de J Silva Maria
Full Text Available Abstract Background The thin-spined porcupine, also known as the bristle-spined rat, Chaetomys subspinosus (Olfers, 1818, the only member of its genus, figures among Brazilian endangered species. In addition to being threatened, it is poorly known, and even its taxonomic status at the family level has long been controversial. The genus Chaetomys was originally regarded as a porcupine in the family Erethizontidae, but some authors classified it as a spiny-rat in the family Echimyidae. Although the dispute seems to be settled in favor of the erethizontid advocates, further discussion of its affinities should be based on a phylogenetic framework. In the present study, we used nucleotide-sequence data from the complete mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and karyotypic information to address this issue. Our molecular analyses included one individual of Chaetomys subspinosus from the state of Bahia in northeastern Brazil, and other hystricognaths. Results All topologies recovered in our molecular phylogenetic analyses strongly supported Chaetomys subspinosus as a sister clade of the erethizontids. Cytogenetically, Chaetomys subspinosus showed 2n = 52 and FN = 76. Although the sexual pair could not be identified, we assumed that the X chromosome is biarmed. The karyotype included 13 large to medium metacentric and submetacentric chromosome pairs, one small subtelocentric pair, and 12 small acrocentric pairs. The subtelocentric pair 14 had a terminal secondary constriction in the short arm, corresponding to the nucleolar organizer region (Ag-NOR, similar to the erethizontid Sphiggurus villosus, 2n = 42 and FN = 76, and different from the echimyids, in which the secondary constriction is interstitial. Conclusion Both molecular phylogenies and karyotypical evidence indicated that Chaetomys is closely related to the Erethizontidae rather than to the Echimyidae, although in a basal position relative to the rest of the Erethizontidae. The high levels of
Oliveira, C G; Martinez, R A; Giné, G A F; Faria, D M; Gaiotto, F A
The bristle-spined porcupine, Chaetomys subspinosus, an endemic rodent from Atlantic Forest, was considered to be abundant in the recent past, but population reductions due to habitat loss and expansion of human activities caused this species to be included in the "vulnerable" category of the World Conservation Union Red List. We performed the first genetic assessment in natural populations of this focal species along its geographical distribution. Thirty-five non-invasive samples (hair) were collected from three natural populations in the Brazilian States of Sergipe, Bahia and Espírito Santo. Genetic similarity obtained by Jaccard's index, based on dominant RAPD and ISSR markers, varied between 25 and 100%. Four clusters, mainly coincident with the geographical distribution of the populations, were observed. Analysis of molecular variance based on 47 polymorphic loci showed that there was 15.99% genetic variability among populations and 84.01% within populations. The estimated genetic structure among populations (Φ(ST)) was 0.16. The populations may have formed a continuum along the past distribution of the Atlantic rainforest but historical events of human occupation resulted in recent divergence among sampled populations.
Observações da dieta de Artibeus lituratus (Olfers (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae em duas áreas do sul do Brasil Diet observations of Artibeus lituratus (Olfers (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae in two areas of southern Brazil
Fernando C. Passos
Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado no Parque Nacional de Superagüi (PNS e na Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural de Volta Velha (RPPN, ambas áreas de Mata Atlântica, nos Estados do Paraná e Santa Catarina, no sul do Brasil. Morcegos foram capturados em redes de neblina e amostras fecais foram coletadas para análise da dieta. As sementes encontradas em cada amostra foram identificadas em laboratório por meio de lupa. Cento e trinta e sete exemplares de Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 foram capturados (n = 47 no PNS, n = 90 na RPPN, e 25 e 32 amostras fecais foram coletadas para cada área, respectivamente. A dieta frugívora de A. lituratus computou de 81 a 88% do total dos itens alimentares, mostrando a importância dos frutos para esta espécie.This study was carried out at Superagüi National Park (PNS and Volta Velha Private Reserve of Natural Heritage (RPPN, both areas of Atlantic Rain Forest, Paraná and Santa Catarina states, in southern Brazil. Bats were mist netted and fecal samples were collected for dietary analysis. The seeds found in each sample were identified in the laboratory under stereoscopic microscope. A hundred and thirty seven Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 bats were captured (n = 47 in PNS, n = 90 in RPPN, and 25 and 32 fecal samples were collected for each area, respectively. The frugivorous diet of Artibeus lituratus accounted for 81 to 88% of the total food itens showing the importance of fruit to this species.
Estudo preliminar sobre a ecologia de Lontra longicaudis (Olfers (Carnivora, Mustelidae no Vale do Taquari, Sul do Brasil Preliminary study by the ecology of Lontra longicaudis (Olfers (Carnivora, Mustelidae in Taquari Valley, South Brazil
Carlos Benhur Kasper
Full Text Available O estudo foi realizado em duas áreas no Vale do Taquari, região central do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Sul do Brasil. Entre agosto de 2000 e dezembro de 2001 foi realizado um estudo sobre a dieta e o uso de abrigos e marcas odoríferas por Lontra longicaudis (Olfers, 1818. Coletaram-se 275 marcas odoríferas, das quais 261 foram analisadas para determinação da dieta. O uso de marcas odoríferas ocorreu por deposição de fezes, sobretudo sobre locais conspícuos das margens dos rios ou no interior dos abrigos. Os abrigos foram formados principalmente por escavação paralela a margem dos rios. Estes abrigos foram altamente reutilizados. Ocorreu predação sobre três grupos de presas: peixes, mamíferos e insetos. Os peixes formam a base da dieta, e as famílias Loricariidae/Callichthyidae, Cichlidae, Pimelodidae/Auchenipteridae e Erythrinidae foram as mais freqüentes nas análises fecais. A ocorrência destes grupos de peixes na dieta é maior do que sua disponibilidade relativa no ambiente.The study was carried out in two areas of Taquari Valley, central region of Rio Grande do Sul State, Southern Brazil. Between August 2000 and December 2001 a study about diet and use of shelters and scent marks by Lontra longicaudis (Olfers, 1818 was performed. 275 spraints were colleted, of which 261 were analised for diet determination. The use of scent marks occured by the deposition of feaces mainly under conspicuous sites of the river margin or inside the shelters. The shelters were often formed by parallel excavation of river margin. The shelters were highly reused. Predation occurred on 3 groups of preys: Fish, Mammals and Insects. The fish, formed the diet base, and the families Loricariidae/Callichthyidae, Cichlidae, Pimelodidae/ Auchenipteridae and Erythrinidae were the most frequently identified ones in fecal analysis. The occurrence of these fish groups in the diet was higher then the relative availability in environment.
Estimativa do tamanho de duas espécies de ciclídeos (Osteichthyes, Perciformes predados por Lontra longicaudis (Olfers (Carnivora, Mustelidae, através de análise das escamas Size estimation of two species of Ciclids (Ostheichthyes, Perciformes predated by Lontra longicaudis (Olfers (Carnivora, Mustelidae through scale analysis
Carlos Benhur Kasper
Full Text Available O presente estudo foi realizado no Vale do Taquari, região central do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, sul do Brasil. Entre dezembro de 2001 e dezembro de 2002 foi realizado um estudo sobre a predação de Cichlidae por Lontra longicaudis (Olfers, 1818 através de análise das escamas encontradas nas fezes de lontra. Foi identificada a predação sobre Gimnogeophagus labiatus (Hensel, 1870 e Crenicichla punctata Hensel, 1870, e a ocorrência destas espécies de peixe na dieta é mais elevada do que sua disponibilidade relativa no ambiente. Foi encontrada uma correlação positiva entre o tamanho do peixe e das escamas, permitindo a construção de uma curva de regressão para estimar o tamanho dos peixes predados baseado no tamanho das escamas encontradas nas fezes de lontra. Neste estudo, os ciclídeos mais frequentemente predados variaram no comprimento entre 100 e 150 mm e no peso entre 22 e 37 g.The present study was carried out in the Taquari Valley, central region of Rio Grande do Sul State, Southern Brazil. Between December 2001 and December 2002 a study about the predation of Cichlidae by Lontra longicaudis (Olfers, 1818 was performed through scale analysis found in otter scats. Predation was indentified about Gimnogeophagus labiatus (Hensel, 1870 and Crenicichla punctata Hensel, 1870, and the occurence of these fish species in the diet were higher than the relative availability in the environment. A positive correlation between fish and scale sizes was found, allowing to build a regression curve to estimate the size of predated fish, based on scales found in otter scats. In this study ciclids most frequently predated varied in lenght from 100 and 150 mm and in weight from 22 to 37,6 g.
Distribuição geográfica e análise morfológica de Artibeus lituratus Olfers e de Artibeus fimbriatus Gray (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Geographical distribution and morphological analysis of Artibeus lituratus Olfers and Artibeus fimbriatus Gray (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
Ana Maria Rui
Full Text Available A study has been made on the geographical distribution and comparative external and cranial morphological analysis of Artibeus lituratus Olfers, 1818 and Artibeus fimbriatus Gray, 1838 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. A. lituratus and A. fimbriatus were found to be sympatric in the state north to the "Planície Costeira", in the "Depressão Central", in the hillsides of "Serra Geral", and in the northern region of the state, areas previously covered by forests. The southernmost point for Artibeus Leach, 1821 distribution is 30º South, and A. lituratus and A. fimbriatus are the two species found more to the south. The two species studied do not show sexual dimorphism as to external characteristics. Cranial measurements revealed significant differences between males and females of A. lituratus in mandible length, which was significantly larger in females(p<5%, and between males and females of A. fimbriatus, in the length of the set of lower teeth and in the external width between the cingula of canine teeth, which were significantly larger in males (p<5%. No further morphological cranial differences were found between genders of both species. A. lituratus and A. fimbriatus can be externally distinguished by size, for A. lituratus is larger than A. fimbriatus as concerns all external dimensions analysed except for the tibia length (p<5%. The two species can also be differentiated by pelage colour, hair length, and facial stripes appearance. In the skull, a number of differences were found in rostrum format, in the developmental degree of supraorbital and post-orbital crests and pre-orbital and post-orbital processes, and in several cranial dimensions analysed.
McIntosh, Douglas; Bezerra, Rodrigo Alves; Luz, Hermes Ribeiro; Faccini, João Luiz Horacio; Gaiotto, Fernanda Amato; Giné, Gastón Andrés Fernandez; Albuquerque, George Rego
Studies investigating rickettsial infections in ticks parasitizing wild animals in the Northeast region of Brazil have been confined to the detection of Rickettsia amblyommii in immature stages of Amblyomma longirostre collected from birds in the state of Bahia, and in immatures and females of Amblyomma auricularium collected from the striped hog-nosed skunk (Conepatus semistriatus) and armadillos (Euphractus sexcinctus) in the state of Pernambuco. The current study extends the distribution of R. amblyommii (strain Aranha), which was detected in A. longirostre collected from the thin-spined porcupine Chaetomys subspinosus and the hairy dwarf porcupine Coendou insidiosus. In addition, we report the first detection of Rickettsia bellii in adults of A. longirostre collected from C. insidiosus in the state of Bahia.
Eveline de Cássia Batista de Almeida Alves
Full Text Available Sialoliths are calcified structures that develop into the salivary duct system, they have a round or oval shape and are usually asymptomatic. They result from the deposition of calcium salts around focal areas of organic matter and grow continuously, with the possibility of causing obstruction and reduced salivary flow. Commonly reported in humans, sialoliths may also affect, less frequently, the salivary glands of domestic and wild animals. This paper aimed to describe the histopathological characteristics of a sialolith affecting the excretory duct in the salivary gland of an adult male specimen of the tropical bat Artibeus lituratus (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae. This specimen was collected in the urban area of Vitória de Santo Antão, Pernambuco, Brazil. Histological preparations were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE and histochemical techniques with Schiff-periodic acid (PAS and Alcian blue (pH 1.0 and 2.5 were applied for a better characterization and description of the sialolith. Although the formation of sialoliths is very common in the salivary glands of mammals, its occurrence in bats had not been reported before.
Angélica H Klippel
Full Text Available Road mortality is the leading source of biodiversity loss in the world, especially due to fragmentation of natural habitats and loss of wildlife. The survey of the main species victims of roadkill is of fundamental importance for the better understanding of the problem, being necessary, for this, the correct species identification. The aim of this study was to verify if DNA barcodes can be applied to identify road-killed samples that often cannot be determined morphologically. For this purpose, 222 vertebrate samples were collected in a stretch of the BR-101 highway that crosses two Discovery Coast Atlantic Forest Natural Reserves, the Sooretama Biological Reserve and the Vale Natural Reserve, in Espírito Santo, Brazil. The mitochondrial COI gene was amplified, sequenced and confronted with the BOLD database. It was possible to identify 62.16% of samples, totaling 62 different species, including Pyrrhura cruentata, Chaetomys subspinosus, Puma yagouaroundi and Leopardus wiedii considered Vulnerable in the National Official List of Species of Endangered Wildlife. The most commonly identified animals were a bat (Molossus molossus, an opossum (Didelphis aurita and a frog (Trachycephalus mesophaeus species. Only one reptile was identified using the technique, probably due to lack of reference sequences in BOLD. These data may contribute to a better understanding of the impact of roads on species biodiversity loss and to introduce the DNA barcode technique to road ecology scenarios.
Full Text Available The Neotropical otter is one of the least known otter species, and it is considered to be threatened to various degrees throughout its geographic range. Little information exists on the ecological characteristics of this species, and no genetic study has been published about it until now, hampering the design of adequate conservation strategies for its populations. To contribute with genetic information to comprehensive conservation efforts on behalf of L. longicaudis, we characterized the molecular diversity of the 5’ portion of the mtDNA control region in samples from this species collected in Southern and Southeastern Brazil. The sequence analysis revealed a high level of haplotype diversity (h = 0.819; SE = 0.0052 and nucleotide variability ranging from 0.0039 to 0.0067. One of the sampled haplotypes was the most common in both regions and, from this sequence, several other (locally occurring haplotypes could be derived by single point mutations. No significant genetic differentiation was observed between the Southern and Southeastern regions.
Hollandis läbi viidud uuringust kokkulepete tegemise kohta ja nende sõlmimisega seotud riskidest. Kokkulepete kõrgest tasemest spordis, hasartmängukorraldajate ja valitsusasutuste seas nii siseriiklikul kui ka rahvusvahelisel tasandil
Fernando Marques Quintela
Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to study the diet of Lontra longicaudis in three limnic systems (anthropogenic shallow lakes, pluvial channel and coastal stream in Rio Grande do Sul State coastal plain, southern Brazil. Fishes were the most consumed item in all the three systems, being Mugilidae the most representative family in the pluvial channel and coastal stream and Cichlidae in the shallow lakes. Other identified items were mollusks, insects, crustaceans, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals and vegetal fragments. The high frequency of birds in the shallow lakes was remarkable, considering the lower frequencies of this item in previous investigations on the species diet. There was a high frequency of swamp eels (Synbranchidae, Synbranchus marmoratus in the pluvial channel and shallow lakes, which were usually absent or found in low frequencies in previous studies.
Full Text Available Public participation is often disregarded during conservation projects despite the potential benefits as it can help to determine priority areas for conservation in highly fragmented landscapes or to increase knowledge of little known species. However, there is no information about its potential application in Central Mexico. We undertook a preliminary assessment based on 30 interviews preformed between December 2011 and May 2012 with hunters aimed to determine the presence, feeding habits, reproduction periods, and –threats of the neotropical otter (Lontra longicaudis in a fragmented landscape in the Sierra Madre Oriental. Twenty three of the interviewed hunters indicated that the species is rare and considered to be solitary however, they have observed cubs and pregnant females feeding mainly on fish and crustaceans were made. Pollution, shortage of prey, habitat disturbance, and hunting were the main threats on the species. We verified the presence responses of the neotropical otter through field work and the life history information was obtained by doing a literature review. We concluded that public participation can be confidently incorporated in conservation plans of the neotropical otter in the Sierra Madre Oriental.
Full Text Available A new class of insecticide derived from fermentation of Sacharopolyspora spinosa - spinosad, has been indicated as being of low toxicity and a natural alternative to classical pesticides. In order to elucidate several aspects related to the morphophysiological changes induced by spinosad in Artibeus lituratus, the effects of a seven-day administration on plasma glucose, glycogen, protein and lipid concentrations were evaluated, and possible changes in liver cells were examined by histological analysis. Animals were fed with spinosyn-contaminated fruit through immersion in a solution. Data reporting on metabolism revealed a decrease in hind limb muscle lipid concentration in the treated group. Morphological analysis indicated a significant increase in liver cell diameter in treated animals compared to the control group. This study indicates that spinosyn, used at its recommended dose, does not affect general energy metabolism in A. lituratus but may affect some ultrastructural characteristics of liver cells.
Taxa e velocidade de germinação de sementes de Cecropia pachystachya Trécul (Cecropiaceae ingeridas por Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae = Germination rate and velocity of seeds of Cecropia pachystachya Trécul (Cecropiaceae eaten by Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae
Ricardo Anghinoni Bocchese
Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar se o morcego frugívoro Artibeus lituratus pode ser considerado indutor na germinação de sementes de Cecropia pachystachya, sendo avaliadas a taxa e a velocidade de germinação das sementes em diferentes condições. Osmorcegos e os frutos foram coletados na região central de Campo Grande, Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul; o experimento foi dividido em cinco tratamentos. O primeiro contou com sementes retiradas dos frutos; o segundo, com sementes retiradas das fezes, e o terceirodividido em três tratamentos ácidos, com concentrações de pH 1, 2 e 3. As sementes que passaram pelo sistema digestório dos animais germinaram com maior velocidade (p 0,05 quandocomparada às sementes sem tratamento. O tratamento com pH igual a 3 foi estatisticamente igual ao grupo sem tratamento e ao grupo experimental, com sementes retiradas das fezes, indicando o valor aproximado da concentração dos ácidos estomacais desta espéciefrugívora. Conclui-se que Artibeus lituratus pode ser considerado indutor do aumento da velocidade de germinação nas sementes desta espécie vegetal, refletindo na importância desta espécie frugívora na manutenção ecológica dos ecossistemas tropicais, principalmenteem áreas de Cerrado.The objective with this study was to verify whether frugivorous bat Artibeus lituratus can be considered an efficient germination inducer for Cecropia pachystachya seeds. Bats and fruits were collected in Campo Grande (Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, with the experimentbeing divided in five treatments: one composed by seeds taken from natural fresh fruits, another with seeds taken from the bats’ excrements, and the last one sub-divided in three sub-groups with different acid treatments that corresponded to pH 1, 2 and 3. The seeds that passed through the digestive tract of the animals presented a higher germination velocity index (p 0.05 when compared with the seeds without any treatment. The treatment with pH = 3 wasstatistically the same as the group without treatment and the as experimental group with the seeds taken of the excrements, indicating an approximated value to the stomach acids of this frugivorous species. Artibeus lituratus can be considered a germination velocity inducer for seeds of this plant species, showing the ecological importance of these frugivorous bats in the natural environment support in areas of Brazilian savannas (Cerrado.
Seasonal variation in the number of captures of Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 and Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810 (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae in the upper strata of an Atlantic Forest remnant in southern Brazil
Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the occurrence of seasonal variations in the number of captures of Artibeus lituratus and Sturnira lilium in the upper strata of an Atlantic Forest remnant in southern Brazil. It was conducted in the town of Pedras Grandes, in the southern end of Santa Catarina. The chiropterans were captured with mist nets installed in the canopy and subcanopy. To check whether there were differences in the number of captures between seasons, we used the chi-square test (χ2, with a significance level of 0.05, and, whenever needed, partial χ2 tests. Artibeus lituratus showed significant differences between seasons, and the largest number of captures occurs in autumn. For S. lilium we did not observe statistically significant differences. The seasonal variation found out for A. lituratus may be related to its diet, which is based on fruits whose availability has seasonal variations. For S. lilium, besides the diet, mainly based on plants that do not have seasonal variations with regard to fruit availability, the altitude of the study area and its variations in temperature also seem to explain the absence of seasonal variation.
Taxa e velocidade de germinação de sementes de Cecropia pachystachya Trécul (Cecropiaceae ingeridas por Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i4.879 Germination rate and velocity of seeds of Cecropia pachystachya Trécul (Cecropiaceae eaten by Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i4.879
Eliane Cristine Vicente
Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar se o morcego frugívoro Artibeus lituratus pode ser considerado indutor na germinação de sementes de Cecropia pachystachya, sendo avaliadas a taxa e a velocidade de germinação das sementes em diferentes condições. Os morcegos e os frutos foram coletados na região central de Campo Grande, Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul; o experimento foi dividido em cinco tratamentos. O primeiro contou com sementes retiradas dos frutos; o segundo, com sementes retiradas das fezes, e o terceiro dividido em três tratamentos ácidos, com concentrações de pH 1, 2 e 3. As sementes que passaram pelo sistema digestório dos animais germinaram com maior velocidade (p 0,05 quando comparada às sementes sem tratamento. O tratamento com pH igual a 3 foi estatisticamente igual ao grupo sem tratamento e ao grupo experimental, com sementes retiradas das fezes, indicando o valor aproximado da concentração dos ácidos estomacais desta espécie frugívora. Conclui-se que Artibeus lituratus pode ser considerado indutor do aumento da velocidade de germinação nas sementes desta espécie vegetal, refletindo na importância desta espécie frugívora na manutenção ecológica dos ecossistemas tropicais, principalmente em áreas de Cerrado.The objective with this study was to verify whether frugivorous bat Artibeus lituratus can be considered an efficient germination inducer for Cecropia pachystachya seeds. Bats and fruits were collected in Campo Grande (Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, with the experiment being divided in five treatments: one composed by seeds taken from natural fresh fruits, another with seeds taken from the bats’ excrements, and the last one sub-divided in three sub-groups with different acid treatments that corresponded to pH 1, 2 and 3. The seeds that passed through the digestive tract of the animals presented a higher germination velocity index (p 0.05 when compared with the seeds without any treatment. The treatment with pH = 3 was statistically the same as the group without treatment and the as experimental group with the seeds taken of the excrements, indicating an approximated value to the stomach acids of this frugivorous species. Artibeus lituratus can be considered a germination velocity inducer for seeds of this plant species, showing the ecological importance of these frugivorous bats in the natural environment support in areas of Brazilian savannas (Cerrado.
Bøttcher, Susanne Gammelgaard
This paper considers dynamic Bayesian networks for discrete and continuous variables. We only treat the case, where the distribution of the variables is conditional Gaussian. We show how to learn the parameters and structure of a dynamic Bayesian network and also how the Markov order can be learned....... An automated procedure for specifying prior distributions for the parameters in a dynamic Bayesian network is presented. It is a simple extension of the procedure for the ordinary Bayesian networks. Finally the W¨olfer?s sunspot numbers are analyzed....
Delir Corrêa Gomes
Full Text Available A new species of a trichurid nematode Trichuris travassosi n. sp., recovered from a wild rodent in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, is described and compared to T. myocastoris (Enigk, 1933 and their differentiation was on the basis of detailed morphometrical study. Oryzomys nigripes (Olfers, 1818 is a new host record for the genus. The denomination spicular prepuce is proposed to designate the structure previously named spicular sheath and, conversely, spicular sheath to indicate the cuticle that convers the spicule.
Pedro Volkmer de Castilho
Full Text Available This study analyzes the use of aquatic mammals by prehistoric societies of Santa Catarina Island, Southern Brazil. Samples from two archaeological sites were examined: Rio do Meio (RM and Porto do Rio Vermelho (SCPRV. Nine aquatic mammal species were found: a pinnipeds: Arctocephalus australis (Zimmerman, 1783 and A. tropicalis (Gray, 1872, and b cetaceans: Eubalaena australis (Desmoulins, 1822, Delphinus delphis Linnaeus, 1758, Stenella frontalis (Cuvier, 1829, Steno bredanensis (Lesson, 1828, Tursiops truncatus (Montagu, 1821, Pontoporia blainvillei (Gervais & d'Orbigny, 1844 and a non-identified rorqual from the genus Balaenoptera Lacépède, 1804. Three especies of semi-aquatic mammals were also recorded: Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1758, Tapirus terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758 and Lontra longicaudis (Olfers,1818. Both sites presented similar species diversity, although abundance was greater at the most recent site (RM. There were more samples from axial skeletons, but in genera the anatomical regions were homogeneously distributed among the identified taxa.
Streblidae (Diptera, Hippoboscoidea em morcegos (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae no nordeste do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Sreblidae (Diptera, Hippoboscoidea on bats (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae in the Northeast of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
Full Text Available A survey of the Streblidae batflies on the phyllostomid bats was conducted in the northeastern Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, during 1997. Hundred thirty three streblids were collected on 44 parasited hosts. Eleven species of batflies (Trichobius dugesii Townsend, 1891, T. tiptoni Wenzel, 1976, Trichobius sp., Paratrichobius longicrus (Miranda Ribeiro, 1907, Megistopoda aranea (Coquillett, 1899, M. proxima (Séguy, 1926, Exastinion clovisi (Pessoa & Guimarães, 1936, Paraeuctenodes longipes Pessoa & Guimarães, 1936, Anastrebla modestini Wenzel, 1966, A. caudiferae Wenzel, 1976 and Metelasmus pseudopterus Coquillett, 1907 were found on six species of phyllostomid bats (Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818, A. fimbriatus Gray, 1838, Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810, Glossophaga soricina (Pallas, 1766, Anoura caudifera (E. Geoffroy, 1818 and A. geoffroyi Gray, 1838. All records are new for the Rio Grande do Sul and Anastrebla caudiferae is firstly recorded in Brazil. Differences in the batflies community composition in Artibeus fimbriatus and A. lituratus are discussed.
Partição de recursos alimentares entre quatro espécies de morcegos frugívoros (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae Partition of food resources among four species of frugivorous bats (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae
Marília Feleciano Muller
Full Text Available This study was carried out in the region of Londrina, Paraná, Brazil in three different areas: a primary forest, a disturbed primary forest and an open area. Within 207 hours of capture, 990 individuals were collected, 939 of them being fruit-eating bats. Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758, Sturnira lilium (Geoffroy, 1810, Platyrrhinus lineatus (Geoffroy, 1810 and Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 were the four most collected species in a total of 899 individuals. A. lituratus was found in greater number in all the areas, showing significant variation in relation to the size of the forests. The partition of food resources among the four most collected species was known through the analysis of their feces. The coexixtence of these species can be explained by their investing in different foods or their diverging time activity.
Trophic ecology and the use of shelters and latrines by the Neotropical otter (Lontra longicaudis in the Taquari Valley, Southern Brazil Ecologia trófica e o uso de abrigos e latrinas pela lontra Neotropical (Lontra longicaudis no Vale do Taquari, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil
Carlos Benhur Kasper
Full Text Available This manuscript presents information about the ecology of Lontra longicaudis (Olfers, 1818 in the Taquari Valley, State of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. The study was carried out in two areas located in the Forquetinha Creek and in the Forqueta River from January to December 2003. The otters are specialist feeders (Bsta = 0.24, with a diet based mostly on fish, especially those of the families Loricariidae and Cichlidae. Most shelters used by the species were excavated burrows underneath tree roots, while shelters within rocks were used less frequently. The burrows showed great variation in size, being found on average 3.5 m (sd = 3.6 m away from the margin and 2.5 m (sd = 1.2 m above the water level. Scent marks were made preferentially on rocks and fallen tree trunks at the edge of the water. There was a tendency to increase the reutilization of latrines in detriment of using new sites throughout the sample period.O presente estudo apresenta dados sobre a ecologia de Lontra longicaudis (Olfers, 1818 no Vale do Taquari, sul do Brasil. O trabalho foi realizado em duas áreas localizadas no arroio Forquetinha e rio Forqueta, entre janeiro e dezembro de 2003. A população apresentou hábito alimentar especialista (Bsta = 0,24, baseado em peixes das famílias Loricariidae e Cichlidae. Os abrigos utilizados pela espécie foram formados em sua maioria, por escavações sob raízes de árvores e, com menor freqüência, entre rochas. Os abrigos escavados apresentaram dimensões bastante variáveis, sendo que estiveram em média a 3,5 m (s = 3,6 m de distância da margem e 2,5 m (s = 1,2 m de altura em relação ao nível da água. A utilização de marcas odoríferas se deu preferencialmente sobre rochas e troncos caídos na margem, sendo que houve uma tendência de aumento na reutilização de latrinas, em detrimento de novos pontos de deposição de fezes, no decorrer do período amostrado.
Marcelo O. Bordignon
Full Text Available Realizou-se um inventário da fauna de morcegos entre abril e novembro de 2004 no norte de Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil (Projeto Jauru/MMA. Oito pontos de coleta foram amostrados com redes-neblina em um ambiente de cerrado, sendo capturados 146 indivíduos de 28 espécies, distribuídos em seis famílias. O total de espécies neste estudo, representa apenas 30% da fauna de morcegos do cerrado. A família mais capturada foi a Phyllostomidae, representada por Glossophaga soricina (Pallas, 1766 e Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818. Algumas espécies raras foram capturadas: Lophostoma brasiliense (Peters, 1866, Lonchophylla mordax Thomas, 1903 e Lionycteris spurrelli Thomas, 1913. O local de maior abundância (0,032 indivíduos/m²/h mostrou um índice de Simpson de D = 3.86 e o de menor abundância (0,003 indivíduos/m²/h um índice de Simpson de D = 3.03. A preservação dos mananciais de água e a cobertura florestal nestes pontos são discutidas.From April to November 2004 was made a bat fauna inventory in Northern of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil (Jauru's Project/MMA. Eight points was sampled with mist-nets in a cerrado's ecosystem and was caught 146 individuals de 28 species, distributed into six bat families. The total of species in this study just represents 30% of cerrado's bat fauna. The more caught family was Phyllostomidae represented by Glossophaga soricina (Pallas, 1766 and Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818. Some rare species were caught: Lophostoma brasiliense (Peters, 1866, Lonchophylla mordax Thomas, 1903 and Lionycteris spurrelli Thomas, 1913. The more abundant point sampled (0.032 bat/m²/h shown a Simpson index of D = 3.86 and the low abundant point sampled (0.003 bat/m²/h was D = 3.03. The preservation of water springs and forest cover in study sites are discussed.
L.V. De Knegt
Full Text Available Entre os anos de 1999 e 2001, realizaram-se 18 capturas de morcegos em Belo Horizonte, sendo uma na estação seca e uma na estação chuvosa em cada regional administrativa. Foram capturados 316 exemplares, com predominância de Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818, 55,1%, Platyrrhinus lineatus (Geoffroy, 1810, 24,4% e Glossophaga soricina (Pallas, 1766, 10,1%, além de Sturnira lilium (Geoffroy, 1810, Phyllostomus discolor (Wagner, 1843, Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758, Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 e Anoura caudifer (Geoffroy, 1818, totalizando oito espécies, pertencentes às famílias Phyllostomidae e Vespertilionidae. Observou-se concentração de partos próximos à estação chuvosa, coincidindo com a maior disponibilidade de alimento para os períodos de prenhez e lactação. Partos esporádicos ocorreram durante todo o ano. Entre 2002 e 2003, foi feita uma busca em diversos tipos de abrigos nas mesmas regionais. Os abrigos foram registrados, e as espécies encontradas foram somadas às já observadas na primeira parte deste estudo, bem como às citadas em diversas fontes bibliográficas e disponíveis em coleções acadêmicas, gerando um relato atualizado das espécies de morcegos já encontrados no município.A total of 316 bats were trapped using mist nets during 18 nights at nine strategic locations in Belo Horizonte between 1999 and 2001. The most predominant species were Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818, 55.1%, Platyrrhinus lineatus (Geoffroy, 1810, 24.4%, and Glossophaga soricina (Pallas, 1766, 10.1%. Other trapped species were: Sturnira lilium (Geoffroy, 1810, Phyllostomus discolor (Wagner, 1843, Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758, Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 and Anoura caudifer (Geoffroy, 1818, resulting in a total of eight species belonging the families Phyllostomidae and Vespertilionidae. All species bred predominantly during the wet season, probably because of the need for food availability to support energetic
Githure, John I.; Anjili, Christopher O.; Ngumbi, Philip M.; Mwanyumba, Panuel M.; Lugalia, Reuben; Koech, Davy K.; Kinoti, George K.
A total of 728 animals comprising of 633 rodents and 95 canids were examined for leishmanial parasites. Flagellates were isolated from 67 out of 111 (60.4%) Acomys subspinosus (spiny mouse), 12 out of 143 (8.4% ) Mastomys natalensis (multimammate rat), 2 out of 50 (4.0%) Lemniscomys striatus (striped mouse), 2 out of 6 (33.3%) Herpestes sanguineus (slender mongoose), 1 of 1 Helogale parvula (dwarf mongoose) and 1 out of 84 Canis familiaris (domestic dog). All isolates were characterized by Isoenzyme analysis using nine enzymes, namely, malate dehydrogenase (MDH), phosphoglucomutase (PGM), glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI), isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICD), nucleoside hydrolase (NH), glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), malic enzyme (ME), 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (GPGD) and mannose phosphate isomerase (MPI). Enzyme profiles of these isolates were compared with those of five WHO Leishmania reference strains and five well characterized rodent trypanosomes of the subgenus Herpetosoma. The profiles of the isolates were found to be different from those of the Leishmania and Trypanosoma reference strains but the parasites were morphologically similar to rodent trypanosomes. These results suggest that Leishmania parasites were not among the isolates. The enzymes profiles of the three mongoose isolates were identical but differed from profiles of isolates from rodents and dog. This is the first time in Kenya that a high prevalence of nonpathogenic trypanosomes is reported in rodents and canids. From the epidemiological point of view, these trypanosomes must be differentiated from the pathogenic species of trypanosomes and Leishmania that infect man and other animals. The results of this study suggest that rodents do not seem to play a role as reservoirs of Leishmania parasites in Masinga Location, Kenya.
Cecilia S. de Andreazzi
Full Text Available The Pantanal is a South American biome characterized by extensive plains and stark environmental seasonality. Several habitats are subject to annual flooding, forcing small mammal species to aggregate in dry forest patches, which most likely influences their population dynamics and life history strategies. In order to investigate the seasonal influence on the life history traits of these small mammals, we conducted a 2-year mark-recapture study in the southeastern region of the Brazilian Pantanal (Nhecolândia and analyzed the population dynamics of the most abundant small mammal species with the jackknife estimator. A trapping effort of 21,560 trap-nights resulted in 615 individuals in 1,171 captures (success = 5.43%. Three species of rodents - Oecomys mamorae (Thomas, 1906, Thrichomys pachyurus (Wagner, 1845, and Clyomys laticeps (Thomas, 1841 - and three species of marsupials - Gracilinanus agilis (Burmeister, 1854, Thylamys macrurus (Olfers, 1818, and Monodelphis domestica (Wagner, 1842 - were obtained. The most abundant species was O. mamorae, followed by G. agilis and T. pachyurus. Oecomys mamorae was more abundant in the wet season and presented an opportunistic reproductive strategy. Gracilianus agilis displayed increased population sizes in the dry season and synchronized, seasonal reproduction during the rainy season. Thrichomys pachyurus had a small population size, delayed response to variations in environmental conditions and higher reproductive rates in the dry season. All species revealed different life history strategies (seasonal, opportunistic or delayed response to environmental variations, coinciding with periods of higher resource availability in order to maximize survival.
Marcelo L Rheingantz
Full Text Available The diet of the Neotropical otter Lontra longicaudis (Olfers, 1818 is one of the best known aspects of its biology throughout its distribution range. However, most dietary studies have been undertaken during short time periods, making it difficult to identify temporal patterns in the feeding behavior of the species. The present study aimed to describe the diet of L. longicaudis in the lower region of the Mambucaba Catchment, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, during a three year period, based on analyses of spraints (feces. The results show fish as the main prey item (frequency of occurrence, FO = 85.78%, as already described in previous studies. Crustaceans were the second main prey (FO = 70.67%, occurring in the spraints during the whole year, however presenting a higher frequency of occurrence than fish in samples collected during some months. Anurans were the third most important prey item (FO = 9.56% and mammals, birds and reptiles were preyed upon only rarely (less than 4%. Fish and crustaceans were present in the diet of the species throughout the year and frogs were important mostly from June to August (dry season. This higher rate of predation on amphibians during the drier months was probably related to the decrease of the main prey.
Lívia B. Santos
Full Text Available Lontra longicaudis (Olfers, 1818 (Carnivora, Mustelidae is a semi-aquatic animal spread through the Central and South America, except in Chile. The implantation of a hydroelectric power plant along a river alters the dynamics of the watercourse, transforming a lotic environment into a lentic or semilotic one, what can damage the otter's feeding. From April 2008 to March 2009 we analysed the otter's food habits in lotic (streamlet and semilotic (hydroelectric reservoir environments of Paranapanema Valley, in southeastern Brazil. Aiming to compare the otter's diet of these two environments, we analyzed statistically the frequency of occurrence of main items in the scats. Fishes represent the base of the diet both in the reservoir and in the streamlet and, despite of the total otter's diet showing up similarities in the two environments, the results evidenced modifications on the fish species consumed between them. In the reservoir the otters ate more exotic fish Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 probably because it is an easy capture prey in this place. The fact that the otters get established and feed in the reservoir doesn't mean that this structure is benefic to the species because the food supplied for it consists mainly of exotic fish species.
Nilton Carlos Cáceres
Full Text Available A study of removal of fruits of the wild tomato, Solanum granulosoleprosum Dunal (N = 5 plants, by vertebrates was carried out in an urban environment of southern Brazil from January to May 1997 and February 1998. To verify diurnal and nocturnal removals, fruits were counted in several fruit bunches, being classified by size and color. Diurnal observations were made on plants to verify bird removal. A mist net was placed among the plants from the evening to 23:00 h to verify bat consumption. Live traps baited with S. granulosoleprosum fruits were placed on the ground among plants to verify terrestrial removers. On average it was found two ripe fruits available per bunch/day, but unripe, small, fruits were dominant (70%. Nocturnal mammals and birds-diurnal mammals partitioned fruits similarly. Bats removing fruits were Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818, Pygoderma bilabiatum (Wagner, 1843 and Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810. Birds were Saltator similis Lafresnaye & d'Orbigny, 1837 and Thraupis sayaca (Linnaeus, 1766. Terrestrial mammals were a marsupial and three rodent species. Except for rodents, these vertebrates must be promoting the seed dispersal of S. granulosoleprosum seeds in disturbed mixed forests of southern Brazil.
Description of Litomosoides ysoguazu n. sp. (Nematoda, Onchocercidae), a parasite of the tuft-toed rice rat Sooretamys angouya (Fischer) (Rodentia: Cricetidae), and a first record of L. esslingeri Bain, Petit & Berteaux, 1989 in Paraguay.
Notarnicola, Juliana; de la Sancha, Noé Ulises
Paraguay is a small landlocked country whose mammalian fauna is among the least studied in South America, as well as their parasites. As a result of a study of the effects of habitat fragmentation on small mammal biodiversity in eastern Paraguay, we have collected some parasites of cricetid rodents. Herein, we describe a new species of Litomosoides Chandler, 1931 parasitising the body cavity of the tuft-toed rice rat Sooretamys angouya (Fischer) and Litomosoides esslingeri Bain, Petit & Diagne, 1989 parasitising Oligoryzomys nigripes (Olfers), thus expanding its geographical distribution into Paraguay. Litomosoides ysoguazu n. sp. is characterised by the large size of the females (92.2-117.6 mm long) and by having buccal capsule with an anterior widening with rounded edges on the chitinous segment and a rounded widening at the base; male tail with a single pair of adcloacal papillae, three to five pairs of asymmetrical postcloacal papillae, and one or two unpaired papillae in the median ventral line; spicules corresponding to the "sigmodontis" species group; and microfilaria with a sheath stuck to the body and visible in the anterior extremity. We also describe a fourth-stage female larva. Oligoryzomys nigripes is a new host record of L. esslingeri; this enlarges the host record to eight species highlighting the low specificity of this species.
H. Ortêncio Filho
Full Text Available Bats may exhibit different patterns of activity, considering aspects concerning niche dynamics as well as the establishment and permanence of the communities in the ecosystems. In this way, the present study analyzed the time and seasonal patterns of activity in different species of frequent phyllostomid bats in remnants of the stational semidecidual forest from the Upper Paraná River, Southern Brazil. Captures were performed between January and December, 2006, using 32 mist nets set above the soil along the nocturnal period during the four seasons of the year. The daily and seasonal patterns of activity of each species was modeled using generalized linear models with Poisson error. The best model was selected using Akaike's Information Criterion (AICc. Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823 did not exhibit a conspicuous time pattern, whereas A. lituratus (Olfers, 1818 was more frequent after the sixth hour and A. fimbriatus Gray, 1838 had an activity increase along the night. Platyrrhinus lineatus (E. Geoffroy, 1810 was registered during all sampling hours. Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 and Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810 were the most active during the first four hours. Concerning seasonal pattern, the highest activity of these species was verified during the summer. These data contribute to the information about the ecology of bats in the region, highlighting the high adaptive potential of the species studied in relation to the use of space throughout the night and in to variations in environmental conditions.
Alice A. Notini
Full Text Available The large fruit-eating phyllostomid bat, Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818, forearm 69-75 mm, body mass 66-82 g, has a diversified geographic distribution in the Neotropical region. Therefore it is subjected to different climatic conditions that affect its reproduction, leading to different reproductive strategies such as continuous reproduction, seasonal monoestry or seasonal bimodal polyestry. In this study we used morphometric and histological methods to analyze the annual reproductive activity of A. lituratus males in a population living in the Atlantic Forest, Southeastern Brazil. Testis mass, epididymis mass, gonadosomatic index, seminiferous tubule diameter, and Leydig cell nucleus diameter showed no significant differences (p > 0.05 in the two seasons (wet: October to March; dry: April to September. Additionally, the cauda epididymis was packed with sperm throughout the period of study. Our data indicate that in this population spermatogenic activity was continuous throughout the year. Slight variations in accumulated frequency of pre-meiotic, meiotic and post-meiotic stages of the seminiferous epithelium cycle were observed when compared to other bat species, probably due to species-specific characteristics.
Elenise A. Bastos Sipinski
Full Text Available A study on the ecology of Chiroptera was made at the Reserve of Volta Velha on the Northern coast of Santa Catarina. This study aimed at knowing the frequency of the individuals colleeted in each season, part of their feeding diet and their time of activity as well as their breeding activity. The investigation was carried out from March, 1990 to February, 1991 by means of periodical captures which ocurred during four days each month totalizing 144 hours of net use. One hundred and thirty-five individuals belonging to 15 different species were caught. Sturnira lilium (Geoffroy, 1810, Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 and Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 were captured in the highest number throughout the seasons of the year. Fruit-eating bats confirm their feeding preference for Cecropiaceae, Solanaceae. Myrtaceae and Piperaceae. The births occurred mostly in seasons other than the dry. Around 1:15 hours after sunset was the time when the highest numher of individuals were collected in the nets.
Full Text Available A survey of chiropteran fauna was conducted during the period from March 1994 to May 1998 in Pedra Branca State Park, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro State. A total of 681 specimens of 24 species were recorded: Chrotopterus auritus (Peters, 1856; Micronycteris megalotis (Gray, 1842; Micronycteris minuta (Gervais, 1856; Mimmon bennettii (Gray, 1838; Phyllostomus hastatus (Pallas, 1767; Tonatia bidens (Von Spix, 1823; Lonchophylla bokermanni Sazima, Vizotto & Taddei, 1978; Lonchophylla mordax Thomas, 1903; Anoura caudifera (E. Geoffroy, 1818; Glosso-phaga soricina (Pallas, 1766; Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758; Artibeus fimbriatus Gray, 1838; Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818; Artibeus obscuras Schinz, 1821; Chiroderma doriae Thomas, 1891; Platyrrhinus lineatus (E. Geoffroy, 1810; Platyrrhinus recifinus (Thomas, 1901; Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810; Vampyressa pusilla (Wagner, 1843; Desmodus rotundus (E. Geoffroy, 1810; Diphylla ecaudata Von Spix, 1823; Eptesicus brasiliensis (DesMarest, 1819; Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 and Molossus molossus (Palas, 1766. One external (forearm length and 13 cranial meansurements were studied for 23 species. The meansurements of male and female specimens were treated separately. Comments about some taxonomic respects for some species studied are also included.
Marcela de Lemos Pinto
Full Text Available The genus Artibeus represents a highly diverse group of bats from the Neotropical region, with four large species occurring in Brazil. In this paper, a comparative cytogenetic study was carried out on the species Artibeus obscurus Schinz, 1821, A. fimbriatus Gray, 1838, A. lituratus Olfers, 1818 and A. planirostris Spix, 1823 that live sympatrically in the northeast of Brazil, through C-banding, silver staining and DNA-specific fluorochromes (CMA3 and DAPI. All the species had karyotypes with 2n=30,XX and 2n=31,XY1Y2, and FN=56. C-banding showed constitutive heterochromatin (CH blocks in the pericentromeric regions of all the chromosomes and small CH blocks at the terminal region of pairs 5, 6, and 7 for all species. Notably, our C-banding data revealed species-specific autosomic CH blocks for each taxon, as well as different heterochromatic constitution of Y2 chromosomes of A. planirostris. Ag-NORs were observed in the short arms of chromosomes 5, 6 and 7 in all species. The sequential staining AgNO3/CMA3/DA/DAPI indicated a positive association of CH with Ag-NORs and positive CMA3 signals, thus reflecting GC-richness in these regions in A. obscurus and A. fimbriatus. In this work it was possible to identify interespecific divergences in the Brazilian large Artibeus species using C-banding it was possible provided a suitable tool in the cytotaxonomic differentiation of this genus.
Full Text Available The results obtained by two estimators of population sizes, MNKA and Mh, were compared for four species of small mammmals - Didelphis aurita Wied, 1826, Philander frenata (Olfers, 1818, Nectomys squamipes (Brants, 1827 and Akodon cursor (Winge, 1887 - during a long-term population study. The MNKA estimator consistently underestimated the population sizes in relation to Mh. On the other, the probabilistic estimator Mh, which reduces bias through the jackknife technique, could not be used in all cases as its assumptions were not always met. Correction factors between the estimates obtained by the two methods were calculated for the last three species, for which catchability did not vary significantly in time and that presented positive correlation between the estimates by the two models. In order to combine the adavantages of both methods for small mammal population studies, is suggested the use of probabilistic closed population models and to calculate a correction factor based in another model which allow estimates in all cases, and which provides correlated estimates. This correction factors should be used in those cases where the probabilistic model cannot be used.
Dean, Mason N; Ramsay, Jason B; Schaefer, Justin T
The dental anatomy of elasmobranch fishes (sharks, rays and relatives) creates a functional system that is more dynamic than that of mammalian dentition. Continuous dental replacement (where new teeth are moved rostrally to replace older ones) and indirect fibrous attachment of the dentition to the jaw allow teeth to reorient relative to the jaw over both long- and short-term scales, respectively. In this study, we examine the processing behavior and dental anatomy of the lesser electric ray Narcine brasiliensis (Olfers, 1831) to illustrate that the freedom of movement of elasmobranch dentition allows a functional flexibility that can be important for complex prey processing behaviors. From static manipulations of dissected jaws and observations of feeding events in live animals, we show that the teeth rotate during jaw protrusion, resulting in a secondary grasping mechanism that likely serves to hold prey while the buccal cavity is flushed free of sediment. The function of teeth is not always readily apparent from morphology; in addition to short-term reorientation, the long-term dental reorientation during replacement allows a given tooth to serve multiple functions during tooth ontogeny. Unlike teeth inside the mouth, the cusps of external teeth (on the portion of the tooth pad that extends past the occlusal plane) lay flat, such that the labial faces act as a functional battering surface, protecting the jaws during prey excavation.
Nélio Roberto dos Reis
Full Text Available Study carried out within the urban perimeter of Londrina, which is located in the North of the state of Paraná. The objectives were the identification of urban species of bats and diurnal roosts used by them and the verification of the problems they can cause to the population. The fire brigade, the Autarquia Municipal do Ambiente de Londrina (Municipal Environment Autarchy of Londrina, the Biology Department of the Universidade Estadual de Londrina (State University of Londrina and local residents helped spot the roosts. The collections were carried out in regular intervals between April 1998 and March 1999. By the end of them, 815 bats of 23 different species had been captured. Among these, 12 were found near or inside human constructions: Noctilio albiventris Desmarest, 1818; Artibeits lituratus (Olfers, 1818; Platyrrhinus lineatus (E. Geoffroy, 1810; Eptesicus brasiliensis Desmarest 1819; Lasiurus bore-alls (Muller 1776; Lasiurus ega (Gervais, 1856; Eumops glaucinus (Wagner, 1843; Molossus rufus (E. Geoffroy, 1805; Molossus molossus (Pallas, 1766; Nyctinomops laticaudatus (E. Geoffroy, 1805; Nyctinomops macrotis (Gray, 1840 e Tadarida brasiliensis (i. Geoffroy, 1824. Roost sites comprised expansion joints, roofs, attics and parks, among others. It can be concluded that bats are treated as undesirable animals by the population due to the lack of knowledge about the subject.
Trophic ecology of Lontra longicaudis (Carnivora, Mustelidae in lotic and semilotic environments in southeastern Brazil Ecologia trófica de Lontra longicaudis (Carnivora, Mustelidae em ambientes lótico e semilótico no sudeste do Brasil
Lívia B. Santos
Full Text Available Lontra longicaudis (Olfers, 1818 (Carnivora, Mustelidae is a semi-aquatic animal spread through the Central and South America, except in Chile. The implantation of a hydroelectric power plant along a river alters the dynamics of the watercourse, transforming a lotic environment into a lentic or semilotic one, what can damage the otter's feeding. From April 2008 to March 2009 we analysed the otter's food habits in lotic (streamlet and semilotic (hydroelectric reservoir environments of Paranapanema Valley, in southeastern Brazil. Aiming to compare the otter's diet of these two environments, we analyzed statistically the frequency of occurrence of main items in the scats. Fishes represent the base of the diet both in the reservoir and in the streamlet and, despite of the total otter's diet showing up similarities in the two environments, the results evidenced modifications on the fish species consumed between them. In the reservoir the otters ate more exotic fish Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 probably because it is an easy capture prey in this place. The fact that the otters get established and feed in the reservoir doesn't mean that this structure is benefic to the species because the food supplied for it consists mainly of exotic fish species.Lontra longicaudis (Olfers, 1818 (Carnivora: Mustelidae é um animal semi-aquático com distribuição nas Américas Central e do Sul, exceto no Chile. A implantação de uma usina hidrelétrica em um rio altera a dinâmica do curso d'água, transformando um ambiente lótico em um lêntico ou semilótico, o que pode prejudicar a alimentação das lontras. De abril de 2008 a março de 2009 foi analisado o hábito alimentar das lontras em um ambiente lótico (riacho e semilótico (reservatório hidrelétrico no Vale do Paranapanema, sudeste do Brasil. Visando comparar a dieta das lontras nessas duas áreas analisamos estatisticamente a frequência de ocorrência dos principais itens nas fezes. Peixes
Moscas ectoparasitas (Diptera, Streblidae de morcegos (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae no sul do Brasil: associações hospedeiros-parasitos e taxas de infestação Ectoparasitic flies (Diptera, Streblidae of bats (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae in southern Brazil: hosts-parasites associations and infestation rates
Ana M. Rui
Full Text Available As associações hospedeiros-parasitos e as taxas de infestação de dípteros ectoparasitos da família Streblidae foram estudadas em morcegos da família Phyllostomidae na Floresta Atlântica no extremo sul do Brasil. Para as espécies mais abundantes de filostomídeos, foi examinado se há diferenças nos valores de prevalência e intensidade média dos ectoparasitos nas diferentes estações do ano e conforme sexo e idade do hospedeiro. Em quatro espécies de filostomídeos (Anoura caudifera (E. Geoffroy, 1818, Artibeus fimbriatus Gray, 1838, Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 e Sturnira lilium E. Geoffroy, 1810 foram coletados 118 indivíduos de sete espécies de Streblidae (Anastrebla caudiferae Wenzel, 1976, Megistopoda aranea (Coquillett, 1899, Megistopoda proxima (Séguy, 1926, Metelasmus pseudopterus Coquillett, 1907, Paratrichobius longicrus (Miranda Ribeiro, 1907, Trichobius phyllostomae Kessel, 1925 e Trichobius tiptoni Wenzel, 1976. Para A. lituratus, A. fimbriatus e S. lilium, as taxas de infestação foram baixas e houve uma tendência à infestação ser maior no verão e outono, fato provavelmente relacionado à sazonalidade de temperatura na região, que afeta as taxas reprodutivas e a mortalidade dos ectoparasitos. A infestação por P. longicrus em A. lituratus não foi afetada pelo sexo e idade do hospedeiro. Para S. lilium, a infestação por M. proxima não foi afetada por sexo e idade do hospedeiro, com exceção da maior prevalência de ectoparasitos em indivíduos jovens. Os dados indicam que não existem diferenças comportamentais ligadas a sexo e idade do hospedeiro que favoreçam ou comprometam a infestação por Streblidae nestas espécies de morcegos filostomídeos.Hosts-parasites associations, including infestation rates, between ectoparasitic bat flies of the family Streblidae and bats of the family Phyllostomidae were studied in Atlantic Forest habitats in southern Brazil. For the more abundant phyllostomid bats
Nícholas F. de Camargo
Full Text Available Considerando que os roedores possuem diversas formas de locomoção, o presente estudo apresenta e discute variações na forma das pegadas anteriores e posteriores de sete espécies [Akodon cursor (Winge, 1887, Necromys lasiurus (Lund, 1840, Oecomys bicolor (Tomes, 1860, Oecomys concolor (Wagner, 1845, Oligoryzomys nigripes (Olfers, 1818, Hylaeamys megacephalus (Fischer, 1814 e Rhipidomys macrurus (Gervais, 1855], utilizando técnicas de morfometria geométrica e análises discriminantes. As variáveis de forma das pegadas foram relacionadas com a topologia filogenética e os modos de locomoção das espécies para verificar a influência de fatores históricos e ecológicos na morfologia das pegadas. A forma das pegadas dos roedores arborícolas (curtas e largas foi claramente distinta dos cursoriais (estreitas e alongadas. As reclassificações das pegadas anteriores (Kappa = 0,72 e posteriores (Kappa = 0,88 das espécies foram consideradas substanciais e quase perfeitas, respectivamente. As pegadas posteriores discriminaram melhor as espécies além de indicarem os níveis de atividade arborícola e cursorial dos roedores. Efeitos alométricos foram observados nas análises das pegadas anteriores (13% e posteriores (3%. O modo de locomoção explicou 90,3% da variação na forma nas pegadas dos roedores (p = 0,02, indicando convergência nos padrões morfológicos nas pegadas das espécies de roedores arborícolas e cursoriais.Considering that species of rodents have different means of locomotion, this study presents and discusses variations on the anterior and posterior footprints shape of seven species [Akodon cursor (Winge, 1887, Necromys lasiurus (Lund, 1840, Oecomys bicolor (Tomes, 1860, Oecomys concolor (Wagner, 1845, Oligoryzomys nigripes (Olfers, 1818, Hylaeamys megacephalus (Fischer, 1814 and Rhipidomys macrurus (Gervais, 1855], using geometric morphometrics and discriminant analyses. Shape variables were related to phylogenetic
Musser, G.G.; Carleton, M.D.; Brothers, E.M.; Gardner, A.L.
We describe the morphological species-boundaries and geographic distributions of ten Neotropical Oryzomys based on analyses of museum specimens (skins and skulls, examples preserved in fluid, chromosomal spreads, and information about collection sites from skin tags, field catalogs, and other sources). These species have been regarded as members of an Oryzomys capito complex and for a long time were consolidated into a single entity identified as O. capito. Our study documents the following: 1. Defining the limits of species within the O. capito complex first requires a comprehensive review and rigorous definition of O. capito itself. We consider Fischer's (1814) Mus megacephalus to be valid and available, designate a neotype to bear the name, and reinstate it as a senior synonym of capito Olfers (1818). We then provide a working definition of O. megacephalus and its close relative, O. laticeps, derived from analyses of morphometric variation, estimates of geographic distributions, and evaluations of synonyms. In our view, O. megacephalus occurs in Amazonia but also extends into eastern Paraguay; its synonyms are capito Olfers (1818), cephalotes Desmarest (1819), velutinus Allen and Chapman (1893), goeldi Thomas (1897), modestus Allen (1899), and perenensis Allen (1901). Oryzomys laticeps Lund (1840) occurs in the Atlantic Forest region of eastern Brazil. We designate a lectotype for laticeps and allocate the names saltator Winge (1887) and oniscus Thomas (1904) as synonyms. 2. We provide the first comprehensive taxonomic revision of Oryzomys yunganus Thomas (1902). Its range covers tropical evergreen rainforest formations in the Guiana region and the Amazon Basin where, as documented by voucher specimens, it has been collected at the same localities as O. megacephalus, O. nitidus, and O. tern of carotid arterial circulation, occlusal patterns of second upper and lower molars, cranial proportions, and chromosomal features. Appreciable intraspecific geographic
Relating Diet and Capture Time Between two Species of Frugivorous Bats (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae, Stenodermatinae Relacionando dieta e horários de captura entre duas espécies de morcegos frugívoros (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae, Stenodermatinae
Eduardo Ribeiro Sartore
Full Text Available Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 and Platyrrhinus lineatus (Geoffroy, 1810 are phyllostomid bats that often coexist in the same local and consume the same feed. Therefore, the aim of this study was to obtain data about feeding habits of the two species, relating to their capture times, in the land where is the Universidade Estadual de Londrina, northern Paraná. The samples were attained among September 2010 and May 2011, with 12 960 m2 h of sampling effort. The results analysis contemplated the Shannon Index, Pielou Index and Schoener Index. 250 A. lituratus e 46 P. lineatus were captured, and while the first one consumed fruits from ten vegetable species, the second fed just three species, both preferring the Cecropia spp. and Ficus spp. genus. A. lituratus showed the higher capture peak 30 minutes after the sunset and was collected throughout the period. P. lineatus had its higher peak 01h 45min after nightfall and was captured in short periods. With these outcomes, is possible to imply that P. lineatus has a foraging peak, in the study place, 75 minutes after A. lituratus, avoiding straight competition. A. lituratus showed larger food diversity, indicating higher adaptative potential for this specie than for the other.Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 e Platyrrhinus lineatus (Geoffroy, 1810 são morcegos filostomídeos que frequentemente coexistem num mesmo local e consomem o mesmo alimento. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi obter dados sobre os hábitos alimentares das duas espécies, relacionando-os com seus horários de captura, na região onde se encontra o campus da Universidade Estadual de Londrina no norte do Paraná. As coletas foram realizadas entre Setembro de 2010 e Maio de 2011, com um esforço amostral de 12 960 m2 h. A análise dos resultados contemplou o uso do Índice de Shannon, Índice de Pielou e Índice de Schoener. Capturaram-se 250 A. lituratus e 46 P. lineatus, e o primeiro consumiu frutos de dez espécies vegetais
Moscas ectoparasitas (Diptera, Streblidae e Nycteribiidae em morcegos (Mammalia, Chiroptera em área de Floresta com Araucária no Estado do Paraná, sul do Brasil Ectoparasitic bat flies (Diptera, Streblidae e Nycteribiidae on bats (Mammalia, Chiroptera of the Araucaria Forest, State of Paraná, South Brazil
Full Text Available Informações sobre estreblídeos e nicteribiídeos e seus hospedeiros são escassas na Floresta com Araucária (FA, não havendo dados sobre a riqueza, o padrão de distribuição e a abundância desses ectoparasitos sobre uma determinada comunidade de morcegos. O presente estudo foi desenvolvido em fragmentos de FA (aproximadamente 470 ha localizados no município de Fazenda Rio Grande, Paraná, no período de dezembro de 2001 a maio de 2003. Foram registrados 12 indivíduos pertencentes a três espécies de Nycteribiidae e 119 de seis espécies de Streblidae sobre 127 hospedeiros examinados (quatro espécies de Phyllostomidae e sete de Vespertilionidae. Cinco das seis espécies de estreblídeos foram encontradas apenas sobre Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810 e Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818. Em 62 indivíduos de S. lilium foram coletadas: Megistopoda proxima (Séguy, 1926 com prevalência de 65,4% e intensidade média de infestação de 2,00; Aspidoptera falcata Wenzel, 1976 com 13,5% e 2,29; Trichobius phyllostomae Kessel, 1925 com 7,7% e 1,00; e Metelasmus wenzeli Graciolli & Dick, 2004 com 1,6% e 4,00. Não foi encontrada diferença na prevalência (p = 0,544 e na intensidade média (p = 0,361 em relação ao sexo de S. lilium. Em 26 A. lituratus, foi encontrada apenas Paratrichobius longicrus (Miranda-Ribeiro, 1907 com prevalência de 32% e intensidade média de 1,50.The information available on streblid and nycteribiid bat flies and their hosts are scant in the Araucaria Forest (AF and there are no data on richness, distribution patterns or abundance of these ectoparasites in bat communities. Therefore, we conducted a study on bats and their ectoparasites in AF remnants (approximately 470 ha located in the municipality of Fazenda Rio Grande, Paraná State, between December 2001 and May 2003. Twelve individuals of three species of Nycteribiidae and 119 individuals of six species of Streblidae were collected on 127 bats (four species of
Diversidade de morcegos (Mammalia, Chiroptera em remanescentes florestais do município de Fênix, noroeste do Paraná, Brasil Bat (Mammalia, Chiroptera diversity in forest remnants of Fênix, State of Paraná, southern Brazil
Gledson Vigiano Bianconi
Full Text Available A riqueza de espécies e a abundância relativa de morcegos foram avaliadas em três fragmentos de Floresta Estacional Semidecidual localizados no município de Fênix, noroeste do Estado do Paraná, sul do Brasil. Entre julho de 2002 e junho de 2003 os morcegos foram amostrados com redes-de-neblina instaladas em quatro parcelas de 1 ha cada, representando diferentes graus de isolamento das subformações florestais: aluvial e submontana. Foram capturados 752 exemplares pertencentes a 14 espécies de duas famílias, Phyllostomidae (n = 10 e Vespertilionidae (n = 4. No que se refere a capturas com redes a área foi considerada bem inventariada (estimador ICE. Entretanto, se comparada a estudos similares em Floresta Estacional, a riqueza de espécies foi pouco expressiva, havendo a suspeita que tenham ocorrido perdas de espécies em níveis locais. Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 e Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 foram numericamente dominantes nos três remanescentes amostrados, seguidas por outros três frugívoros: A. fimbriatus Gray, 1838, A. jamaicensis Leach, 1821 e Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810. O índice de Shannon demonstrou diferenças sutis entre as parcelas amostrais e o índice de Sorensen apresentou alta similaridade entre a maioria delas. Já a análise de agrupamento revelou uma maior afinidade entre parcelas da mesma subformação, exibindo dois grupamentos distintos, um representado pela subformação aluvial e outro pela submontana, sugerindo particularidades no uso do hábitat pelos morcegos. Os resultados indicaram ainda que os remanescentes florestais aqui estudados, apesar de pequenos, abrigam uma parcela significativa das espécies de morcegos esperadas para o bioma e, por essa razão, são importantes para a conservação da diversidade biológica.The richness and the relative abundance of bats were evaluated in three Semideciduous Seasonal Forest fragments located in the municipal district of Fênix, northwest
Luciane D. Coletti
Full Text Available A utilização de abrigos e do espaço pela lontra neotropical (Lontra longicaudis (Olfers, 1818, foi estudada em um ambiente alterado e com presença humana no rio Caí, Triunfo, RS. A maioria dos sítios de marcação teve uso ocasional, e uma pequena percentagem teve uso frequente e intenso. A maioria das marcações de cheiro se encontrava no solo a uma média de distância de 1,65m da linha d'água. Ao todo foram encontrados sete abrigos na área de estudo, sendo que a lontra demonstrou preferência por abrigos específicos. O abrigo mais utilizado se constituía em escavações na barranca do rio sob as raízes de uma árvore, sendo este o de maiores dimensões e o único com galerias sob o solo. Os demais abrigos se encontravam no nível do solo e consistiam em emaranhados de galhos sob a vegetação, ou de raízes e/ou troncos caídos. O uso do espaço pela lontra esteve correlacionado à localização de suas tocas, ao grau de cobertura vegetal do local e parece ter sido pouco influenciado pelo distúrbio humano. Para medidas de conservação da lontra neotropical ressalta-se a importância da manutenção da mata ciliar e a proteção das áreas com a presença de abrigos.
Mamíferos carnívoros e sua relação com a diversidade de hábitats no Parque Nacional dos Aparados da Serra, sul do Brasil Carnivore mammals and their relation with habitat diversity in Aparados da Serra National Park, southern Brazil
Maria de Fátima M. dos Santos
Full Text Available A survey of carnivore mammals was accomplished in Aparados da Serra National Park from February 1998 to March 2000. The park has 10,250 ha and is considered a biodiversity core area of the Atlantic Forest Biosphere Reserve in the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The landscape is characterized by relatively well preserved relicts of Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze forest, grasslands and Atlantic Forest, which have contributed for the survival of endangered carnivore mammals. The National Park was divided in a grid of 16 km² cells using a 1:50,000 scale map. The animals were recorded using indirect methods, by identifying signs (scats, tracks and direct observation in 2.5 km long and 5 m wide transects, with 10 replicates in each grid cell. Interviews with local people were also used to confirm the animal presence. A total of 13 species was recorded: Procyon cancrivorus (Cuvier, 1798, Pseudalopex gymnocercus (G. Fischer, 1814, Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758 and Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766 were the most frequent species registered. Nasua nasua (Linnaeus 1766, Herpailurus yaguarondi (Lacépède, 1809, Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger, 1815, Eira barbara (Linnaeus, 1758, Leopardus sp., Puma concolor (Linnaeus, 1771, Galictis cuja (Molina, 1782, Conepatus chinga (Molina, 1892 and Lontra longicaudis (Olfers, 1818 showed lower frequencies. The Park presented areas with significant differences (Mantel Test, P< 0.05 in species richness and composition related to habitat classes. Areas with high habitat richness presented high species richness. The Araucaria forest was the habitat that presented the higher carnivore richness. The border areas of the Park are influenced by several environmental degradation factors that could be affecting the distribution of carnivores.
O que é melhor para manter a riqueza de espécies de morcegos (Mammalia, Chiroptera: um fragmento florestal grande ou vários fragmentos de pequeno tamanho? What is better for maintaining the richness of bat (Mammalia, Chiroptera species: a large forest fragment or many small fragments?
Nelio Roberto dos Reis
Full Text Available This study was carried out with the objective of evaluating if the size of forest fragments affects the diversity of bat species. In order to do that, seven fragments were studied in Londrina, Paraná: five small fragments, whose areas varied between 1 and 10 ha; a fragment which is considered medium-sized (Parque Municipal Arthur Thomas - 85,47 ha.; and a large fragment (Parque Estadual Mata dos Godoy - 680 ha.. Thirty three species were collected. Ten species were common to all three types of fragments: Chrotopterus auritus (Peters, 1856, Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758, Artibeus fimbriatus Gray, 1838, Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818, Platyrrhinus lineatus (E. Geoffroy, 1810, Pygoderma bilabiatum (Wagner, 1843, Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810, Vampyressa pusilla (Wagner, 1843, Eptesicus brasiliensis (Desmarest, 1819, and Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821. Eight species were only found in the large fragment: Noctilio albiventris Desmarest, 1818, Glossophaga soricina (Pallas, 1766, Uroderma bilobatum Peters, 1866, Diaemus youngi (Jentink,1893, Diphylla ecaudata Spix, 1823, Eptesicus furinalis (d'Orbigny, 1847, Histiotus velatus (I. Geoffroy, 1824 and Myotis levis (I. Geoffroy, 1824. Five were only found in the small fragments: Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, 1758, Phyllostomus discolor Wagner, 1843, Chiroderma villosum Peters, 1860, Eptesicus sp. e Rogheessa tumida H. Allen, 1866. Chiroderma doriae, which is threatened by extinction, was captured in the large fragment and in one of the small fragments; M. ruber, also threatened by extinction, was captured in the medium-sized and large fragments. We believe that the major cause for the loss of organic diversity is not rational exploitation, but the destruction of habitats, a result of the expansion of irrational human activities.
Full Text Available Few studies have focused the vertical structure of bat assemblages, and how it influences community composition. The goal of this study was to analyze the vertical structure of an assemblage of bats in a forest fragment in southern Brazil. Bats were sampled using mist-nets placed at three heights (understory, below-canopy, and canopy. Forest strata were compared with respect to their species richness and diversity. The latter was estimated using the Shannon-Wiener index (H', and the statistical significance of differences among strata was assessed using t tests. We used an index of Constancy (C to determine the frequency of a given species in each vegetation stratum, such that a species was considered as "frequent" (C > 50, "less frequent" (25 < C < 50 and "occasional" (C < 25. We captured 485 bats belonging to two families and 24 species. In the understory layer, we captured 173 individuals in 13 species, which resulted in a diversity index of H' = 1.981. In the under-canopy, 153 individuals were caught in 18 species and the resulting diversity index was H' = 2.509. Finally, in the canopy, 159 bats were caught, in 22 species, with the resulting diversity index of H' = 2.442. In the understory and in the canopy, only one species Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 was classified as "frequent." Four species A. lituratus, Sturnira lilium (É. Geoffroy, 1810, Anoura geoffroyi Gray, 1838, and Eptesicus diminutus Osgood, 1915 were classified as "less frequent" in the under-canopy stratum. All other species recorded in each stratum were classified as "occasional." The studied bat assemblage showed vertical stratification, with the higher strata harboring increased diversity. Our study shows how important it is to sample the upper levels of a forest fragment to obtain a more representative understanding of the use of space by a bat assemblage.
Full Text Available The genus of Oligoryzomys includes species of small size, morphologically similar, which may impede taxonomic identification, mainly between O. flavescens (Waterhouse, 1837 and O. nigripes (Olfers, 1818. The main objective of this work was to investigate whether the RAPD markers are capable of genetically differentiating the specimens O. nigripes and O. flavescens, coming from Rio Grande do Sul (RS and Santa Catarina (SC states, and also to estimate the genetic variability among populations of O. nigripes, with the Uruguay River as a geographical barrier. For this purpose, samples were collected in fragments of forests situated in the North of RS, at FLONA (Floresta Nacional de Passo Fundo and in fragments from SC, close to the Uruguay River. The karyotyping of two samples for each species was carried out and compared using the RAPD technique together with non- karyotyped individuals. Samples of O. nigripes presented 2n = 62; NA = 82, with submetacentric arms on the largest chromosomes, while samples of O. flavescens showed 2n = 64; NA = 66, with the largest chromosomes presenting acrocentric morphology, making such a result the main difference between the species. The analysis was able to detect two distinct groups, being the first one with karyotyped O. flavescens and the second with karyotyped O. nigripes. Identification afforded 211 loci, among them 181 (85.78% polymorphic. The Jaccard similarity coefficient was in the range of 0.45 to 0.87. The UPGMA and Main Coordinate Analysis techniques demonstrated the existence of heterogeneous genetics among populations, but did not separate them completely in terms of geographical standards, and they are not influenced by the Uruguay River, which did not act as an efficient barrier.
Fernando C. Passos
Full Text Available This study was carried out at the Intervales State Park, an Atlantic Rain Forest area in Southeastern Brazil. Bats were monthly mist netted over a full year, and fecal samples were collected for dietary analysis. The seeds found in each sample were identified in the laboratory under a stereoscopic microscope by comparison with seeds taken from ripe fruits collected in the study area. Three hundred and seventy one bats were collected, of which 316 (85.2% were frugivorous. The total number of fecal samples with seeds and/or pulp was 121. Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810 was the most abundant species in the study area (n = 157 captures and Solanaceae fruits accounted for 78.5% of the fecal samples with seeds (n = 56. Artibeus fimbriatus Gray, 1838 (n = 21 samples fed mostly on Cecropiaceae (38% and Moraceae fruits (24%, and Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 (n = 7 samples on Cecropiaceae (57% and Moraceae (29%. Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 (n = 16 samples fed mostly on Piperaceae fruits (56,3%, but Solanaceae (31,3% and Rosaceae seeds (12,5% were also found in feces. Overall, seeds found in bat feces belong to eight plant families: Solanaceae (n = 67 samples; Cecropiaceae (n = 14; Piperaceae (n = 14; Moraceae (n = 8; Rosaceae (n = 3; Cucurbitaceae (n = 3; Cluseaceae (n = 1, and Araceae (n = 1. The close association of different bat species with fruits of certain plant families and genus may be related to a possible mechanism of resource partitioning that shapes the structure of the community.
Anomalias e variações na fórmula dentária em morcegos do gênero Artibeus Leach (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae Anomalies and variation in the dental formula of bats of the genus Artibeus Leach (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae
Ana Maria Rui
Full Text Available Descreve-se a ocorrência e analisa-se as causas de anomalias dentárias em Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 e A. fimbriatus Gray, 1838 (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae provenientes de populações do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, sul do Brasil. São discutidas, com base no material examinado e em ampla revisão da literatura, as variações quanto à presença dos terceiros molares superior e inferior entre diferentes espécies de Artibeus Leach, 1821. Foram analisados 104 crânios de A. lituratus e 44 de A. fimbriatus quanto à fórmula dentária. Em A. lituratus ocorreram dois casos de dentes extranumerários, um incisivo superior e um terceiro molar superior direito, e um de agênese dentária dos terceiros molares inferiores. Em A. fimbriatus constatou-se a ocorrência de um segundo pré-molar superior direito extranumerário. As ocorrências do terceiro molar superior em A. lituratus e do segundo pré-molar superior em A. fimbriatus são casos de atavismos. Em Artibeus (Artibeus ocorrem variações quanto à presença do terceiro molar superior, de maior ou menor intensidade, em praticamente todas as espécies. Estas variações ocorrem tanto a nível intrapopulacional quanto geográfico. Já o terceiro molar inferior está ausente em baixa freqüência em várias populações de diferentes espécies. Os terceiros molares superiores e inferiores estão em processo de desaparecimento na linhagem dos Artibeus (Artibeus. O fato destes dentes já não ocorrerem em algumas espécies, terem ocorrência variável em outras e serem sempre estruturas reduzidas e simplificadas, sem função na mastigação, são indicativos deste processo evolutivo. A variação intensa observada quanto à ocorrência do terceiro molar superior inviabiliza o seu uso como caráter útil na identificação de espécies.This paper describes and analyzes the causes of dental formula anomalies in the bats Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 and Artibeus fimbriatus Gray, 1838
Combate ao Desmodus rotundus rotundus (E. Geoffroy,1810 na região cárstica de Cordisburgo e Curvelo, Minas Gerais Combat of Desmodus rotundus rotundus (E. Geofroy, 1810 in the Cordisburgo and Curvelo carstic region, Minas Gerais, Brazil
Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar em uma região cárstica o tipo de refúgio, as espécies de morcegos, a população de animais domésticos, as associações interespecíficas nas coabitações com outros mamíferos silvestres suscetíveis à raiva e a eficácia da warfarina aplicada no dorso do Desmodus rotundus rotundus foi realizada uma pesquisa de maio de 1998 a março de 2000, nos municípios de Cordisburgo e Curvelo, Minas Gerais. Em 49 refúgios vistoriados, 29 naturais e 20 artificiais, localizados em 14 propriedades, encontrou-se o Desmodus rotundus rotundus em 18 abrigos naturais. Destes, 17 eram cavernas formadas pela dissolução ou abatimento de rocha calcária, típica do carste, e um era túnel escavado na terra pela ação das águas de um rio. As características geomorfológicas e de localização espacial foram registradas com base nas coordenadas geográficas, obtidas com auxílio de um sensor geográfico de posição. Nesses abrigos foram capturados e identificados 1457 morcegos de 14 espécies, sendo 640 Glossophaga soricina (Pallas, 1766, 566 Desmodus rotundus (E. Geoffroy, 1810, 73 Anoura geoffroyi (Gray 1838, 58 Trachops cirrhosus (Spix, 1823, 38 Diphylla ecaudata ecaudata (Spix, 1823, 23 Platyhrrinus lineatus (E. Geoffroy, 1810, 16 Lasiurus ega (Gervais, 1856, 14 Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758, 13 Phyllostomus hastatus hastatus (Pallas, 1767, 9 Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818, 3 Mimmon bennettii (Gray, 1838, 2 Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821, 1 Eptesicus brasiliensis (Desmarest, 1819 e 1 Pygoderma bilabiatum (Wagner, 1843. Não se conseguiu isolar ou detectar o vírus rábico no cérebro de 25 hematófagos selecionados e em 52 de outras espécies. A maioria desses abrigos também era usada por pacas (Agouti paca Linnaues, 1766, capivaras (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris, Linnaues, 1766, guaxinins (Procyon cancrivorus, G. Cuvier, 1798 e raposas (Lycalopex vetulus, Lund, 1842 que são suscetíveis à raiva. Em 546 Desmodus
Laura I. Weber
Full Text Available A genetic study of the neotropical river otter Lontra longicaudis (Olfers, 1818, which has an unknown conservation status, was carried out at the Taim Ecological Station and the margins of the Vargas stream, Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Faecal samples were collected, and DNA was extracted using a silica-guanidine method. Five microsatellite loci were amplified using PCR with heterologous primers previously described for Lutra lutra (Linnaeus, 1758. Sixteen faecal samples out of 29 from Taim and 11 out of 14 from Vargas stream margins contained enough DNA for genetic analysis. A total of 49 different alleles were found at both localities, from which 18 were exclusively found in individuals from Taim and 17 were exclusives from Vargas individuals. The most common allele was the same at both locations for three loci (Lut715, Lut733, and Lut818. A high level of genetic diversity was found at both sites (NeTaim=4.1, HoTaim=0.299, HeTaim=0.681; NeVargas=4.9, HoVargas=0.355, HeVargas=0.724, being higher at the Vargas stream site. A high and significant level of heterozygote deficiency was observed at most loci according to the χ2 test. The homogeneity χ2 test (PA lontra neotropical de rio Lontra longicaudis (Olfers, 1818, cujo estado de conservação é ainda desconhecido, foi estudada geneticamente na Estação Ecológica do Taim e nas margens do arroio Vargas, RS, sul do Brasil. Amostras de fezes foram coletadas e o DNA foi extraído por um método de sílica-guanidina. Cinco locos de microsatélites foram amplificados por PCR utilizando primers heterólogos previamente descritos para Lutra lutra (Linnaeus, 1758. Dezesseis amostras de fezes de um total de 29 coletadas no Taim e onze das 14 obtidas no arroio Vargas contiveram DNA suficiente para prosseguir com a analise genética. Um total de 49 alelos foram obtidos, dos quais 18 foram exclusivos de indivíduos do Taim e 17 exclusivos dos indivíduos do arroio Vargas. Em três locos (Lut715