation (DF), spike shading (SS) and half spikelets removal (SR) were investigated. Results showed that the SS treatment increased the photosynthetic rate (Pn) of lfag leaf in source limited cultivar, but had no signiifcant effect on sink limited cultivar. The SR treatment decreased the Pn of lfag leaf. Grain DM accumulation was limited by source in some cultivars, in other cultivars, it was limited by sink. Grain N accumulation was mainly limited by source supply. The contribution of pre-anthesis dry mass to grain yield from high to low was stem, leaf and chaff, while the contribution of pre-anthesis N to grain N from high to low was leaf, stem and chaff. Cultivars S7221 and TA9818 can increase the contribution of remobilization of DM and N to grain at the maximum ratio under reducing source treatments, which may be the major reason for these cultivars having lower decrease in grain yield and N content under reducing source treatments.

  19. The influence of acid rain on the intake of trace elements into rice plant from soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice plant samples were grown in 14 cultivative pots by irrigation using the six conditions of artificial acid rain waters (pH: 6.5, 6.0, 4.5, 3.5, 3.0 and 2.5) and tap water (pH: 7.5). The rice grain yielded were separated into three parts, i.e., polished rice, bran and chaff, and they were reduced to powder one by one. Twenty six element contents in the three parts of grain (each 14 samples) were determined by a neutron activation analysis. The contents of Cr, Fe, Ni, Zn, Cu, Rb, Mo in the polished rice increased with decreasing of pH of the irrigation waters. The contents of Se and Br, on the contrary, decreased with decreasing of pH of the irrigation waters. Significant changes of the contents were not observed for the elements Na, Al, Cl, Sc, Mn, Co, V. The enrichment factor of trace elements to soils were calculated for the polished rice, bran and chaff. The high enrichments of Cl, Mo, Zn, Se, Cu and Ni were observed in the polished rice. The elements K, Rb, Mn, Mg and Cr were highly concentrated in the bran. (author)

  20. Material-mass Balance of Smallholder Oil Palm Processing in the Niger Delta, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elijah I. Ohimain

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the material-mass balance of smallholder oil palm processing in Niger Delta Nigeria. Ten smallholder oil palm processing mills were randomly sampled. Measuring scale was used to measure the weight of the Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB and all the processing intermediates/products including Threshed Fresh Fruit (TFF, Palm Pressed Fibre (PPF, Palm Kernel Shell (PKS, Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB, Crude Palm Oil (CPO, chaff and nut. During the study period (13-22 April 2012, 8 of the mills processed 90-400 bunches of Dura variety, while the remaining 2 mills processed 65-200 bunches of Tenera variety. During the batch processing of Dura variety, the proportion of the intermediate products computed in relation to the weight of the FFB (100% are as follows; TFF (66.0-75.0%, mesocarp (44.8-51.1%, nuts (19.0-27.5%, kernel (5.7-7.2%, water in mesocarp (9.0-12.1% and water in nut (2.4-3.4%, EFB (23.7-32.4%, chaff (0.8-2.4%, Palm Kernel Shell (PKS (10.0-18.8%, Palm Press Fibre (PPF (23.2-28.1% and Crude Palm Oil (CPO (9.4-12.8%. For the Tenera varieties, the compositions are as follows; TFF (70.9-72.9%, mesocarp (56.4-58.0%, nuts (14.5-14.9%, kernel (5.5-5.6%, water in mesocarp (10.1-10.4% and water in the nut (1.9-2.1%, EFB (25.7-28.2%, chaff (0.9-1.4%, PKS (6.8-7.5%, (19.1-20.3% and CPO (26.0-28.2%. This result shows that Tenera produces more oil and less wastes compared to the Dura variety. The solid wastes fractions are used as energy sources during the processing of oil palm and as filling materials for upgrading access roads to palm plantations. Except the huge volume of wastes (71.8-90.6% generated by smallholder oil palm processors is effectively utilized, the process will be unsustainable.

  1. Nutritional Components of Uvaria grandiflora Fruit and Breeding Methods%山椒子果实营养成分分析及其种子育苗试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀丽; 韩维栋; 陈杰; 莫定鸣

    2013-01-01

    分析山椒子果实营养成分,并将山椒子种子播种于6种基质[红土、椰糠、河沙、红土+椰糠(1∶1)、红土+河沙(1∶1)、河沙+椰糠(1∶1)]中进行育苗实验.结果表明:山椒子果实所含营养成分丰富,其中果肉和果皮总糖含量分别为14.30%和9.04%,粗纤维含量分别为2.92%和7.12%;检测到17种氨基酸,果肉和果皮中氨基酸总含量分别达1.05%和1.37%;山椒子的最佳育苗基质为红土+椰糠1∶1基质.山椒子是一种优质野生果树资源,具有重要的引种栽培和开发利用前景.%Analyses the nutritional components of the fruits of Uvaria grandiflora, and the seeds of the U. grandiflora were seeded in the 6 kinds of media (the latosol, coconut peat, river sand, red soil and coconut chaff 1 : 1 medium, red soil and river sand 1 : 1 medium, coconut chaff and river sand 1:1 medium) for sprouting seedlings. The results showed that the fruits of U. grandiflora have a complete nutritional components, the contents of total sugar in fruit flesh and fruit peel are respectively of 14.30% and 9.04%, the contents of crude fibre in fruit flesh and fruit peel are respectively of 2.92% and 7.12%; Detected 17 kinds of amino acid, the contents of total amino acid in fruit flesh and fruit peel are respectively of 1.05% and 1.37%; The best seedling-raising way was the red soil and coconut chaff 1 : 1 medium. By this token, the high-quality of wild fruit tree resources of U. grandiflora has an important introduction cultivation and a wide range of application and development prospects.

  2. Modification of tropospheric propagation conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeske, H.

    1990-10-01

    The propagation mechanisms of ultra-short radio waves and microwaves are governed by the composition of the troposphere and their space-time structure of the refractive index field. Useful effects are obtained by chaff clouds concerning communication channels, masking of targets or meteorological research. A wide field of posiibilities seems to be within the scope of weather modification experiments. But due to the huge variability of cloud and rain parameters only minor propagation changes are to be expected. A successful application of remotely determining atmospheric temperature profiles is the modulation of the atmospheric refractive index field by sound waves and tracking the acoustic wave fronts by a Doppler radar (Radio Acoustic Sounding System). Oil and alga slicks on water surfaces may change the reflection/scattering and emission properties for radar waves. They also suppress evaporation which may influence the development of tropical storms but just so evaporation duct propagation of microwaves.

  3. Traditional Underground Grain Storage in Clay Soils in Sudan Improved by Recent Innovations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalla, AT.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In the central clay plain of the Sudan, traditional subsistence farmers and small farmers that also produce for local markets want to keep the region near food self-sufficiency. They combine annual production of sorghum with underground pit storage of part of the harvest. With increasing climate variability this food security is coming more and more under pressure. Farmers recently experimented with pit innovations that would allow storage for more than one season. These innovations were quantified and further improvements were suggested. It was found that in the most abundantly occurring cracking clay soils, wide shallow pits, using thick chaff linings, with wider above ground soil caps, are most suitable for longer term storage.

  4. Enzymatic hydrolysis of multi-use forage energy crops, year 2 report: Studies on the improvement of reaction conditions, differences between forages. SRC technical report No. 141, and SRC publication No. C-711-6-B-83

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, L.J.; Coxworth, E.C.

    1983-12-31

    The main objective of the work described in this report is to optimize the conversion of forages and crop residues to simple sugars, and to determine the quantity of protein that can be readily recovered after enzymatic hydrolysis of those materials. The simple sugars would be used as substrates for fermentation to fuels and chemicals, and the protein is a potentially valuable byproduct for use as fertilizer or feed. The plant materials studied were kochia, Jerusalem artichoke, pea stem and chaff, oilseed radish, alfalfa, and slender wheat grass. The enzymes used in the hydrolysis were Onozuka R-10, Celluclast 200L Type N, and cellobiase 250L. Results reported include comparisons of enzymatic reactivity of the materials studied, the quantity of protein remaining after treatment, and the dry matter solubility of the materials achieved using the different enzymes.

  5. Consequences of heavy machining vis à vis the machine structure - typical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuch, M.

    2011-12-01

    StarragHeckert has built 5 axis machines since the middle of the 80s for heavy duty milling. The STC-Centres are predominantly utilised in the aerospace industry, especially for milling structural workpieces, casings or Impellers made out of titanium and steel. StarragHeckert has a history of building machines for high performance milling. The machining of these components includes high forces thus spreading the wheat from the chaff. Although FEM calculations and multi-body simulations are carried out in the early stages of development, this paper will illustrate how the real process stability with modal analysis and cutting trials is determined. The experiment observes chatter stability to identify if the machine devices are adequate for the application or if the design has to be improved. Machining parameters of industrial applications are demonstrating the process stability for five axis heavy duties milling of StarragHeckert machine.

  6. Consequences of heavy machining vis à vis the machine structure – typical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    StarragHeckert has built 5 axis machines since the middle of the 80s for heavy duty milling. The STC-Centres are predominantly utilised in the aerospace industry, especially for milling structural workpieces, casings or Impellers made out of titanium and steel. StarragHeckert has a history of building machines for high performance milling. The machining of these components includes high forces thus spreading the wheat from the chaff. Although FEM calculations and multi-body simulations are carried out in the early stages of development, this paper will illustrate how the real process stability with modal analysis and cutting trials is determined. The experiment observes chatter stability to identify if the machine devices are adequate for the application or if the design has to be improved. Machining parameters of industrial applications are demonstrating the process stability for five axis heavy duties milling of StarragHeckert machine.

  7. Characterization of residual biomass from the Arequipa region for the production of biofuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Laura Stronguiló Leturia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to select residual biomass from the Arequipa Region for the production of biofuels (biodiesel, bioethanol and biogas. In each case, the initial point is a matrix based on products with residual biomass available in the region, from the agricultural and livestock sectors, information that was obtained from the regional Management of Agriculture web site. Specific factors of the resudue that will be used as raw material for each biofuel production would be considered for the selection process. For the production of biodiesel it is necessary to start from the oil extracted from oilseeds. Regarding obtaining bioethanol, it requires that the residual biomass has high percent of cellulose. With regard to the generation of biogas, we will use animal droppings. Finally, the raw materials selected are: squash and avocado seeds for biodiesel, rice chaff and deseeded corncob for bioethanol and cow and sheep droppings for biogas

  8. PERKECAMBAHAN DAN PERTUMBUHAN SEMAI Artocarpus altissimus J.J. Smith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahromi Sahromi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to understand seed germination and seedling growth of Artocarpus altissimus. The experimental design used was completely randomized with 2 factors, i.e. seed storability and media factors for the response capacity of germination, media and NPK fertilizer factors for seedling growth response (height and number of leaves. The result showed that A. altissimus seeds had long enough storability/ potential age without a period of dormancy. Storability, media and interaction both showed very significant effect on the germination capacity with the highest mean value on the storability category of 3 and 1 month and media category of compost and sand. On variable of seedlings height, NPK fertilizer showed significant effect, media and interaction of media and NPK had very significant effect with the best factor category was a media category of TSKn (soil, chaff and manure.

  9. Dynamics of faunistic complexes of parasitic organisms in the Chernobyl' NPP zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of studies made in the Chernobyl' NPP 30-km zone, which deal with estimation of species composition and number of parasites, mammals, birds, their nest inhabitants and blood-suching insects, are discussed. It is shown that parasite species variaty is higher on the contaminated territory as compared with the control one. Number of arthropoda is greater, and those of helmines and winged blood-suching insects are smaller on the contaminated territories. The main carriers of parasites among birds are starlings, larks and tomtits in contaminated regions and those are chiff-chaff and finches in the control areas. The level of nest contaminations for rodents and birds correlates with environment contamination level

  10. Antimicrobial, Anthelmintic Activities and Characterisation of Functional Phenolic Acids of Achyranthes aspera Linn.: A Medicinal Plant Used for the Treatment of Wounds and Ringworm in East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndhlala, Ashwell R; Ghebrehiwot, Habteab M; Ncube, Bhekumthetho; Aremu, Adeyemi O; Gruz, Jiří; Šubrtová, Michaela; Doležal, Karel; du Plooy, Christian P; Abdelgadir, Hafiz A; Van Staden, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Achyranthes aspera Linn. (Amaranthaceae) commonly known as Prickly Chaff flower (English) is traditionally used for treating a number of ailments. Different parts of the plant are used in treating wounds and ringworm in East Africa and elsewhere for a number of ailments. In this study, leaf extracts of A. aspera collected from two different geographical locations (Ciaat, Eritrea and Ukulinga, South Africa) were evaluated for antibacterial, antifungal, anthelmintic activities and the plant characterized for functional phenolic acids as well as protein binding capacity. The pathogens used in the tests were, two Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae), two Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus), a filamentus yeast-like fungus (Candida albicans) and a free-living nematode (Caenorhabditis elegans). The water and acetone extracts of the samples collected from Ciaat exhibited good antibacterial, antifungal and anthelmintic activity (MIC plant samples collected at Ciaat expressed significant dominant potency compared to similar extracts from Ukulinga. PMID:26635604

  11. 不同基质配比对佛甲草生长的影响%Effects of Different Substrates Mixture Ratio on Growth of Sedum Lineare

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许诺; 张翼维; 陈善湘; 刘波

    2016-01-01

    Use the rice chaff ash, coarse wood sawdust, ifne sawdust as the main material, vermiculite, peat, coconut hask as auxiliary materials, are mixed according to a certain proportion, carry outSedum lineare planting experiment, take grass stem height, the quantity of the new-born tissue, the color, the degree of the coverage as indexes to observe the effect of different substrates on growth ofSedum lineare. The results show that the chaff ash is not suitable forSedum lineare planting as the main material; the ifne sawdust can improve the survival rate, suitable for planting in non-growing season; coarse sawdust can make new leaves grow more, suitable for planting in growing season, both have low fertilizer efifciency and need to add some high nutrient content as auxiliary materials such as peat.%以砻糠灰、细锯木屑、粗锯木屑为主要材料,蛭石、草炭、椰糠为辅助材料,按照一定比例混合,进行佛甲草种植试验,以草茎高度、新生组织数量、颜色、覆盖度为指标考察不同基质对佛甲草生长的影响。结果表明:砻糠灰不适合作为佛甲草种植的主要材料;而细锯木屑能够提高成活率,适合用于非生长季种植使用;粗锯木屑能使新叶生长更多,适合生长季使用,两者肥效供给能力较差,需要添加草炭一类养分含量高的辅助材料。

  12. Sustainability assessment of bioethanol and petroleum fuel production in Japan based on emergy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To promote the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, research and development of bioethanol technologies are encouraged in Japan and a plan to utilize untilled fields to develop rice for bioethanol production as a substitute for petroleum fuel is being devised. This study applies emergy methods to compare the sustainability of petroleum fuel production and two Japanese rice-to-ethanol production scenarios: (a) ethanol from rice grain, while straw and chaff are burned as energy and (b) ethanol from rice+straw+chaff. The major emergy indices, Emergy Yield Ratio (EYR), Environmental Loading Ratio (ELR), Emergy Investment Ratio (EIR), Emergy Sustainability Index (ESI), Environmental Impacts Ratio (EVR) and system transformity (Tr), are analyzed to assess the production processes. The results show that (1) petroleum fuel production presents higher ELR, EIR, EVR and lower EYR, ESI, Tr than rice-to-ethanol production, indicating rice-to-ethanol production makes sense for reduction of greenhouse gases (GHG); (2) scenario (a) performs similarly on major indicators (EYR, ESI, ELR, EIR and EVR) to scenario (b), yet the system efficiency indicator (Tr) of scenario (a, 7.572×105 semj/J) is much higher than (b, 4.573×105 semj/J), and therefore (b) is a better alternative for policy decisions; (3) both petroleum fuel production and rice-to-ethanol processes are mainly driven by purchased resources and are unsustainable and nonrenewable in the long run. - Highlights: ► We compare petrol fuel and rice-to-ethanol production using emergy indices. ► Rice-to-ethanol reduces green house gas emissions as a substitute for petrol fuel. ► Rice-to-ethanol production has better sustainability than that of petrol fuel. ► Neither petrol fuel nor biofuel production are sustainable in the long term. ► Bioethanol is not a renewable fuel.

  13. A influência da cobertura morta sobre características físicas e químicas de frutos da pinha (Annona squamosa L. The influence of mulching in relation to physical and chemical characteristics of the sugar apple (Annona squamosa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlson Gusmão da Silva

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available De forma geral a aplicação de resíduos vegetais ao solo tem efeitos benéficos sobre os nutrientes do solo, sob as suas condições físicas, sob a atividade biológica e sobre a performance das culturas. O objetivo principal deste trabalho foi avaliar, durante um ciclo produtivo, o efeito da cobertura de bagaço de cana, casca de café e palha de Buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris, L., quanto ao seu efeito sobre características físicas e químicas do fruto da pinheira (Annona squamosa L.. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, constando de cinco repetições, contendo duas plantas por parcela. Foram analisados: massa do fruto, massa da casca, massa das sementes e o número de sementes por fruto, o teor de sólidos solúveis e o pH da polpa. De modo geral, a presença da cobertura morta proporcionou incremento de massa aos frutos, o que promove aumento de receita, uma vez que, quanto maior for o fruto, melhor será seu preço. Não ocorreu aumento do pH da polpa, e o tratamento com casca de café proporcionou o maior teor de sólidos solúveis totais. Quanto às demais características, não foram encontradas diferenças.The application of vegetal wastes to soil have a beneficial effects on soil nutrient, physical conditions, biological activities and on the culture performance, the main objective of this study was to evaluate three kinds of vegetable byproducts: sugar cane bagasse, coffee chaff, and Buffel straw, regarding to the effect on the physical and chemical characteristics of custard apple (Annona squamosa L..The experimental design used completely randomid plots with five repplications, and two plants per plot. The total fruit mass, the peel mass, the seed mass per fruit were evaluated. The pulp level of soluble solids was measured, as well as its pH. The presence of this mulching provided an increase in the fruit mass, thereby, increasing the commercial profit, as larger the fruit is, the greater the value per weight

  14. Short-term effects of different organic amendments on soil chemical, biochemical and biological indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondelli, Donato; Aly, Adel; Yirga Dagnachew, Ababu; Piscitelli, Lea; Dumontet, Stefano; Miano, Teodoro

    2014-05-01

    The limited availability of animal manure and the high cost of good quality compost lead to difficult soil quality management under organic agriculture. Therefore, it is important to find out alternative organic soil amendments and more flexible strategies that are able to sustain crop productivity and maintain and enhance soil quality. A three years study was carried out in the experimental fields of the Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari located in Valenzano, Italy. The main objective of this research is to investigate the effects of different fertility management strategies on soil quality in order to estimate the role of innovative matrices for their use in organic farming. The experiment consists of seven treatments applied to a common crop rotation. The treatments include alternative organic amendments (1- olive mill wastewater OMW, 2- residues of mushroom cultivation MUS, 3- coffee chaff COF), common soil amendments (4- compost COM, 5- faba bean intercropping LEG, 6- cow manure - MAN) and as a reference treatment (7- mineral fertilizer COV). The soil quality was assessed before and after the application of the treatments, through biological (microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen, soil respiration and metabolic quotient), biochemical (soil enzymatic activities: β-glucosidase, alkaline phospatase, urease, fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolysis), and chemical (pH, soil organic carbon, soil organic matter, total nitrogen, available phosphorous, exchangeable potassium, dissolved organic carbon and total dissolved nitrogen) indicators. Based on the results obtained after the second year, all treatments were able to improve various soil chemical parameters as compared to mineral fertilizer. The incorporation of COF and OMW seemed to be more effective in improving soil total N and exchangeable K, while MAN significantly increased available P. All the amendments enhance dissolved organic C, soil respiration, microbial biomass and metabolic quotient as

  15. Thirty Years after the Editing of Medical Psychology Textbooks%医学心理学教材编写30年

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小龙

    2012-01-01

    Since 1979 when the Medical Psychology course was offered,a lot of textbooks on this subject have been published on different levels. The development process of medical psychology textbook was divided into three stages. By analyzing the feature and problems of mainstream textbooks on different period, commenting on representatively textbooks, summarizing the author's historical contributions,to separate the wheat from the chaff and guide teachers and students to choose proper textbook. The experience and lessons learned on the development process can benefit the writing of new textbook.%我国自1979年开设医学心理学课程以来;出版了大量不同层次的教材.将我国医学心理学教材发展分为3个阶段;分析各个时期主流教材特点、存在问题;点评代表性教材;总结作者历史贡献;期望去芜存菁;有利于教师与学生选择.总结该学科教材发展的经验和教训;希望有助于今后教材的编写.

  16. Synthesis of some calcium phosphate crystals using the useful biomass for immobilization of microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohiruimaki, T.

    2011-10-01

    Three sources of biomass generated by primary industry were used as the raw material for the synthesis of calcium phosphate crystals. Phosphoric acid was extracted from burned rice chaff using a 30% nitric acid solution, while scallop shells and gypsum of plasterboard were used as calcium sources. The calcium phosphate crystals were synthesized by a method involving homogeneous precipitation, and the relationship between the composition and shape of the crystals and the pH at the time of the precipitation was investigated. Monetite crystals in a petal form with a diameter ranging from 0.1 to 2 μm were precipitated at pH 2.0, while granular apatite crystals with a mean diameter of 1 μm were precipitated at pH 6.0. We also investigated the ability of the synthesized calcium phosphate crystals to immobilize lactic acid bacteria for practical use in industrial bioreactor. It was determined that monetite crystals with a diameter of 2 μm had the highest ability to fix lactic acid bacteria. The population of lactic acid bacteria was estimated to exceed 1,300 bacteria per crystal surface of 50 μm2 suggesting that these crystals may be of practical use in industrial fermenters.

  17. Synthesis of some calcium phosphate crystals using the useful biomass for immobilization of microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohiruimaki, T, E-mail: kohi@hi-tech.ac.jp [Department of Technology, Hachinohe Institute of Technology, 88-1 Myo-oobiraki, Hachinohe-shi 031-8501 (Japan)

    2011-10-29

    Three sources of biomass generated by primary industry were used as the raw material for the synthesis of calcium phosphate crystals. Phosphoric acid was extracted from burned rice chaff using a 30% nitric acid solution, while scallop shells and gypsum of plasterboard were used as calcium sources. The calcium phosphate crystals were synthesized by a method involving homogeneous precipitation, and the relationship between the composition and shape of the crystals and the pH at the time of the precipitation was investigated. Monetite crystals in a petal form with a diameter ranging from 0.1 to 2 {mu}m were precipitated at pH 2.0, while granular apatite crystals with a mean diameter of 1 {mu}m were precipitated at pH 6.0. We also investigated the ability of the synthesized calcium phosphate crystals to immobilize lactic acid bacteria for practical use in industrial bioreactor. It was determined that monetite crystals with a diameter of 2 {mu}m had the highest ability to fix lactic acid bacteria. The population of lactic acid bacteria was estimated to exceed 1,300 bacteria per crystal surface of 50 {mu}m{sup 2} suggesting that these crystals may be of practical use in industrial fermenters.

  18. Some effects of feeding Tribulus terrestris, Ipomoea lonchophylla and the seed of Abelmoschus ficulneus on fetal development and the outcome of pregnancy in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D; Bird, A; Flora, T; O'Sullivan, B

    1992-01-01

    Pregnant ewes and their fetuses were chronically catheterized using aseptic procedures under general anaesthesia, and the ewes were then fed either lucerne chaff alone, or lucerne mixed with dried plant material obtained from one of three forb species, Tribulus terrestris (caltrop), Abelmoschus ficulneus (native rosella) or Ipomoea lonchophylla (cowvine), from 103-112 days gestation until term. Ingestion of the forb material was not associated with changes in maternal blood gases, plasma glucose concentrations, or the length of gestation. However, ingestion of rosella seed was associated with a significantly greater fall of fetal arterial pO2 with advancing gestation, and ingestion of either rosella or cowvine was associated with significantly lower fetal mean arterial pressure at 127-131 days, compared with the Tribulus and lucerne groups. Also, the incidence of fetal breathing movements was significantly lower, and did not show a normal day-night variation, in each of the forb-fed groups compared with the lucerne-fed group. The results indicate that these forb plants may contain substances that affect the functional development of the fetal brain. Although ingestion of these plants did not appear to affect the outcome of pregnancy in this study, the possibility that these forbs have a greater impact in sheep populations with poor nutrition and in more extreme environmental conditions is discussed. PMID:1438942

  19. Gaseous emissions, growth performance and pork quality of pigs housed in deep-litter system compared to concrete-floor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chuanshe; Hu, Jinjie; Zhang, Bin; Tan, Zhiliang

    2015-04-01

    This study measured gaseous emissions, growth performance and pork quality in a deep-litter system and concrete-floor system. Three hundred and twenty weaned piglets with an average body weight (BW) of 6.0 ± 0.3 kg were assigned randomly into three treatments. Treatments 1 and 2 included four pens with 20 pigs for each pen respectively in the deep-litter system, and the ratio of sawdust to chaff was 5:5 and 3:7 for treatments 1 and 2 respectively, the probiotics inoculated into the fermentation bedding for both treatments were composed of Saccharomycetes, Bacillus subtilis and Actinomycetes; treatment 3 was the conventional concrete-floor system including eight pens with 20 pigs for each pen. The concentration of NH3 and CO2 in the deep-litter system was significantly (P concrete-floor system. The ratio of feed to gain for pigs raised in the deep-litter system was significantly (P concrete-floor system. The carcass weight and length, color score and rate of cooking meat for pork from the deep-litter system were significantly (P concrete-floor system. Results indicate that pigs raised in the deep-litter system had some animal welfare improvements and an odor nuisance reduction; in the meantime, pork quality also improved from the deep-litter system compared to the pigs housed in the concrete-floor system. PMID:25491590

  20. Sailing the Information Ocean with Awareness of Currents: Discovery and Application of Source Dependence

    CERN Document Server

    Berti-Equille, Laure; Xin,; Dong,; Marian, Amelie; Srivastava, Divesh

    2009-01-01

    The Web has enabled the availability of a huge amount of useful information, but has also eased the ability to spread false information and rumors across multiple sources, making it hard to distinguish between what is true and what is not. Recent examples include the premature Steve Jobs obituary, the second bankruptcy of United airlines, the creation of Black Holes by the operation of the Large Hadron Collider, etc. Since it is important to permit the expression of dissenting and conflicting opinions, it would be a fallacy to try to ensure that the Web provides only consistent information. However, to help in separating the wheat from the chaff, it is essential to be able to determine dependence between sources. Given the huge number of data sources and the vast volume of conflicting data available on the Web, doing so in a scalable manner is extremely challenging and has not been addressed by existing work yet. In this paper, we present a set of research problems and propose some preliminary solutions on th...

  1. Results of development and field tests of a radar-tracer system providing meteorological support to modeling hazardous technological releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Radar support to systems of automated radiation monitoring requires dealing with determination of geometric characteristics of air release of radionuclides. For doing this, an air release can be labeled by chaff propagating in the air similarly to particles of radioactive substance. Then, a chaff suspension can be treated as a spatially distributed radar target and thus be detected by a radar. For a number of years the Science and Production Association 'Typhoon' of Roshydromet, Obninsk has been developing a radar tracer system (RTS) for meteorological support of modeling hazardous technological releases. In September -December 2002 experiments were conducted to test the RTS in field. This presentation contains preliminary results of testing this system. A total of 9 experiments pursuing different goals were carried out. Of them 6 experiments were conducted approximately 6 km south-west of Obninsk in the vicinity of the village of Potresovo. The first three experiments were aimed at working out interaction between the MR and LDU and assessing the chaff cloud observation distance. In doing this, radar information was not transmitted from the MR to the CCS. In the last three experiments radar information was transmitted to the CCS by cell communication lines using telephones Siemens S35 with in-built modems. The CCS was deployed in building 4/25 of SPA 'Typhoon'. All information received in the CCS was put an a map. Three experiments were conducted in the area of the Kursk NPP as part of preparations for training exercises near the village of Makarovka about 7 km north-west of the city of Kurchatov. In the first two experiments radar information from the MR was passed by cell communication channels to the CCS deployed in the laboratory of external radiation monitoring of the Kursk nuclear power plant. Experiment 3 was a demonstration and arranged during the emergency response exercises at the Kursk NPP. The MR was based on the site of the external

  2. Aspects of protein nutrition and metabolism in ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microbial fermentation in the rumen, ruminal ammonia kinetics and urea synthesis and recycling to the rumen of sheep and cattle consuming fibrous diets have been studied in three experiments using isotopic tracers. A technique based on 35S-labelling of microorganisms has been developed and used for estimating the pool size and turnover rate of 'fluid phase' and 'particle associated' bacteria in ruminants fitted with simple rumen cannulas. When used in sheep given a diet of oaten chaff, this technique gave estimates of microbial synthesis that were consistent with other estimates based on marker corrected digesta flows through the abomasum in similar sheep with single abomasal cannulas. Aspects of ammonia kinetics in the rumen (conversion of dietary nitrogen to ammonia, assimilation of ammonia by ruminal microflora, ammonia absorption, ammonia passage in digesta and endogenous urea transfer to the rumen) have been estimated by means of 15N-ammonia, and 14C- and 15N-urea in cattle and sheep given fibrous diets with and without supplements. The results indicate that the net gain of ammonia-N in the rumen from recycled urea can augment the supply of N for ruminal microflora, but the net gain is reduced by the concomitant losses of ammonia by absorption and passage out of the rumen in digesta. (author)

  3. Validity of chalk and bentonite application in soil and water on reducing the absorption of ratio-strontium and radio-cerium by crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of the chalk and bentonite application in soil and surface water respectively on reducing the absorption of 89Sr and 141Ce by crop (especially in the edible part of crop) were studied by using isotope tracer techniques. The results showed that the specific activity of 89Sr in the ryegrass and Chinese cabbage could be decreased significantly by chalk application in the soil. The reduced ratio of 89Sr absorption of Chinese cabbage and ryegrass reached 77.7% and 35.2% respectively with the chalk application of 20 g/kg soil. The specific activity of 89Sr in ryegrass and Chinese cabbage followed obvious negative linear correlation with the quantity of application chalk in the soil. The specific activity of 141Ce in surface water, chaff and brown rice decreased by application bentonite in the surface water, which led to the lower accumulation of 141Ce in paddy. However, the absorption and accumulation of 141Ce in root and straw could not be changed. The specific activity of 141Ce in soil followed a negative exponential relation with depth of soil profile

  4. Supply of Paludi biomass for energetic utilization; Bereitstellung von Paludibiomasse zur energetischen Verwertung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dettmann, Sebastian; Kanswohl, Norbert [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Professur fuer Tierhaltung

    2013-10-01

    The increased use of biomass for energy purposes, leads to an increasing demand. Additionally there is a competition for land between food, feed and energy production. This does not apply to Paludicultures (biomass of fens and wet areas). These regions could be used for agricultural management. For an economical management of Paludibiomasses powerful harvest chains must be established. The establishment of an effective harvest chain of Paludicultures faces a minimization of the ground pressure and a reduction in the number of crossings by the harvesters. The reduction of the weight of the harvesters and the enlargement of the contact surface (use of special chassis: caterpillar based or balloon tire based technology) are methods to adapt the technology to the area. The aim of this study is to show the development of harvest chains for Paludibiomasses using special technology. The harvest methods can be divided into bales-, chaff- and bundle lines. The focus of the analysis is the harvesting of biomass using special technology and making it available in chopped form. (orig.)

  5. Rocket measurements of positive ions during polar mesosphere winter echo conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Brattli

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available On 18 January 2005, two small, instrumented rockets were launched from Andøya Rocket Range (69.3° N, 16° E during conditions with Polar Mesosphere Winter Echoes (PMWE. Each of the rockets was equipped with a Positive Ion Probe (PIP and a Faraday rotation/differential absorption experiment, and was launched as part of a salvo of meteorological rockets measuring temperature and wind using falling spheres and chaff. Layers of PMWE were detected between 55 and 77 km by the 53.5 MHz ALWIN radar. The rockets were launched during a solar proton event, and measured extremely high ion densities, of order 1010 m−3, in the region where PMWE were observed. The density measurements were analyzed with the wavelet transform technique. At large length scales, ~103 m, the power spectral density can be fitted with a k−3 wave number dependence, consistent with saturated gravity waves. Outside the PMWE layers the k−3 spectrum extends down to approximately 102 m where the fluctuations are quickly damped and disappear into the instrumental noise. Inside the PMWE layers the spectrum at smaller length scales is well fitted with a k−5/3 dependence over two decades of scales. The PMWE are therefore clearly indicative of turbulence, and the data are consistent with the turbulent dissipation of breaking gravity waves. We estimate a lower limit for the turbulent energy dissipation rate of about 10−2 W/kg in the upper (72 km layer.

  6. Identification and removal of non-meteorological echoes in dual-polarization radar data based on a fuzzy logic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Bo-Young; Lee, GyuWon; Park, Hong-Mok

    2015-09-01

    A major issue in radar quantitative precipitation estimation is the contamination of radar echoes by non-meteorological targets such as ground clutter, chaff, clear air echoes etc. In this study, a fuzzy logic algorithm for the identification of non-meteorological echoes is developed using optimized membership functions and weights for the dual-polarization radar located at Mount Sobaek. For selected precipitation and non-meteorological events, the characteristics of the precipitation and non-meteorological echo are derived by the probability density functions of five fuzzy parameters as functions of reflectivity values. The membership functions and weights are then determined by these density functions. Finally, the nonmeteorological echoes are identified by combining the membership functions and weights. The performance is qualitatively evaluated by long-term rain accumulation. The detection accuracy of the fuzzy logic algorithm is calculated using the probability of detection (POD), false alarm rate (FAR), and clutter-signal ratio (CSR). In addition, the issues in using filtered dual-polarization data are alleviated.

  7. Wind structure and variability in the middle atmosphere during the November 1980 energy budget campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidlin, F. J.; Carlson, M.; Rees, D.; Offermann, D.; Philbrick, C. R.; Widdel, H. U.

    1985-01-01

    Between November 6 and December 1, 1980 series of rocket observations were obtained from two sites in northern Scandinavia (68 deg N) as part of the Energy Budget Campaign, revealing the presence of significant vertical and temporal changes in the wind structure. These changes coincided with different geomagnetic conditions, i.e. quiet and enhanced. Large amounts of rocket data were gathered from high latitudes over such a short interval of time. Prior to November 16 the meridional wind component above 60 km was found to be positive (southerly), while the magnitude of the zonal wind component incresed with altitude. After November 16 the meridional component became negative (northerly) and the magnitude of the zonal wind component was noted to decrease with altitude. Time-sections of the perturbations of the zonal wind show the presence of vertically propagating waves, which suggest gravity wave activity. These waves increase in length from 1 km near 30 km to over 12 km near 80 km. The observational techniques employed Andoya (69 deg N), Norway, and Esrange (67.9 deg N), Sweden, consisted of chaff foil, instrumented rigid spheres, chemical trails, inflatable spheres and parachutes.

  8. Optimalisasi Of Efficiency Terms And Test The Value Kalor Of Perfomansi Boiler Use The Energi Biomassa Upon Which Burn Alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Kholiq

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTION Especial Fuel used by Boiler PG MODJO PANGGUNG TULUNGAGUNG PTPN X is bagasse and oil burn the residu MFO. A lot of PG in Indonesia which exactly use the very costly fossil fuel so that generate the inefisiensi. Research by enhancing fiber cangkang fiber chaff to efficiency termis perfomansi and performance of boiler PG MODJO PODIUM. Assess the kalor of every-every fuel calculated given the composition of every fuel by using existing equation from literature calculation consume the fuel space volume burn the efficiency from every fuel to boiler and expense efficiency from every fuel used. From calculation of every fuel is hence got by result that Fuel efficiency use the smaller dregs fuel compared to from fuel of fiber and oil burn the residu MFO. LaterThen from facetof material cost burn the bagasse more efficient from at fuel of fiber and oil burn the residu MFO. To reply the the problem hence researcher use the indirect method. This method own the advantage that is can know the balance of complete and energi substance to eachevery stream which can facilitate in identifying opdon to increase is optimal of efficiency of termis boiler.

  9. Utilization of radiation technique on the saccharification and fermentation of biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaetsu, I.; Kumakura, M.; Fujimura, T.; Yoshii, F.; Kojima, T.; Tamada, M.

    The application of irradiation technique to the process of saccharification and subsequent fermentation of cellulosic wastes such as chaff and rice straw to obtain ethanol, was investigated. It was found that when waste raw materials were irradiated by ?-ray or electron beam, they became accessible to the subsequent enzymatic saccharification reaction. Irradiation of 10 7-10 8 Rad was enough for this effect. Some kind of additives reduced necessary dosage for this pretreatment. Cellulase, Trichoderma reesei which produce cellulase, and yeast were immobilized as biocatalysts for biomass conversion by radiation-induced polymerization of glass-forming monomer at low temperature. The immobilized cellulase showed almost same activity of glucose production as the native cellulase. Continuous saccharification reaction was carried out by using the immobilized cellulase. The immobilized Trichoderma reesei and the immobilized yeast showed almost same activity as the intact biocatalysts. It was concluded that the continuous saccharification and subsequent fermentation could be carried out effectively by using the immobilized biocatalysts. Spinach chloroplasts were immobilized by the same method as the first step for the conversion of water into hydrogen gas using solar energy. The immobilized chloroplasts kept the O 2 evolution activity in storage more than 30 days at 4°C. Thermostatility of chloroplasts was also improved greatly by the immobilization.

  10. Immobilization of microbial cell and yeast cell and its application to biomass conversion using radiation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent results of immobilization of cellulase-producing cells and ethanol-fermentation yeast by radiation were reported. The enzyme of cellulase produced by immobilized cells was used for saccharification of lignocellulosic wastes and immobilized yeast cells were used for fermentation reaction from glucose to ethanol. The wastes such as chaff and bagasse were treated by γ-ray or electron-beam irradiation in the presence of alkali and subsequent mechanical crushing, to form a fine powder less than 50 μm in diameter. On the other hand, Trichoderma reesei as a cellulase-producing microbial cell was immobilized on a fibrous carrier having a specific porous structure and cultured to produce cellulase. The enzymatic saccharification of the pretreated waste was carried out using the produced cellulase. The enhanced fermentation process to produce ethanol from glucose with the immobilized yeast by radiation was also studied. The ethanol productivity of immobilized growing yeast cells thus obtained was thirteen times that of free yeast cells in a 1:1 volume of liquid medium to immobilized yeast cells. (author)

  11. Immobilization of microbial cell and yeast cell and its application to biomass conversion using radiation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaetsu, Isao; Kumakura, Minoru; Fujimura, Takashi; Kasai, Noboru; Tamada, Masao

    The recent results of immobilization of cellulase-producing cells and ethanol-fermentation yeast by radiation were reported. The enzyme of cellulase produced by immobilized cells was used for saccharification of lignocellulosic wastes and immobilized yeast cells were used for fermentation reaction from glucose to ethanol. The wastes such as chaff and bagasse were treated by γ-ray or electron-beam irradiation in the presence of alkali and subsequent mechanical crushing, to form a fine powder less than 50 μm in diameter. On the other hand, Trichoderma reesei as a cellulase-producing microbial cell was immobilized on a fibrous carrier having a specific porous structure and cultured to produce cellulase. The enzymatic saccharification of the pretreated waste was carried out using the produced cellulase. The enhanced fermentation process to produce ethanol from glucose with the immobilized yeast by radiation was also studied. The ethanol productivity of immobilized growing yeast cells thus obtained was thirteen times that of free yeast cells in a 1:1 volume of liquid medium to immobilized yeast cells.

  12. ANTARES: Hunting the "rarest of the rare" in the time-domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Gautham; Snodgrass, Richard; Keceioglu, John; Saha, Abhijit; Matheson, Thomas; Seaman, Rob; Jenness, Tim; Day Toeniskotter, Jackson; Yang, Shuo; Wang, Zhe; Dempsey, Jen

    2015-08-01

    Current and future wide-field surveys provide us with petabytes of images, and an unparalleled window into the time-domain. Identifying, filtering, characterizing, and following up even known classes of variable and transient sources in this data stream pose an unprecedented challenge. However, the most interesting objects are those that we have never seen before. I’ll discuss our work on the Arizona-NOAO Temporal Analysis and Response to Events System. ANTARES is a joint project of the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory, and the Department of Computer Science at the University of Arizona, and we are using our experience with synoptic surveys and big data to tackle the general problem of characterizing the entire transient and variable sky. Our prototype is focused on identifying the “rarest of the the rare” events in real-time, from "multi-messenger" data streams. In order to coordinate detailed follow-up studies with facilities spanning the entire electromagnetic spectrum, we must accurately characterize known objects with sparse data to separate the wheat from the chaff. I’ll detail some of the new algorithms being developed for the project, the more complex architecture we need to accomplish this more ambitious goal, and present some of our preliminary results using existing data sets.

  13. Evaluation of two composts for the improvement of crop yield using tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum as test crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawole Oluyemisi B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In search of a more environmentally friendly alternative to the use of chemical fertilizers, a study was conducted to evaluate the use of compost for improved crop productivity. We compared the succession of microorganisms in the compost heaps using hot bed method of composting. They contained grass clippings, sawdust, NPK fertilizer, ashes, corn cobs, bean chaff, vegetable stalks, newspaper shreds and soil arranged in layers in a round structure. Poultry dropping was the organic nitrogen source of one heap while pig waste was used for the other heap. Samples were taken weekly and analyzed using soil dilution method for isolation of moulds on potato dextrose agar medium. The qualities of composts after eight weeks were evaluated by performance and yield of tomato crops. Eleven fungal isolates were obtained in compost containing poultry dropping and nine fungal isolates were obtained from compost containing pig manure. The predominant mycoflora of poultry dropping compost at 3 weeks of composting was Fusarium pallidoroseum (23.08% while Aspergillus fumigatus (38.96% dominated compost containing pig waste. Fungi isolated from the composts included cellulolytic fungi like Chaetomium sp. and Phoma sp. Soil amended with both composts improved the growth and yield of tomato crop significantly. It was concluded that compost containing poultry droppings was richer and therefore encouraged higher microbial activity than compost containing pig waste. Knowledge of the microbial succession during composting and conditions required could further be employed to enhance composting.

  14. Pelletizing of rice straws: A potential solid fuel from agricultural residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Rice straw is the dry stalks of rice plants, after the grain and chaff have been removed. More than 1 million tonnes of rice straw are produced in MADA in the northern region of Peninsular Malaysia annually. Burning in the open air is the common technique of disposal that contribute to air pollution. In this paper, a technique to convert these residues into solid fuel through pelletizing is presented. The pellets are manufactured from rice straw and sawdust in a disc pelletizer. The pellet properties are quite good with good resistance to mechanical disintegration. The pellets have densities between 1000 and 1200 kg/ m3. Overall, converting rice straw into pellets has increased its energy and reduced moisture content to a minimum of 8 % and 30 % respectively. The gross calorific value is about 15.6 MJ/ kg which is lower to sawdust pellet. The garnering of knowledge in the pelletization process provides a path to increase the use of this resource. Rice straw pellets can become an important renewable energy source in the future. (author)

  15. Structure Design of Large-scale Fattening Pig House with Fermentation Bed%微生物发酵床菜猪大栏养殖猪舍结构设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘波; 蓝江林; 唐建阳; 史怀

    2014-01-01

    微生物发酵床菜猪大栏养殖猪舍占地面积2100 m2,养猪发酵床面积1900 m2,利用率91.4%,比传统猪舍包括隔离带的建设占地面积利用率46%提高45个百分点。猪舍四周设有喂食槽,饮水槽设置在发酵床的中央分割线上和短边喂食槽的中部,实现料水的干湿分离。猪舍长边的两侧设置有电动铝合金卷帘,用于控制通气、降温和保温。短边的两侧分别设置有风机和湿帘,屋顶外安装有喷雾降温装置,用于猪舍内的降温。猪舍的环境控制,包括光、温、水、湿、二氧化碳、氨气实现自动化。利用椰糠和谷壳配置的发酵床垫料养猪,实现无臭味、零排放、肉质优、省人工、控猪病、无药残、产肥料、智能化、机械化。%The fattening pig house with fermentation bed had an area of 2 100 m2, and the area of fermentation bed was 1 900 m2 with a utilization rate of 91.4%, which was 45% higher than that of conventional pig house with surrounding barrier. There was feeding trough around the house. The water troughs were set in the middle of the fermentation bed and of the feeding trough on the short sides of the house, separating feed and water. There were electric aluminum al oy shutters in both long sides of the house for ventilation, cooling and heat preservation. On both short sides, there were fans and wet curtains. The spray cooling devices were in-stal ed outside the roof for cooling. The environmental control in the piggery, includ-ing light, temperature, water, humidity, carbon dioxide and ammonia, was realized to run by computer automatical y. The coconut chaff and chaff configuration were used as mattress material, realizing the advantages of fermentation bed, such as no smel , zero emission, high-quality meat, saving labor, control ing disease, no drug residue, producing fertilizer, intel igent control, mechanized operation, etc.

  16. Identification and mapping in spring wheat of genetic factors controlling stem rust resistance and the study of their epistatic interactions across multiple environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A; Knox, R E; DePauw, R M; Singh, A K; Cuthbert, R D; Campbell, H L; Singh, D; Bhavani, S; Fetch, T; Clarke, F

    2013-08-01

    Stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici) is responsible for major production losses in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) around the world. The spread of stem rust race Ug99 and variants is a threat to worldwide wheat production and efforts are ongoing to identify and incorporate resistance. The objectives of this research were to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) and to study their epistatic interactions for stem rust resistance in a population derived from the Canadian wheat cultivars AC Cadillac and Carberry. A doubled haploid (DH) population was developed and genotyped with DArT(®) and SSR markers. The parents and DH lines were phenotyped for stem rust severity and infection response to Ug99 and variant races in 2009, 2010 and 2011 in field rust nurseries near Njoro, Kenya, and to North American races in 2011 and 2012 near Swift Current, SK, Canada. Seedling infection type to race TTKSK was assessed in a bio-containment facility in 2009 and 2012 near Morden, MB. Eight QTL for stem rust resistance and three QTL for pseudo-black chaff on nine wheat chromosomes were identified. The phenotypic variance (PV) explained by the stem rust resistance QTL ranged from 2.4 to 48.8 %. AC Cadillac contributed stem rust resistance QTL on chromosomes 2B, 3B, 5B, 6D, 7B and 7D. Carberry contributed resistance QTL on 4B and 5A. Epistatic interactions were observed between loci on 4B and 5B, 4B and 7B, 6D and 3B, 6D and 5B, and 6D and 7B. The stem rust resistance locus on 6D interacted synergistically with 5B to improve the disease resistance through both crossover and non-crossover interactions depending on the environment. Results from this study will assist in planning breeding for stem rust resistance by maximizing QTL main effects and epistatic interactions. PMID:23649649

  17. A data base of crop nutrient use, water use, and carbon dioxide exchange in a 2O square meter growth chamber: I. Wheat as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, R. M.; Berry, W. L.; Mackowiak, C.; Corey, K. A.; Sager, J. C.; Heeb, M. M.; Knott, W. M.

    1993-01-01

    A data set is given describing the daily nutrient uptake, gas exchange, environmental conditions, and carbon (C), and nutrient partitioning at harvest for the entire canopy and root system of a wheat crop (Triticum aestivum, cv. Yecora Rojo). The data were obtained from a 20 m2 stand of wheat plants grown from planting to maturity in a closed, controlled environment, and include daily nutrient uptake [macronutrients, nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and sulfur (S); and micronutrients, iron (Fe), boron (B), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and molybdenum (Mo)], canopy carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange rates, and transpiration. Environmental factors such as relative humidity, air temperature, nutrient solution temperature, pH and electrical conductivity, and photoperiod were controlled in the chamber to specific set points. A detailed description of biomass yield for each of the 64 plant growth trays comprising the 20 m2 of growth area is also provided, and includes dry weights of grain, straw, chaff, and roots, along with the concentration of nutrients in different plant tissues and the percent carbohydrate, fat, and protein. To our knowledge, this information represents one of the most extensive data sets available for a canopy of wheat grown from seed to maturity under controlled environmental and nutritional conditions, and thus may provide useful information for model development and validation. A methods section is included to qualify any assumptions that might be required for the use of the data in plant growth models, along with a daily event calendar indicating when adjustments in set points and occasional equipment or sensor failures occurred.

  18. The science, technology, and politics of ballistic missile defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coyle, Philip E. [Center for Arms Control and Non-Proliferation, Washington, DC (United States)

    2014-05-09

    America's missile defense systems are deployed at home and abroad. This includes the Groundbased Missile Defense (GMD) system in Alaska and California, the Phased Adaptive Approach in Europe (EPAA), and regional systems in the Middle East and Asia. Unfortunately these systems lack workable architectures, and many of the required elements either don't work or are missing. Major review and reconsideration is needed of all elements of these systems. GMD performance in tests has gotten worse with time, when it ought to be getting better. A lack of political support is not to blame as the DoD spends about $10 billion per year, and proposes to add about $5 billion over the next five years. Russia objects to the EPAA as a threat to its ICBM forces, and to the extensive deployment of U.S. military forces in countries such as Poland, the Czech Republic and Romania, once part of the Soviet Union. Going forward the U.S. should keep working with Russia whose cooperation will be key to diplomatic gains in the Middle East and elsewhere. Meanwhile, America's missile defenses face an enduring set of issues, especially target discrimination in the face of attacks designed to overwhelm the defenses, stage separation debris, chaff, decoys, and stealth. Dealing with target discrimination while also replacing, upgrading, or adding to the many elements of U.S. missiles defenses presents daunting budget priorities. A new look at the threat is warranted, and whether the U.S. needs to consider every nation that possesses even short-range missiles a threat to America. The proliferation of missiles of all sizes around the world is a growing problem, but expecting U.S. missile defenses to deal with all those missiles everywhere is unrealistic, and U.S. missile defenses, effective or not, are justifying more and more offensive missiles.

  19. The science, technology, and politics of ballistic missile defense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    America's missile defense systems are deployed at home and abroad. This includes the Groundbased Missile Defense (GMD) system in Alaska and California, the Phased Adaptive Approach in Europe (EPAA), and regional systems in the Middle East and Asia. Unfortunately these systems lack workable architectures, and many of the required elements either don't work or are missing. Major review and reconsideration is needed of all elements of these systems. GMD performance in tests has gotten worse with time, when it ought to be getting better. A lack of political support is not to blame as the DoD spends about $10 billion per year, and proposes to add about $5 billion over the next five years. Russia objects to the EPAA as a threat to its ICBM forces, and to the extensive deployment of U.S. military forces in countries such as Poland, the Czech Republic and Romania, once part of the Soviet Union. Going forward the U.S. should keep working with Russia whose cooperation will be key to diplomatic gains in the Middle East and elsewhere. Meanwhile, America's missile defenses face an enduring set of issues, especially target discrimination in the face of attacks designed to overwhelm the defenses, stage separation debris, chaff, decoys, and stealth. Dealing with target discrimination while also replacing, upgrading, or adding to the many elements of U.S. missiles defenses presents daunting budget priorities. A new look at the threat is warranted, and whether the U.S. needs to consider every nation that possesses even short-range missiles a threat to America. The proliferation of missiles of all sizes around the world is a growing problem, but expecting U.S. missile defenses to deal with all those missiles everywhere is unrealistic, and U.S. missile defenses, effective or not, are justifying more and more offensive missiles

  20. Metabolic response to dietary fibre composition in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brøkner, C; Austbø, D; Næsset, J A; Blache, D; Bach Knudsen, K E; Tauson, A H

    2016-07-01

    The hypothesis for this study was that a higher dietary proportion of soluble fibre would result in stable and constant plasma metabolite and regulatory hormone concentrations. The study was a 4×4 Latin Square design with a sequence of 17 days adaptation to the ration followed by 8 sampling days. The feed rations consisted of only timothy hay (H), hay plus molassed sugar beet pulp combined with either whole oats (OB) or barley (BB) and hay plus a loose chaff-based concentrate (M). Four horses were fitted with permanent caecal cannulas and liquid caecal content was withdrawn manually and blood was drawn from the jugular vein at 0, 3 and 9 h postprandial. The horses were exercised daily at medium level for about 1 h. Samples were analysed for short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and metabolic traits. Caecal SCFA and propionic acid concentrations increased with increased dietary starch and soluble fibre. The diet highest in soluble fibre (M) resulted in the highest plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in the morning, which then remained stable and constant throughout the day. A strong interaction (P<0.01) between time and diet was measured for plasma urea, glucose, insulin and leptin. The greatest variations in plasma glycaemic and insulinaemic responses were associated with the cereal grain diets (OB and BB). There were indications of a negative energy balance, which was reflected in a significantly higher plasma β-hydroxybutyrate concentration and a numerically higher non-esterified fatty acid concentration. In conclusion, this study found that inclusion of soluble fibre resulted in increased total caecal SCFA and propionic acid concentrations. This consequently resulted in stable and constant plasma glycaemic and insulinaemic responses. Diets with a high content of soluble fibre provided enough energy for horses at medium work level. PMID:26755337

  1. Distributed Physical and Molecular Separations for Selective Harvest of Higher Value Wheat Straw Components Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    2004-09-30

    Wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.) is an abundant source of plant fiber. It is regenerated, in large quantities, every year. At present, this potentially valuable resource is greatly under-exploited. Most of the excess straw biomass (i.e., tonnage above that required for agronomic cropping system sustainability) is managed through expensive chopping/tillage operations and/or burnt in the field following harvest, resulting in air pollution and associated health problems. Potential applications for wheat straw investigated within this project include energy and composites manufacture. Other methods of straw utilization that will potentially benefit from the findings of this research project include housing and building, pulp and paper, thermal insulation, fuels, and chemicals. This project focused on components of the feedstock assembly system for supplying a higher value small grains straw residue for (1) gasification/combustion and (2) straw-thermoplastic composites. This project was an integrated effort to solve the technological, infrastructural, and economic challenges associated with using straw residue for these bioenergy and bioproducts applications. The objective of the research is to contribute to the development of a low-capital distributed harvesting and engineered storage system for upgrading wheat straw to more desirable feedstocks for combustion and for straw-plastic composites. They investigated two processes for upgrading wheat straw to a more desirable feedstock: (1) an efficient combine-based threshing system for separating the intermodal stems from the leaves, sheaths, nodes, and chaff. (2) An inexpensive biological process using white-rot fungi to improve the composition of the mechanically processed straw stems.

  2. Distributed Physical and Molecular Separations for Selective Harvest of Higher Value Wheat Straw Components Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, J.R

    2005-01-31

    Wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.) is an abundant source of plant fiber. It is regenerated, in large quantities, every year. At present, this potentially valuable resource is greatly under-exploited. Most of the excess straw biomass (i.e., tonnage above that required for agronomic cropping system sustainability) is managed through expensive chopping/tillage operations and/or burnt in the field following harvest, resulting in air pollution and associated health problems. Potential applications for wheat straw investigated within this project include energy and composites manufacture. Other methods of straw utilization that will potentially benefit from the findings of this research project include housing and building, pulp and paper, thermal insulation, fuels, and chemicals. This project focused on components of the feedstock assembly system for supplying a higher value small grains straw residue for (1) gasification/combustion and (2) straw-thermoplastic composites. This project was an integrated effort to solve the technological, infrastructural, and economic challenges associated with using straw residue for these bioenergy and bioproducts applications. The objective of the research is to contribute to the development of a low-capital distributed harvesting and engineered storage system for upgrading wheat straw to more desirable feedstocks for combustion and for straw-plastic composites. We investigated two processes for upgrading wheat straw to a more desirable feedstock: (1) An efficient combine-based threshing system for separating the internodal stems from the leaves, sheaths, nodes, and chaff. (2) An inexpensive biological process using white-rot fungi to improve the composition of the mechanically processed straw stems.

  3. Effects of Mo, Zn, Sr and Ba loads on these elements' uptake and oil content and fatty acid composition of rapeseed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kastori Rudolf R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Studied in the present paper were the long-term effects of the application of high Mo, Zn, Sr and Ba rates (0, 90, 270, and 810 kg ha-1 on rapeseed oil content and oil fatty acid composition. The trace elements were applied in the spring of 1991, while the rapeseed was sown on a calcareous сhernozem soil in 2001. The trace elements differed significantly in their rates of accumulation in rapeseed plants. Relative to the control, the Mo content of the stem increased up to 1,000 times, that of the chaff over 100 times, and that of the seed around 60 times. The levels of the other trace elements increased considerably less relative to the control. The increases were typically twofold to threefold, depending on the plant part involved. The trace elements accumulated the most in the vegetative plant parts, except for Zn, a major quantity of which was found in the seed as well. The application of the high rates of Sr, Zn and, to an extent. Mo reduced the seed oil content of rapeseed. However, the differences were not statistically significant. The application of the trace elements had no significant effect on the fatty acid composition of the rapeseed oil, either. The increased levels of the trace elements found in the rapeseed plants indicate that 11 years after application significant amounts of the applied elements are still present in the soil in a form available to plants. However, the rates were not high enough to affect the synthesis of oil and its fatty acid composition.

  4. Evaluation of nitrogen sources in two barley varieties using the isotopic dilution method (15N)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two barley varieties (Leo and Granifen) were sown under field conditions in two different soils (Vilcun and Collipulli series) in the south of Chile, to evaluate each genotype behaviour after applying four nitrogenous fertilizers: Urea (U), Sodium Chilean Nitrate (SS), Ammonium Nitrate (AN), and Ammonium Sulfate (AS), at a rate of 70 kg N ha1 in the Vilcun serie and 90 kg N ha1 in the Collipulli serie. The 15N isotopic dilution method was used, labelling the soil with 20 kg N ha1 AS enriched with 10% at. exc. 15N as a standard fertilizer. The statistical design was that of completely randomized blocks with five treatments and four replicates. Plants were harvested when physiologically mature, dried, and ground into three fractions (leaves + stem, grains, and chaff) to measure the agronomic (dry matter yield and total N), and isotopic parameters (nitrogen derived from fertilizer, nitrogen derived from soil, fertilizer use efficiency, and A value). The grain Ndffu (kg ha1) was higher in Leo's variety than in Granifen, mainly using the SS fertilizer. The same behaviour showed the Fertilizer Use Efficiency (FUE, %) parameter. On the other hand, Granifen showed the greatest Nddfu (kg ha1) using SS in Collipulli's serie than in Vilcun. However, in Collipulli's serie, Granifen showed lowest percentage using AS as source. Regarding the nitrogen source equivalence, considering SS as a reference, it is observed that in Leo's variety it is possible to apply any fertilizer to reach the same result. For Granifen, serie Vilcun, with SS as a reference, it is necessary to have between 1,4 and 1,6 kg of the other sources in order to get the same result. For the same variety and the same fertilizer reference, in the serie Collipulli, 2,5 kg of AS are required to reach the same result

  5. Comparative Evaluation of Oxygen Isotope Composition and Carbon Isotope Discrimination in Selecting for Greater Agronomic Water Use Efficiency in Wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficacy of using oxygen isotope composition (δ18O) and carbon isotope discrimination (Δ13C, CID or Δ) in selecting for greater agronomic water-use efficiency in wheat was studied. The objective was to determine whether natural-abundance measurements of Δ13C or δ18O of crop dry matter can be used to separate differences in access to soil water during grain filling from differences in assimilate re-translocation to the grain. The study consisted of carefully-controlled irrigation and rainfall-exclusion, which established two treatments with different soil-water availability at depth when they entered the post-anthesis (p-A) phase. Values of Δ13C and δ18O were measured on green leaves, senesced leaves, stem, non-grain ear parts (chaff) and grain from samples taken several times p-A from a field trial grown in SE Australia in 2004. Soil water content was measured from sowing to maturity using a neutron moisture meter, while roots were extracted from soil cores. Leaf porosity was also measured p-A using a Thermoline viscous-flow porometer and the values were related to stomatal conductance; in addition, canopy temperature was measured using a hand-held Mikron M-120 infrared thermometer. Substantial variation was observed in Δ13C and δ18O among plant parts, with the grain having the smallest values of Δ13C and the largest values of δ18O. There were large changes in grain Δ13C and grain δ18O with time p-A. Grain-Δ13C was smallest and grain δ18O largest at 12 d p-A. At 27, 34 and 48 d p-A, the value of grain Δ13C had increased by up to 1.5 per mille and grain δ18O had decreased by up to 2 per mille. The magnitudes of these changes with time p-A were consistent with observed contributions to grain dry weight from re-translocation of stored assimilates. No treatment differences were observed for grain δ18O. Small treatment differences found for grain Δ13C late in grain filling may have been due to the small treatment difference in sub-soil water use

  6. Mutiscale Modeling of Segregation in Granular Flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin Sun

    2007-08-03

    Modeling and simulation of segregation phenomena in granular flows are investigated. Computational models at different scales ranging from particle level (microscale) to continuum level (macroscale) are employed in order to determine the important microscale physics relevant to macroscale modeling. The capability of a multi-fluid model to capture segregation caused by density difference is demonstrated by simulating grain-chaff biomass flows in a laboratory-scale air column and in a combine harvester. The multi-fluid model treats gas and solid phases as interpenetrating continua in an Eulerian frame. This model is further improved by incorporating particle rotation using kinetic theory for rapid granular flow of slightly frictional spheres. A simplified model is implemented without changing the current kinetic theory framework by introducing an effective coefficient of restitution to account for additional energy dissipation due to frictional collisions. The accuracy of predicting segregation rate in a gas-fluidized bed is improved by the implementation. This result indicates that particle rotation is important microscopic physics to be incorporated into the hydrodynamic model. Segregation of a large particle in a dense granular bed of small particles under vertical. vibration is studied using molecular dynamics simulations. Wall friction is identified as a necessary condition for the segregation. Large-scale force networks bearing larger-than-average forces are found with the presence of wall friction. The role of force networks in assisting rising of the large particle is analyzed. Single-point force distribution and two-point spatial force correlation are computed. The results show the heterogeneity of forces and a short-range correlation. The short correlation length implies that even dense granular flows may admit local constitutive relations. A modified minimum spanning tree (MST) algorithm is developed to asymptotically recover the force statistics in the

  7. Stealth export of hydrogen and methane from a low temperature serpentinization system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, B. I.; Lang, S. Q.; Lilley, M. D.; Olson, E. J.; Lupton, J. E.; Nakamura, K.; Buck, N. J.

    2015-11-01

    originating from the area dubbed Chaff Beach, in which somewhat more than 10% of the original H2 remains, indicating that this otherwise unremarkable plume, and others like it, may represent a significant source of H2 to the deep sea.

  8. The semi-hardwood tender branch cutting technique of Alnus trabeculosa Hand. -Mazz. in the growth period%江南桤木半木质化嫩枝扦插技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巫建新; 史云光; 郑凯; 李文骅; 张荣根; 黄源; 蒋鹏

    2011-01-01

    The experiment on the growth regulators, substrates and roughness of cuttings which affect the rooting of the semi - hardwood tender branch cutting of Alnus trabeculosa Hand. - Mazz. in the growth period showed that there were obvious difference of rooting rate and root growth with different IBA densities, types and proportions of substrates, and roughness of cuttings. The survival rate of 45 d could reach above 92. 3% , when the 0. 7 -0. 8 cm roughness cutting woods were treated by 800 mg/L IBA for one minute and then cut into the composite base material which was comprised of sand, rice chaff ash, pearlite at the ratio of 1: 1: 1 (V: V: V) from June to August.%对影响江南桤木半木质化嫩枝扦插生根效果的植物生长调节剂、扦插基质、插穗粗度等凶子进行了试验研究。结果表明,在全光照自动间歇喷雾条件下,江南桤木插条生根率及根系生长等指标因植物生长调节剂IBA的质量浓度、基质的种类及配比组合和插穗的粗度的不同有明显差异。在生长旺盛夏季的6月至8月,选择0.7~0.8em粗度插条,使用800mg/LIBA浸泡处理1min后,扦插于泥炭土:砻糠灰:珍珠岩体积比为1:1:1的混合基质中,45d成活率可达92.3%。

  9. Data Prospecting Framework - a new approach to explore "big data" in Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, R.; Rushing, J.; Lin, A.; Kuo, K.

    2012-12-01

    Due to advances in sensors, computation and storage, cost and effort required to produce large datasets have been significantly reduced. As a result, we are seeing a proliferation of large-scale data sets being assembled in almost every science field, especially in geosciences. Opportunities to exploit the "big data" are enormous as new hypotheses can be generated by combining and analyzing large amounts of data. However, such a data-driven approach to science discovery assumes that scientists can find and isolate relevant subsets from vast amounts of available data. Current Earth Science data systems only provide data discovery through simple metadata and keyword-based searches and are not designed to support data exploration capabilities based on the actual content. Consequently, scientists often find themselves downloading large volumes of data, struggling with large amounts of storage and learning new analysis technologies that will help them separate the wheat from the chaff. New mechanisms of data exploration are needed to help scientists discover the relevant subsets We present data prospecting, a new content-based data analysis paradigm to support data-intensive science. Data prospecting allows the researchers to explore big data in determining and isolating data subsets for further analysis. This is akin to geo-prospecting in which mineral sites of interest are determined over the landscape through screening methods. The resulting "data prospects" only provide an interaction with and feel for the data through first-look analytics; the researchers would still have to download the relevant datasets and analyze them deeply using their favorite analytical tools to determine if the datasets will yield new hypotheses. Data prospecting combines two traditional categories of data analysis, data exploration and data mining within the discovery step. Data exploration utilizes manual/interactive methods for data analysis such as standard statistical analysis and

  10. 中国部分地区粮食和蔬菜的碘含量及其环境健康意义%The Iodine Contents in Chinese Grains and Vegetables and Its Environmental and Healthy Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宇丽; 刘丽贞; 杜俊逸; 李萍; 吴代赦

    2011-01-01

    The iodine contents in grains and vegetables collected from some Chinese areas were determined by pyrohydrolysis-catalytic spectrophotometry method. The average iodine content in main grains ( rice, wheat, corn),soybean and chili was 0.012,0.012,0.011,0.023 and 0.035 μg/g,respectively. The geographic location has some influence on the iodine distribution in grains and vegetables. Iodine content in corn and chili from coastal areas were significantly higher than that from the inland areas. There was no significant difference in the iodine content between coastal and inland rice. However, the iodine content in soybean from coastal areas was lower than that from inland areas. The iodine content in Chinese grains and vegetables was lower than the previous reported values. The contribution of the iodine intake in plant foods for Chinese residents should be re-examined. The iodine content in chaff was higher than that in rice,which had steering effects for the iodine-rich feed processing.%采用高温热水解-砷铈催化分光光度法测定了我国部分地区粮食(大米、玉米及小麦)和蔬菜(辣椒及大豆)的含碘量.谷类主粮(大米、小麦、玉米)含碘均值为O.012,0.012,0.011μg/g,大豆和辣椒的含碘均值分别为0.023μg/g和0.035 μg/g.地理分布对粮食和蔬菜的碘含量有一定的影响,玉米和辣椒碘含量沿海地区显著高于内地,但大米碘含量在沿海和内地的差异并不显著,而内陆大豆的碘含量甚至高于沿海地区的.蔬菜和谷物的碘含量较此前的报道值更低,其对我国居民摄入碘的贡献有待重新审视.谷壳中的碘含量大于稻米中的碘含量,这对富碘饲料的加工有一定的指导作用.

  11. Methane emissions, feed intake, performance, digestibility, and rumen fermentation of finishing beef cattle offered whole-crop wheat silages differing in grain content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Geough, E J; O'Kiely, P; Hart, K J; Moloney, A P; Boland, T M; Kenny, D A

    2010-08-01

    This study aimed to quantify the methane emissions and feed intake, performance, carcass traits, digestibility, and rumen fermentation characteristics of finishing beef cattle offered diets based on whole-crop wheat (WCW) silages differing in grain content and to rank these relative to diets based on grass silage (GS) and ad libitum concentrates (ALC). In Exp. 1, a total of 90 continental crossbred steers [538 +/- 27.6 kg of BW (mean +/- SD)] were blocked by BW and assigned in a randomized complete block design to 1 of 6 treatments based on 4 WCW silages [grain-to-straw plus chaff ratios of 11:89 (WCW I), 21:79 (WCW II), 31:69 (WCW III), and 47:53 (WCW IV)], GS, and ALC. Increasing grain content in WCW silage resulted in a quadratic (P = 0.01) response in DMI, with a linear (P methane emissions than cattle in any other treatment when expressed relative to DMI. Cattle offered ALC exhibited greater (P methane emissions, irrespective of the unit of expression, compared with cattle in any of the silage-based treatments. In Exp. 2, rumen fermentation parameters were determined using 4 ruminally cannulated Rotbunde-Holstein steers (413 +/- 30.1 kg of BW) randomly allocated among WCW I, the average of WCW II and III (WCW II/III), WCW IV, and GS in a 4 x 4 Latin square design. Ruminal pH and total VFA concentration did not differ across dietary treatments. Molar proportion of acetic acid decreased (P = 0.01), with propionic acid tending to increase (P = 0.06) with increasing grain content. It was concluded that increasing the grain content of WCW silage reduced methane emissions relative to DMI and CG and improved animal performance. However, the relativity of GS to WCW in terms of methane emissions was dependent on the unit of expression used. Cattle offered ALC exhibited decreased methane emissions and greater performance than those offered any of the silage-based treatments. PMID:20382872

  12. The thermal and dynamical state of the atmosphere during polar mesosphere winter echoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.-J. Lübken

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In January 2005, a total of 18 rockets were launched from the Andøya Rocket Range in Northern Norway (69° N into strong VHF radar echoes called 'Polar Mesosphere Winter Echoes' (PMWE. The echoes were observed in the lower and middle mesosphere during large solar proton fluxes. In general, PMWE occur much more seldom compared to their summer counterparts PMSE (typical occurrence rates at 69° N are 1–3% vs. 80%, respectively. Our in-situ measurements by falling sphere, chaff, and instrumented payloads provide detailed information about the thermal and dynamical state of the atmosphere and therefore allow an unprecedented study of the background atmosphere during PMWE. There are a number of independent observations indicating that neutral air turbulence has caused PMWE. Ion density fluctuations show a turbulence spectrum within PMWE and no fluctuations outside. Temperature lapse rates close to the adiabatic gradient are observed in the vicinity of PMWE indicating persistent turbulent mixing. The spectral broadening of radar echoes is consistent with turbulent velocity fluctuations. Turbulence also explains the mean occurrence height of PMWE (~68–75 km: viscosity increases rapidly with altitude and destroys any small scale fluctuations in the upper mesosphere, whereas electron densities are usually too low in the lower mesosphere to cause significant backscatter. The seasonal variation of echoes in the lower mesosphere is in agreement with a turbulence climatology derived from earlier sounding rocket flights. We have performed model calculations to study the radar backscatter from plasma fluctuations caused by neutral air turbulence. We find that volume reflectivities observed during PMWE are in quantitative agreement with theory. Apart from turbulence the most crucial requirement for PMWE is a sufficiently large number of electrons, for example produced by solar proton events. We have studied the sensitivity of the radar echo strength on

  13. Final Report: DOE/ID/14215

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth Bryden; J. Richard Hess; Thomas Ulrich; Robert Zemetra

    2008-08-18

    The proposed straw separation system developed in the research project harvests the large internode sections of the straw which has the greater potential as a feedstock for lignocellulosic ethanol production while leaving the chaff and nodes in the field. This strategy ensures sustainable agriculture by preventing the depletion of soil minerals, and it restores organic matter to the soil in amounts and particle sizes that accommodate farmers’ needs to keep tillage and fertilizer costs low. A ton of these nutrient-rich plant tissues contains as much as $10.55 worth of fertilizer (economic and energy benefits), in terms of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and other nutrients provided to the soil when incorporated by tillage instead of being burned. Biomass conversion to fermentable sugars for the purpose of producing fuels, chemicals, and other industrial products is well understood. Most bioenergy strategies rely on low-cost fermentable sugars for sustainability and economic viability in the marketplace. Exploitation of the “whole crop”—specifically, wheat straw or other plant material currently regarded as residue or waste—is a practical approach for obtaining a reliable and low-cost source of sugars. However, industrial-scale production of sugars from wheat straw, while technically feasible, is plagued by obstacles related to capital costs, energy consumption, waste streams, production logistics, and the quality of the biomass feedstock. Currently available separation options with combine harvesters are not able to achieve sufficient separation of the straw/stover and chaff streams to realize the full potential of selective harvest. Since ethanol yield is a function of feedstock structural carbohydrate content, biomass anatomical fractions of higher product yield can have a significant beneficial impact on minimum ethanol selling price. To address this advanced biomass separation computation engineering models were developed to more effectively and

  14. Caracterización del maíz "Lluteño" (Zea mays L. tipo amylacea proveniente del norte de Chile, tolerante a NaCl y exceso de boro, como una alternativa para la producción de bioenergía Characterization of maíze "Lluteño" (Zea mays L. amylaceae type from northern Chile, tolerant to NaCl and excess of boron, as an alternativefor bio-energy production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Bastías

    2011-12-01

    producción de la biomasa. En cuanto a los niveles de etanol estimados después de cosecha se pueden considerar muy buenos destacando que la muestra analizada fue sólo a partir de biomasa seca y no se incluyó la mazorca, siendo una ventaja importante que no afecta el consumo humano de este maíz.The aim of this study was to examine the chemistry and biochemistry of plant tissues and evaluate the growth parameters of maíze variety Lluteño (Zea mays L. amylacea type, to consider the alternative production of bioethanol from biomass waste obtained from the chaff of corn after harvest, in the valley of Lluta (Arica-Chile. The entire production of corn is geared mainly for fresh consumption, the dry biomass or chaff currently has no productive use. This material is burned and rarely incorporated into the soil and few farmers use it as fodder, wasting large volumes of biomass in the valley. This study estimated the content of ethanol from biomass and characterized the behavior of plants under field conditions from May to October 2008. The parameters examined during the crop phenology were biomass, relative water content (RWC, chlorophyll content and total soluble sugars The results suggest that Lluteño corn has an exponential growth of biomass content and plant height, despite the high salinity and excess B in the soil and irrigation water; this increase in biomass was significant in the month of October, about 94%. The content of chlorophyll in the leaves was maintained, showing not be a limiting factor in the assimilation of CO2. Total soluble sugars, also increased up to 86%, suggesting that Lluteño corn would use the significant increase of the organic solute to increase indirectly the potential bioethanol content; this solute may also act as an osmoregulator and/or osmoprotectant to maintain the water status of plants, thereby enabling a high production of biomass. The estimated levels of ethanol after harvest may be considered very good, noting that the sample was

  15. How do you select the right security features for your company's products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, Gordon E.

    1998-04-01

    If your company manufacturers, supplies, or distributes products of almost any type, style, shape, or for any usage, they may become the objective of fraudulent activities from one or more sources. Therefore, someone at your company should be concerned about how these activities may affect the company's future. This paper/presentation will provide information about where these 'threats' may come from, what products have been compromised in the past, and what steps might be taken to deter these threats. During product security conferences, conversations, and other sources of information, you'll hear about many different types of security features that can be incorporated into monetary and identification documents, packaging, labeling, and other products/systems to help protect against counterfeiting, unauthorized tampering, or to identify 'genuine' products. Many of these features have been around for some time (which means that they may have lost at least some of their effectiveness) while others, or improved versions of some of the more mature features, have been or are being developed. This area is a 'moving target' and re-examination of the threats and counterthreats needs to be an ongoing activity. The 'value' and the capabilities of these features can sometimes be overstated, i.e. that a feature/system can solve all of the security-related problems that you may (or may not) have with your products. A couple of things to always keep in mind is that no feature(s) is universally effective and none of the features, or even combinations of features, is totally 'tamperproof' or counterfeitproof, irrespective of what may be said or claimed. So how do you go about determining if you have a product security problem and what, if any, security features might be used to reduce the threat(s) to your products? This paper will attempt to provide information to help you separate the 'wheat from the chaff' in these considerations. Specifically, information to be discussed in

  16. Imaginário coletivo de professores sobre o adolescente contemporâneo Imaginario colectivo de profesores sobre el adolescente contemporáneo Teacher’s collective imaginary on contemporary adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Vilarinho Montezi

    2011-06-01

    .Understanding that teachers may perform a very important role in the personnel maturing process of their students, we have established to investigate the teacher’s collective imaginary on contemporary adolescents as subject of research. We performed a group interview with six Secondary Education teachers, utilizing the Thematic Story-Drawing Procedure, which as conceived as a dialogical-mediator resource. After the interview, psychoanalytic narratives were written down by us, with the purpose to relate the clinical practice happenings. And those, along with the story-drawings, were psychoanalytically analyzed allowing the interpretative capturing of the following affective-emotional sense fields: “vegetative world”, “separating the chaff of the wheat” and “happy children, unfortunate adolescent”. We conclude that, in the group approached, the adolescent is conceived as passive, unfortunate and unable to make choices, demanding to be guided in his life.

  17. 阿魏酸酯酶酶化发酵饲料制备及其对肉鸡养分利用率的影响%Preparation of Ferulic Acid Esterase Enzymatic Fermented Feed and Its Effect on the Nutrient Utilization of Broilers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王林林; 陈云华; 陈培钦; 李夏兰

    2014-01-01

    为了降低饲料中抗营养因子,提高饲料转化率,研究阿魏酸酯酶酶化发酵饲料的制备及其对肉鸡养分利用率的影响.通过正交实验得到发酵饲料较优配方(质量分数):菌柄干物质为12%,玉米蛋白饲料为26%,棕榈仁粕为11%,谷壳粉为16%,瓜尔豆粕为5%,玉米粉为5%,糖蜜为0.3%,益生剂为0.1%,发酵饲料中粗蛋白为22.48%.相对于基础日粮,酶化发酵饲料对肉鸡的干物质、粗灰分、粗蛋白、中性洗涤纤维、酸性洗涤纤维及酸性洗涤木质素的利用率分别提高5.59%,38.31%,10.36%,16.52%,29.25%,18.99%,且肉鸡对酶化发酵饲料养分利用率比普通发酵饲料高.%In order to reduce the antinutritional factors existed in feed,and to promote feed conversion ratio,ferulic acid esterase enzymatic fermented feed was studied and its effect on nutrient utilization of broilers was researched at the same time.The optimum feed formula was obtained by orthogonal experiments:12% stipe dry matter,26% corn gluten feed, 11% palm kernel meal,16% chaff powder,5% guar soybean meal,5% corn flour,0.3% molasses,0.1% prebiotic a-gent,and the content of crude protein in this fermented feed was 22.48% under this condition.Compared with basal diet, enzymatic fermented feed increased feed nutrient such as dry matter,crude ash,crude protein,neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber,and acid detergent lignin utilization by 5.59%,38.31%,10.36%,16.52%,29.25%,and 18.99%, respectively.And the feed nutrient utilization of broilers raised by enzymatic fermented feed was higher than those raised by common fermented feed.

  18. 枫香轻基质容器育苗试验%Container Seedlings Techniques with Light Substrate for Liquidambar formosana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范辉华; 汤行昊; 陈柳英

    2014-01-01

    Container nursery trials of Liquidambar formosana of different light matrix group ,different planting densities and different seedling size grading were performed .The results shows that compareing with the peat-perlite light matrix and the peat-perlite light matrix,the peat-chaff main components matrix had higher survival rate ,gradeⅠseedling rate and qualified rate,and also had the highest seedling growth and qualified seedling amount per square meter of Liquidambar formosana container seedlings .143 plants・m-2 density cultivation,compared with the 195、238 plants・ m-2 density cultivation,had higher survival rate,gradeⅠseedling rate and qualified rate ,and higher average seedling height and average basal diameter ,and better uniformity too .After the seedling classi-fication,average seedling height , average basal diameter , gradeⅠseedling rate , qualified rate and qualified seedling amount per square meter of Liquidambar formosana all had the highest index in seedling group , then the no-grade group, then the young group.The survival rate and the grade Ⅱseedling rate shows the index of seedlings group

  19. The Accumulation Pattern of Zn, Cu, Ni, Cd in Wheat Grown in Heavy-metal Enriched Substrate%重金属复合处理对小麦锌铜镍镉积累和分布的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王云霞; 杨连新; Walter.J.Horst

    2011-01-01

    micronutrients and toxic heavy metals in the wheat grain were examined by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry(LA-lCP-MS). The metals were added jointly to the peat substrate as sulfates. Combined heavy metals added to peat substrate did not affect grain yield, single grain dry weight, straw dry weight and harvest index of wheat at maturity. However, great changes on metals distribution in plants or grains as affected by heavy metal treatments were observed. Zn, Cu, Ni and Cd concentrations in the grain, chaff, leaf, leaf sheath and stem were significantly enhanced by heavy metal addition but the enhancement varied with different elements or plant organs. Elevated heavy metal supply increased the concentrations of Zn, Cu, Ni and Cd in wheat grains by factors of 1.8, 0.5, 48.1 and 45.3, respectively. The distribution pattern of Cu and Cd in different organs of wheat were not affected by heavy metal treatments, but the distribution pattern of Zn and Ni were significantly changed by heavy metal treatments. High percentages of Zn were translocated in grains at normal Zn supply conditions, but more Zn was retained in vegetative organs by heavy metal treatments. The changes in distribution pattern of Ni showed different trends compared to Zn. LA-ICP-MS analysis of wheat grains revealed that Cu, Zn, Ni, and Cd were distributed in a similar way with the high concentrations in the aleurone layer and low concentrations in the starchy endosperm.Elevated heavy metal supply increased the concentrations of beneficial elements Zn and Cu by 78% and 86%, toxic heavy metals Ni and Cd by 30 and 121 folds in aleurone layer, respectively. Elevated heavy metal supply increased the concentrations of Zn and Cu in starchy endosperm by 49% and 48%, respectively. The concentrations of Ni and Cd in starchy endosperm were not detectable under control conditions, but elevated heavy metal supply increased Ni and Cd concentrations to levels far over the maximum permitted levels set by

  20. Obituary: Fred Lawrence Whipple, 1906-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeomans, Donald Keith

    2004-12-01

    1986 Giotto spacecraft images, revealing a solid cometary nucleus (albeit far blacker than most had predicted), were a dramatic confirmation of Whipple's model -- though in truth few really expected otherwise at the time. In 1942-1946, he led an effort to develop and implement strips of reflective aluminum (i.e., chaff) to confuse enemy radars in World War II. In 1948, he received a certificate of merit for this work from President Harry S. Truman. Eleven years before the launch of the first artificial satellite in 1957, he developed what is now generally termed the Whipple Shield; a thin outer metallic layer stands out from a spacecraft and protects it from high-speed interplanetary dust particles. While particles hitting this outside thin layer would penetrate, they would also vaporize, and in so doing, the resultant debris would disperse and lack the energy to penetrate the main spacecraft skin. This design was used to successfully protect the Stardust spacecraft from cometary dust particles when the spacecraft flew rapidly past comet Tempel 1 in January 2004. He also made significant contributions to fields as diverse as meteor astronomy, satellite tracking, variable stars, supernovae, stellar evolution, astronomical instrumentation and radio astronomy. Along with his colleagues Willy Ley, Wernher von Braun and others, Fred wrote and consulted for a series of very popular articles in Collier's magazine in the early 1950's and these articles, along with earlier lectures at New York's Hayden Planetarium, helped spark the U.S. involvement in space exploration. Of these early beginnings of space exploration, Fred wrote in 1972 "it was no easy task to convince people that man could really go into empty space beyond the Earth's atmosphere, and even beyond the Earth's tenacious gravitational grasp. On looking back over these years, I am still surprised that we succeeded in convincing them." Fred was responsible for initiating the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory